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Sample records for japanese radish raphanus

  1. Mechanism Underlying the Onset of Internal Blue Discoloration in Japanese Radish (Raphanus sativus) Roots.

    PubMed

    Teranishi, Katsunori; Masayasu, Nagata; Masuda, Daisuke

    2016-09-01

    The internal blue discoloration observed in Japanese radish (Raphanus sativus L.) roots is a physiological phenomenon caused by storage following harvest at approximately 20 °C and poses a serious problem for farmers. Here, we describe the mechanism underlying the onset of internal blue discoloration of three cultivars: Hukuhomare, SC8-260, and Yuto. Each cultivar was maintained under the same conditions. Additionally, Hukuhomare radish roots were maintained at three different cultivation conditions in a related experiment. The blue discoloration in radish roots was caused by the oxidation of 4-hydroxyglucobrassicin as a result of an increase in oxidative stress involving peroxidase. Thus, the extent of blue discoloration was influenced by the chemical balance involving 4-hydroxyglucobrassicin content, antioxidant capacity, and oxidation activity.

  2. Mechanism Underlying the Onset of Internal Blue Discoloration in Japanese Radish (Raphanus sativus) Roots.

    PubMed

    Teranishi, Katsunori; Masayasu, Nagata; Masuda, Daisuke

    2016-09-01

    The internal blue discoloration observed in Japanese radish (Raphanus sativus L.) roots is a physiological phenomenon caused by storage following harvest at approximately 20 °C and poses a serious problem for farmers. Here, we describe the mechanism underlying the onset of internal blue discoloration of three cultivars: Hukuhomare, SC8-260, and Yuto. Each cultivar was maintained under the same conditions. Additionally, Hukuhomare radish roots were maintained at three different cultivation conditions in a related experiment. The blue discoloration in radish roots was caused by the oxidation of 4-hydroxyglucobrassicin as a result of an increase in oxidative stress involving peroxidase. Thus, the extent of blue discoloration was influenced by the chemical balance involving 4-hydroxyglucobrassicin content, antioxidant capacity, and oxidation activity. PMID:27530819

  3. Structure of a Precursor to the Blue Components Produced in the Blue Discoloration in Japanese Radish (Raphanus sativus) Roots.

    PubMed

    Teranishi, Katsunori; Masayasu, Nagata

    2016-05-27

    The internal blue discoloration in Japanese radish (Raphanus sativus L.) roots has been reported to be a physiological phenomenon after harvest and poses a significant problem for farmers. To avoid this discoloration, the fundamental development of new radish cultivars that do not undergo discoloration and/or improved cultivation methods is required. Elucidating the chemical mechanism leading to this discoloration could help overcome these difficulties. To determine the mechanism underlying this discoloration, this study was designed to probe the structure of a precursor to the blue components generated during the discoloration process. Soaking fresh roots in aqueous H2O2 resulted in rapid blue discoloration, similar to the natural discoloration. Using a H2O2-based blue discoloration assay, the precursor was extracted and isolated from the fresh roots and identified as the glucosinolate, 4-hydroxyglucobrassicin, via spectroscopy and chemical synthesis.

  4. Effect of ambient-level gas-phase peroxides on foliar injury, growth, and net photosynthesis in Japanese radish (Raphanus sativus).

    PubMed

    Chen, Xuan; Aoki, Masatoshi; Takami, Akinori; Chai, Fahe; Hatakeyama, Shiro

    2010-05-01

    To investigate the effects of ambient-level gas-phase peroxides concurrent with O(3) on foliar injury, photosynthesis, and biomass in herbaceous plants, we exposed Japanese radish (Raphanus sativus) to clean air, 50 ppb O(3), 100 ppb O(3), and 2-3 ppb peroxides + 50 ppb O(3) in outdoor chambers. Compared with exposure to 100 ppb O(3), exposure to 2-3 ppb peroxides + 50 ppb O(3) induced greater damage in foliar injury, net photosynthetic rates and biomass; the pattern of foliar injury and the cause of net photosynthetic rate reduction also differed from those occurring with O(3) exposure alone. These results indicate for the first time that sub-ppb peroxides + 50 ppb O(3) can cause more severe damage to plants than 100 ppb O(3), and that not only O(3), but also peroxides, could be contributing to the herbaceous plant damage and forest decline observed in Japan's air-polluted urban and remote mountains areas.

  5. Variation in amylase activities in radish (Raphanus sativus) cultivars.

    PubMed

    Hara, Masakazu; Ito, Fumio; Asai, Tatsuo; Kuboi, Toru

    2009-09-01

    The radish (Raphanus sativus) is a root vegetable of the Brassicaceae family which shows amylolytic activity in the taproot. However, there is little information about differences in these amylolytic activities among radish cultivars. We analyzed the amylase activities and starch contents of 7 kinds of radish cultivars. The Koshin cultivar showed the highest amylase activity, with a level approximately 6 times higher than that of the Sobutori cultivar, which had the lowest. Cultivars with higher amylase activities showed higher starch contents. These results suggest that there are intraspecies variations in amylolytic activities in radishes, and positive correlations between amylase activity and starch content.

  6. Six new acylated anthocyanins from red radish (Raphanus sativus).

    PubMed

    Tamura, Satoru; Tsuji, Kouji; Yongzhen, Piao; Ohnishi-Kameyama, Mayumi; Murakami, Nobutoshi

    2010-09-01

    Six new acylated anthocyanins (1-6) were isolated along with the three known congeners (7-9) from the fresh roots of red radishes (Raphanus sativus L.) cultivated by our group. Their chemical structures were elucidated by spectroscopic properties. Among the six new anthocyanins, the five constituents (1, 2, 4-6) were shown to contain the malonyl function at 6-OH in the glucopyranosyl residue linked to C-5 in the pelargonidin nucleus.

  7. Draft sequences of the radish (Raphanus sativus L.) genome.

    PubMed

    Kitashiba, Hiroyasu; Li, Feng; Hirakawa, Hideki; Kawanabe, Takahiro; Zou, Zhongwei; Hasegawa, Yoichi; Tonosaki, Kaoru; Shirasawa, Sachiko; Fukushima, Aki; Yokoi, Shuji; Takahata, Yoshihito; Kakizaki, Tomohiro; Ishida, Masahiko; Okamoto, Shunsuke; Sakamoto, Koji; Shirasawa, Kenta; Tabata, Satoshi; Nishio, Takeshi

    2014-10-01

    Radish (Raphanus sativus L., n = 9) is one of the major vegetables in Asia. Since the genomes of Brassica and related species including radish underwent genome rearrangement, it is quite difficult to perform functional analysis based on the reported genomic sequence of Brassica rapa. Therefore, we performed genome sequencing of radish. Short reads of genomic sequences of 191.1 Gb were obtained by next-generation sequencing (NGS) for a radish inbred line, and 76,592 scaffolds of ≥ 300 bp were constructed along with the bacterial artificial chromosome-end sequences. Finally, the whole draft genomic sequence of 402 Mb spanning 75.9% of the estimated genomic size and containing 61,572 predicted genes was obtained. Subsequently, 221 single nucleotide polymorphism markers and 768 PCR-RFLP markers were used together with the 746 markers produced in our previous study for the construction of a linkage map. The map was combined further with another radish linkage map constructed mainly with expressed sequence tag-simple sequence repeat markers into a high-density integrated map of 1,166 cM with 2,553 DNA markers. A total of 1,345 scaffolds were assigned to the linkage map, spanning 116.0 Mb. Bulked PCR products amplified by 2,880 primer pairs were sequenced by NGS, and SNPs in eight inbred lines were identified. PMID:24848699

  8. Draft sequences of the radish (Raphanus sativus L.) genome.

    PubMed

    Kitashiba, Hiroyasu; Li, Feng; Hirakawa, Hideki; Kawanabe, Takahiro; Zou, Zhongwei; Hasegawa, Yoichi; Tonosaki, Kaoru; Shirasawa, Sachiko; Fukushima, Aki; Yokoi, Shuji; Takahata, Yoshihito; Kakizaki, Tomohiro; Ishida, Masahiko; Okamoto, Shunsuke; Sakamoto, Koji; Shirasawa, Kenta; Tabata, Satoshi; Nishio, Takeshi

    2014-10-01

    Radish (Raphanus sativus L., n = 9) is one of the major vegetables in Asia. Since the genomes of Brassica and related species including radish underwent genome rearrangement, it is quite difficult to perform functional analysis based on the reported genomic sequence of Brassica rapa. Therefore, we performed genome sequencing of radish. Short reads of genomic sequences of 191.1 Gb were obtained by next-generation sequencing (NGS) for a radish inbred line, and 76,592 scaffolds of ≥ 300 bp were constructed along with the bacterial artificial chromosome-end sequences. Finally, the whole draft genomic sequence of 402 Mb spanning 75.9% of the estimated genomic size and containing 61,572 predicted genes was obtained. Subsequently, 221 single nucleotide polymorphism markers and 768 PCR-RFLP markers were used together with the 746 markers produced in our previous study for the construction of a linkage map. The map was combined further with another radish linkage map constructed mainly with expressed sequence tag-simple sequence repeat markers into a high-density integrated map of 1,166 cM with 2,553 DNA markers. A total of 1,345 scaffolds were assigned to the linkage map, spanning 116.0 Mb. Bulked PCR products amplified by 2,880 primer pairs were sequenced by NGS, and SNPs in eight inbred lines were identified.

  9. QTL mapping of clubroot resistance in radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Kamei, Akito; Tsuro, Masato; Kubo, Nakao; Hayashi, Takeshi; Wang, Ning; Fujimura, Tatsuhito; Hirai, Masashi

    2010-03-01

    A QTL analysis for clubroot resistance (CR) of radish was performed using an F(2) population derived from a crossing of a CR Japanese radish and a clubroot-susceptible (CS) Chinese radish. F(3) plants obtained by selfing of F(2) plants were used for the CR tests. The potted seedlings were inoculated and the symptom was evaluated 6 weeks thereafter. The mean disease indexes of the F(3) plants were used for the phenotype of the F(2). The results of two CR tests were analyzed for the presence of QTL. A linkage map was constructed using AFLP and SSR markers; it spanned 554 cM and contained 18 linkage groups. A CR locus was observed in the top region of linkage group 1 in two tests. Therefore, the present results suggest that a large part of radish CR is controlled by a single gene or closely linked genes in this radish population, although minor effects of other genomic areas cannot be ruled out. The CR locus was named Crs1. Markers linked to Crs1 showed sequence homology to the genomic region of the top of chromosome 3 of Arabidopsis, as in the case of Crr3, a CR locus in Brassica rapa. These markers should be useful for breeding CR cultivars of radish. As Japanese radishes are known to be highly resistant or immune to clubroot, these markers may also be useful in the introgression of this CR gene to Brassica crops.

  10. Characterization of Radish (Raphanus sativus) Storage Proteins 1

    PubMed Central

    Laroche, Monique; Aspart, Lorette; Delseny, Michel; Penon, Paul

    1984-01-01

    Radish (Raphanus sativus cv Rond rose à bout blanc Vilmorin) seeds, as other cruciferae oil seeds, contain two major types of storage protein aggregates which can be separated by gel filtration into 12 and 1.7 Svedberg fractions. These two fractions have been characterized by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, amino acid composition, and two bidimensional gel electrophoresis systems. These results were compared with those obtained with rapeseed storage proteins. Radish 12 Svedberg particles are made of a series of nine major polypeptides ranging from 33 to 30 kilodaltons. These polypeptides present charge heterogeneity. The 12 Svedberg particle is made of six subunits ≃ 55 kilodaltons. Each subunit is a couple of two polypeptides linked by a disulfide bridge. The 1.7 Svedberg particle has a simpler composition. It is made of two polypeptides of 10 and 12 kilodaltons and smaller peptides of ≃ 7 kilodaltons. Twelve and 1.7 Svedberg particles also differ in their amino acid composition, the 1.7 Svedberg being particularly rich in glutamic acid and proline. Its components are basic. The organization of the rapeseed storage protein is similar but more complex. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:16663449

  11. The complete mitochondrial genome of cultivated radish WK10039 (Raphanus sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Jeong, Young-Min; Chung, Won-Hyung; Choi, Ah Young; Mun, Jeong-Hwan; Kim, Namshin; Yu, Hee-Ju

    2016-01-01

    We determined the complete nucleotide sequence of the mitochondrial genome of radish cultivar WK10039 (Raphanus sativus L.). The total length of the mtDNA sequence is 244,054 bp, with GC content of 45.3%. The radish mtDNA contains 82 protein-coding genes, 17 tRNA genes, and 3 rRNA genes. Among the protein-coding genes, 34 encode proteins with known functions. There are two 5529 bp repeats in the radish mitochondrial genome that may contribute to DNA recombination resulting in at least three different forms of mtDNA in radish.

  12. Adenosine Phosphates in Germinating Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) Seeds 1

    PubMed Central

    Moreland, Donald E.; Hussey, Griscelda G.; Shriner, Carole R.; Farmer, Fred S.

    1974-01-01

    Changes in concentrations of adenosine phosphates (AMP, ADP, and ATP), oxygen utilization, and fresh weights were measured during the first 48 hours after imbibition of water by quiescent radish seeds (Raphanus sativus L.) at 22.5 C. The changes in ATP concentrations, oxygen utilization, and fresh weights followed a triphasic time course, characterized by a rapid initial increase, which extended from 0 to approximately 1.5 hours, a lag phase from 1.5 to 16 hours, and a sharp linear increase from 16 to 48 hours. In unimbibed seeds, the concentrations of ATP, ADP, and AMP were <0.1, 0.9, and 2.2 nmoles/seed, respectively. After imbibition of water by the quiescent seeds, for 1 hour, the ATP concentration had increased to 2.5, and ADP and AMP concentrations had decreased to 0.3 and 0.1 nmole/seed, respectively. These early changes occurred also in seeds maintained under anaerobic conditions (argon), or when treated with either 5 mm fluoroacetate, or 5 mm iodoacetate. The concentrations of ADP and AMP did not change significantly from 1 to 48 hours. The termination of the lag phase at 16 hours correlated with radicle emergence. Cell division in the radicles was initiated at approximately 28 hours. ATP concentrations in seeds maintained under argon or treated with fluoroacetate remained relatively constant from approximately 2 to 48 hours. In contrast, the ATP concentration of iodoacetate-treated seeds decreased curvilinearly from 4 to 48 hours. Oxidative phosphorylation was estimated to have contributed 15, 20, and 65% of the pool ATP at 1.5, 16, and 48 hours, respectively. PMID:16658928

  13. Root Glucosinolate Profiles for Screening of Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) Genetic Resources.

    PubMed

    Yi, Gibum; Lim, Sooyeon; Chae, Won Byoung; Park, Jeong Eun; Park, Hye Rang; Lee, Eun Jin; Huh, Jin Hoe

    2016-01-13

    Radish (Raphanus sativus L.), a root vegetable, is rich in glucosinolates (GLs), which are beneficial secondary metabolites for human health. To investigate the genetic variations in GL content in radish roots and the relationship with other root phenotypes, we analyzed 71 accessions from 23 different countries for GLs using HPLC. The most abundant GL in radish roots was glucoraphasatin, a GL with four-carbon aliphatic side chain. The content of glucoraphasatin represented at least 84.5% of the total GL content. Indolyl GL represented only 3.1% of the total GL at its maximum. The principal component analysis of GL profiles with various root phenotypes showed that four different genotypes exist in the 71 accessions. Although no strong correlation with GL content and root phenotype was observed, the varied GL content levels demonstrate the genetic diversity of GL content, and the amount that GLs could be potentially improved by breeding in radishes. PMID:26672790

  14. Root Glucosinolate Profiles for Screening of Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) Genetic Resources.

    PubMed

    Yi, Gibum; Lim, Sooyeon; Chae, Won Byoung; Park, Jeong Eun; Park, Hye Rang; Lee, Eun Jin; Huh, Jin Hoe

    2016-01-13

    Radish (Raphanus sativus L.), a root vegetable, is rich in glucosinolates (GLs), which are beneficial secondary metabolites for human health. To investigate the genetic variations in GL content in radish roots and the relationship with other root phenotypes, we analyzed 71 accessions from 23 different countries for GLs using HPLC. The most abundant GL in radish roots was glucoraphasatin, a GL with four-carbon aliphatic side chain. The content of glucoraphasatin represented at least 84.5% of the total GL content. Indolyl GL represented only 3.1% of the total GL at its maximum. The principal component analysis of GL profiles with various root phenotypes showed that four different genotypes exist in the 71 accessions. Although no strong correlation with GL content and root phenotype was observed, the varied GL content levels demonstrate the genetic diversity of GL content, and the amount that GLs could be potentially improved by breeding in radishes.

  15. De novo assembly and characterization of the complete chloroplast genome of radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Jeong, Young-Min; Chung, Won-Hyung; Mun, Jeong-Hwan; Kim, Namshin; Yu, Hee-Ju

    2014-11-01

    Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) is an edible root vegetable crop that is cultivated worldwide and whose genome has been sequenced. Here we report the complete nucleotide sequence of the radish cultivar WK10039 chloroplast (cp) genome, along with a de novo assembly strategy using whole genome shotgun sequence reads obtained by next generation sequencing. The radish cp genome is 153,368 bp in length and has a typical quadripartite structure, composed of a pair of inverted repeat regions (26,217 bp each), a large single copy region (83,170 bp), and a small single copy region (17,764 bp). The radish cp genome contains 87 predicted protein-coding genes, 37 tRNA genes, and 8 rRNA genes. Sequence analysis revealed the presence of 91 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) in the radish cp genome. Phylogenetic analysis of 62 protein-coding gene sequences from the 17 cp genomes of the Brassicaceae family suggested that the radish cp genome is most closely related to the cp genomes of Brassica rapa and Brassicanapus. Comparisons with the B. rapa and B. napus cp genomes revealed highly divergent intergenic sequences and introns that can potentially be developed as diagnostic cp markers. Synonymous and nonsynonymous substitutions of cp genes suggested that nucleotide substitutions have occurred at similar rates in most genes. The complete sequence of the radish cp genome would serve as a valuable resource for the development of new molecular markers and the study of the phylogenetic relationships of Raphanus species in the Brassicaceae family.

  16. De novo assembly and characterization of the complete chloroplast genome of radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Jeong, Young-Min; Chung, Won-Hyung; Mun, Jeong-Hwan; Kim, Namshin; Yu, Hee-Ju

    2014-11-01

    Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) is an edible root vegetable crop that is cultivated worldwide and whose genome has been sequenced. Here we report the complete nucleotide sequence of the radish cultivar WK10039 chloroplast (cp) genome, along with a de novo assembly strategy using whole genome shotgun sequence reads obtained by next generation sequencing. The radish cp genome is 153,368 bp in length and has a typical quadripartite structure, composed of a pair of inverted repeat regions (26,217 bp each), a large single copy region (83,170 bp), and a small single copy region (17,764 bp). The radish cp genome contains 87 predicted protein-coding genes, 37 tRNA genes, and 8 rRNA genes. Sequence analysis revealed the presence of 91 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) in the radish cp genome. Phylogenetic analysis of 62 protein-coding gene sequences from the 17 cp genomes of the Brassicaceae family suggested that the radish cp genome is most closely related to the cp genomes of Brassica rapa and Brassicanapus. Comparisons with the B. rapa and B. napus cp genomes revealed highly divergent intergenic sequences and introns that can potentially be developed as diagnostic cp markers. Synonymous and nonsynonymous substitutions of cp genes suggested that nucleotide substitutions have occurred at similar rates in most genes. The complete sequence of the radish cp genome would serve as a valuable resource for the development of new molecular markers and the study of the phylogenetic relationships of Raphanus species in the Brassicaceae family. PMID:25151309

  17. Molecular characterization of a trisegmented chrysovirus isolated from the radish Raphanus sativus.

    PubMed

    Li, Liqiang; Liu, Jianning; Xu, Aixia; Wang, Ting; Chen, Jishuang; Zhu, Xiwu

    2013-09-01

    Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) is cultivated worldwide and is of agronomic importance. dsRNAs associated with partitiviruses were previously found in many R. sativus varieties. In this study, three large dsRNAs from radish were cloned using a modified single primer amplification technique. These three dsRNAs-of lengths 3638, 3517 and 3299 bp-shared conserved untranslated terminal regions, and each contained a major open reading frame putatively encoding the chrysoviral replicase, capsid protein and protease respectively. Isometric virus-like particles (VLP), approximately 45nm in diameter, were isolated from the infected radish plants. Northern blotting indicated that these dsRNAs were encapsidated in the VLP. The virus containing these dsRNA genome segments was named Raphanus sativus chrysovirus 1 (RasCV1). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that RasCV1 is a new species of the Chrysoviridae family and forms a plant taxon with another putative plant chrysovirus, Anthurium mosaic-associated virus (AmaCV). Furthermore, no fungal mycelia were observed in radish leaf tissues stained with trypan blue. These results indicated that RasCV1 is most likely a plant chrysovirus rather than a chrysovirus in symbiotic fungi. An exhaustive BLAST analysis of RasCV1 and AmaCV revealed that chrysovirus-like viruses might widely exist in eudicot and monocot plants and that endogenization of chrysovirus segments into plant genome might have ever happened.

  18. A Case of Anaphylaxis Induced by Contact with Young Radish (Raphanus sativus L).

    PubMed

    Lee, Yung-Hee; Lee, Jae-Hyoung; Kang, Hye-Ran; Ha, Jung-Hoon; Lee, Byoung-Hoon; Kim, Sang-Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Young radish (Raphanus sativus L), a member of the mustard family (Cruciferae), is a common ingredient of Kimchi. Although few reports have described anaphylaxis to cruciferous vegetables, we report the case of anaphylaxis induced by contact with young radish. A 46-year-old female with a history of contact allergy to metal presented to our emergency room (ER) with dizziness, generalized eruption and gastrointestinal upset. Her symptoms developed after re-exposure to young radish while chopping it. Hypotensive blood pressures were noted. Three days prior, the patient had experienced generalized urticaria with pruritus immediately after chopping the fresh young radish, which resolved spontaneously. In the ER, her symptoms improved by the administration of epinephrine (0.3 mL), antihistamine (chlorpheniramine) and isotonic saline hydration. A skin prick test with young radish extract showed positive reactivity. The same skin test was negative in five adult controls. IgE-mediated hypersensitivity could be an important immunologic mechanism in the development of young radish-induced anaphylaxis.

  19. Anthocyanin accumulation and expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes in radish (Raphanus sativus).

    PubMed

    Park, Nam Il; Xu, Hui; Li, Xiaohua; Jang, In Hyuk; Park, Suhyoung; Ahn, Gil Hwan; Lim, Yong Pyo; Kim, Sun Ju; Park, Sang Un

    2011-06-01

    Radish [Raphanus sativus (Rs)] is an important dietary vegetable in Asian countries, especially China, Japan, and Korea. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms of anthocyanin accumulation in radish, the gene expression of enzymes directly involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis was analyzed. These genes include phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H), 4-coumarate-CoA ligase (4CL), chalcone synthase (CHS), chalcone isomerase (CHI), flavanone 3-hydroxylase (F3H), dihydroflavonol reductase (DFR), and anthocyanidin synthase (ANS). RsDFR and RsANS were found to accumulate in the flesh or skin of two radish cultivars (Man Tang Hong and Hong Feng No.1). Radish skin contained higher CHS, CHI, and F3H transcript levels than radish flesh in all three cultivars. In the red radish, 16 anthocyanins were separated and identified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and elctrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS). Some of them were acylated with coumaroyl, malonoyl, feruoyl, and caffeoyl moieties. Furthermore (-)-epicatechin and ferulic acid were also identified in the three cultivars.

  20. Investigation of MCPA (4-Chloro-2-ethylphenoxyacetate) resistance in wild radish (Raphanus raphanistrum L.).

    PubMed

    Jugulam, Mithila; Dimeo, Natalie; Veldhuis, Linda J; Walsh, Michael; Hall, J Christopher

    2013-12-26

    The phenoxy herbicides (e.g., 2,4-D and MCPA) are used widely in agriculture for the selective control of broadleaf weeds. In Western Australia, the reliance on phenoxy herbicides has resulted in the widespread evolution of phenoxy resistance in wild radish (Raphanus raphanistrum) populations. In this research the inheritance and mechanism of MCPA resistance in wild radish were determined. Following classical breeding procedures, F1, F2, and backcross progeny were generated. The F1 progeny showed an intermediate response to MCPA, compared to parents, suggesting that MCPA resistance in wild radish is inherited as an incompletely dominant trait. Segregation ratios observed in F2 (3:1; resistant:susceptible) and backcross progeny (1:1; resistant to susceptible) indicated that the MCPA resistance is controlled by a single gene in wild radish. Radiolabeled MCPA studies suggested no difference in MCPA uptake or metabolism between resistant and susceptible wild radish; however, resistant plants rapidly translocated more (14)C-MCPA to roots than susceptible plants, which may have been exuded from the plant. Understanding the genetic basis and mechanism of phenoxy resistance in wild radish will help formulate prudent weed management strategies to reduce the incidence of phenoxy resistance.

  1. [Virus infestation of garden radish (Raphanus sativus L. var. sativus) (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Schmelzer, K

    1976-01-01

    In July 1974 a mosaic disease was stated in seed plants of garden radish near Aschersleben which spread more and more within some weeks and eventually infected over 40 per cent of the stand. Investigations in comparison with healthy seed plants demonstrated the following average losses induced by the disease: number of pods 51 per cent, seed weight 67 per cent, number of seeds per plant 53 per cent, weight of 1,000 seeds 33 per cent. Nearly unaffected were: number of seeds per pod, percentage of seed germination, and percentage of emerged seedlings. However, the seedlings were smaller when they derived from diseased mother plants. From diseased seed plants cauliflower mosaic virus was isolated. Seed transmission of this virus could not be stated with several hundreds of seedlings deriving from diseased garden radish. Back transmissions were successful with sap and with aphids. Only one strain which was cultivated in greenhouse for a long time gave no positive results. Three isolates of cabbage black ring virus from different plant species and the four beetle-transmissible viruses, namely turnip yellow mosaic, turnip crinkle, turnip rosette, and radish mosaic viruses induced no symptoms on garden radish seedlings. However, Erysimum latent virus, also belonging to the beetle-transmissible viruses, sometimes caused symptoms in garden radish. For the first time the investigations demonstrated in Europe, but probably also for the other continents, a spontaneous virus infection of Raphanus sativus var. sativus.

  2. Plant Productivity and Characterization of Zeoponic Substrates after Three Successive Crops of Radish (Raphanus sativus L.)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gruener, J. E.; Ming, Douglas W.; Galindo, C., Jr.; Henderson, K. E.; Golden, D. C.

    2007-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has developed a zeolite-based synthetic substrate, termed zeoponics. The zeoponic substrate (consisting of NH4(-) and K-exchanged clinoptilolite, synthetic apatite, and dolomite) provides all of the plant-essential nutrients through mineral dissolution and ion exchange, with only the addition of water. Previous studies have shown high productivity of wheat in zeoponic substrates; however, no experiments have been conducted on other crops. The objective of this study was to determine the productivity and nutrient uptake of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) grown in zeoponic substrates with three successive crops in the same substrate. Radish was chosen because of its sensitivities to NH4(+). Average fresh weights of edible roots were similar for radish grown in zeoponic substrates watered with deionized H2O (10.97 g/plant) and in potting mix control substrate irrigated with nutrient solution (10.92 g/plant). Average fresh weight production of edible roots for radish grown in same zeoponic substrate increased in yield over time with the lowest yield in the first crop (7.10 g/plant) and highest in the third crop (13.90 g/plant). The Ca plant tissue levels in radishes (1.8-2.9 wt. %) grown in zeoponic substrates are lower than the suggested sufficient range of 3.0-4.5 wt. % Ca; however, the Ca level is highest (2.9 wt. %) in radishes grown in the third crop in the same zeoponic substrates. The higher radish yield in the third crop was attributed to a reduction in an NH4(-) induced Ca deficiency that has been previously described for wheat grown in zeoponic substrates. The P levels in plant tissues of radish grown in the zeoponic substrates ranged from 0.94-1.15 wt. %; which is slightly higher than the sufficient levels of 0.3-0.7 wt. %. With the exception of Ca and P, other macronutrient and micronutrient levels in radish grown in zeoponic substrates were well within the recommended sufficient ranges. After three

  3. Multiple origins of cultivated radishes as evidenced by a comparison of the structural variations in mitochondrial DNA of Raphanus.

    PubMed

    Yamagishi, Hiroshi; Terachi, Toru

    2003-02-01

    Configurations of mitochondrial coxI and orfB gene regions were analysed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in three wild and one cultivated species of Raphanus. A total of 207 individual plants from 60 accessions were used. PCR with five combinations of primers identified five different amplification patterns both in wild and cultivated radishes. While the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) type of Ogura male-sterile cytoplasm was distinguishable from the normal type, the mtDNAs of normal radishes were further classified into four types. The variations were common to wild and cultivated radishes, although contrasting features were found depending on the region of cultivation. These results provide evidence that cultivated radishes have multiple origins from various wild plants of Raphanus.

  4. Artificial selection on anther exsertion in wild radish, Raphanus raphanistrum.

    PubMed

    Conner, Jeffrey K; Mills, Cynthia J; Koelling, Vanessa A; Karoly, Keith

    2014-01-01

    To study the genetic architecture of anther exsertion, a trait under stabilizing selection in wild radish, artificial selection on anther exsertion was applied for 11 generations. Two replicate lines each of increased and decreased exsertion plus two randomly-mated controls were included. Full pedigree information is available from generation five. To estimate correlated responses to selection, 571 plants from all lines and matrilines were grown in the greenhouse and a number of floral, growth, and phenology traits were measured. To create an outbred F2 mapping population, all possible crosses among the two high and two low exsertion lines were made, using a multiple-family design to capture the genetic variance still present after 11 generations of selection. Six floral traits were measured on 40 parents, 240 F1, and 4,868 F2 offspring. Opportunities for reuse of these data include traits not previously analyzed, other analyses, especially using the pedigree and fitness data, and seeds from all generations and photos of flowers in the later generations are available. PMID:25977784

  5. Artificial selection on anther exsertion in wild radish, Raphanus raphanistrum.

    PubMed

    Conner, Jeffrey K; Mills, Cynthia J; Koelling, Vanessa A; Karoly, Keith

    2014-01-01

    To study the genetic architecture of anther exsertion, a trait under stabilizing selection in wild radish, artificial selection on anther exsertion was applied for 11 generations. Two replicate lines each of increased and decreased exsertion plus two randomly-mated controls were included. Full pedigree information is available from generation five. To estimate correlated responses to selection, 571 plants from all lines and matrilines were grown in the greenhouse and a number of floral, growth, and phenology traits were measured. To create an outbred F2 mapping population, all possible crosses among the two high and two low exsertion lines were made, using a multiple-family design to capture the genetic variance still present after 11 generations of selection. Six floral traits were measured on 40 parents, 240 F1, and 4,868 F2 offspring. Opportunities for reuse of these data include traits not previously analyzed, other analyses, especially using the pedigree and fitness data, and seeds from all generations and photos of flowers in the later generations are available.

  6. Uptake, transport and transformation of arsenate in radishes (Raphanus sativus).

    PubMed

    Smith, Paula G; Koch, Iris; Reimer, Kenneth J

    2008-02-01

    The localization and identification of arsenic compounds in terrestrial plants are important for the understanding of arsenic uptake, transformation and translocation within these organisms, and contributes to our understanding of arsenic cycling in the environment. High performance liquid chromatography inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS), and X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) analysis identified arsenite, arsenate and arsenic(III)-sulphur compounds in leaf, stem and root sections of Rhaphanus sativus (radish) plants grown in both arsenic contaminated mine waste, and arsenic amended liquid cultures. The total arsenic distribution was similar between the plants grown in mine waste and those grown hydroponically. Arsenate was the predominant form of arsenic available in the growth mediums, and after it was taken up by roots, X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) imaging indicated that some of the arsenate was transported to the shoots via the xylem. Additionally, arsenate was reduced by the plant and arsenic(III)-sulphur compound(s) accounted for the majority of arsenic in the leaf and stem of living plants. In this study the application of synchrotron techniques permitted the identification of arsenic(III)-sulphur species which were "invisible" to conventional HPLC-ICP-MS analysis.

  7. Cytokinin-dependent secondary growth determines root biomass in radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Jang, Geupil; Lee, Jung-Hun; Rastogi, Khushboo; Park, Suhyoung; Oh, Sang-Hun; Lee, Ji-Young

    2015-08-01

    The root serves as an essential organ in plant growth by taking up nutrients and water from the soil and supporting the rest of the plant body. Some plant species utilize roots as storage organs. Sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas), cassava (Manihot esculenta), and radish (Raphanus sativus), for example, are important root crops. However, how their root growth is regulated remains unknown. In this study, we characterized the relationship between cambium and radial root growth in radish. Through a comparative analysis with Arabidopsis root expression data, we identified putative cambium-enriched transcription factors in radish and analysed their expression in representative inbred lines featuring distinctive radial growth. We found that cell proliferation activities in the cambium positively correlated with radial growth and final yields of radish roots. Expression analysis of candidate transcription factor genes revealed that some genes are differentially expressed between inbred lines and that the difference is due to the distinct cytokinin response. Taken together, we have demonstrated for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, that cytokinin-dependent radial growth plays a key role in the yields of root crops. PMID:25979997

  8. Initiation of spontaneous tumors in radish (Raphanus sativus): Cellular, molecular and physiological events.

    PubMed

    Lebedeva Osipova, Maria A; Tvorogova, Varvara E; Vinogradova, Alena P; Gancheva, Maria S; Azarakhsh, Mahboobeh; Ilina, Elena L; Demchenko, Kirill N; Dodueva, Irina E; Lutova, Lyudmila A

    2015-01-15

    In plant meristems, the balance of cell proliferation and differentiation is maintained by phytohormones, specifically auxin and cytokinin, as well as transcription factors. Changing of the cytokinin/auxin balance in plants may lead to developmental abnormalities, and in particular, to the formation of tumors. The examples of spontaneous tumor formation in plants include tumors formed on the roots of radish (Raphanus sativus) inbred lines. Previously, it was found that the cytokinin/auxin ratio is altered in radish tumors. In this study, a detailed histological analysis of spontaneous radish tumors was performed, revealing a possible mechanism of tumor formation, namely abnormal cambial activity. The analysis of cell proliferation patterns revealed meristematic foci in radish tumors. By using a fusion of an auxin-responsive promoter (DR5) and a reporter gene, the involvement of auxin in developmental processes in tumors was shown. In addition, the expression of the root meristem-specific WUSCHEL-related homeobox 5 (WOX5) gene was observed in cells adjacent to meristematic foci. Taken together, the results of the present study show that tumor tissues share some characteristics with root apical meristems, including the presence of auxin-response maxima in meristematic foci with adjacent cells expressing WOX5.

  9. Cytokinin-dependent secondary growth determines root biomass in radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Jang, Geupil; Lee, Jung-Hun; Rastogi, Khushboo; Park, Suhyoung; Oh, Sang-Hun; Lee, Ji-Young

    2015-08-01

    The root serves as an essential organ in plant growth by taking up nutrients and water from the soil and supporting the rest of the plant body. Some plant species utilize roots as storage organs. Sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas), cassava (Manihot esculenta), and radish (Raphanus sativus), for example, are important root crops. However, how their root growth is regulated remains unknown. In this study, we characterized the relationship between cambium and radial root growth in radish. Through a comparative analysis with Arabidopsis root expression data, we identified putative cambium-enriched transcription factors in radish and analysed their expression in representative inbred lines featuring distinctive radial growth. We found that cell proliferation activities in the cambium positively correlated with radial growth and final yields of radish roots. Expression analysis of candidate transcription factor genes revealed that some genes are differentially expressed between inbred lines and that the difference is due to the distinct cytokinin response. Taken together, we have demonstrated for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, that cytokinin-dependent radial growth plays a key role in the yields of root crops.

  10. Phytochemical composition and biological activity of 8 varieties of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) sprouts and mature taproots.

    PubMed

    Hanlon, Paul R; Barnes, David M

    2011-01-01

    Radishes (Raphanus sativus L.) are members of the cruciferous vegetable family that contain many classes of biologically active phytochemicals. This study determined the phytochemical composition of the sprouts and mature taproots of 8 radish varieties. Radish sprouts contained significantly greater concentrations of glucosinolates (3.8-fold) and isothiocyanates (8.2-fold) than the mature radish taproot and also contained significantly greater concentrations of phenolics (on average 6.9-fold). The anthocyanin concentrations of the mature radish taproot were significantly greater than in the sprouts of red, pink, and purple varieties. The primary anthocyanidins present in the red and pink radish varieties were pelargonidin and delphinidin, while the primary anthocyanidin in the purple radish variety was cyanidin. Radish sprouts were between 9- and 59-fold more potent than the corresponding mature taproot at activating the antioxidant response element (ARE) in a stably transfected hepatoma cell line. The ARE activity of the radish sprouts and mature taproots was significantly correlated with the total isothiocyanate concentration of the radishes. Practical Application: Understanding the influence variety and developmental stage has on the biological activity of cruciferous vegetables provides important information for further studies examining the in vivo effects of radish treatment and foundation for providing recommendations to reduce the risk of chronic disease through dietary intervention.

  11. Transcriptome Profiling of Taproot Reveals Complex Regulatory Networks during Taproot Thickening in Radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Yu, Rugang; Wang, Jing; Xu, Liang; Wang, Yan; Wang, Ronghua; Zhu, Xianwen; Sun, Xiaochuan; Luo, Xiaobo; Xie, Yang; Everlyne, Muleke; Liu, Liwang

    2016-01-01

    Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) is one of the most important vegetable crops worldwide. Taproot thickening represents a critical developmental period that determines yield and quality in radish life cycle. To isolate differentially expressed genes (DGEs) involved in radish taproot thickening process and explore the molecular mechanism underlying taproot development, three cDNA libraries from radish taproot collected at pre-cortex splitting stage (L1), cortex splitting stage (L2), and expanding stage (L3) were constructed and sequenced by RNA-Seq technology. More than seven million clean reads were obtained from the three libraries, from which 4,717,617 (L1, 65.35%), 4,809,588 (L2, 68.24%) and 4,973,745 (L3, 69.45%) reads were matched to the radish reference genes, respectively. A total of 85,939 transcripts were generated from three libraries, from which 10,450, 12,325, and 7392 differentially expressed transcripts (DETs) were detected in L1 vs. L2, L1 vs. L3, and L2 vs. L3 comparisons, respectively. Gene Ontology and pathway analysis showed that many DEGs, including EXPA9, Cyclin, CaM, Syntaxin, MADS-box, SAUR, and CalS were involved in cell events, cell wall modification, regulation of plant hormone levels, signal transduction and metabolisms, which may relate to taproot thickening. Furthermore, the integrated analysis of mRNA-miRNA revealed that 43 miRNAs and 92 genes formed 114 miRNA-target mRNA pairs were co-expressed, and three miRNA-target regulatory networks of taproot were constructed from different libraries. Finally, the expression patterns of 16 selected genes were confirmed using RT-qPCR analysis. A hypothetical model of genetic regulatory network associated with taproot thickening in radish was put forward. The taproot formation of radish is mainly attributed to cell differentiation, division and expansion, which are regulated and promoted by certain specific signal transduction pathways and metabolism processes. These results could provide new insights

  12. Transcriptome Profiling of Taproot Reveals Complex Regulatory Networks during Taproot Thickening in Radish (Raphanus sativus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Rugang; Wang, Jing; Xu, Liang; Wang, Yan; Wang, Ronghua; Zhu, Xianwen; Sun, Xiaochuan; Luo, Xiaobo; Xie, Yang; Everlyne, Muleke; Liu, Liwang

    2016-01-01

    Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) is one of the most important vegetable crops worldwide. Taproot thickening represents a critical developmental period that determines yield and quality in radish life cycle. To isolate differentially expressed genes (DGEs) involved in radish taproot thickening process and explore the molecular mechanism underlying taproot development, three cDNA libraries from radish taproot collected at pre-cortex splitting stage (L1), cortex splitting stage (L2), and expanding stage (L3) were constructed and sequenced by RNA-Seq technology. More than seven million clean reads were obtained from the three libraries, from which 4,717,617 (L1, 65.35%), 4,809,588 (L2, 68.24%) and 4,973,745 (L3, 69.45%) reads were matched to the radish reference genes, respectively. A total of 85,939 transcripts were generated from three libraries, from which 10,450, 12,325, and 7392 differentially expressed transcripts (DETs) were detected in L1 vs. L2, L1 vs. L3, and L2 vs. L3 comparisons, respectively. Gene Ontology and pathway analysis showed that many DEGs, including EXPA9, Cyclin, CaM, Syntaxin, MADS-box, SAUR, and CalS were involved in cell events, cell wall modification, regulation of plant hormone levels, signal transduction and metabolisms, which may relate to taproot thickening. Furthermore, the integrated analysis of mRNA-miRNA revealed that 43 miRNAs and 92 genes formed 114 miRNA-target mRNA pairs were co-expressed, and three miRNA-target regulatory networks of taproot were constructed from different libraries. Finally, the expression patterns of 16 selected genes were confirmed using RT-qPCR analysis. A hypothetical model of genetic regulatory network associated with taproot thickening in radish was put forward. The taproot formation of radish is mainly attributed to cell differentiation, division and expansion, which are regulated and promoted by certain specific signal transduction pathways and metabolism processes. These results could provide new insights

  13. Transcriptome Profiling of Taproot Reveals Complex Regulatory Networks during Taproot Thickening in Radish (Raphanus sativus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Rugang; Wang, Jing; Xu, Liang; Wang, Yan; Wang, Ronghua; Zhu, Xianwen; Sun, Xiaochuan; Luo, Xiaobo; Xie, Yang; Everlyne, Muleke; Liu, Liwang

    2016-01-01

    Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) is one of the most important vegetable crops worldwide. Taproot thickening represents a critical developmental period that determines yield and quality in radish life cycle. To isolate differentially expressed genes (DGEs) involved in radish taproot thickening process and explore the molecular mechanism underlying taproot development, three cDNA libraries from radish taproot collected at pre-cortex splitting stage (L1), cortex splitting stage (L2), and expanding stage (L3) were constructed and sequenced by RNA-Seq technology. More than seven million clean reads were obtained from the three libraries, from which 4,717,617 (L1, 65.35%), 4,809,588 (L2, 68.24%) and 4,973,745 (L3, 69.45%) reads were matched to the radish reference genes, respectively. A total of 85,939 transcripts were generated from three libraries, from which 10,450, 12,325, and 7392 differentially expressed transcripts (DETs) were detected in L1 vs. L2, L1 vs. L3, and L2 vs. L3 comparisons, respectively. Gene Ontology and pathway analysis showed that many DEGs, including EXPA9, Cyclin, CaM, Syntaxin, MADS-box, SAUR, and CalS were involved in cell events, cell wall modification, regulation of plant hormone levels, signal transduction and metabolisms, which may relate to taproot thickening. Furthermore, the integrated analysis of mRNA-miRNA revealed that 43 miRNAs and 92 genes formed 114 miRNA-target mRNA pairs were co-expressed, and three miRNA-target regulatory networks of taproot were constructed from different libraries. Finally, the expression patterns of 16 selected genes were confirmed using RT-qPCR analysis. A hypothetical model of genetic regulatory network associated with taproot thickening in radish was put forward. The taproot formation of radish is mainly attributed to cell differentiation, division and expansion, which are regulated and promoted by certain specific signal transduction pathways and metabolism processes. These results could provide new insights

  14. Transcriptome Profiling of Taproot Reveals Complex Regulatory Networks during Taproot Thickening in Radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Yu, Rugang; Wang, Jing; Xu, Liang; Wang, Yan; Wang, Ronghua; Zhu, Xianwen; Sun, Xiaochuan; Luo, Xiaobo; Xie, Yang; Everlyne, Muleke; Liu, Liwang

    2016-01-01

    Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) is one of the most important vegetable crops worldwide. Taproot thickening represents a critical developmental period that determines yield and quality in radish life cycle. To isolate differentially expressed genes (DGEs) involved in radish taproot thickening process and explore the molecular mechanism underlying taproot development, three cDNA libraries from radish taproot collected at pre-cortex splitting stage (L1), cortex splitting stage (L2), and expanding stage (L3) were constructed and sequenced by RNA-Seq technology. More than seven million clean reads were obtained from the three libraries, from which 4,717,617 (L1, 65.35%), 4,809,588 (L2, 68.24%) and 4,973,745 (L3, 69.45%) reads were matched to the radish reference genes, respectively. A total of 85,939 transcripts were generated from three libraries, from which 10,450, 12,325, and 7392 differentially expressed transcripts (DETs) were detected in L1 vs. L2, L1 vs. L3, and L2 vs. L3 comparisons, respectively. Gene Ontology and pathway analysis showed that many DEGs, including EXPA9, Cyclin, CaM, Syntaxin, MADS-box, SAUR, and CalS were involved in cell events, cell wall modification, regulation of plant hormone levels, signal transduction and metabolisms, which may relate to taproot thickening. Furthermore, the integrated analysis of mRNA-miRNA revealed that 43 miRNAs and 92 genes formed 114 miRNA-target mRNA pairs were co-expressed, and three miRNA-target regulatory networks of taproot were constructed from different libraries. Finally, the expression patterns of 16 selected genes were confirmed using RT-qPCR analysis. A hypothetical model of genetic regulatory network associated with taproot thickening in radish was put forward. The taproot formation of radish is mainly attributed to cell differentiation, division and expansion, which are regulated and promoted by certain specific signal transduction pathways and metabolism processes. These results could provide new insights

  15. First report of the crucifer pathogen Pseudomonas cannabina pv. alisalensis causing bacterial blight on radish (Raphanus sativus) in Germany

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pseudomonas cannabina pv. alisalensis is a severe pathogen of crucifers across the U.S. We compared a strain isolated from diseased radish (Raphanus sativus) in Germany to pathotypes and additional strains of P. cannabina pv. alisalensis and P. syringae pv. maculicola. We demonstrated that the patho...

  16. Effects of selenium accumulation on phytotoxicity, herbivory, and pollination ecology in radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Hladun, Kristen R; Parker, David R; Tran, Khoa D; Trumble, John T

    2013-01-01

    Selenium (Se) has contaminated areas in the western USA where pollination is critical to the functioning of both agricultural and natural ecosystems, yet we know little about how Se can impact pollinators. In a two-year semi-field study, the weedy plant Raphanus sativus (radish) was exposed to three selenate treatments and two pollination treatments to evaluate the effects on pollinator-plant interactions. Honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) pollinators were observed to readily forage on R. sativus for both pollen and nectar despite high floral Se concentrations. Se treatment increased both seed abortion (14%) and decreased plant biomass (8-9%). Herbivory by birds and aphids was reduced on Se-treated plants, indicating a potential reproductive advantage for the plant. Our study sheds light on how pollutants such as Se can impact the pollination ecology of a plant that accumulates even moderate amounts of Se.

  17. Effect of copper on pro- and antioxidative reactions in radish (Raphanus sativus L.) in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Lukatkin, Alexander; Egorova, Irina; Michailova, Irina; Malec, Przemysław; Strzałka, Kazimierz

    2014-01-01

    The generation of superoxide radicals, lipid peroxidation (as measured by malone dialdehyde formation) and the activity of selected antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase) were assessed in radish (Raphanus sativus L.), in response to elevated concentrations of copper ions in the culture medium in vitro and in vivo. Experiments were performed on 7-day-old seedlings and 5-week-old calluses grown on media supplemented with CuSO4 in concentrations of 10, 100 and 1000μМ. The exposure to elevated Cu concentrations in the medium significantly reduced both callogenesis and the proliferation of radish calluses in vitro. Cu treatment resulted in the increased generation of the superoxide radical (O2(-)) in radish seedlings and calluses indicating the occurrence of oxidative stress in radish cells, whereas the level of lipid peroxidation (LPO) remained unchanged. Both in calluses and in radish seedlings in vivo, the relative level of oxidative stress was maximal at micromolar Cu concentrations and became attenuated with increasing Cu concentrations. Stronger oxidative stress occurred in the radish seedlings in vivo, compared with radish calluses in vitro. The observed lower sensitivity of calluses to Cu-induced oxidative stress and their ability to proliferate upon exposure to Cu concentrations of up to 1000μМ demonstrate the potential of in vitro cell-selection to obtain metal-tolerant radish plant lines.

  18. The effects of CO2 on growth and transpiration of radish (Raphanus sativus) in hypobaria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gohil, H. L.; Bucklin, R. A.; Correll, M. J.

    2010-04-01

    Plants grown on long-term space missions will likely be grown in low pressure environments (i.e., hypobaria). However, in hypobaria the transpiration rates of plants can increase and may result in wilting if the water is not readily replaced. It is possible to reduce transpiration by increasing the partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2), but the effects of pCO2 at high levels (>120 Pa) on the growth and transpiration of plants in hypobaria are not known. Therefore, the effects of pCO2 on the growth and transpiration of radish (Raphanus sativus var. Cherry Bomb II) in hypobaria were studied. The fresh weight (FW), leaf area, dry weight (DW), CO2 assimilation rates (CA), dark respiration rates (DR), and transpiration rates from 26 day-old radish plants that were grown for an additional seven days at different total pressures (33, 66 or 101 kPa) and pCO2 (40 Pa, 100 Pa and 180 Pa) were measured. In general, the dry weight of plants increased with CO2 enrichment and with lower total pressure. In limiting pCO2 (40 Pa) conditions, the transpiration for plants grown at 33 kPa was approximately twice that of controls (101 kPa total pressure with 40 Pa pCO2). Increasing the pCO2 from 40 Pa to 180 Pa reduced the transpiration rates for plants grown in hypobaria and in standard atmospheric pressures. However, for plants grown in hypobaria and high pCO2 (180 Pa) leaf damage was evident. Radish growth can be enhanced and transpiration reduced in hypobaria by enriching the gas phase with CO2 although at high levels leaf damage may occur.

  19. Identification and characterization of novel and conserved microRNAs in radish (Raphanus sativus L.) using high-throughput sequencing.

    PubMed

    Xu, Liang; Wang, Yan; Xu, Yuanyuan; Wang, Liangju; Zhai, Lulu; Zhu, Xianwen; Gong, Yiqin; Ye, Shan; Liu, Liwang

    2013-03-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous, non-coding, small RNAs that play significant regulatory roles in plant growth, development, and biotic and abiotic stress responses. To date, a great number of conserved and species-specific miRNAs have been identified in many important plant species such as Arabidopsis, rice and poplar. However, little is known about identification of miRNAs and their target genes in radish (Raphanus sativus L.). In the present study, a small RNA library from radish root was constructed and sequenced using the high-throughput Solexa sequencing. Through sequence alignment and secondary structure prediction, a total of 545 conserved miRNA families as well as 15 novel (with their miRNA* strand) and 64 potentially novel miRNAs were identified. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis confirmed that both conserved and novel miRNAs were expressed in radish, and some of them were preferentially expressed in certain tissues. A total of 196 potential target genes were predicted for 42 novel radish miRNAs. Gene ontology (GO) analysis showed that most of the targets were involved in plant growth, development, metabolism and stress responses. This study represents a first large-scale identification and characterization of radish miRNAs and their potential target genes. These results could lead to the further identification of radish miRNAs and enhance our understanding of radish miRNA regulatory mechanisms in diverse biological and metabolic processes.

  20. Discovery of a novel cytoplasmic male-sterility and its restorer lines in radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Lee, Young-Pyo; Park, Suhyung; Lim, Chaewan; Kim, Hyojung; Lim, Heerae; Ahn, Youngsoon; Sung, Soon-Kee; Yoon, Moo-Kyoung; Kim, Sunggil

    2008-10-01

    A male-sterile (MS) radish (Raphanus sativus L.) was found in an accession collected from Uzbekistan. Unlike Ogura MS radishes in which no pollen grain is typically visible during anthesis, a small number of pollen grains stuck together in the dehiscing anthers was observed in the newly identified MS radish. Fluorescein diacetate tests and scanning electron micrographs showed that pollen grains in the new MS radish were severely deformed and non-viable. Cytological examination of pollen development stages showed a clear difference in the defective stage from that seen in Ogura male-sterility. Reciprocal cross-pollination with diverse male-fertile lines indicated that pollen grains of the new MS radish were completely sterile, and the female organs were fully fertile. When the new MS radish and Ogura MS lines were cross-pollinated with a set of eight breeding lines, all F1 progeny originating from crosses with the new MS radish were male-sterile. In contrast, most of the F1 progeny resulting from crosses with Ogura MS lines were male-fertile. These results demonstrated that factors associated with induction of the newly identified male-sterility are different from those of Ogura male-sterility. The lack of restorer lines for the newly identified male-sterility led us to predict that it might be a complete cytoplasmic male-sterility without restorer-of-fertility genes in nuclear genomes. However, cross-pollination with more diverse radish germplasm identified one accession introduced from Russia that could completely restore fertility, proving the existence of restorer-of-fertility gene(s) for the new male-sterility. Meanwhile, the PCR amplification profile of molecular markers for the classification of radish mitochondrial genome types revealed that the new MS radish contained a novel mitotype.

  1. Transfer of resistance against the beet cyst nematode from radish (Raphanus sativus) to rape (Brassica napus) by monosomic chromosome addition.

    PubMed

    Peterka, H; Budahn, H; Schrader, O; Ahne, R; Schütze, W

    2004-06-01

    In rape ( Brassica napus), no resistance to the beet cyst nematode (BCN) Heterodera schachtii is available. This study was carried out to determine the specific chromosome(s) of resistant radish ( Raphanus sativus) carrying the gene(s) for nematode resistance as a prequisite to convert rape from a host into a trap crop for this pest. A Raphanobrassica progeny of 25 plants was analyzed which segregated for all nine chromosomes of the Raphanus genome in a genetic background of synthetic rape. The number of radish chromosomes was determined by fluorescence in situ hybridization, using the Raphanus-specific DNA probe pURsN; and their type was identified by chromosome-specific randomly amplified polymorphic DNA markers. Five different multiple rape-radish chromosome additions (comprising the whole set of nine radish chromosomes, a-i) were selected and crossed to rape. For each cross-progeny, the number of cysts on plant roots was counted 42 days after inoculation with a L2 larvae suspension. Simultaneously, the plants were characterized for the presence or absence of individual radish chromosomes, using sets of chromosome-specific markers. Thus, the effect of each radish chromosome on cyst number was tested. Chromosome d had a major resistance effect, whereas the presence/absence of the other radish chromosomes had nearly no influence on cyst number. Plants with added chromosome d showed a resistance level comparable with that of the radish donor parent. The analysis in the cross to rape of a plant monosomic only for chromosome d confirmed the strong effect of this chromosome on nematode resistance. A further experiment comprising seven crosses using winter rape breeding lines and monosomic addition line d as pollen parent provided the same results on a broader genetic basis. In each case, the added chromosome d in a single dosage caused nearly the full resistance of the radish donor. Resistance was independent of the glucosinolate content in the roots. The

  2. Cadmium availability and uptake by radish (Raphanus sativus) grown in soils applied with wheat straw or composted pig manure.

    PubMed

    Shan, Hong; Su, Shiming; Liu, Rongle; Li, Shutian

    2016-08-01

    Soil cadmium (Cd) availability and uptake by cherry-red radish (Raphanus sativus) grown in Cd-contaminated soils after addition with wheat straw or composted pig manure were studied. The results indicated that wheat straw application promoted radish growth until the second harvest, while pig manure application improved radish biomass in Acid Ferralsols regardless of harvesting seasons. Application with pig manure might be more effective in lowering the Cd uptake by radish than wheat straw. Especially when pig manure of 11.9 g TOC kg(-1) amended into Acid Ferralsols, Cd contents in leaves and roots of radish decreased by 89.2 and 95.7 % at the second harvest, respectively. The changes in Cd fractions distribution in soils after application were contributed to the decline of Cd availability. Furthermore, significantly negative linear correlation (P < 0.05) between the ratio of humic acid (HA) and fulvic acid (FA) in soils and exchangeable Cd was also observed. However, the significantly negative relationship (P < 0.01) between soil pH and exchangeable Cd was merely found in pig manure-treated Acid Ferralsols. The increases in HA/FA ratio or pH values in soils after adding organic materials were also responsible for the decrease of Cd availability in soils and uptake by radish. Thus, it is recommended to stabilize soil Cd and reducing plant uptake by application with composted manure without or slightly contaminated with metals.

  3. Uptake and accumulation of bulk and nanosized cerium oxide particles and ionic cerium by radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weilan; Ebbs, Stephen D; Musante, Craig; White, Jason C; Gao, Cunmei; Ma, Xingmao

    2015-01-21

    The potential toxicity and accumulation of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) in agricultural crops has become an area of great concern and intense investigation. Interestingly, although below-ground vegetables are most likely to accumulate the highest concentrations of ENMs, little work has been done investigating the potential uptake and accumulation of ENMs for this plant group. The overall objective of this study was to evaluate how different forms of cerium (bulk cerium oxide, cerium oxide nanoparticles, and the cerium ion) affected the growth of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) and accumulation of cerium in radish tissues. Ionic cerium (Ce(3+)) had a negative effect on radish growth at 10 mg CeCl3/L, whereas bulk cerium oxide (CeO2) enhanced plant biomass at the same concentration. Treatment with 10 mg/L cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO2 NPs) had no significant effect on radish growth. Exposure to all forms of cerium resulted in the accumulation of this element in radish tissues, including the edible storage root. However, the accumulation patterns and their effect on plant growth and physiological processes varied with the characteristics of cerium. This study provides a critical frame of reference on the effects of CeO2 NPs versus their bulk and ionic counterparts on radish growth.

  4. Stability of polyadenylic and polyadenylated ribonucleic acids in radish (Raphanus sativus) seedlings.

    PubMed

    Aspart, L; Cooke, R; Delseny, M

    1979-08-29

    The stability of polyadenylic acid and polyadenylated RNA was investigated in young radish (Raphanus sativus) seedlings. We first studied the decay of poly(A) content, using a [3H]poly(U) assay, following a complete block of transcription by cordycepin (200 microgram/ml). Two lifetime classes of polyadenylic acid have been determined in these seedlings: a short-lived component with a half-life of 30 min which represents 60% of poly(A) and a more stable component with varying half-lives of which the majority range from 4-10 h and a few are considerably longer. During this period rRNA was shown to decay linearly, taking about 41 h for half of this RNA to disappear. The life-time of the other moiety of polyadenylated-RNA was analysed by continuous labelling with [3H]uridine. We have been able to demonstrate that a significant part of the mRNA molecules turns over with a half-life similar to that of the more slowly turning-over poly(A). No evidence could be obtained for rapidly turning-over messenger RNA. Thus the rapidly turning over poly(A) could correspond to a poly(A) turn-over independent of the remainder of the sequence. When labelling was very long, an apparent steady-state was reached and we determined the polyadenylated RNA content of seedlings to be 2.2% of whole cell RNA. Finally, these results were compared with those previously obtained in studying early germination of radish embryo axes. In contrast with stored mRNA which is rapidly degraded following imbibition, part of the mRNA present in 22 h old seedlings is stable for several hours.

  5. Methylation Pattern of Radish (Raphanus sativus) Nuclear Ribosomal RNA Genes 1

    PubMed Central

    Delseny, Michel; Laroche, Monique; Penon, Paul

    1984-01-01

    The methylation pattern of radish Raphanus sativus nuclear rDNA has been investigated using the Hpa II, Msp I, and Hha I restriction enzymes. The presence of numerous target sites for these enzymes has been shown using cloned rDNA fragments. A large fraction of the numerous rDNA units are heavily methylated, being completely resistant to Hpa II and Hpa I. However, specific sites are constantly available in another fraction of the units and are therefore unmethylated. The use of different probes allowed us to demonstrate that hypomethylated sites are present in different regions. Major hypomethylated Hha I sites have been mapped in the 5′ portion of 25S rRNA coding sequence. Among the hypomethylated fraction, different methylation patterns coexist. It has been possible to demonstrate that methylation patterns are specific for particular units. The Hha I pattern of rDNA in tissues of different developmental stages was analyzed. Evidence for possible tissue specific differences in the methylation pattern is reported. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 5 PMID:16663896

  6. Cadmium accumulation in the edible parts of different cultivars of radish, Raphanus sativus L., and carrot, Daucus carota var. sativa, grown in a Cd-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Rui-Lun; Li, Hua-Fen; Jiang, Rong-Feng; Zhang, Fu-Suo

    2008-07-01

    Cadmium accumulation among 12 cultivars of radish (Raphanus sativus) and 10 cultivars of carrot (Daucus carota var. sativa) was studied in a Cd-contaminated soil. The Cd concentration in the edible parts of radish and carrot ranged from 0.04 to 0.14 and 0.14 to 0.19 mg kg(-1) fresh weight, respectively. All the tested carrot cultivars and 33% of the tested radish cultivars exceeded the Chinese allowable limit for Cd. The study showed a greater scope for selecting radish cultivars than for carrot to avoid the excess of the Cd limit when grown on lightly contaminated soils.

  7. Properties of lead deposits in cell walls of radish (Raphanus sativus) roots.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Hiroshi; Fukuoka, Daisuke; Tatai, Yuri; Kamachi, Hiroyuki; Hayatsu, Manabu; Ono, Manami; Suzuki, Suechika

    2013-01-01

    Various mechanisms are involved in detoxification of heavy metals such as lead (Pb) in plant cells. Most of the Pb taken up by plants accumulates in their roots. However, the detailed properties of Pb complexes in roots remain unclear. We have investigated the properties of Pb deposits in root cell walls of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) seedlings grown on glass beads bed containing Pb pellets, which are the source of Pb-contamination in shooting range soils. Pb deposits were tightly bound to cell walls. Cell wall fragments containing about 50,000 ppm Pb were prepared from the roots. After extracting Pb from the cell wall fragments using HCl, Pb ions were recombined with the Pb-extracted cell wall fragments in a solution containing Pb acetate. When the cell wall fragments were treated with pectinase (E.C. 3.2.1.15) and were chemically modified with 1-ethyl-3-dimethylamino-propylcarboimide, the Pb-rebinding ability of the treated cell wall fragments decreased. When acid-treated cell wall fragments were incubated in a solution containing Pb(2+) and excess amounts of a chelating agent, Pb recombined with the cell wall fragments were measured to estimate the affinity between Pb(2+) and the cell wall fragments. Our data show that Pb(2+) binds to carboxyl groups of cell walls. The source of the carboxyl groups is suggested to be pectic compounds. A stability constant of the Pb-cell wall complex was estimated to be about 10(8). The role of root cell walls in the mechanism underlying heavy metal tolerance was discussed.

  8. Tunisian radish (Raphanus sativus) extract prevents cadmium-induced immunotoxic and biochemical alterations in rats.

    PubMed

    ben Salah-Abbès, Jalila; Abbès, Samir; Zohra, Haous; Oueslati, Ridha

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd), a known carcinogen and potent immunotoxicant in humans and animals, is dispersed throughout the environment as a result of pollution from a variety of sources. Tunisian radish (Raphanus sativus) extract (TRE) is a known anti-oxidant and free radical scavenger that has been shown to help alleviate immune system disorders, including some induced by environmental toxicants. The present study was undertaken to investigate potential protective effects of TRE against Cd-induced immunotoxicities (and general toxicities) in situ. Cadmium chloride (at 2.5 mg CdCl2/kg BW) and TRE (5, 10, or 15 mg/kg BW) were given (alone or in combination [actually, in sequence of Cd and then TRE]) to rats daily by oral gavage for 2 weeks. Results indicated that treatment with CdCl2 alone resulted in significant decreases in plasma levels of total protein, triglycerides, creatine kinase, creatinine, IgG and IgA, T-lymphocyte sub-types (CD4(+), CD3(+), CD56(+), and CD8(+)), and in thymic and hepatic indices (relative weights). In contrast, CdCl2 treatment caused significant increases in serum LDH, AST, and ALT, in the formation/release of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1 and TNFα), and in the relative weights of host spleen and kidneys. Rats treated with TRE alone had no discernable changes compared to the controls with regard to all test parameters. Combined treatment of CdCl2 and TRE-at any dose-resulted in a significant improvement of all test parameters compared to those seen with Cd alone. These results illustrated (and provided further support for a continuing belief in) the beneficial effects of TRE in reducing the harmful outcomes of commonly encountered toxicants (like Cd) on the immune system and on overall host health status.

  9. Diffusive gradient in thin films technique for assessment of cadmium and copper bioaccessibility to radish (Raphanus sativus).

    PubMed

    Dočekalová, Hana; Škarpa, Petr; Dočekal, Bohumil

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess cadmium and copper uptake by radish (Raphanus sativus) and to test the capability of the diffusive gradient in thin films (DGT) technique to predict bioaccessibility of the metals for this plant. Radish plants were grown in pots filled with uncontaminated control and artificially contaminated soils differing in cadmium and copper contents. Metal concentrations in plants were compared with free ion metal concentrations in soil solution, and concentrations measured by DGT. Significant correlation was found between metal fluxes to plant and metal fluxes into DGT. Pearson correlation coefficient for cadmium was 0.994 and for copper 0.998. The obtained results showed that DGT offers the possibility of simple test procedure for soils and can be used as a physical surrogate for plant uptake.

  10. Preparative high-performance liquid chromatography for the purification of natural acylated anthocyanins from red radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Liu, Yonghong; Murakami, Nobutoshi; Wang, Lishu; Zhang, Si

    2008-09-01

    Preparative high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is applied to the purification of anthocyanins from raw extracts of red radish (Raphanus sativus L). For each separation, the chromatographic conditions are optimized to achieve an efficient purification in the shortest time. In addition, UV-vis characterization is carried out on all purified anthocyanins. The current work shows that analytical chromatographic experiments alone are useful for the prediction of scale-up conditions of preparative HPLC separations. Ten known acylated anthocyanins (See the Appendix for compounds 1-10) are isolated from the red radish by isocratic HPLC. The structures are established on the basis of nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometric analysis. The acylated anthocyanins are all based on pelargonidin 3-sophoroside-5-glucoside, acylated with caffeoyl, feruloyl, or p-coumaroyl moieties.

  11. Comparative Transcriptome Profile of the Cytoplasmic Male Sterile and Fertile Floral Buds of Radish (Raphanus sativus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Mei, Shiyong; Liu, Touming; Wang, Zhiwei

    2016-01-01

    Radish cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) has been widely used for breeding in Raphanus and Brassica genera. However, the detailed regulation network of the male sterility remains to be determined. Our previous work has shown that the abnormalities in a CMS radish appeared shortly after the tetrad stage when microspores were malformed and the tapetal cells grew abnormally large. In this work, histological analysis shows that anthers are at the tetrad stage when the radish buds are about 1.5 mm in length. Furthermore, a high throughput RNA sequencing technology was employed to characterize the transcriptome of radish buds with length about 1.5 mm from two CMS lines possessing the CMS-inducing orf138 gene and corresponding near-isogenic maintainer lines. A total of 67,140 unigenes were functionally annotated. Functional terms for these genes are significantly enriched in 55 Gene Ontology (GO) groups and 323 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways. The transcriptome detected transcripts for 72 out of a total of 79 protein genes encoded in the chloroplast genome from radish. In contrast, the radish mitochondrial genome contains 34 protein genes, but only 16 protein transcripts were detected from the transcriptome. The transcriptome comparison between CMS and near-isogenic maintainer lines revealed 539 differentially expressed genes (DEGs), indicating that the false positive rate for comparative transcriptome profiling was clearly decreased using two groups of CMS/maintainer lines with different nuclear background. The level of 127 transcripts was increased and 412 transcripts were decreased in the CMS lines. No change in levels of transcripts except CMS-inducing orf138 was identified from the mitochondrial and chloroplast genomes. Some DEGs which would be associated with the CMS, encoding MYB and bHLH transcription factors, pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins, heat shock transcription factors (HSFs) and heat shock proteins (HSPs), are discussed. The

  12. Comparative Transcriptome Profile of the Cytoplasmic Male Sterile and Fertile Floral Buds of Radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Mei, Shiyong; Liu, Touming; Wang, Zhiwei

    2016-01-06

    Radish cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) has been widely used for breeding in Raphanus and Brassica genera. However, the detailed regulation network of the male sterility remains to be determined. Our previous work has shown that the abnormalities in a CMS radish appeared shortly after the tetrad stage when microspores were malformed and the tapetal cells grew abnormally large. In this work, histological analysis shows that anthers are at the tetrad stage when the radish buds are about 1.5 mm in length. Furthermore, a high throughput RNA sequencing technology was employed to characterize the transcriptome of radish buds with length about 1.5 mm from two CMS lines possessing the CMS-inducing orf138 gene and corresponding near-isogenic maintainer lines. A total of 67,140 unigenes were functionally annotated. Functional terms for these genes are significantly enriched in 55 Gene Ontology (GO) groups and 323 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways. The transcriptome detected transcripts for 72 out of a total of 79 protein genes encoded in the chloroplast genome from radish. In contrast, the radish mitochondrial genome contains 34 protein genes, but only 16 protein transcripts were detected from the transcriptome. The transcriptome comparison between CMS and near-isogenic maintainer lines revealed 539 differentially expressed genes (DEGs), indicating that the false positive rate for comparative transcriptome profiling was clearly decreased using two groups of CMS/maintainer lines with different nuclear background. The level of 127 transcripts was increased and 412 transcripts were decreased in the CMS lines. No change in levels of transcripts except CMS-inducing orf138 was identified from the mitochondrial and chloroplast genomes. Some DEGs which would be associated with the CMS, encoding MYB and bHLH transcription factors, pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins, heat shock transcription factors (HSFs) and heat shock proteins (HSPs), are discussed. The

  13. Comparative Transcriptome Profile of the Cytoplasmic Male Sterile and Fertile Floral Buds of Radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Mei, Shiyong; Liu, Touming; Wang, Zhiwei

    2016-01-01

    Radish cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) has been widely used for breeding in Raphanus and Brassica genera. However, the detailed regulation network of the male sterility remains to be determined. Our previous work has shown that the abnormalities in a CMS radish appeared shortly after the tetrad stage when microspores were malformed and the tapetal cells grew abnormally large. In this work, histological analysis shows that anthers are at the tetrad stage when the radish buds are about 1.5 mm in length. Furthermore, a high throughput RNA sequencing technology was employed to characterize the transcriptome of radish buds with length about 1.5 mm from two CMS lines possessing the CMS-inducing orf138 gene and corresponding near-isogenic maintainer lines. A total of 67,140 unigenes were functionally annotated. Functional terms for these genes are significantly enriched in 55 Gene Ontology (GO) groups and 323 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways. The transcriptome detected transcripts for 72 out of a total of 79 protein genes encoded in the chloroplast genome from radish. In contrast, the radish mitochondrial genome contains 34 protein genes, but only 16 protein transcripts were detected from the transcriptome. The transcriptome comparison between CMS and near-isogenic maintainer lines revealed 539 differentially expressed genes (DEGs), indicating that the false positive rate for comparative transcriptome profiling was clearly decreased using two groups of CMS/maintainer lines with different nuclear background. The level of 127 transcripts was increased and 412 transcripts were decreased in the CMS lines. No change in levels of transcripts except CMS-inducing orf138 was identified from the mitochondrial and chloroplast genomes. Some DEGs which would be associated with the CMS, encoding MYB and bHLH transcription factors, pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins, heat shock transcription factors (HSFs) and heat shock proteins (HSPs), are discussed. The

  14. De novo Taproot Transcriptome Sequencing and Analysis of Major Genes Involved in Sucrose Metabolism in Radish (Raphanus sativus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Rugang; Xu, Liang; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Yan; Luo, Xiaobo; Wang, Ronghua; Zhu, Xianwen; Xie, Yang; Karanja, Benard; Liu, Liwang

    2016-01-01

    Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) is an important annual or biennial root vegetable crop. The fleshy taproot comprises the main edible portion of the plant with high nutrition and medical value. Molecular biology study of radish begun rather later, and lacks sufficient transcriptomic and genomic data in pubic databases for understanding of the molecular mechanism during the radish taproot formation. To develop a comprehensive overview of the ‘NAU-YH’ root transcriptome, a cDNA library, prepared from three equally mixed RNA of taproots at different developmental stages including pre-cortex splitting stage, cortex splitting stage, and expanding stage was sequenced using high-throughput Illumina RNA sequencing. From approximately 51 million clean reads, a total of 70,168 unigenes with a total length of 50.28 Mb, an average length of 717 bp and a N50 of 994 bp were obtained. In total, 63,991 (about 91.20% of the assembled unigenes) unigenes were successfully annotated in five public databases including NR, GO, COG, KEGG, and Nt. GO analysis revealed that the majority of these unigenes were predominately involved in basic physiological and metabolic processes, catalytic, binding, and cellular process. In addition, a total of 103 unigenes encoding eight enzymes involved in the sucrose metabolism related pathways were also identified by KEGG pathway analysis. Sucrose synthase (29 unigenes), invertase (17 unigenes), sucrose-phosphate synthase (16 unigenes), fructokinase (17 unigenes), and hexokinase (11 unigenes) ranked top five in these eight key enzymes. From which, two genes (RsSuSy1, RsSPS1) were validated by T-A cloning and sequenced, while the expression of six unigenes were profiled with RT-qPCR analysis. These results would be served as an important public reference platform to identify the related key genes during taproot thickening and facilitate the dissection of molecular mechanisms underlying taproot formation in radish. PMID:27242808

  15. De novo Taproot Transcriptome Sequencing and Analysis of Major Genes Involved in Sucrose Metabolism in Radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Yu, Rugang; Xu, Liang; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Yan; Luo, Xiaobo; Wang, Ronghua; Zhu, Xianwen; Xie, Yang; Karanja, Benard; Liu, Liwang

    2016-01-01

    Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) is an important annual or biennial root vegetable crop. The fleshy taproot comprises the main edible portion of the plant with high nutrition and medical value. Molecular biology study of radish begun rather later, and lacks sufficient transcriptomic and genomic data in pubic databases for understanding of the molecular mechanism during the radish taproot formation. To develop a comprehensive overview of the 'NAU-YH' root transcriptome, a cDNA library, prepared from three equally mixed RNA of taproots at different developmental stages including pre-cortex splitting stage, cortex splitting stage, and expanding stage was sequenced using high-throughput Illumina RNA sequencing. From approximately 51 million clean reads, a total of 70,168 unigenes with a total length of 50.28 Mb, an average length of 717 bp and a N50 of 994 bp were obtained. In total, 63,991 (about 91.20% of the assembled unigenes) unigenes were successfully annotated in five public databases including NR, GO, COG, KEGG, and Nt. GO analysis revealed that the majority of these unigenes were predominately involved in basic physiological and metabolic processes, catalytic, binding, and cellular process. In addition, a total of 103 unigenes encoding eight enzymes involved in the sucrose metabolism related pathways were also identified by KEGG pathway analysis. Sucrose synthase (29 unigenes), invertase (17 unigenes), sucrose-phosphate synthase (16 unigenes), fructokinase (17 unigenes), and hexokinase (11 unigenes) ranked top five in these eight key enzymes. From which, two genes (RsSuSy1, RsSPS1) were validated by T-A cloning and sequenced, while the expression of six unigenes were profiled with RT-qPCR analysis. These results would be served as an important public reference platform to identify the related key genes during taproot thickening and facilitate the dissection of molecular mechanisms underlying taproot formation in radish.

