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Sample records for japanese shrew mole

  1. Comparative Morphology of the Papillae Linguales and their Connective Tissue Cores in the Tongue of the Greater Japanese Shrew-mole, Urotrichus talpoides

    PubMed Central

    Yoshimura, K; Shindo, J; Kageyama, I

    2013-01-01

    The external morphology of the papillae linguales (papillae filiformes, papillae fungiformes and papillae vallatae) and their connective tissue cores (CTCs) of the greater Japanese shrew-mole (Urotrichus talpoides) were analysed by optical and scanning electron microscopy. Papillae filiformes were distributed over the dorsal surface of the apex linguae, and on the rostral and caudal regions of the corpus linguae but were less numerous in the mid-region. They were absent from the radix linguae. A pair of oval papillae vallatae was situated at the border between the corpus linguae and the radix linguae. Papillae foliatae were absent. The epithelial surface of each papilla filiformis consisted of a circular concavity, a ring-like wall and either a single thumb-like process or 2–3 slender pointed processes, depending on their location. The morphology of the CTCs of the papillae filiformes also varied regionally. The papillae linguales of the Japanese shrew-mole were morphologically similar to those of other Talpidae and Soricidae, including the common shrew, particularly with respect to the papillae filiformes in the mid- and caudal regions of the corpus linguae. PMID:22571539

  2. Host switch during evolution of a genetically distinct hantavirus in the American shrew mole (Neurotrichus gibbsii).

    PubMed

    Kang, Hae Ji; Bennett, Shannon N; Dizney, Laurie; Sumibcay, Laarni; Arai, Satoru; Ruedas, Luis A; Song, Jin-Won; Yanagihara, Richard

    2009-05-25

    A genetically distinct hantavirus, designated Oxbow virus (OXBV), was detected in tissues of an American shrew mole (Neurotrichus gibbsii), captured in Gresham, Oregon, in September 2003. Pairwise analysis of full-length S- and M- and partial L-segment nucleotide and amino acid sequences of OXBV indicated low sequence similarity with rodent-borne hantaviruses. Phylogenetic analyses using maximum-likelihood and Bayesian methods, and host-parasite evolutionary comparisons, showed that OXBV and Asama virus, a hantavirus recently identified from the Japanese shrew mole (Urotrichus talpoides), were related to soricine shrew-borne hantaviruses from North America and Eurasia, respectively, suggesting parallel evolution associated with cross-species transmission. PMID:19394994

  3. Genetic variants of Cao Bang hantavirus in the Chinese mole shrew (Anourosorex squamipes) and Taiwanese mole shrew (Anourosorex yamashinai).

    PubMed

    Gu, Se Hun; Arai, Satoru; Yu, Hon-Tsen; Lim, Burton K; Kang, Hae Ji; Yanagihara, Richard

    2016-06-01

    To determine the genetic diversity and geographic distribution of Cao Bang virus (CBNV) and to ascertain the existence of CBNV-related hantaviruses, natural history collections of archival tissues from Chinese mole shrews (Anourosorex squamipes) and Taiwanese mole shrews (Anourosorex yamashinai), captured in Guizho Province, People's Republic of China, and in Nantou County, Taiwan, in 2006 and 1989, respectively, were analyzed for hantavirus RNA by RT-PCR. Pair-wise alignment and comparison of the S-, M- and L-segment sequences indicated CBNV in two of five Chinese mole shrews and a previously unrecognized hantavirus, named Xinyi virus (XYIV), in seven of 15 Taiwanese mole shrews. XYIV was closely related to CBNV in Vietnam and China, as well as to Lianghe virus (LHEV), recently reported as a distinct hantavirus species in Chinese mole shrews from Yunnan Province in China. Phylogenetic analyses, using maximum-likelihood and Bayesian methods, showed that XYIV shared a common ancestry with CBNV and LHEV, in keeping with the evolutionary relationship between Anourosorex mole shrews. Until such time that tissue culture isolates of CBNV, LHEV and XYIV can be fully analyzed, XYIV and LHEV should be regarded as genetic variants, or genotypes, of CBNV. PMID:26921799

  4. Brain mass and cranial nerve size in shrews and moles.

    PubMed

    Leitch, Duncan B; Sarko, Diana K; Catania, Kenneth C

    2014-09-01

    We investigated the relationship between body size, brain size, and fibers in selected cranial nerves in shrews and moles. Species include tiny masked shrews (S. cinereus) weighing only a few grams and much larger mole species weighing up to 90 grams. It also includes closely related species with very different sensory specializations - such as the star-nosed mole and the common, eastern mole. We found that moles and shrews have tiny optic nerves with fiber counts not correlated with body or brain size. Auditory nerves were similarly small but increased in fiber number with increasing brain and body size. Trigeminal nerve number was by far the largest and also increased with increasing brain and body size. The star-nosed mole was an outlier, with more than twice the number of trigeminal nerve fibers than any other species. Despite this hypertrophied cranial nerve, star-nosed mole brains were not larger than predicted from body size, suggesting that magnification of their somatosensory systems does not result in greater overall CNS size.

  5. Brain Mass and Cranial Nerve Size in Shrews and Moles

    PubMed Central

    Leitch, Duncan B.; Sarko, Diana K.; Catania, Kenneth C.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between body size, brain size, and fibers in selected cranial nerves in shrews and moles. Species include tiny masked shrews (S. cinereus) weighing only a few grams and much larger mole species weighing up to 90 grams. It also includes closely related species with very different sensory specializations – such as the star-nosed mole and the common, eastern mole. We found that moles and shrews have tiny optic nerves with fiber counts not correlated with body or brain size. Auditory nerves were similarly small but increased in fiber number with increasing brain and body size. Trigeminal nerve number was by far the largest and also increased with increasing brain and body size. The star-nosed mole was an outlier, with more than twice the number of trigeminal nerve fibers than any other species. Despite this hypertrophied cranial nerve, star-nosed mole brains were not larger than predicted from body size, suggesting that magnification of their somatosensory systems does not result in greater overall CNS size. PMID:25174995

  6. A comparative study of sex difference in calbindin neurons among mice, musk shrews, and Japanese quails.

    PubMed

    Moe, Yadanar; Tanaka, Tomoko; Morishita, Masahiro; Ohata, Ryoko; Nakahara, Chihiro; Kawashima, Takaharu; Maekawa, Fumihiko; Sakata, Ichiro; Sakai, Takafumi; Tsukahara, Shinji

    2016-09-19

    The medial preoptic nucleus (MPN) and the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) of mice contain sexually dimorphic nuclei (SDNs) that are larger and have more neurons expressing calbindin D-28K (CB), a calcium-binding protein, in males than females. However, it is largely unknown whether such SDNs exist in species other than rodents. In this study, we performed an immunohistochemical study of CB in the MPN and BNST of musk shrews and Japanese quails to examine the existence of homologs of SDNs in mice. Like mice, musk shrews had a SDN exhibiting male-biased sex differences in volume and CB-immunoreactive (ir) cell number in the MPN. The BNST of musk shrews also contained a male-biased SDN, but consisted of non-CB neurons. The paratenial thalamic nucleus of musk shrews, but not mice, had more CB-ir cells in males than females. In Japanese quails of both sexes, CB-ir cells in the MPN and BNST were extremely small in number and did not cluster. These results suggest that the distribution of CB neurons differs among these species. Musk shrews may have a homolog of the SDN composed of CB neurons in the MPN of mice. PMID:27531632

  7. Interglacial refugia preserved high genetic diversity of the Chinese mole shrew in the mountains of southwest China.

    PubMed

    He, K; Hu, N-Q; Chen, X; Li, J-T; Jiang, X-L

    2016-01-01

    The mountains of southwest China (MSC) harbor extremely high species diversity; however, the mechanism behind this diversity is unknown. We investigated to what degree the topography and climate change shaped the genetic diversity and diversification in these mountains, and we also sought to identify the locations of microrefugia areas in these mountains. For these purposes, we sampled extensively to estimate the intraspecific phylogenetic pattern of the Chinese mole shrew (Anourosorex squamipes) in southwest China throughout its range of distribution. Two mitochondrial genes, namely, cytochrome b (CYT B) and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 (ND2), from 383 archived specimens from 43 localities were determined for phylogeographic and demographic analyses. We used the continuous-diffusion phylogeographic model, extensive Bayesian skyline plot species distribution modeling (SDM) and approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) to explore the changes in population size and distribution through time of the species. Two phylogenetic clades were identified, and significantly higher genetic diversity was preserved in the southern subregion of the mountains. The results of the SDM, continuous-diffusion phylogeographic model, extensive Bayesian skyline plot and ABC analyses were congruent and supported that the Last Interglacial Maximum (LIG) was an unfavorable period for the mole shrews because of a high degree of seasonality; A. squamipes survived in isolated interglacial refugia mainly located in the southern subregion during the LIG and rapidly expanded during the last glacial period. These results furnished the first evidence for major Pleistocene interglacial refugia and a latitudinal effect in southwest China, and the results shedding light on the higher level of species richness in the southern subregion. PMID:26286667

  8. Moles

    MedlinePlus

    ... sizes and shapes. Special cells that contain the pigment melanin cause the brown color. Facial moles are ... They also leave nevus cells behind and the pigment often seems to reappear. Back to Index The ...

  9. Mole Mapping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crippen, Kent J.; Curtright, Robert D.; Brooks, David W.

    2000-01-01

    The abstract nature of the mole and its applications to problem solving make learning the concept difficult for students, and teaching the concept challenging for teachers. Presents activities that use concept maps and graphing calculators as tools for solving mole problems. (ASK)

  10. Genetic Diversity of Artybash Virus in the Laxmann's Shrew (Sorex caecutiens).

    PubMed

    Arai, Satoru; Kang, Hae Ji; Gu, Se Hun; Ohdachi, Satoshi D; Cook, Joseph A; Yashina, Liudmila N; Tanaka-Taya, Keiko; Abramov, Sergey A; Morikawa, Shigeru; Okabe, Nobuhiko; Oishi, Kazunori; Yanagihara, Richard

    2016-07-01

    Although based on very limited M and L segment sequences, Artybash virus (ARTV) was proposed previously as a unique hantavirus harbored by the Laxmann's shrew (Sorex caecutiens). To verify this conjecture, lung tissues from 68 Laxmann's shrews, captured during 2006 to 2014 in eastern Siberia, Russia, and Hokkaido, Japan, were analyzed for ARTV RNA using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). ARTV RNA was detected in six Laxmann's shrews. Pairwise alignment and comparison of partial- and full-length S, M, and L segment sequences from these Laxmann's shrews, as well as phylogenetic analyses, using maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods indicated that ARTV was distinct from other soricine shrew-borne hantaviruses and representative hantaviruses harbored by rodents, moles, and bats. Taxonomic identity of the ARTV-infected Laxmann's shrews was confirmed by full-length cytochrome b mitochondrial DNA sequence analysis. Our data indicate that the hantavirus previously known as Amga virus (MGAV) represents genetic variants of ARTV. Thus, the previously proposed designation of ARTV/MGAV should be replaced by ARTV. PMID:27172519

  11. The Mole Concept

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, I. M.; Johnstone, A. H.

    1973-01-01

    Reports a study of difficulties encountered by 14.5- to 15.0- year-old children in learning the mole concept with a programed instruction. Concludes that three respective disturbing factors were embedded in manipulation of molarity of solutions, balancing equations, and misapprehension that one mole of a compound always reacts with one mole of…

  12. Dahonggou Creek virus, a divergent lineage of hantavirus harbored by the long-tailed mole (Scaptonyx fusicaudus).

    PubMed

    Kang, Hae Ji; Gu, Se Hun; Cook, Joseph A; Yanagihara, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Novel hantaviruses, recently detected in moles (order Eulipotyphla, family Talpidae) from Europe, Asia, and North America would predict a broader host range and wider ecological diversity. Employing RT-PCR, archival frozen tissues from the Chinese shrew mole (Uropsilus soricipes), broad-footed mole (Scapanus latimanus), coast mole (Scapanus orarius), Townsend's mole (Scapanus townsendii), and long-tailed mole (Scaptonyx fusicaudus) were analyzed for hantavirus RNA. Following multiple attempts, a previously unrecognized hantavirus, designated Dahonggou Creek virus (DHCV), was detected in a long-tailed mole, captured in Shimian County, Sichuan Province, People's Republic of China, in August 1989. Analyses of a 1058-nucleotide region of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase-encoding L segment indicated that DHCV was genetically distinct from other rodent-, shrew-, mole-, and bat-borne hantaviruses. Phylogenetic trees, using maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods, showed that DHCV represented a divergent lineage comprising crocidurine and myosoricine shrew-borne hantaviruses. Although efforts to obtain the S- and M-genomic segments failed, the L-segment sequence analysis, reported here, expands the genetic database of non-rodent-borne hantaviruses. Also, by further mining natural history collections of archival specimens, the genetic diversity of hantaviruses will elucidate their evolutionary origins.

  13. Dahonggou Creek virus, a divergent lineage of hantavirus harbored by the long-tailed mole (Scaptonyx fusicaudus).

    PubMed

    Kang, Hae Ji; Gu, Se Hun; Cook, Joseph A; Yanagihara, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Novel hantaviruses, recently detected in moles (order Eulipotyphla, family Talpidae) from Europe, Asia, and North America would predict a broader host range and wider ecological diversity. Employing RT-PCR, archival frozen tissues from the Chinese shrew mole (Uropsilus soricipes), broad-footed mole (Scapanus latimanus), coast mole (Scapanus orarius), Townsend's mole (Scapanus townsendii), and long-tailed mole (Scaptonyx fusicaudus) were analyzed for hantavirus RNA. Following multiple attempts, a previously unrecognized hantavirus, designated Dahonggou Creek virus (DHCV), was detected in a long-tailed mole, captured in Shimian County, Sichuan Province, People's Republic of China, in August 1989. Analyses of a 1058-nucleotide region of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase-encoding L segment indicated that DHCV was genetically distinct from other rodent-, shrew-, mole-, and bat-borne hantaviruses. Phylogenetic trees, using maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods, showed that DHCV represented a divergent lineage comprising crocidurine and myosoricine shrew-borne hantaviruses. Although efforts to obtain the S- and M-genomic segments failed, the L-segment sequence analysis, reported here, expands the genetic database of non-rodent-borne hantaviruses. Also, by further mining natural history collections of archival specimens, the genetic diversity of hantaviruses will elucidate their evolutionary origins. PMID:27433135

  14. The Taming of the Shrew

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gad-El-Hak, M.

    1996-11-01

    Considering the extreme complexity of the turbulence problem in general and the unattainability of first-principles analytical solutions in particular, it is not surprising that controlling a turbulent flow remains a challenging task, mired in empiricism and unfulfilled promises and aspirations. Brute force suppression, or taming, of turbulence via active control strategies is always possible, but the penalty for doing so often exceeds any potential savings. The artifice is to achieve a desired effect with minimum energy expenditure. Spurred by the recent developments in chaos control, microfabrication and neural networks, efficient reactive control of turbulent flows, where the control input is optimally adjusted based on feedforward or feedback measurements, is now in the realm of the possible for future practical devices. But regardless of how the problem is approached, combating turbulence is always as arduous as the taming of the shrew. The former task will be emphasized during the oral presentation, but for this abstract we reflect on a short verse from the latter. From William Shakespeare's The Taming of the Shrew. Curtis (Petruchio's servant, in charge of his country house): Is she so hot a shrew as she's reported? Grumio (Petruchio's personal lackey): She was, good Curtis, before this frost. But thou know'st winter tames man, woman, and beast; for it hath tamed my old master, and my new mistress, and myself, fellow Curtis.

  15. Chemical Principles Revisited: The Mole.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolb, Doris

    1978-01-01

    Discusses ways of teaching the mole concept in high school chemistry classes. Provides resource information on the mole and Avogadro's Number. Includes an explanation of four methods for measuring Avogadro's Number and instructions on how to use the mole. (MA)

  16. Mole gun injury.

    PubMed

    Pistré, V; Rezzouk, J

    2013-09-01

    A mole gun is a weapon, which is used to trap and kill moles. This report provides an overview of the state of knowledge of mole gun injuries, comparable to blast injuries caused by fireworks, explosive or gunshot. Over a 2-year period, the authors reported their experience with ten hand injuries caused by mole gun. Radial side of the hand was often concerned, particularly the thumb. The authors explain their choices in the management of such lesions. Surgery was performed primarily and a large debridement currently seemed to offer the best outcome for the patient. Blast, crush, burns and lacerations may explain the higher rate of amputation to the digits. A long period of physiotherapy, specifically of the hand, was needed before the patient could return to work. This ballistic hand trauma encountered by surgeons requires knowledge and understanding of these injuries. It should be in accordance with firearms law because of severe injuries encountered and possible lethal wounds. PMID:23746826

  17. Mole gun injury.

    PubMed

    Pistré, V; Rezzouk, J

    2013-09-01

    A mole gun is a weapon, which is used to trap and kill moles. This report provides an overview of the state of knowledge of mole gun injuries, comparable to blast injuries caused by fireworks, explosive or gunshot. Over a 2-year period, the authors reported their experience with ten hand injuries caused by mole gun. Radial side of the hand was often concerned, particularly the thumb. The authors explain their choices in the management of such lesions. Surgery was performed primarily and a large debridement currently seemed to offer the best outcome for the patient. Blast, crush, burns and lacerations may explain the higher rate of amputation to the digits. A long period of physiotherapy, specifically of the hand, was needed before the patient could return to work. This ballistic hand trauma encountered by surgeons requires knowledge and understanding of these injuries. It should be in accordance with firearms law because of severe injuries encountered and possible lethal wounds.

  18. The neurobiology of Etruscan shrew active touch

    PubMed Central

    Brecht, Michael; Naumann, Robert; Anjum, Farzana; Wolfe, Jason; Munz, Martin; Mende, Carolin; Roth-Alpermann, Claudia

    2011-01-01

    The Etruscan shrew, Suncus etruscus, is not only the smallest terrestrial mammal, but also one of the fastest and most tactile hunters described to date. The shrew's skeletal muscle consists entirely of fast-twitch types and lacks slow fibres. Etruscan shrews detect, overwhelm, and kill insect prey in large numbers in darkness. The cricket prey is exquisitely mechanosensitive and fast-moving, and is as big as the shrew itself. Experiments with prey replica show that shape cues are both necessary and sufficient for evoking attacks. Shrew attacks are whisker guided by motion- and size-invariant Gestalt-like prey representations. Shrews often attack their prey prior to any signs of evasive manoeuvres. Shrews whisk at frequencies of approximately 14 Hz and can react with latencies as short as 25–30 ms to prey movement. The speed of attacks suggests that shrews identify and classify prey with a single touch. Large parts of the shrew's brain respond to vibrissal touch, which is represented in at least four cortical areas comprising collectively about a third of the cortical volume. Etruscan shrews can enter a torpid state and reduce their body temperature; we observed that cortical response latencies become two to three times longer when body temperature drops from 36°C to 24°C, suggesting that endothermy contributes to the animal's high-speed sensorimotor performance. We argue that small size, high-speed behaviour and extreme dependence on touch are not coincidental, but reflect an evolutionary strategy, in which the metabolic costs of small body size are outweighed by the advantages of being a short-range high-speed touch and kill predator. PMID:21969684

  19. Complete genome sequence and molecular phylogeny of a newfound hantavirus harbored by the Doucet's musk shrew (Crocidura douceti) in Guinea.

    PubMed

    Gu, Se Hun; Nicolas, Violaine; Lalis, Aude; Sathirapongsasuti, Nuankanya; Yanagihara, Richard

    2013-12-01

    Elucidation of the molecular phylogeny of shrew-borne hantaviruses in sub-Saharan Africa has been hampered by the lack of full-length viral genomes. In this report, we present the complete genome analysis of a newfound hantavirus, designated Bowé virus, detected in ethanol-fixed intercostal muscle of a Doucet's musk shrew (Crocidura douceti), captured in southwestern Guinea in February 2012. Full-length amino acid sequence comparison of the S-, M- and L-segment gene products revealed that Bowé virus differed by 24.1-53.4%, 17.0-59.9% and 14.6-39.7%, respectively, from all other representative rodent-, shrew- and mole-borne hantaviruses. Phylogenetic analysis, using maximum-likelihood and Bayesian methods, under the GTR+I+Γ model of evolution, showed that Bowé virus shared a common ancestry with Tanganya virus, a hantavirus detected in the Therese's shrew (Crocidura theresae) in Guinea. Whole genome analysis of many more hantaviruses from sub-Saharan Africa are needed to better clarify how the radiation of African shrews might have contributed to the phylogeography of hantaviruses.

  20. The hydatidiform mole

    PubMed Central

    Candelier, Jean-Jacques

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The hydatidiform mole (HM) is a placental pathology of androgenetic origin. Placental villi have an abnormal hyperproliferation event and hydropic degeneration. Three situations can be envisaged at its origin: 1. The destruction/expulsion of the female pronucleus at the time of fertilization by 1 or 2 spermatozoa with the former being followed by an endoreplication of the male pronucleus leading to a complete hydatidiform mole (CHM) 2. A triploid zygote (fertilization by 2 spermatozoa) leading to a partial hydatidiform mole (PHM) but can also lead to haploid and diploid clones. The diploid clone may produce a normal fetus while the haploid clone after endoreplication generates a CHM 3. A nutritional defect during the differentiation of the oocytes or the deterioration of the limited oxygen pressure during the first trimester of gestation may lead to the formation of a HM. In countries with poor medical health care system, moles (mainly the CHM) can become invasive or, in rare cases, lead to gestational choriocarcinomas. PMID:26421650

  1. MOLES Information Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ventouras, Spiros; Lawrence, Bryan; Woolf, Andrew; Cox, Simon

    2010-05-01

    The Metadata Objects for Linking Environmental Sciences (MOLES) model has been developed within the Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) DataGrid project [NERC DataGrid] to fill a missing part of the ‘metadata spectrum'. It is a framework within which to encode the relationships between the tools used to obtain data, the activities which organised their use, and the datasets produced. MOLES is primarily of use to consumers of data, especially in an interdisciplinary context, to allow them to establish details of provenance, and to compare and contrast such information without recourse to discipline-specific metadata or private communications with the original investigators [Lawrence et al 2009]. MOLES is also of use to the custodians of data, providing an organising paradigm for the data and metadata. The work described in this paper is a high-level view of the structure and content of a recent major revision of MOLES (v3.3) carried out as part of a NERC DataGrid extension project. The concepts of MOLES v3.3 are rooted in the harmonised ISO model [Harmonised ISO model] - particularly in metadata standards (ISO 19115, ISO 19115-2) and the ‘Observations and Measurements' conceptual model (ISO 19156). MOLES exploits existing concepts and relationships, and specialises information in these standards. A typical sequence of data capturing involves one or more projects under which a number of activities are undertaken, using appropriate tools and methods to produce the datasets. Following this typical sequence, the relevant metadata can be partitioned into the following main sections - helpful in mapping onto the most suitable standards from the ISO 19100 series. • Project section • Activity section (including both observation acquisition and numerical computation) • Observation section (metadata regarding the methods used to obtained the data, the spatial and temporal sampling regime, quality etc.) • Observation collection section The key concepts in

  2. Complete genome sequence and molecular phylogeny of a newfound hantavirus harbored by the Doucet’s musk shrew (Crocidura douceti) in Guinea

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Se Hun; Nicolas, Violaine; Lalis, Aude; Sathirapongsasuti, Nuankanya; Yanagihara, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Elucidation of the molecular phylogeny of shrew-borne hantaviruses in sub-Saharan Africa has been hampered by the lack of full-length viral genomes. In this report, we present the complete genome analysis of a newfound hantavirus, designated Bowé virus, detected in ethanol-fixed intercostal muscle of a Doucet’s musk shrew (Crocidura douceti), captured in southwestern Guinea in February 2012. Full-length amino acid sequence comparison of the S-, M- and L-segment gene products revealed that Bowé virus differed by 24.1–53.4%, 17.0–59.9% and 14.6–39.7%, respectively, from all other representative rodent-, shrew- and mole-borne hantaviruses. Phylogenetic analysis, using maximum-likelihood and Bayesian methods, under the GTR+I+Γ model of evolution, showed that Bowé virus shared a common ancestry with Tanganya virus, a hantavirus detected in the Therese’s shrew (Crocidura theresae) in Guinea. Whole genome analysis of many more hantaviruses from sub-Saharan Africa are needed to better clarify how the radiation of African shrews might have contributed to the phylogeography of hantaviruses. PMID:23994121

  3. Detection of shrew-borne hantavirus in Eurasian pygmy shrew (Sorex minutus) in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Radosa, Lukáš; Schlegel, Mathias; Gebauer, Petra; Ansorge, Hermann; Heroldová, Marta; Jánová, Eva; Stanko, Michal; Mošanský, Ladislav; Fričová, Jana; Pejčoch, Milan; Suchomel, Josef; Purchart, Luboš; Groschup, Martin H; Krüger, Detlev H; Ulrich, Rainer G; Klempa, Boris

    2013-10-01

    Recently, it was found that not only rodents but also shrews are reservoir hosts of hantaviruses. In Central Europe, only Seewis virus, associated with the Eurasian common shrew (Sorex araneus), has been recognized until now. In the present report, tissue samples from shrews belonging to Crocidurinae and Soricinae subfamilies, trapped in Czech Republic, Germany, and Slovakia, were screened for the presence of novel hantaviruses. Three new hantavirus partial L-segment sequences were obtained from pygmy shrews (Sorex minutus) trapped in Czech Republic and Germany. Complete nucleocapsid protein- and glycoprotein precursor-coding S- and M-segment sequences were then determined for the newly recognized hantavirus strains, CZ/Beskydy/412/2010/Sm, CZ/Drahany/420/2010/Sm, and DE/Dürrbach/1912/2009/Sm. Phylogenetic analyses showed that they represent strains of Asikkala virus (ASIV), a novel hantavirus also found in pygmy shrews from Finland. Our study reveals a broad geographic distribution of ASIV across Europe and indicates pygmy shrew as the primary reservoir host. Future studies will have to determine the pathogenic relevance of ASIV.

