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Sample records for japanese radish raphanus

  1. Effect of ambient-level gas-phase peroxides on foliar injury, growth, and net photosynthesis in Japanese radish (Raphanus sativus).

    PubMed

    Chen, Xuan; Aoki, Masatoshi; Takami, Akinori; Chai, Fahe; Hatakeyama, Shiro

    2010-05-01

    To investigate the effects of ambient-level gas-phase peroxides concurrent with O(3) on foliar injury, photosynthesis, and biomass in herbaceous plants, we exposed Japanese radish (Raphanus sativus) to clean air, 50 ppb O(3), 100 ppb O(3), and 2-3 ppb peroxides + 50 ppb O(3) in outdoor chambers. Compared with exposure to 100 ppb O(3), exposure to 2-3 ppb peroxides + 50 ppb O(3) induced greater damage in foliar injury, net photosynthetic rates and biomass; the pattern of foliar injury and the cause of net photosynthetic rate reduction also differed from those occurring with O(3) exposure alone. These results indicate for the first time that sub-ppb peroxides + 50 ppb O(3) can cause more severe damage to plants than 100 ppb O(3), and that not only O(3), but also peroxides, could be contributing to the herbaceous plant damage and forest decline observed in Japan's air-polluted urban and remote mountains areas.

  2. Variation in amylase activities in radish (Raphanus sativus) cultivars.

    PubMed

    Hara, Masakazu; Ito, Fumio; Asai, Tatsuo; Kuboi, Toru

    2009-09-01

    The radish (Raphanus sativus) is a root vegetable of the Brassicaceae family which shows amylolytic activity in the taproot. However, there is little information about differences in these amylolytic activities among radish cultivars. We analyzed the amylase activities and starch contents of 7 kinds of radish cultivars. The Koshin cultivar showed the highest amylase activity, with a level approximately 6 times higher than that of the Sobutori cultivar, which had the lowest. Cultivars with higher amylase activities showed higher starch contents. These results suggest that there are intraspecies variations in amylolytic activities in radishes, and positive correlations between amylase activity and starch content.

  3. Six new acylated anthocyanins from red radish (Raphanus sativus).

    PubMed

    Tamura, Satoru; Tsuji, Kouji; Yongzhen, Piao; Ohnishi-Kameyama, Mayumi; Murakami, Nobutoshi

    2010-09-01

    Six new acylated anthocyanins (1-6) were isolated along with the three known congeners (7-9) from the fresh roots of red radishes (Raphanus sativus L.) cultivated by our group. Their chemical structures were elucidated by spectroscopic properties. Among the six new anthocyanins, the five constituents (1, 2, 4-6) were shown to contain the malonyl function at 6-OH in the glucopyranosyl residue linked to C-5 in the pelargonidin nucleus.

  4. Draft sequences of the radish (Raphanus sativus L.) genome.

    PubMed

    Kitashiba, Hiroyasu; Li, Feng; Hirakawa, Hideki; Kawanabe, Takahiro; Zou, Zhongwei; Hasegawa, Yoichi; Tonosaki, Kaoru; Shirasawa, Sachiko; Fukushima, Aki; Yokoi, Shuji; Takahata, Yoshihito; Kakizaki, Tomohiro; Ishida, Masahiko; Okamoto, Shunsuke; Sakamoto, Koji; Shirasawa, Kenta; Tabata, Satoshi; Nishio, Takeshi

    2014-10-01

    Radish (Raphanus sativus L., n = 9) is one of the major vegetables in Asia. Since the genomes of Brassica and related species including radish underwent genome rearrangement, it is quite difficult to perform functional analysis based on the reported genomic sequence of Brassica rapa. Therefore, we performed genome sequencing of radish. Short reads of genomic sequences of 191.1 Gb were obtained by next-generation sequencing (NGS) for a radish inbred line, and 76,592 scaffolds of ≥ 300 bp were constructed along with the bacterial artificial chromosome-end sequences. Finally, the whole draft genomic sequence of 402 Mb spanning 75.9% of the estimated genomic size and containing 61,572 predicted genes was obtained. Subsequently, 221 single nucleotide polymorphism markers and 768 PCR-RFLP markers were used together with the 746 markers produced in our previous study for the construction of a linkage map. The map was combined further with another radish linkage map constructed mainly with expressed sequence tag-simple sequence repeat markers into a high-density integrated map of 1,166 cM with 2,553 DNA markers. A total of 1,345 scaffolds were assigned to the linkage map, spanning 116.0 Mb. Bulked PCR products amplified by 2,880 primer pairs were sequenced by NGS, and SNPs in eight inbred lines were identified.

  5. QTL mapping of clubroot resistance in radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Kamei, Akito; Tsuro, Masato; Kubo, Nakao; Hayashi, Takeshi; Wang, Ning; Fujimura, Tatsuhito; Hirai, Masashi

    2010-03-01

    A QTL analysis for clubroot resistance (CR) of radish was performed using an F(2) population derived from a crossing of a CR Japanese radish and a clubroot-susceptible (CS) Chinese radish. F(3) plants obtained by selfing of F(2) plants were used for the CR tests. The potted seedlings were inoculated and the symptom was evaluated 6 weeks thereafter. The mean disease indexes of the F(3) plants were used for the phenotype of the F(2). The results of two CR tests were analyzed for the presence of QTL. A linkage map was constructed using AFLP and SSR markers; it spanned 554 cM and contained 18 linkage groups. A CR locus was observed in the top region of linkage group 1 in two tests. Therefore, the present results suggest that a large part of radish CR is controlled by a single gene or closely linked genes in this radish population, although minor effects of other genomic areas cannot be ruled out. The CR locus was named Crs1. Markers linked to Crs1 showed sequence homology to the genomic region of the top of chromosome 3 of Arabidopsis, as in the case of Crr3, a CR locus in Brassica rapa. These markers should be useful for breeding CR cultivars of radish. As Japanese radishes are known to be highly resistant or immune to clubroot, these markers may also be useful in the introgression of this CR gene to Brassica crops.

  6. Oilseed Radish (Raphanus Sativus) Effects on Soil Structure and Soil Water Relations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oilseed radish (Raphanus sativus spp. oleifera) reduces nematode populations. Fall-incorporated radish biomass may also improve soil physical and hydraulic properties to increase the yield and quality of subsequently grown sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L.). This field study determined radish effects on...

  7. The complete mitochondrial genome of cultivated radish WK10039 (Raphanus sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Jeong, Young-Min; Chung, Won-Hyung; Choi, Ah Young; Mun, Jeong-Hwan; Kim, Namshin; Yu, Hee-Ju

    2016-01-01

    We determined the complete nucleotide sequence of the mitochondrial genome of radish cultivar WK10039 (Raphanus sativus L.). The total length of the mtDNA sequence is 244,054 bp, with GC content of 45.3%. The radish mtDNA contains 82 protein-coding genes, 17 tRNA genes, and 3 rRNA genes. Among the protein-coding genes, 34 encode proteins with known functions. There are two 5529 bp repeats in the radish mitochondrial genome that may contribute to DNA recombination resulting in at least three different forms of mtDNA in radish.

  8. Root Glucosinolate Profiles for Screening of Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) Genetic Resources.

    PubMed

    Yi, Gibum; Lim, Sooyeon; Chae, Won Byoung; Park, Jeong Eun; Park, Hye Rang; Lee, Eun Jin; Huh, Jin Hoe

    2016-01-13

    Radish (Raphanus sativus L.), a root vegetable, is rich in glucosinolates (GLs), which are beneficial secondary metabolites for human health. To investigate the genetic variations in GL content in radish roots and the relationship with other root phenotypes, we analyzed 71 accessions from 23 different countries for GLs using HPLC. The most abundant GL in radish roots was glucoraphasatin, a GL with four-carbon aliphatic side chain. The content of glucoraphasatin represented at least 84.5% of the total GL content. Indolyl GL represented only 3.1% of the total GL at its maximum. The principal component analysis of GL profiles with various root phenotypes showed that four different genotypes exist in the 71 accessions. Although no strong correlation with GL content and root phenotype was observed, the varied GL content levels demonstrate the genetic diversity of GL content, and the amount that GLs could be potentially improved by breeding in radishes.

  9. De novo assembly and characterization of the complete chloroplast genome of radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Jeong, Young-Min; Chung, Won-Hyung; Mun, Jeong-Hwan; Kim, Namshin; Yu, Hee-Ju

    2014-11-01

    Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) is an edible root vegetable crop that is cultivated worldwide and whose genome has been sequenced. Here we report the complete nucleotide sequence of the radish cultivar WK10039 chloroplast (cp) genome, along with a de novo assembly strategy using whole genome shotgun sequence reads obtained by next generation sequencing. The radish cp genome is 153,368 bp in length and has a typical quadripartite structure, composed of a pair of inverted repeat regions (26,217 bp each), a large single copy region (83,170 bp), and a small single copy region (17,764 bp). The radish cp genome contains 87 predicted protein-coding genes, 37 tRNA genes, and 8 rRNA genes. Sequence analysis revealed the presence of 91 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) in the radish cp genome. Phylogenetic analysis of 62 protein-coding gene sequences from the 17 cp genomes of the Brassicaceae family suggested that the radish cp genome is most closely related to the cp genomes of Brassica rapa and Brassicanapus. Comparisons with the B. rapa and B. napus cp genomes revealed highly divergent intergenic sequences and introns that can potentially be developed as diagnostic cp markers. Synonymous and nonsynonymous substitutions of cp genes suggested that nucleotide substitutions have occurred at similar rates in most genes. The complete sequence of the radish cp genome would serve as a valuable resource for the development of new molecular markers and the study of the phylogenetic relationships of Raphanus species in the Brassicaceae family.

  10. Molecular characterization of a trisegmented chrysovirus isolated from the radish Raphanus sativus.

    PubMed

    Li, Liqiang; Liu, Jianning; Xu, Aixia; Wang, Ting; Chen, Jishuang; Zhu, Xiwu

    2013-09-01

    Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) is cultivated worldwide and is of agronomic importance. dsRNAs associated with partitiviruses were previously found in many R. sativus varieties. In this study, three large dsRNAs from radish were cloned using a modified single primer amplification technique. These three dsRNAs-of lengths 3638, 3517 and 3299 bp-shared conserved untranslated terminal regions, and each contained a major open reading frame putatively encoding the chrysoviral replicase, capsid protein and protease respectively. Isometric virus-like particles (VLP), approximately 45nm in diameter, were isolated from the infected radish plants. Northern blotting indicated that these dsRNAs were encapsidated in the VLP. The virus containing these dsRNA genome segments was named Raphanus sativus chrysovirus 1 (RasCV1). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that RasCV1 is a new species of the Chrysoviridae family and forms a plant taxon with another putative plant chrysovirus, Anthurium mosaic-associated virus (AmaCV). Furthermore, no fungal mycelia were observed in radish leaf tissues stained with trypan blue. These results indicated that RasCV1 is most likely a plant chrysovirus rather than a chrysovirus in symbiotic fungi. An exhaustive BLAST analysis of RasCV1 and AmaCV revealed that chrysovirus-like viruses might widely exist in eudicot and monocot plants and that endogenization of chrysovirus segments into plant genome might have ever happened.

  11. Anthocyanin accumulation and expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes in radish (Raphanus sativus).

    PubMed

    Park, Nam Il; Xu, Hui; Li, Xiaohua; Jang, In Hyuk; Park, Suhyoung; Ahn, Gil Hwan; Lim, Yong Pyo; Kim, Sun Ju; Park, Sang Un

    2011-06-08

    Radish [Raphanus sativus (Rs)] is an important dietary vegetable in Asian countries, especially China, Japan, and Korea. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms of anthocyanin accumulation in radish, the gene expression of enzymes directly involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis was analyzed. These genes include phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H), 4-coumarate-CoA ligase (4CL), chalcone synthase (CHS), chalcone isomerase (CHI), flavanone 3-hydroxylase (F3H), dihydroflavonol reductase (DFR), and anthocyanidin synthase (ANS). RsDFR and RsANS were found to accumulate in the flesh or skin of two radish cultivars (Man Tang Hong and Hong Feng No.1). Radish skin contained higher CHS, CHI, and F3H transcript levels than radish flesh in all three cultivars. In the red radish, 16 anthocyanins were separated and identified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and elctrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS). Some of them were acylated with coumaroyl, malonoyl, feruoyl, and caffeoyl moieties. Furthermore (-)-epicatechin and ferulic acid were also identified in the three cultivars.

  12. Investigation of MCPA (4-Chloro-2-ethylphenoxyacetate) resistance in wild radish (Raphanus raphanistrum L.).

    PubMed

    Jugulam, Mithila; Dimeo, Natalie; Veldhuis, Linda J; Walsh, Michael; Hall, J Christopher

    2013-12-26

    The phenoxy herbicides (e.g., 2,4-D and MCPA) are used widely in agriculture for the selective control of broadleaf weeds. In Western Australia, the reliance on phenoxy herbicides has resulted in the widespread evolution of phenoxy resistance in wild radish (Raphanus raphanistrum) populations. In this research the inheritance and mechanism of MCPA resistance in wild radish were determined. Following classical breeding procedures, F1, F2, and backcross progeny were generated. The F1 progeny showed an intermediate response to MCPA, compared to parents, suggesting that MCPA resistance in wild radish is inherited as an incompletely dominant trait. Segregation ratios observed in F2 (3:1; resistant:susceptible) and backcross progeny (1:1; resistant to susceptible) indicated that the MCPA resistance is controlled by a single gene in wild radish. Radiolabeled MCPA studies suggested no difference in MCPA uptake or metabolism between resistant and susceptible wild radish; however, resistant plants rapidly translocated more (14)C-MCPA to roots than susceptible plants, which may have been exuded from the plant. Understanding the genetic basis and mechanism of phenoxy resistance in wild radish will help formulate prudent weed management strategies to reduce the incidence of phenoxy resistance.

  13. Effect of methyl jasmonate on phenolics, isothiocyanate, and metabolic enzymes in radish sprout (Raphanus sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun-Jin; Chen, Feng; Wang, Xi; Choi, Ju-Hee

    2006-09-20

    The effect of spraying exogenous plant hormone methyl jasmonate (MeJA) upon radish sprout (Raphanus sativus L.) was investigated in aspects of total phenolic content (TPC), isothiocyanate content, antioxidant activity of the radish extract, and enzymatic activities of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and myrosinase. The MeJA treatment significantly increased the TPC that resulted in the increased DPPH* (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) free radical scavenging capacity. In addition, the PAL activity also increased by 60% at 24 h after MeJA treatment. However, the same treatment decreased the amount of 4-methylthio-3-butenylisothiocyanate (MTBITC), a major isothiocyanate in radish sprout and the activity of myrosinase, an enzyme related to produce isothiocyanates.

  14. Phytoextraction of heavy metals by canola (Brassica napus) and radish (Raphanus sativus) grown on multicontaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Marchiol, L; Assolari, S; Sacco, P; Zerbi, G

    2004-11-01

    Phytoextraction can provide an effective in situ technique for removing heavy metals from polluted soils. The experiment reported in this paper was undertaken to study the basic potential of phytoextraction of Brassica napus (canola) and Raphanus sativus (radish) grown on a multi-metal contaminated soil in the framework of a pot-experiment. Chlorophyll contents and gas exchanges were measured during the experiment; the heavy metal phytoextraction efficiency of canola and radish were also determined and the phytoextraction coefficient for each metal calculated. Data indicated that both species are moderately tolerant to heavy metals and that radish is more so than canola. These species showed relatively low phytoremediation potential of multicontaminated soils. They could possibly be used with success in marginally polluted soils where their growth would not be impaired and the extraction of heavy metals could be maintained at satisfying levels.

  15. Plant Productivity and Characterization of Zeoponic Substrates after Three Successive Crops of Radish (Raphanus sativus L.)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gruener, J. E.; Ming, Douglas W.; Galindo, C., Jr.; Henderson, K. E.; Golden, D. C.

    2007-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has developed a zeolite-based synthetic substrate, termed zeoponics. The zeoponic substrate (consisting of NH4(-) and K-exchanged clinoptilolite, synthetic apatite, and dolomite) provides all of the plant-essential nutrients through mineral dissolution and ion exchange, with only the addition of water. Previous studies have shown high productivity of wheat in zeoponic substrates; however, no experiments have been conducted on other crops. The objective of this study was to determine the productivity and nutrient uptake of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) grown in zeoponic substrates with three successive crops in the same substrate. Radish was chosen because of its sensitivities to NH4(+). Average fresh weights of edible roots were similar for radish grown in zeoponic substrates watered with deionized H2O (10.97 g/plant) and in potting mix control substrate irrigated with nutrient solution (10.92 g/plant). Average fresh weight production of edible roots for radish grown in same zeoponic substrate increased in yield over time with the lowest yield in the first crop (7.10 g/plant) and highest in the third crop (13.90 g/plant). The Ca plant tissue levels in radishes (1.8-2.9 wt. %) grown in zeoponic substrates are lower than the suggested sufficient range of 3.0-4.5 wt. % Ca; however, the Ca level is highest (2.9 wt. %) in radishes grown in the third crop in the same zeoponic substrates. The higher radish yield in the third crop was attributed to a reduction in an NH4(-) induced Ca deficiency that has been previously described for wheat grown in zeoponic substrates. The P levels in plant tissues of radish grown in the zeoponic substrates ranged from 0.94-1.15 wt. %; which is slightly higher than the sufficient levels of 0.3-0.7 wt. %. With the exception of Ca and P, other macronutrient and micronutrient levels in radish grown in zeoponic substrates were well within the recommended sufficient ranges. After three

  16. Multiple origins of cultivated radishes as evidenced by a comparison of the structural variations in mitochondrial DNA of Raphanus.

    PubMed

    Yamagishi, Hiroshi; Terachi, Toru

    2003-02-01

    Configurations of mitochondrial coxI and orfB gene regions were analysed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in three wild and one cultivated species of Raphanus. A total of 207 individual plants from 60 accessions were used. PCR with five combinations of primers identified five different amplification patterns both in wild and cultivated radishes. While the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) type of Ogura male-sterile cytoplasm was distinguishable from the normal type, the mtDNAs of normal radishes were further classified into four types. The variations were common to wild and cultivated radishes, although contrasting features were found depending on the region of cultivation. These results provide evidence that cultivated radishes have multiple origins from various wild plants of Raphanus.

  17. Glucosinolate profile variation of growth stages of wild radish (Raphanus raphanistrum).

    PubMed

    Malik, Mayank S; Riley, Melissa B; Norsworthy, Jason K; Bridges, William

    2010-03-24

    Wild radish (Raphanus raphanistrum L.) produces glucosinolates (GSL), which are important for its use as a biofumigation or allelopathic plant for weed management. Total GSL concentrations and individual GSLs were quantified in different plant parts at different developmental stages. Eight GSLs were found in various plant tissues but glucoerucin, glucoraphenin, and glucotropaeolin comprised >90% of the total GSLs. All three are degraded to isothiocyanates, which are associated with weed suppression. Maximum GSL concentration (1942.2 micromol/plant) occurred at 50% flowering stage prior to the time of maximum biomass production, when GSL concentration was 1246.65 mumol/plant. Roots contributed <15% of the total GSL. The highest concentration of GSLs was in flowers at flowering stage, but due to the low biomass they contributed only 11.83% to the total GSL. On the basis of these results, wild radish should be incorporated into soil at 50% flowering to provide the most GSLs for weed suppression.

  18. Phytochemical composition and biological activity of 8 varieties of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) sprouts and mature taproots.

    PubMed

    Hanlon, Paul R; Barnes, David M

    2011-01-01

    Radishes (Raphanus sativus L.) are members of the cruciferous vegetable family that contain many classes of biologically active phytochemicals. This study determined the phytochemical composition of the sprouts and mature taproots of 8 radish varieties. Radish sprouts contained significantly greater concentrations of glucosinolates (3.8-fold) and isothiocyanates (8.2-fold) than the mature radish taproot and also contained significantly greater concentrations of phenolics (on average 6.9-fold). The anthocyanin concentrations of the mature radish taproot were significantly greater than in the sprouts of red, pink, and purple varieties. The primary anthocyanidins present in the red and pink radish varieties were pelargonidin and delphinidin, while the primary anthocyanidin in the purple radish variety was cyanidin. Radish sprouts were between 9- and 59-fold more potent than the corresponding mature taproot at activating the antioxidant response element (ARE) in a stably transfected hepatoma cell line. The ARE activity of the radish sprouts and mature taproots was significantly correlated with the total isothiocyanate concentration of the radishes. Practical Application: Understanding the influence variety and developmental stage has on the biological activity of cruciferous vegetables provides important information for further studies examining the in vivo effects of radish treatment and foundation for providing recommendations to reduce the risk of chronic disease through dietary intervention.

  19. Cytokinin-dependent secondary growth determines root biomass in radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Jang, Geupil; Lee, Jung-Hun; Rastogi, Khushboo; Park, Suhyoung; Oh, Sang-Hun; Lee, Ji-Young

    2015-08-01

    The root serves as an essential organ in plant growth by taking up nutrients and water from the soil and supporting the rest of the plant body. Some plant species utilize roots as storage organs. Sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas), cassava (Manihot esculenta), and radish (Raphanus sativus), for example, are important root crops. However, how their root growth is regulated remains unknown. In this study, we characterized the relationship between cambium and radial root growth in radish. Through a comparative analysis with Arabidopsis root expression data, we identified putative cambium-enriched transcription factors in radish and analysed their expression in representative inbred lines featuring distinctive radial growth. We found that cell proliferation activities in the cambium positively correlated with radial growth and final yields of radish roots. Expression analysis of candidate transcription factor genes revealed that some genes are differentially expressed between inbred lines and that the difference is due to the distinct cytokinin response. Taken together, we have demonstrated for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, that cytokinin-dependent radial growth plays a key role in the yields of root crops.

  20. Initiation of spontaneous tumors in radish (Raphanus sativus): Cellular, molecular and physiological events.

    PubMed

    Lebedeva Osipova, Maria A; Tvorogova, Varvara E; Vinogradova, Alena P; Gancheva, Maria S; Azarakhsh, Mahboobeh; Ilina, Elena L; Demchenko, Kirill N; Dodueva, Irina E; Lutova, Lyudmila A

    2015-01-15

    In plant meristems, the balance of cell proliferation and differentiation is maintained by phytohormones, specifically auxin and cytokinin, as well as transcription factors. Changing of the cytokinin/auxin balance in plants may lead to developmental abnormalities, and in particular, to the formation of tumors. The examples of spontaneous tumor formation in plants include tumors formed on the roots of radish (Raphanus sativus) inbred lines. Previously, it was found that the cytokinin/auxin ratio is altered in radish tumors. In this study, a detailed histological analysis of spontaneous radish tumors was performed, revealing a possible mechanism of tumor formation, namely abnormal cambial activity. The analysis of cell proliferation patterns revealed meristematic foci in radish tumors. By using a fusion of an auxin-responsive promoter (DR5) and a reporter gene, the involvement of auxin in developmental processes in tumors was shown. In addition, the expression of the root meristem-specific WUSCHEL-related homeobox 5 (WOX5) gene was observed in cells adjacent to meristematic foci. Taken together, the results of the present study show that tumor tissues share some characteristics with root apical meristems, including the presence of auxin-response maxima in meristematic foci with adjacent cells expressing WOX5.

  1. Artificial selection on anther exsertion in wild radish, Raphanus raphanistrum

    PubMed Central

    Conner, Jeffrey K.; Mills, Cynthia J.; Koelling, Vanessa A.; Karoly, Keith

    2014-01-01

    To study the genetic architecture of anther exsertion, a trait under stabilizing selection in wild radish, artificial selection on anther exsertion was applied for 11 generations. Two replicate lines each of increased and decreased exsertion plus two randomly-mated controls were included. Full pedigree information is available from generation five. To estimate correlated responses to selection, 571 plants from all lines and matrilines were grown in the greenhouse and a number of floral, growth, and phenology traits were measured. To create an outbred F2 mapping population, all possible crosses among the two high and two low exsertion lines were made, using a multiple-family design to capture the genetic variance still present after 11 generations of selection. Six floral traits were measured on 40 parents, 240 F1, and 4,868 F2 offspring. Opportunities for reuse of these data include traits not previously analyzed, other analyses, especially using the pedigree and fitness data, and seeds from all generations and photos of flowers in the later generations are available. PMID:25977784

  2. Artificial selection on anther exsertion in wild radish, Raphanus raphanistrum.

    PubMed

    Conner, Jeffrey K; Mills, Cynthia J; Koelling, Vanessa A; Karoly, Keith

    2014-01-01

    To study the genetic architecture of anther exsertion, a trait under stabilizing selection in wild radish, artificial selection on anther exsertion was applied for 11 generations. Two replicate lines each of increased and decreased exsertion plus two randomly-mated controls were included. Full pedigree information is available from generation five. To estimate correlated responses to selection, 571 plants from all lines and matrilines were grown in the greenhouse and a number of floral, growth, and phenology traits were measured. To create an outbred F2 mapping population, all possible crosses among the two high and two low exsertion lines were made, using a multiple-family design to capture the genetic variance still present after 11 generations of selection. Six floral traits were measured on 40 parents, 240 F1, and 4,868 F2 offspring. Opportunities for reuse of these data include traits not previously analyzed, other analyses, especially using the pedigree and fitness data, and seeds from all generations and photos of flowers in the later generations are available.

  3. Uptake, transport and transformation of arsenate in radishes (Raphanus sativus).

    PubMed

    Smith, Paula G; Koch, Iris; Reimer, Kenneth J

    2008-02-01

    The localization and identification of arsenic compounds in terrestrial plants are important for the understanding of arsenic uptake, transformation and translocation within these organisms, and contributes to our understanding of arsenic cycling in the environment. High performance liquid chromatography inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS), and X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) analysis identified arsenite, arsenate and arsenic(III)-sulphur compounds in leaf, stem and root sections of Rhaphanus sativus (radish) plants grown in both arsenic contaminated mine waste, and arsenic amended liquid cultures. The total arsenic distribution was similar between the plants grown in mine waste and those grown hydroponically. Arsenate was the predominant form of arsenic available in the growth mediums, and after it was taken up by roots, X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) imaging indicated that some of the arsenate was transported to the shoots via the xylem. Additionally, arsenate was reduced by the plant and arsenic(III)-sulphur compound(s) accounted for the majority of arsenic in the leaf and stem of living plants. In this study the application of synchrotron techniques permitted the identification of arsenic(III)-sulphur species which were "invisible" to conventional HPLC-ICP-MS analysis.

  4. First report of the crucifer pathogen Pseudomonas cannabina pv. alisalensis causing bacterial blight on radish (Raphanus sativus) in Germany

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pseudomonas cannabina pv. alisalensis is a severe pathogen of crucifers across the U.S. We compared a strain isolated from diseased radish (Raphanus sativus) in Germany to pathotypes and additional strains of P. cannabina pv. alisalensis and P. syringae pv. maculicola. We demonstrated that the patho...

  5. Transcriptome Profiling of Taproot Reveals Complex Regulatory Networks during Taproot Thickening in Radish (Raphanus sativus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Rugang; Wang, Jing; Xu, Liang; Wang, Yan; Wang, Ronghua; Zhu, Xianwen; Sun, Xiaochuan; Luo, Xiaobo; Xie, Yang; Everlyne, Muleke; Liu, Liwang

    2016-01-01

    Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) is one of the most important vegetable crops worldwide. Taproot thickening represents a critical developmental period that determines yield and quality in radish life cycle. To isolate differentially expressed genes (DGEs) involved in radish taproot thickening process and explore the molecular mechanism underlying taproot development, three cDNA libraries from radish taproot collected at pre-cortex splitting stage (L1), cortex splitting stage (L2), and expanding stage (L3) were constructed and sequenced by RNA-Seq technology. More than seven million clean reads were obtained from the three libraries, from which 4,717,617 (L1, 65.35%), 4,809,588 (L2, 68.24%) and 4,973,745 (L3, 69.45%) reads were matched to the radish reference genes, respectively. A total of 85,939 transcripts were generated from three libraries, from which 10,450, 12,325, and 7392 differentially expressed transcripts (DETs) were detected in L1 vs. L2, L1 vs. L3, and L2 vs. L3 comparisons, respectively. Gene Ontology and pathway analysis showed that many DEGs, including EXPA9, Cyclin, CaM, Syntaxin, MADS-box, SAUR, and CalS were involved in cell events, cell wall modification, regulation of plant hormone levels, signal transduction and metabolisms, which may relate to taproot thickening. Furthermore, the integrated analysis of mRNA-miRNA revealed that 43 miRNAs and 92 genes formed 114 miRNA-target mRNA pairs were co-expressed, and three miRNA-target regulatory networks of taproot were constructed from different libraries. Finally, the expression patterns of 16 selected genes were confirmed using RT-qPCR analysis. A hypothetical model of genetic regulatory network associated with taproot thickening in radish was put forward. The taproot formation of radish is mainly attributed to cell differentiation, division and expansion, which are regulated and promoted by certain specific signal transduction pathways and metabolism processes. These results could provide new insights

  6. Effect of copper on pro- and antioxidative reactions in radish (Raphanus sativus L.) in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Lukatkin, Alexander; Egorova, Irina; Michailova, Irina; Malec, Przemysław; Strzałka, Kazimierz

    2014-01-01

    The generation of superoxide radicals, lipid peroxidation (as measured by malone dialdehyde formation) and the activity of selected antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase) were assessed in radish (Raphanus sativus L.), in response to elevated concentrations of copper ions in the culture medium in vitro and in vivo. Experiments were performed on 7-day-old seedlings and 5-week-old calluses grown on media supplemented with CuSO4 in concentrations of 10, 100 and 1000μМ. The exposure to elevated Cu concentrations in the medium significantly reduced both callogenesis and the proliferation of radish calluses in vitro. Cu treatment resulted in the increased generation of the superoxide radical (O2(-)) in radish seedlings and calluses indicating the occurrence of oxidative stress in radish cells, whereas the level of lipid peroxidation (LPO) remained unchanged. Both in calluses and in radish seedlings in vivo, the relative level of oxidative stress was maximal at micromolar Cu concentrations and became attenuated with increasing Cu concentrations. Stronger oxidative stress occurred in the radish seedlings in vivo, compared with radish calluses in vitro. The observed lower sensitivity of calluses to Cu-induced oxidative stress and their ability to proliferate upon exposure to Cu concentrations of up to 1000μМ demonstrate the potential of in vitro cell-selection to obtain metal-tolerant radish plant lines.

  7. Effects of selenium accumulation on phytotoxicity, herbivory, and pollination ecology in radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Hladun, Kristen R; Parker, David R; Tran, Khoa D; Trumble, John T

    2013-01-01

    Selenium (Se) has contaminated areas in the western USA where pollination is critical to the functioning of both agricultural and natural ecosystems, yet we know little about how Se can impact pollinators. In a two-year semi-field study, the weedy plant Raphanus sativus (radish) was exposed to three selenate treatments and two pollination treatments to evaluate the effects on pollinator-plant interactions. Honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) pollinators were observed to readily forage on R. sativus for both pollen and nectar despite high floral Se concentrations. Se treatment increased both seed abortion (14%) and decreased plant biomass (8-9%). Herbivory by birds and aphids was reduced on Se-treated plants, indicating a potential reproductive advantage for the plant. Our study sheds light on how pollutants such as Se can impact the pollination ecology of a plant that accumulates even moderate amounts of Se.

  8. Somatic hybrids between Arabidopsis thaliana and cytoplasmic male-sterile radish (Raphanus sativus).

    PubMed

    Yamagishi, H; Glimelius, K

    2003-08-01

    Somatic hybrids were produced by protoplast fusion between Arabidopsis thaliana ecotype Columbia and a male-sterile radish line MS-Gensuke ( Raphanus sativus) with the Ogura cytoplasm. Forty-one shoots were differentiated from the regenerated calli and established as shoot cultures in vitro. About 20 of these shoots were judged to be hybrids based on growth characteristics and morphology. Molecular analyses of 11 shoots were performed, confirming the hybrid features. Of these 11 shoots, eight were established as rooted plants in the greenhouse. Polymerase chain reaction and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA analyses of the nuclear genomes of all analyzed shoots and plants confirmed that they contained hybrid DNA patterns. Their chromosome numbers also supported the hybrid nature of the plants. Investigations of the organelles in the hybrids revealed that the chloroplast (cp) genome was exclusively represented by radish cpDNA, while the mitochondrial DNA configuration showed a combination of both parental genomes as well as fragments unique to the hybrids. Hybrid plants that flowered were male-sterile independent of the presence of the Ogura CMS-gene orf138.

  9. The effects of CO2 on growth and transpiration of radish (Raphanus sativus) in hypobaria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gohil, H. L.; Bucklin, R. A.; Correll, M. J.

    2010-04-01

    Plants grown on long-term space missions will likely be grown in low pressure environments (i.e., hypobaria). However, in hypobaria the transpiration rates of plants can increase and may result in wilting if the water is not readily replaced. It is possible to reduce transpiration by increasing the partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2), but the effects of pCO2 at high levels (>120 Pa) on the growth and transpiration of plants in hypobaria are not known. Therefore, the effects of pCO2 on the growth and transpiration of radish (Raphanus sativus var. Cherry Bomb II) in hypobaria were studied. The fresh weight (FW), leaf area, dry weight (DW), CO2 assimilation rates (CA), dark respiration rates (DR), and transpiration rates from 26 day-old radish plants that were grown for an additional seven days at different total pressures (33, 66 or 101 kPa) and pCO2 (40 Pa, 100 Pa and 180 Pa) were measured. In general, the dry weight of plants increased with CO2 enrichment and with lower total pressure. In limiting pCO2 (40 Pa) conditions, the transpiration for plants grown at 33 kPa was approximately twice that of controls (101 kPa total pressure with 40 Pa pCO2). Increasing the pCO2 from 40 Pa to 180 Pa reduced the transpiration rates for plants grown in hypobaria and in standard atmospheric pressures. However, for plants grown in hypobaria and high pCO2 (180 Pa) leaf damage was evident. Radish growth can be enhanced and transpiration reduced in hypobaria by enriching the gas phase with CO2 although at high levels leaf damage may occur.

  10. Identification and characterization of novel and conserved microRNAs in radish (Raphanus sativus L.) using high-throughput sequencing.

    PubMed

    Xu, Liang; Wang, Yan; Xu, Yuanyuan; Wang, Liangju; Zhai, Lulu; Zhu, Xianwen; Gong, Yiqin; Ye, Shan; Liu, Liwang

    2013-03-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous, non-coding, small RNAs that play significant regulatory roles in plant growth, development, and biotic and abiotic stress responses. To date, a great number of conserved and species-specific miRNAs have been identified in many important plant species such as Arabidopsis, rice and poplar. However, little is known about identification of miRNAs and their target genes in radish (Raphanus sativus L.). In the present study, a small RNA library from radish root was constructed and sequenced using the high-throughput Solexa sequencing. Through sequence alignment and secondary structure prediction, a total of 545 conserved miRNA families as well as 15 novel (with their miRNA* strand) and 64 potentially novel miRNAs were identified. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis confirmed that both conserved and novel miRNAs were expressed in radish, and some of them were preferentially expressed in certain tissues. A total of 196 potential target genes were predicted for 42 novel radish miRNAs. Gene ontology (GO) analysis showed that most of the targets were involved in plant growth, development, metabolism and stress responses. This study represents a first large-scale identification and characterization of radish miRNAs and their potential target genes. These results could lead to the further identification of radish miRNAs and enhance our understanding of radish miRNA regulatory mechanisms in diverse biological and metabolic processes.

  11. Discovery of a novel cytoplasmic male-sterility and its restorer lines in radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Lee, Young-Pyo; Park, Suhyung; Lim, Chaewan; Kim, Hyojung; Lim, Heerae; Ahn, Youngsoon; Sung, Soon-Kee; Yoon, Moo-Kyoung; Kim, Sunggil

    2008-10-01

    A male-sterile (MS) radish (Raphanus sativus L.) was found in an accession collected from Uzbekistan. Unlike Ogura MS radishes in which no pollen grain is typically visible during anthesis, a small number of pollen grains stuck together in the dehiscing anthers was observed in the newly identified MS radish. Fluorescein diacetate tests and scanning electron micrographs showed that pollen grains in the new MS radish were severely deformed and non-viable. Cytological examination of pollen development stages showed a clear difference in the defective stage from that seen in Ogura male-sterility. Reciprocal cross-pollination with diverse male-fertile lines indicated that pollen grains of the new MS radish were completely sterile, and the female organs were fully fertile. When the new MS radish and Ogura MS lines were cross-pollinated with a set of eight breeding lines, all F1 progeny originating from crosses with the new MS radish were male-sterile. In contrast, most of the F1 progeny resulting from crosses with Ogura MS lines were male-fertile. These results demonstrated that factors associated with induction of the newly identified male-sterility are different from those of Ogura male-sterility. The lack of restorer lines for the newly identified male-sterility led us to predict that it might be a complete cytoplasmic male-sterility without restorer-of-fertility genes in nuclear genomes. However, cross-pollination with more diverse radish germplasm identified one accession introduced from Russia that could completely restore fertility, proving the existence of restorer-of-fertility gene(s) for the new male-sterility. Meanwhile, the PCR amplification profile of molecular markers for the classification of radish mitochondrial genome types revealed that the new MS radish contained a novel mitotype.

  12. Cadmium availability and uptake by radish (Raphanus sativus) grown in soils applied with wheat straw or composted pig manure.

    PubMed

    Shan, Hong; Su, Shiming; Liu, Rongle; Li, Shutian

    2016-08-01

    Soil cadmium (Cd) availability and uptake by cherry-red radish (Raphanus sativus) grown in Cd-contaminated soils after addition with wheat straw or composted pig manure were studied. The results indicated that wheat straw application promoted radish growth until the second harvest, while pig manure application improved radish biomass in Acid Ferralsols regardless of harvesting seasons. Application with pig manure might be more effective in lowering the Cd uptake by radish than wheat straw. Especially when pig manure of 11.9 g TOC kg(-1) amended into Acid Ferralsols, Cd contents in leaves and roots of radish decreased by 89.2 and 95.7 % at the second harvest, respectively. The changes in Cd fractions distribution in soils after application were contributed to the decline of Cd availability. Furthermore, significantly negative linear correlation (P < 0.05) between the ratio of humic acid (HA) and fulvic acid (FA) in soils and exchangeable Cd was also observed. However, the significantly negative relationship (P < 0.01) between soil pH and exchangeable Cd was merely found in pig manure-treated Acid Ferralsols. The increases in HA/FA ratio or pH values in soils after adding organic materials were also responsible for the decrease of Cd availability in soils and uptake by radish. Thus, it is recommended to stabilize soil Cd and reducing plant uptake by application with composted manure without or slightly contaminated with metals.

  13. Uptake and accumulation of bulk and nanosized cerium oxide particles and ionic cerium by radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weilan; Ebbs, Stephen D; Musante, Craig; White, Jason C; Gao, Cunmei; Ma, Xingmao

    2015-01-21

    The potential toxicity and accumulation of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) in agricultural crops has become an area of great concern and intense investigation. Interestingly, although below-ground vegetables are most likely to accumulate the highest concentrations of ENMs, little work has been done investigating the potential uptake and accumulation of ENMs for this plant group. The overall objective of this study was to evaluate how different forms of cerium (bulk cerium oxide, cerium oxide nanoparticles, and the cerium ion) affected the growth of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) and accumulation of cerium in radish tissues. Ionic cerium (Ce(3+)) had a negative effect on radish growth at 10 mg CeCl3/L, whereas bulk cerium oxide (CeO2) enhanced plant biomass at the same concentration. Treatment with 10 mg/L cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO2 NPs) had no significant effect on radish growth. Exposure to all forms of cerium resulted in the accumulation of this element in radish tissues, including the edible storage root. However, the accumulation patterns and their effect on plant growth and physiological processes varied with the characteristics of cerium. This study provides a critical frame of reference on the effects of CeO2 NPs versus their bulk and ionic counterparts on radish growth.

  14. Cloning and expression of mitochondrial MnSOD from the small radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Kwon, Soon Il; An, Chung Sun

    2003-10-31

    A cDNA clone for a mitochondrial MnSOD was isolated from a cDNA library derived from seedlings of the small radish (Raphanus sativus L.). The cDNA clone, RsMnSOD, encoded a polypeptide with a predicted molecular mass of 25.4 kDa and calculated pI of 8.77. Its deduced amino acid sequence was 93% homologous with MnSOD of Arabidopsis. RNA gel blot analysis showed that RsMnSOD transcripts were most abundant in leaves, followed by roots and hypocotyls, whereas transcripts of RsFeSOD and RsCu/ZnSOD were not detected in roots. The hypocotyls of germinated seedlings turned green and finally red in response to white light. These color changes were accompanied by increases in RsMnSOD and RsCu/ZnSOD mRNA. In addition, RsMnSOD expression was strongly induced by osmotic stress, moderately induced by phytohormones such as ABA and IAA, and not induced by xenobiotics other than cercosporin.

  15. Diffusive gradient in thin films technique for assessment of cadmium and copper bioaccessibility to radish (Raphanus sativus).

    PubMed

    Dočekalová, Hana; Škarpa, Petr; Dočekal, Bohumil

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess cadmium and copper uptake by radish (Raphanus sativus) and to test the capability of the diffusive gradient in thin films (DGT) technique to predict bioaccessibility of the metals for this plant. Radish plants were grown in pots filled with uncontaminated control and artificially contaminated soils differing in cadmium and copper contents. Metal concentrations in plants were compared with free ion metal concentrations in soil solution, and concentrations measured by DGT. Significant correlation was found between metal fluxes to plant and metal fluxes into DGT. Pearson correlation coefficient for cadmium was 0.994 and for copper 0.998. The obtained results showed that DGT offers the possibility of simple test procedure for soils and can be used as a physical surrogate for plant uptake.

  16. Properties of lead deposits in cell walls of radish (Raphanus sativus) roots.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Hiroshi; Fukuoka, Daisuke; Tatai, Yuri; Kamachi, Hiroyuki; Hayatsu, Manabu; Ono, Manami; Suzuki, Suechika

    2013-01-01

    Various mechanisms are involved in detoxification of heavy metals such as lead (Pb) in plant cells. Most of the Pb taken up by plants accumulates in their roots. However, the detailed properties of Pb complexes in roots remain unclear. We have investigated the properties of Pb deposits in root cell walls of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) seedlings grown on glass beads bed containing Pb pellets, which are the source of Pb-contamination in shooting range soils. Pb deposits were tightly bound to cell walls. Cell wall fragments containing about 50,000 ppm Pb were prepared from the roots. After extracting Pb from the cell wall fragments using HCl, Pb ions were recombined with the Pb-extracted cell wall fragments in a solution containing Pb acetate. When the cell wall fragments were treated with pectinase (E.C. 3.2.1.15) and were chemically modified with 1-ethyl-3-dimethylamino-propylcarboimide, the Pb-rebinding ability of the treated cell wall fragments decreased. When acid-treated cell wall fragments were incubated in a solution containing Pb(2+) and excess amounts of a chelating agent, Pb recombined with the cell wall fragments were measured to estimate the affinity between Pb(2+) and the cell wall fragments. Our data show that Pb(2+) binds to carboxyl groups of cell walls. The source of the carboxyl groups is suggested to be pectic compounds. A stability constant of the Pb-cell wall complex was estimated to be about 10(8). The role of root cell walls in the mechanism underlying heavy metal tolerance was discussed.

  17. Tunisian radish (Raphanus sativus) extract prevents cadmium-induced immunotoxic and biochemical alterations in rats.

    PubMed

    ben Salah-Abbès, Jalila; Abbès, Samir; Zohra, Haous; Oueslati, Ridha

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd), a known carcinogen and potent immunotoxicant in humans and animals, is dispersed throughout the environment as a result of pollution from a variety of sources. Tunisian radish (Raphanus sativus) extract (TRE) is a known anti-oxidant and free radical scavenger that has been shown to help alleviate immune system disorders, including some induced by environmental toxicants. The present study was undertaken to investigate potential protective effects of TRE against Cd-induced immunotoxicities (and general toxicities) in situ. Cadmium chloride (at 2.5 mg CdCl2/kg BW) and TRE (5, 10, or 15 mg/kg BW) were given (alone or in combination [actually, in sequence of Cd and then TRE]) to rats daily by oral gavage for 2 weeks. Results indicated that treatment with CdCl2 alone resulted in significant decreases in plasma levels of total protein, triglycerides, creatine kinase, creatinine, IgG and IgA, T-lymphocyte sub-types (CD4(+), CD3(+), CD56(+), and CD8(+)), and in thymic and hepatic indices (relative weights). In contrast, CdCl2 treatment caused significant increases in serum LDH, AST, and ALT, in the formation/release of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1 and TNFα), and in the relative weights of host spleen and kidneys. Rats treated with TRE alone had no discernable changes compared to the controls with regard to all test parameters. Combined treatment of CdCl2 and TRE-at any dose-resulted in a significant improvement of all test parameters compared to those seen with Cd alone. These results illustrated (and provided further support for a continuing belief in) the beneficial effects of TRE in reducing the harmful outcomes of commonly encountered toxicants (like Cd) on the immune system and on overall host health status.

  18. Competition alters life history and increases the relative fecundity of crop-wild radish hybrids (Raphanus spp.).

    PubMed

    Campbell, Lesley G; Snow, Allison A

    2007-01-01

    The evolutionary impact of crop-to-wild gene flow depends on the fitness of hybrids under natural, competitive conditions. Here, we measured the performance of third-generation (F3) radish hybrids (Raphanus raphanistrum x Raphanus sativus) and weedy R. raphanistrum to understand how competitive interactions affect life history and relative fecundity. Three wild and three F1 crop-wild hybrid radish populations were established in semi-natural, agricultural conditions in Michigan, USA. The effects of competition on life-history traits and fecundity of F3 progeny were measured 2 yr later in a common garden experiment. Third-generation hybrid plants generally produced fewer seeds per fruit and set fewer fruits per flower than wild plants, resulting in lower lifetime fecundity. With increasing competition, age at reproduction was delayed, the relative number of seeds per fruit was reduced in wild plants and differences between hybrid and wild fecundity diminished. Competition may enhance the fecundity of advanced-generation hybrids relative to wild plants by reducing differences in life history, potentially promoting the introgression of crop alleles into weed populations.

  19. Heat shock protein synthesis is induced by diethyl phthalate but not by di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate in radish (Raphanus sativus).

    PubMed

    Saarma, Kaari; Tarkka, Mika T; Itävaara, Merja; Fagerstedt, Kurt V

    2003-09-01

    The toxicity and effects on protein synthesis of the phthalate esters diethyl phthalate (DEP) and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) was studied in radish seedings (Raphanus sativus cv. Kööpenhaminan tori). Phthalate esters are a class of commercially important compounds used mainly as plasticizers in high molecular-weight polymers such as many plastics. They can enter soil through various routes and can affect plant growth and development. First the effect of DEP and DEHP on the growth of radish seedings was determined in an aqueous medium. It was found that DEP, but not DEHP, caused retardation of growth in radish. A further investigation on protein synthesis during DEP-stress was executed by in vivo protein labeling combined with two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE). For comparisons with known stress-induced proteins a similar experiment was done with heat shock, and the induced heat shock proteins (HSPs) were compared with those of DEP-stress. The results showed that certain HSPs can be used as an indicator of DEP-stress, although the synthesis of most HSPs was not affected by DEP. DEP also elicited the synthesis of numerous proteins found only in DEP-treated roots. The toxic effect of phthalate esters and the roles of the induced proteins are discussed.

  20. Characterization of RsMYB28 and RsMYB29 transcription factor genes in radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Luo, X B; Liu, Z; Xu, L; Wang, Y; Zhu, X W; Zhang, W; Chen, W; Zhu, Y L; Su, X J; Everlyne, M; Liu, L W

    2016-09-23

    Glucosinolates (GSLs) are important secondary metabolites in Brassicaceae plants. Previous studies have mainly focused on GSL contents, types, and biosynthesis-related genes, but the molecular characterization patterns of GSL biosynthesis-related transcription factors remain largely unexplored in radish (Raphanus sativus L.). To isolate transcription factor genes regulating the GSL biosynthesis, genomic DNA and cDNA sequences of RsMYB28 and RsMYB29 genes were isolated in radish. Two R2R3-MYB domains were identified in the deduced amino acid sequences. Subcellular localization and yeast-one hybrid assays indicated that both the RsMYB28 and RsMYB29 genes were located in the nucleus and possessed transactivation activity. Reverse transcription quantitative analysis showed that the RsMYB28 and RsMYB29 genes were expressed in seeds, leaves, stems, and roots at the seedling, taproot thickening, and mature stages. Both genes were highly expressed during the seedling and taproot thickening stages. The expression level of RsMYB28 was found to be up-regulated following wounding, glucose, and abscisic acid treatments, whereas RsMYB29 was up-regulated following wounding and methyl jasmonate treatments. These results provide insights into the biological function and characterization of the RsMYB28 and RsMYB29 genes, and facilitate further dissection of the molecular regulatory mechanism underlying the GSL biosynthesis in radish.

  1. Comparative Transcriptome Profile of the Cytoplasmic Male Sterile and Fertile Floral Buds of Radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Mei, Shiyong; Liu, Touming; Wang, Zhiwei

    2016-01-06

    Radish cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) has been widely used for breeding in Raphanus and Brassica genera. However, the detailed regulation network of the male sterility remains to be determined. Our previous work has shown that the abnormalities in a CMS radish appeared shortly after the tetrad stage when microspores were malformed and the tapetal cells grew abnormally large. In this work, histological analysis shows that anthers are at the tetrad stage when the radish buds are about 1.5 mm in length. Furthermore, a high throughput RNA sequencing technology was employed to characterize the transcriptome of radish buds with length about 1.5 mm from two CMS lines possessing the CMS-inducing orf138 gene and corresponding near-isogenic maintainer lines. A total of 67,140 unigenes were functionally annotated. Functional terms for these genes are significantly enriched in 55 Gene Ontology (GO) groups and 323 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways. The transcriptome detected transcripts for 72 out of a total of 79 protein genes encoded in the chloroplast genome from radish. In contrast, the radish mitochondrial genome contains 34 protein genes, but only 16 protein transcripts were detected from the transcriptome. The transcriptome comparison between CMS and near-isogenic maintainer lines revealed 539 differentially expressed genes (DEGs), indicating that the false positive rate for comparative transcriptome profiling was clearly decreased using two groups of CMS/maintainer lines with different nuclear background. The level of 127 transcripts was increased and 412 transcripts were decreased in the CMS lines. No change in levels of transcripts except CMS-inducing orf138 was identified from the mitochondrial and chloroplast genomes. Some DEGs which would be associated with the CMS, encoding MYB and bHLH transcription factors, pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins, heat shock transcription factors (HSFs) and heat shock proteins (HSPs), are discussed. The

  2. Tissue printing for myrosinase activity in roots of turnip and Japanese radish and horseradish: a technique for localizing myrosinases.

    PubMed

    Hara, M; Eto, H; Kuboi, T

    2001-02-05

    A method for analyzing the tissue distribution of myrosinase activity in Brassicaceous plants was developed. This technique is based on 'tissue printing' to visualize enzyme activity. The freshly-cut surface (transverse direction) of the root of three species, Japanese radish (Raphanus sativus), turnip (Brassica campestris) and Japanese horseradish (wasabi, Wasabia japonica), was pressed onto a polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) filter to immobilize the proteins onto the membrane. The sites of myrosinase activity on the membranes were visualized by the sinigrin-glucose oxidase-peroxidase system. Signals for myrosinase activity were observed in both the epidermis and vascular cambium of the root of the Japanese radish, turnip and wasabi. Measurement of myrosinase activity in protein extracts indicated that the level of myrosinase activity in the peeling, which consisted of the epidermis, cortex and vascular cambium, was much higher than that in the peeled root of the three species. These results support the image that myrosinase activity, obtained in tissue printing, corresponded well with the tissue distribution of myrosinase activity.

  3. Heterozygous alleles restore male fertility to cytoplasmic male-sterile radish (Raphanus sativus L.): a case of overdominance.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhi Wei; De Wang, Chuan; Wang, Chuan; Gao, Lei; Mei, Shi Yong; Zhou, Yuan; Xiang, Chang Ping; Wang, Ting

    2013-04-01

    The practice of hybridization has greatly contributed to the increase in crop productivity. A major component that exploits heterosis in crops is the cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS)/nucleus-controlled fertility restoration (Rf) system. Through positional cloning, it is shown that heterozygous alleles (RsRf3-1/RsRf3-2) encoding pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins are responsible for restoring fertility to cytoplasmic male-sterile radish (Raphanus sativus L.). Furthermore, it was found that heterozygous alleles (RsRf3-1/RsRf3-2) show higher expression and RNA polymerase II occupancy in the CMS cytoplasmic background compared with their homozygous alleles (RsRf3-1/RsRf3-1 or RsRf3-2/RsRf3-2). These data provide new insights into the molecular mechanism of fertility restoration to cytoplasmic male-sterile plants and illustrate a case of overdominance.

  4. Construction of a chromosome-assigned, sequence-tagged linkage map for the radish, Raphanus sativus L. and QTL analysis of morphological traits

    PubMed Central

    Hashida, Tomoko; Nakatsuji, Ryoichi; Budahn, Holger; Schrader, Otto; Peterka, Herbert; Fujimura, Tatsuhito; Kubo, Nakao; Hirai, Masashi

    2013-01-01

    The radish displays great morphological variation but the genetic factors underlying this variability are mostly unknown. To identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) controlling radish morphological traits, we cultivated 94 F4 and F5 recombinant inbred lines derived from a cross between the rat-tail radish and the Japanese radish cultivar ‘Harufuku’ inbred lines. Eight morphological traits (ovule and seed numbers per silique, plant shape, pubescence and root formation) were measured for investigation. We constructed a map composed of 322 markers with a total length of 673.6 cM. The linkage groups were assigned to the radish chromosomes using disomic rape-radish chromosome-addition lines. On the map, eight and 10 QTLs were identified in 2008 and 2009, respectively. The chromosome-linkage group correspondence, the sequence-specific markers and the QTLs detected here will provide useful information for further genetic studies and for selection during radish breeding programs. PMID:23853517

  5. Transcriptional identification and characterization of differentially expressed genes associated with embryogenesis in radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Zhai, Lulu; Xu, Liang; Wang, Yan; Zhu, Xianwen; Feng, Haiyang; Li, Chao; Luo, Xiaobo; Everlyne, Muleke M; Liu, Liwang

    2016-02-23

    Embryogenesis is an important component in the life cycle of most plant species. Due to the difficulty in embryo isolation, the global gene expression involved in plant embryogenesis, especially the early events following fertilization are largely unknown in radish. In this study, three cDNA libraries from ovules of radish before and after fertilization were sequenced using the Digital Gene Expression (DGE) tag profiling strategy. A total of 5,777 differentially expressed transcripts were detected based on pairwise comparison in the three libraries (0_DAP, 7_DAP and 15_DAP). Results from Gene Ontology (GO) and pathway enrichment analysis revealed that these differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were implicated in numerous life processes including embryo development and phytohormones biosynthesis. Notably, some genes encoding auxin response factor (ARF ), Leafy cotyledon1 (LEC1) and somatic embryogenesis receptor-like kinase (SERK ) known to be involved in radish embryogenesis were differentially expressed. The expression patterns of 30 genes including LEC1-2, AGL9, LRR, PKL and ARF8-1 were validated by qRT-PCR. Furthermore, the cooperation between miRNA and mRNA may play a pivotal role in the radish embryogenesis process. This is the first report on identification of DEGs profiles related to radish embryogenesis and seed development. These results could facilitate further dissection of the molecular mechanisms underlying embryogenesis and seed development in radish.

  6. Transcriptional identification and characterization of differentially expressed genes associated with embryogenesis in radish (Raphanus sativus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Zhai, Lulu; Xu, Liang; Wang, Yan; Zhu, Xianwen; Feng, Haiyang; Li, Chao; Luo, Xiaobo; Everlyne, Muleke M.; Liu, Liwang

    2016-01-01

    Embryogenesis is an important component in the life cycle of most plant species. Due to the difficulty in embryo isolation, the global gene expression involved in plant embryogenesis, especially the early events following fertilization are largely unknown in radish. In this study, three cDNA libraries from ovules of radish before and after fertilization were sequenced using the Digital Gene Expression (DGE) tag profiling strategy. A total of 5,777 differentially expressed transcripts were detected based on pairwise comparison in the three libraries (0_DAP, 7_DAP and 15_DAP). Results from Gene Ontology (GO) and pathway enrichment analysis revealed that these differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were implicated in numerous life processes including embryo development and phytohormones biosynthesis. Notably, some genes encoding auxin response factor (ARF ), Leafy cotyledon1 (LEC1) and somatic embryogenesis receptor-like kinase (SERK ) known to be involved in radish embryogenesis were differentially expressed. The expression patterns of 30 genes including LEC1-2, AGL9, LRR, PKL and ARF8-1 were validated by qRT-PCR. Furthermore, the cooperation between miRNA and mRNA may play a pivotal role in the radish embryogenesis process. This is the first report on identification of DEGs profiles related to radish embryogenesis and seed development. These results could facilitate further dissection of the molecular mechanisms underlying embryogenesis and seed development in radish. PMID:26902837

  7. Distinct Phylogeographic Structures of Wild Radish (Raphanus sativus L. var. raphanistroides Makino) in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Han, Qingxiang; Higashi, Hiroyuki; Mitsui, Yuki; Setoguchi, Hiroaki

    2015-01-01

    Coastal plants with simple linear distribution ranges along coastlines provide a suitable system for improving our understanding of patterns of intra-specific distributional history and genetic variation. Due to the combination of high seed longevity and high dispersibility of seeds via seawater, we hypothesized that wild radish would poorly represent phylogeographic structure at the local scale. On the other hand, we also hypothesized that wild radish populations might be geographically differentiated, as has been exhibited by their considerable phenotypic variations along the islands of Japan. We conducted nuclear DNA microsatellite loci and chloroplast DNA haplotype analyses for 486 samples and 144 samples, respectively, from 18 populations to investigate the phylogeographic structure of wild radish in Japan. Cluster analysis supported the existence of differential genetic structures between the Ryukyu Islands and mainland Japan populations. A significant strong pattern of isolation by distance and significant evidence of a recent bottleneck were detected. The chloroplast marker analysis resulted in the generation of eight haplotypes, of which two haplotypes (A and B) were broadly distributed in most wild radish populations. High levels of variation in microsatellite loci were identified, whereas cpDNA displayed low levels of genetic diversity within populations. Our results indicate that the Kuroshio Current would have contributed to the sculpting of the phylogeographic structure by shaping genetic gaps between isolated populations. In addition, the Tokara Strait would have created a geographic barrier between the Ryukyu Islands and mainland Japan. Finally, extant habitat disturbances (coastal erosion), migration patterns (linear expansion), and geographic characteristics (small islands and sea currents) have influenced the expansion and historical population dynamics of wild radish. Our study is the first to record the robust phylogeographic structure in wild

  8. Distinct Phylogeographic Structures of Wild Radish (Raphanus sativus L. var. raphanistroides Makino) in Japan.

    PubMed

    Han, Qingxiang; Higashi, Hiroyuki; Mitsui, Yuki; Setoguchi, Hiroaki

    2015-01-01

    Coastal plants with simple linear distribution ranges along coastlines provide a suitable system for improving our understanding of patterns of intra-specific distributional history and genetic variation. Due to the combination of high seed longevity and high dispersibility of seeds via seawater, we hypothesized that wild radish would poorly represent phylogeographic structure at the local scale. On the other hand, we also hypothesized that wild radish populations might be geographically differentiated, as has been exhibited by their considerable phenotypic variations along the islands of Japan. We conducted nuclear DNA microsatellite loci and chloroplast DNA haplotype analyses for 486 samples and 144 samples, respectively, from 18 populations to investigate the phylogeographic structure of wild radish in Japan. Cluster analysis supported the existence of differential genetic structures between the Ryukyu Islands and mainland Japan populations. A significant strong pattern of isolation by distance and significant evidence of a recent bottleneck were detected. The chloroplast marker analysis resulted in the generation of eight haplotypes, of which two haplotypes (A and B) were broadly distributed in most wild radish populations. High levels of variation in microsatellite loci were identified, whereas cpDNA displayed low levels of genetic diversity within populations. Our results indicate that the Kuroshio Current would have contributed to the sculpting of the phylogeographic structure by shaping genetic gaps between isolated populations. In addition, the Tokara Strait would have created a geographic barrier between the Ryukyu Islands and mainland Japan. Finally, extant habitat disturbances (coastal erosion), migration patterns (linear expansion), and geographic characteristics (small islands and sea currents) have influenced the expansion and historical population dynamics of wild radish. Our study is the first to record the robust phylogeographic structure in wild

  9. Transformation of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) via sonication and vacuum infiltration of germinated seeds with Agrobacterium harboring a group 3 LEA gene from B. napus.

    PubMed

    Park, Byong-Jin; Liu, Zaochang; Kanno, Akira; Kameya, Toshiaki

    2005-10-01

    A protocol for producing transgenic radish (Raphanus sativus) was obtained by using both ultrasonic and vacuum infiltration assisted, Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The Agrobacterium strain LBA4404 contained the binary vector pBI121-LEA (late embyogenesis abundant), which carried a Group 3 LEA gene, from Brassica napus. Among six combinations, Agrobacterium-mediated transformation assisted by a combination of 5-min sonication with 5-min vacuum infiltration resulted in the highest transformation frequency. The existence, integration and expression of transferred LEA gene in transgenic T(1) plants were confirmed by PCR, genomic Southern and Western blot analysis. Transgenic radish demonstrated better growth performance than non-transformed control plants under osmotic and salt stress conditions. Accumulation of Group 3 LEA protein in the vegetative tissue of transgenic radish conferred increased tolerance to water deficit and salt stress.

  10. LC-PDA-EIS/MSn identification of new anthocyanins in purple radish (Raphanus sativus L. variety)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An LC-PDA-ESI/MSn profiling method was used for a comprehensive study of the anthocyanins of purple Bordeaux radish. This study identified 57 anthocyanins: 23 acylated cyanidin 3-sophoroside-5-diglucosides, 12 acylated cyanidin 3-(glucosylacyl) acylsophoroside-5-diglucosides, and 22 acylated cyanid...

  11. Foliar application of brassinosteroids alleviates adverse effects of zinc toxicity in radish (Raphanus sativus L.) plants.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishna, Bellamkonda; Rao, S Seeta Ram

    2015-03-01

    Growth chamber experiments were conducted to investigate the comparative effect of 24-epibrassinolide (EBL) and 28-homobrassinolide (HBL) at 0.5, 1.0, or 2.0 μM concentrations by foliar application on radish plants growing under Zn(2+) stress. In radish plants exposed to excess Zn(2+), growth was substantially reduced in terms of shoot and root length, fresh and dry weight. However, foliar application of brassinosteroids (BRs) was able to alleviate Zn(2+)-induced stress and significantly improve the above growth traits. Zinc stress decreased chlorophyll a, b, and carotenoids levels in radish plants. However, follow-up treatment with BRs increased the photosynthetic pigments in stressed and stress-free plants. The treatment of BRs led to reduced levels of H2O2, lipid peroxidation and, electrolyte leakage (ELP) and improved the leaf relative water content (RWC) in stressed plants. Increased levels of carbonyls indicating enhanced protein oxidation under Zn(2+) stress was effectively countered by supplementation of BRs. Under Zn(2+) stress, the activities of catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and superoxidase dismutase (SOD) were increased but peroxidase (POD) and glutathione reductase (GR) decreased. Foliar spraying of BRs enhanced all these enzymatic activities in radish plants under Zn(2+) stress. The BRs application greatly enhanced contents of ascorbate (ASA), glutathione (GSH), and proline under Zn(2+) stress. The decrease in the activity of nitrate reductase (NR) caused by Zn(2+) stress was restored to the level of control by application of BRs. These results point out that BRs application elevated levels of antioxidative enzymes as well as antioxidants could have conferred resistance to radish plants against Zn(2+) stress resulting in improved plant growth, relative water content and photosynthetic attributes. Of the two BRs, EBL was most effective in amelioration of Zn(2+) stress.