  16. De novo Taproot Transcriptome Sequencing and Analysis of Major Genes Involved in Sucrose Metabolism in Radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Yu, Rugang; Xu, Liang; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Yan; Luo, Xiaobo; Wang, Ronghua; Zhu, Xianwen; Xie, Yang; Karanja, Benard; Liu, Liwang

    2016-01-01

    Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) is an important annual or biennial root vegetable crop. The fleshy taproot comprises the main edible portion of the plant with high nutrition and medical value. Molecular biology study of radish begun rather later, and lacks sufficient transcriptomic and genomic data in pubic databases for understanding of the molecular mechanism during the radish taproot formation. To develop a comprehensive overview of the 'NAU-YH' root transcriptome, a cDNA library, prepared from three equally mixed RNA of taproots at different developmental stages including pre-cortex splitting stage, cortex splitting stage, and expanding stage was sequenced using high-throughput Illumina RNA sequencing. From approximately 51 million clean reads, a total of 70,168 unigenes with a total length of 50.28 Mb, an average length of 717 bp and a N50 of 994 bp were obtained. In total, 63,991 (about 91.20% of the assembled unigenes) unigenes were successfully annotated in five public databases including NR, GO, COG, KEGG, and Nt. GO analysis revealed that the majority of these unigenes were predominately involved in basic physiological and metabolic processes, catalytic, binding, and cellular process. In addition, a total of 103 unigenes encoding eight enzymes involved in the sucrose metabolism related pathways were also identified by KEGG pathway analysis. Sucrose synthase (29 unigenes), invertase (17 unigenes), sucrose-phosphate synthase (16 unigenes), fructokinase (17 unigenes), and hexokinase (11 unigenes) ranked top five in these eight key enzymes. From which, two genes (RsSuSy1, RsSPS1) were validated by T-A cloning and sequenced, while the expression of six unigenes were profiled with RT-qPCR analysis. These results would be served as an important public reference platform to identify the related key genes during taproot thickening and facilitate the dissection of molecular mechanisms underlying taproot formation in radish. PMID:27242808

  17. Heterozygous alleles restore male fertility to cytoplasmic male-sterile radish (Raphanus sativus L.): a case of overdominance.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhi Wei; De Wang, Chuan; Wang, Chuan; Gao, Lei; Mei, Shi Yong; Zhou, Yuan; Xiang, Chang Ping; Wang, Ting

    2013-04-01

    The practice of hybridization has greatly contributed to the increase in crop productivity. A major component that exploits heterosis in crops is the cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS)/nucleus-controlled fertility restoration (Rf) system. Through positional cloning, it is shown that heterozygous alleles (RsRf3-1/RsRf3-2) encoding pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins are responsible for restoring fertility to cytoplasmic male-sterile radish (Raphanus sativus L.). Furthermore, it was found that heterozygous alleles (RsRf3-1/RsRf3-2) show higher expression and RNA polymerase II occupancy in the CMS cytoplasmic background compared with their homozygous alleles (RsRf3-1/RsRf3-1 or RsRf3-2/RsRf3-2). These data provide new insights into the molecular mechanism of fertility restoration to cytoplasmic male-sterile plants and illustrate a case of overdominance.

  18. Tissue printing for myrosinase activity in roots of turnip and Japanese radish and horseradish: a technique for localizing myrosinases.

    PubMed

    Hara, M; Eto, H; Kuboi, T

    2001-02-01

    A method for analyzing the tissue distribution of myrosinase activity in Brassicaceous plants was developed. This technique is based on 'tissue printing' to visualize enzyme activity. The freshly-cut surface (transverse direction) of the root of three species, Japanese radish (Raphanus sativus), turnip (Brassica campestris) and Japanese horseradish (wasabi, Wasabia japonica), was pressed onto a polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) filter to immobilize the proteins onto the membrane. The sites of myrosinase activity on the membranes were visualized by the sinigrin-glucose oxidase-peroxidase system. Signals for myrosinase activity were observed in both the epidermis and vascular cambium of the root of the Japanese radish, turnip and wasabi. Measurement of myrosinase activity in protein extracts indicated that the level of myrosinase activity in the peeling, which consisted of the epidermis, cortex and vascular cambium, was much higher than that in the peeled root of the three species. These results support the image that myrosinase activity, obtained in tissue printing, corresponded well with the tissue distribution of myrosinase activity. PMID:11166428

  19. Construction of a chromosome-assigned, sequence-tagged linkage map for the radish, Raphanus sativus L. and QTL analysis of morphological traits.

    PubMed

    Hashida, Tomoko; Nakatsuji, Ryoichi; Budahn, Holger; Schrader, Otto; Peterka, Herbert; Fujimura, Tatsuhito; Kubo, Nakao; Hirai, Masashi

    2013-06-01

    The radish displays great morphological variation but the genetic factors underlying this variability are mostly unknown. To identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) controlling radish morphological traits, we cultivated 94 F4 and F5 recombinant inbred lines derived from a cross between the rat-tail radish and the Japanese radish cultivar 'Harufuku' inbred lines. Eight morphological traits (ovule and seed numbers per silique, plant shape, pubescence and root formation) were measured for investigation. We constructed a map composed of 322 markers with a total length of 673.6 cM. The linkage groups were assigned to the radish chromosomes using disomic rape-radish chromosome-addition lines. On the map, eight and 10 QTLs were identified in 2008 and 2009, respectively. The chromosome-linkage group correspondence, the sequence-specific markers and the QTLs detected here will provide useful information for further genetic studies and for selection during radish breeding programs.

  20. Transcriptional identification and characterization of differentially expressed genes associated with embryogenesis in radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Zhai, Lulu; Xu, Liang; Wang, Yan; Zhu, Xianwen; Feng, Haiyang; Li, Chao; Luo, Xiaobo; Everlyne, Muleke M; Liu, Liwang

    2016-01-01

    Embryogenesis is an important component in the life cycle of most plant species. Due to the difficulty in embryo isolation, the global gene expression involved in plant embryogenesis, especially the early events following fertilization are largely unknown in radish. In this study, three cDNA libraries from ovules of radish before and after fertilization were sequenced using the Digital Gene Expression (DGE) tag profiling strategy. A total of 5,777 differentially expressed transcripts were detected based on pairwise comparison in the three libraries (0_DAP, 7_DAP and 15_DAP). Results from Gene Ontology (GO) and pathway enrichment analysis revealed that these differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were implicated in numerous life processes including embryo development and phytohormones biosynthesis. Notably, some genes encoding auxin response factor (ARF ), Leafy cotyledon1 (LEC1) and somatic embryogenesis receptor-like kinase (SERK ) known to be involved in radish embryogenesis were differentially expressed. The expression patterns of 30 genes including LEC1-2, AGL9, LRR, PKL and ARF8-1 were validated by qRT-PCR. Furthermore, the cooperation between miRNA and mRNA may play a pivotal role in the radish embryogenesis process. This is the first report on identification of DEGs profiles related to radish embryogenesis and seed development. These results could facilitate further dissection of the molecular mechanisms underlying embryogenesis and seed development in radish. PMID:26902837

  1. Transcriptional identification and characterization of differentially expressed genes associated with embryogenesis in radish (Raphanus sativus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Zhai, Lulu; Xu, Liang; Wang, Yan; Zhu, Xianwen; Feng, Haiyang; Li, Chao; Luo, Xiaobo; Everlyne, Muleke M.; Liu, Liwang

    2016-01-01

    Embryogenesis is an important component in the life cycle of most plant species. Due to the difficulty in embryo isolation, the global gene expression involved in plant embryogenesis, especially the early events following fertilization are largely unknown in radish. In this study, three cDNA libraries from ovules of radish before and after fertilization were sequenced using the Digital Gene Expression (DGE) tag profiling strategy. A total of 5,777 differentially expressed transcripts were detected based on pairwise comparison in the three libraries (0_DAP, 7_DAP and 15_DAP). Results from Gene Ontology (GO) and pathway enrichment analysis revealed that these differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were implicated in numerous life processes including embryo development and phytohormones biosynthesis. Notably, some genes encoding auxin response factor (ARF ), Leafy cotyledon1 (LEC1) and somatic embryogenesis receptor-like kinase (SERK ) known to be involved in radish embryogenesis were differentially expressed. The expression patterns of 30 genes including LEC1-2, AGL9, LRR, PKL and ARF8-1 were validated by qRT-PCR. Furthermore, the cooperation between miRNA and mRNA may play a pivotal role in the radish embryogenesis process. This is the first report on identification of DEGs profiles related to radish embryogenesis and seed development. These results could facilitate further dissection of the molecular mechanisms underlying embryogenesis and seed development in radish. PMID:26902837

  2. Transcriptional identification and characterization of differentially expressed genes associated with embryogenesis in radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Zhai, Lulu; Xu, Liang; Wang, Yan; Zhu, Xianwen; Feng, Haiyang; Li, Chao; Luo, Xiaobo; Everlyne, Muleke M; Liu, Liwang

    2016-02-23

    Embryogenesis is an important component in the life cycle of most plant species. Due to the difficulty in embryo isolation, the global gene expression involved in plant embryogenesis, especially the early events following fertilization are largely unknown in radish. In this study, three cDNA libraries from ovules of radish before and after fertilization were sequenced using the Digital Gene Expression (DGE) tag profiling strategy. A total of 5,777 differentially expressed transcripts were detected based on pairwise comparison in the three libraries (0_DAP, 7_DAP and 15_DAP). Results from Gene Ontology (GO) and pathway enrichment analysis revealed that these differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were implicated in numerous life processes including embryo development and phytohormones biosynthesis. Notably, some genes encoding auxin response factor (ARF ), Leafy cotyledon1 (LEC1) and somatic embryogenesis receptor-like kinase (SERK ) known to be involved in radish embryogenesis were differentially expressed. The expression patterns of 30 genes including LEC1-2, AGL9, LRR, PKL and ARF8-1 were validated by qRT-PCR. Furthermore, the cooperation between miRNA and mRNA may play a pivotal role in the radish embryogenesis process. This is the first report on identification of DEGs profiles related to radish embryogenesis and seed development. These results could facilitate further dissection of the molecular mechanisms underlying embryogenesis and seed development in radish.

  3. Distinct Phylogeographic Structures of Wild Radish (Raphanus sativus L. var. raphanistroides Makino) in Japan.

    PubMed

    Han, Qingxiang; Higashi, Hiroyuki; Mitsui, Yuki; Setoguchi, Hiroaki

    2015-01-01

    Coastal plants with simple linear distribution ranges along coastlines provide a suitable system for improving our understanding of patterns of intra-specific distributional history and genetic variation. Due to the combination of high seed longevity and high dispersibility of seeds via seawater, we hypothesized that wild radish would poorly represent phylogeographic structure at the local scale. On the other hand, we also hypothesized that wild radish populations might be geographically differentiated, as has been exhibited by their considerable phenotypic variations along the islands of Japan. We conducted nuclear DNA microsatellite loci and chloroplast DNA haplotype analyses for 486 samples and 144 samples, respectively, from 18 populations to investigate the phylogeographic structure of wild radish in Japan. Cluster analysis supported the existence of differential genetic structures between the Ryukyu Islands and mainland Japan populations. A significant strong pattern of isolation by distance and significant evidence of a recent bottleneck were detected. The chloroplast marker analysis resulted in the generation of eight haplotypes, of which two haplotypes (A and B) were broadly distributed in most wild radish populations. High levels of variation in microsatellite loci were identified, whereas cpDNA displayed low levels of genetic diversity within populations. Our results indicate that the Kuroshio Current would have contributed to the sculpting of the phylogeographic structure by shaping genetic gaps between isolated populations. In addition, the Tokara Strait would have created a geographic barrier between the Ryukyu Islands and mainland Japan. Finally, extant habitat disturbances (coastal erosion), migration patterns (linear expansion), and geographic characteristics (small islands and sea currents) have influenced the expansion and historical population dynamics of wild radish. Our study is the first to record the robust phylogeographic structure in wild

  4. Distinct Phylogeographic Structures of Wild Radish (Raphanus sativus L. var. raphanistroides Makino) in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Han, Qingxiang; Higashi, Hiroyuki; Mitsui, Yuki; Setoguchi, Hiroaki

    2015-01-01

    Coastal plants with simple linear distribution ranges along coastlines provide a suitable system for improving our understanding of patterns of intra-specific distributional history and genetic variation. Due to the combination of high seed longevity and high dispersibility of seeds via seawater, we hypothesized that wild radish would poorly represent phylogeographic structure at the local scale. On the other hand, we also hypothesized that wild radish populations might be geographically differentiated, as has been exhibited by their considerable phenotypic variations along the islands of Japan. We conducted nuclear DNA microsatellite loci and chloroplast DNA haplotype analyses for 486 samples and 144 samples, respectively, from 18 populations to investigate the phylogeographic structure of wild radish in Japan. Cluster analysis supported the existence of differential genetic structures between the Ryukyu Islands and mainland Japan populations. A significant strong pattern of isolation by distance and significant evidence of a recent bottleneck were detected. The chloroplast marker analysis resulted in the generation of eight haplotypes, of which two haplotypes (A and B) were broadly distributed in most wild radish populations. High levels of variation in microsatellite loci were identified, whereas cpDNA displayed low levels of genetic diversity within populations. Our results indicate that the Kuroshio Current would have contributed to the sculpting of the phylogeographic structure by shaping genetic gaps between isolated populations. In addition, the Tokara Strait would have created a geographic barrier between the Ryukyu Islands and mainland Japan. Finally, extant habitat disturbances (coastal erosion), migration patterns (linear expansion), and geographic characteristics (small islands and sea currents) have influenced the expansion and historical population dynamics of wild radish. Our study is the first to record the robust phylogeographic structure in wild

  5. Distinct Phylogeographic Structures of Wild Radish (Raphanus sativus L. var. raphanistroides Makino) in Japan.

    PubMed

    Han, Qingxiang; Higashi, Hiroyuki; Mitsui, Yuki; Setoguchi, Hiroaki

    2015-01-01

    Coastal plants with simple linear distribution ranges along coastlines provide a suitable system for improving our understanding of patterns of intra-specific distributional history and genetic variation. Due to the combination of high seed longevity and high dispersibility of seeds via seawater, we hypothesized that wild radish would poorly represent phylogeographic structure at the local scale. On the other hand, we also hypothesized that wild radish populations might be geographically differentiated, as has been exhibited by their considerable phenotypic variations along the islands of Japan. We conducted nuclear DNA microsatellite loci and chloroplast DNA haplotype analyses for 486 samples and 144 samples, respectively, from 18 populations to investigate the phylogeographic structure of wild radish in Japan. Cluster analysis supported the existence of differential genetic structures between the Ryukyu Islands and mainland Japan populations. A significant strong pattern of isolation by distance and significant evidence of a recent bottleneck were detected. The chloroplast marker analysis resulted in the generation of eight haplotypes, of which two haplotypes (A and B) were broadly distributed in most wild radish populations. High levels of variation in microsatellite loci were identified, whereas cpDNA displayed low levels of genetic diversity within populations. Our results indicate that the Kuroshio Current would have contributed to the sculpting of the phylogeographic structure by shaping genetic gaps between isolated populations. In addition, the Tokara Strait would have created a geographic barrier between the Ryukyu Islands and mainland Japan. Finally, extant habitat disturbances (coastal erosion), migration patterns (linear expansion), and geographic characteristics (small islands and sea currents) have influenced the expansion and historical population dynamics of wild radish. Our study is the first to record the robust phylogeographic structure in wild

  6. LC-PDA-EIS/MSn identification of new anthocyanins in purple radish (Raphanus sativus L. variety)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An LC-PDA-ESI/MSn profiling method was used for a comprehensive study of the anthocyanins of purple Bordeaux radish. This study identified 57 anthocyanins: 23 acylated cyanidin 3-sophoroside-5-diglucosides, 12 acylated cyanidin 3-(glucosylacyl) acylsophoroside-5-diglucosides, and 22 acylated cyanid...

  7. Foliar application of brassinosteroids alleviates adverse effects of zinc toxicity in radish (Raphanus sativus L.) plants.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishna, Bellamkonda; Rao, S Seeta Ram

    2015-03-01

    Growth chamber experiments were conducted to investigate the comparative effect of 24-epibrassinolide (EBL) and 28-homobrassinolide (HBL) at 0.5, 1.0, or 2.0 μM concentrations by foliar application on radish plants growing under Zn(2+) stress. In radish plants exposed to excess Zn(2+), growth was substantially reduced in terms of shoot and root length, fresh and dry weight. However, foliar application of brassinosteroids (BRs) was able to alleviate Zn(2+)-induced stress and significantly improve the above growth traits. Zinc stress decreased chlorophyll a, b, and carotenoids levels in radish plants. However, follow-up treatment with BRs increased the photosynthetic pigments in stressed and stress-free plants. The treatment of BRs led to reduced levels of H2O2, lipid peroxidation and, electrolyte leakage (ELP) and improved the leaf relative water content (RWC) in stressed plants. Increased levels of carbonyls indicating enhanced protein oxidation under Zn(2+) stress was effectively countered by supplementation of BRs. Under Zn(2+) stress, the activities of catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and superoxidase dismutase (SOD) were increased but peroxidase (POD) and glutathione reductase (GR) decreased. Foliar spraying of BRs enhanced all these enzymatic activities in radish plants under Zn(2+) stress. The BRs application greatly enhanced contents of ascorbate (ASA), glutathione (GSH), and proline under Zn(2+) stress. The decrease in the activity of nitrate reductase (NR) caused by Zn(2+) stress was restored to the level of control by application of BRs. These results point out that BRs application elevated levels of antioxidative enzymes as well as antioxidants could have conferred resistance to radish plants against Zn(2+) stress resulting in improved plant growth, relative water content and photosynthetic attributes. Of the two BRs, EBL was most effective in amelioration of Zn(2+) stress.

  8. Transformation of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) via sonication and vacuum infiltration of germinated seeds with Agrobacterium harboring a group 3 LEA gene from B. napus.

    PubMed

    Park, Byong-Jin; Liu, Zaochang; Kanno, Akira; Kameya, Toshiaki

    2005-10-01

    A protocol for producing transgenic radish (Raphanus sativus) was obtained by using both ultrasonic and vacuum infiltration assisted, Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The Agrobacterium strain LBA4404 contained the binary vector pBI121-LEA (late embyogenesis abundant), which carried a Group 3 LEA gene, from Brassica napus. Among six combinations, Agrobacterium-mediated transformation assisted by a combination of 5-min sonication with 5-min vacuum infiltration resulted in the highest transformation frequency. The existence, integration and expression of transferred LEA gene in transgenic T(1) plants were confirmed by PCR, genomic Southern and Western blot analysis. Transgenic radish demonstrated better growth performance than non-transformed control plants under osmotic and salt stress conditions. Accumulation of Group 3 LEA protein in the vegetative tissue of transgenic radish conferred increased tolerance to water deficit and salt stress.

  9. Transport, ultrastructural localization, and distribution of chemical forms of lead in radish (Raphanus sativus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan; Shen, Hong; Xu, Liang; Zhu, Xianwen; Li, Chao; Zhang, Wei; Xie, Yang; Gong, Yiqin; Liu, Liwang

    2015-01-01

    Lead (Pb), a ubiquitous but highly toxic heavy metal (HM), is harmful to human health through various pathways including by ingestion of contaminated vegetables. Radish is a worldwide root vegetable crop with significant health and nutritional benefits. However, little is known about Pb translocation and distribution within radish plants after its uptake by the roots. In this study, Pb stress was induced using Pb(NO3)2 in hydroponic culture, aiming to characterize the transport, ultrastructural localization, and distribution of chemical forms of Pb in different tissues of radish. The results showed that the majority of Pb (85.76–98.72%) was retained in underground organs including lateral roots, root heads and taproot skins, while a small proportion of Pb was absorbed by root flesh (0.44–1.56%) or transported to the shoot (1.28–14.24%). A large proportion of Pb (74.11–99.30%) was integrated with undissolved Pb oxalate, protein and pectates forming Pb–phosphate complexes. Moreover, a low-Pb-accumulating line of radish showed a higher proportion of Pb in water-soluble form compared with a high-Pb-accumulating line. Subcellular distribution analysis showed that a large proportion of Pb was bound to cell wall fraction in lateral roots (71.08–80.40%) and taproot skin (46.22–77.94%), while the leaves and roots had 28.36–39.37% and 27.35–46.51% of Pb stored in the soluble fraction, respectively. Furthermore, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed Pb precipitates in intercellular space, cell wall, plasma lemma and vacuoles. Fractionation results also showed the accumulation of Pb on the cell wall, intercellular space and vacuole, and low uptake of undissolved Pb oxalate, protein, pectates and Pb–phosphate complexes, which might be due to low transport efficiency and Pb tolerance of radish. These findings would provide insight into molecular mechanism of Pb uptake and translocation in radish and facilitate development of low-Pb-content cultivars

  10. Transport, ultrastructural localization, and distribution of chemical forms of lead in radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Shen, Hong; Xu, Liang; Zhu, Xianwen; Li, Chao; Zhang, Wei; Xie, Yang; Gong, Yiqin; Liu, Liwang

    2015-01-01

    Lead (Pb), a ubiquitous but highly toxic heavy metal (HM), is harmful to human health through various pathways including by ingestion of contaminated vegetables. Radish is a worldwide root vegetable crop with significant health and nutritional benefits. However, little is known about Pb translocation and distribution within radish plants after its uptake by the roots. In this study, Pb stress was induced using Pb(NO3)2 in hydroponic culture, aiming to characterize the transport, ultrastructural localization, and distribution of chemical forms of Pb in different tissues of radish. The results showed that the majority of Pb (85.76-98.72%) was retained in underground organs including lateral roots, root heads and taproot skins, while a small proportion of Pb was absorbed by root flesh (0.44-1.56%) or transported to the shoot (1.28-14.24%). A large proportion of Pb (74.11-99.30%) was integrated with undissolved Pb oxalate, protein and pectates forming Pb-phosphate complexes. Moreover, a low-Pb-accumulating line of radish showed a higher proportion of Pb in water-soluble form compared with a high-Pb-accumulating line. Subcellular distribution analysis showed that a large proportion of Pb was bound to cell wall fraction in lateral roots (71.08-80.40%) and taproot skin (46.22-77.94%), while the leaves and roots had 28.36-39.37% and 27.35-46.51% of Pb stored in the soluble fraction, respectively. Furthermore, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed Pb precipitates in intercellular space, cell wall, plasma lemma and vacuoles. Fractionation results also showed the accumulation of Pb on the cell wall, intercellular space and vacuole, and low uptake of undissolved Pb oxalate, protein, pectates and Pb-phosphate complexes, which might be due to low transport efficiency and Pb tolerance of radish. These findings would provide insight into molecular mechanism of Pb uptake and translocation in radish and facilitate development of low-Pb-content cultivars in root vegetable

  11. Genetic linkage map construction and QTL mapping of cadmium accumulation in radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Xu, Liang; Wang, Liangju; Gong, Yiqin; Dai, Wenhao; Wang, Yan; Zhu, Xianwen; Wen, Tiancai; Liu, Liwang

    2012-08-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a widespread soil pollutant and poses a significant threat to human health via the food chain. Large phenotypic variations in Cd concentration of radish roots and shoots have been observed. However, the genetic and molecular mechanisms of Cd accumulation in radish remain to be elucidated. In this study, a genetic linkage map was constructed using an F(2) mapping population derived from a cross between a high Cd-accumulating cultivar NAU-Dysx and a low Cd-accumulating cultivar NAU-Yh. The linkage map consisted of 523 SRAP, RAPD, SSR, ISSR, RAMP, and RGA markers and had a total length of 1,678.2 cM with a mean distance of 3.4 cM between two markers. All mapped markers distributed on nine linkage groups (LGs) having sizes between 134.7 and 236.8 cM. Four quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for root Cd accumulation were mapped on LGs 1, 4, 6, and 9, which accounted for 9.86 to 48.64 % of all phenotypic variance. Two QTLs associated with shoot Cd accumulation were detected on LG1 and 3, which accounted for 17.08 and 29.53 % of phenotypic variance, respectively. A major-effect QTL, qRCd9 (QTL for root Cd accumulation on LG9), was identified on LG 9 flanked by NAUrp011_754 and EM5me6_286 markers with a high LOD value of 23.6, which accounted for 48.64 % of the total phenotypic variance in Cd accumulation of F(2) lines. The results indicated that qRCd9 is a novel QTL responsible for controlling root Cd accumulation in radish, and the identification of specific molecular markers tightly linked to the major QTL could be further applied for marker-assisted selection (MAS) in low-Cd content radish breeding program.

  12. Metabolic Profiling and Antioxidant Assay of Metabolites from Three Radish Cultivars (Raphanus sativus).

    PubMed

    Park, Chang Ha; Baskar, Thanislas Bastin; Park, Soo-Yun; Kim, Sun-Ju; Valan Arasu, Mariadhas; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Kim, Jae Kwang; Park, Sang Un

    2016-01-28

    A total of 13 anthocyanins and 33 metabolites; including organic acids, phenolic acids, amino acids, organic compounds, sugar acids, sugar alcohols, and sugars, were profiled in three radish cultivars by using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOFMS)-based metabolite profiling. Total phenolics and flavonoids and their in vitro antioxidant activities were assessed. Pelargonidins were found to be the major anthocyanin in the cultivars studied. The cultivar Man Tang Hong showed the highest level of anthocyanins (1.89 ± 0.07 mg/g), phenolics (0.0664 ± 0.0033 mg/g) and flavonoids (0.0096 ± 0.0004 mg/g). Here; the variation of secondary metabolites in the radishes is described, as well as their association with primary metabolites. The low-molecular-weight hydrophilic metabolite profiles were subjected to principal component analysis (PCA), hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA), Pearson's correlation analysis. PCA fully distinguished the three radish cultivars tested. The polar metabolites were strongly correlated between metabolites that participate in the TCA cycle. The chemometrics results revealed that TCA cycle intermediates and free phenolic acids as well as anthocyanins were higher in the cultivar Man Tang Hong than in the others. Furthermore; superoxide radical scavenging activities and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging were investigated to elucidate the antioxidant activity of secondary metabolites in the cultivars. Man Tang Hong showed the highest superoxide radical scavenging activity (68.87%) at 1000 μg/mL, and DPPH activity (20.78%), followed by Seo Ho and then Hong Feng No. 1. The results demonstrate that GC-TOFMS-based metabolite profiling, integrated with chemometrics, is an applicable method for distinguishing phenotypic variation and determining biochemical reactions connecting primary and secondary metabolism. Therefore; this study might provide

  13. Directional selection for flowering time leads to adaptive evolution in Raphanus raphanistrum (Wild radish).

    PubMed

    Ashworth, Michael B; Walsh, Michael J; Flower, Ken C; Vila-Aiub, Martin M; Powles, Stephen B

    2016-04-01

    Herbicides have been the primary tool for controlling large populations of yield depleting weeds from agro-ecosystems, resulting in the evolution of widespread herbicide resistance. In response, nonherbicidal techniques have been developed which intercept weed seeds at harvest before they enter the soil seed bank. However, the efficiency of these techniques allows an intense selection for any trait that enables weeds to evade collection, with early-flowering ecotypes considered likely to result in early seed shedding. Using a field-collected wild radish population, five recurrent generations were selected for early maturity and three generations for late maturity. Phenology associated with flowering time and growth traits were measured. Our results demonstrate the adaptive capacity of wild radish to halve its time to flowering following five generations of early-flowering selection. Early-maturing phenotypes had reduced height and biomass at maturity, leading to less competitive, more prostrate growth forms. Following three generations of late-flowering selection, wild radish doubled its time to flowering time leading to increased biomass and flowering height at maturity. This study demonstrates the potential for the rapid evolution in growth traits in response to highly effective seed collection techniques that imposed a selection on weed populations within agro-ecosystems at harvest. PMID:27099626

  14. Directional selection for flowering time leads to adaptive evolution in Raphanus raphanistrum (Wild radish).

    PubMed

    Ashworth, Michael B; Walsh, Michael J; Flower, Ken C; Vila-Aiub, Martin M; Powles, Stephen B

    2016-04-01

    Herbicides have been the primary tool for controlling large populations of yield depleting weeds from agro-ecosystems, resulting in the evolution of widespread herbicide resistance. In response, nonherbicidal techniques have been developed which intercept weed seeds at harvest before they enter the soil seed bank. However, the efficiency of these techniques allows an intense selection for any trait that enables weeds to evade collection, with early-flowering ecotypes considered likely to result in early seed shedding. Using a field-collected wild radish population, five recurrent generations were selected for early maturity and three generations for late maturity. Phenology associated with flowering time and growth traits were measured. Our results demonstrate the adaptive capacity of wild radish to halve its time to flowering following five generations of early-flowering selection. Early-maturing phenotypes had reduced height and biomass at maturity, leading to less competitive, more prostrate growth forms. Following three generations of late-flowering selection, wild radish doubled its time to flowering time leading to increased biomass and flowering height at maturity. This study demonstrates the potential for the rapid evolution in growth traits in response to highly effective seed collection techniques that imposed a selection on weed populations within agro-ecosystems at harvest.

  15. Analysis of differential gene expression during floral bud abortion in radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Zhang, J; Sun, X L; Zhang, L G; Hui, M X; Zhang, M K

    2013-07-24

    Radish floral bud abortion (FBA) is an adverse biological phenomenon that occurs during reproduction. Although FBA occurs frequently, its mechanism remains unknown. To elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying FBA, we detected gene expression differences between aborted and normal buds of radish using cDNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR). A total of 221 differentially expressed transcript-derived fragments (TDFs) were detected by 256 cDNA-AFLP primer combinations, of which 114 were upregulated and 107 were downregulated in the aborted buds. A total of 54 TDFs were cloned and sequenced. A BLAST search revealed that all TDFs have homologous sequences and 29 of these corresponded to known genes, whose functions were mainly related to metabolism, stimulus response, transcriptional regulation, and transportation. Expressions of 6 TDFs with different functions were further analyzed by real-time PCR yielding expression profiling results consistent with the cDNA-AFLP analysis. Our results indicated that radish FBA is related to abnormalities in various physiological and biochemical plant processes.

  16. Certain antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) as early warning biomarkers of soil copper exposure.

    PubMed

    Sun, Bai-Ye; Kan, Shi-Hong; Zhang, Yan-Zong; Deng, Shi-Huai; Wu, Jun; Yuan, Hao; Qi, Hui; Yang, Gang; Li, Li; Zhang, Xiao-Hong; Xiao, Hong; Wang, Ying-Jun; Peng, Hong; Li, Yuan-Wei

    2010-11-15

    Copper (Cu) is a major heavy metal contaminant with various anthropogenic and natural sources. Recently, using biomarkers to monitor the effects of pollutants has attracted increased interest. Pot culture experiments using radish (Raphanus sativus L.) was performed to investigate Cu phytotoxic effects on antioxidant enzymes and other early warning biomarkers of soil Cu exposure. Under low dose Cu stress (lower than the EC10, Cu concentration reducing root length by 10%), activity and isozyme expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and peroxidases (POD) increased significantly; no significant variations in chlorophyll, carotenoid, and malondialdehyde (MDA) content in leaves and toxic symptoms were observed. Under a slightly higher Cu stress (close to the EC10), activity and isozyme expression of SOD and MDA content were enhanced significantly; those of CAT and POD decreased due to an inverted U-shape dose response. Chlorophyll content remained unchanged. Thus, antioxidant enzymes and MDA content are more sensitive to Cu stress, showing significant variations ahead of chlorophyll and toxic symptoms under Cu stress (lower than about 200 mg kg(-1) soil). Thus, the joint monitoring of antioxidant enzymes and MDA content of R. sativus can be used as biomarkers of soil Cu contamination.

  17. Isolation and biochemical characterization of two forms of RD21 from cotyledons of daikon radish (Raphanus sativus).

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Yayoi; Saika, Hiroko; Yuasa, Keizo; Nagahama, Masami; Tsuji, Akihiko

    2008-12-01

    RD21 (Responsive to desiccation-21) is an Arabidopsis cysteine protease which possesses a granulin-like domain at the C-terminus. Although two forms of RD21 have been identified, consisting of an intermediate form (iRD21) containing a granulin domain and a mature form (mRD21) lacking this domain, the enzymatic properties of these enzymes remain poorly understood. In this study, mRD21 orthologue was purified to homogeneity from the cotyledons of daikon radish (Raphanus sativus). RD21 preferentially cleaved peptide bond that had an aromatic or hydrophobic amino acid at the P2 position. Furthermore, the presence of a polar amino acid at the P1 position enhanced the cleavage susceptibility of the peptide bond, although the importance of the type of amino acid residue at the P1 and P1' positions was not as significant as the residue located at the P2 position. The iRD21 was also identified as an oligomeric form by gel filtration and sedimentation analyses. The expression of RD21 mRNA was initiated by imbibition and continued at almost constant levels during germination. On the other hand, the enzyme activity increased markedly 5 days after imbibition. These results indicate that this elevation of RD21 activity is generated post-transcriptionally.

  18. Ribosomal RNA synthesis in imbibing radish (Raphanus sativus) embryo axes : A biochemical and cytological study.

    PubMed

    Aspart, L; Cooke, R; Michaux-Ferriere, N; Delseny, M

    1980-02-01

    The first hours of seed germination are characterized by an increase in the rate of RNA synthesis. Although this change is most easily accounted for by changes in the ribonucleotide pool sizes, we investigated two other aspects of rRNA synthesis which are likely to contribute to the phenomenon. Using isolated radish embryo axes, we demonstrate that processing of rRNA gene transcripts is much slower during early germination than during the growth of the seedling. We also provide evidence that rRNA gene expression is sequentially reactivated in different tissues, starting in the provascular tissue and apex cells and only later in the cortical cells of the rootlet.

  19. Metabolic Profiling and Antioxidant Assay of Metabolites from Three Radish Cultivars (Raphanus sativus).

    PubMed

    Park, Chang Ha; Baskar, Thanislas Bastin; Park, Soo-Yun; Kim, Sun-Ju; Valan Arasu, Mariadhas; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Kim, Jae Kwang; Park, Sang Un

    2016-01-01

    A total of 13 anthocyanins and 33 metabolites; including organic acids, phenolic acids, amino acids, organic compounds, sugar acids, sugar alcohols, and sugars, were profiled in three radish cultivars by using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOFMS)-based metabolite profiling. Total phenolics and flavonoids and their in vitro antioxidant activities were assessed. Pelargonidins were found to be the major anthocyanin in the cultivars studied. The cultivar Man Tang Hong showed the highest level of anthocyanins (1.89 ± 0.07 mg/g), phenolics (0.0664 ± 0.0033 mg/g) and flavonoids (0.0096 ± 0.0004 mg/g). Here; the variation of secondary metabolites in the radishes is described, as well as their association with primary metabolites. The low-molecular-weight hydrophilic metabolite profiles were subjected to principal component analysis (PCA), hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA), Pearson's correlation analysis. PCA fully distinguished the three radish cultivars tested. The polar metabolites were strongly correlated between metabolites that participate in the TCA cycle. The chemometrics results revealed that TCA cycle intermediates and free phenolic acids as well as anthocyanins were higher in the cultivar Man Tang Hong than in the others. Furthermore; superoxide radical scavenging activities and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging were investigated to elucidate the antioxidant activity of secondary metabolites in the cultivars. Man Tang Hong showed the highest superoxide radical scavenging activity (68.87%) at 1000 μg/mL, and DPPH activity (20.78%), followed by Seo Ho and then Hong Feng No. 1. The results demonstrate that GC-TOFMS-based metabolite profiling, integrated with chemometrics, is an applicable method for distinguishing phenotypic variation and determining biochemical reactions connecting primary and secondary metabolism. Therefore; this study might provide

  20. Chromium phytotoxicity in radish (Raphanus sativus): effects on metabolism and nutrient uptake.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, K K; Singh, N K; Rai, U N

    2013-09-01

    In the present investigation, chromium (VI) induced toxicity on metabolic activity and translocations of nutrients in radish were evaluated under controlled glass house conditions. Chromium was found to induce toxicity and significantly affect plant growth and metabolic activity. Excess of chromium (0.4 mM) caused a decrease in the concentration of iron in leaves (from 134.3 to 71.9 μg g(-1) dw) and significant translocation of sulphur, phosphorus and zinc. Translocation of manganese, copper and boron were less affected from root to stem. After 15 days of Cr exposure, maximum accumulation of Cr was found in roots (327.6 μg g(-1) dw) followed by stems (186.8 μg g(-1) dw) and leaves (116.7 μg g(-1) dw) at 0.4 mM Cr concentration. Therefore, Cr may affect negatively not only production, but also the nutritive quality of the radish; likewise, higher Cr content may cause health hazards for humans. PMID:23818061

  1. Chromium phytotoxicity in radish (Raphanus sativus): effects on metabolism and nutrient uptake.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, K K; Singh, N K; Rai, U N

    2013-09-01

    In the present investigation, chromium (VI) induced toxicity on metabolic activity and translocations of nutrients in radish were evaluated under controlled glass house conditions. Chromium was found to induce toxicity and significantly affect plant growth and metabolic activity. Excess of chromium (0.4 mM) caused a decrease in the concentration of iron in leaves (from 134.3 to 71.9 μg g(-1) dw) and significant translocation of sulphur, phosphorus and zinc. Translocation of manganese, copper and boron were less affected from root to stem. After 15 days of Cr exposure, maximum accumulation of Cr was found in roots (327.6 μg g(-1) dw) followed by stems (186.8 μg g(-1) dw) and leaves (116.7 μg g(-1) dw) at 0.4 mM Cr concentration. Therefore, Cr may affect negatively not only production, but also the nutritive quality of the radish; likewise, higher Cr content may cause health hazards for humans.

  2. Uptake of polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides from soil and air into radishes (Raphanus sativus).

    PubMed

    Mikes, Ondrej; Cupr, Pavel; Trapp, Stefan; Klanova, Jana

    2009-02-01

    Uptake of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls from soil and air into radishes was measured at a heavily contaminated field site. The highest contaminant concentrations were found for DDT and its metabolites, and for beta-hexachlorocyclohexane. Bioconcentration factor (BCF, defined as a ratio between the contaminant concentration in the plant tissue and concentration in soil) was determined for roots, edible bulbs and shoots. Root BCF values were constant and not correlated to log K(OW). A negative correlation between BCF and log K(OW) was found for edible bulbs. Shoot BCF values were rather constant and varied between 0.01 and 0.22. Resuspended soil particles may facilitate the transport of chemicals from soil to shoots. Elevated POP concentrations found in shoots of radishes grown in the control plot support the hypothesis that the uptake from air was more significant for shoots than the one from soil. The uptake of POPs from air was within the range of theoretical values predicted from log K(OA).

  3. Florivores prefer white versus pink petal color morphs in wild radish, Raphanus sativus.

    PubMed

    McCall, Andrew C; Murphy, Stephen J; Venner, Colin; Brown, Monique

    2013-05-01

    Many hypotheses suggest that pollinators act to maintain or change floral color morph frequencies in nature, although pollinator preferences do not always match color morph frequencies in the field. Therefore, non-pollinating agents may also be responsible for color morph frequencies. To test this hypothesis, we examined whether Raphanus sativus plants with white flowers received different amounts of florivory than plants with pink flowers, and whether florivores preferred one floral color over the other. We found that white-flowered plants received significantly more floral damage than pink-flowered plants in eight populations over 4 years in northern California. Both generalists and specialists on Brassicaceae preferred white petals in choice and short-term no choice tests. In performance tests, generalists gained more weight on white versus pink petals whereas specialists gained similar amounts of weight on pink and white morphs. Because our results suggest that florivores prefer and perform better on white versus pink flowers, these insects may have the opportunity to affect the frequency of color morphs in the field.

  4. Assessing the uptake of arsenic and antimony from contaminated soil by radish (Raphanus sativus) using DGT and selective extractions.

    PubMed

    Ngo, Lien K; Pinch, Benjamin M; Bennett, William W; Teasdale, Peter R; Jolley, Dianne F

    2016-09-01

    The enrichment of soil arsenic (As) and antimony (Sb) is putting increasing pressure on the environment and human health. The biogeochemical behaviour of Sb and its uptake mechanisms by plants are poorly understood and generally assumed to be similar to that of As. In this study, the lability of As and Sb under agricultural conditions in historically contaminated soils was assessed. Soils were prepared by mixing historically As and Sb-contaminated soil with an uncontaminated soil at different ratios. The lability of As and Sb in the soils was assessed using various approaches: the diffusive gradients in thin films technique (DGT) (as CDGT), soil solution analysis, and sequential extraction procedure (SEP). Lability was compared to the bioaccumulation of As and Sb by various compartments of radish (Raphanus sativus) grown in these soils in a pot experiment. Irrespective of the method, all of the labile fractions showed that both As and Sb were firmly bound to the solid phases, and that Sb was less mobile than As, although total soil Sb concentrations were higher than total soil As. The bioassay demonstrated low bioaccumulation of As and Sb into R. sativus due to their low lability of As and Sb in soils and that there are likely to be differences in their mechanisms of uptake. As accumulated in R. sativus roots was much higher (2.5-21 times) than that of Sb, while the Sb translocated from roots to shoots was approximately 2.5 times higher than that of As. As and Sb in R. sativus tissues were strongly correlated with their labile concentrations measured by DGT, soil solution, and SEP. These techniques are useful measures for predicting bioavailable As and Sb in the historically contaminated soil to R. sativus. This is the first study to demonstrate the suitability of DGT to measure labile Sb in soils. PMID:27239694

  5. Nickel toxicity on seed germination and growth in radish (Raphanus sativus) and its recovery using copper and boron.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Shiv Shankar; Shukla, Rajni; Sharma, Y K

    2009-05-01

    Effect of various concentrations of nickel (100, 200, 500 and 1000 microM) and recovery treatments of boron (50 and 100 microM) and copper (15 and 75 microM) each with 200 microM and 500 microM of nickel on germination, growth, biomass, chlorophyll, carotenoids, pheophytin, amylase, protein, sugar as well as activity of catalase and peroxidase were studied in radish (Raphanus sativus cv. Early menu) seedlings. Nickel treatments caused a considerable reduction in germination percentage, growth and biomass. The different pigments were also decreased with nickel treatments. However boron addition with nickel recovered the negative effect on pigment contents. Among biochemical estimations, amylase activity and total proteins were found to be reduced in nickel treatments. Peroxidase and catalase activity were induced other than higher total sugar with nickel treatments. The combination of nickel with boron resulted into increased protein contents. This combination also reduced the catalase and peroxidase activity. The influence of nickel with copper failed to produce significant recovery except 200 microM nickel in combination with 15 microM copper with regard to catalase and peroxidase activity. The effect of nickel on hydrolyzing enzyme amylase was observed to be inhibitory resulting into poor germination followed by poor seedlings growth. The stress protecting enzymes peroxidase and catalase seem to be induced under the influence of nickel, and providing protection to the seedlings. The application of boron with nickel showed improved germination and growth. The level of catalase and peroxidase were found to be significantly reduced showing normal growth and biomass of seedlings.

  6. Nickel toxicity on seed germination and growth in radish (Raphanus sativus) and its recovery using copper and boron.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Shiv Shankar; Shukla, Rajni; Sharma, Y K

    2009-05-01

    Effect of various concentrations of nickel (100, 200, 500 and 1000 microM) and recovery treatments of boron (50 and 100 microM) and copper (15 and 75 microM) each with 200 microM and 500 microM of nickel on germination, growth, biomass, chlorophyll, carotenoids, pheophytin, amylase, protein, sugar as well as activity of catalase and peroxidase were studied in radish (Raphanus sativus cv. Early menu) seedlings. Nickel treatments caused a considerable reduction in germination percentage, growth and biomass. The different pigments were also decreased with nickel treatments. However boron addition with nickel recovered the negative effect on pigment contents. Among biochemical estimations, amylase activity and total proteins were found to be reduced in nickel treatments. Peroxidase and catalase activity were induced other than higher total sugar with nickel treatments. The combination of nickel with boron resulted into increased protein contents. This combination also reduced the catalase and peroxidase activity. The influence of nickel with copper failed to produce significant recovery except 200 microM nickel in combination with 15 microM copper with regard to catalase and peroxidase activity. The effect of nickel on hydrolyzing enzyme amylase was observed to be inhibitory resulting into poor germination followed by poor seedlings growth. The stress protecting enzymes peroxidase and catalase seem to be induced under the influence of nickel, and providing protection to the seedlings. The application of boron with nickel showed improved germination and growth. The level of catalase and peroxidase were found to be significantly reduced showing normal growth and biomass of seedlings. PMID:20120479

  7. Assessing the uptake of arsenic and antimony from contaminated soil by radish (Raphanus sativus) using DGT and selective extractions.

    PubMed

    Ngo, Lien K; Pinch, Benjamin M; Bennett, William W; Teasdale, Peter R; Jolley, Dianne F

    2016-09-01

    The enrichment of soil arsenic (As) and antimony (Sb) is putting increasing pressure on the environment and human health. The biogeochemical behaviour of Sb and its uptake mechanisms by plants are poorly understood and generally assumed to be similar to that of As. In this study, the lability of As and Sb under agricultural conditions in historically contaminated soils was assessed. Soils were prepared by mixing historically As and Sb-contaminated soil with an uncontaminated soil at different ratios. The lability of As and Sb in the soils was assessed using various approaches: the diffusive gradients in thin films technique (DGT) (as CDGT), soil solution analysis, and sequential extraction procedure (SEP). Lability was compared to the bioaccumulation of As and Sb by various compartments of radish (Raphanus sativus) grown in these soils in a pot experiment. Irrespective of the method, all of the labile fractions showed that both As and Sb were firmly bound to the solid phases, and that Sb was less mobile than As, although total soil Sb concentrations were higher than total soil As. The bioassay demonstrated low bioaccumulation of As and Sb into R. sativus due to their low lability of As and Sb in soils and that there are likely to be differences in their mechanisms of uptake. As accumulated in R. sativus roots was much higher (2.5-21 times) than that of Sb, while the Sb translocated from roots to shoots was approximately 2.5 times higher than that of As. As and Sb in R. sativus tissues were strongly correlated with their labile concentrations measured by DGT, soil solution, and SEP. These techniques are useful measures for predicting bioavailable As and Sb in the historically contaminated soil to R. sativus. This is the first study to demonstrate the suitability of DGT to measure labile Sb in soils.

  8. Purification and characterization of cathepsin B-like cysteine protease from cotyledons of daikon radish, Raphanus sativus.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Akihiko; Kikuchi, Yayoi; Ogawa, Kentaro; Saika, Hiroko; Yuasa, Keizo; Nagahama, Masami

    2008-11-01

    Plant cathepsin B-like cysteine protease (CBCP) plays a role in disease resistance and in protein remobilization during germination. The ability of animal cathepsin B to function as a dipeptidyl carboxypeptidase has been attributed to the presence of a dihistidine (His110-His111) motif in the occluding loop, which represents a unique structure of cathepsin B. However, a dihistidine motif is not present in the predicted sequence of the occluding loop of plant CBCP, as determined from cDNA sequence analysis, and the loop is shorter. In an effort to investigate the enzymatic properties of plant CBCP, which possesses the unusual occluding loop, we have purified CBCP from the cotyledons of daikon radish (Raphanus sativus) by chromatography through Sephacryl S-200, DEAE-cellulose, hydroxyapatite and organomercurial-Sepharose. The molecular mass of the enzyme was estimated to be 28 kDa by SDS/PAGE under reducing conditions. The best synthetic substrate for CBCP was t-butyloxycarbonyl Leu-Arg-Arg-4-methylcoumaryl 7-amide, as is the case with human cathepsin B. However, the endopeptidase activity of CBCP towards glucagon and adrenocorticotropic hormone showed broad cleavage specificity. Human cathepsin B preferentially cleaves model peptides via its dipeptidyl carboxypeptidase activity, whereas daikon CBCP displays both endopeptidase and exopeptidase activities. In addition, CBCP was found to display carboxymonopeptidase activity against the substrate o-aminobenzoyl-Phe-Arg-Phe(4-NO(2)). Daikon CBCP is less sensitive (1/7000) to CA-074 than human cathepsin B. Expression analysis of CBCP at the protein and RNA levels indicated that daikon CBCP activity in cotyledons is regulated by post-transcriptional events during germination.

  9. Effects of ageing on peroxidase activity and localization in radish (Raphanus sativus L.) seeds.

    PubMed

    Scialabba, A; Bellani, L M; Dell'Aquila, A

    2002-01-01

    Peroxidase activity was assayed in crude extracts of integument, cotyledons and embryo axis of radish seeds, deteriorated under accelerated ageing conditions. Over five days of ageing, in which germination decreased from 100 to 52%, the enzyme activity in integument was higher than that in other seed parts, increasing in the first days of ageing and then decreasing sharply in extremely aged seeds. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis showed four peroxidase isoenzymes with MM of 98, 52.5, 32.8 and 29.5 kDa in the embryo axis of unaged seeds, and only the 32.8 and 29.5 kDa MM isoforms in the integument and cotyledons. In these parts of the seed, only the 29.5 kDa MM isoenzyme increased in activity in early days of ageing and decreased there-after. In the embryo axis, the 29.5 kDa MM isoenzyme activity increased slowly in the first day of ageing, while the 98 and 52.5 kDa MM isoenzyme activities disappeared. A cytochemical localization of peroxidase activity in the various tissues showed that main differences between unaged and extremely aged seeds occurred in the embryo axis.

  10. Mechanisms of differential pollen donor performance in wild radish, Raphanus sativus (Brassicaceae).

    PubMed

    Marshall, D L; Diggle, P K

    2001-02-01

    In order to understand the characters on which sexual selection might operate in plants, it is critical to assess the mechanisms by which pollen competition and mate choice occur. To address this issue we measured a number of postpollination characters, ranging from pollen germination and pollen tube growth to final seed paternity, in wild radish. Crosses were performed using four pollen donors on a total of 16 maternal plants (four each from four families). Maternal plants were grown under two watering treatments to evaluate the effects of maternal tissue on the process of mating. The four pollen donors differed significantly in number of seeds sired and differed overall in the mating characters measured. However, it was difficult to associate particular mechanistic characters with ability to sire seeds, perhaps because of interactions among pollen donors within styles or among pollen donors and maternal plants. The process of pollen tube growth and fertilization differed substantially among maternal watering treatments, with many early events occurring more quickly in stressed plants. Seed paternity, however, was somewhat more even among pollen donors used on stressed maternal plants, suggesting that when maternal tissue is more competent, mating is slowed and is more selective.

  11. Genome-Wide Characterization of the MADS-Box Gene Family in Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) and Assessment of Its Roles in Flowering and Floral Organogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chao; Wang, Yan; Xu, Liang; Nie, Shanshan; Chen, Yinglong; Liang, Dongyi; Sun, Xiaochuan; Karanja, Benard K.; Luo, Xiaobo; Liu, Liwang

    2016-01-01

    The MADS-box gene family is an important transcription factor (TF) family that is involved in various aspects of plant growth and development, especially flowering time and floral organogenesis. Although it has been reported in many plant species, the systematic identification and characterization of MADS-box TF family is still limited in radish (Raphanus sativus L.). In the present study, a comprehensive analysis of MADS-box genes was performed, and a total of 144 MADS-box family members were identified from the whole radish genome. Meanwhile, a detailed list of MADS-box genes from other 28 plant species was also investigated. Through the phylogenetic analysis between radish and Arabidopsis thaliana, all the RsMADS genes were classified into two groups including 68 type I (31 Mα, 12 Mβ and 25Mγ) and 76 type II (70 MIKCC and 6 MIKC∗). Among them, 41 (28.47%) RsMADS genes were located in nine linkage groups of radish from R1 to R9. Moreover, the homologous MADS-box gene pairs were identified among radish, A. thaliana, Chinese cabbage and rice. Additionally, the expression profiles of RsMADS genes were systematically investigated in different tissues and growth stages. Furthermore, quantitative real-time PCR analysis was employed to validate expression patterns of some crucial RsMADS genes. These results could provide a valuable resource to explore the potential functions of RsMADS genes in radish, and facilitate dissecting MADS-box gene-mediated molecular mechanisms underlying flowering and floral organogenesis in root vegetable crops. PMID:27703461

  12. Genome-wide identification and characterization of cadmium-responsive microRNAs and their target genes in radish (Raphanus sativus L.) roots

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Liwang

    2013-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous non-coding small RNAs that play vital regulatory roles in plant growth, development, and environmental stress responses. Cadmium (Cd) is a non-essential heavy metal that is highly toxic to living organisms. To date, a number of conserved and non-conserved miRNAs have been identified to be involved in response to Cd stress in some plant species. However, the miRNA-mediated gene regulatory networks responsive to Cd stress in radish (Raphanus sativus L.) remain largely unexplored. To dissect Cd-responsive miRNAs and their targets systematically at the global level, two small RNA libraries were constructed from Cd-treated and Cd-free roots of radish seedlings. Using Solexa sequencing technology, 93 conserved and 16 non-conserved miRNAs (representing 26 miRNA families) and 28 novel miRNAs (representing 22 miRNA families) were identified. In all, 15 known and eight novel miRNA families were significantly differently regulated under Cd stress. The expression patterns of a set of Cd-responsive miRNAs were validated by quantitative real-time PCR. Based on the radish mRNA transcriptome, 18 and 71 targets for novel and known miRNA families, respectively, were identified by the degradome sequencing approach. Furthermore, a few target transcripts including phytochelatin synthase 1 (PCS1), iron transporter protein, and ABC transporter protein were involved in plant response to Cd stress. This study represents the first transcriptome-based analysis of miRNAs and their targets responsive to Cd stress in radish roots. These findings could provide valuable information for functional characterization of miRNAs and their targets in regulatory networks responsive to Cd stress in radish. PMID:24014874

  13. Genome-wide identification and characterization of cadmium-responsive microRNAs and their target genes in radish (Raphanus sativus L.) roots.

    PubMed

    Xu, Liang; Wang, Yan; Zhai, Lulu; Xu, Yuanyuan; Wang, Liangju; Zhu, Xianwen; Gong, Yiqin; Yu, Rugang; Limera, Cecilia; Liu, Liwang

    2013-11-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous non-coding small RNAs that play vital regulatory roles in plant growth, development, and environmental stress responses. Cadmium (Cd) is a non-essential heavy metal that is highly toxic to living organisms. To date, a number of conserved and non-conserved miRNAs have been identified to be involved in response to Cd stress in some plant species. However, the miRNA-mediated gene regulatory networks responsive to Cd stress in radish (Raphanus sativus L.) remain largely unexplored. To dissect Cd-responsive miRNAs and their targets systematically at the global level, two small RNA libraries were constructed from Cd-treated and Cd-free roots of radish seedlings. Using Solexa sequencing technology, 93 conserved and 16 non-conserved miRNAs (representing 26 miRNA families) and 28 novel miRNAs (representing 22 miRNA families) were identified. In all, 15 known and eight novel miRNA families were significantly differently regulated under Cd stress. The expression patterns of a set of Cd-responsive miRNAs were validated by quantitative real-time PCR. Based on the radish mRNA transcriptome, 18 and 71 targets for novel and known miRNA families, respectively, were identified by the degradome sequencing approach. Furthermore, a few target transcripts including phytochelatin synthase 1 (PCS1), iron transporter protein, and ABC transporter protein were involved in plant response to Cd stress. This study represents the first transcriptome-based analysis of miRNAs and their targets responsive to Cd stress in radish roots. These findings could provide valuable information for functional characterization of miRNAs and their targets in regulatory networks responsive to Cd stress in radish.

  14. Transcriptome profiling of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) root and identification of genes involved in response to Lead (Pb) stress with next generation sequencing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Xu, Liang; Chen, Yinglong; Shen, Hong; Gong, Yiqin; Limera, Cecilia; Liu, Liwang

    2013-01-01

    Lead (Pb), one of the most toxic heavy metals, can be absorbed and accumulated by plant roots and then enter the food chain resulting in potential health risks for human beings. The radish (Raphanus sativus L.) is an important root vegetable crop with fleshy taproots as the edible parts. Little is known about the mechanism by which radishes respond to Pb stress at the molecular level. In this study, Next Generation Sequencing (NGS)-based RNA-seq technology was employed to characterize the de novo transcriptome of radish roots and identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) during Pb stress. A total of 68,940 assembled unique transcripts including 33,337 unigenes were obtained from radish root cDNA samples. Based on the assembled de novo transcriptome, 4,614 DEGs were detected between the two libraries of untreated (CK) and Pb-treated (Pb1000) roots. Gene Ontology (GO) and pathway enrichment analysis revealed that upregulated DEGs under Pb stress are predominately involved in defense responses in cell walls and glutathione metabolism-related processes, while downregulated DEGs were mainly involved in carbohydrate metabolism-related pathways. The expression patterns of 22 selected genes were validated by quantitative real-time PCR, and the results were highly accordant with the Solexa analysis. Furthermore, many candidate genes, which were involved in defense and detoxification mechanisms including signaling protein kinases, transcription factors, metal transporters and chelate compound biosynthesis related enzymes, were successfully identified in response to heavy metal Pb. Identification of potential DEGs involved in responses to Pb stress significantly reflected alterations in major biological processes and metabolic pathways. The molecular basis of the response to Pb stress in radishes was comprehensively characterized. Useful information and new insights were provided for investigating the molecular regulation mechanism of heavy metal Pb accumulation and

  15. Transcriptome Profiling of Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) Root and Identification of Genes Involved in Response to Lead (Pb) Stress with Next Generation Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan; Xu, Liang; Chen, Yinglong; Shen, Hong; Gong, Yiqin; Limera, Cecilia; Liu, Liwang

    2013-01-01

    Lead (Pb), one of the most toxic heavy metals, can be absorbed and accumulated by plant roots and then enter the food chain resulting in potential health risks for human beings. The radish (Raphanus sativus L.) is an important root vegetable crop with fleshy taproots as the edible parts. Little is known about the mechanism by which radishes respond to Pb stress at the molecular level. In this study, Next Generation Sequencing (NGS)–based RNA-seq technology was employed to characterize the de novo transcriptome of radish roots and identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) during Pb stress. A total of 68,940 assembled unique transcripts including 33,337 unigenes were obtained from radish root cDNA samples. Based on the assembled de novo transcriptome, 4,614 DEGs were detected between the two libraries of untreated (CK) and Pb-treated (Pb1000) roots. Gene Ontology (GO) and pathway enrichment analysis revealed that upregulated DEGs under Pb stress are predominately involved in defense responses in cell walls and glutathione metabolism-related processes, while downregulated DEGs were mainly involved in carbohydrate metabolism-related pathways. The expression patterns of 22 selected genes were validated by quantitative real-time PCR, and the results were highly accordant with the Solexa analysis. Furthermore, many candidate genes, which were involved in defense and detoxification mechanisms including signaling protein kinases, transcription factors, metal transporters and chelate compound biosynthesis related enzymes, were successfully identified in response to heavy metal Pb. Identification of potential DEGs involved in responses to Pb stress significantly reflected alterations in major biological processes and metabolic pathways. The molecular basis of the response to Pb stress in radishes was comprehensively characterized. Useful information and new insights were provided for investigating the molecular regulation mechanism of heavy metal Pb accumulation and

  16. Construction of a high-resolution linkage map of Rfd1, a restorer-of-fertility locus for cytoplasmic male sterility conferred by DCGMS cytoplasm in radish (Raphanus sativus L.) using synteny between radish and Arabidopsis genomes.

    PubMed

    Cho, Youngcho; Lee, Young-Pyo; Park, Beom-Seok; Han, Tae-Ho; Kim, Sunggil

    2012-08-01

    Cytoplasmic male sterility caused by Dongbu cytoplasmic and genic male-sterility (DCGMS) cytoplasm and its nuclear restorer-of-fertility locus (Rfd1) with a linked molecular marker (A137) have been reported in radish (Raphanus sativus L.). To construct a linkage map of the Rfd1 locus, linked amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers were screened using bulked segregant analysis. A 220-bp linked AFLP fragment sequence from radish showed homology with an Arabidopsis coding sequence. Using this Arabidopsis gene sequence, a simple PCR marker (A220) was developed. The A137 and A220 markers flanked the Rfd1 locus. Two homologous Arabidopsis genes with both marker sequences were positioned on Arabidopsis chromosome-3 with an interval of 2.4 Mb. To integrate the Rfd1 locus into a previously reported expressed sequence tag (EST)-simple sequence repeat (SSR) linkage map, the radish EST sequences located in three syntenic blocks within the 2.4-Mb interval were used to develop single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers for tagging each block. The SNP marker in linkage group-2 co-segregated with male fertility in an F(2) population. Using radish ESTs positioned in linkage group-2, five intron length polymorphism (ILP) markers and one cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) marker were developed and used to construct a linkage map of the Rfd1 locus. Two closely linked markers delimited the Rfd1 locus within a 985-kb interval of Arabidopsis chromosome-3. Synteny between the radish and Arabidopsis genomes in the 985-kb interval were used to develop three ILP and three CAPS markers. Two ILP markers further delimited the Rfd1 locus to a 220-kb interval of Arabidopsis chromosome-3.

  17. Molecular cloning and functional expression of a water-soluble chlorophyll-binding protein from Japanese wild radish.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Shigekazu; Ono, Mayuko; Uchida, Akira; Nakayama, Katsumi; Satoh, Hiroyuki

    2013-03-01

    Hydrophilic chlorophyll (Chl)-binding proteins have been isolated from various Brassicaceae plants and are categorized into Class II water-soluble Chl-binding proteins (WSCPs). Although the molecular properties of class II WSCPs including Brassica-type (e.g., cauliflower WSCP, Brussels sprouts WSCP and BnD22, a drought- and salinity-stress-induced 22 kDa protein of rapeseed), a Lepidium-type, and an Arabidopsis-type WSCPs have been well characterized, those of Raphanus-type WSCPs are poorly understood. To gain insight into the molecular diversity of Class II WSCPs, we cloned a novel cDNA encoding a Raphanus sativus var. raphanistroides (Japanese wild radish called 'Hamadaikon') WSCP (RshWSCP). Sequence analysis revealed that the open reading frame of the RshWSCP gene consisted of 666 bp encoding 222 aa residues, including 23 residues of a deduced signal peptide. Functional recombinant RshWSCP was expressed in Escherichia coli as a hexa-histidine fusion protein (RshWSCP-His). Although the RshWSCP-His was expressed as a soluble protein in E. coli, the apo-protein was highly unstable and tended to aggregate during a series of purification steps. When the soluble fraction of RshWSCP-His-expressing E. coli was mixed immediately with homogenate of spinach leaves containing thylakoid, RshWSCP-His was able to remove Chl molecules from the thylakoid and formed a stable Chl-WSCP complex with high hydrophilicity. UV-visible absorption spectra of the reconstituted RshWSCP-His revealed that RshWSCP-His is one of the Class IIA WSCP with the highest Chl a/b ratio analyzed thus far. A semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that RshWSCP was transcribed in buds and flowers but not in roots, stems and various leaves. PMID:23266282

  18. Citric acid modifies surface properties of commercial CeO2 nanoparticles reducing their toxicity and cerium uptake in radish (Raphanus sativus) seedlings.

    PubMed

    Trujillo-Reyes, J; Vilchis-Nestor, A R; Majumdar, S; Peralta-Videa, J R; Gardea-Torresdey, J L

    2013-12-15

    Little is known about the mobility, reactivity, and toxicity to plants of coated engineered nanoparticles (ENPs). Surface modification may change the interaction of ENPs with living organisms. This report describes surface changes in commercial CeO2 NPs coated with citric acid (CA) at molar ratios of 1:2, 1:3, 1:7, and 1:10 CeO2:CA, and their effects on radish (Raphanus sativus) seed germination, cerium and nutrients uptake. All CeO2 NPs and their absorption by radish plants were characterized by TEM, DLS, and ICP-OES. Radish seeds were germinated in pristine and CA coated CeO2 NPs suspensions at 50mg/L, 100mg/L, and 200mg/L. Deionized water and CA at 100mg/L were used as controls. Results showed ζ potential values of 21.6 mV and -56 mV for the pristine and CA coated CeO2 NPs, respectively. TEM images showed denser layers surrounding the CeO2 NPs at higher CA concentrations, as well as better distribution and smaller particle sizes. None of the treatments affected seed germination. However, at 200mg/L the CA coated NPs at 1:7 ratio produced significantly (p ≤ 0.05) more root biomass, increased water content and reduced by 94% the Ce uptake, compared to bare NPs. This suggests that CA coating decrease CeO2 NPs toxicity to plants.

  19. Complete mitochondrial genome sequence and identification of a candidate gene responsible for cytoplasmic male sterility in radish (Raphanus sativus L.) containing DCGMS cytoplasm.

    PubMed

    Park, Jee Young; Lee, Young-Pyo; Lee, Jonghoon; Choi, Beom-Soon; Kim, Sunggil; Yang, Tae-Jin

    2013-07-01

    A novel cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) conferred by Dongbu cytoplasmic and genic male-sterility (DCGMS) cytoplasm and its restorer-of-fertility gene (Rfd1) was previously reported in radish (Raphanus sativus L.). Its inheritance of fertility restoration and profiles of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)-based molecular markers were reported to be different from those of Ogura CMS, the first reported CMS in radish. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence (239,186 bp; GenBank accession No. KC193578) of DCGMS mitotype is reported in this study. Thirty-four protein-coding genes and three ribosomal RNA genes were identified. Comparative analysis of a mitochondrial genome sequence of DCGMS and previously reported complete sequences of normal and Ogura CMS mitotypes revealed various recombined structures of seventeen syntenic sequence blocks. Short-repeat sequences were identified in almost all junctions between syntenic sequence blocks. Phylogenetic analysis of three radish mitotypes showed that DCGMS was more closely related to the normal mitotype than to the Ogura mitotype. A single 1,551-bp unique region was identified in DCGMS mtDNA sequences and a novel chimeric gene, designated orf463, consisting of 128-bp partial sequences of cox1 gene and 1,261-bp unidentified sequences were found in the unique region. No other genes with a chimeric structure, a major feature of most characterized CMS-associated genes in other plant species, were found in rearranged junctions of syntenic sequence blocks. Like other known CMS-associated mitochondrial genes, the predicted gene product of orf463 contained 12 transmembrane domains. Thus, this gene product might be integrated into the mitochondrial membrane. In total, the results indicate that orf463 is likely to be a casual factor for CMS induction in radish containing the DCGMS cytoplasm.

  20. Effects of abscisic acid, gibberellic acid and fusicoccin on the transmembrane potential during the early phases of germination in radish (Raphanus sativus L.) seeds.

    PubMed

    Ballarin-Denti, A; Cocucci, M

    1979-01-01

    During germination, the transmembrane electric potential (PD) of cortical cells of the embryonal axis of radish seeds (Raphanus sativus L.) rises from-120 mV initially to a maximum of-150 mV after 5 h incubation, then falls again to stable values of around-120 mV. Treatments inhibiting germination block the transitory PD increase. Administration of uncoupling agents or low temperatures, during the process of germination, produces a marked fall of the PD transitory increase. Abscisic Acid has a parallel inhibitory effect on PD and germination, while fusicoccin produces a rise in both; administration of abscisic acid with fusicoccin inhibits germination, while the PD remains at the high levels given by fusicoccin. These results are discussed in relation to ion exchange at membrane level.

  1. Consequences of Whole-Genome Triplication as Revealed by Comparative Genomic Analyses of the Wild Radish Raphanus raphanistrum and Three Other Brassicaceae Species.

    PubMed

    Moghe, Gaurav D; Hufnagel, David E; Tang, Haibao; Xiao, Yongli; Dworkin, Ian; Town, Christopher D; Conner, Jeffrey K; Shiu, Shin-Han

    2014-05-29

    Polyploidization events are frequent among flowering plants, and the duplicate genes produced via such events contribute significantly to plant evolution. We sequenced the genome of wild radish (Raphanus raphanistrum), a Brassicaceae species that experienced a whole-genome triplication event prior to diverging from Brassica rapa. Despite substantial gene gains in these two species compared with Arabidopsis thaliana and Arabidopsis lyrata, ∼70% of the orthologous groups experienced gene losses in R. raphanistrum and B. rapa, with most of the losses occurring prior to their divergence. The retained duplicates show substantial divergence in sequence and expression. Based on comparison of A. thaliana and R. raphanistrum ortholog floral expression levels, retained radish duplicates diverged primarily via maintenance of ancestral expression level in one copy and reduction of expression level in others. In addition, retained duplicates differed significantly from genes that reverted to singleton state in function, sequence composition, expression patterns, network connectivity, and rates of evolution. Using these properties, we established a statistical learning model for predicting whether a duplicate would be retained postpolyploidization. Overall, our study provides new insights into the processes of plant duplicate loss, retention, and functional divergence and highlights the need for further understanding factors controlling duplicate gene fate.

  2. Citric acid modifies surface properties of commercial CeO2 nanoparticles reducing their toxicity and cerium uptake in radish (Raphanus sativus) seedlings.

    PubMed

    Trujillo-Reyes, J; Vilchis-Nestor, A R; Majumdar, S; Peralta-Videa, J R; Gardea-Torresdey, J L

    2013-12-15

    Little is known about the mobility, reactivity, and toxicity to plants of coated engineered nanoparticles (ENPs). Surface modification may change the interaction of ENPs with living organisms. This report describes surface changes in commercial CeO2 NPs coated with citric acid (CA) at molar ratios of 1:2, 1:3, 1:7, and 1:10 CeO2:CA, and their effects on radish (Raphanus sativus) seed germination, cerium and nutrients uptake. All CeO2 NPs and their absorption by radish plants were characterized by TEM, DLS, and ICP-OES. Radish seeds were germinated in pristine and CA coated CeO2 NPs suspensions at 50mg/L, 100mg/L, and 200mg/L. Deionized water and CA at 100mg/L were used as controls. Results showed ζ potential values of 21.6 mV and -56 mV for the pristine and CA coated CeO2 NPs, respectively. TEM images showed denser layers surrounding the CeO2 NPs at higher CA concentrations, as well as better distribution and smaller particle sizes. None of the treatments affected seed germination. However, at 200mg/L the CA coated NPs at 1:7 ratio produced significantly (p ≤ 0.05) more root biomass, increased water content and reduced by 94% the Ce uptake, compared to bare NPs. This suggests that CA coating decrease CeO2 NPs toxicity to plants. PMID:24231324

  3. The uptake of Cs and Sr from soil to radish (Raphanus sativus L.)- potential for phytoextraction and remediation of contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dan; Wen, Fangping; Xu, Changhe; Tang, Yunlai; Luo, Xuegang

    2012-08-01

    The (133)Cs and (88)Sr uptake by plant Raphanus sativus L. was studied during cultivation in outdoor potted-soil. The distribution, accumulation of (133)Cs, (88)Sr and the antioxidant responses in plants were measured after 30 and 60 days of cultivation. The results showed that the uptake capacity of radish for (88)Sr was far higher than that for (133)Cs when the concentration of (88)Sr was as the same as that of (133)Cs in the soil (The concentration of (88)Sr or (133)Cs in the soil was from 2.5 mg kg(-1) to 40 mg kg(-1)). The highest (88)Sr accumulation was 239.18 μg g(-1) dw, otherwise, the highest (133)Cs accumulation was 151.74 μg g(-1) dw (The concentration of (88)Sr in the soil was 40 mg kg(-1)), and the lowest (88)Sr accumulation was 131.03 μg g(-1) dw, otherwise, the lowest (133)Cs accumulation was 12.85 μg g(-1) dw (The concentration of (88)Sr in the soil is 5 mg kg(-1)). The (88)Sr and (133)Cs TF values were 1.16-1.72 and 0.24-0.60, respectively. There was little influence of high concentration of (88)Sr on the total biomass of plants, so the radish is one of the ideal phytoremediation plant for Sr polluted soils. The important physiological reasons that radish had good tolerance to (88)Sr stress were that the MDA content was higher under the (88)Sr stress than that under the (133)Cs stress, and the activities of POD and CAT were lower under the (88)Sr stress than that under (133)Cs stress.

  4. Aqueous extract from Spanish black radish (Raphanus sativus L. Var. niger) induces detoxification enzymes in the HepG2 human hepatoma cell line.

    PubMed

    Hanlon, Paul R; Webber, David M; Barnes, David M

    2007-08-01

    Spanish black radish (Raphanus sativus L. var. niger) is a member of the Cruciferae family that also contains broccoli and Brussels sprouts, well-known to contain health-promoting constituents. Spanish black radishes (SBR) contain high concentrations of a glucosinolate unique to the radish family, glucoraphasatin, which represents >65% of the total glucosinolates present in SBR. The metabolites of glucosinolates, such as isothiocyanates, are implicated in health promotion, although it is unclear whether glucosinolates themselves elicit a similar response. The crude aqueous extract from 0.3 to 3 mg of dry SBR material increased the activity of the phase II detoxification enzyme quinone reductase in the human hepatoma HepG2 cell line with a maximal effect at a concentration of 1 mg/mL. Treatment of HepG2 cells with the crude aqueous extract of 1 mg of SBR per mL also significantly induced the expression of mRNA corresponding to the phase I detoxification enzymes: cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1, CYP1A2, and CYP1B1 as well as the phase II detoxification enzymes: quinone reductase, heme oxygenase 1, and thioredoxin reductase 1. Previous studies have shown that the myrosinase metabolites of different glucosinolates vary in their ability to induce detoxification enzymes. Here, we show that while glucoraphasatin addition was ineffective, the isothiocyanate metabolite of glucoraphasatin, 4-methylthio-3-butenyl isothiocyanate (MIBITC), significantly induced phase II detoxification enzymes at a concentration of 10 microM. These data demonstrate that the crude aqueous extract of SBR and the isothiocyanate metabolite of glucoraphasatin, MIBITC, are potent inducers of detoxification enzymes in the HepG2 cell line.

  5. Transcriptomic Analysis Identifies Differentially Expressed Genes (DEGs) Associated with Bolting and Flowering in Radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Nie, Shanshan; Li, Chao; Wang, Yan; Xu, Liang; Muleke, Everlyne M; Tang, Mingjia; Sun, Xiaochuan; Liu, Liwang

    2016-01-01

    The transition of vegetative growth to bolting and flowering is an important process in the life cycle of plants, which is determined by numerous genes forming an intricate network of bolting and flowering. However, no comprehensive identification and profiling of bolting and flowering-related genes have been carried out in radish. In this study, RNA-Seq technology was applied to analyze the differential gene expressions during the transition from vegetative stage to reproductive stage in radish. A total of 5922 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) including 779 up-regulated and 5143 down-regulated genes were isolated. Functional enrichment analysis suggested that some DEGs were involved in hormone signaling pathways and the transcriptional regulation of bolting and flowering. KEGG-based analysis identified 37 DEGs being involved in phytohormone signaling pathways. Moreover, 95 DEGs related to bolting and flowering were identified and integrated into various flowering pathways. Several critical genes including FT, CO, SOC1, FLC, and LFY were characterized and profiled by RT-qPCR analysis. Correlation analysis indicated that 24 miRNA-DEG pairs were involved in radish bolting and flowering. Finally, a miRNA-DEG-based schematic model of bolting and flowering regulatory network was proposed in radish. These outcomes provided significant insights into genetic control of radish bolting and flowering, and would facilitate unraveling molecular regulatory mechanism underlying bolting and flowering in root vegetable crops.