  4. Common Moles, Atypical Moles (Dysplastic Nevi), and Risk of Melanoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... about 300 million people—have common moles. How big are they? Usually less than 5 millimeters wide, ... one dysplastic nevus ( 3 , 4 , 6 , 7 ). How big are they? Often wider than 5 millimeters (wider ...

  5. Tree shrew database (TreeshrewDB): a genomic knowledge base for the Chinese tree shrew.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yu; Yu, Dandan; Yao, Yong-Gang

    2014-11-21

    The tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri) is a small mammal with a close relationship to primates and it has been proposed as an alternative experimental animal to primates in biomedical research. The recent release of a high-quality Chinese tree shrew genome enables more researchers to use this species as the model animal in their studies. With the aim to making the access to an extensively annotated genome database straightforward and easy, we have created the Tree shrew Database (TreeshrewDB). This is a web-based platform that integrates the currently available data from the tree shrew genome, including an updated gene set, with a systematic functional annotation and a mRNA expression pattern. In addition, to assist with automatic gene sequence analysis, we have integrated the common programs Blast, Muscle, GBrowse, GeneWise and codeml, into TreeshrewDB. We have also developed a pipeline for the analysis of positive selection. The user-friendly interface of TreeshrewDB, which is available at http://www.treeshrewdb.org, will undoubtedly help in many areas of biological research into the tree shrew.

  6. Muscle Aging and Oxidative Stress in Wild-Caught Shrews

    PubMed Central

    Hindle, Allyson G.; Lawler, John M.; Campbell, Kevin L.; Horning, Markus

    2010-01-01

    Red-toothed shrews (Soricidae, subfamily Soricinae) are an intriguing model system to examine the free radical theory of aging in wild mammals, given their short (<18 month) lifespan and high mass-specific metabolic rates. As muscle performance underlies both foraging ability and predator avoidance, any age-related decline should be detrimental to fitness and survival. Muscle samples of water shrews (Sorex palustris) and sympatrically distributed short-tailed shrews (Blarina brevicauda) were therefore assessed for oxidative stress markers, protective antioxidant enzymes and apoptosis. Activity levels of catalase and glutathione peroxidase increased with age in both species. Similarly, Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase isoform content was elevated significantly in older animals of both species (increases of 60% in the water shrew, 25% in the short-tailed shrew). Only one oxidative stress marker (lipid peroxidation) was age-elevated; the others were stable or declined (4-hydroxynonenal adducts and dihydroethidium oxidation). Glutathione peroxidase activity was significantly higher in the short-tailed shrew, while catalase activity was 2× higher in water shrews. Oxidative stress indicators were on average higher in short-tailed shrews. Apoptosis occurred in <1% of myocytes examined, and did not increase with age. Within the constraints of the sample size we found evidence of protection against elevated oxidative stress in wild-caught shrews. PMID:20109576

  7. Muscle aging and oxidative stress in wild-caught shrews.

    PubMed

    Hindle, Allyson G; Lawler, John M; Campbell, Kevin L; Horning, Markus

    2010-04-01

    Red-toothed shrews (Soricidae, subfamily Soricinae) are an intriguing model system to examine the free-radical theory of aging in wild mammals, given their short (<18months) lifespan and high mass-specific metabolic rates. As muscle performance underlies both foraging ability and predator avoidance, any age-related decline should be detrimental to fitness and survival. Muscle samples of water shrews (Sorex palustris) and sympatrically distributed short-tailed shrews (Blarina brevicauda) were therefore assessed for oxidative stress markers, protective antioxidant enzymes and apoptosis. Activity levels of catalase and glutathione peroxidase increased with age in both species. Similarly, Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase isoform content was elevated significantly in older animals of both species (increases of 60% in the water shrew, 25% in the short-tailed shrew). Only one oxidative stress marker (lipid peroxidation) was age-elevated; the others were stable or declined (4-hydroxynonenal adducts and dihydroethidium oxidation). Glutathione peroxidase activity was significantly higher in the short-tailed shrew, while catalase activity was 2x higher in water shrews. Oxidative stress indicators were on average higher in short-tailed shrews. Apoptosis occurred in <1% of myocytes examined, and did not increase with age. Within the constraints of the sample size we found evidence of protection against elevated oxidative stress in wild-caught shrews. PMID:20109576

  8. Atypical moles: diagnosis and management.

    PubMed

    Perkins, Allen; Duffy, R Lamar

    2015-06-01

    Atypical moles are benign pigmented lesions. Although they are benign, they exhibit some of the clinical and histologic features of malignant melanoma. They are more common in fair-skinned individuals and in those with high sun exposure. Atypical moles are characterized by size of 6 mm or more at the greatest dimension, color variegation, border irregularity, and pebbled texture. They are associated with an increased risk of melanoma, warranting enhanced surveillance, especially in patients with more than 50 moles and a family history of melanoma. Because an individual lesion is unlikely to display malignant transformation, biopsy of all atypical moles is neither clinically beneficial nor cost-effective. The ABCDE (asymmetry, border irregularity, color unevenness, diameter of 6 mm or more, evolution) mnemonic is a valuable tool for clinicians and patients to identify lesions that could be melanoma. Also, according to the "ugly duckling" concept, benign moles tend to have a similar appearance, whereas an outlier with a different appearance is more likely to be undergoing malignant change. Atypical moles with changes suggestive of malignant melanoma should be biopsied, using an excisional method, if possible.

  9. Lung parasites of shrews from Pennsylvania.

    PubMed

    Laakkonen, J; Haukisalmi, V; Merritt, J F

    1997-04-01

    We examined lung parasites of three species of soricids, Sorex cinereus (n = 58), Sorex fumeus (n = 23) and Blarina brevicauda (n = 45) collected from Pennsylvania (USA), from 1990 to 1995. Yeast-like cells of Hisfoplasma capsulatum var. capsulatum were found in lung sections stained with Grocott's modification of Gomori's methenamine silver, periodic acid-Schiff, Giemsa, and hematoxylin-eosin in two (3%) S. cinereus, eight (35%) S. fumeus and two (4%) B. brevicauda. The number of spores of H. capsulatum in the lungs was low and no inflammatory reaction was evident. The infection was not disseminated to other organs. This is the first report of H. capsulatum infection in any species of shrews of the genus Sorex and the prevalence in S. fumeus was remarkably high compared to those reported for other wild mammals. A nematode, possibly Angiostrongylus michiganensis, was found in the lungs of one S. fumeus on necropsy and in a stained lung section of one S. cinereus. In both cases the host was also infected with the fungus. Pneumocystis carinii, which is the most common lung parasite in Sorex araneus (the numerically dominant Eurasian species of shrew), was not found in any of the North American species of shrew examined in this study. PMID:9131560

  10. Distinct Lineages of Bufavirus in Wild Shrews and Nonhuman Primates.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Michihito; Orba, Yasuko; Anindita, Paulina D; Ishii, Akihiro; Ueno, Keisuke; Hang'ombe, Bernard M; Mweene, Aaron S; Ito, Kimihito; Sawa, Hirofumi

    2015-07-01

    Viral metagenomic analysis identified a new parvovirus genome in the intestinal contents of wild shrews in Zambia. Related viruses were detected in spleen tissues from wild shrews and nonhuman primates. Phylogenetic analyses showed that these viruses are related to human bufaviruses, highlighting the presence and genetic diversity of bufaviruses in wildlife. PMID:26079728

  11. Hantavirus in northern short-tailed shrew, United States.

    PubMed

    Arai, Satoru; Song, Jin-Won; Sumibcay, Laarni; Bennett, Shannon N; Nerurkar, Vivek R; Parmenter, Cheryl; Cook, Joseph A; Yates, Terry L; Yanagihara, Richard

    2007-09-01

    Phylogenetic analyses, based on partial medium- and large-segment sequences, support an ancient evolutionary origin of a genetically distinct hantavirus detected by reverse transcription-PCR in tissues of northern short-tailed shrews (Blarina brevicauda) captured in Minnesota in August 1998. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence of hantaviruses harbored by shrews in the Americas. PMID:18252128

  12. Distinct innate immune responses in human macrophages and endothelial cells infected with shrew-borne hantaviruses.

    PubMed

    Shin, Ok Sarah; Yanagihara, Richard; Song, Jin-Won

    2012-12-01

    Although hantaviruses have been previously considered as rodent-borne pathogens, recent studies demonstrate genetically distinct hantaviruses in evolutionarily distant non-rodent reservoirs, including shrews, moles and bats. The immunological responses to these newfound hantaviruses in humans are unknown. We compared the innate immune responses to Imjin virus (MJNV) and Thottapalayam virus (TPMV), two shrew-borne hantaviruses, with that toward two rodent-borne hantaviruses, pathogenic Hantann virus (HTNV) and nonpathogenic Prospect Hill virus (PHV). Infection of human macrophages and endothelial cells with either HTNV or MJNV triggered productive viral replication and up-regulation of anti-viral responsive gene expression from day 1 to day 3 postinfection, compared with PHV and TPMV. Furthermore, HTNV, MJNV and TPMV infection led to prolonged increased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines from days 3 to 7 postinfection. By contrast, PHV infection failed to induce pro-inflammatory responses. Distinct patterns of innate immune activation caused by MJNV suggest that it might be pathogenic to humans. PMID:22944108

  13. Of Bushwahckers, Termites and Moles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smelter, Richard W.

    2003-01-01

    Retired school administrator describes five types of school personnel that make an administrator's job difficult: Bushwackers, termites, CIA moles, rumor-mill addicts, and sartorial slobs. For example, termites are staff members who purposely volunteer for committees so they can sabotage the group's efforts from within. (PKP)

  14. Shared ancestry between a newfound mole-borne hantavirus and hantaviruses harbored by cricetid rodents.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hae Ji; Bennett, Shannon N; Hope, Andrew G; Cook, Joseph A; Yanagihara, Richard

    2011-08-01

    Discovery of genetically distinct hantaviruses in multiple species of shrews (order Soricomorpha, family Soricidae) and moles (family Talpidae) contests the conventional view that rodents (order Rodentia, families Muridae and Cricetidae) are the principal reservoir hosts and suggests that the evolutionary history of hantaviruses is far more complex than previously hypothesized. We now report on Rockport virus (RKPV), a hantavirus identified in archival tissues of the eastern mole (Scalopus aquaticus) collected in Rockport, TX, in 1986. Pairwise comparison of the full-length S, M, and L genomic segments indicated moderately low sequence similarity between RKPV and other soricomorph-borne hantaviruses. Phylogenetic analyses, using maximum-likelihood and Bayesian methods, showed that RKPV shared a most recent common ancestor with cricetid-rodent-borne hantaviruses. Distributed widely across the eastern United States, the fossorial eastern mole is sympatric and syntopic with cricetid rodents known to harbor hantaviruses, raising the possibility of host-switching events in the distant past. Our findings warrant more-detailed investigations on the dynamics of spillover and cross-species transmission of present-day hantaviruses within communities of rodents and moles.

  15. Tactile experience shapes prey-capture behavior in Etruscan shrews.

    PubMed

    Anjum, Farzana; Brecht, Michael

    2012-01-01

    A crucial role of tactile experience for the maturation of neural response properties in the somatosensory system is well established, but little is known about the role of tactile experience in the development of tactile behaviors. Here we study how tactile experience affects prey capture behavior in Etruscan shrews, Suncus etruscus. Prey capture in adult shrews is a high-speed behavior that relies on precise attacks guided by tactile Gestalt cues. We studied the role of tactile experience by three different approaches. First, we analyzed the hunting skills of young shrews' right after weaning. We found that prey capture in young animals in most, but not all, aspects is similar to that of adults. Second, we performed whisker trimming for 3-4 weeks after birth. Such deprivation resulted in a lasting disruption of prey capture even after whisker re-growth: attacks lacked precise targeting and had a lower success rate. Third, we presented adult shrews with an entirely novel prey species, the giant cockroach. The shape of this roach is very different from the shrew's normal (cricket) prey and the thorax-the preferred point of attack in crickets-is protected by a heavy cuticle. Initially shrews attacked giant roaches the same way they attack crickets and targeted the thoracic region. With progressive experience, however, shrews adopted a new attack strategy targeting legs and underside of the roaches while avoiding other body parts. Speed and efficiency of attacks improved. These data suggest that tactile experience shapes prey capture behavior. PMID:22701408

  16. Developing an Intuitive Approach to Moles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wakeley, Dawn M.; de Grys, Hans

    2000-01-01

    Explains the concept of mole and presents a teaching approach in which students can experiment with atoms and develop an understanding of mass ratios. Presents 10 examples of chemistry problems involving moles and unit conversations. (YDS)

  17. Genetics Home Reference: recurrent hydatidiform mole

    MedlinePlus

    ... Rashid Y, Sheridan E, Bonthron DT. Genetic and epigenetic analysis of recurrent hydatidiform mole. Hum Mutat. 2009 ... on PubMed Nguyen NM, Slim R. Genetics and Epigenetics of Recurrent Hydatidiform Moles: Basic Science and Genetic ...

  18. Tool to Distinguish Moles from Melanoma

    Cancer.gov

    Moles to Melanoma: Recognizing the ABCDE Features” presents photos that show changes in individual pigmented lesions over time, and describes the different appearances of moles, dysplastic nevi, and melanomas.

  19. Molecular epidemiology of paramyxoviruses in Zambian wild rodents and shrews.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Michihito; Muleya, Walter; Ishii, Akihiro; Orba, Yasuko; Hang'ombe, Bernard M; Mweene, Aaron S; Moonga, Ladslav; Thomas, Yuka; Kimura, Takashi; Sawa, Hirofumi

    2014-02-01

    Rodents and shrews are known to harbour various viruses. Paramyxoviruses have been isolated from Asian and Australian rodents, but little is known about them in African rodents. Recently, previously unknown paramyxovirus sequences were found in South African rodents. To date, there have been no reports related to the presence and prevalence of paramyxoviruses in shrews. We found a high prevalence of paramyxoviruses in wild rodents and shrews from Zambia. Semi-nested reverse transcription-PCR assays were used to detect paramyxovirus RNA in 21 % (96/462) of specimens analysed. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that these viruses were novel paramyxoviruses and could be classified as morbillivirus- and henipavirus-related viruses, and previously identified rodent paramyxovirus-related viruses. Our findings suggest the circulation of previously unknown paramyxoviruses in African rodents and shrews, and provide new information regarding the geographical distribution and genetic diversity of paramyxoviruses. PMID:24189618

  20. Developing an Intuitive Approach to Moles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakeley, Dawn M.; de Grys, Hans

    2000-08-01

    The mole is an important theoretical concept and a powerful tool in the study of chemistry. Traditional approaches to teaching the mole focusing on memorization and rote learning do not help students to develop the conceptual understanding and problem-solving skills necessary to be truly successful in chemistry. An alternative approach is to use discovery-oriented laboratory exercises for helping students to develop an intuitive understanding of moles. Once students have discovered for themselves the utility and power of moles, the reason for using moles becomes obvious. Additional open-ended experiments provide students with the opportunity to apply this knowledge base in a non-directed laboratory setting.

  1. Adoption of a nestling house mouse by a female short-tailed shrew

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blus, L.J.; Johnson, D.A.

    1969-01-01

    A nursing female short-tailed shrew adopted a nestling house mouse. The mouse was observed in the nest with the female and her litter of shrews three days after it was introduced into the aluminum box containing the shrews, but it was found dead in the nest four days later.

  2. Effects of late quaternary climate change on Palearctic shrews.

    PubMed

    Prost, Stefan; Klietmann, Johannes; van Kolfschoten, Thijs; Guralnick, Robert P; Waltari, Eric; Vrieling, Klaas; Stiller, Mathias; Nagel, Doris; Rabeder, Gernot; Hofreiter, Michael; Sommer, Robert S

    2013-06-01

    The Late Quaternary was a time of rapid climatic oscillations and drastic environmental changes. In general, species can respond to such changes by behavioral accommodation, distributional shifts, ecophenotypic modifications (nongenetic), evolution (genetic) or ultimately face local extinction. How those responses manifested in the past is essential for properly predicting future ones especially as the current warm phase is further intensified by rising levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Here, we use ancient DNA (aDNA) and morphological features in combination with ecological niche modeling (ENM) to investigate genetic and nongenetic responses of Central European Palearctic shrews to past climatic change. We show that a giant form of shrew, previously described as an extinct Pleistocene Sorex species, represents a large ecomorph of the common shrew (Sorex araneus), which was replaced by populations from a different gene-pool and with different morphology after the Pleistocene Holocene transition. We also report the presence of the cold-adapted tundra shrew (S. tundrensis) in Central Europe. This species is currently restricted to Siberia and was hitherto unknown as an element of the Pleistocene fauna of Europe. Finally, we show that there is no clear correlation between climatic oscillations within the last 50 000 years and body size in shrews and conclude that a special nonanalogous situation with regard to biodiversity and food supply in the Late Glacial may have caused the observed large body size. PMID:23505017

  3. The formation and extinction of fear memory in tree shrews

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Shujiang; Wang, Cong; Guo, Chengbing; Huang, Xu; Wang, Liecheng; Zhang, Chen

    2015-01-01

    Fear is an emotion that is well-studied due to its importance for animal survival. Experimental animals, such as rats and mice, have been widely used to model fear. However, higher animals such as nonhuman primates have rarely been used to study fear due to ethical issues and high costs. Tree shrews are small mammals that are closely related to primates; they have been used to model human-related psychosocial conditions such as stress and alcohol tolerance. Here, we describe an experimental paradigm to study the formation and extinction of fear memory in tree shrews. We designed an experimental apparatus of a light/dark box with a voltage foot shock. We found that tree shrews preferred staying in the dark box in the daytime without stimulation and showed avoidance to voltage shocks applied to the footplate in a voltage-dependent manner. Foot shocks applied to the dark box for 5 days (10 min per day) effectively reversed the light–dark preference of the tree shrews, and this memory lasted for more than 50 days without any sign of memory decay (extinction) in the absence of further stimulation. However, this fear memory was reversed with 4 days of reverse training by applying the same stimulus to the light box. When reducing the stimulus intensity during the training period, a memory extinction and subsequently reinstatement effects were observed. Thus, our results describe an efficient method of monitoring fear memory formation and extinction in tree shrews. PMID:26283941

  4. Shared Ancestry between a Newfound Mole-Borne Hantavirus and Hantaviruses Harbored by Cricetid Rodents ▿†

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Hae Ji; Bennett, Shannon N.; Hope, Andrew G.; Cook, Joseph A.; Yanagihara, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Discovery of genetically distinct hantaviruses in multiple species of shrews (order Soricomorpha, family Soricidae) and moles (family Talpidae) contests the conventional view that rodents (order Rodentia, families Muridae and Cricetidae) are the principal reservoir hosts and suggests that the evolutionary history of hantaviruses is far more complex than previously hypothesized. We now report on Rockport virus (RKPV), a hantavirus identified in archival tissues of the eastern mole (Scalopus aquaticus) collected in Rockport, TX, in 1986. Pairwise comparison of the full-length S, M, and L genomic segments indicated moderately low sequence similarity between RKPV and other soricomorph-borne hantaviruses. Phylogenetic analyses, using maximum-likelihood and Bayesian methods, showed that RKPV shared a most recent common ancestor with cricetid-rodent-borne hantaviruses. Distributed widely across the eastern United States, the fossorial eastern mole is sympatric and syntopic with cricetid rodents known to harbor hantaviruses, raising the possibility of host-switching events in the distant past. Our findings warrant more-detailed investigations on the dynamics of spillover and cross-species transmission of present-day hantaviruses within communities of rodents and moles. PMID:21632770

  5. Circadian rhythms in the short-tailed shrew, Blarina brevicauda.

    PubMed

    Antipas, A J; Madison, D M; Ferraro, J S

    1990-08-01

    Circadian rhythms of wheel running and feeding were measured in the short-tailed shrew. Shrews were strongly nocturnal, and their activity rhythms entrained to both long-day (LD 16:8) and short-day (LD 6:18) photocycles. Under conditions of continuous light (LL) or darkness (DD), the activity rhythms free-ran with average periodicities of 25.1 hours and 24.1 hours, respectively. In LL the level of activity was depressed, and in some cases wheel running was completely inhibited. No significant sex differences were observed in the period or amplitude of the monitored circadian rhythms. All shrews fed throughout the day and night; however, unlike in previous reports, ultradian periods of feeding behavior were not found. The results are related to Aschoff's four observations for the effect of light on activity rhythms in nocturnal rodents. PMID:2255728

  6. Mold, Mould, Mole-d: The Three M's of Career Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amundson, Norman E.

    2008-01-01

    The author explores a creative idea development process wherein one begins by applying the image of "breaking the mold" to career development and then extending the process further by considering other related images. In this article, the related images include synonyms for mold such as mould and mole-d (the mole is a small burrowing animal with…

  7. Avogadro Number and Mole: A Royal Confusion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emiliani, Cesare

    1991-01-01

    There is a great deal of confusion in physics and chemistry textbooks, dictionaries, manuals, and handbooks about the definition of Avogadro's number and the term "mole." Avogadro's number is defined simply as the number of atomic mass units in one gram. Mole is defined as the mass of one Avogadro number of identical items. (Author/PR)

  8. Distribution and coexistence of shrews in patchy landscapes: A field test of multiple hypotheses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mortelliti, Alessio; Boitani, Luigi

    2009-11-01

    Despite the important role of shrews (Soricomorpha: Soricidae) in the functioning of ecosystems, as predators and prey, the effects of habitat loss and fragmentation on this guild of mammals are still unclear. We studied the distribution of 5 species (the greater white toothed shrew Crocidura leucodon; the lesser white toothed shrew Crocidura suaveolens; the pigmy shrew Sorex minutus; the Appennine shrew Sorex samniticus and the Etruscan shrew Suncus etruscus) in a fragmented landscape in central Italy. Shrews were trapped with pitfall traps made from plastic water bottles, the number of traps increased with patch size. A total of 170 individuals, of 5 species of shrews were captured. Shrews were widely distributed in our study area, however patch occupancy was determined mainly by vegetation and geometrical characteristics of the patches. Our data supports the hypotheses that patterns of habitat selection and the dynamics of seasonal abundance (habitat and temporal partitioning between similarly sized species) reduce competitive pressure, thus allowing coexistence of shrews in relatively species-rich assemblages, for such small amounts of habitat. The most important outcome of our results is the crucial role played by vegetation structure in determining distribution patterns. These results strongly suggest that measurements of the vegetation structure of habitat patches should always be included as explanatory variables when studying the distribution of shrews in fragmented landscapes.