  12. Transport, ultrastructural localization, and distribution of chemical forms of lead in radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Shen, Hong; Xu, Liang; Zhu, Xianwen; Li, Chao; Zhang, Wei; Xie, Yang; Gong, Yiqin; Liu, Liwang

    2015-01-01

    Lead (Pb), a ubiquitous but highly toxic heavy metal (HM), is harmful to human health through various pathways including by ingestion of contaminated vegetables. Radish is a worldwide root vegetable crop with significant health and nutritional benefits. However, little is known about Pb translocation and distribution within radish plants after its uptake by the roots. In this study, Pb stress was induced using Pb(NO3)2 in hydroponic culture, aiming to characterize the transport, ultrastructural localization, and distribution of chemical forms of Pb in different tissues of radish. The results showed that the majority of Pb (85.76-98.72%) was retained in underground organs including lateral roots, root heads and taproot skins, while a small proportion of Pb was absorbed by root flesh (0.44-1.56%) or transported to the shoot (1.28-14.24%). A large proportion of Pb (74.11-99.30%) was integrated with undissolved Pb oxalate, protein and pectates forming Pb-phosphate complexes. Moreover, a low-Pb-accumulating line of radish showed a higher proportion of Pb in water-soluble form compared with a high-Pb-accumulating line. Subcellular distribution analysis showed that a large proportion of Pb was bound to cell wall fraction in lateral roots (71.08-80.40%) and taproot skin (46.22-77.94%), while the leaves and roots had 28.36-39.37% and 27.35-46.51% of Pb stored in the soluble fraction, respectively. Furthermore, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed Pb precipitates in intercellular space, cell wall, plasma lemma and vacuoles. Fractionation results also showed the accumulation of Pb on the cell wall, intercellular space and vacuole, and low uptake of undissolved Pb oxalate, protein, pectates and Pb-phosphate complexes, which might be due to low transport efficiency and Pb tolerance of radish. These findings would provide insight into molecular mechanism of Pb uptake and translocation in radish and facilitate development of low-Pb-content cultivars in root vegetable

  13. Transport, ultrastructural localization, and distribution of chemical forms of lead in radish (Raphanus sativus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan; Shen, Hong; Xu, Liang; Zhu, Xianwen; Li, Chao; Zhang, Wei; Xie, Yang; Gong, Yiqin; Liu, Liwang

    2015-01-01

    Lead (Pb), a ubiquitous but highly toxic heavy metal (HM), is harmful to human health through various pathways including by ingestion of contaminated vegetables. Radish is a worldwide root vegetable crop with significant health and nutritional benefits. However, little is known about Pb translocation and distribution within radish plants after its uptake by the roots. In this study, Pb stress was induced using Pb(NO3)2 in hydroponic culture, aiming to characterize the transport, ultrastructural localization, and distribution of chemical forms of Pb in different tissues of radish. The results showed that the majority of Pb (85.76–98.72%) was retained in underground organs including lateral roots, root heads and taproot skins, while a small proportion of Pb was absorbed by root flesh (0.44–1.56%) or transported to the shoot (1.28–14.24%). A large proportion of Pb (74.11–99.30%) was integrated with undissolved Pb oxalate, protein and pectates forming Pb–phosphate complexes. Moreover, a low-Pb-accumulating line of radish showed a higher proportion of Pb in water-soluble form compared with a high-Pb-accumulating line. Subcellular distribution analysis showed that a large proportion of Pb was bound to cell wall fraction in lateral roots (71.08–80.40%) and taproot skin (46.22–77.94%), while the leaves and roots had 28.36–39.37% and 27.35–46.51% of Pb stored in the soluble fraction, respectively. Furthermore, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed Pb precipitates in intercellular space, cell wall, plasma lemma and vacuoles. Fractionation results also showed the accumulation of Pb on the cell wall, intercellular space and vacuole, and low uptake of undissolved Pb oxalate, protein, pectates and Pb–phosphate complexes, which might be due to low transport efficiency and Pb tolerance of radish. These findings would provide insight into molecular mechanism of Pb uptake and translocation in radish and facilitate development of low-Pb-content cultivars

  14. Metabolic Profiling and Antioxidant Assay of Metabolites from Three Radish Cultivars (Raphanus sativus).

    PubMed

    Park, Chang Ha; Baskar, Thanislas Bastin; Park, Soo-Yun; Kim, Sun-Ju; Valan Arasu, Mariadhas; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Kim, Jae Kwang; Park, Sang Un

    2016-01-28

    A total of 13 anthocyanins and 33 metabolites; including organic acids, phenolic acids, amino acids, organic compounds, sugar acids, sugar alcohols, and sugars, were profiled in three radish cultivars by using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOFMS)-based metabolite profiling. Total phenolics and flavonoids and their in vitro antioxidant activities were assessed. Pelargonidins were found to be the major anthocyanin in the cultivars studied. The cultivar Man Tang Hong showed the highest level of anthocyanins (1.89 ± 0.07 mg/g), phenolics (0.0664 ± 0.0033 mg/g) and flavonoids (0.0096 ± 0.0004 mg/g). Here; the variation of secondary metabolites in the radishes is described, as well as their association with primary metabolites. The low-molecular-weight hydrophilic metabolite profiles were subjected to principal component analysis (PCA), hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA), Pearson's correlation analysis. PCA fully distinguished the three radish cultivars tested. The polar metabolites were strongly correlated between metabolites that participate in the TCA cycle. The chemometrics results revealed that TCA cycle intermediates and free phenolic acids as well as anthocyanins were higher in the cultivar Man Tang Hong than in the others. Furthermore; superoxide radical scavenging activities and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging were investigated to elucidate the antioxidant activity of secondary metabolites in the cultivars. Man Tang Hong showed the highest superoxide radical scavenging activity (68.87%) at 1000 μg/mL, and DPPH activity (20.78%), followed by Seo Ho and then Hong Feng No. 1. The results demonstrate that GC-TOFMS-based metabolite profiling, integrated with chemometrics, is an applicable method for distinguishing phenotypic variation and determining biochemical reactions connecting primary and secondary metabolism. Therefore; this study might provide

  15. Analysis of differential gene expression during floral bud abortion in radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Zhang, J; Sun, X L; Zhang, L G; Hui, M X; Zhang, M K

    2013-07-24

    Radish floral bud abortion (FBA) is an adverse biological phenomenon that occurs during reproduction. Although FBA occurs frequently, its mechanism remains unknown. To elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying FBA, we detected gene expression differences between aborted and normal buds of radish using cDNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR). A total of 221 differentially expressed transcript-derived fragments (TDFs) were detected by 256 cDNA-AFLP primer combinations, of which 114 were upregulated and 107 were downregulated in the aborted buds. A total of 54 TDFs were cloned and sequenced. A BLAST search revealed that all TDFs have homologous sequences and 29 of these corresponded to known genes, whose functions were mainly related to metabolism, stimulus response, transcriptional regulation, and transportation. Expressions of 6 TDFs with different functions were further analyzed by real-time PCR yielding expression profiling results consistent with the cDNA-AFLP analysis. Our results indicated that radish FBA is related to abnormalities in various physiological and biochemical plant processes.

  16. Directional selection for flowering time leads to adaptive evolution in Raphanus raphanistrum (Wild radish).

    PubMed

    Ashworth, Michael B; Walsh, Michael J; Flower, Ken C; Vila-Aiub, Martin M; Powles, Stephen B

    2016-04-01

    Herbicides have been the primary tool for controlling large populations of yield depleting weeds from agro-ecosystems, resulting in the evolution of widespread herbicide resistance. In response, nonherbicidal techniques have been developed which intercept weed seeds at harvest before they enter the soil seed bank. However, the efficiency of these techniques allows an intense selection for any trait that enables weeds to evade collection, with early-flowering ecotypes considered likely to result in early seed shedding. Using a field-collected wild radish population, five recurrent generations were selected for early maturity and three generations for late maturity. Phenology associated with flowering time and growth traits were measured. Our results demonstrate the adaptive capacity of wild radish to halve its time to flowering following five generations of early-flowering selection. Early-maturing phenotypes had reduced height and biomass at maturity, leading to less competitive, more prostrate growth forms. Following three generations of late-flowering selection, wild radish doubled its time to flowering time leading to increased biomass and flowering height at maturity. This study demonstrates the potential for the rapid evolution in growth traits in response to highly effective seed collection techniques that imposed a selection on weed populations within agro-ecosystems at harvest.

  17. Selenium species bioaccessibility in enriched radish (Raphanus sativus): a potential dietary source of selenium.

    PubMed

    Pedrero, Zoyne; Madrid, Yolanda; Cámara, Carmen

    2006-03-22

    An in vitro gastrointestinal method was employed to predict the potential bioavailability of selenium and its species from radish, belonging to the Brassicaceae family, grown in hydroponics media in the presence of inorganic selenium, such as Na2SeO3 and Na2SeO4. A low transformation of Se into organic forms was observed in radish plants grown in Se(VI)-enriched culture media. On the contrary, in those plants exposed to selenite, >95% of the total selenium was found as selenocystine (SeCys2), selenomethionine (SeMet), and Se-methylselenocysteine (SeMetSeCys). The concentrations of these species in fresh samples remained almost unaltered after a simulated gastrointestinal digestion. Therefore, a high selenium content of Se-methylselenocysteine (65%), previously reported as a cancer chemopreventive species, remained in the potentially bioabsorbable fraction. As these plants usually undergo a short development cycle, these results suggest that radish enriched in selenite could be a good choice as an organoselenium supplement for the human diet and animal feed.

  18. Certain antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) as early warning biomarkers of soil copper exposure.

    PubMed

    Sun, Bai-Ye; Kan, Shi-Hong; Zhang, Yan-Zong; Deng, Shi-Huai; Wu, Jun; Yuan, Hao; Qi, Hui; Yang, Gang; Li, Li; Zhang, Xiao-Hong; Xiao, Hong; Wang, Ying-Jun; Peng, Hong; Li, Yuan-Wei

    2010-11-15

    Copper (Cu) is a major heavy metal contaminant with various anthropogenic and natural sources. Recently, using biomarkers to monitor the effects of pollutants has attracted increased interest. Pot culture experiments using radish (Raphanus sativus L.) was performed to investigate Cu phytotoxic effects on antioxidant enzymes and other early warning biomarkers of soil Cu exposure. Under low dose Cu stress (lower than the EC10, Cu concentration reducing root length by 10%), activity and isozyme expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and peroxidases (POD) increased significantly; no significant variations in chlorophyll, carotenoid, and malondialdehyde (MDA) content in leaves and toxic symptoms were observed. Under a slightly higher Cu stress (close to the EC10), activity and isozyme expression of SOD and MDA content were enhanced significantly; those of CAT and POD decreased due to an inverted U-shape dose response. Chlorophyll content remained unchanged. Thus, antioxidant enzymes and MDA content are more sensitive to Cu stress, showing significant variations ahead of chlorophyll and toxic symptoms under Cu stress (lower than about 200 mg kg(-1) soil). Thus, the joint monitoring of antioxidant enzymes and MDA content of R. sativus can be used as biomarkers of soil Cu contamination.

  19. Uptake of polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides from soil and air into radishes (Raphanus sativus).

    PubMed

    Mikes, Ondrej; Cupr, Pavel; Trapp, Stefan; Klanova, Jana

    2009-02-01

    Uptake of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls from soil and air into radishes was measured at a heavily contaminated field site. The highest contaminant concentrations were found for DDT and its metabolites, and for beta-hexachlorocyclohexane. Bioconcentration factor (BCF, defined as a ratio between the contaminant concentration in the plant tissue and concentration in soil) was determined for roots, edible bulbs and shoots. Root BCF values were constant and not correlated to log K(OW). A negative correlation between BCF and log K(OW) was found for edible bulbs. Shoot BCF values were rather constant and varied between 0.01 and 0.22. Resuspended soil particles may facilitate the transport of chemicals from soil to shoots. Elevated POP concentrations found in shoots of radishes grown in the control plot support the hypothesis that the uptake from air was more significant for shoots than the one from soil. The uptake of POPs from air was within the range of theoretical values predicted from log K(OA).

  20. Chromium phytotoxicity in radish (Raphanus sativus): effects on metabolism and nutrient uptake.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, K K; Singh, N K; Rai, U N

    2013-09-01

    In the present investigation, chromium (VI) induced toxicity on metabolic activity and translocations of nutrients in radish were evaluated under controlled glass house conditions. Chromium was found to induce toxicity and significantly affect plant growth and metabolic activity. Excess of chromium (0.4 mM) caused a decrease in the concentration of iron in leaves (from 134.3 to 71.9 μg g(-1) dw) and significant translocation of sulphur, phosphorus and zinc. Translocation of manganese, copper and boron were less affected from root to stem. After 15 days of Cr exposure, maximum accumulation of Cr was found in roots (327.6 μg g(-1) dw) followed by stems (186.8 μg g(-1) dw) and leaves (116.7 μg g(-1) dw) at 0.4 mM Cr concentration. Therefore, Cr may affect negatively not only production, but also the nutritive quality of the radish; likewise, higher Cr content may cause health hazards for humans.

  1. Nickel toxicity on seed germination and growth in radish (Raphanus sativus) and its recovery using copper and boron.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Shiv Shankar; Shukla, Rajni; Sharma, Y K

    2009-05-01

    Effect of various concentrations of nickel (100, 200, 500 and 1000 microM) and recovery treatments of boron (50 and 100 microM) and copper (15 and 75 microM) each with 200 microM and 500 microM of nickel on germination, growth, biomass, chlorophyll, carotenoids, pheophytin, amylase, protein, sugar as well as activity of catalase and peroxidase were studied in radish (Raphanus sativus cv. Early menu) seedlings. Nickel treatments caused a considerable reduction in germination percentage, growth and biomass. The different pigments were also decreased with nickel treatments. However boron addition with nickel recovered the negative effect on pigment contents. Among biochemical estimations, amylase activity and total proteins were found to be reduced in nickel treatments. Peroxidase and catalase activity were induced other than higher total sugar with nickel treatments. The combination of nickel with boron resulted into increased protein contents. This combination also reduced the catalase and peroxidase activity. The influence of nickel with copper failed to produce significant recovery except 200 microM nickel in combination with 15 microM copper with regard to catalase and peroxidase activity. The effect of nickel on hydrolyzing enzyme amylase was observed to be inhibitory resulting into poor germination followed by poor seedlings growth. The stress protecting enzymes peroxidase and catalase seem to be induced under the influence of nickel, and providing protection to the seedlings. The application of boron with nickel showed improved germination and growth. The level of catalase and peroxidase were found to be significantly reduced showing normal growth and biomass of seedlings.

  2. Assessing the uptake of arsenic and antimony from contaminated soil by radish (Raphanus sativus) using DGT and selective extractions.

    PubMed

    Ngo, Lien K; Pinch, Benjamin M; Bennett, William W; Teasdale, Peter R; Jolley, Dianne F

    2016-09-01

    The enrichment of soil arsenic (As) and antimony (Sb) is putting increasing pressure on the environment and human health. The biogeochemical behaviour of Sb and its uptake mechanisms by plants are poorly understood and generally assumed to be similar to that of As. In this study, the lability of As and Sb under agricultural conditions in historically contaminated soils was assessed. Soils were prepared by mixing historically As and Sb-contaminated soil with an uncontaminated soil at different ratios. The lability of As and Sb in the soils was assessed using various approaches: the diffusive gradients in thin films technique (DGT) (as CDGT), soil solution analysis, and sequential extraction procedure (SEP). Lability was compared to the bioaccumulation of As and Sb by various compartments of radish (Raphanus sativus) grown in these soils in a pot experiment. Irrespective of the method, all of the labile fractions showed that both As and Sb were firmly bound to the solid phases, and that Sb was less mobile than As, although total soil Sb concentrations were higher than total soil As. The bioassay demonstrated low bioaccumulation of As and Sb into R. sativus due to their low lability of As and Sb in soils and that there are likely to be differences in their mechanisms of uptake. As accumulated in R. sativus roots was much higher (2.5-21 times) than that of Sb, while the Sb translocated from roots to shoots was approximately 2.5 times higher than that of As. As and Sb in R. sativus tissues were strongly correlated with their labile concentrations measured by DGT, soil solution, and SEP. These techniques are useful measures for predicting bioavailable As and Sb in the historically contaminated soil to R. sativus. This is the first study to demonstrate the suitability of DGT to measure labile Sb in soils.

  3. Genome-Wide Characterization of the MADS-Box Gene Family in Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) and Assessment of Its Roles in Flowering and Floral Organogenesis.

    PubMed

    Li, Chao; Wang, Yan; Xu, Liang; Nie, Shanshan; Chen, Yinglong; Liang, Dongyi; Sun, Xiaochuan; Karanja, Benard K; Luo, Xiaobo; Liu, Liwang

    2016-01-01

    The MADS-box gene family is an important transcription factor (TF) family that is involved in various aspects of plant growth and development, especially flowering time and floral organogenesis. Although it has been reported in many plant species, the systematic identification and characterization of MADS-box TF family is still limited in radish (Raphanus sativus L.). In the present study, a comprehensive analysis of MADS-box genes was performed, and a total of 144 MADS-box family members were identified from the whole radish genome. Meanwhile, a detailed list of MADS-box genes from other 28 plant species was also investigated. Through the phylogenetic analysis between radish and Arabidopsis thaliana, all the RsMADS genes were classified into two groups including 68 type I (31 Mα, 12 Mβ and 25Mγ) and 76 type II (70 MIKC(C) and 6 MIKC(∗)). Among them, 41 (28.47%) RsMADS genes were located in nine linkage groups of radish from R1 to R9. Moreover, the homologous MADS-box gene pairs were identified among radish, A. thaliana, Chinese cabbage and rice. Additionally, the expression profiles of RsMADS genes were systematically investigated in different tissues and growth stages. Furthermore, quantitative real-time PCR analysis was employed to validate expression patterns of some crucial RsMADS genes. These results could provide a valuable resource to explore the potential functions of RsMADS genes in radish, and facilitate dissecting MADS-box gene-mediated molecular mechanisms underlying flowering and floral organogenesis in root vegetable crops.

  4. Genome-Wide Characterization of the MADS-Box Gene Family in Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) and Assessment of Its Roles in Flowering and Floral Organogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chao; Wang, Yan; Xu, Liang; Nie, Shanshan; Chen, Yinglong; Liang, Dongyi; Sun, Xiaochuan; Karanja, Benard K.; Luo, Xiaobo; Liu, Liwang

    2016-01-01

    The MADS-box gene family is an important transcription factor (TF) family that is involved in various aspects of plant growth and development, especially flowering time and floral organogenesis. Although it has been reported in many plant species, the systematic identification and characterization of MADS-box TF family is still limited in radish (Raphanus sativus L.). In the present study, a comprehensive analysis of MADS-box genes was performed, and a total of 144 MADS-box family members were identified from the whole radish genome. Meanwhile, a detailed list of MADS-box genes from other 28 plant species was also investigated. Through the phylogenetic analysis between radish and Arabidopsis thaliana, all the RsMADS genes were classified into two groups including 68 type I (31 Mα, 12 Mβ and 25Mγ) and 76 type II (70 MIKCC and 6 MIKC∗). Among them, 41 (28.47%) RsMADS genes were located in nine linkage groups of radish from R1 to R9. Moreover, the homologous MADS-box gene pairs were identified among radish, A. thaliana, Chinese cabbage and rice. Additionally, the expression profiles of RsMADS genes were systematically investigated in different tissues and growth stages. Furthermore, quantitative real-time PCR analysis was employed to validate expression patterns of some crucial RsMADS genes. These results could provide a valuable resource to explore the potential functions of RsMADS genes in radish, and facilitate dissecting MADS-box gene-mediated molecular mechanisms underlying flowering and floral organogenesis in root vegetable crops. PMID:27703461

  5. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and phthalic acid esters in the soil-radish (Raphanus sativus) system with sewage sludge and compost application.

    PubMed

    Cai, Quan-Ying; Mo, Ce-Hui; Wu, Qi-Tang; Zeng, Qiao-Yun

    2008-04-01

    We studied the accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and phthalic acid esters (PAEs) in a latosolic red soil and radish (Raphanus sativus) with application of sewage sludge at rates of 10, 20 and 40 g kg(-1) soil or compost at rate of 10 g kg(-1) soil. In radish the concentrations of individual PAHs and PAEs varied from non-detectable to 803 microg kg(-1) dry weight (d.w.) and from non-detectable to 2048 microg kg(-1) d.w., respectively. Compared to the control, higher application rates of sewage sludge resulted in pronounced increases in shoot, root and soil concentrations of PAHs and PAEs. PAE concentrations in radish grown in soil spiked with sludge compost were higher while the PAH concentrations were comparable to those receiving 10 g kg(-1) of sewage sludge. However, the root biomass of radish in soil amended with compost was significantly higher and the shoot-to-root ratio was significantly lower than in the other treatments. The bioconcentration factors (BCFs, the ratio of contaminant concentration in plant tissue to the soil concentration) of di-n-butyl phthalate and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate in both shoots and roots and of total PAH concentrations in roots were less than 1.0, but some BCFs for individual PAHs were high with a maximum value of 80.

  6. Florivores prefer white versus pink petal color morphs in wild radish, Raphanus sativus.

    PubMed

    McCall, Andrew C; Murphy, Stephen J; Venner, Colin; Brown, Monique

    2013-05-01

    Many hypotheses suggest that pollinators act to maintain or change floral color morph frequencies in nature, although pollinator preferences do not always match color morph frequencies in the field. Therefore, non-pollinating agents may also be responsible for color morph frequencies. To test this hypothesis, we examined whether Raphanus sativus plants with white flowers received different amounts of florivory than plants with pink flowers, and whether florivores preferred one floral color over the other. We found that white-flowered plants received significantly more floral damage than pink-flowered plants in eight populations over 4 years in northern California. Both generalists and specialists on Brassicaceae preferred white petals in choice and short-term no choice tests. In performance tests, generalists gained more weight on white versus pink petals whereas specialists gained similar amounts of weight on pink and white morphs. Because our results suggest that florivores prefer and perform better on white versus pink flowers, these insects may have the opportunity to affect the frequency of color morphs in the field.

  7. Transcriptome profiling of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) root and identification of genes involved in response to Lead (Pb) stress with next generation sequencing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Xu, Liang; Chen, Yinglong; Shen, Hong; Gong, Yiqin; Limera, Cecilia; Liu, Liwang

    2013-01-01

    Lead (Pb), one of the most toxic heavy metals, can be absorbed and accumulated by plant roots and then enter the food chain resulting in potential health risks for human beings. The radish (Raphanus sativus L.) is an important root vegetable crop with fleshy taproots as the edible parts. Little is known about the mechanism by which radishes respond to Pb stress at the molecular level. In this study, Next Generation Sequencing (NGS)-based RNA-seq technology was employed to characterize the de novo transcriptome of radish roots and identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) during Pb stress. A total of 68,940 assembled unique transcripts including 33,337 unigenes were obtained from radish root cDNA samples. Based on the assembled de novo transcriptome, 4,614 DEGs were detected between the two libraries of untreated (CK) and Pb-treated (Pb1000) roots. Gene Ontology (GO) and pathway enrichment analysis revealed that upregulated DEGs under Pb stress are predominately involved in defense responses in cell walls and glutathione metabolism-related processes, while downregulated DEGs were mainly involved in carbohydrate metabolism-related pathways. The expression patterns of 22 selected genes were validated by quantitative real-time PCR, and the results were highly accordant with the Solexa analysis. Furthermore, many candidate genes, which were involved in defense and detoxification mechanisms including signaling protein kinases, transcription factors, metal transporters and chelate compound biosynthesis related enzymes, were successfully identified in response to heavy metal Pb. Identification of potential DEGs involved in responses to Pb stress significantly reflected alterations in major biological processes and metabolic pathways. The molecular basis of the response to Pb stress in radishes was comprehensively characterized. Useful information and new insights were provided for investigating the molecular regulation mechanism of heavy metal Pb accumulation and

  8. Genome-wide identification and characterization of cadmium-responsive microRNAs and their target genes in radish (Raphanus sativus L.) roots.

    PubMed

    Xu, Liang; Wang, Yan; Zhai, Lulu; Xu, Yuanyuan; Wang, Liangju; Zhu, Xianwen; Gong, Yiqin; Yu, Rugang; Limera, Cecilia; Liu, Liwang

    2013-11-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous non-coding small RNAs that play vital regulatory roles in plant growth, development, and environmental stress responses. Cadmium (Cd) is a non-essential heavy metal that is highly toxic to living organisms. To date, a number of conserved and non-conserved miRNAs have been identified to be involved in response to Cd stress in some plant species. However, the miRNA-mediated gene regulatory networks responsive to Cd stress in radish (Raphanus sativus L.) remain largely unexplored. To dissect Cd-responsive miRNAs and their targets systematically at the global level, two small RNA libraries were constructed from Cd-treated and Cd-free roots of radish seedlings. Using Solexa sequencing technology, 93 conserved and 16 non-conserved miRNAs (representing 26 miRNA families) and 28 novel miRNAs (representing 22 miRNA families) were identified. In all, 15 known and eight novel miRNA families were significantly differently regulated under Cd stress. The expression patterns of a set of Cd-responsive miRNAs were validated by quantitative real-time PCR. Based on the radish mRNA transcriptome, 18 and 71 targets for novel and known miRNA families, respectively, were identified by the degradome sequencing approach. Furthermore, a few target transcripts including phytochelatin synthase 1 (PCS1), iron transporter protein, and ABC transporter protein were involved in plant response to Cd stress. This study represents the first transcriptome-based analysis of miRNAs and their targets responsive to Cd stress in radish roots. These findings could provide valuable information for functional characterization of miRNAs and their targets in regulatory networks responsive to Cd stress in radish.

  9. Construction of a high-resolution linkage map of Rfd1, a restorer-of-fertility locus for cytoplasmic male sterility conferred by DCGMS cytoplasm in radish (Raphanus sativus L.) using synteny between radish and Arabidopsis genomes.

    PubMed

    Cho, Youngcho; Lee, Young-Pyo; Park, Beom-Seok; Han, Tae-Ho; Kim, Sunggil

    2012-08-01

    Cytoplasmic male sterility caused by Dongbu cytoplasmic and genic male-sterility (DCGMS) cytoplasm and its nuclear restorer-of-fertility locus (Rfd1) with a linked molecular marker (A137) have been reported in radish (Raphanus sativus L.). To construct a linkage map of the Rfd1 locus, linked amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers were screened using bulked segregant analysis. A 220-bp linked AFLP fragment sequence from radish showed homology with an Arabidopsis coding sequence. Using this Arabidopsis gene sequence, a simple PCR marker (A220) was developed. The A137 and A220 markers flanked the Rfd1 locus. Two homologous Arabidopsis genes with both marker sequences were positioned on Arabidopsis chromosome-3 with an interval of 2.4 Mb. To integrate the Rfd1 locus into a previously reported expressed sequence tag (EST)-simple sequence repeat (SSR) linkage map, the radish EST sequences located in three syntenic blocks within the 2.4-Mb interval were used to develop single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers for tagging each block. The SNP marker in linkage group-2 co-segregated with male fertility in an F(2) population. Using radish ESTs positioned in linkage group-2, five intron length polymorphism (ILP) markers and one cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) marker were developed and used to construct a linkage map of the Rfd1 locus. Two closely linked markers delimited the Rfd1 locus within a 985-kb interval of Arabidopsis chromosome-3. Synteny between the radish and Arabidopsis genomes in the 985-kb interval were used to develop three ILP and three CAPS markers. Two ILP markers further delimited the Rfd1 locus to a 220-kb interval of Arabidopsis chromosome-3.

  10. Citric acid modifies surface properties of commercial CeO2 nanoparticles reducing their toxicity and cerium uptake in radish (Raphanus sativus) seedlings.

    PubMed

    Trujillo-Reyes, J; Vilchis-Nestor, A R; Majumdar, S; Peralta-Videa, J R; Gardea-Torresdey, J L

    2013-12-15

    Little is known about the mobility, reactivity, and toxicity to plants of coated engineered nanoparticles (ENPs). Surface modification may change the interaction of ENPs with living organisms. This report describes surface changes in commercial CeO2 NPs coated with citric acid (CA) at molar ratios of 1:2, 1:3, 1:7, and 1:10 CeO2:CA, and their effects on radish (Raphanus sativus) seed germination, cerium and nutrients uptake. All CeO2 NPs and their absorption by radish plants were characterized by TEM, DLS, and ICP-OES. Radish seeds were germinated in pristine and CA coated CeO2 NPs suspensions at 50mg/L, 100mg/L, and 200mg/L. Deionized water and CA at 100mg/L were used as controls. Results showed ζ potential values of 21.6 mV and -56 mV for the pristine and CA coated CeO2 NPs, respectively. TEM images showed denser layers surrounding the CeO2 NPs at higher CA concentrations, as well as better distribution and smaller particle sizes. None of the treatments affected seed germination. However, at 200mg/L the CA coated NPs at 1:7 ratio produced significantly (p ≤ 0.05) more root biomass, increased water content and reduced by 94% the Ce uptake, compared to bare NPs. This suggests that CA coating decrease CeO2 NPs toxicity to plants.

  11. Complete mitochondrial genome sequence and identification of a candidate gene responsible for cytoplasmic male sterility in radish (Raphanus sativus L.) containing DCGMS cytoplasm.

    PubMed

    Park, Jee Young; Lee, Young-Pyo; Lee, Jonghoon; Choi, Beom-Soon; Kim, Sunggil; Yang, Tae-Jin

    2013-07-01

    A novel cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) conferred by Dongbu cytoplasmic and genic male-sterility (DCGMS) cytoplasm and its restorer-of-fertility gene (Rfd1) was previously reported in radish (Raphanus sativus L.). Its inheritance of fertility restoration and profiles of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)-based molecular markers were reported to be different from those of Ogura CMS, the first reported CMS in radish. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence (239,186 bp; GenBank accession No. KC193578) of DCGMS mitotype is reported in this study. Thirty-four protein-coding genes and three ribosomal RNA genes were identified. Comparative analysis of a mitochondrial genome sequence of DCGMS and previously reported complete sequences of normal and Ogura CMS mitotypes revealed various recombined structures of seventeen syntenic sequence blocks. Short-repeat sequences were identified in almost all junctions between syntenic sequence blocks. Phylogenetic analysis of three radish mitotypes showed that DCGMS was more closely related to the normal mitotype than to the Ogura mitotype. A single 1,551-bp unique region was identified in DCGMS mtDNA sequences and a novel chimeric gene, designated orf463, consisting of 128-bp partial sequences of cox1 gene and 1,261-bp unidentified sequences were found in the unique region. No other genes with a chimeric structure, a major feature of most characterized CMS-associated genes in other plant species, were found in rearranged junctions of syntenic sequence blocks. Like other known CMS-associated mitochondrial genes, the predicted gene product of orf463 contained 12 transmembrane domains. Thus, this gene product might be integrated into the mitochondrial membrane. In total, the results indicate that orf463 is likely to be a casual factor for CMS induction in radish containing the DCGMS cytoplasm.

  12. Osmotic water permeability of plasma and vacuolar membranes in protoplasts I: high osmotic water permeability in radish (Raphanus sativus) root cells as measured by a new method.

    PubMed

    Murai-Hatano, Mari; Kuwagata, Tsuneo

    2007-03-01

    Intra- and transcellular water movements in plants are regulated by the water permeability of the plasma membrane (PM) and vacuolar membrane (VM) in plant cells. In the present study, we investigated the osmotic water permeability of both PM (P ( f1)) and VM (P ( f2)), as well as the bulk osmotic water permeability of a protoplast (P ( f(bulk))) isolated from radish (Raphanus sativus) roots. The values of P ( f(bulk)) and P ( f2) were determined from the swelling/shrinking rate of protoplasts and isolated vacuoles under hypo- or hypertonic conditions. In order to minimize the effect of unstirred layer, we monitored dropping or rising protoplasts (vacuoles) in sorbitol solutions as they swelled or shrunk. P ( f1) was calculated from P ( f(bulk)) and P ( f2) by using the 'three-compartment model', which describes the theoretical relationship between P ( f1), P ( f2) and P ( f(bulk)) (Kuwagata and Murai-Hatano in J Plant Res, 2007). The time-dependent changes in the volume of protoplasts and isolated vacuoles fitted well to the theoretical curves, and solute permeation of PM and VM was able to be neglected for measuring the osmotic water permeability. High osmotic water permeability of more than 500 mum s(-1), indicating high activity of aquaporins (water channels), was observed in both PM and VM in radish root cells. This method has the advantage that P ( f1) and P ( f2) can be measured accurately in individual higher plant cells.

  13. The uptake of Cs and Sr from soil to radish (Raphanus sativus L.)- potential for phytoextraction and remediation of contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dan; Wen, Fangping; Xu, Changhe; Tang, Yunlai; Luo, Xuegang

    2012-08-01

    The (133)Cs and (88)Sr uptake by plant Raphanus sativus L. was studied during cultivation in outdoor potted-soil. The distribution, accumulation of (133)Cs, (88)Sr and the antioxidant responses in plants were measured after 30 and 60 days of cultivation. The results showed that the uptake capacity of radish for (88)Sr was far higher than that for (133)Cs when the concentration of (88)Sr was as the same as that of (133)Cs in the soil (The concentration of (88)Sr or (133)Cs in the soil was from 2.5 mg kg(-1) to 40 mg kg(-1)). The highest (88)Sr accumulation was 239.18 μg g(-1) dw, otherwise, the highest (133)Cs accumulation was 151.74 μg g(-1) dw (The concentration of (88)Sr in the soil was 40 mg kg(-1)), and the lowest (88)Sr accumulation was 131.03 μg g(-1) dw, otherwise, the lowest (133)Cs accumulation was 12.85 μg g(-1) dw (The concentration of (88)Sr in the soil is 5 mg kg(-1)). The (88)Sr and (133)Cs TF values were 1.16-1.72 and 0.24-0.60, respectively. There was little influence of high concentration of (88)Sr on the total biomass of plants, so the radish is one of the ideal phytoremediation plant for Sr polluted soils. The important physiological reasons that radish had good tolerance to (88)Sr stress were that the MDA content was higher under the (88)Sr stress than that under the (133)Cs stress, and the activities of POD and CAT were lower under the (88)Sr stress than that under (133)Cs stress.

  14. Transcriptomic Analysis Identifies Differentially Expressed Genes (DEGs) Associated with Bolting and Flowering in Radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Nie, Shanshan; Li, Chao; Wang, Yan; Xu, Liang; Muleke, Everlyne M; Tang, Mingjia; Sun, Xiaochuan; Liu, Liwang

    2016-01-01

    The transition of vegetative growth to bolting and flowering is an important process in the life cycle of plants, which is determined by numerous genes forming an intricate network of bolting and flowering. However, no comprehensive identification and profiling of bolting and flowering-related genes have been carried out in radish. In this study, RNA-Seq technology was applied to analyze the differential gene expressions during the transition from vegetative stage to reproductive stage in radish. A total of 5922 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) including 779 up-regulated and 5143 down-regulated genes were isolated. Functional enrichment analysis suggested that some DEGs were involved in hormone signaling pathways and the transcriptional regulation of bolting and flowering. KEGG-based analysis identified 37 DEGs being involved in phytohormone signaling pathways. Moreover, 95 DEGs related to bolting and flowering were identified and integrated into various flowering pathways. Several critical genes including FT, CO, SOC1, FLC, and LFY were characterized and profiled by RT-qPCR analysis. Correlation analysis indicated that 24 miRNA-DEG pairs were involved in radish bolting and flowering. Finally, a miRNA-DEG-based schematic model of bolting and flowering regulatory network was proposed in radish. These outcomes provided significant insights into genetic control of radish bolting and flowering, and would facilitate unraveling molecular regulatory mechanism underlying bolting and flowering in root vegetable crops.

  15. Transcriptomic Analysis Identifies Differentially Expressed Genes (DEGs) Associated with Bolting and Flowering in Radish (Raphanus sativus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Shanshan; Li, Chao; Wang, Yan; Xu, Liang; Muleke, Everlyne M.; Tang, Mingjia; Sun, Xiaochuan; Liu, Liwang

    2016-01-01

    The transition of vegetative growth to bolting and flowering is an important process in the life cycle of plants, which is determined by numerous genes forming an intricate network of bolting and flowering. However, no comprehensive identification and profiling of bolting and flowering-related genes have been carried out in radish. In this study, RNA-Seq technology was applied to analyze the differential gene expressions during the transition from vegetative stage to reproductive stage in radish. A total of 5922 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) including 779 up-regulated and 5143 down-regulated genes were isolated. Functional enrichment analysis suggested that some DEGs were involved in hormone signaling pathways and the transcriptional regulation of bolting and flowering. KEGG-based analysis identified 37 DEGs being involved in phytohormone signaling pathways. Moreover, 95 DEGs related to bolting and flowering were identified and integrated into various flowering pathways. Several critical genes including FT, CO, SOC1, FLC, and LFY were characterized and profiled by RT-qPCR analysis. Correlation analysis indicated that 24 miRNA-DEG pairs were involved in radish bolting and flowering. Finally, a miRNA-DEG-based schematic model of bolting and flowering regulatory network was proposed in radish. These outcomes provided significant insights into genetic control of radish bolting and flowering, and would facilitate unraveling molecular regulatory mechanism underlying bolting and flowering in root vegetable crops. PMID:27252709

  16. De novo sequencing of root transcriptome reveals complex cadmium-responsive regulatory networks in radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Xu, Liang; Wang, Yan; Liu, Wei; Wang, Jin; Zhu, Xianwen; Zhang, Keyun; Yu, Rugang; Wang, Ronghua; Xie, Yang; Zhang, Wei; Gong, Yiqin; Liu, Liwang

    2015-07-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a nonessential metallic trace element that poses potential chronic toxicity to living organisms. To date, little is known about the Cd-responsive regulatory network in root vegetable crops including radish. In this study, 31,015 unigenes representing 66,552 assembled unique transcripts were isolated from radish root under Cd stress based on de novo transcriptome assembly. In all, 1496 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) consisted of 3579 transcripts were identified from Cd-free (CK) and Cd-treated (Cd200) libraries. Gene Ontology and pathway enrichment analysis indicated that the up- and down-regulated DEGs were predominately involved in glucosinolate biosynthesis as well as cysteine and methionine-related pathways, respectively. RT-qPCR showed that the expression profiles of DEGs were in consistent with results from RNA-Seq analysis. Several candidate genes encoding phytochelatin synthase (PCS), metallothioneins (MTs), glutathione (GSH), zinc iron permease (ZIPs) and ABC transporter were responsible for Cd uptake, accumulation, translocation and detoxification in radish. The schematic model of DEGs and microRNAs-involved in Cd-responsive regulatory network was proposed. This study represents a first comprehensive transcriptome-based characterization of Cd-responsive DEGs in radish. These results could provide fundamental insight into complex Cd-responsive regulatory networks and facilitate further genetic manipulation of Cd accumulation in root vegetable crops.

  17. Dual mode diffusion of NaCl in Japanese radish under cooking conditions.

    PubMed

    Hashiba, H; Komiyama, J; Nakanishi, T; Gocho, H

    2007-04-01

    Sorption and diffusion of NaCl in Japanese radish have been studied. The sorption isotherm was obtained at 98 degrees C by the conventional method. The concentration profile by the 1-dimensional diffusion of NaCl in Japanese radish from the 3.0% solution was measured at 98 degrees C with the FRITRUC method involving a foodstuff rod in a thin rubber casing. Fick's diffusion coefficient, D, calculated therefrom showed a threefold variation with a maximum. This variation was quantitatively interpreted by applying a dual-mode sorption and diffusion theory under an assumption that the rate determining step of the diffusion is that in the cell wall. Two thermodynamic diffusion coefficients, D(T)(p) and D(T)(L), where p and L are the species of NaCl sorbed by partition and Langmuir modes, respectively, a parameter, alpha, derived from the local equilibrium relations between the p and L species, and S, the concentration of the Langmuir adsorption site in the cell wall of the radish, were estimated. D(T)(p) was found to be smaller than D(T)(L). As an explanation of the larger D(T)(L), we invoked the higher hydration state of the adsorption site of the L species, being ascribed to residual anionic pectin in the radish than the local environment of the p species. The sorption isotherm showed a convex upward deviation from the linear relation. By using the parameters for the local equilibrium and some assumed parameters, the isotherm was found to be explainable. We suggest possible applications of the present method and interpretation to the diffusion study on the cooking systems comprising varieties of seasoning components and foodstuffs.

  18. Extensive chromosome homoeology among Brassiceae species were revealed by comparative genetic mapping with high-density EST-based SNP markers in radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Li, Feng; Hasegawa, Yoichi; Saito, Masako; Shirasawa, Sachiko; Fukushima, Aki; Ito, Toyoaki; Fujii, Hiroshi; Kishitani, Sachie; Kitashiba, Hiroyasu; Nishio, Takeshi

    2011-10-01

    A linkage map of expressed sequence tag (EST)-based markers in radish (Raphanus sativus L.) was constructed using a low-cost and high-efficiency single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping method named multiplex polymerase chain reaction-mixed probe dot-blot analysis developed in this study. Seven hundred and forty-six SNP markers derived from EST sequences of R. sativus were assigned to nine linkage groups with a total length of 806.7 cM. By BLASTN, 726 markers were found to have homologous genes in Arabidopsis thaliana, and 72 syntenic regions, which have great potential for utilizing genomic information of the model species A. thaliana in basic and applied genetics of R. sativus, were identified. By construction and analysis of the genome structures of R. sativus based on the 24 genomic blocks within the Brassicaceae ancestral karyotype, 23 of the 24 genomic blocks were detected in the genome of R. sativus, and half of them were found to be triplicated. Comparison of the genome structure of R. sativus with those of the A, B, and C genomes of Brassica species and that of Sinapis alba L. revealed extensive chromosome homoeology among Brassiceae species, which would facilitate transfer of the genomic information from one Brassiceae species to another.

  19. Extensive Chromosome Homoeology among Brassiceae Species Were Revealed by Comparative Genetic Mapping with High-Density EST-Based SNP Markers in Radish (Raphanus sativus L.)‡

    PubMed Central

    Li, Feng; Hasegawa, Yoichi; Saito, Masako; Shirasawa, Sachiko; Fukushima, Aki; Ito, Toyoaki; Fujii, Hiroshi; Kishitani, Sachie; Kitashiba, Hiroyasu; Nishio, Takeshi

    2011-01-01

    A linkage map of expressed sequence tag (EST)-based markers in radish (Raphanus sativus L.) was constructed using a low-cost and high-efficiency single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping method named multiplex polymerase chain reaction–mixed probe dot-blot analysis developed in this study. Seven hundred and forty-six SNP markers derived from EST sequences of R. sativus were assigned to nine linkage groups with a total length of 806.7 cM. By BLASTN, 726 markers were found to have homologous genes in Arabidopsis thaliana, and 72 syntenic regions, which have great potential for utilizing genomic information of the model species A. thaliana in basic and applied genetics of R. sativus, were identified. By construction and analysis of the genome structures of R. sativus based on the 24 genomic blocks within the Brassicaceae ancestral karyotype, 23 of the 24 genomic blocks were detected in the genome of R. sativus, and half of them were found to be triplicated. Comparison of the genome structure of R. sativus with those of the A, B, and C genomes of Brassica species and that of Sinapis alba L. revealed extensive chromosome homoeology among Brassiceae species, which would facilitate transfer of the genomic information from one Brassiceae species to another. PMID:21816873

  20. Antioxidant and pro-oxidant properties of acylated pelargonidin derivatives extracted from red radish (Raphanus sativus var. niger, Brassicaceae).

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin-Song; Sun, Xiang-Dong; Cao, Ying; Wang, Li; Li, Fang-Jun; Wang, Yi-Fan

    2010-10-01

    The antioxidant and pro-oxidant potential of an extract from red radish, in which the major compounds were acylated pelargonidin derivatives, were assessed with a variety of assays in vitro. The extract appeared to form a complex with Fe(3+) or Cu(2+). It displayed a concentration-dependant reducing power (1.16OD(700 nm) at a concentration of 4mM) and scavenging effect against 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radicals (with IC(50)=1.74 +/- 0.03 mM). It could promote the cleavage of plasmid DNA with Cu(II)/H(2)O(2) or Cu(II) alone. This DNA damage could be inhibited by horseradish peroxidase, catalase, and EDTA, respectively. The extract also showed growth inhibition of Bel-7402 cells at lower concentration. The results suggested that the formation of reactive oxygen species might be involved in the mechanism of DNA damage. The acylated pelargonidin derivatives extracted from red radish could act as antioxidant and pro-oxidant and their antioxidant and pro-oxidant properties were relative to the reaction conditions. It might provide novel antioxidant and anticarcinogenic agents.

  1. Genome-wide identification of microRNAs associated with taproot development in radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Sun, Yuyan; Qiu, Yang; Zhang, Xiaohui; Chen, Xiaohua; Shen, Di; Wang, Haiping; Li, Xixiang

    2015-09-10

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, endogenous, non-coding RNAs that play vital regulatory roles in plant growth and development. To identify the miRNAs associated with taproot development at the whole genome level, we sequenced five RNA libraries constructed from radish taproots at different developmental stages and generated a total of 148M clean reads. Using an integrative bioinformatics analysis, 494 known miRNAs belonging to 434 families and 220 putative novel miRNAs were identified. Combining the differential expression analysis and target prediction, we found that 77 miRNAs were potentially associated with taproot development. Target transcripts generated significant GO terms relating to cell proliferation, root development and hormone-mediated signaling. The KEGG analyses revealed that plant hormone signal transduction, zeatin biosynthesis, biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, cell cycle, MAPK signaling and p53 signaling were closely associated with taproot development. These findings will provide valuable information for further functional verification of miRNAs and their targets in radish taproot development.

  2. Metabolic fate of [14C] chlorophenols in radish (Raphanus sativus), lettuce (Lactuca sativa), and spinach (Spinacia oleracea).

    PubMed

    Pascal-Lorber, Sophie; Despoux, Sabrina; Rathahao, Estelle; Canlet, Cécile; Debrauwer, Laurent; Laurent, François

    2008-09-24

    Chlorophenols are potentially harmful pollutants that are found in numerous natural and agricultural systems. Plants are a sink for xenobiotics, which occur either intentionally or not, as they are unable to eliminate them although they generally metabolize them into less toxic compounds. The metabolic fate of [ (14)C] 4-chlorophenol (4-CP), [ (14)C] 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP), and [ (14)C] 2,4,5-trichlorophenol (2,4,5-TCP) was investigated in lettuce, spinach, and radish to locate putative toxic metabolites that could become bioavailable to food chains. Radish plants were grown on sand for four weeks before roots were dipped in a solution of radiolabeled chlorophenol. The leaves of six-week old lettuce and spinach were treated. Three weeks after treatments, metabolites from edible plant parts were extracted and analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and characterized by mass spectrometry (MS), and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR). Characterization of compounds highlighted the presence of complex glycosides. Upon hydrolysis in the digestive tract of animals or humans, these conjugates could return to the toxic parent compound, and this should be kept in mind for registration studies.

  3. Glucose trimming of N-glycan in endoplasmic reticulum is indispensable for the growth of Raphanus sativus seedling (kaiware radish).

    PubMed

    Mega, Tomohiro

    2005-07-01

    Recently I found that glycosidase inhibitors such as castanospermine, deoxynojirimycin, swainsonine, 2-acetamindo 2,3-dideoxynojirimycin, and deoxymannojirimycin change the N-glycan structure of root glycoproteins, and that the glucosidase inhibitors castanospermine and deoxynojirimycin suppress the growth of Raphanus sativus seedlings (Mega, T., J. Biochem., 2004). The present study undertook to see whether the growth suppression is due to the inhibition of glucose trimming in endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The study, using three glucosidase inhibitors, castanospermine, N-methyl deoxynojirimycin, and deoxynojirimycin, upon the growth of R. sativus foliage leaf, made clear that glucose trimming is indispensable for plant growth, because the inhibition of glucose trimming correlated with leaf growth. On the other hand, processing inhibition in the Golgi apparatus by other glycosidase inhibitors had little effect on plant growth, although N-glycan processing was disrupted depending on inhibitor specificity. These results suggest that N-glycan processing after glucosidase processing is dispensable for plant growth and cell differentiation.

  4. Mechanistic interpretation of the varying selectivity of Cesium-137 and potassium uptake by radish (Raphanus sativus L.) under field conditions near Chernobyl.

    PubMed

    Prorok, V V; Dacenko, O I; Bulavin, L A; Poperenko, L V; White, P J

    2016-02-01

    The selectivity of cation uptake by radish (Raphanus sativus L.) growing in the field near Chernobyl varies during the growth season. It is hypothesised that this is a consequence of variation in (137)Cs (Csss) and potassium (Kss) concentrations in the soil solution or the amount of dissolved potassium available to the plants. In the experiments reported here, it was observed that (1) Csss and Kss were positively correlated, (2) the selectivity for uptake of (137)Cs versus potassium (r) increased exponentially with decreasing Csss and Kss, and (3) the (137)Cs concentration, but not the potassium concentration, in plant material, increased abruptly upon the simultaneous reduction of Kss and Csss below about 10 μg ml(-1) and 6.7 Bq l(-1), respectively. It is thought that potassium enters root cells from the soil solution through constitutively-expressed, inward rectifying K(+) channels (KIRC) and K(+)/H(+)-symporters, whose abundance increases when plants become potassium-deficient. Cesium is thought to enter root cells through non-specific cation channels (NSCC) and, in plants lacking sufficient potassium, through K(+)/H(+)-symporters. It is argued that the increase in r, together with the abrupt increase (137)Cs concentration in plant tissues, when Kss and Csss decrease simultaneously cannot be attributed to competition between Cs(+) and K(+) for transport though KIRC, NSCC or K(+)/H(+)-symporters and that the most plausible explanation of these phenomena is an increase in the abundance of K(+)/H(+)-symporters in plants exhibiting incipient potassium deficiency.

  5. Spatial variation in foliar chemicals within radish (Raphanus sativus) plants and their effects on performance of Spodoptera litura.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Jitendra; Tan, Ching-Wen; Hwang, Shaw-Yhi

    2010-12-01

    Foliar chemicals are variable within a plant and this may affect herbivore feeding preference. This study was carried out to quantify concentrations of primary (nitrogen, water, and total nonstructural carbohydrates) and secondary substances (sinigrin) in young and old leaves of Raphanus sativus L. and to evaluate performance and survival of a generalist herbivore Spodoptera litura F. feeding on them. Forty to 50-d-old R. sativus plants were used in both foliar chemical analysis and insect performance bioassays. Leaves located on the third to the sixth node from the base of the plant were defined as old leaves and the remaining leaves (from seventh node to the plant apex) of the plant were referred as young leaves in this study. All foliar chemicals except water differed significantly between young and old leaves. Moreover, young leaves were more nutritious but much more defended, based on sinigrin content, against S. litura than old leaves. Performance and survival of S. litura were reduced on young leaves as compared with old leaves. Male and female larval duration only differed significantly on young leaves. Female larval development time was longer than male development time on young leaves, but not on older leaves. Therefore, this study revealed that defenses in young leaves have differential effects upon male and female S. litura.

  6. Genotypic effects of elevated CO[sub 2] on fecundity in an annual weed (wild radish, Raphanus raphanistrum)

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis, P.S.; Snow, A.A. )

    1993-06-01

    Rising atmospheric CO[sub 2] levels may lead to microevolutionary change in native plant populations. To test for within-population variation in genetic responses to elevated p(CO[sub 2]), we exposed five paternal sibships of wild radish to ambient and 2X ambient (700 [mu]bar) p(CO[sub 2]) in 3 m open top chambers for an entre growing season. Seeds were planted singly in 2.5 1 pots filled with locally derived, low fertility soil (160 plants per CO[sub 2] treatment). Net CO[sub 2] assimilation increased 25% in vegetative plants and 48% in reproductive plants growing at elevated p(CO[sub 2]). Every flower was hand-pollinated to mimic natural pollination levels. Lifetime fecundity was greater in the elevated CO[sub 2] treatment, but the magnitude of this effect differed dramatically among paternal sibships: seed production increased 13% overall, yet among paternal sibships seed production varied between 0% and 50% more seeds in elevated p(CO[sub 2]) as compared to ambient. Our results suggest that natural selection can occur due to genotypic differences in the CO[sub 2] response. This process should be considered in estimates of long-term effects of elevated p(CO[sub 2]), especially with regard to anticipated increases in primary productivity.

  7. Removal of off-flavours from radish (Raphanus sativus L.) anthocyanin-rich pigments using chitosan and its mechanism(s).

    PubMed

    Gao, Ruichang; Jing, Pu; Ruan, Siyu; Zhang, Yifan; Zhao, Shujuan; Cai, Zhan; Qian, Bingjun

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, we examined the role of chitosan in the removal of off-flavours from radish anthocyanin-rich pigments and studied the mechanisms of the process. Four radish glucosinolates (glucoraphenin, dehydroerucin, glucobrassicin, and glucoerucin) were identified by LC-MSn from root extracts and dehydroerucin was found to be the major glucosinolate in red radish roots. Application of chitosan with 76%, 83% or 89% deacetylation in radish extracts attributed to 26%, 35% or 43% adsorption rate for glucosinolates, and 28%, 26% or 22% for anthocyanins, respectively. HS-SPME/GC-MS analysis demonstrated that the concentration of volatile compounds decreased by 70%, resulting in the loss of odorous compounds. The changes in chitosan spectra before/after adsorption and after desorption at 1590 and 3360cm(-1) and at broad bands from 2600 to 2000cm(-1) suggest that the dominant adsorption mechanisms of glucosinolates on chitosan may be electrostatic attractions, including hydrogen bonds and charge neutralisation.

  8. Identification of anthocyanin biosynthesis related microRNAs in a distinctive Chinese radish (Raphanus sativus L.) by high-throughput sequencing.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yuyan; Qiu, Yang; Duan, Mengmeng; Wang, Jinglei; Zhang, Xiaohui; Wang, Haiping; Song, Jiangping; Li, Xixiang

    2017-02-01

    Anthocyanins are widely distributed water-soluble phytochemical pigments belonging to the flavonoid group. To date, limited knowledge is available about the regulatory roles of miRNAs in anthocyanin biosynthesis in plants. To identify the miRNAs associated with anthocyanin biosynthesis in radish, five small RNA (sRNA) libraries constructed from 'Xinlimei' radish roots at 11, 21, 44, 56 and 73 days (d) were examined using high-throughput sequencing technology. A total of 102.02 million (M) clean reads were generated, from which 483 known and 1415 novel miRNAs were identified. Combined with target prediction and annotation, 72 differentially expressed miRNAs (52 known and 20 novel miRNAs) were more likely to participate in anthocyanin biosynthesis. Several target genes for these miRNAs encode a few transcription factors, including Myb domain (MYB), basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH), WD40 repeat, squamosa promoter binding protein like (SPL), auxin response factor (ARF), ethylene insensitive 3 (EIN3), WRKY and MADS-box proteins. Furthermore, the expression patterns of some anthocyanin biosynthesis related miRNAs and their corresponding targets were validated by RT-qPCR. Based on the characterization of anthocyanin biosynthesis related miRNAs and their target genes, a putative miRNA-target module regulating anthocyanin biosynthesis was proposed. This study represents the first genome-wide identification of miRNAs associated with anthocyanin biosynthesis in radish, and provides insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis in radish and other crops.

  9. Identification of bolting-related microRNAs and their targets reveals complex miRNA-mediated flowering-time regulatory networks in radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Nie, Shanshan; Xu, Liang; Wang, Yan; Huang, Danqiong; Muleke, Everlyne M; Sun, Xiaochuan; Wang, Ronghua; Xie, Yang; Gong, Yiqin; Liu, Liwang

    2015-09-15

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play vital regulatory roles in plant growth and development. The phase transition from vegetative growth to flowering is crucial in the life cycle of plants. To date, miRNA-mediated flowering regulatory networks remain largely unexplored in radish. In this study, two small RNA libraries from radish leaves at vegetative and reproductive stages were constructed and sequenced by Solexa sequencing. A total of 94 known miRNAs representing 21 conserved and 13 non-conserved miRNA families, and 44 potential novel miRNAs, were identified from the two libraries. In addition, 42 known and 17 novel miRNAs were significantly differentially expressed and identified as bolting-related miRNAs. RT-qPCR analysis revealed that some miRNAs exhibited tissue- or developmental stage-specific expression patterns. Moreover, 154 target transcripts were identified for 50 bolting-related miRNAs, which were predominately involved in plant development, signal transduction and transcriptional regulation. Based on the characterization of bolting-related miRNAs and their target genes, a putative schematic model of miRNA-mediated bolting and flowering regulatory network was proposed. These results could provide insights into bolting and flowering regulatory networks in radish, and facilitate dissecting the molecular mechanisms underlying bolting and flowering time regulation in vegetable crops.

  10. Transcriptome-wide analysis of chromium-stress responsive microRNAs to explore miRNA-mediated regulatory networks in radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Xu, Liang; Wang, Yan; Shen, Hong; Zhu, Xianwen; Zhang, Keyun; Chen, Yinglong; Yu, Rugang; Limera, Cecilia; Liu, Liwang

    2015-09-11

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that play pivotal roles in plant growth, development and stress response. Chromium (Cr) is one of common environmental contaminants possessing potential health hazards to living organisms. To date, little is known about the regulatory roles of miRNAs in response to Cr stress in radish. To systematically identify Cr-responsive miRNAs and their targets in radish, two sRNA libraries derived from Cr-free (CK) and Cr-treated (Cr200) roots were constructed. With Solexa sequencing, 81 known and 72 novel miRNAs were identified, from which 54 known and 16 novel miRNAs were significantly differentially expressed under Cr stress. Several target genes for Cr-responsive miRNAs encode different transcription factor (TF) families, including SPLs, MYBs, ERFs and bZIPs, might regulate corresponding HM-related transcriptional processes in plants. Notably, a few key responsive enzymes or proteins, including HMA, YSL1 and ABC transporter protein were involved in Cr uptake and homeostasis process. Furthermore, the expression patterns of some Cr-responsive miRNAs and their targets were validated by RT-qPCR. This study represents the first characterization of Cr-responsive miRNAs and their targets in radish. The outcomes of this study could provide novel insights into miRNA-mediated regulatory mechanisms underlying plant response to Cr stress in root vegetable crops.

  11. Seed-borne viral dsRNA elements in three cultivated Raphanus and Brassica plants suggest three cryptoviruses.

    PubMed

    Li, Liqiang; Liu, Jianning; Zhang, Qiong; Fu, Runying; Zhu, Xiwu; Li, Chao; Chen, Jishuang

    2016-04-01

    Since the 1970s, several dsRNA viruses, including Radish yellow edge virus, Raphanus sativus virus 1, Raphanus sativus virus 2, and Raphanus sativus virus 3, have been identified and reported as infecting radish. In the present study, in conjunction with a survey of seed-borne viruses in cultivated Brassica and Raphanus using the dsRNA diagnostic method, we discovered 3 novel cryptoviruses that infect Brassica and Raphanus: Raphanus sativus partitivirus 1, which infects radish (Raphanus sativus); Sinapis alba cryptic virus 1, which infects Sinapis alba; and Brassica rapa cryptic virus 1 (BrCV1), which infects Brassica rapa. The genomic organization of these cryptoviruses was analyzed and characterized. BrCV1 might represent the first plant partitivirus found in Gammapartitivirus. Additionally, the evolutionary relationships among all of the partitiviruses reported in Raphanus and Brassica were analyzed.

  12. The Effects of Cadmium Exposure on Cadmium Fractionation and Enzyme Activities in the Rhizosphere of Two Radish Cultivars (Raphanus sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Xin, Juan; Zhao, Xiaohu; Tan, Qiling; Sun, Xuecheng; Wen, Xin; Qin, Shiyu; Hu, Chengxiao

    2017-02-01

    The effects of increasing Cd additions on plant growth and Cd fractionation and enzyme activities in rhizosphere soil of two radish cultivars were investigated. The results showed that Cd concentrations in shoot and root of cultivar 4 were both higher than for cultivar 19 under different Cd levels. Compared with cultivar 19, the total, shoot and root biomasses of cultivar 4 were significantly reduced with increasing Cd levels. A decrease in soil pH was observed for cultivar 4. The exchangeable Cd concentration of soil from cultivar 4 was significantly higher than for soil from cultivar 19, while the carbonate-bound Cd concentration of soil from cultivar 4 was significantly lower than for cultivar 19. Enzyme activities, especially acid phosphatase activity, were more susceptible to Cd in soil from cultivar 4. These results indicated that cultivar 19 exhibits a stronger ability to adapt to Cd stress than cultivar 4.

  13. Spanish black radish (Raphanus sativus L. Var. niger) diet enhances clearance of DMBA and diminishes toxic effects on bone marrow progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    N'jai, Alhaji U; Kemp, Michael Q; Metzger, Brandon T; Hanlon, Paul R; Robbins, Melissa; Czuyprynski, Charles; Barnes, David M

    2012-01-01

    Vegetables of the Cruciferae family contain high levels of glucosinolates, metabolites of which are believed to enhance detoxification. Spanish black radishes (SBR) contain 4× more glucosinolates than other crucifers. This study examined whether feeding mice a diet containing 20% SBR for 2 wk could enhance metabolism of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) and inhibit DMBA-mediated bone marrow toxicity. Expression of Phase I and II detoxification enzymes was significantly greater for mice fed SBR than control diet. Six hours after DMBA administration, the blood levels of DMBA in mice fed the SBR diet were significantly lower than mice fed a control diet. DMBA reduced bone marrow cells in mice fed control diet to a significantly greater extent than mice fed the SBR diet. Colony forming assays demonstrated that mice on the SBR diet had 1) less reduction in lymphoid CFU-preB progenitor cells, 2) greater recovery of CFU-preB progenitor cells at 168 h, and 3) less reduction of CFU-GM progenitor cells at 6 h. Therefore, mice fed a 20% SBR diet for 2 wk had greater expression of detoxification enzymes, faster metabolism of DMBA, and a reduction in DMBA-induced bone marrow toxicity. Overall, these results support the hypothesis that glucosinolates in SBR are protective against acute toxicity.

  14. Fitness effects of mutation accumulation in a natural outbred population of wild radish (Raphanus raphanistrum): comparison of field and greenhouse environments.

    PubMed

    Roles, Angela J; Conner, Jeffrey K

    2008-05-01

    Spontaneous deleterious mutation has been measured in a handful of organisms, always under laboratory conditions and usually employing inbred species or genotypes. We report the results of a mutation accumulation experiment with an outbred annual plant, Raphanus raphanistrum, with lifetime fitness measured in both the field and the greenhouse. This is the first study to report the effects of spontaneous mutation measured under field conditions. Two large replicate populations (N(e) approximately 600) were maintained with random mating in the greenhouse under relaxed selection for nine generations before the field assay was performed and ten generations before the greenhouse assay. Each generation, every individual was mated twice, once as a pollen donor and once as a pollen recipient, and a single seed from each plant was chosen randomly to create the next generation. The ancestral population was maintained as seeds at 4 degrees C. Declines in lifetime fitness were observed in both the field (1.7% per generation; P= 0.27) and the greenhouse (0.6% per generation; P= 0.07). Significant increases in additive genetic variance for fitness were found for stems per day, flowers per stem, fruits per flower and seeds per fruit in the field as well as for fruits per flower in the greenhouse. Lack of significance of the fitness decline may be due to the short period of mutation accumulation, the use of outbred populations, or both. The percent declines in fitness are at the high end of the range observed in other mutation accumulation experiments and give some support to the idea that mutational effects may be magnified under harsher field conditions. Thus, measurement of mutational parameters under laboratory conditions may underestimate the effects of mutations in natural populations.

  15. Raphanus sativus, Germination, and Inquiry: A Learning Cycle Approach for Novice Experimenters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rillero, Peter

    1999-01-01

    Describes open-ended experiments with seeds from the common garden radish (Raphanus sativus). The phases of the 5-E learning cycle--Engagement, Exploration, Explanation, Extension, and Evaluation--guide this activity series. (Author/MM)

  16. Milk prevents the degradation of daikon (Raphanus sativus L.) isothiocyanate and enhances its absorption in rats.

    PubMed

    Ippoushi, Katsunari; Ueda, Hiroshi; Takeuchi, Atsuko

    2014-10-15

    Epidemiological and experimental researches show that isothiocyanate (ITC), a class of phytochemical compounds that imparts a characteristic biting taste and pungent odour to cruciferous vegetables, such as daikon (Japanese white radish, Raphanus sativus L. Daikon Group), broccoli, cabbage, and Chinese cabbage, possesses anticancer and anti-inflammatory properties. The concentration of daikon ITC, which degrades in aqueous solution, was measured in mixtures of daikon juice and water, corn oil, or milk. Daikon juice mixed with corn oil or milk showed a higher concentration (1.4-fold) of daikon ITC than that in mixture with water; thus, corn oil and milk prevent the degradation of daikon ITC. Moreover, orally administered daikon juice with milk increased daikon ITC absorption in rats. Therefore, dishes or drinks that include raw daikon with corn oil or milk may promote the possible health benefits of daikon ITC by preventing ITC degradation and enhancing its absorption in vivo.

  17. Forage radish winter cover crop suppresses winter annual weeds in fall and before corn planting

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Forage radish (Raphanus sativus L. var. longipinnatus) is a new winter cover crop in the Mid-Atlantic region. The objective of this project was to characterize the repeatability, amount, and duration of weed suppression during and after a fall-planted forage radish cover crop and to quantify the sub...