  6. Transcriptomic Analysis Identifies Differentially Expressed Genes (DEGs) Associated with Bolting and Flowering in Radish (Raphanus sativus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Shanshan; Li, Chao; Wang, Yan; Xu, Liang; Muleke, Everlyne M.; Tang, Mingjia; Sun, Xiaochuan; Liu, Liwang

    2016-01-01

    The transition of vegetative growth to bolting and flowering is an important process in the life cycle of plants, which is determined by numerous genes forming an intricate network of bolting and flowering. However, no comprehensive identification and profiling of bolting and flowering-related genes have been carried out in radish. In this study, RNA-Seq technology was applied to analyze the differential gene expressions during the transition from vegetative stage to reproductive stage in radish. A total of 5922 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) including 779 up-regulated and 5143 down-regulated genes were isolated. Functional enrichment analysis suggested that some DEGs were involved in hormone signaling pathways and the transcriptional regulation of bolting and flowering. KEGG-based analysis identified 37 DEGs being involved in phytohormone signaling pathways. Moreover, 95 DEGs related to bolting and flowering were identified and integrated into various flowering pathways. Several critical genes including FT, CO, SOC1, FLC, and LFY were characterized and profiled by RT-qPCR analysis. Correlation analysis indicated that 24 miRNA-DEG pairs were involved in radish bolting and flowering. Finally, a miRNA-DEG-based schematic model of bolting and flowering regulatory network was proposed in radish. These outcomes provided significant insights into genetic control of radish bolting and flowering, and would facilitate unraveling molecular regulatory mechanism underlying bolting and flowering in root vegetable crops. PMID:27252709

  7. Effect of radish (Raphanus sativus Linn.) on thyroid status under conditions of varying iodine intake in rats.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Amar K; Mukhopadhyay, Sanjukta; Ghosh, Dishari; Tripathy, Smritiratan

    2006-08-01

    Cruciferous plants viz. cabbage, cauliflower, turnip, radish, mustard etc. that contain goitrogenic/antithyroid substances, constitute a portion of regular human diet. The effect of chronic feeding of fresh and cooked radish, R. sativus under varying state of iodine intake on morphological and functional status of thyroid in albino rats was evaluated by thyroid gland morphology and histology, thyroid peroxidase activity, serum triiodothyronine, thyroxine and thyrotropin levels. The consumption pattern of iodine and goitrogens of cyanogenic origin was evaluated by measuring urinary iodine and thiocyanate levels respectively. After chronic radish feeding, increased weight of thyroid gland, decreased thyroid peroxidase activity, reduced thyroid hormone profiles and elevated level of thyrotropin were observed resembling a relative state of hypoactive thyroid gland in comparison to control even after supplementation of adequate iodine. PMID:16924836

  8. De novo sequencing of root transcriptome reveals complex cadmium-responsive regulatory networks in radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Xu, Liang; Wang, Yan; Liu, Wei; Wang, Jin; Zhu, Xianwen; Zhang, Keyun; Yu, Rugang; Wang, Ronghua; Xie, Yang; Zhang, Wei; Gong, Yiqin; Liu, Liwang

    2015-07-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a nonessential metallic trace element that poses potential chronic toxicity to living organisms. To date, little is known about the Cd-responsive regulatory network in root vegetable crops including radish. In this study, 31,015 unigenes representing 66,552 assembled unique transcripts were isolated from radish root under Cd stress based on de novo transcriptome assembly. In all, 1496 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) consisted of 3579 transcripts were identified from Cd-free (CK) and Cd-treated (Cd200) libraries. Gene Ontology and pathway enrichment analysis indicated that the up- and down-regulated DEGs were predominately involved in glucosinolate biosynthesis as well as cysteine and methionine-related pathways, respectively. RT-qPCR showed that the expression profiles of DEGs were in consistent with results from RNA-Seq analysis. Several candidate genes encoding phytochelatin synthase (PCS), metallothioneins (MTs), glutathione (GSH), zinc iron permease (ZIPs) and ABC transporter were responsible for Cd uptake, accumulation, translocation and detoxification in radish. The schematic model of DEGs and microRNAs-involved in Cd-responsive regulatory network was proposed. This study represents a first comprehensive transcriptome-based characterization of Cd-responsive DEGs in radish. These results could provide fundamental insight into complex Cd-responsive regulatory networks and facilitate further genetic manipulation of Cd accumulation in root vegetable crops. PMID:26025544

  9. De novo sequencing of root transcriptome reveals complex cadmium-responsive regulatory networks in radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Xu, Liang; Wang, Yan; Liu, Wei; Wang, Jin; Zhu, Xianwen; Zhang, Keyun; Yu, Rugang; Wang, Ronghua; Xie, Yang; Zhang, Wei; Gong, Yiqin; Liu, Liwang

    2015-07-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a nonessential metallic trace element that poses potential chronic toxicity to living organisms. To date, little is known about the Cd-responsive regulatory network in root vegetable crops including radish. In this study, 31,015 unigenes representing 66,552 assembled unique transcripts were isolated from radish root under Cd stress based on de novo transcriptome assembly. In all, 1496 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) consisted of 3579 transcripts were identified from Cd-free (CK) and Cd-treated (Cd200) libraries. Gene Ontology and pathway enrichment analysis indicated that the up- and down-regulated DEGs were predominately involved in glucosinolate biosynthesis as well as cysteine and methionine-related pathways, respectively. RT-qPCR showed that the expression profiles of DEGs were in consistent with results from RNA-Seq analysis. Several candidate genes encoding phytochelatin synthase (PCS), metallothioneins (MTs), glutathione (GSH), zinc iron permease (ZIPs) and ABC transporter were responsible for Cd uptake, accumulation, translocation and detoxification in radish. The schematic model of DEGs and microRNAs-involved in Cd-responsive regulatory network was proposed. This study represents a first comprehensive transcriptome-based characterization of Cd-responsive DEGs in radish. These results could provide fundamental insight into complex Cd-responsive regulatory networks and facilitate further genetic manipulation of Cd accumulation in root vegetable crops.

  10. Changes in the Levels of Calmodulin and of a Calmodulin Inhibitor in the Early Phases of Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) Seed Germination: Effects of Aba and Fusicoccin.

    PubMed

    Cocucci, M; Negrini, N

    1988-11-01

    An inhibitor of Ca(2+)-calmodulin (Cam)-dependent brain phosphodiesterase was present in the soluble fraction of embryo axes from ungerminated radish (Raphanus sativus L.) seeds. This inhibitor is a Ca(2+)-dependent, Cam-binding protein; in fact: (a) its effect was strongly reduced by treatment with proteases; (b) the inhibition was counteracted by Cam but not by Ca(2+); (c) on gel filtration in the presence of Ca(2+), Cam co-chromatographed with the inhibitor. The inhibitor is heat stable and positively charged at pH 7.5. During early phases of germination, the fresh weight and the levels of DNA and RNA of embryo axes increased, the level of the inhibitor decreased, and the level of Cam increased. Abscisic acid (ABA) inhibited germination, the decrease of inhibitor, and the increase of Cam. Fusicoccin (FC) stimulated the increase in fresh weight but not the increase in the RNA and DNA levels; in this condition, the inhibitor level decreased and the increase in Cam level was higher than in the control. In the presence of both ABA and FC, there was an increase in fresh weight not accompanied by an increase in DNA and RNA levels; Cam increased and, on a fresh weight basis, reached the value of the control. These results indicate that the Ca(2+)-Cam system was activated in early germination of radish seeds by an increase in Cam and a decrease in the inhibitor levels, that FC, probably through the activation of membrane functions, increased Cam level, and that the ABA inhibition on germination was not mediated by the Ca(2+)-Cam system.

  11. Synergistic effect of ethylene inhibitors and putrescine on shoot regeneration from hypocotyl explants of Chinese radish (Raphanus sativus L. var. longipinnatus Bailey) in vitro.

    PubMed

    Pua, E C; Sim, G E; Chi, G L; Kong, L F

    1996-05-01

    The role of ethylene and putrescine on shoot regeneration from hypocotyl explants of Chinese radish (Raphanus sativus L. var. longipinnatus Bailey cv. Red Coat) was investigated. Explants were recalcitrant in culture, but exogenous application of ethylene inhibitor [20-30 μM aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG) or AgNO3] enhanced shoot regeneration of explants grown on medium supplemented with 2 mg/l N(6)-benzyladenine and 1 mg/l 1-naphthaleneacetic acid. The best regeneration occurred in the medium containing AgNO3 in combination with AVG. Culture medium solidified with agarose in the presence of AgNO3 but not AVG was also beneficial to shoot regeneration. Exogenous putrescine, 2-chloroethylphosphonic acid and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate had no effect on shoot regeneration. However, regeneration was greatly promoted by 10-25 mM putrescine in combination with 30 μM AgNO3 or AVG. Explants with high regenerability grown in the presence of AgNO3 or in combination with putrescine emanated high levels of ethylene throughout the 21-d culture period. By contrast, AVG or putrescine alone resulted in a decrease in ethylene production. For rooting of shoot cuttings, IAA and IBA at 1-5 mg/l were more effective than NAA. PMID:24178611

  12. Genome-wide identification of microRNAs associated with taproot development in radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Sun, Yuyan; Qiu, Yang; Zhang, Xiaohui; Chen, Xiaohua; Shen, Di; Wang, Haiping; Li, Xixiang

    2015-09-10

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, endogenous, non-coding RNAs that play vital regulatory roles in plant growth and development. To identify the miRNAs associated with taproot development at the whole genome level, we sequenced five RNA libraries constructed from radish taproots at different developmental stages and generated a total of 148M clean reads. Using an integrative bioinformatics analysis, 494 known miRNAs belonging to 434 families and 220 putative novel miRNAs were identified. Combining the differential expression analysis and target prediction, we found that 77 miRNAs were potentially associated with taproot development. Target transcripts generated significant GO terms relating to cell proliferation, root development and hormone-mediated signaling. The KEGG analyses revealed that plant hormone signal transduction, zeatin biosynthesis, biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, cell cycle, MAPK signaling and p53 signaling were closely associated with taproot development. These findings will provide valuable information for further functional verification of miRNAs and their targets in radish taproot development.

  13. Evaluation of reference genes for gene expression studies in radish (Raphanus sativus L.) using quantitative real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yuanyuan; Zhu, Xianwen; Gong, Yiqin; Xu, Liang; Wang, Yan; Liu, Liwang

    2012-08-01

    Real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR) is a rapid and reliable method for gene expression studies. Normalization based on reference genes can increase the reliability of this technique; however, recent studies have shown that almost no single reference gene is universal for all possible experimental conditions. In this study, eight frequently used reference genes were investigated, including Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), Actin2/7 (ACT), Tubulin alpha-5 (TUA), Tubulin beta-1 (TUB), 18S ribosomal RNA (18SrRNA), RNA polymerase-II transcription factor (RPII), Elongation factor 1-b (EF-1b) and Translation elongation factor 2 (TEF2). Expression stability of candidate reference genes was examined across 27 radish samples, representing a range of tissue types, cultivars, photoperiodic and vernalization treatments, and developmental stages. The eight genes in these sample pools displayed a wide range of Ct values and were variably expressed. Two statistical software packages, geNorm and NormFinder showed that TEF2, RPII and ACT appeared to be relatively stable and therefore the most suitable for use as reference genes. These results facilitate selection of desirable reference genes for accurate gene expression studies in radish. PMID:22771808

  14. Disappearance of stored polyadenylic acid and mRNA during early germination of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) embryo axes.

    PubMed

    Delseny, M; Aspart, L; Guitton, Y

    1977-01-01

    Polyadenylic acid [poly (A)] is detected, characterized and quantitated in dry radish embryo axis RNA using a (3)H poly (U) probe. The amount of poly (A) gradually decreases after the onset of soaking, and, after a few hours, recovers to the initial level. This variation is shown to result from the addition of two opposed phenomena: the decay of stored poly (A) and the accumulation of newly synthesized poly (A). Stored poly (A), as well as the "in vivo" protein synthesis coded for by preformed mRNA, decreases during early germination with a half-life of two hours. As a whole, these results demonstrate that at least a fraction of the stored mRNA is translated as soon as the seed is soaked and that its role is rapidly taken over by newly-made mRNA.

  15. Mechanistic interpretation of the varying selectivity of Cesium-137 and potassium uptake by radish (Raphanus sativus L.) under field conditions near Chernobyl.

    PubMed

    Prorok, V V; Dacenko, O I; Bulavin, L A; Poperenko, L V; White, P J

    2016-02-01

    The selectivity of cation uptake by radish (Raphanus sativus L.) growing in the field near Chernobyl varies during the growth season. It is hypothesised that this is a consequence of variation in (137)Cs (Csss) and potassium (Kss) concentrations in the soil solution or the amount of dissolved potassium available to the plants. In the experiments reported here, it was observed that (1) Csss and Kss were positively correlated, (2) the selectivity for uptake of (137)Cs versus potassium (r) increased exponentially with decreasing Csss and Kss, and (3) the (137)Cs concentration, but not the potassium concentration, in plant material, increased abruptly upon the simultaneous reduction of Kss and Csss below about 10 μg ml(-1) and 6.7 Bq l(-1), respectively. It is thought that potassium enters root cells from the soil solution through constitutively-expressed, inward rectifying K(+) channels (KIRC) and K(+)/H(+)-symporters, whose abundance increases when plants become potassium-deficient. Cesium is thought to enter root cells through non-specific cation channels (NSCC) and, in plants lacking sufficient potassium, through K(+)/H(+)-symporters. It is argued that the increase in r, together with the abrupt increase (137)Cs concentration in plant tissues, when Kss and Csss decrease simultaneously cannot be attributed to competition between Cs(+) and K(+) for transport though KIRC, NSCC or K(+)/H(+)-symporters and that the most plausible explanation of these phenomena is an increase in the abundance of K(+)/H(+)-symporters in plants exhibiting incipient potassium deficiency. PMID:26650829

  16. Mechanistic interpretation of the varying selectivity of Cesium-137 and potassium uptake by radish (Raphanus sativus L.) under field conditions near Chernobyl.

    PubMed

    Prorok, V V; Dacenko, O I; Bulavin, L A; Poperenko, L V; White, P J

    2016-02-01

    The selectivity of cation uptake by radish (Raphanus sativus L.) growing in the field near Chernobyl varies during the growth season. It is hypothesised that this is a consequence of variation in (137)Cs (Csss) and potassium (Kss) concentrations in the soil solution or the amount of dissolved potassium available to the plants. In the experiments reported here, it was observed that (1) Csss and Kss were positively correlated, (2) the selectivity for uptake of (137)Cs versus potassium (r) increased exponentially with decreasing Csss and Kss, and (3) the (137)Cs concentration, but not the potassium concentration, in plant material, increased abruptly upon the simultaneous reduction of Kss and Csss below about 10 μg ml(-1) and 6.7 Bq l(-1), respectively. It is thought that potassium enters root cells from the soil solution through constitutively-expressed, inward rectifying K(+) channels (KIRC) and K(+)/H(+)-symporters, whose abundance increases when plants become potassium-deficient. Cesium is thought to enter root cells through non-specific cation channels (NSCC) and, in plants lacking sufficient potassium, through K(+)/H(+)-symporters. It is argued that the increase in r, together with the abrupt increase (137)Cs concentration in plant tissues, when Kss and Csss decrease simultaneously cannot be attributed to competition between Cs(+) and K(+) for transport though KIRC, NSCC or K(+)/H(+)-symporters and that the most plausible explanation of these phenomena is an increase in the abundance of K(+)/H(+)-symporters in plants exhibiting incipient potassium deficiency.

  17. Genotypic effects of elevated CO[sub 2] on fecundity in an annual weed (wild radish, Raphanus raphanistrum)

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis, P.S.; Snow, A.A. )

    1993-06-01

    Rising atmospheric CO[sub 2] levels may lead to microevolutionary change in native plant populations. To test for within-population variation in genetic responses to elevated p(CO[sub 2]), we exposed five paternal sibships of wild radish to ambient and 2X ambient (700 [mu]bar) p(CO[sub 2]) in 3 m open top chambers for an entre growing season. Seeds were planted singly in 2.5 1 pots filled with locally derived, low fertility soil (160 plants per CO[sub 2] treatment). Net CO[sub 2] assimilation increased 25% in vegetative plants and 48% in reproductive plants growing at elevated p(CO[sub 2]). Every flower was hand-pollinated to mimic natural pollination levels. Lifetime fecundity was greater in the elevated CO[sub 2] treatment, but the magnitude of this effect differed dramatically among paternal sibships: seed production increased 13% overall, yet among paternal sibships seed production varied between 0% and 50% more seeds in elevated p(CO[sub 2]) as compared to ambient. Our results suggest that natural selection can occur due to genotypic differences in the CO[sub 2] response. This process should be considered in estimates of long-term effects of elevated p(CO[sub 2]), especially with regard to anticipated increases in primary productivity.

  18. Uptake of iron by a vegetable; kaiware daikon (Japanese radish sprout).

    PubMed

    Saiki, Chika; Hirasawa, Rie; Sadayasu, Chie; Yamashiro, Sachiko; Tominaga, Mihoko; Sato, Kazuyoshi

    2004-08-01

    Uptake of iron and several other minerals into kaiware daikon (Japanese radish sprout) was investigated by changing their supplementary conditions. The supplementation of calcium sulfate (0.1% (w/v), 230 ppm as calcium ion) and iron (III) chloride (0.1% (w/v), 200 ppm as iron ion) in hydroponics promoted the growth of kaiware daikon ca. 1.0-1.5 cm longer than the control group of no additions, while magnesium sulfate (0.1% (w/ v), 100 ppm as magnesium ion) did not affect the length of sprouts so much, but caused their leaves to grow a little wider. Mineral contents in the sprout were maximal when it was added, at ca. 0.1% (w/v), to the hydroponic solution. In tests regarding iron (II) ion supplementation, the color of the kaiware daikon seeds changed from brownish to black and the sprout did not grow well. In contrast, the iron (III) ion did not affect their color and promoted growth of the sprout. When the seeds were soaked in an iron (II) sulfate (75 ppm) or an ammonium iron (III) citrate (180 ppm) solution for 24 h prior to germination, the resulting kaiware daikon contained a few times higher the amount of iron than commercially available ones.

  19. Removal of off-flavours from radish (Raphanus sativus L.) anthocyanin-rich pigments using chitosan and its mechanism(s).

    PubMed

    Gao, Ruichang; Jing, Pu; Ruan, Siyu; Zhang, Yifan; Zhao, Shujuan; Cai, Zhan; Qian, Bingjun

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, we examined the role of chitosan in the removal of off-flavours from radish anthocyanin-rich pigments and studied the mechanisms of the process. Four radish glucosinolates (glucoraphenin, dehydroerucin, glucobrassicin, and glucoerucin) were identified by LC-MSn from root extracts and dehydroerucin was found to be the major glucosinolate in red radish roots. Application of chitosan with 76%, 83% or 89% deacetylation in radish extracts attributed to 26%, 35% or 43% adsorption rate for glucosinolates, and 28%, 26% or 22% for anthocyanins, respectively. HS-SPME/GC-MS analysis demonstrated that the concentration of volatile compounds decreased by 70%, resulting in the loss of odorous compounds. The changes in chitosan spectra before/after adsorption and after desorption at 1590 and 3360cm(-1) and at broad bands from 2600 to 2000cm(-1) suggest that the dominant adsorption mechanisms of glucosinolates on chitosan may be electrostatic attractions, including hydrogen bonds and charge neutralisation.

  20. Identification of bolting-related microRNAs and their targets reveals complex miRNA-mediated flowering-time regulatory networks in radish (Raphanus sativus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Shanshan; Xu, Liang; Wang, Yan; Huang, Danqiong; Muleke, Everlyne M.; Sun, Xiaochuan; Wang, Ronghua; Xie, Yang; Gong, Yiqin; Liu, Liwang

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play vital regulatory roles in plant growth and development. The phase transition from vegetative growth to flowering is crucial in the life cycle of plants. To date, miRNA-mediated flowering regulatory networks remain largely unexplored in radish. In this study, two small RNA libraries from radish leaves at vegetative and reproductive stages were constructed and sequenced by Solexa sequencing. A total of 94 known miRNAs representing 21 conserved and 13 non-conserved miRNA families, and 44 potential novel miRNAs, were identified from the two libraries. In addition, 42 known and 17 novel miRNAs were significantly differentially expressed and identified as bolting-related miRNAs. RT-qPCR analysis revealed that some miRNAs exhibited tissue- or developmental stage-specific expression patterns. Moreover, 154 target transcripts were identified for 50 bolting-related miRNAs, which were predominately involved in plant development, signal transduction and transcriptional regulation. Based on the characterization of bolting-related miRNAs and their target genes, a putative schematic model of miRNA-mediated bolting and flowering regulatory network was proposed. These results could provide insights into bolting and flowering regulatory networks in radish, and facilitate dissecting the molecular mechanisms underlying bolting and flowering time regulation in vegetable crops. PMID:26369897

  1. Identification of bolting-related microRNAs and their targets reveals complex miRNA-mediated flowering-time regulatory networks in radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Nie, Shanshan; Xu, Liang; Wang, Yan; Huang, Danqiong; Muleke, Everlyne M; Sun, Xiaochuan; Wang, Ronghua; Xie, Yang; Gong, Yiqin; Liu, Liwang

    2015-09-15

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play vital regulatory roles in plant growth and development. The phase transition from vegetative growth to flowering is crucial in the life cycle of plants. To date, miRNA-mediated flowering regulatory networks remain largely unexplored in radish. In this study, two small RNA libraries from radish leaves at vegetative and reproductive stages were constructed and sequenced by Solexa sequencing. A total of 94 known miRNAs representing 21 conserved and 13 non-conserved miRNA families, and 44 potential novel miRNAs, were identified from the two libraries. In addition, 42 known and 17 novel miRNAs were significantly differentially expressed and identified as bolting-related miRNAs. RT-qPCR analysis revealed that some miRNAs exhibited tissue- or developmental stage-specific expression patterns. Moreover, 154 target transcripts were identified for 50 bolting-related miRNAs, which were predominately involved in plant development, signal transduction and transcriptional regulation. Based on the characterization of bolting-related miRNAs and their target genes, a putative schematic model of miRNA-mediated bolting and flowering regulatory network was proposed. These results could provide insights into bolting and flowering regulatory networks in radish, and facilitate dissecting the molecular mechanisms underlying bolting and flowering time regulation in vegetable crops.

  2. Transcriptome-wide analysis of chromium-stress responsive microRNAs to explore miRNA-mediated regulatory networks in radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Xu, Liang; Wang, Yan; Shen, Hong; Zhu, Xianwen; Zhang, Keyun; Chen, Yinglong; Yu, Rugang; Limera, Cecilia; Liu, Liwang

    2015-09-11

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that play pivotal roles in plant growth, development and stress response. Chromium (Cr) is one of common environmental contaminants possessing potential health hazards to living organisms. To date, little is known about the regulatory roles of miRNAs in response to Cr stress in radish. To systematically identify Cr-responsive miRNAs and their targets in radish, two sRNA libraries derived from Cr-free (CK) and Cr-treated (Cr200) roots were constructed. With Solexa sequencing, 81 known and 72 novel miRNAs were identified, from which 54 known and 16 novel miRNAs were significantly differentially expressed under Cr stress. Several target genes for Cr-responsive miRNAs encode different transcription factor (TF) families, including SPLs, MYBs, ERFs and bZIPs, might regulate corresponding HM-related transcriptional processes in plants. Notably, a few key responsive enzymes or proteins, including HMA, YSL1 and ABC transporter protein were involved in Cr uptake and homeostasis process. Furthermore, the expression patterns of some Cr-responsive miRNAs and their targets were validated by RT-qPCR. This study represents the first characterization of Cr-responsive miRNAs and their targets in radish. The outcomes of this study could provide novel insights into miRNA-mediated regulatory mechanisms underlying plant response to Cr stress in root vegetable crops.

  3. Transcriptome-wide analysis of chromium-stress responsive microRNAs to explore miRNA-mediated regulatory networks in radish (Raphanus sativus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wei; Xu, Liang; Wang, Yan; Shen, Hong; Zhu, Xianwen; Zhang, Keyun; Chen, Yinglong; Yu, Rugang; Limera, Cecilia; Liu, Liwang

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that play pivotal roles in plant growth, development and stress response. Chromium (Cr) is one of common environmental contaminants possessing potential health hazards to living organisms. To date, little is known about the regulatory roles of miRNAs in response to Cr stress in radish. To systematically identify Cr-responsive miRNAs and their targets in radish, two sRNA libraries derived from Cr-free (CK) and Cr-treated (Cr200) roots were constructed. With Solexa sequencing, 81 known and 72 novel miRNAs were identified, from which 54 known and 16 novel miRNAs were significantly differentially expressed under Cr stress. Several target genes for Cr-responsive miRNAs encode different transcription factor (TF) families, including SPLs, MYBs, ERFs and bZIPs, might regulate corresponding HM-related transcriptional processes in plants. Notably, a few key responsive enzymes or proteins, including HMA, YSL1 and ABC transporter protein were involved in Cr uptake and homeostasis process. Furthermore, the expression patterns of some Cr-responsive miRNAs and their targets were validated by RT-qPCR. This study represents the first characterization of Cr-responsive miRNAs and their targets in radish. The outcomes of this study could provide novel insights into miRNA-mediated regulatory mechanisms underlying plant response to Cr stress in root vegetable crops. PMID:26357995

  4. Seed-borne viral dsRNA elements in three cultivated Raphanus and Brassica plants suggest three cryptoviruses.

    PubMed

    Li, Liqiang; Liu, Jianning; Zhang, Qiong; Fu, Runying; Zhu, Xiwu; Li, Chao; Chen, Jishuang

    2016-04-01

    Since the 1970s, several dsRNA viruses, including Radish yellow edge virus, Raphanus sativus virus 1, Raphanus sativus virus 2, and Raphanus sativus virus 3, have been identified and reported as infecting radish. In the present study, in conjunction with a survey of seed-borne viruses in cultivated Brassica and Raphanus using the dsRNA diagnostic method, we discovered 3 novel cryptoviruses that infect Brassica and Raphanus: Raphanus sativus partitivirus 1, which infects radish (Raphanus sativus); Sinapis alba cryptic virus 1, which infects Sinapis alba; and Brassica rapa cryptic virus 1 (BrCV1), which infects Brassica rapa. The genomic organization of these cryptoviruses was analyzed and characterized. BrCV1 might represent the first plant partitivirus found in Gammapartitivirus. Additionally, the evolutionary relationships among all of the partitiviruses reported in Raphanus and Brassica were analyzed. PMID:26974503

  5. Seed-borne viral dsRNA elements in three cultivated Raphanus and Brassica plants suggest three cryptoviruses.

    PubMed

    Li, Liqiang; Liu, Jianning; Zhang, Qiong; Fu, Runying; Zhu, Xiwu; Li, Chao; Chen, Jishuang

    2016-04-01

    Since the 1970s, several dsRNA viruses, including Radish yellow edge virus, Raphanus sativus virus 1, Raphanus sativus virus 2, and Raphanus sativus virus 3, have been identified and reported as infecting radish. In the present study, in conjunction with a survey of seed-borne viruses in cultivated Brassica and Raphanus using the dsRNA diagnostic method, we discovered 3 novel cryptoviruses that infect Brassica and Raphanus: Raphanus sativus partitivirus 1, which infects radish (Raphanus sativus); Sinapis alba cryptic virus 1, which infects Sinapis alba; and Brassica rapa cryptic virus 1 (BrCV1), which infects Brassica rapa. The genomic organization of these cryptoviruses was analyzed and characterized. BrCV1 might represent the first plant partitivirus found in Gammapartitivirus. Additionally, the evolutionary relationships among all of the partitiviruses reported in Raphanus and Brassica were analyzed.

  6. Relative fitness of females and hermaphrodites in a natural gynodioecious population of wild radish, Raphanus sativus L. (Brassicaceae): comparison based on molecular genotyping.

    PubMed

    Miyake, K; Miyake, T; Terachi, T; Yahara, T

    2009-10-01

    In many gynodioecious species, sex determination involves both cytoplasmic male-sterility (CMS) genes and nuclear genes that restore male function. Differences in fitness among genotypes affect the dynamics of those genes, and thus that of gynodioecy. We used a molecular marker to discriminate between hermaphrodites with and without a CMS gene in gynodioecious Raphanus sativus. We compared fitness through female function among the three genotypes: females, hermaphrodites with the CMS gene and those without it. Although there was no significant difference among the genotypes in seed size, hermaphrodites without the CMS gene produced significantly more seeds, and seeds with a higher germination rate than the other genotypes, suggesting no fitness advantage for females and no benefit to bearing the CMS gene. Despite the lack of fitness advantage for females in the parameter values we estimated, a theoretical model of gynodioecy shows it can be maintained if restorer genes impose a cost paid in pollen production. In addition, we found that females invest more resources into female reproduction than hermaphrodites when they become larger. If environmental conditions enable females to grow larger this would facilitate the dynamics of CMS genes.

  7. Spanish black radish (Raphanus sativus L. Var. niger) diet enhances clearance of DMBA and diminishes toxic effects on bone marrow progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    N'jai, Alhaji U; Kemp, Michael Q; Metzger, Brandon T; Hanlon, Paul R; Robbins, Melissa; Czuyprynski, Charles; Barnes, David M

    2012-01-01

    Vegetables of the Cruciferae family contain high levels of glucosinolates, metabolites of which are believed to enhance detoxification. Spanish black radishes (SBR) contain 4× more glucosinolates than other crucifers. This study examined whether feeding mice a diet containing 20% SBR for 2 wk could enhance metabolism of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) and inhibit DMBA-mediated bone marrow toxicity. Expression of Phase I and II detoxification enzymes was significantly greater for mice fed SBR than control diet. Six hours after DMBA administration, the blood levels of DMBA in mice fed the SBR diet were significantly lower than mice fed a control diet. DMBA reduced bone marrow cells in mice fed control diet to a significantly greater extent than mice fed the SBR diet. Colony forming assays demonstrated that mice on the SBR diet had 1) less reduction in lymphoid CFU-preB progenitor cells, 2) greater recovery of CFU-preB progenitor cells at 168 h, and 3) less reduction of CFU-GM progenitor cells at 6 h. Therefore, mice fed a 20% SBR diet for 2 wk had greater expression of detoxification enzymes, faster metabolism of DMBA, and a reduction in DMBA-induced bone marrow toxicity. Overall, these results support the hypothesis that glucosinolates in SBR are protective against acute toxicity.

  8. Phototropism in Hypocotyls of Radish 1

    PubMed Central

    Hasegawa, Koji; Noguchi, H.; Iwagawa, T.; Hase, T.

    1986-01-01

    Three growth inhibitors which might be involved in phototropism of Sakurajima radish (Raphanus sativus var. hortensis f. gigantissimus Makino) hypocotyls, were isolated as crystalline forms from light-exposed radish seedlings and identified as cis- and trans-raphanusanins and 6-methoxy-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1,3-oxazepin-2-one (designated raphanusamide). The cis- and trans-raphanusanins inhibited growth of etiolated radish hypocotyls at concentrations higher than 1.5 micromolar, raphanusamide at concentrations higher than 20 micromolar. PMID:16664968

  9. Raphanus sativus, Germination, and Inquiry: A Learning Cycle Approach for Novice Experimenters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rillero, Peter

    1999-01-01

    Describes open-ended experiments with seeds from the common garden radish (Raphanus sativus). The phases of the 5-E learning cycle--Engagement, Exploration, Explanation, Extension, and Evaluation--guide this activity series. (Author/MM)

  10. Milk prevents the degradation of daikon (Raphanus sativus L.) isothiocyanate and enhances its absorption in rats.

    PubMed

    Ippoushi, Katsunari; Ueda, Hiroshi; Takeuchi, Atsuko

    2014-10-15

    Epidemiological and experimental researches show that isothiocyanate (ITC), a class of phytochemical compounds that imparts a characteristic biting taste and pungent odour to cruciferous vegetables, such as daikon (Japanese white radish, Raphanus sativus L. Daikon Group), broccoli, cabbage, and Chinese cabbage, possesses anticancer and anti-inflammatory properties. The concentration of daikon ITC, which degrades in aqueous solution, was measured in mixtures of daikon juice and water, corn oil, or milk. Daikon juice mixed with corn oil or milk showed a higher concentration (1.4-fold) of daikon ITC than that in mixture with water; thus, corn oil and milk prevent the degradation of daikon ITC. Moreover, orally administered daikon juice with milk increased daikon ITC absorption in rats. Therefore, dishes or drinks that include raw daikon with corn oil or milk may promote the possible health benefits of daikon ITC by preventing ITC degradation and enhancing its absorption in vivo.

  11. Identification of microRNAs and Their Target Genes Explores miRNA-Mediated Regulatory Network of Cytoplasmic Male Sterility Occurrence during Anther Development in Radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Xie, Yang; Xu, Liang; Wang, Yan; Zhu, Xianwen; Wang, Ronghua; Zhang, Yang; Muleke, Everlyne M; Liu, Liwang

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a type of endogenous non-coding small RNAs that play critical roles in plant growth and developmental processes. Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is typically a maternally inherited trait and widely used in plant heterosis utilization. However, the miRNA-mediated regulatory network of CMS occurrence during anther development remains largely unknown in radish. In this study, a comparative small RNAome sequencing was conducted in floral buds of CMS line 'WA' and its maintainer line 'WB' by high-throughput sequencing. A total of 162 known miRNAs belonging to 25 conserved and 24 non-conserved miRNA families were isolated and 27 potential novel miRNA families were identified for the first time in floral buds of radish. Of these miRNAs, 28 known and 14 potential novel miRNAs were differentially expressed during anther development. Several target genes for CMS occurrence-related miRNAs encode important transcription factors and functional proteins, which might be involved in multiple biological processes including auxin signaling pathways, signal transduction, miRNA target silencing, floral organ development, and organellar gene expression. Moreover, the expression patterns of several CMS occurrence-related miRNAs and their targets during three stages of anther development were validated by qRT-PCR. In addition, a potential miRNA-mediated regulatory network of CMS occurrence during anther development was firstly proposed in radish. These findings could contribute new insights into complex miRNA-mediated genetic regulatory network of CMS occurrence and advance our understanding of the roles of miRNAs during CMS occurrence and microspore formation in radish and other crops.

  12. Identification of microRNAs and Their Target Genes Explores miRNA-Mediated Regulatory Network of Cytoplasmic Male Sterility Occurrence during Anther Development in Radish (Raphanus sativus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei; Xie, Yang; Xu, Liang; Wang, Yan; Zhu, Xianwen; Wang, Ronghua; Zhang, Yang; Muleke, Everlyne M.; Liu, Liwang

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a type of endogenous non-coding small RNAs that play critical roles in plant growth and developmental processes. Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is typically a maternally inherited trait and widely used in plant heterosis utilization. However, the miRNA-mediated regulatory network of CMS occurrence during anther development remains largely unknown in radish. In this study, a comparative small RNAome sequencing was conducted in floral buds of CMS line ‘WA’ and its maintainer line ‘WB’ by high-throughput sequencing. A total of 162 known miRNAs belonging to 25 conserved and 24 non-conserved miRNA families were isolated and 27 potential novel miRNA families were identified for the first time in floral buds of radish. Of these miRNAs, 28 known and 14 potential novel miRNAs were differentially expressed during anther development. Several target genes for CMS occurrence-related miRNAs encode important transcription factors and functional proteins, which might be involved in multiple biological processes including auxin signaling pathways, signal transduction, miRNA target silencing, floral organ development, and organellar gene expression. Moreover, the expression patterns of several CMS occurrence-related miRNAs and their targets during three stages of anther development were validated by qRT-PCR. In addition, a potential miRNA-mediated regulatory network of CMS occurrence during anther development was firstly proposed in radish. These findings could contribute new insights into complex miRNA-mediated genetic regulatory network of CMS occurrence and advance our understanding of the roles of miRNAs during CMS occurrence and microspore formation in radish and other crops. PMID:27499756

  13. Identification of microRNAs and Their Target Genes Explores miRNA-Mediated Regulatory Network of Cytoplasmic Male Sterility Occurrence during Anther Development in Radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Xie, Yang; Xu, Liang; Wang, Yan; Zhu, Xianwen; Wang, Ronghua; Zhang, Yang; Muleke, Everlyne M; Liu, Liwang

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a type of endogenous non-coding small RNAs that play critical roles in plant growth and developmental processes. Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is typically a maternally inherited trait and widely used in plant heterosis utilization. However, the miRNA-mediated regulatory network of CMS occurrence during anther development remains largely unknown in radish. In this study, a comparative small RNAome sequencing was conducted in floral buds of CMS line 'WA' and its maintainer line 'WB' by high-throughput sequencing. A total of 162 known miRNAs belonging to 25 conserved and 24 non-conserved miRNA families were isolated and 27 potential novel miRNA families were identified for the first time in floral buds of radish. Of these miRNAs, 28 known and 14 potential novel miRNAs were differentially expressed during anther development. Several target genes for CMS occurrence-related miRNAs encode important transcription factors and functional proteins, which might be involved in multiple biological processes including auxin signaling pathways, signal transduction, miRNA target silencing, floral organ development, and organellar gene expression. Moreover, the expression patterns of several CMS occurrence-related miRNAs and their targets during three stages of anther development were validated by qRT-PCR. In addition, a potential miRNA-mediated regulatory network of CMS occurrence during anther development was firstly proposed in radish. These findings could contribute new insights into complex miRNA-mediated genetic regulatory network of CMS occurrence and advance our understanding of the roles of miRNAs during CMS occurrence and microspore formation in radish and other crops. PMID:27499756

  14. QTL analysis using SNP markers developed by next-generation sequencing for identification of candidate genes controlling 4-methylthio-3-butenyl glucosinolate contents in roots of radish, Raphanus sativus L.

    PubMed

    Zou, Zhongwei; Ishida, Masahiko; Li, Feng; Kakizaki, Tomohiro; Suzuki, Sho; Kitashiba, Hiroyasu; Nishio, Takeshi

    2013-01-01

    SNP markers for QTL analysis of 4-MTB-GSL contents in radish roots were developed by determining nucleotide sequences of bulked PCR products using a next-generation sequencer. DNA fragments were amplified from two radish lines by multiplex PCR with six primer pairs, and those amplified by 2,880 primer pairs were mixed and sequenced. By assembling sequence data, 1,953 SNPs in 750 DNA fragments, 437 of which have been previously mapped in a linkage map, were identified. A linkage map of nine linkage groups was constructed with 188 markers, and five QTLs were detected in two F(2) populations, three of them accounting for more than 50% of the total phenotypic variance being repeatedly detected. In the identified QTL regions, nine SNP markers were newly produced. By synteny analysis of the QTLs regions with Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica rapa genome sequences, three candidate genes were selected, i.e., RsMAM3 for production of aliphatic glucosinolates linked to GSL-QTL-4, RsIPMDH1 for leucine biosynthesis showing strong co-expression with glucosinolate biosynthesis genes linked to GSL-QTL-2, and RsBCAT4 for branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase linked to GSL-QTL-1. Nucleotide sequences and expression of these genes suggested their possible function in 4MTB-GSL biosynthesis in radish roots.

  15. Phytotoxicity of three plant-based biodiesels, unmodified castor oil, and Diesel fuel to alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), radish (Raphanus sativus), and wheatgrass (Triticum aestivum).

    PubMed

    Bamgbose, Ifeoluwa; Anderson, Todd A

    2015-12-01

    The wide use of plant-based oils and their derivatives, in particular biodiesel, have increased extensively over the past decade to help alleviate demand for petroleum products and improve the greenhouse gas emissions profile of the transportation sector. Biodiesel is regarded as a clean burning alternative fuel produced from livestock feeds and various vegetable oils. Although in theory these animal and/or plant derived fuels should have less environmental impact in soil based on their simplified composition relative to Diesel, they pose an environmental risk like Diesel at high concentrations when disposed. The aim of the present study was to ascertain the phytotoxicity of three different plant-derived biodiesels relative to conventional Diesel. For phytotoxicological analysis, we used seeds of four crop plants, Medicago sativa, Lactuca sativa, Raphanus sativus, and Triticum aestivum to analyze the germination of seeds in contaminated soil samples. The toxicological experiment was conducted with two different soil textures: sandy loam soil and silt loam soil. The studied plant-based biodiesels were safflower methyl-ester, castor methyl ester, and castor ethyl-ester. Biodiesel toxicity was more evident at high concentrations, affecting the germination and survival of small-seeded plants to a greater extent. Tolerance of plants to the biodiesels varied between plant species and soil textures. With the exception of R. sativus, all plant species were affected and exhibited some sensitivity to the fuels, such as delayed seedling emergence and slow germination (average=10 days) at high soil concentrations (0.85% for Diesel and 1.76% for the biodiesels). Tolerance of plants to soil contamination had a species-specific nature, and on average, decreased in the following order: Raphanus sativus (0-20%)>Triticum aestivum (10-40%) ≥ Medicago sativa> Lactuca sativa (80-100%). Thus, we conclude that there is some phytotoxicity associated with plant-based biodiesels. Further

  16. Phytotoxicity of three plant-based biodiesels, unmodified castor oil, and Diesel fuel to alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), radish (Raphanus sativus), and wheatgrass (Triticum aestivum).

    PubMed

    Bamgbose, Ifeoluwa; Anderson, Todd A

    2015-12-01

    The wide use of plant-based oils and their derivatives, in particular biodiesel, have increased extensively over the past decade to help alleviate demand for petroleum products and improve the greenhouse gas emissions profile of the transportation sector. Biodiesel is regarded as a clean burning alternative fuel produced from livestock feeds and various vegetable oils. Although in theory these animal and/or plant derived fuels should have less environmental impact in soil based on their simplified composition relative to Diesel, they pose an environmental risk like Diesel at high concentrations when disposed. The aim of the present study was to ascertain the phytotoxicity of three different plant-derived biodiesels relative to conventional Diesel. For phytotoxicological analysis, we used seeds of four crop plants, Medicago sativa, Lactuca sativa, Raphanus sativus, and Triticum aestivum to analyze the germination of seeds in contaminated soil samples. The toxicological experiment was conducted with two different soil textures: sandy loam soil and silt loam soil. The studied plant-based biodiesels were safflower methyl-ester, castor methyl ester, and castor ethyl-ester. Biodiesel toxicity was more evident at high concentrations, affecting the germination and survival of small-seeded plants to a greater extent. Tolerance of plants to the biodiesels varied between plant species and soil textures. With the exception of R. sativus, all plant species were affected and exhibited some sensitivity to the fuels, such as delayed seedling emergence and slow germination (average=10 days) at high soil concentrations (0.85% for Diesel and 1.76% for the biodiesels). Tolerance of plants to soil contamination had a species-specific nature, and on average, decreased in the following order: Raphanus sativus (0-20%)>Triticum aestivum (10-40%) ≥ Medicago sativa> Lactuca sativa (80-100%). Thus, we conclude that there is some phytotoxicity associated with plant-based biodiesels. Further

  17. Chemopreventive effect of selenium-enriched Japanese radish sprout against breast cancer induced by 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene in rats.

    PubMed

    Yamanoshita, Osamu; Ichihara, Shu; Hama, Hidetoshi; Ichihara, Gaku; Chiba, Momoko; Kamijima, Michihiro; Takeda, Iwao; Nakajima, Tamie

    2007-06-01

    Breast cancer is one of the major cancers in women, and dietary intake must be controlled to prevent it. Selenium (Se), especially Se compound in vegetables, is thought to be a promising chemopreventive dietary ingredient for preventing breast cancer. In this study, we developed Se-enriched Japanese radish sprout using a special Se-additional fertilizer, and identified the Se chemical forms. The newly developed Se-enriched sprout is produced within a week by the tank forming method, and the major chemical form was identified as Se-methylselenocysteine (MeSeCys) (80%). Then, the chemopreventive effects of the Se-enriched sprout were investigated using Sprague-Dawley female rats with mammary cancer, induced by a single oral dose of 10 mg or 14 mg of 7, 12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA). Mammary tumors were found in 11, 16 and 2 rats treated with DMBA and thereafter fed the basal (n = 34), sprout-added basal (n = 30) and Se-enriched sprout-added test diets (n = 30), respectively. The incidence of mammary tumors was significantly lower in the Se-enriched sprout-added test diet group (7%) than in the basal diet group (32%) or sprout-added basal diet group (53%). In contrast, no significant difference was detected in the numbers and incidence of the tumor between the basal diet group and Se-enriched sprout-added test diet group before DMBA-dosing. These results suggest that the diet supplement of Se-enriched sprout after DMBA-dosing provides a significant chemoprevention against chemical-induced mammary cancer. Thus, Se-enriched sprout may be a useful dietary ingredient for preventing breast cancer.

  18. Growth Enhancement of Radish Sprouts Induced by Low Pressure O2 Radio Frequency Discharge Plasma Irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitazaki, Satoshi; Koga, Kazunori; Shiratani, Masaharu; Hayashi, Nobuya

    2012-01-01

    We studied growth enhancement of radish sprouts (Raphanus sativus L.) induced by low pressure O2 radio frequency (RF) discharge plasma irradiation. The average length of radish sprouts cultivated for 7 days after O2 plasma irradiation is 30-60% greater than that without irradiation. O2 plasma irradiation does not affect seed germination. The experimental results reveal that oxygen related radicals strongly enhance growth, whereas ions and photons do not.

  19. Effects of simulated acidic rain on yields of Raphanus sativus, Lactuca sativa, Triticum aestivum and Medicago sativa

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, L.S.; Gmur, N.F.; Mancini, D.

    1982-01-01

    Experiments were performed to determine effects of simulated acidic rain on radishes (Raphanus sativus), wheat(Triticum aestivum) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa) grown under greenhouse conditions. Experimental designs allowed the detection of statistically significant differences among means that differed by less than 10%. These results suggest that the efficiency of radish foliage in increasing; root mass decreases with increased rainfall acidity since only foliage was exposed to the treatments.

  20. Food safety evaluation of broccoli and radish sprouts.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Villaluenga, Cristina; Frías, Juana; Gulewicz, Piotr; Gulewicz, Krzysztof; Vidal-Valverde, Concepción

    2008-05-01

    Three cultivars of broccoli seeds (Brassica oleracea var. italica), cv. Tiburon, cv. Belstar and cv. Lucky, and two cultivars of radish seeds (Raphanus sativus), cv. Rebel and cv. Bolide, were germinated for three and five days and safety aspects such as microbiological counts and biogenic amines were investigated. Cytotoxicity evaluation was also carried out. Broccoli and radish sprouts contained numbers of mesophilic, psychrotrophic, total and faecal coliform bacteria which are the usual counts for minimally processed germinated seeds. Putrescine, cadaverine, histamine, tyramine, spermidine and spermine increased during sprout production although these levels were below those permitted by legislation (5 mg/100 g of edible food). Broccoli and radish sprouts demonstrated no toxic effects on proliferation and viability of HL-60 cells and should be included in our diets as healthy and safe fresh foods.

  1. Phototropism in Hypocotyls of Radish

    PubMed Central

    Hasegawa, Koji; Noguchi, Hisashi; Tanoue, Chikako; Sando, Seiji; Takada, Mitsuo; Sakoda, Masako; Hashimoto, Tohru

    1987-01-01

    The first positive phototropic curvature induced by a pulse of unilateral white irradiation (0.1 watt per square meter, 30 seconds) of etiolated and de-etiolated Sakurajima radish (Raphanus sativus var hortensis f. gigantissimus Makino) hypocotyls was analyzed in terms of differential growth and growth inhibitor contents of the hypocotyls. In both etiolated and de-etiolated hypocotyls, the growth rates at the lighted sides were suppressed whereas those at the shaded ones showed no change. De-etiolation treatment induced a larger difference between the growth rates at the lighted and shaded sides of the hypocotyls, resulting in a larger curvature of de-etiolated seedlings than of etiolated ones. The contents of growth inhibitors, cis- and trans-raphanusanins, increased in the lighted but not in the shaded halves of the hypocotyls of etiolated seedlings. In de-etiolated seedlings, the two inhibitors increased due to the de-etiolation treatment. When de-etiolated seedlings were exposed to a pulse of unilateral irradiation the level of the two inhibitors remained high along the lighted side for 1 h following the light pulse, whereas at the shaded side the contents of the inhibitors abruptly decreased upon transfer to the dark, the difference between their amounts in the lighted and shaded sides being larger than in etiolated seedlings. Another growth inhibitor, raphanusamide, did not respond to the phototropic stimulus, although its amounts increased by the de-etiolation treatment. These data suggest that cis- and trans-raphanusanins are involved in the first positive phototropic response of radish hypocotyls, and that de-etiolation magnifies the phototropic response through induction of a larger lateral gradient of the raphanusanins in the hypocotyls by the phototropic stimulus. PMID:16665706

  2. Raphanus sativus L. var niger as a source of phytochemicals for the prevention of cholesterol gallstones.

    PubMed

    Castro-Torres, Ibrahim Guillermo; De la O-Arciniega, Minarda; Gallegos-Estudillo, Janeth; Naranjo-Rodríguez, Elia Brosla; Domínguez-Ortíz, Miguel Ángel

    2014-02-01

    Raphanus sativus L. var niger (black radish) is a plant of the cruciferous family with important ethnobotanical uses for the treatment of gallstones in Mexican traditional medicine. It has been established that the juice of black radish decreases cholesterol levels in plasma and dissolves gallstones in mice. Glucosinolates, the main secondary metabolites of black radish, can hydrolyze into its respective isothiocyanates and have already demonstrated antioxidant properties as well as their ability to diminish hepatic cholesterol levels; such therapeutic effects can prevent the formation of cholesterol gallstones. This disease is considered a current problem of public health. In the present review, we analyze and discuss the therapeutic effects of the main glucosinolates of black radish, as well as the effects that this plant has on cholesterol gallstones disease.

  3. Radish (Raphanus sativus) seed size affects germination response to coumarin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The inhibition of seed germination by an allelochemical is generally greater in small seeds than in large seeds. Studies reporting these results used a large number of plant species that varied in seed size, which might have introduced differences in germination characteristics or various parameter...

  4. The Radish Party

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piotrowski, Jeff; Mildenstein, Tammy; Dungan, Kathy; Brewer, Carol

    2007-01-01

    The Radish Party inquiry is designed to teach the importance and relevance of soil organic matter to young students. In this investigation, students grow radishes in three different kinds of soils: sand, sand plus nutrients, and potting soil (soil that includes organic matter). The experience described here was conducted with first- and…

  5. Phototropism in Hypocotyls of Radish 1

    PubMed Central

    Noguchi, H.; Nishitani, K.; Bruinsma, J.; Hasegawa, Koji

    1986-01-01

    When etiolated radish (Raphanus sativus var. hortensis f. gigantissimus Makino) hypocotyls were subjected to a continuous unilateral illumination with white fluorescent light (0.1 watt per square meter), the growth rate at the lighted side was strongly inhibited for the first 2 hours, while that at the shaded side showed no change. After 2.5 hours growth on the lighted side recovered gradually, while that on the shaded side was slightly inhibited. The neutral growth inhibitors, cis- and trans-raphanusanins and raphanusamide, were determined in the lighted and shaded sides from 1 hour before until 2 hours after the start of unilateral illumination. In the lighted side, cis- and trans-raphanusanins increased by 0.5 hour after the start of illumination, reached 3 to 3.5-fold greater concentrations than in the shaded side after 1 hour, and then decreased gradually. Raphanusamide increased in the lighted side to a 3-fold greater concentration than that in the shaded one 2 hours after the start of the illumination. Unilateral applications of cis- and trans-raphanusanins and raphanusamide suppressed the growth of the hypocotyl on the applied side more than that on the opposite one, causing the hypocotyls to bend towards the site of application. The data suggest that phototropic curvature in radish is caused by the light-induced synthesis of growth-inhibiting cis- and trans-raphanusanins, and raphanusamide at the site of illumination. PMID:16664969

  6. Phototropism in Hypocotyls of Radish 1

    PubMed Central

    Noguchi, Hisashi; Hasegawa, Koji

    1987-01-01

    When etiolated radish (Raphanus sativus var. hortensis f. gigantissimus Makino) hypocotyls were subjected to a continuous unilateral illumination with white fluorescent light at 0.05, 0.1, or 1 watt per square meter, the suppression of the growth rate on the lighted side depended on the light intensity. The growth rate at the shaded side was only a little affected by the illumination at 0.05 and 0.1 watt per square meter but considerably suppressed by that at 1 watt per square meter. Upon a continuous unequal bilateral illumination, the growth rate was more strongly suppressed on the side of the higher intensity than on the side of the lower one, resulting in phototropic curvature toward the light source of the higher intensity. It was calculated from correlation analysis of light intensity and growth rate that, on an average, 6.9% of the irradiation applied to one side reached the opposite side. The amounts of cis- and trans-raphanusanins and raphanusamide in hypocotyls subjected to unilateral or unequal bilateral illumination increased much more at the side of the lighted or the higher intensity than at the opposite side. The present study demonstrates that phototropism in radish hypocotyl is correlated with and we conclude caused by a gradient of growth inhibition in the hypocotyl, depending on irradiation-induced amounts of cis- and trans-raphanusanins and raphanusamide. PMID:16665305

  7. Metabolic Activity of Radish Sprouts Derived Isothiocyanates in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Baenas, Nieves; Piegholdt, Stefanie; Schloesser, Anke; Moreno, Diego A; García-Viguera, Cristina; Rimbach, Gerald; Wagner, Anika E

    2016-02-18

    We used Drosophila melanogaster as a model system to study the absorption, metabolism and potential health benefits of plant bioactives derived from radish sprouts (Raphanus sativus cv. Rambo), a Brassicaceae species rich in glucosinolates and other phytochemicals. Flies were subjected to a diet supplemented with lyophilized radish sprouts (10.6 g/L) for 10 days, containing high amounts of glucoraphenin and glucoraphasatin, which can be hydrolyzed by myrosinase to the isothiocyanates sulforaphene and raphasatin, respectively. We demonstrate that Drosophila melanogaster takes up and metabolizes isothiocyanates from radish sprouts through the detection of the metabolite sulforaphane-cysteine in fly homogenates. Moreover, we report a decrease in the glucose content of flies, an upregulation of spargel expression, the Drosophila homolog of the mammalian PPARγ-coactivator 1 α, as well as the inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase in vitro. Overall, we show that the consumption of radish sprouts affects energy metabolism in Drosophila melanogaster which is reflected by lower glucose levels and an increased expression of spargel, a central player in mitochondrial biogenesis. These processes are often affected in chronic diseases associated with aging, including type II diabetes mellitus.

  8. Metabolic Activity of Radish Sprouts Derived Isothiocyanates in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Baenas, Nieves; Piegholdt, Stefanie; Schloesser, Anke; Moreno, Diego A.; García-Viguera, Cristina; Rimbach, Gerald; Wagner, Anika E.

    2016-01-01

    We used Drosophila melanogaster as a model system to study the absorption, metabolism and potential health benefits of plant bioactives derived from radish sprouts (Raphanus sativus cv. Rambo), a Brassicaceae species rich in glucosinolates and other phytochemicals. Flies were subjected to a diet supplemented with lyophilized radish sprouts (10.6 g/L) for 10 days, containing high amounts of glucoraphenin and glucoraphasatin, which can be hydrolyzed by myrosinase to the isothiocyanates sulforaphene and raphasatin, respectively. We demonstrate that Drosophila melanogaster takes up and metabolizes isothiocyanates from radish sprouts through the detection of the metabolite sulforaphane-cysteine in fly homogenates. Moreover, we report a decrease in the glucose content of flies, an upregulation of spargel expression, the Drosophila homolog of the mammalian PPARγ-coactivator 1 α, as well as the inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase in vitro. Overall, we show that the consumption of radish sprouts affects energy metabolism in Drosophila melanogaster which is reflected by lower glucose levels and an increased expression of spargel, a central player in mitochondrial biogenesis. These processes are often affected in chronic diseases associated with aging, including type II diabetes mellitus. PMID:26901196

  9. Purification and characterization of dipeptidase hydrolyzing L-cysteinylglycine from radish cotyledon.

    PubMed

    Kumada, Henri-Obadja; Koizumi, Yukio; Sekiya, Jiro

    2007-12-01

    Dipeptidase activity was detected in the soluble fraction of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) cotyledon, and the purified enzyme had a specific activity of 7.32 nkat/mg protein for hydrolyzing L-cysteinylglycine. The dipeptidase was found to be a hexameric metalloenzyme, composed of homological 55 kDa-subunits. This is the first glutathione catabolism-related dipeptidase isolated from higher plants.

  10. Characterization of phytochemicals and antioxidant activities of red radish brines during lactic acid fermentation.

    PubMed

    Jing, Pu; Song, Li-Hua; Shen, Shan-Qi; Zhao, Shu-Juan; Pang, Jie; Qian, Bing-Jun

    2014-07-07

    Red radish (Raphanus L.) pickles are popular appetizers or spices in Asian-style cuisine. However, tons of radish brines are generated as wastes from industrial radish pickle production. In this study, we evaluated the dynamic changes in colour properties, phenolics, anthocyanin profiles, phenolic acid composition, flavonoids, and antioxidant properties in radish brines during lactic acid fermentation. The results showed that five flavonoids detected were four anthocyanins and one kaempferol derivative, including pelargonidin-3-digluoside-5-glucoside derivatives acylated with p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, p-coumaric and manolic acids, or ferulic and malonic acids. Amounts ranged from 15.5-19.3 µg/mL in total monomeric anthocyanins, and kaempferol-3,7-diglycoside (15-30 µg/mL). 4-Hydroxy-benzoic, gentisic, vanillic, syringic, p-coumaric, ferulic, sinapic and salicylic acids were detected in amounts that varied from 70.2-92.2 µg/mL, whereas the total phenolic content was 206-220 µg/mL. The change in colour of the brine was associated with the accumulation of lactic acid and anthocyanins. The ORAC and Fe2+ chelation capacity of radish brines generally decreased, whereas the reducing power measured as FRAP values was increased during the fermentation from day 5 to day 14. This study provided information on the phytochemicals and the antioxidative activities of red radish fermentation waste that might lead to further utilization as nutraceuticals or natural colorants.

  11. Toxicity of sodium tungstate to earthworm, oat, radish, and lettuce.

    PubMed

    Bamford, Josie E; Butler, Alicia D; Heim, Katherine E; Pittinger, Charles A; Lemus, Ranulfo; Staveley, Jane P; Lee, K Brian; Venezia, Carmen; Pardus, Michael J

    2011-10-01

    Due to unknown effects of the potential exposure of the terrestrial environment to tungsten substances, a series of toxicity studies of sodium tungstate (Na(2) WO(4) ) was conducted. The effect on earthworm (Eisenia fetida) survival and reproduction was examined using Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Guideline 222. No effect on either endpoint was seen at the highest concentration tested, resulting in a 56-d no-observed-effect concentration (NOEC) of ≥586 mg tungsten/kg dry soil (nominal concentrations). The effect of sodium tungstate on emergence and growth of plant species was examined according to OECD Guideline 208: oat (Avena sativa), radish (Raphanus sativus), and lettuce (Lactuca sativa). No effects on emergence, shoot height, and dry shoot weight were observed in oats exposed to the highest concentration, resulting in a 21-d NOEC of ≥586 mg tungsten/kg dry soil. The NOECs for radish and lettuce were 65 and 21.7 mg tungsten/kg dry soil (nominal concentrations), respectively. Respective 21-d median effective concentration values (EC50) for radish and lettuce were >586 and 313 mg tungsten/kg dry soil (based on shoot height) (confidence level [CL] -8.5-615); EC25 values were 152 (CL 0-331) and 55 (CL 0-114) mg tungsten/kg dry soil. Results are consistent with the few other tungsten substance terrestrial toxicity studies in the literature.

  12. Quality characteristics of the radish grown under reduced atmospheric pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levine, Lanfang H.; Bisbee, Patricia A.; Richards, Jeffrey T.; Birmele, Michele N.; Prior, Ronald L.; Perchonok, Michele; Dixon, Mike; Yorio, Neil C.; Stutte, Gary W.; Wheeler, Raymond M.

    This study addresses whether reduced atmospheric pressure (hypobaria) affects the quality traits of radish grown under such environments. Radish (Raphanus sativus L. cv. Cherry Bomb Hybrid II) plants were grown hydroponically in specially designed hypobaric plant growth chambers at three atmospheric pressures; 33, 66, and 96 kPa (control). Oxygen and carbon dioxide partial pressures were maintained constant at 21 and 0.12 kPa, respectively. Plants were harvested at 21 days after planting, with aerial shoots and swollen hypocotyls (edible portion of the radish referred to as the “root” hereafter) separated immediately upon removal from the chambers. Samples were subsequently evaluated for their sensory characteristics (color, taste, overall appearance, and texture), taste-determining factors (glucosinolate and soluble carbohydrate content and myrosinase activity), proximate nutrients (protein, dietary fiber, and carbohydrate) and potential health benefit attributes (antioxidant capacity). In roots of control plants, concentrations of glucosinolate, total soluble sugar, and nitrate, as well as myrosinase activity and total antioxidant capacity (measured as ORACFL), were 2.9, 20, 5.1, 9.4, and 1.9 times greater than the amount in leaves, respectively. There was no significant difference in total antioxidant capacity, sensory characteristics, carbohydrate composition, or proximate nutrient content among the three pressure treatments. However, glucosinolate content in the root and nitrate concentration in the leaf declined as the atmospheric pressure decreased, suggesting perturbation to some nitrogen-related metabolism.

  13. Quantitative Trait Loci for Morphological Traits and their Association with Functional Genes in Raphanus sativus

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xiaona; Choi, Su Ryun; Dhandapani, Vignesh; Rameneni, Jana Jeevan; Li, Xiaonan; Pang, Wenxing; Lee, Ji-Young; Lim, Yong Pyo

    2016-01-01

    Identification of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) governing morphologically important traits enables to comprehend their potential genetic mechanisms in the genetic breeding program. In this study, we used 210 F2 populations derived from a cross between two radish inbred lines (Raphanus sativus) “835” and “B2,” including 258 SSR markers were used to detect QTLs for 11 morphological traits that related to whole plant, leaf, and root yield in 3 years of replicated field test. Total 55 QTLs were detected which were distributed on each linkage group of the Raphanus genome. Individual QTLs accounted for 2.69–12.6 of the LOD value, and 0.82–16.25% of phenotypic variation. Several genomic regions have multiple traits that clustered together, suggested the existence of pleiotropy linkage. Synteny analysis of the QTL regions with A. thaliana genome selected orthologous genes in radish. InDels and SNPs in the parental lines were detected in those regions by Illumina genome sequence. Five identified candidate gene-based markers were validated by co-mapping with underlying QTLs affecting different traits. Semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR analysis showed the different expression levels of these five genes in parental lines. In addition, comparative QTL analysis with B. rapa revealed six common QTL regions and four key major evolutionarily conserved crucifer blocks (J, U, R, and W) harboring QTL for morphological traits. The QTL positions identified in this study will provide a valuable resource for identifying more functional genes when whole radish genome sequence is released. Candidate genes identified in this study that co-localized in QTL regions are expected to facilitate in radish breeding programs. PMID:26973691

  14. Quantitative Trait Loci for Morphological Traits and their Association with Functional Genes in Raphanus sativus.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiaona; Choi, Su Ryun; Dhandapani, Vignesh; Rameneni, Jana Jeevan; Li, Xiaonan; Pang, Wenxing; Lee, Ji-Young; Lim, Yong Pyo

    2016-01-01

    Identification of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) governing morphologically important traits enables to comprehend their potential genetic mechanisms in the genetic breeding program. In this study, we used 210 F2 populations derived from a cross between two radish inbred lines (Raphanus sativus) "835" and "B2," including 258 SSR markers were used to detect QTLs for 11 morphological traits that related to whole plant, leaf, and root yield in 3 years of replicated field test. Total 55 QTLs were detected which were distributed on each linkage group of the Raphanus genome. Individual QTLs accounted for 2.69-12.6 of the LOD value, and 0.82-16.25% of phenotypic variation. Several genomic regions have multiple traits that clustered together, suggested the existence of pleiotropy linkage. Synteny analysis of the QTL regions with A. thaliana genome selected orthologous genes in radish. InDels and SNPs in the parental lines were detected in those regions by Illumina genome sequence. Five identified candidate gene-based markers were validated by co-mapping with underlying QTLs affecting different traits. Semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR analysis showed the different expression levels of these five genes in parental lines. In addition, comparative QTL analysis with B. rapa revealed six common QTL regions and four key major evolutionarily conserved crucifer blocks (J, U, R, and W) harboring QTL for morphological traits. The QTL positions identified in this study will provide a valuable resource for identifying more functional genes when whole radish genome sequence is released. Candidate genes identified in this study that co-localized in QTL regions are expected to facilitate in radish breeding programs.

  15. Quantitative Trait Loci for Morphological Traits and their Association with Functional Genes in Raphanus sativus.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiaona; Choi, Su Ryun; Dhandapani, Vignesh; Rameneni, Jana Jeevan; Li, Xiaonan; Pang, Wenxing; Lee, Ji-Young; Lim, Yong Pyo

    2016-01-01

    Identification of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) governing morphologically important traits enables to comprehend their potential genetic mechanisms in the genetic breeding program. In this study, we used 210 F2 populations derived from a cross between two radish inbred lines (Raphanus sativus) "835" and "B2," including 258 SSR markers were used to detect QTLs for 11 morphological traits that related to whole plant, leaf, and root yield in 3 years of replicated field test. Total 55 QTLs were detected which were distributed on each linkage group of the Raphanus genome. Individual QTLs accounted for 2.69-12.6 of the LOD value, and 0.82-16.25% of phenotypic variation. Several genomic regions have multiple traits that clustered together, suggested the existence of pleiotropy linkage. Synteny analysis of the QTL regions with A. thaliana genome selected orthologous genes in radish. InDels and SNPs in the parental lines were detected in those regions by Illumina genome sequence. Five identified candidate gene-based markers were validated by co-mapping with underlying QTLs affecting different traits. Semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR analysis showed the different expression levels of these five genes in parental lines. In addition, comparative QTL analysis with B. rapa revealed six common QTL regions and four key major evolutionarily conserved crucifer blocks (J, U, R, and W) harboring QTL for morphological traits. The QTL positions identified in this study will provide a valuable resource for identifying more functional genes when whole radish genome sequence is released. Candidate genes identified in this study that co-localized in QTL regions are expected to facilitate in radish breeding programs. PMID:26973691

  16. The radish genome and comprehensive gene expression profile of tuberous root formation and development.

    PubMed

    Mitsui, Yuki; Shimomura, Michihiko; Komatsu, Kenji; Namiki, Nobukazu; Shibata-Hatta, Mari; Imai, Misaki; Katayose, Yuichi; Mukai, Yoshiyuki; Kanamori, Hiroyuki; Kurita, Kanako; Kagami, Tsutomu; Wakatsuki, Akihito; Ohyanagi, Hajime; Ikawa, Hiroshi; Minaka, Nobuhiro; Nakagawa, Kunihiro; Shiwa, Yu; Sasaki, Takuji

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the processes that regulate plant sink formation and development at the molecular level will contribute to the areas of crop breeding, food production and plant evolutionary studies. We report the annotation and analysis of the draft genome sequence of the radish Raphanus sativus var. hortensis (long and thick root radish) and transcriptome analysis during root development. Based on the hybrid assembly approach of next-generation sequencing, a total of 383 Mb (N50 scaffold: 138.17 kb) of sequences of the radish genome was constructed containing 54,357 genes. Syntenic and phylogenetic analyses indicated that divergence between Raphanus and Brassica coincide with the time of whole genome triplication (WGT), suggesting that WGT triggered diversification of Brassiceae crop plants. Further transcriptome analysis showed that the gene functions and pathways related to carbohydrate metabolism were prominently activated in thickening roots, particularly in cell proliferating tissues. Notably, the expression levels of sucrose synthase 1 (SUS1) were correlated with root thickening rates. We also identified the genes involved in pungency synthesis and their transcription factors. PMID:26056784

  17. The radish genome and comprehensive gene expression profile of tuberous root formation and development.

    PubMed

    Mitsui, Yuki; Shimomura, Michihiko; Komatsu, Kenji; Namiki, Nobukazu; Shibata-Hatta, Mari; Imai, Misaki; Katayose, Yuichi; Mukai, Yoshiyuki; Kanamori, Hiroyuki; Kurita, Kanako; Kagami, Tsutomu; Wakatsuki, Akihito; Ohyanagi, Hajime; Ikawa, Hiroshi; Minaka, Nobuhiro; Nakagawa, Kunihiro; Shiwa, Yu; Sasaki, Takuji

    2015-06-09

    Understanding the processes that regulate plant sink formation and development at the molecular level will contribute to the areas of crop breeding, food production and plant evolutionary studies. We report the annotation and analysis of the draft genome sequence of the radish Raphanus sativus var. hortensis (long and thick root radish) and transcriptome analysis during root development. Based on the hybrid assembly approach of next-generation sequencing, a total of 383 Mb (N50 scaffold: 138.17 kb) of sequences of the radish genome was constructed containing 54,357 genes. Syntenic and phylogenetic analyses indicated that divergence between Raphanus and Brassica coincide with the time of whole genome triplication (WGT), suggesting that WGT triggered diversification of Brassiceae crop plants. Further transcriptome analysis showed that the gene functions and pathways related to carbohydrate metabolism were prominently activated in thickening roots, particularly in cell proliferating tissues. Notably, the expression levels of sucrose synthase 1 (SUS1) were correlated with root thickening rates. We also identified the genes involved in pungency synthesis and their transcription factors.

  18. The radish genome and comprehensive gene expression profile of tuberous root formation and development

    PubMed Central

    Mitsui, Yuki; Shimomura, Michihiko; Komatsu, Kenji; Namiki, Nobukazu; Shibata-Hatta, Mari; Imai, Misaki; Katayose, Yuichi; Mukai, Yoshiyuki; Kanamori, Hiroyuki; Kurita, Kanako; Kagami, Tsutomu; Wakatsuki, Akihito; Ohyanagi, Hajime; Ikawa, Hiroshi; Minaka, Nobuhiro; Nakagawa, Kunihiro; Shiwa, Yu; Sasaki, Takuji

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the processes that regulate plant sink formation and development at the molecular level will contribute to the areas of crop breeding, food production and plant evolutionary studies. We report the annotation and analysis of the draft genome sequence of the radish Raphanus sativus var. hortensis (long and thick root radish) and transcriptome analysis during root development. Based on the hybrid assembly approach of next-generation sequencing, a total of 383 Mb (N50 scaffold: 138.17 kb) of sequences of the radish genome was constructed containing 54,357 genes. Syntenic and phylogenetic analyses indicated that divergence between Raphanus and Brassica coincide with the time of whole genome triplication (WGT), suggesting that WGT triggered diversification of Brassiceae crop plants. Further transcriptome analysis showed that the gene functions and pathways related to carbohydrate metabolism were prominently activated in thickening roots, particularly in cell proliferating tissues. Notably, the expression levels of sucrose synthase 1 (SUS1) were correlated with root thickening rates. We also identified the genes involved in pungency synthesis and their transcription factors. PMID:26056784

  19. Dose-Response Curves for Radish Seedling Phototropism 12

    PubMed Central

    Everett, Marylee

    1974-01-01

    Radish seedlings (Raphanus sativus L.) were grown for 4 days in complete darkness, or in white light, or for 3 days in darkness followed by 1 day of red light. Phototropic dose-response curves for the seedlings grown in these three ways were determined with 460-nm light. The dark-grown and red light-treated seedlings responded with positive curvatures of no more than 10° to energy doses in the first positive range and with larger positive curvatures in the second positive dose range. No indifferent or negative curvature was seen with the light intensity used. White light-grown seedlings did not respond to first positive energy doses, but responded as strongly to second positive doses as the other types of seedlings. PMID:16658864

  20. Effect of CO2 levels on nutrient content of lettuce and radish

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKeehen, J. D.; Smart, D. J.; Mackowiak, C. L.; Wheeler, R. M.; Nielsen, S. S.; Mitchell, C. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    Atmospheric carbon-dioxide enrichment is known to affect the yield of lettuce and radish grown in controlled environments, but little is known about CO2 enrichment effects on the chemical composition of lettuce and radish. These crops are useful model systems for a Controlled Ecological Life-Support System (CELSS), largely because of their relatively short production cycles. Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) cultivar 'Waldmann's Green' and radish (Raphanus sativus L.) cultivar 'Giant White Globe' were grown both in the field and in controlled environments, where hydroponic nutrient solution, light, and temperature were regulated, and where CO2 levels were controlled at 400, 1000, 5000, or 10,000 ppm. Plants were harvested at maturity, dried, and analyzed for proximate composition (protein, fat, ash, and carbohydrate), total nitrogen (N), nitrate N, free sugars, starch, total dietary fiber, and minerals. Total N, protein N, nonprotein N (NPN), and nitrate N generally increased for radish roots and lettuce leaves when grown under growth chamber conditions compared to field conditions. The nitrate-N level of lettuce leaves, as a percentage of total NPN, decreased with increasing levels of CO2 enrichment. The ash content of radish roots and of radish and lettuce leaves decreased with increasing levels of CO2 enrichment. The levels of certain minerals differed between field- and chamber-grown materials, including changes in the calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) contents of radish and lettuce leaves, resulting in reduced Ca/P ratio for chamber-grown materials. The free-sugar contents were similar between the field and chamber-grown lettuce leaves, but total dietary fiber content was much higher in the field-grown plant material. The starch content of growth-chamber lettuce increased with CO2 level.

  1. Effect of CO_2 levels on nutrient content of lettuce and radish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKeehen, J. D.; Smart, D. J.; Mackowiak, C. L.; Wheeler, R. M.; Nielsen, S. S.

    Atmospheric carbon-dioxide enrichment is known to affect the yield of lettuce and radish grown in controlled environments, but little is known about CO_2 enrichment effects on the chemical composition of lettuce and radish. These crops are useful model systems for a Controlled Ecological Life-Support System (CELSS), largely because of their relatively short production cycles. Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) cultivar `Waldmann's Green' and radish (Raphanus sativus L.) cultivar `Giant White Globe' were grown both in the field and in controlled environments, where hydroponic nutrient solution, light, and temperature were regulated, and where CO_2 levels were controlled at 400, 1000, 5000, or 10,000 ppm. Plants were harvested at maturity, dried, and analyzed for proximate composition (protein, fat, ash, and carbohydrate), total nitrogen (N), nitrate N, free sugars, starch, total dietary fiber, and minerals. Total N, protein N, nonprotein N (NPN), and nitrate N generally increased for radish roots and lettuce leaves when grown under growth chamber conditions compared to field conditions. The nitrate-N level of lettuce leaves, as a percentage of total NPN, decreased with increasing levels of CO_2 enrichment. The ash content of radish roots and of radish and lettuce leaves decreased with increasing levels of CO_2 enrichment. The levels of certain minerals differed between field- and chamber-grown materials, including changes in the calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) contents of radish roots and lettuce leaves, resulting in reduced Ca/P ratio for chamber-grown materials. The free-sugar contents were similar between the field and chamber-grown lettuce leaves, but total dietary fiber content was much higher in the field-grown plant material. The starch content of growth-chamber lettuce increased with CO_2 level.