  9. Discovery of Novel Alphacoronaviruses in European Rodents and Shrews

    PubMed Central

    Tsoleridis, Theocharis; Onianwa, Okechukwu; Horncastle, Emma; Dayman, Emma; Zhu, Miaoran; Danjittrong, Taechasit; Wachtl, Marta; Behnke, Jerzy M.; Chapman, Sarah; Strong, Victoria; Dobbs, Phillipa; Ball, Jonathan K.; Tarlinton, Rachael E.; McClure, C. Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Eight hundred and thirteen European rodents and shrews encompassing seven different species were screened for alphacoronaviruses using PCR detection. Novel alphacoronaviruses were detected in the species Rattus norvegicus, Microtus agrestis, Sorex araneus and Myodes glareolus. These, together with the recently described Lucheng virus found in China, form a distinct rodent/shrew-specific clade within the coronavirus phylogeny. Across a highly conserved region of the viral polymerase gene, the new members of this clade were up to 22% dissimilar at the nucleotide level to the previously described Lucheng virus. As such they might represent distinct species of alphacoronaviruses. These data greatly extend our knowledge of wildlife reservoirs of alphacoronaviruses. PMID:27102167

  10. Bioenergetics and thermal physiology of American water shrews (Sorex palustris).

    PubMed

    Gusztak, R W; Macarthur, R A; Campbell, K L

    2005-02-01

    Rates of O(2) consumption and CO(2) production, telemetered body temperature (T(b)) and activity level were recorded from adult and subadult water shrews (Sorex palustris) over an air temperature (T(a)) range of 3-32 degrees C. Digesta passage rate trials were conducted before metabolic testing to estimate the minimum fasting time required for water shrews to achieve a postabsorptive state. Of the 228 metabolic trials conducted on 15 water shrews, 146 (64%) were discarded because the criteria for inactivity were not met. Abdominal T(b) of S. palustris was independent of T(a) and averaged 38.64 +/- 0.07 degrees C. The thermoneutral zone extended from 21.2 degrees C to at least 32 degrees C. Our estimate of the basal metabolic rate for resting, postabsorptive water shrews (96.88 +/- 2.93 J g(-1) h(-1) or 4.84 +/- 0.14 ml O(2) g(-1) h(-1)) was three times the mass-predicted value, while their minimum thermal conductance in air (0.282 +/- 0.013 ml O(2) g(-1) h(-1)) concurred with allometric predictions. The mean digesta throughput time of water shrews fed mealworms (Tenebrio molitor) or ground meat was 50-55 min. The digestibility coefficients for metabolizable energy (ME) of water shrews fed stickleback minnows (Culaea inconstans) and dragonfly nymphs (Anax spp. and Libellula spp.) were 85.4 +/- 1.3% and 82.8 +/- 1.1%, respectively. The average metabolic rate (AMR) calculated from the gas exchange of six water shrews at 19-22 degrees C (208.0 +/- 17.0 J g(-1) h(-1)) was nearly identical to the estimate of energy intake (202.9 +/- 12.9 J g(-1) h(-1)) measured for these same animals during digestibility trials (20 degrees C). Based on 24-h activity trials and our derived ME coefficients, the minimum daily energy requirement of an adult (14.4 g) water shrew at T(a) = 20 degrees C is 54.0 kJ, or the energetic equivalent of 14.7 stickleback minnows.

  11. Bioenergetics and thermal physiology of American water shrews (Sorex palustris).

    PubMed

    Gusztak, R W; Macarthur, R A; Campbell, K L

    2005-02-01

    Rates of O(2) consumption and CO(2) production, telemetered body temperature (T(b)) and activity level were recorded from adult and subadult water shrews (Sorex palustris) over an air temperature (T(a)) range of 3-32 degrees C. Digesta passage rate trials were conducted before metabolic testing to estimate the minimum fasting time required for water shrews to achieve a postabsorptive state. Of the 228 metabolic trials conducted on 15 water shrews, 146 (64%) were discarded because the criteria for inactivity were not met. Abdominal T(b) of S. palustris was independent of T(a) and averaged 38.64 +/- 0.07 degrees C. The thermoneutral zone extended from 21.2 degrees C to at least 32 degrees C. Our estimate of the basal metabolic rate for resting, postabsorptive water shrews (96.88 +/- 2.93 J g(-1) h(-1) or 4.84 +/- 0.14 ml O(2) g(-1) h(-1)) was three times the mass-predicted value, while their minimum thermal conductance in air (0.282 +/- 0.013 ml O(2) g(-1) h(-1)) concurred with allometric predictions. The mean digesta throughput time of water shrews fed mealworms (Tenebrio molitor) or ground meat was 50-55 min. The digestibility coefficients for metabolizable energy (ME) of water shrews fed stickleback minnows (Culaea inconstans) and dragonfly nymphs (Anax spp. and Libellula spp.) were 85.4 +/- 1.3% and 82.8 +/- 1.1%, respectively. The average metabolic rate (AMR) calculated from the gas exchange of six water shrews at 19-22 degrees C (208.0 +/- 17.0 J g(-1) h(-1)) was nearly identical to the estimate of energy intake (202.9 +/- 12.9 J g(-1) h(-1)) measured for these same animals during digestibility trials (20 degrees C). Based on 24-h activity trials and our derived ME coefficients, the minimum daily energy requirement of an adult (14.4 g) water shrew at T(a) = 20 degrees C is 54.0 kJ, or the energetic equivalent of 14.7 stickleback minnows. PMID:15592850

  12. Boginia virus, a newfound hantavirus harbored by the Eurasian water shrew (Neomys fodiens) in Poland

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Guided by decades-old reports of hantaviral antigens in the Eurasian common shrew (Sorex araneus) and the Eurasian water shrew (Neomys fodiens) in European Russia, we employed RT-PCR to analyze lung tissues of soricine shrews, captured in Boginia, Huta Dłutowska and Kurowice in central Poland during September 2010, 2011 and 2012. Findings In addition to Seewis virus (SWSV), which had been previously found in Eurasian common shrews elsewhere in Europe, a genetically distinct hantavirus, designated Boginia virus (BOGV), was detected in Eurasian water shrews captured in each of the three villages. Phylogenetic analysis, using maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods, showed that BOGV formed a separate lineage distantly related to SWSV. Conclusions Although the pathogenic potential of BOGV and other recently identified shrew-borne hantaviruses is still unknown, clinicians should be vigilant for unusual febrile diseases and clinical syndromes occurring among individuals reporting exposures to shrews. PMID:23693084

  13. Experimental accumulation of lead from soil through earthworms to common shrews.

    PubMed

    Pankakoski, E; Koivisto, I; Hyvärinen, H; Terhivuo, J; Tähkä, K M

    1994-10-01

    Common shrews (Sorex araneus) were fed on earthworms containing high concentrations of lead. Both the earthworms and shrews originated from uncontaminated areas, but earthworms for the "lead" group of shrews were reared in the laboratory for 3 or 4 weeks in highly Pb-polluted soil from near an old lead smelter. The control group of shrews received the same amount of earthworms from the uncontaminated area. The acceptance of the experimental food by shrews was significantly lower in the lead group, indicating that the shrews were able to detect the lead in their food. After 2-31 days of feeding, the shrews in the lead group had significantly higher Pb concentrations in their liver, kidney, bone, and pelt than did the controls. Both the number of deaths during the experiment and the proportion of individuals with changes in kidney histology were significantly higher in the lead group. PMID:7804726

  14. Cortical organization in shrews: evidence from five species.

    PubMed

    Catania, K C; Lyon, D C; Mock, O B; Kaas, J H

    1999-07-19

    Cortical organization was examined in five shrew species. In three species, Blarina brevicauda, Cryptotis parva, and Sorex palustris, microelectrode recordings were made in cortex to determine the organization of sensory areas. Cortical recordings were then related to flattened sections of cortex processed for cytochrome oxidase or myelin to reveal architectural borders. An additional two species (Sorex cinereus and Sorex longirostris) with visible cortical subdivisions based on histology alone were analyzed without electrophysiological mapping. A single basic plan of cortical organization was found in shrews, consisting of a few clearly defined sensory areas located caudally in cortex. Two somatosensory areas contained complete representations of the contralateral body, corresponding to primary somatosensory cortex (S1) and secondary somatosensory cortex (S2). A small primary visual cortex (V1) was located closely adjacent to S1, whereas auditory cortex (A1) was located in extreme caudolateral cortex, partially encircled by S2. Areas did not overlap and had sharp, histochemically apparent and electrophysiologically defined borders. The adjacency of these areas suggests a complete absence of intervening higher level or association areas. Based on a previous study of corticospinal connections, a presumptive primary motor cortex (M1) was identified directly rostral to S1. Apparently, in shrews, the solution to having extremely little neocortex is to have only a few small cortical subdivisions. However, the small areas remain discrete, well organized, and functional. This cortical organization in shrews is likely a derived condition, because a wide range of extant mammals have a greater number of cortical subdivisions. PMID:10397395

  15. Microparasite assemblages of conspecific shrew populations in Southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Laakkonen, J.; Fisher, R.N.; Case, T.J.

    2003-01-01

    The microparasite component communities of 2 species of shrews, Notiosorex crawfordi and Sorex ornatus, were investigated for the first time in 2 isolated and 3 continuous landscapes in southern California. With microscopical examination, a total of 6 parasite species was found in N. crawfordi and 8 species in S. ornatus. The highest number (5) of parasite species was detected in the lungs. The corrected estimate of parasite species richness did not significantly correlate with the host abundance in either shrew species. Altitude, and also latitude in N. crawfordi, appeared to be significantly positively associated with the parasite species richness, but this could be due to a false association because of the rare occurrence of some of the parasites or the small altitude range (or both). No other landscape variable analyzed (location, size of the study site, disturbance) was significantly associated with the parasite species richness of the shrews. The parasite assemblages of the 2 shrew species were similar despite the fact that N. crawfordi has a lower metabolic rate than S. ornatus.

  16. Japanese; Japanese Songs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    This supplementary textbook for students of Japanese presents a collection of 43 songs--folk songs, nursery songs, lullabies, love songs, wedding songs, graduation songs, the national anthem, drinking songs, school songs, and Christmas carols. With the exception of the carols, the musical scores are presented with their Japanese lyrics. The…

  17. Moles and Mole Control on British Farms, Amenities and Gardens after Strychnine Withdrawal

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Sandra E.; Ellwood, Stephen A.; Johnson, Paul J.; Macdonald, David W.

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary Moles are burrowing mammals that are regarded as pests in Britain, and until 2006 they could legally be killed using strychnine poison. When strychnine was withdrawn there were fears that mole populations would increase. We surveyed farmers, amenity managers and householders about moles and mole control on their land in 2007, post strychnine withdrawal. Kill-trapping was by far the preferred control method used and control may be used more than can be justified by damage levels or the effect of control on damage. Mole traps are unregulated, unlike most other spring traps, and some might not meet current welfare standards. We found no evidence that mole activity had increased since a 1992 survey of farms. Abstract Moles are considered pests in Britain, but this issue has been little studied. Lower welfare standards have been tolerated for moles than for most other managed wild mammal species, as use of both the controversial poison, strychnine, and unregulated traps have been permitted. Strychnine was withdrawn in 2006 and there were fears that mole populations would increase as a result. In 2007, we conducted a comprehensive, nationwide survey of land manager perceptions, opinions and behaviour regarding moles and mole control on farms, amenities and domestic gardens in Britain. We surveyed 2150 land managers (achieving a 59% response rate) and ground-truthed 29 responses. Moles were reported to be present on most farms and amenities, and 13% of gardens, and were more common in lighter soils. Where present, moles were usually considered pests, this being more likely in Wales, Scotland and northern England, on livestock and mixed farms, and on large, high-value amenities, e.g., racecourses and golf courses. Mole control followed similar patterns to mole presence. More control may occur than is economically, and therefore potentially ethically, justified. Control should be more carefully considered and, where necessary, more effectively targeted. Kill

  18. Coccidian parasites (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from insectivores. V. Ten forms from the moles of Japan (Euroscaptor, Mogera spp.).

    PubMed

    Duszynski, D W; Wattam, A R

    1988-02-01

    Moles from Japan were examined for coccidian oocysts, and 67 of 77 (87%) hosts were infected including 8 of 11 (73%) Euroscaptor mizura, 31 of 36 (86%) Mogera kobeae, 17 of 17 M. tokudae, and 11 of 13 (85%) M. wogura. Of 67 infected hosts, 57 (85%) had multiple infections representing 2-5 coccidian species when examined. All oocysts in the infected fecal samples remained unsporulated and the absence of sporulation may be the result of storing feces from Japanese moles in 2% aqueous H2SO4. Five structurally distinct forms of unsporulated oocysts were found in E. mizura, and five distinct forms of unsporulated oocysts were also seen in Mogera spp. Two of the forms from E. mizura were similar to forms from Mogera spp., and the five forms from Mogera were shared freely between the three Mogera species. This is the first systematic survey of Japanese moles for coccidia.

  19. Short-tailed shrews as reservoirs of the agents of Lyme disease and human babesiosis.

    PubMed

    Telford, S R; Mather, T N; Adler, G H; Spielman, A

    1990-10-01

    To determine whether short-tailed shrews (Blarina brevicauda) serve as reservoir hosts for the Lyme disease spirochete (Borrelia burgdorferi) and the agent of human babesiosis (Babesia microti), we examined nymphal ticks that had fed as larvae on shrews collected from 3 enzootic sites in coastal Massachusetts for evidence of infection by either or both of these agents. Xenodiagnosis indicated that 11 of 14 shrews were infected by B. burgdorferi. One of 3 piroplasm-infected shrews also infected ticks with B. microti. In a site where the piroplasm is endemic, 11 of 17 shrews showed patent parasitemias by thin blood smears. Of these, 4 had parasitemias exceeding 40%. Few immature ticks infested shrews, however, suggesting that B. brevicauda, although abundant in some endemic sites and serving as a competent reservoir, would contribute minimally to the population of infected nymphs. PMID:2213411

  20. Short-tailed shrews: Toxicity and residue relationships of DDT, dieldrin, and endrin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blus, L.J.

    1978-01-01

    Experiments involving dietary toxicity and residue relationships of DDT, dieldrin, and endrin were conducted with short-tailed shrews. Dietary concentrations of DDT dissolved in vegetable oils were usually more toxic than diets containing comparable amounts of powdered DDT. Younger shrews, particularly females, were more tolerant of powdered DDT than older animals; yet, there were no conspicuous age differences in toxicity of DDT dissolved in oils. In comparison to other mammals, short-tailed shrews are not unusually sensitive to DDT, dieldrin, or endrin on the basis of two-week feeding tests. The influence of age and sex on toxicity of DDT, endrin, and dieldrin was sometimes more important than body weight. Of those shrews of the same age and sex that were fed the same dietary dosage, heavier shrews were more tolerant than lighter individuals; and, heavier shrews tended to lose a greater percentage of body weight before death. There was a range of 15 to 105 DDT equivalents in brains of shrews dying on dietary dosages of DDT. Six shrews fed a high level of DDT seemed to have unusual metabolite capabilities and died with apparent lethal levels of DDD in their brains. Levels of dieldrin in brains of shrews that died on a dietary dosage of dieldrin ranged from 3.7 to 12.6 ppm. In the rates of gain and loss experiments where shrews were given diets containing 400 ppm DDT or 50 ppm dieldrin up to 17 days, high residues were noted in tissues of shrews after two weeks on a contaminated diet and a few died at that time. After shrews were placed on clean food, it was determined that >50% of the dieldrin residues in carcass and brain were lost in 50% of residues of DDT and metabolites in brains after 2 weeks on clean food; males lost nearly 50% of residues in carcasses after two weeks on clean food compared with a loss of only 11% in females.

  1. Moles and Mole Control on British Farms, Amenities and Gardens after Strychnine Withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Baker, Sandra E; Ellwood, Stephen A; Johnson, Paul J; Macdonald, David W

    2016-06-08

    Moles are considered pests in Britain, but this issue has been little studied. Lower welfare standards have been tolerated for moles than for most other managed wild mammal species, as use of both the controversial poison, strychnine, and unregulated traps have been permitted. Strychnine was withdrawn in 2006 and there were fears that mole populations would increase as a result. In 2007, we conducted a comprehensive, nationwide survey of land manager perceptions, opinions and behaviour regarding moles and mole control on farms, amenities and domestic gardens in Britain. We surveyed 2150 land managers (achieving a 59% response rate) and ground-truthed 29 responses. Moles were reported to be present on most farms and amenities, and 13% of gardens, and were more common in lighter soils. Where present, moles were usually considered pests, this being more likely in Wales, Scotland and northern England, on livestock and mixed farms, and on large, high-value amenities, e.g., racecourses and golf courses. Mole control followed similar patterns to mole presence. More control may occur than is economically, and therefore potentially ethically, justified. Control should be more carefully considered and, where necessary, more effectively targeted. Kill-trapping was the favoured recent and future method on farms and amenities, even if strychnine was to be reintroduced; however, because mole traps are currently unregulated, some might not meet current welfare standards if tested. We found no evidence for an increase in moles since a farm questionnaire survey conducted in 1992; this could have wider implications for future wildlife management policy changes.

  2. Moles and Mole Control on British Farms, Amenities and Gardens after Strychnine Withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Baker, Sandra E; Ellwood, Stephen A; Johnson, Paul J; Macdonald, David W

    2016-01-01

    Moles are considered pests in Britain, but this issue has been little studied. Lower welfare standards have been tolerated for moles than for most other managed wild mammal species, as use of both the controversial poison, strychnine, and unregulated traps have been permitted. Strychnine was withdrawn in 2006 and there were fears that mole populations would increase as a result. In 2007, we conducted a comprehensive, nationwide survey of land manager perceptions, opinions and behaviour regarding moles and mole control on farms, amenities and domestic gardens in Britain. We surveyed 2150 land managers (achieving a 59% response rate) and ground-truthed 29 responses. Moles were reported to be present on most farms and amenities, and 13% of gardens, and were more common in lighter soils. Where present, moles were usually considered pests, this being more likely in Wales, Scotland and northern England, on livestock and mixed farms, and on large, high-value amenities, e.g., racecourses and golf courses. Mole control followed similar patterns to mole presence. More control may occur than is economically, and therefore potentially ethically, justified. Control should be more carefully considered and, where necessary, more effectively targeted. Kill-trapping was the favoured recent and future method on farms and amenities, even if strychnine was to be reintroduced; however, because mole traps are currently unregulated, some might not meet current welfare standards if tested. We found no evidence for an increase in moles since a farm questionnaire survey conducted in 1992; this could have wider implications for future wildlife management policy changes. PMID:27338484

  3. Subsurface Sampling and Sensing Using Burrowing Moles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoker, C. R.; Richter, L.; Smith, W. H.

    2004-01-01

    Finding evidence for life on Mars will likely require accessing the subsurface since the Martian surface is both hostile to life and to preservation of biosignatures due to the cold dry conditions, the strong W environment, and the presence of strong oxidants. Systems are needed to probe beneath the sun and oxidant baked surface of Mars and return samples to the surface for analysis or to bring the instrument sensing underground. Recognizing this need, the European Space Agency incorporated a small subsurface penetrometer or Mole onto the Beagle 2 Mars lander. Had the 2003 landing been successful, the Mole would have collected samples from 1-1.5 m depth and delivered them to an organic analysis instrument on the surface. The de- vice called the Planetary Underground Tool (PLUTO), also measured soil mechanical and thermophysical properties. Constrained by the small mass and volume allowance of the Beagle lander, the PLUTO mole was a slender cylinder only 2 cm diameter and 28 cm long equipped with a small sampling device designed to collect samples and bring them to the surface for analysis by other instrument. The mass of the entire system including deployment mechanism and tether was 1/2 kg. sensor package underground to make in situ measurements. The Mars Underground Mole (MUM) is a larger Mole based on the PLUTO design but incorporating light collection optics that interface to a fiber optic cable in the tether that transmits light to a combined stimulated emission Raman Spectrometer and Short Wave Infrared (SWIR) reflectance Spectrometer with sensitivity from 0.7 to 2.5 micrometers. This instrument is called the Dual Spectral Sensor and uses a Digital Array Scanning Interferometer as the sensor technology, a type of fourier transform interferometer that uses fixed element prisms and thus is highly rugged compared to a Michaelson interferometer. Due to the size limitations of an on-Mole instrument compartment, and the availability of a tether, the sensor head

  4. Neurochemical Characterization of the Tree Shrew Dorsal Striatum

    PubMed Central

    Rice, Matthew W.; Roberts, Rosalinda C.; Melendez-Ferro, Miguel; Perez-Costas, Emma

    2011-01-01

    The striatum is a major component of the basal ganglia and is associated with motor and cognitive functions. Striatal pathologies have been linked to several disorders, including Huntington’s, Tourette’s syndrome, obsessive–compulsive disorders, and schizophrenia. For the study of these striatal pathologies different animal models have been used, including rodents and non-human primates. Rodents lack on morphological complexity (for example, the lack of well defined caudate and putamen nuclei), which makes it difficult to translate data to the human paradigm. Primates, and especially higher primates, are the closest model to humans, but there are ever-increasing restrictions to the use of these animals for research. In our search for a non-primate animal model with a striatum that anatomically (and perhaps functionally) can resemble that of humans, we turned our attention to the tree shrew. Evolutionary genetic studies have provided strong data supporting that the tree shrews (Scadentia) are one of the closest groups to primates, although their brain anatomy has only been studied in detail for specific brain areas. Morphologically, the tree shrew striatum resembles the primate striatum with the presence of an internal capsule separating the caudate and putamen, but little is known about its neurochemical composition. Here we analyzed the expression of calcium-binding proteins, the presence and distribution of the striosome and matrix compartments (by the use of calbindin, tyrosine hydroxylase, and acetylcholinesterase immunohistochemistry), and the GABAergic system by immunohistochemistry against glutamic acid decarboxylase and Golgi impregnation. In summary, our results show that when compared to primates, the tree shrew dorsal striatum presents striking similarities in the distribution of most of the markers studied, while presenting some marked divergences when compared to the rodent striatum. PMID:21887131

  5. First evidence of poisonous shrews with an envenomation apparatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuenca-Bescós, Gloria; Rofes, Juan

    2007-02-01

    Herein, we report evidence of an envenomation apparatus (EA) in two different species of extinct “giant” shrews, Beremendia and an indeterminate soricine (Mammalia, Eulipotyphla, Soricidae), documented by very well preserved fossil specimens recovered from two Early Pleistocene cave deposits of the Sierra de Atapuerca in Burgos, Spain. The two soricine taxa from Atapuerca have evolved specialized teeth as EAs, which differ from those of recently reported mammals of the Paleocene age, being more similar to the ones described in the modern Solenodon. This discovery reveals the first instance of shrews possessing what appears to be an EA, an evolutionary adaptation that, in these species, was probably related to an increase in body mass and hunting of a larger-sized prey. The Atapuerca specimens would have a highly specialized EA, one of the very few reported for an extinct or living mammal of any time. In addition to the presence of a gutter-like groove along the medial side of the crown of the lower incisors, these two species also present stout jaws and a modified mandibular symphysis with a conspicuous cavity, which in life would likely contain large amounts of connective tissue. The strong mandible architecture of these large shrews would be, in this way, reinforced by a more immovable symphysis, increasing the bite force exerted over a potential prey. This adaptation, together with the grooved incisors, would ensure a rapid and efficient transmission of the poisonous saliva to paralyze relatively large-sized prey.

  6. Leptospira spp. in Rodents and Shrews in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Mayer-Scholl, Anne; Hammerl, Jens Andre; Schmidt, Sabrina; Ulrich, Rainer G.; Pfeffer, Martin; Woll, Dietlinde; Scholz, Holger C.; Thomas, Astrid; Nöckler, Karsten

    2014-01-01

    Leptospirosis is an acute, febrile disease occurring in humans and animals worldwide. Leptospira spp. are usually transmitted through direct or indirect contact with the urine of infected reservoir animals. Among wildlife species, rodents act as the most important reservoir for both human and animal infection. To gain a better understanding of the occurrence and distribution of pathogenic leptospires in rodent and shrew populations in Germany, kidney specimens of 2973 animals from 11 of the 16 federal states were examined by PCR. Rodent species captured included five murine species (family Muridae), six vole species (family Cricetidae) and six shrew species (family Soricidae). The most abundantly trapped animals were representatives of the rodent species Apodemus flavicollis, Clethrionomys glareolus and Microtus agrestis. Leptospiral DNA was amplified in 10% of all animals originating from eight of the 11 federal states. The highest carrier rate was found in Microtus spp. (13%), followed by Apodemus spp. (11%) and Clethrionomys spp. (6%). The most common Leptospira genomospecies determined by duplex PCR was L. kirschneri, followed by L. interrogans and L. borgpetersenii; all identified by single locus sequence typing (SLST). Representatives of the shrew species were also carriers of Leptospira spp. In 20% of Crocidura spp. and 6% of the Sorex spp. leptospiral DNA was detected. Here, only the pathogenic genomospecies L. kirschneri was identified. PMID:25062275

  7. Scanning electron microscopic study on the lingual papillae of the Japanese insectivora.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, S; Arai, S; Tomo, S; Shimoda, T; Shimamura, A; Yamada, H

    1989-03-01

    The tongue and lingual papillae of the Japanese Insectivora, the Shinto shrew (Sorex caecuiens saevus), the long-clawed shrew (S. unguiculatus), the dsinezumi shrew (Crocidura dsinezumi dsinezumi) and the Japanese water shrew (Chimarrogale himalyica platycephala), were observed by scanning electron microscope. The tongue of these animals had two vallate papillae. In two species of the Sorex a papilla in the vallate papilla was surrounded by two separated trenches, but in the other species it was surrounded by only a continuous trench and a clear vallum. The fungiform papillae in the Sorex were less developed than those of the other species. In the Sorex and Crocidura, there was no filiform papilla on the lingual apex. These genera, however, have papillary projections in the margin of the lingual apex. The results of this investigation suggest that the Sorex and Crocidura indicate an ancient form of the mammalian tongue. These characters, furthermore, were compared among seven species in six genera added three species observed by Kobayashi et al. (1983) to this study.

  8. Relating the Mole Concept and Fundamental Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Kenneth L.

    The high percentage of students who have difficulty in solving free-response problems related to the mole concept was addressed by implementation of reading skill strategies and computer assisted instruction. Frayer models, semantic mapping, and graphic organizers from Reading in the Content Area (RICA) were used to increase student understanding…

  9. The Origin of the Mole Concept

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, William B.