  18. Identification of microRNAs and Their Target Genes Explores miRNA-Mediated Regulatory Network of Cytoplasmic Male Sterility Occurrence during Anther Development in Radish (Raphanus sativus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei; Xie, Yang; Xu, Liang; Wang, Yan; Zhu, Xianwen; Wang, Ronghua; Zhang, Yang; Muleke, Everlyne M.; Liu, Liwang

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a type of endogenous non-coding small RNAs that play critical roles in plant growth and developmental processes. Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is typically a maternally inherited trait and widely used in plant heterosis utilization. However, the miRNA-mediated regulatory network of CMS occurrence during anther development remains largely unknown in radish. In this study, a comparative small RNAome sequencing was conducted in floral buds of CMS line ‘WA’ and its maintainer line ‘WB’ by high-throughput sequencing. A total of 162 known miRNAs belonging to 25 conserved and 24 non-conserved miRNA families were isolated and 27 potential novel miRNA families were identified for the first time in floral buds of radish. Of these miRNAs, 28 known and 14 potential novel miRNAs were differentially expressed during anther development. Several target genes for CMS occurrence-related miRNAs encode important transcription factors and functional proteins, which might be involved in multiple biological processes including auxin signaling pathways, signal transduction, miRNA target silencing, floral organ development, and organellar gene expression. Moreover, the expression patterns of several CMS occurrence-related miRNAs and their targets during three stages of anther development were validated by qRT-PCR. In addition, a potential miRNA-mediated regulatory network of CMS occurrence during anther development was firstly proposed in radish. These findings could contribute new insights into complex miRNA-mediated genetic regulatory network of CMS occurrence and advance our understanding of the roles of miRNAs during CMS occurrence and microspore formation in radish and other crops. PMID:27499756

  19. Identification of microRNAs and Their Target Genes Explores miRNA-Mediated Regulatory Network of Cytoplasmic Male Sterility Occurrence during Anther Development in Radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Xie, Yang; Xu, Liang; Wang, Yan; Zhu, Xianwen; Wang, Ronghua; Zhang, Yang; Muleke, Everlyne M; Liu, Liwang

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a type of endogenous non-coding small RNAs that play critical roles in plant growth and developmental processes. Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is typically a maternally inherited trait and widely used in plant heterosis utilization. However, the miRNA-mediated regulatory network of CMS occurrence during anther development remains largely unknown in radish. In this study, a comparative small RNAome sequencing was conducted in floral buds of CMS line 'WA' and its maintainer line 'WB' by high-throughput sequencing. A total of 162 known miRNAs belonging to 25 conserved and 24 non-conserved miRNA families were isolated and 27 potential novel miRNA families were identified for the first time in floral buds of radish. Of these miRNAs, 28 known and 14 potential novel miRNAs were differentially expressed during anther development. Several target genes for CMS occurrence-related miRNAs encode important transcription factors and functional proteins, which might be involved in multiple biological processes including auxin signaling pathways, signal transduction, miRNA target silencing, floral organ development, and organellar gene expression. Moreover, the expression patterns of several CMS occurrence-related miRNAs and their targets during three stages of anther development were validated by qRT-PCR. In addition, a potential miRNA-mediated regulatory network of CMS occurrence during anther development was firstly proposed in radish. These findings could contribute new insights into complex miRNA-mediated genetic regulatory network of CMS occurrence and advance our understanding of the roles of miRNAs during CMS occurrence and microspore formation in radish and other crops.

  20. QTL analysis using SNP markers developed by next-generation sequencing for identification of candidate genes controlling 4-methylthio-3-butenyl glucosinolate contents in roots of radish, Raphanus sativus L.

    PubMed

    Zou, Zhongwei; Ishida, Masahiko; Li, Feng; Kakizaki, Tomohiro; Suzuki, Sho; Kitashiba, Hiroyasu; Nishio, Takeshi

    2013-01-01

    SNP markers for QTL analysis of 4-MTB-GSL contents in radish roots were developed by determining nucleotide sequences of bulked PCR products using a next-generation sequencer. DNA fragments were amplified from two radish lines by multiplex PCR with six primer pairs, and those amplified by 2,880 primer pairs were mixed and sequenced. By assembling sequence data, 1,953 SNPs in 750 DNA fragments, 437 of which have been previously mapped in a linkage map, were identified. A linkage map of nine linkage groups was constructed with 188 markers, and five QTLs were detected in two F(2) populations, three of them accounting for more than 50% of the total phenotypic variance being repeatedly detected. In the identified QTL regions, nine SNP markers were newly produced. By synteny analysis of the QTLs regions with Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica rapa genome sequences, three candidate genes were selected, i.e., RsMAM3 for production of aliphatic glucosinolates linked to GSL-QTL-4, RsIPMDH1 for leucine biosynthesis showing strong co-expression with glucosinolate biosynthesis genes linked to GSL-QTL-2, and RsBCAT4 for branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase linked to GSL-QTL-1. Nucleotide sequences and expression of these genes suggested their possible function in 4MTB-GSL biosynthesis in radish roots.

  1. Phytotoxicity of three plant-based biodiesels, unmodified castor oil, and Diesel fuel to alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), radish (Raphanus sativus), and wheatgrass (Triticum aestivum).

    PubMed

    Bamgbose, Ifeoluwa; Anderson, Todd A

    2015-12-01

    The wide use of plant-based oils and their derivatives, in particular biodiesel, have increased extensively over the past decade to help alleviate demand for petroleum products and improve the greenhouse gas emissions profile of the transportation sector. Biodiesel is regarded as a clean burning alternative fuel produced from livestock feeds and various vegetable oils. Although in theory these animal and/or plant derived fuels should have less environmental impact in soil based on their simplified composition relative to Diesel, they pose an environmental risk like Diesel at high concentrations when disposed. The aim of the present study was to ascertain the phytotoxicity of three different plant-derived biodiesels relative to conventional Diesel. For phytotoxicological analysis, we used seeds of four crop plants, Medicago sativa, Lactuca sativa, Raphanus sativus, and Triticum aestivum to analyze the germination of seeds in contaminated soil samples. The toxicological experiment was conducted with two different soil textures: sandy loam soil and silt loam soil. The studied plant-based biodiesels were safflower methyl-ester, castor methyl ester, and castor ethyl-ester. Biodiesel toxicity was more evident at high concentrations, affecting the germination and survival of small-seeded plants to a greater extent. Tolerance of plants to the biodiesels varied between plant species and soil textures. With the exception of R. sativus, all plant species were affected and exhibited some sensitivity to the fuels, such as delayed seedling emergence and slow germination (average=10 days) at high soil concentrations (0.85% for Diesel and 1.76% for the biodiesels). Tolerance of plants to soil contamination had a species-specific nature, and on average, decreased in the following order: Raphanus sativus (0-20%)>Triticum aestivum (10-40%) ≥ Medicago sativa> Lactuca sativa (80-100%). Thus, we conclude that there is some phytotoxicity associated with plant-based biodiesels. Further

  2. Chemopreventive effect of selenium-enriched Japanese radish sprout against breast cancer induced by 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene in rats.

    PubMed

    Yamanoshita, Osamu; Ichihara, Shu; Hama, Hidetoshi; Ichihara, Gaku; Chiba, Momoko; Kamijima, Michihiro; Takeda, Iwao; Nakajima, Tamie

    2007-06-01

    Breast cancer is one of the major cancers in women, and dietary intake must be controlled to prevent it. Selenium (Se), especially Se compound in vegetables, is thought to be a promising chemopreventive dietary ingredient for preventing breast cancer. In this study, we developed Se-enriched Japanese radish sprout using a special Se-additional fertilizer, and identified the Se chemical forms. The newly developed Se-enriched sprout is produced within a week by the tank forming method, and the major chemical form was identified as Se-methylselenocysteine (MeSeCys) (80%). Then, the chemopreventive effects of the Se-enriched sprout were investigated using Sprague-Dawley female rats with mammary cancer, induced by a single oral dose of 10 mg or 14 mg of 7, 12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA). Mammary tumors were found in 11, 16 and 2 rats treated with DMBA and thereafter fed the basal (n = 34), sprout-added basal (n = 30) and Se-enriched sprout-added test diets (n = 30), respectively. The incidence of mammary tumors was significantly lower in the Se-enriched sprout-added test diet group (7%) than in the basal diet group (32%) or sprout-added basal diet group (53%). In contrast, no significant difference was detected in the numbers and incidence of the tumor between the basal diet group and Se-enriched sprout-added test diet group before DMBA-dosing. These results suggest that the diet supplement of Se-enriched sprout after DMBA-dosing provides a significant chemoprevention against chemical-induced mammary cancer. Thus, Se-enriched sprout may be a useful dietary ingredient for preventing breast cancer.

  3. Growth Enhancement of Radish Sprouts Induced by Low Pressure O2 Radio Frequency Discharge Plasma Irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitazaki, Satoshi; Koga, Kazunori; Shiratani, Masaharu; Hayashi, Nobuya

    2012-01-01

    We studied growth enhancement of radish sprouts (Raphanus sativus L.) induced by low pressure O2 radio frequency (RF) discharge plasma irradiation. The average length of radish sprouts cultivated for 7 days after O2 plasma irradiation is 30-60% greater than that without irradiation. O2 plasma irradiation does not affect seed germination. The experimental results reveal that oxygen related radicals strongly enhance growth, whereas ions and photons do not.

  4. Effects of simulated acidic rain on yields of Raphanus sativus, Lactuca sativa, Triticum aestivum and Medicago sativa

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, L.S.; Gmur, N.F.; Mancini, D.

    1982-01-01

    Experiments were performed to determine effects of simulated acidic rain on radishes (Raphanus sativus), wheat(Triticum aestivum) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa) grown under greenhouse conditions. Experimental designs allowed the detection of statistically significant differences among means that differed by less than 10%. These results suggest that the efficiency of radish foliage in increasing; root mass decreases with increased rainfall acidity since only foliage was exposed to the treatments.

  5. The mechanism for weed suppression by a forage radish cover crop

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the Mid-Atlantic region, forage radish (Raphanus sativus L. var. longipinnatus) winter cover crops planted prior to 1 September suppress winter annual weeds from fall until early April. Little is known about the mechanism of this weed suppression. Published research reports suggest that allelopat...

  6. Food safety evaluation of broccoli and radish sprouts.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Villaluenga, Cristina; Frías, Juana; Gulewicz, Piotr; Gulewicz, Krzysztof; Vidal-Valverde, Concepción

    2008-05-01

    Three cultivars of broccoli seeds (Brassica oleracea var. italica), cv. Tiburon, cv. Belstar and cv. Lucky, and two cultivars of radish seeds (Raphanus sativus), cv. Rebel and cv. Bolide, were germinated for three and five days and safety aspects such as microbiological counts and biogenic amines were investigated. Cytotoxicity evaluation was also carried out. Broccoli and radish sprouts contained numbers of mesophilic, psychrotrophic, total and faecal coliform bacteria which are the usual counts for minimally processed germinated seeds. Putrescine, cadaverine, histamine, tyramine, spermidine and spermine increased during sprout production although these levels were below those permitted by legislation (5 mg/100 g of edible food). Broccoli and radish sprouts demonstrated no toxic effects on proliferation and viability of HL-60 cells and should be included in our diets as healthy and safe fresh foods.

  7. Raphanus sativus L. var niger as a source of phytochemicals for the prevention of cholesterol gallstones.

    PubMed

    Castro-Torres, Ibrahim Guillermo; De la O-Arciniega, Minarda; Gallegos-Estudillo, Janeth; Naranjo-Rodríguez, Elia Brosla; Domínguez-Ortíz, Miguel Ángel

    2014-02-01

    Raphanus sativus L. var niger (black radish) is a plant of the cruciferous family with important ethnobotanical uses for the treatment of gallstones in Mexican traditional medicine. It has been established that the juice of black radish decreases cholesterol levels in plasma and dissolves gallstones in mice. Glucosinolates, the main secondary metabolites of black radish, can hydrolyze into its respective isothiocyanates and have already demonstrated antioxidant properties as well as their ability to diminish hepatic cholesterol levels; such therapeutic effects can prevent the formation of cholesterol gallstones. This disease is considered a current problem of public health. In the present review, we analyze and discuss the therapeutic effects of the main glucosinolates of black radish, as well as the effects that this plant has on cholesterol gallstones disease.

  8. Radish (Raphanus sativus) seed size affects germination response to coumarin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The inhibition of seed germination by an allelochemical is generally greater in small seeds than in large seeds. Studies reporting these results used a large number of plant species that varied in seed size, which might have introduced differences in germination characteristics or various parameter...

  9. The Radish Party

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piotrowski, Jeff; Mildenstein, Tammy; Dungan, Kathy; Brewer, Carol

    2007-01-01

    The Radish Party inquiry is designed to teach the importance and relevance of soil organic matter to young students. In this investigation, students grow radishes in three different kinds of soils: sand, sand plus nutrients, and potting soil (soil that includes organic matter). The experience described here was conducted with first- and…

  10. Metabolic Activity of Radish Sprouts Derived Isothiocyanates in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Baenas, Nieves; Piegholdt, Stefanie; Schloesser, Anke; Moreno, Diego A.; García-Viguera, Cristina; Rimbach, Gerald; Wagner, Anika E.

    2016-01-01

    We used Drosophila melanogaster as a model system to study the absorption, metabolism and potential health benefits of plant bioactives derived from radish sprouts (Raphanus sativus cv. Rambo), a Brassicaceae species rich in glucosinolates and other phytochemicals. Flies were subjected to a diet supplemented with lyophilized radish sprouts (10.6 g/L) for 10 days, containing high amounts of glucoraphenin and glucoraphasatin, which can be hydrolyzed by myrosinase to the isothiocyanates sulforaphene and raphasatin, respectively. We demonstrate that Drosophila melanogaster takes up and metabolizes isothiocyanates from radish sprouts through the detection of the metabolite sulforaphane-cysteine in fly homogenates. Moreover, we report a decrease in the glucose content of flies, an upregulation of spargel expression, the Drosophila homolog of the mammalian PPARγ-coactivator 1 α, as well as the inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase in vitro. Overall, we show that the consumption of radish sprouts affects energy metabolism in Drosophila melanogaster which is reflected by lower glucose levels and an increased expression of spargel, a central player in mitochondrial biogenesis. These processes are often affected in chronic diseases associated with aging, including type II diabetes mellitus. PMID:26901196

  11. Metabolic Activity of Radish Sprouts Derived Isothiocyanates in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Baenas, Nieves; Piegholdt, Stefanie; Schloesser, Anke; Moreno, Diego A; García-Viguera, Cristina; Rimbach, Gerald; Wagner, Anika E

    2016-02-18

    We used Drosophila melanogaster as a model system to study the absorption, metabolism and potential health benefits of plant bioactives derived from radish sprouts (Raphanus sativus cv. Rambo), a Brassicaceae species rich in glucosinolates and other phytochemicals. Flies were subjected to a diet supplemented with lyophilized radish sprouts (10.6 g/L) for 10 days, containing high amounts of glucoraphenin and glucoraphasatin, which can be hydrolyzed by myrosinase to the isothiocyanates sulforaphene and raphasatin, respectively. We demonstrate that Drosophila melanogaster takes up and metabolizes isothiocyanates from radish sprouts through the detection of the metabolite sulforaphane-cysteine in fly homogenates. Moreover, we report a decrease in the glucose content of flies, an upregulation of spargel expression, the Drosophila homolog of the mammalian PPARγ-coactivator 1 α, as well as the inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase in vitro. Overall, we show that the consumption of radish sprouts affects energy metabolism in Drosophila melanogaster which is reflected by lower glucose levels and an increased expression of spargel, a central player in mitochondrial biogenesis. These processes are often affected in chronic diseases associated with aging, including type II diabetes mellitus.

  12. Modulation of genotoxicity and cytotoxicity by radish grown in metal-contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Villatoro-Pulido, Myriam; Font, Rafael; De Haro-Bravo, Maria Isabel; Romero-Jiménez, Magdalena; Anter, Jaouad; De Haro Bailón, Antonio; Alonso-Moraga, Angeles; Del Río-Celestino, Mercedes

    2009-01-01

    Members of the Brassicaceae family are known for their anticarcinogenic and genetic material protective effects. However, many of the species of this family accumulate high amounts of metals, which is an undesirable feature. Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) has shown to accumulate metals in roots to a higher extent than others members of Brassicaceae. The main objectives of this work are (i) to study the distribution of the accumulated As, Pb and Cd in radish plants and (ii) to establish the genotoxic, antigenotoxic and cytotoxic activities of the root and shoot of this vegetable. Results indicate that (i) the shoots of radish accumulate higher concentrations of metal(oid)s than roots; (ii) the shoots were genotoxic at the different concentrations studied, with the root showing such genotoxic effect only at the highest concentration assayed; (iii) the antigenotoxic potential of radish is reduced in plants with high metal content and (iv) the tumouricide activities of the radish plants were negatively correlated to their metal(oid) contents. An interaction between metal(oid)s and the isotyocianates (hydrolysis products of the glucosinolates) contained in the radish is suggested as the main modulator agents of the genotoxic activity of the plants grown in contaminated soils with metal(oid)s.

  13. Excess lead alters growth, metabolism and translocation of certain nutrients in radish.

    PubMed

    Gopal, Rajeev; Rizvi, Aqeel Hasan

    2008-02-01

    To elucidate the deleterious effects of excess lead on radish (Raphanus sativus) cv. Jaunpuri plants were grown in refined sand in complete nutrient solution for 30 days. On the 31st day lead nitrate was superimposed at 0.1 and 0.5mM to radish for 65 days. A set of plants in complete nutrient solution was maintained as control for the same period without lead. Excess Pb at 0.5mM showed growth depression with interveinal chlorosis on young leaves at apex. Excess Pb reduced the fresh and dry weight pronouncedly at d 65. Lead accumulation reduced the concentration of chlorophyll, iron, sulphur (in tops), Hill reaction activity and catalase activity whereas increased the concentration of phosphorus, sulphur (in roots) and activity of peroxidase, acid phosphatase and ribonuclease in leaves of radish.

  14. The Effect of Altered Soil Moisture on Hybridization Rate in a Crop-Wild System (Raphanus spp.)

    PubMed Central

    Sneck, Michelle E.; Chaplin, Colleen; Mercer, Kristin L.

    2016-01-01

    Since plant mating choices are flexible and responsive to the environment, rates of spontaneous hybridization may vary across ecological clines. Developing a robust and predictive framework for rates of plant gene flow requires assessing the role of environmental sensitivity on plant reproductive traits, relative abundance, and pollen vectors. Therefore, across a soil moisture gradient, we quantified pollinator movement, life-history trait variation, and unidirectional hybridization rates from crop (Raphanus sativus) to wild (Raphanus raphanistrum) radish populations. Both radish species were grown together in relatively dry (no rain), relatively wet (double rain), or control soil moisture conditions in Ohio, USA. We measured wild and crop radish life-history, phenology and pollinator visitation patterns. To quantify hybridization rates from crop-to-wild species, we used a simply inherited morphological marker to detect F1 hybrid progeny. Although crop-to-wild hybridization did not respond to watering treatments, the abundance of hybrid offspring was higher in fruits produced late in the period of phenological overlap, when both species had roughly equal numbers of open flowers. Therefore, the timing of fruit production and its relationship to flowering overlap may be more important to hybrid zone formation in Raphanus spp. than soil moisture or pollen vector movements. PMID:27936159

  15. Quality characteristics of the radish grown under reduced atmospheric pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levine, Lanfang H.; Bisbee, Patricia A.; Richards, Jeffrey T.; Birmele, Michele N.; Prior, Ronald L.; Perchonok, Michele; Dixon, Mike; Yorio, Neil C.; Stutte, Gary W.; Wheeler, Raymond M.

    This study addresses whether reduced atmospheric pressure (hypobaria) affects the quality traits of radish grown under such environments. Radish (Raphanus sativus L. cv. Cherry Bomb Hybrid II) plants were grown hydroponically in specially designed hypobaric plant growth chambers at three atmospheric pressures; 33, 66, and 96 kPa (control). Oxygen and carbon dioxide partial pressures were maintained constant at 21 and 0.12 kPa, respectively. Plants were harvested at 21 days after planting, with aerial shoots and swollen hypocotyls (edible portion of the radish referred to as the “root” hereafter) separated immediately upon removal from the chambers. Samples were subsequently evaluated for their sensory characteristics (color, taste, overall appearance, and texture), taste-determining factors (glucosinolate and soluble carbohydrate content and myrosinase activity), proximate nutrients (protein, dietary fiber, and carbohydrate) and potential health benefit attributes (antioxidant capacity). In roots of control plants, concentrations of glucosinolate, total soluble sugar, and nitrate, as well as myrosinase activity and total antioxidant capacity (measured as ORACFL), were 2.9, 20, 5.1, 9.4, and 1.9 times greater than the amount in leaves, respectively. There was no significant difference in total antioxidant capacity, sensory characteristics, carbohydrate composition, or proximate nutrient content among the three pressure treatments. However, glucosinolate content in the root and nitrate concentration in the leaf declined as the atmospheric pressure decreased, suggesting perturbation to some nitrogen-related metabolism.

  16. Toxicity of sodium tungstate to earthworm, oat, radish, and lettuce.

    PubMed

    Bamford, Josie E; Butler, Alicia D; Heim, Katherine E; Pittinger, Charles A; Lemus, Ranulfo; Staveley, Jane P; Lee, K Brian; Venezia, Carmen; Pardus, Michael J

    2011-10-01

    Due to unknown effects of the potential exposure of the terrestrial environment to tungsten substances, a series of toxicity studies of sodium tungstate (Na(2) WO(4) ) was conducted. The effect on earthworm (Eisenia fetida) survival and reproduction was examined using Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Guideline 222. No effect on either endpoint was seen at the highest concentration tested, resulting in a 56-d no-observed-effect concentration (NOEC) of ≥586 mg tungsten/kg dry soil (nominal concentrations). The effect of sodium tungstate on emergence and growth of plant species was examined according to OECD Guideline 208: oat (Avena sativa), radish (Raphanus sativus), and lettuce (Lactuca sativa). No effects on emergence, shoot height, and dry shoot weight were observed in oats exposed to the highest concentration, resulting in a 21-d NOEC of ≥586 mg tungsten/kg dry soil. The NOECs for radish and lettuce were 65 and 21.7 mg tungsten/kg dry soil (nominal concentrations), respectively. Respective 21-d median effective concentration values (EC50) for radish and lettuce were >586 and 313 mg tungsten/kg dry soil (based on shoot height) (confidence level [CL] -8.5-615); EC25 values were 152 (CL 0-331) and 55 (CL 0-114) mg tungsten/kg dry soil. Results are consistent with the few other tungsten substance terrestrial toxicity studies in the literature.

  17. Accumulation of anthocyanin and associated gene expression in radish sprouts exposed to light and methyl jasmonate.

    PubMed

    Park, Woo Tae; Kim, Yeon Bok; Seo, Jeong Min; Kim, Sun-Ju; Chung, Eunsook; Lee, Jai-Heon; Park, Sang Un

    2013-05-01

    Radish (Raphanus sativus) sprouts have received attention as an important dietary vegetable in Asian countries. The flavonoid pathway leading to anthocyanin biosynthesis in radishes is induced by multiple regulatory genes as well as various developmental and environmental factors. This study investigated anthocyanin accumulation and the transcript level of associated genes in radish sprouts exposed to light and methyl jasmonate (MeJA). The anthocyanin content of sprouts exposed to light and treated with MeJA was higher than that of sprouts grown under dark conditions without MeJA, and the highest anthocyanin content was observed within 6-9 days after sowing (DAS). Transcript levels of almost all genes were increased in radish sprouts grown in light conditions with 100 μM MeJA relative to sprouts grown under dark conditions with or without MeJA treatment, especially at 3 DAS. The results suggest that light and MeJA treatment applied together during radish seedling development enhance anthocyanin accumulation.

  18. Quantitative Trait Loci for Morphological Traits and their Association with Functional Genes in Raphanus sativus

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xiaona; Choi, Su Ryun; Dhandapani, Vignesh; Rameneni, Jana Jeevan; Li, Xiaonan; Pang, Wenxing; Lee, Ji-Young; Lim, Yong Pyo

    2016-01-01

    Identification of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) governing morphologically important traits enables to comprehend their potential genetic mechanisms in the genetic breeding program. In this study, we used 210 F2 populations derived from a cross between two radish inbred lines (Raphanus sativus) “835” and “B2,” including 258 SSR markers were used to detect QTLs for 11 morphological traits that related to whole plant, leaf, and root yield in 3 years of replicated field test. Total 55 QTLs were detected which were distributed on each linkage group of the Raphanus genome. Individual QTLs accounted for 2.69–12.6 of the LOD value, and 0.82–16.25% of phenotypic variation. Several genomic regions have multiple traits that clustered together, suggested the existence of pleiotropy linkage. Synteny analysis of the QTL regions with A. thaliana genome selected orthologous genes in radish. InDels and SNPs in the parental lines were detected in those regions by Illumina genome sequence. Five identified candidate gene-based markers were validated by co-mapping with underlying QTLs affecting different traits. Semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR analysis showed the different expression levels of these five genes in parental lines. In addition, comparative QTL analysis with B. rapa revealed six common QTL regions and four key major evolutionarily conserved crucifer blocks (J, U, R, and W) harboring QTL for morphological traits. The QTL positions identified in this study will provide a valuable resource for identifying more functional genes when whole radish genome sequence is released. Candidate genes identified in this study that co-localized in QTL regions are expected to facilitate in radish breeding programs. PMID:26973691

  19. The radish genome and comprehensive gene expression profile of tuberous root formation and development

    PubMed Central

    Mitsui, Yuki; Shimomura, Michihiko; Komatsu, Kenji; Namiki, Nobukazu; Shibata-Hatta, Mari; Imai, Misaki; Katayose, Yuichi; Mukai, Yoshiyuki; Kanamori, Hiroyuki; Kurita, Kanako; Kagami, Tsutomu; Wakatsuki, Akihito; Ohyanagi, Hajime; Ikawa, Hiroshi; Minaka, Nobuhiro; Nakagawa, Kunihiro; Shiwa, Yu; Sasaki, Takuji

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the processes that regulate plant sink formation and development at the molecular level will contribute to the areas of crop breeding, food production and plant evolutionary studies. We report the annotation and analysis of the draft genome sequence of the radish Raphanus sativus var. hortensis (long and thick root radish) and transcriptome analysis during root development. Based on the hybrid assembly approach of next-generation sequencing, a total of 383 Mb (N50 scaffold: 138.17 kb) of sequences of the radish genome was constructed containing 54,357 genes. Syntenic and phylogenetic analyses indicated that divergence between Raphanus and Brassica coincide with the time of whole genome triplication (WGT), suggesting that WGT triggered diversification of Brassiceae crop plants. Further transcriptome analysis showed that the gene functions and pathways related to carbohydrate metabolism were prominently activated in thickening roots, particularly in cell proliferating tissues. Notably, the expression levels of sucrose synthase 1 (SUS1) were correlated with root thickening rates. We also identified the genes involved in pungency synthesis and their transcription factors. PMID:26056784

  20. The radish genome and comprehensive gene expression profile of tuberous root formation and development.

    PubMed

    Mitsui, Yuki; Shimomura, Michihiko; Komatsu, Kenji; Namiki, Nobukazu; Shibata-Hatta, Mari; Imai, Misaki; Katayose, Yuichi; Mukai, Yoshiyuki; Kanamori, Hiroyuki; Kurita, Kanako; Kagami, Tsutomu; Wakatsuki, Akihito; Ohyanagi, Hajime; Ikawa, Hiroshi; Minaka, Nobuhiro; Nakagawa, Kunihiro; Shiwa, Yu; Sasaki, Takuji

    2015-06-09

    Understanding the processes that regulate plant sink formation and development at the molecular level will contribute to the areas of crop breeding, food production and plant evolutionary studies. We report the annotation and analysis of the draft genome sequence of the radish Raphanus sativus var. hortensis (long and thick root radish) and transcriptome analysis during root development. Based on the hybrid assembly approach of next-generation sequencing, a total of 383 Mb (N50 scaffold: 138.17 kb) of sequences of the radish genome was constructed containing 54,357 genes. Syntenic and phylogenetic analyses indicated that divergence between Raphanus and Brassica coincide with the time of whole genome triplication (WGT), suggesting that WGT triggered diversification of Brassiceae crop plants. Further transcriptome analysis showed that the gene functions and pathways related to carbohydrate metabolism were prominently activated in thickening roots, particularly in cell proliferating tissues. Notably, the expression levels of sucrose synthase 1 (SUS1) were correlated with root thickening rates. We also identified the genes involved in pungency synthesis and their transcription factors.

  1. Effect of CO2 levels on nutrient content of lettuce and radish

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKeehen, J. D.; Smart, D. J.; Mackowiak, C. L.; Wheeler, R. M.; Nielsen, S. S.; Mitchell, C. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    Atmospheric carbon-dioxide enrichment is known to affect the yield of lettuce and radish grown in controlled environments, but little is known about CO2 enrichment effects on the chemical composition of lettuce and radish. These crops are useful model systems for a Controlled Ecological Life-Support System (CELSS), largely because of their relatively short production cycles. Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) cultivar 'Waldmann's Green' and radish (Raphanus sativus L.) cultivar 'Giant White Globe' were grown both in the field and in controlled environments, where hydroponic nutrient solution, light, and temperature were regulated, and where CO2 levels were controlled at 400, 1000, 5000, or 10,000 ppm. Plants were harvested at maturity, dried, and analyzed for proximate composition (protein, fat, ash, and carbohydrate), total nitrogen (N), nitrate N, free sugars, starch, total dietary fiber, and minerals. Total N, protein N, nonprotein N (NPN), and nitrate N generally increased for radish roots and lettuce leaves when grown under growth chamber conditions compared to field conditions. The nitrate-N level of lettuce leaves, as a percentage of total NPN, decreased with increasing levels of CO2 enrichment. The ash content of radish roots and of radish and lettuce leaves decreased with increasing levels of CO2 enrichment. The levels of certain minerals differed between field- and chamber-grown materials, including changes in the calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) contents of radish and lettuce leaves, resulting in reduced Ca/P ratio for chamber-grown materials. The free-sugar contents were similar between the field and chamber-grown lettuce leaves, but total dietary fiber content was much higher in the field-grown plant material. The starch content of growth-chamber lettuce increased with CO2 level.

  2. Effect of CO_2 levels on nutrient content of lettuce and radish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKeehen, J. D.; Smart, D. J.; Mackowiak, C. L.; Wheeler, R. M.; Nielsen, S. S.

    Atmospheric carbon-dioxide enrichment is known to affect the yield of lettuce and radish grown in controlled environments, but little is known about CO_2 enrichment effects on the chemical composition of lettuce and radish. These crops are useful model systems for a Controlled Ecological Life-Support System (CELSS), largely because of their relatively short production cycles. Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) cultivar `Waldmann's Green' and radish (Raphanus sativus L.) cultivar `Giant White Globe' were grown both in the field and in controlled environments, where hydroponic nutrient solution, light, and temperature were regulated, and where CO_2 levels were controlled at 400, 1000, 5000, or 10,000 ppm. Plants were harvested at maturity, dried, and analyzed for proximate composition (protein, fat, ash, and carbohydrate), total nitrogen (N), nitrate N, free sugars, starch, total dietary fiber, and minerals. Total N, protein N, nonprotein N (NPN), and nitrate N generally increased for radish roots and lettuce leaves when grown under growth chamber conditions compared to field conditions. The nitrate-N level of lettuce leaves, as a percentage of total NPN, decreased with increasing levels of CO_2 enrichment. The ash content of radish roots and of radish and lettuce leaves decreased with increasing levels of CO_2 enrichment. The levels of certain minerals differed between field- and chamber-grown materials, including changes in the calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) contents of radish roots and lettuce leaves, resulting in reduced Ca/P ratio for chamber-grown materials. The free-sugar contents were similar between the field and chamber-grown lettuce leaves, but total dietary fiber content was much higher in the field-grown plant material. The starch content of growth-chamber lettuce increased with CO_2 level.

  3. Effect of CO2 levels on nutrient content of lettuce and radish.

    PubMed

    McKeehen, J D; Smart, D J; Mackowiak, C L; Wheeler, R M; Nielsen, S S

    1996-01-01

    Atmospheric carbon-dioxide enrichment is known to affect the yield of lettuce and radish grown in controlled environments, but little is known about CO2 enrichment effects on the chemical composition of lettuce and radish. These crops are useful model systems for a Controlled Ecological Life-Support System (CELSS), largely because of their relatively short production cycles. Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) cultivar 'Waldmann's Green' and radish (Raphanus sativus L.) cultivar 'Giant White Globe' were grown both in the field and in controlled environments, where hydroponic nutrient solution, light, and temperature were regulated, and where CO2 levels were controlled at 400, 1000, 5000, or 10,000 ppm. Plants were harvested at maturity, dried, and analyzed for proximate composition (protein, fat, ash, and carbohydrate), total nitrogen (N), nitrate N, free sugars, starch, total dietary fiber, and minerals. Total N, protein N, nonprotein N (NPN), and nitrate N generally increased for radish roots and lettuce leaves when grown under growth chamber conditions compared to field conditions. The nitrate-N level of lettuce leaves, as a percentage of total NPN, decreased with increasing levels of CO2 enrichment. The ash content of radish roots and of radish and lettuce leaves decreased with increasing levels of CO2 enrichment. The levels of certain minerals differed between field- and chamber-grown materials, including changes in the calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) contents of radish and lettuce leaves, resulting in reduced Ca/P ratio for chamber-grown materials. The free-sugar contents were similar between the field and chamber-grown lettuce leaves, but total dietary fiber content was much higher in the field-grown plant material. The starch content of growth-chamber lettuce increased with CO2 level.

  4. Plasma Membrane Ca-ATPase of Radish Seedlings 1

    PubMed Central

    Rasi-Caldogno, Franca; Carnelli, Antonella; De Michelis, Maria I.

    1992-01-01

    The effect of calmodulin on the activity of the plasma membrane Ca-ATPase was investigated on plasma membranes purified from radish (Raphanus sativus L.) seedlings. Calmodulin stimulated the hydrolytic activity and the transport activity of the plasma membrane Ca-ATPase to comparable extents in a manner dependent on the free Ca2+ concentration. Stimulation was marked at low, nonsaturating Ca2+ concentrations and decreased increasing Ca2+, so that the effect of calmodulin resulted in an increase of the apparent affinity of the enzyme for free Ca2+. The pattern of calmodulin stimulation of the plasma membrane Ca-ATPase activity was substantially the same at pH 6.9 and 7.5, in the presence of ATP or ITP, and when calmodulin from radish seeds was used rather than that from bovine brain. At pH 6.9 in the presence of 5 micromolar free Ca2+, stimulation of the plasma membrane Ca-ATPase was saturated by 30 to 50 micrograms per milliliter bovine brain calmodulin. The calmodulin antagonist calmidazolium inhibited both basal and calmodulin-stimulated plasma membrane Ca-ATPase activity to comparable extents. PMID:16668747

  5. Uptake and translocation of phytochemical 2-benzoxazolinone (BOA) in radish seeds and seedlings.

    PubMed

    Chiapusio, Geneviève; Pellissier, François; Gallet, Christiane

    2004-07-01

    The molecular aspects of phytochemical interactions between plants, especially the process of phytochemical translocation by the target plant, remain challenging for those studying allelopathy. 2-Benzoxazolinone (BOA) is a natural chemical produced by rye (Secale cereale) and is known to have phytotoxic effects on weed seeds and seedlings. The translocation of BOA into target plants has been poorly investigated. Therefore, the total absorption of [ring U 14C] BOA was estimated by oxidizing whole seedlings of Raphanus sativus cv. for 8 days and quantifying the radioactivity. Non-radiolabelled BOA in seedlings was also estimated by HPLC. BOA applied at 10(-3) M was readily taken up by germinated radish at a rate of 1556 nmol g(-1) FW. At these same concentrations, BOA reduced radish germination by 50% and caused a delay in radicle elongation. Exogenous BOA was responsible for the observed germination inhibition. At a concentration of 10(-5) M, BOA was taken up by germinated seeds (31 nmol g(-1) FW), but this quantity did not affect radish germination. Labelled BOA was not mineralized in the culture medium during seedling growth as no 14CO2 was recovered. Both 10(-3) and 10(-5) M BOA were translocated into radish organs, mainly into roots and cotyledons. These organs were then identified as potential physiological target sites. Cotyledons remained the target sink (44% of the total radioactivity). The kinetics of BOA uptake at 10(-3) and 10(-5) M in radish seedlings was identical: BOA accumulation was proportional to its initial concentration. A comparison between radioactivity and HPLC quantification for 10(-3) M BOA indicated that BOA (along with some metabolites) could effectively be recovered in radish organs using chromatography.

  6. The antihypertensive effect of ethyl acetate extract of radish leaves in spontaneously hypertensive rats

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Da-Hee; Kim, Sun-Hee; Myung, Nahye; Cho, Kang Jin

    2012-01-01

    Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) is a cruciferous vegetable, and its leaves have antioxidant and anticancer properties. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of ethyl acetate extracts from radish leaves on hypertension in 11-week-old spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). The SHRs were randomly divided into 3 groups of 6 rats each on the basis of initial systolic blood pressure (SBP) and were treated with oral administration of radish leaf extract (0, 30, or 90 mg/kg body weight [bw], respectively) for 5 weeks. Six Wistar rats were used as normotensive controls. The amount of the radish leaf extract had no effect on body weight. The SBP of the SHRs showed a decreasing trend with the consumption of the radish leaf extract. In the third week, the SBP of the group fed 90 mg extract/kg bw reduced from 214 mmHg to 166 mmHg and was significantly lower than that of the normotensive and hypertensive controls. The extract did not show a significant effect on the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity in the serum, kidney, and lung. The extract increased the concentration of NO in serum and the activities of antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione peroxidase and catalase in red blood cells (RBCs). The serum concentrations of Na+ and K+ were not significantly different between all groups. However, the fecal concentrations of Na+ and K+ increased; the fecal concentrations of Na+ and K+ for the normotensive and hypertensive controls were not different. Urinary excretion of Na+ was higher in the normotensive Wistar rats than in the SHRs, while that of K+ was not significantly different. These findings indicate that consumption of radish leaves might have had antihypertensive effects in SHRs by increasing the serum concentration of NO and fecal concentration of Na+ and enhancing antioxidant activities. PMID:22977684

  7. Interaction of Brassinosteroids and Polyamines Enhances Copper Stress Tolerance in Raphanus Sativus

    PubMed Central

    Choudhary, Sikander Pal; Yu, Jing-Quan; Tran, Lam-Son Phan

    2012-01-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) and polyamines (PAs) regulate various responses to abiotic stress, but their involvement in the regulation of copper (Cu) homeostasis in plants exposed to toxic levels of Cu is poorly understood. This study provides an analysis of the effects of exogenously applied BRs and PAs on radish (Raphanus sativus) plants exposed to toxic concentrations of Cu. The interaction of 24-epibrassinolide (EBR, an active BR) and spermidine (Spd, an active PA) on gene expression and the physiology of radish plants resulted in enhanced tolerance to Cu stress. Results indicated that the combined application of EBR and Spd modulated the expression of genes encoding PA enzymes and genes that impact the metabolism of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and abscisic acid (ABA) resulting in enhanced Cu stress tolerance. Altered expression of genes implicated in Cu homeostasis appeared to be the main effect of EBR and Spd leading to Cu stress alleviation in radish. Ion leakage, in vivo imaging of H2O2, comet assay, and improved tolerance of Cu-sensitive yeast strains provided further evidence for the ability of EBR and Spd to improve Cu tolerance significantly. The study indicates that co-application of EBR and Spd is an effective approach for Cu detoxification and the maintenance of Cu homeostasis in plants. Therefore, the use of these compounds in agricultural production systems should be explored. PMID:22915739

  8. Interaction of brassinosteroids and polyamines enhances copper stress tolerance in raphanus sativus.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Sikander Pal; Oral, H Volkan; Bhardwaj, Renu; Yu, Jing-Quan; Tran, Lam-Son Phan

    2012-09-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) and polyamines (PAs) regulate various responses to abiotic stress, but their involvement in the regulation of copper (Cu) homeostasis in plants exposed to toxic levels of Cu is poorly understood. This study provides an analysis of the effects of exogenously applied BRs and PAs on radish (Raphanus sativus) plants exposed to toxic concentrations of Cu. The interaction of 24-epibrassinolide (EBR, an active BR) and spermidine (Spd, an active PA) on gene expression and the physiology of radish plants resulted in enhanced tolerance to Cu stress. Results indicated that the combined application of EBR and Spd modulated the expression of genes encoding PA enzymes and genes that impact the metabolism of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and abscisic acid (ABA) resulting in enhanced Cu stress tolerance. Altered expression of genes implicated in Cu homeostasis appeared to be the main effect of EBR and Spd leading to Cu stress alleviation in radish. Ion leakage, in vivo imaging of H(2)O(2), comet assay, and improved tolerance of Cu-sensitive yeast strains provided further evidence for the ability of EBR and Spd to improve Cu tolerance significantly. The study indicates that co-application of EBR and Spd is an effective approach for Cu detoxification and the maintenance of Cu homeostasis in plants. Therefore, the use of these compounds in agricultural production systems should be explored.

  9. Identification of a New Antibacterial Sulfur Compound from Raphanus sativus Seeds

    PubMed Central

    Yazbak, Ahmad; Rushrush, Salwa; Rudy, Amira

    2016-01-01

    Raphanus sativus L. (radish), a member of Brassicaceae, is widely used in traditional medicine in various cultures for treatment of several diseases and disorders associated with microbial infections. The antibacterial activity of the different plant parts has been mainly attributed to several isothiocyanate (ITC) compounds. However, the low correlation between the ITC content and antibacterial activity suggests the involvement of other unknown compounds. The objective of this study was to investigate the antibacterial potential of red radish seeds and identify the active compounds. A crude ethanol seed extract was prepared and its antibacterial activity was tested against five medically important bacteria. The ethanol extract significantly inhibited the growth of all tested strains. However, the inhibitory effect was more pronounced against Streptococcus pyogenes and Escherichia coli. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the ethanol extract followed by HPLC, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, 15N-NMR, and HMBC analysis revealed that the active fraction consisted of a single new compound identified as [5-methylsulfinyl-1-(4-methylsulfinyl-but-3-enyl)-pent-4-enylidene]-sulfamic acid, which consisted of two identical sulfur side chains similar to those found in ITCs. The minimal inhibitory concentration values of the isolated compound were in the range of 0.5–1 mg/mL. These results further highlight the role of radish as a rich source of antibacterial compounds. PMID:27781070

  10. Regulation of growth and antioxidant enzyme activities by 28-homobrassinolide in seedlings of Raphanus sativus L. under cadmium stress.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Indu; Pati, Pratap Kumar; Bhardwaj, Renu

    2010-06-01

    28-Homobrassinolide (28-HBL), a brassinosteroid is reported to play significant role in diverse physiological processes. It induces a range of cellular and adaptive responses to a range of environmental stresses. Cadmium (Cd) is a non-essential metal which alters various physiological processes and generates ROS, which can oxidize biological macromolecules and causes oxidative stress. This stress is generally overcome by the internal antioxidative defense system and stress shielding phytohormones. In this study, effect of 28-HBL was studied on growth and activities of antioxidant enzymes in known hyperaccumulator Raphanus sativus L. (radish) seedlings grown under cadmium (Cd) metal stress. To determine the influence of 28-HBL (0, 10-(11), 10-(9), 10-(7) M) in radish seedlings subjected to Cd (0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 mM) stress, the activities of antioxidant enzymes (APOX, CAT, GR, POD and SOD) were analyzed. In addition, length and biomass of radish seedlings was also recorded. Cd toxicity resulted in reduced length, biomass, protein content and activities of antioxidant enzymes. 28-HBL treatments lowered the Cd toxicity by enhancing the activities of antioxidant enzymes, biomass and seedling length. The present study thus suggests a possible role of 28-HBL in amelioration of metal stress by regulating the activities of antioxidant enzymes in radish.

  11. Genotoxicity of ferric oxide nanoparticles in Raphanus sativus: Deciphering the role of signaling factors, oxidative stress and cell death.

    PubMed

    Saquib, Quaiser; Faisal, Mohammad; Alatar, Abdulrahman A; Al-Khedhairy, Abdulaziz A; Ahmed, Mukhtar; Ansari, Sabiha M; Alwathnani, Hend A; Okla, Mohammad K; Dwivedi, Sourabh; Musarrat, Javed; Praveen, Shelly; Khan, Shams T; Wahab, Rizwan; Siddiqui, Maqsood A; Ahmad, Javed

    2016-09-01

    We have studied the genotoxic and apoptotic potential of ferric oxide nanoparticles (Fe2O3-NPs) in Raphanus sativus (radish). Fe2O3-NPs retarded the root length and seed germination in radish. Ultrathin sections of treated roots showed subcellular localization of Fe2O3-NPs, along with the appearance of damaged mitochondria and excessive vacuolization. Flow cytometric analysis of Fe2O3-NPs (1.0mg/mL) treated groups exhibited 219.5%, 161%, 120.4% and 161.4% increase in intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), nitric oxide (NO) and Ca(2+) influx in radish protoplasts. A concentration dependent increase in the antioxidative enzymes glutathione (GSH), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) has been recorded. Comet assay showed a concentration dependent increase in deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) strand breaks in Fe2O3-NPs treated groups. Cell cycle analysis revealed 88.4% of cells in sub-G1 apoptotic phase, suggesting cell death in Fe2O3-NPs (2.0mg/mL) treated group. Taking together, the genotoxicity induced by Fe2O3-NPs highlights the importance of environmental risk associated with improper disposal of nanoparticles (NPs) and radish can serve as a good indicator for measuring the phytotoxicity of NPs grown in NP-polluted environment.

  12. Identification of didecyldimethylammonium salts and salicylic acid as antimicrobial compounds in commercial fermented radish kimchi.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Chaytor, Jennifer L; Findlay, Brandon; McMullen, Lynn M; Smith, David C; Vederas, John C

    2015-03-25

    Daikon radish (Raphanus sativus) fermented with lactic acid bacteria, especially Leuconostoc or Lactobacillus spp., can be used to make kimchi, a traditional Korean fermented vegetable. Commercial Leuconostoc/radish root ferment filtrates are claimed to have broad spectrum antimicrobial activity. Leuconostoc kimchii fermentation products are patented as preservatives for cosmetics, and certain strains of this organism are reported to produce antimicrobial peptides (bacteriocins). We examined the antimicrobial agents in commercial Leuconostoc/radish root ferment filtrates. Both activity-guided fractionation with Amberlite XAD-16 and direct extraction with ethyl acetate gave salicylic acid as the primary agent with activity against Gram-negative bacteria. Further analysis of the ethyl acetate extract revealed that a didecyldimethylammonium salt was responsible for the Gram-positive activity. The structures of these compounds were confirmed by a combination of (1)H- and (13)C NMR, high-performance liquid chromatography, high-resolution mass spectrometry, and tandem mass spectrometry analyses. Radiocarbon dating indicates that neither compound is a fermentation product. No antimicrobial peptides were detected.

  13. Expression profiling of genes involved in ascorbate biosynthesis and recycling during fleshy root development in radish.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yao; Zhu, Xianwen; Chen, Yinglong; Gong, Yiqin; Liu, Liwang

    2013-09-01

    Ascorbate is a primary antioxidant and an essential enzyme cofactor in plants, which has an important effect on the development of plant root system. To investigate the molecular mechanisms of ascorbate accumulation during root development and reveal the key genes of the ascorbate biosynthesis and recycling pathways, the expression of 16 related genes together with ascorbate abundance were analyzed in the flesh and skin of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) fleshy root. The content of ascorbate decreased with root growth in both the flesh and skin. Expression of GDP-d-mannose pyrophosphorylase, GDP-d-mannose-3',5'-epimerase and d-galacturonate reductase were also decreased and correlated with ascorbate levels in the flesh. In the skin, the expression of GDP-d-mannose pyrophosphorylase and l-galactose dehydrogenase was correlated with ascorbate levels. These results suggested that ascorbate accumulation is affected mainly by biosynthesis rather than recycling in radish root, and the l-galactose pathway may be the major biosynthetic route of ascorbate, and moreover, the salvage pathway may also contribute to ascorbate accumulation. The data suggested that GDP-d-mannose pyrophosphorylase could play an important role in the regulation of ascorbate accumulation during radish fleshy taproot development.

  14. Response of radish to nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and ozone, alone and in combination

    SciTech Connect

    Reinert, R.A.; Gray, T.N.

    1981-04-01

    Effects on radish (Raphanus sativus L.) cv. Cherry Belle of nitrogen dioxide (NO/sub 2/), sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/), and ozone (O/sub 3/) alone and in combination at 0.2 and 0.4 ppM of each pollutant were studied. There was no difference in foilage or root weight of radish between exposure durations of 3 to 6 hours, and no significant interaction of hours with air pollutant and concentration. Ozone reduced root dry weight more at 0.4 ppM than at 0.2 ppM. Sulfur dioxide depressed the root/shoot ratio at both 0.2 and 0.4 ppM; however, when NO/sub 2/ and SO/sub 2/ were both present there was synergistic depression of the root/shoot ratio at 0.4 ppM. The average O/sub 3/-induced reduction in root weight of radish (1.75 g fresh and 101 mg dry, per plant) was additive in the presence of NO/sub 2/ and SO/sub 2/. The weight of the root was reduced even though the foilage was the direct receptor of the pollutant stress.

  15. Comparative mapping of Raphanus sativus genome using Brassica markers and quantitative trait loci analysis for the Fusarium wilt resistance trait.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiaona; Choi, Su Ryun; Ramchiary, Nirala; Miao, Xinyang; Lee, Su Hee; Sun, Hae Jeong; Kim, Sunggil; Ahn, Chun Hee; Lim, Yong Pyo

    2013-10-01

    Fusarium wilt (FW), caused by the soil-borne fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum is a serious disease in cruciferous plants, including the radish (Raphanus sativus). To identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) or gene(s) conferring resistance to FW, we constructed a genetic map of R. sativus using an F2 mapping population derived by crossing the inbred lines '835' (susceptible) and 'B2' (resistant). A total of 220 markers distributed in 9 linkage groups (LGs) were mapped in the Raphanus genome, covering a distance of 1,041.5 cM with an average distance between adjacent markers of 4.7 cM. Comparative analysis of the R. sativus genome with that of Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica rapa revealed 21 and 22 conserved syntenic regions, respectively. QTL mapping detected a total of 8 loci conferring FW resistance that were distributed on 4 LGs, namely, 2, 3, 6, and 7 of the Raphanus genome. Of the detected QTL, 3 QTLs (2 on LG 3 and 1 on LG 7) were constitutively detected throughout the 2-year experiment. QTL analysis of LG 3, flanked by ACMP0609 and cnu_mBRPGM0085, showed a comparatively higher logarithm of the odds (LOD) value and percentage of phenotypic variation. Synteny analysis using the linked markers to this QTL showed homology to A. thaliana chromosome 3, which contains disease-resistance gene clusters, suggesting conservation of resistance genes between them.

  16. Biology and interactions of two distinct monopartite begomoviruses and betasatellites associated with radish leaf curl disease in India

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Emerging whitefly transmitted begomoviruses are major pathogens of vegetable and fibre crops throughout the world, particularly in tropical and sub-tropical regions. Mutation, pseudorecombination and recombination are driving forces for the emergence and evolution of new crop-infecting begomoviruses. Leaf curl disease of field grown radish plants was noticed in Varanasi and Pataudi region of northern India. We have identified and characterized two distinct monopartite begomoviruses and associated beta satellite DNA causing leaf curl disease of radish (Raphanus sativus) in India. Results We demonstrate that RaLCD is caused by a complex of two Old World begomoviruses and their associated betasatellites. Radish leaf curl virus-Varanasi is identified as a new recombinant species, Radish leaf curl virus (RaLCV) sharing maximum nucleotide identity of 87.7% with Tomato leaf curl Bangladesh virus-[Bangladesh:2] (Accession number AF188481) while the virus causing radish leaf curl disease-Pataudi is an isolate of Croton yellow vein mosaic virus-[India] (CYVMV-IN) (Accession number AJ507777) sharing 95.8% nucleotide identity. Further, RDP analysis revealed that the RaLCV has a hybrid genome, a putative recombinant between Euphorbia leaf curl virus and Papaya leaf curl virus. Cloned DNA of either RaLCV or CYVMV induced mild leaf curl symptoms in radish plants. However, when these clones (RaLCV or CYVMV) were individually co-inoculated with their associated cloned DNA betasatellite, symptom severity and viral DNA levels were increased in radish plants and induced typical RaLCD symptoms. To further extend these studies, we carried out an investigation of the interaction of these radish-infecting begomoviruses and their associated satellite, with two tomato infecting begomoviruses (Tomato leaf curl Gujarat virus and Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus). Both of the tomato-infecting begomoviruses showed a contrasting and differential interaction with DNA satellites, not

  17. RadishBase: a database for genomics and genetics of radish.

    PubMed

    Shen, Di; Sun, Honghe; Huang, Mingyun; Zheng, Yi; Li, Xixiang; Fei, Zhangjun

    2013-02-01

    Radish is an economically important vegetable crop. During the past several years, large-scale genomics and genetics resources have been accumulated for this species. To store, query, analyze and integrate these radish resources efficiently, we have developed RadishBase (http://bioinfo.bti.cornell.edu/radish), a genomics and genetics database of radish. Currently the database contains radish mitochondrial genome sequences, expressed sequence tag (EST) and unigene sequences and annotations, biochemical pathways, EST-derived single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers, and genetic maps. RadishBase is designed to enable users easily to retrieve and visualize biologically important information through a set of efficient query interfaces and analysis tools, including the BLAST search and unigene annotation query interfaces, and tools to classify unigenes functionally, to identify enriched gene ontology (GO) terms and to visualize genetic maps. A database containing radish pathways predicted from unigene sequences is also included in RadishBase. The tools and interfaces in RadishBase allow efficient mining of recently released and continually expanding large-scale radish genomics and genetics data sets, including the radish genome sequences and RNA-seq data sets.

  18. Plasma Membrane Ca-ATPase of Radish Seedlings 1

    PubMed Central

    Carnelli, Antonella; De Michelis, Maria I.; Rasi-Caldogno, Franca

    1992-01-01

    In this work, we exploited the capability of the plasma membrane Ca-ATPase to utilize ITP as a substrate to study its characteristics in plasma membrane vesicles purified from radish (Raphanus sativus L.) seedlings. The majority of the ITPase activity of plasma membrane was Ca2+-dependent. The Ca2+-dependent ITPase activity was Mg2+-dependent and was stimulated by the calcium ionophore A23187. It was inhibited by erythrosin B (concentration giving 50% inhibition, 50 nanomolar) and by vanadate (concentration giving 50% inhibition, 3 micromolar) and displayed a broad pH optimum around pH 7.2 to 7.5. Both the hydrolytic and the transport activity of the plasma membrane Ca-ATPase were half-saturated by Ca2+ in the micromolar concentration range. No major effect of EGTA on the saturation kinetics of the enzyme was observed. The affinity of the plasma membrane Ca-ATPase for Ca2+ was about fourfold higher at pH 7.5 than at pH 6.9. The Ca2+-dependent ITPase activity was stimulated about twofold by polyoxyethylene 20 cetyl ether, although it was inhibited by Triton X-100 and by lysolecithin. PMID:16668746

  19. Stress-responsive gene RsICE1 from Raphanus sativus increases cold tolerance in rice.

    PubMed

    Man, Lili; Xiang, Dianjun; Wang, Lina; Zhang, Weiwei; Wang, Xiaodong; Qi, Guochao

    2017-03-01

    The ICE1 transcription factor plays a critical role in plant cold tolerance via triggering CBF/DREB1 cold-regulated signal networks. In this work, a novel MYC-type ICE1-like gene, RsICE1, was isolated from radish (Raphanus sativus L.), and its function in cold tolerance was characterized in rice. The RsICE1 gene was expressed constitutively with higher transcriptional levels in the roots and stems of radish seedlings. The NaCl, cold, and ABA treatments could significantly upregulate RsICE1 expression levels, but dehydration stress had a weak effect on its expression. Ectopic expression of the RsICE1 gene in rice conferred enhanced tolerance to low-temperature stress grounded on a higher survival rate, higher accumulation of soluble sugars and free proline content, a decline in electrolyte leakage and MDA levels, and higher chlorophyll levels relative to control plants. OsDREBL and OsTPP1, downstream cold-regulated genes, were remarkably upregulated at transcription levels in rice overexpressing RsICE1 under low-temperature stress, which indicated that RsICE1 was involved in CBF/DREB1 cold-regulated signal networks. Overall, the above data showed that RsICE1 played an active role in improving rice cold tolerance, most likely resulting from the upregulation of OsDREBL and OsTPP1 expression levels by interacting with the RsICE1 gene under low-temperature stress.

  20. Acetylcholine promotes the emergence and elongation of lateral roots of Raphanus sativus.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Kou-ichi; Tezuka, Takafumi

    2011-10-01

    Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) was grown on four layers of paper towel moistened with distilled water with and without acetylcholine (ACh) for five days in the dark after sowing. ACh at 1 nM promoted the growth (emergence and elongation) of lateral roots of radish plants, but had no effect on the stems and main roots. Moreover, ACh enhanced the dry weight of roots [main (primary) + lateral roots]. Neostigmine, an inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) also promoted the emergence and elongation of lateral roots, and atropine, a competitive inhibitor of ACh receptor, suppressed the emergence and elongation. ACh suppressed the activity of AChE and increased the amount of proteins and pyridine nucleotides (NAD and NADH) in the roots of the seedlings. It also increased the activities of NAD-forming enzymes [NAD synthetase and ATP-nicotinamide mononucleotide (ATP-NMN) adenyltransferase], and enhanced the amount of DNA in the roots of the seedlings. The relationship between ACh and the emergence and growth of lateral roots was discussed from a biochemical viewpoint.

  1. Reduced atmospheric pressure in Radish: Alteration of NCER and transpiration at decreased oxygen partial pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wehkamp, Cara Ann; Stasiak, Michael; Wheeler, Raymond; Dixon, Mike

    Fundamental to the future of space exploration is the development of advanced life support systems capable of maintaining crews for significant periods without re-supply from Earth. Significant research is focused on the development of bioregenerative life support systems to be used in conjunction with the current physico-chemical methods. These bioregenerative life support systems harness natural ecosystem processes and employ plant photosynthesis and transpiration to produce food, oxygen and regenerate water while consuming carbon dioxide. The forthcoming exploration of the Moon and Mars has prompted interest into the effects of hypobaria on plant development. Reduced atmospheric pressures will lessen the pressure gradient between the structure and the local environment thereby decreasing gas leakage and possibly the structural mass of the plant growth facility. In order to establish the optimal specifications for reduced pressure plant growth structures it is essential to determine the atmospheric pressure limits required for conventional plant development and growth. Due to its physiological importance, oxygen will compose a significant portion of these minimal environments. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that reduced atmospheric pressure and decreased oxygen partial pressures had no effect on radish productivity. Radishes (Raphanus sativa L. cv. Cherry Bomb II) were grown from seed in the University of Guelph's Hypobaric Plant Growth Chambers for a period of 21 days. Treatments included total pressures of 10, 33, 66 and 96 kPa and oxygen partial pressures of 2, 7, 14 and 20 kPa. Experiments demonstrated that reduced partial pressures of oxygen had a greater effect on radish growth than hypobaria. Results showed a reduction in net carbon exchange rate and transpiration with decreasing oxygen partial pressures leading to diminished productivity. Keywords: hypobaric, radish, oxygen partial pressure, variable pressure chamber

  2. A 2-Oxoglutarate-Dependent Dioxygenase Mediates the Biosynthesis of Glucoraphasatin in Radish1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Kitashiba, Hiroyasu; Li, Feng; Fukino, Nobuko; Ohara, Takayoshi; Nishio, Takeshi; Ishida, Masahiko

    2017-01-01

    Glucosinolates (GSLs) are secondary metabolites whose degradation products confer intrinsic flavors and aromas to Brassicaceae vegetables. Several structures of GSLs are known in the Brassicaceae, and the biosynthetic pathway and regulatory networks have been elucidated in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). GSLs are precursors of chemical defense substances against herbivorous pests. Specific GSLs can act as feeding blockers or stimulants, depending on the pest species. Natural selection has led to diversity in the GSL composition even within individual species. However, in radish (Raphanus sativus), glucoraphasatin (4-methylthio-3-butenyl glucosinolate) accounts for more than 90% of the total GSLs, and little compositional variation is observed. Because glucoraphasatin is not contained in other members of the Brassicaceae, like Arabidopsis and cabbage (Brassica oleracea), the biosynthetic pathways for glucoraphasatin remain unclear. In this report, we identified and characterized a gene encoding GLUCORAPHASATIN SYNTHASE 1 (GRS1) by genetic mapping using a mutant that genetically lacks glucoraphasatin. Transgenic Arabidopsis, which overexpressed GRS1 cDNA, accumulated glucoraphasatin in the leaves. GRS1 encodes a 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase, and it is abundantly expressed in the leaf. To further investigate the biosynthesis and transportation of GSLs in radish, we grafted a grs1 plant onto a wild-type plant. The grafting experiment revealed a leaf-to-root long-distance glucoraphasatin transport system in radish and showed that the composition of GSLs differed among the organs. Based on these observations, we propose a characteristic biosynthesis pathway for glucoraphasatin in radish. Our results should be useful in metabolite engineering for breeding of high-value vegetables. PMID:28100450

  3. Antilithiasic and Hypolipidaemic Effects of Raphanus sativus L. var. niger on Mice Fed with a Lithogenic Diet

    PubMed Central

    Castro-Torres, Ibrahim Guillermo; Naranjo-Rodríguez, Elia Brosla; Domínguez-Ortíz, Miguel Ángel; Gallegos-Estudillo, Janeth; Saavedra-Vélez, Margarita Virginia

    2012-01-01

    In Mexico, Raphanus sativus L. var. niger (black radish) has uses for the treatment of gallstones and for decreasing lipids serum levels. We evaluate the effect of juice squeezed from black radish root in cholesterol gallstones and serum lipids of mice. The toxicity of juice was analyzed according to the OECD guidelines. We used female C57BL/6 mice fed with a lithogenic diet. We performed histopathological studies of gallbladder and liver, and measured concentrations of cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and triglycerides. The juice can be considered bioactive and non-toxic; the lithogenic diet significantly induced cholesterol gallstones; increased cholesterol and triglycerides levels, and decreased HDL levels; gallbladder wall thickness increased markedly, showing epithelial hyperplasia and increased liver weight. After treatment with juice for 6 days, cholesterol gallstones were eradicated significantly in the gallbladder of mice; cholesterol and triglycerides levels decreased too, and there was also an increase in levels of HDL (P < 0.05). Gallbladder tissue continued to show epithelial hyperplasia and granulocyte infiltration; liver tissue showed vacuolar degeneration. The juice of black radish root has properties for treatment of cholesterol gallstones and for decreasing serum lipids levels; therefore, we confirm in a preclinical study the utility that people give it in traditional medicine. PMID:23093836

  4. Toxic effects of Al-based coagulants on Brassica chinensis and Raphanus sativus growing in acid and neutral conditions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kaisong; Zhou, Qixing

    2005-04-01

    The ecotoxicological effects of aluminum (Al)-based coagulants are of concern because of their wide-ranging applications in wastewater treatment and water purification. As important Al-based coagulants, AlCl(3) and PAC (polyaluminum-chloride) were selected as examples to examine the toxic effects on representative vegetables including the cabbage Brassica chinensis and the radish Raphanus sativus over a range of exposure concentrations in neutral (pH 7.00) and acidic (pH 4.00) conditions, using seed germination and root elongation in the early-growth stage as indicators of toxicity. The results showed that root elongation of the two vegetables was a more sensitive indicator than was seed germination for evaluating the toxicity of Al. As a single influencing factor, H(+) had no significant direct effects on root elongation of Brassica chinensis and Raphanus sativus under the experimental conditions. The toxicity of Al played the main role in inhibiting root elongation and seed germination and was strongly related to changes in pH. There was a markedly positive relationship between the inhibitory rate of root elongation, seed germination, and the concentration of Al at pH 4.00 (p < 0.01). The toxic effect of AlCl(3) on Brassica chinensis was less with a neutral pH than at pH 4.00, but Raphanus sativus was more susceptible to AlCl(3) toxicity at a neutral pH than at pH 4.00. Both Raphanus sativus and Brassica chinensis had a more toxic response to a low concentration (<64 mg . L(-1)) of PAC in a neutral condition than in an acidic condition. Undoubtedly, the Al toxicity caused by Al-based coagulants at a neutral pH is relevant when treatment solids are used in agriculture.

  5. Mechanistic insights from DGT and soil solution measurements on the uptake of Ni and Cd by radish.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jun; Cheng, Hao; Ren, Jinghua; Davison, William; Zhang, Hao

    2014-07-01

    This work tests the previously proposed hypothesis that plant uptake of metals is determined dominantly by diffusional controlled or plant limiting uptake mechanisms at, respectively, low and high metal concentrations. Radish (Raphanus sativus) was grown in 13 soils spiked with Ni (10 and 100 mg kg(-1)) and Cd (0.5 and 4 mg kg(-1)) for 4 weeks to investigate the mechanisms affecting plant uptake. Soil solution concentrations, Css, of Ni and Cd were measured, along with the DGT interfacial concentration, CDGT, and the derived effective concentration in soil solution, CE. Free ion activities, aNi(2+) and aCd(2+), were obtained using WHAM 6. Although there was a poor relationship between Ni in radish roots and either Css or aNi(2+) in unamended soils, the distribution of data could be rationalized in terms of the extent of release of Ni from the soil solid phase, as identified by DGT and soil solution measurements. By contrast Ni in radish was linearly related to CE, demonstrating diffusion limited uptake. For soils amended with high concentrations of Ni, linear relationships were obtained for Ni in radish plotted against, Css, aNi(2+), and CE, consistent with the plant controlling uptake. For Ni the hypothesis concerning dominant diffusional and plant limiting uptake mechanisms was demonstrated. Poor relationships between Cd in radish and Css, aCd(2+), and CE, irrespective of amendment by Cd, showed the importance of factors other than diffusional supply, such as rhizosphere and inhibitory processes, and that fulfilment of this hypothesis is plant and metal specific.