  2. Removal of a combination of endocrine disruptors from aqueous systems by seedlings of radish and ryegrass.

    PubMed

    Gattullo, C Eliana; Cunha, Bruno Barboza; Rosa, André H; Loffredo, Elisabetta

    2013-01-01

    Endocrine disruptors (EDs) are widespread in the environment, especially aquatic systems, and cause dangerous effects on wildlife and humans. This work was aimed to assess the capacity of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) and ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) seedlings to tolerate and remove two combinations of EDs containing bisphenol A (BPA), 17alpha-ethynilestradiol (EE2), and linuron from four aqueous media: distilled water, a solution of natural organic matter (NOM), a lake water and a river water. Seeds of the two species were germinated in each contaminated medium and, at the end of germination, the seedling growth was evaluated by biometric measurements and residual EDs were quantified by chromatographic analysis. Biometric measurements revealed that the phytotoxicity of the two combinations of EDs depended on the medium used. Radish showed a discrete tolerance in distilled water and lake water but was inhibited in the solution of NOM and river water. Ryegrass was negatively affected mainly in river water. The concentration of each ED appeared significantly reduced in all media in the presence of seedlings of both species, but not in the blanks without plants. In 5 days, radish removed up to 88% of BPA, 100% of EE2 and 42% of linuron, and in 6 days ryegrass removed up to 92% of BPA, 74% of EE2 and 16% of linuron. The considerable removal capacity of radish and ryegrass in all media tested encourages the use of phytoremediation to remove EDs from waters. PMID:24617071

  3. Lack of stable inheritance of introgressed transgene from oilseed rape in wild radish.

    PubMed

    Al Mouemar, Anoir; Darmency, Henri

    2004-01-01

    Hybridization of Brassica napus L. (oilseed rape) and Raphanus raphanistrum L. (wild radish) has been demonstrated, and may be the first step towards introgression of transgenes in this wild relative. If wild radish were to display a new adaptive advantage by expressing the transgene, this could modify the ecological balance of species within the agro-ecosystem. To determine if transgenes remained stable in the hybrid, the frequency of herbicide resistance was studied over four advanced generations of hybrid progeny (G8 to G11) that were subjected to herbicide selection pressure. It is expected that hemizygous resistant plants containing an herbicide resistance transgene back-crossed to wild radish would have 50% resistant progeny. In each of the G8 to G11 generations, only 18% of the progeny from resistant plants were resistant. The chromosome complement of herbicide-susceptible progenies, analyzed at G9, was not different from that of wild populations of wild radish. Herbicide-resistant G9 progeny showed higher chromosome instability, and one third of the progeny contained a supernumerary chromosome. These results suggest that in the presence of herbicide selection pressure, the transgene for herbicide resistance would be maintained despite a lack of stabilized introgression. In the absence of selection, the frequency of resistance in the population is expected to decline.

  4. Removal of a combination of endocrine disruptors from aqueous systems by seedlings of radish and ryegrass.

    PubMed

    Gattullo, C Eliana; Cunha, Bruno Barboza; Rosa, André H; Loffredo, Elisabetta

    2013-01-01

    Endocrine disruptors (EDs) are widespread in the environment, especially aquatic systems, and cause dangerous effects on wildlife and humans. This work was aimed to assess the capacity of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) and ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) seedlings to tolerate and remove two combinations of EDs containing bisphenol A (BPA), 17alpha-ethynilestradiol (EE2), and linuron from four aqueous media: distilled water, a solution of natural organic matter (NOM), a lake water and a river water. Seeds of the two species were germinated in each contaminated medium and, at the end of germination, the seedling growth was evaluated by biometric measurements and residual EDs were quantified by chromatographic analysis. Biometric measurements revealed that the phytotoxicity of the two combinations of EDs depended on the medium used. Radish showed a discrete tolerance in distilled water and lake water but was inhibited in the solution of NOM and river water. Ryegrass was negatively affected mainly in river water. The concentration of each ED appeared significantly reduced in all media in the presence of seedlings of both species, but not in the blanks without plants. In 5 days, radish removed up to 88% of BPA, 100% of EE2 and 42% of linuron, and in 6 days ryegrass removed up to 92% of BPA, 74% of EE2 and 16% of linuron. The considerable removal capacity of radish and ryegrass in all media tested encourages the use of phytoremediation to remove EDs from waters.

  5. Uptake and translocation of phytochemical 2-benzoxazolinone (BOA) in radish seeds and seedlings.

    PubMed

    Chiapusio, Geneviève; Pellissier, François; Gallet, Christiane

    2004-07-01

    The molecular aspects of phytochemical interactions between plants, especially the process of phytochemical translocation by the target plant, remain challenging for those studying allelopathy. 2-Benzoxazolinone (BOA) is a natural chemical produced by rye (Secale cereale) and is known to have phytotoxic effects on weed seeds and seedlings. The translocation of BOA into target plants has been poorly investigated. Therefore, the total absorption of [ring U 14C] BOA was estimated by oxidizing whole seedlings of Raphanus sativus cv. for 8 days and quantifying the radioactivity. Non-radiolabelled BOA in seedlings was also estimated by HPLC. BOA applied at 10(-3) M was readily taken up by germinated radish at a rate of 1556 nmol g(-1) FW. At these same concentrations, BOA reduced radish germination by 50% and caused a delay in radicle elongation. Exogenous BOA was responsible for the observed germination inhibition. At a concentration of 10(-5) M, BOA was taken up by germinated seeds (31 nmol g(-1) FW), but this quantity did not affect radish germination. Labelled BOA was not mineralized in the culture medium during seedling growth as no 14CO2 was recovered. Both 10(-3) and 10(-5) M BOA were translocated into radish organs, mainly into roots and cotyledons. These organs were then identified as potential physiological target sites. Cotyledons remained the target sink (44% of the total radioactivity). The kinetics of BOA uptake at 10(-3) and 10(-5) M in radish seedlings was identical: BOA accumulation was proportional to its initial concentration. A comparison between radioactivity and HPLC quantification for 10(-3) M BOA indicated that BOA (along with some metabolites) could effectively be recovered in radish organs using chromatography.

  6. The C-terminal extension peptide of non-photoconvertible water-soluble chlorophyll-binding proteins (Class II WSCPs) affects their solubility and stability: comparative analyses of the biochemical and chlorophyll-binding properties of recombinant Brassica, Raphanus and Lepidium WSCPs with or without their C-terminal extension peptides.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Shigekazu; Uchida, Akira; Nakayama, Katsumi; Satoh, Hiroyuki

    2014-02-01

    Numerous members of the Brassicaceae possess non-photoconvertible water-soluble chlorophyll (Chl)-binding proteins (Class II WSCPs), which function as Chl scavengers during cell disruption caused by wounding, pest/pathogen attacks, and/or environmental stress. Class II WSCPs have two extension peptides, one at the N-terminus and one at the C-terminus. The N-terminal peptide acts as a signal peptide, targeting the protein to the endoplasmic reticulum body, a unique defensive organelle found only in the Brassicaceae. However, the physiological and biochemical functions of the C-terminal extension peptide had not been characterized previously. To investigate the function of the C-terminal extension peptide, we produced expression constructs of recombinant WSCPs with or without the C-terminal extension peptide. The WSCPs used were of Brussels sprouts (Brassica oleracea), Japanese wild radish (Raphanus sativus) and Virginia pepperweed (Lepidium virginicum). The solubility of all of the WSCPs with the C-terminal extension peptide was drastically lower than that of the recombinant WSCPs without the C-terminal extension peptide. In addition, the stability of the reconstituted WSCPs complexes with the C-terminal extension peptide was altered compared with that of the proteins without the C-terminal extension peptide. These finding indicate that the C-terminal extension peptide affects not only the solubility, but also the stability of Class II WSCP. Furthermore, we characterized the Chl-binding properties of the recombinant WSCP from Japanese wild radish (RshWSCP-His) in a 40 % methanol solution. An electrophoretic mobility shift assay revealed that RshWSCP-His required a half-molar ratio of Chls to form a tetramer.

  7. Interaction of Brassinosteroids and Polyamines Enhances Copper Stress Tolerance in Raphanus Sativus

    PubMed Central

    Choudhary, Sikander Pal; Yu, Jing-Quan; Tran, Lam-Son Phan

    2012-01-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) and polyamines (PAs) regulate various responses to abiotic stress, but their involvement in the regulation of copper (Cu) homeostasis in plants exposed to toxic levels of Cu is poorly understood. This study provides an analysis of the effects of exogenously applied BRs and PAs on radish (Raphanus sativus) plants exposed to toxic concentrations of Cu. The interaction of 24-epibrassinolide (EBR, an active BR) and spermidine (Spd, an active PA) on gene expression and the physiology of radish plants resulted in enhanced tolerance to Cu stress. Results indicated that the combined application of EBR and Spd modulated the expression of genes encoding PA enzymes and genes that impact the metabolism of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and abscisic acid (ABA) resulting in enhanced Cu stress tolerance. Altered expression of genes implicated in Cu homeostasis appeared to be the main effect of EBR and Spd leading to Cu stress alleviation in radish. Ion leakage, in vivo imaging of H2O2, comet assay, and improved tolerance of Cu-sensitive yeast strains provided further evidence for the ability of EBR and Spd to improve Cu tolerance significantly. The study indicates that co-application of EBR and Spd is an effective approach for Cu detoxification and the maintenance of Cu homeostasis in plants. Therefore, the use of these compounds in agricultural production systems should be explored. PMID:22915739

  8. Identification of a New Antibacterial Sulfur Compound from Raphanus sativus Seeds

    PubMed Central

    Yazbak, Ahmad; Rushrush, Salwa; Rudy, Amira

    2016-01-01

    Raphanus sativus L. (radish), a member of Brassicaceae, is widely used in traditional medicine in various cultures for treatment of several diseases and disorders associated with microbial infections. The antibacterial activity of the different plant parts has been mainly attributed to several isothiocyanate (ITC) compounds. However, the low correlation between the ITC content and antibacterial activity suggests the involvement of other unknown compounds. The objective of this study was to investigate the antibacterial potential of red radish seeds and identify the active compounds. A crude ethanol seed extract was prepared and its antibacterial activity was tested against five medically important bacteria. The ethanol extract significantly inhibited the growth of all tested strains. However, the inhibitory effect was more pronounced against Streptococcus pyogenes and Escherichia coli. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the ethanol extract followed by HPLC, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, 15N-NMR, and HMBC analysis revealed that the active fraction consisted of a single new compound identified as [5-methylsulfinyl-1-(4-methylsulfinyl-but-3-enyl)-pent-4-enylidene]-sulfamic acid, which consisted of two identical sulfur side chains similar to those found in ITCs. The minimal inhibitory concentration values of the isolated compound were in the range of 0.5–1 mg/mL. These results further highlight the role of radish as a rich source of antibacterial compounds. PMID:27781070

  9. Interaction of brassinosteroids and polyamines enhances copper stress tolerance in raphanus sativus.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Sikander Pal; Oral, H Volkan; Bhardwaj, Renu; Yu, Jing-Quan; Tran, Lam-Son Phan

    2012-09-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) and polyamines (PAs) regulate various responses to abiotic stress, but their involvement in the regulation of copper (Cu) homeostasis in plants exposed to toxic levels of Cu is poorly understood. This study provides an analysis of the effects of exogenously applied BRs and PAs on radish (Raphanus sativus) plants exposed to toxic concentrations of Cu. The interaction of 24-epibrassinolide (EBR, an active BR) and spermidine (Spd, an active PA) on gene expression and the physiology of radish plants resulted in enhanced tolerance to Cu stress. Results indicated that the combined application of EBR and Spd modulated the expression of genes encoding PA enzymes and genes that impact the metabolism of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and abscisic acid (ABA) resulting in enhanced Cu stress tolerance. Altered expression of genes implicated in Cu homeostasis appeared to be the main effect of EBR and Spd leading to Cu stress alleviation in radish. Ion leakage, in vivo imaging of H(2)O(2), comet assay, and improved tolerance of Cu-sensitive yeast strains provided further evidence for the ability of EBR and Spd to improve Cu tolerance significantly. The study indicates that co-application of EBR and Spd is an effective approach for Cu detoxification and the maintenance of Cu homeostasis in plants. Therefore, the use of these compounds in agricultural production systems should be explored.

  10. Intercropping different varieties of radish can increase cadmium accumulation in radish.

    PubMed

    Lin, Lijin; Liu, Qihua; Shi, Jun; Sun, Jinlong; Liao, Ming'an; Mei, Luoyin

    2014-09-01

    Genetic diversity has supplied effective ways to improve crop yields and disease resistance. Therefore, crop uptake of heavy metals may be reduced by collecting germplasm resources. In the present study, cadmium accumulation and nutrients in radish were investigated by intercropping 3 genotypes (red, green, and white radish) in different combinations. Both pot and field experiments showed that cadmium content in radish was increased by intercropping 2 or 3 genotypes, except when white radish was intercropped with green radish. The biomass of red radish was improved by a mixture of all 3 genotypes, green radish biomass was improved by intercropping with the other 2 varieties, and white radish biomass was improved by intercropping with red radish in both pot and field experiments. The pot experiment indicated that the soil exchangeable cadmium concentration of red radish grown with green radish was lower than that of monoculture, whereas red radish intercropped with white radish was between the respective monocultures; the soil exchangeable cadmium concentrations of green radish grown with white radish and with all 3 genotypes grown together were greater than those of the monocultures. Some intercropping modes also improved potassium and phosphorus contents in the edible parts of radish in the pot experiment.

  11. Genotoxicity of ferric oxide nanoparticles in Raphanus sativus: Deciphering the role of signaling factors, oxidative stress and cell death.

    PubMed

    Saquib, Quaiser; Faisal, Mohammad; Alatar, Abdulrahman A; Al-Khedhairy, Abdulaziz A; Ahmed, Mukhtar; Ansari, Sabiha M; Alwathnani, Hend A; Okla, Mohammad K; Dwivedi, Sourabh; Musarrat, Javed; Praveen, Shelly; Khan, Shams T; Wahab, Rizwan; Siddiqui, Maqsood A; Ahmad, Javed

    2016-09-01

    We have studied the genotoxic and apoptotic potential of ferric oxide nanoparticles (Fe2O3-NPs) in Raphanus sativus (radish). Fe2O3-NPs retarded the root length and seed germination in radish. Ultrathin sections of treated roots showed subcellular localization of Fe2O3-NPs, along with the appearance of damaged mitochondria and excessive vacuolization. Flow cytometric analysis of Fe2O3-NPs (1.0mg/mL) treated groups exhibited 219.5%, 161%, 120.4% and 161.4% increase in intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), nitric oxide (NO) and Ca(2+) influx in radish protoplasts. A concentration dependent increase in the antioxidative enzymes glutathione (GSH), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) has been recorded. Comet assay showed a concentration dependent increase in deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) strand breaks in Fe2O3-NPs treated groups. Cell cycle analysis revealed 88.4% of cells in sub-G1 apoptotic phase, suggesting cell death in Fe2O3-NPs (2.0mg/mL) treated group. Taking together, the genotoxicity induced by Fe2O3-NPs highlights the importance of environmental risk associated with improper disposal of nanoparticles (NPs) and radish can serve as a good indicator for measuring the phytotoxicity of NPs grown in NP-polluted environment. PMID:27593272

  12. Penetration, Development, and Reproduction of Heterodera schachtii on Fagopyrum esculentum, Phacelia tanacetifolia, Raphanus sativus, Sinapis alba, and Brassica oleracea

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, J.; Caswell-Chen, E. P.

    1993-01-01

    The penetration, development, and reproduction of a California population of the sugarbeet cyst nematode, Heterodera schachtii, was observed on cultivars of cabbage (Brassica oleracea), phacelia (Phacelia tanacetifolia), buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum), oilseed radish (Raphanus sativus), and white mustard (Sinapis alba). With the exception of the nonhost, phacelia, all were readily penetrated by second-stage juveniles of H. schachtii. After 38 days at 25 C, no cysts were observed on phacelia cv. Angelia or on the oilseed radish cv. Nemex and Pegletta. Cyst production was low (<2.5 cysts/plant) on the buckwheat cv. Tardo and Prego and most of the oilseed radish cultivars. Cyst production was intermediate (5-14 cysts/plant) on most of the white mustard cultivars, and high on cabbage (20-110 cysts/plant). In microplot studies conducted over 133 days (approx. 450 degree-days, base 8 C), the reproductive index for H. schachtii was greater than 1.0 for cultivars of phacelia, oilseed radish, and white mustard as welt as in fallow treatments, indicating the need for further research on the use of these crops under field conditions. PMID:19279828

  13. Genotoxicity of ferric oxide nanoparticles in Raphanus sativus: Deciphering the role of signaling factors, oxidative stress and cell death.

    PubMed

    Saquib, Quaiser; Faisal, Mohammad; Alatar, Abdulrahman A; Al-Khedhairy, Abdulaziz A; Ahmed, Mukhtar; Ansari, Sabiha M; Alwathnani, Hend A; Okla, Mohammad K; Dwivedi, Sourabh; Musarrat, Javed; Praveen, Shelly; Khan, Shams T; Wahab, Rizwan; Siddiqui, Maqsood A; Ahmad, Javed

    2016-09-01

    We have studied the genotoxic and apoptotic potential of ferric oxide nanoparticles (Fe2O3-NPs) in Raphanus sativus (radish). Fe2O3-NPs retarded the root length and seed germination in radish. Ultrathin sections of treated roots showed subcellular localization of Fe2O3-NPs, along with the appearance of damaged mitochondria and excessive vacuolization. Flow cytometric analysis of Fe2O3-NPs (1.0mg/mL) treated groups exhibited 219.5%, 161%, 120.4% and 161.4% increase in intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), nitric oxide (NO) and Ca(2+) influx in radish protoplasts. A concentration dependent increase in the antioxidative enzymes glutathione (GSH), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) has been recorded. Comet assay showed a concentration dependent increase in deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) strand breaks in Fe2O3-NPs treated groups. Cell cycle analysis revealed 88.4% of cells in sub-G1 apoptotic phase, suggesting cell death in Fe2O3-NPs (2.0mg/mL) treated group. Taking together, the genotoxicity induced by Fe2O3-NPs highlights the importance of environmental risk associated with improper disposal of nanoparticles (NPs) and radish can serve as a good indicator for measuring the phytotoxicity of NPs grown in NP-polluted environment.

  14. Regulation of growth and antioxidant enzyme activities by 28-homobrassinolide in seedlings of Raphanus sativus L. under cadmium stress.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Indu; Pati, Pratap Kumar; Bhardwaj, Renu

    2010-06-01

    28-Homobrassinolide (28-HBL), a brassinosteroid is reported to play significant role in diverse physiological processes. It induces a range of cellular and adaptive responses to a range of environmental stresses. Cadmium (Cd) is a non-essential metal which alters various physiological processes and generates ROS, which can oxidize biological macromolecules and causes oxidative stress. This stress is generally overcome by the internal antioxidative defense system and stress shielding phytohormones. In this study, effect of 28-HBL was studied on growth and activities of antioxidant enzymes in known hyperaccumulator Raphanus sativus L. (radish) seedlings grown under cadmium (Cd) metal stress. To determine the influence of 28-HBL (0, 10-(11), 10-(9), 10-(7) M) in radish seedlings subjected to Cd (0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 mM) stress, the activities of antioxidant enzymes (APOX, CAT, GR, POD and SOD) were analyzed. In addition, length and biomass of radish seedlings was also recorded. Cd toxicity resulted in reduced length, biomass, protein content and activities of antioxidant enzymes. 28-HBL treatments lowered the Cd toxicity by enhancing the activities of antioxidant enzymes, biomass and seedling length. The present study thus suggests a possible role of 28-HBL in amelioration of metal stress by regulating the activities of antioxidant enzymes in radish.

  15. Identification of didecyldimethylammonium salts and salicylic acid as antimicrobial compounds in commercial fermented radish kimchi.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Chaytor, Jennifer L; Findlay, Brandon; McMullen, Lynn M; Smith, David C; Vederas, John C

    2015-03-25

    Daikon radish (Raphanus sativus) fermented with lactic acid bacteria, especially Leuconostoc or Lactobacillus spp., can be used to make kimchi, a traditional Korean fermented vegetable. Commercial Leuconostoc/radish root ferment filtrates are claimed to have broad spectrum antimicrobial activity. Leuconostoc kimchii fermentation products are patented as preservatives for cosmetics, and certain strains of this organism are reported to produce antimicrobial peptides (bacteriocins). We examined the antimicrobial agents in commercial Leuconostoc/radish root ferment filtrates. Both activity-guided fractionation with Amberlite XAD-16 and direct extraction with ethyl acetate gave salicylic acid as the primary agent with activity against Gram-negative bacteria. Further analysis of the ethyl acetate extract revealed that a didecyldimethylammonium salt was responsible for the Gram-positive activity. The structures of these compounds were confirmed by a combination of (1)H- and (13)C NMR, high-performance liquid chromatography, high-resolution mass spectrometry, and tandem mass spectrometry analyses. Radiocarbon dating indicates that neither compound is a fermentation product. No antimicrobial peptides were detected. PMID:25779084

  16. Response of radish to nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and ozone, alone and in combination

    SciTech Connect

    Reinert, R.A.; Gray, T.N.

    1981-04-01

    Effects on radish (Raphanus sativus L.) cv. Cherry Belle of nitrogen dioxide (NO/sub 2/), sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/), and ozone (O/sub 3/) alone and in combination at 0.2 and 0.4 ppM of each pollutant were studied. There was no difference in foilage or root weight of radish between exposure durations of 3 to 6 hours, and no significant interaction of hours with air pollutant and concentration. Ozone reduced root dry weight more at 0.4 ppM than at 0.2 ppM. Sulfur dioxide depressed the root/shoot ratio at both 0.2 and 0.4 ppM; however, when NO/sub 2/ and SO/sub 2/ were both present there was synergistic depression of the root/shoot ratio at 0.4 ppM. The average O/sub 3/-induced reduction in root weight of radish (1.75 g fresh and 101 mg dry, per plant) was additive in the presence of NO/sub 2/ and SO/sub 2/. The weight of the root was reduced even though the foilage was the direct receptor of the pollutant stress.

  17. Identification of didecyldimethylammonium salts and salicylic acid as antimicrobial compounds in commercial fermented radish kimchi.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Chaytor, Jennifer L; Findlay, Brandon; McMullen, Lynn M; Smith, David C; Vederas, John C

    2015-03-25

    Daikon radish (Raphanus sativus) fermented with lactic acid bacteria, especially Leuconostoc or Lactobacillus spp., can be used to make kimchi, a traditional Korean fermented vegetable. Commercial Leuconostoc/radish root ferment filtrates are claimed to have broad spectrum antimicrobial activity. Leuconostoc kimchii fermentation products are patented as preservatives for cosmetics, and certain strains of this organism are reported to produce antimicrobial peptides (bacteriocins). We examined the antimicrobial agents in commercial Leuconostoc/radish root ferment filtrates. Both activity-guided fractionation with Amberlite XAD-16 and direct extraction with ethyl acetate gave salicylic acid as the primary agent with activity against Gram-negative bacteria. Further analysis of the ethyl acetate extract revealed that a didecyldimethylammonium salt was responsible for the Gram-positive activity. The structures of these compounds were confirmed by a combination of (1)H- and (13)C NMR, high-performance liquid chromatography, high-resolution mass spectrometry, and tandem mass spectrometry analyses. Radiocarbon dating indicates that neither compound is a fermentation product. No antimicrobial peptides were detected.

  18. Comparative mapping of Raphanus sativus genome using Brassica markers and quantitative trait loci analysis for the Fusarium wilt resistance trait.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiaona; Choi, Su Ryun; Ramchiary, Nirala; Miao, Xinyang; Lee, Su Hee; Sun, Hae Jeong; Kim, Sunggil; Ahn, Chun Hee; Lim, Yong Pyo

    2013-10-01

    Fusarium wilt (FW), caused by the soil-borne fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum is a serious disease in cruciferous plants, including the radish (Raphanus sativus). To identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) or gene(s) conferring resistance to FW, we constructed a genetic map of R. sativus using an F2 mapping population derived by crossing the inbred lines '835' (susceptible) and 'B2' (resistant). A total of 220 markers distributed in 9 linkage groups (LGs) were mapped in the Raphanus genome, covering a distance of 1,041.5 cM with an average distance between adjacent markers of 4.7 cM. Comparative analysis of the R. sativus genome with that of Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica rapa revealed 21 and 22 conserved syntenic regions, respectively. QTL mapping detected a total of 8 loci conferring FW resistance that were distributed on 4 LGs, namely, 2, 3, 6, and 7 of the Raphanus genome. Of the detected QTL, 3 QTLs (2 on LG 3 and 1 on LG 7) were constitutively detected throughout the 2-year experiment. QTL analysis of LG 3, flanked by ACMP0609 and cnu_mBRPGM0085, showed a comparatively higher logarithm of the odds (LOD) value and percentage of phenotypic variation. Synteny analysis using the linked markers to this QTL showed homology to A. thaliana chromosome 3, which contains disease-resistance gene clusters, suggesting conservation of resistance genes between them.

  19. Comparative mapping of Raphanus sativus genome using Brassica markers and quantitative trait loci analysis for the Fusarium wilt resistance trait.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiaona; Choi, Su Ryun; Ramchiary, Nirala; Miao, Xinyang; Lee, Su Hee; Sun, Hae Jeong; Kim, Sunggil; Ahn, Chun Hee; Lim, Yong Pyo

    2013-10-01

    Fusarium wilt (FW), caused by the soil-borne fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum is a serious disease in cruciferous plants, including the radish (Raphanus sativus). To identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) or gene(s) conferring resistance to FW, we constructed a genetic map of R. sativus using an F2 mapping population derived by crossing the inbred lines '835' (susceptible) and 'B2' (resistant). A total of 220 markers distributed in 9 linkage groups (LGs) were mapped in the Raphanus genome, covering a distance of 1,041.5 cM with an average distance between adjacent markers of 4.7 cM. Comparative analysis of the R. sativus genome with that of Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica rapa revealed 21 and 22 conserved syntenic regions, respectively. QTL mapping detected a total of 8 loci conferring FW resistance that were distributed on 4 LGs, namely, 2, 3, 6, and 7 of the Raphanus genome. Of the detected QTL, 3 QTLs (2 on LG 3 and 1 on LG 7) were constitutively detected throughout the 2-year experiment. QTL analysis of LG 3, flanked by ACMP0609 and cnu_mBRPGM0085, showed a comparatively higher logarithm of the odds (LOD) value and percentage of phenotypic variation. Synteny analysis using the linked markers to this QTL showed homology to A. thaliana chromosome 3, which contains disease-resistance gene clusters, suggesting conservation of resistance genes between them. PMID:23864230

  20. Acetylcholine promotes the emergence and elongation of lateral roots of Raphanus sativus.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Kou-ichi; Tezuka, Takafumi

    2011-10-01

    Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) was grown on four layers of paper towel moistened with distilled water with and without acetylcholine (ACh) for five days in the dark after sowing. ACh at 1 nM promoted the growth (emergence and elongation) of lateral roots of radish plants, but had no effect on the stems and main roots. Moreover, ACh enhanced the dry weight of roots [main (primary) + lateral roots]. Neostigmine, an inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) also promoted the emergence and elongation of lateral roots, and atropine, a competitive inhibitor of ACh receptor, suppressed the emergence and elongation. ACh suppressed the activity of AChE and increased the amount of proteins and pyridine nucleotides (NAD and NADH) in the roots of the seedlings. It also increased the activities of NAD-forming enzymes [NAD synthetase and ATP-nicotinamide mononucleotide (ATP-NMN) adenyltransferase], and enhanced the amount of DNA in the roots of the seedlings. The relationship between ACh and the emergence and growth of lateral roots was discussed from a biochemical viewpoint.

  1. Acetylcholine promotes the emergence and elongation of lateral roots of Raphanus sativus.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Kou-ichi; Tezuka, Takafumi

    2011-10-01

    Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) was grown on four layers of paper towel moistened with distilled water with and without acetylcholine (ACh) for five days in the dark after sowing. ACh at 1 nM promoted the growth (emergence and elongation) of lateral roots of radish plants, but had no effect on the stems and main roots. Moreover, ACh enhanced the dry weight of roots [main (primary) + lateral roots]. Neostigmine, an inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) also promoted the emergence and elongation of lateral roots, and atropine, a competitive inhibitor of ACh receptor, suppressed the emergence and elongation. ACh suppressed the activity of AChE and increased the amount of proteins and pyridine nucleotides (NAD and NADH) in the roots of the seedlings. It also increased the activities of NAD-forming enzymes [NAD synthetase and ATP-nicotinamide mononucleotide (ATP-NMN) adenyltransferase], and enhanced the amount of DNA in the roots of the seedlings. The relationship between ACh and the emergence and growth of lateral roots was discussed from a biochemical viewpoint. PMID:21900743

  2. Toxic effects of Al-based coagulants on Brassica chinensis and Raphanus sativus growing in acid and neutral conditions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kaisong; Zhou, Qixing

    2005-04-01

    The ecotoxicological effects of aluminum (Al)-based coagulants are of concern because of their wide-ranging applications in wastewater treatment and water purification. As important Al-based coagulants, AlCl(3) and PAC (polyaluminum-chloride) were selected as examples to examine the toxic effects on representative vegetables including the cabbage Brassica chinensis and the radish Raphanus sativus over a range of exposure concentrations in neutral (pH 7.00) and acidic (pH 4.00) conditions, using seed germination and root elongation in the early-growth stage as indicators of toxicity. The results showed that root elongation of the two vegetables was a more sensitive indicator than was seed germination for evaluating the toxicity of Al. As a single influencing factor, H(+) had no significant direct effects on root elongation of Brassica chinensis and Raphanus sativus under the experimental conditions. The toxicity of Al played the main role in inhibiting root elongation and seed germination and was strongly related to changes in pH. There was a markedly positive relationship between the inhibitory rate of root elongation, seed germination, and the concentration of Al at pH 4.00 (p < 0.01). The toxic effect of AlCl(3) on Brassica chinensis was less with a neutral pH than at pH 4.00, but Raphanus sativus was more susceptible to AlCl(3) toxicity at a neutral pH than at pH 4.00. Both Raphanus sativus and Brassica chinensis had a more toxic response to a low concentration (<64 mg . L(-1)) of PAC in a neutral condition than in an acidic condition. Undoubtedly, the Al toxicity caused by Al-based coagulants at a neutral pH is relevant when treatment solids are used in agriculture.

  3. Reduced atmospheric pressure in Radish: Alteration of NCER and transpiration at decreased oxygen partial pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wehkamp, Cara Ann; Stasiak, Michael; Wheeler, Raymond; Dixon, Mike

    Fundamental to the future of space exploration is the development of advanced life support systems capable of maintaining crews for significant periods without re-supply from Earth. Significant research is focused on the development of bioregenerative life support systems to be used in conjunction with the current physico-chemical methods. These bioregenerative life support systems harness natural ecosystem processes and employ plant photosynthesis and transpiration to produce food, oxygen and regenerate water while consuming carbon dioxide. The forthcoming exploration of the Moon and Mars has prompted interest into the effects of hypobaria on plant development. Reduced atmospheric pressures will lessen the pressure gradient between the structure and the local environment thereby decreasing gas leakage and possibly the structural mass of the plant growth facility. In order to establish the optimal specifications for reduced pressure plant growth structures it is essential to determine the atmospheric pressure limits required for conventional plant development and growth. Due to its physiological importance, oxygen will compose a significant portion of these minimal environments. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that reduced atmospheric pressure and decreased oxygen partial pressures had no effect on radish productivity. Radishes (Raphanus sativa L. cv. Cherry Bomb II) were grown from seed in the University of Guelph's Hypobaric Plant Growth Chambers for a period of 21 days. Treatments included total pressures of 10, 33, 66 and 96 kPa and oxygen partial pressures of 2, 7, 14 and 20 kPa. Experiments demonstrated that reduced partial pressures of oxygen had a greater effect on radish growth than hypobaria. Results showed a reduction in net carbon exchange rate and transpiration with decreasing oxygen partial pressures leading to diminished productivity. Keywords: hypobaric, radish, oxygen partial pressure, variable pressure chamber

  4. Antilithiasic and Hypolipidaemic Effects of Raphanus sativus L. var. niger on Mice Fed with a Lithogenic Diet

    PubMed Central

    Castro-Torres, Ibrahim Guillermo; Naranjo-Rodríguez, Elia Brosla; Domínguez-Ortíz, Miguel Ángel; Gallegos-Estudillo, Janeth; Saavedra-Vélez, Margarita Virginia

    2012-01-01

    In Mexico, Raphanus sativus L. var. niger (black radish) has uses for the treatment of gallstones and for decreasing lipids serum levels. We evaluate the effect of juice squeezed from black radish root in cholesterol gallstones and serum lipids of mice. The toxicity of juice was analyzed according to the OECD guidelines. We used female C57BL/6 mice fed with a lithogenic diet. We performed histopathological studies of gallbladder and liver, and measured concentrations of cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and triglycerides. The juice can be considered bioactive and non-toxic; the lithogenic diet significantly induced cholesterol gallstones; increased cholesterol and triglycerides levels, and decreased HDL levels; gallbladder wall thickness increased markedly, showing epithelial hyperplasia and increased liver weight. After treatment with juice for 6 days, cholesterol gallstones were eradicated significantly in the gallbladder of mice; cholesterol and triglycerides levels decreased too, and there was also an increase in levels of HDL (P < 0.05). Gallbladder tissue continued to show epithelial hyperplasia and granulocyte infiltration; liver tissue showed vacuolar degeneration. The juice of black radish root has properties for treatment of cholesterol gallstones and for decreasing serum lipids levels; therefore, we confirm in a preclinical study the utility that people give it in traditional medicine. PMID:23093836

  5. Antilithiasic and hypolipidaemic effects of Raphanus sativus L. var. niger on mice fed with a lithogenic diet.

    PubMed

    Castro-Torres, Ibrahim Guillermo; Naranjo-Rodríguez, Elia Brosla; Domínguez-Ortíz, Miguel Ángel; Gallegos-Estudillo, Janeth; Saavedra-Vélez, Margarita Virginia

    2012-01-01

    In Mexico, Raphanus sativus L. var. niger (black radish) has uses for the treatment of gallstones and for decreasing lipids serum levels. We evaluate the effect of juice squeezed from black radish root in cholesterol gallstones and serum lipids of mice. The toxicity of juice was analyzed according to the OECD guidelines. We used female C57BL/6 mice fed with a lithogenic diet. We performed histopathological studies of gallbladder and liver, and measured concentrations of cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and triglycerides. The juice can be considered bioactive and non-toxic; the lithogenic diet significantly induced cholesterol gallstones; increased cholesterol and triglycerides levels, and decreased HDL levels; gallbladder wall thickness increased markedly, showing epithelial hyperplasia and increased liver weight. After treatment with juice for 6 days, cholesterol gallstones were eradicated significantly in the gallbladder of mice; cholesterol and triglycerides levels decreased too, and there was also an increase in levels of HDL (P < 0.05). Gallbladder tissue continued to show epithelial hyperplasia and granulocyte infiltration; liver tissue showed vacuolar degeneration. The juice of black radish root has properties for treatment of cholesterol gallstones and for decreasing serum lipids levels; therefore, we confirm in a preclinical study the utility that people give it in traditional medicine.

  6. Inhibitory Effect of Gabaculine on 5-Aminolevulinate Dehydratase Activity in Radish Seedlings 1

    PubMed Central

    Tchuinmogne, Simo J.; Huault, Claude; Aoues, Abdelkader; Balangé, Alain P.

    1989-01-01

    We have compared the activity of 5-aminolevulinate dehydratase (5-ALAD) with the amount of protein detected by specific antibodies in rocket immunoelectrophoresis. Parallel kinetic evolutions of enzymic activity and amount of antigen were observed in radish (Raphanus sativus L.) cotyledons, both in complete darkness or under standard far red light involving phytochrome. However, the treatment of seedlings with gabaculine leads to an important decrease in enzymic activity, while the specific protein content is maintained. This inhibition is not overcome by the addition of glutamic acid, but by 5-aminolevulinic acid which points to a specific control of 5-ALAD activity by its substrate. As there is no discrepancy between the enzymic activity and the amount of antigen during the time course development of seedlings, this could confirm a coordinate cellular control between 5-aminolevulinic acid formation and 5-ALAD protein synthesis, both being amplified by the action of phytochrome. PMID:16666925

  7. Mechanistic insights from DGT and soil solution measurements on the uptake of Ni and Cd by radish.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jun; Cheng, Hao; Ren, Jinghua; Davison, William; Zhang, Hao

    2014-07-01

    This work tests the previously proposed hypothesis that plant uptake of metals is determined dominantly by diffusional controlled or plant limiting uptake mechanisms at, respectively, low and high metal concentrations. Radish (Raphanus sativus) was grown in 13 soils spiked with Ni (10 and 100 mg kg(-1)) and Cd (0.5 and 4 mg kg(-1)) for 4 weeks to investigate the mechanisms affecting plant uptake. Soil solution concentrations, Css, of Ni and Cd were measured, along with the DGT interfacial concentration, CDGT, and the derived effective concentration in soil solution, CE. Free ion activities, aNi(2+) and aCd(2+), were obtained using WHAM 6. Although there was a poor relationship between Ni in radish roots and either Css or aNi(2+) in unamended soils, the distribution of data could be rationalized in terms of the extent of release of Ni from the soil solid phase, as identified by DGT and soil solution measurements. By contrast Ni in radish was linearly related to CE, demonstrating diffusion limited uptake. For soils amended with high concentrations of Ni, linear relationships were obtained for Ni in radish plotted against, Css, aNi(2+), and CE, consistent with the plant controlling uptake. For Ni the hypothesis concerning dominant diffusional and plant limiting uptake mechanisms was demonstrated. Poor relationships between Cd in radish and Css, aCd(2+), and CE, irrespective of amendment by Cd, showed the importance of factors other than diffusional supply, such as rhizosphere and inhibitory processes, and that fulfilment of this hypothesis is plant and metal specific.

  8. Lipid utilization in radish seedlings as affected by weak horizontal extremely low frequency magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Novitskii, Yurii I; Novitskaya, Galina V; Serdyukov, Yurii A

    2014-02-01

    Composition and content of lipids were studied in 5-day-old radish seedlings (Raphanus sativus L. var. radicula DC.) grown in lowlight and darkness in an extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic field characterized by 50 Hz frequency and ∼500 µT flux density. The control seedlings were grown under the same conditions, but without exposure to the magnetic field. The products of lipid metabolism were compared with lipid composition in seeds. In control seedlings, reserve neutral lipids, mostly triacylglycerides, were utilized for the formation of polar lipids (PL). As a result, the amount of the latter doubled, particularly due to glycolipids (GL) and phospholipids (PhL) compared to their content in seeds. At 20-22 °C in light, magnetic field exposure increased the production of PL by threefold specifically, GL content increased fourfold and PhL content rose 2.5 times, compared to seeds. In darkness, the effect of magnetic field on lipids was weaker. At the lower temperature of 13-16 °C in light, the effect of the magnetic field was weak, but in the darkness, no magnetic field action was recorded. It is concluded that ELF magnetic field stimulated lipid synthesis in chloroplast, mitochondrial, and other cell membranes in radish seedlings grown in light at 20-22 °C and 13-16 °C. PMID:24123065

  9. Growth enhancement effects of radish sprouts: atmospheric pressure plasma irradiation vs. heat shock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarinont, T.; Amano, T.; Kitazaki, S.; Koga, K.; Uchida, G.; Shiratani, M.; Hayashi, N.

    2014-06-01

    We compare growth enhancement effects due to atmospheric air dielectric barrier discharge plasma irradiation and heat shock to seeds of radish sprouts (Raphanus sativus L.). Interactions between radicals and seeds in a short duration of 3 min. lead to the growth enhancement of radish sprouts in a long term of 7 days and the maximum average length is 3.7 times as long as that of control. The growth enhancement effects become gradually weak with time, and hence the ratio of the average length for plasma irradiation to that for control decreases from 3.7 for the first day to 1.3 for 7 day. The average length for heat shock of 60°C for 10 min. and 100°C for 3 min. is longer than that for control, and the maximum average length is 1.3 times as long as that of control. Heat shock has little contribution to the growth enhancement due to plasma irradiation, because the maximum temperature due to plasma irradiation is less than 60°C.

  10. Effect of carbon dioxide enrichment on radish production using Nutrient Film Technique (NFT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackowiak, C. L.; Ruffe, L. M.; Yorio, N. C.; Wheeler, R. M.

    1994-01-01

    Radish plants (Raphanus sativus L. cvs. Cherry Belle, Giant White Globe, and Early Scarlet Globe) were grown in four different CO2 enriched environments, 0.04, 0.10, 0.50, and 1.00 kPa (400, 1000, 5000, 10000 ppm). Cultivar responses to CO2 treatments varied, where cv. Cherry Belle showed no significant response to CO2 enrichment, cv. Giant White Globe was moderately affected and Early Scarlet Globe was strongly affected. Enrichment at 0.10 kPa led to greater root dry matter (DM) than 1.00 kPa for cv. Giant White Glove, whereas 0.10 kPa produced greater storage root, shoot, and root DM than 1.00 kPa for cv. Early Scarlet Globe. The data suggest that 1.00 kPa CO2 may be detrimental to the growth of certain radish cultivars. Root:shoot ratios tended to increase with increasing CO2 concentration. Water use efficiency (g biomass/kg H2O) increased with increasing CO2 enrichment, up to 0.5 kPa but then declined at the 1.00 kPa treatment. The total nitric acid used to maintain nutrient solution pH was lowest at the 1.00 kPa treatment as well, suggesting a decreased demand of nutrients by the plants at the highest CO2 level.

  11. Study of Biological Effects of Low Energy Ion Implantation on Tomato and Radish Breeding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Qiuxia; Huang, Qunce; Cao, Gangqiang; Ying, Fangqing; Liu, Yanbo; Huang, Wen

    2008-04-01

    Biological effects of 30 keV low energy nitrogen ion implantation on the seeds of five types of tomato and one type of radish were investigated. Results showed that low energy ions have different effects on different vegetables. The whole dose-response curve of the germination ratio did not take on "the shape of saddle", but was a rising and falling waveform with the increase or decrease in ion implantation. In the vegetable of Solanaceae, two outstanding aberrant plants were selected from M1 of Henan No.4 tomato at a dose of 7 × 1017 nitrogen ions/cm2, which had thin-leaves, long-petal and nipple tip fruit stably inherited to M7. Furthermore the analysis of the isozyme showed that the activity of the mutant tomato seedling was distinct in quantity and color. In Raphanus sativus L., the aberrances were obvious in the mutant of radish 791 at a dose of 5 × 1017 nitrogen ions/cm2, and the weight of succulent root and the volume of growth were over twice the control's. At present, many species for breeding have been identified in the field and only stable species have been selected for the experiment of production. It is evident that the low energy ion implantation technology has clear effects on vegetables' genetic improvement.

  12. 2,4-D resistance in wild radish: reduced herbicide translocation via inhibition of cellular transport

    PubMed Central

    Goggin, Danica E.; Cawthray, Gregory R.; Powles, Stephen B.

    2016-01-01

    Resistance to auxinic herbicides is increasing in a range of dicotyledonous weed species, but in most cases the biochemical mechanism of resistance is unknown. Using 14C-labelled herbicide, the mechanism of resistance to 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) in two wild radish (Raphanus raphanistrum L.) populations was identified as an inability to translocate 2,4-D out of the treated leaf. Although 2,4-D was metabolized in wild radish, and in a different manner to the well-characterized crop species wheat and bean, there was no difference in metabolism between the susceptible and resistant populations. Reduced translocation of 2,4-D in the latter was also not due to sequestration of the herbicide, or to reduced uptake by the leaf epidermis or mesophyll cells. Application of auxin efflux or ABCB transporter inhibitors to 2,4-D-susceptible plants caused a mimicking of the reduced-translocation resistance phenotype, suggesting that 2,4-D resistance in the populations under investigation could be due to an alteration in the activity of a plasma membrane ABCB-type auxin transporter responsible for facilitating long-distance transport of 2,4-D. PMID:26994475

  13. Metabolomic analysis with GC-MS to reveal potential metabolites and biological pathways involved in Pb &Cd stress response of radish roots.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Xu, Liang; Shen, Hong; Wang, Juanjuan; Liu, Wei; Zhu, Xianwen; Wang, Ronghua; Sun, Xiaochuan; Liu, Liwang

    2015-12-17

    The radish (Raphanus sativus L.) is an important root vegetable crop. In this study, the metabolite profiling analysis of radish roots exposed to lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) stresses has been performed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The score plots of principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares-discriminate analysis (PLS-DA) showed clear discrimination between control and Pb- or Cd-treated samples. The metabolic profiling indicated Pb or Cd stress could cause large metabolite alteration mainly on sugars, amino acids and organic acids. Furthermore, an integrated analysis of the effects of Pb or Cd stress was performed on the levels of metabolites and gene transcripts from our previous transcriptome work in radish roots. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis of integration data demonstrated that exposure of radish to Pb stress resulted in profound biochemical changes including carbohydrate metabolism, energy metabolism and glutathione metabolism, while the treatment of Cd stress caused significant variations in energy production, amino acid metabolism and oxidative phosphorylation-related pathways. These results would facilitate further dissection of the mechanisms of heavy metal (HM) accumulation/tolerance in plants and the effective management of HM contamination in vegetable crops by genetic manipulation.

  14. Metabolomic analysis with GC-MS to reveal potential metabolites and biological pathways involved in Pb & Cd stress response of radish roots

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan; Xu, Liang; Shen, Hong; Wang, Juanjuan; Liu, Wei; Zhu, Xianwen; Wang, Ronghua; Sun, Xiaochuan; Liu, Liwang

    2015-01-01

    The radish (Raphanus sativus L.) is an important root vegetable crop. In this study, the metabolite profiling analysis of radish roots exposed to lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) stresses has been performed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The score plots of principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares-discriminate analysis (PLS-DA) showed clear discrimination between control and Pb- or Cd-treated samples. The metabolic profiling indicated Pb or Cd stress could cause large metabolite alteration mainly on sugars, amino acids and organic acids. Furthermore, an integrated analysis of the effects of Pb or Cd stress was performed on the levels of metabolites and gene transcripts from our previous transcriptome work in radish roots. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis of integration data demonstrated that exposure of radish to Pb stress resulted in profound biochemical changes including carbohydrate metabolism, energy metabolism and glutathione metabolism, while the treatment of Cd stress caused significant variations in energy production, amino acid metabolism and oxidative phosphorylation-related pathways. These results would facilitate further dissection of the mechanisms of heavy metal (HM) accumulation/tolerance in plants and the effective management of HM contamination in vegetable crops by genetic manipulation. PMID:26673153

  15. Effects of a 60 Hz magnetic field on photosynthetic CO2 uptake and early growth of radish seedlings.

    PubMed

    Yano, Akira; Ohashi, Yoshiaki; Hirasaki, Tomoyuki; Fujiwara, Kazuhiro

    2004-12-01

    Photosynthetic CO2 uptake rate and early growth parameters of radish Raphanus sativus L. seedlings exposed to an extremely low frequency magnetic field (ELF MF) were investigated. Radish seedlings were exposed to a 60 Hz, 50 microT(rms) (root mean square) sinusoidal magnetic field (MF) and a parallel 48 microT static MF for 6 or 15 d immediately after germination. Control seedlings were exposed to the ambient MF but not the ELF MF. The CO2 uptake rate of ELF MF exposed seedlings on day 5 and later was lower than that of the control seedlings. The dry weight and the cotyledon area of ELF MF exposed seedlings on day 6 and the fresh weight, the dry weight and the leaf area of ELF MF exposed seedlings on day 15 were significantly lower than those of the control seedlings, respectively. In another experiment, radish seedlings were grown without ELF MF exposure for 14 d immediately after germination, and then exposed to the ELF MF for about 2 h, and the photosynthetic CO2 uptake rate was measured during the short-term ELF MF exposure. The CO2 uptake rate of the same seedlings was subsequently measured in the ambient MF (control) without the ELF MF. There was no difference in the CO2 uptake rate of seedlings exposed to the ELF MF or the ambient MF. These results indicate that continuous exposure to 60 Hz, 50 microT(rms) sinusoidal MF with a parallel 48 microT static MF affects the early growth of radish seedlings, but the effect is not so severe that modification of photosynthetic CO2 uptake can observed during short-term MF exposure.

  16. Cerium oxide nanoparticles alter the antioxidant capacity but do not impact tuber ionome in Raphanus sativus (L).

    PubMed

    Corral-Diaz, Baltazar; Peralta-Videa, Jose R; Alvarez-Parrilla, Emilio; Rodrigo-García, Joaquin; Morales, Maria Isabel; Osuna-Avila, Pedro; Niu, Genhua; Hernandez-Viezcas, Jose A; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L

    2014-11-01

    The effects of nCeO2 on food quality are not well known yet. This research was performed to determine the impact of nCeO2 on radish (Raphanus sativus L.). Plants were cultivated to full maturity in potting soil treated with nCeO2 at concentrations of 0, 62.5, 125, 250, and 500 mg/kg. Germination, growth, photosynthesis, ionome, and antioxidants were evaluated at different growth stages. Results showed that at 500 mg/kg, nCeO2 significantly retarded seed germination but did not reduce the number of germinated seeds. None of the treatments affected gas exchange, photosynthesis, growth, phenols, flavonoids, and nutrients' accumulation in tubers and leaves of adult plants. However, tubers' antioxidant capacity, expressed as FRAP, ABTS(•-) and DPPH, increased by 30%, 32%, and 85%, respectively, in plants treated with 250 mg nCeO2kg(-1) soil. In addition, cerium accumulation in tubers of plants treated with 250 and 500 mg/kg reached 72 and 142 mg/kg d wt, respectively. This suggests that nCeO2 could improve the radical scavenging potency of radish but it might introduce nCeO2 into the food chain with unknown consequences. PMID:25439500

  17. Cerium oxide nanoparticles alter the antioxidant capacity but do not impact tuber ionome in Raphanus sativus (L).

    PubMed

    Corral-Diaz, Baltazar; Peralta-Videa, Jose R; Alvarez-Parrilla, Emilio; Rodrigo-García, Joaquin; Morales, Maria Isabel; Osuna-Avila, Pedro; Niu, Genhua; Hernandez-Viezcas, Jose A; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L

    2014-11-01

    The effects of nCeO2 on food quality are not well known yet. This research was performed to determine the impact of nCeO2 on radish (Raphanus sativus L.). Plants were cultivated to full maturity in potting soil treated with nCeO2 at concentrations of 0, 62.5, 125, 250, and 500 mg/kg. Germination, growth, photosynthesis, ionome, and antioxidants were evaluated at different growth stages. Results showed that at 500 mg/kg, nCeO2 significantly retarded seed germination but did not reduce the number of germinated seeds. None of the treatments affected gas exchange, photosynthesis, growth, phenols, flavonoids, and nutrients' accumulation in tubers and leaves of adult plants. However, tubers' antioxidant capacity, expressed as FRAP, ABTS(•-) and DPPH, increased by 30%, 32%, and 85%, respectively, in plants treated with 250 mg nCeO2kg(-1) soil. In addition, cerium accumulation in tubers of plants treated with 250 and 500 mg/kg reached 72 and 142 mg/kg d wt, respectively. This suggests that nCeO2 could improve the radical scavenging potency of radish but it might introduce nCeO2 into the food chain with unknown consequences.

  18. The antifungal plant defensin RsAFP2 from radish induces apoptosis in a metacaspase independent way in Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Aerts, An M; Carmona-Gutierrez, Didac; Lefevre, Sophie; Govaert, Gilmer; François, Isabelle E J A; Madeo, Frank; Santos, Renata; Cammue, Bruno P A; Thevissen, Karin

    2009-08-01

    We show that the antifungal plant defensin Raphanus sativus antifungal protein 2 (RsAFP2) from radish induces apoptosis and concomitantly triggers activation of caspases or caspase-like proteases in the human pathogen Candida albicans. Furthermore, we demonstrate that deletion of C. albicans metacaspase 1, encoding the only reported (putative) caspase in C. albicans, significantly affects caspase activation by the apoptotic stimulus acetic acid, but not by RsAFP2. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the induction of apoptosis with concomitant caspase activation by a defensin in this pathogen. Moreover, our data point to the existence of at least two different types of caspases or caspase-like proteases in C. albicans. PMID:19596007

  19. Purification and characterization of a cationic peroxidase Cs in Raphanus sativus.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soung Soo; Lee, Dong Ju

    2005-06-01

    A short distance migrating cationic peroxidase from Korean radish seeds (Raphanus sativus) was detected. Cationic peroxidase Cs was purified to apparent homogeneity and characterized. The molecular mass of the purified cationic peroxidase Cs was estimated to be about 44 kDa on SDS-PAGE. After reconstitution of apoperoxidase Cs with protohemin, the absorption spectra revealed a new peak in the Soret region around 400 nm, which is typical in a classical type III peroxidase family. The optimum pH of peroxidase activity for o-dianisidine oxidation was observed at pH 7.0. Kinetic studies revealed that the reconstituted cationic peroxidase Cs has Km values of 1.18 mM and of 1.27 mM for o-dianisidine and H2O2, respectively. The cationic peroxidase Cs showed the peroxidase activities for native substrates, such as coumaric acid, ferulic acid, and scopoletin. This result suggested that cationic peroxidase Cs plays an important role in plant cell wall formation during seed germination.

  20. Methyl jasmonate affects morphology, number and activity of endoplasmic reticulum bodies in Raphanus sativus root cells.

    PubMed

    Gotté, Maxime; Ghosh, Rajgourab; Bernard, Sophie; Nguema-Ona, Eric; Vicré-Gibouin, Maïté; Hara-Nishimura, Ikuko; Driouich, Azeddine

    2015-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) bodies are ER-derived structures that are found in Brassicaceae species and thought to play a role in defense. Here, we have investigated the occurrence, distribution and function of ER bodies in root cells of Raphanus sativus using a combination of microscopic and biochemical methods. We have also assessed the response of ER bodies to methyl jasmonate (MeJA), a phytohormone that mediates plant defense against wounding and pathogens. Our results show that (i) ER bodies do occur in different root cell types from the root cap region to the differentiation zone; (ii) they do accumulate a PYK10-like protein similar to the major marker protein of ER bodies that is involved in defense in Arabidopsis thaliana; and (iii) treatment of root cells with MeJA causes a significant increase in the number of ER bodies and the activity of β-glucosidases. More importantly, MeJA was found to induce the formation of very long ER bodies that results from the fusion of small ones, a phenomenon that has not been reported in any other study so far. These findings demonstrate that MeJA impacts the number and morphology of functional ER bodies and stimulates ER body enzyme activities, probably to participate in defense responses of radish root. They also suggest that these structures may provide a defensive system specific to root cells.

  1. Methyl jasmonate affects morphology, number and activity of endoplasmic reticulum bodies in Raphanus sativus root cells.

    PubMed

    Gotté, Maxime; Ghosh, Rajgourab; Bernard, Sophie; Nguema-Ona, Eric; Vicré-Gibouin, Maïté; Hara-Nishimura, Ikuko; Driouich, Azeddine

    2015-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) bodies are ER-derived structures that are found in Brassicaceae species and thought to play a role in defense. Here, we have investigated the occurrence, distribution and function of ER bodies in root cells of Raphanus sativus using a combination of microscopic and biochemical methods. We have also assessed the response of ER bodies to methyl jasmonate (MeJA), a phytohormone that mediates plant defense against wounding and pathogens. Our results show that (i) ER bodies do occur in different root cell types from the root cap region to the differentiation zone; (ii) they do accumulate a PYK10-like protein similar to the major marker protein of ER bodies that is involved in defense in Arabidopsis thaliana; and (iii) treatment of root cells with MeJA causes a significant increase in the number of ER bodies and the activity of β-glucosidases. More importantly, MeJA was found to induce the formation of very long ER bodies that results from the fusion of small ones, a phenomenon that has not been reported in any other study so far. These findings demonstrate that MeJA impacts the number and morphology of functional ER bodies and stimulates ER body enzyme activities, probably to participate in defense responses of radish root. They also suggest that these structures may provide a defensive system specific to root cells. PMID:25305245

  2. Are Radishes Really Allelopathic to Lettuce?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santaniello, Catherine M.; Koning, Ross E.

    1996-01-01

    Presents an experiment that challenges the claim that sprouting radish seedlings release chemicals into the environment that inhibit germination of lettuce seeds. Reports that although no simple allelopathic demonstration was observed, the experiment provides fertile ground for further experimentation in inquiry-based laboratory experiences. (JRH)

  3. [Analysis of genomic DNA methylation level in radish under cadmium stress by methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism technique].

    PubMed

    Yang, Jin-Lan; Liu, Li-Wang; Gong, Yi-Qin; Huang, Dan-Qiong; Wang, Feng; He, Ling-Li

    2007-06-01

    The level of cytosine methylation induced by cadmium in radish (Raphanus sativus L.) genome was analysed using the technique of methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP). The MSAP ratios in radish seedling exposed to cadmium chloride at the concentration of 50, 250 and 500 mg/L were 37%, 43% and 51%, respectively, and the control was 34%; the full methylation levels (C(m)CGG in double strands) were at 23%, 25% and 27%, respectively, while the control was 22%. The level of increase in MSAP and full methylation indicated that de novo methylation occurred in some 5'-CCGG sites under Cd stress. There was significant positive correlation between increase of total DNA methylation level and CdCl(2) concentration. Four types of MSAP patterns: de novo methylation, de-methylation, atypical pattern and no changes of methylation pattern were identified among CdCl(2) treatments and the control. DNA methylation alteration in plants treated with CdCl(2) was mainly through de novo methylation.

  4. Improving spinach, radish, and lettuce growth under red light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with blue light supplementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yorio, N. C.; Goins, G. D.; Kagie, H. R.; Wheeler, R. M.; Sager, J. C.

    2001-01-01

    Radish (Raphanus sativus L. cv. Cherriette), lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cv. Waldmann's Green), and spinach (Spinacea oleracea L. cv. Nordic IV) plants were grown under 660-nm red light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and were compared at equal photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) with either plants grown under cool-white fluorescent lamps (CWF) or red LEDs supplemented with 10% (30 micromoles m-2 s-1) blue light (400-500 nm) from blue fluorescent (BF) lamps. At 21 days after planting (DAP), leaf photosynthetic rates and stomatal conductance were greater for plants grown under CWF light than for those grown under red LEDs, with or without supplemental blue light. At harvest (21 DAP), total dry-weight accumulation was significantly lower for all species tested when grown under red LEDs alone than when grown under CWF light or red LEDs + 10% BF light. Moreover, total dry weight for radish and spinach was significantly lower under red LEDs + 10% BF than under CWF light, suggesting that addition of blue light to the red LEDs was still insufficient for achieving maximal growth for these crops.

  5. Effects of Silver Nanoparticles on Radish Sprouts: Root Growth Reduction and Modifications in the Nutritional Value

    PubMed Central

    Zuverza-Mena, Nubia; Armendariz, Raul; Peralta-Videa, Jose R.; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L.

    2016-01-01

    Reports indicate that silver nanoparticles (nAg) are toxic to vegetation, but little is known about their effects in crop plants. This study examines the impacts of nAg on the physiology and nutritional quality of radish (Raphanus sativus) sprouts. Seeds were germinated and grown for 5 days in nAg suspensions at 0, 125, 250, and 500 mg/L. Seed germination and seedling growth were evaluated with traditional methodologies; the uptake of Ag and nutrients was quantified by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) and changes in macromolecules were analyzed by infrared (IR) spectroscopy. None of the nAg concentrations reduced seed germination. However, the water content (% of the total weight) was reduced by 1.62, 1.65, and 2.54% with exposure to 125, 250, and 500 mg/L, respectively, compared with the control. At 500 mg/L, the root and shoot lengths were reduced by 47.7 and 40%, with respect to the control. The seedlings exposed to 500 mg/L had 901 ± 150 mg Ag/kg dry wt and significantly less Ca, Mg, B, Cu, Mn, and Zn, compared with the control. The infrared spectroscopy analysis showed changes in the bands corresponding to lipids (3000–2800 cm-1), proteins (1550–1530 cm-1), and structural components of plant cells such as lignin, pectin, and cellulose. These results suggest that nAg could significantly affect the growth, nutrient content and macromolecule conformation in radish sprouts, with unknown consequences for human health. PMID:26909084

  6. Effects of Silver Nanoparticles on Radish Sprouts: Root Growth Reduction and Modifications in the Nutritional Value.

    PubMed

    Zuverza-Mena, Nubia; Armendariz, Raul; Peralta-Videa, Jose R; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L

    2016-01-01

    Reports indicate that silver nanoparticles (nAg) are toxic to vegetation, but little is known about their effects in crop plants. This study examines the impacts of nAg on the physiology and nutritional quality of radish (Raphanus sativus) sprouts. Seeds were germinated and grown for 5 days in nAg suspensions at 0, 125, 250, and 500 mg/L. Seed germination and seedling growth were evaluated with traditional methodologies; the uptake of Ag and nutrients was quantified by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) and changes in macromolecules were analyzed by infrared (IR) spectroscopy. None of the nAg concentrations reduced seed germination. However, the water content (% of the total weight) was reduced by 1.62, 1.65, and 2.54% with exposure to 125, 250, and 500 mg/L, respectively, compared with the control. At 500 mg/L, the root and shoot lengths were reduced by 47.7 and 40%, with respect to the control. The seedlings exposed to 500 mg/L had 901 ± 150 mg Ag/kg dry wt and significantly less Ca, Mg, B, Cu, Mn, and Zn, compared with the control. The infrared spectroscopy analysis showed changes in the bands corresponding to lipids (3000-2800 cm(-1)), proteins (1550-1530 cm(-1)), and structural components of plant cells such as lignin, pectin, and cellulose. These results suggest that nAg could significantly affect the growth, nutrient content and macromolecule conformation in radish sprouts, with unknown consequences for human health.

  7. Modelling gene flow between oilseed rape and wild radish. I. Evolution of chromosome structure.

    PubMed

    Chèvre, A M; Adamczyk, K; Eber, F; Huteau, V; Coriton, O; Letanneur, J C; Laredo, C; Jenczewski, E; Monod, H

    2007-01-01

    The assessment of gene flow from crop species to weeds has found a new emphasis over the last years because of the marketing of transgenic crops and the possible selective advantage that crop (trans)gene may confer to the weeds. Several studies focused on the F1 interspecific hybrid production but few data are available on the factors affecting the genetic structure of advanced generations. It depends on the genomic structure of the species concerned as well as on the degree of their genome homology that affect the occurrence of intergenomic recombination. Oilseed rape (Brassica napus, AACC, 2n = 38)-wild radish (Raphanus raphanistrum, RrRr, 2n = 18), a distantly related weed, is a good model to address such questions. From seven male sterile oilseed rape lines carrying an herbicide tolerance transgene, F1 interspecific hybrids and four advanced generations were produced under field conditions with wild radish as pollinator. Observation of hybrid chromosome numbers across four generations revealed a high variability, especially in the "BC1" generation. A regression model was fitted in order to describe the relationship between parent and offspring chromosome numbers. The effects of generation, transgenic line and selection pressure on the mean relationship were investigated. The first two factors had an influence on the rate of decrease of chromosome numbers, whereas selection pressure resulted in the presence of an additional chromosome in the herbicide treated plants. The model provided a convenient framework for analysing how chromosome numbers evolve over successive hybridization events and it may prove useful as a basis for simulation-based approaches. PMID:17091264

  8. Effects of Silver Nanoparticles on Radish Sprouts: Root Growth Reduction and Modifications in the Nutritional Value.

    PubMed

    Zuverza-Mena, Nubia; Armendariz, Raul; Peralta-Videa, Jose R; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L

    2016-01-01

    Reports indicate that silver nanoparticles (nAg) are toxic to vegetation, but little is known about their effects in crop plants. This study examines the impacts of nAg on the physiology and nutritional quality of radish (Raphanus sativus) sprouts. Seeds were germinated and grown for 5 days in nAg suspensions at 0, 125, 250, and 500 mg/L. Seed germination and seedling growth were evaluated with traditional methodologies; the uptake of Ag and nutrients was quantified by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) and changes in macromolecules were analyzed by infrared (IR) spectroscopy. None of the nAg concentrations reduced seed germination. However, the water content (% of the total weight) was reduced by 1.62, 1.65, and 2.54% with exposure to 125, 250, and 500 mg/L, respectively, compared with the control. At 500 mg/L, the root and shoot lengths were reduced by 47.7 and 40%, with respect to the control. The seedlings exposed to 500 mg/L had 901 ± 150 mg Ag/kg dry wt and significantly less Ca, Mg, B, Cu, Mn, and Zn, compared with the control. The infrared spectroscopy analysis showed changes in the bands corresponding to lipids (3000-2800 cm(-1)), proteins (1550-1530 cm(-1)), and structural components of plant cells such as lignin, pectin, and cellulose. These results suggest that nAg could significantly affect the growth, nutrient content and macromolecule conformation in radish sprouts, with unknown consequences for human health. PMID:26909084

  9. Disinfection of radish and alfalfa seeds inoculated with Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella by a gaseous acetic acid treatment.

    PubMed

    Nei, Daisuke; Latiful, Bari M; Enomoto, Katsuyoshi; Inatsu, Yasuhiro; Kawamoto, Shinnichi

    2011-10-01

    Abstract The majority of seed sprout-related outbreaks have been associated with Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella. Therefore, we aimed to find an effective method to inactivate these organisms on seeds before sprouting. Treatment with 8.7% (v/v) acetic acid at 55°C for 2-3 h reduced the population of E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella inoculated on alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and radish seeds (Raphanus sativus L.) by more than 5.0 log CFU/g, and a longer treatment time completely eliminated the E. coli O157:H7 population. The E. coli O157:H7 populations were reduced to an undetectable level with a gaseous acetic acid treatment for 48 h. After enrichment, no E. coli O157:H7 were found in the alfalfa and radish seeds (25 g). However, these treatments were unable to eliminate Salmonella in both seed types. No significant difference between the germination rates of treated alfalfa seeds and control seeds was found, and germination rates greater than 95% were obtained for the radish seeds. Although chlorine washing is commonly used for seed decontamination, chlorine washing at 200 and 20,000 ppm resulted in a reduction of pathogens by less than or equal to 3 log CFU/g. Therefore, these results suggested that gaseous acetic acid is more effective than chlorine washing in controlling pathogenic bacteria on sprout seeds.

  10. Chromium stress mitigation by polyamine-brassinosteroid application involves phytohormonal and physiological strategies in Raphanus sativus L.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Sikander Pal; Kanwar, Mukesh; Bhardwaj, Renu; Yu, Jing-Quan; Tran, Lam-Son Phan

    2012-01-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) and polyamines (PAs) are well-established growth regulators playing key roles in stress management among plants. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of epibrassinolide (EBL, an active BR) and spermidine (Spd, an active PA) on the tolerance of radish to oxidative stress induced by Cr (VI) metal. Our investigation aimed to study the impacts of EBL (10(-9) M) and/or Spd (1 mM) on the biochemical and physiological responses of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) under Cr-stress. Applications of EBL and/or Spd were found to improve growth of Cr-stressed seedlings in terms of root length, shoot length and fresh weight. Our data also indicated that applications of EBL and Spd have significant impacts, particularly when applied together, on the endogenous titers of PAs, free and bound forms of IAA and ABA in seedlings treated with Cr-stress. Additionally, co-applications of EBL and Spd modulated more remarkably the titers of antioxidants (glutathione, ascorbic acid, proline, glycine betaine and total phenol) and activities of antioxidant enzymes (guaicol peroxidase, catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione reductase) in Cr-stressed plants than their individual applications. Attenuation of Cr-stress by EBL and/or Spd (more efficient with EBL and Spd combination) was also supported by enhanced values of stress indices, such as phytochelatins, photosynthetic pigments and total soluble sugars, and reduction in malondialdehyde and H(2)O(2) levels in Cr-treated seedlings. Diminution of ROS production and enhanced ROS scavenging capacities were also noted for EBL and/or Spd under Cr-stress. However, no significant reduction in Cr uptake was observed for co-application of EBL and Spd when compared to their individual treatments in Cr-stressed seedlings. Taken together, our results demonstrate that co-applications of EBL and Spd are more effective than their independent treatments in lowering the Cr-induced oxidative stress in radish, leading to

  11. Chromium stress mitigation by polyamine-brassinosteroid application involves phytohormonal and physiological strategies in Raphanus sativus L.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Sikander Pal; Kanwar, Mukesh; Bhardwaj, Renu; Yu, Jing-Quan; Tran, Lam-Son Phan

    2012-01-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) and polyamines (PAs) are well-established growth regulators playing key roles in stress management among plants. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of epibrassinolide (EBL, an active BR) and spermidine (Spd, an active PA) on the tolerance of radish to oxidative stress induced by Cr (VI) metal. Our investigation aimed to study the impacts of EBL (10(-9) M) and/or Spd (1 mM) on the biochemical and physiological responses of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) under Cr-stress. Applications of EBL and/or Spd were found to improve growth of Cr-stressed seedlings in terms of root length, shoot length and fresh weight. Our data also indicated that applications of EBL and Spd have significant impacts, particularly when applied together, on the endogenous titers of PAs, free and bound forms of IAA and ABA in seedlings treated with Cr-stress. Additionally, co-applications of EBL and Spd modulated more remarkably the titers of antioxidants (glutathione, ascorbic acid, proline, glycine betaine and total phenol) and activities of antioxidant enzymes (guaicol peroxidase, catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione reductase) in Cr-stressed plants than their individual applications. Attenuation of Cr-stress by EBL and/or Spd (more efficient with EBL and Spd combination) was also supported by enhanced values of stress indices, such as phytochelatins, photosynthetic pigments and total soluble sugars, and reduction in malondialdehyde and H(2)O(2) levels in Cr-treated seedlings. Diminution of ROS production and enhanced ROS scavenging capacities were also noted for EBL and/or Spd under Cr-stress. However, no significant reduction in Cr uptake was observed for co-application of EBL and Spd when compared to their individual treatments in Cr-stressed seedlings. Taken together, our results demonstrate that co-applications of EBL and Spd are more effective than their independent treatments in lowering the Cr-induced oxidative stress in radish, leading to

  12. Chromium Stress Mitigation by Polyamine-Brassinosteroid Application Involves Phytohormonal and Physiological Strategies in Raphanus sativus L.

    PubMed Central

    Choudhary, Sikander Pal; Kanwar, Mukesh; Bhardwaj, Renu; Yu, Jing-Quan; Tran, Lam-Son Phan

    2012-01-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) and polyamines (PAs) are well-established growth regulators playing key roles in stress management among plants. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of epibrassinolide (EBL, an active BR) and spermidine (Spd, an active PA) on the tolerance of radish to oxidative stress induced by Cr (VI) metal. Our investigation aimed to study the impacts of EBL (10−9 M) and/or Spd (1 mM) on the biochemical and physiological responses of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) under Cr-stress. Applications of EBL and/or Spd were found to improve growth of Cr-stressed seedlings in terms of root length, shoot length and fresh weight. Our data also indicated that applications of EBL and Spd have significant impacts, particularly when applied together, on the endogenous titers of PAs, free and bound forms of IAA and ABA in seedlings treated with Cr-stress. Additionally, co-applications of EBL and Spd modulated more remarkably the titers of antioxidants (glutathione, ascorbic acid, proline, glycine betaine and total phenol) and activities of antioxidant enzymes (guaicol peroxidase, catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione reductase) in Cr-stressed plants than their individual applications. Attenuation of Cr-stress by EBL and/or Spd (more efficient with EBL and Spd combination) was also supported by enhanced values of stress indices, such as phytochelatins, photosynthetic pigments and total soluble sugars, and reduction in malondialdehyde and H2O2 levels in Cr-treated seedlings. Diminution of ROS production and enhanced ROS scavenging capacities were also noted for EBL and/or Spd under Cr-stress. However, no significant reduction in Cr uptake was observed for co-application of EBL and Spd when compared to their individual treatments in Cr-stressed seedlings. Taken together, our results demonstrate that co-applications of EBL and Spd are more effective than their independent treatments in lowering the Cr-induced oxidative stress in radish, leading to

  13. Selenium Biofortification in Radish Enhances Nutritional Quality via Accumulation of Methyl-Selenocysteine and Promotion of Transcripts and Metabolites Related to Glucosinolates, Phenolics, and Amino Acids.

    PubMed

    Schiavon, Michela; Berto, Chiara; Malagoli, Mario; Trentin, Annarita; Sambo, Paolo; Dall'Acqua, Stefano; Pilon-Smits, Elizabeth A H

    2016-01-01

    Two selenium (Se) fertilization methods were tested for their effects on levels of anticarcinogenic selenocompounds in radish (Raphanus sativus), as well as other nutraceuticals. First, radish was grown on soil and foliar selenate applied 7 days before harvest at 0, 5, 10, and 20 mg Se per plant. Selenium levels were up to 1200 mg Se/kg DW in leaves and 120 mg Se/kg DW in roots. The thiols cysteine and glutathione were present at 2-3-fold higher levels in roots of Se treated plants, and total glucosinolate levels were 35% higher, due to increases in glucoraphanin. The only seleno-aminoacid detected in Se treated plants was Se-methyl-SeCys (100 mg/kg FW in leaves, 33 mg/kg FW in roots). The levels of phenolic aminoacids increased with selenate treatment, as did root total nitrogen and protein content, while the level of several polyphenols decreased. Second, radish was grown in hydroponics and supplied with 0, 5, 10, 20, or 40 μM selenate for 1 week. Selenate treatment led to a 20-30% increase in biomass. Selenium concentration was 242 mg Se/kg DW in leaves and 85 mg Se/kg DW in roots. Cysteine levels decreased with Se in leaves but increased in roots; glutatione levels decreased in both. Total glucosinolate levels in leaves decreased with Se treatment due to repression of genes involved in glucosinolates metabolism. Se-methyl-SeCys concentration ranged from 7-15 mg/kg FW. Aminoacid concentration increased with Se treatment in leaves but decreased in roots. Roots of Se treated plants contained elevated transcript levels of sulfate transporters (Sultr) and ATP sulfurylase, a key enzyme of S/Se assimilation. No effects on polyphenols were observed. In conclusion, Se biofortification of radish roots may be achieved via foliar spray or hydroponic supply. One to ten radishes could fulfill the daily human requirement (70 μg) after a single foliar spray of 5 mg selenate per plant or 1 week of 5-10 μM selenate supply in hydroponics. The radishes metabolized selenate to

  14. Selenium Biofortification in Radish Enhances Nutritional Quality via Accumulation of Methyl-Selenocysteine and Promotion of Transcripts and Metabolites Related to Glucosinolates, Phenolics, and Amino Acids.

    PubMed

    Schiavon, Michela; Berto, Chiara; Malagoli, Mario; Trentin, Annarita; Sambo, Paolo; Dall'Acqua, Stefano; Pilon-Smits, Elizabeth A H

    2016-01-01

    Two selenium (Se) fertilization methods were tested for their effects on levels of anticarcinogenic selenocompounds in radish (Raphanus sativus), as well as other nutraceuticals. First, radish was grown on soil and foliar selenate applied 7 days before harvest at 0, 5, 10, and 20 mg Se per plant. Selenium levels were up to 1200 mg Se/kg DW in leaves and 120 mg Se/kg DW in roots. The thiols cysteine and glutathione were present at 2-3-fold higher levels in roots of Se treated plants, and total glucosinolate levels were 35% higher, due to increases in glucoraphanin. The only seleno-aminoacid detected in Se treated plants was Se-methyl-SeCys (100 mg/kg FW in leaves, 33 mg/kg FW in roots). The levels of phenolic aminoacids increased with selenate treatment, as did root total nitrogen and protein content, while the level of several polyphenols decreased. Second, radish was grown in hydroponics and supplied with 0, 5, 10, 20, or 40 μM selenate for 1 week. Selenate treatment led to a 20-30% increase in biomass. Selenium concentration was 242 mg Se/kg DW in leaves and 85 mg Se/kg DW in roots. Cysteine levels decreased with Se in leaves but increased in roots; glutatione levels decreased in both. Total glucosinolate levels in leaves decreased with Se treatment due to repression of genes involved in glucosinolates metabolism. Se-methyl-SeCys concentration ranged from 7-15 mg/kg FW. Aminoacid concentration increased with Se treatment in leaves but decreased in roots. Roots of Se treated plants contained elevated transcript levels of sulfate transporters (Sultr) and ATP sulfurylase, a key enzyme of S/Se assimilation. No effects on polyphenols were observed. In conclusion, Se biofortification of radish roots may be achieved via foliar spray or hydroponic supply. One to ten radishes could fulfill the daily human requirement (70 μg) after a single foliar spray of 5 mg selenate per plant or 1 week of 5-10 μM selenate supply in hydroponics. The radishes metabolized selenate to

  15. Selenium Biofortification in Radish Enhances Nutritional Quality via Accumulation of Methyl-Selenocysteine and Promotion of Transcripts and Metabolites Related to Glucosinolates, Phenolics, and Amino Acids

    PubMed Central

    Schiavon, Michela; Berto, Chiara; Malagoli, Mario; Trentin, Annarita; Sambo, Paolo; Dall'Acqua, Stefano; Pilon-Smits, Elizabeth A. H.