    2004-01-01

    German Chemist, August Wilhelm Hofmann first introduced the term "molar" (from the Latin moles, meaning "a large mass") into chemistry, around 1865. The particular use of the term molar gained currency in the physics literature, where it was in common use at least through the 1940s.

  10. A synopsis of records of myxozoan parasites (Cnidaria: Myxozoa) from shrews, with additional data on Soricimyxum fegati from common shrew Sorex araneus in Hungary and pygmy shrew Sorex minutus in Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Szekely, Csaba; Atkinson, Stephen D; Molnar, Kalman; Egyed, Laszlo; Gubanyi, Andras; Cech, Gabor

    2016-01-01

    Myxozoans (Cnidaria: Myxozoa) are almost exclusively endoparasites of aquatic vertebrates and invertebrates, with the notable exception being two species of Soricimyxum Prunescu, Prunescu, Pucek et Lom, 2007 described from terrestrial shrews (Soricidae) in central Europe. Myxospores of the two parasites are morphologically indistinguishable, but have SSU rDNA sequences that differ by about 4%. Herein, we report additional molecular and histology data from Soricimyxum fegati Prunescu, Prunescu, Pucek et Lom, 2007 from common shrew (Sorex araneus Linnaeus) from Hungary, and add a new geographic record for S. fegati in pygmy shrew (Sorex minutus Linnaeus) from Slovakia. A limited survey of shrews from the northern United States, Blarina brevicauda Say and Sorex sp. from New York, and Sorex spp. from Oregon, did not discover any infections, which is in stark contrast to the relatively high infection rates (up to 66%) in European shrew populations. We also provide a summary and discussion of literature records of species of Soricimyxum and a host survey. Given the lack of distinguishing morphological or morphometric characters between Soricimyxum spp., and the overlap in vertebrate hosts and geographic ranges, unambiguous identification of these closely related shrew parasites can presently only be achieved through sequence comparison of one or more variable SSU rDNA regions. PMID:27312127

  11. Mole ghrelin: cDNA cloning, gene expression, and diverse molecular forms in Mogera imaizumii.

    PubMed

    Satou, Motoyasu; Kaiya, Hiroyuki; Nishi, Yoshihiro; Shinohara, Akio; Kawada, Shin-Ichiro; Miyazato, Mikiya; Kangawa, Kenji; Sugimoto, Hiroyuki

    2016-06-01

    Here, we describe cDNA cloning and purification of the ghrelin gene sequences and ghrelin peptides from the Japanese true mole, Mogera imaizumii. The gene spans >2.9kbp, has four exons and three introns, and shares structural similarity with those of terrestrial animals. Mature mole ghrelin peptide was predicted to be 28 amino acids long (GSSFLSPEHQKVQQRKESKKPPSKPQPR) and processed from a prepropeptide of 116 amino acids. To further elucidate molecular characteristics, we purified ghrelin peptides from mole stomach. By mass spectrometry, we found that the mole ghrelin peptides had higher ratios of the odd-number fatty acids (C9 and C11 as much as C8) attached to the third serine residue than other vertebrate ghrelin. Truncated forms of ghrelins such as [1-27], [1-19], [1-16] and [1-15], and that lacked the 14th glutamine residue (des-Gln14 ghrelin) were produced in the stomach. Marked expression of ghrelin mRNA in lung was observed as in stomach and brain. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the branch of M. imaizumii has slightly higher dN/dS ratios (the nucleotide substitution rates at non-synonymous and synonymous sites) than did other eulipotyphlans. Peptide length was positively correlated with human ghrelin receptor activation, whereas the length of fatty-acyl chains showed no obvious functional correlation. The basal higher luciferase activities of the 5'-proximal promoter region of mole ghrelin were detected in ghrelin-negative C2C12 cells and hypoxic culture conditions impaired transcriptional activity. These results indicated that moles have acquired diverse species of ghrelin probably through distinctive fatty acid metabolism because of their food preferences. The results provide a gateway to understanding ghrelin metabolism in fossorial animals. PMID:27102942

  12. Measuring airborne components of seismic body vibrations in a Middle-Asian sand-dwelling Insectivora species, the piebald shrew (Diplomesodon pulchellum).

    PubMed

    Volodin, Ilya A; Zaytseva, Alexandra S; Ilchenko, Olga G; Volodina, Elena V; Chebotareva, Anastasia L

    2012-08-15

    Self-produced seismic vibrations have been found for some subterranean rodents but have not been reported for any Insectivora species, although seismic sensitivity has been confirmed for blind sand-dwelling chrysochlorid golden moles. Studying the vocal behaviour of captive piebald shrews, Diplomesodon pulchellum, we documented vibrations, apparently generated by the whole-body wall muscles, from 11 (5 male, 6 female) of 19 animals, placed singly on a drum membrane. The airborne waves of the vibratory drumming were digitally recorded and then analysed spectrographically. The mean frequency of vibration was 160.5 Hz. This frequency matched the periodicity of the deep sinusoidal frequency modulation (159.4 Hz) found in loud screech calls of the same subjects. The body vibration was not related to thermoregulation, hunger-related depletion of energy resources or fear, as it was produced by well-fed, calm animals, at warm ambient temperatures. We hypothesize that in the solitary, nocturnal, digging desert piebald shrew, body vibrations may be used for seismic exploration of substrate density, to avoid energy-costly digging of packed sand for burrowing and foraging. At the same time, the piercing quality of screech calls due to the deep sinusoidal frequency modulation, matching the periodicity of body vibration, may be important for agonistic communication in this species. PMID:22837458

  13. Measuring airborne components of seismic body vibrations in a Middle-Asian sand-dwelling Insectivora species, the piebald shrew (Diplomesodon pulchellum).

    PubMed

    Volodin, Ilya A; Zaytseva, Alexandra S; Ilchenko, Olga G; Volodina, Elena V; Chebotareva, Anastasia L

    2012-08-15

    Self-produced seismic vibrations have been found for some subterranean rodents but have not been reported for any Insectivora species, although seismic sensitivity has been confirmed for blind sand-dwelling chrysochlorid golden moles. Studying the vocal behaviour of captive piebald shrews, Diplomesodon pulchellum, we documented vibrations, apparently generated by the whole-body wall muscles, from 11 (5 male, 6 female) of 19 animals, placed singly on a drum membrane. The airborne waves of the vibratory drumming were digitally recorded and then analysed spectrographically. The mean frequency of vibration was 160.5 Hz. This frequency matched the periodicity of the deep sinusoidal frequency modulation (159.4 Hz) found in loud screech calls of the same subjects. The body vibration was not related to thermoregulation, hunger-related depletion of energy resources or fear, as it was produced by well-fed, calm animals, at warm ambient temperatures. We hypothesize that in the solitary, nocturnal, digging desert piebald shrew, body vibrations may be used for seismic exploration of substrate density, to avoid energy-costly digging of packed sand for burrowing and foraging. At the same time, the piercing quality of screech calls due to the deep sinusoidal frequency modulation, matching the periodicity of body vibration, may be important for agonistic communication in this species.

  14. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Shrew Gymnure, Neotetracus sinensis.

    PubMed

    Lu, Lu; Tu, Feiyun; Yan, Chaochao; Zhang, Xiuyue; Yue, Bisong; Zeng, Tao

    2013-06-01

    The Shrew Gymnure Neotetracus sinensis belongs to family Erinaceidae, and distributes in China, Myanmar, and northern Vietnam. In this study, the whole mitochondrial genome of N. sinensis was first sequenced and characterized. The genome is 16,982 bases in length. Bayesian inference and maximum likelihood methods were used to construct phylogenetic trees based on 12 concatenated protein-coding genes on the heavy strand. Phylogenetic analyses further confirm the subfamily Galericinae diverged prior to the subfamily Erinaceinae, support the species N. sinensis was in distinct genus Neotetracus rather than Hylomys, and N. sinensis diverged later than Echinosorex gymnura.

  15. Turning Japanese?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huwitz, Nina

    1990-01-01

    Relates observations of the Japanese educational system by a U.S. high school history teacher. Finds the Japanese system impressive but argues that such a centralized and authoritarian system would not work in the United States. Educators should learn from Japanese schools, not copy them. Recommends U.S. educators seek agreement on educational…

  16. Things Japanese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shigeta, Jessie M.

    Presented in this booklet are brief descriptions of items and activities that are symbolic of Japanese culture. Some of the items and activities described include Japanese musical instruments and records, toys and crafts, traditional clothing and accessories, and food utensils. Several recipes for Japanese dishes are provided. Lists of pertinent…

  17. Positively selected genes of the Chinese tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri chinensis) locomotion system

    PubMed Central

    Yu, FAN; Dan-Dan, YU; Yong-Gang, YAO

    2014-01-01

    While the recent release of the Chinese tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri chinensis) genome has made the tree shrew an increasingly viable experimental animal model for biomedical research, further study of the genome may facilitate new insights into the applicability of this model. For example, though the tree shrew has a rapid rate of speed and strong jumping ability, there are limited studies on its locomotion ability. In this study we used the available Chinese tree shrew genome information and compared the evolutionary pattern of 407 locomotion system related orthologs among five mammals (human, rhesus monkey, mouse, rat and dog) and the Chinese tree shrew. Our analyses identified 29 genes with significantly high ω (Ka/Ks ratio) values and 48 amino acid sites in 14 genes showed significant evidence of positive selection in the Chinese tree shrew. Some of these positively selected genes, e.g. HOXA6 (homeobox A6) and AVP (arginine vasopressin), play important roles in muscle contraction or skeletal morphogenesis. These results provide important clues in understanding the genetic bases of locomotor adaptation in the Chinese tree shrew. PMID:24866495

  18. Water shrews detect movement, shape, and smell to find prey underwater.

    PubMed

    Catania, Kenneth C; Hare, James F; Campbell, Kevin L

    2008-01-15

    American water shrews (Sorex palustris) are aggressive predators that feed on a variety of terrestrial and aquatic prey. They often forage at night, diving into streams and ponds in search of food. We investigated how shrews locate submerged prey using high-speed videography, infrared lighting, and stimuli designed to mimic prey. Shrews attacked brief water movements, indicating motion is an important cue used to detect active or escaping prey. They also bit, retrieved, and attempted to eat model fish made of silicone in preference to other silicone objects showing that tactile cues are important in the absence of movement. In addition, water shrews preferentially sniffed model prey fish and crickets underwater by exhaling and reinhaling air through the nostrils, suggesting olfaction plays an important role in aquatic foraging. The possibility of echolocation, sonar, or electroreception was investigated by testing for ultrasonic and audible calls above and below water and by presenting electric fields to foraging shrews. We found no evidence for these abilities. We conclude that water shrews detect motion, shape, and smell to find prey underwater. The short latency of attacks to water movements suggests shrews may use a flush-pursuit strategy to capture some prey.

  19. Insights: A LAP on Moles: Teaching an Important Concept.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ihde, John

    1985-01-01

    Describes a learning activity packet (LAP) designed to help students understand the basic concept of the mole as a chemical unit; know relationships between the mole and atomic weights in the periodic table; and solve basic conversion problems involving moles, atoms, and molecules. (JN)

  20. Japanese language and Japanese science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanikawa, Kiyotaka

    2003-08-01

    Japanese mathematical scientists including astronomers, physicists, and mathematicians obtain ideas in Japanese, discuss their problems in Japanese, and arrive at conclusions in Japanese, and yet they write their results in foreign languages such as English. This uncomfortable situation has continued for nearly one hundred years and has had serious effects on Japanese science. In this short report, the author discusses and analyses these effects. In order to put Japanese science on a sound basis, the author proposes to increase the number of articles, reviews and textbooks in Japanese, first by translation and second by the voluntary efforts of scientists themselves. As centers devoted to this activity, the author proposes to construct "Airborne Libraries" which are maintained and accumulate in an electronic form the scientific documents written in Japanese.

  1. The annular hematoma of the shrew yolk-sac placenta.

    PubMed

    King, B F; Enders, A C; Wimsatt, W A

    1978-05-01

    The annular hematoma of the shrew, Blarina brevicauda, is a specialized portion of the yolk-sac wall. In this study, we have examined the fine structure of the different cellular components of the anular hematoma. Small pieces of the gestation sacs from seven pregnant shrews were fixed in glutaraldehyde and osmium tetroxide and processed for transmission electron microscopy. In the area of the trophoblastic curtain, the maternal capillary endothelial cells were hypertrophied and syncytial trophoblast surrounded the capillaries. Cellular trophoblast covered part of the luminal surface of the curtain region, whereas masses of apparently degenerating syncytium were present on other areas of the surface. Maternal erythrocytes, released into the uterine lumen from the curtain region, were phagocytized and degraded by the columnar cells of the trophoblastic annulus. No evidence of iron or pigment accumulation was evident in the parietal endodermal cells underlying the annular trophoblast. Parietal endodermal cells were characterized by cuboidal shape, widely dilated intercellular spaces, and cytoplasm containing granular endoplasmic reticulum. Endodermal cells of the visceral yolk-sac accumulated large numbers of electron-dense granules as well as glycogen in their cytoplasm. Hemopoietic areas and vitelline capillaries were found subjacent to the visceral endoderm. The various portions of the yolk-sac wall of Blarina appear to perform complementary functions which are probably important in maternal-fetal iron transfer. PMID:677046

  2. Neuropeptide alterations in the tree shrew hypothalamus during volatile anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Fouillen, Laetitia; Petruzziello, Filomena; Veit, Julia; Bhattacharyya, Anwesha; Kretz, Robert; Rainer, Gregor; Zhang, Xiaozhe

    2013-03-27

    Neuropeptides are critical signaling molecules, involved in the regulation of diverse physiological processes including energy metabolism, pain perception and brain cognitive state. Prolonged general anesthesia has an impact on many of these processes, but the regulation of peptides by general anesthetics is poorly understood. In this study, we present an in-depth characterization of the hypothalamic neuropeptides of the tree shrew during volatile isoflurane/nitrous oxide anesthesia administered accompanying a neurosurgical procedure. Using a predicted-peptide database and hybrid spectral analysis, we first identified 85 peptides from the tree shrew hypothalamus. Differential analysis was then performed between control and experimental group animals. The levels of 12 hypothalamic peptides were up-regulated following prolonged general anesthesia. Our study revealed for the first time that several neuropeptides, including alpha-neoendorphin and somatostatin-14, were altered during general anesthesia. Our study broadens the scope for the involvement of neuropeptides in volatile anesthesia regulation, opening the possibility for investigating the associated regulatory mechanisms. PMID:23228960

  3. Microchip-Associated Sarcoma in a Shrew (Suncus murinus)

    PubMed Central

    Schutt, Leah K; Turner, Patricia V

    2010-01-01

    A 16-mo-old female house musk shrew (Suncus murinus) with a 1-wk history of a rapidly growing subcutaneous mass in the interscapsular region was euthanized and submitted for necropsy. Macroscopic examination identified an irregular, well-demarcated, solid, tan-white subcutaneous mass. A small cavity containing a microchip device was present at the center of the mass. In addition, massive splenomegaly was evident grossly. Histologically, the subcutaneous mass comprised spindle cells arranged in a storiform pattern of interweaving bundles, consistent with a high-grade soft tissue sarcoma with multifocal necrosis. Immunohistochemical investigation suggested that the neoplastic cells were positive for neuron-specific enolase and (rarely) α-smooth muscle actin and negative for cytokeratin, desmin, S100, and vimentin. In light of the mesenchymal histopathologic phenotype and the lack of specific immunoreactivity pattern, the mass was considered to be most consistent with a poorly differentiated sarcoma. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a microchip-associated soft tissue sarcoma in a shrew. PMID:20858367

  4. The complete mitogenome of Asiatic Short-tailed Shrew Blarinella quadraticauda (Soricidae).

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiong; Fu, Changkun; Chen, Shunde; Yong, Bin; Chen, Guiying; Zong, Hao

    2016-01-01

    The Asiatic Short-tailed Shrew, Blarinella quadraticauda, is an endemic shrew to China, and is only distributed in Sichuan. In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of B. quadraticauda was determined. The mitogenome is 17,014 base pairs in length and contains 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and 1 control region, with a base composition of 33.3 % A, 31.8% T, 22.3% C and 12.6% G. This study contributes to illuminating taxonomic status of the Asiatic Short-tailed Shrew, B. quadraticauda. PMID:24660918

  5. Can they dig it? Functional morphology and semifossoriality among small-eared shrews, genus Cryptotis (Mammalia, Soricidae).

    PubMed

    Woodman, Neal; Gaffney, Sarah A

    2014-07-01

    Small-eared shrews (Mammalia: Soricidae: Cryptotis), exhibit modifications of the forelimb skeleton that have been interpreted as adaptations for semifossoriality. Most species inhabit remote regions, however, and their locomotory and foraging behaviors remain mostly speculative. To better understand the morphological modifications in the absence of direct observations, we quantified variation in these species by measuring 151 individuals representing 18 species and populations of Cryptotis and two species of moles (Talpidae) for comparison. From our measurements, we calculated 22 indices, most of which have been used previously to characterize substrate use among rodents and other taxa. We analyzed the indices using 1) average percentile ranks, 2) principal components analysis, and 3) cluster analysis. From these analyses, we determined that three basic modes of substrate adaptation are present within Cryptotis: 1) a primarily terrestrial mode, with species that are capable of burrowing, but lack adaptations to increase digging efficiency, 2) a semifossorial mode, with species whose forelimbs bones show strong muscle attachment areas and increased mechanical advantage, and 3) an intermediate mode. In addition to identifying new morphological characters and contributing to our understanding of the functional morphology of soricids, these analyses provide additional insight into the ecology of the species of interest.

  6. Can they dig it? Functional morphology and semifossoriality among small-eared shrews, genus Cryptotis (Mammalia, Soricidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodman, Neal; Gaffney, Sarah A.

    2014-01-01

    Small-eared shrews (Mammalia: Soricidae: Cryptotis), exhibit modifications of the forelimb skeleton that have been interpreted as adaptations for semifossoriality. Most species inhabit remote regions, however, and their locomotory and foraging behaviors remain mostly speculative. To better understand the morphological modifications in the absence of direct observations, we quantified variation in these species by measuring 151 individuals representing 18 species and populations of Cryptotis and two species of moles (Talpidae) for comparison. From our measurements, we calculated 22 indices, most of which have been used previously to characterize substrate use among rodents and other taxa. We analyzed the indices using 1) average percentile ranks, 2) principal components analysis, and 3) cluster analysis. From these analyses, we determined that three basic modes of substrate adaptation are present within Cryptotis: 1) a primarily terrestrial mode, with species that are capable of burrowing, but lack adaptations to increase digging efficiency, 2) a semifossorial mode, with species whose forelimbs bones show strong muscle attachment areas and increased mechanical advantage, and 3) an intermediate mode. In addition to identifying new morphological characters and contributing to our understanding of the functional morphology of soricids, these analyses provide additional insight into the ecology of the species of interest.

  7. Clinical report on treatment of moles by CO2 laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Wei-Ren

    1998-11-01

    Moles usually occur on the face and neck. Some occasionally have hairs growing.Most of them are benign tumors. We had treated 1612 cases of 4718 moles by applying CO2 laser from laser year 1990-1996. Among them 4576 moles treated once were removed, accounting for 97 percent; 94 moles treated twice and 48 moles treated three times were removed, accounting for 2 percent and 1 percent respectively. After removal atrophic and neoplastic cicatrix occurred in 176 cases, for 3.7 percent and 39 cases, for 0.8 respectively. The patients with scar-inclined skin are not supposed to undertake the CO2 laser treatment.

  8. Instrumented Moles for Planetary Subsurface Regolith Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, L. O.; Coste, P. A.; Grzesik, A.; Knollenberg, J.; Magnani, P.; Nadalini, R.; Re, E.; Romstedt, J.; Sohl, F.; Spohn, T.

    2006-12-01

    Soil-like materials, or regolith, on solar system objects provide a record of physical and/or chemical weathering processes on the object in question and as such possess significant scientific relevance for study by landed planetary missions. In the case of Mars, a complex interplay has been at work between impact gardening, aeolian as well as possibly fluvial processes. This resulted in regolith that is texturally as well as compositionally layered as hinted at by results from the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) missions which are capable of accessing shallow subsurface soils by wheel trenching. Significant subsurface soil access on Mars, i.e. to depths of a meter or more, remains to be accomplished on future missions. This has been one of the objectives of the unsuccessful Beagle 2 landed element of the ESA Mars Express mission having been equipped with the Planetary Underground Tool (PLUTO) subsurface soil sampling Mole system capable of self-penetration into regolith due to an internal electro-mechanical hammering mechanism. This lightweight device of less than 900 g mass was designed to repeatedly obtain and deliver to the lander regolith samples from depths down to 2 m which would have been analysed for organic matter and, specifically, organic carbon from potential extinct microbial activity. With funding from the ESA technology programme, an evolved Mole system - the Instrumented Mole System (IMS) - has now been developed to a readiness level of TRL 6. The IMS is to serve as a carrier for in situ instruments for measurements in planetary subsurface soils. This could complement or even eliminate the need to recover samples to the surface. The Engineering Model hardware having been developed within this effort is designed for accommodating a geophysical instrument package (Heat Flow and Physical Properties Package, HP3) that would be capable of measuring regolith physical properties and planetary heat flow. The chosen design encompasses a two-body Mole

  9. Ticks and fleas of shrews in Appalachian Georgia and North Carolina.

    PubMed

    McCay, T S; Durden, L A

    1996-08-01

    Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) and fleas (Insecta: Siphonaptera) were recovered from 8 smoky shrews, Sorex fumeus Miller, and 9 northern short-tailed shrews, Blarina brevicauda (Say), trapped at elevations of 720-1,310 m in Macon and Jackson counties in western North Carolina and Union County in northern Georgia from April 1994 to August 1995. The ticks Ixodes angustus Neumann and Ixodes woodi Bishopp, and the flea Corrodopsylla curvata (Rothschild), were recovered from smoky shrews. The same 2 tick species, in addition to the fleas, Ctenophthalmus pseudagyrtes Baker and Doratopsylla blarinae Fox, were recovered from northern short-tailed shrews. New state records for I. angustus from Georgia and I. woodi from North Carolina are established. PMID:8691385

  10. New infectious spirochete isolated from short-tailed shrews and white-footed mice.

    PubMed

    Anderson, J F; Johnson, R C; Magnarelli, L A; Hyde, F W; Andreadis, T G

    1987-08-01

    A spirochete with two periplasmic flagella was isolated from the blood or tissues of spleens and kidneys from short-tailed shrews (Blarina brevicauda) and white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) in Connecticut and Minnesota. After inoculation, the shrew-mouse spirochete infected Swiss mice and Syrian hamsters. This spirochete is morphologically and serologically distinct from the species of Treponema, Borrelia, Leptospira, and Spirochaeta examined. PMID:3305565

  11. Junction Protein Shrew-1 Influences Cell Invasion and Interacts with Invasion-promoting Protein CD147

    PubMed Central

    Schreiner, Alexander; Ruonala, Mika; Jakob, Viktor; Suthaus, Jan; Boles, Eckhard; Wouters, Fred

    2007-01-01

    Shrew-1 was previously isolated from an endometriotic cell line in our search for invasion-associated genes. It proved to be a membrane protein that targets to the basolateral membrane of polarized epithelial cells, interacting with E-cadherin–catenin complexes of adherens junctions. Paradoxically, the existence of adherens junctions is incompatible with invasion. To investigate whether shrew-1 can indeed influence cellular invasion, we overexpressed it in HT1080 fibrosarcoma cells. This resulted in enhanced invasiveness, accompanied by an increased matrix metalloprotease (MMP)-9 level in the supernatant, raising the question about the role of shrew-1 in this process. Logic suggested we looked for an interaction with CD147, a known promoter of invasiveness and MMP activity. Indeed, genetics-based, biochemical, and microscopy experiments revealed shrew-1– and CD147-containing complexes in invasive endometriotic cells and an interaction in epithelial cells, which was stronger in MCF7 tumor cells, but weaker in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells. In contrast to the effect mediated by overexpression, small interfering RNA-mediated down-regulation of either shrew-1 or CD147 in HeLa cells decreased invasiveness without affecting the proliferation behavior of HeLa cells, but the knockdown cells displayed decreased motility. Altogether, our results imply that shrew-1 has a function in the regulation of cellular invasion, which may involve its interaction with CD147. PMID:17267690

  12. Biodiversity and evolution of Imjin virus and Thottapalayam virus in Crocidurinae shrews in Zhejiang Province, China.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xian-Dan; Zhou, Run-Hong; Fan, Fei-Neng; Ying, Xu-Hua; Sun, Xiao-Yu; Wang, Wen; Holmes, Edward C; Zhang, Yong-Zhen

    2014-08-30

    The recent discovery of numerous hantaviruses in insectivores has provided a new view of hantavirus biodiversity and evolution. To determine the presence and genetic diversity of Imjin virus (MJNV) and Thottapalayam virus (TPMV) in insectivores in Zhejiang Province, China, we captured and performed virus screening of 32 Ussuri white-toothed shrews (Crocidura lasiura) and 105 Asian house shrews (Suncus murinus) in different coastal regions. Hantavirus genome (S, M, and L segments) sequences were successfully recovered from one Ussuri white-toothed shrew and seven Asian house shrews. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the virus carried by the Ussuri white-toothed shrew was most closely related to MJNV, but with >15% nucleotide sequence difference, suggesting that it represents a new subtype. The hantaviruses carried by Asian house shrews were closely related to the TPMV variants found in the same geographic area, but more distantly related to those sampled in India and Nepal. Additionally, the TPMV sequences obtained in this study, as well as those found previously in this area, could be divided into three lineages reflecting their geographic origins, indicative of largely allopatric evolution. Overall, our data highlights the high genetic diversity of insectivore-borne hantaviruses in China, suggesting that more may be discovered in the future.