  6. A major factor in gravitropism in radish hypocotyls is the suppression of growth on the upper side of hypocotyls.

    PubMed

    Tokiwa, Hikari; Hasegawa, Tsuyoshi; Yamada, Kosumi; Shigemori, Hideyuki; Hasegawa, Koji

    2006-12-01

    The changes in length on the two opposite sides of etiolated radish (Raphanus sativus) hypocotyls prior to, and following gravitropic stimulation, were measured using an infrared-imaging system. It was observed that the growth suppression on the upper side began first at least 10 min after the onset of gravitropic stimulation, and after 30 min the acceleration in growth on the lower side started. The gravitropic curvature was steadily induced from 10 min. When radish hypocotyls were switched from a vertical to horizontal position for different durations and then replaced to the vertical position, the growth suppression on the gravity-stimulated (upper) side was observed in all cases, but the acceleration in growth on the opposite (lower) side appeared only in continuously gravity-stimulated seedlings, although it occurred later than the growth suppression on the upper side. These results suggest that the suppression in growth on the upper side of the hypocotyls is a direct effect of gravitropic stimulation, but not the acceleration on the lower side. When 4-methylthio-3-butenyl isothiocyanate (4-MTBI), which has an inhibitory activity against radish hypocotyl growth, was applied on the one side of radish hypocotyls and then the 4-MTBI-applied side or opposite side was placed in a horizontal position, the former showed greater bending than the control, suggesting that the growth suppression on the upper side is enhanced and maintained with MTBI application there. In the latter case, the seedlings showed less bending than the control, suggesting a decrease in growth on the lower side with MTBI application. All the results suggest that gravitropism of radish hypocotyls may be caused by an increase in growth-inhibiting substance(s) induced with gravitropic stimulation in the upper side, inducing growth inhibition there.

  7. Identification of Flowering-Related Genes Responsible for Differences in Bolting Time between Two Radish Inbred Lines

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Won Yong; Park, Hyun Ji; Lee, Areum; Lee, Sang Sook; Kim, Youn-Sung; Cho, Hye Sun

    2016-01-01

    Late bolting after cold exposure is an economically important characteristic of radish (Raphanus sativus L.), an important Brassicaceae root vegetable crop. However, little information is available regarding the genes and pathways that govern flowering time in this species. We performed high-throughput RNA sequencing analysis to elucidate the molecular mechanisms that determine the differences in flowering times between two radish lines, NH-JS1 (late bolting) and NH-JS2 (early bolting). In total, 71,188 unigenes were identified by reference-guided assembly, of which 309, 788, and 980 genes were differentially expressed between the two inbred lines after 0, 15, and 35 days of vernalization, respectively. Among these genes, 218 homologs of Arabidopsis flowering-time (Ft) genes were identified in the radish, and 49 of these genes were differentially expressed between the two radish lines in the presence or absence of vernalization treatment. Most of the Ft genes up-regulated in NH-JS1 vs. NH-JS2 were repressors of flowering, such as RsFLC, consistent with the late-bolting phenotype of NH-JS1. Although, the functions of genes down-regulated in NH-JS1 were less consistent with late-bolting characteristics than the up-regulated Ft genes, several Ft enhancer genes, including RsSOC1, a key floral integrator, showed an appropriate expression to the late-bolting phenotype. In addition, the patterns of gene expression related to the vernalization pathway closely corresponded with the different bolting times of the two inbred lines. These results suggest that the vernalization pathway is conserved between radish and Arabidopsis. PMID:28018383

  8. Study of Biological Effects of Low Energy Ion Implantation on Tomato and Radish Breeding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Qiuxia; Huang, Qunce; Cao, Gangqiang; Ying, Fangqing; Liu, Yanbo; Huang, Wen

    2008-04-01

    Biological effects of 30 keV low energy nitrogen ion implantation on the seeds of five types of tomato and one type of radish were investigated. Results showed that low energy ions have different effects on different vegetables. The whole dose-response curve of the germination ratio did not take on "the shape of saddle", but was a rising and falling waveform with the increase or decrease in ion implantation. In the vegetable of Solanaceae, two outstanding aberrant plants were selected from M1 of Henan No.4 tomato at a dose of 7 × 1017 nitrogen ions/cm2, which had thin-leaves, long-petal and nipple tip fruit stably inherited to M7. Furthermore the analysis of the isozyme showed that the activity of the mutant tomato seedling was distinct in quantity and color. In Raphanus sativus L., the aberrances were obvious in the mutant of radish 791 at a dose of 5 × 1017 nitrogen ions/cm2, and the weight of succulent root and the volume of growth were over twice the control's. At present, many species for breeding have been identified in the field and only stable species have been selected for the experiment of production. It is evident that the low energy ion implantation technology has clear effects on vegetables' genetic improvement.

  9. Effect of carbon dioxide enrichment on radish production using Nutrient Film Technique (NFT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackowiak, C. L.; Ruffe, L. M.; Yorio, N. C.; Wheeler, R. M.

    1994-01-01

    Radish plants (Raphanus sativus L. cvs. Cherry Belle, Giant White Globe, and Early Scarlet Globe) were grown in four different CO2 enriched environments, 0.04, 0.10, 0.50, and 1.00 kPa (400, 1000, 5000, 10000 ppm). Cultivar responses to CO2 treatments varied, where cv. Cherry Belle showed no significant response to CO2 enrichment, cv. Giant White Globe was moderately affected and Early Scarlet Globe was strongly affected. Enrichment at 0.10 kPa led to greater root dry matter (DM) than 1.00 kPa for cv. Giant White Glove, whereas 0.10 kPa produced greater storage root, shoot, and root DM than 1.00 kPa for cv. Early Scarlet Globe. The data suggest that 1.00 kPa CO2 may be detrimental to the growth of certain radish cultivars. Root:shoot ratios tended to increase with increasing CO2 concentration. Water use efficiency (g biomass/kg H2O) increased with increasing CO2 enrichment, up to 0.5 kPa but then declined at the 1.00 kPa treatment. The total nitric acid used to maintain nutrient solution pH was lowest at the 1.00 kPa treatment as well, suggesting a decreased demand of nutrients by the plants at the highest CO2 level.

  10. Growth enhancement effects of radish sprouts: atmospheric pressure plasma irradiation vs. heat shock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarinont, T.; Amano, T.; Kitazaki, S.; Koga, K.; Uchida, G.; Shiratani, M.; Hayashi, N.

    2014-06-01

    We compare growth enhancement effects due to atmospheric air dielectric barrier discharge plasma irradiation and heat shock to seeds of radish sprouts (Raphanus sativus L.). Interactions between radicals and seeds in a short duration of 3 min. lead to the growth enhancement of radish sprouts in a long term of 7 days and the maximum average length is 3.7 times as long as that of control. The growth enhancement effects become gradually weak with time, and hence the ratio of the average length for plasma irradiation to that for control decreases from 3.7 for the first day to 1.3 for 7 day. The average length for heat shock of 60°C for 10 min. and 100°C for 3 min. is longer than that for control, and the maximum average length is 1.3 times as long as that of control. Heat shock has little contribution to the growth enhancement due to plasma irradiation, because the maximum temperature due to plasma irradiation is less than 60°C.

  11. Lipid utilization in radish seedlings as affected by weak horizontal extremely low frequency magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Novitskii, Yurii I; Novitskaya, Galina V; Serdyukov, Yurii A

    2014-02-01

    Composition and content of lipids were studied in 5-day-old radish seedlings (Raphanus sativus L. var. radicula DC.) grown in lowlight and darkness in an extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic field characterized by 50 Hz frequency and ∼500 µT flux density. The control seedlings were grown under the same conditions, but without exposure to the magnetic field. The products of lipid metabolism were compared with lipid composition in seeds. In control seedlings, reserve neutral lipids, mostly triacylglycerides, were utilized for the formation of polar lipids (PL). As a result, the amount of the latter doubled, particularly due to glycolipids (GL) and phospholipids (PhL) compared to their content in seeds. At 20-22 °C in light, magnetic field exposure increased the production of PL by threefold specifically, GL content increased fourfold and PhL content rose 2.5 times, compared to seeds. In darkness, the effect of magnetic field on lipids was weaker. At the lower temperature of 13-16 °C in light, the effect of the magnetic field was weak, but in the darkness, no magnetic field action was recorded. It is concluded that ELF magnetic field stimulated lipid synthesis in chloroplast, mitochondrial, and other cell membranes in radish seedlings grown in light at 20-22 °C and 13-16 °C.

  12. 2,4-D resistance in wild radish: reduced herbicide translocation via inhibition of cellular transport

    PubMed Central

    Goggin, Danica E.; Cawthray, Gregory R.; Powles, Stephen B.

    2016-01-01

    Resistance to auxinic herbicides is increasing in a range of dicotyledonous weed species, but in most cases the biochemical mechanism of resistance is unknown. Using 14C-labelled herbicide, the mechanism of resistance to 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) in two wild radish (Raphanus raphanistrum L.) populations was identified as an inability to translocate 2,4-D out of the treated leaf. Although 2,4-D was metabolized in wild radish, and in a different manner to the well-characterized crop species wheat and bean, there was no difference in metabolism between the susceptible and resistant populations. Reduced translocation of 2,4-D in the latter was also not due to sequestration of the herbicide, or to reduced uptake by the leaf epidermis or mesophyll cells. Application of auxin efflux or ABCB transporter inhibitors to 2,4-D-susceptible plants caused a mimicking of the reduced-translocation resistance phenotype, suggesting that 2,4-D resistance in the populations under investigation could be due to an alteration in the activity of a plasma membrane ABCB-type auxin transporter responsible for facilitating long-distance transport of 2,4-D. PMID:26994475

  13. Copper and Zn uptake by radish and pakchoi as affected by application of livestock and poultry manures.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Dong-Mei; Hao, Xiu-Zhen; Wang, Yu-Jun; Dong, Yuan-Hua; Cang, Long

    2005-04-01

    Environmental safety of agricultural utilization of livestock and poultry manures from intensive farming is attracting great attention because the manures often contain high concentrations of heavy metals and organic pollutants. Pot experiments, in which a pig manure (PM), a chicken manure (CM) and a commercial organic manure (OM) with different concentrations of Cu and Zn to simulate soil metal accumulation by manure application for different times were utilized in a garden soil at a rate of 2% (W/W), were conducted to study the effect of application of these livestock and poultry manures on growth of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) and pakchoi (Brassica chinensis L.) as well as their Cu and Zn uptake. The results exhibit that the manures except the PM improved the growth of radish and pakchoi. The difference of biomass among the same manure treatments containing different concentrations of Cu and Zn, however, was insignificant. In addition, application of the livestock and poultry manures significantly increased soil pHs and electric conductivities (EC) compared with the control, which is ascribed that these manures had high pH and contained large amounts of inorganic ions. The available soil Zn concentrations in the PM were higher than that in the CM and OM, and the extractable soil Cu concentrations in the three manures were almost the same after radish growth in the garden soil but were different after pakchoi growth. Zinc and Cu concentrations in the radish and pakchoi tissues increased when the soil Zn and Cu concentrations increased by manures application, but were still within a safe value. An except is the treatment PM4 in which the Zn concentration of the above-ground part of radish was 28.7 mg kg-1, exceeding the Chinese Food Hygiene Standard of 20 mg kg-1 based on fresh weight. Good correlation was obtained between the extractable soil Zn (or Cu) concentrations extracted by 1.0 mol l-1 NH4NO3 and the Zn (or Cu) concentrations in radish and pakchoi tissues

  14. Comparison of the effect of ionic liquids containing hexafluorophosphate and trifluoroacetate anions on the inhibition of growth and oxidative stress in spring barley and common radish.

    PubMed

    Biczak, Robert; Pawłowska, Barbara; Feder-Kubis, Joanna; Telesiński, Arkadiusz

    2017-02-01

    Ionic liquids are a group of chemical compounds with chemical properties that are of great interest to various fields of science and industry. However, commercial use of these substances raises concern because they may threaten the natural ecosystems. The present study used 2 types of (-)-menthol-containing imidazolium chiral ionic liquids: 1-[(1R,2S,5R)-(-)-menthoxymethyl]-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate [Im-Men][PF6 ] and 1-[(1R,2S,5R)-(-)-menthoxymethyl]-3-methylimidazolium trifluoroacetate [Im-Men][CF3 CO2 ]. The effects of these compounds on growth and development of spring barley (Hordeum vulgare) and common radish (Raphanus sativus L. subvar. radicula Pers.) were investigated. The present study demonstrated that chiral ionic liquids produced a relatively high phytotoxicity, by shortening the plants' lengths and roots, thus causing a decline in the experimental plants' fresh weights. The investigated ionic liquids also led to a reduction in photosynthetic pigment levels, changes in hydrogen peroxide and malondialdehyde content, and changes in the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and peroxidase in both plants. Changes in these enzymes were used to indicate oxidative stress levels in spring barley and common radish. It was demonstrated that imidazolium ionic liquid-induced phytotoxicity depended largely on the type of anion. The liquid [Im-Men][PF6 ] exhibited higher toxicity toward spring barley and common radish seedlings. Common radish was more resistant to chiral ionic liquids. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;9999:1-11. © 2017 SETAC.

  15. Metabolomic analysis with GC-MS to reveal potential metabolites and biological pathways involved in Pb & Cd stress response of radish roots

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan; Xu, Liang; Shen, Hong; Wang, Juanjuan; Liu, Wei; Zhu, Xianwen; Wang, Ronghua; Sun, Xiaochuan; Liu, Liwang

    2015-01-01

    The radish (Raphanus sativus L.) is an important root vegetable crop. In this study, the metabolite profiling analysis of radish roots exposed to lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) stresses has been performed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The score plots of principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares-discriminate analysis (PLS-DA) showed clear discrimination between control and Pb- or Cd-treated samples. The metabolic profiling indicated Pb or Cd stress could cause large metabolite alteration mainly on sugars, amino acids and organic acids. Furthermore, an integrated analysis of the effects of Pb or Cd stress was performed on the levels of metabolites and gene transcripts from our previous transcriptome work in radish roots. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis of integration data demonstrated that exposure of radish to Pb stress resulted in profound biochemical changes including carbohydrate metabolism, energy metabolism and glutathione metabolism, while the treatment of Cd stress caused significant variations in energy production, amino acid metabolism and oxidative phosphorylation-related pathways. These results would facilitate further dissection of the mechanisms of heavy metal (HM) accumulation/tolerance in plants and the effective management of HM contamination in vegetable crops by genetic manipulation. PMID:26673153

  16. Cerium oxide nanoparticles alter the antioxidant capacity but do not impact tuber ionome in Raphanus sativus (L).

    PubMed

    Corral-Diaz, Baltazar; Peralta-Videa, Jose R; Alvarez-Parrilla, Emilio; Rodrigo-García, Joaquin; Morales, Maria Isabel; Osuna-Avila, Pedro; Niu, Genhua; Hernandez-Viezcas, Jose A; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L

    2014-11-01

    The effects of nCeO2 on food quality are not well known yet. This research was performed to determine the impact of nCeO2 on radish (Raphanus sativus L.). Plants were cultivated to full maturity in potting soil treated with nCeO2 at concentrations of 0, 62.5, 125, 250, and 500 mg/kg. Germination, growth, photosynthesis, ionome, and antioxidants were evaluated at different growth stages. Results showed that at 500 mg/kg, nCeO2 significantly retarded seed germination but did not reduce the number of germinated seeds. None of the treatments affected gas exchange, photosynthesis, growth, phenols, flavonoids, and nutrients' accumulation in tubers and leaves of adult plants. However, tubers' antioxidant capacity, expressed as FRAP, ABTS(•-) and DPPH, increased by 30%, 32%, and 85%, respectively, in plants treated with 250 mg nCeO2kg(-1) soil. In addition, cerium accumulation in tubers of plants treated with 250 and 500 mg/kg reached 72 and 142 mg/kg d wt, respectively. This suggests that nCeO2 could improve the radical scavenging potency of radish but it might introduce nCeO2 into the food chain with unknown consequences.

  17. The antifungal plant defensin RsAFP2 from radish induces apoptosis in a metacaspase independent way in Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Aerts, An M; Carmona-Gutierrez, Didac; Lefevre, Sophie; Govaert, Gilmer; François, Isabelle E J A; Madeo, Frank; Santos, Renata; Cammue, Bruno P A; Thevissen, Karin

    2009-08-06

    We show that the antifungal plant defensin Raphanus sativus antifungal protein 2 (RsAFP2) from radish induces apoptosis and concomitantly triggers activation of caspases or caspase-like proteases in the human pathogen Candida albicans. Furthermore, we demonstrate that deletion of C. albicans metacaspase 1, encoding the only reported (putative) caspase in C. albicans, significantly affects caspase activation by the apoptotic stimulus acetic acid, but not by RsAFP2. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the induction of apoptosis with concomitant caspase activation by a defensin in this pathogen. Moreover, our data point to the existence of at least two different types of caspases or caspase-like proteases in C. albicans.

  18. Methyl jasmonate affects morphology, number and activity of endoplasmic reticulum bodies in Raphanus sativus root cells.

    PubMed

    Gotté, Maxime; Ghosh, Rajgourab; Bernard, Sophie; Nguema-Ona, Eric; Vicré-Gibouin, Maïté; Hara-Nishimura, Ikuko; Driouich, Azeddine

    2015-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) bodies are ER-derived structures that are found in Brassicaceae species and thought to play a role in defense. Here, we have investigated the occurrence, distribution and function of ER bodies in root cells of Raphanus sativus using a combination of microscopic and biochemical methods. We have also assessed the response of ER bodies to methyl jasmonate (MeJA), a phytohormone that mediates plant defense against wounding and pathogens. Our results show that (i) ER bodies do occur in different root cell types from the root cap region to the differentiation zone; (ii) they do accumulate a PYK10-like protein similar to the major marker protein of ER bodies that is involved in defense in Arabidopsis thaliana; and (iii) treatment of root cells with MeJA causes a significant increase in the number of ER bodies and the activity of β-glucosidases. More importantly, MeJA was found to induce the formation of very long ER bodies that results from the fusion of small ones, a phenomenon that has not been reported in any other study so far. These findings demonstrate that MeJA impacts the number and morphology of functional ER bodies and stimulates ER body enzyme activities, probably to participate in defense responses of radish root. They also suggest that these structures may provide a defensive system specific to root cells.

  19. Growth inhibition and efficiency of the antioxidant system in spring barley and common radish grown on soil polluted ionic liquids with iodide anions.

    PubMed

    Biczak, Robert; Śnioszek, Martyna; Telesiński, Arkadiusz; Pawłowska, Barbara

    2017-05-01

    Ionic liquids (ILs) constitute a huge group of substances that are increasingly common in the commercial use. This situation may lead to the contamination of the soil environment which being the basic of plants vegetation. This paper presents the effect of four ILs with I(-) anion on the growth and development of spring barley (Hordeum vulgare) and common radish (Raphanus sativus L. subvar. radicula Pers) and changes in metabolism of the plants. Seedlings of spring barley and common radish cultivated on soil with increasing ILs concentration exhibited typical phytotoxicity symptoms. A considerable reduction of shoot and root lengths, decrease of fresh weight (FW) and increase of dry weight (DW) occurred in both test plants. Ionic liquids concentration increase in soil was correlated with the decrease of concentrations of all photosynthetic pigments in the plants. The observed increase of malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration and changes in the H2O2 level indicated presence of oxidative stress in spring barley and common radish, which usually led to the increase of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) activity. The most reliable biomarker of oxidative stress was chlorophyll level and changes in POD activity.

  20. The effect of the number of alkyl substituents on imidazolium ionic liquids phytotoxicity and oxidative stress in spring barley and common radish seedlings.

    PubMed

    Biczak, Robert; Pawłowska, Barbara; Telesiński, Arkadiusz; Ciesielski, Wojciech

    2016-12-01

    Increasing amounts of two ILs: 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate [BMIM][PF6] and 1-butyl-2,3-dimethylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate [BMMIM][PF6], were introduced to soil in which spring barley (Hordeum vulgare) and common radish (Raphanus sativus L. subvar. radicula Pers.) seedlings were cultivated, in order to evaluate the phytotoxicity of ionic liquids with imidazolium cation with two or three alkyl substituents attached. The results of the study i.e. the inhibition of the length of plants and their roots, as well as the yield of fresh weight of plants, clearly showed that differences in the number of substituents did not affect the toxicity of these ILs. Although, radish was more resistant to the applied ionic liquids than barley. Ionic liquids led to a decrease in the content of all assimilation pigments and induced oxidative stress in the plants, as showed by an increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) content, and changes in the level of H2O2 and antioxidant enzymes: superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD). The best biomarkers of oxidative stress in both plants were the changes in chlorophyll content and the increase in POD activity. Both spring barley and radish exposed to [BMIM][PF6] and [BMMIM][PF6] accumulated a large amount of fluoride ions, which further increased the toxicity of these compounds for both plants.

  1. Disinfection of radish and alfalfa seeds inoculated with Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella by a gaseous acetic acid treatment.

    PubMed

    Nei, Daisuke; Latiful, Bari M; Enomoto, Katsuyoshi; Inatsu, Yasuhiro; Kawamoto, Shinnichi

    2011-10-01

    Abstract The majority of seed sprout-related outbreaks have been associated with Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella. Therefore, we aimed to find an effective method to inactivate these organisms on seeds before sprouting. Treatment with 8.7% (v/v) acetic acid at 55°C for 2-3 h reduced the population of E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella inoculated on alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and radish seeds (Raphanus sativus L.) by more than 5.0 log CFU/g, and a longer treatment time completely eliminated the E. coli O157:H7 population. The E. coli O157:H7 populations were reduced to an undetectable level with a gaseous acetic acid treatment for 48 h. After enrichment, no E. coli O157:H7 were found in the alfalfa and radish seeds (25 g). However, these treatments were unable to eliminate Salmonella in both seed types. No significant difference between the germination rates of treated alfalfa seeds and control seeds was found, and germination rates greater than 95% were obtained for the radish seeds. Although chlorine washing is commonly used for seed decontamination, chlorine washing at 200 and 20,000 ppm resulted in a reduction of pathogens by less than or equal to 3 log CFU/g. Therefore, these results suggested that gaseous acetic acid is more effective than chlorine washing in controlling pathogenic bacteria on sprout seeds.

  2. Improving spinach, radish, and lettuce growth under red light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with blue light supplementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yorio, N. C.; Goins, G. D.; Kagie, H. R.; Wheeler, R. M.; Sager, J. C.

    2001-01-01

    Radish (Raphanus sativus L. cv. Cherriette), lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cv. Waldmann's Green), and spinach (Spinacea oleracea L. cv. Nordic IV) plants were grown under 660-nm red light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and were compared at equal photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) with either plants grown under cool-white fluorescent lamps (CWF) or red LEDs supplemented with 10% (30 micromoles m-2 s-1) blue light (400-500 nm) from blue fluorescent (BF) lamps. At 21 days after planting (DAP), leaf photosynthetic rates and stomatal conductance were greater for plants grown under CWF light than for those grown under red LEDs, with or without supplemental blue light. At harvest (21 DAP), total dry-weight accumulation was significantly lower for all species tested when grown under red LEDs alone than when grown under CWF light or red LEDs + 10% BF light. Moreover, total dry weight for radish and spinach was significantly lower under red LEDs + 10% BF than under CWF light, suggesting that addition of blue light to the red LEDs was still insufficient for achieving maximal growth for these crops.

  3. Modification in growth, biomass and yield of radish under supplemental UV-B at different NPK levels.

    PubMed

    Singh, Suruchi; Kumari, Rima; Agrawal, Madhoolika; Agrawal, S B

    2011-05-01

    Growth, biomass, yield and quality characteristics of radish (Raphanus sativus L. var. Pusa Himani) were investigated under supplemental UV-B (sUV-B; 280-320 nm; +7.2 kJ m(-2) d(-1)) radiation at varying levels of soil NPK. Combinations of NPK were recommended, 1.5 times NPK, 1.5 times N and 1.5 times K. sUV-B radiation negatively affected the growth and economic yield with more reductions at 1.5 times recommended NPK, N and K compared to recommended NPK. Total biomass remained unaffected in plants at recommended NPK under sUV-B radiation. At 1.5 times NPK and N more partitioning of biomass to shoot led to reduction in root shoot ratio and consequently yield under sUV-B. Nutrients in edible part declined maximally at 1.5 times recommended K under sUV-B. The study suggests that higher than recommended NPK makes radish plants more sensitive to sUV-B in terms of yield by allocating less photosynthates towards roots compared to shoots.

  4. Are Radishes Really Allelopathic to Lettuce?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santaniello, Catherine M.; Koning, Ross E.

    1996-01-01

    Presents an experiment that challenges the claim that sprouting radish seedlings release chemicals into the environment that inhibit germination of lettuce seeds. Reports that although no simple allelopathic demonstration was observed, the experiment provides fertile ground for further experimentation in inquiry-based laboratory experiences. (JRH)

  5. Effects of Silver Nanoparticles on Radish Sprouts: Root Growth Reduction and Modifications in the Nutritional Value

    PubMed Central

    Zuverza-Mena, Nubia; Armendariz, Raul; Peralta-Videa, Jose R.; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L.

    2016-01-01

    Reports indicate that silver nanoparticles (nAg) are toxic to vegetation, but little is known about their effects in crop plants. This study examines the impacts of nAg on the physiology and nutritional quality of radish (Raphanus sativus) sprouts. Seeds were germinated and grown for 5 days in nAg suspensions at 0, 125, 250, and 500 mg/L. Seed germination and seedling growth were evaluated with traditional methodologies; the uptake of Ag and nutrients was quantified by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) and changes in macromolecules were analyzed by infrared (IR) spectroscopy. None of the nAg concentrations reduced seed germination. However, the water content (% of the total weight) was reduced by 1.62, 1.65, and 2.54% with exposure to 125, 250, and 500 mg/L, respectively, compared with the control. At 500 mg/L, the root and shoot lengths were reduced by 47.7 and 40%, with respect to the control. The seedlings exposed to 500 mg/L had 901 ± 150 mg Ag/kg dry wt and significantly less Ca, Mg, B, Cu, Mn, and Zn, compared with the control. The infrared spectroscopy analysis showed changes in the bands corresponding to lipids (3000–2800 cm-1), proteins (1550–1530 cm-1), and structural components of plant cells such as lignin, pectin, and cellulose. These results suggest that nAg could significantly affect the growth, nutrient content and macromolecule conformation in radish sprouts, with unknown consequences for human health. PMID:26909084

  6. Purification and sequencing of radish seed calmodulin antagonists phosphorylated by calcium-dependent protein kinase.

    PubMed Central

    Polya, G M; Chandra, S; Condron, R

    1993-01-01

    A family of radish (Raphanus sativus) calmodulin antagonists (RCAs) was purified from seeds by extraction, centrifugation, batch-wise elution from carboxymethyl-cellulose, and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) on an SP5PW cation-exchange column. This RCA fraction was further resolved into three calmodulin antagonist polypeptides (RCA1, RCA2, and RCA3) by denaturation in the presence of guanidinium HCl and mercaptoethanol and subsequent reverse-phase HPLC on a C8 column eluted with an acetonitrile gradient in the presence of 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid. The RCA preparation, RCA1, RCA2, RCA3, and other radish seed proteins are phosphorylated by wheat embryo Ca(2+)-dependent protein kinase (CDPK). The RCA preparation contains other CDPK substrates in addition to RCA1, RCA2, and RCA3. The RCA preparation, RCA1, RCA2, and RCA3 inhibit chicken gizzard calmodulin-dependent myosin light chain kinase assayed with a myosin-light chain-based synthetic peptide substrate (fifty percent inhibitory concentrations of RCA2 and RCA3 are about 7 and 2 microM, respectively). N-terminal sequencing by sequential Edman degradation of RCA1, RCA2, and RCA3 revealed sequences having a high homology with the small subunit of the storage protein napin from Brassica napus and with related proteins. The deduced amino acid sequences of RCA1, RCA2, RCA3, and RCA3' (a subform of RCA3) have agreement with average molecular masses from electrospray mass spectrometry of 4537, 4543, 4532, and 4560 kD, respectively. The only sites for serine phosphorylation are near or at the C termini and hence adjacent to the sites of proteolytic precursor cleavage. PMID:8278508

  7. Selenium Biofortification in Radish Enhances Nutritional Quality via Accumulation of Methyl-Selenocysteine and Promotion of Transcripts and Metabolites Related to Glucosinolates, Phenolics, and Amino Acids.

    PubMed

    Schiavon, Michela; Berto, Chiara; Malagoli, Mario; Trentin, Annarita; Sambo, Paolo; Dall'Acqua, Stefano; Pilon-Smits, Elizabeth A H

    2016-01-01

    Two selenium (Se) fertilization methods were tested for their effects on levels of anticarcinogenic selenocompounds in radish (Raphanus sativus), as well as other nutraceuticals. First, radish was grown on soil and foliar selenate applied 7 days before harvest at 0, 5, 10, and 20 mg Se per plant. Selenium levels were up to 1200 mg Se/kg DW in leaves and 120 mg Se/kg DW in roots. The thiols cysteine and glutathione were present at 2-3-fold higher levels in roots of Se treated plants, and total glucosinolate levels were 35% higher, due to increases in glucoraphanin. The only seleno-aminoacid detected in Se treated plants was Se-methyl-SeCys (100 mg/kg FW in leaves, 33 mg/kg FW in roots). The levels of phenolic aminoacids increased with selenate treatment, as did root total nitrogen and protein content, while the level of several polyphenols decreased. Second, radish was grown in hydroponics and supplied with 0, 5, 10, 20, or 40 μM selenate for 1 week. Selenate treatment led to a 20-30% increase in biomass. Selenium concentration was 242 mg Se/kg DW in leaves and 85 mg Se/kg DW in roots. Cysteine levels decreased with Se in leaves but increased in roots; glutatione levels decreased in both. Total glucosinolate levels in leaves decreased with Se treatment due to repression of genes involved in glucosinolates metabolism. Se-methyl-SeCys concentration ranged from 7-15 mg/kg FW. Aminoacid concentration increased with Se treatment in leaves but decreased in roots. Roots of Se treated plants contained elevated transcript levels of sulfate transporters (Sultr) and ATP sulfurylase, a key enzyme of S/Se assimilation. No effects on polyphenols were observed. In conclusion, Se biofortification of radish roots may be achieved via foliar spray or hydroponic supply. One to ten radishes could fulfill the daily human requirement (70 μg) after a single foliar spray of 5 mg selenate per plant or 1 week of 5-10 μM selenate supply in hydroponics. The radishes metabolized selenate to

  8. Selenium Biofortification in Radish Enhances Nutritional Quality via Accumulation of Methyl-Selenocysteine and Promotion of Transcripts and Metabolites Related to Glucosinolates, Phenolics, and Amino Acids

    PubMed Central

    Schiavon, Michela; Berto, Chiara; Malagoli, Mario; Trentin, Annarita; Sambo, Paolo; Dall'Acqua, Stefano; Pilon-Smits, Elizabeth A. H.

    2016-01-01

    Two selenium (Se) fertilization methods were tested for their effects on levels of anticarcinogenic selenocompounds in radish (Raphanus sativus), as well as other nutraceuticals. First, radish was grown on soil and foliar selenate applied 7 days before harvest at 0, 5, 10, and 20 mg Se per plant. Selenium levels were up to 1200 mg Se/kg DW in leaves and 120 mg Se/kg DW in roots. The thiols cysteine and glutathione were present at 2–3-fold higher levels in roots of Se treated plants, and total glucosinolate levels were 35% higher, due to increases in glucoraphanin. The only seleno-aminoacid detected in Se treated plants was Se-methyl-SeCys (100 mg/kg FW in leaves, 33 mg/kg FW in roots). The levels of phenolic aminoacids increased with selenate treatment, as did root total nitrogen and protein content, while the level of several polyphenols decreased. Second, radish was grown in hydroponics and supplied with 0, 5, 10, 20, or 40 μM selenate for 1 week. Selenate treatment led to a 20–30% increase in biomass. Selenium concentration was 242 mg Se/kg DW in leaves and 85 mg Se/kg DW in roots. Cysteine levels decreased with Se in leaves but increased in roots; glutatione levels decreased in both. Total glucosinolate levels in leaves decreased with Se treatment due to repression of genes involved in glucosinolates metabolism. Se-methyl-SeCys concentration ranged from 7–15 mg/kg FW. Aminoacid concentration increased with Se treatment in leaves but decreased in roots. Roots of Se treated plants contained elevated transcript levels of sulfate transporters (Sultr) and ATP sulfurylase, a key enzyme of S/Se assimilation. No effects on polyphenols were observed. In conclusion, Se biofortification of radish roots may be achieved via foliar spray or hydroponic supply. One to ten radishes could fulfill the daily human requirement (70 μg) after a single foliar spray of 5 mg selenate per plant or 1 week of 5–10 μM selenate supply in hydroponics. The radishes metabolized

  9. Chromium Stress Mitigation by Polyamine-Brassinosteroid Application Involves Phytohormonal and Physiological Strategies in Raphanus sativus L.

    PubMed Central

    Choudhary, Sikander Pal; Kanwar, Mukesh; Bhardwaj, Renu; Yu, Jing-Quan; Tran, Lam-Son Phan

    2012-01-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) and polyamines (PAs) are well-established growth regulators playing key roles in stress management among plants. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of epibrassinolide (EBL, an active BR) and spermidine (Spd, an active PA) on the tolerance of radish to oxidative stress induced by Cr (VI) metal. Our investigation aimed to study the impacts of EBL (10−9 M) and/or Spd (1 mM) on the biochemical and physiological responses of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) under Cr-stress. Applications of EBL and/or Spd were found to improve growth of Cr-stressed seedlings in terms of root length, shoot length and fresh weight. Our data also indicated that applications of EBL and Spd have significant impacts, particularly when applied together, on the endogenous titers of PAs, free and bound forms of IAA and ABA in seedlings treated with Cr-stress. Additionally, co-applications of EBL and Spd modulated more remarkably the titers of antioxidants (glutathione, ascorbic acid, proline, glycine betaine and total phenol) and activities of antioxidant enzymes (guaicol peroxidase, catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione reductase) in Cr-stressed plants than their individual applications. Attenuation of Cr-stress by EBL and/or Spd (more efficient with EBL and Spd combination) was also supported by enhanced values of stress indices, such as phytochelatins, photosynthetic pigments and total soluble sugars, and reduction in malondialdehyde and H2O2 levels in Cr-treated seedlings. Diminution of ROS production and enhanced ROS scavenging capacities were also noted for EBL and/or Spd under Cr-stress. However, no significant reduction in Cr uptake was observed for co-application of EBL and Spd when compared to their individual treatments in Cr-stressed seedlings. Taken together, our results demonstrate that co-applications of EBL and Spd are more effective than their independent treatments in lowering the Cr-induced oxidative stress in radish, leading to

  10. Chromium stress mitigation by polyamine-brassinosteroid application involves phytohormonal and physiological strategies in Raphanus sativus L.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Sikander Pal; Kanwar, Mukesh; Bhardwaj, Renu; Yu, Jing-Quan; Tran, Lam-Son Phan

    2012-01-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) and polyamines (PAs) are well-established growth regulators playing key roles in stress management among plants. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of epibrassinolide (EBL, an active BR) and spermidine (Spd, an active PA) on the tolerance of radish to oxidative stress induced by Cr (VI) metal. Our investigation aimed to study the impacts of EBL (10(-9) M) and/or Spd (1 mM) on the biochemical and physiological responses of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) under Cr-stress. Applications of EBL and/or Spd were found to improve growth of Cr-stressed seedlings in terms of root length, shoot length and fresh weight. Our data also indicated that applications of EBL and Spd have significant impacts, particularly when applied together, on the endogenous titers of PAs, free and bound forms of IAA and ABA in seedlings treated with Cr-stress. Additionally, co-applications of EBL and Spd modulated more remarkably the titers of antioxidants (glutathione, ascorbic acid, proline, glycine betaine and total phenol) and activities of antioxidant enzymes (guaicol peroxidase, catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione reductase) in Cr-stressed plants than their individual applications. Attenuation of Cr-stress by EBL and/or Spd (more efficient with EBL and Spd combination) was also supported by enhanced values of stress indices, such as phytochelatins, photosynthetic pigments and total soluble sugars, and reduction in malondialdehyde and H(2)O(2) levels in Cr-treated seedlings. Diminution of ROS production and enhanced ROS scavenging capacities were also noted for EBL and/or Spd under Cr-stress. However, no significant reduction in Cr uptake was observed for co-application of EBL and Spd when compared to their individual treatments in Cr-stressed seedlings. Taken together, our results demonstrate that co-applications of EBL and Spd are more effective than their independent treatments in lowering the Cr-induced oxidative stress in radish, leading to

  11. Development of crop-specific transposable element (SINE) markers for studying gene flow from oilseed rape to wild radish.

    PubMed

    Prieto, J L; Pouilly, N; Jenczewski, E; Deragon, J M; Chèvre, A M

    2005-08-01

    The screening of wild populations for evidence of gene flow from a crop to a wild related species requires the unambiguous detection of crop genes within the genome of the wild species, taking into account the intraspecific variability of each species. If the crop and wild relatives share a common ancestor, as is the case for the Brassica crops and their wild relatives (subtribe Brassiceae), the species-specific markers needed to make this unambiguous detection are difficult to identify. In the model oilseed rape (Brassica napus, AACC, 2n = 38)-wild radish (Raphanus raphanistrum, RrRr, 2n = 18) system, we utilized the presence or absence of a short-interspersed element (SINE) at a given locus to develop oilseed rape-specific markers, as SINE insertions are irreversible. By means of sequence-specific amplified polymorphism (SINE-SSAP) reactions, we identified and cloned 67 bands specific to the oilseed rape genome and absent from that of wild radish. Forty-seven PCR-specific markers were developed from three combinations of primers anchored either in (1) the 5'- and 3'-genomic sequences flanking the SINE, (2) the 5'-flanking and SINE internal sequences or (3) the SINE internal and flanking 3'-sequences. Seventeen markers were monomorphic whatever the oilseed rape varieties tested, whereas 30 revealed polymorphism and behaved either as dominant (17) or co-dominant (13) markers. Polymorphic markers were mapped on 19 genomic regions assigned to ten linkage groups. The markers developed will be efficient tools to trace the occurrence and frequency of introgressions of oilseed rape genomic region within wild radish populations.

  12. Comparative Study of Lettuce and Radish Grown Under Red and Blue LEDs and White Fluorescent Lamps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mickens, Matthew A.; Massa, Gioia; Newsham, Gerard; Wheeler, Raymond; Birmele, Michele

    2016-01-01

    Growing vegetable crops in space will be an essential part of sustaining astronauts during long-range missions. To drive photosynthesis, red and blue light-emitting diodes (LEDs) have attracted attention because of their efficiency, longevity, small size, and safety. In efforts to optimize crop yield, there is also recent interest in analyzing the subtle effects of additional wavelengths on plant growth. For instance, since plants often look purplish gray under red and blue LEDs, the addition of green light allows easy recognition of disease and the assessment of plant health status. However, it is important to know if wavelengths outside the traditional red and blue wavebands have a direct effect on enhancing or hindering the mechanisms involved in plant growth. In this experiment, a comparative study was performed on two short cycle crops of red romaine lettuce (Lactuca sativa cv. "Outredgeous") and radish (Raphanus sativa cv. 'Cherry Bomb'), which were grown under two light treatments. The first treatment being red (630 nm) and blue (450 nm) LEDs alone, while the second treatment consisted of daylight tri-phosphor fluorescent lamps (CCT approximately 5000 K) at equal photosynthetic photon flux (PPF). The treatment effects were evaluated by measuring the fresh biomass produced, plant morphology and leaf dimensions, leaf chlorophyll content, and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) within plant leaf/storage root tissues.

  13. Electrogenic Transport of Protons Driven by the Plasma Membrane ATPase in Membrane Vesicles from Radish 1

    PubMed Central

    Rasi-Caldogno, Franca; Pugliarello, Maria Chiara; De Michelis, Maria Ida

    1985-01-01

    Mg:ATP-dependent H+ pumping has been studied in microsomal vesicles from 24-hour-old radish (Raphanus sativus L.) seedlings by monitoring both intravesicular acidification and the building up of an inside positive membrane potential difference (Δ ψ). ΔpH was measured as the decrease of absorbance of Acridine orange and Δ ψ as the shift of absorbance of bis(3-propyl-5-oxoisoxazol-4-yl)pentamethine oxonol. Both Mg:ATP-dependent Δ pH and Δ ψ generation are completely inhibited by vanadate and insensitive to oligomycin; moreover, Δ pH generation is not inhibited by NO3−. These findings indicate that this membrane preparation is virtually devoid of mitochondrial and tonoplast H+-ATPases. Both intravesicular acidification and Δ ψ generation are influenced by anions: Δ pH increases and Δ ψ decreases following the sequence SO42−, Cl−, Br−, NO3−. ATP-dependent H+ pumping strictly requires Mg2+. It is very specific for ATP (apparent Km 0.76 millimolar) compared to GTP, UTP, CTP, ITP. Δ pH generation is inhibited by CuSO4 and diethylstilbestrol as well as vanadate. Δ pH generation is specificially stimulated by K+ (+ 80%) and to a lesser extent by Na+ and choline (+28% and +14%, respectively). The characteristics of H+ pumping in these microsomal vesicles closely resemble those described for the plasma membrane ATPase partially purified from several plant materials. PMID:16664008

  14. Reduced Pressure Alone Does Not Affect the Overall Sensory and Antioxidant Values of Radish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levine, L. H.; Bisbee, P.; Yorio, N. C.; Stutte, G. W.; Richards, J. T.; Birmele, M.; Prior, R. L.; Perchonok, M.; Wheeler, R. M.; Dixon, M.

    Use of reduced atmospheric pressures e g 101 kPa for space exploration can offer several advantages during long duration space missions including reduced launch mass for containment vessels reduced gas leakage reduced resupply costs and increased potential for using transparent materials in greenhouses for a bioregenerative life support system on Mars and on the Moon Limited testing with crop plants at reduced atmospheres has been conducted with results focused on whole plant growth and gas exchange but there are no studies regarding the quality of resulting products This question is of importance not only from the standpoint of food palatability but of potential nutritional and health benefits to the crew To study this we grew radish Raphanus sativus L cv Cherry Bomb Hybrid II plants at three atmospheric pressures 33 kPa 66 kPa and 96 kPa nominal ambient while maintaining oxygen and carbon dioxide partial pressures constant at 21 kPa and 0 12 kPa respectively After 21 days growth chambers were repressurized and ten plants were harvested within the same time frame of the photoperiod for all three pressure treatments The experiment was repeated three times Arial shoots and storage roots were separated immediately upon removal from growth chambers frozen with liquid nitrogen and stored at -80 r C until analysis Six of the ten plants were lyophilized ground to pass a 40 mesh screen and used for determination of the total antioxidant capacity and glucosinolate composition while the remaining four plants were used

  15. Growth and photosynthesis of plants in response to environmental stress. [Raphanus sativus; Glycine max; Salix nigra; Alnus serrulata; Populus tremuloides

    SciTech Connect

    Greitner, C.S.

    1991-01-01

    Environmental stresses generally decrease photosynthetic rates and growth of plants, and alter biomass partitioning. Nutrient deficiency and drought cause root:shoot ratios to increase, whereas the air pollutant ozone (O[sub 3]) causes an opposite shift in carbon allocation. Plants in nature usually grow under suboptimal conditions; therefore plants were raised with O[sub 3] combined with other stresses to analyze the mechanisms whereby multiple stresses influence gas exchange and growth. Physiological and growth responses to stress were determined for radish (raphanus sativus), soybean (Glycine max) willow (Salix nigra), alder (Alnus serrulata) and aspen (Populus tremuloides) in laboratory and field trials. In willow, high-nutrient status plants had more visible injury, but a smaller decline in leaf area with O[sub 3] than did low-nutrient plants. Ultrastructure of host plant cells in alder root nodules was disrupted by O[sub 3], suggesting that this air pollutant can affect the ability of plants to acquire nutrients via symbiosis. Biomass and root:shoot ratios decreased with O[sub 3] in radish and soy-bean. Shifts in stable carbon isotope ratios were caused by O[sub 3], and this technique was used to integrate the effects of O[sub 3] on gas exchange over time. In aspen, O[sub 3] enhanced photosynthesis and foliar areas in young leaves of well-watered aspen, partially compensating for declines in older leaves. This effect was more pronounced in plants raised at a high nitrogen level than in N-deficient plants. Carboxylation efficiency decreased in older, but increased in younger leaves with O[sub 3]. Prior exposure to drought reduced effects of O[sub 3] on photosynthesis and leaf area.

  16. Microbiological investigation of Raphanus sativus L. grown hydroponically in nutrient solutions contaminated with spoilage and pathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Settanni, Luca; Miceli, Alessandro; Francesca, Nicola; Cruciata, Margherita; Moschetti, Giancarlo

    2013-01-01

    The survival of eight undesired (spoilage/pathogenic) food related bacteria (Citrobacter freundii PSS60, Enterobacter spp. PSS11, Escherichia coli PSS2, Klebsiella oxytoca PSS82, Serratia grimesii PSS72, Pseudomonas putida PSS21, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia PSS52 and Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19114(T)) was investigated in mineral nutrient solution (MNS) during the crop cycle of radishes (Raphanus sativus L.) cultivated in hydroponics in a greenhouse. MNSs were microbiologically analyzed weekly by plate count. The evolution of the pure cultures was also evaluated in sterile MNS in test tubes. The inoculated trials contained an initial total mesophilic count (TMC) ranging between 6.69 and 7.78Log CFU/mL, while non-sterile and sterile control trials showed levels of 4.39 and 0.97Log CFU/mL, respectively. In general, all inoculated trials showed similar levels of TMC in MNS during the experimentation, even though the levels of the inoculated bacteria decreased. The presence of the inoculums was ascertained by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis applied on the isolates collected at 7-day intervals. At harvest, MNSs were also analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The last analysis, except P. putida PSS21 in the corresponding trial, did not detect the other bacteria, but confirmed that pseudomonads were present in un-inoculated MNSs. Despite the high counts detected (6.44 and 7.24CFU/g), only C. freundii PSS60, Enterobacter spp. PSS11 and K. oxytoca PSS82 were detected in radishes in a living form, suggesting their internalization.

  17. Effect of 28-homobrassinolide on antioxidant defence system in Raphanus sativus L. under chromium toxicity.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Indu; Pati, Pratap Kumar; Bhardwaj, Renu

    2011-06-01

    Heavy metals have emerged as major environmental contaminants due to rapid industrialization and urbanization. The genotoxic, mutagenic and carcinogenic effects of heavy metal like chromium (Cr) on man, animals and plants have been documented. In plants, accumulation of heavy metals beyond critical levels generates oxidative stress. This stress is generally overcome by antioxidant defence system and stress shielding phytohormones. Thus, the present study has been focused to analyze the effect of one of imperative group of plant hormones, i.e., brassinosteroids (BRs) which have been reported for its protective properties for wide array of environmental stresses. Raphanus sativus L. (Pusa Chetaki) seeds pre-treated with different concentrations of 28-homobrassinolide (28-HBL) were raised under various concentrations of Cr(VI). It was observed that 28-HBL treatment considerably reduced the impact of Cr-stress on seedlings which was evinced upon analysis of morphological and biochemical parameters of 7-days old radish seedlings. The toxic effects of Cr in terms of reduced growth, lowered contents of chlorophyll (Chl), protein, proline; increased malondialdehyde (MDA) content and elevated metal uptake were ameliorated by applications of 28-HBL. Also, the activities of all the antioxidant enzymes except guaiacol peroxidase (POD), increased significantly when subjected to Cr stress in combination with 28-HBL. Overall, seed pre-soaking treatment of 28-HBL at 10(-7) M was most effective in ameliorating Cr stress. The present work emphasizes the protective role of 28-HBL on regulation of antioxidant enzymes and its possible link in amelioration of stress in plants.

  18. Equilibrium dialysis measurements of the Ca2+-binding properties of recombinant radish vacuolar Ca2+-binding protein expressed in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Yuasa, Koji; Maeshima, Masayoshi

    2002-11-01

    Vacuoles of radish (Raphanus sativus) contained a Ca2+-binding protein (RVCaB) of 43 kDa. We investigated the Ca2+-binding properties of the protein. RVCaB was expressed in Escherichia coli and was purified from an extract by ion-exchange chromatography, nitrocellulose membrane filtration, and gel-filtration column chromatography. Ca2+-binding properties of the recombinant protein were examined by equilibrium dialysis with 45Ca2+ and small dialysis buttons. The protein was estimated to bind 19Ca2+ ions per molecule with a Kd for Ca2+ of 3.4 mM. Ca2+ was bound to the protein even in the presence of high concentrations of Mg2+ or K+. The results suggested that the protein bound Ca2+ with high ion selectivity, high capacity, and low affinity.

  19. GROWTH POTENTIAL OF RADISH IN A CONTROLLED ENVIRONMENT.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Under optimized conditions (culture chamber and plant-supportive matrix, nutrients, elevated P(CO2), continuous light, etc.) the radish plant can...produce significantly large masses of edible plant material in a relatively short period of time. Certain strains of radish (HV White Icicle and Chinese

  20. Response of antioxidative enzymes and apoplastic bypass transport in Thlaspi caerulescens and Raphanus sativus to cadmium stress.

    PubMed

    Benzarti, Saoussen; Hamdi, Helmi; Mohri, Shino; Ono, Yoshiro

    2010-01-01

    A hydroponics experiment using hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens (alpine pennycress) and non-specific accumulator Raphanus sativus (common radish) was conducted to investigate the short-term effect of increasing Cd concentrations (0, 25, 50, 75, 100 microM) on metal uptake, chlorophyll content, antioxidative enzymes, and apoplastic bypass flow. As expected, T. caerulescens generally showed better resistance to metal stress, which was reflected by higher Cd accumulation within plant tissues with no signs of chlorosis, or wilt. Glutathione reductase (GR) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities in fresh leaves were monitored as the plant metal-detoxifying response. In general, both plant species exhibited an increase trend of GR activity before declining at 100 microM likely due to excessive levels of phytotoxic Cd. SOD activity exhibited almost a similar variation pattern to GR and decreased also at 100 microM Cd. For both plant species, fluorescent PTS uptake (8-hydroxy-1,3,6-pyrenetrisulphonic acid) increased significantly with metal level in exposure solutions indicating that Cd has a comparable effect to drought or salinity in terms of the gain of relative importance in apoplastic bypass transport under such stress conditions.

  1. Identification and analysis of isothiocyanates and new acylated anthocyanins in the juice of Raphanus sativus cv. Sango sprouts.

    PubMed

    Matera, Riccardo; Gabbanini, Simone; De Nicola, Gina Rosalinda; Iori, Renato; Petrillo, Gianna; Valgimigli, Luca

    2012-07-15

    The freeze-dried sprouts' juice of Raphanus sativus (L.) cv. Sango was prepared and analysed for the first time. HPLC analysis of total isothiocyanates, after protein displacement, resulted in 77.8 ± 3.0 μmol/g of dry juice while GC-MS analysis of hexane and acetone extracts showed E- and Z-raphasatin (8.9 and 0.11 μmol/g, respectively) and sulforaphene (11.7 μmol/g), summing up to 20.7 ± 1.7 μmol/g of free isothiocyanates. Sprouts' juice contained an unprecedented wealth of anthocyanins and a new fractionation methodology allowed us to isolate 34 mg/g of acylated anthocyanins (28.3 ± 1.9 μmol/g), belonging selectively to the cyanidin family. Analysis was performed by HPLC-PDA-ESI-MS(n) and extended to deacylated anthocyanins and aglycones, obtained, respectively, by alkaline and acid hydrolysis. This study identified 70 anthocyanins, 19 of which have never been described before and 32 of which are reported here in R. sativus for the first time. Sango radish sprouts are exceptional dietary sources of heath-promoting micronutrients.

  2. Synergistic Enhancement of the Antifungal Activity of Wheat and Barley Thionins by Radish and Oilseed Rape 2S Albumins and by Barley Trypsin Inhibitors.

    PubMed Central

    Terras, FRG.; Schoofs, HME.; Thevissen, K.; Osborn, R. W.; Vanderleyden, J.; Cammue, BPA.; Broekaert, W. F.

    1993-01-01

    Although thionins and 2S albumins are generally considered as storage proteins, both classes of seed proteins are known to inhibit the growth of pathogenic fungi. We have now found that the wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) or barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) thionin concentration required for 50% inhibition of fungal growth is lowered 2- to 73-fold when combined with 2S albumins (at sub- or noninhibitory concentrations) from radish (Raphanus sativus L.) or oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.). Furthermore, the thionin antifungal activity is synergistically enhanced (2- to 33-fold) by either the small subunit or the large subunit of the radish 2S albumins. Three other 2S albumin-like proteins, the barley trypsin inhibitor and two barley Bowman-Birk-type trypsin inhibitor isoforms, also act synergistically with the thionins (2- to 55-fold). The synergistic activity of thionins combined with 2S albumins is restricted to filamentous fungi and to some Gram-positive bacteria, whereas Gram-negative bacteria, yeast, cultured human cells, and erythrocytes do not show an increased sensitivity to thionin/albumin combinations (relative to the sensitivity to the thionins alone). Scanning electron microscopy and measurement of K+ leakage from fungal hyphae revealed that 2S albumins have the same mode of action as thionins, namely the permeabilization of the hyphal plasmalemma. Moreover, 2S albumins and thionins act synergistically in their ability to permeabilize fungal membranes. PMID:12232024

  3. Co-pigmentation of pelargonidin derivatives in strawberry and red radish model solutions by the addition of phenolic fractions from mango peels.

    PubMed

    Müller-Maatsch, Judith; Bechtold, Lena; Schweiggert, Ralf M; Carle, Reinhold

    2016-12-15

    Pelargonidin-based colors suffer from notorious instability. A phenolic mango peel extract and defined phenolic fractions thereof were shown to effectively modulate the visible absorption of anthocyanins from strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) and red radish (Raphanus sativus L.) by intermolecular co-pigmentation. Consistently, non-acylated pelargonidin derivatives from strawberry exerted significantly greater hyper- and bathochromic spectral shifts than their acylated counterparts from red radish. The addition of low molecular-weight co-pigments such as gallic acid and monogalloyl glucoses to strawberry anthocyanins led to strong hyperchromic shifts from 30% to 48%, while gallotannins (>six galloyl units) exerted smaller co-pigmentation effects (36±2%; Δλmax 13nm), possibly due to steric hindrances. In contrast, penta- and hexa-O-galloyl-glucose induced greatest and most stable co-pigmentation effects (53±2%; Δλmax 13nm). Irrespective of the underlying mechanisms and the responsible compounds, phenolic mango peel extracts might represent suitable color enhancers for coloring foodstuff, particularly for those containing non-acylated pelargonidin derivatives.

  4. Isolation and identification of an anti-bolting compound, hexadecatrienoic acid monoglyceride, responsible for inhibition of bolting and maintenance of the leaf rosette in radish plants.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Yuko; Takada, Noboru; Koda, Yasunori

    2010-08-01

    Generally, the bolting (stem elongation from rosette plants) of winter annuals is believed to be induced by an increase in the levels of gibberellin that occurs after a certain period of chilling (vernalization), and a deficiency of gibberellin allows the plant to maintain a rosette style. Lack of direct evidence proving the above assumption in radish plants (Raphanus sativus L.) encouraged us to assume the presence of an anti-bolting compound actively maintaining the rosette habit through inhibition of bolting. Anti-bolting activity was detected in an extract of rosette shoots of radish plants by an assay using seedlings cultured in vitro. The causal compound that strongly inhibited bolting was isolated and identified as alpha-(7Z,10Z,13Z)-hexadecatrienoic acid monoglyceride (16:3 monoglyceride). This compound did not inhibit leaf production at the apical meristem, indicating that it merely inhibits growth at the internode. The compound disappeared completely after vernalization, and bolting occurred thereafter. The results suggest that the release from inhibition by 16:3 monoglyceride induces the initiation of bolting. The possible mechanism by which the compound exerts the activity is discussed.

  5. Genetic engineering of radish: current achievements and future goals.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Ian S

    2011-05-01

    Radish is a major root crop grown in the Far East and is especially important to some low-income countries where it is consumed on a daily basis. Developments in gene technology systems have helped to accelerate the production of useful germplasms, but progress has been slow, though achieved, via in planta methods and useful traits have been introduced. In the wake of the new Millennium, future goals in terms of improving transformation efficiency and selection of new traits for generating late-flowering radish are described. Furthermore, the techniques available for incorporating pharmaceutical proteins into radish to deliver edible proteins on-site are discussed. Finally, the concerns of releasing transgenic radish to the field in terms of pollen-mediated gene transfer are also reviewed. Such a report identifies key areas of research that is required to allow the crop satisfy the need of poor impoverished countries in the Far East.

  6. Comparative physiology of radish populations with differential sensitivity to O sub 3 and SO sub 2

    SciTech Connect

    Gillespie, C.T.

    1989-01-01

    Radish plants (Raphanus sativus L. cv Cherry Belle) were exposed to 0.10 {mu}l l{sup {minus}1} ozone (O{sub 3}) or 0.50 {mu}l l{sup {minus}1} sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) for 4 h d{sup {minus}1}, 3 d wk{sup {minus}1} for 3 weeks. From these fumigated plants, individuals were selected that were resistant or sensitive to these pollutants. The selected plants were used as parental material in a breeding program to produce lines differing in resistance to O{sub 3} and SO{sub 2}. Non-selected (NS) plants from the original populations served as controls. Plants selected for O{sub 3} resistance (O{sub 3}R) weighed significantly more than either plants selected for sensitivity to O{sub 3} (O{sub 3}S) or NS plants when exposed to either O{sub 3} or SO{sub 2}. Plants selected for resistance or sensitivity to SO{sub 2} generally had biomass production similar to that of NS plants. Ozone fumigations tended to decrease free sugar concentrations in leaves at early stages of growth in both O{sub 3}R and O{sub 3}S plants, and caused some accumulations of carbohydrates during late stages of growth in O{sub 3}S plants. Allocation of {sup 14}C was significantly lower to hypocotyls and roots of O{sub 3} fumigated O{sub 3}S plants. Allocation to hypocotyls of O{sub 3}R plants was not affected, although both O{sub 3}R and O{sub 3}S plant groups had lower photosynthetic rates due to O{sub 3} fumigation. Ozone did not significantly affect chlorophyll concentrations in leaves of either sensitive or resistant plants, nor was the time of new leaf production affected by fumigation.

  7. Purification of the Plasma Membrane Ca2+-ATPase from Radish Seedlings by Calmodulin-Agarose Affinity Chromatography1

    PubMed Central

    Bonza, Cristina; Carnelli, Antonella; De Michelis, Maria Ida; Rasi-Caldogno, Franca

    1998-01-01

    The Ca2+-ATPase of the plasma membrane (PM) of germinating radish (Raphanus sativus L.) seeds was purified by calmodulin (CaM)-affinity chromatography using a batch procedure. PM purified by aqueous two-phase partitioning was solubilized with n-dodecyl β-d-maltoside and applied to a CaM-agarose matrix. After various washings with decreasing Ca2+ concentrations, the Ca2+-ATPase was eluted with 5 mm ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA). The EDTA-eluted fraction contained about 25% of the loaded Ca2+-ATPase activity, with a specific activity 70-fold higher than that of the starting PM fraction. The EDTA-eluted fraction was highly enriched in a 133-kD polypeptide, which was identified as the PM Ca2+-ATPase by 125I-CaM overlay and fluorescein-isothiocyanate labeling. The PM Ca2+-ATPase cross-reacted with an antiserum against a putative Ca2+-ATPase of the Arabidopsis thaliana chloroplast envelope. PMID:9490776

  8. Assisted phytoremediation of mixed metal(loid)-polluted pyrite waste: effects of foliar and substrate IBA application on fodder radish.

    PubMed

    Vamerali, Teofilo; Bandiera, Marianna; Hartley, William; Carletti, Paolo; Mosca, Giuliano

    2011-06-01

    Exogenous application of plant-growth promoting substances may potentially improve phytoremediation of metal-polluted substrates by increasing shoot and root growth. In a pot-based study, fodder radish (Raphanus sativus L. var. oleiformis Pers.) was grown in As-Zn-Cu-Co-Pb-contaminated pyrite waste, and treated with indolebutyric acid (IBA) either by foliar spraying (10 mgL(-1)), or by direct application of IBA to the substrate (0.1 and 1 mgkg(-1)) in association, or not, with foliar spraying. With the exception of foliar spraying, IBA reduced above-ground biomass, whilst direct application of IBA to the substrate surface reduced root biomass (-59%). Trace element concentrations were generally increased, but removals (mg per plant) greatly reduced with IBA application, together with greater metal leaching from the substrate. It is concluded that, in our case, IBA had a negative effect on plant growth and phytoextraction of trace elements, possibly due to unsuitable root indoleacetic acid concentration following soil IBA application, the direct chelating effect of IBA and the low microbial activity in the pyrite waste affecting its breakdown.

  9. A lucrative technique to reduce Ni toxicity in Raphanus sativus plant by phosphate amendment: Special reference to plant metabolism.

    PubMed

    Singh, Anita; Prasad, Sheo Mohan

    2015-09-01

    Nickel (Ni) contamination is one of the serious environmental problems. It creates hazard in soil environment and also in crop quality. In the present study, response of Raphanus sativus (radish) to Ni (50mgkg(-1) soil) under different concentrations (100, 200, 500 and 1000 DAPmgkg(-1) soil) of phosphate as soil amendment was investigated after 40 days of growth. Ni-treated plants without amendment showed reduction in their growth as a result of appreciable decrease in the photosynthetic activity. Under this treatment, Ni accumulation significantly enhanced lipid peroxidation and level of oxidants showing oxidative stress and it was also associated with decrease in the activities of antioxidative enzymes except super oxide dismutase (SOD). Application of phosphate in Ni contaminated soil resulted into significant improvement in plant growth. Under phosphate amendment, the status of oxidative biomarkers: SOR, TBARS and H2O2 were under control by the higher activity of antioxidants: APX, CAT, POD, GST and DHAR compared to Ni contaminated soil without amendment. Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed to show the significant changes in biochemical traits under control and phosphate amendment. The values of PS II transient kinetics: Phi-E0, Psi-0 and PIABS increased and values of energy fluxes: ABC/RC, Tro/RC, Eto/RC and Dio/RC decreased in plants grown in Ni contaminated soil under phosphate amendment as compared to without amendment. Among all doses of phosphate amendment soil amended at 500mg DAPkg(-)(1) soil the yield of plant was the highest and Ni accumulation was the lowest. As compared to plants grown in Ni treated soil without amendment the yield of plant at 500mg DAPkg(-1) soil showed about 70% increment and the reduction in Ni accumulation was 63% in shoot and 64% in root. Because of these beneficial effects this technique can be easily applied at metal contaminated agricultural fields to reduce food chain contamination and to improve food quality.

  10. Cadmium, copper, and lead accumulation and bioconcentration in the vegetative and reproductive organs of Raphanus sativus: implications for plant performance and pollination.

    PubMed

    Hladun, Kristen R; Parker, David R; Trumble, John T

    2015-04-01

    Several studies have found high levels of cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), and lead (Pb) in honey bee hives located near urbanized or industrial areas. Insect herbivores and pollinators may come in contact with environmental contaminants in the leaves and flowers they forage upon in these areas. Our study quantified which of these metals are accumulated in the tissues of a common weedy plant that can serve as a route of exposure for insects. We grew Raphanus sativus (crop radish) in semi-hydroponic sand culture in the greenhouse. Plants were irrigated with nutrient solutions containing Cd, Cu, or Pb at four concentrations (control, low, medium, high). Plant performance, floral traits, and metal accumulation were measured in various vegetative and reproductive plant organs. Floral traits and flower number were unaffected by all metal treatments. Copper accumulated at the highest concentrations in flowers compared to the other two metals. Copper and Cd had the highest translocation indices, as well as higher bioconcentration factors compared to Pb, which was mostly immobile in the plant. Copper posed the highest risk due to its high mobility within the plant. In particular, accumulation of metals in leaves and flowers suggests that herbivores and pollinators visiting and foraging on these tissues may be exposed to these potentially toxic compounds.