    2016-01-01

    Two selenium (Se) fertilization methods were tested for their effects on levels of anticarcinogenic selenocompounds in radish (Raphanus sativus), as well as other nutraceuticals. First, radish was grown on soil and foliar selenate applied 7 days before harvest at 0, 5, 10, and 20 mg Se per plant. Selenium levels were up to 1200 mg Se/kg DW in leaves and 120 mg Se/kg DW in roots. The thiols cysteine and glutathione were present at 2–3-fold higher levels in roots of Se treated plants, and total glucosinolate levels were 35% higher, due to increases in glucoraphanin. The only seleno-aminoacid detected in Se treated plants was Se-methyl-SeCys (100 mg/kg FW in leaves, 33 mg/kg FW in roots). The levels of phenolic aminoacids increased with selenate treatment, as did root total nitrogen and protein content, while the level of several polyphenols decreased. Second, radish was grown in hydroponics and supplied with 0, 5, 10, 20, or 40 μM selenate for 1 week. Selenate treatment led to a 20–30% increase in biomass. Selenium concentration was 242 mg Se/kg DW in leaves and 85 mg Se/kg DW in roots. Cysteine levels decreased with Se in leaves but increased in roots; glutatione levels decreased in both. Total glucosinolate levels in leaves decreased with Se treatment due to repression of genes involved in glucosinolates metabolism. Se-methyl-SeCys concentration ranged from 7–15 mg/kg FW. Aminoacid concentration increased with Se treatment in leaves but decreased in roots. Roots of Se treated plants contained elevated transcript levels of sulfate transporters (Sultr) and ATP sulfurylase, a key enzyme of S/Se assimilation. No effects on polyphenols were observed. In conclusion, Se biofortification of radish roots may be achieved via foliar spray or hydroponic supply. One to ten radishes could fulfill the daily human requirement (70 μg) after a single foliar spray of 5 mg selenate per plant or 1 week of 5–10 μM selenate supply in hydroponics. The radishes metabolized

  16. Selenium Biofortification in Radish Enhances Nutritional Quality via Accumulation of Methyl-Selenocysteine and Promotion of Transcripts and Metabolites Related to Glucosinolates, Phenolics, and Amino Acids

    PubMed Central

    Schiavon, Michela; Berto, Chiara; Malagoli, Mario; Trentin, Annarita; Sambo, Paolo; Dall'Acqua, Stefano; Pilon-Smits, Elizabeth A. H.

    2016-01-01

    Two selenium (Se) fertilization methods were tested for their effects on levels of anticarcinogenic selenocompounds in radish (Raphanus sativus), as well as other nutraceuticals. First, radish was grown on soil and foliar selenate applied 7 days before harvest at 0, 5, 10, and 20 mg Se per plant. Selenium levels were up to 1200 mg Se/kg DW in leaves and 120 mg Se/kg DW in roots. The thiols cysteine and glutathione were present at 2–3-fold higher levels in roots of Se treated plants, and total glucosinolate levels were 35% higher, due to increases in glucoraphanin. The only seleno-aminoacid detected in Se treated plants was Se-methyl-SeCys (100 mg/kg FW in leaves, 33 mg/kg FW in roots). The levels of phenolic aminoacids increased with selenate treatment, as did root total nitrogen and protein content, while the level of several polyphenols decreased. Second, radish was grown in hydroponics and supplied with 0, 5, 10, 20, or 40 μM selenate for 1 week. Selenate treatment led to a 20–30% increase in biomass. Selenium concentration was 242 mg Se/kg DW in leaves and 85 mg Se/kg DW in roots. Cysteine levels decreased with Se in leaves but increased in roots; glutatione levels decreased in both. Total glucosinolate levels in leaves decreased with Se treatment due to repression of genes involved in glucosinolates metabolism. Se-methyl-SeCys concentration ranged from 7–15 mg/kg FW. Aminoacid concentration increased with Se treatment in leaves but decreased in roots. Roots of Se treated plants contained elevated transcript levels of sulfate transporters (Sultr) and ATP sulfurylase, a key enzyme of S/Se assimilation. No effects on polyphenols were observed. In conclusion, Se biofortification of radish roots may be achieved via foliar spray or hydroponic supply. One to ten radishes could fulfill the daily human requirement (70 μg) after a single foliar spray of 5 mg selenate per plant or 1 week of 5–10 μM selenate supply in hydroponics. The radishes metabolized

  17. Development of crop-specific transposable element (SINE) markers for studying gene flow from oilseed rape to wild radish.

    PubMed

    Prieto, J L; Pouilly, N; Jenczewski, E; Deragon, J M; Chèvre, A M

    2005-08-01

    The screening of wild populations for evidence of gene flow from a crop to a wild related species requires the unambiguous detection of crop genes within the genome of the wild species, taking into account the intraspecific variability of each species. If the crop and wild relatives share a common ancestor, as is the case for the Brassica crops and their wild relatives (subtribe Brassiceae), the species-specific markers needed to make this unambiguous detection are difficult to identify. In the model oilseed rape (Brassica napus, AACC, 2n = 38)-wild radish (Raphanus raphanistrum, RrRr, 2n = 18) system, we utilized the presence or absence of a short-interspersed element (SINE) at a given locus to develop oilseed rape-specific markers, as SINE insertions are irreversible. By means of sequence-specific amplified polymorphism (SINE-SSAP) reactions, we identified and cloned 67 bands specific to the oilseed rape genome and absent from that of wild radish. Forty-seven PCR-specific markers were developed from three combinations of primers anchored either in (1) the 5'- and 3'-genomic sequences flanking the SINE, (2) the 5'-flanking and SINE internal sequences or (3) the SINE internal and flanking 3'-sequences. Seventeen markers were monomorphic whatever the oilseed rape varieties tested, whereas 30 revealed polymorphism and behaved either as dominant (17) or co-dominant (13) markers. Polymorphic markers were mapped on 19 genomic regions assigned to ten linkage groups. The markers developed will be efficient tools to trace the occurrence and frequency of introgressions of oilseed rape genomic region within wild radish populations. PMID:15942756

  18. Reduced Pressure Alone Does Not Affect the Overall Sensory and Antioxidant Values of Radish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levine, L. H.; Bisbee, P.; Yorio, N. C.; Stutte, G. W.; Richards, J. T.; Birmele, M.; Prior, R. L.; Perchonok, M.; Wheeler, R. M.; Dixon, M.

    Use of reduced atmospheric pressures e g 101 kPa for space exploration can offer several advantages during long duration space missions including reduced launch mass for containment vessels reduced gas leakage reduced resupply costs and increased potential for using transparent materials in greenhouses for a bioregenerative life support system on Mars and on the Moon Limited testing with crop plants at reduced atmospheres has been conducted with results focused on whole plant growth and gas exchange but there are no studies regarding the quality of resulting products This question is of importance not only from the standpoint of food palatability but of potential nutritional and health benefits to the crew To study this we grew radish Raphanus sativus L cv Cherry Bomb Hybrid II plants at three atmospheric pressures 33 kPa 66 kPa and 96 kPa nominal ambient while maintaining oxygen and carbon dioxide partial pressures constant at 21 kPa and 0 12 kPa respectively After 21 days growth chambers were repressurized and ten plants were harvested within the same time frame of the photoperiod for all three pressure treatments The experiment was repeated three times Arial shoots and storage roots were separated immediately upon removal from growth chambers frozen with liquid nitrogen and stored at -80 r C until analysis Six of the ten plants were lyophilized ground to pass a 40 mesh screen and used for determination of the total antioxidant capacity and glucosinolate composition while the remaining four plants were used

  19. Comparative Study of Lettuce and Radish Grown Under Red and Blue LEDs and White Fluorescent Lamps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mickens, Matthew A.; Massa, Gioia; Newsham, Gerard; Wheeler, Raymond; Birmele, Michele

    2016-01-01

    Growing vegetable crops in space will be an essential part of sustaining astronauts during long-range missions. To drive photosynthesis, red and blue light-emitting diodes (LEDs) have attracted attention because of their efficiency, longevity, small size, and safety. In efforts to optimize crop yield, there is also recent interest in analyzing the subtle effects of additional wavelengths on plant growth. For instance, since plants often look purplish gray under red and blue LEDs, the addition of green light allows easy recognition of disease and the assessment of plant health status. However, it is important to know if wavelengths outside the traditional red and blue wavebands have a direct effect on enhancing or hindering the mechanisms involved in plant growth. In this experiment, a comparative study was performed on two short cycle crops of red romaine lettuce (Lactuca sativa cv. "Outredgeous") and radish (Raphanus sativa cv. 'Cherry Bomb'), which were grown under two light treatments. The first treatment being red (630 nm) and blue (450 nm) LEDs alone, while the second treatment consisted of daylight tri-phosphor fluorescent lamps (CCT approximately 5000 K) at equal photosynthetic photon flux (PPF). The treatment effects were evaluated by measuring the fresh biomass produced, plant morphology and leaf dimensions, leaf chlorophyll content, and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) within plant leaf/storage root tissues.

  20. Transcriptome-based gene profiling provides novel insights into the characteristics of radish root response to Cr stress with next-generation sequencing.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yang; Ye, Shan; Wang, Yan; Xu, Liang; Zhu, Xianwen; Yang, Jinlan; Feng, Haiyang; Yu, Rugang; Karanja, Benard; Gong, Yiqin; Liu, Liwang

    2015-01-01

    Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) is an important worldwide root vegetable crop with high nutrient values and is adversely affected by non-essential heavy metals including chromium (Cr). Little is known about the molecular mechanism underlying Cr stress response in radish. In this study, RNA-Seq technique was employed to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) under Cr stress. Based on de novo transcriptome assembly, there were 30,676 unigenes representing 60,881 transcripts isolated from radish root under Cr stress. Differential gene analysis revealed that 2985 uingenes were significantly differentially expressed between Cr-free (CK) and Cr-treated (Cr600) libraries, among which 1424 were up-regulated and 1561 down-regulated. Gene ontology (GO) analysis revealed that these DEGs were mainly involved in primary metabolic process, response to abiotic stimulus, cellular metabolic process and small molecule metabolic process. Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) enrichment analysis showed that the DEGs were mainly involved in protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum, starch and sucrose metabolism, amino acid metabolism, glutathione metabolism, drug and xenobiotics by cytochrome P450 metabolism. RT-qPCR analysis showed that the expression patterns of 12 randomly selected DEGs were highly accordant with the results from RNA-seq. Furthermore, many candidate genes including signaling protein kinases, transcription factors and metal transporters, chelate compound biosynthesis and antioxidant system, were involved in defense and detoxification mechanisms of Cr stress response regulatory networks. These results would provide novel insight into molecular mechanism underlying plant responsiveness to Cr stress and facilitate further genetic manipulation on Cr uptake and accumulation in radish.

  1. Transcriptome-based gene profiling provides novel insights into the characteristics of radish root response to Cr stress with next-generation sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Yang; Ye, Shan; Wang, Yan; Xu, Liang; Zhu, Xianwen; Yang, Jinlan; Feng, Haiyang; Yu, Rugang; Karanja, Benard; Gong, Yiqin; Liu, Liwang

    2015-01-01

    Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) is an important worldwide root vegetable crop with high nutrient values and is adversely affected by non-essential heavy metals including chromium (Cr). Little is known about the molecular mechanism underlying Cr stress response in radish. In this study, RNA-Seq technique was employed to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) under Cr stress. Based on de novo transcriptome assembly, there were 30,676 unigenes representing 60,881 transcripts isolated from radish root under Cr stress. Differential gene analysis revealed that 2985 uingenes were significantly differentially expressed between Cr-free (CK) and Cr-treated (Cr600) libraries, among which 1424 were up-regulated and 1561 down-regulated. Gene ontology (GO) analysis revealed that these DEGs were mainly involved in primary metabolic process, response to abiotic stimulus, cellular metabolic process and small molecule metabolic process. Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) enrichment analysis showed that the DEGs were mainly involved in protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum, starch and sucrose metabolism, amino acid metabolism, glutathione metabolism, drug and xenobiotics by cytochrome P450 metabolism. RT-qPCR analysis showed that the expression patterns of 12 randomly selected DEGs were highly accordant with the results from RNA-seq. Furthermore, many candidate genes including signaling protein kinases, transcription factors and metal transporters, chelate compound biosynthesis and antioxidant system, were involved in defense and detoxification mechanisms of Cr stress response regulatory networks. These results would provide novel insight into molecular mechanism underlying plant responsiveness to Cr stress and facilitate further genetic manipulation on Cr uptake and accumulation in radish. PMID:25873924

  2. Microbiological investigation of Raphanus sativus L. grown hydroponically in nutrient solutions contaminated with spoilage and pathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Settanni, Luca; Miceli, Alessandro; Francesca, Nicola; Cruciata, Margherita; Moschetti, Giancarlo

    2013-01-01

    The survival of eight undesired (spoilage/pathogenic) food related bacteria (Citrobacter freundii PSS60, Enterobacter spp. PSS11, Escherichia coli PSS2, Klebsiella oxytoca PSS82, Serratia grimesii PSS72, Pseudomonas putida PSS21, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia PSS52 and Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19114(T)) was investigated in mineral nutrient solution (MNS) during the crop cycle of radishes (Raphanus sativus L.) cultivated in hydroponics in a greenhouse. MNSs were microbiologically analyzed weekly by plate count. The evolution of the pure cultures was also evaluated in sterile MNS in test tubes. The inoculated trials contained an initial total mesophilic count (TMC) ranging between 6.69 and 7.78Log CFU/mL, while non-sterile and sterile control trials showed levels of 4.39 and 0.97Log CFU/mL, respectively. In general, all inoculated trials showed similar levels of TMC in MNS during the experimentation, even though the levels of the inoculated bacteria decreased. The presence of the inoculums was ascertained by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis applied on the isolates collected at 7-day intervals. At harvest, MNSs were also analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The last analysis, except P. putida PSS21 in the corresponding trial, did not detect the other bacteria, but confirmed that pseudomonads were present in un-inoculated MNSs. Despite the high counts detected (6.44 and 7.24CFU/g), only C. freundii PSS60, Enterobacter spp. PSS11 and K. oxytoca PSS82 were detected in radishes in a living form, suggesting their internalization.

  3. Growth and photosynthesis of plants in response to environmental stress. [Raphanus sativus; Glycine max; Salix nigra; Alnus serrulata; Populus tremuloides

    SciTech Connect

    Greitner, C.S.

    1991-01-01

    Environmental stresses generally decrease photosynthetic rates and growth of plants, and alter biomass partitioning. Nutrient deficiency and drought cause root:shoot ratios to increase, whereas the air pollutant ozone (O[sub 3]) causes an opposite shift in carbon allocation. Plants in nature usually grow under suboptimal conditions; therefore plants were raised with O[sub 3] combined with other stresses to analyze the mechanisms whereby multiple stresses influence gas exchange and growth. Physiological and growth responses to stress were determined for radish (raphanus sativus), soybean (Glycine max) willow (Salix nigra), alder (Alnus serrulata) and aspen (Populus tremuloides) in laboratory and field trials. In willow, high-nutrient status plants had more visible injury, but a smaller decline in leaf area with O[sub 3] than did low-nutrient plants. Ultrastructure of host plant cells in alder root nodules was disrupted by O[sub 3], suggesting that this air pollutant can affect the ability of plants to acquire nutrients via symbiosis. Biomass and root:shoot ratios decreased with O[sub 3] in radish and soy-bean. Shifts in stable carbon isotope ratios were caused by O[sub 3], and this technique was used to integrate the effects of O[sub 3] on gas exchange over time. In aspen, O[sub 3] enhanced photosynthesis and foliar areas in young leaves of well-watered aspen, partially compensating for declines in older leaves. This effect was more pronounced in plants raised at a high nitrogen level than in N-deficient plants. Carboxylation efficiency decreased in older, but increased in younger leaves with O[sub 3]. Prior exposure to drought reduced effects of O[sub 3] on photosynthesis and leaf area.

  4. Effect of 28-homobrassinolide on antioxidant defence system in Raphanus sativus L. under chromium toxicity.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Indu; Pati, Pratap Kumar; Bhardwaj, Renu

    2011-06-01

    Heavy metals have emerged as major environmental contaminants due to rapid industrialization and urbanization. The genotoxic, mutagenic and carcinogenic effects of heavy metal like chromium (Cr) on man, animals and plants have been documented. In plants, accumulation of heavy metals beyond critical levels generates oxidative stress. This stress is generally overcome by antioxidant defence system and stress shielding phytohormones. Thus, the present study has been focused to analyze the effect of one of imperative group of plant hormones, i.e., brassinosteroids (BRs) which have been reported for its protective properties for wide array of environmental stresses. Raphanus sativus L. (Pusa Chetaki) seeds pre-treated with different concentrations of 28-homobrassinolide (28-HBL) were raised under various concentrations of Cr(VI). It was observed that 28-HBL treatment considerably reduced the impact of Cr-stress on seedlings which was evinced upon analysis of morphological and biochemical parameters of 7-days old radish seedlings. The toxic effects of Cr in terms of reduced growth, lowered contents of chlorophyll (Chl), protein, proline; increased malondialdehyde (MDA) content and elevated metal uptake were ameliorated by applications of 28-HBL. Also, the activities of all the antioxidant enzymes except guaiacol peroxidase (POD), increased significantly when subjected to Cr stress in combination with 28-HBL. Overall, seed pre-soaking treatment of 28-HBL at 10(-7) M was most effective in ameliorating Cr stress. The present work emphasizes the protective role of 28-HBL on regulation of antioxidant enzymes and its possible link in amelioration of stress in plants.

  5. Moderate dose of watercress and red radish does not reduce oxygen consumption during graded exhaustive exercise

    PubMed Central

    Meamarbashi, Abbas; Alipour, Meysam

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Very recent studies have reported positive effects of dietary nitrate on the oxygen consumption during exercise. This research aimed to study the effect of moderate dose of high-nitrate vegetables, watercress (Nasturtium officinale) and red radish (Raphanus sativus) compared with a control group on the incremental treadmill exercise test following a standard Bruce protocol controlled by computer. Materials and Methods: Group 1 consumed 100 g watercress (n=11, 109.5 mg nitrate/day), and group 2 consumed 100 g red radish (n=11, mg 173.2 mg nitrate/day) for seven days, and control group (n=14) was prohibited from high nitrate intake. Results: During exercise, watercress group showed significant changes in the maximum values of Respiratory Exchange Ratio (RER) (p<0.05), End-Tidal O2 Fraction (FETO2) (p<0.05), and energy consumption from carbohydrate (p<0.01). Red radish group had a significant increase in the VCO2 (p<0.01), RER (p<0.01), VT (p<0.05), VCO2/kg (p<0.05), and energy consumption from carbohydrates (p<0.01). When all groups in the same workload were normalized by the subject’s body mass, watercress had a significant increase in the total expired CO2 (p<0.05), RER (p<0.05), FETO2 (p<0.05), and energy consumption from carbohydrates (p<0.05) compared with the control group. Similar comparison between red radish and control group revealed a significant increase during pre-test in the total CO2 production (p<0.05), VCO2 (p<0.05), RER (p<0.01), VT (p<0.05), and VCO2/kg (p<0.05). Conclusion : Current results indicate higher carbon dioxide production in the experimental groups in the same workload. This might have a negative impact on the exercise performance. Further investigations with controlled exercise program will be necessary. PMID:25068141

  6. Characterization of Raphanus sativus pentatricopeptide repeat proteins encoded by the fertility restorer locus for Ogura cytoplasmic male sterility.

    PubMed

    Uyttewaal, M; Arnal, N; Quadrado, M; Martin-Canadell, A; Vrielynck, N; Hiard, S; Gherbi, H; Bendahmane, A; Budar, F; Mireau, H

    2008-12-01

    Cytoplasmic male sterility is a maternally inherited trait in higher plants that prevents the production of functional pollen. Ogura cytoplasmic male sterility in radish (Raphanus sativus) is regulated by the orf138 mitochondrial locus. Male fertility can be restored when orf138 accumulation is suppressed by the nuclear Rfo locus, which consists of three genes putatively encoding highly similar pentatricopeptide repeat proteins (PPR-A, -B, and -C). We produced transgenic rapeseed (Brassica napus) plants separately expressing PPR-A and PPR-B and demonstrated that both encoded proteins accumulated preferentially in the anthers of young flower buds. Immunodetection of ORF138 showed that, unlike PPR-B, PPR-A had no effect on the synthesis of the sterility protein. Moreover, immunolocalization experiments indicated that complete elimination of ORF138 from the tapetum of anthers correlated with the restoration of fertility. Thus, the primary role of PPR-B in restoring fertility is to inhibit ORF138 synthesis in the tapetum of young anthers. In situ hybridization experiments confirmed, at the cellular level, that PPR-B has no effect on the accumulation of orf138 mRNA. Lastly, immunoprecipitation experiments demonstrated that PPR-B, but not PPR-A, is associated with the orf138 RNA in vivo, linking restoration activity with the ability to directly or indirectly interact with the orf138 RNA. Together, our data support a role for PPR-B in the translational regulation of orf138 mRNA.

  7. Identification and analysis of isothiocyanates and new acylated anthocyanins in the juice of Raphanus sativus cv. Sango sprouts.

    PubMed

    Matera, Riccardo; Gabbanini, Simone; De Nicola, Gina Rosalinda; Iori, Renato; Petrillo, Gianna; Valgimigli, Luca

    2012-07-15

    The freeze-dried sprouts' juice of Raphanus sativus (L.) cv. Sango was prepared and analysed for the first time. HPLC analysis of total isothiocyanates, after protein displacement, resulted in 77.8 ± 3.0 μmol/g of dry juice while GC-MS analysis of hexane and acetone extracts showed E- and Z-raphasatin (8.9 and 0.11 μmol/g, respectively) and sulforaphene (11.7 μmol/g), summing up to 20.7 ± 1.7 μmol/g of free isothiocyanates. Sprouts' juice contained an unprecedented wealth of anthocyanins and a new fractionation methodology allowed us to isolate 34 mg/g of acylated anthocyanins (28.3 ± 1.9 μmol/g), belonging selectively to the cyanidin family. Analysis was performed by HPLC-PDA-ESI-MS(n) and extended to deacylated anthocyanins and aglycones, obtained, respectively, by alkaline and acid hydrolysis. This study identified 70 anthocyanins, 19 of which have never been described before and 32 of which are reported here in R. sativus for the first time. Sango radish sprouts are exceptional dietary sources of heath-promoting micronutrients.

  8. Response of antioxidative enzymes and apoplastic bypass transport in Thlaspi caerulescens and Raphanus sativus to cadmium stress.

    PubMed

    Benzarti, Saoussen; Hamdi, Helmi; Mohri, Shino; Ono, Yoshiro

    2010-01-01

    A hydroponics experiment using hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens (alpine pennycress) and non-specific accumulator Raphanus sativus (common radish) was conducted to investigate the short-term effect of increasing Cd concentrations (0, 25, 50, 75, 100 microM) on metal uptake, chlorophyll content, antioxidative enzymes, and apoplastic bypass flow. As expected, T. caerulescens generally showed better resistance to metal stress, which was reflected by higher Cd accumulation within plant tissues with no signs of chlorosis, or wilt. Glutathione reductase (GR) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities in fresh leaves were monitored as the plant metal-detoxifying response. In general, both plant species exhibited an increase trend of GR activity before declining at 100 microM likely due to excessive levels of phytotoxic Cd. SOD activity exhibited almost a similar variation pattern to GR and decreased also at 100 microM Cd. For both plant species, fluorescent PTS uptake (8-hydroxy-1,3,6-pyrenetrisulphonic acid) increased significantly with metal level in exposure solutions indicating that Cd has a comparable effect to drought or salinity in terms of the gain of relative importance in apoplastic bypass transport under such stress conditions.

  9. Characterization of Raphanus sativus pentatricopeptide repeat proteins encoded by the fertility restorer locus for Ogura cytoplasmic male sterility.

    PubMed

    Uyttewaal, M; Arnal, N; Quadrado, M; Martin-Canadell, A; Vrielynck, N; Hiard, S; Gherbi, H; Bendahmane, A; Budar, F; Mireau, H

    2008-12-01

    Cytoplasmic male sterility is a maternally inherited trait in higher plants that prevents the production of functional pollen. Ogura cytoplasmic male sterility in radish (Raphanus sativus) is regulated by the orf138 mitochondrial locus. Male fertility can be restored when orf138 accumulation is suppressed by the nuclear Rfo locus, which consists of three genes putatively encoding highly similar pentatricopeptide repeat proteins (PPR-A, -B, and -C). We produced transgenic rapeseed (Brassica napus) plants separately expressing PPR-A and PPR-B and demonstrated that both encoded proteins accumulated preferentially in the anthers of young flower buds. Immunodetection of ORF138 showed that, unlike PPR-B, PPR-A had no effect on the synthesis of the sterility protein. Moreover, immunolocalization experiments indicated that complete elimination of ORF138 from the tapetum of anthers correlated with the restoration of fertility. Thus, the primary role of PPR-B in restoring fertility is to inhibit ORF138 synthesis in the tapetum of young anthers. In situ hybridization experiments confirmed, at the cellular level, that PPR-B has no effect on the accumulation of orf138 mRNA. Lastly, immunoprecipitation experiments demonstrated that PPR-B, but not PPR-A, is associated with the orf138 RNA in vivo, linking restoration activity with the ability to directly or indirectly interact with the orf138 RNA. Together, our data support a role for PPR-B in the translational regulation of orf138 mRNA. PMID:19098270

  10. Co-pigmentation of pelargonidin derivatives in strawberry and red radish model solutions by the addition of phenolic fractions from mango peels.

    PubMed

    Müller-Maatsch, Judith; Bechtold, Lena; Schweiggert, Ralf M; Carle, Reinhold

    2016-12-15

    Pelargonidin-based colors suffer from notorious instability. A phenolic mango peel extract and defined phenolic fractions thereof were shown to effectively modulate the visible absorption of anthocyanins from strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) and red radish (Raphanus sativus L.) by intermolecular co-pigmentation. Consistently, non-acylated pelargonidin derivatives from strawberry exerted significantly greater hyper- and bathochromic spectral shifts than their acylated counterparts from red radish. The addition of low molecular-weight co-pigments such as gallic acid and monogalloyl glucoses to strawberry anthocyanins led to strong hyperchromic shifts from 30% to 48%, while gallotannins (>six galloyl units) exerted smaller co-pigmentation effects (36±2%; Δλmax 13nm), possibly due to steric hindrances. In contrast, penta- and hexa-O-galloyl-glucose induced greatest and most stable co-pigmentation effects (53±2%; Δλmax 13nm). Irrespective of the underlying mechanisms and the responsible compounds, phenolic mango peel extracts might represent suitable color enhancers for coloring foodstuff, particularly for those containing non-acylated pelargonidin derivatives. PMID:27451227

  11. Isolation and identification of an anti-bolting compound, hexadecatrienoic acid monoglyceride, responsible for inhibition of bolting and maintenance of the leaf rosette in radish plants.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Yuko; Takada, Noboru; Koda, Yasunori

    2010-08-01

    Generally, the bolting (stem elongation from rosette plants) of winter annuals is believed to be induced by an increase in the levels of gibberellin that occurs after a certain period of chilling (vernalization), and a deficiency of gibberellin allows the plant to maintain a rosette style. Lack of direct evidence proving the above assumption in radish plants (Raphanus sativus L.) encouraged us to assume the presence of an anti-bolting compound actively maintaining the rosette habit through inhibition of bolting. Anti-bolting activity was detected in an extract of rosette shoots of radish plants by an assay using seedlings cultured in vitro. The causal compound that strongly inhibited bolting was isolated and identified as alpha-(7Z,10Z,13Z)-hexadecatrienoic acid monoglyceride (16:3 monoglyceride). This compound did not inhibit leaf production at the apical meristem, indicating that it merely inhibits growth at the internode. The compound disappeared completely after vernalization, and bolting occurred thereafter. The results suggest that the release from inhibition by 16:3 monoglyceride induces the initiation of bolting. The possible mechanism by which the compound exerts the activity is discussed. PMID:20601431

  12. Cloning of a cDNA encoding cytosolic acetoacetyl-coenzyme A thiolase from radish by functional expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Vollack, K U; Bach, T J

    1996-01-01

    A cDNA coding for radish (Raphanus sativus L.) acetoacetyl-coenzyme A thiolase (AACT) was cloned by complementation of the erg10 mutation affecting AACT in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). The longest reading frame encodes a protein of 406 amino acids with a predicted relative molecular weight of 42,032, with significant similarities to eukaryotic and prokaryotic thiolases. There is no evidence for the presence of a leader peptide characteristic, e.g. of glyoxysomal thiolase. Yeast transformants expressing the radish AACT gene placed under the control of the GAL1 promoter exhibited a 10-fold higher enzyme activity than a wild-type yeast strain after induction by galactose. This enzyme activity is exclusively localized in the soluble fraction but not in membranes. These data indicate that we have cloned a gene encoding cytoplasmic (biosynthetic) AACT. Genomic DNA gel blot analysis suggests the presence of a single AACT gene, which is expressed in all parts of the seedling. Expression in cotyledons appears to be light-stimulated. We present preliminary evidence that a smaller transcript represents an antisense species being read from the same gene. PMID:8756496

  13. Synergistic Enhancement of the Antifungal Activity of Wheat and Barley Thionins by Radish and Oilseed Rape 2S Albumins and by Barley Trypsin Inhibitors.

    PubMed Central

    Terras, FRG.; Schoofs, HME.; Thevissen, K.; Osborn, R. W.; Vanderleyden, J.; Cammue, BPA.; Broekaert, W. F.

    1993-01-01

    Although thionins and 2S albumins are generally considered as storage proteins, both classes of seed proteins are known to inhibit the growth of pathogenic fungi. We have now found that the wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) or barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) thionin concentration required for 50% inhibition of fungal growth is lowered 2- to 73-fold when combined with 2S albumins (at sub- or noninhibitory concentrations) from radish (Raphanus sativus L.) or oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.). Furthermore, the thionin antifungal activity is synergistically enhanced (2- to 33-fold) by either the small subunit or the large subunit of the radish 2S albumins. Three other 2S albumin-like proteins, the barley trypsin inhibitor and two barley Bowman-Birk-type trypsin inhibitor isoforms, also act synergistically with the thionins (2- to 55-fold). The synergistic activity of thionins combined with 2S albumins is restricted to filamentous fungi and to some Gram-positive bacteria, whereas Gram-negative bacteria, yeast, cultured human cells, and erythrocytes do not show an increased sensitivity to thionin/albumin combinations (relative to the sensitivity to the thionins alone). Scanning electron microscopy and measurement of K+ leakage from fungal hyphae revealed that 2S albumins have the same mode of action as thionins, namely the permeabilization of the hyphal plasmalemma. Moreover, 2S albumins and thionins act synergistically in their ability to permeabilize fungal membranes. PMID:12232024

  14. Co-pigmentation of pelargonidin derivatives in strawberry and red radish model solutions by the addition of phenolic fractions from mango peels.

    PubMed

    Müller-Maatsch, Judith; Bechtold, Lena; Schweiggert, Ralf M; Carle, Reinhold

    2016-12-15

    Pelargonidin-based colors suffer from notorious instability. A phenolic mango peel extract and defined phenolic fractions thereof were shown to effectively modulate the visible absorption of anthocyanins from strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) and red radish (Raphanus sativus L.) by intermolecular co-pigmentation. Consistently, non-acylated pelargonidin derivatives from strawberry exerted significantly greater hyper- and bathochromic spectral shifts than their acylated counterparts from red radish. The addition of low molecular-weight co-pigments such as gallic acid and monogalloyl glucoses to strawberry anthocyanins led to strong hyperchromic shifts from 30% to 48%, while gallotannins (>six galloyl units) exerted smaller co-pigmentation effects (36±2%; Δλmax 13nm), possibly due to steric hindrances. In contrast, penta- and hexa-O-galloyl-glucose induced greatest and most stable co-pigmentation effects (53±2%; Δλmax 13nm). Irrespective of the underlying mechanisms and the responsible compounds, phenolic mango peel extracts might represent suitable color enhancers for coloring foodstuff, particularly for those containing non-acylated pelargonidin derivatives.

  15. Molasses melanoidin promotes copper uptake for radish sprouts: the potential for an accelerator of phytoextraction.

    PubMed

    Hatano, Ken-Ichi; Kanazawa, Kazuki; Tomura, Hiroki; Yamatsu, Takeshi; Tsunoda, Kin-Ichi; Kubota, Kenji

    2016-09-01

    Phytoextraction has been proposed as an alternative remediation technology for heavy metal contamination, and it is well known that chelators may alter the toxicity of heavy metals and the bioavailability in plants. Our previous work demonstrated that an adsorbent-column chromatography can effectively separate melanoidin-like product (MLP) from sugarcane molasses. The aim of this study was to examine the chelating property of MLP and to evaluate the facilitatory influence on the phytoextraction efficiency of Japanese radish. The result showed that MLP binds to all the metal ions examined and the binding capacity of MLP toward Cu(2+) seems to be the highest among them. The metal detoxification by MLP followed the order of Pb(2+) > Zn(2+) > Ni(2+) > Cu(2+) > Fe(2+) > Cd(2+) > Co(2+). Furthermore, in the phytoextraction experiment using copper sulfate, the application of MLP accelerated the detoxification of copper and the bioavailability in radish sprouts. Thus, these results suggest that MLP possesses the potential for an accelerator of phytoextraction in the copper-contaminated media. PMID:27239675

  16. Antimutagenic and mutagenic potentials of Chinese radish.

    PubMed Central

    Rojanapo, W; Tepsuwan, A

    1993-01-01

    The edible part of fresh Chinese radish was chopped into small pieces, lyophilized, and then extracted sequentially with hexane, chloroform, and methanol. The solvent in each fraction was removed by evaporation under reduced pressure at 50-55 degrees C, and the residue was dissolved in dimethylsufoxide just before being tested for antimutagenicity as well as mutagenicity using the Salmonella/mammalian microsome mutagenicity test. We found that none of the three fractions exhibited any mutagenicity toward S. typhimurium strains TA98 and TA100 when tested either in the presence or absence of S-9 mix. Interestingly, however, hexane and chloroform extracts could strongly inhibit the mutagenicities of both direct mutagens (e.g., 2-(2-furyl)-3-(5-nitro-2-furyl)acrylamide and sodium azide) and indirect mutagens (e.g., aflatoxin B1). In contrast, however, these two fractions did not inhibit the mutagenicity of benzo[a]pyrene, which is also an indirect mutagen. Both hexane and chloroform extracts could also markedly inhibit the activities of rat liver aniline hydroxylase and aminopyrine demethylase. The methanol fraction could inhibit neither the mutagenicities of direct or indirect mutagens tested nor the activities of those two rat liver enzymes. Results of the present study demonstrate that Chinese radish may not contain any mutagenic compound but does contain some nonpolar compounds with antimutagenic activity toward both direct and indirect mutagens. In addition, the antimutagenic activity toward aflatoxin B1 may be partly due to the inhibition of enzymes necessary for activation of this mutagen. PMID:8143625

  17. Comparative physiology of radish populations with differential sensitivity to O sub 3 and SO sub 2

    SciTech Connect

    Gillespie, C.T.

    1989-01-01

    Radish plants (Raphanus sativus L. cv Cherry Belle) were exposed to 0.10 {mu}l l{sup {minus}1} ozone (O{sub 3}) or 0.50 {mu}l l{sup {minus}1} sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) for 4 h d{sup {minus}1}, 3 d wk{sup {minus}1} for 3 weeks. From these fumigated plants, individuals were selected that were resistant or sensitive to these pollutants. The selected plants were used as parental material in a breeding program to produce lines differing in resistance to O{sub 3} and SO{sub 2}. Non-selected (NS) plants from the original populations served as controls. Plants selected for O{sub 3} resistance (O{sub 3}R) weighed significantly more than either plants selected for sensitivity to O{sub 3} (O{sub 3}S) or NS plants when exposed to either O{sub 3} or SO{sub 2}. Plants selected for resistance or sensitivity to SO{sub 2} generally had biomass production similar to that of NS plants. Ozone fumigations tended to decrease free sugar concentrations in leaves at early stages of growth in both O{sub 3}R and O{sub 3}S plants, and caused some accumulations of carbohydrates during late stages of growth in O{sub 3}S plants. Allocation of {sup 14}C was significantly lower to hypocotyls and roots of O{sub 3} fumigated O{sub 3}S plants. Allocation to hypocotyls of O{sub 3}R plants was not affected, although both O{sub 3}R and O{sub 3}S plant groups had lower photosynthetic rates due to O{sub 3} fumigation. Ozone did not significantly affect chlorophyll concentrations in leaves of either sensitive or resistant plants, nor was the time of new leaf production affected by fumigation.

  18. Japanese; Japanese Songs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    This supplementary textbook for students of Japanese presents a collection of 43 songs--folk songs, nursery songs, lullabies, love songs, wedding songs, graduation songs, the national anthem, drinking songs, school songs, and Christmas carols. With the exception of the carols, the musical scores are presented with their Japanese lyrics. The…

  19. Mitochondria-mediated apoptosis in human lung cancer A549 cells by 4-methylsulfinyl-3-butenyl isothiocyanate from radish seeds.

    PubMed

    Wang, Nan; Wang, Wei; Huo, Po; Liu, Cai-Qin; Jin, Jian-Chang; Shen, Lian-Qing

    2014-01-01

    4-Methylsulfinyl-3-butenyl isothiocyanate (MTBITC) found in the radish (Raphanus sativus L.), is a well- known anticancer agent. In this study, the mechanisms of the MTBITC induction of cell apoptosis in human A549 lung cancer cells were investigated. Our PI staining results showed that MTBITC treatment significantly increased the apoptotic sub-G1 fraction in a dose-dependent manner. The mechanism of apoptosis induced by MTBITC was investigated by testing the change of mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm), the expression of mRNAs of apoptosis-related genes by RT-PCR, and the activities of caspase-3 and -9 by caspase colorimetric assay. MTBITC treatment decreased mitochondrial membrane potential by down-regulating the rate of Bcl-2/ Bax and Bcl-xL/Bax, and activation of caspase-3 and -9. Therefore, mitochondrial pathway and Bcl-2 gene family could be involved in the mechanisms of A549 cell apoptosis induced by MTBITC. PMID:24716946

  20. A lucrative technique to reduce Ni toxicity in Raphanus sativus plant by phosphate amendment: Special reference to plant metabolism.

    PubMed

    Singh, Anita; Prasad, Sheo Mohan

    2015-09-01

    Nickel (Ni) contamination is one of the serious environmental problems. It creates hazard in soil environment and also in crop quality. In the present study, response of Raphanus sativus (radish) to Ni (50mgkg(-1) soil) under different concentrations (100, 200, 500 and 1000 DAPmgkg(-1) soil) of phosphate as soil amendment was investigated after 40 days of growth. Ni-treated plants without amendment showed reduction in their growth as a result of appreciable decrease in the photosynthetic activity. Under this treatment, Ni accumulation significantly enhanced lipid peroxidation and level of oxidants showing oxidative stress and it was also associated with decrease in the activities of antioxidative enzymes except super oxide dismutase (SOD). Application of phosphate in Ni contaminated soil resulted into significant improvement in plant growth. Under phosphate amendment, the status of oxidative biomarkers: SOR, TBARS and H2O2 were under control by the higher activity of antioxidants: APX, CAT, POD, GST and DHAR compared to Ni contaminated soil without amendment. Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed to show the significant changes in biochemical traits under control and phosphate amendment. The values of PS II transient kinetics: Phi-E0, Psi-0 and PIABS increased and values of energy fluxes: ABC/RC, Tro/RC, Eto/RC and Dio/RC decreased in plants grown in Ni contaminated soil under phosphate amendment as compared to without amendment. Among all doses of phosphate amendment soil amended at 500mg DAPkg(-)(1) soil the yield of plant was the highest and Ni accumulation was the lowest. As compared to plants grown in Ni treated soil without amendment the yield of plant at 500mg DAPkg(-1) soil showed about 70% increment and the reduction in Ni accumulation was 63% in shoot and 64% in root. Because of these beneficial effects this technique can be easily applied at metal contaminated agricultural fields to reduce food chain contamination and to improve food quality.

  1. Cadmium, copper, and lead accumulation and bioconcentration in the vegetative and reproductive organs of Raphanus sativus: implications for plant performance and pollination.

    PubMed

    Hladun, Kristen R; Parker, David R; Trumble, John T

    2015-04-01

    Several studies have found high levels of cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), and lead (Pb) in honey bee hives located near urbanized or industrial areas. Insect herbivores and pollinators may come in contact with environmental contaminants in the leaves and flowers they forage upon in these areas. Our study quantified which of these metals are accumulated in the tissues of a common weedy plant that can serve as a route of exposure for insects. We grew Raphanus sativus (crop radish) in semi-hydroponic sand culture in the greenhouse. Plants were irrigated with nutrient solutions containing Cd, Cu, or Pb at four concentrations (control, low, medium, high). Plant performance, floral traits, and metal accumulation were measured in various vegetative and reproductive plant organs. Floral traits and flower number were unaffected by all metal treatments. Copper accumulated at the highest concentrations in flowers compared to the other two metals. Copper and Cd had the highest translocation indices, as well as higher bioconcentration factors compared to Pb, which was mostly immobile in the plant. Copper posed the highest risk due to its high mobility within the plant. In particular, accumulation of metals in leaves and flowers suggests that herbivores and pollinators visiting and foraging on these tissues may be exposed to these potentially toxic compounds.

  2. Cadmium, copper, and lead accumulation and bioconcentration in the vegetative and reproductive organs of Raphanus sativus: implications for plant performance and pollination.

    PubMed

    Hladun, Kristen R; Parker, David R; Trumble, John T

    2015-04-01

    Several studies have found high levels of cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), and lead (Pb) in honey bee hives located near urbanized or industrial areas. Insect herbivores and pollinators may come in contact with environmental contaminants in the leaves and flowers they forage upon in these areas. Our study quantified which of these metals are accumulated in the tissues of a common weedy plant that can serve as a route of exposure for insects. We grew Raphanus sativus (crop radish) in semi-hydroponic sand culture in the greenhouse. Plants were irrigated with nutrient solutions containing Cd, Cu, or Pb at four concentrations (control, low, medium, high). Plant performance, floral traits, and metal accumulation were measured in various vegetative and reproductive plant organs. Floral traits and flower number were unaffected by all metal treatments. Copper accumulated at the highest concentrations in flowers compared to the other two metals. Copper and Cd had the highest translocation indices, as well as higher bioconcentration factors compared to Pb, which was mostly immobile in the plant. Copper posed the highest risk due to its high mobility within the plant. In particular, accumulation of metals in leaves and flowers suggests that herbivores and pollinators visiting and foraging on these tissues may be exposed to these potentially toxic compounds. PMID:25845355

  3. Return to Our Roots: Raising Radishes To Teach Experimental Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stallings, William M.

    To provide practice in making design decisions, collecting and analyzing data, and writing and documenting results, a professor of statistics has his graduate students in statistics and research methodology classes design and perform an experiment on the effects of fertilizers on the growth of radishes. This project has been required of students…

  4. Survey of viruses present in radish fields in 2014

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In Korea, recent climate change has caused increased insect populations and migration from neighboring countries. As insect migration increases newly emerging virus diseases have been reported. In 2014, we performed a nationwide survey in radish fields to investigate the distribution of common virus...

  5. Hydroponically cultivated radish fed L-galactono-1,4-lactone exhibit increased tolerance to ozone.

    PubMed

    Maddison, Joanna; Lyons, Tom; Plöchl, Matthias; Barnes, Jeremy

    2002-01-01

    Leaf L-ascorbate content of an ozone (O3)-sensitive radish genotype (Raphanus sativus L. cv. Cherry Belle) was increased 2-fold by feeding hydroponically cultivated plants L-galactono- 1,4-lactone (GalL). Plants were grown in controlled-environment chambers ventilated with charcoal/Purafil-filtered air, and administered one of two O3 fumigation regimes: chronic exposure (75 nmol O3 mol(-1) for 7 h day(-1) for 21 days) and acute exposure (180 nmol O3 mol(-1) for 9 h). Chronic O3 exposure decreased root growth by 11% in plants maintained in pure nutrient solution (-GalL), but resulted in no change in root growth in GalL-fed plants (+GalL). Similarly, GalL-feeding counteracted the negative effects of O3 on CO2 assimilation rate observed in control plants (-GalL). Under acute O3 exposure, GalL-fed plants showed none of the visible symptoms of injury, which were extensive in plants not fed GalL. Leaf CO2 assimilation rate was decreased by acute 03 exposure in both GalL treatments, but the extent of the decline was less marked in GalL-fed plants. No significant changes in stomatal conductance resulted from GalL treatment, so O3 Uptake into leaves was equivalent in + GalL and -GalL plants. Feeding GalL, on the other hand, enhanced the level of ascorbate, and resulted in the maintenance of the redox state of ascorbate under acute O3 fumigation, in both the leaf apoplast and symplast. The effect of GalL treatment on ascorbate pools was consistent with the reduction in O3 damage observed in GalL-fed plants. Attempts to model O3 interception by the ascorbate pool in the leaf apoplast suggested a greater capacity for O3 detoxification in GalL-fed plants, which corresponded with the increase in O3 tolerance observed. However, modelled data for GalL-fed plants suggested that additional constituents of the leaf apoplast may play an important role in the attenuation of environmentally-relevant O3 fluxes.

  6. Differential response of radish plants to supplemental ultraviolet-B radiation under varying NPK levels: chlorophyll fluorescence, gas exchange and antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Singh, Suruchi; Kumari, Rima; Agrawal, Madhoolika; Agrawal, Shashi Bhushan

    2012-07-01

    Current and projected increases in ultraviolet-B (UV-B; 280-315 nm) radiation may alter crop growth and yield by modifying the physiological and biochemical functions. This study was conducted to assess the possibility of alleviating the negative effects of supplemental UV-B (sUV-B; 7.2 kJ m⁻² day⁻¹; 280-315 nm) on radish (Raphanus sativus var Pusa Himani) by modifying soil nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) levels. The N, P and K treatments were recommended dose of N, P and K, 1.5 times recommended dose of N, P and K, 1.5 times recommended dose of N and 1.5 times recommended dose of K. Plants showed variations in their response to UV-B radiation under varying soil NPK levels. The minimum damaging effects of sUV-B on photosynthesis rate and stomatal conductance coupled with minimum reduction in chlorophyll content were recorded for plants grown at recommended dose of NPK. Flavonoids increased under sUV-B except in plants grown at 1.5 times recommended dose of N. Lipid peroxidation (LPO) also increased in response to sUV-B at all NPK levels with maximum at 1.5 times recommended dose of K and minimum at recommended dose of NPK. This study revealed that sUV-B radiation negatively affected the radish plants by reducing the photosynthetic efficiency and increasing LPO. The plants grown at 1.5 times recommended dose of NPK/N/K could not enhance antioxidative potential to the extent as recorded at recommended dose of NPK and hence showed more sensitivity to sUV-B.

  7. Differential response of radish plants to supplemental ultraviolet-B radiation under varying NPK levels: chlorophyll fluorescence, gas exchange and antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Singh, Suruchi; Kumari, Rima; Agrawal, Madhoolika; Agrawal, Shashi Bhushan

    2012-07-01

    Current and projected increases in ultraviolet-B (UV-B; 280-315 nm) radiation may alter crop growth and yield by modifying the physiological and biochemical functions. This study was conducted to assess the possibility of alleviating the negative effects of supplemental UV-B (sUV-B; 7.2 kJ m⁻² day⁻¹; 280-315 nm) on radish (Raphanus sativus var Pusa Himani) by modifying soil nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) levels. The N, P and K treatments were recommended dose of N, P and K, 1.5 times recommended dose of N, P and K, 1.5 times recommended dose of N and 1.5 times recommended dose of K. Plants showed variations in their response to UV-B radiation under varying soil NPK levels. The minimum damaging effects of sUV-B on photosynthesis rate and stomatal conductance coupled with minimum reduction in chlorophyll content were recorded for plants grown at recommended dose of NPK. Flavonoids increased under sUV-B except in plants grown at 1.5 times recommended dose of N. Lipid peroxidation (LPO) also increased in response to sUV-B at all NPK levels with maximum at 1.5 times recommended dose of K and minimum at recommended dose of NPK. This study revealed that sUV-B radiation negatively affected the radish plants by reducing the photosynthetic efficiency and increasing LPO. The plants grown at 1.5 times recommended dose of NPK/N/K could not enhance antioxidative potential to the extent as recorded at recommended dose of NPK and hence showed more sensitivity to sUV-B. PMID:22304244

  8. Turning Japanese?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huwitz, Nina

    1990-01-01

    Relates observations of the Japanese educational system by a U.S. high school history teacher. Finds the Japanese system impressive but argues that such a centralized and authoritarian system would not work in the United States. Educators should learn from Japanese schools, not copy them. Recommends U.S. educators seek agreement on educational…

  9. Things Japanese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shigeta, Jessie M.

    Presented in this booklet are brief descriptions of items and activities that are symbolic of Japanese culture. Some of the items and activities described include Japanese musical instruments and records, toys and crafts, traditional clothing and accessories, and food utensils. Several recipes for Japanese dishes are provided. Lists of pertinent…

  10. Japanese language and Japanese science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanikawa, Kiyotaka

    2003-08-01

    Japanese mathematical scientists including astronomers, physicists, and mathematicians obtain ideas in Japanese, discuss their problems in Japanese, and arrive at conclusions in Japanese, and yet they write their results in foreign languages such as English. This uncomfortable situation has continued for nearly one hundred years and has had serious effects on Japanese science. In this short report, the author discusses and analyses these effects. In order to put Japanese science on a sound basis, the author proposes to increase the number of articles, reviews and textbooks in Japanese, first by translation and second by the voluntary efforts of scientists themselves. As centers devoted to this activity, the author proposes to construct "Airborne Libraries" which are maintained and accumulate in an electronic form the scientific documents written in Japanese.

  11. Effect of overexpression of radish plasma membrane aquaporins on water-use efficiency, photosynthesis and growth of Eucalyptus trees.

    PubMed

    Tsuchihira, Ayako; Hanba, Yuko T; Kato, Naoki; Doi, Tomonori; Kawazu, Tetsu; Maeshima, Masayoshi

    2010-03-01

    Eucalyptus is a diverse genus of flowering trees with more than 700 genotypic species which are mostly native to Australia. We selected 19 wild provenances of Eucalyptus camaldulensis grown in Australia, compared their growth rate and drought tolerance and determined the protein levels of plasma membrane aquaporins (PIPs). There was a positive relationship between the drought tolerance and PIP content. PIPs are divided into two subgroups, PIP1 and PIP2. Most members of the PIP2 subgroup, but not PIP1 subgroup, exhibit water channel activity. We introduced two radish (Raphanus sativus L.) PIPs, RsPIP1;1 and RsPIP2;1, into a hybrid clone of Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus urophylla to examine the effect of their overexpression. Expression of these genes was confirmed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and the protein accumulation of RsPIP2;1 by immunoblotting. Drought tolerance was not enhanced in transgenic lines of either gene. However, one transgenic line expressing RsPIP2;1 showed high photosynthesis activity and growth rate under normal growth conditions. For RsPIP1;1-transformed lines, the RsPIP1;1 protein did not accumulate, and the abundance of endogenous PIP1 and PIP2 was decreased. The endogenous PIP1 and PIP2 genes were suppressed in these lines. Therefore, the decreased levels of PIP1 and PIP2 protein may be due to co-suppression of the PIP genes and/or high turnover of PIP proteins. RsPIP1;1-expressing lines gave low values of photosynthesis and growth compared with the control. These results suggest that down-regulation of PIP1 and PIP2 causes serious damage and that up-regulation of PIP2 improves the photosynthetic activity and growth of Eucalyptus trees.

  12. Hydrogen-rich water reestablishes ROS homeostasis but exerts differential effects on anthocyanin synthesis in two varieties of radish sprouts under UV-A irradiation.

    PubMed

    Su, Nana; Wu, Qi; Liu, Yuanyuan; Cai, Jiangtao; Shen, Wenbiao; Xia, Kai; Cui, Jin

    2014-07-01

    The aims of the study were to investigate whether hydrogen gas (H2) was involved in regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis in two contrasting radish (Raphanus sativus L.) varieties (low [LA] and high [HA] level of anthocyanin) under UV irradiation. The results showed that hydrogen-rich water (HRW) significantly blocked the UV-A-induced increase of H2O2 and O2(•-) accumulation, and enhanced the UV-A-induced increase of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activities in LA and HA. Furthermore, UV-A-induced increase of anthocyanin and total phenols was further enhanced only in HA sprouts cotreated with HRW. LC-MS/MS analysis showed that five anthocyanidins existed in HA sprouts, but only two in LA sprouts. Meanwhile, the cyanidin was the most abundant anthocyanidin in HA, and the cyanidin was 2-fold higher cotreated with HRW than UV-A. Molecular analyses showed that the anthocyanin biosynthesis-related genes were upregulated significantly in both HA (in particular) and LA sprouts treated with HRW plus UV-A. These data imply that HRW reestablishes reactive oxygen species homeostasis in both LA and HA, but exerts different effects on anthocyanin accumulation between them under UV-A.

  13. A new indole glycoside from the seeds of Raphanus sativus.

    PubMed

    Jin, Hong-Guang; Ko, Hae Ju; Chowdhury, Md Anisuzzaman; Lee, Dong-Sung; Woo, Eun-Rhan

    2016-06-01

    A new indole glycoside, β-D-glucopyranosyl 2-(methylthio)-1H-indole-3-carboxylate, named raphanuside A (1), as well as eight known compounds, β-D-fructofuranosyl-(2 → 1)-(6-O-sinapoyl)-α-D-glucopyranoside (2), (3-O-sinapoyl)-β-D-fructofuranosyl-(2 → 1)-α-D-glucopyranoside (3), (3-O-sinapoyl)-β-D-fructofuranosyl-(2 → 1)-(6-O-sinapoyl)-α-D-glucopyranoside (4), (3,4-O-disinapoyl)-β-D-fructofuranosyl-(2 → 1)-(6-O-sinapoyl)-α-D-glucopyranoside (5), isorhamnetin 3,4'-di-O-β-D-glucoside (6), isorhamnetin 3-O-β-D-glucoside-7-O-α-L-rhamnoside (7), isorhamnetin 3-O-β-D-glucoside (8) and 3'-O-methyl-(-)-epicatechin 7-O-β-D-glucoside (9) were isolated from the seeds of Raphanus sativus. Furthermore, compounds 1-3 and 6-9, were isolated from this plant for the first time. The structures of compounds 1-9 were identified using 1D and 2D NMR, including (1)H-(1)H COSY, HSQC, HMBC and NOESY spectroscopic analyses. The inhibitory activity of these isolated compounds against interleukin-6 (IL-6) production in TNF-α stimulated MG-63 cells was also examined. PMID:27193305

  14. Anaerobic co-digestion of forage radish and dairy manure in complete mix digesters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Farmers are increasingly using forage radish as a winter cover crop to achieve multiple soil and environmental benefits. In this study, pilot-scale mixed digesters were used to quantify methane (CH4) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) production when using forage radish, a sulfur-rich cover crop, as a co-d...

  15. Hydro-alcoholic extract of Raphanus sativus L. var niger attenuates bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis via decreasing transforming growth factor β1 level

    PubMed Central

    Asghari, Mohammad Hossein; Hobbenaghi, Rahim; Nazarizadeh, Ali; Mikaili, Peyman

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary fibrosis is a progressive disease of the lungs, which leads to death in human. It has been suggested that transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) together with oxidative stress play a central role in the pathogenesis of the ailment. The objective of this study was to evaluate the possible curative effects of black radish, Raphanus sativus L. var niger (RSN) on bleomycine (BLM) -induced pulmonary fibrosis in a rat model. In this study, thirty-six male Wistar rats were divided into six groups, including: (I) positive (BLM) control group, (II) negative (normal saline) control group, (III) sham group (R. sativus extract 150 mg/kg), and (IV-VI) treatment groups. In order to induce pulmonary fibrosis, four groups were treated with a single dose of BLM sulfate (7.5 U/kg) through intratracheal instillation. Treatment groups (IV-VI) received RSN extract (75, 150, and 300 mg/kg) orally a week before and two weeks after the administration of BLM. At the end of the treatment course, blood and lung tissue samples were taken and the measurement of TGF-β1 and histopathological examination of the lung tissues performed. The results showed that RSN, at 300 mg/kg dose, could significantly decrease the serum level of TGF-β1 and severity of the histological lesions as compared to the positive control group. The results of the current study indicate that the components present in the extract can remarkably prevent the aggravation of pulmonary fibrosis via decreasing TGF-β1 level. PMID:26752991

  16. [Allelopathy of different plants on wheat, cucumber and radish seedlings].

    PubMed

    Shen, Huimin; Guo, Hongru; Huang, Gaobao

    2005-04-01

    By means of bioassay in laboratory and field, this paper studied the allelopathy of 18 kinds of plants in Gansu Province on the seedlings of wheat, cucumber and radish. The results showed that the aqueous extract of the stems and leaves of Artemisia annua, Solanum nigrum and Datura stramonium had the strongest allelopathy on test receptor plants, and their synthetic inhibitory effect (SE) was 47.66%, 32.89% and 26.63%, respectively. The SE of Xanthium sibiricum, Portulaca oleraca, Cephalanoplos segetum, and Chenopodium album was 21.71%, 20.93%, 20.83% and 20.2%, respectively, while Vicia amoena (SE 3.5%), Setaria viridis (SE 2.2%), and Cymamchum chinense (SE 1.97%) had a weaker allelopathy. Chenopodium ambrosioides (SE - 1.03%), Polygonum caespitosum (SE - 1.63%) and Avena fatua (SE 5.33%) had no evident allelopathy, but Artemisia annua affected the seedling height and fresh weight of radish, cucumber, wheat and maize, with the SE being 54.07%, 38.46%, 33.35% and 20.88%, respectively. Artemisia annua had a 44.70% of SE on wheat growth, and thus, had a certain value to develop and use.

  17. Anaerobic co-digestion of forage radish and dairy manure in complete mix digesters.

    PubMed

    Belle, Ashley J; Lansing, Stephanie; Mulbry, Walter; Weil, Ray R

    2015-02-01

    Pilot-scale digesters (850 L) were used to quantify CH4 and H2S production when using forage radish cover crops as a co-digestion feedstock in dairy manure-based digesters. During two trials, triplicate mixed digesters were operated in batch mode with manure-only or radish+manure (27% and 13% radish by wet weight in Trial 1 and 2, respectively). Co-digestion increased CH4 production by 11% and 39% in Trial 1 and 2, respectively. As H2S production rapidly declined in the radish+manure digesters, CH4 production increased reaching high levels of CH4 (⩾67%) in the biogas. Over time, radish co-digestion lowered the H2S concentration in the biogas (0.20%) beyond that of manure-only digestion (0.34-0.40%), although cumulative H2S production in the radish+manure digesters was higher than manure-only. Extrapolated to a farm-scale (200 cows) continuous mixed digester, co-digesting with radish could generate 3150 m(3) CH4/month, providing a farmer additional revenue up to $3125/month in electricity sales.

  18. High temperature effect on microflora of radish root-inhabited zone and nutrient solutions for radish growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borodina, E. V.; Tirranen, L. S.

    The effect of high temperatures (35 and 45 °C) on microflora of the root zone of radish plants grown in phytotron was evaluated by the response of microorganisms from 9 indicator groups. Phytotron air temperature elevated to 35 °C for 20 hours caused no significant changes in qualitative and quantitative composition of the root microflora in experimental plants. By the end of the experiment, the species diversity of microflora had changed. The amount of phytopathogenic microorganisms decreased which can be interpreted as more stable co-existence of microflora with plants. The numbers of microbes from other indicator groups was in dynamic equilibrium. The plants' condition did not deteriorate either. Exposure to the temperature of 45 °C for 7 hours have been found to change the numbers and species diversity in the radish root zone microflora. The microorganisms were observed to increase their total numbers at the expense of certain indicator groups. Bacteria increased spore forms at the stage of spores. Colon bacillus bacteria of increased their numbers by the end of experiment by an order. By the end of experiment the roots of experiment plants had microscopic fungi from Mucor, Aspergillus, Trichoderma, Cladosporium genera. The observed changes in the microbial complex seem to be associated with the changes of root emissions and general deterioration of the plants' condition. It is suggested that the response of the microorganisms can be indicative of the condition of plants under investigation.

  19. Epibrassinolide induces changes in indole-3-acetic acid, abscisic acid and polyamine concentrations and enhances antioxidant potential of radish seedlings under copper stress.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Sikander Pal; Bhardwaj, Renu; Gupta, Bishan Datt; Dutt, Prabhu; Gupta, Rajinder Kumar; Biondi, Stefania; Kanwar, Mukesh

    2010-11-01

    In the present study, the effects of epibrassinolide (EBL) on indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), abscisic acid (ABA) and polyamine (PA) tissue concentrations and antioxidant potential of 7-day-old Raphanus sativus L. cv. 'Pusa chetki' seedlings grown under Cu stress were investigated. EBL treatment alone or in combination with Cu enhanced free and bound IAA titers when compared with the metal alone. Modest increases in free and bound ABA contents were observed for EBL treatment alone. However, the combination of EBL with Cu caused major increases in both forms of ABA, over Cu alone. Among the PAs analyzed, only putrescine and cadaverine concentrations were enhanced by EBL treatment alone. By contrast, a significant decline in putrescine and spermine contents was found in seedlings treated with EBL plus Cu. EBL treatments alone or in combination with Cu enhanced activities of guaiacol peroxidase (EC1.11.1.7), catalase (EC 1.11.1.6), superoxide dismutase (EC 1.15.1.1) and glutathione reductase (EC 1.6.4.2) and protein contents in comparison with metal and control treatments. A major decrease in malondialdehyde content was also recorded for EBL treatments with or without Cu. An increase in phytochelatin content was also observed in seedlings treated with EBL alone or in combination with Cu. Major improvement in radical scavenging activities, as attested by the antioxidant activity assay using DPPH (1,1-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl), and elevated deoxyribose and reducing powers, along with increased contents of ascorbic acid, total phenols and proline, also suggest a major influence of EBL application in mitigating copper-induced oxidative stress in radish seedlings.

  20. Plant response to heavy metal toxicity: comparative study between the hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens (ecotype Ganges) and nonaccumulator plants: lettuce, radish, and alfalfa.

    PubMed

    Benzarti, Saoussen; Mohri, Shino; Ono, Yoshiro

    2008-10-01

    Thlaspi caerulescens (alpine pennycress) is one of the best-known heavy metal (HM) hyperaccumulating plant species. It exhibits the ability to extract and accumulate various HM at extremely high concentrations. In this hydroponic study, the performance of T. caerulescens (ecotype Ganges) to accumulate Cd, Zn, and Cu was compared with that of three nonaccumulator plants: alfalfa (Medicago sativa), radish (Raphanus sativus), and lettuce (Lactuca sativa). Plants were exposed to the separately dissolved HM salts for 7 days at a wide range of increasing concentrations: 0 (control: 1/5 Hoagland nutrient solution), 0.1, 1, 10, 100, and 1000 microM. The comparative study combined chemical, physiological, and ecotoxicological assessments. Excessive concentrations of HM (100 and 1000 microM) affected plant growth, photosynthesis, and phytoaccumulation efficiency. Root exudation for all plant species was highly and significantly correlated to HM concentration in exposure solutions and proved its importance to counter effect toxicity. T. caerulescens resisted better the phytotoxic effects of Cd and Zn (at 1000 microM each), and translocated them significantly within tissues (366 and 1290 microg g(-1), respectively). At the same HM level, T. caerulescens exhibited lower performances in accumulating Cu when compared with the rest of plant species, mainly alfalfa (298 microg g(-1)). Root elongation inhibition test confirmed the selective aptitude of T. caerulescens to better cope with Cd and Zn toxicities. MetPLATE bioassay showed greater sensitivity to HM toxicity with much lower EC(50) values for beta-galactosidase activity in E. coli. Nevertheless, exaggerated HM concentrations coupled with relatively short exposure time did not allow for an efficient metal phytoextraction thus a significant reduction of ecotoxicity. PMID:18528911

  1. Japanese Characters in Written Japanese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buck, James H.

    From the sixth to the eighth century A.D., Japan was the recipient of massive cultural infusions from China. This acceptance of the Chinese pattern included, and to a great extent was based on, the acceptance of the Chinese language. The Chinese writing system was applied to Japanese because there was no other model to follow and in spite of the…

  2. Rethinking Japanese Language Pedagogy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Phyllis

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the work of Seiichi Makino, a scholar of Japanese, noting that his work in establishing the Japanese proficiency guidelines helped make it appear that Japanese language teaching was part of mainstream American language teaching. (Author/VWL)

  3. Effect of light conditions on the contents of glucosinolates in germinating seeds of white mustard, red radish, white radish, and rapeseed.

    PubMed

    Ciska, Ewa; Honke, Joanna; Kozłowska, Halina

    2008-10-01

    The study was aimed at determining the effect of light conditions on contents of glucosinolates (GLS) in germinating seeds of white mustard, red radish, white radish, and rapeseed. The seeds were germinated in light and dark, at 25 degrees C, for up to 7 days. As compared to the nongerminated seeds, in seeds exposed to light and germinated for 4, 5, 6, and 7 days the content of total GLS was observed to decrease by 30 to 70% depending on the species. Germination in conducted the dark for the respective periods of time resulted in decreases of total GLS not exceeding 25%. The changes in the concentration of total GLS were attributed to aliphatic GLS predominating in seeds, yet in the case of white mustard to sinalbin belonging to aralkyl glucosinolates. Although seeds germinated in the dark, as compared to those exposed to light, were characterized by a higher total content of indole GLS, the percentage contribution of that group of compounds in white mustard, red radish, and white radish remained at a similar level, irrespective of germination time. Only in the case of rapeseed was the percentage of the sum of indole GLS observed to increase from 17 to up to 45% once the seeds were exposed to light and to 50% once they were germinated in the dark.

  4. Japanese encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Morita, K; Nabeshima, T; Buerano, C C

    2015-08-01

    Japanese encephalitis (JE) is an inflammation of the central nervous system in humans and animals, specifically horses and cattle. The disease, which can sometimes be fatal, is caused by the flavivirus Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), of which there are five genotypes (genotypes 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5). The transmission cycle of the virus involves pigs and wild birds as virus amplifiers and mosquitoes as vectors for transferring the virus between amplifying hosts and to dead- end hosts, i.e. humans, horses and cattle. In horses and cattle the disease is usually asymptomatic, but when clinical signs do occur they include fever, decreased appetite, frothing at the mouth, rigidity of the legs and recumbency, and neurological signs, such as convulsive fits, circling, marked depression and disordered consciousness. In pigs, it can cause abortion and stillbirths. At present, the virus is detected in a wide area covering eastern and southern Asia, Indonesia, northern Australia, Papua New Guinea and Pakistan. JEV RNA has also been detected in Italy, first in dead birds in 1997 and 2000 and then in mosquitoes in 2010. Genotype shift, i.e. a change of genotype from genotype 3 to genotype 1, has occurred in some countries, namely Japan, South Korea, Chinese Taipei and Vietnam. Laboratory methods are available for confirming the causative agent of the disease. There are control measures to prevent or minimise infection and, among them, vaccination is one of the most important and one which should be adopted in endemic and epidemic areas. PMID:26601447

  5. Japanese encephalitis

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Sang-Im; Lee, Young-Min

    2014-01-01

    Japanese encephalitis (JE) is an infectious disease of the central nervous system caused by Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), a zoonotic mosquito-borne flavivirus. JEV is prevalent in much of Asia and the Western Pacific, with over 4 billion people living at risk of infection. In the absence of antiviral intervention, vaccination is the only strategy to develop long-term sustainable protection against JEV infection. Over the past half-century, a mouse brain-derived inactivated vaccine has been used internationally for active immunization. To date, however, JEV is still a clinically important, emerging, and re-emerging human pathogen of global significance. In recent years, production of the mouse brain-derived vaccine has been discontinued, but 3 new cell culture-derived vaccines are available in various parts of the world. Here we review current aspects of JEV biology, summarize the 4 types of JEV vaccine, and discuss the potential of an infectious JEV cDNA technology for future vaccine development. PMID:24161909

  6. L-Fucose-containing arabinogalactan-protein in radish leaves.

    PubMed

    Inaba, Miho; Maruyama, Takuma; Yoshimi, Yoshihisa; Kotake, Toshihisa; Matsuoka, Koji; Koyama, Tetsuo; Tryfona, Theodora; Dupree, Paul; Tsumuraya, Yoichi

    2015-10-13

    The carbohydrate moieties of arabinogalactan-proteins (AGPs) have β-(1 → 3)-galactan backbones to which side chains of (1 → 6)-linked β-Gal residues are attached through O-6. Some of these side chains are further substituted with other sugars. We investigated the structure of L-Fuc-containing oligosaccharides released from the carbohydrate moieties of a radish leaf AGP by digestion with α-L-arabinofuranosidase, followed by exo-β-(1 → 3)-galactanase. We detected a series of neutral β-(1 → 6)-galactooligosaccharides branching variously at O-3 of the Gal residues, together with corresponding acidic derivatives terminating in 4-O-methyl-GlcA (4-Me-GlcA) or GlcA at the non-reducing terminals. In neutral oligosaccharides with degree of polymerization (dp) mainly higher than 10, L-Fuc groups were attached through L-Ara residues as the sequence, α-L-Fucp-(1 → 2)-α-L-Araf-(1 →. This sequence was verified by isolation of the pentasaccharide α-L-Fuc-(1 → 2)-α-L-Araf-(1 → 3)-β-Gal-(1 → 6)-β-Gal-(1 → 6)-Gal upon digestion of the higher oligosaccharides with endo-β-(1 → 6)-galactanase. By contrast, in lower polymerized (predominantly dp 4) acidic oligosaccharides, L-Fuc groups were attached directly at the non-reducing terminals through α-(1 → 2)-linkages, resulting in the release of the tetrasaccharides, α-L-Fucp-(1 → 2)-β-GlcA-(1 → 6)-β-Gal-(1 → 6)-Gal and α-L-Fucp-(1 → 2)-β-4-Me-GlcA-(1 → 6)-β-Gal-(1 → 6)-Gal. In long acidic oligosaccharides with dp mainly higher than 13, L-Fuc groups localized on branches were attached to the uronic acids directly and/or L-Ara residues as in the neutral oligosaccharides.

  7. Generation of the antioxidant yellow pigment derived from 4-methylthio-3-butenyl isothiocyanate in salted radish roots (takuan-zuke).

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Asaka; Yamada, Tsuyoshi; Uchiyama, Yohei; Hayashi, Satomi; Kumakura, Kei; Takahashi, Hitoe; Kimura, Norihisa; Matsuoka, Hiroki

    2015-01-01

    2-[3-(2-Thioxopyrrolidin-3-ylidene)methyl]-tryptophan (TPMT) is a yellow pigment of salted radish roots (takuan-zuke) derived from 4-methylthio-3-butenyl isothiocyanate (MTBITC), the pungent component of radish roots. Here, we prepared salted radish and analyzed the behavior of the yellow pigment and related substances in the dehydration process and long-term salting process. All salted radish samples turned yellow, and their b(*) values increased with time and temperature. The salted radish that was sun-dried and pickled at room temperature turned the brightest yellow, and the generation of TPMT was clearly confirmed. These results indicate that tissue shrinkage due to dehydration, salting temperature, and pH play important roles in the yellowing of takuan-zuke.

  8. Germination of white radish, buckwheat and qing-geng-cai under low pressure in closed environment.

    PubMed

    Hinokuchi, Tsutomu; Oshima, Satoshi; Hashimoto, Hirofumi

    2004-11-01

    In order to cultivate plants under low pressure in closed environment, the germination rate of seeds of white radish was investigated under low pressure, low oxygen partial pressure and condition of pure oxygen. The result of these experiments showed that the germination rate was affected by the oxygen partial pressure. From this fact, it is possible to lower the total pressure by using only the pure oxygen in germination. Furthermore, the germination rates of seeds of buckwheat and qing-geng-cai were also investigated in pure oxygen for the comparison. Consequently, though tendency in germination rate of white radish was similar to qing-geng-cai, it was different from buckwheat.

  9. l-Fucose-containing arabinogalactan-protein in radish leaves

    PubMed Central

    Inaba, Miho; Maruyama, Takuma; Yoshimi, Yoshihisa; Kotake, Toshihisa; Matsuoka, Koji; Koyama, Tetsuo; Tryfona, Theodora; Dupree, Paul; Tsumuraya, Yoichi

    2015-01-01

    The carbohydrate moieties of arabinogalactan-proteins (AGPs) have β-(1→3)-galactan backbones to which side chains of (1→6)-linked β-Gal residues are attached through O-6. Some of these side chains are further substituted with other sugars. We investigated the structure of l-Fuc-containing oligosaccharides released from the carbohydrate moieties of a radish leaf AGP by digestion with α-l-arabinofuranosidase, followed by exo-β-(1→3)-galactanase. We detected a series of neutral β-(1→6)-galactooligosaccharides branching variously at O-3 of the Gal residues, together with corresponding acidic derivatives terminating in 4-O-methyl-GlcA (4-Me-GlcA) or GlcA at the non-reducing terminals. In neutral oligosaccharides with degree of polymerization (dp) mainly higher than 10, l-Fuc groups were attached through l-Ara residues as the sequence, α-l-Fucp-(1→2)-α-l-Araf-(1→. This sequence was verified by isolation of the pentasaccharide α-l-Fuc-(1→2)-α-l-Araf-(1→3)-β-Gal-(1→6)-β-Gal-(1→6)-Gal upon digestion of the higher oligosaccharides with endo-β-(1→6)-galactanase. By contrast, in lower polymerized (predominantly dp 4) acidic oligosaccharides, l-Fuc groups were attached directly at the non-reducing terminals through α-(1→2)-linkages, resulting in the release of the tetrasaccharides, α-l-Fucp-(1→2)-β-GlcA-(1→6)-β-Gal-(1→6)-Gal and α-l-Fucp-(1→2)-β-4-Me-GlcA-(1→6)-β-Gal-(1→6)-Gal. In long acidic oligosaccharides with dp mainly higher than 13, l-Fuc groups localized on branches were attached to the uronic acids directly and/or l-Ara residues as in the neutral oligosaccharides. PMID:26267887

  10. Raphanusanin-mediated resistance to pathogens is light dependent in radish and Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Moehninsi; Miura, Kenji; Yamada, Kosumi; Shigemori, Hideyuki

    2014-09-01

    Raphanusanin (Ra) is a light-induced inhibitor of hypocotyl growth that responds to unilateral blue light illumination in radish seedlings. We have previously shown that Ra regulates genes that are involved in common defense mechanisms. Many genes that are induced by Ra are also positively regulated by early blue light. To extend the understanding of the role of Ra in pathogen defense, we evaluated the effects of Ra on radish and Arabidopsis thaliana (A. thaliana) infected with the necrotrophic pathogen Botrytis cinerea (B. cinerea) and biotrophic pathogen Pseudomonas syringae (P. syringae). Radish and A. thaliana were found to be resistant to both pathogens when treated with Ra, depending on the concentration used. Interestingly, Ra-mediated resistance to P. syringae is dependent on light because Ra-treated seedlings exhibited enhanced susceptibility to P. syringae infection when grown in the dark. In addition to regulating the biotic defense response, Ra inhibited seed germination and root elongation and enhanced the growth of root hairs in the presence of light in radish and A. thaliana. Our data suggest that Ra regulates the expression of a set of genes involved in defense signaling pathways and plays a role in pathogen defense and plant development. Our results show that light may be generally required not only for the accumulation of Ra but also for its activation during the pathogen defense response. PMID:24923677

  11. Methane and hydrogen sulfide production during co-digestion of forage radish and dairy manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Forage radish cover crops were investigated as a co-substrate to increase biogas production from dairy manure-based anaerobic digestion. Lab-scale batch digesters (300 mL) were operated under mesophilic conditions during two experiments. In the first experiment, the optimal co-digestion ratio for ...