  13. Structural and functional characterization of enamel pigmentation in shrews.

    PubMed

    Dumont, M; Tütken, T; Kostka, A; Duarte, M J; Borodin, S

    2014-04-01

    Pigmented tooth enamel occurs in several vertebrate clades, ranging from mammals to fish. Although an iron compound is associated with this orange to red colored pigmentation, its chemical and structural organization within the enamel is unknown. To determine the nature of the iron compound, we investigated heavily pigmented teeth of the northern short-tailed shrew Blarina brevicauda using combined characterization techniques such as scanning and transmission electron microscopy and synchrotron X-ray diffraction. We found that the pigmentation of the enamel with an iron content of around 8wt% results from a close to amorphous magnetite phase deposited around the nm-sized enamel crystals. Furthermore, the influence of the pigmentation on the enamel hardness was determined by nanoindentation measurements. Finally, the biomechanical function and biological context are discussed in light of the obtained results. PMID:24556576

  14. Molecular phylogeny of short-tailed shrews, Blarina (Insectivora: Soricidae).

    PubMed

    Brant, Sara V; Ortí, Guillermo

    2002-02-01

    Phylogenetic relationships among the three described species of short-tailed shrews (genus Blarina) were inferred based on mitochondrial DNA sequences of 16S rRNA (506 bp) and cytochrome b (1137 bp) from 38 specimens representing B. brevicauda, B. hylophaga, and B. carolinensis, from across their range in North America. Phylogenetic analyses of both data sets combined followed tests showing lack of incongruence between these fragments. Analysis of substitution patterns indicated saturation of transitions at third codon positions in cytochrome b when Blarina sequences were compared to those of Sorex and Cryptotis, used as outgroups. Maximum-likelihood and weighted parsimony supported the monophyly of the genus and placed B. hylophaga as its basal branch, sister to B. brevicauda + B. carolinensis. Phylogeographic analysis revealed a significant partition between eastern and western populations of B. carolinensis and B. brevicauda, on either side of the Mississippi basin. These results are discussed in relation to cytogenetic, morphological, and fossil data. PMID:11820838

  15. Dietary heavy metal uptake by the least shrew, Cryptotis parva

    SciTech Connect

    Brueske, C.C.; Barrett, G.W. )

    1991-12-01

    Heavy metals from sewage sludge have been reported to concentrate in producers, in primary consumers, and in detritivores. Little research, however, has focused on the uptake of heavy metals from sewage sludge by secondary consumers. The Family Soricidae represents an ideal mammalian taxonomic group to investigate rates of heavy metal transfer between primary and secondary consumers. The least shrew (Cryptotis parva) was used to evaluate the accumulation of heavy metals while maintained on a diet of earthworms collected from long-term sludge-treated old-field communities. This secondary consumer is distributed widely through the eastern United States and its natural diet includes earthworms which makes it a potentially good indicator of heavy metal transfer in areas treated with municipal sludge.

  16. Thermoregulatory correlates of nausea in rats and musk shrews.

    PubMed

    Ngampramuan, Sukonthar; Cerri, Matteo; Del Vecchio, Flavia; Corrigan, Joshua J; Kamphee, Amornrat; Dragic, Alexander S; Rudd, John A; Romanovsky, Andrej A; Nalivaiko, Eugene

    2014-03-30

    Nausea is a prominent symptom and major cause of complaint for patients receiving anticancer chemo- or radiation therapy. The arsenal of anti-nausea drugs is limited, and their efficacy is questionable. Currently, the development of new compounds with anti-nausea activity is hampered by the lack of physiological correlates of nausea. Physiological correlates are needed because common laboratory rodents lack the vomiting reflex. Furthermore, nausea does not always lead to vomiting. Here, we report the results of studies conducted in four research centers to investigate whether nausea is associated with any specific thermoregulatory symptoms. Two species were studied: the laboratory rat, which has no vomiting reflex, and the house musk shrew (Suncus murinus), which does have a vomiting reflex. In rats, motion sickness was induced by rotating them in their individual cages in the horizontal plane (0.75 Hz, 40 min) and confirmed by reduced food consumption at the onset of dark (active) phase. In 100% of rats tested at three centers, post-rotational sickness was associated with marked (~1.5°C) hypothermia, which was associated with a short-lasting tail-skin vasodilation (skin temperature increased by ~4°C). Pretreatment with ondansetron, a serotonin 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, which is used to treat nausea in patients in chemo- or radiation therapy, attenuated hypothermia by ~30%. In shrews, motion sickness was induced by a cyclical back-and-forth motion (4 cm, 1 Hz, 15 min) and confirmed by the presence of retching and vomiting. In this model, sickness was also accompanied by marked hypothermia (~2°C). Like in rats, the hypothermic response was preceded by transient tail-skin vasodilation. In conclusion, motion sickness is accompanied by hypothermia that involves both autonomic and thermoeffector mechanisms: tail-skin vasodilation and possibly reduction of the interscapular brown adipose tissue activity. These thermoregulatory symptoms may serve as physiological

  17. Physical and Cognitive Performance of the Least Shrew (Cryptotis parva) on a Calcium-Restricted Diet.

    PubMed

    Czajka, Jessica L; McCay, Timothy S; Garneau, Danielle E

    2012-09-01

    Geological substrates and air pollution affect the availability of calcium to mammals in many habitats, including the Adirondack Mountain Region (Adirondacks) of the United States. Mammalian insectivores, such as shrews, may be particularly restricted in environments with low calcium. We examined the consequences of calcium restriction on the least shrew (Cryptotis parva) in the laboratory. We maintained one group of shrews (5 F, 5 M) on a mealworm diet with a calcium concentration comparable to beetle larvae collected in the Adirondacks (1.1 ± 0.3 mg/g) and another group (5 F, 3 M) on a mealworm diet with a calcium concentration almost 20 times higher (19.5 ± 5.1 mg/g). Animals were given no access to mineral sources of calcium, such as snail shell or bone. We measured running speed and performance in a complex maze over 10 weeks. Shrews on the high-calcium diet made fewer errors in the maze than shrews on the low-calcium diet (F1,14 = 12.8, p < 0.01). Females made fewer errors than males (F1,14 = 10.6, p < 0.01). Running speeds did not markedly vary between diet groups or sexes, though there was a trend toward faster running by shrews on the high calcium diet (p = 0.087). Shrews in calcium-poor habitats with low availability of mineral sources of calcium may have greater difficulty with cognitive tasks such as navigation and recovery of food hoards.

  18. Physical and Cognitive Performance of the Least Shrew (Cryptotis parva) on a Calcium-Restricted Diet

    PubMed Central

    Czajka, Jessica L.; McCay, Timothy S.; Garneau, Danielle E.

    2012-01-01

    Geological substrates and air pollution affect the availability of calcium to mammals in many habitats, including the Adirondack Mountain Region (Adirondacks) of the United States. Mammalian insectivores, such as shrews, may be particularly restricted in environments with low calcium. We examined the consequences of calcium restriction on the least shrew (Cryptotis parva) in the laboratory. We maintained one group of shrews (5 F, 5 M) on a mealworm diet with a calcium concentration comparable to beetle larvae collected in the Adirondacks (1.1 ± 0.3 mg/g) and another group (5 F, 3 M) on a mealworm diet with a calcium concentration almost 20 times higher (19.5 ± 5.1 mg/g). Animals were given no access to mineral sources of calcium, such as snail shell or bone. We measured running speed and performance in a complex maze over 10 weeks. Shrews on the high-calcium diet made fewer errors in the maze than shrews on the low-calcium diet (F1,14 = 12.8, p < 0.01). Females made fewer errors than males (F1,14 = 10.6, p < 0.01). Running speeds did not markedly vary between diet groups or sexes, though there was a trend toward faster running by shrews on the high calcium diet (p = 0.087). Shrews in calcium-poor habitats with low availability of mineral sources of calcium may have greater difficulty with cognitive tasks such as navigation and recovery of food hoards. PMID:25379219

  19. For Mole Problems, Call Avogadro: 602-1023.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uthe, R. E.

    2002-01-01

    Describes techniques to help introductory students become familiar with Avogadro's number and mole calculations. Techniques involve estimating numbers of common objects then calculating the length of time needed to count large numbers of them. For example, the immense amount of time required to count a mole of sand grains at one grain per second…

  20. Moles: Tool-Assisted Environment Isolation with Closures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Halleux, Jonathan; Tillmann, Nikolai

    Isolating test cases from environment dependencies is often desirable, as it increases test reliability and reduces test execution time. However, code that calls non-virtual methods or consumes sealed classes is often impossible to test in isolation. Moles is a new lightweight framework which addresses this problem. For any .NET method, Moles allows test-code to provide alternative implementations, given as .NET delegates, for which C# provides very concise syntax while capturing local variables in a closure object. Using code instrumentation, the Moles framework will redirect calls to provided delegates instead of the original methods. The Moles framework is designed to work together with the dynamic symbolic execution tool Pex to enable automated test generation. In a case study, testing code programmed against the Microsoft SharePoint Foundation API, we achieved full code coverage while running tests in isolation without an actual SharePoint server. The Moles framework integrates with .NET and Visual Studio.

  1. Shedding of Infectious Borna Disease Virus-1 in Living Bicolored White-Toothed Shrews

    PubMed Central

    Nobach, Daniel; Bourg, Manon; Herzog, Sibylle; Lange-Herbst, Hildburg; Encarnação, Jorge A.; Eickmann, Markus; Herden, Christiane

    2015-01-01

    Background Many RNA viruses arise from animal reservoirs, namely bats, rodents and insectivores but mechanisms of virus maintenance and transmission still need to be addressed. The bicolored white-toothed shrew (Crocidura leucodon) has recently been identified as reservoir of the neurotropic Borna disease virus 1 (BoDV-1). Principal Findings Six out of eleven wild living bicoloured white-toothed shrews were trapped and revealed to be naturally infected with BoDV-1. All shrews were monitored in captivity in a long-term study over a time period up to 600 days that differed between the individual shrews. Interestingly, all six animals showed an asymptomatic course of infection despite virus shedding via various routes indicating a highly adapted host-pathogen interaction. Infectious virus and viral RNA were demonstrated in saliva, urine, skin swabs, lacrimal fluid and faeces, both during the first 8 weeks of the investigation period and for long time shedding after more than 250 days in captivity. Conclusions The various ways of shedding ensure successful virus maintenance in the reservoir population but also transmission to accidental hosts such as horses and sheep. Naturally BoDV-1-infected living shrews serve as excellent tool to unravel host and pathogen factors responsible for persistent viral co-existence in reservoir species while maintaining their physiological integrity despite high viral load in many organ systems. PMID:26313904

  2. The identity of the enigmatic "Black Shrew" (Sorex niger Ord, 1815)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodman, Neal

    2013-01-01

    The scientific name Sorex niger Ord, 1815 (Mammalia, Soricidae) was originally applied to a North American species that George Ord called the “Black Shrew.” The origin of the name “Black Shrew,” however, was obscure, and Samuel Rhoads subsequently wrote that the species represented by this name could not be determined. The names Sorex niger Ord and Black Shrew have since been mostly forgotten. Two of Ord's contemporaries, however, noted that Ord's use of these names probably alluded to Benjamin Smith Barton's Black Shrew, whose discovery near Philadelphia was announced by Barton in 1806. Examination of two unpublished illustrations of the Black Shrew made by Barton indicates that the animal depicted is Blarina brevicauda (Say, 1822). Had the connection between Ord's and Barton's names been made more clearly, one of the most common mammals in eastern North America would bear a different scientific name today. This connection also would have affected the validity of Sorex niger Horsfield, 1851. While Sorex niger Ord remains a nomen nudum, the animal it referenced can now be identified.

  3. Attempted isolation of Blastomyces dermatitidis from native shrews in northern Wisconsin, USA.

    PubMed

    Baumgardner, Dennis J; Summerbell, Richard; Krajden, Sigmund; Alexopoulou, Iakovina; Agrawal, Bobby; Bergeson, Mitch; Fuksa, Milan; Bemis, Christina; Baumgardner, Mark A

    2005-08-01

    The precise ecological niche of Blastomyces dermatitidis is unknown. The related dimorphic fungus, Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, has been isolated from South American ground-dwelling insectivorous armadillos. We attempted to isolate Blastomyces from shrews, North American ground-dwelling insectivores that have been shown to harbor Histoplasma capsulatum in endemic areas. Forty-seven masked shrews (Sorex cinereus) and 13 northern short-tailed shrews (Blarina brevicauda) were collected in endemic areas of northern Wisconsin and Michigan using pitfall traps. Specimens were collected between 1998 and summer 2002, stored frozen, then necropsied. Cultures of nasopharynx, lungs, liver, spleen and large and small bowel were placed on yeast extract phosphate agar with one or two drops of ammonium hydroxide. Cultures for Blastomyces were negative from all 60 shrews and two deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) and three southern red-backed voles (Clethrionomys gapperi), which were trapped inadvertently. Histological examination of 36 of these specimens revealed no Blastomyces yeast forms. Northern Wisconsin shrews do not appear to be carriers of B. dermatitidis. PMID:16178369

  4. Geochemical mole-balance modeling with uncertain data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parkhurst, D.L.

    1997-01-01

    Geochemical mole-balance models are sets of chemical reactions that quantitatively account for changes in the chemical and isotopic composition of water along a flow path. A revised mole-balance formulation that includes an uncertainty term for each chemical and isotopic datum is derived. The revised formulation is comprised of mole-balance equations for each element or element redox state, alkalinity, electrons, solvent water, and each isotope; a charge-balance equation and an equation that relates the uncertainty terms for pH, alkalinity, and total dissolved inorganic carbon for each aqueous solution: inequality constraints on the size of the uncertainty terms: and inequality constraints on the sign of the mole transfer of reactants. The equations and inequality constraints are solved by a modification of the simplex algorithm combined with an exhaustive search for unique combinations of aqueous solutions and reactants for which the equations and inequality constraints can be solved and the uncertainty terms minimized. Additional algorithms find only the simplest mole-balance models and determine the ranges of mixing fractions for each solution and mole transfers for each reactant that are consistent with specified limits on the uncertainty terms. The revised formulation produces simpler and more robust mole-balance models and allows the significance of mixing fractions and mole transfers to be evaluated. In an example from the central Oklahoma aquifer, inclusion of up to 5% uncertainty in the chemical data can reduce the number of reactants in mole-balance models from seven or more to as few as three, these being cation exchange, dolomite dissolution, and silica precipitation. In another example from the Madison aquifer; inclusion of the charge-balance constraint requires significant increases in the mole transfers of calcite, dolomite, and organic matter, which reduce the estimated maximum carbon 14 age of the sample by about 10,000 years, from 22,700 years to

  5. Early embryonic development and transplantation in tree shrews

    PubMed Central

    YAN, Lan-Zhen; SUN, Bin; LYU, Long-Bao; MA, Yu-Hua; CHEN, Jia-Qi; LIN, Qing; ZHENG, Ping; ZHAO, Xu-Dong

    2016-01-01

    As a novel experimental animal model, tree shrews have received increasing attention in recent years. Despite this, little is known in regards to the time phases of their embryonic development. In this study, surveillance systems were used to record the behavior and timing of copulations; embryos at different post-copulation stages were collected and cultured in vitro; and the developmental characteristics of both early-stage and in vitro cultured embryos were determined. A total of 163 females were collected following effective copulation, and 150 were used in either unilateral or bilateral oviduct embryo collections, with 307 embryos from 111 females obtained (conception rate=74%). Among them, 237 embryos were collected from 78 females, bilaterally, i.e., the average embryo number per female was 3.04; 172 fertilized eggs collected from 55 females, bilaterally, were cultured for 24-108 h in vitro for developmental observations; finally, 65 embryos from 23 bilateral cases and 70 embryos from 33 unilateral cases were used in embryo transplantation. PMID:27469257

  6. Molecular evidence and high genetic diversity of shrew-borne Seewis virus in Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Resman, Katarina; Korva, Miša; Fajs, Luka; Zidarič, Tanja; Trilar, Tomi; Zupanc, Tatjana Avšič

    2013-10-01

    Seewis virus, the shrew-borne hantavirus from Sorex araneus, has been molecularly detected in reservoir hosts in many different central European countries and Russia. Slovenia is a known endemic country for rodent-borne hantaviruses, therefore the aim of the study was to investigate the presence of shrew-borne hantaviruses in insectivores. Viral L, S and M segment have been recovered only from tissue samples of 7 S. araneus, despite several shrew species were tested. Phylogenetic analysis showed high genetic diversity of SWSV in Slovenia, ranging from 3 to 19.4% for different viral segments. The most divergent were M segment sequences, with 19.4% nucleotide divergence among Slovenian strains. Above that, different SWSV strains from Slovenia do not group into separate geographic clusters. While three separate genetic clades were determined, two of them were simultaneously present in one location at the same time.

  7. High shrew diversity on Alaska's Seward Peninsula: Community assembly and environmental change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hope, Andrew G.

    2012-01-01

    In September 2010, 6 species of shrews (genus: Sorex) were collected at a single locality on the Seward Peninsula of Alaska. Such high sympatric diversity within a single mammalian genus is seldom realized. This phenomenon at high latitudes highlights complex Arctic community dynamics that reflect significant turnover through time as a consequence of environmental change. Each of these shrew species occupies a broad geographic distribution collectively spanning the entire Holarctic, although the study site lies within Eastern Beringia, near the periphery of all individual ranges. A review of published genetic evidence reflects a depauperate shrew community within ice-free Beringia through the last glaciation, and recent assembly of current diversity during the Holocene.

  8. The complete mitogenome of Hodgson's Red-Toothed Shrew, Episoriculus caudatus (Soricidae).

    PubMed

    Fu, Changkun; Wei, Haixue; Zong, Hao; Chen, Guiying; Wang, Qiong; Yong, Bin; Chen, Shunde

    2016-05-01

    The Hodgson's Red-Toothed Shrew, Episoriculus caudatus belongs to the family Soricidae, and is widely distributed in northern South Asia, central and southern China and present in parts of northern Southeast Asia. In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Episoriculus caudatus was determined. The mitogenome was 17,129 base pairs in length and contains 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, and 1 control region, with a base composition of 33.1% A, 29.2% T, 24.7% C, and 13.0% G. The genome organization, nucleotide composition and codon usage did not differ significantly from those of other shrews. The study contributes to illuminating taxonomic status of Hodgson's Red-Toothed Shrew, Episoriculus caudatus. PMID:25259449

  9. Accumulation of heavy metals in the mole in Finland.

    PubMed

    Pankakoski, E; Hyvärinen, H; Jalkanen, M; Koivisto, I

    1993-01-01

    Metal concentrations (Cu, Ni, Zn, Cd, Cr, Hg, Pb and Mo) were analysed from the liver and kidneys of moles, Talpa europaea L. (Insectivora), trapped in southern Finland on both contaminated and rural areas. In rural areas the concentrations of Cd, Cu, Zn, Pb and Mo were lower in juveniles (individuals in their first summer), except for Zn in the liver, which was lower in adults. When the animals were divided into annual classes (0-6 years), Cd and Mo concentrations in the liver increased significantly with age, while concentrations of Cu, Zn and Cr tended to decrease. Female moles had higher Pb concentrations than males, especially adult females, which also had lower levels of Cu in the liver than adult males. Moles in the metropolitan area of Helsinki clearly differed from those in rural areas in that the concentrations of heavy metals in these moles were higher (especially for the most toxic metals: Cd, Pb and Hg), and their body weight was lower. The renal concentrations of Cd in most of the moles in Helsinki exceeded the threshold that has been shown to have a nephrotoxic effect in mammals. In one subsample from Helsinki, Pb and Zn concentrations in the mole liver decreased as the distance from the highway increased. Concentrations of Pb in earthworms and several heavy metals in soil also decreased similarly in the same area. Our data indicate that Pb accumulates in moles through their diet of earthworms. PMID:15091866

  10. Muscle senescence in short-lived wild mammals, the soricine shrews Blarina brevicauda and Sorex palustris.

    PubMed

    Hindle, Allyson G; Lawler, John M; Campbell, Kevin L; Horning, Markus

    2009-06-01

    Red-toothed (soricine) shrews are consummate predators exhibiting the highest energy turnovers and shortest life spans (ca. 18 months) of any mammal, yet virtually nothing is known regarding their physiological aging. We assessed the emerging pattern of skeletal muscle senescence (contractile/connective tissue components) in sympatric species, the semi-aquatic water shrew (WS), Sorex palustris, and the terrestrial short-tailed shrew (STS), Blarina brevicauda, to determine if muscle aging occurs in wild, short-lived mammals (H(0): shrews do not survive to an age where senescence occurs), and if so, whether these alterations are species-specific. Gracilis muscles were collected from first-year (n=17) and second-year (n=17) field-caught shrews. Consistent with typical mammalian aging, collagen content (% area) increased with age in both species (S. palustris: approximately 50%; B. brevicauda: approximately 60%). Muscle was dominated by stiffer Type I collagen, and the ratio of collagen Type I:Type III more than doubled with age. The area ratio of muscle:collagen decreased with age in both species, but was considerably lower in adult STS, suggesting species-specificity of senescence. Extracellular space was age-elevated in B. brevicauda, but was preserved in S. palustris ( approximately 50 vs. 10% elevation). Though juvenile interspecific comparisons revealed no significance, adult WS myocytes had 68% larger cross-sectional area and occurred at 28% lower fibers/area than those of adult STS. We demonstrate that age-related muscle senescence does occur in wild-caught, short-lived mammals, and we therefore reject this classic aging theory tenet. Our findings moreover illustrate that differential age adjustments in contractile/connective tissue components of muscle occur in the two species of wild-caught shrews. PMID:19296507

  11. A new species of Pterygodermatites (Nematoda: Rictulariidae) from the Incan shrew opossum, Lestoros inca.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, F Agustín; Patterson, Bruce D

    2012-06-01

    Pterygodermatites ( Paucipectines ) hymanae n. sp. (Rictulariidae) collected from the Incan shrew opossum, Lestoros inca , from Peru is described herein. These nematodes show a subapical, slightly dorsal oral opening and a laterally compressed buccal capsule with 2 conspicuous lateral walls and a dorsal wall. Each lateroventral wall possesses 4 relatively large denticles, and the dorsal wall has 6 denticles. Females are characterized by a conspicuously large postvulvar 37th spine, which may reach 1 mm. This is the first record of endoparasites in the Incan shrew opossum and the fifth species of Pterygodermatites recorded in New World marsupials.

  12. New records of Merriam’s Shrew (Sorex merriami) from western North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    M. J.Shaughnessy Jr.,; Woodman, Neal

    2015-01-01

    Despite having a broad geographic distribution, Merriam's Shrew (Sorex merriami Dobson 1890) is known from a relatively few, widely-scattered localities. In North Dakota, the species was known from only a single poorly-preserved specimen collected in 1913 near Medora. We recently collected two new specimens of Merriam's Shrew from Billings and McKenzie counties in the western quarter of the state. These specimens confirm the presence of S. merriami in North Dakota and better define the northeastern edge of the species' distribution.