  11. Japanese language and Japanese science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanikawa, Kiyotaka

    2003-08-01

    Japanese mathematical scientists including astronomers, physicists, and mathematicians obtain ideas in Japanese, discuss their problems in Japanese, and arrive at conclusions in Japanese, and yet they write their results in foreign languages such as English. This uncomfortable situation has continued for nearly one hundred years and has had serious effects on Japanese science. In this short report, the author discusses and analyses these effects. In order to put Japanese science on a sound basis, the author proposes to increase the number of articles, reviews and textbooks in Japanese, first by translation and second by the voluntary efforts of scientists themselves. As centers devoted to this activity, the author proposes to construct "Airborne Libraries" which are maintained and accumulate in an electronic form the scientific documents written in Japanese.

  12. Japanese Competitiveness and Japanese Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minabe, Shigeo

    1986-01-01

    Analyzes and compares Japanese and American industrial policy and labor practices. Proposes that certain aspects of the Japanese system be adapted by American businesses for purpose of increasing international competitiveness. Proposes specific actions and plans for both the Japanese and American systems. (ML)

  13. Survey of viruses present in radish fields in 2014

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In Korea, recent climate change has caused increased insect populations and migration from neighboring countries. As insect migration increases newly emerging virus diseases have been reported. In 2014, we performed a nationwide survey in radish fields to investigate the distribution of common virus...

  14. Return to Our Roots: Raising Radishes To Teach Experimental Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stallings, William M.

    To provide practice in making design decisions, collecting and analyzing data, and writing and documenting results, a professor of statistics has his graduate students in statistics and research methodology classes design and perform an experiment on the effects of fertilizers on the growth of radishes. This project has been required of students…

  15. H+-Pumping Driven by the Plasma Membrane ATPase in Membrane Vesicles from Radish: Stimulation by Fusicoccin 1

    PubMed Central

    Rasi-Caldogno, Franca; De Michelis, Maria I.; Pugliarello, Maria C.; Marrè, Erasmo

    1986-01-01

    The effect of fusicoccin on Mg:ATP-dependent H+-pumping in microsomal vesicles from 24-hour-old radish (Raphanus sativus L.) seedlings was investigated by measuring the initial rate of decrease in the absorbance of the ΔpH probe acridine orange. Fusicoccin stimulated Mg:ATP-dependent H+-pumping when the pH of the assay medium was in the range 7.0 to 7.6 while no effect of fusicoccin was detected between pH 6.6 and pH 6.0. Both basal and fusicoccin-stimulated H+-pumping were completely inhibited by vanadate and almost unaffected by nitrate. Fusicoccin did not change membrane permeability to protons and fusicoccin-induced stimulation of Mg:ATP-dependent H+-pumping was not affected by changes in the buffer capacity of the incubation medium. Deacetylfusicoccin stimulated H+-pumping as much as fusicoccin, while the physiologically inactive derivative 8-oxo-9-epideacetylfusicoccin did not. Stimulation of H+-pumping was saturated by 100 nanomolar fusicoccin. These data indicate that fusicoccin activates the plasma membrane H+-ATPase by acting at the membrane level independently of the involvement of other cell components. The percent stimulation by fusicoccin was the same at all ATP concentrations tested (0.5-5.0 millimolar), thus suggesting that with fusicoccin there is an increase in Vmax of the plasma membrane H+-ATPase rather than a decrease in its apparent Km for Mg:ATP. PMID:16664978

  16. Identification and Characterization of the Ca2+-ATPase which Drives Active Transport of Ca2+ at the Plasma Membrane of Radish Seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Rasi-Caldogno, Franca; Pugliarello, Maria Chiara; Olivari, Claudio; De Michelis, Maria Ida

    1989-01-01

    In microsomes from 24-hour-old radish (Raphanus sativus L.) seedlings ATP-dependent Ca2+ uptake occurs only in inside-out plasma membrane vesicles (F Rasi-Caldogno, MC Pugliarello, MI De Michelis [1987] Plant Physiol 83: 994-1000). A Ca2+-dependent ATPase activity can be shown in the same microsomes, when assays are performed at pH 7.5. The Ca2+-dependent ATPase is stimulated by the Ca2+ ionophore A23187 and is localized at the plasma membrane. Ca2+-dependent ATPase activity and ATP-dependent Ca2+ uptake present very similar saturation kinetics with erythrosin B (50% inhibition at about 0.1 micromolar), free Ca2+ (half-maximal rate at about 70 nanomolar), and MgATP (Km 15-20 micromolar). Ca2+ uptake can be sustained by GTP or ITP at about 60% the rate measured in the presence of ATP; only very low Ca2+ uptake is sustained by CTP or UTP and none by ADP. These results indicate that the Ca2+-ATPase described in this paper is the enzyme which drives active transport of Ca2+ at the plasma membrane of higher plants. PMID:16666947

  17. Controlled Proteolysis Activates the Plasma Membrane Ca2+ Pump of Higher Plants (A Comparison with the Effect of Calmodulin in Plasma Membrane from Radish Seedlings).

    PubMed Central

    Rasi-Caldogno, F.; Carnelli, A.; De Michelis, M. I.

    1993-01-01

    The effects of calmodulin and of controlled trypsin treatments on the activity of the Ca2+ pump were investigated in plasma membrane purified from radish (Raphanus sativus L.) seedlings. Treatment of the plasma membrane with ethylenediaminetetra-acetate (EDTA), which removed about two-thirds of the plasma membrane-associated calmodulin, markedly increased the stimulation of the Ca2+ pump by calmodulin. In EDTA-treated plasma membrane, stimulation by calmodulin of the Ca2+ pump activity was maximal at low free Ca2+ (2-5 [mu]M) and decreased with the increase of free Ca2+ concentration. The Ca2+ pump activity was stimulated also by a controlled treatment of the plasma membrane with trypsin: the effect of trypsin treatment depended on the concentration of both trypsin and plasma membrane proteins and on the duration of incubation. Stimulation of the Ca2+ pump activity by trypsin treatment of the plasma membrane was similar to that induced by calmodulin both in extent and in dependence on the free Ca2+ concentration in the assay medium. Moreover, the Ca2+ pump of trypsin-treated plasma membrane was insensitive to further stimulation by calmodulin, suggesting that limited proteolysis preferentially cleaves a regulatory domain of the enzyme that is involved in its activation by calmodulin. PMID:12231945

  18. Hydrogen-rich water reestablishes ROS homeostasis but exerts differential effects on anthocyanin synthesis in two varieties of radish sprouts under UV-A irradiation.

    PubMed

    Su, Nana; Wu, Qi; Liu, Yuanyuan; Cai, Jiangtao; Shen, Wenbiao; Xia, Kai; Cui, Jin

    2014-07-09

    The aims of the study were to investigate whether hydrogen gas (H2) was involved in regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis in two contrasting radish (Raphanus sativus L.) varieties (low [LA] and high [HA] level of anthocyanin) under UV irradiation. The results showed that hydrogen-rich water (HRW) significantly blocked the UV-A-induced increase of H2O2 and O2(•-) accumulation, and enhanced the UV-A-induced increase of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activities in LA and HA. Furthermore, UV-A-induced increase of anthocyanin and total phenols was further enhanced only in HA sprouts cotreated with HRW. LC-MS/MS analysis showed that five anthocyanidins existed in HA sprouts, but only two in LA sprouts. Meanwhile, the cyanidin was the most abundant anthocyanidin in HA, and the cyanidin was 2-fold higher cotreated with HRW than UV-A. Molecular analyses showed that the anthocyanin biosynthesis-related genes were upregulated significantly in both HA (in particular) and LA sprouts treated with HRW plus UV-A. These data imply that HRW reestablishes reactive oxygen species homeostasis in both LA and HA, but exerts different effects on anthocyanin accumulation between them under UV-A.

  19. Polyphenolics profile and antioxidant properties of Raphanus sativus L.

    PubMed

    Beevi, Syed Sultan; Mangamoori, Lakshmi Narasu; Gowda, Bandi Boje

    2012-01-01

    Raphanus sativus, a common cruciferous vegetable has been attributed to possess a number of pharmacological properties. Antioxidant and radical scavenging activity of R. sativus root extracted with solvents of varying polarity were evaluated using different model systems. Polyphenolic content was estimated to be in the range 13.18-63.54 mg g⁻¹ dry weight, with a considerable amount being obtained with polar solvents. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis indicated the presence of an array of polyphenolics. Catechin was found to be the most abundant phenolic compound in water extract and sinapic acid, the predominant phenolic compound in methanolic, ethyl acetate and hexane extracts. The methanolic extract showed significant ferric reducing ability, moderate metal chelating activity and strong radical scavenging activity. The methanolic extract could be successfully utilised as an ingredient in functional foods. However, water extract could be more pertinent to human nutrition as it contained a significant amount of catechin, which was comparable to traditional sources like green and black tea.

  20. A new indole glycoside from the seeds of Raphanus sativus.

    PubMed

    Jin, Hong-Guang; Ko, Hae Ju; Chowdhury, Md Anisuzzaman; Lee, Dong-Sung; Woo, Eun-Rhan

    2016-06-01

    A new indole glycoside, β-D-glucopyranosyl 2-(methylthio)-1H-indole-3-carboxylate, named raphanuside A (1), as well as eight known compounds, β-D-fructofuranosyl-(2 → 1)-(6-O-sinapoyl)-α-D-glucopyranoside (2), (3-O-sinapoyl)-β-D-fructofuranosyl-(2 → 1)-α-D-glucopyranoside (3), (3-O-sinapoyl)-β-D-fructofuranosyl-(2 → 1)-(6-O-sinapoyl)-α-D-glucopyranoside (4), (3,4-O-disinapoyl)-β-D-fructofuranosyl-(2 → 1)-(6-O-sinapoyl)-α-D-glucopyranoside (5), isorhamnetin 3,4'-di-O-β-D-glucoside (6), isorhamnetin 3-O-β-D-glucoside-7-O-α-L-rhamnoside (7), isorhamnetin 3-O-β-D-glucoside (8) and 3'-O-methyl-(-)-epicatechin 7-O-β-D-glucoside (9) were isolated from the seeds of Raphanus sativus. Furthermore, compounds 1-3 and 6-9, were isolated from this plant for the first time. The structures of compounds 1-9 were identified using 1D and 2D NMR, including (1)H-(1)H COSY, HSQC, HMBC and NOESY spectroscopic analyses. The inhibitory activity of these isolated compounds against interleukin-6 (IL-6) production in TNF-α stimulated MG-63 cells was also examined.

  1. Kaiware Daikon (Raphanus sativus L.) extract: a naturally multipotent chemopreventive agent.

    PubMed

    Barillari, Jessica; Iori, Renato; Papi, Alessio; Orlandi, Marina; Bartolini, Giovanna; Gabbanini, Simone; Pedulli, Gian Franco; Valgimigli, Luca

    2008-09-10

    Brassica vegetables are attracting major attention as healthy foods because of their content of glucosinolates (GLs) that release the corresponding isothiocyanates (ITCs) upon myrosinase hydrolysis. A number of studies have so far documented the chemopreventive properties of some ITCs. On the other hand, single nutrients detached from the food itself risk being somewhat "reductive", since plants contain several classes of compounds endowed with a polyhedral mechanism of action. Our recent finding that 4-methylthio-3-butenyl isothiocyanate (GRH-ITC) and 4-methylsulfinyl-3-butenyl isothiocyanate (GRE-ITC), released by the GLs purified from Japanese (Kaiware) Daikon (Raphanus sativus L.) seeds and sprouts, had selective cytotoxic/apoptotic activity on three human colon carcinoma cell lines prompted further research on the potential chemopreventive role of a standardized Kaiware Daikon extract (KDE), containing 10.5% w/w GRH and 3.8% w/w GRE, compared to its isolated components. KDE administered in combination with myrosinase at doses corresponding to 50 microM GRH-ITC plus 15 microM GRE-ITC (50 microM KDE-ITC) to three human cancer cell lines (LoVo, HCT-116 and HT-29) significantly reduced cell growth by 94-96% of control in six days (p < 0.05), outperforming pure GRH-ITC or GRE-ITC at the same dose. On the other hand, the same treatment had no significant toxicity on normal human T-lymphocytes. A 50 microM concentration of KDE-ITC had relevant apoptosis induction in all tested cancer cell lines, as confirmed by annexin V assay (e.g., 33% induction in LoVo compared to control, p < 0.05), Bax protein induction (e.g., +20% in HT-29, p < 0.05), and Bcl2 downregulation (e.g.-20% in HT-29, p < 0.05), and induced caspase-1 and PARP-1 activation in all cancer cells as shown by Western blot analysis. Unlike pure GRH or GRH-ITC, KDE also had significant chain-breaking antioxidant activity, retarding the AAPH-initiated autoxidation of methyl linoleate in SDS micelles at

  2. Anaerobic co-digestion of forage radish and dairy manure in complete mix digesters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Farmers are increasingly using forage radish as a winter cover crop to achieve multiple soil and environmental benefits. In this study, pilot-scale mixed digesters were used to quantify methane (CH4) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) production when using forage radish, a sulfur-rich cover crop, as a co-d...

  3. [Allelopathy of different plants on wheat, cucumber and radish seedlings].

    PubMed

    Shen, Huimin; Guo, Hongru; Huang, Gaobao

    2005-04-01

    By means of bioassay in laboratory and field, this paper studied the allelopathy of 18 kinds of plants in Gansu Province on the seedlings of wheat, cucumber and radish. The results showed that the aqueous extract of the stems and leaves of Artemisia annua, Solanum nigrum and Datura stramonium had the strongest allelopathy on test receptor plants, and their synthetic inhibitory effect (SE) was 47.66%, 32.89% and 26.63%, respectively. The SE of Xanthium sibiricum, Portulaca oleraca, Cephalanoplos segetum, and Chenopodium album was 21.71%, 20.93%, 20.83% and 20.2%, respectively, while Vicia amoena (SE 3.5%), Setaria viridis (SE 2.2%), and Cymamchum chinense (SE 1.97%) had a weaker allelopathy. Chenopodium ambrosioides (SE - 1.03%), Polygonum caespitosum (SE - 1.63%) and Avena fatua (SE 5.33%) had no evident allelopathy, but Artemisia annua affected the seedling height and fresh weight of radish, cucumber, wheat and maize, with the SE being 54.07%, 38.46%, 33.35% and 20.88%, respectively. Artemisia annua had a 44.70% of SE on wheat growth, and thus, had a certain value to develop and use.

  4. High temperature effect on microflora of radish root-inhabited zone and nutrient solutions for radish growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borodina, E. V.; Tirranen, L. S.

    The effect of high temperatures (35 and 45 °C) on microflora of the root zone of radish plants grown in phytotron was evaluated by the response of microorganisms from 9 indicator groups. Phytotron air temperature elevated to 35 °C for 20 hours caused no significant changes in qualitative and quantitative composition of the root microflora in experimental plants. By the end of the experiment, the species diversity of microflora had changed. The amount of phytopathogenic microorganisms decreased which can be interpreted as more stable co-existence of microflora with plants. The numbers of microbes from other indicator groups was in dynamic equilibrium. The plants' condition did not deteriorate either. Exposure to the temperature of 45 °C for 7 hours have been found to change the numbers and species diversity in the radish root zone microflora. The microorganisms were observed to increase their total numbers at the expense of certain indicator groups. Bacteria increased spore forms at the stage of spores. Colon bacillus bacteria of increased their numbers by the end of experiment by an order. By the end of experiment the roots of experiment plants had microscopic fungi from Mucor, Aspergillus, Trichoderma, Cladosporium genera. The observed changes in the microbial complex seem to be associated with the changes of root emissions and general deterioration of the plants' condition. It is suggested that the response of the microorganisms can be indicative of the condition of plants under investigation.

  5. Japanese Characters in Written Japanese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buck, James H.

    From the sixth to the eighth century A.D., Japan was the recipient of massive cultural infusions from China. This acceptance of the Chinese pattern included, and to a great extent was based on, the acceptance of the Chinese language. The Chinese writing system was applied to Japanese because there was no other model to follow and in spite of the…

  6. Plant response to heavy metal toxicity: comparative study between the hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens (ecotype Ganges) and nonaccumulator plants: lettuce, radish, and alfalfa.

    PubMed

    Benzarti, Saoussen; Mohri, Shino; Ono, Yoshiro

    2008-10-01

    Thlaspi caerulescens (alpine pennycress) is one of the best-known heavy metal (HM) hyperaccumulating plant species. It exhibits the ability to extract and accumulate various HM at extremely high concentrations. In this hydroponic study, the performance of T. caerulescens (ecotype Ganges) to accumulate Cd, Zn, and Cu was compared with that of three nonaccumulator plants: alfalfa (Medicago sativa), radish (Raphanus sativus), and lettuce (Lactuca sativa). Plants were exposed to the separately dissolved HM salts for 7 days at a wide range of increasing concentrations: 0 (control: 1/5 Hoagland nutrient solution), 0.1, 1, 10, 100, and 1000 microM. The comparative study combined chemical, physiological, and ecotoxicological assessments. Excessive concentrations of HM (100 and 1000 microM) affected plant growth, photosynthesis, and phytoaccumulation efficiency. Root exudation for all plant species was highly and significantly correlated to HM concentration in exposure solutions and proved its importance to counter effect toxicity. T. caerulescens resisted better the phytotoxic effects of Cd and Zn (at 1000 microM each), and translocated them significantly within tissues (366 and 1290 microg g(-1), respectively). At the same HM level, T. caerulescens exhibited lower performances in accumulating Cu when compared with the rest of plant species, mainly alfalfa (298 microg g(-1)). Root elongation inhibition test confirmed the selective aptitude of T. caerulescens to better cope with Cd and Zn toxicities. MetPLATE bioassay showed greater sensitivity to HM toxicity with much lower EC(50) values for beta-galactosidase activity in E. coli. Nevertheless, exaggerated HM concentrations coupled with relatively short exposure time did not allow for an efficient metal phytoextraction thus a significant reduction of ecotoxicity.

  7. [Production and cytogenetics of intergeneric hybrids between Ogura CMS Brassica campestris var. purpuraria and Raphanus sativus].

    PubMed

    Huang, B Q; Chang, L; Ju, C M; Chen, J G

    2001-01-01

    Crosses between Ogura CMS Brassica campestris var. purpuraria (AA, 2n = 20) and Raphanus sativus (RR, 2n = 18) were made and many intergeneric hybrids were produced. The F1 seedlings did not show chlorosis at low temperature. When red Raphanus sativus varieties were used as male parent, the leaf petiole and leaf vein of F1 plants were purple, and when white Raphanus sativus varieties were used as male parent, the leaf petiole and leaf vein of F1 plants were not purple. All the F1 plants had white flowers and normal honey glands. Male gametes of the F1 were highly sterile and female gametes of the F1 were partly fertile. Cytological studies indicated that chromosome number of the F1 was 2n = 19 as expected, the mean chromosome pairing pattern was 15.53 I + 1.34 II + 0.25 III + 0.01 IV. Most chromosomes exsistet as univalents, but there also exsisted some bivalents, trivalents and even tetravalents, suggesting that chromosome set A was partly homologous with chromosome set R.

  8. Evaluation of heating uniformity in radio frequency heating systems using carrot and radish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Ling; Zhang, Min; Wang, Yuchuan; Adhikari, Benu; Yang, Zaixing

    2016-10-01

    Lack of heating uniformity is a major problem impeding the broader adaptation of radio frequency heaters in industrial applications. The overall aim of this study was to evaluate the uniformity of heating or temperature distribution within food samples (three different carrot and one radish rectangles) placed vertically and horizontally within a radio frequency heating cavity. The intensity of the electric field in radio frequency was found to be symmetrical. The temperatures at the vertically top positions were lower than the vertically bottom positions at the equidistance from the vertical center with the highest was at the vertically central position. The rate of temperature rise at all the positions were higher in taller (higher mass) than the shorter (lower mass) rectangles of carrots. The temperatures at the corners and edges were lower than at the cross sectionally central positions at all the heights tested in both carrots and radishes. The rate of temperature rise at all the vertical positions was higher in radish rectangles than in the carrot rectangles of the same dimensions. The similarity of temperature distribution in carrot and radish rectangles suggested that the heating patterns and uniformity in carrots and radishes in RF heating were almost the same.

  9. [Chromatography-efficacy relation study between HPLC fingerprints and allelopathic effect of Salvia miltiorrhiza aqueous solution on radish].

    PubMed

    Niu, Min; Liu, Hong-Yan; Li, Jia; Zhang, Yong-qing

    2015-03-01

    To explore the effective components represented by fingerprint contributed to allelopathic effect of different Salvia miltiorrhiza aqueous concentration on seeds and seedlings of radish, grey relational analysis was used to establish the chromatography-efficacy relation. The results show that 15 peaks devote high allelopathic contribution to radish seeds and seedlings. The study will provide a new concept for allelochemicals screening and study.

  10. Cytotoxic and antioxidant activity of 4-methylthio-3-butenyl isothiocyanate from Raphanus sativus L. (Kaiware Daikon) sprouts.

    PubMed

    Papi, Alessio; Orlandi, Marina; Bartolini, Giovanna; Barillari, Jessica; Iori, Renato; Paolini, Moreno; Ferroni, Fiammetta; Grazia Fumo, Maria; Pedulli, Gian Franco; Valgimigli, Luca

    2008-02-13

    There is high current interest in the chemopreventive potential of Brassica vegetables (cruciferae), particularly due to their content in glucosinolates (GL), which upon myrosinase hydrolysis release the corresponding isythiocyanates (ITC). Some ITCs, such as sulforaphane (SFN) from broccoli ( Brassica oleacea italica), have been found to possess anticancer activity through induction of apoptosis in selected cell lines, as well as indirect antioxidant activity through induction of phase II detoxifying enzymes. Japanese daikon ( Raphanus sativus L.) is possibly the vegetable with the highest per capita consumption within the Brassicaceae family. Thanks to a recently improved gram scale production process, it was possible to prepare sufficient amounts of the GL glucoraphasatin (GRH) as well as the corresponding ITC 4-methylthio-3-butenyl isothiocyanate (GRH-ITC) from its sprouts. This paper reports a study on the cytotoxic and apoptotic activities of GRH-ITC compared with the oxidized counterpart 4-methylsulfinyl-3-butenyl isothiocyanate (GRE-ITC) on three human colon carcinoma cell lines (LoVo, HCT-116, and HT-29) together with a detailed kinetic investigation of the direct antioxidant/radical scavenging ability of GRH and GRH-ITC. Both GRH-ITC and GRE-ITC reduced cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner and induced apoptosis in the three cancer cell lines. The compounds significantly ( p < 0.05) increased Bax and decreased Bcl2 protein expression, as well as producing caspase-9 and PARP-1 cleavage after 3 days of exposure in the three cancer cell lines. GRH-ITC treatment was shown to have no toxicity with regard to normal human lymphocytes (-15 +/- 5%) in comparison with SFN (complete growth inhibition). GRH and GRH-ITC were able to quench the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical, with second-order rate constants of 14.0 +/- 2.8 and 43.1 +/- 9.5 M(-1) s(-1), respectively (at 298 K in methanol), whereas the corresponding value measured here for the reference

  11. Influence of an iron-rich amendment on chemical lability and plant (Raphanus sativus L.) availability of two metallic elements (As and Pb) on mine-impacted agricultural soils.

    PubMed

    Kim, Juhee; Kim, Yong-Seong; Hyun, Seunghun; Moon, Deok Hyun; Chang, Jun Young

    2016-10-01

    Variation of the chemical extractability and phytoavailability of two metallic elements (e.g., As and Pb) on amendment-treated soils was investigated. Four mine-impacted agricultural soils contaminated with both As (174-491 mg kg(-1)) and Pb (116-357 mg kg(-1)) were amended with an iron-rich sludge at the rate of 5 % (w/w). After a 4-, 8-, and 16-week incubation, the extractability of metallic elements was assessed by sequential extraction procedure (SEP; F1-F5). The control without amendment was also run. In amended soils, the labile element mass (i.e., F1 + F2) promptly decreased (15-48 % of As and 5-10 % of Pb) in 4 weeks, but the decrement was continued over 16 weeks up to 70 and 28 % for As and Pb, respectively. The labile mass decrement was quantitatively corresponded with the increment of F3 (bound to amorphous metal oxides). In plant test assessed by radish (Raphanus sativus) grown on the 16-week soils, up to 57 % of As and 28 % of Pb accumulation was suppressed and 10-43 % of growth (i.e., shoot/root elongation and fresh weight) was improved. For both the control and amended soils, element uptake by plant was well correlated with their labile soil concentrations (r (2) = 0.799 and 0.499 for As and Pb, respectively). The results confirmed that the iron-rich material can effectively suppress element uptake during R. sativus seedling growth, most likely due to the chemical stabilization of metallic elements in growth medium.

  12. Sanitizing radish seeds by simultaneous treatments with gaseous chlorine dioxide, high relative humidity, and mild heat.

    PubMed

    Bang, Jihyun; Choi, Moonhak; Son, Hyeri; Beuchat, Larry R; Kim, Yoonsook; Kim, Hoikyung; Ryu, Jee-Hoon

    2016-11-21

    Sanitizing radish seeds intended for edible sprout production was achieved by applying simultaneous treatments with gaseous chlorine dioxide (ClO2), high relative humidity (RH, 100%), and mild heat (55°C). Gaseous ClO2 was produced from aqueous ClO2 (0.66ml) by mixing sulfuric acid (5% w/v) with sodium chlorite (10 mg/mL) in a sealed container (1.8L). Greater amounts of gaseous ClO2 were measured at 23% RH (144ppm after 6h) than at 100% RH (66ppm after 6h); however, the lethal activity of gaseous ClO2 against naturally occurring mesophilic aerobic bacteria (MAB) on radish seeds was significantly enhanced at 100% RH. For example, when exposed to gaseous ClO2 at 23% RH, the number of MAB on radish seeds decreased from 3.7logCFU/g to 2.6logCFU/g after 6h. However, when exposed to gaseous ClO2 at 100% RH for 6h, the MAB population decreased to 0.7logCFU/g after 6h. Gaseous ClO2 was produced in higher amounts at 55°C than at 25°C, but decreased more rapidly over time at 55°C than at 25°C. The lethal activity of gaseous ClO2 against MAB on radish seeds was greater at 55°C than at 25°C. When radish seeds were treated with gaseous ClO2 (peak concentration: 195ppm) at 100% RH and 55°C, MAB were reduced to populations below the detectable level (<-0.7logCFU/g) within 2h without decreasing the seed germination rate (97.7%). The lethality of combined treatments against artificially inoculated Escherichia coli O157:H7 was also evaluated. When exposed to gaseous ClO2 at 100% RH and 55°C for 6h, the initial number of E. coli O157:H7 (3.5logCFU/g) on radish seeds decreased to below the detection limit (0.7logCFU/g) by direct plating but it was not eliminated from seeds. The germination rate of radish seeds was not significantly (P>0.05) decreased after treatment for 6h. The information reported here will be useful when developing decontamination strategies for producing microbiologically safe radish seed sprouts.

  13. L-Fucose-containing arabinogalactan-protein in radish leaves.

    PubMed

    Inaba, Miho; Maruyama, Takuma; Yoshimi, Yoshihisa; Kotake, Toshihisa; Matsuoka, Koji; Koyama, Tetsuo; Tryfona, Theodora; Dupree, Paul; Tsumuraya, Yoichi

    2015-10-13

    The carbohydrate moieties of arabinogalactan-proteins (AGPs) have β-(1 → 3)-galactan backbones to which side chains of (1 → 6)-linked β-Gal residues are attached through O-6. Some of these side chains are further substituted with other sugars. We investigated the structure of L-Fuc-containing oligosaccharides released from the carbohydrate moieties of a radish leaf AGP by digestion with α-L-arabinofuranosidase, followed by exo-β-(1 → 3)-galactanase. We detected a series of neutral β-(1 → 6)-galactooligosaccharides branching variously at O-3 of the Gal residues, together with corresponding acidic derivatives terminating in 4-O-methyl-GlcA (4-Me-GlcA) or GlcA at the non-reducing terminals. In neutral oligosaccharides with degree of polymerization (dp) mainly higher than 10, L-Fuc groups were attached through L-Ara residues as the sequence, α-L-Fucp-(1 → 2)-α-L-Araf-(1 →. This sequence was verified by isolation of the pentasaccharide α-L-Fuc-(1 → 2)-α-L-Araf-(1 → 3)-β-Gal-(1 → 6)-β-Gal-(1 → 6)-Gal upon digestion of the higher oligosaccharides with endo-β-(1 → 6)-galactanase. By contrast, in lower polymerized (predominantly dp 4) acidic oligosaccharides, L-Fuc groups were attached directly at the non-reducing terminals through α-(1 → 2)-linkages, resulting in the release of the tetrasaccharides, α-L-Fucp-(1 → 2)-β-GlcA-(1 → 6)-β-Gal-(1 → 6)-Gal and α-L-Fucp-(1 → 2)-β-4-Me-GlcA-(1 → 6)-β-Gal-(1 → 6)-Gal. In long acidic oligosaccharides with dp mainly higher than 13, L-Fuc groups localized on branches were attached to the uronic acids directly and/or L-Ara residues as in the neutral oligosaccharides.

  14. Inheritance of 2,4-D resistance traits in multiple herbicide- resistant Raphanus raphanistrum populations.

    PubMed

    Busi, Roberto; Powles, Stephen B

    2017-04-01

    A relatively low number of weed species have evolved resistance to auxinic herbicides despite their use for almost 70 years. This inheritance study with two Raphanus raphanistrum populations multiple-resistant 2,4-D and the ALS-inhibiting herbicide chlorsulfuron determined the number of genes and genetic dominance of 2,4-D resistance and investigated the association between traits conferring resistance to the two herbicide modes of action. Levels of 2,4-D phenotypic resistance and resistance segregation patterns were assessed in parental populations, F1 and F2 families.

  15. The Japanese Mind: Understanding Contemporary Japanese Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Roger J., Ed.; Ikeno, Osamu, Ed.

    This collection of essays offers an overview of contemporary Japanese culture, and can serve as a resource for classes studying Japan. The 28 essays offer an informative, accessible look at the values, attitudes, behavior patterns, and communication styles of modern Japan from the unique perspective of the Japanese people. Filled with examples…

  16. Bullying in Japanese Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobayashi, Futoshi

    Noting that although many Western educators praise the Japanese educational system because of its students' academic achievements, schools in Japan have developed severe and prevalent problems with student bullying. This paper examines the problem of bullying in Japanese schools. Part 1 of the paper reviews bullying incidents in Japanese schools…

  17. Raphanusanin-mediated resistance to pathogens is light dependent in radish and Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Moehninsi; Miura, Kenji; Yamada, Kosumi; Shigemori, Hideyuki

    2014-09-01

    Raphanusanin (Ra) is a light-induced inhibitor of hypocotyl growth that responds to unilateral blue light illumination in radish seedlings. We have previously shown that Ra regulates genes that are involved in common defense mechanisms. Many genes that are induced by Ra are also positively regulated by early blue light. To extend the understanding of the role of Ra in pathogen defense, we evaluated the effects of Ra on radish and Arabidopsis thaliana (A. thaliana) infected with the necrotrophic pathogen Botrytis cinerea (B. cinerea) and biotrophic pathogen Pseudomonas syringae (P. syringae). Radish and A. thaliana were found to be resistant to both pathogens when treated with Ra, depending on the concentration used. Interestingly, Ra-mediated resistance to P. syringae is dependent on light because Ra-treated seedlings exhibited enhanced susceptibility to P. syringae infection when grown in the dark. In addition to regulating the biotic defense response, Ra inhibited seed germination and root elongation and enhanced the growth of root hairs in the presence of light in radish and A. thaliana. Our data suggest that Ra regulates the expression of a set of genes involved in defense signaling pathways and plays a role in pathogen defense and plant development. Our results show that light may be generally required not only for the accumulation of Ra but also for its activation during the pathogen defense response.

  18. Effects of simulated acidic rainfalls on yields of field-grown radishes and garden beets

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, L S; Cunningham, E A; Lewin, K F

    1981-01-01

    The effects of small additions of simulated acidic rain on radishes and garden beets grown under standard agronomic practices was determined. Only the foliage of plants was sprayed with simulated rain. The composition of the simulated rainfall approximated that of rain falling in the Long Island, NY area. (ACR)

  19. Radish plant exposed to lunar material collected on the Apollo 12 mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    The leaves of this radish plant were rubbed with lunar material colleted on the Apollo 12 lunar landing mission in experiments conducted in the Manned Spacecraft Center's Lunar Receiving Laboratory. The plant was exposed to the material 30 days before this photograph was made. Evidently no ill effects resulted from contact with the lunar soil.

  20. Return to Our Roots: Raising Radishes to Teach Experimental Design. Methods and Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stallings, William M.

    1993-01-01

    Reviews research in teaching applied statistics. Concludes that students should analyze data from studies they have designed and conducted. Describes an activity in which students study germination and growth of radish seeds. Includes a table providing student instructions for both the experimental procedure and data analysis. (CFR)

  1. Methane and hydrogen sulfide production during co-digestion of forage radish and dairy manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Forage radish cover crops were investigated as a co-substrate to increase biogas production from dairy manure-based anaerobic digestion. Lab-scale batch digesters (300 mL) were operated under mesophilic conditions during two experiments. In the first experiment, the optimal co-digestion ratio for ...

  2. Microbiota of radish plants, cultivated in closed and open ecological systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tirranen, L. S.

    It is common knowledge that microorganisms respond to environmental changes faster than other representatives of the living world. The major aim of this work was to examine and analyze the characteristics of the microbiota of radish culture, cultivated in the closed ecological system of human life-support Bios-3 and in an open system in different experiments. Microbial community of near-root, root zone and phyllosphere of radish were studied at the phases of seedlings, root formation, technical ripeness—by washing-off method—like microbiota of the substrate (expanded clay aggregate) and of the seeds of radish culture. Inoculation on appropriate media was made to count total quantity of anaerobic and aerobic bacteria, bacteria of coliform group, spore-forming, Proteus group, fluorescent, phytopathogenic bacteria, growing on Fermi medium, yeasts, microscopic fungi, Actinomyces. It was revealed that formation of the microbiota of radish plants depends on the age, plant cultivation technology and the specific conditions of the closed system. Composition of microbial conveyor-cultivated in phytotrons varied in quality and in quantity with plant growth phases—in the same manner as cultivation of even-aged soil and hydroponics monocultures which was determined by different qualitative and quantitative composition of root emissions in the course of plant vegetation. The higher plant component formed its own microbial complex different from that formed prior to closure. The microbial complex of vegetable polyculture is more diverse and stable than the monoculture of radish. We registered the changes in the species composition and microorganism quantity during plant cultivation in the closed system on a long-used solution. It was demonstrated that during the short-term (7 days) use of the nutrient solution in the experiments without system closing, the species composition of the microbiota of radish plants was more diverse in a multiple-aged vegetable polyculture (61

  3. [Investigation of systemic control of plant cell division and differentiation in the model of tumor growth in radish].

    PubMed

    Lutova, L A; Dolgikh, E A; Dodueva, I E; Osipova, M A; Il'ina, E L

    2008-08-01

    The study addresses the control of plant cell division and differentiation using the model of tumor-forming lines of radish. Expression of the genes involved in control of the cell cycle (CycD3), maintenance of meristematic cell activity (STM, WUS, and KNAT1), and primary response to cytokinin (ARR) was studied in inbred radish lines characterized by tumor growth at different stages of development. The influence of exogenic cytokinin on the expression of the genes of interest is analyzed. The possible role of the CycD3, KNAT1, STM, WUS, and ARR5 in tumor formation in radish is discussed.

  4. The mitigative effect of Raphanus sativus oil on chromium-induced geno- and hepatotoxicity in male rats.

    PubMed

    Elshazly, M O; Morgan, Ashraf M; Ali, Merhan E; Abdel-Mawla, Essam; Abd El-Rahman, Sahar S

    2016-05-01

    To study the impact of radish oil on the possible genotoxic and hepatotoxic effects of hexavalent chromium, male rats were divided into 4 groups. Group 1 served as control, group 2 received radish oil at the recommended human therapeutic dose (0.07 mL/kg) by gavage, group 3 received sodium dichromate dihydrate (SDD) 520 mg/L in drinking water, and group 4 received both SDD and radish oil as previously mentioned in groups 2 and 3. All treatments were continued for six months. The results revealed that chromium exposure promoted oxidative stress with a consequently marked hepatic histopathological alterations, increased serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities, alfa fetoprotein (AFP) levels, and micronucleated erythrocytes (MNE) % in peripheral blood. Moreover, COMET assay of hepatic DNA revealed that SDD exposure significantly decreased the intact cells %, head diameter, and head DNA % compared to control, indicating DNA damage. However, radish oil co-administration with SDD resulted in marked amendment in the altered parameters as detected by improved liver function markers (ALT and ALP) and AFP level, decreased lipid peroxidation, increased antioxidant markers, inhibited hepatic DNA damage and restored the hepatic histology by preventing the appearance of the altered hepatocytes' foci and decreasing chromium induced histopathological lesions. It could be concluded that radish oil was able to provide a convergent complete protection against the geno- and hepatotoxicity of chromium by its potent antioxidant effect.

  5. The mitigative effect of Raphanus sativus oil on chromium-induced geno- and hepatotoxicity in male rats

    PubMed Central

    Elshazly, M.O.; Morgan, Ashraf M.; Ali, Merhan E.; Abdel-mawla, Essam; Abd El-Rahman, Sahar S.

    2016-01-01

    To study the impact of radish oil on the possible genotoxic and hepatotoxic effects of hexavalent chromium, male rats were divided into 4 groups. Group 1 served as control, group 2 received radish oil at the recommended human therapeutic dose (0.07 mL/kg) by gavage, group 3 received sodium dichromate dihydrate (SDD) 520 mg/L in drinking water, and group 4 received both SDD and radish oil as previously mentioned in groups 2 and 3. All treatments were continued for six months. The results revealed that chromium exposure promoted oxidative stress with a consequently marked hepatic histopathological alterations, increased serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities, alfa fetoprotein (AFP) levels, and micronucleated erythrocytes (MNE) % in peripheral blood. Moreover, COMET assay of hepatic DNA revealed that SDD exposure significantly decreased the intact cells %, head diameter, and head DNA % compared to control, indicating DNA damage. However, radish oil co-administration with SDD resulted in marked amendment in the altered parameters as detected by improved liver function markers (ALT and ALP) and AFP level, decreased lipid peroxidation, increased antioxidant markers, inhibited hepatic DNA damage and restored the hepatic histology by preventing the appearance of the altered hepatocytes’ foci and decreasing chromium induced histopathological lesions. It could be concluded that radish oil was able to provide a convergent complete protection against the geno- and hepatotoxicity of chromium by its potent antioxidant effect. PMID:27222746

  6. Formation and Stabilization of Raphasatin and Sulforaphene from Radish Roots by Endogenous Enzymolysis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae-Won; Kim, Mi-Bo; Lim, Sang-Bin

    2015-01-01

    The biologically active compounds raphasatin and sulforaphene are formed during the hydrolysis of radishes by an endogenous myrosinase. Raphasatin is very unstable, and it is generated and simultaneously degraded to less active compounds during hydrolysis in aqueous media. This study determined the hydrolysis conditions to maximize the formation of raphasatin and sulforaphene by an endogenous myrosinase and minimize their degradation during the hydrolysis of radish roots. The reaction parameters, such as the reaction medium, reaction time, type of mixing, and reaction temperature were optimized. A stability test for raphasatin and sulforaphene was also performed during storage of the hydrolyzed products at 25°C for 10 days. The formation and breakdown of raphasatin and sulforaphene in radish roots by endogenous enzymolysis was strongly influenced by the reaction medium, reaction time, and type of mixing. The production and stabilization of raphasatin in radishes was efficient in water and dichloromethane with shaking for 15 min at 25°C. For sulforaphene, the favorable condition was water as the reaction medium without shaking for 10 min at 25°C. The maximum yields of raphasatin and sulforaphene were achieved in a concurrent hydrolysis reaction without shaking in water for 10 min and then with shaking in dichloromethane for 15 min at 25°C. Under these conditions, the yields of raphasatin and sulforaphene were maximized at 12.89 and 1.93 μmol/g of dry radish, respectively. The stabilities of raphasatin and sulforaphene in the hydrolyzed products were 56.4% and 86.5% after 10 days of storage in water and dichloromethane at 25°C. PMID:26175999

  7. Detection of zeptomolar concentrations of alkaline phosphatase based on a tyrosinase and horse-radish peroxidase bienzyme biosensor.

    PubMed

    Ruan, C; Li, Y

    2001-07-06

    A bienzyme biosensor based on tyrosinase and horse-radish peroxidase is described in a flow injection analysis and cyclic voltammetry for measurement of phenol. Tyrosinase and horse-radish peroxidase were immobilized on the surface of a glassy carbon electrode by bovine serum albumin and glutaric dialdehyde. Phenol was oxidized by tyrosinase and horse-radish peroxidase via catechol to o-quinone in the presence of oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. The o-quinone was reduced to produce catechol (the substrate recycling) on the electrode surface. The enhanced sensitivity of the bienzyme electrode to phenol was observed in the flow injection system comparing with tyrosinase and horse-radish peroxidase monoenzyme electrodes. The mechanisms for enhanced amperometric response to phenol of bienzyme electrode were discussed. The biosensor was used to detect alkaline phosphatase (ALP). A detection limit of 1.4x10(-15) M ALP (140 zmol/100 mul) was obtained after 1 h incubation with phenyl phosphate.

  8. [Effect of plant products of nutrition (radish and carrot tops) on various indicators of metabolism in humans].

    PubMed

    Sivuk, A K; Abakumova, I A; Gur'eva, T S; Griaznova, V N; Korshunova, V A

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses the possibility of using nontraditional plant foodstuffs, i.e. carrot and radish tops, in the diet of men kept in an enclosed environment. The effect of the diet on protein, fat and carbohydrate metabolism was investigated. It was found that consumption of carrot and radish tops at a dose of 75 g/day for as long as 28 days did not produce any adverse changes in the metabolic parameters examined.

  9. Green Route for Silver Nanoparticles Synthesis by Raphanus Sativus Extract in a Continuous Flow Tubular Microreactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jolhe, P. D.; Bhanvase, B. A.; Patil, V. S.; Sonawane, S. H.

    The present work deals with the investigation of the greener route for the production of silver nanoparticles using Raphanus sativus (R. sativus) bioextract in a continuous flow tubular microreactor. The parameters affecting the particle size and distribution were investigated. From the results obtained it can be inferred that the ascorbic acid (reducing agent) present in the R. sativus bioextract is responsible for the reduction of silver ions. At optimum condition, the particle size distribution of nanoparticles is found between 18nm and 39nm. The absorbance value was found to be decreased with an increase in the diameter of the microreactor. It indicates that a number of nuclei are formed in the micrometer sized (diameter) reactor because of the better solute transfer rate leading to the formation of large number of silver nanoparticles. The study of antibacterial activity of green synthesized silver nanoparticles shows effective inhibitory activity against waterborne pathogens, Shegella and Listeria bacteria.

  10. Toxicity identification evaluation of anaerobically treated swine slurry: a comparison between Daphnia magna and Raphanus sativus.

    PubMed

    Villamar, Cristina A; Silva, Jeannette; Bay-Schmith, Enrique; Vidal, Gladys

    2014-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion does not efficiently reduce ionic compounds present in swine slurry, which could present a potential risk to aquatic ecosystems (surface runoff) and terrestrial ambient (irrigation). The objective of this study was to evaluate the ecotoxicological characteristics of anaerobically treated swine slurry using acute and chronic (epicotyl elongation) toxicity tests with Daphnia magna and Raphanus sativus and identification of suspected toxic compounds using the Toxicity Identification Evaluation (TIE) method. The evaluation was performed in three phases: physicochemical characterization of the slurry; acute/chronic toxicity testing with Daphnia magna and Raphanus sativus for each fraction of the TIE (cation and anion exchange columns, activated carbon, pH modification/aeration and EDTA) and identification of suspected toxic compounds. The anaerobically treated slurry contained concentrations of ammonium of 1,072 mg L(-1), chloride of 815 mg L(-1) and metals below 1 mg L(-1) with a D. magna acute toxicity (48h-LC50) of 5.3% and R. sativus acute toxicity (144h-LC50) of 48.1%. Epicotyl elongation of R. sativus was inhibited at concentrations above 25% (NOEC). The cation exchange reduced the toxicity and free ammonia by more than 90% for both bio-indicators. Moreover, this condition stimulated the epicotyl growth of R. sativus between 10% and 37%. In conclusion, the main compound suspected of causing acute toxicity in D. magna and acute/chronic toxicity in R. sativus is the ammonium. The findings suggest the need the ammonium treatment prior to the agricultural reuse of swine slurry given the high risk to contaminate the aquatic environment by runoff and toxicity of sensitive plants.

  11. Integrated utilization of red radish seeds for the efficient production of seed oil and sulforaphene.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Zhou, Xing; Fu, Min

    2016-02-01

    Supercritical CO2 was used to obtain seed oil from red radish seeds. The influence of pressure, temperature, CO2 flow rate and time on extraction yield of oil were investigated in detail. The maximum extraction yield of oil was 92.07 ± 0.76% at the optimal extraction conditions. The physicochemical properties and fatty acid composition of oil indicated that the seed oil can be used as a dietary oil. Meanwhile, the high purity sulforaphene (96.84 ± 0.17%) was separated by solvent extraction coupled with preparative high performance liquid chromatography from red radish seed meal. The initial pH, R, extraction temperature and extraction time for each cycle had a considerable influence both on the extraction yield and purity of sulforaphene of crude product. The extraction of oil was directly responsible for an increase of 18.32% in the yield of sulforaphene.

  12. Effects of sulfur fertilization on the accumulation of health-promoting phytochemicals in radish sprouts.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chenguang; Zhu, Yi; Luo, Yunbo

    2013-08-07

    The effects of sulfur fertilization on the growth profile, the contents of glucosinolates, anthocyanins, vitamin C, carotenoids, chlorophylls, total phenolics, and the FRAP value in radish seeds and sprouts were investigated. The concentrations of glucosinolates and antioxidants in sprouts were strongly influenced by the process of germination. Sulfur fertilization induced significant increases in the contents of individual glucosinolates, carotenoids, chlorophylls, and total phenolics. The phenolic contents in sprouts cultivated using 20, 60, or 100 mg/L sulfate were 20.7%, 40.4%, and 40.8% higher, respectively, than those of 7-day-old control sprouts. No detectable effects were observed on the contents of 4-methoxy-glucobrassicin and vitamin C. In addition, the accumulation of anthocyanins in 7-day-old sprouts decreased by 14.8-39.3% upon sulfur fertilization. These findings indicated that the application of sulfur fertilization has the potential to enhance the levels of health-promoting compounds in radish sprouts.

  13. Analysis of Volatile Organic Compounds in a Controlled Environment: Ethylene Gas Measurement Studies on Radish

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kong, Suk Bin

    2001-01-01

    Volatile organic compound(VOC), ethylene gas, was characterized and quantified by GC/FID. 20-50 ppb levels were detected during the growth stages of radish. SPME could be a good analytical tool for the purpose. Low temperature trapping method using dry ice/diethyl ether and liquid nitrogen bath was recommended for the sampling process for GC/PID and GC/MS analysis.

  14. Growth of radish and marigold following repeated exposure to nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Reinert, R.A.; Sanders, J.S.

    1982-02-01

    Radish and marigold plants were exposed to 0.3 ppM of nitrogen dioxide (NO/sub 2/), sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/), and /or ozone (O/sub 3/) nine times during a 3-wk period. No interactions among NO/sub 2/, SO/sub 2/, and O/sub 3/ were detected in measurement of radish foliage and root dry weight. Treatments containing O/sub 3/ reduced radish foliage and root (hypocotyl) dry weight 356 and 531 mg/plant, respectively. Interactions among NO/sub 2/, SO/sub 2/ and O/sub 3/ occurred in shoots and roots of marigold. SO/sub 2/ alone reduced marigold shoot and root dry weight, but this effect was reversed in the presence of O/sub 3/. The suppressive effect of SO/sub 2/ on root weight was also reversed by NO/sub 2/. Treatments containing SO/sub 2/ reduced dry flower weight 0.17 g/plant, but effects of the pollutant interactions observed in shoots and roots were not present. 8 references, 2 tables.

  15. Growth of radish and marigold following repeated exposure to nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Reinert, R.A.; Sanders, J.S.

    1982-02-01

    Radish and marigold plants were exposed to 0.3 ppm of nitrogen dioxide (NO/sub 2/), sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/), and/or ozone (O/sub 3/) nine times during a 3-wk period. No interactions among NO/sub 2/, SO/sub 2/, and O/sub 3/ were detected in measurement of radish foliage and root dry weight. Treatments containing O/sub 3/ reduced radish foliage and root (hypocotyl) dry weight 356 and 531 mg/plant, respectively. Interactions among NO/sub 2/, SO/sub 2/, and O/sub 3/ occurred in shoots and roots of marigold. SO/sub 2/ alone reduced marigold shoot and root dry weight, but this effect was reversed in the presence of O/sub 3/. The suppressive effect of SO/sub 2/ on root weight was also reversed by NO/sub 3/. Treatments containing SO/sub 2/ reduced dry flower weight 0.17 g/plant, but effects of the pollutant interactions observed in shoots and roots were not present.

  16. Japanese American Identity Dilemma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maykovich, Minako K.

    The major theme of this book is the label "Quiet American" for the Japanese American. In order to locate Japanese Americans sociologically and psychologically in the structure of American society, various concepts such as "marginal man,""alienation," and "inauthenticity" are examined, specifying these…

  17. Incarcerating Japanese Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Roger

    2002-01-01

    Presents the history of the Japanese American incarceration during World War II. Focuses on issues such as Executive Order 9066, what happened to the Japanese Americans during the war, and the forms of resistance that occurred. Questions whether something like this could ever happen again. (CMK)

  18. The Japanese American Story.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fukei, Budd

    This book presents a view of the Japanese American experience from the time of their immigration to this country in the 1800s to their acculturation into American society in the 1970s. Topics dealt with include the prejudice and mistrust experienced by the Japanese immigrants in this country, particularly their evacuation and internment in…

  19. The Japanese containerless experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Azuma, Hisao

    1990-01-01

    There are three sets of Japanese containerless experiments. The first is Drop dynamics research. It consists of acoustic levitation and large amplitude drop oscillation. The second is Optical materials processing in an acoustic levitation furnace. And the third is Electrostatic levitator development by two different Japanese companies.

  20. Mechanism of NADPH oxidation catalyzed by horse-radish peroxidase and 2,4-diacetyl-[2H]heme-substituted horse-radish peroxidase.

    PubMed

    De Sandro, V; Dupuy, C; Kaniewski, J; Ohayon, R; Dème, D; Virion, A; Pommier, J

    1991-10-15

    The mechanism of NADPH oxidation catalyzed by horse-radish peroxidase (HRP) and 2,4-diacetyl-[2H]heme-substituted horse-radish peroxidase (DHRP) was studied. The roles of the different H2O2/peroxidase compounds were examined by spectral studies. The oxidized NADPH species were identified using the superoxide dismutase effect and by measuring the stoichiometry between NADPH oxidized and H2O2 used. In the presence of a mediating molecule, like scopoletin, both enzymes acted via a similar mechanism, producing only NADP degrees, which in turn reacted with O2 producing O2-. Consequently H2O2 was completely regenerated in the presence of superoxide dismutase and partially regenerated in its absence. In the absence of a mediating molecule, the H2O2 complex of both enzymes (compound I) catalysed NADPH oxidation by single-electron transfer, producing NADP degrees; compound II of these enzymes catalyzed NADPH oxidation more slowly by a direct two-electron transfer, producing NADPH+. There were difference between HRP and DHRP. HRP compound II was produced by the oxidation of 1 mol NADPH/mole compound I, while DHRP compound II was formed by the spontaneous conversion of compound I to compound II. The NADPH oxidation catalyzed by DHRP compound I did not lead to the formation of compound II. When H2O2 was produced slowly by the glucose/glucose-oxidase system, compound II was never formed and a pure O2- adduct of DHRP (compound III) accumulated.

  1. MODERN JAPANESE, A BASIC READER. VOLUME II, JAPANESE TEXTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HIBBETT, HOWARD; ITASAKA, GEN

    VOLUME II OF THIS INTRODUCTION TO WRITTEN JAPANESE CONTAINS 60 READING PASSAGES IN JAPANESE SCRIPT TO BE USED WITH THE VOCABULARY AND NOTES IN VOLUME I. THE READINGS ARE GRADED AND HAVE BEEN SELECTED TO REPRESENT GOOD MODERN JAPANESE USAGE. THE BEGINNING LESSONS ARE IN EASY INFORMAL STYLES AND ARE CONCERNED WITH THE JAPANESE LANGUAGE AND CULTURE.…

  2. Comprehensive transcriptome-based characterization of differentially expressed genes involved in microsporogenesis of radish CMS line and its maintainer.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yang; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Yan; Xu, Liang; Zhu, Xianwen; Muleke, Everlyne M; Liu, Liwang

    2016-09-01

    Microsporogenesis is an indispensable period for investigating microspore development and cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) occurrence. Radish CMS line plays a critical role in elite F1 hybrid seed production and heterosis utilization. However, the molecular mechanisms of microspore development and CMS occurrence have not been thoroughly uncovered in radish. In this study, a comparative analysis of radish floral buds from a CMS line (NAU-WA) and its maintainer (NAU-WB) was conducted using next generation sequencing (NGS) technology. Digital gene expression (DGE) profiling revealed that 3504 genes were significantly differentially expressed between NAU-WA and NAU-WB library, among which 1910 were upregulated and 1594 were downregulated. Gene ontology (GO) analysis showed that these differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were mainly enriched in extracellular region, catalytic activity, and response to stimulus. KEGG enrichment analysis revealed that the DEGs were predominantly associated with flavonoid biosynthesis, glycolysis, and biosynthesis of secondary metabolites. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis showed that the expression profiles of 13 randomly selected DEGs were in high agreement with results from Illumina sequencing. Several candidate genes encoding ATP synthase, auxin response factor (ARF), transcription factors (TFs), chalcone synthase (CHS), and male sterility (MS) were responsible for microsporogenesis. Furthermore, a schematic diagram for functional interaction of DEGs from NAU-WA vs. NAU-WB library in radish plants was proposed. These results could provide new information on the dissection of the molecular mechanisms underlying microspore development and CMS occurrence in radish.

  3. 2011 Japanese Nuclear Incident

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA’s RadNet system monitored the environmental radiation levels in the United States and parts of the Pacific following the Japanese Nuclear Incident. Learn about EPA’s response and view historical laboratory data and news releases.

  4. How the Japanese work.

    PubMed

    Chambers, D W

    1998-01-01

    The Japanese do not work harder or even use different approaches so much as they aim for a different result--one that balances process and results and extends the definition of quality beyond the product itself to include cost and convenience to the customer as well. Ten methods of the Japanese kaizen culture of work are presented with applications and contrasts to American dentistry.

  5. Sequencing, de novo assembly and comparative analysis of Raphanus sativus transcriptome.

    PubMed

    Wu, Gang; Zhang, Libin; Yin, Yongtai; Wu, Jiangsheng; Yu, Longjiang; Zhou, Yanhong; Li, Maoteng

    2015-01-01

    Raphanus sativus is an important Brassicaceae plant and also an edible vegetable with great economic value. However, currently there is not enough transcriptome information of R. sativus tissues, which impedes further functional genomics research on R. sativus. In this study, RNA-seq technology was employed to characterize the transcriptome of leaf tissues. Approximately 70 million clean pair-end reads were obtained and used for de novo assembly by Trinity program, which generated 68,086 unigenes with an average length of 576 bp. All the unigenes were annotated against GO and KEGG databases. In the meanwhile, we merged leaf sequencing data with existing root sequencing data and obtained better de novo assembly of R. sativus using Oases program. Accordingly, potential simple sequence repeats (SSRs), transcription factors (TFs) and enzyme codes were identified in R. sativus. Additionally, we detected a total of 3563 significantly differentially expressed genes (DEGs, P = 0.05) and tissue-specific biological processes between leaf and root tissues. Furthermore, a TFs-based regulation network was constructed using Cytoscape software. Taken together, these results not only provide a comprehensive genomic resource of R. sativus but also shed light on functional genomic and proteomic research on R. sativus in the future.

  6. Anti-inflammatory and antitumor phenylpropanoid sucrosides from the seeds of Raphanus sativus.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki Hyun; Kim, Chung Sub; Park, Yong Joo; Moon, Eunjung; Choi, Sang Un; Lee, Jei Hyun; Kim, Sun Yeou; Lee, Kang Ro

    2015-01-01

    A bioassay-guided fractionation and chemical investigation of the MeOH extract of Raphanus sativus seeds resulted in the isolation and identification of eight phenylpropanoid sucrosides (1-8) including two new compounds, named raphasativuside A and B (1-2) from the most active CHCl₃-soluble fraction. The structures of these new compounds were elucidated through spectral analysis, including extensive 2D-NMR data, and chemical reaction experiments. We evaluated the anti-inflammatory effects of 1-8 in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated murine microglia BV2 cells. Compounds 2 and 5 exhibited significant inhibitory effect on nitric oxide production in LPS-activated BV-2 cells with IC₅₀ values of 21.63 and 26.96 μM, respectively. All isolates were also evaluated for their antiproliferative activities against four human tumor cell lines (A549, SK-OV-3, SK-MEL-2, and HCT-15). Compounds 1-7 showed consistent cytotoxicity against A549, SK-OV-3, SK-MEL-2, and HCT-15 cell lines with IC50 values of 6.71-27.92 μM. Additionally, the free-radical scavenging activity of 1-8 was assessed using the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) assay where compounds 1, 3, and 4 scavenged DPPH radical strongly with IC₅₀ values of 23.05, 27.10, and 29.63 μg/mL, respectively.

  7. Transcriptome analysis of leaf tissue of Raphanus sativus by RNA sequencing.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Libin; Jia, Haibo; Yin, Yongtai; Wu, Gang; Xia, Heng; Wang, Xiaodong; Fu, Chunhua; Li, Maoteng; Wu, Jiangsheng

    2013-01-01

    Raphanus sativus is not only a popular edible vegetable but also an important source of medicinal compounds. However, the paucity of knowledge about the transcriptome of R. sativus greatly impedes better understanding of the functional genomics and medicinal potential of R. sativus. In this study, the transcriptome sequencing of leaf tissues in R. sativus was performed for the first time. Approximately 22 million clean reads were generated and used for transcriptome assembly. The generated unigenes were subsequently annotated against gene ontology (GO) database. KEGG analysis further revealed two important pathways in the bolting stage of R.sativus including spliceosome assembly and alkaloid synthesis. In addition, a total of 6,295 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) with various motifs were identified in the unigene library of R. sativus. Finally, four unigenes of R. sativus were selected for alignment with their homologs from other plants, and phylogenetic trees for each of the genes were constructed. Taken together, this study will provide a platform to facilitate gene discovery and advance functional genomic research of R. sativus.

  8. Acylated anthocyanins from sprouts of Raphanus sativus cv. Sango: isolation, structure elucidation and antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Matera, Riccardo; Gabbanini, Simone; Berretti, Serena; Amorati, Riccardo; De Nicola, Gina Rosalinda; Iori, Renato; Valgimigli, Luca

    2015-01-01

    Little is known on structure-activity relationships of antioxidant anthocyanins. Raphanus sativus cv Sango sprouts are among the richest sources (270 mg/100 g fresh weight). We isolated from sprouts' juice 9 acylated anthocyanins, including 4 new compounds. All comprise a cyanidin core bearing 3-4 glucose units, multiply acylated with malonic and phenolic acids (ferulic and sinapic). All compounds were equally effective in inhibiting the autoxidation of linoleic acid in aqueous micelles, with rate constant for trapping peroxyl radicals kinh=(3.8 ± 0.7) × 10(4)M(-1)s(-1) at 37 °C. In acetonitrile solution kinh varied with acylation: (0.9-2.1) × 10(5)M(-1)s(-1) at 30 °C. Each molecule trapped a number n of peroxyl radicals ranging from 4 to 7. Anthocyanins bearing sinapic acid were more effective than those bearing the ferulic moiety. Under identical settings, deacylated cyanin, ferulic and sinapic acids had kinh of 0.4 × 10(5), 0.3 × 10(5) and 1.6 × 10(5)M(-1)s(-1) respectively, with n ranging 2-3. Results show the major role of acylation on antioxidant performance.

  9. Functional and Integrative Analysis of the Proteomic Profile of Radish Root under Pb Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan; Xu, Liang; Tang, Mingjia; Jiang, Haiyan; Chen, Wei; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Ronghua; Liu, Liwang

    2016-01-01

    Lead (Pb) is one of the most abundant heavy metal (HM) pollutants, which can penetrate the plant through the root and then enter the food chain causing potential health risks for human beings. Radish is an important root vegetable crop worldwide. To investigate the mechanism underlying plant response to Pb stress in radish, the protein profile changes of radish roots respectively upon Pb(NO3)2 at 500 mg L−1(Pb500) and 1000 mg L−1(Pb1000), were comprehensively analyzed using iTRAQ (Isobaric Tag for Relative and Absolute Quantification). A total of 3898 protein species were successfully detected and 2141 were quantified. Among them, a subset of 721 protein species were differentially accumulated upon at least one Pb treatment, and 135 ones showed significantly abundance changes under both two Pb-stressed conditions. Many critical protein species related to protein translation, processing, and degradation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging, photosynthesis, and respiration and carbon metabolism were successfully identified. Gene Ontology (GO) and pathway enrichment analysis of the 135 differential abundance protein species (DAPS) revealed that the overrepresented GO terms included “cell wall,” “apoplast,” “response to metal ion,” “vacuole,” and “peroxidase activity,” and the critical enriched pathways were involved in “citric acid (TCA) cycle and respiratory electron transport,” “pyruvate metabolism,” “phenylalanine metabolism,” “phenylpropanoid biosynthesis,” and “carbon metabolism.” Furthermore, the integrative analysis of transcriptomic, miRNA, degradome, metabolomics and proteomic data provided a strengthened understanding of radish response to Pb stress at multiple levels. Under Pb stress, many key enzymes (i.e., ATP citrate lyase, Isocitrate dehydrogenase, fumarate hydratase and malate dehydrogenase) involved in the glycolysis and TCA cycle were severely affected, which ultimately cause alteration of some

  10. Absorption of horse-radish peroxidase by the conjunctival epithelium of monkeys and rabbits.

    PubMed

    Steuhl, P; Rohen, J W

    1983-01-01

    Horse-radish peroxidase was instilled into the conjunctival sac of rabbits and Cynomolgus monkeys. After an interval of 5, 30 or 60 min the conjunctival epithelium was studied by electron microscopy. The tracer was found to be absorbed predominantly by type-V cells, which are rich in mitochondria; this process was found to occur more rapidly in the rabbit than in the monkey. The particles were primarily incorporated into pinocytotic vesicles and phagosomes and were then either digested by phagolysosomes or transported through the basal portion of the surface epithelial cells into the expanding intercellular spaces distal to the junctional complexes.

  11. Epibrassinolide ameliorates Cr (VI) stress via influencing the levels of indole-3-acetic acid, abscisic acid, polyamines and antioxidant system of radish seedlings.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Sikander Pal; Kanwar, Mukesh; Bhardwaj, Renu; Gupta, B D; Gupta, R K

    2011-07-01

    The present investigation determined the effects of epibrassinolide (EBL) on the levels of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), abscisic acid (ABA), and polyamine (PA) and antioxidant potential of 7-d old Raphanus sativus L. cv. 'Pusa chetki' seedlings grown under Cr (VI) metal stress. Reduced titers of free (0.767 μg g(-1) FW) and bound (0.545 μg g(-1) FW) IAA in Cr (VI) stressed seedlings were observed over untreated control. Supplementations of EBL to Cr (VI) stressed seedlings were able to enhance both free (2.14-5.68 μg g(-1) FW) and bound IAA (2.45-7.78 μg g(-1) FW) concentrations in comparison to Cr (VI) metal treatment alone. Significant rise in free (13.49 μg g(-1) FW) and bound (12.17 μg g(-1) FW) ABA contents were noticed for Cr (VI) stressed seedlings when compared to untreated control. No significant increase in ABA contents were recorded for Cr (VI) stressed seedlings upon supplementation with EBL over Cr (VI) treatment alone. A significant increase in Put (18.40 μg g(-1) FW) and Cad (9.08 μg g(-1) FW) contents were found for 10(-9)M EBL plus Cr (VI) metal treatments when compared to Cr (VI) treatment alone. Spermidine (Spd) contents were found to decline significantly for EBL treatment alone or when supplemented with Cr (VI) treatments over untreated controls and Cr (VI) treatment alone. Antioxidant levels were found to enhance, with glutathione (57.98 mg g(-1) FW), proline (4.97 mg g(-1) FW), glycinebetaine (39.01 μmol mL(-1)), ascorbic acid (3.17 mg g(-1) FW) and phytochelatins (65.69 μmol g(-1) FW) contents noted for EBL supplemented to Cr (VI) metal solution over Cr (VI) treatment alone. Reduced activities of guaiacol peroxidase (0.391 U mg(-1) protein) and catalase (0.221 U mg(-1) protein) and enhanced activities of glutathione reductase (7.14 U mg(-1) protein), superoxide dismutase (15.20 U mg(-1) protein) and ascorbate peroxidase (4.31 U mg(-1) protein) were observed in seedlings treated with EBL plus Cr (VI) over Cr metal treatment alone

  12. Increased Sucrose in the Hypocotyls of Radish Sprouts Contributes to Nitrogen Deficiency-Induced Anthocyanin Accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Su, Nana; Wu, Qi; Cui, Jin

    2016-01-01

    Effects of nitrogen (N) deficiency and sucrose (Suc) addition on regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis and their relationship were investigated in this study. Radish sprouts subjected to N deficiency had 50% higher anthocyanin accumulation than when grown in Hoagland solution (a nutrient medium with all macronutrients). The contents of endogenous soluble sugars (Suc, fructose, and glucose) in the hypocotyls were also markedly increased by N limitation, with Suc showing the highest increase. Inhibition of carbohydrate biosynthesis by addition of 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea (DCMU) also eliminated N deficiency-induced anthocyanin accumulation. The latter was further supported by the expression of anthocyanin biosynthesis related genes and decreased activities of nitrate reductase in the presence of Suc. Together our results indicate that N deficiency-induced anthocyanin accumulation was, at least partly, dependent on the increase of the soluble sugar, especially Suc. This work is the first comprehensive study on relationship between N deficiency and sugar content on anthocyanin accumulation in the hypocotyls of radish sprouts. PMID:28083009

  13. Optimizing elicitation and seed priming to enrich broccoli and radish sprouts in glucosinolates.

    PubMed

    Baenas, Nieves; Villaño, Debora; García-Viguera, Cristina; Moreno, Diego A

    2016-08-01

    Elicitation is a cheaper and socially acceptable tool for improving plant food functionality. Our objective was to optimize the treatment doses of the elicitors: methyl jasmonate (MeJA), jasmonic acid (JA) and DL-methionine (MET), in order to find a successful and feasible treatment to produce broccoli and radish sprouts with enhanced levels of health-promoting glucosinolates. Also a priming of seeds as a novel strategy to trigger the glucosinolates content was carried out with water (control), MeJA (250μM), JA (250μM) and MET (10mM) before the elicitor exogenous treatment. The results showed that almost all treatments could enhance effectively the total glucosinolates content in the sprouts, achieving the most significant increases from 34% to 100% of increase in broccoli and from 45% to 118% of increase in radish sprouts after MeJA priming and treatments. Consequently, our work demonstrates the feasibility of using elicitors, such as plant stress hormones, by priming and exogenously, as a way of increase the phytochemical profile of these sprouts to enhance their consumption in the diet.