  12. Raphanusanin-mediated resistance to pathogens is light dependent in radish and Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Moehninsi; Miura, Kenji; Yamada, Kosumi; Shigemori, Hideyuki

    2014-09-01

    Raphanusanin (Ra) is a light-induced inhibitor of hypocotyl growth that responds to unilateral blue light illumination in radish seedlings. We have previously shown that Ra regulates genes that are involved in common defense mechanisms. Many genes that are induced by Ra are also positively regulated by early blue light. To extend the understanding of the role of Ra in pathogen defense, we evaluated the effects of Ra on radish and Arabidopsis thaliana (A. thaliana) infected with the necrotrophic pathogen Botrytis cinerea (B. cinerea) and biotrophic pathogen Pseudomonas syringae (P. syringae). Radish and A. thaliana were found to be resistant to both pathogens when treated with Ra, depending on the concentration used. Interestingly, Ra-mediated resistance to P. syringae is dependent on light because Ra-treated seedlings exhibited enhanced susceptibility to P. syringae infection when grown in the dark. In addition to regulating the biotic defense response, Ra inhibited seed germination and root elongation and enhanced the growth of root hairs in the presence of light in radish and A. thaliana. Our data suggest that Ra regulates the expression of a set of genes involved in defense signaling pathways and plays a role in pathogen defense and plant development. Our results show that light may be generally required not only for the accumulation of Ra but also for its activation during the pathogen defense response.

  13. Radish plant exposed to lunar material collected on the Apollo 12 mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    The leaves of this radish plant were rubbed with lunar material colleted on the Apollo 12 lunar landing mission in experiments conducted in the Manned Spacecraft Center's Lunar Receiving Laboratory. The plant was exposed to the material 30 days before this photograph was made. Evidently no ill effects resulted from contact with the lunar soil.

  14. Return to Our Roots: Raising Radishes to Teach Experimental Design. Methods and Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stallings, William M.

    1993-01-01

    Reviews research in teaching applied statistics. Concludes that students should analyze data from studies they have designed and conducted. Describes an activity in which students study germination and growth of radish seeds. Includes a table providing student instructions for both the experimental procedure and data analysis. (CFR)

  15. Effects of simulated acidic rainfalls on yields of field-grown radishes and garden beets

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, L S; Cunningham, E A; Lewin, K F

    1981-01-01

    The effects of small additions of simulated acidic rain on radishes and garden beets grown under standard agronomic practices was determined. Only the foliage of plants was sprayed with simulated rain. The composition of the simulated rainfall approximated that of rain falling in the Long Island, NY area. (ACR)

  16. Microbiota of radish plants, cultivated in closed and open ecological systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tirranen, L. S.

    It is common knowledge that microorganisms respond to environmental changes faster than other representatives of the living world. The major aim of this work was to examine and analyze the characteristics of the microbiota of radish culture, cultivated in the closed ecological system of human life-support Bios-3 and in an open system in different experiments. Microbial community of near-root, root zone and phyllosphere of radish were studied at the phases of seedlings, root formation, technical ripeness—by washing-off method—like microbiota of the substrate (expanded clay aggregate) and of the seeds of radish culture. Inoculation on appropriate media was made to count total quantity of anaerobic and aerobic bacteria, bacteria of coliform group, spore-forming, Proteus group, fluorescent, phytopathogenic bacteria, growing on Fermi medium, yeasts, microscopic fungi, Actinomyces. It was revealed that formation of the microbiota of radish plants depends on the age, plant cultivation technology and the specific conditions of the closed system. Composition of microbial conveyor-cultivated in phytotrons varied in quality and in quantity with plant growth phases—in the same manner as cultivation of even-aged soil and hydroponics monocultures which was determined by different qualitative and quantitative composition of root emissions in the course of plant vegetation. The higher plant component formed its own microbial complex different from that formed prior to closure. The microbial complex of vegetable polyculture is more diverse and stable than the monoculture of radish. We registered the changes in the species composition and microorganism quantity during plant cultivation in the closed system on a long-used solution. It was demonstrated that during the short-term (7 days) use of the nutrient solution in the experiments without system closing, the species composition of the microbiota of radish plants was more diverse in a multiple-aged vegetable polyculture (61

  17. The mitigative effect of Raphanus sativus oil on chromium-induced geno- and hepatotoxicity in male rats

    PubMed Central

    Elshazly, M.O.; Morgan, Ashraf M.; Ali, Merhan E.; Abdel-mawla, Essam; Abd El-Rahman, Sahar S.

    2016-01-01

    To study the impact of radish oil on the possible genotoxic and hepatotoxic effects of hexavalent chromium, male rats were divided into 4 groups. Group 1 served as control, group 2 received radish oil at the recommended human therapeutic dose (0.07 mL/kg) by gavage, group 3 received sodium dichromate dihydrate (SDD) 520 mg/L in drinking water, and group 4 received both SDD and radish oil as previously mentioned in groups 2 and 3. All treatments were continued for six months. The results revealed that chromium exposure promoted oxidative stress with a consequently marked hepatic histopathological alterations, increased serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities, alfa fetoprotein (AFP) levels, and micronucleated erythrocytes (MNE) % in peripheral blood. Moreover, COMET assay of hepatic DNA revealed that SDD exposure significantly decreased the intact cells %, head diameter, and head DNA % compared to control, indicating DNA damage. However, radish oil co-administration with SDD resulted in marked amendment in the altered parameters as detected by improved liver function markers (ALT and ALP) and AFP level, decreased lipid peroxidation, increased antioxidant markers, inhibited hepatic DNA damage and restored the hepatic histology by preventing the appearance of the altered hepatocytes’ foci and decreasing chromium induced histopathological lesions. It could be concluded that radish oil was able to provide a convergent complete protection against the geno- and hepatotoxicity of chromium by its potent antioxidant effect. PMID:27222746

  18. The mitigative effect of Raphanus sativus oil on chromium-induced geno- and hepatotoxicity in male rats.

    PubMed

    Elshazly, M O; Morgan, Ashraf M; Ali, Merhan E; Abdel-Mawla, Essam; Abd El-Rahman, Sahar S

    2016-05-01

    To study the impact of radish oil on the possible genotoxic and hepatotoxic effects of hexavalent chromium, male rats were divided into 4 groups. Group 1 served as control, group 2 received radish oil at the recommended human therapeutic dose (0.07 mL/kg) by gavage, group 3 received sodium dichromate dihydrate (SDD) 520 mg/L in drinking water, and group 4 received both SDD and radish oil as previously mentioned in groups 2 and 3. All treatments were continued for six months. The results revealed that chromium exposure promoted oxidative stress with a consequently marked hepatic histopathological alterations, increased serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities, alfa fetoprotein (AFP) levels, and micronucleated erythrocytes (MNE) % in peripheral blood. Moreover, COMET assay of hepatic DNA revealed that SDD exposure significantly decreased the intact cells %, head diameter, and head DNA % compared to control, indicating DNA damage. However, radish oil co-administration with SDD resulted in marked amendment in the altered parameters as detected by improved liver function markers (ALT and ALP) and AFP level, decreased lipid peroxidation, increased antioxidant markers, inhibited hepatic DNA damage and restored the hepatic histology by preventing the appearance of the altered hepatocytes' foci and decreasing chromium induced histopathological lesions. It could be concluded that radish oil was able to provide a convergent complete protection against the geno- and hepatotoxicity of chromium by its potent antioxidant effect. PMID:27222746

  19. Formation and Stabilization of Raphasatin and Sulforaphene from Radish Roots by Endogenous Enzymolysis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae-Won; Kim, Mi-Bo; Lim, Sang-Bin

    2015-01-01

    The biologically active compounds raphasatin and sulforaphene are formed during the hydrolysis of radishes by an endogenous myrosinase. Raphasatin is very unstable, and it is generated and simultaneously degraded to less active compounds during hydrolysis in aqueous media. This study determined the hydrolysis conditions to maximize the formation of raphasatin and sulforaphene by an endogenous myrosinase and minimize their degradation during the hydrolysis of radish roots. The reaction parameters, such as the reaction medium, reaction time, type of mixing, and reaction temperature were optimized. A stability test for raphasatin and sulforaphene was also performed during storage of the hydrolyzed products at 25°C for 10 days. The formation and breakdown of raphasatin and sulforaphene in radish roots by endogenous enzymolysis was strongly influenced by the reaction medium, reaction time, and type of mixing. The production and stabilization of raphasatin in radishes was efficient in water and dichloromethane with shaking for 15 min at 25°C. For sulforaphene, the favorable condition was water as the reaction medium without shaking for 10 min at 25°C. The maximum yields of raphasatin and sulforaphene were achieved in a concurrent hydrolysis reaction without shaking in water for 10 min and then with shaking in dichloromethane for 15 min at 25°C. Under these conditions, the yields of raphasatin and sulforaphene were maximized at 12.89 and 1.93 μmol/g of dry radish, respectively. The stabilities of raphasatin and sulforaphene in the hydrolyzed products were 56.4% and 86.5% after 10 days of storage in water and dichloromethane at 25°C. PMID:26175999

  20. The extraction of characteristic wavebands for radish leaves and rice leaves based on LCTF imaging method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Peng-fei; Feng, Jie; Li, Hong-ning

    2013-08-01

    In order to identify and classify horticultural crops rapidly, it is great importance of selecting effective characteristic wavebands from a large number of imaging data. Extracting effective characteristic wavebands can nearly represent holistic information of the research target from rich imaging spectral data, mainly used for rapid characteristic identification, cluster analysis and establishing database, especially in high spectral sensing to recognize targets for a long distance. The experiment chooses radish leaves and rice leaves as research samples so as to obtain spectral information from the surface of samples by interval of 5nm based on LCTF imaging; then, the standard deviation and correlation coefficient of the gray images are calculated for these two kinds of leaves; next, we calculate the value of waveband index according to standard deviation and correlation coefficient, and extract the effective characteristic wavebands for radish leaves and rice leaves through the sorting of waveband index. By those, the experimental results show there are six ideal wavebands at 530nm, 550nm, 555nm, 715nm, 510nm and 565nm for radish leaves, 645nm, 675nm, 685nm, 670nm, 690nm and 660nm for rice leaves separately. Further, according to the principle of Euclidean distance, we also give an assessment of classification accuracy for these two samples by comparing characteristic wavebands with full wavebands, and the classification accuracy of radish leaves and rice leaves is 80.00% and 86.67% respectively. Therefore, choosing these wavebands can be used as effective characteristic wavebands for radish leaves and rice leaves.

  1. Methyl Jasmonate- and Light-Induced Glucosinolate and Anthocyanin Biosynthesis in Radish Seedlings.

    PubMed

    Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Arasu, Mariadhas Valan; Kim, Sun Ju; RomijUddin, Md; Park, Woo Tae; Lee, Sook Young; Park, Sang Un

    2015-07-01

    Radish sprouts and young seedlings are considered important dietary vegetables in Asian countries. In this study, we investigated the levels of glucosinolate and anthocyanin accumulation in radish seedlings in response to light and methyl jasmonate (MeJA) treatments. MeJA facilitated the accumulation of glucosinolate and anthocyanins under light conditions. The glucosinolate and anthocyanin contents in the radish seedlings that were exposed to light after MeJA treatment were higher than those of the seedlings that were grown in the dark without MeJA. At a concentration of 100 μM, MeJA led to the greatest accumulation of the most glucosinolates under both light and dark conditions. Under light conditions, the levels of glucoraphenin, glucoerucin, and glucotropaeolin accumulation were 1.53-, 1.60-, and 1.30-fold higher, respectively, than those of the control. Remarkable accumulations of glucobrassicin were observed under light conditions (4.4-, 6.7-, and 7.8-fold higher than that of the control following the application of 100, 300, and 500 μM MeJA, respectively). The level of cyanidin in the 300 μM MeJA-treated seedlings was double of that in the control without MeJA treatment. The highest level of pelargonidin was observed after treatment with 500 μM MeJA under light conditions; this level was 1.73 times higher than that in the control. A similar trend of anthocyaninaccumulation was observed in the radish seedlings following MeJA treatment under dark conditions, but the levels of anthocyanins were considerably lower in the seedlings that were grown in the dark. Our findings suggest that light and low concentrations of MeJA enhance the accumulations of glucosinolates and anthocyanins during the development of radish seedlings.

  2. Japanese and Japanese American Youth in Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zitlow, Connie S.; Stover, Lois

    1998-01-01

    Explores the wealth of literature by and about Japan and Japanese Americans. Presents a structure for a history unit focusing on Japanese Americans. Summarizes curricular and literary issues to consider. Presents annotations of 69 works of literature and reference and teaching materials. (RS)

  3. The Japanese Mind: Understanding Contemporary Japanese Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Roger J., Ed.; Ikeno, Osamu, Ed.

    This collection of essays offers an overview of contemporary Japanese culture, and can serve as a resource for classes studying Japan. The 28 essays offer an informative, accessible look at the values, attitudes, behavior patterns, and communication styles of modern Japan from the unique perspective of the Japanese people. Filled with examples…

  4. English Loanwords in Japanese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kay, Gillian

    1995-01-01

    Examines the historical and cultural contexts of word borrowing from English into Japanese, processes of nativization, and functions served by English loanwords. Notes that linguistic and cultural borrowing is to some extent kept separate from native language and culture, resulting in a Japanese/Western dichotomy in Japanese life and language. (20…

  5. Japanese Radio Exercises. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jocelyn

    This unit focuses on Japanese radio exercises which became popular in Japan just after World War II and are still used among students and workers in companies to help raise morale and form group unity. The exercises reflect the general role of exercise in Japanese culture--to serve as a symbol of unity and cooperation among the Japanese, as well…

  6. [Effect of insulin on germination and ionic exchange in Raphanus sativus (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Frasquet, M I; Viña, J; Frasquet, M; Ferriol, A; Alvarez de Laviada, T; Antón, V

    1978-06-01

    Hypoglycemic sulfamide BZ-55 activates or inhibits germination of Raphanus sativus, depending upon the dosis. Since this drug acts upon the glycemia by increasing the secretion and action of insulin, the influence of this hormone on germination and ionic changes (Na+-K+) between seeds and culture medium, were studied. Seeds were incubated during 72 h with different concentrations of insulin in 10 ml deionized water or in 10 ml 18 mM K+ (KCl) solutions at 37 degrees C in vapor saturated atmosphere. A solution of 0.125 IU insulin/ml in water increases the germination to 110% whereas 0.175 IU insulin/ml inhibits it to 40% against controls. Further increases in insulin concentration always inhibit germination. Similar results have been obtained with K+ containing media. Germination rate changes in a small concentration range suggest that insulin might affect an enzymatic activity in the seed.

  7. Effects of plasma irradiation using various feeding gases on growth of Raphanus sativus L.

    PubMed

    Sarinont, Thapanut; Amano, Takaaki; Attri, Pankaj; Koga, Kazunori; Hayashi, Nobuya; Shiratani, Masaharu

    2016-09-01

    In this work, we have studied the action of dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma irradiation using various feeding gases on seeds of Raphanus sativus L. and analysis their growth. Our experimental data shows that Air, O2, and NO(10%)+N2 feeding gases plasma irradiation enhanced plant growth, whereas N2, He and Ar feeding gases plasma irradiation had little influence on plant growth. Moreover, humid air plasma irradiation was more effective in growth enhancement than dry one. More than 2.3 times faster growth was observed by 3 min air plasma irradiation with 40-90% relative humidity. The reactive species generated by plasma in gas phase were detected using optical emission spectroscopy and in liquid phase by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. We concluded that OH and O radicals were key species for plant growth enhancement. PMID:27021583

  8. Toxicity identification evaluation of anaerobically treated swine slurry: a comparison between Daphnia magna and Raphanus sativus.

    PubMed

    Villamar, Cristina A; Silva, Jeannette; Bay-Schmith, Enrique; Vidal, Gladys

    2014-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion does not efficiently reduce ionic compounds present in swine slurry, which could present a potential risk to aquatic ecosystems (surface runoff) and terrestrial ambient (irrigation). The objective of this study was to evaluate the ecotoxicological characteristics of anaerobically treated swine slurry using acute and chronic (epicotyl elongation) toxicity tests with Daphnia magna and Raphanus sativus and identification of suspected toxic compounds using the Toxicity Identification Evaluation (TIE) method. The evaluation was performed in three phases: physicochemical characterization of the slurry; acute/chronic toxicity testing with Daphnia magna and Raphanus sativus for each fraction of the TIE (cation and anion exchange columns, activated carbon, pH modification/aeration and EDTA) and identification of suspected toxic compounds. The anaerobically treated slurry contained concentrations of ammonium of 1,072 mg L(-1), chloride of 815 mg L(-1) and metals below 1 mg L(-1) with a D. magna acute toxicity (48h-LC50) of 5.3% and R. sativus acute toxicity (144h-LC50) of 48.1%. Epicotyl elongation of R. sativus was inhibited at concentrations above 25% (NOEC). The cation exchange reduced the toxicity and free ammonia by more than 90% for both bio-indicators. Moreover, this condition stimulated the epicotyl growth of R. sativus between 10% and 37%. In conclusion, the main compound suspected of causing acute toxicity in D. magna and acute/chronic toxicity in R. sativus is the ammonium. The findings suggest the need the ammonium treatment prior to the agricultural reuse of swine slurry given the high risk to contaminate the aquatic environment by runoff and toxicity of sensitive plants.

  9. [Chromatography-efficacy relation study between HPLC fingerprints and allelopathic effect of Salvia miltiorrhiza aqueous solution on radish].

    PubMed

    Niu, Min; Liu, Hong-Yan; Li, Jia; Zhang, Yong-qing

    2015-03-01

    To explore the effective components represented by fingerprint contributed to allelopathic effect of different Salvia miltiorrhiza aqueous concentration on seeds and seedlings of radish, grey relational analysis was used to establish the chromatography-efficacy relation. The results show that 15 peaks devote high allelopathic contribution to radish seeds and seedlings. The study will provide a new concept for allelochemicals screening and study. PMID:26087550

  10. Integrated utilization of red radish seeds for the efficient production of seed oil and sulforaphene.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Zhou, Xing; Fu, Min

    2016-02-01

    Supercritical CO2 was used to obtain seed oil from red radish seeds. The influence of pressure, temperature, CO2 flow rate and time on extraction yield of oil were investigated in detail. The maximum extraction yield of oil was 92.07 ± 0.76% at the optimal extraction conditions. The physicochemical properties and fatty acid composition of oil indicated that the seed oil can be used as a dietary oil. Meanwhile, the high purity sulforaphene (96.84 ± 0.17%) was separated by solvent extraction coupled with preparative high performance liquid chromatography from red radish seed meal. The initial pH, R, extraction temperature and extraction time for each cycle had a considerable influence both on the extraction yield and purity of sulforaphene of crude product. The extraction of oil was directly responsible for an increase of 18.32% in the yield of sulforaphene. PMID:26304382

  11. Integrated utilization of red radish seeds for the efficient production of seed oil and sulforaphene.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Zhou, Xing; Fu, Min

    2016-02-01

    Supercritical CO2 was used to obtain seed oil from red radish seeds. The influence of pressure, temperature, CO2 flow rate and time on extraction yield of oil were investigated in detail. The maximum extraction yield of oil was 92.07 ± 0.76% at the optimal extraction conditions. The physicochemical properties and fatty acid composition of oil indicated that the seed oil can be used as a dietary oil. Meanwhile, the high purity sulforaphene (96.84 ± 0.17%) was separated by solvent extraction coupled with preparative high performance liquid chromatography from red radish seed meal. The initial pH, R, extraction temperature and extraction time for each cycle had a considerable influence both on the extraction yield and purity of sulforaphene of crude product. The extraction of oil was directly responsible for an increase of 18.32% in the yield of sulforaphene.

  12. [Allelopathic effects of Lycoris radiate on radish, cucumber, tomato and rape seedlings].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hongyun; Zhang, Yanning; Feng, Pingzhang; Zhang, Heng

    2006-09-01

    The laboratory test showed that Lycoris radiate water extract had a stronger inhibitory effect on the seed germination and seedling growth of radish, cucumber, tomato and rape. After treated with 0.0125 g x ml(-1) of the extract, tomato seed could not germinate, but the seed germination inhibition rate of rape, radish and cucumber was only 17.73%, 14.97% and 2.65%, respectively. Under the same concentrations of the extract, sprout growth was inhibited more strongly than root growth. L. radiate methanol extract could inhibit the sprout and root growth of endosperm-removed wheat and sorghum, and the effect was stronger for sorghum than for wheat. All of these illustrated that L. radiate extracts mainly inhibited non-photosynthesis activity, but could also inhibit photosynthesis activity to some degree.

  13. Effects of sulfur fertilization on the accumulation of health-promoting phytochemicals in radish sprouts.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chenguang; Zhu, Yi; Luo, Yunbo

    2013-08-01

    The effects of sulfur fertilization on the growth profile, the contents of glucosinolates, anthocyanins, vitamin C, carotenoids, chlorophylls, total phenolics, and the FRAP value in radish seeds and sprouts were investigated. The concentrations of glucosinolates and antioxidants in sprouts were strongly influenced by the process of germination. Sulfur fertilization induced significant increases in the contents of individual glucosinolates, carotenoids, chlorophylls, and total phenolics. The phenolic contents in sprouts cultivated using 20, 60, or 100 mg/L sulfate were 20.7%, 40.4%, and 40.8% higher, respectively, than those of 7-day-old control sprouts. No detectable effects were observed on the contents of 4-methoxy-glucobrassicin and vitamin C. In addition, the accumulation of anthocyanins in 7-day-old sprouts decreased by 14.8-39.3% upon sulfur fertilization. These findings indicated that the application of sulfur fertilization has the potential to enhance the levels of health-promoting compounds in radish sprouts.

  14. Analysis of Volatile Organic Compounds in a Controlled Environment: Ethylene Gas Measurement Studies on Radish

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kong, Suk Bin

    2001-01-01

    Volatile organic compound(VOC), ethylene gas, was characterized and quantified by GC/FID. 20-50 ppb levels were detected during the growth stages of radish. SPME could be a good analytical tool for the purpose. Low temperature trapping method using dry ice/diethyl ether and liquid nitrogen bath was recommended for the sampling process for GC/PID and GC/MS analysis.

  15. Growth of radish and marigold following repeated exposure to nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Reinert, R.A.; Sanders, J.S.

    1982-02-01

    Radish and marigold plants were exposed to 0.3 ppM of nitrogen dioxide (NO/sub 2/), sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/), and /or ozone (O/sub 3/) nine times during a 3-wk period. No interactions among NO/sub 2/, SO/sub 2/, and O/sub 3/ were detected in measurement of radish foliage and root dry weight. Treatments containing O/sub 3/ reduced radish foliage and root (hypocotyl) dry weight 356 and 531 mg/plant, respectively. Interactions among NO/sub 2/, SO/sub 2/ and O/sub 3/ occurred in shoots and roots of marigold. SO/sub 2/ alone reduced marigold shoot and root dry weight, but this effect was reversed in the presence of O/sub 3/. The suppressive effect of SO/sub 2/ on root weight was also reversed by NO/sub 2/. Treatments containing SO/sub 2/ reduced dry flower weight 0.17 g/plant, but effects of the pollutant interactions observed in shoots and roots were not present. 8 references, 2 tables.

  16. Growth of radish and marigold following repeated exposure to nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Reinert, R.A.; Sanders, J.S.

    1982-02-01

    Radish and marigold plants were exposed to 0.3 ppm of nitrogen dioxide (NO/sub 2/), sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/), and/or ozone (O/sub 3/) nine times during a 3-wk period. No interactions among NO/sub 2/, SO/sub 2/, and O/sub 3/ were detected in measurement of radish foliage and root dry weight. Treatments containing O/sub 3/ reduced radish foliage and root (hypocotyl) dry weight 356 and 531 mg/plant, respectively. Interactions among NO/sub 2/, SO/sub 2/, and O/sub 3/ occurred in shoots and roots of marigold. SO/sub 2/ alone reduced marigold shoot and root dry weight, but this effect was reversed in the presence of O/sub 3/. The suppressive effect of SO/sub 2/ on root weight was also reversed by NO/sub 3/. Treatments containing SO/sub 2/ reduced dry flower weight 0.17 g/plant, but effects of the pollutant interactions observed in shoots and roots were not present.

  17. Combination treatments for killing Escherichia coli O157:H7 on alfalfa, radish, broccoli, and mung bean seeds.

    PubMed

    Bari, M L; Nei, D; Enomoto, K; Todoriki, S; Kawamoto, S

    2009-03-01

    In this study, the effectiveness of prolonged dry-heat treatment (50 degrees C) alone or in combination with chemical treatments (1% oxalic acid, 0.03% phytic acid, 50% ethanol, electrolyzed acidic water, and electrolyzed alkaline water) in eliminating Escherichia coli O157:H7 on laboratory-inoculated alfalfa, radish, broccoli, and mung bean seeds was compared with that of dry-heat treatment in combination with irradiation treatment. Dry-heat treatment for 17 or 24 h alone could reduce E. coli O157:H7 numbers to below detectable levels in radish, broccoli, and alfalfa seeds, but was unable to reduce the pathogen numbers to below the detectable level in mung bean seeds. In addition, dry-heat treatment for 17 h plus sanitizer treatments were effective in greatly reducing pathogen populations on radish, broccoli, and alfalfa seeds, without compromising the quality of the sprouts, but these treatments did not eliminate the pathogen from radish and alfalfa seeds. Seventeen hours of dry heat followed by a 1.0-kGy dose of irradiation completely eliminated E. coli O157:H7 from radish and mung bean seeds, whereas only a minimum radiation dose of 0.25 kGy was required to completely eliminate the pathogen from broccoli and alfalfa seeds. Dry heat in combination with radiation doses of up to 1.0 kGy did not negatively impact the seed germination rate or length of alfalfa, broccoli, and radish seeds or the length of alfalfa, broccoli, and radish sprouts, but did decrease the length of mung bean sprouts.

  18. Comprehensive transcriptome-based characterization of differentially expressed genes involved in microsporogenesis of radish CMS line and its maintainer.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yang; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Yan; Xu, Liang; Zhu, Xianwen; Muleke, Everlyne M; Liu, Liwang

    2016-09-01

    Microsporogenesis is an indispensable period for investigating microspore development and cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) occurrence. Radish CMS line plays a critical role in elite F1 hybrid seed production and heterosis utilization. However, the molecular mechanisms of microspore development and CMS occurrence have not been thoroughly uncovered in radish. In this study, a comparative analysis of radish floral buds from a CMS line (NAU-WA) and its maintainer (NAU-WB) was conducted using next generation sequencing (NGS) technology. Digital gene expression (DGE) profiling revealed that 3504 genes were significantly differentially expressed between NAU-WA and NAU-WB library, among which 1910 were upregulated and 1594 were downregulated. Gene ontology (GO) analysis showed that these differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were mainly enriched in extracellular region, catalytic activity, and response to stimulus. KEGG enrichment analysis revealed that the DEGs were predominantly associated with flavonoid biosynthesis, glycolysis, and biosynthesis of secondary metabolites. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis showed that the expression profiles of 13 randomly selected DEGs were in high agreement with results from Illumina sequencing. Several candidate genes encoding ATP synthase, auxin response factor (ARF), transcription factors (TFs), chalcone synthase (CHS), and male sterility (MS) were responsible for microsporogenesis. Furthermore, a schematic diagram for functional interaction of DEGs from NAU-WA vs. NAU-WB library in radish plants was proposed. These results could provide new information on the dissection of the molecular mechanisms underlying microspore development and CMS occurrence in radish. PMID:27465294

  19. Anti-inflammatory and antitumor phenylpropanoid sucrosides from the seeds of Raphanus sativus.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki Hyun; Kim, Chung Sub; Park, Yong Joo; Moon, Eunjung; Choi, Sang Un; Lee, Jei Hyun; Kim, Sun Yeou; Lee, Kang Ro

    2015-01-01

    A bioassay-guided fractionation and chemical investigation of the MeOH extract of Raphanus sativus seeds resulted in the isolation and identification of eight phenylpropanoid sucrosides (1-8) including two new compounds, named raphasativuside A and B (1-2) from the most active CHCl₃-soluble fraction. The structures of these new compounds were elucidated through spectral analysis, including extensive 2D-NMR data, and chemical reaction experiments. We evaluated the anti-inflammatory effects of 1-8 in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated murine microglia BV2 cells. Compounds 2 and 5 exhibited significant inhibitory effect on nitric oxide production in LPS-activated BV-2 cells with IC₅₀ values of 21.63 and 26.96 μM, respectively. All isolates were also evaluated for their antiproliferative activities against four human tumor cell lines (A549, SK-OV-3, SK-MEL-2, and HCT-15). Compounds 1-7 showed consistent cytotoxicity against A549, SK-OV-3, SK-MEL-2, and HCT-15 cell lines with IC50 values of 6.71-27.92 μM. Additionally, the free-radical scavenging activity of 1-8 was assessed using the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) assay where compounds 1, 3, and 4 scavenged DPPH radical strongly with IC₅₀ values of 23.05, 27.10, and 29.63 μg/mL, respectively. PMID:25466198

  20. Transcriptome Analysis of Leaf Tissue of Raphanus sativus by RNA Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Yongtai; Wu, Gang; Xia, Heng; Wang, Xiaodong; Fu, Chunhua; Li, Maoteng; Wu, Jiangsheng

    2013-01-01

    Raphanus sativus is not only a popular edible vegetable but also an important source of medicinal compounds. However, the paucity of knowledge about the transcriptome of R. sativus greatly impedes better understanding of the functional genomics and medicinal potential of R. sativus. In this study, the transcriptome sequencing of leaf tissues in R. sativus was performed for the first time. Approximately 22 million clean reads were generated and used for transcriptome assembly. The generated unigenes were subsequently annotated against gene ontology (GO) database. KEGG analysis further revealed two important pathways in the bolting stage of R.sativus including spliceosome assembly and alkaloid synthesis. In addition, a total of 6,295 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) with various motifs were identified in the unigene library of R. sativus. Finally, four unigenes of R. sativus were selected for alignment with their homologs from other plants, and phylogenetic trees for each of the genes were constructed. Taken together, this study will provide a platform to facilitate gene discovery and advance functional genomic research of R. sativus. PMID:24265813

  1. Transcriptome analysis of leaf tissue of Raphanus sativus by RNA sequencing.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Libin; Jia, Haibo; Yin, Yongtai; Wu, Gang; Xia, Heng; Wang, Xiaodong; Fu, Chunhua; Li, Maoteng; Wu, Jiangsheng

    2013-01-01

    Raphanus sativus is not only a popular edible vegetable but also an important source of medicinal compounds. However, the paucity of knowledge about the transcriptome of R. sativus greatly impedes better understanding of the functional genomics and medicinal potential of R. sativus. In this study, the transcriptome sequencing of leaf tissues in R. sativus was performed for the first time. Approximately 22 million clean reads were generated and used for transcriptome assembly. The generated unigenes were subsequently annotated against gene ontology (GO) database. KEGG analysis further revealed two important pathways in the bolting stage of R.sativus including spliceosome assembly and alkaloid synthesis. In addition, a total of 6,295 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) with various motifs were identified in the unigene library of R. sativus. Finally, four unigenes of R. sativus were selected for alignment with their homologs from other plants, and phylogenetic trees for each of the genes were constructed. Taken together, this study will provide a platform to facilitate gene discovery and advance functional genomic research of R. sativus.

  2. Acylated anthocyanins from sprouts of Raphanus sativus cv. Sango: isolation, structure elucidation and antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Matera, Riccardo; Gabbanini, Simone; Berretti, Serena; Amorati, Riccardo; De Nicola, Gina Rosalinda; Iori, Renato; Valgimigli, Luca

    2015-01-01

    Little is known on structure-activity relationships of antioxidant anthocyanins. Raphanus sativus cv Sango sprouts are among the richest sources (270 mg/100 g fresh weight). We isolated from sprouts' juice 9 acylated anthocyanins, including 4 new compounds. All comprise a cyanidin core bearing 3-4 glucose units, multiply acylated with malonic and phenolic acids (ferulic and sinapic). All compounds were equally effective in inhibiting the autoxidation of linoleic acid in aqueous micelles, with rate constant for trapping peroxyl radicals kinh=(3.8 ± 0.7) × 10(4)M(-1)s(-1) at 37 °C. In acetonitrile solution kinh varied with acylation: (0.9-2.1) × 10(5)M(-1)s(-1) at 30 °C. Each molecule trapped a number n of peroxyl radicals ranging from 4 to 7. Anthocyanins bearing sinapic acid were more effective than those bearing the ferulic moiety. Under identical settings, deacylated cyanin, ferulic and sinapic acids had kinh of 0.4 × 10(5), 0.3 × 10(5) and 1.6 × 10(5)M(-1)s(-1) respectively, with n ranging 2-3. Results show the major role of acylation on antioxidant performance.

  3. Anti-inflammatory and antitumor phenylpropanoid sucrosides from the seeds of Raphanus sativus.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki Hyun; Kim, Chung Sub; Park, Yong Joo; Moon, Eunjung; Choi, Sang Un; Lee, Jei Hyun; Kim, Sun Yeou; Lee, Kang Ro

    2015-01-01

    A bioassay-guided fractionation and chemical investigation of the MeOH extract of Raphanus sativus seeds resulted in the isolation and identification of eight phenylpropanoid sucrosides (1-8) including two new compounds, named raphasativuside A and B (1-2) from the most active CHCl₃-soluble fraction. The structures of these new compounds were elucidated through spectral analysis, including extensive 2D-NMR data, and chemical reaction experiments. We evaluated the anti-inflammatory effects of 1-8 in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated murine microglia BV2 cells. Compounds 2 and 5 exhibited significant inhibitory effect on nitric oxide production in LPS-activated BV-2 cells with IC₅₀ values of 21.63 and 26.96 μM, respectively. All isolates were also evaluated for their antiproliferative activities against four human tumor cell lines (A549, SK-OV-3, SK-MEL-2, and HCT-15). Compounds 1-7 showed consistent cytotoxicity against A549, SK-OV-3, SK-MEL-2, and HCT-15 cell lines with IC50 values of 6.71-27.92 μM. Additionally, the free-radical scavenging activity of 1-8 was assessed using the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) assay where compounds 1, 3, and 4 scavenged DPPH radical strongly with IC₅₀ values of 23.05, 27.10, and 29.63 μg/mL, respectively.

  4. Sequencing, de novo assembly and comparative analysis of Raphanus sativus transcriptome.

    PubMed

    Wu, Gang; Zhang, Libin; Yin, Yongtai; Wu, Jiangsheng; Yu, Longjiang; Zhou, Yanhong; Li, Maoteng

    2015-01-01

    Raphanus sativus is an important Brassicaceae plant and also an edible vegetable with great economic value. However, currently there is not enough transcriptome information of R. sativus tissues, which impedes further functional genomics research on R. sativus. In this study, RNA-seq technology was employed to characterize the transcriptome of leaf tissues. Approximately 70 million clean pair-end reads were obtained and used for de novo assembly by Trinity program, which generated 68,086 unigenes with an average length of 576 bp. All the unigenes were annotated against GO and KEGG databases. In the meanwhile, we merged leaf sequencing data with existing root sequencing data and obtained better de novo assembly of R. sativus using Oases program. Accordingly, potential simple sequence repeats (SSRs), transcription factors (TFs) and enzyme codes were identified in R. sativus. Additionally, we detected a total of 3563 significantly differentially expressed genes (DEGs, P = 0.05) and tissue-specific biological processes between leaf and root tissues. Furthermore, a TFs-based regulation network was constructed using Cytoscape software. Taken together, these results not only provide a comprehensive genomic resource of R. sativus but also shed light on functional genomic and proteomic research on R. sativus in the future. PMID:26029219

  5. Cross-resistance to imidazolinone herbicides in chlorsulfuron-resistant Raphanus raphanistrum.

    PubMed

    Hashem, Abul; Dhammu, Harmohinder S

    2002-09-01

    Raphanus raphanistrum L has evolved widespread resistance to sulfonylureas in the Western Australia (WA) wheat belt. With the introduction of imidazolinone-tolerant (IT) wheat (Tritcum aestivum L) and IT canola (Brassica napus L) in the WA wheat belt, it is important to understand the status of cross-resistance in this weed to sulfonylurea and imidazolinone (Imi) herbicides. A study was conducted to examine cross-resistance between chlorsulfuron and Imi herbicides (a mixture of imazapic and imazapyr) in 46 R raphanistrum populations collected from across the WA wheat belt. Plants were treated with herbicides and assessed for phytotoxicity under glasshouse conditions. Of the 46 R raphanistrum populations, 32 were resistant to chlorsulfuron and four were resistant to imazapic + imazapyr. Of the 70% chlorsulfuron-resistant populations, 13% showed cross-resistance to imazapic + imazapyr. However, the cross-resistant populations treated with imazapic + imazapyr showed a lower resistance level than the chlorsulfuron-treated populations. These results suggest that weed populations with such cross-resistance will not be controlled effectively by Imi herbicides. Although the resistance levels of the cross-resistant populations to Imi herbicides were low, the cross-resistance levels of R raphanistrum should be determined before growing IT crops, particularly IT canola. PMID:12233181

  6. The Japanese American Story.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fukei, Budd

    This book presents a view of the Japanese American experience from the time of their immigration to this country in the 1800s to their acculturation into American society in the 1970s. Topics dealt with include the prejudice and mistrust experienced by the Japanese immigrants in this country, particularly their evacuation and internment in…

  7. Japanese Quality Control Circles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nishiyama, Kazuo

    In recent years, United States scholars with an interest in international business and organizational communication have begun to notice the success of Japanese "quality control circles." These are small groups, usually composed of seven to ten workers, who are organized at the production levels within most large Japanese factories. A typical…

  8. Japanese Media in English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanaka, Sachiko Oda

    1995-01-01

    Describes the use of English in the media in Japan, focusing on the role and history of English-language newspapers, radio, and television programs, as well as the proliferation of English-language films shown in Japanese cinemas. Discusses the implications of English in the Japanese media. (20 references) (MDM)

  9. Japanese Elementary School Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Harold W.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the development of Japanese elementary education in the context of three periods of its history. Considers salient characteristics of Japanese elementary schools and teaching procedures; these include curriculum; social and moral education; classroom environment; teachers; afterschool classes; college entrance examinations; the kyoiku…

  10. Oxidative stress in spring barley and common radish exposed to quaternary ammonium salts with hexafluorophosphate anion.

    PubMed

    Biczak, Robert; Telesiński, Arkadiusz; Pawłowska, Barbara

    2016-10-01

    Quaternary ammonium salts (QAS), including ionic liquids (ILs), constitute a huge group of substances, which due to their desirable physical and chemical properties still attracts great interest in many industrial sectors. An increased concentration of this compound in the environment may lead to the contamination of the natural environment and may pose a potential threat to all organisms, including terrestrial higher plants. The present study demonstrates the interaction of three QAS with PF6(-) anions - tetramethylammonium [TMA][PF6], tetrabutylammonium [TBA][PF6], and tetrahexylammonium [THA][PF6] hexafluorophosphates - and its impact on the physiological and biochemical changes in spring barley seedlings and common radish plants. A similar study was also carried out by introducing the inorganic salt - ammonium hexafluorophosphate [A][PF6] to the soil; the results showed the soil became highly toxic to both plants. All the salts used led to significant changes in the metabolism of both spring barley and common radish which can be evidenced, for example, by a decrease in the content of chlorophyll a (Chla), chlorophyll b (Chlb), and total chlorophyll (Chla + b), as well as carotenoids (Car). The decrease in assimilation pigments was linearly correlated with an increasing concentration of QAS in the soil. QAS and [A][PF6] led to the formation of oxidative stress in both experimental plants, as evidenced by an increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) content in their cells and the changes in H2O2 level. In response to stress, the plants synthesized enzymatic free radicals (ROS) scavengers that lead to changes in the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), as well as significantly increased peroxidase (POD) activity. A decrease in the content of assimilation pigments and an increased POD activity are the most reliable indices of oxidative stress, and concurrently the signs of premature plants aging. Common radish proved to be more resistant to the

  11. Size and location of radish chromosome regions carrying the fertility restorer Rfk1 gene in spring turnip rape.

    PubMed

    Niemelä, Tarja; Seppänen, Mervi; Badakshi, Farah; Rokka, Veli-Matti; Heslop-Harrison, J S Pat

    2012-04-01

    In spring turnip rape (Brassica rapa L. spp. oleifera), the most promising F1 hybrid system would be the Ogu-INRA CMS/Rf system. A Kosena fertility restorer gene Rfk1, homolog of the Ogura restorer gene Rfo, was successfully transferred from oilseed rape into turnip rape and that restored the fertility in female lines carrying Ogura cms. The trait was, however, unstable in subsequent generations. The physical localization of the radish chromosomal region carrying the Rfk1 gene was investigated using genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) and bacterial artificial chromosome-fluorescence in situ hybridization (BAC-FISH) methods. The metaphase chromosomes were hybridized using radish DNA as the genomic probe and BAC64 probe, which is linked with Rfo gene. Both probes showed a signal in the chromosome spreads of the restorer line 4021-2 Rfk of turnip rape but not in the negative control line 4021B. The GISH analyses clearly showed that the turnip rape restorer plants were either monosomic (2n=2x=20+1R) or disomic (2n=2x=20+2R) addition lines with one or two copies of a single alien chromosome region originating from radish. In the BAC-FISH analysis, double dot signals were detected in subterminal parts of the radish chromosome arms showing that the fertility restorer gene Rfk1 was located in this additional radish chromosome. Detected disomic addition lines were found to be unstable for turnip rape hybrid production. Using the BAC-FISH analysis, weak signals were sometimes visible in two chromosomes of turnip rape and a homologous region of Rfk1 in chromosome 9 of the B. rapa A genome was verified with BLAST analysis. In the future, this homologous area in A genome could be substituted with radish chromosome area carrying the Rfk1 gene.

  12. Phylogenetic and serological analysis of turnip ringspot virus and radish mosaic virus isolates.

    PubMed

    Koloniuk, Igor; Petrzik, Karel

    2012-03-01

    Turnip ringspot virus (TuRSV) has been proposed to be a member of a new species in the genus Comovirus. Its remarkable host-range similarity to radish mosaic virus (RaMV) may have led to its misrecognition in the past. Findings from both sequence analysis and serological tests support the assignment of TuRSV to a new comovirus species. In addition, phylogenetic analysis suggests that the two genome segments of some TuRSV isolates have a heterogeneous origin. PMID:22160585

  13. Chemical and irradiation treatments for killing Escherichia coli O157:H7 on alfalfa, radish, and mung bean seeds.

    PubMed

    Bari, M L; Nazuka, E; Sabina, Y; Todoriki, S; Isshiki, K

    2003-05-01

    In this study, the effectiveness of dry-heat treatment in combination with chemical treatments (electrolyzed oxidizing [EO] water, califresh-S, 200 ppm of active chlorinated water) with and without sonication in eliminating Escherichia coli O157:H7 on laboratory-inoculated alfalfa, radish, and mung bean seeds was compared with that of dry-heat treatment in combination with irradiation treatment. The treatment of mung bean seeds with EO water in combination with sonication followed by a rinse with sterile distilled water resulted in reductions of approximately 4.0 log10 CFU of E. coli O157:H7 per g. whereas reductions of ca. 1.52 and 2.64 log10 CFU/g were obtained for radish and alfalfa seeds. The maximum reduction (3.70 log10 CFU/g) for mung bean seeds was achieved by treatment with califresh-S and chlorinated water (200 ppm) in combination with sonication and a rinse. The combination of dry heat, hot EO water treatment, and sonication was able to eliminate pathogen populations on mung bean seeds but was unable to eliminate the pathogen on radish and alfalfa seeds. Other chemical treatments used were effective in greatly reducing pathogen populations on radish and alfalfa seeds without compromising the quality of the sprouts, but these treatments did not result in the elimination of pathogens from radish and alfalfa seeds. Moreover, a combination of dry-heat and irradiation treatments was effective in eliminating E. coli O157:H7 on laboratory-inoculated alfalfa, radish, and mung bean seeds. An irradiation dose of 2.0 kGy in combination with dry heat eliminated E. coli O157:H7 completely from alfalfa and mung bean seeds, whereas a 2.5-kGy dose of irradiation was required to eliminate the pathogen completely from radish seeds. Dry heat in combination with irradiation doses of up to 2.0 kGy did not unacceptably decrease the germination percentage for alfalfa seeds or the length of alfalfa sprouts but did decrease the lengths of radish and mung bean sprouts.

  14. Chemical and irradiation treatments for killing Escherichia coli O157:H7 on alfalfa, radish, and mung bean seeds.

    PubMed

    Bari, M L; Nazuka, E; Sabina, Y; Todoriki, S; Isshiki, K

    2003-05-01

    In this study, the effectiveness of dry-heat treatment in combination with chemical treatments (electrolyzed oxidizing [EO] water, califresh-S, 200 ppm of active chlorinated water) with and without sonication in eliminating Escherichia coli O157:H7 on laboratory-inoculated alfalfa, radish, and mung bean seeds was compared with that of dry-heat treatment in combination with irradiation treatment. The treatment of mung bean seeds with EO water in combination with sonication followed by a rinse with sterile distilled water resulted in reductions of approximately 4.0 log10 CFU of E. coli O157:H7 per g. whereas reductions of ca. 1.52 and 2.64 log10 CFU/g were obtained for radish and alfalfa seeds. The maximum reduction (3.70 log10 CFU/g) for mung bean seeds was achieved by treatment with califresh-S and chlorinated water (200 ppm) in combination with sonication and a rinse. The combination of dry heat, hot EO water treatment, and sonication was able to eliminate pathogen populations on mung bean seeds but was unable to eliminate the pathogen on radish and alfalfa seeds. Other chemical treatments used were effective in greatly reducing pathogen populations on radish and alfalfa seeds without compromising the quality of the sprouts, but these treatments did not result in the elimination of pathogens from radish and alfalfa seeds. Moreover, a combination of dry-heat and irradiation treatments was effective in eliminating E. coli O157:H7 on laboratory-inoculated alfalfa, radish, and mung bean seeds. An irradiation dose of 2.0 kGy in combination with dry heat eliminated E. coli O157:H7 completely from alfalfa and mung bean seeds, whereas a 2.5-kGy dose of irradiation was required to eliminate the pathogen completely from radish seeds. Dry heat in combination with irradiation doses of up to 2.0 kGy did not unacceptably decrease the germination percentage for alfalfa seeds or the length of alfalfa sprouts but did decrease the lengths of radish and mung bean sprouts. PMID

  15. Genetic analysis of hybrid seed formation ability of Brassica rapa in intergeneric crossings with Raphanus sativus.

    PubMed

    Tonosaki, K; Michiba, K; Bang, S W; Kitashiba, H; Kaneko, Y; Nishio, T

    2013-03-01

    A hybridization barrier leads to the inability of seed formation after intergeneric crossings between Brassica rapa and Raphanus sativus. Most B. rapa lines cannot set intergeneric hybrid seeds because of embryo breakdown, but a B. rapa line obtained from turnip cultivar 'Shogoin-kabu' is able to produce a large number of hybrid seeds as a maternal parent by crossings with R. sativus. In 'Shogoin-kabu' crossed with R. sativus, developments of embryos and endosperms were slower than those in intraspecific crossings, but some of them grew to mature seeds without embryo breakdown. Intergeneric hybrid seeds were obtained in a 'Shogoin-kabu' line at a rate of 0.13 per pollinated flower, while no hybrid seeds were obtained in a line developed from Chinese cabbage cultivar 'Chiifu'. F(1) hybrid plants between the lines of 'Shogoin-kabu' and 'Chiifu' set a larger number of hybrid seeds per flower, 0.68, than both the parental lines. Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for hybrid seed formation were analyzed after intergeneric crossings using two different F(2) populations derived from the F(1) hybrids, and three QTLs with significant logarithm of odds scores were detected. Among them, two QTLs, i.e., one in linkage group A10 and the other in linkage group A01, were detected in both the F(2) populations. These two QTLs had contrary effects on the number of hybrid seeds. Epistatic interaction between these two QTLs was revealed. Possible candidate genes controlling hybrid seed formation ability in QTL regions were inferred using the published B. rapa genome sequences.

  16. The mitochondrial genome of Raphanus sativus and gene evolution of cruciferous mitochondrial types.

    PubMed

    Chang, Shengxin; Chen, Jianmei; Wang, Yankun; Gu, Bingchao; He, Jianbo; Chu, Pu; Guan, Rongzhan

    2013-03-20

    To explore the mitochondrial genes of the Cruciferae family, the mitochondrial genome of Raphanus sativus (sat) was sequenced and annotated. The circular mitochondrial genome of sat is 239,723 bp and includes 33 protein-coding genes, three rRNA genes and 17 tRNA genes. The mitochondrial genome also contains a pair of large repeat sequences 5.9 kb in length, which may mediate genome reorganization into two sub-genomic circles, with predicted sizes of 124.8 kb and 115.0 kb, respectively. Furthermore, gene evolution of mitochondrial genomes within the Cruciferae family was analyzed using sat mitochondrial type (mitotype), together with six other reported mitotypes. The cruciferous mitochondrial genomes have maintained almost the same set of functional genes. Compared with Cycas taitungensis (a representative gymnosperm), the mitochondrial genomes of the Cruciferae have lost nine protein-coding genes and seven mitochondrial-like tRNA genes, but acquired six chloroplast-like tRNAs. Among the Cruciferae, to maintain the same set of genes that are necessary for mitochondrial function, the exons of the genes have changed at the lowest rates, as indicated by the numbers of single nucleotide polymorphisms. The open reading frames (ORFs) of unknown function in the cruciferous genomes are not conserved. Evolutionary events, such as mutations, genome reorganizations and sequence insertions or deletions (indels), have resulted in the non-conserved ORFs in the cruciferous mitochondrial genomes, which is becoming significantly different among mitotypes. This work represents the first phylogenic explanation of the evolution of genes of known function in the Cruciferae family. It revealed significant variation in ORFs and the causes of such variation.

  17. The role of the persistent fruit wall in seed water regulation in Raphanus raphanistrum (Brassicaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Cousens, Roger D.; Young, Kenneth R.; Tadayyon, Ali

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims Dry fruits remain around the seeds at dispersal in a number of species, especially the Brassicaceae. Explanations for this vary, but usually involve mechanisms of innate dormancy. We speculate that, instead, a persistent fruit may give additional protection through control of dehydration, to species growing in arid or Mediterranean environments where water is sporadic. Methods X-rays and weight measurements were used to determine the extent to which Raphanus raphanistrum seeds within mature fruits imbibe water, and germination tests determined the roles of the fruit and seed coat in seed dormancy. Rates of water uptake and desiccation, and seedling emergence were compared with and without the fruit. Finally, germinability of seeds extracted from fruits was determined after various periods of moist conditions followed by a range of dry conditions. Key Results Most seeds rapidly take up water within the fruit, but they do not fully imbibe when compared with naked seeds. The seed coat is more important than the dry fruit wall in maintaining seed dormancy. The presence of a dry fruit slows emergence from the soil by up to 6–8 weeks. The fruit slows the rate of desiccation of the seed to a limited extent. The presence of the fruit for a few days during imbibition somehow primes more seeds to germinate than if the fruit is absent; longer moist periods within the pod appear to induce dormancy. Conclusions The fruit certainly modifies the seed environment as external conditions change between wet and dry, but not to a great extent. The major role seems to be: (a) the physical restriction of imbibition and germination; and (b) the release and then re-imposition of dormancy within the seed. The ecological significance of the results requires more research under field conditions. PMID:19889801

  18. Optimizing elicitation and seed priming to enrich broccoli and radish sprouts in glucosinolates.

    PubMed

    Baenas, Nieves; Villaño, Debora; García-Viguera, Cristina; Moreno, Diego A

    2016-08-01

    Elicitation is a cheaper and socially acceptable tool for improving plant food functionality. Our objective was to optimize the treatment doses of the elicitors: methyl jasmonate (MeJA), jasmonic acid (JA) and DL-methionine (MET), in order to find a successful and feasible treatment to produce broccoli and radish sprouts with enhanced levels of health-promoting glucosinolates. Also a priming of seeds as a novel strategy to trigger the glucosinolates content was carried out with water (control), MeJA (250μM), JA (250μM) and MET (10mM) before the elicitor exogenous treatment. The results showed that almost all treatments could enhance effectively the total glucosinolates content in the sprouts, achieving the most significant increases from 34% to 100% of increase in broccoli and from 45% to 118% of increase in radish sprouts after MeJA priming and treatments. Consequently, our work demonstrates the feasibility of using elicitors, such as plant stress hormones, by priming and exogenously, as a way of increase the phytochemical profile of these sprouts to enhance their consumption in the diet. PMID:26988507

  19. Uptake and distribution of chlordecone in radish: different contamination routes in edible roots.

    PubMed

    Létondor, Clarisse; Pascal-Lorber, Sophie; Laurent, François

    2015-01-01

    Chlordecone (CLD) was an organochlorine insecticide mainly used to struggle against banana weevils in the French West Indies. Forbidden since 1993, it has been a long-term contaminant of soils and aquatic environments. Crops growing in contaminated soils lead to human exposure by food consumption. We used radiolabeled [(14)C]-CLD to investigate the contamination ways into radish, a model of edible roots. Radish plants were able to accumulate CLD in both roots (RCF35d 647) and tubers (edible parts, CF35d 6.3). CLD was also translocated to leaves (CF35d 1.7). The contamination of tuber was mainly due to peridermic adsorption or CLD systemic translocation to the pith. TSCF was 3.44×10(-)(3). CLD diffused across periderm to internal tissues. We calculated a mean flux of diffusion J through periderm about 5.71×10(-)(14)gcm(-)(2)s(-)(1). We highlighted different contamination routes of the tuber, (i) adsorption on periderm followed by diffusion of CLD towards underlying tissues, cortex, xylem, and pith (ii) adsorption by roots and translocation by the transpiration stream followed by diffusion from xylem vessels towards inner tissues, pith, and peripheral tissues, cortex and periderm. Concerning chemical risk assessment for other tubers, contamination would depend on various parameters, the thickness of periderm and CLD periderm permeance, the origin of secondary tissues - from cortex and/or pith - , the importance of xylem flow in tuber, and the lipid amount within tuber. PMID:25433399

  20. Uptake and distribution of chlordecone in radish: different contamination routes in edible roots.

    PubMed

    Létondor, Clarisse; Pascal-Lorber, Sophie; Laurent, François

    2015-01-01

    Chlordecone (CLD) was an organochlorine insecticide mainly used to struggle against banana weevils in the French West Indies. Forbidden since 1993, it has been a long-term contaminant of soils and aquatic environments. Crops growing in contaminated soils lead to human exposure by food consumption. We used radiolabeled [(14)C]-CLD to investigate the contamination ways into radish, a model of edible roots. Radish plants were able to accumulate CLD in both roots (RCF35d 647) and tubers (edible parts, CF35d 6.3). CLD was also translocated to leaves (CF35d 1.7). The contamination of tuber was mainly due to peridermic adsorption or CLD systemic translocation to the pith. TSCF was 3.44×10(-)(3). CLD diffused across periderm to internal tissues. We calculated a mean flux of diffusion J through periderm about 5.71×10(-)(14)gcm(-)(2)s(-)(1). We highlighted different contamination routes of the tuber, (i) adsorption on periderm followed by diffusion of CLD towards underlying tissues, cortex, xylem, and pith (ii) adsorption by roots and translocation by the transpiration stream followed by diffusion from xylem vessels towards inner tissues, pith, and peripheral tissues, cortex and periderm. Concerning chemical risk assessment for other tubers, contamination would depend on various parameters, the thickness of periderm and CLD periderm permeance, the origin of secondary tissues - from cortex and/or pith - , the importance of xylem flow in tuber, and the lipid amount within tuber.

  1. Antimicrobial activity of chitosan coatings and films against Listeria monocytogenes on black radish.

    PubMed

    Jovanović, Gordana D; Klaus, Anita S; Nikšić, Miomir P

    2016-01-01

    The antibacterial activity of chitosan coatings prepared with acetic or lactic acid, as well as of composite chitosan-gelatin films prepared with essential oils, was evaluated in fresh shredded black radish samples inoculated with Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19115 and L. monocytogenes ATCC 19112 during seven days of storage at 4°C. The chitosan coating prepared with acetic acid showed the most effective antibacterial activity. All tested formulations of chitosan films exhibited strong antimicrobial activity on the growth of L. monocytogenes on black radish, although a higher inhibition of pathogens was achieved at higher concentrations of chitosan. The antimicrobial effect of chitosan films was even more pronounced with the addition of essential oils. Chitosan-gelatin films with thyme essential oils showed the most effective antimicrobial activity. A reduction of 2.4log10CFU/g for L. monocytogenes ATCC 19115 and 2.1log10CFU/g for L. monocytogenes ATCC 19112 was achieved in the presence of 1% chitosan film containing 0.2% of thyme essential oil after 24h of storage.

  2. Antimicrobial activity of chitosan coatings and films against Listeria monocytogenes on black radish.

    PubMed

    Jovanović, Gordana D; Klaus, Anita S; Nikšić, Miomir P

    2016-01-01

    The antibacterial activity of chitosan coatings prepared with acetic or lactic acid, as well as of composite chitosan-gelatin films prepared with essential oils, was evaluated in fresh shredded black radish samples inoculated with Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19115 and L. monocytogenes ATCC 19112 during seven days of storage at 4°C. The chitosan coating prepared with acetic acid showed the most effective antibacterial activity. All tested formulations of chitosan films exhibited strong antimicrobial activity on the growth of L. monocytogenes on black radish, although a higher inhibition of pathogens was achieved at higher concentrations of chitosan. The antimicrobial effect of chitosan films was even more pronounced with the addition of essential oils. Chitosan-gelatin films with thyme essential oils showed the most effective antimicrobial activity. A reduction of 2.4log10CFU/g for L. monocytogenes ATCC 19115 and 2.1log10CFU/g for L. monocytogenes ATCC 19112 was achieved in the presence of 1% chitosan film containing 0.2% of thyme essential oil after 24h of storage. PMID:27237426

  3. Plant productivity and characterization of zeoponic substrates after three successive crops of radish

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gruener, J. E.; Ming, Doug; Galindo, C., Jr.; Henderson, K. E.

    2006-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has developed advanced life support (ALS) systems for long duration space missions that incorporate plants to regenerate the atmosphere (CO2 to O2), recycle water (via evapotranspiration), and produce food. NASA has also developed a zeolite-based synthetic substrate consisting of clinoptilolite and synthetic apatite to support plant growth for ALS systems (Ming et al., 1995). The substrate is called zeoponics and has been designed to slowly release all plant essential elements into "soil" solution. The substrate consists of K- and NH4-exchanged clinoptilolite and a synthetic hydroxyapatite that has Mg, S, and the plant-essential micronutrients incorporated into its structure in addition to Ca and P. Plant performance in zeoponic substrates has been improved by the addition of dolomite pH buffers, nitrifying bacteria, and other calcium-bearing minerals (Henderson et al., 2000; Gruener et al., 2003). Wheat was used as the test crop for all of these studies. The objectives of this study were to expand upon the previous studies to determine the growth and nutrient uptake of radish in zeoponic substrates and to determine the nutrient availability of the zeoponic substrate after three successive radish crops.

  4. [Investigation of exciting light and plant leaves age effects on chlorophyll fluorescense of radish plants].

    PubMed

    Nesterenko, T V; Tikhomirov, A A; Shikhov, V N

    2012-01-01

    The effect of exciting light intensity and leaves age on characteristics of slow stage of chlorophyll fluorescence induction (CFI) of radish leaves has been investigated. Light dependence of the relationship of maximum fluorescence intensity in the peak P and the stationary fluorescence level (F(P)/F(S)) and also light dependence of temporal characteristics of CFI (T0.5 - half decrease of chlorophyll fluorescence intensity during slow stage of fluorescence induction and tmin - summarized CFI characteristics derived by calculating via integral proportional to variable part of illuminated in the result of chlorophyll fluorescence energy during slow stage of CFI) have been studied. Plants were grown in controlled conditions of light culture at 100 Wt/m2 of photosynthetic active radiation (PAR). It has been shown that variability of the characteristics under study, associated with the effect of leaves age, significantly decreases at exciting light intensity equal to 40 Wt/m2 of PAR and more. The lowest effect of leaves age on the value of fluorescence characteristics for T0.5 and tmin and also for F(P)/F(S) ratio was observed at the intensity of exciting fluorescence light of 60 Wt/m2 of PAR. In the researched range of light intensities the temporal characteristics of T0.5 and tmin for uneven-aged radish leaves appeared to be by an order less responsive to the intensity changes of exciting fluorescence light as compared with F(P)/F(S) ratio.

  5. Optimizing elicitation and seed priming to enrich broccoli and radish sprouts in glucosinolates.

    PubMed

    Baenas, Nieves; Villaño, Debora; García-Viguera, Cristina; Moreno, Diego A

    2016-08-01

    Elicitation is a cheaper and socially acceptable tool for improving plant food functionality. Our objective was to optimize the treatment doses of the elicitors: methyl jasmonate (MeJA), jasmonic acid (JA) and DL-methionine (MET), in order to find a successful and feasible treatment to produce broccoli and radish sprouts with enhanced levels of health-promoting glucosinolates. Also a priming of seeds as a novel strategy to trigger the glucosinolates content was carried out with water (control), MeJA (250μM), JA (250μM) and MET (10mM) before the elicitor exogenous treatment. The results showed that almost all treatments could enhance effectively the total glucosinolates content in the sprouts, achieving the most significant increases from 34% to 100% of increase in broccoli and from 45% to 118% of increase in radish sprouts after MeJA priming and treatments. Consequently, our work demonstrates the feasibility of using elicitors, such as plant stress hormones, by priming and exogenously, as a way of increase the phytochemical profile of these sprouts to enhance their consumption in the diet.

  6. Epibrassinolide ameliorates Cr (VI) stress via influencing the levels of indole-3-acetic acid, abscisic acid, polyamines and antioxidant system of radish seedlings.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Sikander Pal; Kanwar, Mukesh; Bhardwaj, Renu; Gupta, B D; Gupta, R K

    2011-07-01

    The present investigation determined the effects of epibrassinolide (EBL) on the levels of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), abscisic acid (ABA), and polyamine (PA) and antioxidant potential of 7-d old Raphanus sativus L. cv. 'Pusa chetki' seedlings grown under Cr (VI) metal stress. Reduced titers of free (0.767 μg g(-1) FW) and bound (0.545 μg g(-1) FW) IAA in Cr (VI) stressed seedlings were observed over untreated control. Supplementations of EBL to Cr (VI) stressed seedlings were able to enhance both free (2.14-5.68 μg g(-1) FW) and bound IAA (2.45-7.78 μg g(-1) FW) concentrations in comparison to Cr (VI) metal treatment alone. Significant rise in free (13.49 μg g(-1) FW) and bound (12.17 μg g(-1) FW) ABA contents were noticed for Cr (VI) stressed seedlings when compared to untreated control. No significant increase in ABA contents were recorded for Cr (VI) stressed seedlings upon supplementation with EBL over Cr (VI) treatment alone. A significant increase in Put (18.40 μg g(-1) FW) and Cad (9.08 μg g(-1) FW) contents were found for 10(-9)M EBL plus Cr (VI) metal treatments when compared to Cr (VI) treatment alone. Spermidine (Spd) contents were found to decline significantly for EBL treatment alone or when supplemented with Cr (VI) treatments over untreated controls and Cr (VI) treatment alone. Antioxidant levels were found to enhance, with glutathione (57.98 mg g(-1) FW), proline (4.97 mg g(-1) FW), glycinebetaine (39.01 μmol mL(-1)), ascorbic acid (3.17 mg g(-1) FW) and phytochelatins (65.69 μmol g(-1) FW) contents noted for EBL supplemented to Cr (VI) metal solution over Cr (VI) treatment alone. Reduced activities of guaiacol peroxidase (0.391 U mg(-1) protein) and catalase (0.221 U mg(-1) protein) and enhanced activities of glutathione reductase (7.14 U mg(-1) protein), superoxide dismutase (15.20 U mg(-1) protein) and ascorbate peroxidase (4.31 U mg(-1) protein) were observed in seedlings treated with EBL plus Cr (VI) over Cr metal treatment alone

  7. How the Japanese work.

    PubMed

    Chambers, D W

    1998-01-01

    The Japanese do not work harder or even use different approaches so much as they aim for a different result--one that balances process and results and extends the definition of quality beyond the product itself to include cost and convenience to the customer as well. Ten methods of the Japanese kaizen culture of work are presented with applications and contrasts to American dentistry.

  8. rDNA genetic imbalance and nucleolar chromatin restructuring is induced by distant hybridization between Raphanus sativus and Brassica alboglabra.

    PubMed

    Long, Hong; Chen, Chunli; Wang, Bing; Feng, Yanni

    2015-01-01

    The expression of rDNA in hybrids inherited from only one progenitor refers to nucleolar dominance. The molecular basis for choosing which genes to silence remains unclear. We report genetic imbalance induced by distant hybridization correlates with formation of rDNA genes (NORs) in the hybrids between Raphanus sativus L. and Brassica alboglabra Bailey. Moreover, increased CCGG methylation of rDNA in F1 hybrids is concomitant with Raphanus-derived rDNA gene silencing and rDNA transcriptional inactivity revealed by nucleolar configuration restriction. Newly formed rDNA gene locus occurred through chromosomal in F1 hybrids via chromosomal imbalance. NORs are gained de novo, lost, and/or transposed in the new genome. Inhibition of methyltransferases leads to changes in nucleolar architecture, implicating a key role of methylation in control of nucleolar dominance and vital nucleolar configuration transition. Our findings suggest that gene imbalance and methylation-related chromatin restructuring is important for rDNA gene silencing that may be crucial for synthesis of specific proteins. PMID:25723542

  9. rDNA genetic imbalance and nucleolar chromatin restructuring is induced by distant hybridization between Raphanus sativus and Brassica alboglabra.

    PubMed

    Long, Hong; Chen, Chunli; Wang, Bing; Feng, Yanni

    2015-01-01

    The expression of rDNA in hybrids inherited from only one progenitor refers to nucleolar dominance. The molecular basis for choosing which genes to silence remains unclear. We report genetic imbalance induced by distant hybridization correlates with formation of rDNA genes (NORs) in the hybrids between Raphanus sativus L. and Brassica alboglabra Bailey. Moreover, increased CCGG methylation of rDNA in F1 hybrids is concomitant with Raphanus-derived rDNA gene silencing and rDNA transcriptional inactivity revealed by nucleolar configuration restriction. Newly formed rDNA gene locus occurred through chromosomal in F1 hybrids via chromosomal imbalance. NORs are gained de novo, lost, and/or transposed in the new genome. Inhibition of methyltransferases leads to changes in nucleolar architecture, implicating a key role of methylation in control of nucleolar dominance and vital nucleolar configuration transition. Our findings suggest that gene imbalance and methylation-related chromatin restructuring is important for rDNA gene silencing that may be crucial for synthesis of specific proteins.

  10. Managing scab diseases of potato and radish caused by Streptomyces spp. using Bacillus amyloliquefaciens BAC03 and other biomaterials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Streptomyces spp. cause scab disease in plants like potato and radish. To seek effective control methods of this disease, biologically based materials were examined on their efficacies for disease control. In greenhouse or growth chamber tests, potting soil was infested with Streptomyces scabies (10...

  11. Foliar uptake of cesium, iodine and strontium and their transfer to the edible parts of beans, potatoes and radishes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oestling, O.; Kopp, P.; Burkart, W.

    Considerable fractions of radionuclide solutions deposited on the surface of the leaves may be transferred to the edible parts of plants. In radishes we observed a transfer of more than 40% of the applied cesium radioisotope within a few days. A rather similar uptake was found for beans and potatoes when harvested a month after application of radioactivity. As much as 60% of the applied cesium-isotope remained in (or on) the potato leaves even 8 days after application. The major part could however be washed off the leaves a few hours after application. When radishes were showered with water within 7 h after the application of activity the uptake was greatly reduced. No competitive effect of potassium chloride for the foliar uptake of cesium was found. A 10 -2 M colloidal suspension of Prussian Blue, a chelating agent for monovalent alkali metals such as potassium, cesium, or other monovalent cations, applied as droplets to the leaves one day prior to application of active cesium was found to strongly inhibit the transfer of cesium to the radish. The transfer of iodine and strontium to the edible parts was found to be negligible (or slower) as compared to cesium. In most cases no detectable amounts of these two nuclides were transfered to the edible parts of the radish after 2-5 weeks.

  12. Prevalence of multidrug resistant Salmonella in Coriander, mint, carrot, and radish in Bareilly and Kanpur, northern India.

    PubMed

    Singh, B R; Singh, Preetam; Agrawal, Sugandh; Teotia, Uvs; Verma, Anita; Sharma, Shipra; Chandra, Mudit; Babu, N; Kant Agarwal, Ravi

    2007-01-01

    We examined 974 samples (304 coriander, 212 mint, 258 carrot, and 200 radish) collected from vegetable vendors in two cities, Bareilly (n = 832) and Kanpur (n = 142), in northern India during the early summer season in 2004. Salmonella was isolated from 35 samples (9 coriander, 5 mint, 10 radish, and 11 carrot) while Escherichia coli was detected in 181 samples (67 coriander, 44 mint, 36 carrot, and 34 radish). None of the E. coli belonged to the O:157 serogroup. Five Salmonella isolates from samples collected at Kanpur (3 coriander and 2 mint) belonged to 4 different serovars of S. enterica ssp. enterica-S. Mons, S. Rottenest, S. Saintpaul, and S. Weltevreden. Thirty Salmonella isolates from samples collected at Bareilly (11 carrot, 10 radish, 6 coriander, and 3 mint) belonged to 7 serovars-S. Anatum, S. Bsilla, S. Newport, S. Saintpaul, S. Teko, S. Virchow, and S. Weltevreden. The majority (82.9%) of Salmonella isolates were multidrug resistant. One quarter of the isolates were resistant to >or=10 antibiotics. Based on antibiotic resistance patterns, 35 isolates could be classified into 23 resistotypes. None of the 35 isolates was resistant to streptomycin and ceftriaxone, while >80% were resistant to sulfamethoxazole, nalidixic acid, and kanamycin. Resistance to imipenem (>20%) and amikacin (>30%) was also common. The correlation between presence of Salmonella and E. coli on raw vegetables was not significant (p = 0.13).

  13. Japanese Encephalitis: Frequently Asked Questions

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Page How long does the Japanese encephalitis vaccination last? The duration of protection is unknown. For ... What are the side effects of Japanese encephalitis vaccination? Pain and tenderness are the most commonly reported ...

  14. In silico identification of miRNAs and their targets from the expressed sequence tags of Raphanus sativus

    PubMed Central

    Muvva, Charuvaka; Tewari, Lata; Aruna, Kasoju; Ranjit, Pabbati; MD, Zahoorullah S; MD, K A Matheen; Veeramachaneni, Hemanth

    2012-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a novel growing family of endogenous, small, non- coding, single-stranded RNA molecules directly involved in regulating gene expression at the posttranscriptional level. High conservation of miRNAs in plant provides the foundation for identification of new miRNAs in other plant species through homology alignment. Here, previous known plant miRNAs were BLASTed against the Expressed Sequence Tag (EST) database of Raphanus sativus, and according to a series of filtering criteria, a total of 48 miRNAs belonging to 9 miRNA families were identified, and 16 potential target genes of them were subsequently predicted, most of which seemed to encode transcription factors or enzymes participating in regulation of development, growth and other physiological processes. Overall, our findings lay the foundation for further researches of miRNAs function in R.sativus. PMID:22359443

  15. Growth and Synthesis of Nucleic Acid and Protein by Excised Radish Cotyledons 1

    PubMed Central

    Nieman, R. H.; Poulsen, L. L.

    1967-01-01

    Nutritional and light requirements for growth and synthesis of RNA, DNA, and protein by cotyledons excised from 5-day-old seedlings of Raphanus sativus L. were investigated, and the course of synthesis was followed through the cell cycle. The minimum requirements for a net increase in nucleic acid and protein were sugar, nitrate, and light. The cotyledons used nitrite at low concentration, but not ammonium ion. Light was required for preliminary steps in synthesis of RNA, DNA, and protein, but the actual polymerization reactions occurred in the dark. The cotyledons contained sufficient endogenous growth factors for about half of the cells to complete 1 cycle on a medium of 1% sucrose, 80 mm KNO3. The increase in DNA was limited to about 50% and was accompanied by a comparable increase in cell number. Fresh weight, RNA, and protein tended to increase in proportion to DNA. Growth of the isolated cotyledons commenced with cell enlargement. RNA began to increase after about 4 hours, DNA after about 12. The major increase in protein also began at about 12 hours. The maximum rate of increase for all 3 occurred between 12 and 16 hours. Cell counts indicated that by 28 hours most of the cells which had replicated DNA had also completed cell division. PMID:16656601

  16. Japanese Experiences: "Hentai" Narratives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kama, Amit

    2011-01-01

    For those acquainted with Japanese lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) issues, "Queer Voices from Japan" can be good reading. But with only 1 of its 22 chapters informative for researchers, those interested in LGBT youth studies will only indirectly gain insight into a non-Western perspective on youth and sexuality.