  13. Molecular evolution of Azagny virus, a newfound hantavirus harbored by the West African pygmy shrew (Crocidura obscurior) in Côte d'Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Tanganya virus (TGNV), the only shrew-associated hantavirus reported to date from sub-Saharan Africa, is harbored by the Therese's shrew (Crocidura theresae), and is phylogenetically distinct from Thottapalayam virus (TPMV) in the Asian house shrew (Suncus murinus) and Imjin virus (MJNV) in the Ussuri white-toothed shrew (Crocidura lasiura). The existence of myriad soricid-borne hantaviruses in Eurasia and North America would predict the presence of additional hantaviruses in sub-Saharan Africa, where multiple shrew lineages have evolved and diversified. Methods Lung tissues, collected in RNAlater®, from 39 Buettikofer's shrews (Crocidura buettikoferi), 5 Jouvenet's shrews (Crocidura jouvenetae), 9 West African pygmy shrews (Crocidura obscurior) and 21 African giant shrews (Crocidura olivieri) captured in Côte d'Ivoire during 2009, were systematically examined for hantavirus RNA by RT-PCR. Results A genetically distinct hantavirus, designated Azagny virus (AZGV), was detected in the West African pygmy shrew. Phylogenetic analysis of the S, M and L segments, using maximum-likelihood and Bayesian methods, under the GTR+I+Γ model of evolution, showed that AZGV shared a common ancestry with TGNV and was more closely related to hantaviruses harbored by soricine shrews than to TPMV and MJNV. That is, AZGV in the West African pygmy shrew, like TGNV in the Therese's shrew, did not form a monophyletic group with TPMV and MJNV, which were deeply divergent and basal to other rodent- and soricomorph-borne hantaviruses. Ancestral distributions of each hantavirus lineage, reconstructed using Mesquite 2.74, suggested that the common ancestor of all hantaviruses was most likely of Eurasian, not African, origin. Conclusions Genome-wide analysis of many more hantaviruses from sub-Saharan Africa are required to better understand how the biogeographic origin and radiation of African shrews might have contributed to, or have resulted from, the evolution of hantaviruses

  14. Short-lived mammals (shrew, mouse) have a less robust metal-responsive transcription factor than humans and bats.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Katharina; Steiner, Kurt; Petrov, Boyan; Georgiev, Oleg; Schaffner, Walter

    2016-06-01

    Non-essential "heavy" metals such as cadmium tend to accumulate in an organism and thus are a particular threat for long-lived animals. Here we show that two unrelated, short-lived groups of mammals (rodents and shrews, separated by 100 Mio years of evolution) each have independently acquired mutations in their metal-responsive transcription factor (MTF-1) in a domain relevant for robust transcriptional induction by zinc and cadmium. While key amino acids are mutated in rodents, in shrews an entire exon is skipped. Rodents and especially shrews are unique regarding the alterations of this region. To investigate the biological relevance of these alterations, MTF-1s from the common shrew (Sorex araneus), the mouse, humans and a bat (Myotis blythii), were tested by cotransfection with a reporter gene into cells lacking MTF-1. Whereas shrews only live for 1.5-2.5 years, bats, although living on a very similar insect diet, have a lifespan of several decades. We find that bat MTF-1 is similarly metal-responsive as its human counterpart, while shrew MTF-1 is less responsive, similar to mouse MTF-1. We propose that in comparison to most other mammals, the short-lived shrews and rodents can afford a "lower-quality" system for heavy metal homeostasis and detoxification. PMID:27067444

  15. Placental diversity in malagasy tenrecs: placentation in shrew tenrecs (Microgale spp.), the mole-like rice tenrec (Oryzorictes hova) and the web-footed tenrec (Limnogale mergulus).

    PubMed

    Enders, A C; Blankenship, T N; Goodman, S M; Soarimalala, V; Carter, A M

    2007-07-01

    Placentation in tenrecs of the subfamily Oryzorictinae, family Tenrecidae, has not been described previously. The structure of the placenta of this group and especially of the genus Microgale was investigated to determine its similarity or dissimilarity to previously described placentas of the tenrec subfamilies Potamogalinae and Tenrecinae. Fifteen specimens of the genus Microgale ranging from an early yolk sac stage to near term were available for study. Placentation in Microgale was found to be different from other tenrecids in that there is an early simple lateral rather than central haemophagous region. In addition, a more villous portion of the placental disk forms before the formation of a more compact labyrinth. Although the definitive placenta is cellular haemomonochorial, it lacks the spongy zone found in the Tenrecinae. Neither does it resemble the endotheliochorial condition found in the Potamogalinae. Of the two genera of the subfamily Oryzorictinae represented by single specimens, the placenta of Limnogale resembled that of the Microgale but Oryzorictes had several differences including a lobulated placental disk. It is concluded that there is more variation in placentation both within the subfamily Oryzorictinae and within the family Tenrecidae than would ordinarily be expected.

  16. Taste preferences for amino acids in the house musk shrew, Suncus murinus.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, K; Sato, M A

    1982-05-01

    Taste preferences in house musk shrews for amino acids as well as NaCl, sucrose, quinine hydrochloride, HCl and saccharin Na were studied by employing the two-bottle preference technique. Shrews showed a preference for 0.2--05. M sucrose but a moderate rejection to NaCl and a strong rejection to quinine, HCl and saccharin. They exhibited a marked preference for many naturally occurring L-alpha-amino acids with aliphatic side chains at both 0.02 and 0.2 M. Increase in the aliphatic side chain length of DL-alpha-amino acids resulted in both lowering of the preference threshold and increase in the preference magnitude. Amino acids with side chains containing sulfur atoms, basic groups and Phe at 0.02 M were preferred to water, but Cys and Arg at 0.2 M was rejected. Shrews showed neither preference nor rejection to Trp, Asn, Gln and monosodium glutamate at 0.02 M, but rejected strongly Asp and Glu. D-Met from 0.001 to 0.1 M was preferred as well as L-Met, while D-Phe was more preferred than L-Phe. Such preferences for a wide variety of amino acids in shrews could be attributed to their food habit of predating on various kinds of insects and worms. PMID:7100283

  17. "The Taming of the Shrew." A Play Packet To Accompany "Elementary, My Dear Shakespeare."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engen, Barbara; Campbell, Joy

    Intended for use by elementary school teachers as a supplement to the book, "Elementary, My Dear Shakespeare," or for use by itself to produce one Shakespeare play, this play packet contains ready-to-reproduce materials for the production of "The Taming of the Shrew." Materials include: staging suggestions for scenery, props, lighting, and…

  18. Nerve growth factor promotes in vitro proliferation of neural stem cells from tree shrews

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Liu-lin; Chen, Zhi-wei; Wang, Ting-hua

    2016-01-01

    Neural stem cells promote neuronal regeneration and repair of brain tissue after injury, but have limited resources and proliferative ability in vivo. We hypothesized that nerve growth factor would promote in vitro proliferation of neural stem cells derived from the tree shrews, a primate-like mammal that has been proposed as an alternative to primates in biomedical translational research. We cultured neural stem cells from the hippocampus of tree shrews at embryonic day 38, and added nerve growth factor (100 μg/L) to the culture medium. Neural stem cells from the hippocampus of tree shrews cultured without nerve growth factor were used as controls. After 3 days, fluorescence microscopy after DAPI and nestin staining revealed that the number of neurospheres and DAPI/nestin-positive cells was markedly greater in the nerve growth factor-treated cells than in control cells. These findings demonstrate that nerve growth factor promotes the proliferation of neural stem cells derived from tree shrews. PMID:27212919

  19. Chronic clomipramine treatment reverses core symptom of depression in subordinate tree shrews.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Chai, Anping; Zhou, Qixin; Lv, Longbao; Wang, Liping; Yang, Yuexiong; Xu, Lin

    2013-01-01

    Chronic stress is the major cause of clinical depression. The behavioral signs of depression, including anhedonia, learning and memory deficits, and sleep disruption, result from the damaging effects of stress hormones on specific neural pathways. The Chinese tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri chinensis) is an aggressive non-human primate with a hierarchical social structure that has become a well-established model of the behavioral, endocrine, and neurobiological changes associated with stress-induced depression. The tricyclic antidepressant clomipramine treats many of the core symptoms of depression in humans. To further test the validity of the tree shrew model of depression, we examined the effects of clomipramine on depression-like behaviors and physiological stress responses induced by social defeat in subordinate tree shrews. Social defeat led to weight loss, anhedonia (as measured by sucrose preference), unstable fluctuations in locomotor activity, sustained urinary cortisol elevation, irregular cortisol rhythms, and deficient hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP). Clomipramine ameliorated anhedonia and irregular locomotor activity, and partially rescued the irregular cortisol rhythm. In contrast, weight loss increased, cortisol levels were even higher, and in vitro LTP was still impaired in the clomipramine treatment group. These results demonstrate the unique advantage of the tree shrew social defeat model of depression.

  20. Multilocus phylogeography and systematic revision of North American water shrews (genus: Sorex)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hope, Andrew G.; Panter, Nicholas; Cook, Joseph A.; Talbot, Sandra L.; Nagorsen, David W.

    2014-01-01

    North American water shrews, which have traditionally included Sorex alaskanus, S. bendirii, and S. palustris, are widely distributed through Nearctic boreal forests and adapted for life in semiaquatic environments. Molecular mitochondrial signatures for these species have recorded an evolutionary history with variable levels of regional divergence, suggesting a strong role of Quaternary environmental change in speciation processes. We expanded molecular analyses, including more-comprehensive rangewide sampling of specimens representing North American water shrew taxa, except S. alaskanus, and sequencing of 4 independent loci from the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes. We investigated relative divergence of insular populations along the North Pacific Coast, and newly recognized diversity from southwestern montane locations, potentially representing refugial isolates. Congruent independent genealogies, lack of definitive evidence for contemporary gene flow, and high support from coalescent species trees indicated differentiation of 4 major geographic lineages over multiple glacial cycles of the late Quaternary, similar to a growing number of boreal taxa. Limited divergence of insular populations suggested colonization following the last glacial. Characterization of southwestern montane diversity will require further sampling but divergence over multiple loci is indicative of a relictual sky-island fauna. We have reviewed and revised North American water shrew taxonomy including the recognition of 3 species within what was previously known as S. palustris. The possibility of gene flow between most distantly related North American water shrew lineages coupled with unresolved early diversification of this group and other sibling species reflects a complex but potentially productive system for investigating speciation processes.

  1. High activity of the stress promoter contributes to susceptibility to stress in the tree shrew

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Hui; Sun, Yun-Jun; Lv, Yan-Hong; Ni, Rong-Jun; Shu, Yu-Mian; Feng, Xiu-Yu; Wang, Yu; Shan, Qing-Hong; Zu, Ya-Nan; Zhou, Jiang-Ning

    2016-01-01

    Stress is increasingly present in everyday life in our fast-paced society and involved in the pathogenesis of many psychiatric diseases. Corticotrophin-releasing-hormone (CRH) plays a pivotal role in regulating the stress responses. The tree shrews are highly vulnerable to stress which makes them the promising animal models for studying stress responses. However, the mechanisms underlying their high stress-susceptibility remained unknown. Here we confirmed that cortisol was the dominate corticosteroid in tree shrew and was significantly increased after acute stress. Our study showed that the function of tree shrew CRH - hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis was nearly identical to human that contributed little to their hyper-responsiveness to stress. Using CRH transcriptional regulation analysis we discovered a peculiar active glucocorticoid receptor response element (aGRE) site within the tree shrew CRH promoter, which continued to recruit co-activators including SRC-1 (steroid receptor co-activator-1) to promote CRH transcription under basal or forskolin/dexamethasone treatment conditions. Basal CRH mRNA increased when the aGRE was knocked into the CRH promoter in human HeLa cells using CAS9/CRISPR. The aGRE functioned critically to form the “Stress promoter” that contributed to the higher CRH expression and susceptibility to stress. These findings implicated novel molecular bases of the stress-related diseases in specific populations. PMID:27125313

  2. Isolation and characterization of a novel arenavirus harbored by Rodents and Shrews in Zhejiang province, China

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Kun; Lin, Xian-Dan; Wang, Wen; Shi, Mang; Guo, Wen-Ping; Zhang, Xiao-He; Xing, Jian-Guang; and others

    2015-02-15

    To determine the biodiversity of arenaviruses in China, we captured and screened rodents and shrews in Wenzhou city, Zhejiang province, a locality where hemorrhagic fever diseases are endemic in humans. Accordingly, arenaviruses were detected in 42 of 351 rodents from eight species, and in 12 of 272 Asian house shrews (Suncus murinus), by RT-PCR targeting the L segment. From these, a single arenavirus was successfully isolated in cell culture. The virion particles exhibited a typical arenavirus morphology under transmission electron microscopy. Comparison of the S and L segment sequences revealed high levels of nucleotide (>32.2% and >39.6%) and amino acid (>28.8% and >43.8%) sequence differences from known arenaviruses, suggesting that it represents a novel arenavirus, which we designated Wenzhou virus (WENV). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that all WENV strains harbored by both rodents and Asian house shrews formed a distinct lineage most closely related to Old World arenaviruses. - Highlights: • A novel arenavirus (Wenzhou virus) was identified in Zhejiang province, China. • The virus is highly circulating in five species of rats and one species of shrews • More efforts are needed to infer whether it is pathogenic to humans or not.

  3. Ultrastructure of the stomach of the small short-tailed shrew, Blarina brevicauda c.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, C J; Keith, J C

    1985-07-01

    The normal gastric ultrastructure has been characterized for the small short-tailed shrew, Blarina brevicauda c., which is a primitive eutherian and one of the smallest living mammals with extraordinarily high metabolic rate. In general the cell types present and cytologic character of gastric mucosal, submucosal, and muscularis cells were similar to that reported for other more advanced small mammalian species. Chief cells, endocrine cells, and lamina proprial elements were morphologically identical to their counterpart in rats, ferrets and other small carnivores. Distinctive cytologic features in this species of shrew included the scanty monolayer or small number of mucous granules in the simple columnar surface epithelial cells of the mucosa, and the thin elongated shape of their microvilli. Dense bodies were absent in the parietal cell mitochondria of the shrew, though usually abundant in other mammalian parietal cells. Our data indicate few morphologic specializations in the shrew stomach which can be correlated with their high rate of food assimilation and metabolic demands, though future studies of mucosal biochemistry and lower gut morphology may reveal such adaptations. PMID:4020920

  4. Olfactory mucosa ultrastructure in the short-tailed shrews, Blarina brevicauda and Blarina carolinensis.

    PubMed

    Byrum, L J; Carson, K A; Rose, R K

    2001-12-01

    The olfactory mucosae of the northern short-tailed shrew, Blarina brevicauda, and the southern short-tailed shrew, Blarina carolinensis, were examined by light and electron microscopy. A well-developed olfactory epithelium was observed that included all of the cells necessary to provide for a sensitive olfactory system, suggesting that olfaction plays a major role in the behavior of these animals. There were no significant differences between the olfactory mucosae of these two species. The general features of the olfactory epithelium in these shrews were similar to those reported for several other macrosmatic mammals. A new type of supporting cell, called the light supporting cell, was observed in these shrews. The light supporting cell cytoplasm exhibited very little staining by light microscopy and had low electron density by transmission electron microscopy compared to that of the more common dark supporting cell. The light supporting cell had a convex apical surface with microvilli and lacked the large amounts of smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER) typical of the apical cytoplasm of the dark supporting cell. In the lamina propria of the mucosa, the Bowman's glands consisted of two cell types, one with electron-lucent, alcian blue-positive granules, and the other with electron-dense PAS-positive granules. The cell with electron-lucent granules contained large amounts of SER and small clumps of rough ER. The cells with electron-dense granules had large amounts of RER and little SER. PMID:12221510

  5. Two new species of shrews (Soricidae) from the western highlands of Guatemala

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodman, Neal

    2010-01-01

    The broad-clawed shrews (Soricomorpha: Soricidae: Cryptotis) encompass a clade of 5 species—Cryptotis alticolus (Merriam), C. goldmani (Merriam), C. goodwini Jackson, C. griseoventris Jackson, and C. peregrinus (Merriam)—that is known collectively as the Cryptotis goldmani group and is characterized by broadened forefeet, elongated and broadened fore claws, and broadened humeri. These shrews are distributed in highland regions from central Mexico to Honduras. Two broad-clawed shrews, C. goodwini and C. griseoventris, occur in southern Mexico and Guatemala and are presumed sister species whose primary distinguishing feature is the larger size of C. goodwini. In an investigation of variation within and between these 2 species, I studied characteristics of the postcranial skeleton. Statistical analyses of a variety of character suites indicate that the forelimb morphology in this group exhibits less intraspecific variation and greater interspecific variation than cranio-mandibular morphology, although most skull characters support groupings based on forelimb characters. Together, these characters define 4 distinct groups among the specimens examined. C. griseoventris is restricted to the northern highlands of Chiapas, Mexico, and C. goodwini occurs in the southern highlands of Chiapas and Guatemala. Herein, I describe 2 new species of broad-clawed shrews from the Sierra de los Cuchumatanes, Guatemala.

  6. Phenotypic flexibility in the energetic strategy of the greater white-toothed shrew, Crocidura russula.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Flávio G; Tapisso, Joaquim T; Monarca, Rita I; Cerveira, Ana M; Mathias, Maria L

    2016-02-01

    The balance between energetic acquisition and expenditure depends on the amount of energy allocated to biological functions such as thermoregulation, growth, reproduction and behavior. Ambient temperature has a profound effect on this balance, with species inhabiting colder climates often needing to invest more energy in thermoregulation to maintain body temperature. This leads to local behavioral and physiological adaptations that increase energetic efficiency. In this study, we investigated the role of activity, behavior and thermogenic capacity in the ability of the greater white-toothed shrew, Crocidura russula, to cope with seasonal changes. Individuals were captured in the Sintra-Cascais Natural Park, a Mediterranean region, and separated into three experimental groups: a control group, acclimated to a 12L:12D photoperiod and temperature of 18-20°C; a winter group, acclimatized to natural winter fluctuations of light and temperature; and a summer group, acclimatized to natural summer fluctuations of light and temperature. No differences were found in resting metabolic rate and nonshivering thermogenesis between the three groups. However, winter shrews significantly reduced their activity, particularly at night, compared to the control and summer groups. Differences in torpor use were also found between groups, with winter shrews entering torpor more frequently and during shorter periods of time than summer and control shrews. Our results indicate C. russula from Sintra relies on the flexibility of energy saving mechanisms, namely daily activity level and torpor use, to cope with seasonal changes in a Mediterranean climate, rather than mechanisms involving body heat production. PMID:26857972

  7. The neurobiology and behavior of the American water shrew (Sorex palustris).

    PubMed

    Catania, Kenneth C

    2013-06-01

    American water shrews (Sorex palustris) are aggressive predators that dive into streams and ponds to find prey at night. They do not use eyesight for capturing fish or for discriminating shapes. Instead they make use of vibrissae to detect and attack water movements generated by active prey and to detect the form of stationary prey. Tactile investigations are supplemented with underwater sniffing. This remarkable behavior consists of exhalation of air bubbles that spread onto objects and are then re-inhaled. Recordings for ultrasound both above and below water provide no evidence for echolocation or sonar, and presentation of electric fields and anatomical investigations provide no evidence for electroreception. Counts of myelinated fibers show by far the largest volume of sensory information comes from the trigeminal nerve compared to optic and cochlear nerves. This is in turn reflected in the organization of the water shrew's neocortex, which contains two large somatosensory areas and much smaller visual and auditory areas. The shrew's small brain with few cortical areas may allow exceptional speed in processing sensory information and producing motor output. Water shrews can accurately attack the source of a water disturbance in only 50 ms, perhaps outpacing any other mammalian predator.

  8. [Preliminary investigation of viruses to the wild tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri Chinese)].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin-Xing; Li, Jing-Xiao; Wang, Wen-Guang; Sun, Xiao-Mei; He, Chun-Yan; Dai, Jie-Jie

    2011-02-01

    Virological testing and monitoring is a fundamental part of quality control of experimental animals. However, there are few papers regarding the spectrum and status of natural infection in wild tree shrews with human and animal pathogenic viruses. Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent adsorption assay (ELISA), we tested sixty wild tree shrews captured from Qinglong, an outskirt region of Kunming, Yunnan Province, China for eleven viruses, including herpes simplex virus, coxsackie virus, influenza virus, HAV, HBV, HCV, HDV, dengue virus, hemorrhagic fever virus and measles virus. Our results showed that, in the serum samples, 22/60 (36.7%) and 1/60 (1.67%) were antibody positive for herpes simplex virus and coxsackie virus, respectively, and 4/60 (6.7%) were antigen positive for rotavirus in the feces. The remaining species of viruses were negative in these tree shrews. Based on these results, we propose that herpes simplex virus, coxsackie virus and cotavirus should be listed as top priority for routine virological monitoring of tree shrews.

  9. Persistence and diversification of the Holarctic shrew, Sorex tundrensis (Family Soricidae), in response to climate change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hope, A.G.; Waltari, Eric; Fedorov, V.B.; Goropashnaya, A.V.; Talbot, S.L.; Cook, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Environmental processes govern demography, species movements, community turnover and diversification and yet in many respects these dynamics are still poorly understood at high latitudes. We investigate the combined effects of climate change and geography through time for a widespread Holarctic shrew, Sorex tundrensis. We include a comprehensive suite of closely related outgroup taxa and three independent loci to explore phylogeographic structure and historical demography. We then explore the implications of these findings for other members of boreal communities. The tundra shrew and its sister species, the Tien Shan shrew (Sorex asper), exhibit strong geographic population structure across Siberia and into Beringia illustrating local centres of endemism that correspond to Late Pleistocene refugia. Ecological niche predictions for both current and historical distributions indicate a model of persistence through time despite dramatic climate change. Species tree estimation under a coalescent process suggests that isolation between populations has been maintained across timeframes deeper than the periodicity of Pleistocene glacial cycling. That some species such as the tundra shrew have a history of persistence largely independent of changing climate, whereas other boreal species shifted their ranges in response to climate change, highlights the dynamic processes of community assembly at high latitudes. ?? 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. The neurobiology and behavior of the American water shrew (Sorex palustris).

    PubMed

    Catania, Kenneth C

    2013-06-01

    American water shrews (Sorex palustris) are aggressive predators that dive into streams and ponds to find prey at night. They do not use eyesight for capturing fish or for discriminating shapes. Instead they make use of vibrissae to detect and attack water movements generated by active prey and to detect the form of stationary prey. Tactile investigations are supplemented with underwater sniffing. This remarkable behavior consists of exhalation of air bubbles that spread onto objects and are then re-inhaled. Recordings for ultrasound both above and below water provide no evidence for echolocation or sonar, and presentation of electric fields and anatomical investigations provide no evidence for electroreception. Counts of myelinated fibers show by far the largest volume of sensory information comes from the trigeminal nerve compared to optic and cochlear nerves. This is in turn reflected in the organization of the water shrew's neocortex, which contains two large somatosensory areas and much smaller visual and auditory areas. The shrew's small brain with few cortical areas may allow exceptional speed in processing sensory information and producing motor output. Water shrews can accurately attack the source of a water disturbance in only 50 ms, perhaps outpacing any other mammalian predator. PMID:23397460

  11. Persistence and diversification of the Holarctic shrew, Sorex tundrensis (Family Soricidae), in response to climate change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hope, Andrew G.; Waltari, Eric; Fedorov, V.B.; Goropashnaya, A.V.; Talbot, Sandra; Cook, Joseph A.

    2014-01-01

    Environmental processes govern demography, species movements, community turnover and diversification and yet in many respects these dynamics are still poorly understood at high latitudes. We investigate the combined effects of climate change and geography through time for a widespread Holarctic shrew, Sorex tundrensis. We include a comprehensive suite of closely related outgroup taxa and three independent loci to explore phylogeographic structure and historical demography. We then explore the implications of these findings for other members of boreal communities. The tundra shrew and its sister species, the Tien Shan shrew (Sorex asper), exhibit strong geographic population structure across Siberia and into Beringia illustrating local centres of endemism that correspond to Late Pleistocene refugia. Ecological niche predictions for both current and historical distributions indicate a model of persistence through time despite dramatic climate change. Species tree estimation under a coalescent process suggests that isolation between populations has been maintained across timeframes deeper than the periodicity of Pleistocene glacial cycling. That some species such as the tundra shrew have a history of persistence largely independent of changing climate, whereas other boreal species shifted their ranges in response to climate change, highlights the dynamic processes of community assembly at high latitudes.

  12. Generation and characterization of a breast carcinoma model by PyMT overexpression in mammary epithelial cells of tree shrew, an animal close to primates in evolution.

    PubMed

    Ge, Guang-Zhe; Xia, Hou-Jun; He, Bao-Li; Zhang, Hai-Lin; Liu, Wen-Jing; Shao, Ming; Wang, Chun-Yan; Xiao, Ji; Ge, Fei; Li, Fu-Bing; Li, Yi; Chen, Ceshi

    2016-02-01

    The tree shrew is becoming an attractive experimental animal model for human breast cancer owing to a closer relationship to primates/humans than rodents. Tree shrews are superior to classical primates because tree shrew are easier to manipulate, maintain and propagate. It is required to establish a high-efficiency tree shrew breast cancer model for etiological research and drug assessment. Our previous studies suggest that 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) and medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) induce breast tumors in tree shrews with a low frequency (<50%) and long latency (∼ 7-month), making these methods less than ideal. We induced mammary tumors in tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri chinensis) by injection of lentivirus expressing the PyMT oncogene into mammary ducts of 22 animals. Most tree shrews developed mammary tumors with a latency of about three weeks, and by 7 weeks all injected tree shrews had developed mammary tumors. Among these, papillary carcinoma is the predominant tumor type. One case showed lymph node and lung metastasis. Interestingly, the expression levels of phosphorylated AKT, ERK and STAT3 were elevated in 41-68% of PyMT-induced mammary tumors, but not all tumors. Finally, we observed that the growth of PyMT-induced tree shrew mammary tumors was significantly inhibited by Cisplatin and Epidoxorubicin. PyMT-induced tree shrew mammary tumor model may be suitable for further breast cancer research and drug development, due to its high efficiency and short latency.