  14. Antimicrobial activity of chitosan coatings and films against Listeria monocytogenes on black radish.

    PubMed

    Jovanović, Gordana D; Klaus, Anita S; Nikšić, Miomir P

    2016-01-01

    The antibacterial activity of chitosan coatings prepared with acetic or lactic acid, as well as of composite chitosan-gelatin films prepared with essential oils, was evaluated in fresh shredded black radish samples inoculated with Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19115 and L. monocytogenes ATCC 19112 during seven days of storage at 4°C. The chitosan coating prepared with acetic acid showed the most effective antibacterial activity. All tested formulations of chitosan films exhibited strong antimicrobial activity on the growth of L. monocytogenes on black radish, although a higher inhibition of pathogens was achieved at higher concentrations of chitosan. The antimicrobial effect of chitosan films was even more pronounced with the addition of essential oils. Chitosan-gelatin films with thyme essential oils showed the most effective antimicrobial activity. A reduction of 2.4log10CFU/g for L. monocytogenes ATCC 19115 and 2.1log10CFU/g for L. monocytogenes ATCC 19112 was achieved in the presence of 1% chitosan film containing 0.2% of thyme essential oil after 24h of storage.

  15. Plant productivity and characterization of zeoponic substrates after three successive crops of radish

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gruener, J. E.; Ming, Doug; Galindo, C., Jr.; Henderson, K. E.

    2006-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has developed advanced life support (ALS) systems for long duration space missions that incorporate plants to regenerate the atmosphere (CO2 to O2), recycle water (via evapotranspiration), and produce food. NASA has also developed a zeolite-based synthetic substrate consisting of clinoptilolite and synthetic apatite to support plant growth for ALS systems (Ming et al., 1995). The substrate is called zeoponics and has been designed to slowly release all plant essential elements into "soil" solution. The substrate consists of K- and NH4-exchanged clinoptilolite and a synthetic hydroxyapatite that has Mg, S, and the plant-essential micronutrients incorporated into its structure in addition to Ca and P. Plant performance in zeoponic substrates has been improved by the addition of dolomite pH buffers, nitrifying bacteria, and other calcium-bearing minerals (Henderson et al., 2000; Gruener et al., 2003). Wheat was used as the test crop for all of these studies. The objectives of this study were to expand upon the previous studies to determine the growth and nutrient uptake of radish in zeoponic substrates and to determine the nutrient availability of the zeoponic substrate after three successive radish crops.

  16. An EST-SSR linkage map of Raphanus sativus and comparative genomics of the Brassicaceae.

    PubMed

    Shirasawa, Kenta; Oyama, Maki; Hirakawa, Hideki; Sato, Shusei; Tabata, Satoshi; Fujioka, Takashi; Kimizuka-Takagi, Chiaki; Sasamoto, Shigemi; Watanabe, Akiko; Kato, Midori; Kishida, Yoshie; Kohara, Mitsuyo; Takahashi, Chika; Tsuruoka, Hisano; Wada, Tsuyuko; Sakai, Takako; Isobe, Sachiko

    2011-08-01

    Raphanus sativus (2n = 2x = 18) is a widely cultivated member of the family Brassicaceae, for which genomic resources are available only to a limited extent in comparison to many other members of the family. To promote more genetic and genomic studies and to enhance breeding programmes of R. sativus, we have prepared genetic resources such as complementary DNA libraries, expressed sequences tags (ESTs), simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers and a genetic linkage map. A total of 26 606 ESTs have been collected from seedlings, roots, leaves, and flowers, and clustered into 10 381 unigenes. Similarities were observed between the expression patterns of transcripts from R. sativus and those from representative members of the genera Arabidopsis and Brassica, indicating their functional relatedness. The EST sequence data were used to design 3800 SSR markers and consequently 630 polymorphic SSR loci and 213 reported marker loci have been mapped onto nine linkage groups, covering 1129.2 cM with an average distance of 1.3 cM between loci. Comparison of the mapped EST-SSR marker positions in R. sativus with the genome sequence of A. thaliana indicated that the Brassicaceae members have evolved from a common ancestor. It appears that genomic fragments corresponding to those of A. thaliana have been doubled and tripled in R. sativus. The genetic map developed here is expected to provide a standard map for the genetics, genomics, and molecular breeding of R. sativus as well as of related species. The resources are available at http://marker.kazusa.or.jp/Daikon.

  17. The role of the persistent fruit wall in seed water regulation in Raphanus raphanistrum (Brassicaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Cousens, Roger D.; Young, Kenneth R.; Tadayyon, Ali

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims Dry fruits remain around the seeds at dispersal in a number of species, especially the Brassicaceae. Explanations for this vary, but usually involve mechanisms of innate dormancy. We speculate that, instead, a persistent fruit may give additional protection through control of dehydration, to species growing in arid or Mediterranean environments where water is sporadic. Methods X-rays and weight measurements were used to determine the extent to which Raphanus raphanistrum seeds within mature fruits imbibe water, and germination tests determined the roles of the fruit and seed coat in seed dormancy. Rates of water uptake and desiccation, and seedling emergence were compared with and without the fruit. Finally, germinability of seeds extracted from fruits was determined after various periods of moist conditions followed by a range of dry conditions. Key Results Most seeds rapidly take up water within the fruit, but they do not fully imbibe when compared with naked seeds. The seed coat is more important than the dry fruit wall in maintaining seed dormancy. The presence of a dry fruit slows emergence from the soil by up to 6–8 weeks. The fruit slows the rate of desiccation of the seed to a limited extent. The presence of the fruit for a few days during imbibition somehow primes more seeds to germinate than if the fruit is absent; longer moist periods within the pod appear to induce dormancy. Conclusions The fruit certainly modifies the seed environment as external conditions change between wet and dry, but not to a great extent. The major role seems to be: (a) the physical restriction of imbibition and germination; and (b) the release and then re-imposition of dormancy within the seed. The ecological significance of the results requires more research under field conditions. PMID:19889801

  18. Genetic analysis of hybrid seed formation ability of Brassica rapa in intergeneric crossings with Raphanus sativus.

    PubMed

    Tonosaki, K; Michiba, K; Bang, S W; Kitashiba, H; Kaneko, Y; Nishio, T

    2013-03-01

    A hybridization barrier leads to the inability of seed formation after intergeneric crossings between Brassica rapa and Raphanus sativus. Most B. rapa lines cannot set intergeneric hybrid seeds because of embryo breakdown, but a B. rapa line obtained from turnip cultivar 'Shogoin-kabu' is able to produce a large number of hybrid seeds as a maternal parent by crossings with R. sativus. In 'Shogoin-kabu' crossed with R. sativus, developments of embryos and endosperms were slower than those in intraspecific crossings, but some of them grew to mature seeds without embryo breakdown. Intergeneric hybrid seeds were obtained in a 'Shogoin-kabu' line at a rate of 0.13 per pollinated flower, while no hybrid seeds were obtained in a line developed from Chinese cabbage cultivar 'Chiifu'. F(1) hybrid plants between the lines of 'Shogoin-kabu' and 'Chiifu' set a larger number of hybrid seeds per flower, 0.68, than both the parental lines. Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for hybrid seed formation were analyzed after intergeneric crossings using two different F(2) populations derived from the F(1) hybrids, and three QTLs with significant logarithm of odds scores were detected. Among them, two QTLs, i.e., one in linkage group A10 and the other in linkage group A01, were detected in both the F(2) populations. These two QTLs had contrary effects on the number of hybrid seeds. Epistatic interaction between these two QTLs was revealed. Possible candidate genes controlling hybrid seed formation ability in QTL regions were inferred using the published B. rapa genome sequences.

  19. The mitochondrial genome of Raphanus sativus and gene evolution of cruciferous mitochondrial types.

    PubMed

    Chang, Shengxin; Chen, Jianmei; Wang, Yankun; Gu, Bingchao; He, Jianbo; Chu, Pu; Guan, Rongzhan

    2013-03-20

    To explore the mitochondrial genes of the Cruciferae family, the mitochondrial genome of Raphanus sativus (sat) was sequenced and annotated. The circular mitochondrial genome of sat is 239,723 bp and includes 33 protein-coding genes, three rRNA genes and 17 tRNA genes. The mitochondrial genome also contains a pair of large repeat sequences 5.9 kb in length, which may mediate genome reorganization into two sub-genomic circles, with predicted sizes of 124.8 kb and 115.0 kb, respectively. Furthermore, gene evolution of mitochondrial genomes within the Cruciferae family was analyzed using sat mitochondrial type (mitotype), together with six other reported mitotypes. The cruciferous mitochondrial genomes have maintained almost the same set of functional genes. Compared with Cycas taitungensis (a representative gymnosperm), the mitochondrial genomes of the Cruciferae have lost nine protein-coding genes and seven mitochondrial-like tRNA genes, but acquired six chloroplast-like tRNAs. Among the Cruciferae, to maintain the same set of genes that are necessary for mitochondrial function, the exons of the genes have changed at the lowest rates, as indicated by the numbers of single nucleotide polymorphisms. The open reading frames (ORFs) of unknown function in the cruciferous genomes are not conserved. Evolutionary events, such as mutations, genome reorganizations and sequence insertions or deletions (indels), have resulted in the non-conserved ORFs in the cruciferous mitochondrial genomes, which is becoming significantly different among mitotypes. This work represents the first phylogenic explanation of the evolution of genes of known function in the Cruciferae family. It revealed significant variation in ORFs and the causes of such variation.

  20. Ecotoxicity of halloysite nanotube-supported palladium nanoparticles in Raphanus sativus L.

    PubMed

    Bellani, Lorenza; Giorgetti, Lucia; Riela, Serena; Lazzara, Giuseppe; Scialabba, Anna; Massaro, Marina

    2016-10-01

    Halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) are natural nanomaterials that are biocompatible and available in large amounts at low prices. They are emerging nanomaterials with appealing properties for applications like support for metal nanoparticles (NPs). The potential environmental impacts of NPs can be understood in terms of phytotoxicity. Current research has been focusing on HNT applications in cell or animal models, while their use in plants is limited so their ecotoxicological impact is poorly documented. To date there are no studies on the phytotoxic effects of functionalized halloysites (functionalized-HNTs). To develop a quantitative risk assessment model for predicting the potential impact of HNT-supported palladium nanoparticles (HNT-PdNPs) on plant life, an investigation was undertaken to explore their effects on seed germination, seedling development, and mitotic division in root tip cells of 2 lots of Raphanus sativus L. with different vigor. The results showed that exposure to 1500 mg/L of HNTs, functionalized-HNTs, and HNT-PdNPs had no significant influence on germination, seedling development, xylem differentiation, or mitotic index in both lots. Cytogenetic analyses revealed that treatments with functionalized-HNT significantly increased the number of aberrations in low-vigor seeds. These results suggest that low-vigor seeds represent a model for a stress test that would be useful to monitor the effects of NPs. Moreover the present study offers scientific evidence for the use of halloysite for environmental purposes, supporting the biological safety of HNT-PdNPs. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:2503-2510. © 2016 SETAC.

  1. Managing scab diseases of potato and radish caused by Streptomyces spp. using Bacillus amyloliquefaciens BAC03 and other biomaterials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Streptomyces spp. cause scab disease in plants like potato and radish. To seek effective control methods of this disease, biologically based materials were examined on their efficacies for disease control. In greenhouse or growth chamber tests, potting soil was infested with Streptomyces scabies (10...

  2. Foliar uptake of cesium, iodine and strontium and their transfer to the edible parts of beans, potatoes and radishes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oestling, O.; Kopp, P.; Burkart, W.

    Considerable fractions of radionuclide solutions deposited on the surface of the leaves may be transferred to the edible parts of plants. In radishes we observed a transfer of more than 40% of the applied cesium radioisotope within a few days. A rather similar uptake was found for beans and potatoes when harvested a month after application of radioactivity. As much as 60% of the applied cesium-isotope remained in (or on) the potato leaves even 8 days after application. The major part could however be washed off the leaves a few hours after application. When radishes were showered with water within 7 h after the application of activity the uptake was greatly reduced. No competitive effect of potassium chloride for the foliar uptake of cesium was found. A 10 -2 M colloidal suspension of Prussian Blue, a chelating agent for monovalent alkali metals such as potassium, cesium, or other monovalent cations, applied as droplets to the leaves one day prior to application of active cesium was found to strongly inhibit the transfer of cesium to the radish. The transfer of iodine and strontium to the edible parts was found to be negligible (or slower) as compared to cesium. In most cases no detectable amounts of these two nuclides were transfered to the edible parts of the radish after 2-5 weeks.

  3. rDNA genetic imbalance and nucleolar chromatin restructuring is induced by distant hybridization between Raphanus sativus and Brassica alboglabra.

    PubMed

    Long, Hong; Chen, Chunli; Wang, Bing; Feng, Yanni

    2015-01-01

    The expression of rDNA in hybrids inherited from only one progenitor refers to nucleolar dominance. The molecular basis for choosing which genes to silence remains unclear. We report genetic imbalance induced by distant hybridization correlates with formation of rDNA genes (NORs) in the hybrids between Raphanus sativus L. and Brassica alboglabra Bailey. Moreover, increased CCGG methylation of rDNA in F1 hybrids is concomitant with Raphanus-derived rDNA gene silencing and rDNA transcriptional inactivity revealed by nucleolar configuration restriction. Newly formed rDNA gene locus occurred through chromosomal in F1 hybrids via chromosomal imbalance. NORs are gained de novo, lost, and/or transposed in the new genome. Inhibition of methyltransferases leads to changes in nucleolar architecture, implicating a key role of methylation in control of nucleolar dominance and vital nucleolar configuration transition. Our findings suggest that gene imbalance and methylation-related chromatin restructuring is important for rDNA gene silencing that may be crucial for synthesis of specific proteins.

  4. Japanese Temple Geometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vincent, Jill; Vincent, Claire

    2004-01-01

    Between the 17th and 19th centuries, the Japanese government closed its borders to the outside world in an attempt to become more powerful. Foreign books were banned, people could not travel, and foreigners were not allowed to enter the country. One result of this isolation was the flourishing of sangaku--wooden tablets inscribed with intricately…

  5. Reciprocal Predicates in Japanese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ishii, Yasuo

    A study of reciprocals in Japanese compares two kinds: (1) a verbal suffix "aw"; and (2) an NP argument "otagai." Although "otagai" appears to be taken care of by syntactic binding theory, it is proposed that there is no evidence for the existence of a syntactic position of the object NP in the case of "aw." The suffix can be characterized as…

  6. Reflexives in Japanese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kishida, Maki

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation is to reconsider reflexives in Japanese through the following three steps: (a) separation of genuine reflexive elements from elements that are confounded as reflexives, (b) classification of reflexive anaphors into subtypes based on their semantic difference, and (c) classification of predicates that occur with…

  7. JAPANESE READERS (TITLE SUPPLIED).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    THREE JAPANESE READERS ARE PRESENTED WHICH CONTAIN VOCABULARY, NOTES, AND DRILL SENTENCES. THE THREE READERS--(1) ARU SARARIIMAN NO ITI-NITI, (2) OTOOSAN WA KAMI-SAMA, AND (3) ARU GAKUSEI NO HANNITI--ARE WRITTEN IN THE ROMAJI ALPHABET. EACH READER HAS A VOCABULARY LISTING WITH ENGLISH EXPLANATIONS AND DRILL SENTENCES. AN ENGLISH WORD DEFINITION…

  8. On Japanese Children's Books.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watanare, Shigeo

    This report, given at a special meeting held in Tehran, presents data and facts concerning yearly publications (books, magazines, and textbooks), translations, and illustrations of Japanese children's literature. The report then discusses at length recent trends in children's literature and library activities for children in the past, present, and…

  9. Reconstruction of Japanese Vowels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aoki, Haruo

    1972-01-01

    This paper discusses the relationship between linguistic reconstructions and their historical validity using the case of Old Japanese (8th century A.D.) vowels as an example. Reconstructions throughout the paper include only those cases in which the modern reflexes and phonological correspondences between two or more genetically related languages…

  10. Japanese Experiences: "Hentai" Narratives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kama, Amit

    2011-01-01

    For those acquainted with Japanese lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) issues, "Queer Voices from Japan" can be good reading. But with only 1 of its 22 chapters informative for researchers, those interested in LGBT youth studies will only indirectly gain insight into a non-Western perspective on youth and sexuality.

  11. A cyclic model for bimodal activation of calcium activated potassium channels in radish vacuoles.

    PubMed

    Carpaneto, A

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents the mathematical framework of a cyclic model proposed for describing the transition between a fast and a slow mode (fast-slow effect) induced by the application of step membrane potentials to ion channels from radish vacuoles. A voltage stimulation pulse with frequency in the range of 2 Hz or higher increased the activation time (slow mode) of the recorded currents. When the frequency of the stimulation pattern was restored to 0.1 Hz the activation time decreased twofold (fast mode). This experimental result cannot be explained by classical kinetic theory. The model, based on a simple extension of the Hodgkin and Huxley chain, describes the whole current experimental data and provides hints on the structural conformation of ion channels.

  12. Enhanced intracellular stability of dextran-horse radish peroxidase conjugate: an approach to enzyme replacement therapy.

    PubMed

    Mumtaz, S; Bachhawat, B K

    1992-09-15

    Horse radish peroxidase (HRP), a mannose-containing glycoprotein was covalently modified by conjugation with dextran. The rapid uptake of HRP by the liver is markedly inhibited by mannan. The uptake of dextran-HRP conjugate by the liver, though lower compared to that of the free enzyme, is also partially inhibited by mannan. Liposomes were therefore used as carriers for delivering the free and the modified HRP to the liver. The dextran-HRP conjugate showed greater stability intracellularly as compared to the free enzyme. The enhanced stability of enzymes upon their extensive glycosylation with nondegradable sugar polymers would be of importance in extending the catalytic life of therapeutically active enzymes and thereby improve their therapeutic potential for the treatment of certain enzyme deficiency disorders.

  13. EFFECT OF PHYSICAL FACTORS ON REACTIONS OF HORSE-RADISH PEROXIDASE COMPLEXES WITH REDUCED CYTOCHROME C.

    PubMed

    FARWELL, R W; ACKERMAN, E

    1963-11-01

    This investigation concerns the effect of certain physical factors-viscosity, dielectric constant, ionic strength, and temperature of the medium-on the reaction of hydrogen peroxide and ferrocytochrome c in the presence of the enzyme horse-radish peroxidase. From study of the effects of viscosity and dielectric constant, it was concluded that the reaction between the secondary complex of hydrogen peroxide and enzyme on the one hand and ferrocytochrome c on the other is controlled by diffusion in media of high viscosity and by electrostatic effects at low viscosities. With respect to ionic strength, the data at pH 4.7 indicated a dipole-dipole interreaction. The temperature dependence of the over-all reaction had a Q(10) of 1.25.

  14. Detraditionalisation: Japanese Students in the USA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ueno, Junko

    2001-01-01

    Focuses on the identity formation of Japanese students temporarily living in the United States. The students were enrolled in Japanese Saturday school and in American public schools. Student interviews reveal a mixture of Japanese and American characteristics. Suggests Japanese students do not reject either culture--Japanese or American--but that…

  15. Prediction of phytoavailability of trace metals to plants: Comparison between chemical extractions and soil-grown radish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baraud, Fabienne; Leleyter, Lydia

    2012-08-01

    One of the major routes of human exposure to toxic metals is the consumption of vegetables grown on contaminated soils. Radishes were grown in three different soils (kitchen garden, agricultural and industrial soils), presenting various contamination levels. A sequential extraction procedure was compared with EDTA and HCl simple extractions methods in order to predict the metals phytoavailabilty to radish. The analysis of the results shows that the simple HCl and sequential chemical extractions bring complementary results, since HCl is correlated in the phytoavailability of Cd, Mn and Zn, whereas the sequential extraction is correlated in the phytoavailability of Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni. EDTA simple extraction brings here less interesting results than the two other tested extractions.

  16. Directory of Japanese researchers available

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The National Center for Science Information System Japanese Scientific and Engineering Database Access Project, sponsored by the National Science Foundation and Japan's NACSIS, has added four new databases to its free service, bringing the total number of available databases to 13.The new Directory of Japanese Researchers covers researchers affiliated with Japanese universities and academic research centers. Each researcher is listed by name, date of birth, organizational affiliation, education and degrees, memberships and awards, areas of specialization, and representative publications. Non-Japanese researchers are also covered.

  17. Comparison of Survival of Campylobacter jejuni in the Phyllosphere with That in the Rhizosphere of Spinach and Radish Plants

    PubMed Central

    Brandl, Maria T.; Haxo, Aileen F.; Bates, Anna H.; Mandrell, Robert E.

    2004-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni has been isolated previously from market produce and has caused gastroenteritis outbreaks linked to produce. We have tested the ability of this human pathogen to utilize organic compounds that are present in leaf and root exudates and to survive in the plant environment under various conditions. Carbon utilization profiles revealed that C. jejuni can utilize many organic acids and amino acids available on leaves and roots. Despite the presence of suitable substrates in the phyllosphere and the rhizosphere, C. jejuni was unable to grow on lettuce and spinach leaves and on spinach and radish roots of plants incubated at 33°C, a temperature that is conducive to its growth in vitro. However, C. jejuni was cultured from radish roots and from the spinach rhizosphere for at least 23 and 28 days, respectively, at 10°C. This enteric pathogen also persisted in the rhizosphere of spinach for prolonged periods of time at 16°C, a temperature at which many cool-season crops are grown. The decline rate constants of C. jejuni populations in the spinach and radish rhizosphere were 10- and 6-fold lower, respectively, than on healthy spinach leaves at 10°C. The enhanced survival of C. jejuni in soil and in the rhizosphere may be a significant factor in its contamination cycle in the environment and may be associated with the sporadic C. jejuni incidence and campylobacteriosis outbreaks linked to produce. PMID:14766604

  18. Comparison of survival of Campylobacter jejuni in the phyllosphere with that in the rhizosphere of spinach and radish plants.

    PubMed

    Brandl, Maria T; Haxo, Aileen F; Bates, Anna H; Mandrell, Robert E

    2004-02-01

    Campylobacter jejuni has been isolated previously from market produce and has caused gastroenteritis outbreaks linked to produce. We have tested the ability of this human pathogen to utilize organic compounds that are present in leaf and root exudates and to survive in the plant environment under various conditions. Carbon utilization profiles revealed that C. jejuni can utilize many organic acids and amino acids available on leaves and roots. Despite the presence of suitable substrates in the phyllosphere and the rhizosphere, C. jejuni was unable to grow on lettuce and spinach leaves and on spinach and radish roots of plants incubated at 33 degrees C, a temperature that is conducive to its growth in vitro. However, C. jejuni was cultured from radish roots and from the spinach rhizosphere for at least 23 and 28 days, respectively, at 10 degrees C. This enteric pathogen also persisted in the rhizosphere of spinach for prolonged periods of time at 16 degrees C, a temperature at which many cool-season crops are grown. The decline rate constants of C. jejuni populations in the spinach and radish rhizosphere were 10- and 6-fold lower, respectively, than on healthy spinach leaves at 10 degrees C. The enhanced survival of C. jejuni in soil and in the rhizosphere may be a significant factor in its contamination cycle in the environment and may be associated with the sporadic C. jejuni incidence and campylobacteriosis outbreaks linked to produce.

  19. Effect of ultrasound-assisted freezing on the physico-chemical properties and volatile compounds of red radish.

    PubMed

    Xu, Bao-guo; Zhang, Min; Bhandari, Bhesh; Cheng, Xin-feng; Islam, Md Nahidul

    2015-11-01

    Power ultrasound, which can enhance nucleation rate and crystal growth rate, can also affect the physico-chemical properties of immersion frozen products. In this study, the influence of slow freezing (SF), immersion freezing (IF) and ultrasound-assisted freezing (UAF) on physico-chemical properties and volatile compounds of red radish was investigated. Results showed that ultrasound application significantly improved the freezing rate; the freezing time of ultrasound application at 0.26 W/cm(2) was shorten by 14% and 90%, compared to IF and SF, respectively. UAF products showed significant (p<0.05) reduction in drip loss and phytonutrients (anthocyanins, vitamin C and phenolics) loss. Compared to SF products, IF and UAF products showed better textural preservation and higher calcium content. The radish tissues exhibited better cellular structures under ultrasonic power intensities of 0.17 and 0.26 W/cm(2) with less cell separation and disruption. Volatile compound data revealed that radish aromatic profile was also affected in the freezing process.

  20. Differential Sputtering Correction for Ion Microscopy Using Image Depth Profiling.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-09-22

    Tissue, Raphanus sativus , Radish 20. AUSTRACT (Continue an reee side If neceeesry and Identif by block numb.) >A first-order correction for...chosen on the basis of the primary ion beam species and sample thickness. Sample Preparation: Root tips of Raphanus sativus (radish) seedlings were

  1. Issei: Japanese Immigrants in Hawaii.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimura, Yukiko

    Coming to Hawaii before July 1, 1924, when the Japanese Exclusion Act became effective, the experiences of the Issei or first generation are described. Divided into four parts, this book examines the experiences of Japanese immigrants in Hawaii from 1885 through 1970. Part 1, "The Formation and Stabilization of the Issei Community,"…

  2. Developmental Sentence Scoring for Japanese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miyata, Susanne; MacWhinney, Brian; Otomo, Kiyoshi; Sirai, Hidetosi; Oshima-Takane, Yuriko; Hirakawa, Makiko; Shirai, Yasuhiro; Sugiura, Masatoshi; Itoh, Keiko

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on the development and use of the Developmental Sentence Scoring for Japanese (DSSJ), a new morpho-syntactical measure for Japanese constructed after the model of Lee's English Developmental Sentence Scoring model. Using this measure, the authors calculated DSSJ scores for 84 children divided into six age groups between 2;8…

  3. Asian Pacific Perspectives: Japanese Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Los Angeles Unified School District, CA.

    These instructional materials on Japanese Americans for elementary students were developed through the K.E.Y.S. project (Knowledge of English Yields Success). Information is included on early immigrants, their historical and cultural background, and current problems of Japanese Americans. Resource guides describe the purpose of the unit, how to…

  4. The modern Japanese color lexicon.

    PubMed

    Kuriki, Ichiro; Lange, Ryan; Muto, Yumiko; Brown, Angela M; Fukuda, Kazuho; Tokunaga, Rumi; Lindsey, Delwin T; Uchikawa, Keiji; Shioiri, Satoshi

    2017-03-01

    Despite numerous prior studies, important questions about the Japanese color lexicon persist, particularly about the number of Japanese basic color terms and their deployment across color space. Here, 57 native Japanese speakers provided monolexemic terms for 320 chromatic and 10 achromatic Munsell color samples. Through k-means cluster analysis we revealed 16 statistically distinct Japanese chromatic categories. These included eight chromatic basic color terms (aka/red, ki/yellow, midori/green, ao/blue, pink, orange, cha/brown, and murasaki/purple) plus eight additional terms: mizu ("water")/light blue, hada ("skin tone")/peach, kon ("indigo")/dark blue, matcha ("green tea")/yellow-green, enji/maroon, oudo ("sand or mud")/mustard, yamabuki ("globeflower")/gold, and cream. Of these additional terms, mizu was used by 98% of informants, and emerged as a strong candidate for a 12th Japanese basic color term. Japanese and American English color-naming systems were broadly similar, except for color categories in one language (mizu, kon, teal, lavender, magenta, lime) that had no equivalent in the other. Our analysis revealed two statistically distinct Japanese motifs (or color-naming systems), which differed mainly in the extension of mizu across our color palette. Comparison of the present data with an earlier study by Uchikawa & Boynton (1987) suggests that some changes in the Japanese color lexicon have occurred over the last 30 years.

  5. Counseling Japanese Men on Fathering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seto, Atsuko; Becker, Kent W.; Akutsu, Motoko

    2006-01-01

    The authors review an article (J. Yamamoto & F. Tagami, 2004) published in the "Japanese Journal of Counseling Science" that described changes in contemporary Japanese family structures and illustrated a therapy process with a father to enhance the father-son relationship. Implications for the counseling profession in working with…

  6. A field study on the dynamic uptake and transfer of heavy metals in Chinese cabbage and radish in weak alkaline soils.

    PubMed

    Ai, Shiwei; Guo, Rui; Liu, Bailin; Ren, Liang; Naeem, Sajid; Zhang, Wenya; Zhang, Yingmei

    2016-10-01

    Vegetables and crops can take up heavy metals when grown on polluted lands. The concentrations and dynamic uptake of heavy metals vary at different growth points for different vegetables. In order to assess the safe consumption of vegetables in weak alkaline farmlands, Chinese cabbage and radish were planted on the farmlands of Baiyin (polluted site) and Liujiaxia (relatively unpolluted site). Firstly, the growth processes of two vegetables were recorded. The growth curves of the two vegetables observed a slow growth at the beginning, an exponential growth period, and a plateau towards the end. Maximum concentrations of copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), and cadmium (Cd) were presented at the slow growth period and showed a downtrend except the radish shoot. The concentrations of heavy metals (Cu, Zn, and Cd) in vegetables of Baiyin were higher than those of Liujiaxia. In the meanwhile, the uptake contents continued to increase during the growth or halted at maximum at a certain stage. The maximum uptake rates were found on the maturity except for the shoot of radish which took place at the exponential growth stages of root. The sigmoid model could simulate the dynamic processes of growth and heavy metals uptake of Chinese cabbage and radish. Conclusively, heavy metals have higher bioaccumulation tendency for roots in Chinese cabbage and for shoots in radish.

  7. Measurement of thermal properties of white radish (R. raphanistrum) using easily constructed probes

    PubMed Central

    Obot, Mfrekemfon Samuel; Li, Changcheng; Fang, Ting; Chen, Jinquan

    2017-01-01

    Thermal properties are necessary for the design and control of processes and storage facilities of food materials. This study proposes the measurement of thermal properties using easily constructed probes with specific heat capacity calculated, as opposed to the use of Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC) or other. These probes were constructed and used to measure thermal properties of white radish in the temperature range of 80–20°C and moisture content of 91–6.1% wb. Results showed thermal properties were within the range of 0.71–0.111 Wm-1 C-1 for thermal conductivity, 1.869×10−7–0.72×10−8 m2s-1 for thermal diffusivity and 4.316–1.977 kJ kg-1C-1for specific heat capacity. These results agree with reports for similar products studied using DSC and commercially available line heat source probes. Empirical models were developed for each property through linear multiple regressions. The data generated would be useful in modeling and control of its processing and equipment design. PMID:28288175

  8. Effect of volatile metabolites of dill, radish and garlic on growth of bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tirranen, L. S.; Borodina, E. V.; Ushakova, S. A.; Rygalov, V. Ye; Gitelson, J. I.

    2001-07-01

    In a model experiment plants were grown in sealed chambers on expanded clay aggregate under the luminance of 150 W/m 2 PAR and the temperature of 24°C. Seven bacterial strains under investigation, replicated on nutrient medium surface in Petri dishes, were grown in the atmosphere of cultivated plants. Microbial response was evaluated by the difference between colony size in experiment and in control. In control, bacteria grew in the atmosphere of clean air. To study the effect of volatile metabolites of various plant on microbial growth, the experimental data were compared with the background values defined for each individual experiment. Expanded clay aggregate, luminance, temperature and sealed chamber (without plants) for the background were the same. Volatile metabolites from 28-days old radish plants have been reliably established to have no effect on the growth of microbes under investigation. Metabolites of 30-days old dill and 50-days old garlic have been established to have reliable bacteriostatic effect on the growth of three bacterial strains. Dill and garlic have been found to have different range of effects of volatile substances on bacterial growth. Volatile metabolites of dill and garlic differed in their effect on the sensitivity spectrum of bacteria. An attempt has been made to describe the obtained data mathematically.

  9. Fast and slow activation of voltage-dependent ion channels in radish vacuoles.

    PubMed Central

    Gambale, F; Cantu, A M; Carpaneto, A; Keller, B U

    1993-01-01

    The molecular processes associated with voltage-dependent opening and closing (gating) of ion channels were investigated using a new preparation from plant cells, i.e., voltage and calcium-activated ion channels in radish root vacuoles. These channels display a main single channel conductance of approximately 90 pS and are characterized by long activation times lasting several hundreds of milliseconds. Here, we demonstrate that these channels have a second kinetically distinct activation mode which is characterized by even longer activation times. Different membrane potential protocols allowed to switch between the fast and the slow mode in a controlled and reversible manner. At transmembrane potentials of -100 mV, the ratio between the fast and slow activation time constant was around 1:5. Correspondingly, activation times lasting several seconds were observed in the slow mode. The molecular process controlling fast and slow activation may represent an effective modulator of voltage-dependent gating of ion channels in other plant and animal systems. PMID:7507716

  10. Japanese viral encephalitis

    PubMed Central

    Tiroumourougane, S; Raghava, P; Srinivasan, S

    2002-01-01

    One of the leading causes of acute encephalopathy in children in the tropics is Japanese encephalitis (JE). Transmitted by the culex mosquito, this neurotropic virus predominately affects the thalamus, anterior horns of the spinal cord, cerebral cortex, and cerebellum. It mainly affects children <15 years and is mostly asymptomatic. The occasional symptomatic child typically presents with a neurological syndrome characterised by altered sensorium, seizures, and features of intracranial hypertension. Aetiological diagnosis is based on virus isolation or demonstration of virus specific antigen or antibodies in the cerebrospinal fluid/blood. Though no antiviral drug is available against JE, effective supportive management can improve the outcome. Control of JE involves efficient vector control and appropriate use of vaccines. PMID:11930023

  11. Japanese Experiment Module (JEM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) pressure module is removed from its shipping crate and moved across the floor of the Space Station Processing Facility at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) to a work stand. A research laboratory, the pressurized module is the first element of the JEM, named 'Kibo' (Hope) to arrive at KSC. Japan's primary contribution to the International Space Station, the module will enhance unique research capabilities of the orbiting complex by providing an additional environment in which astronauts will conduct experiments. The JEM also includes an exposed facility or platform for space environment experiments, a robotic manipulator system, and two logistics modules. The various JEM components will be assembled in space over the course of three Shuttle missions.

  12. Anthropophobia and Japanese performance.

    PubMed

    Takano, R

    1977-08-01

    Actors are not the only people who act on a regular basis--everyone does some "acting" in his everyday life. The merchant is acting when he pays compliments to his annoying customers. Neurotics often exaggerate their sufferings and assume poses in order to impress their therapists with the seriousness of their illness. When this acting is done so poorly that everyone but the person himself perceives its penny-dreadful nature, the neurosis might be designated a hysteria. Such dramatics can be observed not only in the demeanor of neurotics, but also in their symptoms. The unconscious and concealed acting revealed in the symptoms of neurotics, especially in those of anthropophobiacs, whose main concern is with their appearance in the eyes of others, is what I would like to examine in this paper. I will attempt to eludicate the psychopathology of a large element in Japanese neurosis--that is, of anthropophobia--in relation to unconscious acting.

  13. Inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 on Radish Seeds by Sequential Treatments with Chlorine Dioxide, Drying, and Dry Heat without Loss of Seed Viability ▿

    PubMed Central

    Bang, Jihyun; Kim, Haeyoung; Kim, Hoikyung; Beuchat, Larry R.; Ryu, Jee-Hoon

    2011-01-01

    We developed and validated a treatment to inactivate Escherichia coli O157:H7 on radish seeds without decreasing seed viability. Treatments with aqueous ClO2 followed by drying and dry-heat treatments were evaluated for efficacy to inactivate the pathogen. Conditions to dry radish seeds after treatment with water (control) or ClO2 were established. When treated seeds with high water activity (aw) (>0.99) were stored at 45°C and 23% relative humidity (RH), the aw decreased to <0.30 within 24 h. Drying high-aw seeds before exposing them to dry-heat treatment (≥60°C) was essential to preserve seed viability. The germination rate of radish seeds which had been immersed in water for 5 min, dried at 45°C and 23% RH for 24 h, and heated at 70°C for 48 h or at 80°C for 24 h was not significantly decreased (P ≤ 0.05) compared to that of untreated radish seeds. Sequential treatments with ClO2 (500 μg/ml, 5 min), drying (45°C, 23% RH, 24 h), and dry heating (70°C, 23% RH, 48 h) eliminated E. coli O157:H7 (5.9 log CFU/g) on radish seeds and, consequently, sprouts produced from them without decreasing the germination rate. These sequential treatments are recommended for application to radish seeds intended for sprout production. PMID:21803896

  14. Japanese Management: An American Challenge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rehder, Robert R.

    1979-01-01

    In contrast to the American system of management, Japanese management motivates its employees by challenging them with high goals and by providing inhouse training and development opportunities to meet their self-fulfillment needs. (Author/LD)

  15. Japanese attitudes towards foreign languages.

    PubMed

    Abe, Keiko

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to clarify Japanese attitudes towards foreign languages based on the kinds and changes of TV and radio programs that aired on the Japanese national broadcasting station (NHK) between 1955 and 2000. Foreign language programs are classified into three groups according to their content: 1) cultivation, 2) education, or 3) communication. For Japanese people, foreign languages are the measures of intelligence and intellect. Studying a foreign language is considered a sign of intelligence whether or not it is used for actual communication. The number of foreign language programs has increased tremendously since 1965 in part because the global economy has brought many countries in such close contact. Since 1990, programs for the purpose of communication have increased because of the necessity to communicate with foreign people. Japanese attitudes towards studying foreign languages have been changing gradually from an intellectual purpose to a communication purpose.

  16. The Japanese "Internment" Cases Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Edward T.

    2003-01-01

    Reviews topics discussed in the OAH article, "Incarcerating Japanese Americans" (Roger Daniels). States that the three internment cases were correct. Asks whether internment could re-occur given the climate in U.S. society since September 11, 2001. (CMK)

  17. Japanese Encephalitis: Frequently Asked Questions

    MedlinePlus

    ... by a virus spread by infected mosquitoes in Asia and the western Pacific. JE virus is one ... Where does Japanese encephalitis occur? JE occurs in Asia and parts of the western Pacific. It usually ...

  18. Synergistic effect of chlorine dioxide and drying treatments for inactivating Escherichia coli O157:H7 on radish seeds.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hoikyung; Kim, Haeyoung; Bang, Jihyun; Beuchat, Larry R; Ryu, Jee-Hoon

    2010-07-01

    Studies were done to determine whether calcium hypochlorite (Ca(OCl)(2)) and chlorine dioxide (ClO(2)) treatment followed by drying had a synergistic killing effect on microorganisms on radish seeds intended for sprout production. Uninoculated radish seeds and seeds inoculated with Escherichia coli O157:H7 were treated with water, Ca(OCl)(2) (free chlorine concentrations of 50 or 200 microg/ml), or ClO(2) (50 or 200 microg/ml) for 5 min and subsequently dried at 25 degrees C for up to 24 h. Populations of total aerobic bacteria (TAB), molds and yeasts (MY), and E. coli O157:H7 on the seeds treated with Ca(OCl)(2) were not significantly different (P = 0.05) than populations on seeds treated with ClO(2) at the same concentrations. However, populations of microorganisms on seeds treated with ClO(2) decreased more rapidly during drying. Treatment with ClO(2) (200 microg/ml) followed by drying caused reductions in TAB, MY, and E. coli O157:H7 of 3.1, 2.0, and 3.8 log CFU/g, respectively. When seeds were treated with water, Ca(OCl)(2) (50 or 200 microg/ml), and ClO(2) (50 microg/ml) and subsequently dried, reductions in TAB, MY, and E. coli O157:H7 were 0.2 to 2.0, 0.4 to 2.0, and 1.4 to 2.2 log CFU/g, respectively. Results indicate that inactivation of E. coli O157:H7 on radish seeds is greater after treatment with ClO(2) followed by drying than after treatment with Ca(OCl)(2) followed by drying, thus providing a synergistic treatment combination for reducing the safety risk associated with sprouts produced from these seeds.

  19. The effect of an aqueous horse-radish extract, applied as such or in association with caffeine, on experimental influenza in mice.

    PubMed

    Eşanu, V; Prahoveanu, E

    1985-01-01

    An aqueous horse-radish extract was repeatedly administered to mice by intranasal (i.n.) route prior to i.n. inoculation of influenza virus A/PR8/34 (H1N1). The antiviral effect of the extract--also demonstrated in vitro--was reflected by a significant decrease in the hemagglutination titers recorded in mouse lung homogenates and by a slight increase in the mean survival time of treated mice versus untreated controls. Association of horse-radish extract with caffeine led to a synergic effect only as regards the mortality rate.

  20. [Prospects for leprosy treatment via complexation of rifampicin witH iodide and horse-radish root].

    PubMed

    Maslov, A K; Khivrina, S A

    2007-01-01

    A model of leprosy was used to study the therapeutic effect of horse-radish root (HRR) containing peroxidase in combination with rifampicin (RFP) and potassium iodide (PI) as compared to routine combined therapy with RFP and diaminodiphenylsulfonum. Therapy with HRR and iodide showed the best antimicrobial effect than the routine combined therapy. A combination of RFP, HRR, and PI increased the activity of neutrophilic myeliperoxidase produced an anti-inflammatory activity and caused no persistent anemia or toxic effect on the murine liver.

  1. Electron microscopic studies on human basophils from atopic and nonatopic subjects, using horse radish peroxidase labelled anti-IgE.

    PubMed

    van Elven, E H; Stallman, P J; Brühl, P C

    1977-01-01

    In previous studies, quantitative differences in cell-bound IgE on the basophils from various donors were measured by means of a quantitative immunofluorescence technique. In this study, cell-bound IgE was demonstrated on basophilic granulocytes by immunoelectron microscopy, using horse radish peroxidase labelled anti-IgE. The distribution of IgE on the basophils was studied in both atopic and nonatopic subjects. The intensity of the peroxidase staining on the basophils varied and appeared to correlate with the amount of cell-bound IgE, as estimated by quantitative immunofluorescence.

  2. [Effect of horse radish peroxidase immobilization on the kinetics of enzymatic oxidation of guaiacol in frozen solutions].

    PubMed

    Sergeev, G B; Gudima, A I; Sergeev, B M; Taran, A A; Batiuk, V A

    1981-06-01

    The kinetics of horse radish peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.7) catalyzed oxidation of guaiacol by hydrogen peroxide has been studied within the temperature region of +20--35 degrees C. The covalent attachment of the enzyme to polyacrylamide gel had no significant influence on the activation energy of the reaction in liquid solutions. For frozen solutions it was demonstrated that the temperature dependencies of the reaction rate differ greatly for the soluble and bound forms of the enzyme. The observed phenomenon is probably due to the differences in the molecular mobility, distribution and arrangement of reactants in frozen state.

  3. A Novel Compound Rasatiol Isolated from Raphanus sativus Has a Potential to Enhance Extracellular Matrix Synthesis in Dermal Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Roh, Seok-Seon; Park, Seung-Bae; Park, Seong-Mo; Choi, Byoung Wook; Lee, Min-Ho; Hwang, Yul-Lye; Kim, Chang Hun; Jeong, Hyun-Ah; Kim, Chang Deok

    2013-01-01

    Background The fibrous proteins of extracellular matrix (ECM) produced by dermal fibroblast contributes to the maintenance of connective tissue integrity. Objective This study is carried out to identify the bioactive ingredient from natural products that enhances ECM production in dermal fibroblasts. Methods Bioassay-directed fractionation was used to isolate the active ingredient from natural extracts. The effects of rasatiol (isolated from Raphanus sativus) on ECM production in primary cultured human dermal fibroblasts was investigated by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and western blot analysis. Results Rasatiol accelerated fibroblast growth in a dose-dependent manner and increased the production of type 1 collagen, fibronectin and elastin. Phosphorylation of p42/44 extracellular signal-regulated kinase, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, and Akt was remarkably increased by rasatiol, indicating that enhanced ECM production is linked to the activation of intracellular signaling cascades. Conclusion These results indicate that rasatiol stimulates the fibrous components of ECM production, and may be applied to the maintenance of skin texture. PMID:24003274

  4. Green synthesis of biogenic silver nanomaterials using Raphanus sativus extract, effects of stabilizers on the morphology, and their antimicrobial activities.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mohammad Naved; Khan, Tabrez Alam; Khan, Zaheer; Al-Thabaiti, Shaeel Ahmed

    2015-12-01

    The present study explores the reducing and capping potentials of aqueous Raphanus sativus root extract for the synthesis of silver nanomaterials for the first time in the absence and presence of two stabilizers, namely, water-soluble starch and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). The surface properties of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were determined by dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersion X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) techniques. The mean size of AgNPs, ranging from 3.2 to 6.0 nm, could be facilely controlled by merely varying the initial [extract], [CTAB], [starch], and [Ag(+)] ions. The agglomeration number, average number of silver atoms per nanoparticle, and changes in the fermi potentials were calculated and discussed. The AgNPs were evaluated for their antimicrobial activities against different pathogenic organisms. The inhibition action was due to the structural changes in the protein cell wall.

  5. Isolation of 4-methylthio-3-butenyl glucosinolate from Raphanus sativus sprouts (kaiware daikon) and its redox properties.

    PubMed

    Barillari, Jessica; Cervellati, Rinaldo; Paolini, Moreno; Tatibouët, Arnaud; Rollin, Patrick; Iori, Renato

    2005-12-28

    The most promising among glucosinolates (GLs) are those bearing in their aglycon an extra sulfur function, such as glucoraphasatin (4-methylthio-3-butenyl GL; GRH) and glucoraphenin (4-methylsulfinyl-3-butenyl GL; GRE). The GRE/GRH redox couple is typically met among secondary metabolites of Raphanus sativus L. and, whereas GRE prevails in seeds, GRH is the major GL in full-grown roots. During the 10 days of sprouting of R. sativus seeds, the GRE and GRH contents were determined according to the Eurpean Union official method (ISO 9167-1). In comparison to the seeds, the GRE content in sprouts decreased from about 90 to about 12 micromol g(-1) of dry weight (dw), whereas a 25-fold increase--from about 3 to 76 micromol g(-1) of dw--of the GRH content was measured. An efficient pure GRH gram-scale production process from R. sativus (kaiware daikon) sprouts resulted in significant yield improvement of up to 2.2% (dw basis). The reaction of GRH with both H2O2 and ABTS*+ radical cation was investigated. Whereas H2O2 oxidation of GRH readily resulted in complete transformation into GRE, ABTS*+ caused complete decay of the GL. Even though not directly related to its radical scavenging activity, the assessed reducing capacity of GRH suggests that R. sativus sprouts might possess potential for health benefits.

  6. Quantitative studies on structure-ORAC relationships of anthocyanins from eggplant and radish using 3D-QSAR.

    PubMed

    Jing, Pu; Zhao, Shujuan; Ruan, Siyu; Sui, Zhongquan; Chen, Lihong; Jiang, Linlei; Qian, Bingjun

    2014-02-15

    The 3-dimensional quantitative structure activity relationship (3D-QSAR) models were established from 21 anthocyanins based on their oxygen radical absorbing capacity (ORAC) and were applied to predict anthocyanins in eggplant and radish for their ORAC values. The cross-validated q(2)=0.857/0.729, non-cross-validated r(2) = 0.958/0.856, standard error of estimate = 0.153/0.134, and F = 73.267/19.247 were for the best QSAR (CoMFA/CoMSIA) models, where the correlation coefficient r(2)pred = 0.998/0.997 (>0.6) indicated a high predictive ability for each. Additionally, the contour map results suggested that structural characteristics of anthocyanins favourable for the high ORAC. Four anthocyanins from eggplant and radish have been screened based on the QSAR models. Pelargonidin-3-[(6''-p-coumaroyl)-glucosyl(2 → 1)glucoside]-5-(6''-malonyl)-glucoside, delphinidin-3-rutinoside-5-glucoside, and delphinidin-3-[(4''-p-coumaroyl)-rhamnosyl(1 → 6)glucoside]-5-glucoside potential with high ORAC based the QSAR models were isolated and also confirmed for their relative high antioxidant ability, which might attribute to the bulky and/or electron-donating substituent at the 3-position in the C ring or/and hydrogen bond donor group/electron donating group on the R1 position in the B ring.

  7. Metabolic fate and distribution of [{sup 14}C]1,3-dichloropropene in carrot, lettuce, radish, tomato, and wheat

    SciTech Connect

    Barnkow, D.E.; Byrne, S.L.; Huskin, M.A.

    1996-10-01

    This study examined the nature of the radioactive residue in carrot, lettuce, radish, tomato, and wheat grown in soil treated with uniformly {sup 14}C-labeled cis- and trans-1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D). Each crop was grown in soil treated at or above the maximum use rate. Carrot root and top, lettuce, radish root and top, tomato fruit and vine, and wheat forage, straw and grain were harvested, processed, and analyzed. The {sup 14}C residues were subjected to sequential extraction with diethyl ether and aqueous acetonitrile. The residues that remained were subjected to extraction, fractionation, and hydrolysis with buffer, enzymes, acid, alkali, and strong oxidizing agents. Analyses of the solubilized residues demonstrated that no detectable parent, 1,3-D, or the putative metabolites 3-chloroallyl alcohol and 3-chloroacrylic acid were present. The components of the extractable residue included most major plant constituents (i.e., protein, pigments, organic acids, sucrose, cellulose, and lignin). Thus, natural incorporation of the {sup 14}C-label into natural plant biochemicals is demonstrated.

  8. Pelvic nerve innervation of the external sphincter of urethra as suggested by urodynamic and horse-radish peroxidase studies.

    PubMed

    Morita, T; Nishizawa, O; Noto, H; Tsuchida, S

    1984-03-01

    In view of the fact that the detrusor vesicae and external urethral sphincter perform closely synergic functions in micturition, experiments were conducted to explore the action of the pelvic efferent neurons on the external urethral sphincter. The pelvic efferent neurons are generally recognized, by urodynamic assessments and histochemical study with the technique of retrograde axonal transport of horse-radish peroxidase, to innervate the vesical detrusor. In 7 of 15 adult dogs studied, the external urethral sphincter continued to show a normal synergic electromyogram pattern with enhanced electrical activity on vesical distention and disappearance of discharges on vesical contraction even after bilateral transection of the pudendal nerves. The electrical discharges ceased in the sphincter only after subsequent bilateral pelvic neurotomy. Horse-radish peroxidase-positive cells were demonstrated in the intermediolateral and intermediomedial nuclei and in the Onuf nucleus of the sacral cord in approximately half the dogs whose pelvic nerve was injected with the plant peroxidase. The results suggest that the pelvic nerve may contain somatic fibers innervating the external urethral sphincter.

  9. Hydrogen peroxide sensors for cellular imaging based on horse radish peroxidase reconstituted on polymer-functionalized TiO₂ nanorods.

    PubMed

    Tahir, Muhammad Nawaz; André, Rute; Sahoo, Jugal Kishore; Jochum, Florian D; Theato, Patrick; Natalio, Filipe; Berger, Rüdiger; Branscheid, Robert; Kolb, Ute; Tremel, Wolfgang

    2011-09-01

    We describe the reconstitution of apo-horse radish peroxidase (apo-HRP) onto TiO(2) nanorods functionalized with a multifunctional polymer. After functionalization, the horse radish peroxidase (HRP) functionalized TiO(2) nanorods were well dispersible in aqueous solution, catalytically active and biocompatible, and they could be used to quantify and image H(2)O(2) which is a harmful secondary product of cellular metabolism. The shape, size and structure of TiO(2) nanorods (anatase) were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution TEM (HRTEM), electron diffraction (ED) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The surface functionalization, HRP reconstitution and catalytic activity were confirmed by UV-Vis, FT-IR, CLSM and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Biocompatibility and cellular internalization of active HRP reconstituted TiO(2) nanorods were confirmed by a classical MTT cytotoxicity assay and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) imaging, respectively. The intracellular localization allowed H(2)O(2) detection, imaging and quantification in HeLa cells. The polymer functionalized hybrid system creates a complete sensor including a "cell positioning system" in each single particle. The flexible synthetic concept with functionalization by post-polymerization modification allows introduction of various dyes for sensitisation at different wavelengths and introduction of various anchor groups for anchoring on different particles.

  10. Assay of H2O2 production by macrophages and neutrophils with homovanillic acid and horse-radish peroxidase.

    PubMed

    Ruch, W; Cooper, P H; Baggiolini, M

    1983-10-28

    A simple and sensitive method for measurement of the release of H2O2 from phagocytic cells is described. The assay is based on the H2O2-dependent oxidation of homovanillic acid (3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, HVA) to a highly fluorescent dimer (2,2'-dihydroxy-3,3'-dimethoxydiphenyl-5,5'-diacetic acid) which is mediated by horse-radish peroxidase. A linear relationship between fluorescence (lambda ex = 312 nm and lambda em = 420 nm) and amount of H2O2 was found in the range of 0.1-10 nmoles per 2.25 ml assay. The method was reliable for monitoring H2O2 production in large numbers of cell samples, as suspensions or monolayers, over periods of time extending between minutes and several hours. At concentrations optimal for detection of cellular release of H2O2, HVA and horse-radish peroxidase were devoid of cytotoxic effects. The time course of H2O2 release by mouse peritoneal and bone marrow-derived macrophages and by human neutrophils was determined following stimulation with zymosan particles or phorbol myristate acetate, and the dependence of H2O2 release on cell number and stimulus dosage was studied.

  11. Effects of pressure on visible spectra of complexes of myoglobin, hemoglobin, cytochrome c, and horse radish peroxidase.

    PubMed

    Ogunmola, G B; Zipp, A; Chen, F; Kauzmann, W

    1977-01-01

    The spectra of the ferric form of most heme proteins [metmyoglobin, methemoglobin, horse radish peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.7), and ferricytochrome c at pH 1.5] are converted from high-spin (open crevice) structure to low-spin (closed crevice) form under pressure. Pressures up to 8000 kg/cm2 (780 MPa) have no effect on the spectra of high-spin ferro- and ferricytochrome c, which have a closed crevice structure at pH 7.0. Spectra of deoxy-ferromyoglobin and deoxy-ferrohemoglobin are reduced in intensity, but pressure does not change the positions of the absorption maxima. Cyanide ion prevents pressure-induced spectral changes in metmyoglobin and methemoglobin up to 8000 kg/cm2. Carbon monoxide (with a high affinity for the ferro heme iron) has a similar effect on ferromyoglobin and ferrohemoglobin. The pressure required to cause spectral changes in the heme proteins falls in the order, cytochrome c (pH 7.0) greater than horse radish peroxidase greater than myoglobin greater than hemoglobin. We have calculated a volume change of --50 cm3/mol associated with the configurational change accompanying the reformation of the iron-methionine bond in cytochrome c at low pH.

  12. Language Attitudes in the Second Generation Japanese Group in Melbourne.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nasu, Tsuneo

    This study investigated language attitudes and Japanese language maintenance among a group of second-generation Japanese in Melbourne (Australia). Subjects were 66 Japanese high school students (second-generation) attending Japanese-language schools and 109 Japanese mothers (first-generation) self-identified as Japanese-identity,…

  13. [Japanese Board Certified Thoracic Surgeon].

    PubMed

    Chihara, Koji

    2017-01-01

    The Japanese Board of General Thoracic Surgery (JBGTS) consisted by Japanese Association of Chest Surgery (JACS) and The Japanese Association of Thoracic Surgery (JATS) has been certified Japanese Board Certified Thoracic Surgeon (JBCTS) since 2004. At present, JBCTS is obtained by being of Certified Surgeon by Japan Surgical Society( JSS), completion of minimum requirement of surgical experience, scientific papers, presentation at medical assembly, learning of postgraduate educational programs, and examination approximate 11 years after graduation of medical school. Thirteen hundreds JBCTS throughout Japan are engaged in operation for 77,000 cases/year, including 38,000 lung cancer patients/year. The operative volume has been growing lineally these 30 years, and operative mortality in lung cancer patients has been less than 1% these several years. Japanese Medical Specialty Board (JMSB) published a guideline of the new system of medical specialty certification system in Jury 2014, in which fundamental structure is consisted by basic specialties of 19 medical fields and following subspecialties and program based system rather than curriculum based system. According to this guideline, JBGTS has been collaborated with JSS in order to establish sequential programs of the 2 specialties, and proposed an improved certification system to accomplish the mission that it educates trainees to be thoracic surgical professionals who is able to perform safe and standalized procedures.

  14. Color constancy in Japanese animation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichihara, Yasuyo G.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, we measure the colors used in a Japanese Animations. The result can be seen on CIE-xy color spaces. It clearly shows that the color system is not a natural appearance system but an imagined and artistic appearance system. Color constancy of human vision can tell the difference in skin and hair colors between under moonlight and day light. Human brain generates a match to the memorized color of an object from daylight viewing conditions to the color of the object in different viewing conditions. For example, Japanese people always perceive the color of the Rising Sun in the Japanese flag as red even in a different viewing condition such as under moonlight. Color images captured by a camera cannot present those human perceptions. However, Japanese colorists in Animation succeeded in painting the effects of color constancy not only under moonlight but also added the memory matching colors. They aim to create a greater impact on viewer's perceptions by using the effect of the memory matching colors. In this paper, we propose the Imagined Japanese Animation Color System. This system in art is currently a subject of research in Japan. Its importance is that it could also provide an explanation on how human brain perceives the same color under different viewing conditions.

  15. Effect of light exposure on sensorial quality, concentrations of bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacity of radish microgreens during low temperature storage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Daikon radish microgreens constitute a good source of bioactive compounds. However, the quality deteriorates rapidly during postharvest storage. In this study, we investigated the effects of light exposure and modified atmosphere packaging conditions on changes in sensorial quality and retention of ...

  16. Aerobic oxidation of p-hydroquinone by horse radish peroxidase in the presence of a thiol and MnCl2.

    PubMed

    Esterbauer, H; Schwarzl, E

    1977-01-01

    In the presence of MnCl2 and a thiol (glutathione, cysteine, 2-nitro-5-thiobenzoic acid) horse radish peroxidase oxidizes p-hydroquinone to p-benzoquinone which in turn immediately adds the thiol present yielding 2-S-substituted p-hydroquinone.

  17. Mechanism of action of collagenase on the blood-brain barrier permeability. Increase of endothelial cell pinocytotic activity as shown with horse-radish peroxidase as a tracer.

    PubMed

    Godeau, G; Robert, A M

    1979-12-01

    The ultrastructural mechanism of the protease induced blood-brain barrier permeability-increase was studied with horse-radish peroxidase as a tracer. After intravenous injection of collagenase or pronase, a significantly increased number of pinocytotic vesicles was found in brain capillary endothelial cells. alpha-Chymotrypsine did not exert such an action.

  18. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome compared between native Japanese and Japanese-Americans.

    PubMed

    Yoneda, Masayasu; Yamane, Kiminori; Jitsuiki, Kuniaki; Nakanishi, Shuhei; Kamei, Nozomu; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Kohno, Nobuoki

    2008-03-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a condition characterized by the accumulation of multiple risk factors for atherosclerosis. Japanese-Americans in the U.S. have a more rapid and intense progression of atherosclerosis than native Japanese in Japan due to a westernization of their lifestyle. We investigated the prevalence of metabolic syndrome between 416 native Japanese (194 men and 222 women) in Hiroshima and 574 Japanese-Americans (217 men and 357 women) in Los Angeles, aged 30-89 years. According to the criteria proposed by the Japanese Society of Internal Medicine, the prevalence was 13.9 and 2.7% for native Japanese men and women, and 32.7 and 3.4% for Japanese-American men and women, respectively. According to the IDF or AHA/NHLBI criteria, the prevalence was 20.1 and 6.3%, and 38.7 and 4.5%, or 13.4 and 14.4%, and 30.9 and 27.7%, respectively. Thus, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in men was significantly higher in Japanese-American than in native Japanese by all the three criteria. However, the prevalence in women was similar between native Japanese and Japanese-American by the Japanese and IDF criteria, whereas it was significantly higher in Japanese-American than in native Japanese by the AHA/NHLBI criteria. This report demonstrates that a westernization of lifestyle can increase the prevalence of metabolic syndrome among Japanese-Americans as compared to native Japanese.

  19. Homogamy and Intermarriage of Japanese and Japanese Americans with Whites Surrounding World War II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ono, Hiromi; Berg, Justin

    2010-01-01

    Although some sociologists have suggested that Japanese Americans quickly assimilated into mainstream America, scholars of Japanese America have highlighted the heightened exclusion that the group experienced. This study tracked historical shifts in the exclusion level of Japanese and Japanese Americans in the United States surrounding World War…

  20. A Japanese Agenda for Management Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Howard

    1982-01-01

    Discusses myths about the Japanese management styles; what the West can learn from the Japanese; the concept of nonlinear management; and training modules which teach self-discipline, tolerance, and nonlinear management. (CT)

  1. Japanese respond to campaign.

    PubMed

    1994-08-01

    A unique campaign launched by JOICFP in August 1993 had by the end of June 1994 netted US $41,200 to support activities of the integrated Project (IP) in developing countries. Under the campaign, the public, institutions, organizations, and businesses have been sending in used prepaid cards for sale to collectors in Japan and abroad. Prepaid cards are widely used throughout Japan for phones, subways, railways and highways. Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corporation (NTT) alone issues 20 million cards annually. The campaign, which has been widely featured in the media, has proved effective for drawing attention to JOICFP and to population and family planning issues. Gaining the understanding of the Japanese public about population issues has grown in importance since the government's announcement of the new Global Issues Initiative (GII). Word about the campaign was carried by radio, television, newspapers, and magazines nationwide. The number of cards sent in escalated with the attention. By the end of June, JOICFP had received around 700,000 cards, of which 550,000 have been exchanged for cash. The funds generated by the card sales have been allocated to support grassroots IP activities and encourage the self-reliance of projects in China, Ghana, Guatemala, Nepal, Tanzania, and Zambia. Responses to the campaign have come from individuals as well as local governments, hospitals, enterprises, and educational institutions. Many of these have initiated their own card-collection system and information-dissemination activities to support JOICFP. Over 5000 different organizations are now collaborating with JOICFP for the campaign, including Tenmaya Department Store in Okayama City.

  2. Three Views from Abroad: A Japanese Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakadome, Takeaki

    1993-01-01

    Japanese school management should consider more broad-based, active participation in school board policymaking and should democratize school board-school relationships by adopting the lay-control principle. Both U.S. and Japanese schools should improve the exercise of appropriate administrator leadership. Japanese schools are evaluated on a…

  3. A Cultural Context for Japanese Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wojtan, Linda S.

    1985-01-01

    Certain Japanese educational practices serving as worthwhile examples to the United States' educational system are highlighted in this overview of Japanese education. However, it is stressed that because the United States and the Japanese educational systems are dependent upon their social context and exist in a symbiotic relationship within that…

  4. Persistence of Ethnicity: The Japanese of Colorado.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Endo, Russell

    This paper presents an overview of the history of Japanese in Colorado. Japanese immigrants first came to Colorado between 1900 and 1910 as railroad laborers. Some became coal miners in southern Colorado; most others became farm laborers. Although the Japanese population during this period was small, communities developed in several locales. The…

  5. Schooling in Micronesia during Japanese Mandate Rule.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shuster, Donald R.