  17. Japanese American Intermarriage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Endo, Russell; Hirokawa, Dale

    Data for this study of Japanese American intermarriage in Denver (Colorado) from 1910-11 to 1980-81 were collected from marriage records in the Office of the Clerk and Recorder for the City and County of Denver. In order to compare intermarriage trends with available census figures (mostly on population size and sex composition), records were…

  18. Reflections on Japanese Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pegels, Joyce

    1979-01-01

    Describes the educational system in Japan and outlines a secondary level social studies unit. Topics include the agricultural, industrial, artistic, and religious aspects of Japan. The author observed a genuine "term spirit" among Japanese students, greater respect for school property, and a heightened awareness for the value of education. (KC)

  19. Japanese Temple Geometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vincent, Jill; Vincent, Claire

    2004-01-01

    Between the 17th and 19th centuries, the Japanese government closed its borders to the outside world in an attempt to become more powerful. Foreign books were banned, people could not travel, and foreigners were not allowed to enter the country. One result of this isolation was the flourishing of sangaku--wooden tablets inscribed with intricately…

  20. Reciprocal Predicates in Japanese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ishii, Yasuo

    A study of reciprocals in Japanese compares two kinds: (1) a verbal suffix "aw"; and (2) an NP argument "otagai." Although "otagai" appears to be taken care of by syntactic binding theory, it is proposed that there is no evidence for the existence of a syntactic position of the object NP in the case of "aw." The suffix can be characterized as…

  1. Bioremediation of HCH-contaminated soil: elimination of inhibitory effects of the insecticide on radish and green gram seed germination.

    PubMed

    Bidlan, Rajkumar; Afsar, Mohammed; Manonmani, H K

    2004-08-01

    The effects of technical grade hexachlorocyclohexane (tech-HCH) on the germination of different seeds were tested. Two types of seeds, radish and green gram showed marked reduction in germination percentage and seeding vigour index. The abnormalities and reduction in germination increased with increasing concentration of tech-HCH. At 100 microg HCH level the germination of radish and green gram seeds was inhibited almost completely on moist filter paper and soil. Protease and amylase activities were reduced in seeds grown in soil spiked with tech-HCH. Bioremediation of HCH-spiked soils with a HCH-degrading microbial consortium helped in eliminating the toxic effects of tech-HCH towards seed germination. The degradation of 25 microg tech-HCH g(-1) soil was complete by 120 h. The seed germination and the activities of the assayed enzymes, amylase and protease, were same as before or better in bioremediated soils.

  2. Prediction of phytoavailability of trace metals to plants: Comparison between chemical extractions and soil-grown radish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baraud, Fabienne; Leleyter, Lydia

    2012-08-01

    One of the major routes of human exposure to toxic metals is the consumption of vegetables grown on contaminated soils. Radishes were grown in three different soils (kitchen garden, agricultural and industrial soils), presenting various contamination levels. A sequential extraction procedure was compared with EDTA and HCl simple extractions methods in order to predict the metals phytoavailabilty to radish. The analysis of the results shows that the simple HCl and sequential chemical extractions bring complementary results, since HCl is correlated in the phytoavailability of Cd, Mn and Zn, whereas the sequential extraction is correlated in the phytoavailability of Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni. EDTA simple extraction brings here less interesting results than the two other tested extractions.

  3. Comparison of Survival of Campylobacter jejuni in the Phyllosphere with That in the Rhizosphere of Spinach and Radish Plants

    PubMed Central

    Brandl, Maria T.; Haxo, Aileen F.; Bates, Anna H.; Mandrell, Robert E.

    2004-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni has been isolated previously from market produce and has caused gastroenteritis outbreaks linked to produce. We have tested the ability of this human pathogen to utilize organic compounds that are present in leaf and root exudates and to survive in the plant environment under various conditions. Carbon utilization profiles revealed that C. jejuni can utilize many organic acids and amino acids available on leaves and roots. Despite the presence of suitable substrates in the phyllosphere and the rhizosphere, C. jejuni was unable to grow on lettuce and spinach leaves and on spinach and radish roots of plants incubated at 33°C, a temperature that is conducive to its growth in vitro. However, C. jejuni was cultured from radish roots and from the spinach rhizosphere for at least 23 and 28 days, respectively, at 10°C. This enteric pathogen also persisted in the rhizosphere of spinach for prolonged periods of time at 16°C, a temperature at which many cool-season crops are grown. The decline rate constants of C. jejuni populations in the spinach and radish rhizosphere were 10- and 6-fold lower, respectively, than on healthy spinach leaves at 10°C. The enhanced survival of C. jejuni in soil and in the rhizosphere may be a significant factor in its contamination cycle in the environment and may be associated with the sporadic C. jejuni incidence and campylobacteriosis outbreaks linked to produce. PMID:14766604

  4. Effect of ultrasound-assisted freezing on the physico-chemical properties and volatile compounds of red radish.

    PubMed

    Xu, Bao-guo; Zhang, Min; Bhandari, Bhesh; Cheng, Xin-feng; Islam, Md Nahidul

    2015-11-01

    Power ultrasound, which can enhance nucleation rate and crystal growth rate, can also affect the physico-chemical properties of immersion frozen products. In this study, the influence of slow freezing (SF), immersion freezing (IF) and ultrasound-assisted freezing (UAF) on physico-chemical properties and volatile compounds of red radish was investigated. Results showed that ultrasound application significantly improved the freezing rate; the freezing time of ultrasound application at 0.26 W/cm(2) was shorten by 14% and 90%, compared to IF and SF, respectively. UAF products showed significant (p<0.05) reduction in drip loss and phytonutrients (anthocyanins, vitamin C and phenolics) loss. Compared to SF products, IF and UAF products showed better textural preservation and higher calcium content. The radish tissues exhibited better cellular structures under ultrasonic power intensities of 0.17 and 0.26 W/cm(2) with less cell separation and disruption. Volatile compound data revealed that radish aromatic profile was also affected in the freezing process.

  5. Separation and purification of sulforaphene from radish seeds using macroporous resin and preparative high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Kuang, Pengqun; Song, Dan; Yuan, Qipeng; Yi, Rui; Lv, Xinhua; Liang, Hao

    2013-01-15

    This present study described a rapid and cost-effective method for the separation and purification of natural sulforaphene from radish seeds by SP-700 macroporous resin and preparative high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Sulforaphene with high purity and recovery was obtained by preparative HPLC with a C18 column and 30% methanol in ultra-pure water as the mobile phase. 12.5 kg of radish seeds, which contained 87.5 g of sulforaphene, produced 117.5 g of sulforaphene-rich extract of 65.8% sulforaphene after primary separation by SP-700 macroporous resin. 5.9 g of 96.5% sulforaphene was obtained from 9.5 g of the sulforaphene-rich extract after purification by preparative HPLC. The purified compound was assessed by analytical HPLC and characterised by ESI/MS, (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR. Standard curve was developed using the purified sulforaphene to allow quantification of sulforaphene in the extracts of radish seeds by analytical HPLC. PMID:23122068

  6. Flowering of Japanese astronomy

    SciTech Connect

    Kozai, Y.

    1988-06-01

    A development history is presented for Japanese astronomy from the 6th century to the present day, together with a status report and account of future plans. About 500 professionals currently belong to the Astronomical Society of Japan. Tokyo's Mitaka Observatory employs a staff of about 70 astronomers; most modern astronomical instruments, however, have been installed at sites outside the Tokyo area. The limitations of present instruments are notably severe for astronomers working in the visible and IR wavelengths.

  7. Japanese technology assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Albus, J.

    1986-01-01

    This series of studies assesses Japanese technology in four of today's most visible high-technology areas. Selected part and chapter titles: COMPUTER SCIENCE - Artificial Intelligence and Man-Machine Interface, Processor Architecture and Computer Organization; OPTO- and MICROELECTRONICS - Metal Contacts to III-V Semi-conductors, Josephson Devices and Technology; MECHATRONICS - Flexible Manufacturing Systems Development, Manipulators/Actuators; BIOTECHNOLOGY - Genetic Information Transfer Biosensors.

  8. Suicide of Japanese Youth.

    PubMed

    Iga, M

    1981-01-01

    The uniquely intense stress due to the Examination Hell (shiken jigoku) not only generates a basic drive for Japan's economic success but also contributes to a high rate of young people's suicide. This paper discusses the major factors in the intensity of Japanese stress on both institutional and psychological levels. The social structural factors which convert stress to suicide are analyzed in terms of weak ego; restraint on aggression; a lack of social resources; and views of life, death and suicide. Japanese views of life, death and suicide are treated in terms of Absolute phenomenalism, the original form of Shintoism, to which Buddhism and Confucianism have been adjusted in Japan. Japanese phenomenalism affects suicide through its three aspects: animism, present-time oriented small groupism, and the absolute acceptance of the established social order. Confusion and conflict since World War II have increased anomic suicides; however, elements of fatalistic suicide (due to excessive formal or informal social regulations) and altruistic suicide (due to excessive formal or informal social regulations) and altruistic suicide (due to strong social integration) are evident. Suicide is still a highly institutionalized adjustment mechanism in Japan.

  9. Effect of volatile metabolites of dill, radish and garlic on growth of bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tirranen, L. S.; Borodina, E. V.; Ushakova, S. A.; Rygalov, V. Ye; Gitelson, J. I.

    2001-07-01

    In a model experiment plants were grown in sealed chambers on expanded clay aggregate under the luminance of 150 W/m 2 PAR and the temperature of 24°C. Seven bacterial strains under investigation, replicated on nutrient medium surface in Petri dishes, were grown in the atmosphere of cultivated plants. Microbial response was evaluated by the difference between colony size in experiment and in control. In control, bacteria grew in the atmosphere of clean air. To study the effect of volatile metabolites of various plant on microbial growth, the experimental data were compared with the background values defined for each individual experiment. Expanded clay aggregate, luminance, temperature and sealed chamber (without plants) for the background were the same. Volatile metabolites from 28-days old radish plants have been reliably established to have no effect on the growth of microbes under investigation. Metabolites of 30-days old dill and 50-days old garlic have been established to have reliable bacteriostatic effect on the growth of three bacterial strains. Dill and garlic have been found to have different range of effects of volatile substances on bacterial growth. Volatile metabolites of dill and garlic differed in their effect on the sensitivity spectrum of bacteria. An attempt has been made to describe the obtained data mathematically.

  10. Issei: Japanese Immigrants in Hawaii.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimura, Yukiko

    Coming to Hawaii before July 1, 1924, when the Japanese Exclusion Act became effective, the experiences of the Issei or first generation are described. Divided into four parts, this book examines the experiences of Japanese immigrants in Hawaii from 1885 through 1970. Part 1, "The Formation and Stabilization of the Issei Community," explores the…

  11. Counseling Japanese Men on Fathering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seto, Atsuko; Becker, Kent W.; Akutsu, Motoko

    2006-01-01

    The authors review an article (J. Yamamoto & F. Tagami, 2004) published in the "Japanese Journal of Counseling Science" that described changes in contemporary Japanese family structures and illustrated a therapy process with a father to enhance the father-son relationship. Implications for the counseling profession in working with men on…

  12. Language Habits of the Japanese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinosita, Koreo

    1988-01-01

    Contrasts Japanese language habits with Western language habits, asserting that Japanese need to speak more concisely, express themselves clearly and frankly, and eliminate superfluous polite language and preliminaries in order to be successful in the efficiency-oriented civilization that is a product of Western culture. (RAE)

  13. Asian Pacific Perspectives: Japanese Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Los Angeles Unified School District, CA.

    These instructional materials on Japanese Americans for elementary students were developed through the K.E.Y.S. project (Knowledge of English Yields Success). Information is included on early immigrants, their historical and cultural background, and current problems of Japanese Americans. Resource guides describe the purpose of the unit, how to…

  14. A GLOSSARY OF JAPANESE NEOLOGISMS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BAILEY, DON C.

    THIS GLOSSARY COMPRISES A LIST OF USEFUL NEW WORDS AND PHRASES IN CURRENT USE NOT FOUND IN JAPANESE-ENGLISH DICTIONARIES, SPECIFICALLY KENKYUSHA'S NEW JAPANESE-ENGLISH DICTIONARY, 1954 EDITION, WHICH HAS SERVED AS THE MODEL IN MOST RESPECTS FOR THE FORMAT AND STYLE. ROMANIZATION OF THE ORTHOGRAPHY FOLLOWS A MODIFIED HEPBURN SYSTEM AND THE JAPANESE…

  15. Production and characterization of intertribal somatic hybrids of Raphanus sativus and Brassica rapa with dye and medicinal plant Isatis indigotica.

    PubMed

    Tu, Yuqin; Sun, Jian; Liu, Yan; Ge, Xianhong; Zhao, Zhigang; Yao, Xingcheng; Li, Zaiyun

    2008-05-01

    Intertribal somatic hybrids of Raphanus sativus (2n = 18, RR) and Brassica rapa spp. chinensis (2n = 20, AA) with the dye and medicinal plant Isatis indigotica (2n = 14, I I) were firstly obtained by polyethylene glycol-induced symmetric fusions of mesophyll protoplasts. One mature hybrid with R. sativus established in field had intermediate morphology but was totally sterile. It had the expected chromosome number (2n = 32, RRI I) and parental chromosomes were distinguished by genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) analysis, and these chromosomes were paired as 16 bivalents in pollen mother cells (PMCs) at diakinesis and mainly segregated equally as 16:16 at anaphase I (A I), but the meiotic disturbance in second division was obvious. Five mature hybrids with B. rapa established in field were morphologically intermediate but showed some differences in phenotypic traits and fertility, two were partially fertile. Cytological and GISH investigations revealed that these hybrids had 2n = 48 with AAIIII complement and their PMCs showed normal pairing of 24 bivalents and mainly equal segregation 24:24, but meiotic abnormalities of lagging chromosomes and micronuclei appeared frequently during second divisions. AFLP analysis showed that all of these hybrids had mainly the DNA banding pattern from the addition of two parents plus some alterations. Some hybrids should be used for the genetic improvement of crops and the dye and medicinal plant.

  16. Green synthesis of biogenic silver nanomaterials using Raphanus sativus extract, effects of stabilizers on the morphology, and their antimicrobial activities.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mohammad Naved; Khan, Tabrez Alam; Khan, Zaheer; Al-Thabaiti, Shaeel Ahmed

    2015-12-01

    The present study explores the reducing and capping potentials of aqueous Raphanus sativus root extract for the synthesis of silver nanomaterials for the first time in the absence and presence of two stabilizers, namely, water-soluble starch and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). The surface properties of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were determined by dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersion X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) techniques. The mean size of AgNPs, ranging from 3.2 to 6.0 nm, could be facilely controlled by merely varying the initial [extract], [CTAB], [starch], and [Ag(+)] ions. The agglomeration number, average number of silver atoms per nanoparticle, and changes in the fermi potentials were calculated and discussed. The AgNPs were evaluated for their antimicrobial activities against different pathogenic organisms. The inhibition action was due to the structural changes in the protein cell wall.

  17. A Novel Compound Rasatiol Isolated from Raphanus sativus Has a Potential to Enhance Extracellular Matrix Synthesis in Dermal Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Roh, Seok-Seon; Park, Seung-Bae; Park, Seong-Mo; Choi, Byoung Wook; Lee, Min-Ho; Hwang, Yul-Lye; Kim, Chang Hun; Jeong, Hyun-Ah; Kim, Chang Deok

    2013-01-01

    Background The fibrous proteins of extracellular matrix (ECM) produced by dermal fibroblast contributes to the maintenance of connective tissue integrity. Objective This study is carried out to identify the bioactive ingredient from natural products that enhances ECM production in dermal fibroblasts. Methods Bioassay-directed fractionation was used to isolate the active ingredient from natural extracts. The effects of rasatiol (isolated from Raphanus sativus) on ECM production in primary cultured human dermal fibroblasts was investigated by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and western blot analysis. Results Rasatiol accelerated fibroblast growth in a dose-dependent manner and increased the production of type 1 collagen, fibronectin and elastin. Phosphorylation of p42/44 extracellular signal-regulated kinase, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, and Akt was remarkably increased by rasatiol, indicating that enhanced ECM production is linked to the activation of intracellular signaling cascades. Conclusion These results indicate that rasatiol stimulates the fibrous components of ECM production, and may be applied to the maintenance of skin texture. PMID:24003274

  18. Detection and characterization of a bacteriocin produced by Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris R isolated from radish.

    PubMed

    Yildirim, Z; Johnson, M G

    1998-04-01

    Bacteria isolated from radish were identified as Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris R and their bacteriocin was designated lactococcin R. Lactococcin R was sensitive to some proteolytic enzymes (proteinase-K, pronase-E, proteases, pepsin, alpha-chymotrypsin) but was resistant to trypsin, papain, catalase, lysozyme and lipase, organic solvents, or heating at 90 degrees C for 15, 30 and 60 min, or 121 degrees C for 15 min. Lactococcin R remained active after storage at -20 and -70 degrees C for 3 months and after exposure to a pH of 2-9. The molecular weight of lactococcin R was about 2.5 kDa. Lactococcin R was active against many food-borne pathogenic and food spoilage bacteria such as Clostridium, Staphylococcus, Listeria, Bacillus, Micrococcus, Enterococcus, Lactobacillus, Leuconostoc, Streptococcus and Pediococcus spp., but was not active against any Gram-negative bacteria. Lactococcin R was produced during log phase and reached a maximum activity (1600 AU ml-1) at early stationary phase. The highest lactococcin R production was obtained in MRS broth with 0.5% glucose, at 6.5-7.0 initial pH values, 30 degrees C temperature and 18-24-h incubation times. Lactococcin R adsorbed maximally to its heat-killed producing cells at pH 6-7 (95%). Crude lactococcin R at 1280 AU ml-1 was bactericidal, reducing colony counts of Listeria monocytogenes by 99.98% in 3 h. Lactococcin R should be useful as a biopreservative to prevent growth of food-borne pathogenic and food spoilage bacteria in ready-to-eat, dairy, meat, poultry and other food products. Lactococcin R differs from nisin in having a lower molecular weight, 2.5 kDa vs 3.4 kDa, and in being sensitive to pepsin and alpha-chymotrypsin to which nisin is resistant. PMID:9633097

  19. Ageing and the influx of water into radish root-hair cells.

    PubMed

    ROSENE, H F

    1950-09-01

    A micropotometric device previously described by the writer was used to determine quantitatively the velocity of water influx in cubic microns per square micron of hair surface per minute of comparatively older and younger root hairs of radish seedlings in a humid atmosphere at 29 degrees +/- 1 degrees C. when the micropotometers were filled with Hoagland solution at pH 6.8. In each experiment, measurements were made on two hairs of different length and different age on a given root and the hairs were inserted into the micropotometers a sufficient distance so that the area of immersion, 13,200micro(2), was the same in each instance. The range of velocities of water influx through the immersed surface was 4.46 to 1.16micro(3)/micro(2)/min. for the younger and shorter hairs which varied in length from 280 to 460 microns. The range of velocities of water influx through the immersed surface of the older hairs which varied from 661 to 2300 microns in length was 1.94 to 0.47micro(3)/micro(2)/min. The data indicate that water entry slows down in older hairs independent of root length. Estimations were made of the times to replace hair volumes based upon the mean velocities of water entry of the immersed areas. It was found that the time for the hairs to absorb an amount of water equivalent to their own volumes under the conditions specified was a matter of minutes or less; the range was 0.90 to 8.51 minutes.

  20. Inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 on Radish Seeds by Sequential Treatments with Chlorine Dioxide, Drying, and Dry Heat without Loss of Seed Viability ▿

    PubMed Central

    Bang, Jihyun; Kim, Haeyoung; Kim, Hoikyung; Beuchat, Larry R.; Ryu, Jee-Hoon

    2011-01-01

    We developed and validated a treatment to inactivate Escherichia coli O157:H7 on radish seeds without decreasing seed viability. Treatments with aqueous ClO2 followed by drying and dry-heat treatments were evaluated for efficacy to inactivate the pathogen. Conditions to dry radish seeds after treatment with water (control) or ClO2 were established. When treated seeds with high water activity (aw) (>0.99) were stored at 45°C and 23% relative humidity (RH), the aw decreased to <0.30 within 24 h. Drying high-aw seeds before exposing them to dry-heat treatment (≥60°C) was essential to preserve seed viability. The germination rate of radish seeds which had been immersed in water for 5 min, dried at 45°C and 23% RH for 24 h, and heated at 70°C for 48 h or at 80°C for 24 h was not significantly decreased (P ≤ 0.05) compared to that of untreated radish seeds. Sequential treatments with ClO2 (500 μg/ml, 5 min), drying (45°C, 23% RH, 24 h), and dry heating (70°C, 23% RH, 48 h) eliminated E. coli O157:H7 (5.9 log CFU/g) on radish seeds and, consequently, sprouts produced from them without decreasing the germination rate. These sequential treatments are recommended for application to radish seeds intended for sprout production. PMID:21803896

  1. Inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 on radish seeds by sequential treatments with chlorine dioxide, drying, and dry heat without loss of seed viability.

    PubMed

    Bang, Jihyun; Kim, Haeyoung; Kim, Hoikyung; Beuchat, Larry R; Ryu, Jee-Hoon

    2011-09-01

    We developed and validated a treatment to inactivate Escherichia coli O157:H7 on radish seeds without decreasing seed viability. Treatments with aqueous ClO(2) followed by drying and dry-heat treatments were evaluated for efficacy to inactivate the pathogen. Conditions to dry radish seeds after treatment with water (control) or ClO(2) were established. When treated seeds with high water activity (a(w)) (>0.99) were stored at 45°C and 23% relative humidity (RH), the a(w) decreased to <0.30 within 24 h. Drying high-a(w) seeds before exposing them to dry-heat treatment (≥60°C) was essential to preserve seed viability. The germination rate of radish seeds which had been immersed in water for 5 min, dried at 45°C and 23% RH for 24 h, and heated at 70°C for 48 h or at 80°C for 24 h was not significantly decreased (P ≤ 0.05) compared to that of untreated radish seeds. Sequential treatments with ClO(2) (500 μg/ml, 5 min), drying (45°C, 23% RH, 24 h), and dry heating (70°C, 23% RH, 48 h) eliminated E. coli O157:H7 (5.9 log CFU/g) on radish seeds and, consequently, sprouts produced from them without decreasing the germination rate. These sequential treatments are recommended for application to radish seeds intended for sprout production.

  2. "Honeymoon psychosis" in Japanese tourists to Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Langen, D; Streltzer, J; Kai, M

    1997-01-01

    Although Japanese tourists in Hawaii are infrequently treated for acute psychiatric emergencies, we observed several cases among Japanese honeymooners. To investigate this phenomenon, we retrospectively and prospectively collected such cases of honeymooners. Sixteen cases of acute psychiatric disturbance in Japanese honeymooners in Hawaii are described. This phenomenon occurs more frequently than in other Japanese tourists or non-Japanese honeymooners. The tradition of arranged marriage and other cultural factors may be associated with the potential for "honeymoon psychosis."

  3. Japanese viral encephalitis

    PubMed Central

    Tiroumourougane, S; Raghava, P; Srinivasan, S

    2002-01-01

    One of the leading causes of acute encephalopathy in children in the tropics is Japanese encephalitis (JE). Transmitted by the culex mosquito, this neurotropic virus predominately affects the thalamus, anterior horns of the spinal cord, cerebral cortex, and cerebellum. It mainly affects children <15 years and is mostly asymptomatic. The occasional symptomatic child typically presents with a neurological syndrome characterised by altered sensorium, seizures, and features of intracranial hypertension. Aetiological diagnosis is based on virus isolation or demonstration of virus specific antigen or antibodies in the cerebrospinal fluid/blood. Though no antiviral drug is available against JE, effective supportive management can improve the outcome. Control of JE involves efficient vector control and appropriate use of vaccines. PMID:11930023

  4. [Effects of cadmium stress on active oxygen generation, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme activities in radish seedlings].

    PubMed

    Tang, Chun-Fang; Liu, Yun-Guo; Zeng, Guang-Ming; Li, Cheng-Feng; Xu, Wei-Hua

    2004-08-01

    When seedlings of radish were treated with Cd2+ from 125 to 500 micromol/L, for a period of 12 to 96 h in hydroponic system, increase in ratio of SOD to CAT and levels of O(-.)(2), H(2)O(2), MDA indicate that Cd2+ induces oxidative stress in radish plants. Antioxidant enzyme activities responded differently to the level and time of Cd2+ treatment. Under 125 micromol/L Cd2+ treatment a gradual increase in SOD activity was observed; at 250, 500 micromol/L Cd2+ treatment SOD activity increased first, then declined considerably to even lower than that of the control during later Cd2+ treatment. A gradual decrease in roots and a marked increase in leaves in CAT activity were detected. GR activity in both leaves and roots were enhanced significantly with the increase in content of Cd2+ and time of treatment. The increase in GR activity suggests that AsA-GsH cycle may be activated to scavenge the AOS or the synthesis of PC may be stimulated to chelate cadmium.

  5. Metabolic fate and distribution of [{sup 14}C]1,3-dichloropropene in carrot, lettuce, radish, tomato, and wheat

    SciTech Connect

    Barnkow, D.E.; Byrne, S.L.; Huskin, M.A.

    1996-10-01

    This study examined the nature of the radioactive residue in carrot, lettuce, radish, tomato, and wheat grown in soil treated with uniformly {sup 14}C-labeled cis- and trans-1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D). Each crop was grown in soil treated at or above the maximum use rate. Carrot root and top, lettuce, radish root and top, tomato fruit and vine, and wheat forage, straw and grain were harvested, processed, and analyzed. The {sup 14}C residues were subjected to sequential extraction with diethyl ether and aqueous acetonitrile. The residues that remained were subjected to extraction, fractionation, and hydrolysis with buffer, enzymes, acid, alkali, and strong oxidizing agents. Analyses of the solubilized residues demonstrated that no detectable parent, 1,3-D, or the putative metabolites 3-chloroallyl alcohol and 3-chloroacrylic acid were present. The components of the extractable residue included most major plant constituents (i.e., protein, pigments, organic acids, sucrose, cellulose, and lignin). Thus, natural incorporation of the {sup 14}C-label into natural plant biochemicals is demonstrated.

  6. Raphanus sativus cv. Sango Sprout Juice Decreases Diet-Induced Obesity in Sprague Dawley Rats and Ameliorates Related Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Sapone, Andrea; De Nicola, Gina Rosalinda; Babot Marquillas, Clara; Iori, Renato; Antonazzo, Ippazio Cosimo; Gentilini, Fabio; Paolini, Moreno

    2016-01-01

    Background Obesity is recognized as a leading global health problem, correlated with an increased risk for several chronic diseases. One strategy for weight control management includes the use of vegetables rich in bioactive compounds to counteract weight gain, improve the antioxidant status and stimulate lipid catabolism. Aim of the Study The aim of this study was to investigate the role of Raphanus sativus Sango sprout juice (SSJ), a Brassica extraordinarily rich in anthocyanins (AC) and isothiocyanates (ITCs), in a non-genetic model of obesity (high fat diet-HFD induced). Methods Control groups were fed with HFD or regular diet (RD). After a 10-week period, animals were assigned to experimental units and treated by gavage for 28 days as follows: HFD and RD control groups (rats fed HFD or RD and treated with vehicle only) and HFD-treated groups (rats fed HFD and treated with 15, 75 or 150 mg/kg b.w. of SSJ). Body weight and food consumption were recorded and serum lipid profile was measured (total cholesterol, triglycerides, and non-esterified fatty acids). Hepatic phase-I, phase-II as well as antioxidant enzymatic activities were assessed. Results SSJ lowered total cholesterol level, food intake and liver weight compared with HFD rodents. SSJ at medium dose proved effective in reducing body-weight (~19 g reduction). SSJ was effective in up-regulating the antioxidant enzymes catalase, NAD(P)H:quinone reductase, oxidised glutathione reductase and superoxide dismutase, which reached or exceeded RD levels, as well as the phase II metabolic enzyme UDP-glucuronosyl transferase (up to about 43%). HFD up-regulated almost every cytochrome P450 isoform tested, and a mild down-regulation to baseline was observed after SSJ intervention. Conclusion This work reveals, for the first time, the antioxidant, hypolipidemic and antiobesity potential of SSJ, suggesting its use as an efficient new functional food/nutraceutical product. PMID:26987061

  7. Amendment in phosphorus levels moderate the chromium toxicity in Raphanus sativus L. as assayed by antioxidant enzymes activities.

    PubMed

    Sayantan, D; Shardendu

    2013-09-01

    Chromium (Z=24), a d-block element, is a potent carcinogen, whereas phosphorus is an essential and limiting nutrient for the plant growth and development. This study undertakes the role of phosphorus in moderating the chromium toxicity in Raphanus sativus L., as both of them compete with each other during the uptake process. Two-factor complete randomized experiment (5 chromium × 5 phosphorus concentrations) was conducted for twenty eight days in green house. The individuals of R. sativus were grown in pots supplied with all essential nutrients. The toxic effects of chromium and the moderation of toxicity due to phosphorus amendment were determined as accumulation of chromium, nitrogen, phosphorus in root tissues and their effects were also examined in the changes in biomass, chlorophyll and antioxidant enzyme levels. Cr and N accumulation were almost doubled at the highest concentration of Cr supply, without any P amendment, whereas at the highest P concentration (125 mM), the accumulation was reduced to almost half. A significant reduction in toxic effects of Cr was determined as there was three-fold increase in total chlorophyll and biomass at the highest P amendment. Antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase and lipid peroxidation were analyzed at various levels of Cr each amended with five levels of P. It was observed that at highest level of P amendment, the reduction percentage in toxicity was 33, 44, 39 and 44, correspondingly. Conclusively, the phosphorus amendment moderates the toxicity caused by the supplied chromium in R. sativus. This finding can be utilized to develop a novel technology for the amelioration of chromium stressed fields.

  8. Japanese attitudes towards foreign languages.

    PubMed

    Abe, Keiko

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to clarify Japanese attitudes towards foreign languages based on the kinds and changes of TV and radio programs that aired on the Japanese national broadcasting station (NHK) between 1955 and 2000. Foreign language programs are classified into three groups according to their content: 1) cultivation, 2) education, or 3) communication. For Japanese people, foreign languages are the measures of intelligence and intellect. Studying a foreign language is considered a sign of intelligence whether or not it is used for actual communication. The number of foreign language programs has increased tremendously since 1965 in part because the global economy has brought many countries in such close contact. Since 1990, programs for the purpose of communication have increased because of the necessity to communicate with foreign people. Japanese attitudes towards studying foreign languages have been changing gradually from an intellectual purpose to a communication purpose. PMID:15156734

  9. Effect of light exposure on sensorial quality, concentrations of bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacity of radish microgreens during low temperature storage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Daikon radish microgreens constitute a good source of bioactive compounds. However, the quality deteriorates rapidly during postharvest storage. In this study, we investigated the effects of light exposure and modified atmosphere packaging conditions on changes in sensorial quality and retention of ...

  10. Irradiation to kill Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella on ready-to-eat radish and mung bean sprouts.

    PubMed

    Bari, M L; Al-Haq, Muhammad Imran; Kawasaki, T; Nakauma, M; Todoriki, S; Kawamoto, S; Isshikii, K

    2004-10-01

    A study was carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of ionizing radiation in eliminating Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella on commercial ready-to-eat radish and mung bean sprouts and to assess the chemical and physical quality of these sprouts. The use of ionizing radiation was investigated as a means of reducing or totally inactivating these pathogens, if present, on the sprouts. Treatment of mung bean and radish sprouts with a dose of 1.5 and 2.0 kGy, respectively, significantly reduced E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella to nondetectable limits. The total vitamin C content was gradually reduced with the increase in irradiation dose (P < 0.0001). However, the effect of storage interval on the loss of vitamin C was nonsignificant for radish sprouts and significant for mung bean sprouts (P < 0.04). The color, firmness, and overall visual quality of the tested sprouts were acceptable when effective doses were applied to both radish and mung bean sprouts. Therefore, ionizing radiation could be useful in reducing the population of pathogens on sprouts and yet retain acceptable quality parameters.

  11. The Japanese Balloon Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimura, J.

    The Japanese scientific ballooning program has been organized by ISAS since the institute was founded in mid 1960s. Since then, the balloon group of ISAS has been engaged in the development of the balloon technologies and scientific observations in collaboration with scientists and engineers in other universities and organizations. Here, I describe several subjects of recent activities, the details of some items will also be reported in the separate papers in this meeting.Preparation of a new mobile receiving station.

  12. Balloons of made of the EVAL (Ethylene-Vinyl-Alcohol) films. EVAL film has specific Infra-red absorption bands, and is expected to be useful for saving the ballast for a long duration flight.
  13. A high altitude balloon with thin polyethylene films achieving at an altitude of above 50km. Further improvement of this type of balloons is continued by inventing how to extrude thin films less than 5 microns of thickness.
  14. Recent achievement of Antarctica Flights under the collaboration of ISAS and National Polar Institute.
  15. Other new efforts to long duration flights such as satellite link boomerang balloon systems and others.
  16. New balloon borne scientific instrumentation for observations of high energy electrons and Anti-protons in cosmic-rays.
  17. Language Attitudes in the Second Generation Japanese Group in Melbourne.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nasu, Tsuneo

    This study investigated language attitudes and Japanese language maintenance among a group of second-generation Japanese in Melbourne (Australia). Subjects were 66 Japanese high school students (second-generation) attending Japanese-language schools and 109 Japanese mothers (first-generation) self-identified as Japanese-identity,…

  18. Color constancy in Japanese animation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichihara, Yasuyo G.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, we measure the colors used in a Japanese Animations. The result can be seen on CIE-xy color spaces. It clearly shows that the color system is not a natural appearance system but an imagined and artistic appearance system. Color constancy of human vision can tell the difference in skin and hair colors between under moonlight and day light. Human brain generates a match to the memorized color of an object from daylight viewing conditions to the color of the object in different viewing conditions. For example, Japanese people always perceive the color of the Rising Sun in the Japanese flag as red even in a different viewing condition such as under moonlight. Color images captured by a camera cannot present those human perceptions. However, Japanese colorists in Animation succeeded in painting the effects of color constancy not only under moonlight but also added the memory matching colors. They aim to create a greater impact on viewer's perceptions by using the effect of the memory matching colors. In this paper, we propose the Imagined Japanese Animation Color System. This system in art is currently a subject of research in Japan. Its importance is that it could also provide an explanation on how human brain perceives the same color under different viewing conditions.

  19. Metabolism of 5'alpha,8'-cycloabscisic acid, a highly potent and long-lasting abscisic acid analogue, in radish seedlings.

    PubMed

    Todoroki, Yasushi; Sawada, Masao; Matsumoto, Miyuki; Tsukada, Shigeko; Ueno, Kotomi; Isaka, Masatoshi; Owaki, Mariko; Hirai, Nobuhiro

    2004-01-15

    We synthesized 5'alpha,8'-cycloabscisic acid (CycloABA), a highly potent and long-lasting abscisic acid (ABA) analogue, by a different method from that reported before. CycloABA fed to radish seedlings had more metabolic tolerance than ABA. The major metabolite of CycloABA was the glucose conjugate, which was the minor metabolite of ABA. The 8'-hydroxylated metabolite and its cyclized isomer, which were major metabolites of ABA, were not found as metabolites of CycloABA. The present results suggest that the highly potent and long-lasting activity of CycloABA is caused by resistance to ABA 8'-hydroxylase, and that CycloABA is partially metabolized to the glucose conjugate by ABA glucosyltransferase.

  20. Comparative Study of Lettuce and Radish Grown Under Red and Blue Light-Emitting Diodes (LEDs) and White Fluorescent Lamps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mickens, Matthew A.

    2012-01-01

    Growing vegetable crops in space will be an essential part of sustaining astronauts during long-term missions. To drive photosynthesis, red and blue light-emitting diodes (LEDs) have attracted attention because of their efficiency, longevity, small size, and safety. In efforts to optimize crop production, there have also been recent interests in analyzing the subtle effects of green light on plant growth, and to determine if it serves as a source of growth enhancement or suppression. A comparative study was performed on two short cycle crops of lettuce (Outredgeous) and radish (Cherry Bomb) grown under two light treatments. The first treatment being red and blue LEDs, and the second treatment consisting of white fluorescent lamps which contain a portion of green light. In addition to comparing biomass production, physiological characterizations were conducted on how the light treatments influence morphology, water use, chlorophyll content, and the production of A TP within plant tissues.

  21. An investigation of the phototropic effect on seedling orientation in a microgravity environment: A student involvement project. [radish germination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barainca, J. W.

    1984-01-01

    A microgravity growth chamber was designed to investigate the phototropic response of radish seedlings. Enclosed in a one fourth inch thick, hexagonal, fiberglass-foam spacepak nineteen inches across corners, the experiment consists of a growth chamber and germination tray, a water reservoir and solenoid valve, a fluorescent light for photo simulation, a Minolta X700 camera with programmable back, a 50 mm macro lens and flash, a battery pack, and a computer controller. Two temperature sensors and one light sensor located in the walls of the growth chamber provide temperature and illumination data. A computer provides 8 K command and 34 K data storage capability. The experiment was not activated during the STS flight because a malfunctioning latching relay stuck and reduced the battery power level.

  22. Complete genome sequence analysis identifies a new genotype of brassica yellows virus that infects cabbage and radish in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Yan; Xiang, Hai-Ying; Zhou, Cui-Ji; Li, Da-Wei; Yu, Jia-Lin; Han, Cheng-Gui

    2014-08-01

    For brassica yellows virus (BrYV), proposed to be a member of a new polerovirus species, two clearly distinct genotypes (BrYV-A and BrYV-B) have been described. In this study, the complete nucleotide sequences of two BrYV isolates from radish and Chinese cabbage were determined. Sequence analysis suggested that these isolates represent a new genotype, referred to here as BrYV-C. The full-length sequences of the two BrYV-C isolates shared 93.4-94.8 % identity with BrYV-A and BrYV-B. Further phylogenetic analysis showed that the BrYV-C isolates formed a subgroup that was distinct from the BrYV-A and BrYV-B isolates based on all of the proteins except P5.

  23. The pH dependence of phototautomerism in horse radish peroxidase monitored by fluorescence site-selection spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fidy, Judit; Koloczek, Henryk; Paul, Karl-Gustav; Vanderkooi, Jane M.

    1987-12-01

    Fluorescence site-selection spectra of mesoporphyrin horse radish peroxidase C 2 were measured at cryogenic temperatures in 50% glycerol-water. With irradiation at ≈ 17300 cm -1 interconverting emission lines were detected, which are attributed to phototautomerization within the excited sites. The reactivity for tautomerization was found to be much higher at pH 5.1 than at pH 8.0. The fluorescence decay for the two tautomers is single exponential with lifetimes of 23 and 21 ns, respectively. pH sensitivity is discussed in terms of possible conformational changes of the amino acid chain or a role of the liberated histidine in the reaction pathway.

  24. Complete genome sequence analysis identifies a new genotype of brassica yellows virus that infects cabbage and radish in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Yan; Xiang, Hai-Ying; Zhou, Cui-Ji; Li, Da-Wei; Yu, Jia-Lin; Han, Cheng-Gui

    2014-08-01

    For brassica yellows virus (BrYV), proposed to be a member of a new polerovirus species, two clearly distinct genotypes (BrYV-A and BrYV-B) have been described. In this study, the complete nucleotide sequences of two BrYV isolates from radish and Chinese cabbage were determined. Sequence analysis suggested that these isolates represent a new genotype, referred to here as BrYV-C. The full-length sequences of the two BrYV-C isolates shared 93.4-94.8 % identity with BrYV-A and BrYV-B. Further phylogenetic analysis showed that the BrYV-C isolates formed a subgroup that was distinct from the BrYV-A and BrYV-B isolates based on all of the proteins except P5. PMID:24599564

  25. Homogamy and Intermarriage of Japanese and Japanese Americans with Whites Surrounding World War II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ono, Hiromi; Berg, Justin

    2010-01-01

    Although some sociologists have suggested that Japanese Americans quickly assimilated into mainstream America, scholars of Japanese America have highlighted the heightened exclusion that the group experienced. This study tracked historical shifts in the exclusion level of Japanese and Japanese Americans in the United States surrounding World War…

  1. [Production and cytogenetics of hybrids of Ogura CMS Brassica campestris var. purpuraria x Raphanus sativus x Brassica napus].

    PubMed

    Huang, Bang-Quan; Liu, You-Qi; Wu, Wen-Hua; Xue, Xiao-Qiao

    2002-05-01

    Crosses of Ogura CMS Brassica campestris var. purpuraria x Raphanus sativus x Brassica napus were made and four hybrids were produced. One plant (PRN-1) was mosaic with yellow and milk white flowers and some flowers had both yellow and white petals. The others (PRN-2, -3, -4) had white flowers. PRN-4 had degenerated anthers, the other three had three to six anthers and could produce some pollens, but the pollens of PRN-2 were unstainable by I2-KI solution. PRN-2 had four normal honey glands, PRN-1 and PRN-3 had two, and PRN-4 had none. PRN-2 had normal leaf color and the other three showed different degrees of chlorophyll deficiency at low temperature. The chromosome number of PRN-1 was 2n = 38 and had the mean chromosome paring configuration of 14.67 I + 10.07 II + 1.06 III, and its chromosome set constitution might be AACR. This chromosome constitution may be due to the fertilization of female gamete of n = 19 (AR) with male gamete of n = 19 (AC) from B. napus. The occurrence of mosaic flower color in this plant may be attributed to the chromosome abnormalities caused by wide hybridization, such as chromosome deficiency and the formation of chromosome fragments and chromosome bridges. The chromosome number of PRN-2 was 2n = 35 and the mean chromosome paring configuration was 13.89 I + 8.33 II + 1.33 III + 0.11 IV. The chromosome number of PRN-3 was 2n = 33 and the mean chromosome paring configuration was 14.00 I + 7.82 II + 1.00 III + 0.09 IV. The chromosome number of PRN-4 was not determined as there was no pollen mother cell formation. Chromosome bridges and laggards were observed in PRN-1-3. Some seeds were harvested from PRN-1-3 but none was harvested from PRN-4 when backcrossed with B. napus. It seems possible for us to overcome the chlorophyll deficiency and honey gland abnormality and restore the male fertility in Ogura CMS by introduction of the nucleus of R. sativus into this cytoplasmic male sterile line. PMID:12043578

  2. Systemic Resistance to Powdery Mildew in Brassica napus (AACC) and Raphanus alboglabra (RRCC) by Trichoderma harzianum TH12.

    PubMed

    Alkooranee, Jawadayn Talib; Yin, Yongtai; Aledan, Tamarah Raad; Jiang, Yingfen; Lu, Guangyuan; Wu, Jiangsheng; Li, Maoteng

    2015-01-01

    Trichoderma harzianum TH12 is a microbial pesticide for certain rapeseed diseases. The mechanism of systemic resistance induced by TH12 or its cell-free culture filtrate (CF) in Brassica napus (AACC) and Raphanus alboglabra (RRCC) to powdery mildew disease caused by ascomycete Erysiphe cruciferarum was investigated. In this study, we conducted the first large-scale global study on the cellular and molecular aspects of B. napus and R. alboglabra infected with E. cruciferarum. The histological study showed the resistance of R. alboglabra to powdery mildew disease. The growth of fungal colonies was not observed on R. alboglabra leaves at 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 days post-inoculation (dpi), whereas this was clearly observed on B. napus leaves after 6 dpi. In addition, the gene expression of six plant defense-related genes, namely, PR-1, PR-2 (a marker for SA signaling), PR-3, PDF 1.2 (a marker for JA/ET signaling), CHI620, and CHI570, for both genotypes were analyzed in the leaves of B. napus and R. alboglabra after treatment with TH12 or CF and compared with the non-treated ones. The qRT-PCR results showed that the PR-1 and PR-2 expression levels increased in E. cruciferarum-infected leaves, but decreased in the TH12-treated leaves compared with leaves treated with CF. The expression levels of PR-3 and PDF1.2 decreased in plants infected by E. cruciferarum. However, expression levels increased when the leaves were treated with TH12. For the first time, we disclosed the nature of gene expression in B. napus and R. alboglabra to explore the resistance pathways in the leaves of both genotypes infected and non-infected by powdery mildew and inoculated or non-inoculated with elicitor factors. Results suggested that R. alboglabra exhibited resistance to powdery mildew disease, and the application of T. harzianum and its CF are a useful tool to facilitate new protection methods for resist or susceptible plants. PMID:26540161

  3. Systemic Resistance to Powdery Mildew in Brassica napus (AACC) and Raphanus alboglabra (RRCC) by Trichoderma harzianum TH12.

    PubMed

    Alkooranee, Jawadayn Talib; Yin, Yongtai; Aledan, Tamarah Raad; Jiang, Yingfen; Lu, Guangyuan; Wu, Jiangsheng; Li, Maoteng

    2015-01-01

    Trichoderma harzianum TH12 is a microbial pesticide for certain rapeseed diseases. The mechanism of systemic resistance induced by TH12 or its cell-free culture filtrate (CF) in Brassica napus (AACC) and Raphanus alboglabra (RRCC) to powdery mildew disease caused by ascomycete Erysiphe cruciferarum was investigated. In this study, we conducted the first large-scale global study on the cellular and molecular aspects of B. napus and R. alboglabra infected with E. cruciferarum. The histological study showed the resistance of R. alboglabra to powdery mildew disease. The growth of fungal colonies was not observed on R. alboglabra leaves at 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 days post-inoculation (dpi), whereas this was clearly observed on B. napus leaves after 6 dpi. In addition, the gene expression of six plant defense-related genes, namely, PR-1, PR-2 (a marker for SA signaling), PR-3, PDF 1.2 (a marker for JA/ET signaling), CHI620, and CHI570, for both genotypes were analyzed in the leaves of B. napus and R. alboglabra after treatment with TH12 or CF and compared with the non-treated ones. The qRT-PCR results showed that the PR-1 and PR-2 expression levels increased in E. cruciferarum-infected leaves, but decreased in the TH12-treated leaves compared with leaves treated with CF. The expression levels of PR-3 and PDF1.2 decreased in plants infected by E. cruciferarum. However, expression levels increased when the leaves were treated with TH12. For the first time, we disclosed the nature of gene expression in B. napus and R. alboglabra to explore the resistance pathways in the leaves of both genotypes infected and non-infected by powdery mildew and inoculated or non-inoculated with elicitor factors. Results suggested that R. alboglabra exhibited resistance to powdery mildew disease, and the application of T. harzianum and its CF are a useful tool to facilitate new protection methods for resist or susceptible plants.

  4. Systemic Resistance to Powdery Mildew in Brassica napus (AACC) and Raphanus alboglabra (RRCC) by Trichoderma harzianum TH12

    PubMed Central

    Alkooranee, Jawadayn Talib; Yin, Yongtai; Aledan, Tamarah Raad; Jiang, Yingfen; Lu, Guangyuan; Wu, Jiangsheng; Li, Maoteng

    2015-01-01

    Trichoderma harzianum TH12 is a microbial pesticide for certain rapeseed diseases. The mechanism of systemic resistance induced by TH12 or its cell-free culture filtrate (CF) in Brassica napus (AACC) and Raphanus alboglabra (RRCC) to powdery mildew disease caused by ascomycete Erysiphe cruciferarum was investigated. In this study, we conducted the first large-scale global study on the cellular and molecular aspects of B. napus and R. alboglabra infected with E. cruciferarum. The histological study showed the resistance of R. alboglabra to powdery mildew disease. The growth of fungal colonies was not observed on R. alboglabra leaves at 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 days post-inoculation (dpi), whereas this was clearly observed on B. napus leaves after 6 dpi. In addition, the gene expression of six plant defense-related genes, namely, PR-1, PR-2 (a marker for SA signaling), PR-3, PDF 1.2 (a marker for JA/ET signaling), CHI620, and CHI570, for both genotypes were analyzed in the leaves of B. napus and R. alboglabra after treatment with TH12 or CF and compared with the non-treated ones. The qRT-PCR results showed that the PR-1 and PR-2 expression levels increased in E. cruciferarum-infected leaves, but decreased in the TH12-treated leaves compared with leaves treated with CF. The expression levels of PR-3 and PDF1.2 decreased in plants infected by E. cruciferarum. However, expression levels increased when the leaves were treated with TH12. For the first time, we disclosed the nature of gene expression in B. napus and R. alboglabra to explore the resistance pathways in the leaves of both genotypes infected and non-infected by powdery mildew and inoculated or non-inoculated with elicitor factors. Results suggested that R. alboglabra exhibited resistance to powdery mildew disease, and the application of T. harzianum and its CF are a useful tool to facilitate new protection methods for resist or susceptible plants. PMID:26540161

  5. Japanese respond to campaign.

    PubMed

    1994-08-01

    A unique campaign launched by JOICFP in August 1993 had by the end of June 1994 netted US $41,200 to support activities of the integrated Project (IP) in developing countries. Under the campaign, the public, institutions, organizations, and businesses have been sending in used prepaid cards for sale to collectors in Japan and abroad. Prepaid cards are widely used throughout Japan for phones, subways, railways and highways. Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corporation (NTT) alone issues 20 million cards annually. The campaign, which has been widely featured in the media, has proved effective for drawing attention to JOICFP and to population and family planning issues. Gaining the understanding of the Japanese public about population issues has grown in importance since the government's announcement of the new Global Issues Initiative (GII). Word about the campaign was carried by radio, television, newspapers, and magazines nationwide. The number of cards sent in escalated with the attention. By the end of June, JOICFP had received around 700,000 cards, of which 550,000 have been exchanged for cash. The funds generated by the card sales have been allocated to support grassroots IP activities and encourage the self-reliance of projects in China, Ghana, Guatemala, Nepal, Tanzania, and Zambia. Responses to the campaign have come from individuals as well as local governments, hospitals, enterprises, and educational institutions. Many of these have initiated their own card-collection system and information-dissemination activities to support JOICFP. Over 5000 different organizations are now collaborating with JOICFP for the campaign, including Tenmaya Department Store in Okayama City.

  6. Persistence of fensulfothion in a sandy-loam soil and uptake by rutabagas, carrots and radishes using microplots

    SciTech Connect

    Greenhalgh, R.; Read, D.C.

    1981-01-01

    Field microplots were treated with 141 and 282 ppm fensulfothion and 37.1 and 74.2 ppm fensulfothion sulfone. These concentrations are equivalent to field treatment rates of 8.48 and 16.96 kg AI/ha, fensulfothion, and 2.23 and 4.47 kg AI/ha, fensulfothion sulfone, respectively, for banded application (10 cm wide, rows 80 cm apart). The half-lives in a sandy loam soil were 30-39 and 14-23 days, respectively. Fensulfothion sulfone and sulfide were the main derivatives found in fensulfothion treated soil. The maximum levels of these derivatives were 21.22 and 22.95 ppm, respectively for the 8.48 kg/ha treatment and 33.90 and 42.45 ppm, respectively, for the higher treatment, which occurred between 30-60 days. Carrots appeared to take up more fensulfothion from soil than rutabagas or radishes. The residue levels at harvest decreased in the order carrot peel greater than pulp greater than rutabagas root greater than peel greater than pulp. Residue levels of fensulfothion and sulfone in radishes were similar to those found in rutabagas. The ratio sulfoxide/sulfone in rutabagas ranged from 0.4-1.5 and in carrots from 1.7-7.6. This phenomenon is thought to be due to oxidative enzyme systems present in rutabagas. Dimethyl phosphorothioic acid, but not dimethyl phosphoric acid was detected (max. 1.33 ppm) in some rutabagas samples but not in carrots.

  7. Isolation and characterization of rhizobacteria from composts that suppress the severity of bacterial leaf spot of radish.

    PubMed

    Krause, M S; De Ceuster, T J J; Tiquia, S M; Michel, F C; Madden, L V; Hoitink, H A J

    2003-10-01

    ABSTRACT Composts can induce systemic resistance in plants to disease. Unfortunately, the degree of resistance induced seems highly variable and the basis for this effect is not understood. In this work, only 1 of 79 potting mixes prepared with different batches of mature, stabilized composts produced from several different types of solid wastes suppressed the severity of bacterial leaf spot of radish caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. armoraciae compared with disease on plants produced in a nonamended sphagnum peat mix. An additional batch of compost-amended mix that had been inoculated with Trichoderma hamatum 382 (T(382)), which is known to induce systemic resistance in plants, also suppressed the disease. A total of 11 out of 538 rhizobacterial strains isolated from roots of radish seedlings grown in these two compostamended mixes that suppressed bacterial leaf spot were able to significantly suppress the severity of this disease when used as inoculum in the compost-amended mixes. The most effective strains were identified as Bacillus sp. based on partial sequencing of 16S rDNA. These strains were significantly less effective in reducing the severity of this disease than T(382). A combined inoculum consisting of T(382) and the most effective rhizobacterial Bacillus strain was less effective than T(382) alone. A drench applied to the potting mix with the systemic acquired resistance-inducing chemical acibenzolar-S-methyl was significantly more effective than T(382) in several, but not all tests. We conclude that systemic suppression of foliar diseases induced by compost amendments is a rare phenomenon. Furthermore, inoculation of compost-amended potting mixes with biocontrol agents such as T(382) that induce systemic resistance in plants can significantly increase the frequency of systemic disease control obtained with natural compost amendments. PMID:18944329

  8. JABEE in Japanese Engineering Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeda, Kunihiko; Ishikawa, Tomoyuki

    JABEE in Japanese engineering education is discussed by focusing on the status and treatment of engineers in Japanese society and their achievements. The entrance fee and tuition of the engineering departments of higher education facilities are higher than those of the law, economy and literature departments. On the other hand, an engineer's lifelong wage is smaller than that of those who have graduated from the latter fields. Although engineering students must study for a longer period of time, the scholarship system to support these students in Japan falls far behind that in the U.S.A. The achievements of Japanese engineering were summarized from the viewpoint of economic indications such as 1) production of steel, 2) energy consumption per person as a function of GDP, 3) income 4) real estate abroad and miscellaneous factors such as the life spans and criminal rates of many countries. These analyses made it clear that Japanese engineers have the highest ability even compared to advanced countries and this is because of the higher engineering education in Japan ; but their status is unreasonably low in Japanese society. The four points by which the present status of Japanese engineers can be improved were discussed in relation to the introduction and the achievement of the JABEE system. The true aim of education reform by JABEE is that the engineering education in Japan should shift “from government to non-government”, “from organization to individual” and “from control to interdependency.” The expected points of improvement are discussed.

  9. Marine Biodiversity in Japanese Waters

    PubMed Central

    Fujikura, Katsunori; Lindsay, Dhugal; Kitazato, Hiroshi; Nishida, Shuhei; Shirayama, Yoshihisa

    2010-01-01

    To understand marine biodiversity in Japanese waters, we have compiled information on the marine biota in Japanese waters, including the number of described species (species richness), the history of marine biology research in Japan, the state of knowledge, the number of endemic species, the number of identified but undescribed species, the number of known introduced species, and the number of taxonomic experts and identification guides, with consideration of the general ocean environmental background, such as the physical and geological settings. A total of 33,629 species have been reported to occur in Japanese waters. The state of knowledge was extremely variable, with taxa containing many inconspicuous, smaller species tending to be less well known. The total number of identified but undescribed species was at least 121,913. The total number of described species combined with the number of identified but undescribed species reached 155,542. This is the best estimate of the total number of species in Japanese waters and indicates that more than 70% of Japan's marine biodiversity remains un-described. The number of species reported as introduced into Japanese waters was 39. This is the first attempt to estimate species richness for all marine species in Japanese waters. Although its marine biota can be considered relatively well known, at least within the Asian-Pacific region, considering the vast number of different marine environments such as coral reefs, ocean trenches, ice-bound waters, methane seeps, and hydrothermal vents, much work remains to be done. We expect global change to have a tremendous impact on marine biodiversity and ecosystems. Japan is in a particularly suitable geographic situation and has a lot of facilities for conducting marine science research. Japan has an important responsibility to contribute to our understanding of life in the oceans. PMID:20689840

  10. Schooling in Micronesia during Japanese Mandate Rule.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shuster, Donald R.

    1979-01-01

    This review of Japanese educational policy in Micronesia from 1920-36 describes the separate school systems established for natives and for Japanese immigrants. Native schools offered a shorter, less rigorous program whose main intent was socialization to Japanese language and culture. (SJL)

  11. Japanese/Korean Linguistics, Volume 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, David J., Ed.

    A collection of research in Japanese and Korean linguistics includes: "Repetition, Reformulation, and Definitions: Prosodic Indexes of Elaboration in Japanese" (Mieko Banno); "Projection of Talk Using Language, Intonation, Deictic and Iconic Gestures and Other Body Movements" (Keiko Emmett); "Turn-taking in Japanese Political Debate: Syntax,…

  12. Persistence of Ethnicity: The Japanese of Colorado.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Endo, Russell

    This paper presents an overview of the history of Japanese in Colorado. Japanese immigrants first came to Colorado between 1900 and 1910 as railroad laborers. Some became coal miners in southern Colorado; most others became farm laborers. Although the Japanese population during this period was small, communities developed in several locales. The…

  13. Two Modes of Counting in Japanese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Backus, Robert L.

    1972-01-01

    This paper seeks to formulate a principle that explains the working of the Japanese number system with respect to Japanese nouns and that defines the kinds of nouns and contexts that condition the forms of number expressions. It is the author's theory that in applying numbers to nouns, the Japanese make a formal distinction between things they…

  14. RESEARCH IN JAPANESE SOURCES--A GUIDE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    RYAN, MARLEIGH; WEBB, HERSCHEL

    A BEGINNER'S GUIDE HAS BEEN PREPARED FOR THE SUBJECT OF JAPANESE BIBLIOGRAPHIES. IT WAS DESIGNED FOR THREE KINDS OF USERS--(1) THE STUDENT IN SOME DISCIPLINE OF THE HUMANITIES WHO WISHES TO CONDUCT RESEARCH ON JAPAN AND MAKE USE OF JAPANESE LANGUAGE MATERIALS, (2) THE STUDENT OR LIBRARIAN WHO KNOWS NO JAPANESE BUT WISHES INFORMATION ABOUT JAPAN,…

  15. The Work Values of Japanese Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engel, John W.

    Empirical studies of Japanese work ethics have tended to focus on male workers while neglecting women. In addition, work values in both Japan and the United States appear to be changing. More information is needed on the work values of American and Japanese female workers. A study was conducted to explore the work ethics of Japanese women and to…

  16. A Cultural Context for Japanese Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wojtan, Linda S.

    1985-01-01

    Certain Japanese educational practices serving as worthwhile examples to the United States' educational system are highlighted in this overview of Japanese education. However, it is stressed that because the United States and the Japanese educational systems are dependent upon their social context and exist in a symbiotic relationship within that…

  17. Generations and Identity: The Japanese American.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitano, Harry H. L.

    The story of people of Japanese descent in the United States is told in its historic context. The Japanese came to America with cultural values that differed greatly from the mainstream U.S. society. They were also set apart by appearance. Conflict between Japan and the United States exacerbated the problems between the Japanese Americans and the…

  18. Shattering Myths: Japanese American Educational Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoshiwara, Florence M.

    An historical review of the immigration and resettlement patterns, and a demographic profile of Japanese Americans reveals a myth of the "successful minority." Since the founding of the Japanese American Citizens League in 1928, Japanese Americans have defeated alien land laws, discriminatory immigration quotas, anti-miscengenation laws, and…

  19. Gender and Language in Japanese Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakamura, Keiko

    2001-01-01

    Explores the relation between gender and language use in Japanese preschool children. Gender-based differences in Japanese include phonological, lexical, and morphosyntactical differences, as well as differences in conversational style. Data come from monthly naturalistic observations of 24 monolingual Japanese boys and girls engaged in same-sex…

  20. A NEW CLASSIFICATION FOR THE JAPANESE VERB.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    TAKAHASHI, GEORGE

    JAPANESE VERBS AND THE PARTICLES WHICH OFTEN ACCOMPANY THEM PRESENT DIFFICULTIES TO LEARNERS OF THAT LANGUAGE. THE TRADITIONAL GRAMMATICAL TERMS, "TRANSITIVE" AND "INTRANSITIVE" (VERBS), REFLECT CONCEPTS WHICH ARE VALID IN ENGLISH BUT NOT IN JAPANESE. THE AUTHOR, IN ATTEMPTING TO CLASSIFY ALL JAPANESE VERBS ACCORDING TO THEIR NATURE AND BEHAVIOR,…

  1. The Nonacademic Curriculum of the Japanese Preschool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peach, Mark

    1994-01-01

    Japanese nursery school and kindergarten activities are designed to facilitate the socialization of Japanese children. The culture of the home and the culture of the school (and by extension the rest of Japanese society) are so different from each other that it is believed the open and unselfconscious help of the education system is necessary to…

  2. Japanese management. Implications for nursing administration.

    PubMed

    Smith, H L; Reinow, F D; Reid, R A

    1984-09-01

    Does Japanese management possess sufficient practical validity to warrant retraining of nursing administrators and their staffs? Can Japanese management really address the complexities of contemporary nursing administration? Before espousing the benefits of Theory Z and implementing quality circles in your hospital, read this analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of Japanese management--the benefits can be substantial but so can the costs!

  3. Translocation of (125)I, (75)Se and (36)Cl to edible parts of radish, potato and green bean following wet foliar contamination under field conditions.

    PubMed

    Henner, P; Hurtevent, P; Thiry, Y; Levchuk, S; Yoschenko, V; Kashparov, V

    2013-10-01

    Specific translocation factor values (ftr) for (129)I, (79)Se and (36)Cl following foliar transfer are still missing from the IAEA reference databases. The translocation of the short-lived isotopes, (125)I, (75)Se, and (36)Cl, to radish, potato and green bean edible parts was measured under field conditions following acute and chronic wet foliar contamination at various plant growth stages in the absence of leaching caused by rain. The translocation factors obtained for (125)I ranged from 0.8 to 2.6% for radish, from 0.1 to 2.3% for potato and from 0.1 to 2.6% for bean. The translocation factors obtained for (75)Se ranged from 6.3 to 21% for radish, from 1.6 to 32.6% for potato and from 7.7 to 22.8% for bean (values similar to Cs or even higher). The translocation factors obtained for (36)Cl were close to those for (75)Se and ranged from 4.3 to 28.8% for radish, from 0.5 to 31.5% for potato and from 4.3 to 16.3% for bean. Iodide showed the lowest apparent mobility because of its preferential fixation in or on the leaves and a significant amount was probably volatilized. Selenite internal transfer was significant and possibly followed the sulfur metabolic pathway. Chloride was very mobile and quickly diffused throughout the plant. The translocation factors varied with the growth stage and depended on the development state of the edible tissue and its associated sink strength for nutrients and assimilates. For radish, translocation was high during the early vegetative stages. For potato, wheat and bean, a major peak in translocation was seen during the flowering growth stage and the concomitant growth of potato tubers. An additive effect of successive contamination events on translocated elements was shown in radish but not in bean and potato. The highest translocation value obtained for an acute contamination event was shown to be an adequate, conservative indicator of chronic contamination in absence of specific values. Due to the absence of rain leaching during

  4. Other Japanese Educations and Japanese Education Otherwise. Review Essay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takayama, Keita

    2011-01-01

    Education in the United States was in a state of "crisis" at the time of the 1983 release of "A Nation at Risk," the landmark report on the US education reform. This was the time when the rising Japanese economy started threatening the post-war US economic dominance and conservative figures such as Ronald Reagan gained popular support. Subsequent…

  5. Radish introduction affects soil biota and has a positive impact on the growth of a native plant.

    PubMed

    Pearse, Ian S; Bastow, Justin L; Tsang, Alia

    2014-02-01

    Introduced plants may out-compete natives by belowground allelopathic effects on soil communities including the symbionts of native plants. We tested for an allelopathic effect of an introduced crucifer, Raphanus sativus, on a common neighboring legume, Lupinus nanus, on the legume's rhizobium affiliates, and on the broader soil community. In both field observations and a greenhouse experiment, we found that R. sativus decreased the density of nodules on L. nanus roots. However, in the greenhouse experiment, R. sativus soils only decreased the density of small, likely non-beneficial rhizobium nodules. In the same experiment, R. sativus soils decreased fungivorous nematode abundance, though there was no effect of R. sativus introduction on fungal density. In the greenhouse experiment, R. sativus soils had a net positive effect on L. nanus biomass. One explanation of this effect is that R. sativus introduction might alter the mutualistic/parasitic relationship between L. nanus and its rhizobial associates with a net benefit to L. nanus. Our results suggest that introduced brassicas can quickly alter belowground communities, but that the net effect of this on neighboring plants is not necessarily negative. PMID:24072439

  6. Japanese Industry Boosts Pollution Spending

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAbee, Michael K.

    1975-01-01

    In response to tightening emission standards imposed by the government, Japanese industry will increase its capital spending on pollution control equipment to account for about 20 percent of all industrial capital spending. Preferential treatment and loans from government-affiliated financial institutions are available for projects. (Author/MLH)

  7. Japanese macaques as laboratory animals.

    PubMed

    Isa, Tadashi; Yamane, Itaru; Hamai, Miya; Inagaki, Haruhisa

    2009-10-01

    The Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata), along with rhesus and long-tailed macaques, is one of the macaca species. In Japan, it has been preferred for use as a laboratory animal, particularly in the field of neuroscience, because of its high level of intelligence and its gentle nature. In addition, the species has a relatively homogeneous genetic background and field researchers have accumulated abundant information on the social behavior of wild Japanese macaques. As future neuroscience research will undoubtedly be more focused on the higher cognitive functions of the brain, including social behavior among multiple individuals, the Japanese macaque can be expected to become even more valuable as a laboratory animal in the near future. The Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology has launched a National BioResource Project (NBRP) to establish a stable breeding and supply system for Japanese macaques for laboratory use. The project is in progress and should lead to the establishment of a National Primate Center in Japan, which will support the supply of monkeys as well as social outreach and handling of animal welfare issues.

  8. Teaching Japanese-American Incarceration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miksch, Karen L.; Ghere, David

    2004-01-01

    Few events in American history are so universally deplored as the incarceration of Japanese Americans during World War II. The United States government has acknowledged the error and the injustice that resulted with an official Presidential apology and a Congressional disbursement of reparations to the victims of the incarceration policy. The…

  9. Dilemmas of Japanese Professional Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osako, Masako Murakami

    1978-01-01

    Despite advanced industrialization, Japanese women are subjected to occupational inequality by businesses that place them on a career track separate from men in terms of wages, promotion, and retirement and by a cultural environment that fosters the values of motherhood and stresses female authority only in domestic situations. (WI)

  10. The Effects of Japanese Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummings, William K.

    In this paper, selected evidence on the effects of Japanese schools is presented. The author believes that Japan is one modern society where the schools have fostered individual and social development. The primary focus is on the effects for individuals in the area of cognitive skills, motivation, educational and occupational attainments, and…

  11. Contrastive Rhetoric: Japanese and English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinds, John

    Research is reviewed on systematic differences in expository styles due to cultural or linguistic diversity. The critique concentrates on the method of data gathering, the usage of the categorization "Oriental," and the description of English paragraph development. An investigation is reported that consisted of an analysis of the Japanese and…

  12. Point substitutions in Japanese alloalbumins.

    PubMed

    Arai, K; Madison, J; Huss, K; Ishioka, N; Satoh, C; Fujita, M; Neel, J V; Sakurabayashi, I; Putnam, F W

    1989-08-01

    We have completed the structural study of five rare types of inherited albumin variants (alloalbumins) discovered in the Biochemical Genetics Study of 15,581 unrelated children in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. We have also identified the structural change in five other alloalbumin specimens detected during clinical electrophoresis of sera from Japanese living near Tokyo. Each of the five albumin variants from Nagasaki and Hiroshima has a single amino acid substitution. All of these substitutions differ, and none has been reported in non-Japanese populations. No instances of proalbumin variants or of albumin B (the most frequent alloalbumins in Caucasians) were detected in the children in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. However, one instance of a variant proalbumin and two examples of albumin B occurred in Japanese from the vicinity of Tokyo. In addition a previously unreported point substitution was found in albumin Tochigi, which is present in two unrelated persons from Tochigi prefecture. Four of the point mutations in the Japanese alloalbumins are in close proximity in a short segment of the polypeptide chain (residues 354-382) in which three additional point substitutions have been reported in diverse populations. These results, combined with earlier data, suggest that point substitutions are grouped in certain segments of the albumin molecule.

  13. Three Plays from the Japanese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayfield, M. Kent

    This study is both an interpretation and a translation of three modern Japanese plays, providing an artistic perspective on the radical reordering of experience and thought with which modern man must grapple in cross-cultural encounters. An introductory essay prefaces each play, providing a historical, critical, or appreciative perspective from…

  14. Overview of Japanese aerospace plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamanaka, Tatsuo

    1992-12-01

    The Japanese NAL, NASDA, and ISAS agencies have undertaken development of a Highly Maneuverable Experimental Spaceplane ('HIMES') which will integrate hypersonic technologies currently under development. A development status evaluation of these activities is presented. Attention is given to the configurational features of HIMES, its aerodynamic developmental tests to date, structures and materials considerations, flight control/guidance systems, airbreathing propulsion options, and CFD modeling.

  15. Japanese Americans: Oppression and Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersen, William

    This book is less a study of Japanese Americans per se than an analysis of the puzzle that they present to theorists of ethnic relations. What made them different? What gave them the strength to thrive on adversity? How must our theories of intergroup relations be amended to take account of this deviant case? After an introductory chapter, the…

  16. The Japanese Copula: A Dummy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wenck, G.

    1973-01-01

    Discussion of whether the Japanese copula can adequately be described as a dummy, i.e., as an element which although existing in the surface structure can be dispensed with in the deep structure of a sentence; based on a paper read at the 1970 meeting of the Societas Linguistica Europaea, Prague, Czechoslovakia. (RS)

  17. Japanese Logic Puzzles and Proof

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wanko, Jeffrey J.

    2009-01-01

    An understanding of proof does not start in a high school geometry course. Rather, attention to logical reasoning throughout a student's school experience can help the development of proof readiness. In the spirit of problem solving, the author has begun to use some Japanese logic puzzles other than sudoku to help students develop additional…

  18. The Japanese Domestic Labor Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ueno, Chizuko

    The changing role of Japanese women can be seen in the stages of a domestic labor debate which occurred at three different times in the past 30 years. The first debate began with Ayako Ishigaki's (1955) insistence that women should have a job outside the home. Wartime production helped break down traditional divisions of labor by encouraging women…

  19. Developing stable progenies of ×Brassicoraphanus, an intergeneric allopolyploid between Brassica rapa and Raphanus sativus, through induced mutation using microspore culture.

    PubMed

    Lee, Soo-Seong; Lee, Sun-Ae; Yang, Jungmin; Kim, Jongkee

    2011-03-01

    Induced mutations were used to improve the low seed fertility of an intergeneric allopolyploid, 'Baemoochae,' ×Brassicoraphanus, synthesized following hybridization between Brassica rapa and Raphanus sativus. The mutagen N-methyl-N-nitroso-urethane (NMU) was added to microspore cultures. Four lines of nine in the Mi(2) generation showed very high fertility under controlled pollination. The progeny lines (Mi(3)) confirmed this result under open pollination, and excellent uniformity was observed in plants grown in the field, as well as in their AFLP profile. On attaining high fertility and uniformity, one of the lines was released to farmers as a new leafy vegetable crop. The original nine lines shared very similar AFLP banding patterns, without any large differences between the high and low seed fertility lines. Thus, mutation induction accelerated genetic stabilization of a newly synthesized allopolyploid, ×Brassicoraphanus.

  20. Developing stable progenies of ×Brassicoraphanus, an intergeneric allopolyploid between Brassica rapa and Raphanus sativus, through induced mutation using microspore culture.

    PubMed

    Lee, Soo-Seong; Lee, Sun-Ae; Yang, Jungmin; Kim, Jongkee

    2011-03-01

    Induced mutations were used to improve the low seed fertility of an intergeneric allopolyploid, 'Baemoochae,' ×Brassicoraphanus, synthesized following hybridization between Brassica rapa and Raphanus sativus. The mutagen N-methyl-N-nitroso-urethane (NMU) was added to microspore cultures. Four lines of nine in the Mi(2) generation showed very high fertility under controlled pollination. The progeny lines (Mi(3)) confirmed this result under open pollination, and excellent uniformity was observed in plants grown in the field, as well as in their AFLP profile. On attaining high fertility and uniformity, one of the lines was released to farmers as a new leafy vegetable crop. The original nine lines shared very similar AFLP banding patterns, without any large differences between the high and low seed fertility lines. Thus, mutation induction accelerated genetic stabilization of a newly synthesized allopolyploid, ×Brassicoraphanus. PMID:21113703

  1. Endo-N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase and peptide-N4-(N-acetyl-glucosaminyl) asparagine amidase activities during germination of Raphanus sativus.

    PubMed

    Berger, S; Menudier, A; Julien, R; Karamanos, Y

    1995-06-01

    Endo-N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase (ENGase, EC 3.2.1.96) and peptide-N4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl) asparagine amidase (PNGase, EC 3.5.1.52) activities were monitored during germination and postgerminative development in Raphanus sativus. The PNGase activity was found in dry seeds and its level was constant during germination and postgermination. The ENGase activity was first detected about 18 hr after the start of imbibition (HAI) and displayed a maximum level at 36 HAI. After 36 HAI the production of both enzymes was constant until days 4-5. Both enzymes displayed substrate specificities corresponding to the potential glycoprotein substrates found in plants. They are in agreement (i) with the hypothesis that ENGase and PNGase are at the origin of the production of 'unconjugated N-glycans' and (ii) with the possibility that protein activity could be regulated by the removal of N-glycans.

  2. Effects of seven pure flavonoids from mosses on germination and growth of Tortula muralis HEDW (Bryophyta) and Raphanus sativus L (Magnoliophyta).

    PubMed

    Basile, Adriana; Sorbo, Sergio; López-Sáez, José Antonio; Castaldo Cobianchi, Rosa

    2003-04-01

    Dried mosses (five moss species) were progressively extracted and subjected to a four-step Craig distribution. Seven pure flavonoids were isolated and identified. The flavonoids were the flavones apigenin, apigenin-7-O-triglycoside, lucenin-2, luteolin-7-O-neohesperidoside, saponarine and vitexin; and the biflavonoid bartramiaflavone and they were submitted to biological tests. The tests were performed in vitro on spore germination and protonemal growth of the moss Tortula muralis and on seed germination and root growth of Raphanus sativus. Flavonoids caused a decrease in the percentage of spore germination, protonemal development and root growth. In addition they caused morphological alterations, such as forked tips, swollen apices, rounded cells and early formation of brood cells in the protonemata. Data were discussed in relation to the presence of allelochemicals in mosses.

  3. A study of the phylogeny of Brassica rapa, B. nigra, Raphanus sativus, and their related genera using noncoding regions of chloroplast DNA.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yau-Wen; Tai, Pon-Yean; Chen, Ying; Li, Wen-Hsiung

    2002-05-01

    There are two evolutionary lineages in the genus Brassica: the rapa/oleracea lineage and the nigra lineage. Using nuclear DNA sequences such as the intergenic spacer between 5S rRNA genes and the internal transcribed spacer between 18S and 25S rRNA genes, we and others had previously demonstrated that Raphanus sativus is closely related to the nigra lineage. In the present study, we sequenced the chloroplast noncoding region between trnT and trnF and that between trnD and trnT in seven species and showed that R. sativus is more closely related to the rapa/oleracea lineage than to the nigra lineage. The conflicting results from nuclear DNA and chloroplast DNA support the hypothesis that Raphanus was derived from a hybridization between the rapa/oleracea and the nigra lineages. We estimated the date of this hybridization event to be 60% of the divergence time between the two Brassica lineages. In addition, the pattern and rate of nucleotide substitution were studied. There were more transversions than transitions in these noncoding regions, which have a high AT content. Furthermore, the proportion of transversions among the substitutions at a site increases with increasing A + T content of its two adjacent nucleotides. An influence of immediate 5(') pyrimidine on substitution pattern is also observed when both adjacent bases in the two DNA strands are A or T. The rate of nucleotide substitution in the trnL group I intron is only about one third of the rate in the nearby intergenic spacers in the trnT-trnF fragment. The rate of nucleotide substitution in the rapa/oleracea lineage is at least 1.5 times that in the nigra lineage.