  13. The crouching of the shrew: Mechanical consequences of limb posture in small mammals.

    PubMed

    Riskin, Daniel K; Kendall, Corinne J; Hermanson, John W

    2016-01-01

    An important trend in the early evolution of mammals was the shift from a sprawling stance, whereby the legs are held in a more abducted position, to a parasagittal one, in which the legs extend more downward. After that transition, many mammals shifted from a crouching stance to a more upright one. It is hypothesized that one consequence of these transitions was a decrease in the total mechanical power required for locomotion, because side-to-side accelerations of the body have become smaller, and thus less costly with changes in limb orientation. To test this hypothesis we compared the kinetics of locomotion in two mammals of body size close to those of early mammals (< 40 g), both with parasagittally oriented limbs: a crouching shrew (Blarina brevicauda; 5 animals, 17 trials) and a more upright vole (Microtus pennsylvanicus; 4 animals, 22 trials). As predicted, voles used less mechanical power per unit body mass to perform steady locomotion than shrews did (P = 0.03). However, while lateral forces were indeed smaller in voles (15.6 ± 2.0% body weight) than in shrews (26.4 ± 10.9%; P = 0.046), the power used to move the body from side-to-side was negligible, making up less than 5% of total power in both shrews and voles. The most power consumed for both species was that used to accelerate the body in the direction of travel, and this was much larger for shrews than for voles (P = 0.01). We conclude that side-to-side accelerations are negligible for small mammals-whether crouching or more upright-compared to their sprawling ancestors, and that a more upright posture further decreases the cost of locomotion compared to crouching by helping to maintain the body's momentum in the direction of travel. PMID:27413633

  14. The crouching of the shrew: Mechanical consequences of limb posture in small mammals

    PubMed Central

    Kendall, Corinne J.; Hermanson, John W.

    2016-01-01

    An important trend in the early evolution of mammals was the shift from a sprawling stance, whereby the legs are held in a more abducted position, to a parasagittal one, in which the legs extend more downward. After that transition, many mammals shifted from a crouching stance to a more upright one. It is hypothesized that one consequence of these transitions was a decrease in the total mechanical power required for locomotion, because side-to-side accelerations of the body have become smaller, and thus less costly with changes in limb orientation. To test this hypothesis we compared the kinetics of locomotion in two mammals of body size close to those of early mammals (< 40 g), both with parasagittally oriented limbs: a crouching shrew (Blarina brevicauda; 5 animals, 17 trials) and a more upright vole (Microtus pennsylvanicus; 4 animals, 22 trials). As predicted, voles used less mechanical power per unit body mass to perform steady locomotion than shrews did (P = 0.03). However, while lateral forces were indeed smaller in voles (15.6 ± 2.0% body weight) than in shrews (26.4 ± 10.9%; P = 0.046), the power used to move the body from side-to-side was negligible, making up less than 5% of total power in both shrews and voles. The most power consumed for both species was that used to accelerate the body in the direction of travel, and this was much larger for shrews than for voles (P = 0.01). We conclude that side-to-side accelerations are negligible for small mammals–whether crouching or more upright–compared to their sprawling ancestors, and that a more upright posture further decreases the cost of locomotion compared to crouching by helping to maintain the body’s momentum in the direction of travel. PMID:27413633

  15. Japanese Characters in Written Japanese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buck, James H.

    From the sixth to the eighth century A.D., Japan was the recipient of massive cultural infusions from China. This acceptance of the Chinese pattern included, and to a great extent was based on, the acceptance of the Chinese language. The Chinese writing system was applied to Japanese because there was no other model to follow and in spite of the…

  16. Genetic Diversity of Thottapalayam Virus, a Hantavirus Harbored by the Asian House Shrew (Suncus murinus) in Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Hae Ji; Kosoy, Michael Y.; Shrestha, Sanjaya K.; Shrestha, Mrigendra P.; Pavlin, Julie A.; Gibbons, Robert V.; Yanagihara, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Despite the recent discovery of genetically divergent hantaviruses in shrews of multiple species in widely separated geographic regions, data are unavailable about the genetic diversity and phylogeography of Thottapalayam virus (TPMV), a hantavirus originally isolated from an Asian house shrew (Suncus murinus) captured in southern India more than four decades ago. To bridge this knowledge gap, the S, M, and L segments of hantavirus RNA were amplified by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction from archival lung tissues of Asian house shrews captured in Nepal from January to September 1996. Pair-wise alignment and comparison revealed approximately 80% nucleotide and > 94% amino acid sequence similarity to prototype TPMV. Phylogenetic analyses, generated by maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods, showed geographic-specific clustering of TPMV, similar to that observed for rodent- and soricid-borne hantaviruses. These findings confirm that the Asian house shrew is the natural reservoir of TPMV and suggest a long-standing virus–host relationship. PMID:21896819

  17. Varied behavioral responses induced by morphine in the tree shrew: a possible model for human opiate addiction.

    PubMed

    Shen, Fang; Duan, Ying; Jin, Shubo; Sui, Nan

    2014-01-01

    Tree shrews represent a suitable animal model to study the pathogenesis of human diseases as they are phylogenetically close to primates and have a well-developed central nervous system that possesses many homologies with primates. Therefore, in our study, we investigated whether tree shrews can be used to explore the addictive behaviors induced by morphine. Firstly, to investigate the psychoactive effect of morphine on tree shrews' behavior, the number of jumping and shuttling, which represent the vertical and horizontal locomotor activity respectively, was examined following the injection of different dosage of morphine. Our results showed intramuscular (IM) injection of morphine (5 or 10 mg/kg) significantly increased the locomotor activity of tree shrews 30-60 min post-injection. Then, using the conditioned place preference/aversion (CPP/CPA) paradigm, we found morphine-conditioned tree shrews exhibited place preference in the morphine-paired chamber on the test day. In addition, naloxone-precipitated withdrawal induced place aversion in the chronic morphine-dependent tree shrews. We evaluated the craving for morphine drinking by assessing the break point that reflects the maximum effort animals will expend to get the drug. Our data showed the break point was significantly increased when compared to the baseline on the 1st, 7th and 14th day after the abstinence. Moreover, in the intravenous morphine self-administration experiment, tree shrews conditioned with morphine responded on the active lever significantly more frequently than on the inactive lever after training. These results suggest that tree shrew may be a potential candidate for study the addictive behaviors and the underling neurological mechanisms.

  18. Rethinking Japanese Language Pedagogy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Phyllis

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the work of Seiichi Makino, a scholar of Japanese, noting that his work in establishing the Japanese proficiency guidelines helped make it appear that Japanese language teaching was part of mainstream American language teaching. (Author/VWL)

  19. Metadata Objects for Linking the Environmental Sciences (MOLES)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, B.; Cox, S.; Ventouras, S.

    2009-04-01

    MOLES is an information model that provides a framework to support interdisciplinary contextual metadata describing instruments, observation platforms, activities, calibrations and other aspects of the environment associated with observations and simulations. MOLES has been designed as a bridge between discovery metadata - the conventional stuff of catalogues - and the sort of metadata which scientists traditionally store alongside data within files (and more rarely, databases) - "header files" and the like. MOLES can also be thought of as both a metadata structure in it's own right, and a framework for describing and recording the relationships between aspects of the context described in other more metadata formats (such as SensorML and the upcoming Metafor Common Information Model). MOLES was originally conceived of during the first NERC DataGrid project, in 2002, and is now at V3 in 2009. V3 differs from previous versions in many significant ways: 1) it has been designed in ISO 19103 compliant UML, and an XML schema implementation is delivered via an automated implementation of the ISO19118/19136 model driven architecture. 2) it is designed to operate in Web2.0 environment with both an atom serialisation and an OGC Web Feature Service (WFS) friendly XML serialisation. 3) it leverages the OGC observations and measurements specification, complements a range of GML application schema (in particular GeoSciML and CSML), and supports export of a subset of information in ISO 19115/19139 compliance. A software implementation exploiting MOLES V3 is under development. This will be seeded with hundreds of enties available from the MOLES V2 service currently deployed in the STFC Centre for Environmental Data Archival.

  20. Vocal development during postnatal growth and ear morphology in a shrew that generates seismic vibrations, Diplomesodon pulchellum.

    PubMed

    Zaytseva, Alexandra S; Volodin, Ilya A; Mason, Matthew J; Frey, Roland; Fritsch, Guido; Ilchenko, Olga G; Volodina, Elena V

    2015-09-01

    The ability of adult and subadult piebald shrews (Diplomesodon pulchellum) to produce 160Hz seismic waves is potentially reflected in their vocal ontogeny and ear morphology. In this study, the ontogeny of call variables and body traits was examined in 11 litters of piebald shrews, in two-day intervals from birth to 22 days (subadult), and ear structure was investigated in two specimens using micro-computed tomography (micro-CT). Across ages, the call fundamental frequency (f0) was stable in squeaks and clicks and increased steadily in screeches, representing an unusual, non-descending ontogenetic pathway of f0. The rate of the deep sinusoidal modulation (pulse rate) of screeches increased from 75Hz at 3-4 days to 138Hz at 21-22 days, probably relating to ontogenetic changes in contraction rates of the same muscles which are responsible for generating seismic vibrations. The ear reconstructions revealed that the morphologies of the middle and inner ears of the piebald shrew are very similar to those of the common shrew (Sorex araneus) and the lesser white-toothed shrew (Crocidura suaveolens), which are not known to produce seismic signals. These results suggest that piebald shrews use a mechanism other than hearing for perceiving seismic vibrations.

  1. Isolation and identification of symbiotic bacteria from the skin, mouth, and rectum of wild and captive tree shrews.

    PubMed

    Li, Gui; Lai, Ren; Duan, Gang; Lyu, Long-Bao; Zhang, Zhi-Ye; Liu, Huang; Xiang, Xun

    2014-11-18

    Endosymbionts influence many aspects of their hosts' health conditions, including physiology, development, immunity, metabolism, etc. Tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri chinensis) have attracted increasing attention in modeling human diseases and therapeutic responses due to their close relationship with primates. To clarify the situation of symbiotic bacteria from their body surface, oral cavity, and anus, 12 wild and 12 the third generation of captive tree shrews were examined. Based on morphological and cultural characteristics, physiological and biochemical tests, as well as the 16S rDNA full sequence analysis, 12 bacteria strains were isolated and identified from the wild tree shrews: body surface: Bacillus subtilis (detection rate 42%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (25%), Staphlococcus aureus (33%), S. Epidermidis (75%), Micrococcus luteus (25%), Kurthia gibsonii (17%); oral cavity: Neisseria mucosa (58%), Streptococcus pneumonia (17%); anus: Enterococcus faecalis (17%), Lactococus lactis (33%), Escherichia coli (92%), Salmonella typhosa (17%); whereas, four were indentified from the third generation captive tree shrews: body surface: S. epidermidis (75%); oral cavity: N.mucosa (67%); anus: L. lactis (33%), E. coli (100%). These results indicate that S. epidermidis, N. mucosa, L. lactis and E. coli were major bacteria in tree shrews, whereas, S. aureus, M. luteus, K. gibsonii, E. faecalis and S. typhosa were species-specific flora. This study facilitates the future use of tree shrews as a standard experimental animal and improves our understanding of the relationship between endosymbionts and their hosts. PMID:25465085

  2. Vocal development during postnatal growth and ear morphology in a shrew that generates seismic vibrations, Diplomesodon pulchellum.

    PubMed

    Zaytseva, Alexandra S; Volodin, Ilya A; Mason, Matthew J; Frey, Roland; Fritsch, Guido; Ilchenko, Olga G; Volodina, Elena V

    2015-09-01

    The ability of adult and subadult piebald shrews (Diplomesodon pulchellum) to produce 160Hz seismic waves is potentially reflected in their vocal ontogeny and ear morphology. In this study, the ontogeny of call variables and body traits was examined in 11 litters of piebald shrews, in two-day intervals from birth to 22 days (subadult), and ear structure was investigated in two specimens using micro-computed tomography (micro-CT). Across ages, the call fundamental frequency (f0) was stable in squeaks and clicks and increased steadily in screeches, representing an unusual, non-descending ontogenetic pathway of f0. The rate of the deep sinusoidal modulation (pulse rate) of screeches increased from 75Hz at 3-4 days to 138Hz at 21-22 days, probably relating to ontogenetic changes in contraction rates of the same muscles which are responsible for generating seismic vibrations. The ear reconstructions revealed that the morphologies of the middle and inner ears of the piebald shrew are very similar to those of the common shrew (Sorex araneus) and the lesser white-toothed shrew (Crocidura suaveolens), which are not known to produce seismic signals. These results suggest that piebald shrews use a mechanism other than hearing for perceiving seismic vibrations. PMID:26112702

  3. Isolation and identification of symbiotic bacteria from the skin, mouth, and rectum of wild and captive tree shrews

    PubMed Central

    LI, Gui; LAI, Ren; DUAN, Gang; LIU, Long-Bao; ZHANG, Zhi-Ye; LIU, Huang; XIANG, Xun

    2014-01-01

    Endosymbionts influence many aspects of their hosts’ health conditions, including physiology, development, immunity, metabolism, etc. Tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri chinensis) have attracted increasing attention in modeling human diseases and therapeutic responses due to their close relationship with primates. To clarify the situation of symbiotic bacteria from their body surface, oral cavity, and anus, 12 wild and 12 the third generation of captive tree shrews were examined. Based on morphological and cultural characteristics, physiological and biochemical tests, as well as the 16S rDNA full sequence analysis, 12 bacteria strains were isolated and identified from the wild tree shrews: body surface: Bacillus subtilis (detection rate 42%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (25%), Staphlococcus aureus (33%), S. Epidermidis (75%), Micrococcus luteus (25%), Kurthia gibsonii (17%); oral cavity: Neisseria mucosa (58%), Streptococcus pneumonia (17%); anus: Enterococcus faecalis (17%), Lactococus lactis (33%), Escherichia coli (92%), Salmonella typhosa (17%); whereas, four were indentified from the third generation captive tree shrews: body surface: S. epidermidis (75%); oral cavity: N.mucosa (67%); anus: L. lactis (33%), E. coli (100%). These results indicate that S. epidermidis, N. mucosa, L. lactis and E. coli were major bacteria in tree shrews, whereas, S. aureus, M. luteus, K. gibsonii, E. faecalis and S. typhosa were species-specific flora. This study facilitates the future use of tree shrews as a standard experimental animal and improves our understanding of the relationship between endosymbionts and their hosts. PMID:25465085

  4. Isolation and identification of symbiotic bacteria from the skin, mouth, and rectum of wild and captive tree shrews.

    PubMed

    Li, Gui; Lai, Ren; Duan, Gang; Lyu, Long-Bao; Zhang, Zhi-Ye; Liu, Huang; Xiang, Xun

    2014-11-18

    Endosymbionts influence many aspects of their hosts' health conditions, including physiology, development, immunity, metabolism, etc. Tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri chinensis) have attracted increasing attention in modeling human diseases and therapeutic responses due to their close relationship with primates. To clarify the situation of symbiotic bacteria from their body surface, oral cavity, and anus, 12 wild and 12 the third generation of captive tree shrews were examined. Based on morphological and cultural characteristics, physiological and biochemical tests, as well as the 16S rDNA full sequence analysis, 12 bacteria strains were isolated and identified from the wild tree shrews: body surface: Bacillus subtilis (detection rate 42%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (25%), Staphlococcus aureus (33%), S. Epidermidis (75%), Micrococcus luteus (25%), Kurthia gibsonii (17%); oral cavity: Neisseria mucosa (58%), Streptococcus pneumonia (17%); anus: Enterococcus faecalis (17%), Lactococus lactis (33%), Escherichia coli (92%), Salmonella typhosa (17%); whereas, four were indentified from the third generation captive tree shrews: body surface: S. epidermidis (75%); oral cavity: N.mucosa (67%); anus: L. lactis (33%), E. coli (100%). These results indicate that S. epidermidis, N. mucosa, L. lactis and E. coli were major bacteria in tree shrews, whereas, S. aureus, M. luteus, K. gibsonii, E. faecalis and S. typhosa were species-specific flora. This study facilitates the future use of tree shrews as a standard experimental animal and improves our understanding of the relationship between endosymbionts and their hosts.

  5. Characterization of Imjin virus, a newly isolated hantavirus from the Ussuri white-toothed shrew (Crocidura lasiura).

    PubMed

    Song, Jin-Won; Kang, Hae Ji; Gu, Se Hun; Moon, Sung Sil; Bennett, Shannon N; Song, Ki-Joon; Baek, Luck Ju; Kim, Heung-Chul; O'Guinn, Monica L; Chong, Sung-Tae; Klein, Terry A; Yanagihara, Richard

    2009-06-01

    Until recently, the single known exception to the rodent-hantavirus association was Thottapalayam virus (TPMV), a long-unclassified virus isolated from the Asian house shrew (Suncus murinus). Robust gene amplification techniques have now uncovered several genetically distinct hantaviruses from shrews in widely separated geographic regions. Here, we report the characterization of a newly identified hantavirus, designated Imjin virus (MJNV), isolated from the lung tissues of Ussuri white-toothed shrews of the species Crocidura lasiura (order Soricomorpha, family Soricidae, subfamily Crocidurinae) captured near the demilitarized zone in the Republic of Korea during 2004 and 2005. Seasonal trapping revealed the highest prevalence of MJNV infection during the autumn, with evidence of infected shrews' clustering in distinct foci. Also, marked male predominance among anti-MJNV immunoglobulin G antibody-positive Ussuri shrews was found, whereas the male-to-female ratio among seronegative Ussuri shrews was near 1. Plaque reduction neutralization tests showed no cross neutralization for MJNV and rodent-borne hantaviruses but one-way cross neutralization for MJNV and TPMV. The nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences for the different MJNV genomic segments revealed nearly the same calculated distances from hantaviruses harbored by rodents in the subfamilies Murinae, Arvicolinae, Neotominae, and Sigmodontinae. Phylogenetic analyses of full-length S, M, and L segment sequences demonstrated that MJNV shared a common ancestry with TPMV and remained in a distinct out-group, suggesting early evolutionary divergence. Studies are in progress to determine if MJNV is pathogenic for humans.

  6. Characterization of Imjin Virus, a Newly Isolated Hantavirus from the Ussuri White-Toothed Shrew (Crocidura lasiura)▿

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jin-Won; Kang, Hae Ji; Gu, Se Hun; Moon, Sung Sil; Bennett, Shannon N.; Song, Ki-Joon; Baek, Luck Ju; Kim, Heung-Chul; O'Guinn, Monica L.; Chong, Sung-Tae; Klein, Terry A.; Yanagihara, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Until recently, the single known exception to the rodent-hantavirus association was Thottapalayam virus (TPMV), a long-unclassified virus isolated from the Asian house shrew (Suncus murinus). Robust gene amplification techniques have now uncovered several genetically distinct hantaviruses from shrews in widely separated geographic regions. Here, we report the characterization of a newly identified hantavirus, designated Imjin virus (MJNV), isolated from the lung tissues of Ussuri white-toothed shrews of the species Crocidura lasiura (order Soricomorpha, family Soricidae, subfamily Crocidurinae) captured near the demilitarized zone in the Republic of Korea during 2004 and 2005. Seasonal trapping revealed the highest prevalence of MJNV infection during the autumn, with evidence of infected shrews' clustering in distinct foci. Also, marked male predominance among anti-MJNV immunoglobulin G antibody-positive Ussuri shrews was found, whereas the male-to-female ratio among seronegative Ussuri shrews was near 1. Plaque reduction neutralization tests showed no cross neutralization for MJNV and rodent-borne hantaviruses but one-way cross neutralization for MJNV and TPMV. The nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences for the different MJNV genomic segments revealed nearly the same calculated distances from hantaviruses harbored by rodents in the subfamilies Murinae, Arvicolinae, Neotominae, and Sigmodontinae. Phylogenetic analyses of full-length S, M, and L segment sequences demonstrated that MJNV shared a common ancestry with TPMV and remained in a distinct out-group, suggesting early evolutionary divergence. Studies are in progress to determine if MJNV is pathogenic for humans. PMID:19357167

  7. The mole, amount of substance and primary methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milton, Martin J. T.

    2013-04-01

    This paper is an introduction to the principles developed for the application of metrology to the field of chemistry and particularly to analytical chemistry. It starts with a discussion of the mole, the base unit of the SI that is most relevant to analytical chemistry. The mole has become the subject of particular discussion recently, since the publication of proposals to re-define it along with three other base units of the SI. This discussion has also generated interest in the origin of the term ‘amount of substance’ used as the quantity for which the mole is the unit. This paper reviews the origin of this term and explains why it is not sufficient to replace it with an alternative such as a ‘number of entities’. The paper concludes with some discussion of how the mole is realized through the use of primary methods of measurement. This paper is based on a lecture given at the International School of Physics ‘Enrico Fermi’, Course CLXXXV: Metrology and Physical Constants,held in Varenna on 17-27 July 2012. It will also be published in the proceedings of the school, edited by E Bava, M Kühne and A M Rossi (IOS Press, Amsterdam and SIF, Bologna).

  8. Gross anatomical study of the sympathetic cardiac nerves in the house musk shrew (Suncus murinus).

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Ai; Tanaka, Shigenori; Miyamoto, Kensaku; Yi, Shuang-Qin; Nakatani, Toshio

    2007-05-01

    The sympathetic cardiac nerves originating from the cervical and upper thoracic sympathetic ganglia in the house musk shrew (Suncus murinus) were examined using macroscopic and whole-mount immunohistochemical methods. Based on the results, the nerves were macroscopically classified into the following three groups: nerves innervating the cervical sympathetic ganglia mainly to the arterial porta of the heart; nerves supplying the stellate and thoracic sympathetic ganglia at the level of T2-T5 or T6 for both the arterial and venous portae of the heart; and nerves innervating the thoracic sympathetic ganglia at the level of T4-T9 to the esophagus and lung and then the heart via the blood vessels within the mediastinal pleura. These findings in the house musk shrew suggest a possible primitive morphological pattern of the cervical and thoracic sympathetic nervous system that may be related to those in other mammals, including humans. PMID:17393537

  9. Divergent ancestral lineages of newfound hantaviruses harbored by phylogenetically related crocidurine shrew species in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Arai, Satoru; Gu, Se Hun; Baek, Luck Ju; Tabara, Kenji; Bennett, Shannon; Oh, Hong-Shik; Takada, Nobuhiro; Kang, Hae Ji; Tanaka-Taya, Keiko; Morikawa, Shigeru; Okabe, Nobuhiko; Yanagihara, Richard; Song, Jin-Won

    2012-01-01

    Spurred by the recent isolation of a novel hantavirus, named Imjin virus (MJNV), from the Ussuri white-toothed shrew (Crocidura lasiura), targeted trapping was conducted for the phylogenetically related Asian lesser white-toothed shrew (Crocidura shantungensis). Pair-wise alignment and comparison of the S, M and L segments of a newfound hantavirus, designated Jeju virus (JJUV), indicated remarkably low nucleotide and amino acid sequence similarity with MJNV. Phylogenetic analyses, using maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods, showed divergent ancestral lineages for JJUV and MJNV, despite the close phylogenetic relationship of their reservoir soricid hosts. Also, no evidence of host switching was apparent in tanglegrams, generated by TreeMap 2.0β. PMID:22230701

  10. Sequencing and analysis of the complete mitochondrial genome of tundra shrew (Sorex tundrensis) from China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chunzhu; Zhao, Shuai; Wu, Hualin; Wu, Shengyang; Zhang, Zhongwen; Wang, Bo; Dou, Huashan

    2016-07-01

    The complete mitogenome sequence of tundra shrew (Sorex tundrensis) was determined using long PCR. The genome was 17,444 bp in length and contained 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 23 transfer RNA genes, 1 origin of L strand replication and 1 control region. The overall base composition of the heavy strand is A (32.9%), C (24.8%), T (29.0%), and G (13.3%). The base compositions present clearly the A-T skew, which is most obviously in the control region and protein-coding genes. The extended termination-associated sequence domain, the central conserved domain and the conserved sequence block domain are defined in the mitochondrial genome control region of tundra shrew. Mitochondrial genome analyses based on MP, ML, NJ and Bayesian analyses yielded identical phylogenetic trees. The three Sorex species formed a monophyletic group with the high bootstrap value (100 %) in all examinations.

  11. Binding sites of atrial natriuretic peptide in tree shrew adrenal gland

    SciTech Connect

    Fuchs, E.; Shigematsu, K.; Saavedra, J.M.

    1986-09-01

    Adrenal gland binding sites for atrial natriuretic peptide-(99-126) (ANP) were quantitated in tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri) by incubation of adrenal sections with (3-(/sup 125/I)-iodotyrosyl28) atrial natriuretic peptide-(99-126), followed by autoradiography with computerized microdensitometry. In the adrenal glands, there are three types of ANP binding sites. One is located in the zona glomerulosa (BMax 84 +/- 6 fmol/mg protein; Kd 122 +/- 9 pM); the second in the zona fasciculata and reticularis (BMax 29 +/- 2 fmol/mg protein; Kd 153 +/- 6 pM) and the third in the adrenal medulla (BMax 179 +/- 1 fmol/mg protein; Kd 70 +/- 2 pM). Besides the influence of ANP on the regulation of adrenocortical mineralcorticoid and glucocorticoid secretion our findings raise the possibility for a local site of action of atrial natriuretic peptide in the regulation of adrenomedullary catecholamines in the tree shrew, primates and man.