    1979-01-01

    This review of Japanese educational policy in Micronesia from 1920-36 describes the separate school systems established for natives and for Japanese immigrants. Native schools offered a shorter, less rigorous program whose main intent was socialization to Japanese language and culture. (SJL)

  6. The Work Values of Japanese Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engel, John W.

    Empirical studies of Japanese work ethics have tended to focus on male workers while neglecting women. In addition, work values in both Japan and the United States appear to be changing. More information is needed on the work values of American and Japanese female workers. A study was conducted to explore the work ethics of Japanese women and to…

  7. The Life Cycle of the Japanese Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumagai, Fumie

    1984-01-01

    Analyzes the existing Japanese population data, focusing on changes in the timing of events in a family life cycle of Japanese women. Analysis revealed that the overall pattern of the family career of Japanese women today closely resembles that of their American and Canadian counterparts. (LLL)

  8. Generations and Identity: The Japanese American.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitano, Harry H. L.

    The story of people of Japanese descent in the United States is told in its historic context. The Japanese came to America with cultural values that differed greatly from the mainstream U.S. society. They were also set apart by appearance. Conflict between Japan and the United States exacerbated the problems between the Japanese Americans and the…

  9. The Nonacademic Curriculum of the Japanese Preschool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peach, Mark

    1994-01-01

    Japanese nursery school and kindergarten activities are designed to facilitate the socialization of Japanese children. The culture of the home and the culture of the school (and by extension the rest of Japanese society) are so different from each other that it is believed the open and unselfconscious help of the education system is necessary to…

  10. Shattering Myths: Japanese American Educational Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoshiwara, Florence M.

    An historical review of the immigration and resettlement patterns, and a demographic profile of Japanese Americans reveals a myth of the "successful minority." Since the founding of the Japanese American Citizens League in 1928, Japanese Americans have defeated alien land laws, discriminatory immigration quotas, anti-miscengenation laws,…

  11. A NEW CLASSIFICATION FOR THE JAPANESE VERB.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    TAKAHASHI, GEORGE

    JAPANESE VERBS AND THE PARTICLES WHICH OFTEN ACCOMPANY THEM PRESENT DIFFICULTIES TO LEARNERS OF THAT LANGUAGE. THE TRADITIONAL GRAMMATICAL TERMS, "TRANSITIVE" AND "INTRANSITIVE" (VERBS), REFLECT CONCEPTS WHICH ARE VALID IN ENGLISH BUT NOT IN JAPANESE. THE AUTHOR, IN ATTEMPTING TO CLASSIFY ALL JAPANESE VERBS ACCORDING TO THEIR…

  12. Developing Instructional Materials for Business Japanese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koike, Shohei

    Business Japanese should be the study of Japanese language and culture for business communication and should include values and beliefs and institutional constraints on which the Japanese act as well as business etiquette and terminology. Topics to be covered in instruction will vary depending on the role (seller, buyer, or colleague) played by…

  13. JABEE in Japanese Engineering Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeda, Kunihiko; Ishikawa, Tomoyuki

    JABEE in Japanese engineering education is discussed by focusing on the status and treatment of engineers in Japanese society and their achievements. The entrance fee and tuition of the engineering departments of higher education facilities are higher than those of the law, economy and literature departments. On the other hand, an engineer's lifelong wage is smaller than that of those who have graduated from the latter fields. Although engineering students must study for a longer period of time, the scholarship system to support these students in Japan falls far behind that in the U.S.A. The achievements of Japanese engineering were summarized from the viewpoint of economic indications such as 1) production of steel, 2) energy consumption per person as a function of GDP, 3) income 4) real estate abroad and miscellaneous factors such as the life spans and criminal rates of many countries. These analyses made it clear that Japanese engineers have the highest ability even compared to advanced countries and this is because of the higher engineering education in Japan ; but their status is unreasonably low in Japanese society. The four points by which the present status of Japanese engineers can be improved were discussed in relation to the introduction and the achievement of the JABEE system. The true aim of education reform by JABEE is that the engineering education in Japan should shift “from government to non-government”, “from organization to individual” and “from control to interdependency.” The expected points of improvement are discussed.

  14. Marine Biodiversity in Japanese Waters

    PubMed Central

    Fujikura, Katsunori; Lindsay, Dhugal; Kitazato, Hiroshi; Nishida, Shuhei; Shirayama, Yoshihisa

    2010-01-01

    To understand marine biodiversity in Japanese waters, we have compiled information on the marine biota in Japanese waters, including the number of described species (species richness), the history of marine biology research in Japan, the state of knowledge, the number of endemic species, the number of identified but undescribed species, the number of known introduced species, and the number of taxonomic experts and identification guides, with consideration of the general ocean environmental background, such as the physical and geological settings. A total of 33,629 species have been reported to occur in Japanese waters. The state of knowledge was extremely variable, with taxa containing many inconspicuous, smaller species tending to be less well known. The total number of identified but undescribed species was at least 121,913. The total number of described species combined with the number of identified but undescribed species reached 155,542. This is the best estimate of the total number of species in Japanese waters and indicates that more than 70% of Japan's marine biodiversity remains un-described. The number of species reported as introduced into Japanese waters was 39. This is the first attempt to estimate species richness for all marine species in Japanese waters. Although its marine biota can be considered relatively well known, at least within the Asian-Pacific region, considering the vast number of different marine environments such as coral reefs, ocean trenches, ice-bound waters, methane seeps, and hydrothermal vents, much work remains to be done. We expect global change to have a tremendous impact on marine biodiversity and ecosystems. Japan is in a particularly suitable geographic situation and has a lot of facilities for conducting marine science research. Japan has an important responsibility to contribute to our understanding of life in the oceans. PMID:20689840

  15. Raphanus sativus cv. Sango Sprout Juice Decreases Diet-Induced Obesity in Sprague Dawley Rats and Ameliorates Related Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Sapone, Andrea; De Nicola, Gina Rosalinda; Babot Marquillas, Clara; Iori, Renato; Antonazzo, Ippazio Cosimo; Gentilini, Fabio; Paolini, Moreno

    2016-01-01

    Background Obesity is recognized as a leading global health problem, correlated with an increased risk for several chronic diseases. One strategy for weight control management includes the use of vegetables rich in bioactive compounds to counteract weight gain, improve the antioxidant status and stimulate lipid catabolism. Aim of the Study The aim of this study was to investigate the role of Raphanus sativus Sango sprout juice (SSJ), a Brassica extraordinarily rich in anthocyanins (AC) and isothiocyanates (ITCs), in a non-genetic model of obesity (high fat diet-HFD induced). Methods Control groups were fed with HFD or regular diet (RD). After a 10-week period, animals were assigned to experimental units and treated by gavage for 28 days as follows: HFD and RD control groups (rats fed HFD or RD and treated with vehicle only) and HFD-treated groups (rats fed HFD and treated with 15, 75 or 150 mg/kg b.w. of SSJ). Body weight and food consumption were recorded and serum lipid profile was measured (total cholesterol, triglycerides, and non-esterified fatty acids). Hepatic phase-I, phase-II as well as antioxidant enzymatic activities were assessed. Results SSJ lowered total cholesterol level, food intake and liver weight compared with HFD rodents. SSJ at medium dose proved effective in reducing body-weight (~19 g reduction). SSJ was effective in up-regulating the antioxidant enzymes catalase, NAD(P)H:quinone reductase, oxidised glutathione reductase and superoxide dismutase, which reached or exceeded RD levels, as well as the phase II metabolic enzyme UDP-glucuronosyl transferase (up to about 43%). HFD up-regulated almost every cytochrome P450 isoform tested, and a mild down-regulation to baseline was observed after SSJ intervention. Conclusion This work reveals, for the first time, the antioxidant, hypolipidemic and antiobesity potential of SSJ, suggesting its use as an efficient new functional food/nutraceutical product. PMID:26987061

  16. Amendment in phosphorus levels moderate the chromium toxicity in Raphanus sativus L. as assayed by antioxidant enzymes activities.

    PubMed

    Sayantan, D; Shardendu

    2013-09-01

    Chromium (Z=24), a d-block element, is a potent carcinogen, whereas phosphorus is an essential and limiting nutrient for the plant growth and development. This study undertakes the role of phosphorus in moderating the chromium toxicity in Raphanus sativus L., as both of them compete with each other during the uptake process. Two-factor complete randomized experiment (5 chromium × 5 phosphorus concentrations) was conducted for twenty eight days in green house. The individuals of R. sativus were grown in pots supplied with all essential nutrients. The toxic effects of chromium and the moderation of toxicity due to phosphorus amendment were determined as accumulation of chromium, nitrogen, phosphorus in root tissues and their effects were also examined in the changes in biomass, chlorophyll and antioxidant enzyme levels. Cr and N accumulation were almost doubled at the highest concentration of Cr supply, without any P amendment, whereas at the highest P concentration (125 mM), the accumulation was reduced to almost half. A significant reduction in toxic effects of Cr was determined as there was three-fold increase in total chlorophyll and biomass at the highest P amendment. Antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase and lipid peroxidation were analyzed at various levels of Cr each amended with five levels of P. It was observed that at highest level of P amendment, the reduction percentage in toxicity was 33, 44, 39 and 44, correspondingly. Conclusively, the phosphorus amendment moderates the toxicity caused by the supplied chromium in R. sativus. This finding can be utilized to develop a novel technology for the amelioration of chromium stressed fields.

  17. Other Japanese Educations and Japanese Education Otherwise. Review Essay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takayama, Keita

    2011-01-01

    Education in the United States was in a state of "crisis" at the time of the 1983 release of "A Nation at Risk," the landmark report on the US education reform. This was the time when the rising Japanese economy started threatening the post-war US economic dominance and conservative figures such as Ronald Reagan gained popular…

  18. Overview: Japanese encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Misra, Usha Kant; Kalita, Jayantee

    2010-06-01

    Japanese encephalitis (JE) is one of the most important endemic encephalitis in the world especially in Eastern and Southeastern Asia. JE affects over 50,000 patients and results in 15,000 deaths annually. JE virus is a single stranded positive sense RNA virus belonging to family flaviviridae. JE virus is transmitted through a zoonotic cycle between mosquitoes, pigs and water birds. Humans are accidentally infected and are a dead end host because of low level and transient viremia. In the northern region, large epidemics occur during summers whereas in the southern region JE tends to be endemic: cases occur throughout the year with a peak in the rainy season. Occurrence of JE is more closely related to temperature than to humidity. JE is regarded as a disease of children in the endemic areas but in the newly invaded areas, it affects both the adults and children because of the absence of protective antibodies. For every patient of JE, there are large numbers of subclinical cases (25-1000). Symptomatic JEV infection manifests with nonspecific febrile illness, aseptic meningitis or encephalitis. Encephalitis manifests with altered sensorium, seizures and focal neurological deficit. Acute flaccid paralysis may occur due to anterior horn cell involvement. A wide variety of movement disorders especially transient Parkinsonian features and dystonia (limb, axial, orofacial) are reported in 20-60% patients. JE mainly affects thalamus, corpus striatum, brainstem and spinal cord as revealed by MRI and on autopsy studies. Coinfection of JE and cysticercosis occurs because of the important role of pigs in the life cycle of both JEV and cysticercosis. Laboratory diagnosis of JE is by IgM capture ELISA, which has high sensitivity and specificity. In the absence of specific antiviral therapy, JE is managed by symptomatic and supportive therapies and preventive measures. Purified formalin inactivated mouse brain derived vaccine and live attenuated vaccine (SA 14-14-2) are

  19. Look Who Invented Japanese Management!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chait, Richard P.

    1982-01-01

    The Japanese theory of participatory management is seen as thriving on American campuses under the rubrics of shared governance and collegiality. Participatory management, quality control circles, lifetime employment, superordinate goals, and interdependent leadership are discussed. More commerce between academic administrators and corporate…

  20. The Japanese Domestic Labor Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ueno, Chizuko

    The changing role of Japanese women can be seen in the stages of a domestic labor debate which occurred at three different times in the past 30 years. The first debate began with Ayako Ishigaki's (1955) insistence that women should have a job outside the home. Wartime production helped break down traditional divisions of labor by encouraging women…

  1. Citation Indicators of Japanese Journals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haiqi, Zhang; Yamazaki, Shigeaki

    1998-01-01

    Evaluates Japanese journals--128 indexed in the 1994 "Journal Citation Reports"--in bibliometric parameters such as impact factors (IFs), mean IFs from citing and cited journals, and self-citing and self-cited rates. Results: only 15 journals, with a wide variation of self-citing and self-cited rates, have obtained a current impact…

  2. Dilemmas of Japanese Professional Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osako, Masako Murakami

    1978-01-01

    Despite advanced industrialization, Japanese women are subjected to occupational inequality by businesses that place them on a career track separate from men in terms of wages, promotion, and retirement and by a cultural environment that fosters the values of motherhood and stresses female authority only in domestic situations. (WI)

  3. The Japanese Copula: A Dummy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wenck, G.

    1973-01-01

    Discussion of whether the Japanese copula can adequately be described as a dummy, i.e., as an element which although existing in the surface structure can be dispensed with in the deep structure of a sentence; based on a paper read at the 1970 meeting of the Societas Linguistica Europaea, Prague, Czechoslovakia. (RS)

  4. Japanese Industry Boosts Pollution Spending

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAbee, Michael K.

    1975-01-01

    In response to tightening emission standards imposed by the government, Japanese industry will increase its capital spending on pollution control equipment to account for about 20 percent of all industrial capital spending. Preferential treatment and loans from government-affiliated financial institutions are available for projects. (Author/MLH)

  5. Teaching Japanese-American Incarceration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miksch, Karen L.; Ghere, David

    2004-01-01

    Few events in American history are so universally deplored as the incarceration of Japanese Americans during World War II. The United States government has acknowledged the error and the injustice that resulted with an official Presidential apology and a Congressional disbursement of reparations to the victims of the incarceration policy. The…

  6. Japanese Attitudes toward English Accents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiba, Reiko; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examined the attitudes of 169 Japanese university students toward varieties of spoken English. Results found that the students with more instrumental motivation were more positive toward nonnative English accents than those with less instrumental motivation, and that the students' familiarity with accents had an influence on their acceptance of…

  7. An investigation of the phototropic effect on seedling orientation in a microgravity environment: A student involvement project. [radish germination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barainca, J. W.

    1984-01-01

    A microgravity growth chamber was designed to investigate the phototropic response of radish seedlings. Enclosed in a one fourth inch thick, hexagonal, fiberglass-foam spacepak nineteen inches across corners, the experiment consists of a growth chamber and germination tray, a water reservoir and solenoid valve, a fluorescent light for photo simulation, a Minolta X700 camera with programmable back, a 50 mm macro lens and flash, a battery pack, and a computer controller. Two temperature sensors and one light sensor located in the walls of the growth chamber provide temperature and illumination data. A computer provides 8 K command and 34 K data storage capability. The experiment was not activated during the STS flight because a malfunctioning latching relay stuck and reduced the battery power level.

  8. Comparative Study of Lettuce and Radish Grown Under Red and Blue Light-Emitting Diodes (LEDs) and White Fluorescent Lamps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mickens, Matthew A.

    2012-01-01

    Growing vegetable crops in space will be an essential part of sustaining astronauts during long-term missions. To drive photosynthesis, red and blue light-emitting diodes (LEDs) have attracted attention because of their efficiency, longevity, small size, and safety. In efforts to optimize crop production, there have also been recent interests in analyzing the subtle effects of green light on plant growth, and to determine if it serves as a source of growth enhancement or suppression. A comparative study was performed on two short cycle crops of lettuce (Outredgeous) and radish (Cherry Bomb) grown under two light treatments. The first treatment being red and blue LEDs, and the second treatment consisting of white fluorescent lamps which contain a portion of green light. In addition to comparing biomass production, physiological characterizations were conducted on how the light treatments influence morphology, water use, chlorophyll content, and the production of A TP within plant tissues.

  9. The pH dependence of phototautomerism in horse radish peroxidase monitored by fluorescence site-selection spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fidy, Judit; Koloczek, Henryk; Paul, Karl-Gustav; Vanderkooi, Jane M.

    1987-12-01

    Fluorescence site-selection spectra of mesoporphyrin horse radish peroxidase C 2 were measured at cryogenic temperatures in 50% glycerol-water. With irradiation at ≈ 17300 cm -1 interconverting emission lines were detected, which are attributed to phototautomerization within the excited sites. The reactivity for tautomerization was found to be much higher at pH 5.1 than at pH 8.0. The fluorescence decay for the two tautomers is single exponential with lifetimes of 23 and 21 ns, respectively. pH sensitivity is discussed in terms of possible conformational changes of the amino acid chain or a role of the liberated histidine in the reaction pathway.

  10. Complete genome sequence analysis identifies a new genotype of brassica yellows virus that infects cabbage and radish in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Yan; Xiang, Hai-Ying; Zhou, Cui-Ji; Li, Da-Wei; Yu, Jia-Lin; Han, Cheng-Gui

    2014-08-01

    For brassica yellows virus (BrYV), proposed to be a member of a new polerovirus species, two clearly distinct genotypes (BrYV-A and BrYV-B) have been described. In this study, the complete nucleotide sequences of two BrYV isolates from radish and Chinese cabbage were determined. Sequence analysis suggested that these isolates represent a new genotype, referred to here as BrYV-C. The full-length sequences of the two BrYV-C isolates shared 93.4-94.8 % identity with BrYV-A and BrYV-B. Further phylogenetic analysis showed that the BrYV-C isolates formed a subgroup that was distinct from the BrYV-A and BrYV-B isolates based on all of the proteins except P5.

  11. Persistence of fensulfothion in a sandy-loam soil and uptake by rutabagas, carrots and radishes using microplots

    SciTech Connect

    Greenhalgh, R.; Read, D.C.

    1981-01-01

    Field microplots were treated with 141 and 282 ppm fensulfothion and 37.1 and 74.2 ppm fensulfothion sulfone. These concentrations are equivalent to field treatment rates of 8.48 and 16.96 kg AI/ha, fensulfothion, and 2.23 and 4.47 kg AI/ha, fensulfothion sulfone, respectively, for banded application (10 cm wide, rows 80 cm apart). The half-lives in a sandy loam soil were 30-39 and 14-23 days, respectively. Fensulfothion sulfone and sulfide were the main derivatives found in fensulfothion treated soil. The maximum levels of these derivatives were 21.22 and 22.95 ppm, respectively for the 8.48 kg/ha treatment and 33.90 and 42.45 ppm, respectively, for the higher treatment, which occurred between 30-60 days. Carrots appeared to take up more fensulfothion from soil than rutabagas or radishes. The residue levels at harvest decreased in the order carrot peel greater than pulp greater than rutabagas root greater than peel greater than pulp. Residue levels of fensulfothion and sulfone in radishes were similar to those found in rutabagas. The ratio sulfoxide/sulfone in rutabagas ranged from 0.4-1.5 and in carrots from 1.7-7.6. This phenomenon is thought to be due to oxidative enzyme systems present in rutabagas. Dimethyl phosphorothioic acid, but not dimethyl phosphoric acid was detected (max. 1.33 ppm) in some rutabagas samples but not in carrots.

  12. Translocation of (125)I, (75)Se and (36)Cl to edible parts of radish, potato and green bean following wet foliar contamination under field conditions.

    PubMed

    Henner, P; Hurtevent, P; Thiry, Y; Levchuk, S; Yoschenko, V; Kashparov, V

    2013-10-01

    Specific translocation factor values (ftr) for (129)I, (79)Se and (36)Cl following foliar transfer are still missing from the IAEA reference databases. The translocation of the short-lived isotopes, (125)I, (75)Se, and (36)Cl, to radish, potato and green bean edible parts was measured under field conditions following acute and chronic wet foliar contamination at various plant growth stages in the absence of leaching caused by rain. The translocation factors obtained for (125)I ranged from 0.8 to 2.6% for radish, from 0.1 to 2.3% for potato and from 0.1 to 2.6% for bean. The translocation factors obtained for (75)Se ranged from 6.3 to 21% for radish, from 1.6 to 32.6% for potato and from 7.7 to 22.8% for bean (values similar to Cs or even higher). The translocation factors obtained for (36)Cl were close to those for (75)Se and ranged from 4.3 to 28.8% for radish, from 0.5 to 31.5% for potato and from 4.3 to 16.3% for bean. Iodide showed the lowest apparent mobility because of its preferential fixation in or on the leaves and a significant amount was probably volatilized. Selenite internal transfer was significant and possibly followed the sulfur metabolic pathway. Chloride was very mobile and quickly diffused throughout the plant. The translocation factors varied with the growth stage and depended on the development state of the edible tissue and its associated sink strength for nutrients and assimilates. For radish, translocation was high during the early vegetative stages. For potato, wheat and bean, a major peak in translocation was seen during the flowering growth stage and the concomitant growth of potato tubers. An additive effect of successive contamination events on translocated elements was shown in radish but not in bean and potato. The highest translocation value obtained for an acute contamination event was shown to be an adequate, conservative indicator of chronic contamination in absence of specific values. Due to the absence of rain leaching during

  13. Pair-List Readings in Korean-Japanese, Chinese-Japanese and English-Japanese Interlanguage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsden, Heather

    2008-01-01

    In English and Chinese, questions with a "wh"-object and a universally quantified subject (e.g. "What did everyone buy?") allow an individual answer ("Everyone bought apples.") and a pair-list answer ("Sam bought apples, Jo bought bananas, Sally bought..."). By contrast, the pair-list answer is reportedly unavailable in Japanese and Korean. This…

  14. Systemic Resistance to Powdery Mildew in Brassica napus (AACC) and Raphanus alboglabra (RRCC) by Trichoderma harzianum TH12

    PubMed Central

    Alkooranee, Jawadayn Talib; Yin, Yongtai; Aledan, Tamarah Raad; Jiang, Yingfen; Lu, Guangyuan; Wu, Jiangsheng; Li, Maoteng

    2015-01-01

    Trichoderma harzianum TH12 is a microbial pesticide for certain rapeseed diseases. The mechanism of systemic resistance induced by TH12 or its cell-free culture filtrate (CF) in Brassica napus (AACC) and Raphanus alboglabra (RRCC) to powdery mildew disease caused by ascomycete Erysiphe cruciferarum was investigated. In this study, we conducted the first large-scale global study on the cellular and molecular aspects of B. napus and R. alboglabra infected with E. cruciferarum. The histological study showed the resistance of R. alboglabra to powdery mildew disease. The growth of fungal colonies was not observed on R. alboglabra leaves at 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 days post-inoculation (dpi), whereas this was clearly observed on B. napus leaves after 6 dpi. In addition, the gene expression of six plant defense-related genes, namely, PR-1, PR-2 (a marker for SA signaling), PR-3, PDF 1.2 (a marker for JA/ET signaling), CHI620, and CHI570, for both genotypes were analyzed in the leaves of B. napus and R. alboglabra after treatment with TH12 or CF and compared with the non-treated ones. The qRT-PCR results showed that the PR-1 and PR-2 expression levels increased in E. cruciferarum-infected leaves, but decreased in the TH12-treated leaves compared with leaves treated with CF. The expression levels of PR-3 and PDF1.2 decreased in plants infected by E. cruciferarum. However, expression levels increased when the leaves were treated with TH12. For the first time, we disclosed the nature of gene expression in B. napus and R. alboglabra to explore the resistance pathways in the leaves of both genotypes infected and non-infected by powdery mildew and inoculated or non-inoculated with elicitor factors. Results suggested that R. alboglabra exhibited resistance to powdery mildew disease, and the application of T. harzianum and its CF are a useful tool to facilitate new protection methods for resist or susceptible plants. PMID:26540161

  15. [Production and cytogenetics of hybrids of Ogura CMS Brassica campestris var. purpuraria x Raphanus sativus x Brassica napus].

    PubMed

    Huang, Bang-Quan; Liu, You-Qi; Wu, Wen-Hua; Xue, Xiao-Qiao

    2002-05-01

    Crosses of Ogura CMS Brassica campestris var. purpuraria x Raphanus sativus x Brassica napus were made and four hybrids were produced. One plant (PRN-1) was mosaic with yellow and milk white flowers and some flowers had both yellow and white petals. The others (PRN-2, -3, -4) had white flowers. PRN-4 had degenerated anthers, the other three had three to six anthers and could produce some pollens, but the pollens of PRN-2 were unstainable by I2-KI solution. PRN-2 had four normal honey glands, PRN-1 and PRN-3 had two, and PRN-4 had none. PRN-2 had normal leaf color and the other three showed different degrees of chlorophyll deficiency at low temperature. The chromosome number of PRN-1 was 2n = 38 and had the mean chromosome paring configuration of 14.67 I + 10.07 II + 1.06 III, and its chromosome set constitution might be AACR. This chromosome constitution may be due to the fertilization of female gamete of n = 19 (AR) with male gamete of n = 19 (AC) from B. napus. The occurrence of mosaic flower color in this plant may be attributed to the chromosome abnormalities caused by wide hybridization, such as chromosome deficiency and the formation of chromosome fragments and chromosome bridges. The chromosome number of PRN-2 was 2n = 35 and the mean chromosome paring configuration was 13.89 I + 8.33 II + 1.33 III + 0.11 IV. The chromosome number of PRN-3 was 2n = 33 and the mean chromosome paring configuration was 14.00 I + 7.82 II + 1.00 III + 0.09 IV. The chromosome number of PRN-4 was not determined as there was no pollen mother cell formation. Chromosome bridges and laggards were observed in PRN-1-3. Some seeds were harvested from PRN-1-3 but none was harvested from PRN-4 when backcrossed with B. napus. It seems possible for us to overcome the chlorophyll deficiency and honey gland abnormality and restore the male fertility in Ogura CMS by introduction of the nucleus of R. sativus into this cytoplasmic male sterile line.

  16. Systemic Resistance to Powdery Mildew in Brassica napus (AACC) and Raphanus alboglabra (RRCC) by Trichoderma harzianum TH12.

    PubMed

    Alkooranee, Jawadayn Talib; Yin, Yongtai; Aledan, Tamarah Raad; Jiang, Yingfen; Lu, Guangyuan; Wu, Jiangsheng; Li, Maoteng

    2015-01-01

    Trichoderma harzianum TH12 is a microbial pesticide for certain rapeseed diseases. The mechanism of systemic resistance induced by TH12 or its cell-free culture filtrate (CF) in Brassica napus (AACC) and Raphanus alboglabra (RRCC) to powdery mildew disease caused by ascomycete Erysiphe cruciferarum was investigated. In this study, we conducted the first large-scale global study on the cellular and molecular aspects of B. napus and R. alboglabra infected with E. cruciferarum. The histological study showed the resistance of R. alboglabra to powdery mildew disease. The growth of fungal colonies was not observed on R. alboglabra leaves at 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 days post-inoculation (dpi), whereas this was clearly observed on B. napus leaves after 6 dpi. In addition, the gene expression of six plant defense-related genes, namely, PR-1, PR-2 (a marker for SA signaling), PR-3, PDF 1.2 (a marker for JA/ET signaling), CHI620, and CHI570, for both genotypes were analyzed in the leaves of B. napus and R. alboglabra after treatment with TH12 or CF and compared with the non-treated ones. The qRT-PCR results showed that the PR-1 and PR-2 expression levels increased in E. cruciferarum-infected leaves, but decreased in the TH12-treated leaves compared with leaves treated with CF. The expression levels of PR-3 and PDF1.2 decreased in plants infected by E. cruciferarum. However, expression levels increased when the leaves were treated with TH12. For the first time, we disclosed the nature of gene expression in B. napus and R. alboglabra to explore the resistance pathways in the leaves of both genotypes infected and non-infected by powdery mildew and inoculated or non-inoculated with elicitor factors. Results suggested that R. alboglabra exhibited resistance to powdery mildew disease, and the application of T. harzianum and its CF are a useful tool to facilitate new protection methods for resist or susceptible plants.

  17. A Conceptual Model of Cultural Predictors of Anxiety among Japanese American and Part-Japanese American Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, John Kino Yamaguchi; Goebert, Deborah; Hishinuma, Earl; Miyamoto, Robin; Anzai, Neal; Izutsu, Satoru; Yanagida, Evelyn; Nishimura, Stephanie; Andrade, Naleen; Baker, F. M.

    2002-01-01

    Develops and assesses a model integrating Japanese ethnicity, cultural identity, and anxiety in Japanese American and part-Japanese American high school seniors. Japanese American adolescents scored higher on the scale and reported fewer anxiety symptoms than part-Japanese American adolescents. The model had a good overall fit, suggesting that…

  18. Recent advances in Japanese encephalitis

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Anirban; Dutta, Kallol

    2017-01-01

    Japanese encephalitis is a flaviviral disease that is endemic to the South, Southeast Asia, and Asia Oceania regions. Given that about 60% of the world’s population (about 7.4 billion) resides in this region (about 4.4 billion), this disease poses a significant threat to global health. Active vaccination campaigns conducted in endemic countries have led to a decrease in the number of reported cases over the years. In this article, we strive to briefly highlight recent advances in understanding the role of microRNAs in disease pathology, focus on providing brief summaries of recent clinical trials in the field of Japanese encephalitis therapeutics, and review the current prophylactic strategies. PMID:28357054

  19. Formants of Japanese function particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirai, Setsuko

    2004-05-01

    There is much debate about whether vowel centralization results from reduction of undershoot. The results of research conducted by Keating and Huffman (1984) indicated that Japanese vowels in prose were formed closer to the center of vowel chart than in words. However, they did not provide any statistical information and the information about the preceding consonants in the prose. Thus, there was a possibility that the preceding consonants led to the vowel centralization through undershoot. To address this question, I conducted research, in which Japanese function vowels [a, e, o] were compared with content vowels. The results showed that F1 of function /a/ following /g/ (average 609.8 Hz) was statistically lower than content /a/ (average 696.3 Hz) [F(1,65)=73.40, p<0.001]. However, there were no significant differences of F2 of /e/ following /d/ and F2 of /o/ following /t/ between function and content. At first, it appeared centralization played a role. However, close examination of the results indicated that vowel undershoot was the source of the /a/ centralization. Japanese function /a/ was statistically shorter than content /a/ and there was a significant correlation between duration and normalized vowel displacements for /a/ [Pearson's r=0.466, p<0.001]. This short duration caused the difference of F1 between content /a/ and function /a/.

  20. Sociocultural dilemma of Japanese steeplejacks.

    PubMed

    Iwata, H

    1997-12-01

    Japanese steeplejacks are good at working in high places as construction workers, and they have been called tobi for a longtime. They now play an important role in completing modern civil engineering projects and in the construction of high-rise buildings; however, their lifestyle is considered by most to be quaint but outdated. Originally, they were unskilled workmen at construction sites. In the 18th century, they were engaged in repairing houses or setting up scaffolding, helping carpenters, but they worked as firefighters whenever fires broke out. Their traditional work system did not change throughout the Meiji era, although Japanese society became greatly modernized. After World War II, the industrialization of Japanese society required highly developed technology in civil engineering and architecture. This provided an opportunity for them to establish their positions as trained professional workers. However, the number of skilled tobi professionals has continued to decrease because the younger generation does not consider this profession desirable career. Improving not only the professional skills but also the way of living to the extent as a modern high-tech society demands will be the key for the tobi's work system to become attractive.

  1. Morphological effects of cytidin-diphosphate-choline on rats with lesions of the substantia nigra: study using horse radish peroxidase method.

    PubMed

    Stanzani, S

    1981-09-15

    Morphological effects of Cytidin-diphosphate-Choline (CDP-choline) (Ni-cholin) on rat brain with Substantia nigra lesions were studied by using the horse radish peroxidase method (HRP). Three groups of animals were studied. Post-lesion axonal and cellular regeneration was detected only in the group of rats treated with CDP-choline q.d. i.m. for 15 days.

  2. Concanavalin A--horse radish peroxidase (Con A-HRP) labelling technique in detection and prognosis of cancer of uterine cervix.

    PubMed

    Sen, U

    1989-01-01

    The lectin binding capacity of the exfoliated epithelial cells of the uterine cervix was investigated with a modified concanavalin A - horse radish peroxidase labelling procedure. The normal healthy females exhibited a distinct rise in the percentage of labelled cells in comparison to those bearing squamous cell carcinoma. In the treated group, the responsive patients again exhibited a higher labelling percentage than the non-responsive patients - showing that the method is of both diagnostic and prognostic significance.

  3. Radish introduction affects soil biota and has a positive impact on the growth of a native plant.

    PubMed

    Pearse, Ian S; Bastow, Justin L; Tsang, Alia

    2014-02-01

    Introduced plants may out-compete natives by belowground allelopathic effects on soil communities including the symbionts of native plants. We tested for an allelopathic effect of an introduced crucifer, Raphanus sativus, on a common neighboring legume, Lupinus nanus, on the legume's rhizobium affiliates, and on the broader soil community. In both field observations and a greenhouse experiment, we found that R. sativus decreased the density of nodules on L. nanus roots. However, in the greenhouse experiment, R. sativus soils only decreased the density of small, likely non-beneficial rhizobium nodules. In the same experiment, R. sativus soils decreased fungivorous nematode abundance, though there was no effect of R. sativus introduction on fungal density. In the greenhouse experiment, R. sativus soils had a net positive effect on L. nanus biomass. One explanation of this effect is that R. sativus introduction might alter the mutualistic/parasitic relationship between L. nanus and its rhizobial associates with a net benefit to L. nanus. Our results suggest that introduced brassicas can quickly alter belowground communities, but that the net effect of this on neighboring plants is not necessarily negative.

  4. Compliment Responses: Comparing American Learners of Japanese, Native Japanese Speakers, and American Native English Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatsumi, Naofumi

    2012-01-01

    Previous research shows that American learners of Japanese (AJs) tend to differ from native Japanese speakers in their compliment responses (CRs). Yokota (1986) and Shimizu (2009) have reported that AJs tend to respond more negatively than native Japanese speakers. It has also been reported that AJs' CRs tend to lack the use of avoidance or…

  5. Americans and Japanese Nonverbal Communication. Linguistic Communications 15 (Papers in Japanese Linguistics 3).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Harvey M.

    Each culture has its own nonverbal as well as its verbal language. Movements, gestures and sounds have distinct and often conflicting interpretations in different countries. For Americans communicating with Japanese, misunderstandings are of two types: Japanese behavior which is completely new to the American, and Japanese behavior which is…

  6. Default Accentuation and Foot Structure in Japanese: Evidence from Japanese Adaptations of French Words.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shinohara, Shigeko

    2000-01-01

    Examined accentuation patterns that appear in Japanese adaptation of French words. Argues that these patterns reflect the default accentuation of Japanese grammar; they correspond to accent patterns found in some marginal sectors of Japanese vocabulary where the accent is predictable. (Author/VWL)

  7. Effectiveness of a spontaneous carvacrol nanoemulsion against Salmonella enterica Enteritidis and Escherichia coli O157:H7 on contaminated broccoli and radish seeds.

    PubMed

    Landry, Kyle S; Micheli, Sean; McClements, David Julian; McLandsborough, Lynne

    2015-10-01

    The incidence of foodborne illness associated with the consumption of fresh produce has continued to increase over the past decade. Sprouts, such as mung bean, alfalfa, radish, and broccoli, are minimally processed and have been sources for foodborne illness. Currently, a 20,000 ppm calcium hypochlorite soak is recommended for the treatment of sprouting seeds. In this study, the efficacy of an antimicrobial carvacrol nanoemulsion was tested against Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Enteritidis (ATCC BAA-1045) or EGFP expressing Escherichia coli O157:H7 (ATCC 42895) contaminated sprouting seeds. Antimicrobial treatments were performed by soaking inoculated seeds in nanoemulsions (4000 or 8000 ppm) for 30 or 60 min. Following treatment, surviving cells were determined by performing plate counts and/or Most Probable Number (MPN) enumeration. Treated seeds were sprouted and tested for the presence of pathogens. Treatment successfully inactivated low levels (2 and 3 log CFU/g) of S. Enteritidis and E. coli on radish seeds when soaked for 60 min at concentrations ≥4000 (0.4%) ppm carvacrol. This treatment method was not affective on contaminated broccoli seeds. Total sprout yield was not influenced by any treatments. These results show that carvacrol nanoemulsions may be an alternative treatment method for contaminated radish seeds.

  8. Effect of Cadmium on Lipid Peroxidation and on Some Antioxidants in the Liver, Kidneys and Testes of Rats Given Diet Containing Cadmium-polluted Radish Bulbs

    PubMed Central

    Haouem, Samir; El Hani, Abdelhamid

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of cadmium (Cd), incorporated in radish bulbs, on malondialdehyde and glutathione levels and on superoxide dismutase activity in the liver, kidneys and testes of male rats. The control animals were given diet containing ordinary radish bulbs for 4, 8 and 12 weeks, while contaminated animals were given diet containing Cd-polluted radish bulbs (1.1 mg Cd/g of diet) for the same periods as in the controls. At each time point, rats were euthanized and the liver, kidneys and testes were removed. The results indicated that the body weight gain of contaminated rats was identical to that of the control rats. Cd concentrations in the liver, kidneys and testes increased significantly and gradually from the 4th to 12th week of treatment. Malondialdehyde concentrations decreased significantly in the liver and increased significantly in the kidneys and testes after 12 weeks of treatment, while glutathione levels increased significantly in the liver, and decreased significantly in the kidneys and testes at the same time. No changes were observed in SOD activity in the liver, while in the kidneys and testes, this activity was increased after 12 weeks of treatment as compared with the control rats. PMID:24526808

  9. Effects of seven pure flavonoids from mosses on germination and growth of Tortula muralis HEDW (Bryophyta) and Raphanus sativus L (Magnoliophyta).

    PubMed

    Basile, Adriana; Sorbo, Sergio; López-Sáez, José Antonio; Castaldo Cobianchi, Rosa

    2003-04-01

    Dried mosses (five moss species) were progressively extracted and subjected to a four-step Craig distribution. Seven pure flavonoids were isolated and identified. The flavonoids were the flavones apigenin, apigenin-7-O-triglycoside, lucenin-2, luteolin-7-O-neohesperidoside, saponarine and vitexin; and the biflavonoid bartramiaflavone and they were submitted to biological tests. The tests were performed in vitro on spore germination and protonemal growth of the moss Tortula muralis and on seed germination and root growth of Raphanus sativus. Flavonoids caused a decrease in the percentage of spore germination, protonemal development and root growth. In addition they caused morphological alterations, such as forked tips, swollen apices, rounded cells and early formation of brood cells in the protonemata. Data were discussed in relation to the presence of allelochemicals in mosses.

  10. The radish defensins RsAFP1 and RsAFP2 act synergistically with caspofungin against Candida albicans biofilms.

    PubMed

    Vriens, Kim; Cools, Tanne L; Harvey, Peta J; Craik, David J; Braem, Annabel; Vleugels, Jozef; De Coninck, Barbara; Cammue, Bruno P A; Thevissen, Karin

    2016-01-01

    The radish defensin RsAFP2 was previously characterized as a peptide with potent antifungal activity against several plant pathogenic fungi and human pathogens, including Candida albicans. RsAFP2 induces apoptosis and impairs the yeast-to-hypha transition in C. albicans. As the yeast-to-hypha transition is considered important for progression to mature biofilms, we analyzed the potential antibiofilm activity of recombinant (r)RsAFP2, heterologously expressed in Pichia pastoris, against C. albicans biofilms. We found that rRsAFP2 prevents C. albicans biofilm formation with a BIC-2 (i.e., the minimal rRsAFP2 concentration that inhibits biofilm formation by 50% as compared to control treatment) of 1.65 ± 0.40 mg/mL. Moreover, biofilm-specific synergistic effects were observed between rRsAFP2 doses as low as 2.5 μg/mL to 10 μg/mL and the antimycotics caspofungin and amphotericin B, pointing to the potential of RsAFP2 as a novel antibiofilm compound. In addition, we characterized the solution structure of rRsAFP2 and compared it to that of RsAFP1, another defensin present in radish seeds. These peptides have similar amino acid sequences, except for two amino acids, but rRsAFP2 is more potent than RsAFP1 against planktonic and biofilm cultures. Interestingly, as in case of rRsAFP2, also RsAFP1 acts synergistically with caspofungin against C. albicans biofilms in a comparable low dose range as rRsAFP2. A structural comparison of both defensins via NMR analysis revealed that also rRsAFP2 adopts the typical cysteine-stabilized αβ-motif of plant defensins, however, no structural differences were found between these peptides that might result in their differential antifungal/antibiofilm potency. This further suggests that the conserved structure of RsAFP1 and rRsAFP2 bears the potential to synergize with antimycotics against C. albicans biofilms.

  11. Japanese-Style Management: A Bibliometric Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noguchi, Sachie

    1988-01-01

    Reports results of a bibliometric study of the literature on Japanese-style management published in western languages from 1971-84 in order to: (1) determine Japanese contributions to the literature; (2) determine whether there are nuclear journals for the subject; and (3) investigate how the flow of information from Japan to overseas countries…

  12. Inside a Japanese Transplant: A Critical Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Laurie

    1993-01-01

    A hidden participant/observer working in a Japanese auto plant in the United States discovered worker resistance to Japanese management practices in the form of sabotage, protest, agitation, and confrontation. Results questioned assumptions that participatory techniques increase worker control and decentralized authority increases worker autonomy.…

  13. Japanese Flagship Universities at a Crossroads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yonezawa, Akiyoshi

    2007-01-01

    The increasing pace and scope of global structural change has left Japanese flagship universities at a crossroads. Reflecting upon historical trends, current policy changes and respective institutional strategies for global marketing among Japanese top research universities, the author discusses possible future directions for these institutions…

  14. Effective School Research from Japanese Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuroda, Kazuo

    Over the past 25 years, much educational research in the United States has focused on effective schools. This paper presents findings of a study that examined the characteristics of Japanese education, which is often considered effective by American researchers. It compares features of the Japanese education system to characteristics of effective…

  15. Japanese Children's Understanding of Notational Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takahashi, Noboru

    2012-01-01

    This study examined Japanese children's understanding of two Japanese notational systems: "hiragana" and "kanji". In three experiments, 126 3- to 6-year-olds were asked to name words written in hiragana or kanji as they appeared with different pictures. Consistent with Bialystok ("Journal of Experimental Child…

  16. Factors of Attrition in Japanese Language Enrollments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saito-Abbott, Yoshito; Samimy, Keiko

    1997-01-01

    A study investigated influences on attrition in Japanese second language instruction in one U.S. university. Subjects were students enrolled in the fall semester of beginning (n=134 students) and intermediate (n=79) levels of Japanese courses. In the fifth week of classes, students were administered a series of questionnaires to gather data on…

  17. A MANUAL OF JAPANESE WRITING, BOOK 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CHAPLIN, HAMAKO ITO; MARTIN, SAMUEL E.

    THIS IS THE FIRST OF THREE VOLUMES WRITTEN TO TEACH THE 881 ESSENTIAL OR "EDUCATION" CHARACTERS TO ENGLISH-SPEAKING STUDENTS OF JAPANESE. THE AUTHORS ASSUME THAT THE STUDENTS HAVE ALREADY LEARNED THE HIRAGANA AND KATAKANA SYLLABARIES AND HAVE A BASIC KNOWLEDGE OF JAPANESE GRAMMAR. ORTHOGRAPHIC CONVENTIONS USED FOLLOW CLOSELY THOSE…

  18. Center for Japanese Study Abroad. Fastback 386.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jassey, William

    The Center for Japanese Study Abroad (CJSA) is a Japanese immersion and study abroad program implemented as a magnet program at inner-city Brien MacMahon High School in Norwalk, Connecticut. The program is supported by a grant from the state department of education. Attended by 60-70 students from high schools in southern Fairfield County…

  19. Social Studies in the Japanese Elementary School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Paul F.

    1985-01-01

    The most striking feature of the Japanese social studies curriculum at the elementary level is its role as the instructor of Japanese national values and attitudes. The social studies curriculum has gone through four major revisions since World War II. In the most recent revision, in the early 1980's, the focus has been on instituting new teaching…

  20. Interpersonal Mistrust and Unhappiness among Japanese People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tokuda, Yasuharu; Inoguchi, Takashi

    2008-01-01

    Our main objective in this paper is to evaluate the possible association between interpersonal mistrust and unhappiness among Japanese people. Based on cross-sectional data for the Japanese general population from the Asia Barometer Survey (2003-2006), we analyzed the relationship between interpersonal mistrust and unhappiness using a logistic…

  1. Study on Japanese Cornmint in Mississippi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Japanese cornmint (Mentha canadensis L.) is a subtropical essential oil crop grown in Asia and South America. The essential oil of Japanese cornmint is the source for production of crystal (-)-menthol, which is a major aromatic agent used as a flavor, fragrance, and cooling sensation vector in the ...

  2. The Teaching of Japanese in Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marriott, Helen E.

    1992-01-01

    The article surveys the development of Japanese language courses in Australia, noting a variety of factors contribute to the growth and recent intensification of interest in the subject. It examines problems within Japanese language teaching and discusses further innovative course development, differentiation of needs, employer perceptions, and…

  3. Cognitive Tempo in Japanese and American Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salkind, Neil J.; Kojima, Hideo

    The purpose of this study was to compare performances by Japanese and American children on the Matching Familiar Figures Test, the primary measure of cognitive tempo. Data on more than 3400 Japanese and American children (approximately half male, half female) were used. Factorial analyses of variance revealed significant age x nationality…

  4. READINGS IN JAPANESE HISTORY. PART I, SELECTIONS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    YAMAGIWA, JOSEPH K.

    INCLUDED AMONG THE 18 SELECTIONS IN THIS READER FOR ADVANCED STUDENTS OF JAPANESE ARE SUCH ARTICLES AND EXCERPTS FROM BOOKS AS "THE TAIKA REFORMS" BY SAKAMOTO TAROO (1935) AND "THE SYSTEM OF MEASUREMENT OF INCOME BY KOKU AND FEUDALISM" BY NAKAMURA KICIJI (1960). THESE TEXTS ARE REPRODUCED EXACTLY AS THEY APPEARED IN JAPANESE-LANGUAGE PUBLICATIONS…

  5. Argumentative Strategies in American and Japanese English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamimura, Taeko; Oi, Kyoko

    1998-01-01

    A study examined differences in argumentative strategies in Japanese and American English by analyzing English essays on capital punishment written by 22 American high school seniors and 30 Japanese college sophomores. Differences were found in the organizational patterns, content and use of rational appeals, preference for type of diction, and…

  6. Further Thoughts on the Japanese American Cases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Roger

    2003-01-01

    Responds to the article, "The Japanese 'Internment' Cases Revisited," (Edward T. Robinson) in this issue of OAH Magazine of History. Focuses on three court cases related to Japanese internment. Believes that the possibility of whether internment can happen again should not be dismissed so easily. (CMK)

  7. Japanese/Korean Linguistics, Volume 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, David J., Ed.

    A collection of research in Japanese and Korean linguistics includes: "Repetition, Reformulation, and Definitions: Prosodic Indexes of Elaboration in Japanese" (Mieko Banno); "Projection of Talk Using Language, Intonation, Deictic and Iconic Gestures and Other Body Movements" (Keiko Emmett); "Turn-taking in Japanese…

  8. Literature Review of Japanese Contrastive Rhetoric

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cumming, Brett

    2012-01-01

    This literature review serves to inform the reader on current literature on Contrastive Rhetoric (CR), with specific reference to teaching writing to Japanese students of English. It will examine the historical developments of CR and its present significance before then looking at possible reasons for unique characteristics of Japanese L2 writers…

  9. Business Letter Writing: English, French, and Japanese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Susan; Hinds, John

    1987-01-01

    Examination of business letters in English, French, and Japanese, focusing on prescriptive accounts in the respective languages, found that, despite amazingly similar surface characteristics, American business letters were reader-oriented, French business letters were writer-oriented, and Japanese business letters were oriented to the space…

  10. Numeral Incorporation in Japanese Sign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ktejik, Mish

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the morphological process of numeral incorporation in Japanese Sign Language. Numeral incorporation is defined and the available research on numeral incorporation in signed language is discussed. The numeral signs in Japanese Sign Language are then introduced and followed by an explanation of the numeral morphemes which are…

  11. The Strategies Used in Japanese Advertisement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurose, Yuki

    This paper investigates the possibility of using Japanese advertising language as a teaching tool in the second language classroom. First, it reviews the aims of advertising and the advantages of learning advertising language in the classroom based on previous research. Next, it discusses language strategies used in Japanese advertising,…

  12. Classroom Silence: Voices from Japanese EFL Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harumi, Seiko

    2011-01-01

    This article explores Japanese EFL learners' classroom silence in a Japanese EFL context. The existence of silence in second language learning contexts can be a source of conflict between students and teachers and even among students themselves. It can also be an obstacle to acquiring the target language. In order to tackle this problem and to…

  13. In vitro probiotic characterization of Lactobacillus strains from fermented radish and their anti-adherence activity against enteric pathogens.

    PubMed

    Damodharan, Karthiyaini; Palaniyandi, Sasikumar Arunachalam; Yang, Seung Hwan; Suh, Joo-Won

    2015-11-01

    In this study, we evaluated the probiotic properties of Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus pentosus, and Lactobacillus fermentum strains isolated from fermented radish. All the strains survived the simulated oro-gastrointestinal transit condition and showed significantly higher adherence to Caco-2 cells compared with the probiotic strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG. The strains showed broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity, autoaggregation, and coaggregation capacity with pathogens. Furthermore, the Lactobacillus strains inhibited the adherence of Yersinia enterocolitica subsp. enterocolitica, Shigella boydii, and Salmonella choleraesuis to the Caco-2 cell line. The strains possessed bile salt hydrolase activity and their cholesterol-lowering activity in vitro was above 50% in the presence of bile. Strains of L. plantarum and L. pentosus possessed the plantaricin-encoding plnEF gene. In addition, the Lactobacillus strains maintained about 80% cell viability after freeze-drying in the presence of a combination of 5% skim milk and 5% maltodextrin as cryoprotectant, and 70% recovery of cell viability was observed in the absence of any cryoprotectant.

  14. A comparative study of peroxidases from horse radish and Arthromyces ramosus as labels in luminol-mediated chemiluminescent assays.

    PubMed

    Kim, B B; Pisarev, V V; Egorov, A M

    1991-11-15

    The properties of a peroxidase from Arthromyces ramosus (ARP) in the chemiluminescent reaction of luminol oxidation have been studied. These were compared with the properties of horse radish peroxidase (HRP) in the cooxidation of luminol and p-iodophenol, the enhanced chemiluminescence (ECL) reaction. By means of the stop-flow technique, ARP was shown to have an enzymatic activity toward luminol higher than that toward HRP. ARP can efficiently catalyze luminol oxidation in the absence of substrate enhancer. pH and substrate concentrations were optimized to determine ARP with the highest sensitivity. The detection limit of ARP was 5 x 10(-13) M, the same as that for HRP in the ECL reaction. The data on the use of ARP as a label in enzyme immunoassay of human IgG are presented. ARP was shown to have all the advantages of HRP as a label in chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassays: (i) high signal intensity, (ii) slow decay of luminescence, (iii) high signal/noise ratio, and (iv) as a consequence of (i)-(iii), high detection sensitivity. However, the low thermostability of ARP can limit the potential fields of its application.

  15. The Japanese Astronomical Archives Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, T.

    2004-12-01

    Due to recent activities of local libraries and museums in Japan for collecting and cataloguing historical books and documents and their increased efforts to publicize such information via Internet services, we are now in a position to have a much easier and better access to the historical resources preserved than in the past. With this background, we started in 2002 a project under governmental support for four years, to make a general inventory of Japanese archives in astronomy and relating disciplines written or published before 1870. Since in pre-modern Japan astronomical knowledge and books were circulated mainly in hand-written form so that they have been apt to be lost in wars and fires, there are good reasons for us to now compile such an inventory through extensive and systematic surveys of both domestic and overseas sources. In April 2003, we published an inventory book of 250 pages, which is intended to be a basis for our survey, including about 4600 titles collected from known source materials. We expect that by March 2006 the number of titles will be increased by 30-35%. This paper briefly introduces the current status of this project and presents the characteristics and problems of Japanese astronomical archives.

  16. Intercultural Orientations as Japanese Language Learners' Motivation in Mainland China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lv, Leining; Gao, Xuesong; Teo, Timothy

    2017-01-01

    This article reports on a study that investigated how 665 Japanese language learners, who had started learning Japanese at different times in the last 3 decades, had been motivated to learn Japanese in China. Analysis of the survey data revealed that the participants displayed similar intercultural orientations when learning Japanese despite the…

  17. The Semantics and Pragmatics of Japanese Focus Particles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hasegawa, Akio

    2011-01-01

    Japanese has a rich set of focus particles, several exclusive and additive particles, and, in addition, contrastive particles. This thesis provides a formal description of the meanings of Japanese focus particles and addresses two general questions: "What kinds concepts do Japanese focus particles express?" and "Why does Japanese have a larger…

  18. Some Design Issues for an Online Japanese Textbook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagata, Noriko

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses several design issues in the development of a new online Japanese textbook, called "Robo-Sensei: Japanese Curriculum with Automated Feedback". When it is completed, the new online textbook will present a full Japanese curriculum. It extends a previously published online software program, "Robo-Sensei: Personal Japanese Tutor"…

  19. Optimization of heat and relative humidity conditions to reduce Escherichia coli O157:H7 contamination and maximize the germination of radish seeds.

    PubMed

    Song, M K; Kim, H W; Rhee, M S

    2016-06-01

    We previously reported that a combination of heat and relative humidity (RH) had a marked bactericidal effect on Escherichia coli O157:H7 on radish seeds. Here, response surface methodology with a Box-Behnken design was used to build a model to predict reductions in E. coli O157:H7 populations based on three independent variables: heating temperature (55 °C, 60 °C, or 65 °C), RH (40%, 60%, and 80%), and holding time (8, 15, or 22 h). Optimum treatment conditions were selected using a desirability function. The predictive model for microbial reduction had a high regression coefficient (R(2) = 0.97), and the accuracy of the model was verified using validation data (R(2) = 0.95). Among the three variables examined, heating temperature (P < 0.0001) and RH (P = 0.004) were the most significant in terms of bacterial reduction and seed germination, respectively. The optimum conditions for microbial reduction (6.6 log reduction) determined by ridge analysis were as follows: 64.5 °C and 63.2% RH for 17.7 h. However, when both microbial reduction and germination rate were taken into consideration, the desirability function yielded optimal conditions of 65 °C and 40% RH for 8 h (6.6 log reduction in the bacterial population; 94.4% of seeds germinated). This study provides comprehensive data that improve our understanding of the effects of heating temperature, RH, and holding time on the E. coli O157:H7 population on radish seeds. Radish seeds can be exposed to these conditions before sprouting, which greatly increases the microbiological safety of the products.

  20. Japanese experiences of environmental management.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, T

    2003-01-01

    Japan experienced a very rapid industrialization and economic growth in the era of income doubling in 1960s and at the same time Japan experienced very severe damage from various types of environmental pollution. In this paper, historical development of population, GNP, energy consumption with classification of petroleum, coal and electric power, and CO2 emission are introduced as basic background data on Japanese development. The tragic experience of Minamata disease and Itai-itai disease caused by methyl mercury and cadmium, respectively, are introduced. In two tables, historical development of water pollution and air pollution are summarized. Regarding solid wastes management, the total mass balance in Japan and recent development in legislation framework for enhancement of recycling of wastes are introduced briefly.

  1. Japanese plan for SSF utilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mizuno, Toshio

    1992-01-01

    The Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) program has made significant progress. The JEM preliminary design review was completed in July 1992; construction of JEM operation facilities has begun; and the micro-G airplane, drop shaft, and micro-G experiment rocket are all operational. The national policy for JEM utilization was also established. The Space Experiment Laboratory (SEL) opened in June '92 and will function as a user support center. Eight JEM multiuser facilities are in phase B, and scientific requirements are being defined for 17 candidate multiuser facilities. The National Joint Research Program is about to start. Precursor missions and early Space Station utilization activities are being defined. This paper summarizes the program in outline and graphic form.

  2. Multiregional clinical trials: Japanese perspective on drug development strategy and sample size for Japanese subjects.

    PubMed

    Ando, Yuki; Uyama, Yoshiaki

    2012-09-01

    Multiregional clinical trials including Japanese subjects are playing a key role in new drug development in Japan. In addition to the consideration of differences in intrinsic and extrinsic ethnic factors, deciding the sample size of Japanese subjects is an important issue when a multiregional clinical trial is intended to be used for Japanese submission. Accumulated experience suggests that there are several points to consider, such as the basic principles described in the guidance document, drug development strategy, trial phase, and disease background. The difficulty of interpreting the results of Japanese trials should also be considered.

  3. Japanese Lifestyle during Childhood Prevents the Future Development of Obesity among Japanese-Americans

    PubMed Central

    Shiwa, Mami; Yoneda, Masayasu; Nakanishi, Shuhei; Oki, Kenji; Yamane, Kiminori; Kohno, Nobuoki

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate whether a Japanese lifestyle during childhood could protect against the future development of obesity-associated metabolic diseases by comparing native Japanese with Japanese-Americans in whom genetic factors are the same. Methods Study subjects were 516 native Japanese and 781 Japanese-Americans who underwent medical examinations between 2007 and 2010. Japanese-Americans were divided into 444 first-generation immigrants (JA-1), who were born in Japan, and 337 second- or later-generation descendants (JA-2), who were born in the United States. The JA-2 group was then divided into the kibei subgroup (N = 79), who had moved to Japan before the age of 18 years and later returned to the United States, and the non-kibei subgroup (N = 258), who had never lived in Japan. Results The JA-2 group had the highest percentages of obesity, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes compared with native Japanese and JA-1. Furthermore, among JA-2, the prevalence of obesity and metabolic syndrome in the kibei subgroup was significantly lower than that in the non-kibei subgroup. The prevalence of diabetes in the kibei subgroup also tended to be lower than in the non-kibei subgroup. Conclusions The prevalence of obesity and metabolic diseases differed with residence in Japan during childhood among Japanese-Americans. These findings indicate the possibility that Japanese lifestyle during childhood could reduce the future risks for obesity-associated metabolic diseases. PMID:25807391

  4. 3,3',5,5' - Tetramethylbenzidine as an Ames test negative chromogen for horse-radish peroxidase in enzyme-immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Bos, E S; van der Doelen, A A; van Rooy, N; Schuurs, A H

    1981-01-01

    The use of 3,3',5,5' - tetramethylbenzidine as non-mutagenic chromogen for the end point determination in enzyme-immunoassay (EIA) is described. In sandwich EIAs for HCG and HBsAg and in a competitive EIA for testosterone, the colour yield with TMB was superior to that obtained with o-phenylene diamine (OPD), which was by far the best chromogen for horse-radish peroxidase until now. This led to an improvement of sensitivity and precision of the assays and makes EIA even more competitive with other types of immunoassays.

  5. Regional Classification of Traditional Japanese Folk Songs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawase, Akihiro; Tokosumi, Akifumi

    In this study, we focus on the melodies of Japanese folk songs, and examine the basic structures of Japanese folk songs that represent the characteristics of different regions. We sample the five largest song genres within the music corpora of the Nihon Min-yo Taikan (Anthology of Japanese Folk Songs), consisting of 202,246 tones from 1,794 song pieces from 45 prefectures in Japan. Then, we calculate the probabilities of 24 transition patterns that fill the interval of the perfect fourth pitch, which is the interval that maintains most of the frequency for one-step and two-step pitch transitions within 11 regions, in order to determine the parameters for cluster analysis. As a result, we successively classify the regions into two basic groups, eastern Japan and western Japan, which corresponds to geographical factors and cultural backgrounds, and also match accent distributions in the Japanese language.

  6. Sexual partner preference in female Japanese macaques.

    PubMed

    Vasey, Paul L

    2002-02-01

    Whether animals ever exhibit a preference for same-sex sexual partners is a subject of debate. Japanese macaques represent excellent models for examining issues related to sexual preference in animals because females, in certain populations, routinely engage in both heterosexual and homosexual behavior over the course of their life spans. Multiple lines of evidence indicate that female homosexual behavior in Japanese macaques is a sexual behavior, not a sociosexual one. Additional evidence indicates that female Japanese macaques do not engage in homosexual behavior simply because acceptable male mates are unavailable or unmotivated to copulate. Patterns of sexual partner choice by female Japanese macaques that are the focus of intersexual competition indicate that females of this species choose same-sex sexual partners even when they are simultaneously presented with a motivated, opposite-sex alternative. Thus, in some populations of Japanese macaques, females prefer certain same-sex sexual partners relative to certain male mates, and vice versa. Taken together, this evidence suggests that female Japanese macaques are best characterized as bisexual in orientation, not preferentially homosexual or preferentially heterosexual.

  7. Leaves of Raphanus sativus L. Shows Anti-Inflammatory Activity in LPS-Stimulated Macrophages via Suppression of COX-2 and iNOS Expression

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hye-Jin; Song, Minjung

    2017-01-01

    Raphanus sativus L. (RS) is a cruciferous vegetable that is widely consumed in Korea. The anticancer activity of leaves of RS (RSL) extract has been investigated; however, no studies focused on its anti-inflammatory effects. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effects of RSL extract. In brief, RSL powder was fractionated into n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol, and water-soluble fractions. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 cells were treated with each fraction for initial screening. It was found that the chloroform fraction significantly inhibited nitric oxide release in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells with a half maximal inhibitory concentration value of 196 μg/mL. In addition, the mRNA and protein expression levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase, measured using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and western blotting, respectively, were reduced in a concentration-dependent manner. Moreover, the inflammatory cyclooxygenase-2 enzyme expression decreased. Furthermore, the expression of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), the key regulator of the transcriptional activation of the inflammatory cytokine genes, was reduced by the RSL chloroform fraction. Therefore, the results of our study suggest that RSL exhibits anti-inflammatory effects in LPS-stimulated macrophages via NF-κB inactivation.

  8. Hexane extract of Raphanus sativus L. roots inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis in human cancer cells by modulating genes related to apoptotic pathway.

    PubMed

    Beevi, Syed Sultan; Mangamoori, Lakshmi Narasu; Subathra, Murugan; Edula, Jyotheeswara Reddy

    2010-09-01

    Raphanus sativus, a common cruciferous vegetable has been attributed to possess a number of pharmacological and therapeutic properties. It has been used in indigenous system of medicine for the treatment of various human ailments in India. This present study evaluated the chemopreventive efficacy of different parts of R. sativus such as root, stem and leaves, extracted with solvents of varying polarity and investigated the molecular mechanism leading to growth arrest and apoptotic cell death in human cancer cell lines. Of the different parts, significant growth inhibitory effect was observed with hexane extract of R. sativus root. Analysis of hexane extract by GC-MS revealed the presence of several isothiocyanates (ITCs) such as 4-(methylthio)-3-butenyl isothiocyanate (MTBITC), 4-(methylthio)-3-butyl isothiocyanate (erucin), 4-methylpentyl isothiocyanate, 4-pentenyl isothiocyanate and sulforaphene. R. sativus root extract induced cell death both in p53 proficient and p53 deficient cell lines through induction of apoptotic signaling pathway regardless of the p53 status of cells. The molecular mechanisms underlying R. sativus-induced apoptosis may involve interactions among Bcl(2) family genes, as evidenced by up-regulation of pro-apoptotic genes and down-regulation of anti-apoptotic genes along with activation of Caspase-3. Our findings present the first evidence that hexane extract of R. sativus root exerts potential chemopreventive efficacy and induces apoptosis in cancer cell lines through modulation of genes involved in apoptotic signaling pathway.

  9. Simultaneous quantification of sulforaphene and sulforaphane by reverse phase HPLC and their content in Raphanus sativus L. var. caudatus Alef extracts.

    PubMed

    Sangthong, Sarita; Weerapreeyakul, Natthida

    2016-06-15

    A simple, rapid and precise HPLC assay was developed for the well-known anti-cancer isothiocyanates-sulforaphene (SE) and sulforaphane (SF). The analytical system comprised RP-C18 column with isocratic 5% THF-95% water. High resolution was obtained (and eluted) of two distinct HPLC peaks of similar structures SE and SF analytes (at 23.01±0.02 and 25.65±0.03 min, respectively). The respective LOD vs. LOQ for SE and SF was 0.34 and 0.36 μg/ml vs. 1.02 and 1.08 μg/ml. This assay had the best linearity and accuracy. The recoveries were in the range of 96.83-101.17%. SF and SE were quantified in the pod of Raphanus sativus L. var. caudatus Alef extracts (2253.05±246.18 and 111.94±16.49 μg/g in the crude extract, respectively), while only SE was detected in the stem (1105.14±243.10 μg/g crude extract), as SF was lower than the detection limit. The validated method thus minimized and expedited simultaneous SE and SF analysis.