  4. Pair-List Readings in Korean-Japanese, Chinese-Japanese and English-Japanese Interlanguage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsden, Heather

    2008-01-01

    In English and Chinese, questions with a "wh"-object and a universally quantified subject (e.g. "What did everyone buy?") allow an individual answer ("Everyone bought apples.") and a pair-list answer ("Sam bought apples, Jo bought bananas, Sally bought..."). By contrast, the pair-list answer is reportedly unavailable in Japanese and Korean. This…

  5. Effectiveness of a spontaneous carvacrol nanoemulsion against Salmonella enterica Enteritidis and Escherichia coli O157:H7 on contaminated broccoli and radish seeds.

    PubMed

    Landry, Kyle S; Micheli, Sean; McClements, David Julian; McLandsborough, Lynne

    2015-10-01

    The incidence of foodborne illness associated with the consumption of fresh produce has continued to increase over the past decade. Sprouts, such as mung bean, alfalfa, radish, and broccoli, are minimally processed and have been sources for foodborne illness. Currently, a 20,000 ppm calcium hypochlorite soak is recommended for the treatment of sprouting seeds. In this study, the efficacy of an antimicrobial carvacrol nanoemulsion was tested against Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Enteritidis (ATCC BAA-1045) or EGFP expressing Escherichia coli O157:H7 (ATCC 42895) contaminated sprouting seeds. Antimicrobial treatments were performed by soaking inoculated seeds in nanoemulsions (4000 or 8000 ppm) for 30 or 60 min. Following treatment, surviving cells were determined by performing plate counts and/or Most Probable Number (MPN) enumeration. Treated seeds were sprouted and tested for the presence of pathogens. Treatment successfully inactivated low levels (2 and 3 log CFU/g) of S. Enteritidis and E. coli on radish seeds when soaked for 60 min at concentrations ≥4000 (0.4%) ppm carvacrol. This treatment method was not affective on contaminated broccoli seeds. Total sprout yield was not influenced by any treatments. These results show that carvacrol nanoemulsions may be an alternative treatment method for contaminated radish seeds. PMID:26187822

  6. Effectiveness of a spontaneous carvacrol nanoemulsion against Salmonella enterica Enteritidis and Escherichia coli O157:H7 on contaminated broccoli and radish seeds.

    PubMed

    Landry, Kyle S; Micheli, Sean; McClements, David Julian; McLandsborough, Lynne

    2015-10-01

    The incidence of foodborne illness associated with the consumption of fresh produce has continued to increase over the past decade. Sprouts, such as mung bean, alfalfa, radish, and broccoli, are minimally processed and have been sources for foodborne illness. Currently, a 20,000 ppm calcium hypochlorite soak is recommended for the treatment of sprouting seeds. In this study, the efficacy of an antimicrobial carvacrol nanoemulsion was tested against Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Enteritidis (ATCC BAA-1045) or EGFP expressing Escherichia coli O157:H7 (ATCC 42895) contaminated sprouting seeds. Antimicrobial treatments were performed by soaking inoculated seeds in nanoemulsions (4000 or 8000 ppm) for 30 or 60 min. Following treatment, surviving cells were determined by performing plate counts and/or Most Probable Number (MPN) enumeration. Treated seeds were sprouted and tested for the presence of pathogens. Treatment successfully inactivated low levels (2 and 3 log CFU/g) of S. Enteritidis and E. coli on radish seeds when soaked for 60 min at concentrations ≥4000 (0.4%) ppm carvacrol. This treatment method was not affective on contaminated broccoli seeds. Total sprout yield was not influenced by any treatments. These results show that carvacrol nanoemulsions may be an alternative treatment method for contaminated radish seeds.

  7. The radish defensins RsAFP1 and RsAFP2 act synergistically with caspofungin against Candida albicans biofilms.

    PubMed

    Vriens, Kim; Cools, Tanne L; Harvey, Peta J; Craik, David J; Braem, Annabel; Vleugels, Jozef; De Coninck, Barbara; Cammue, Bruno P A; Thevissen, Karin

    2016-01-01

    The radish defensin RsAFP2 was previously characterized as a peptide with potent antifungal activity against several plant pathogenic fungi and human pathogens, including Candida albicans. RsAFP2 induces apoptosis and impairs the yeast-to-hypha transition in C. albicans. As the yeast-to-hypha transition is considered important for progression to mature biofilms, we analyzed the potential antibiofilm activity of recombinant (r)RsAFP2, heterologously expressed in Pichia pastoris, against C. albicans biofilms. We found that rRsAFP2 prevents C. albicans biofilm formation with a BIC-2 (i.e., the minimal rRsAFP2 concentration that inhibits biofilm formation by 50% as compared to control treatment) of 1.65 ± 0.40 mg/mL. Moreover, biofilm-specific synergistic effects were observed between rRsAFP2 doses as low as 2.5 μg/mL to 10 μg/mL and the antimycotics caspofungin and amphotericin B, pointing to the potential of RsAFP2 as a novel antibiofilm compound. In addition, we characterized the solution structure of rRsAFP2 and compared it to that of RsAFP1, another defensin present in radish seeds. These peptides have similar amino acid sequences, except for two amino acids, but rRsAFP2 is more potent than RsAFP1 against planktonic and biofilm cultures. Interestingly, as in case of rRsAFP2, also RsAFP1 acts synergistically with caspofungin against C. albicans biofilms in a comparable low dose range as rRsAFP2. A structural comparison of both defensins via NMR analysis revealed that also rRsAFP2 adopts the typical cysteine-stabilized αβ-motif of plant defensins, however, no structural differences were found between these peptides that might result in their differential antifungal/antibiofilm potency. This further suggests that the conserved structure of RsAFP1 and rRsAFP2 bears the potential to synergize with antimycotics against C. albicans biofilms. PMID:26592804

  8. Japanese encephalitis in the USSR*

    PubMed Central

    Graščenkov, N. I.

    1964-01-01

    The author sketches the history of Japanese encephalitis in the USSR, where it has been thoroughly studied since it first occurred in 1938. After a brief outline of its epidemiology, he describes the pathogenesis, the signs and symptoms, and the pathophysiological mechanisms that make this form of encephalitis so dangerous. He also discusses the diagnosis and the methods of treatment and prevention practised in the USSR. PMID:14153405

  9. Formation of Thioxopyrrolidines and Dithiocarbamates from 4-Methylthio-3-butenyl Isothiocyanates, the Pungent Principle of Radish, in Aqueous Media.

    PubMed

    Matsuoka, H; Toda, Y; Yanagi, K; Takahashi, A; Yoneyama, K; Uda, Y

    1997-01-01

    Reaction products of 4-methylthio-3-butenyl isothiocyanate (MTBI), the radish pungent principle, in aqueous media were identified and their antimicrobial activities were examined. A rapid degradation of MTBI in aqueous media afforded a mixture of 3-(hydroxy)methylene-2-thioxopyrrolidine (1), (Z)-3-(methylthio)-methylene-2-thioxopyrrolidine (2), its (E)-isomer (3), methyl 4-methylthiobutyldithiocarbamate (4), methyl (Z)-4-methylthio-3-butenyldithiocarbarnaie (5), and its (E)-isomer (6). The products 1, 2, and 3 were detected at all pHs examined, while 4, 5, and 6 were formed at pH over 6.0. The formation of 4 from 6 was accompanied by an oxidation of methanethiol released from MTBI in aqueous media. Antimicrobial activities of 2 and 3 against all microbes examined were much lower than that of 1, which had MICs ranging from 50 to 400 μg/ml. As for 4, 5, and 6, antifungal activities were comparable to that of 1, but little antibacterial activities were observed. The antimicrobial activities of the six products were considered to be far lower than that of MTBI.

  10. In vitro probiotic characterization of Lactobacillus strains from fermented radish and their anti-adherence activity against enteric pathogens.

    PubMed

    Damodharan, Karthiyaini; Palaniyandi, Sasikumar Arunachalam; Yang, Seung Hwan; Suh, Joo-Won

    2015-11-01

    In this study, we evaluated the probiotic properties of Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus pentosus, and Lactobacillus fermentum strains isolated from fermented radish. All the strains survived the simulated oro-gastrointestinal transit condition and showed significantly higher adherence to Caco-2 cells compared with the probiotic strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG. The strains showed broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity, autoaggregation, and coaggregation capacity with pathogens. Furthermore, the Lactobacillus strains inhibited the adherence of Yersinia enterocolitica subsp. enterocolitica, Shigella boydii, and Salmonella choleraesuis to the Caco-2 cell line. The strains possessed bile salt hydrolase activity and their cholesterol-lowering activity in vitro was above 50% in the presence of bile. Strains of L. plantarum and L. pentosus possessed the plantaricin-encoding plnEF gene. In addition, the Lactobacillus strains maintained about 80% cell viability after freeze-drying in the presence of a combination of 5% skim milk and 5% maltodextrin as cryoprotectant, and 70% recovery of cell viability was observed in the absence of any cryoprotectant.

  11. Americans and Japanese Nonverbal Communication. Linguistic Communications 15 (Papers in Japanese Linguistics 3).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Harvey M.

    Each culture has its own nonverbal as well as its verbal language. Movements, gestures and sounds have distinct and often conflicting interpretations in different countries. For Americans communicating with Japanese, misunderstandings are of two types: Japanese behavior which is completely new to the American, and Japanese behavior which is…

  12. Compliment Responses: Comparing American Learners of Japanese, Native Japanese Speakers, and American Native English Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatsumi, Naofumi

    2012-01-01

    Previous research shows that American learners of Japanese (AJs) tend to differ from native Japanese speakers in their compliment responses (CRs). Yokota (1986) and Shimizu (2009) have reported that AJs tend to respond more negatively than native Japanese speakers. It has also been reported that AJs' CRs tend to lack the use of avoidance or…

  13. An experience in Japanese academic medicine.

    PubMed Central

    Tierney, L M

    1994-01-01

    The Japanese health care system has been highly praised for its universal access, freedom of patient choice, maintenance of a private system, and creative funding. Japanese citizens enjoy general good health, low infant mortality, and long life expectancy. Nevertheless, aspects of Japanese medical education, both graduate and undergraduate, and the structure of academic departments differ from those seen in the United States. A sabbatical spent teaching general internal medicine in Japan provided the experience for this review of the Japanese system. I describe the structure and function of departments of medicine and observations made at daily clinical teaching exercises in hospitals throughout the country. PMID:8160464

  14. Japanese Pitch Accent Acquisition by Learners of Japanese: Effects of Training on Japanese Accent Instruction, Perception, and Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirano-Cook, Erika

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation investigated 1) American L2 learners' perceptual ability to accurately identify Japanese pitch accent, and 2) learners' realization of Japanese pitch accent. This study was conducted to determine whether these abilities could be improved through training. Study 1 tested the ability to identify the accent location (pitch fall)…

  15. A Confirmatory Model for Substance Use Among Japanese American and Part-Japanese American Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Williams, John Kino Yamaguchi; Else, 'Iwalani R. N.; Goebert, Deborah A.; Nishimura, Stephanie T.; Hishinuma, Earl S.; Andrade, Naleen N.

    2013-01-01

    Few studies have examined the effect of ethnicity and cultural identity on substance use among Asian and Pacific Islander adolescents. A cross-sequential study conducted in Hawai'i with 144 Japanese American and part-Japanese American adolescents assessed a model integrating Japanese ethnicity, cultural identity, substance use, major life events, and social support. Japanese American adolescents scored higher on the Japanese Culture Scale and on the Peers’ Social Support than the part-Japanese American adolescents. Significant associations for substance use and impairment included culturally intensified events and Japanese cultural identity- behavior subset. Models had good overall fits and suggested that conflict surrounding cultural identity may contribute to substance use. PMID:23480213

  16. Literature Review of Japanese Contrastive Rhetoric

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cumming, Brett

    2012-01-01

    This literature review serves to inform the reader on current literature on Contrastive Rhetoric (CR), with specific reference to teaching writing to Japanese students of English. It will examine the historical developments of CR and its present significance before then looking at possible reasons for unique characteristics of Japanese L2 writers…

  17. BASIC JAPANESE FOR COLLEGE STUDENTS. REVISED EDITION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NIWA, TAMAKO; MATSUDA, MAYAKO

    THE 24 LESSONS IN THIS TEXT ARE DESIGNED FOR COLLEGE STUDENTS BEGINNING JAPANESE LANGUAGE STUDY. THE SELECTION OF VOCABULARY AND THE PRESENTATION OF GRAMMAR ARE DIRECTED TO THE GOAL OF ACQUIRING FACILITY IN SPEAKING RATHER THAN WRITING. FOR A READING TEXT RECOMMENDED FOR USE WITH THIS SPOKEN LANGUAGE TEXT, SEE HIBBETT AND ITSAKA "MODERN JAPANESE,…

  18. The Current Status of Japanese Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Endo, Russell

    A study of the current status of Japanese Americans is divided into three sections. Following a brief introduction, a background section provides an overview of Japanese American history, population size and socioeconomic measures, and selected social characteristics. A second section looks in greater depth at socioeconomic status as reported in…

  19. Numeral Incorporation in Japanese Sign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ktejik, Mish

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the morphological process of numeral incorporation in Japanese Sign Language. Numeral incorporation is defined and the available research on numeral incorporation in signed language is discussed. The numeral signs in Japanese Sign Language are then introduced and followed by an explanation of the numeral morphemes which are…

  20. The Teaching of Japanese in Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marriott, Helen E.

    1992-01-01

    The article surveys the development of Japanese language courses in Australia, noting a variety of factors contribute to the growth and recent intensification of interest in the subject. It examines problems within Japanese language teaching and discusses further innovative course development, differentiation of needs, employer perceptions, and…

  1. Japanese Children's Understanding of Notational Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takahashi, Noboru

    2012-01-01

    This study examined Japanese children's understanding of two Japanese notational systems: "hiragana" and "kanji". In three experiments, 126 3- to 6-year-olds were asked to name words written in hiragana or kanji as they appeared with different pictures. Consistent with Bialystok ("Journal of Experimental Child Psychology," 2000, Vol. 76, pp.…

  2. Interpersonal Mistrust and Unhappiness among Japanese People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tokuda, Yasuharu; Inoguchi, Takashi

    2008-01-01

    Our main objective in this paper is to evaluate the possible association between interpersonal mistrust and unhappiness among Japanese people. Based on cross-sectional data for the Japanese general population from the Asia Barometer Survey (2003-2006), we analyzed the relationship between interpersonal mistrust and unhappiness using a logistic…

  3. Japanese American Studies in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okutsu, Jim

    This paper reviews the results of a survey of institutions of higher education which offer coursework focusing on Japanese Americans and emphasizes the program in Japanese American Studies at San Francisco State University. The results showed a distribution of twenty-eight courses offered at fifteen institutions in California, Washington and…

  4. Argumentative Strategies in American and Japanese English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamimura, Taeko; Oi, Kyoko

    1998-01-01

    A study examined differences in argumentative strategies in Japanese and American English by analyzing English essays on capital punishment written by 22 American high school seniors and 30 Japanese college sophomores. Differences were found in the organizational patterns, content and use of rational appeals, preference for type of diction, and…

  5. Japanese Moral Education Past and Present.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khan, Yoshimitsu

    For generations, moral development has been both a conscious aim and a formal process in Japanese education. This book investigates the history and development of Japanese moral education and analyzes and compares current moral education with the concepts of the Imperial Rescript on Education (1890) and the "shushin" moral education of prewar…

  6. Japanese Childrearing: Two Generations of Scholarship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shwalb, David W., Ed.; Shwalb, Barbara J., Ed.

    The context of Japanese childrearing has changed during the postwar era. Noting that "new" observations concerning childrearing and socialization may not actually be new, this volume establishes continuity with past researchers by integrating the past half-century of cross-cultural research on Japanese childrearing and socialization, placing…

  7. Study on Japanese Cornmint in Mississippi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Japanese cornmint (Mentha canadensis L.) is a subtropical essential oil crop grown in Asia and South America. The essential oil of Japanese cornmint is the source for production of crystal (-)-menthol, which is a major aromatic agent used as a flavor, fragrance, and cooling sensation vector in the ...

  8. Bilingual Dual Coding in Japanese Returnee Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taura, Hideyuki

    1998-01-01

    Investigates effects of second-language acquisition age, length of exposure to the second language, and Japanese language specificity on the bilingual dual coding hypothesis proposed by Paivio and Desrochers (1980). Balanced Japanese-English bilingual returnee (having resided in an English-speaking country) subjects were presented with pictures to…

  9. Protection against Japanese encephalitis by inactivated vaccines.

    PubMed

    Hoke, C H; Nisalak, A; Sangawhipa, N; Jatanasen, S; Laorakapongse, T; Innis, B L; Kotchasenee, S; Gingrich, J B; Latendresse, J; Fukai, K

    1988-09-01

    Encephalitis caused by Japanese encephalitis virus occurs in annual epidemics throughout Asia, making it the principal cause of epidemic viral encephalitis in the world. No currently available vaccine has demonstrated efficacy in preventing this disease in a controlled trial. We performed a placebo-controlled, blinded, randomized trial in a northern Thai province, with two doses of monovalent (Nakayama strain) or bivalent (Nakayama plus Beijing strains) inactivated, purified Japanese encephalitis vaccine made from whole virus derived from mouse brain. We examined the effect of these vaccines on the incidence and severity of Japanese encephalitis and dengue hemorrhagic fever, a disease caused by a closely related flavivirus. Between November 1984 and March 1985, 65,224 children received two doses of monovalent Japanese encephalitis vaccine (n = 21,628), bivalent Japanese encephalitis vaccine (n = 22,080), or tetanus toxoid placebo (n = 21,516), with only minor side effects. The cumulative attack rate for encephalitis due to Japanese encephalitis virus was 51 per 100,000 in the placebo group and 5 per 100,000 in each vaccine group. The efficacy in both vaccine groups combined was 91 percent (95 percent confidence interval, 70 to 97 percent). Attack rates for dengue hemorrhagic fever declined, but not significantly. The severity of cases of dengue was also reduced. We conclude that two doses of inactivated Japanese encephalitis vaccine, either monovalent or bivalent, protect against encephalitis due to Japanese encephalitis virus and may have a limited beneficial effect on the severity of dengue hemorrhagic fever.

  10. READINGS IN JAPANESE HISTORY. PART I, SELECTIONS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    YAMAGIWA, JOSEPH K.

    INCLUDED AMONG THE 18 SELECTIONS IN THIS READER FOR ADVANCED STUDENTS OF JAPANESE ARE SUCH ARTICLES AND EXCERPTS FROM BOOKS AS "THE TAIKA REFORMS" BY SAKAMOTO TAROO (1935) AND "THE SYSTEM OF MEASUREMENT OF INCOME BY KOKU AND FEUDALISM" BY NAKAMURA KICIJI (1960). THESE TEXTS ARE REPRODUCED EXACTLY AS THEY APPEARED IN JAPANESE-LANGUAGE PUBLICATIONS…

  11. Effect of fertilizer on the growth of radish plants exposed to simulated acidic rain containing different sulfate to nitrate ratios.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, J S; Troiano, J J; Heller, L I; Osmeloski, L

    1987-01-01

    Two successive experiments were performed in the greenhouse to test the hypothesis that plant response to the amounts and ratios of sulfuric and nitric acids in rain is affected by the amount of fertilizer added to the growing medium. Radish plants, grown with different levels of N?P?K fertilizer, were given ten 1-h exposures over a 3-week period to simulate acidic rain at pH values from 2.6 to 5.0 and sulfate to nitrate mass ratios from 0.3 to 7.5. Increased acidity of simulated rain reduced plant growth, with a greater depression of hypocotyl mass than shoot mass. The reverse growth response occurred with increased supply of fertilizer: plant biomass rose with a larger increase in shoot mass than hypocotyl mass. In one experiment, plants that received a greater supply of fertilizer exhibited more obvious reductions in growth of hoots at the higher levels of acidity of simulated rain. There were no significant effects of sulfate to nitrate ratios in simulated rain on plant growth, nor any effect of this ratio on the response of shoots and hypocotyls to acidity of simulated rain. Addition of fertilizer had no effect on plant response to sulfate to nitrate ratios. These results do not support the hypothesis that nutrient-deficient plants are either more or less responsive to sulfate and nitrate in rain than plants grown with optimal supplies of nutrients. They support previous results indicating no effects of sulfate to nitrate ratio in simulated acidic rain on plant growth. The results also suggest that the greatest risk of harmful effects on vegetation may come from the combination of high sulfate and high acidity in rainfall.

  12. Optimization of heat and relative humidity conditions to reduce Escherichia coli O157:H7 contamination and maximize the germination of radish seeds.

    PubMed

    Song, M K; Kim, H W; Rhee, M S

    2016-06-01

    We previously reported that a combination of heat and relative humidity (RH) had a marked bactericidal effect on Escherichia coli O157:H7 on radish seeds. Here, response surface methodology with a Box-Behnken design was used to build a model to predict reductions in E. coli O157:H7 populations based on three independent variables: heating temperature (55 °C, 60 °C, or 65 °C), RH (40%, 60%, and 80%), and holding time (8, 15, or 22 h). Optimum treatment conditions were selected using a desirability function. The predictive model for microbial reduction had a high regression coefficient (R(2) = 0.97), and the accuracy of the model was verified using validation data (R(2) = 0.95). Among the three variables examined, heating temperature (P < 0.0001) and RH (P = 0.004) were the most significant in terms of bacterial reduction and seed germination, respectively. The optimum conditions for microbial reduction (6.6 log reduction) determined by ridge analysis were as follows: 64.5 °C and 63.2% RH for 17.7 h. However, when both microbial reduction and germination rate were taken into consideration, the desirability function yielded optimal conditions of 65 °C and 40% RH for 8 h (6.6 log reduction in the bacterial population; 94.4% of seeds germinated). This study provides comprehensive data that improve our understanding of the effects of heating temperature, RH, and holding time on the E. coli O157:H7 population on radish seeds. Radish seeds can be exposed to these conditions before sprouting, which greatly increases the microbiological safety of the products. PMID:26919813

  13. Optimization of heat and relative humidity conditions to reduce Escherichia coli O157:H7 contamination and maximize the germination of radish seeds.

    PubMed

    Song, M K; Kim, H W; Rhee, M S

    2016-06-01

    We previously reported that a combination of heat and relative humidity (RH) had a marked bactericidal effect on Escherichia coli O157:H7 on radish seeds. Here, response surface methodology with a Box-Behnken design was used to build a model to predict reductions in E. coli O157:H7 populations based on three independent variables: heating temperature (55 °C, 60 °C, or 65 °C), RH (40%, 60%, and 80%), and holding time (8, 15, or 22 h). Optimum treatment conditions were selected using a desirability function. The predictive model for microbial reduction had a high regression coefficient (R(2) = 0.97), and the accuracy of the model was verified using validation data (R(2) = 0.95). Among the three variables examined, heating temperature (P < 0.0001) and RH (P = 0.004) were the most significant in terms of bacterial reduction and seed germination, respectively. The optimum conditions for microbial reduction (6.6 log reduction) determined by ridge analysis were as follows: 64.5 °C and 63.2% RH for 17.7 h. However, when both microbial reduction and germination rate were taken into consideration, the desirability function yielded optimal conditions of 65 °C and 40% RH for 8 h (6.6 log reduction in the bacterial population; 94.4% of seeds germinated). This study provides comprehensive data that improve our understanding of the effects of heating temperature, RH, and holding time on the E. coli O157:H7 population on radish seeds. Radish seeds can be exposed to these conditions before sprouting, which greatly increases the microbiological safety of the products.

  14. Relationship between USDA and Japanese beef grades.

    PubMed

    Harris, J J; Lunt, D K; Savell, J W; Hawkins, E W; Orme, L E

    1995-01-01

    Angus steers (n = 78) were feedlot-finished to approximately 703 kg live weight. The finished steers were slaughtered at a commercial packing plant, chilled, and evaluated for USDA and Japanese yield and quality-grade characteristics. The resulting carcasses were excessively heavy and fat for the domestic (US) beef industry. Over 70% of the carcasses were US Yield Grade 5, and almost 40% were Japanese Yield Score 'C'. Although excessively fat externally, fewer than 50% of the carcasses qualified for US Prime, and none of the carcasses qualified for Japanese Meat Quality Score 5. Moderate to high correlations were observed between US twelfth-rib carcass traits and Japanese sixth-rib traits; however, multiple-regression equations based on USDA carcass characteristics explained only 46 and 25% of the observed variation in Japanese marbling score and estimated percentage wholesale-cut yield, respectively.

  15. Pre-soaking of seeds enhances pressure inactivation of E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella spp. on crimson clover, red clover, radish and broccoli seeds.

    PubMed

    Neetoo, Hudaa; Chen, Haiqiang

    2010-02-28

    The application of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) at a level of 600 MPa at 20 degrees C to decontaminate crimson clover, red clover, radish and broccoli seeds inoculated with E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella were evaluated. Salmonella was generally more pressure-resistant than E. coli O157:H7 on clover and radish seeds except on broccoli seeds where the trend was reversed. In addition, the application of HHP differentially affected seeds' germinability and the order of pressure tolerance of the seeds was such that red clover>crimson clover approximately broccoli >radish seeds with final germination percentages ranging from 85-100% while their untreated counterparts had final germination percentages of 99-100%. Pre-soaking the different types of seeds in water for 30, 60 or 90 min at ambient temperature followed by HHP at 600 MPa for 2 or 5 min at 20 degrees C significantly (P<0.05) enhanced the pressure inactivation of the inoculated pathogens. Moreover, the ability of HHP-treated seeds to germinate also varied as a function of the pre-soaking duration and the seed type. Pre-soaking radish and broccoli seeds for 30 min prior to HHP (2 or 5 min) resulted in germination percentages of 0.05) reduce the sprout yield. The treatment also resulted in a reduction of a 5 log initial load of E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella to an undetectable level (neither pathogen was detected in 2-g seed

  16. Simultaneous quantification of sulforaphene and sulforaphane by reverse phase HPLC and their content in Raphanus sativus L. var. caudatus Alef extracts.

    PubMed

    Sangthong, Sarita; Weerapreeyakul, Natthida

    2016-06-15

    A simple, rapid and precise HPLC assay was developed for the well-known anti-cancer isothiocyanates-sulforaphene (SE) and sulforaphane (SF). The analytical system comprised RP-C18 column with isocratic 5% THF-95% water. High resolution was obtained (and eluted) of two distinct HPLC peaks of similar structures SE and SF analytes (at 23.01±0.02 and 25.65±0.03 min, respectively). The respective LOD vs. LOQ for SE and SF was 0.34 and 0.36 μg/ml vs. 1.02 and 1.08 μg/ml. This assay had the best linearity and accuracy. The recoveries were in the range of 96.83-101.17%. SF and SE were quantified in the pod of Raphanus sativus L. var. caudatus Alef extracts (2253.05±246.18 and 111.94±16.49 μg/g in the crude extract, respectively), while only SE was detected in the stem (1105.14±243.10 μg/g crude extract), as SF was lower than the detection limit. The validated method thus minimized and expedited simultaneous SE and SF analysis.

  17. Some Design Issues for an Online Japanese Textbook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagata, Noriko

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses several design issues in the development of a new online Japanese textbook, called "Robo-Sensei: Japanese Curriculum with Automated Feedback". When it is completed, the new online textbook will present a full Japanese curriculum. It extends a previously published online software program, "Robo-Sensei: Personal Japanese Tutor"…

  18. The Semantics and Pragmatics of Japanese Focus Particles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hasegawa, Akio

    2011-01-01

    Japanese has a rich set of focus particles, several exclusive and additive particles, and, in addition, contrastive particles. This thesis provides a formal description of the meanings of Japanese focus particles and addresses two general questions: "What kinds concepts do Japanese focus particles express?" and "Why does Japanese have a larger…

  19. Processed vs. Non-Processed Biowastes for Agriculture: Effects of Post-Harvest Tomato Plants and Biochar on Radish Growth, Chlorophyll Content and Protein Production

    PubMed Central

    Mozzetti Monterumici, Chiara; Rosso, Daniele; Montoneri, Enzo; Ginepro, Marco; Baglieri, Andrea; Novotny, Etelvino Henrique; Kwapinski, Witold; Negre, Michèle

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was to address the issue of processed vs. non-processed biowastes for agriculture, by comparing materials widely differing for the amount of process energy consumption. Thus, residual post harvest tomato plants (TP), the TP hydrolysates obtained at pH 13 and 60 °C, and two known biochar products obtained by 650 °C pyrolysis were prepared. All products were characterized and used in a cultivation of radish plants. The chemical composition and molecular nature of the materials was investigated by solid state 13C NMR spectrometry, elemental analysis and potentiometric titration. The plants were analysed for growth and content of chlorophyll, carotenoids and soluble proteins. The results show that the TP and the alkaline hydrolysates contain lignin, hemicellulose, protein, peptide and/or amino acids moieties, and several mineral elements. The biochar samples contain also similar mineral elements, but the organic fraction is characterized mainly by fused aromatic rings. All materials had a positive effect on radish growth, mainly on the diameter of roots. The best performances in terms of plant growth were given by miscanthus originated biochar and TP. The most significant effect was the enhancement of soluble protein content in the plants treated with the lowest energy consumption non processed TP. The significance of these findings for agriculture and the environment is discussed. PMID:25906472

  20. Processed vs. non-processed biowastes for agriculture: effects of post-harvest tomato plants and biochar on radish growth, chlorophyll content and protein production.

    PubMed

    Mozzetti Monterumici, Chiara; Rosso, Daniele; Montoneri, Enzo; Ginepro, Marco; Baglieri, Andrea; Novotny, Etelvino Henrique; Kwapinski, Witold; Negre, Michèle

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was to address the issue of processed vs. non-processed biowastes for agriculture, by comparing materials widely differing for the amount of process energy consumption. Thus, residual post harvest tomato plants (TP), the TP hydrolysates obtained at pH 13 and 60 °C, and two known biochar products obtained by 650 °C pyrolysis were prepared. All products were characterized and used in a cultivation of radish plants. The chemical composition and molecular nature of the materials was investigated by solid state 13C NMR spectrometry, elemental analysis and potentiometric titration. The plants were analysed for growth and content of chlorophyll, carotenoids and soluble proteins. The results show that the TP and the alkaline hydrolysates contain lignin, hemicellulose, protein, peptide and/or amino acids moieties, and several mineral elements. The biochar samples contain also similar mineral elements, but the organic fraction is characterized mainly by fused aromatic rings. All materials had a positive effect on radish growth, mainly on the diameter of roots. The best performances in terms of plant growth were given by miscanthus originated biochar and TP. The most significant effect was the enhancement of soluble protein content in the plants treated with the lowest energy consumption non processed TP. The significance of these findings for agriculture and the environment is discussed. PMID:25906472

  1. Microgravity research in Japanese industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudo, Isao

    1993-07-01

    Japanese industry will have many opportunities to perform microgravity tests in the 1990s. The world's longest dropshaft was completed in Hokkaido last year. SJAC has many programs, including GAS, MASER, CASIMIR, COSIMA, and MIR. In fact, 12 electronic and 4 biomaterial experiments using GAS canisters which have been waiting since 1986 will be finished by early 1993. STC will carry out 4 experiments on D-2 in 1993. USEF has two high-quality experiment programs on SFU and EXPRESS. SFU is an unmanned platform for multiple uses and the first flight is expected in 1994 or 95. Ground tests of 8 material experiments are now in progress. EXPRESS is a reusable reentry capsule. Multireactors in an autoclave which are designed for zeolite and catalyst crystal growth on EXPRESS have been developed.

  2. Regional Classification of Traditional Japanese Folk Songs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawase, Akihiro; Tokosumi, Akifumi

    In this study, we focus on the melodies of Japanese folk songs, and examine the basic structures of Japanese folk songs that represent the characteristics of different regions. We sample the five largest song genres within the music corpora of the Nihon Min-yo Taikan (Anthology of Japanese Folk Songs), consisting of 202,246 tones from 1,794 song pieces from 45 prefectures in Japan. Then, we calculate the probabilities of 24 transition patterns that fill the interval of the perfect fourth pitch, which is the interval that maintains most of the frequency for one-step and two-step pitch transitions within 11 regions, in order to determine the parameters for cluster analysis. As a result, we successively classify the regions into two basic groups, eastern Japan and western Japan, which corresponds to geographical factors and cultural backgrounds, and also match accent distributions in the Japanese language.

  3. Strong resistance of Arabidopsis thaliana and Raphanus sativus seeds for ionizing radiation as studied by ESR, ENDOR, ESE spectroscopy and germination measurement: Effect of long-lived and super-long-lived radicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumagai, Jun; Katoh, Hiromi; Kumada, Takayuki; Tanaka, Atsushi; Tano, Shigemitsu; Miyazaki, Tetsuo

    2000-01-01

    Resistance of seeds for ionizing radiation effects on Arabidopsis thaliana and Raphanus sativus seeds were investigated by ESR, ENDOR, ESE spectroscopy and germination measurement. Two types of free radicals, such as long-lived (LL) and super-long-lived (SL) radicals, were produced by the γ-irradiation in the seeds. More than 90% of the 1 kGy-irradiated-seeds can germinate probably by decreasing the LL radicals by absorbing water. 10 kGy-irradiated-seeds cannot germinate at all probably due to the existence of significant amounts of the SL radicals even after absorbing water.

  4. Raphanus sativus L. seeds prevent LPS-stimulated inflammatory response through negative regulation of the p38 MAPK-NF-κB pathway.

    PubMed

    Kook, Sung-Ho; Choi, Ki-Choon; Lee, Young-Hoon; Cho, Hyoung-Kwon; Lee, Jeong-Chae

    2014-12-01

    The seeds of Raphanus sativus L. (RSL) have long been used as anti-inflammatory traditional medicine. However, scientific bases for the purported potential of the medicine and the associated mechanisms were barely defined. This study investigated the effects of RSL seeds on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated inflammatory responses in vitro and in vivo. Treatment with 100 μg/ml ethyl acetate fraction (REF), which was isolated from water extract of the seeds, significantly inhibited LPS-stimulated production of nitric oxide (P < 0.05), interleukin-6 (P < 0.001), and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α (P < 0.001) in RAW264.7 cells. Oral supplementation with 30 mg/kg REF protected mice by 90% against LPS-induced septic death and prevented the increases of serum TNF-α and interferon-γ levels in LPS-injected mice. When REF was divided into four sub-fractions (REF-F1-F4), REF-F3 showed the greatest activity to suppress LPS-stimulated production of inflammatory mediators. We subsequently isolated an active fraction from the REF-F3 and identified sinapic acid as the main constituent. The addition of 50 μg/ml active fraction markedly inhibited LPS-stimulated production of inflammatory mediators by suppressing p38 MAPK and nuclear factor-κB activation. Furthermore, supplementation with the active fraction (10 mg/kg) improved the survival rate of LPS-injected mice by 80% of the untreated control. Additional experiments revealed that sinapic acid was the active component responsible for the anti-inflammatory potential of RSL seeds. Collectively, our current results suggest that both RSL seeds and sinapic acid may be attractive materials for treating inflammatory disorders caused by endotoxins. PMID:25467201

  5. Tandem combination of Trigonella foenum-graecum defensin (Tfgd2) and Raphanus sativus antifungal protein (RsAFP2) generates a more potent antifungal protein.

    PubMed

    Karri, Vasavirama; Bharadwaja, Kirti Pulugurtha

    2013-11-01

    Plant defensins are small (45 to 54 amino acids) positively charged antimicrobial peptides produced by the plant species, which can inhibit the growth of a broad range of fungi at micro-molar concentrations. These basic peptides share a common characteristic three-dimensional folding pattern with one α-helix and three β-sheets that are stabilized by eight disulfide-linked cysteine residues. Instead of using two single-gene constructs, it is beneficial when two effective genes are made into a single fusion gene with one promoter and terminator. In this approach, we have linked two plant defensins namely Trigonella foenum-graecum defensin 2 (Tfgd2) and Raphanus sativus antifungal protein 2 (RsAFP2) genes by a linker peptide sequence (occurring in the seeds of Impatiens balsamina) and made into a single-fusion gene construct. We used pET-32a+ vector system to express Tfgd2-RsAFP2 fusion gene with hexahistidine tag in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) pLysS cells. Induction of these cells with 1 mM IPTG achieved expression of the fusion protein. The solubilized His6-tagged recombinant fusion protein was purified by immobilized-metal (Ni2+) affinity column chromatography. The final yield of the fusion protein was 500 ng/μL. This method produced biologically active recombinant His6-tagged fusion protein, which exhibited potent antifungal action towards the plant pathogenic fungi (Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium moniliforme, Fusarium oxysporum, Phaeoisariopsis personata and Rhizoctonia solani along with an oomycete pathogen Phytophthora parasitica var nicotianae) at lower concentrations under in vitro conditions. This strategy of combining activity of two defensin genes into a single-fusion gene will definitely be a promising utility for biotechnological applications. PMID:24022215

  6. Diversification and alteration of recognition specificity of the pollen ligand SP11/SCR in self-incompatibility of Brassica and Raphanus.

    PubMed

    Sato, Yutaka; Okamoto, Shunsuke; Nishio, Takeshi

    2004-12-01

    The recognition specificity of the pollen ligand of self-incompatibility (SP11/SCR) was investigated using Brassica rapa transgenic plants expressing SP11 transgenes, and SP11 of Raphanus sativus S-21 was found to have the same recognition specificity as that of B. rapa S-9. In a set of three S haplotypes, whose sequence identities of SP11 and SRK are fairly high, R. sativus S-6 showed the same recognition specificity as Brassica oleracea S-18 and a slightly different specificity from B. rapa S-52. B. oleracea S-18, however, showed a different specificity from B. rapa S-52. Using these similar S haplotypes, chimeric SP11 proteins were produced by domain swapping. Bioassay using the chimeric SP11 proteins revealed that the incompatibility response induction activity was altered by the replacement of Region III and Region V. Pollen grains of Brassica transgenic plants expressing chimeric SP11 of the B. oleracea SP11-18 sequence with Region III and Region V from B. rapa SP11-52 (chimeric BoSP11-18[52]) were partially incompatible with the B. rapa S-52 stigmas, and those expressing the R. sativus SP11-6 sequence with Region III and Region V from B. rapa SP11-52 (chimeric RsSP11-6[52]) were completely incompatible with the stigmas having B. rapa S-52. However, the transgenic plant expressing chimeric RsSP11-6(52) also showed incompatibility with B. oleracea S-18 stigmas. These results suggest that Regions III and Region V of SP11 are important for determining the recognition specificity, but not the sole determinant. A possible process of the generation of a new S haplotype is herein discussed.

  7. Raphanus sativus L. seeds prevent LPS-stimulated inflammatory response through negative regulation of the p38 MAPK-NF-κB pathway.

    PubMed

    Kook, Sung-Ho; Choi, Ki-Choon; Lee, Young-Hoon; Cho, Hyoung-Kwon; Lee, Jeong-Chae

    2014-12-01

    The seeds of Raphanus sativus L. (RSL) have long been used as anti-inflammatory traditional medicine. However, scientific bases for the purported potential of the medicine and the associated mechanisms were barely defined. This study investigated the effects of RSL seeds on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated inflammatory responses in vitro and in vivo. Treatment with 100 μg/ml ethyl acetate fraction (REF), which was isolated from water extract of the seeds, significantly inhibited LPS-stimulated production of nitric oxide (P < 0.05), interleukin-6 (P < 0.001), and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α (P < 0.001) in RAW264.7 cells. Oral supplementation with 30 mg/kg REF protected mice by 90% against LPS-induced septic death and prevented the increases of serum TNF-α and interferon-γ levels in LPS-injected mice. When REF was divided into four sub-fractions (REF-F1-F4), REF-F3 showed the greatest activity to suppress LPS-stimulated production of inflammatory mediators. We subsequently isolated an active fraction from the REF-F3 and identified sinapic acid as the main constituent. The addition of 50 μg/ml active fraction markedly inhibited LPS-stimulated production of inflammatory mediators by suppressing p38 MAPK and nuclear factor-κB activation. Furthermore, supplementation with the active fraction (10 mg/kg) improved the survival rate of LPS-injected mice by 80% of the untreated control. Additional experiments revealed that sinapic acid was the active component responsible for the anti-inflammatory potential of RSL seeds. Collectively, our current results suggest that both RSL seeds and sinapic acid may be attractive materials for treating inflammatory disorders caused by endotoxins.

  8. Tandem combination of Trigonella foenum-graecum defensin (Tfgd2) and Raphanus sativus antifungal protein (RsAFP2) generates a more potent antifungal protein.

    PubMed

    Karri, Vasavirama; Bharadwaja, Kirti Pulugurtha

    2013-11-01

    Plant defensins are small (45 to 54 amino acids) positively charged antimicrobial peptides produced by the plant species, which can inhibit the growth of a broad range of fungi at micro-molar concentrations. These basic peptides share a common characteristic three-dimensional folding pattern with one α-helix and three β-sheets that are stabilized by eight disulfide-linked cysteine residues. Instead of using two single-gene constructs, it is beneficial when two effective genes are made into a single fusion gene with one promoter and terminator. In this approach, we have linked two plant defensins namely Trigonella foenum-graecum defensin 2 (Tfgd2) and Raphanus sativus antifungal protein 2 (RsAFP2) genes by a linker peptide sequence (occurring in the seeds of Impatiens balsamina) and made into a single-fusion gene construct. We used pET-32a+ vector system to express Tfgd2-RsAFP2 fusion gene with hexahistidine tag in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) pLysS cells. Induction of these cells with 1 mM IPTG achieved expression of the fusion protein. The solubilized His6-tagged recombinant fusion protein was purified by immobilized-metal (Ni2+) affinity column chromatography. The final yield of the fusion protein was 500 ng/μL. This method produced biologically active recombinant His6-tagged fusion protein, which exhibited potent antifungal action towards the plant pathogenic fungi (Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium moniliforme, Fusarium oxysporum, Phaeoisariopsis personata and Rhizoctonia solani along with an oomycete pathogen Phytophthora parasitica var nicotianae) at lower concentrations under in vitro conditions. This strategy of combining activity of two defensin genes into a single-fusion gene will definitely be a promising utility for biotechnological applications.

  9. Diversification and Alteration of Recognition Specificity of the Pollen Ligand SP11/SCR in Self-Incompatibility of Brassica and RaphanusW⃞

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Yutaka; Okamoto, Shunsuke; Nishio, Takeshi

    2004-01-01

    The recognition specificity of the pollen ligand of self-incompatibility (SP11/SCR) was investigated using Brassica rapa transgenic plants expressing SP11 transgenes, and SP11 of Raphanus sativus S-21 was found to have the same recognition specificity as that of B. rapa S-9. In a set of three S haplotypes, whose sequence identities of SP11 and SRK are fairly high, R. sativus S-6 showed the same recognition specificity as Brassica oleracea S-18 and a slightly different specificity from B. rapa S-52. B. oleracea S-18, however, showed a different specificity from B. rapa S-52. Using these similar S haplotypes, chimeric SP11 proteins were produced by domain swapping. Bioassay using the chimeric SP11 proteins revealed that the incompatibility response induction activity was altered by the replacement of Region III and Region V. Pollen grains of Brassica transgenic plants expressing chimeric SP11 of the B. oleracea SP11-18 sequence with Region III and Region V from B. rapa SP11-52 (chimeric BoSP11-18[52]) were partially incompatible with the B. rapa S-52 stigmas, and those expressing the R. sativus SP11-6 sequence with Region III and Region V from B. rapa SP11-52 (chimeric RsSP11-6[52]) were completely incompatible with the stigmas having B. rapa S-52. However, the transgenic plant expressing chimeric RsSP11-6(52) also showed incompatibility with B. oleracea S-18 stigmas. These results suggest that Regions III and Region V of SP11 are important for determining the recognition specificity, but not the sole determinant. A possible process of the generation of a new S haplotype is herein discussed. PMID:15548734

  10. Instability of chromosome number and DNA methylation variation induced by hybridization and amphidiploid formation between Raphanus sativus L. and Brassica alboglabra Bailey

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Distant hybridization can result genome duplication and allopolyploid formation which may play a significant role in the origin and evolution of many plant species. It is unclear how the two or more divergent genomes coordinate in one nucleus with a single parental cytoplasm within allopolyploids. We used cytological and molecular methods to investigate the genetic and epigenetic instabilities associated with the process of distant hybridization and allopolyploid formation, measuring changes in chromosome number and DNA methylation across multiple generations. Results F1 plants from intergeneric hybridization between Raphanus sativus L. (2n = 18, RR) and Brassica alboglabra Bailey (2n = 18, CC) were obtained by hand crosses and subsequent embryo rescue. Random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were used to identify the F1 hybrid plants. The RAPD data indicated that the hybrids produced specific bands similar to those of parents and new bands that were not present in either parent. Chromosome number variation of somatic cells from allotetraploids in the F4 to F10 generations showed that intensive genetic changes occurred in the early generations of distant hybridization, leading to the formation of mixopolyploids with different chromosome numbers. DNA methylation variation was revealed using MSAP (methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism), which showed that cytosine methylation patterns changed markedly in the process of hybridization and amphidiploid formation. Differences in cytosine methylation levels demonstrated an epigenetic instability of the allopolyploid of Raphanobrassica between the genetically stable and unstable generations. Conclusions Our results showed that chromosome instability occurred in the early generations of allopolyploidy and then the plants were reverted to largely euploidy in later generations. During this process, DNA methylation changed markedly. These results suggest that, epigenetic mechanisms play an

  11. The Japanese in Hawaii: An Annotated Bibliography of Japanese Americans. Hawaii Series No. 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matsuda, Mitsugu

    This revision of Mitsugu Matsuda's Japanese in Hawaii, 1868-1967: An Annotated Bibliography of the First Hundred Years, calls attention to writings which are available to students and individuals interested in Americans of Japanese ancestry. The materials range from scholarly pieces based on traditional academic sources for documentation to…

  12. Modalities of Infant-Mother Interaction in Japanese, Japanese American Immigrant, and European American Dyads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Cote, Linda R.; Haynes, O. Maurice; Suwalsky, Joan T. D.; Bakeman, Roger

    2012-01-01

    Cultural variation in relations and moment-to-moment contingencies of infant-mother person-oriented and object-oriented interactions were compared in 118 Japanese, Japanese American immigrant, and European American dyads with 5.5-month-olds. Infant and mother person-oriented behaviors were related in all cultural groups, but infant and mother…

  13. Pretending to Be Japanese: Artistic Play in a Japanese-American Church and Family

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goto, Courtney T.

    2008-01-01

    With high rates of out-marriage and dwindling need for bilingual worship, Japanese-American churches face a critical question: "Why retain the Japanese part of our identity?" This article explores how one layperson (Naomi Takahashi Goto) draws from her experience as an artist, teacher, and mother to help her congregation answer this question.…

  14. Ordinal Expressions in Japanese. Papers in Japanese Linguistics, Vol. 2, No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Backus, Robert L.

    The varied forms and semantic factors of Japanese ordinal expressions are related to one another in a coherent system. In Japanese, the cardinal number form is a numeral compound in construction with a referent. The numeral compound consists of a number and a numeral adjunct. Numeral adjuncts are derived from bound forms, or numeral suffixes, and…

  15. Classifications of Japanese Speech Levels and Styles. Papers in Japanese Linguistics, Vol. 2, No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shinoda, Aiko

    This paper investigates the treatment of Japanese speech levels and styles (known as "keigo") in previous studies and discusses the problems involved. An attempt is made to reconstruct the classification of speech levels and styles in modern colloquial Japanese. Speech styles change according to age, social status, sex, and the relationship of the…

  16. A Comparison of Maternal Care and Infant Behavior in Japanese-American, American, and Japanese Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caudill, William; Frost, Lois

    Previous studies have shown that American mothers, in contrast to Japanese, do more lively chatting to their babies, and that as a result, the American babies have a generally higher level of vocalization and, particularly, they respond with greater amounts of happy vocalization and gross motor activity than do Japanese babies. Thus, it appears…

  17. Re-Examining Patriotism in Japanese Education: Analysis of Japanese Elementary School Moral Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anzai, Shinobu

    2015-01-01

    In 1947 the Fundamental Law of Education (FLE) defined the pacifist principles for post-war Japanese education and was revised in 2006 for the first time in nearly 60 years. The revised FLE stipulates the importance of teaching love for country and region and Japanese culture and traditions with special emphasis on moral education. Today, this…

  18. Sedation in Japanese dental schools.

    PubMed Central

    Morse, Zac; Sano, Kimito; Fujii, Kazuyuki; Kanri, Tomio

    2004-01-01

    There is very little information about the practice of sedation in Japan. Despite the remarkable advances in dentistry, fear and anxiety continue to be significant deterrents for seeking dental services. Most dental procedures can fortunately be undertaken with the aid of sedation. A comprehensive survey of all the dental schools in Japan was carried out to determine what sedation practices were used in Japan. All 29 dental schools in Japan possessed a dedicated department of anesthesiology at the time of this survey. The survey attempted to determine the specific sedation methods (techniques, routes of administration, and agents used in sedation) as well as practices (monitoring, fasting, location, education, and fees involved in sedation). The results indicate that there was a broad range in sedation practices. The Japanese Dental Society of Anesthesiology may wish to examine the findings of this study and may wish to formulate guidelines appropriate for the practice of sedation in Japan. Others may also wish to compare their own practices with those of Japan. PMID:15497299

  19. Hydrogen peroxide sensors for cellular imaging based on horse radish peroxidase reconstituted on polymer-functionalized TiO2 nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahir, Muhammad Nawaz; André, Rute; Sahoo, Jugal Kishore; Jochum, Florian D.; Theato, Patrick; Natalio, Filipe; Berger, Rüdiger; Branscheid, Robert; Kolb, Ute; Tremel, Wolfgang

    2011-09-01

    We describe the reconstitution of apo-horse radish peroxidase (apo-HRP) onto TiO2 nanorods functionalized with a multifunctional polymer. After functionalization, the horse radish peroxidase (HRP) functionalized TiO2 nanorods were well dispersible in aqueous solution, catalytically active and biocompatible, and they could be used to quantify and image H2O2 which is a harmful secondary product of cellular metabolism. The shape, size and structure of TiO2 nanorods (anatase) were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution TEM (HRTEM), electron diffraction (ED) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The surface functionalization, HRP reconstitution and catalytic activity were confirmed by UV-Vis, FT-IR, CLSM and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Biocompatibility and cellular internalization of active HRP reconstituted TiO2 nanorods were confirmed by a classical MTT cytotoxicity assay and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) imaging, respectively. The intracellular localization allowed H2O2 detection, imaging and quantification in HeLa cells. The polymer functionalized hybrid system creates a complete sensor including a ``cell positioning system'' in each single particle. The flexible synthetic concept with functionalization by post-polymerization modification allows introduction of various dyes for sensitisation at different wavelengths and introduction of various anchor groups for anchoring on different particles.We describe the reconstitution of apo-horse radish peroxidase (apo-HRP) onto TiO2 nanorods functionalized with a multifunctional polymer. After functionalization, the horse radish peroxidase (HRP) functionalized TiO2 nanorods were well dispersible in aqueous solution, catalytically active and biocompatible, and they could be used to quantify and image H2O2 which is a harmful secondary product of cellular metabolism. The shape, size and structure of TiO2 nanorods (anatase) were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high

  20. Effect of potting mix microbial carrying capacity on biological control of rhizoctonia damping-off of radish and rhizoctonia crown and root rot of poinsettia.

    PubMed

    Krause, M S; Madden, L V; Hoitink, H A

    2001-11-01

    ABSTRACT Potting mixes prepared with dark, highly decomposed Sphagnum peat, with light, less decomposed Sphagnum peat, or with composted pine bark, all three of which were colonized by indigenous microorganisms, failed to consistently suppress Rhizoctonia damping-off of radish or Rhizoctonia crown and root rot of poinsettia. Inoculation of these mixes with Chryseobacterium gleum (C(299)R(2)) and Trichoderma hamatum 382 (T(382)) significantly reduced the severity of both diseases in the composted pine bark mix in which both biocontrol agents maintained high populations over 90 days. These microorganisms were less effective against damping-off in the light and dark peat mixes, respectively, in which populations of C(299)R(2) declined. In contrast, crown and root rot, a disease that is severe late in the crop, was suppressed in all three types of mixes. High populations of T(382) in all three mixes late during the cropping cycle may have contributed to control of this disease. PMID:18943449

  1. Effect of potting mix microbial carrying capacity on biological control of rhizoctonia damping-off of radish and rhizoctonia crown and root rot of poinsettia.

    PubMed

    Krause, M S; Madden, L V; Hoitink, H A

    2001-11-01

    ABSTRACT Potting mixes prepared with dark, highly decomposed Sphagnum peat, with light, less decomposed Sphagnum peat, or with composted pine bark, all three of which were colonized by indigenous microorganisms, failed to consistently suppress Rhizoctonia damping-off of radish or Rhizoctonia crown and root rot of poinsettia. Inoculation of these mixes with Chryseobacterium gleum (C(299)R(2)) and Trichoderma hamatum 382 (T(382)) significantly reduced the severity of both diseases in the composted pine bark mix in which both biocontrol agents maintained high populations over 90 days. These microorganisms were less effective against damping-off in the light and dark peat mixes, respectively, in which populations of C(299)R(2) declined. In contrast, crown and root rot, a disease that is severe late in the crop, was suppressed in all three types of mixes. High populations of T(382) in all three mixes late during the cropping cycle may have contributed to control of this disease.

  2. Are Australian Fans of Anime and Manga Motivated to Learn Japanese Language?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armour, William S.; Iida, Sumiko

    2016-01-01

    Recent research into Japanese as a foreign language education has strongly emphasized the link between Japanese popular culture and learning Japanese. However, these studies have only targeted Japanese language learners in formal education contexts and have largely ignored those who are not studying Japanese or studying Japanese informally. This…

  3. Comparison of the growth of Escherichia coli O157: H7 and O104: H4 during sprouting and microgreen production from contaminated radish seeds.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Zhenlei; Nou, Xiangwu; Luo, Yanguang; Wang, Qin

    2014-12-01

    Both sprouts and microgreens are popular tender produce items, typically grown and harvested in indoor facilities which allow a higher degree of control compared to open field production. While sprouts, which have frequently been implicated in foodborne illness outbreaks, are the subject of numerous national and international standards for their production and distribution, there is a lack of data pertaining to the microbiological safety of microgreens. In this study, sprouts and microgreens were produced from radish seeds inoculated with Escherichia coli O157: H7 or O104: H4 and E. coli populations on the harvested products compared to assess the potentials of product contamination from contaminated seeds during sprouting and microgreen production. Both E. coli O157:H7 and O104:H4 grew rapidly during sprouting, reaching levels of 5.8-8.1 log cfu/g and 5.2-7.3 log cfu/g, respectively, depending on the initial inoculation levels of the seeds (1.5-4.6 log cfu/g and 0.8-4.3 log cfu/g on radish seeds, respectively). In comparison, E. coli O157:H7 and O104:H4 populations on harvested microgreens ranged from 0.8 to 4.5 log cfu/g and from 0.6 to 4.0 log cfu/g, respectively. Although harvested microgreens carried significantly less (P < 0.001) E. coli than sprouts germinated from seeds inoculated at the same levels, proliferation of E. coli O157:H7 and O104:H4 occurred during both sprouting and microgreen growth. PMID:25084646

  4. Comparison of the growth of Escherichia coli O157: H7 and O104: H4 during sprouting and microgreen production from contaminated radish seeds.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Zhenlei; Nou, Xiangwu; Luo, Yanguang; Wang, Qin

    2014-12-01

    Both sprouts and microgreens are popular tender produce items, typically grown and harvested in indoor facilities which allow a higher degree of control compared to open field production. While sprouts, which have frequently been implicated in foodborne illness outbreaks, are the subject of numerous national and international standards for their production and distribution, there is a lack of data pertaining to the microbiological safety of microgreens. In this study, sprouts and microgreens were produced from radish seeds inoculated with Escherichia coli O157: H7 or O104: H4 and E. coli populations on the harvested products compared to assess the potentials of product contamination from contaminated seeds during sprouting and microgreen production. Both E. coli O157:H7 and O104:H4 grew rapidly during sprouting, reaching levels of 5.8-8.1 log cfu/g and 5.2-7.3 log cfu/g, respectively, depending on the initial inoculation levels of the seeds (1.5-4.6 log cfu/g and 0.8-4.3 log cfu/g on radish seeds, respectively). In comparison, E. coli O157:H7 and O104:H4 populations on harvested microgreens ranged from 0.8 to 4.5 log cfu/g and from 0.6 to 4.0 log cfu/g, respectively. Although harvested microgreens carried significantly less (P < 0.001) E. coli than sprouts germinated from seeds inoculated at the same levels, proliferation of E. coli O157:H7 and O104:H4 occurred during both sprouting and microgreen growth.

  5. Hydrogen peroxide, nitric oxide and UV RESISTANCE LOCUS8 interact to mediate UV-B-induced anthocyanin biosynthesis in radish sprouts

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Qi; Su, Nana; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Liu, Yuanyuan; Cui, Jin; Liang, Yongchao

    2016-01-01

    The cross talk among hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), nitric oxide (NO) and UV RESISTANCE LOCUS8 (UVR8) in UV-B-induced anthocyanin accumulation in the hypocotyls of radish sprouts was investigated. The results showed that UV-B irradiation significantly increased the anthocyanin accumulation and the expression of UVR8, and a similar trend appeared in radish sprouts subjected to cadmium, chilling and salt stresses regardless of light source. However, these responses disappeared under dark exposure. These results suggest that abiotic stress-induced anthocyanin accumulation and UVR8 expression were light-dependent. Moreover, abiotic stresses all enhanced the production of H2O2 and exogenous H2O2 addition significantly increased the anthocyanin concentration and UVR8 transcription, while these increases were severely inhibited by addition of dimethylthiourea (DMTU, a chemical trap for H2O2). It seems to suggest that H2O2 played an important role in the anthocyanin biosynthesis. Furthermore, addition of 0.5 mM sodium nitroprusside (SNP, a NO-releasing compound) substantially induced the anthocyanin accumulation, and H2O2-induced anthocyanin accumulation and UVR8 expression were significantly suppressed by co-treatment with 2-phenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-3-oxide-1-oxyl (PTIO, a NO scavenger), which was parallel with the expression of anthocyanin biosynthesis-related transcription factors and structural genes. All these results demonstrate that both H2O2 and NO are involved in UV-B-induced anthocyanin accumulation, and there is a crosstalk between them as well as a classical UVR8 pathway. PMID:27404993

  6. Hydrogen peroxide, nitric oxide and UV RESISTANCE LOCUS8 interact to mediate UV-B-induced anthocyanin biosynthesis in radish sprouts.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qi; Su, Nana; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Liu, Yuanyuan; Cui, Jin; Liang, Yongchao

    2016-01-01

    The cross talk among hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), nitric oxide (NO) and UV RESISTANCE LOCUS8 (UVR8) in UV-B-induced anthocyanin accumulation in the hypocotyls of radish sprouts was investigated. The results showed that UV-B irradiation significantly increased the anthocyanin accumulation and the expression of UVR8, and a similar trend appeared in radish sprouts subjected to cadmium, chilling and salt stresses regardless of light source. However, these responses disappeared under dark exposure. These results suggest that abiotic stress-induced anthocyanin accumulation and UVR8 expression were light-dependent. Moreover, abiotic stresses all enhanced the production of H2O2 and exogenous H2O2 addition significantly increased the anthocyanin concentration and UVR8 transcription, while these increases were severely inhibited by addition of dimethylthiourea (DMTU, a chemical trap for H2O2). It seems to suggest that H2O2 played an important role in the anthocyanin biosynthesis. Furthermore, addition of 0.5 mM sodium nitroprusside (SNP, a NO-releasing compound) substantially induced the anthocyanin accumulation, and H2O2-induced anthocyanin accumulation and UVR8 expression were significantly suppressed by co-treatment with 2-phenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-3-oxide-1-oxyl (PTIO, a NO scavenger), which was parallel with the expression of anthocyanin biosynthesis-related transcription factors and structural genes. All these results demonstrate that both H2O2 and NO are involved in UV-B-induced anthocyanin accumulation, and there is a crosstalk between them as well as a classical UVR8 pathway.

  7. Sequence analysis of two alleles reveals that intra-and intergenic recombination played a role in the evolution of the radish fertility restorer (Rfo)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Land plant genomes contain multiple members of a eukaryote-specific gene family encoding proteins with pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) motifs. Some PPR proteins were shown to participate in post-transcriptional events involved in organellar gene expression, and this type of function is now thought to be their main biological role. Among PPR genes, restorers of fertility (Rf) of cytoplasmic male sterility systems constitute a peculiar subgroup that is thought to evolve in response to the presence of mitochondrial sterility-inducing genes. Rf genes encoding PPR proteins are associated with very close relatives on complex loci. Results We sequenced a non-restoring allele (L7rfo) of the Rfo radish locus whose restoring allele (D81Rfo) was previously described, and compared the two alleles and their PPR genes. We identified a ca 13 kb long fragment, likely originating from another part of the radish genome, inserted into the L7rfo sequence. The L7rfo allele carries two genes (PPR-1 and PPR-2) closely related to the three previously described PPR genes of the restorer D81Rfo allele (PPR-A, PPR-B, and PPR-C). Our results indicate that alleles of the Rfo locus have experienced complex evolutionary events, including recombination and insertion of extra-locus sequences, since they diverged. Our analyses strongly suggest that present coding sequences of Rfo PPR genes result from intragenic recombination. We found that the 10 C-terminal PPR repeats in Rfo PPR gene encoded proteins result from the tandem duplication of a 5 PPR repeat block. Conclusions The Rfo locus appears to experience more complex evolution than its flanking sequences. The Rfo locus and PPR genes therein are likely to evolve as a result of intergenic and intragenic recombination. It is therefore not possible to determine which genes on the two alleles are direct orthologs. Our observations recall some previously reported data on pathogen resistance complex loci. PMID:20178653

  8. Hydrogen peroxide, nitric oxide and UV RESISTANCE LOCUS8 interact to mediate UV-B-induced anthocyanin biosynthesis in radish sprouts.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qi; Su, Nana; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Liu, Yuanyuan; Cui, Jin; Liang, Yongchao

    2016-01-01

    The cross talk among hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), nitric oxide (NO) and UV RESISTANCE LOCUS8 (UVR8) in UV-B-induced anthocyanin accumulation in the hypocotyls of radish sprouts was investigated. The results showed that UV-B irradiation significantly increased the anthocyanin accumulation and the expression of UVR8, and a similar trend appeared in radish sprouts subjected to cadmium, chilling and salt stresses regardless of light source. However, these responses disappeared under dark exposure. These results suggest that abiotic stress-induced anthocyanin accumulation and UVR8 expression were light-dependent. Moreover, abiotic stresses all enhanced the production of H2O2 and exogenous H2O2 addition significantly increased the anthocyanin concentration and UVR8 transcription, while these increases were severely inhibited by addition of dimethylthiourea (DMTU, a chemical trap for H2O2). It seems to suggest that H2O2 played an important role in the anthocyanin biosynthesis. Furthermore, addition of 0.5 mM sodium nitroprusside (SNP, a NO-releasing compound) substantially induced the anthocyanin accumulation, and H2O2-induced anthocyanin accumulation and UVR8 expression were significantly suppressed by co-treatment with 2-phenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-3-oxide-1-oxyl (PTIO, a NO scavenger), which was parallel with the expression of anthocyanin biosynthesis-related transcription factors and structural genes. All these results demonstrate that both H2O2 and NO are involved in UV-B-induced anthocyanin accumulation, and there is a crosstalk between them as well as a classical UVR8 pathway. PMID:27404993

  9. 3. View of Japanese village, type C structure, facing eastsoutheast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. View of Japanese village, type C structure, facing east-southeast - Nevada Test Site, Japanese Village, Type C Structure, Area 4, Yucca Flat, 4-04 Road near Rainier Mesa Road, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  10. Beliefs about Overcoming Psychological Problems among British and Japanese Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furnham, Adrian; Ota, Hiromi; Tatsuro, Hosoe; Koyasu, Masuo

    2000-01-01

    Examines the cultural differences among Japanese students, British students, and Japanese students studying in Britain, concerning their beliefs on overcoming five psychological problems: depression, obesity, smoking cessation, agoraphobia, and lack of confidence. (CMK)

  11. A new Japanese vegetarian food guide.

    PubMed

    Nakamoto, Keiko; Arashi, Masako; Noparatanawong, Somboon; Kamohara, Seika; Radak, Tim; Tuchida, Mitsuru; Miyazaki, Kyoichi; Watanabe, Sanae; Kudo, Hideki; Tanaka, Akira

    2009-04-01

    Vegetarianism continues to gain popularity in Japan and the Westernized world, in part from decades of science supporting the health advantages of properly planned vegetarian-based diets. Although there are Asian nutritional tools, one specific to a Japanese vegetarian diet is lacking. Thus, the Japanese vegetarian food guide (JVFG) was developed and based in part on the American Dietetic Association position paper for vegetarian diets and the Japanese Food Guide Spinning Top. The JVFG was developed by collecting dietary information from 3 different institutes in Japan that specialize in regularly offering vegetarian meals. The JVFG was divided into 6 groups with respective recommended servings: vegetables (7.5), grains (4.5), protein foods (4), milk (3), fruits (2), and fats, sugar, and seasonings (<3). The JVFG was developed so that it would adequately provide for all nutrients and be structured for practical use by the general public as well as health professionals.

  12. Molecular Characterization of the Complete Genome of Three Basal-BR Isolates of Turnip mosaic virus Infecting Raphanus sativus in China.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Fuxiang; Sun, Ying; Wang, Yan; Pan, Hongyu; Wang, Fengting; Zhang, Xianghui; Zhang, Yanhua; Liu, Jinliang

    2016-01-01

    Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) infects crops of plant species in the family Brassicaceae worldwide. TuMV isolates were clustered to five lineages corresponding to basal-B, basal-BR, Asian-BR, world-B and OMs. Here, we determined the complete genome sequences of three TuMV basal-BR isolates infecting radish from Shandong and Jilin Provinces in China. Their genomes were all composed of 9833 nucleotides, excluding the 3'-terminal poly(A) tail. They contained two open reading frames (ORFs), with the large one encoding a polyprotein of 3164 amino acids and the small overlapping ORF encoding a PIPO protein of 61 amino acids, which contained the typically conserved motifs found in members of the genus Potyvirus. In pairwise comparison with 30 other TuMV genome sequences, these three isolates shared their highest identities with isolates from Eurasian countries (Germany, Italy, Turkey and China). Recombination analysis showed that the three isolates in this study had no "clear" recombination. The analyses of conserved amino acids changed between groups showed that the codons in the TuMV out group (OGp) and OMs group were the same at three codon sites (852, 1006, 1548), and the other TuMV groups (basal-B, basal-BR, Asian-BR, world-B) were different. This pattern suggests that the codon in the OMs progenitor did not change but that in the other TuMV groups the progenitor sequence did change at divergence. Genetic diversity analyses indicate that the PIPO gene was under the highest selection pressure and the selection pressure on P3N-PIPO and P3 was almost the same. It suggests that most of the selection pressure on P3 was probably imposed through P3N-PIPO. PMID:27271614

  13. Molecular Characterization of the Complete Genome of Three Basal-BR Isolates of Turnip mosaic virus Infecting Raphanus sativus in China

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Fuxiang; Sun, Ying; Wang, Yan; Pan, Hongyu; Wang, Fengting; Zhang, Xianghui; Zhang, Yanhua; Liu, Jinliang

    2016-01-01

    Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) infects crops of plant species in the family Brassicaceae worldwide. TuMV isolates were clustered to five lineages corresponding to basal-B, basal-BR, Asian-BR, world-B and OMs. Here, we determined the complete genome sequences of three TuMV basal-BR isolates infecting radish from Shandong and Jilin Provinces in China. Their genomes were all composed of 9833 nucleotides, excluding the 3′-terminal poly(A) tail. They contained two open reading frames (ORFs), with the large one encoding a polyprotein of 3164 amino acids and the small overlapping ORF encoding a PIPO protein of 61 amino acids, which contained the typically conserved motifs found in members of the genus Potyvirus. In pairwise comparison with 30 other TuMV genome sequences, these three isolates shared their highest identities with isolates from Eurasian countries (Germany, Italy, Turkey and China). Recombination analysis showed that the three isolates in this study had no “clear” recombination. The analyses of conserved amino acids changed between groups showed that the codons in the TuMV out group (OGp) and OMs group were the same at three codon sites (852, 1006, 1548), and the other TuMV groups (basal-B, basal-BR, Asian-BR, world-B) were different. This pattern suggests that the codon in the OMs progenitor did not change but that in the other TuMV groups the progenitor sequence did change at divergence. Genetic diversity analyses indicate that the PIPO gene was under the highest selection pressure and the selection pressure on P3N-PIPO and P3 was almost the same. It suggests that most of the selection pressure on P3 was probably imposed through P3N-PIPO. PMID:27271614

  14. Hybridization between transgenic Brassica napus L. and its wild relatives: Brassica rapa L., Raphanus raphanistrum L., Sinapis arvensis L., and Erucastrum gallicum (Willd.) O.E. Schulz.

    PubMed

    Warwick, S I; Simard, M-J; Légère, A; Beckie, H J; Braun, L; Zhu, B; Mason, P; Séguin-Swartz, G; Stewart, C N

    2003-08-01

    The frequency of gene flow from Brassica napus L. (canola) to four wild relatives, Brassica rapa L., Raphanus raphanistrum L., Sinapis arvensis L. and Erucastrum gallicum (Willd.) O.E. Schulz, was assessed in greenhouse and/or field experiments, and actual rates measured in commercial fields in Canada. Various marker systems were used to detect hybrid individuals: herbicide resistance traits (HR), green fluorescent protein marker (GFP), species-specific amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs) and ploidy level. Hybridization between B. rapa and B. napus occurred in two field experiments (frequency approximately 7%) and in wild populations in commercial fields (approximately 13.6%). The higher frequency in commercial fields was most likely due to greater distance between B. rapa plants. All F(1) hybrids were morphologically similar to B. rapa, had B. napus- and B. rapa-specific AFLP markers and were triploid (AAC, 2n=29 chromosomes). They had reduced pollen viability (about 55%) and segregated for both self-incompatible and self-compatible individuals (the latter being a B. napus trait). In contrast, gene flow between R. raphanistrum and B. napus was very rare. A single R. raphanistrum x B. napus F1 hybrid was detected in 32,821 seedlings from the HR B. napus field experiment. The hybrid was morphologically similar to R. raphanistrum except for the presence of valves, a B. napus trait, in the distorted seed pods. It had a genomic structure consistent with the fusion of an unreduced gamete of R. raphanistrum and a reduced gamete of B. napus (RrRrAC, 2n=37), both B. napus- and R. raphanistrum-specific AFLP markers, and had <1% pollen viability. No hybrids were detected in the greenhouse experiments (1,534 seedlings), the GFP field experiment (4,059 seedlings) or in commercial fields in Québec and Alberta (22,114 seedlings). No S. arvensis or E. gallicum x B. napus hybrids were detected (42,828 and 21,841 seedlings, respectively) from commercial fields in

  15. Hybridization between transgenic Brassica napus L. and its wild relatives: Brassica rapa L., Raphanus raphanistrum L., Sinapis arvensis L., and Erucastrum gallicum (Willd.) O.E. Schulz.

    PubMed

    Warwick, S I; Simard, M-J; Légère, A; Beckie, H J; Braun, L; Zhu, B; Mason, P; Séguin-Swartz, G; Stewart, C N

    2003-08-01

    The frequency of gene flow from Brassica napus L. (canola) to four wild relatives, Brassica rapa L., Raphanus raphanistrum L., Sinapis arvensis L. and Erucastrum gallicum (Willd.) O.E. Schulz, was assessed in greenhouse and/or field experiments, and actual rates measured in commercial fields in Canada. Various marker systems were used to detect hybrid individuals: herbicide resistance traits (HR), green fluorescent protein marker (GFP), species-specific amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs) and ploidy level. Hybridization between B. rapa and B. napus occurred in two field experiments (frequency approximately 7%) and in wild populations in commercial fields (approximately 13.6%). The higher frequency in commercial fields was most likely due to greater distance between B. rapa plants. All F(1) hybrids were morphologically similar to B. rapa, had B. napus- and B. rapa-specific AFLP markers and were triploid (AAC, 2n=29 chromosomes). They had reduced pollen viability (about 55%) and segregated for both self-incompatible and self-compatible individuals (the latter being a B. napus trait). In contrast, gene flow between R. raphanistrum and B. napus was very rare. A single R. raphanistrum x B. napus F1 hybrid was detected in 32,821 seedlings from the HR B. napus field experiment. The hybrid was morphologically similar to R. raphanistrum except for the presence of valves, a B. napus trait, in the distorted seed pods. It had a genomic structure consistent with the fusion of an unreduced gamete of R. raphanistrum and a reduced gamete of B. napus (RrRrAC, 2n=37), both B. napus- and R. raphanistrum-specific AFLP markers, and had <1% pollen viability. No hybrids were detected in the greenhouse experiments (1,534 seedlings), the GFP field experiment (4,059 seedlings) or in commercial fields in Québec and Alberta (22,114 seedlings). No S. arvensis or E. gallicum x B. napus hybrids were detected (42,828 and 21,841 seedlings, respectively) from commercial fields in

  16. Kids Explore America's Japanese American Heritage. Westridge Young Writers Workshop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jefferson County School District R-1, Denver, CO.

    This book was written by 94 students, aged 8-14, at Westridge Elementary School (Littleton, Colorado) during a summer enrichment class. The book was written for anyone who wants to learn about Japanese-American culture and heritage. Chapter 1 gives an overview of Japanese history before American contact, the immigration of Japanese to America, the…

  17. Offers and Requests: Performance by Japanese Learners of English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fukushima, Saeko

    1990-01-01

    A comparison of native and nonnative (Japanese) English speakers' expressions for offers and requests found that Japanese subjects were typically too direct in most situations and sounded rude, even when they intended to be polite. This suggests that the pragmatic competence of Japanese learners of English needs to be reinforced in language…

  18. Japanese Macaques (Macaca fuscata) as Natural Reservoir of Bartonella quintana.

    PubMed

    Sato, Shingo; Kabeya, Hidenori; Yoshino, Aika; Sekine, Wataru; Suzuki, Kazuo; Tamate, Hidetoshi B; Yamazaki, Shouki; Chomel, Bruno B; Maruyama, Soichi

    2015-12-01

    Bartonella quintana bacteremia was detected in 6 (13.3%) of 45 wild-caught Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata). Multilocus sequence typing of the isolates revealed that Japanese macaques were infected with a new and specific B. quintana sequence type. Free-ranging Japanese macaques thus represent another natural reservoir of B. quintana.

  19. 8 CFR 349.1 - Japanese renunciation of nationality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Japanese renunciation of nationality. 349.1... NATIONALITY § 349.1 Japanese renunciation of nationality. A Japanese who renounced United States nationality... void, shall complete Form N-576, Supplemental Affidavit to be Submitted with Applications of...

  20. 8 CFR 349.1 - Japanese renunciation of nationality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Japanese renunciation of nationality. 349.1... NATIONALITY § 349.1 Japanese renunciation of nationality. A Japanese who renounced United States nationality... void, shall complete Form N-576, Supplemental Affidavit to be Submitted with Applications of...