  10. Re-Examining Patriotism in Japanese Education: Analysis of Japanese Elementary School Moral Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anzai, Shinobu

    2015-01-01

    In 1947 the Fundamental Law of Education (FLE) defined the pacifist principles for post-war Japanese education and was revised in 2006 for the first time in nearly 60 years. The revised FLE stipulates the importance of teaching love for country and region and Japanese culture and traditions with special emphasis on moral education. Today, this…

  11. A Comparison of Maternal Care and Infant Behavior in Japanese-American, American, and Japanese Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caudill, William; Frost, Lois

    Previous studies have shown that American mothers, in contrast to Japanese, do more lively chatting to their babies, and that as a result, the American babies have a generally higher level of vocalization and, particularly, they respond with greater amounts of happy vocalization and gross motor activity than do Japanese babies. Thus, it appears…

  12. Modalities of Infant-Mother Interaction in Japanese, Japanese American Immigrant, and European American Dyads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Cote, Linda R.; Haynes, O. Maurice; Suwalsky, Joan T. D.; Bakeman, Roger

    2012-01-01

    Cultural variation in relations and moment-to-moment contingencies of infant-mother person-oriented and object-oriented interactions were compared in 118 Japanese, Japanese American immigrant, and European American dyads with 5.5-month-olds. Infant and mother person-oriented behaviors were related in all cultural groups, but infant and mother…

  13. Pretending to Be Japanese: Artistic Play in a Japanese-American Church and Family

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goto, Courtney T.

    2008-01-01

    With high rates of out-marriage and dwindling need for bilingual worship, Japanese-American churches face a critical question: "Why retain the Japanese part of our identity?" This article explores how one layperson (Naomi Takahashi Goto) draws from her experience as an artist, teacher, and mother to help her congregation answer this question.…

  14. Distributive Quantifier Scope in English-Japanese and Korean-Japanese Interlanguage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsden, Heather

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on an experimental investigation of knowledge of distributivity in nonnative (L2) Japanese learners whose first language (L1) is English or Korean. The availability of distributive scope in Japanese is modulated by word order and the semantic features of quantifiers. For English-speaking learners, these subtle interpretive…

  15. Effect of water table management and elevated CO2 on radish productivity and on CH4 and CO2 fluxes from peatlands converted to agriculture.

    PubMed

    Musarika, S; Atherton, C E; Gomersall, T; Wells, M J; Kaduk, J; Cumming, A M J; Page, S E; Oechel, W C; Zona, D

    2017-04-15

    Anthropogenic activity is affecting the global climate through the release of greenhouse gases (GHGs) e.g. CO2 and CH4. About a third of anthropogenic GHGs are produced from agriculture, including livestock farming and horticulture. A large proportion of the UK's horticultural farming takes place on drained lowland peatlands, which are a source of significant amounts of CO2 into the atmosphere. This study set out to establish whether raising the water table from the currently used -50cm to -30cm could reduce GHGs emissions from agricultural peatlands, while simultaneously maintaining the current levels of horticultural productivity. A factorial design experiment used agricultural peat soil collected from the Norfolk Fens (among the largest of the UK's lowland peatlands under intensive cultivation) to assess the effects of water table levels, elevated CO2, and agricultural production on GHG fluxes and crop productivity of radish, one of the most economically important fenland crops. The results of this study show that a water table of -30cm can increase the productivity of the radish crop while also reducing soil CO2 emissions but without a resultant loss of CH4 to the atmosphere, under both ambient and elevated CO2 concentrations. Elevated CO2 increased dry shoot biomass, but not bulb biomass nor root biomass, suggesting no immediate advantage of future CO2 levels to horticultural farming on peat soils. Overall, increasing the water table could make an important contribution to global warming mitigation while not having a detrimental impact on crop yield.

  16. Processed vs. non-processed biowastes for agriculture: effects of post-harvest tomato plants and biochar on radish growth, chlorophyll content and protein production.

    PubMed

    Mozzetti Monterumici, Chiara; Rosso, Daniele; Montoneri, Enzo; Ginepro, Marco; Baglieri, Andrea; Novotny, Etelvino Henrique; Kwapinski, Witold; Negre, Michèle

    2015-04-21

    The aim of this work was to address the issue of processed vs. non-processed biowastes for agriculture, by comparing materials widely differing for the amount of process energy consumption. Thus, residual post harvest tomato plants (TP), the TP hydrolysates obtained at pH 13 and 60 °C, and two known biochar products obtained by 650 °C pyrolysis were prepared. All products were characterized and used in a cultivation of radish plants. The chemical composition and molecular nature of the materials was investigated by solid state 13C NMR spectrometry, elemental analysis and potentiometric titration. The plants were analysed for growth and content of chlorophyll, carotenoids and soluble proteins. The results show that the TP and the alkaline hydrolysates contain lignin, hemicellulose, protein, peptide and/or amino acids moieties, and several mineral elements. The biochar samples contain also similar mineral elements, but the organic fraction is characterized mainly by fused aromatic rings. All materials had a positive effect on radish growth, mainly on the diameter of roots. The best performances in terms of plant growth were given by miscanthus originated biochar and TP. The most significant effect was the enhancement of soluble protein content in the plants treated with the lowest energy consumption non processed TP. The significance of these findings for agriculture and the environment is discussed.

  17. Processed vs. Non-Processed Biowastes for Agriculture: Effects of Post-Harvest Tomato Plants and Biochar on Radish Growth, Chlorophyll Content and Protein Production

    PubMed Central

    Mozzetti Monterumici, Chiara; Rosso, Daniele; Montoneri, Enzo; Ginepro, Marco; Baglieri, Andrea; Novotny, Etelvino Henrique; Kwapinski, Witold; Negre, Michèle

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was to address the issue of processed vs. non-processed biowastes for agriculture, by comparing materials widely differing for the amount of process energy consumption. Thus, residual post harvest tomato plants (TP), the TP hydrolysates obtained at pH 13 and 60 °C, and two known biochar products obtained by 650 °C pyrolysis were prepared. All products were characterized and used in a cultivation of radish plants. The chemical composition and molecular nature of the materials was investigated by solid state 13C NMR spectrometry, elemental analysis and potentiometric titration. The plants were analysed for growth and content of chlorophyll, carotenoids and soluble proteins. The results show that the TP and the alkaline hydrolysates contain lignin, hemicellulose, protein, peptide and/or amino acids moieties, and several mineral elements. The biochar samples contain also similar mineral elements, but the organic fraction is characterized mainly by fused aromatic rings. All materials had a positive effect on radish growth, mainly on the diameter of roots. The best performances in terms of plant growth were given by miscanthus originated biochar and TP. The most significant effect was the enhancement of soluble protein content in the plants treated with the lowest energy consumption non processed TP. The significance of these findings for agriculture and the environment is discussed. PMID:25906472

  18. Homogamy and Intermarriage of Japanese and Japanese Americans With Whites Surrounding World War II

    PubMed Central

    Ono, Hiromi; Berg, Justin

    2010-01-01

    Although some sociologists have suggested that Japanese Americans quickly assimilated into mainstream America, scholars of Japanese America have highlighted the heightened exclusion that the group experienced. This study tracked historical shifts in the exclusion level of Japanese and Japanese Americans in the United States surrounding World War II with homogamy and intermarriage with Whites for the prewar (1930–1940) and resettlement (1946–1966) marriage cohorts. The authors applied log-linear models to census microsamples (N = 1,590,416) to estimate the odds ratios of homogamy versus intermarriage. The unadjusted odds ratios of Japanese Americans declined between cohorts and appeared to be consistent with the assimilation hypothesis. Once compositional influences and educational pairing patterns were adjusted, however, the odds ratios increased and supported the heightened exclusion hypothesis. PMID:21116449

  19. Sedation in Japanese dental schools.

    PubMed Central

    Morse, Zac; Sano, Kimito; Fujii, Kazuyuki; Kanri, Tomio

    2004-01-01

    There is very little information about the practice of sedation in Japan. Despite the remarkable advances in dentistry, fear and anxiety continue to be significant deterrents for seeking dental services. Most dental procedures can fortunately be undertaken with the aid of sedation. A comprehensive survey of all the dental schools in Japan was carried out to determine what sedation practices were used in Japan. All 29 dental schools in Japan possessed a dedicated department of anesthesiology at the time of this survey. The survey attempted to determine the specific sedation methods (techniques, routes of administration, and agents used in sedation) as well as practices (monitoring, fasting, location, education, and fees involved in sedation). The results indicate that there was a broad range in sedation practices. The Japanese Dental Society of Anesthesiology may wish to examine the findings of this study and may wish to formulate guidelines appropriate for the practice of sedation in Japan. Others may also wish to compare their own practices with those of Japan. PMID:15497299

  20. Are Australian Fans of Anime and Manga Motivated to Learn Japanese Language?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armour, William S.; Iida, Sumiko

    2016-01-01

    Recent research into Japanese as a foreign language education has strongly emphasized the link between Japanese popular culture and learning Japanese. However, these studies have only targeted Japanese language learners in formal education contexts and have largely ignored those who are not studying Japanese or studying Japanese informally. This…

  1. Adult perceptions of phonotactic violations in Japanese

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fais, Laurel; Kajikawa, Sachiyo; Werker, Janet; Amano, Shigeaki

    2001-05-01

    Adult Japanese speakers ``hear'' epenthetic vowels in productions of Japanese-like words that violate the canonical CVCVCV form by containing internal consonant clusters (CVCCV) [Dupoux et al., J. Exp. Psychol. 25, 1568-1578 (1999)]. Given this finding, this research examined how Japanese adults rated the goodness of Japanese-like words produced without a vowel in the final syllable (CVC), and words produced without vowels in the penultimate and final syllables (CVCC). Furthermore, in some of these contexts, voiceless vowels may appear in fluent, casual Japanese productions, especially in the Kanto dialect, and in some, such voiceless vowels may not appear. Results indicate that both Kanto and Kinki speakers rated CVC productions for contexts in which voiceless vowels are not allowed as the worst; they rated CVC and CVCC contexts in which voiceless vowel productions are allowed as better. In these latter contexts, the CVC words, which result from the loss of one, final, vowel, are judged to be better than the CVCC words, which result from the loss of two (final and penultimate) vowels. These results mirror the relative seriousness of the phonotactic violations and indicate listeners have tacit knowledge of these regularities in their language.

  2. Beliefs about Overcoming Psychological Problems among British and Japanese Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furnham, Adrian; Ota, Hiromi; Tatsuro, Hosoe; Koyasu, Masuo

    2000-01-01

    Examines the cultural differences among Japanese students, British students, and Japanese students studying in Britain, concerning their beliefs on overcoming five psychological problems: depression, obesity, smoking cessation, agoraphobia, and lack of confidence. (CMK)

  3. 3. View of Japanese village, type C structure, facing eastsoutheast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. View of Japanese village, type C structure, facing east-southeast - Nevada Test Site, Japanese Village, Type C Structure, Area 4, Yucca Flat, 4-04 Road near Rainier Mesa Road, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  4. Strong resistance of Arabidopsis thaliana and Raphanus sativus seeds for ionizing radiation as studied by ESR, ENDOR, ESE spectroscopy and germination measurement: Effect of long-lived and super-long-lived radicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumagai, Jun; Katoh, Hiromi; Kumada, Takayuki; Tanaka, Atsushi; Tano, Shigemitsu; Miyazaki, Tetsuo

    2000-01-01

    Resistance of seeds for ionizing radiation effects on Arabidopsis thaliana and Raphanus sativus seeds were investigated by ESR, ENDOR, ESE spectroscopy and germination measurement. Two types of free radicals, such as long-lived (LL) and super-long-lived (SL) radicals, were produced by the γ-irradiation in the seeds. More than 90% of the 1 kGy-irradiated-seeds can germinate probably by decreasing the LL radicals by absorbing water. 10 kGy-irradiated-seeds cannot germinate at all probably due to the existence of significant amounts of the SL radicals even after absorbing water.

  5. Japanese and American Cross-Cultural Business Pragmatics: A Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, H. Julie; Cramer, Peter K.; Kojima, Toshihisa

    A study examined the extent to which culture-specific traits persist or change in American and Japanese business people who interact in business. Data were drawn from 13 interviews with both Japanese and American employees of Japanese companies. Interviewees were asked about their perceptions or stereotypes of people from the other culture before…

  6. Offers and Requests: Performance by Japanese Learners of English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fukushima, Saeko

    1990-01-01

    A comparison of native and nonnative (Japanese) English speakers' expressions for offers and requests found that Japanese subjects were typically too direct in most situations and sounded rude, even when they intended to be polite. This suggests that the pragmatic competence of Japanese learners of English needs to be reinforced in language…

  7. The Japanese Model of Professional Development: Teaching as Craft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shimahara, N. Ken

    1998-01-01

    Discusses Japanese teacher professional development strategies, which are driven by a peer-based model using peer collaboration, planning, and management, exploring how the Japanese perspective of teaching as craft contributes to elementary professional development. Critical issues inherent in the Japanese model are discussed, noting its basic…

  8. Classroom Management for Teachers of Japanese and Other Foreign Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horwitz, Elaine K.

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the classroom management component of the Professional Development of Japanese Teachers of Texas (PDJT), a certification program for teachers of Japanese. In addition, it offers suggestions in classroom management for teachers of Japanese and other foreign languages as well as guidance for teacher trainers to help new…

  9. 8 CFR 349.1 - Japanese renunciation of nationality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Japanese renunciation of nationality. 349.1... NATIONALITY § 349.1 Japanese renunciation of nationality. A Japanese who renounced United States nationality... void, shall complete Form N-576, Supplemental Affidavit to be Submitted with Applications of...

  10. 8 CFR 349.1 - Japanese renunciation of nationality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Japanese renunciation of nationality. 349.1... NATIONALITY § 349.1 Japanese renunciation of nationality. A Japanese who renounced United States nationality... void, shall complete Form N-576, Supplemental Affidavit to be Submitted with Applications of...

  11. 8 CFR 349.1 - Japanese renunciation of nationality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Japanese renunciation of nationality. 349.1... NATIONALITY § 349.1 Japanese renunciation of nationality. A Japanese who renounced United States nationality... void, shall complete Form N-576, Supplemental Affidavit to be Submitted with Applications of...

  12. 8 CFR 349.1 - Japanese renunciation of nationality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Japanese renunciation of nationality. 349.1... NATIONALITY § 349.1 Japanese renunciation of nationality. A Japanese who renounced United States nationality... void, shall complete Form N-576, Supplemental Affidavit to be Submitted with Applications of...

  13. Social Influence Strategies among Japanese and American College Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Kerri F.; Cowan, Gloria

    1993-01-01

    Compares social influence strategies of 40 Japanese and 41 U.S. college women for various targets. Free responses indicate that Japanese women use strong and neutral strategies more frequently and weak strategies less frequently than U.S. women. U.S. women use manipulation more frequently and reasoning less frequently than Japanese women. (SLD)

  14. Generational Differences in Japanese Attitudes toward Women's Employment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engel, John W.

    Traditional ideals discourage Japanese women from working outside the home. This study was conducted to explore generational differences in Japanese attitudes toward women's employment and to interpret those differences in terms of social change. Questionnaires were distributed to approximately 900 Japanese men and women. Subjects were classified…

  15. Eating Attitudes among Japanese and American Elementary Schoolgirls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mukai, Takayo; McCloskey, Laura A.

    1996-01-01

    Examined familial and peer correlates of eating attitudes in 38 American and 70 Japanese preadolescent girls. Responses showed correlates of eating attitudes shared by American and Japanese girls were self-perception of being overweight, number of friends dieting, and frequency of talking with mother about food and diet. Japanese girls were more…

  16. The Japanese Automobile Worker: A Microcosm of Japan's Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaderabeck, Elizabeth A.

    A teaching unit on the Japanese automobile worker was developed from a compilation of on-site interviews with Japanese company managers and production line employees, and official publications of the Japanese car industry. The unit is designed to present a balanced picture of Japan's economic success and labor relations and to develop global…

  17. Japanese Higher Education Policy in Korea (1910-1945).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jeong-Kyu

    2002-01-01

    Examines the impact of Japanese nationalistic thought on the administrative systems and structures of colonial and modern higher education in Korea and analyzes Japanese educational policy in Korea in the colonial period (1910-1945). Identifies beneficial and negative impacts of the Japanese colonial education system. (SLD)

  18. Japanese College Students' Attitudes towards Japan English and American English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sasayama, Shoko

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated contemporary Japanese college students' attitudes towards Japan English (JE) and American English (AE) through a verbal guise test (VGT) as well as a questionnaire. Forty-four Japanese college students listened to four Japanese and four North Americans reading a text in English, rated them in terms of solidarity-related…

  19. Teaching about Japanese-American Internment. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mukai, Gary

    The Japanese-American internment experience during World War II continues to affect the Japanese-American community. This ERIC Digest provides six suggestions for teaching about the Japanese-American internment, touching on civil rights, immigration, the media, "loyalty," redress and reparations, and primary and secondary sources.…

  20. Factor Structure of Japanese Versions of Two Emotional Intelligence Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fukuda, Eriko; Saklofske, Donald H.; Tamaoka, Katsuo; Fung, Tak Shing; Miyaoka, Yayoi; Kiyama, Sachiko

    2011-01-01

    This article reports the psychometric properties of two emotional intelligence measures translated into Japanese. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted to examine the factor structure of a Japanese version of the Wong and Law Emotional Intelligence Scale (WLEIS) completed by 310 Japanese university students. A second study employed CFA…

  1. The Asian American Employment Market: The Japanese Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sato, Kazuo

    The Japanese Americans are numerically the largest of all the Asian American ethnic groups. In contrast to the other Asian American groups in the United States, the Japanese Americans are predominantly native born. Although first and second generation Japanese Americans had been subject to intense employment discrimination before World War II and…

  2. Kids Explore America's Japanese American Heritage. Westridge Young Writers Workshop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jefferson County School District R-1, Denver, CO.

    This book was written by 94 students, aged 8-14, at Westridge Elementary School (Littleton, Colorado) during a summer enrichment class. The book was written for anyone who wants to learn about Japanese-American culture and heritage. Chapter 1 gives an overview of Japanese history before American contact, the immigration of Japanese to America, the…

  3. Hotel Employees' Japanese Language Experiences: Implications and Suggestions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makita-Discekici, Yasuko

    1998-01-01

    Analyzes the Japanese language learning experiences of 13 hotel employees in Guam. Results of the study present implications and suggestions for a Japanese language program for the hotel industry. The project began as a result of hotel employees frustrations when they were unable to communicate effectively with their Japanese guests. (Auth/JL)

  4. 8 CFR 349.1 - Japanese renunciation of nationality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Japanese renunciation of nationality. 349.1... NATIONALITY § 349.1 Japanese renunciation of nationality. A Japanese who renounced United States nationality... void, shall complete Form N-576, Supplemental Affidavit to be Submitted with Applications of...

  5. Mutual Images: Americans and Japanese in TV Commercials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anzai, Yayoi; And Others

    To explore the portrayals of Americans in Japanese television commercials and Japanese in American television commercials, and how those portrayals are perceived by each nationality, a two-part study examined 745 American commercials and 956 Japanese commercials. Researchers first coded the number of American males and females who appeared in the…

  6. Cheilitis Glandularis: Two Case Reports of Asian-Japanese Men and Literature Review of Japanese Cases

    PubMed Central

    Yanagawa, Toru; Yamaguchi, Akira; Harada, Hiroyuki; Yamagata, Kenji; Ishibashi, Naomi; Noguchi, Masayuki; Onizawa, Kojiro; Bukawa, Hiroki

    2011-01-01

    Cheilitis glandularis (CG) is a rare disorder characterized by swelling of the lip with hyperplasia of the labial salivary glands. CG is most frequently encountered in the lower lip, in middle-aged to older Caucasian men; however Asian cases were rarely reported. In this paper we present two cases of CG in Asian-Japanese men. One was a 23-year-old male with CG of the superficial suppurative type. The other was a 54-year-old male with deep suppurative type. We also reviewed the Japanese cases of CG in the literature and discussed about clinical feature of Japanese CG. PMID:21991474

  7. Telescience testbed result for Japanese experiment module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, K.; Higuchi, K.; Kimura, H.; Takeda, N.; Matsubara, S.; Izumita, M.; Toyama, Y.; Kato, M.; Kato, H.

    1990-10-01

    The first telescience testbed experiments for the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) of the Space Station Freedom, conducted after the three year studies of its system requirements, are described. Three experiment themes of the First Material Processing Test (FMPT) of the Japanese Spacelab Mission are chosen for estimating communications requirements between the JEM and a ground station. A paper folding experiment is used to examine instruction aspects of onboard manual processing and onboard coaching. More than 10 principal investigators partipated in the experiments and were requested to answer a rating questionnaire for data acquisition. The results extracted from the questionnaire are summarized.

  8. Homicide attempt with a Japanese samurai sword.

    PubMed

    Raul, Jean-Sébastien; Berthelon, Laurent; Geraut, Annie; Tracqui, Antoine; Ludes, Bertrand

    2003-07-01

    The use of Japanese swords for homicidal attempts is rare. A Japanese samurai sword is a sharp and cutting object. When faced with the use of this weapon, one must distinguish between stabs and incised wounds. Incised wounds can rarely lead to death, but because of the size of the weapon, stabs usually cause much more serious injuries. Stabs also imply a penetrating movement, whereas incised wounds can be the consequence of protective circular blows. Therefore, it is important to distinguish clinically between these two kinds of wounds. We report a case where the perpetrator argued he had given a circular blow, unfortunately hitting the victim. The pieces of evidence are discussed.

  9. Biocontrol Potential of Streptomyces hydrogenans Strain DH16 toward Alternaria brassicicola to Control Damping Off and Black Leaf Spot of Raphanus sativus

    PubMed Central

    Manhas, Rajesh K.; Kaur, Talwinder

    2016-01-01

    Biocontrol agents and their bioactive metabolites provide one of the best alternatives to decrease the use of chemical pesticides. In light of this, the present investigation reports the biocontrol potential of Streptomyces hydrogenans DH16 and its metabolites towards Alternaria brassicicola, causal agent of black leaf spot and damping off of seedlings of crucifers. In vitro antibiosis of strain against pathogen revealed complete suppression of mycelial growth of pathogen, grown in potato dextrose broth supplemented with culture supernatant (20% v/v) of S. hydrogenans DH16. Microscopic examination of the fungal growth showed severe morphological abnormalities in the mycelium caused by antifungal metabolites. In vivo studies showed the efficacy of streptomycete cells and culture supernatant as seed dressings to control damping off of Raphanus sativus seedlings. Treatment of pathogen infested seeds with culture supernatant (10%) and streptomycete cells significantly improved seed germination (75–80%) and vigor index (1167–1538). Furthermore, potential of cells and culture supernatant as foliar treatment to control black leaf spot was also evaluated. Clearly visible symptoms of disease were observed in the control plants with 66.81% disease incidence and retarded growth of root system. However, disease incidence reduced to 6.78 and 1.47% in plants treated with antagonist and its metabolites, respectively. Additionally, treatment of seeds and plants with streptomycete stimulated various growth traits of plants over uninoculated control plants in the absence of pathogen challenge. These results indicate that S. hydrogenans and its culture metabolites can be developed as biofungicides as seed dressings to control seed borne pathogens, and as sprays to control black leaf spot of crucifers. PMID:28018402

  10. Raphanus sativus L. seeds prevent LPS-stimulated inflammatory response through negative regulation of the p38 MAPK-NF-κB pathway.

    PubMed

    Kook, Sung-Ho; Choi, Ki-Choon; Lee, Young-Hoon; Cho, Hyoung-Kwon; Lee, Jeong-Chae

    2014-12-01

    The seeds of Raphanus sativus L. (RSL) have long been used as anti-inflammatory traditional medicine. However, scientific bases for the purported potential of the medicine and the associated mechanisms were barely defined. This study investigated the effects of RSL seeds on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated inflammatory responses in vitro and in vivo. Treatment with 100 μg/ml ethyl acetate fraction (REF), which was isolated from water extract of the seeds, significantly inhibited LPS-stimulated production of nitric oxide (P < 0.05), interleukin-6 (P < 0.001), and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α (P < 0.001) in RAW264.7 cells. Oral supplementation with 30 mg/kg REF protected mice by 90% against LPS-induced septic death and prevented the increases of serum TNF-α and interferon-γ levels in LPS-injected mice. When REF was divided into four sub-fractions (REF-F1-F4), REF-F3 showed the greatest activity to suppress LPS-stimulated production of inflammatory mediators. We subsequently isolated an active fraction from the REF-F3 and identified sinapic acid as the main constituent. The addition of 50 μg/ml active fraction markedly inhibited LPS-stimulated production of inflammatory mediators by suppressing p38 MAPK and nuclear factor-κB activation. Furthermore, supplementation with the active fraction (10 mg/kg) improved the survival rate of LPS-injected mice by 80% of the untreated control. Additional experiments revealed that sinapic acid was the active component responsible for the anti-inflammatory potential of RSL seeds. Collectively, our current results suggest that both RSL seeds and sinapic acid may be attractive materials for treating inflammatory disorders caused by endotoxins.

  11. Tandem combination of Trigonella foenum-graecum defensin (Tfgd2) and Raphanus sativus antifungal protein (RsAFP2) generates a more potent antifungal protein.

    PubMed

    Karri, Vasavirama; Bharadwaja, Kirti Pulugurtha

    2013-11-01

    Plant defensins are small (45 to 54 amino acids) positively charged antimicrobial peptides produced by the plant species, which can inhibit the growth of a broad range of fungi at micro-molar concentrations. These basic peptides share a common characteristic three-dimensional folding pattern with one α-helix and three β-sheets that are stabilized by eight disulfide-linked cysteine residues. Instead of using two single-gene constructs, it is beneficial when two effective genes are made into a single fusion gene with one promoter and terminator. In this approach, we have linked two plant defensins namely Trigonella foenum-graecum defensin 2 (Tfgd2) and Raphanus sativus antifungal protein 2 (RsAFP2) genes by a linker peptide sequence (occurring in the seeds of Impatiens balsamina) and made into a single-fusion gene construct. We used pET-32a+ vector system to express Tfgd2-RsAFP2 fusion gene with hexahistidine tag in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) pLysS cells. Induction of these cells with 1 mM IPTG achieved expression of the fusion protein. The solubilized His6-tagged recombinant fusion protein was purified by immobilized-metal (Ni2+) affinity column chromatography. The final yield of the fusion protein was 500 ng/μL. This method produced biologically active recombinant His6-tagged fusion protein, which exhibited potent antifungal action towards the plant pathogenic fungi (Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium moniliforme, Fusarium oxysporum, Phaeoisariopsis personata and Rhizoctonia solani along with an oomycete pathogen Phytophthora parasitica var nicotianae) at lower concentrations under in vitro conditions. This strategy of combining activity of two defensin genes into a single-fusion gene will definitely be a promising utility for biotechnological applications.

  12. Non-Native Japanese Listeners' Perception of Vowel Length Contrasts in Japanese and Modern Standard Arabic (MSA)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsukada, Kimiko

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the perception of short vs. long vowel contrasts in Japanese and Modern Standard Arabic (MSA) by four groups of listeners differing in their linguistic backgrounds: native Arabic (NA), native Japanese (NJ), non-native Japanese (NNJ) and Australian English (OZ) speakers. The NNJ and OZ groups shared the first language…

  13. Modalities of Infant-Mother Interaction in Japanese, Japanese American Immigrant, and European American Dyads

    PubMed Central

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Cote, Linda R.; Haynes, O. Maurice; Suwalsky, Joan T. D.; Bakeman, Roger

    2011-01-01

    Cultural variation in relations and moment-to-moment contingencies of infant-mother person-oriented and object-oriented interactions were examined and compared in 118 Japanese, Japanese American immigrant, and European American dyads with 5.5-month-olds. Infant and mother person-oriented behaviors were positively related in all cultural groups, but infant and mother object-oriented behaviors were positively related only among European Americans. In all groups, infant and mother behaviors within each modality were mutually contingent. Culture moderated lead-lag relations: Japanese infants were more likely than their mothers to respond in object-oriented interactions, European American mothers were more likely than their infants to respond in person-oriented interactions. Japanese American dyads behaved more like European American dyads. Interaction, infant effects, and parent socialization findings are set in cultural and accultural models of transactions between young infants and their mothers. PMID:22860874

  14. Hydrogen peroxide sensors for cellular imaging based on horse radish peroxidase reconstituted on polymer-functionalized TiO2 nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahir, Muhammad Nawaz; André, Rute; Sahoo, Jugal Kishore; Jochum, Florian D.; Theato, Patrick; Natalio, Filipe; Berger, Rüdiger; Branscheid, Robert; Kolb, Ute; Tremel, Wolfgang

    2011-09-01

    We describe the reconstitution of apo-horse radish peroxidase (apo-HRP) onto TiO2 nanorods functionalized with a multifunctional polymer. After functionalization, the horse radish peroxidase (HRP) functionalized TiO2 nanorods were well dispersible in aqueous solution, catalytically active and biocompatible, and they could be used to quantify and image H2O2 which is a harmful secondary product of cellular metabolism. The shape, size and structure of TiO2 nanorods (anatase) were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution TEM (HRTEM), electron diffraction (ED) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The surface functionalization, HRP reconstitution and catalytic activity were confirmed by UV-Vis, FT-IR, CLSM and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Biocompatibility and cellular internalization of active HRP reconstituted TiO2 nanorods were confirmed by a classical MTT cytotoxicity assay and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) imaging, respectively. The intracellular localization allowed H2O2 detection, imaging and quantification in HeLa cells. The polymer functionalized hybrid system creates a complete sensor including a ``cell positioning system'' in each single particle. The flexible synthetic concept with functionalization by post-polymerization modification allows introduction of various dyes for sensitisation at different wavelengths and introduction of various anchor groups for anchoring on different particles.We describe the reconstitution of apo-horse radish peroxidase (apo-HRP) onto TiO2 nanorods functionalized with a multifunctional polymer. After functionalization, the horse radish peroxidase (HRP) functionalized TiO2 nanorods were well dispersible in aqueous solution, catalytically active and biocompatible, and they could be used to quantify and image H2O2 which is a harmful secondary product of cellular metabolism. The shape, size and structure of TiO2 nanorods (anatase) were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high

  15. Glucoraphanin and 4-hydroxyglucobrassicin contents in seeds of 59 cultivars of broccoli, raab, kohlrabi, radish, cauliflower, brussels sprouts, kale, and cabbage.

    PubMed

    West, Leslie G; Meyer, Keith A; Balch, Barbara A; Rossi, Frank J; Schultz, Michael R; Haas, George W

    2004-02-25

    The importance of dietary sulforaphane in helping maintain good health continues to gain support within the health-care community and awareness among U.S. consumers. In addition to the traditional avenue for obtaining sulforaphane, namely, the consumption of appropriate cruciferous vegetables, other consumer products containing added glucoraphanin, the natural precursor to sulforaphane, are now appearing in the United States. Crucifer seeds are a likely source for obtaining glucoraphanin, owing to a higher concentration of glucoraphanin and the relative ease of processing seeds as compared to vegetative parts. Seeds of several commonly consumed crucifers were analyzed not only for glucoraphanin but also for components that might have negative health implications, such as certain indole-containing glucosinolates and erucic acid-containing lipids. Glucoraphanin, 4-hydroxyglucobrassicin, other glucosinolates, and lipid erucic acid were quantified in seeds of 33 commercially available cultivars of broccoli, 4 cultivars each of kohlrabi, radish, cauliflower, Brussels sprouts, kale, and cabbage, and 2 cultivars of raab.

  16. A comparative study on the effectiveness of various procedures for attachment of two proteins (L-asparaginase and horse radish peroxidase) to the surface of liposomes.

    PubMed

    Claassen, E; van Rooijen, N

    1983-01-01

    Five different ways of association of proteins with the surfaces of liposomes were compared. L-asparaginase (L-asp.) and horse radish peroxidase (HRP) were used as proteins since these show a large difference in their numbers of amino groups. Liposomal association was performed by way of: 1) non-specific coating of empty liposomes; 2) incorporation after 'hydrophobisation' with palmitoylchloride; 3) as 2 with dodecanoic acid; 4) coupling to phosphatidylinositol (PI) already incorporated in the liposomal membrane; and 5) as 4 with phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). The relative effectiveness of the different procedures for coupling of the proteins to liposomes as determined by the enzyme activities of intact liposomes shows a large variation, dependent on both the method used and the protein.

  17. The Japanese science education centers.

    PubMed

    Glass, B

    1966-10-14

    These six Japanese science education centers signify a sweeping reform of elementary and secondary school science teaching. They achieve their striking results because they are established on a permanent, local basis and are supported mainly by the local boards of education. They have avoided control by pedagogues and specialists in "education." Instead, they are operated by trained scientists and experienced school teachers who work together to devise programs specially suited to the needs of their teachers. With small and practicable steps, the teachers improve their understanding of methods which they can readily test in their own classrooms rooms and laboratories. The laboratory equipment in the science education centers is only slightly superior to that which the teachers have in their own schools, but superior enough to make them desire to improve their own facilities. Major facilities, such as x-ray machines, electron microscopes, telescopes (15-cm), and machine shops, as well as good working collections of minerals and fossils, and adequate greenhouses, permit the teachers to work with more expensive equipment, to gain a firsthand knowledge of its operation, and to bring groups of students to the center to observe what such instruments make possible. The use of American experimental course content improvement programs is widespread. Every science education center I visited is using PSSC, CHEMS, CBA, BSCS, or ESCP materials and studying the philosophy of these programs. Yet no center is entirely dependent on these programs, but uses them critically to supplement and improve its own courses. The emphasis is on good laboratory and field teaching as a basis for understanding scientific methods and concepts. Science as investigation and inquiry, instead of treatment solely as an authoritative body of facts, is coming into its own. The few defects of the science education centers of Japan inhere in the educational situation itself. The centers are at present

  18. Sequence analysis of two alleles reveals that intra-and intergenic recombination played a role in the evolution of the radish fertility restorer (Rfo)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Land plant genomes contain multiple members of a eukaryote-specific gene family encoding proteins with pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) motifs. Some PPR proteins were shown to participate in post-transcriptional events involved in organellar gene expression, and this type of function is now thought to be their main biological role. Among PPR genes, restorers of fertility (Rf) of cytoplasmic male sterility systems constitute a peculiar subgroup that is thought to evolve in response to the presence of mitochondrial sterility-inducing genes. Rf genes encoding PPR proteins are associated with very close relatives on complex loci. Results We sequenced a non-restoring allele (L7rfo) of the Rfo radish locus whose restoring allele (D81Rfo) was previously described, and compared the two alleles and their PPR genes. We identified a ca 13 kb long fragment, likely originating from another part of the radish genome, inserted into the L7rfo sequence. The L7rfo allele carries two genes (PPR-1 and PPR-2) closely related to the three previously described PPR genes of the restorer D81Rfo allele (PPR-A, PPR-B, and PPR-C). Our results indicate that alleles of the Rfo locus have experienced complex evolutionary events, including recombination and insertion of extra-locus sequences, since they diverged. Our analyses strongly suggest that present coding sequences of Rfo PPR genes result from intragenic recombination. We found that the 10 C-terminal PPR repeats in Rfo PPR gene encoded proteins result from the tandem duplication of a 5 PPR repeat block. Conclusions The Rfo locus appears to experience more complex evolution than its flanking sequences. The Rfo locus and PPR genes therein are likely to evolve as a result of intergenic and intragenic recombination. It is therefore not possible to determine which genes on the two alleles are direct orthologs. Our observations recall some previously reported data on pathogen resistance complex loci. PMID:20178653

  19. Hydrogen peroxide, nitric oxide and UV RESISTANCE LOCUS8 interact to mediate UV-B-induced anthocyanin biosynthesis in radish sprouts

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Qi; Su, Nana; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Liu, Yuanyuan; Cui, Jin; Liang, Yongchao

    2016-01-01

    The cross talk among hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), nitric oxide (NO) and UV RESISTANCE LOCUS8 (UVR8) in UV-B-induced anthocyanin accumulation in the hypocotyls of radish sprouts was investigated. The results showed that UV-B irradiation significantly increased the anthocyanin accumulation and the expression of UVR8, and a similar trend appeared in radish sprouts subjected to cadmium, chilling and salt stresses regardless of light source. However, these responses disappeared under dark exposure. These results suggest that abiotic stress-induced anthocyanin accumulation and UVR8 expression were light-dependent. Moreover, abiotic stresses all enhanced the production of H2O2 and exogenous H2O2 addition significantly increased the anthocyanin concentration and UVR8 transcription, while these increases were severely inhibited by addition of dimethylthiourea (DMTU, a chemical trap for H2O2). It seems to suggest that H2O2 played an important role in the anthocyanin biosynthesis. Furthermore, addition of 0.5 mM sodium nitroprusside (SNP, a NO-releasing compound) substantially induced the anthocyanin accumulation, and H2O2-induced anthocyanin accumulation and UVR8 expression were significantly suppressed by co-treatment with 2-phenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-3-oxide-1-oxyl (PTIO, a NO scavenger), which was parallel with the expression of anthocyanin biosynthesis-related transcription factors and structural genes. All these results demonstrate that both H2O2 and NO are involved in UV-B-induced anthocyanin accumulation, and there is a crosstalk between them as well as a classical UVR8 pathway. PMID:27404993

  20. Hydrogen peroxide, nitric oxide and UV RESISTANCE LOCUS8 interact to mediate UV-B-induced anthocyanin biosynthesis in radish sprouts.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qi; Su, Nana; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Liu, Yuanyuan; Cui, Jin; Liang, Yongchao

    2016-07-12

    The cross talk among hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), nitric oxide (NO) and UV RESISTANCE LOCUS8 (UVR8) in UV-B-induced anthocyanin accumulation in the hypocotyls of radish sprouts was investigated. The results showed that UV-B irradiation significantly increased the anthocyanin accumulation and the expression of UVR8, and a similar trend appeared in radish sprouts subjected to cadmium, chilling and salt stresses regardless of light source. However, these responses disappeared under dark exposure. These results suggest that abiotic stress-induced anthocyanin accumulation and UVR8 expression were light-dependent. Moreover, abiotic stresses all enhanced the production of H2O2 and exogenous H2O2 addition significantly increased the anthocyanin concentration and UVR8 transcription, while these increases were severely inhibited by addition of dimethylthiourea (DMTU, a chemical trap for H2O2). It seems to suggest that H2O2 played an important role in the anthocyanin biosynthesis. Furthermore, addition of 0.5 mM sodium nitroprusside (SNP, a NO-releasing compound) substantially induced the anthocyanin accumulation, and H2O2-induced anthocyanin accumulation and UVR8 expression were significantly suppressed by co-treatment with 2-phenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-3-oxide-1-oxyl (PTIO, a NO scavenger), which was parallel with the expression of anthocyanin biosynthesis-related transcription factors and structural genes. All these results demonstrate that both H2O2 and NO are involved in UV-B-induced anthocyanin accumulation, and there is a crosstalk between them as well as a classical UVR8 pathway.

  1. Comparison of the growth of Escherichia coli O157: H7 and O104: H4 during sprouting and microgreen production from contaminated radish seeds.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Zhenlei; Nou, Xiangwu; Luo, Yanguang; Wang, Qin

    2014-12-01

    Both sprouts and microgreens are popular tender produce items, typically grown and harvested in indoor facilities which allow a higher degree of control compared to open field production. While sprouts, which have frequently been implicated in foodborne illness outbreaks, are the subject of numerous national and international standards for their production and distribution, there is a lack of data pertaining to the microbiological safety of microgreens. In this study, sprouts and microgreens were produced from radish seeds inoculated with Escherichia coli O157: H7 or O104: H4 and E. coli populations on the harvested products compared to assess the potentials of product contamination from contaminated seeds during sprouting and microgreen production. Both E. coli O157:H7 and O104:H4 grew rapidly during sprouting, reaching levels of 5.8-8.1 log cfu/g and 5.2-7.3 log cfu/g, respectively, depending on the initial inoculation levels of the seeds (1.5-4.6 log cfu/g and 0.8-4.3 log cfu/g on radish seeds, respectively). In comparison, E. coli O157:H7 and O104:H4 populations on harvested microgreens ranged from 0.8 to 4.5 log cfu/g and from 0.6 to 4.0 log cfu/g, respectively. Although harvested microgreens carried significantly less (P < 0.001) E. coli than sprouts germinated from seeds inoculated at the same levels, proliferation of E. coli O157:H7 and O104:H4 occurred during both sprouting and microgreen growth.

  2. Request Strategies in British English and Japanese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fukushima, Saeko

    1996-01-01

    Tests request strategies used by speakers of Japanese and British English in two culturally neutral situations likely to trigger a request. Concludes that the degree of imposition goes on a par with the number of politeness strategies but that there are differences in the types of strategies used: the British use conventional forms and supportive…

  3. Japanese Management Theory and Library Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clayton, Peter

    1992-01-01

    Provides an overview of Japanese management theory and suggests applications to library administration. Highlights include participative management; shared decision making; long-term objectives; organizational philosophy; staff training and human resource development; strategic planning; staffing issues; cooperation; quality control; and total…

  4. Difficulties Japanese Have in Reading English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitao, Kenji; Kitao, S. Kathleen

    The problems encountered by native Japanese-speakers in reading English as a second language are examined. The available literature on the subject as well as firsthand experiences in teaching English, developing reading materials, and conducting research projects are discussed. The discussion focuses on five major areas: the reading process; the…

  5. Pragmatic Implicatures and Particles in Japanese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimura, Kazunori

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the properties of particles in Japanese from a pragmatic viewpoint. The main target of analysis is "wa" and "ga", which are regarded as a topic and nominative marker respectively. The research is based on the pragmatic theory proposed by Levinson (2000). This dissertation consists of three parts as…

  6. Innovation and Entrepreneurship: Trials of Japanese Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shi, Lili; Yonezawa, Akiyoshi

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the Japanese response in terms of innovation capacity and entrepreneurship enhancement under the ever-changing economic environment. Particular focus would go to the interactions among government, industry and universities in the national innovation system at a macro level, and entrepreneurship education at the institutional…

  7. The Japanese Preschool System in Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imoto, Yuki

    2007-01-01

    This article is an anthropological analysis of the recent policy reforms of the Japanese preschool system. It takes the introduction of the "nintei-kodomoen" ("accredited children's centre") as a point of entry to discuss the historical, social and political debates concerning early childhood education and care. The "dual…

  8. In Defense of Japanese Liberal Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mori, Rie

    2016-01-01

    Liberal education has been a target of political discourse in many countries, and Japan is no exception. In Japanese higher education, there are three types of institutions: national public, local public, and private. In June 2015, Japan's minister of education, Hakubun Shimomura, called upon the country's national universities to take…

  9. Written Japanese for Students of Chinese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCoy, John

    1969-01-01

    Since a reading knowledge of Japanese is an indispensable research tool for advanced work in Chinese studies, the student of Chinese is faced with the task of "developing a facility in two of the most difficult written languages of the world." With the goal of making this task as easy as possible, a course has been developed at Cornell University…

  10. Learning Intelligent Genetic Algorithms Using Japanese Nonograms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Jinn-Tsong; Chou, Ping-Yi; Fang, Jia-Cen

    2012-01-01

    An intelligent genetic algorithm (IGA) is proposed to solve Japanese nonograms and is used as a method in a university course to learn evolutionary algorithms. The IGA combines the global exploration capabilities of a canonical genetic algorithm (CGA) with effective condensed encoding, improved fitness function, and modified crossover and…

  11. A History of Japanese in Hawaii.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Japanese Society of Hawaii, Honolulu.

    This handbook contains the history of the first hundred years of Japanese activity in Hawaii, of the pioneer immigrant workers and their progeny. The book offers valuable source material to the people of Hawaii who want to know their origins and who wish to teach their children of the achievements of their ancestors. Ninety-one pages of black and…

  12. Attribution and Clausal Nominalization in Japanese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boffemmyer, Justin

    2013-01-01

    Japanese employs different strategies for expressing relative clauses and complement clauses. The relative clause constructions are generally described as Externally Headed Relative Clauses (EHRCs), which are the closest analogue to English relative clauses, and Headless Relative Clauses (HRCs) (also called Internally Headed Relative Clauses)…

  13. Deaf Life on Isolated Japanese Islands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torigoe, Takashi; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Interviewed 38 adults with deafness and little schooling in Okinawa concerning their social and language environment. Many of the individuals used an indigenous gestural system shared with hearing people that enabled them to participate in the hearing community. Most had only limited contact with the deaf community and Japanese Sign Language.…

  14. THE FOREMAN PROBLEM IN JAPANESE INDUSTRY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    THURLEY, KEITH

    BRITAIN STUDIED SUPERVISORY TRAINING IN JAPAN, IN ORDER TO GAIN INSIGHT INTO ITS OWN TRAINING PROBLEMS. TRADITIONAL SUPERVISION IN JAPANESE INDUSTRY HAD PRODUCED INCAPABLE FOREMEN THROUGH SENIORITY PROMOTION, CAUSED DIFFICULT RELATIONSHIPS BECAUSE OF AUTHORITARIAN ATTITUDES, AND FAILED TO CLARIFY AUTHORITY ROLES. THE GOVERNMENT RECOMMENDED MORE…

  15. Japanese vs. Caucasian Intelligence and Social Attainment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagoshi, Craig T.

    1998-01-01

    Summarizes a series of studies from the Hawaii Family Study of Cognition on possible genetic and social environmental determinants of individual differences in and racial/ethnic differences between groups on intelligence and attainment. These studies, which focused on Japanese and Caucasian Americans, illustrate the complex, interactive, and…

  16. Nationalism and Worldmindedness: Japanese Versus American Comparison.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Der-Karabetian, Aghop; And Others

    Nationalism and worldmindedness are social cognitions that have both culture-unique and culture-universal aspects. To compare cross-cultural manifestations of these 2 sentiments, 270 Japanese and 210 American university students in Tokyo and Los Angeles answered questions on national resources, self-sufficiency and interdependence, communication,…

  17. Japanese and American Education: Attitudes and Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wray, Harry

    Continuing concern regarding the quality and future of education in both America and Japan prompts many comparisons of their nation's educational systems. Chapter 1, "Japanese Schools' Higher Achievement, Literacy, Efficiency, Discipline, Classroom Management, and Strengths of Civilization," attempts to explain the superior performance…

  18. Japanese Higher Education and Japan's "Internationalization" (Kokusaika).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Best, Paul J.

    An educational foundation (interdisciplinary) approach is used to examine the development of Japan in order to discover what role, if any, the Japanese higher educational system can play in the internationalization of the country. Some historical, geopolitical, and sociocultural background is provided. It is suggested that Japan can no longer…

  19. Can the Japanese Change Their Education System?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Roger, Ed.; Phillips, David, Ed.

    The nine papers included in this book are: "The Why, What and How of Educational Reform in Japan" (Roger Goodman); "Why Reform Japanese Education?" (William K. Cummings); "Destruction and Reconstruction: A Comparative Analysis of the Education Reform in Japan and Germany under the U.S. Military Occupation After World War…

  20. Politics of Education for Japanese Returnee Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fry, Rieko

    2009-01-01

    Business expansion in the 1960s and its associated international strategies have meant that many Japanese company employees and their families were sent abroad on long-term assignments. The children who accompanied their parents on such assignments and then returned to Japan were first described as "educational refugees" and were…

  1. TEFL and Communication Styles in Japanese Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takanashi, Yoshiro

    2004-01-01

    Japanese students often feel it difficult to acquire communicative skills in English at school. Although many of them appear to have positive, favorable attitudes towards learning English, their annual Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) total score means has been consistently low. The present paper discusses this paradox from two points…

  2. Japanese American Internment: A Historical Narrative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pickering, Susan M.; Walker, Lori B.

    1995-01-01

    Maintains that little is written for elementary and middle school students about the World War II Japanese internment camps. Asserts that the issue can help teach about democratic principles and citizenship. Presents a role-playing dialog on the topic and includes recommended materials for students and teachers. (CFR)

  3. Japanese-American Internment. A Historical Reader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    This Historical Reader on "Japanese American Internment" in World War II introduces students to key events and issues during the period through the voices of people with firsthand experienced. Source documents and illustrations are arranged in chronological order and/or thematic units that establish context. Each selection is followed by…

  4. Ijime: The Bullying of Japanese Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoolland, Ken

    1986-01-01

    "Ijime," which means the intimidation of the weakest people in a social group, has become prevalent in the Japanese educational system. Between April and October of 1985, 155,066 cases of bullying were reported in Japan's schools. The education council cites the rigorous discipline measures undertaken by teachers as the cause of rising…

  5. Lifelong Learning and Demographics: A Japanese Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogawa, Seiko

    2005-01-01

    This paper explores the social dimension of lifelong learning from the perspective of demographics, with particular focus on the issue of the birth of fewer children, which has become one of the most important current social issues in Japanese society. When considering the relationship between lifelong learning and demographics, the issues arising…

  6. Recognition of International Education in Japanese Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoshida, Masami

    2017-01-01

    Education for international understanding in Japan was focused to develop its own national identity as well as to recognize its coexistence through intercultural education. Then, we have investigated the opinions of Japanese school teachers in terms of their recognition of the necessary content to introduce school instruction of intercultural…

  7. Japanese International Students' Attitudes toward Acquaintance Rape.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motoike, Janice; Stockdale, Margaret

    This study looked at the influence of an Asian sociocultural variable, loss of face or social integrity, as a predictor of perceptions of acquaintance rape among Japanese students. In addition to the expected associations between gender, sexism, and perceptions of rape, loss of face was predicted to interact with the perpetrator's reference group…

  8. Orthography and Learning to Decode in Japanese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muraishi, Shozo

    The Language Play Method (LPM), a teaching method developed to systematically instruct preschool children in the structure of Japanese and Hiragana letters, is described in this paper. LPM develops three fundamental abilities which contribute to oral skill and literacy in kindergartners: the ability to recognize letters, the ability to decode…

  9. [Dentistry in Korean during the Japanese occupation].

    PubMed

    Shin, Jae-Eu

    2004-12-01

    The Japanese introduction of dentistry into Korea was for treating the Japanese residing in Korea Noda-Oji was the first Japanese dentist for Japanese people in Korea in 1893, and Narajaki doyoyo, an invited dentist was posted in the Korean headquarter of Japanese army in September, 1905. The imperialist Japan licensed the dental technicians (yipchisa) without limit and controlled them generously so they could practice dentistry freely. This measure was contrary to that in Japan. (In Japan no new dental technician was licensed.) Komori, a dental technician opened his laboratory at Chungmuro in 1902. The dental technician had outnumbered by 1920. In 1907, the first Korean dental technician Sung-Ryong Choi practiced dentistry in Jongno. The imperialist Japan made the regulations for dental technicians to set a limit to the advertisement and medical practice of dental technicians. The first Korean dentists Suk-Tae Ham was register No. 1 in the dentist license. The Kyungsung dental school was established by Nagira Dasoni for the purpose of educating some Korean people that contributed to Japanese colonization. It made progress with the help of Japan, it was was given the approval of the establishment of the professional school in January the 25th, 1929. It was intended to produce Korean dentists in the first place but became the school for Japanese students later on. The association of Chosun dentist, which had been founded by Narajaki doyoyo, was managed by Japanese dentists in favor of the colonial ruling. The Hansung Association of Dentists established in 1925 was the organization made by the necessity of the association for Koreans only. The Japanese forcefully annexed the Association of Hansung Dentists (Koreans only) to the Association of Kyungsung Dentists to avoid collective actions of Korean dentists in the name of 'Naesunilche' -- 'Japan and Korea and one'. Their invading intention was shown in the event of 'decayed tooth preventive day'. Japanese controlled

  10. Retinal Oximetry in a Healthy Japanese Population

    PubMed Central

    Nakano, Yuki; Shimazaki, Takeru; Kobayashi, Nobuko; Miyoshi, Yukiko; Ono, Aoi; Kobayashi, Mamoru; Shiragami, Chieko; Hirooka, Kazuyuki; Tsujikawa, Akitaka

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To establish the normative database of retinal oximetry using Oxymap T1 in a healthy Japanese population, and study the reproducibility of the measurements in Japanese. Methods We measured oxygen saturation in the major retinal vessels with Oxymap T1 in 252 eyes of 252 healthy Japanese subjects. Fundus images acquired using Oxymap T1 were processed using built-in Oxymap Analyzer software. Reproducibility of retinal oximetry was investigated using 20 eyes of 20 healthy subjects. Results The mean retinal oxygen saturation of 4 quadrants in healthy Japanese was 97.0 ± 6.9% in arteries and 52.8 ± 8.3% in veins. The mean arteriovenous difference in oxygen saturation was 44.2 ± 9.2%. Both arterial and venous oxygen saturation were significantly lower in the temporal side of the retina, especially in the temporal-inferior vessels. However, the arteriovenous difference in oxygen saturation was limited in the 4 quadrants. Interphotograph, intervisit, and interevaluator intraclass correlation coefficients were 0.936–0.979, 0.809–0.837, and 0.732–0.947, respectively. In the major retinal arteries, oxygen saturation increased with age (r = 0.18, p<0.01), at a rate of 0.67% per 10 years. However, venous oxygen saturation showed no correlation with age. Conclusions This study provides the normative database for the Japanese population. The arterial saturation value appears to be higher than other previous studies. Mean retinal oximetry in 4 quadrants with Oxymap T1 has high reproducibility. PMID:27434373

  11. [Macroangiopathy compared between native Japanese and Japanese-Americans: findings from the Hawaii-Los Angels-Hiroshima Study].

    PubMed

    Hirano, Masatoshi; Nakanishi, Shuhei; Yamane, Kiminori

    2010-05-01

    We have conducted medical surveys of Japanese-Americans, in whom westernization of life style occurred earlier and more intensively, in order to clarify the impact of westernization of life style on diseases in Japanese. This survey is started in Hawaii in 1970, and Los Angeles in 1978. We clarified that the prevalence of obesity, which leads to insulin resistance, is higher in Japanese-Americans than that in Japanese, and that insulin resistance which is associated with diabetes, hypertention, and dyslipidemia could increase macroangiopathy such as ischemic heart disease and stroke in Japanese-Americans. The mortality rate of Japanese-Americans with diabetes from ischemic heart disease increased to be similar extent to that of Caucasian in the U.S. It could be concluded that Japanese-Americans are at high risk for macroangiopathy.

  12. Molecular Characterization of the Complete Genome of Three Basal-BR Isolates of Turnip mosaic virus Infecting Raphanus sativus in China

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Fuxiang; Sun, Ying; Wang, Yan; Pan, Hongyu; Wang, Fengting; Zhang, Xianghui; Zhang, Yanhua; Liu, Jinliang

    2016-01-01

    Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) infects crops of plant species in the family Brassicaceae worldwide. TuMV isolates were clustered to five lineages corresponding to basal-B, basal-BR, Asian-BR, world-B and OMs. Here, we determined the complete genome sequences of three TuMV basal-BR isolates infecting radish from Shandong and Jilin Provinces in China. Their genomes were all composed of 9833 nucleotides, excluding the 3′-terminal poly(A) tail. They contained two open reading frames (ORFs), with the large one encoding a polyprotein of 3164 amino acids and the small overlapping ORF encoding a PIPO protein of 61 amino acids, which contained the typically conserved motifs found in members of the genus Potyvirus. In pairwise comparison with 30 other TuMV genome sequences, these three isolates shared their highest identities with isolates from Eurasian countries (Germany, Italy, Turkey and China). Recombination analysis showed that the three isolates in this study had no “clear” recombination. The analyses of conserved amino acids changed between groups showed that the codons in the TuMV out group (OGp) and OMs group were the same at three codon sites (852, 1006, 1548), and the other TuMV groups (basal-B, basal-BR, Asian-BR, world-B) were different. This pattern suggests that the codon in the OMs progenitor did not change but that in the other TuMV groups the progenitor sequence did change at divergence. Genetic diversity analyses indicate that the PIPO gene was under the highest selection pressure and the selection pressure on P3N-PIPO and P3 was almost the same. It suggests that most of the selection pressure on P3 was probably imposed through P3N-PIPO. PMID:27271614

  13. Molecular Characterization of the Complete Genome of Three Basal-BR Isolates of Turnip mosaic virus Infecting Raphanus sativus in China.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Fuxiang; Sun, Ying; Wang, Yan; Pan, Hongyu; Wang, Fengting; Zhang, Xianghui; Zhang, Yanhua; Liu, Jinliang

    2016-06-04

    Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) infects crops of plant species in the family Brassicaceae worldwide. TuMV isolates were clustered to five lineages corresponding to basal-B, basal-BR, Asian-BR, world-B and OMs. Here, we determined the complete genome sequences of three TuMV basal-BR isolates infecting radish from Shandong and Jilin Provinces in China. Their genomes were all composed of 9833 nucleotides, excluding the 3'-terminal poly(A) tail. They contained two open reading frames (ORFs), with the large one encoding a polyprotein of 3164 amino acids and the small overlapping ORF encoding a PIPO protein of 61 amino acids, which contained the typically conserved motifs found in members of the genus Potyvirus. In pairwise comparison with 30 other TuMV genome sequences, these three isolates shared their highest identities with isolates from Eurasian countries (Germany, Italy, Turkey and China). Recombination analysis showed that the three isolates in this study had no "clear" recombination. The analyses of conserved amino acids changed between groups showed that the codons in the TuMV out group (OGp) and OMs group were the same at three codon sites (852, 1006, 1548), and the other TuMV groups (basal-B, basal-BR, Asian-BR, world-B) were different. This pattern suggests that the codon in the OMs progenitor did not change but that in the other TuMV groups the progenitor sequence did change at divergence. Genetic diversity analyses indicate that the PIPO gene was under the highest selection pressure and the selection pressure on P3N-PIPO and P3 was almost the same. It suggests that most of the selection pressure on P3 was probably imposed through P3N-PIPO.

  14. Effects of oxidizing adulterants on detection of 11-nor-delta9-THC-9-carboxylic acid in urine.

    PubMed

    Paul, Buddha D; Jacobs, Aaron

    2002-10-01

    Bleach, nitrite, chromate, and hydrogen peroxide-peroxidase are effective urine adulterants used by the illicit drug users to conceal marijuana-positive results. Methods for detecting nitrite and chromate are available. Effects of other oxidizing agents that could possibly be used as adulterants and are difficult to detect or measure are presented in this report. Urine samples containing 40 ng/mL of 11-nor-delta9-THC-9-carboxylic acid (THC-acid) were treated with 10 mmol/L of commonly available oxidizing agents. Effects of horseradish peroxidase of activity 10 unit/mL and extracts from 2.5 g of red radish (Raphanus sativus, Radicula group), horseradish (Armoracia rusticana), Japanese radish (Raphanus sativus, Daikon group), and black mustard seeds (Brassica nigra), all with 10 mmol/L of hydrogen peroxide, were also examined. After 5 min, 16 h and 48 h of exposure at room temperature (23 degrees C) the specimens were tested by a gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric method for THC-acid. A control group treated with sodium hydrosulfite to reduce the oxidants, was also tested to investigate the effect of oxidizing agents on THC-acid in the extraction method. THC-acid was lost completely in the extraction method when treated with chromate, nitrite, oxone, and hydrogen peroxide/ferrous ammonium sulfate (Fenton's reagent). Some losses were also observed with persulfate and periodate (up to 25%). These oxidants, and other oxidizing agents like permanganate, periodate, peroxidase, and extracts from red radish, horseradish, Japanese radish and black mustard seeds destroyed most of the THC-acid (> 94%) within 48 h of exposure. Chlorate, perchlorate, iodate, and oxychloride under these conditions showed little or no effect. Complete loss was observed when THC-acid was exposed to 50 mmol/L of oxychloride for 48 h. Several oxidizing adulterants that are difficult to test by the present urine adulterant testing methods showed considerable effects on the destruction of THC

  15. Phylogeography of Japanese horse chestnut (Aesculus turbinata) in the Japanese Archipelago based on chloroplast DNA haplotypes.

    PubMed

    Sugahara, Kanako; Kaneko, Yuko; Ito, Satoshi; Yamanaka, Keisuke; Sakio, Hitoshi; Hoshizaki, Kazuhiko; Suzuki, Wajiro; Yamanaka, Norikazu; Setoguchi, Hiroaki

    2011-01-01

    Japanese horse chestnut (Aesculus turbinata: Hippocastanaceae) is one of the typical woody plants that grow in temperate riparian forests in the Japanese Archipelago. To analyze the phylogeography of this plant in the Japanese Archipelago, we determined cpDNA haplotypes for 337 samples from 55 populations covering the entire distribution range. Based on 1,313 bp of two spacers, we determined ten haplotypes that are distinguished from adjacent haplotypes by one or two steps. Most of the populations had a single haplotype, suggesting low diversity. Spatial analysis of molecular variance suggested three obvious phylogeographic structures in western Japan, where Japanese horse chestnut is scattered and isolated in mountainous areas. Conversely, no clear phylogeographic structure was observed from the northern to the southern limit of this species, including eastern Japan, where this plant is more common. Rare and private haplotypes were also found in southwestern Japan, where Japanese horse chestnuts are distributed sparsely. These findings imply that western Japan might have maintained a relatively large habitat for A. turbinata during the Quaternary climatic oscillations, while northerly regions could not.

  16. Relative age effect in Japanese male athletes.

    PubMed

    Nakata, Hiroki; Sakamoto, Kiwako

    2011-10-01

    The present study investigated the relative age effect, a biased distribution of elite athletes' birthdates, in Japanese male athletes. Japan applies a unique annual-age grouping for sport and education, which is from April 1 to March 31 of the following year. A total of 4,318 male athletes was evaluated from 12 sports: baseball, soccer, basketball, volleyball, handball, golf, horse racing, rugby, American football, sumo, Ekiden (track and field in long distance), and badminton. They played in the top level of Japanese leagues for each sport in 2010. The distribution of the birth dates was examined in each sport and showed significant relative age effect in baseball, soccer, volleyball, Ekiden, basketball, sumo, and horse racing, but not in all sports. The findings suggest that although the school year in Japan starts on April 1, significant relative age effects are observed in some sporting events.

  17. An overview of Japanese occupational health.

    PubMed Central

    Reich, M R; Frumkin, H

    1988-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of Japanese occupational health and evaluates the current situation from three perspectives. Major occupational health hazards are assessed using four sources of data, showing patterns similar to those found in other advanced industrial societies. Institutional structures for occupational health policy are then examined, illustrating strengths and weaknesses of the Japanese legal and administrative systems. Trade union activities are presented, indicating the constraints of enterprise unions, and the tendency for a greater orientation toward compensation than prevention. Significant occupational health problems persist among marginal workers in Japan, including women and various minority groups. The analysis demonstrates a record for occupational health in Japan considerably more mixed than the conventional view. PMID:2968056

  18. Applying Japanese management tips to patient accounts.

    PubMed

    Groenevelt, C J

    1990-04-01

    "Just in time," a Japanese management philosophy that has been applied successfully in manufacturing operations, also can be used to improve management of patient accounts departments. Under its principles, healthcare organizations would develop standardized procedures; involve workers in decision making; set up training and education programs aimed at creating a multi-skilled pool of workers; establish smooth production schedules; and foster cooperation and commitment to the philosophy throughout the organization.

  19. Optic pathway degeneration in Japanese black cattle.

    PubMed

    Chiba, Shiori; Funato, Shingo; Horiuchi, Noriyuki; Matsumoto, Kotaro; Inokuma, Hisashi; Furuoka, Hidefumi; Kobayashi, Yoshiyasu

    2015-02-01

    Degeneration of the optic pathway has been reported in various animal species including cattle. We experienced a case of bilateral optic tract degeneration characterized by severe gliosis in a Japanese black cattle without any obvious visual defects. To evaluate the significance, pathological nature and pathogenesis of the lesions, we examined the optic pathway in 60 cattle (41 Japanese black, 13 Holstein and 6 crossbreed) with or without ocular abnormalities. None of these animals had optic canal stenosis. Degenerative changes with severe gliosis in the optic pathway, which includes the optic nerve, optic chiasm and optic tract, were only observed in 8 Japanese black cattle with or without ocular abnormalities. Furthermore, strong immunoreactivity of glial fibrillary acidic protein was observed in the retinal stratum opticum and ganglion cell layer in all 5 cattle in which the optic pathway lesions could be examined. As etiological research, we also examined whether the concentrations of vitamin A and vitamin B12 or bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infection was associated with optic pathway degeneration. However, our results suggested that the observed optic pathway degeneration was probably not caused by these factors. These facts indicate the presence of optic pathway degeneration characterized by severe gliosis that has never been reported in cattle without bilateral compressive lesions in the optic pathway or bilateral severe retinal atrophy.

  20. [Epilepsy guidelines: Japanese and international guidelines].

    PubMed

    Akamatsu, Naoki; Tsuji, Sadatoshi

    2011-04-01

    Many guidelines for the management of epilepsy have been published since the introduction of evidence-based medicine. In Japan, the first clinical guideline for epilepsy management was published by the Japanese Society of Neurology (JSN) in 2002. The Japan Epilepsy Society (JES) has been publishing guidelines for several topics since 2005. However, owing to recent advances in epileptology and the accumulation of related knowledge, it has become necessary to revise these guidelines. Four medical societies-JSN, JES, the Japanese Society of Neurological Therapeutics, and the Japanese Society of Child Neurology-have together published new epilepsy-related clinical guidelines for practitioners. The guideline committee consists of 23 specialists representing the 4 societies. The guidelines primary target general practitioners treating epilepsy patients and are designed to be user friendly-in the form of 81 "clinical questions" (CQs). The CQs comprehensively cover various aspects of epilepsy management including those related to diagnosis, treatment, surgery, pregnancy, and social issues. Recommendations are concisely described with levels from A to D. The evidence level (I to IV) of the references is based on the literature review conducted by the committee. These guidelines were published in October 2010.