  12. Temperature preferences of African mole-rats (family Bathyergidae).

    PubMed

    Begall, Sabine; Berendes, Meike; Schielke, Charlotte K M; Henning, Yoshiyuki; Laghanke, Marzena; Scharff, Andreas; van Daele, Paul; Burda, Hynek

    2015-10-01

    Many animals are able to detect small temperature differences and show strong temperature preferences during periods of rest and activity. Mammals inhabiting the subterranean ecotope can adapt their digging and foraging activity in shallow tunnels temporarily to periods with favourable ambient air and soil temperatures. Moreover, subterranean mammals have the unique opportunity to select for their nests in soil depths with certain, daily and seasonally constant temperatures. Our knowledge on nest temperatures in several species of subterranean mammals is based on measurements of temperatures in empty nests. We can expect, however, that the temperature in an occupied nest is higher (due to the "igloo effect"). We performed two experiments regarding the temperature preference in five species of African mole-rats (Bathyergidae, Rodentia: Fukomys anselli, F. mechowii, F. micklemi, Heliophobius argenteocinereus, and Heterocephalus glaber). In a first experiment, the animals were tested pairwise (except for the solitary silvery mole-rats, H. argenteocinereus, that were tested singly) in an apparatus consisting of seven chambers with a temperature gradient ranging between 16 and 37°C (air temperature). While the smaller species (<110g; F. anselli, F. micklemi, H. glaber) chose chambers with average air temperatures around 29°C, the larger mole-rats rested preferably at lower temperatures of approximately 25.6°C (F. mechowii) and 27.7°C (H. argenteocinereus). A strong negative correlation between body mass and preferred air temperature was detected across species. Thus, the results comply with the surface-volume-rule. Contrary to expectations, temperature preference of naked mole-rats (H. glaber) did not deviate from those of furred small mole-rats, but followed the general trend with smaller species preferring higher temperatures. In a second experiment, Ansell's mole-rats (F. anselli) were tested in groups of four, six and nine animals and the preferred temperatures

  13. Japanese encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Morita, K; Nabeshima, T; Buerano, C C

    2015-08-01

    Japanese encephalitis (JE) is an inflammation of the central nervous system in humans and animals, specifically horses and cattle. The disease, which can sometimes be fatal, is caused by the flavivirus Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), of which there are five genotypes (genotypes 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5). The transmission cycle of the virus involves pigs and wild birds as virus amplifiers and mosquitoes as vectors for transferring the virus between amplifying hosts and to dead- end hosts, i.e. humans, horses and cattle. In horses and cattle the disease is usually asymptomatic, but when clinical signs do occur they include fever, decreased appetite, frothing at the mouth, rigidity of the legs and recumbency, and neurological signs, such as convulsive fits, circling, marked depression and disordered consciousness. In pigs, it can cause abortion and stillbirths. At present, the virus is detected in a wide area covering eastern and southern Asia, Indonesia, northern Australia, Papua New Guinea and Pakistan. JEV RNA has also been detected in Italy, first in dead birds in 1997 and 2000 and then in mosquitoes in 2010. Genotype shift, i.e. a change of genotype from genotype 3 to genotype 1, has occurred in some countries, namely Japan, South Korea, Chinese Taipei and Vietnam. Laboratory methods are available for confirming the causative agent of the disease. There are control measures to prevent or minimise infection and, among them, vaccination is one of the most important and one which should be adopted in endemic and epidemic areas. PMID:26601447

  14. Japanese encephalitis

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Sang-Im; Lee, Young-Min

    2014-01-01

    Japanese encephalitis (JE) is an infectious disease of the central nervous system caused by Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), a zoonotic mosquito-borne flavivirus. JEV is prevalent in much of Asia and the Western Pacific, with over 4 billion people living at risk of infection. In the absence of antiviral intervention, vaccination is the only strategy to develop long-term sustainable protection against JEV infection. Over the past half-century, a mouse brain-derived inactivated vaccine has been used internationally for active immunization. To date, however, JEV is still a clinically important, emerging, and re-emerging human pathogen of global significance. In recent years, production of the mouse brain-derived vaccine has been discontinued, but 3 new cell culture-derived vaccines are available in various parts of the world. Here we review current aspects of JEV biology, summarize the 4 types of JEV vaccine, and discuss the potential of an infectious JEV cDNA technology for future vaccine development. PMID:24161909

  15. High density lipoproteins and prevention of experimental atherosclerosis with special reference to tree shrews.

    PubMed

    She, M P; Xia, R Y; Ran, B F; Wong, Z L

    1990-01-01

    According to data obtained from epidemiological and experimental survey, serum HDL level is known to be correlated conversely with the incidence of atherosclerosis. Experimental data collected in this article explained part of its mechanism, which is described in four parts as follows: 1. The result of 3 successive experiments on experimental atherosclerosis in tree shrews (total of 96 animals available including 40 as the controls) showed that the serum HDL level had been kept persistantly to 69-88% of the total serum lipoproteins even after a high cholesterol intake for 32 weeks. The incidence of atheromatous lesions developed was only 0-9%, but the incidence of gall stone was very high, 48-84% by gross examination by the end of these experiments. 2. HDL are also capable of (1) promotion of monocyte migration activity; (2) enhancement of cholesterol clearance rate of aortic smooth muscle cells originally isolated from either rabbits or tree shrews; (3) inhibition of 20% of LDL degradation but with no inhibitory effect obtained on Ac-LDL degradation in the endothelial cells; (4) presence of specific binding sites for apo E free HDL on the surface of aortic smooth muscle cells from either rabbits or tree shrews which recognizes apo A1 as a ligand. 3. Data from 2 successive experiments in rabbits showed that HDL lipoproteins (mainly apo A1) possess an inhibitory effect on the development of atheromatous plaques, but not a very strong one. 4. The colesterol clearance effect of smooth muscle cells was markedly enhanced by apo A1/phospholipid liposomes (the apo A1 used was isolated from either rabbit's or tree shrew's serum) in vitro. PMID:2123379

  16. High density lipoproteins and prevention of experimental atherosclerosis with special reference to tree shrews.

    PubMed

    She, M P; Xia, R Y; Ran, B F; Wong, Z L

    1990-01-01

    According to data obtained from epidemiological and experimental survey, serum HDL level is known to be correlated conversely with the incidence of atherosclerosis. Experimental data collected in this article explained part of its mechanism, which is described in four parts as follows: 1. The result of 3 successive experiments on experimental atherosclerosis in tree shrews (total of 96 animals available including 40 as the controls) showed that the serum HDL level had been kept persistantly to 69-88% of the total serum lipoproteins even after a high cholesterol intake for 32 weeks. The incidence of atheromatous lesions developed was only 0-9%, but the incidence of gall stone was very high, 48-84% by gross examination by the end of these experiments. 2. HDL are also capable of (1) promotion of monocyte migration activity; (2) enhancement of cholesterol clearance rate of aortic smooth muscle cells originally isolated from either rabbits or tree shrews; (3) inhibition of 20% of LDL degradation but with no inhibitory effect obtained on Ac-LDL degradation in the endothelial cells; (4) presence of specific binding sites for apo E free HDL on the surface of aortic smooth muscle cells from either rabbits or tree shrews which recognizes apo A1 as a ligand. 3. Data from 2 successive experiments in rabbits showed that HDL lipoproteins (mainly apo A1) possess an inhibitory effect on the development of atheromatous plaques, but not a very strong one. 4. The colesterol clearance effect of smooth muscle cells was markedly enhanced by apo A1/phospholipid liposomes (the apo A1 used was isolated from either rabbit's or tree shrew's serum) in vitro.

  17. How did pygmy shrews colonize Ireland? Clues from a phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial cytochrome b sequences.

    PubMed Central

    Mascheretti, Silvia; Rogatcheva, Margarita B; Gündüz, Islam; Fredga, Karl; Searle, Jeremy B

    2003-01-01

    There is a long-standing debate as to how Ireland attained its present fauna; we help to inform this debate with a molecular study of one species. A 1110 base pair fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene was sequenced in 74 specimens of the pygmy shrew, Sorex minutus, collected from throughout its western Palaearctic range. Phylogenetic analysis of these sequences revealed several well-supported lineages. Most of the 65 haplotypes belonged to a northern lineage, which ranged from Britain in the west to Lake Baikal in the east. The other lineages were largely limited to Iberia, Italy and the Balkans. One exception, however, was a lineage found in both Ireland and Andorra. This affinity, and the large difference between the mitochondrial sequences of Irish and British individuals, suggest that pygmy shrews did not colonize Ireland via a land connection from Britain, as has been previously supposed, but instead were introduced by boat from southwest continental Europe. All the Irish pygmy shrews analysed were identical or very similar in cytochrome b sequence, suggesting an extreme founding event. PMID:12908980

  18. Daily metabolic patterns of short-tailed shrews (Blarina) in three natural seasonal temperature regimes

    SciTech Connect

    Randolph, J.C.

    1980-01-01

    An automatic, continuous-flow gas analysis system was used to determine daily metabolic patterns of individual short-tailed shrews (Blarina) in three natural seasonal temperature regimes in eastern Tennessee. Average daily metabolic rates (ADMR) were lowest in the summer (0.426 kcal g/sup -1/day/sup -1/), approximately doubled under winter conditions (0.810 kcal g/sup -1/day/sup -1/) but were the highest under fall conditions (1.110 kcal g/sup -1/day/sup -1/) possibly due to incomplete acclimatization of the shrews. The shape of the daily metabolic pattern for Blarina does not change seasonally; however, summer metabolic rates are the least variable and are lower than most values previously reported in the literature. Polynomial multiple regression analyses were conducted to examine the relative influence of body mass, ambient temperature, and time of day on metabolic rates; only ambient temperature was significant in predicting metabolic rates of this shrew. Average daily metabolic rates of Blarina observed under summer and winter conditions further substantiate the general predictive equations of metabolic rates formulated for small mammals by French et al. (1976). Comparisons of metabolic patterns of Blarina with those of Peromyscus leucopus observed under nearly identical conditions indicate similar rates with strong seasonal influences.

  19. Cardiac ultrastructure and electrocardiogram of the short-tailed shrew, Blarina brevicauda.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, C J; Keith, J C

    1993-10-01

    The smaller species of shrews have been of considerable interest to scientists because of their high rate of metabolism, structure-functional and behavioral adaptations to support their energy demands. The present data are the first detailed cardiac ultrastructural findings and electrocardiographic (ECG) data of adult and immature small short-tailed shrews, Blarina brevicauda. The heart is morphologically elongated and heart rates in excess of 900 b/min were observed, but ECG components and pattern are non-distinctive for this species. Ultrastructurally, the sarcomeres, tubular and sarcotubular systems and Purkinje cells resemble closely those observed in larger, less active mammals. Several distinctive features resembling those seen in some other shrews or hummingbirds exist, including reduced quantities of myocyte glycogen, irregularly shaped and tightly packed mitochondria, increased neural and vascular elements in the myocardium, and small size and unusual dispersion of atrial specific granules. These morphologic findings suggest that the remarkable physiologic performance of the heart of Blarina brevicauda is supported by a combination of macroscopic, histologic and cellular adaptations. PMID:8269404

  20. Pulmonary appendix of the short-tailed shrew (Blarina): a unique immunologic organ.

    PubMed

    Parke, Wesley Wilkin

    2002-03-01

    The right bronchus of the short-tailed shrew, Blarina brevicauda, terminates in a nonrespiratory pulmonary appendix (PA) containing two bronchial extensions. The experimentally demonstrated ability of these structures to collect and peristaltically expel aspirated material was initially assumed to be a sufficient reason for their developmental persistence, but as bronchus associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) became a subject of immunologic interest in other species, a possible immunologic role for the concentrations of BALT observed in the shrew PA were investigated. As the BALT of the PA contained many well-differentiated plasma cells and numerous particle-containing macrophages, 6-mu paraffin sections were treated with an immunoperoxidase avidin-biotin preparation that chromogenically identified alpha chains of IgA in many of the PA plasma cells and their associated luminal secretions. Also, vascular injections revealed that the PA had a complex relationship with anastomotic sinusoids connecting the bronchial and pulmonary circulation systems, and scanning electron microscopy showed that the luminal epithelial surfaces of the PA were virtually identical to the scattered BALT aggregates in the bronchi of other animals. It thus appeared that these unique structures in the shrew are morphologically and topographically suited to receive aspirated antigens that induce secretory IgA production, while possibly providing other humoral and cellular immunologic products to the general circulation. PMID:11870601

  1. Evidence for gene flow in parasitic nematodes between two host species of shrews.

    PubMed

    Brant, Sara V; Ortí, Guillermo

    2003-10-01

    We describe the genetic structure of populations of the intestinal nematode Longistriata caudabullata (Trichostrongyloidea: Heligmosomidae), a common parasite of short-tailed shrews (genus Blarina, Insectivora: Soricidae). Parasites and hosts were collected from a transect across a contact zone between two species of hosts, Blarina brevicauda and B. hylophaga, in central North America. An 800-base pairs (bp) fragment of the ND4 mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) gene was sequenced for 28 worms and a 783-bp fragment of the mtDNA control region was analysed for 16 shrews. Phylogenetic analyses of mtDNA sequences revealed reciprocal monophyly for the shrew species, concordant with morphological diagnosis, and supported the idea that the transect cuts through a secondary contact zone between well-differentiated B. brevicauda and B. hylophaga. In contrast to this pattern, the parasitic nematode mtDNA phylogeny was not subdivided according to host affiliation. Genealogical discordance between parasite and host phylogenies suggests extensive gene flow among parasites across the host species boundary. PMID:12969487

  2. [Some physiological and biochemical indicators of underyearling Laxman's shrews (Sorex cecutiens Laxmann) and even-toothed shrews (Sorex isodon Turov) under conditions of different population densities].

    PubMed

    Kiselev, S V; Lazutkin, A N; Yamborko, A V

    2013-01-01

    Based on the results of a study conducted in 2006-2010 in the Buyunda River basin (a feeder of the Kolyma River), the influence of the population density of common shrews (Sorex) on some of the physiological and biochemical parameters (glycogen and lipids in the liver, the relative weight of the spleen, the white and brown adipose tissue cellularity of bone and brain tissue) was investigated. The content of energy reserve substances was correlated with the number of animals (fat deposits had a negative correlation; the glycogen content in the liver had a direct correlation). For the rest of the physiological-biochemical parameters, no significant correlation with the population density was detected, although for the content of brown fat and cellularity of bone marrow tissue in Sorex isodon, as well as the relative weight of the spleen in both species of shrews, a trend was observed. We suggest that the identified physiological changes indicate irregular feeding of animals in years with higher population densities. PMID:24459854

  3. Organizational moles: information control and the acquisition of power and status.

    PubMed

    Bruhn, J G; Chesney, A P

    1995-09-01

    All organizations have moles or informants who seek to acquire informal power and status within the organization by keeping supervisors and the chief executive officer informed about employees and their activities. If the leaders of an organization are insecure and distrustful, they value the information about the organization that moles provide. Moles survive organizational change because they are loyal first to themselves. Moles often are hardworking, productive people, but their net effect on the organization's moral is negative because they foster distrust and defensiveness among employees. Guidelines are offered to help identify possible moles so they can be avoided lest one become a victim to moles' methods.

  4. For Mole Problems, Call Avogadro: 602-1023

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uthe, R. E.

    2002-10-01

    General education students who have never encountered Avogadro’s number often have difficulty grasping its magnitude and the resulting implications for sizes and numbers of particles in common materials they see around them. I have surveyed the approaches used by several chemical educators. This article describes the techniques I find best help introductory students in General College at the University of Minnesota become familiar with Avogadro’s number and mole calculations. They involve estimating numbers of common objects and then calculating the length of time needed to count large numbers of them. For example, the immense amount of time required to count a mole of sand grains at one grain per second greatly exceeds the age of the universe. The calculations also reinforce procedures for manipulating exponents and applying problem-solving techniques.

  5. Teaching Safety: Using Mole Calculations To Teach Aspects of Safety in Post-16 Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borrows, Peter; Vincent, Ray; Cochrane, Allen

    1998-01-01

    Recommends beginning certain chemistry courses with revision and consolidation of mole calculations. Argues that by choosing examples related to health and safety, mole calculations can be made less academic while raising student awareness of important issues. (DDR)

  6. Unpacking the Meaning of the Mole Concept for Secondary School Teachers and Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fang, Su-Chi; Hart, Christina; Clarke, David

    2014-01-01

    The "mole" is a fundamental concept in quantitative chemistry, yet research has shown that the mole is one of the most perplexing concepts in the teaching and learning of chemistry. This paper provides a survey of the relevant literature, identifies the necessary components of a sound understanding of the mole concept, and unpacks and…

  7. Mole and Chemical Amount: A Discussion of the Fundamental Measurements of Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorin, George

    1994-01-01

    Teachers and students alike report difficulties with the measurement unit called mole. This article tries to demonstrate that mole and the corresponding quantity are not exceptional. Mole lacks the context of a given amount because the unit measures the relative number of atoms compared with those present in a standard. Discusses history of…

  8. Teaching the Mole Concept Using a Conceptual Change Method at College Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uce, Musa

    2009-01-01

    Chemistry is a subject area that is difficult to understand for some students as it contains abstract concepts, such as mole, molecule and particle. The mole concept is one of the most important topics in which students have difficulty in understanding. There are many studies in the literature on the mole concept. Students who do not fully…

  9. The Mole. Independent Learning Project for Advanced Chemistry (ILPAC). Unit S1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inner London Education Authority (England).

    This unit on the mole is one of 10 first year units produced by the Independent Learning Project for Advanced Chemistry (ILPAC). The unit, designed to help students consolidate some of the ideas about the mole learned in previous courses, consists of two levels. The first level focuses on: (1) relative mass; (2) the concept of the mole as the unit…

  10. Development and characterization of 21 polymorphic microsatellite markers for the barren-ground shrew, Sorex ugyunak (Mammalia: Sorcidae), through next-generation sequencing, and cross-species amplification in the masked shrew, S. cinereus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sonsthagen, S.A.; Sage, G.K.; Fowler, M.; Hope, A.G.; Cook, J.A.; Talbot, S.L.

    2013-01-01

    We used next generation shotgun sequencing to develop 21 novel microsatellite markers for the barren-ground shrew (Sorex ugyunak), which were polymorphic among individuals from northern Alaska. The loci displayed moderate allelic diversity (averaging 6.81 alleles per locus) and heterozygosity (averaging 70 %). Two loci deviated from Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) due to heterozygote deficiency. While the population did not deviate from HWE overall, it showed significant linkage disequilibrium suggesting this population is not in mutation-drift equilibrium. Nineteen of 21 loci were polymorphic in masked shrews (S. cinereus) from interior Alaska and exhibited linkage equilibrium and HWE overall. All loci yielded sufficient variability for use in population studies.

  11. Establishment of the tree shrew as an alcohol-induced Fatty liver model for the study of alcoholic liver diseases.

    PubMed

    Xing, Huijie; Jia, Kun; He, Jun; Shi, Changzheng; Fang, Meixia; Song, Linliang; Zhang, Pu; Zhao, Yue; Fu, Jiangnan; Li, Shoujun

    2015-01-01

    Currently, the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver diseases (ALDs) is not clear. As a result, there is no effective treatment for ALDs. One limitation is the lack of a suitable animal model for use in studying ALDs. The tree shrew is a lower primate animal, characterized by a high-alcohol diet. This work aimed to establish a fatty liver model using tree shrews and to assess the animals' suitability for the study of ALDs. Tree shrews were treated with alcohol solutions (10% and 20%) for two weeks. Hemophysiology, blood alcohol concentrations (BACs), oxidative stress factors, alcohol metabolic enzymes and hepatic pathology were checked and assayed with an automatic biochemical analyzer, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), western blot, hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining and oil red O staining, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Compared with the normal group, the levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), reactive oxygen species (ROS), and malondialdehyde (MDA) were significantly enhanced in alcohol-treated tree shrews. However, the activity of reduced glutathione hormone (GSH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) declined. Notable changes in alcohol dehydrogenase(ADH1), aldehyde dehydrogenase(ALDH2), CYP2E1, UDP-glucuronosyl transferase 1A1 (UGT1A1) and nuclear factor erythroid-related factor 2 (Nrf2) were observed. HE and oil red O staining showed that hepatocyte swelling, hydropic degeneration, and adipohepatic syndrome occurred in the tree shrews. Alcohol can induce fatty liver-like pathological changes and result in alterations in liver function, oxidative stress factors, alcohol metabolism enzymes and Nrf2. Therefore, the established fatty liver model of tree shrews induced by alcohol should be a promising tool for the study of ALDs. PMID:26030870

  12. Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Infection of Tree Shrews Differs from That of Mice in the Severity of Acute Infection and Viral Transcription in the Peripheral Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lihong; Li, Zhuoran; Wang, Erlin; Yang, Rui; Xiao, Yu; Han, Hongbo; Lang, Fengchao; Li, Xin; Xia, Yujie; Gao, Feng; Li, Qihan; Fraser, Nigel W.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Studies of herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections of humans are limited by the use of rodent models such as mice, rabbits, and guinea pigs. Tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri chinensis) are small mammals indigenous to southwest Asia. At behavioral, anatomical, genomic, and evolutionary levels, tree shrews are much closer to primates than rodents are, and tree shrews are susceptible to HSV infection. Thus, we have studied herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) infection in the tree shrew trigeminal ganglion (TG) following ocular inoculation. In situ hybridization, PCR, and quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) analyses confirm that HSV-1 latently infects neurons of the TG. When explant cocultivation of trigeminal ganglia was performed, the virus was recovered after 5 days of cocultivation with high efficiency. Swabbing the corneas of latently infected tree shrews revealed that tree shrews shed virus spontaneously at low frequencies. However, tree shrews differ significantly from mice in the expression of key HSV-1 genes, including ICP0, ICP4, and latency-associated transcript (LAT). In acutely infected tree shrew TGs, no level of ICP4 was observed, suggesting the absence of infection or a very weak, acute infection compared to that of the mouse. Immunofluorescence staining with ICP4 monoclonal antibody, and immunohistochemistry detection by HSV-1 polyclonal antibodies, showed a lack of viral proteins in tree shrew TGs during both acute and latent phases of infection. Cultivation of supernatant from homogenized, acutely infected TGs with RS1 cells also exhibited an absence of infectious HSV-1 from tree shrew TGs. We conclude that the tree shrew has an undetectable, or a much weaker, acute infection in the TGs. Interestingly, compared to mice, tree shrew TGs express high levels of ICP0 transcript in addition to LAT during latency. However, the ICP0 transcript remained nuclear, and no ICP0 protein could be seen during the course of mouse and tree shrew TG

  13. A new species of small-eared shrew from Colombia and Venezuela (Mammalia: Soricomorpha: Soricidae: Genus Cryptotis)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodman, N.

    2002-01-01

    Populations of small-eared shrews inhabiting the northern Cordillera Oriental of Colombia and adjoining Venezuelan highlands in the vicinity of Paramo de Tama have been referred alternatively to Cryptotis thomssi or Cryptotis meridensis. Morphological and morphometrical study of this population indicates that it belongs to neither taxon, but represents a distinct, previously unrecognized species. I describe this new species as Cryptotis tamensis and redescribe C. meridensis. Recognition of the population at Paramo de Tama as a separate taxon calls into question the identities of populations of shrews currently represented only by single specimens from Cerro Pintado in the Sierra de Perija, Colombia, and near El Junquito in the coastal highlands of Venezuela.

  14. [Significance of the smell of a conspecific for the spatial distribution of the common shrew Sorex araneus L].

    PubMed

    Tumas'ian, F A; Shchipanova, N A

    2013-01-01

    The significance of smell marks of conspecifics for the spatial distribution of common shrews was studied. The existence of two groups of individuals, which differ in their reaction to the smell of a conspecific, was shown. Individuals with different reactions were shown to have reliable differences in the sizes of the areas visited by them, the mutual location of their plots, and the percent of activity combined with the activity of the neighbor. The significance of such differences in reactions for the formation of the social system of shrews is discussed.

  15. Demographic responses of shrews to removal of coarse woody debris in a managed pine forest.

    SciTech Connect

    McCay, Timothy, S.; Komoroski, Mark, J.

    2004-01-01

    McCay, T.S., and M.J. Komoroski. 2004. Demographic responses of shrews to removal of coarse woody debris in a managed pine forest. For. Ecol., and Mgt. 189:387-395. We trapped shrews at six 9.3 ha plots from which logs ý 10 cm diameter (coarse woody debris; CWD) had been manually removed and six control plots inmanaged loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) forests of the southeastern coastal plain, USA. Trapping was conducted seasonally between autumn 1997 and summer 2001. Capture rates of Cryptotis parva were lower at plots from which CWD was removed than at control plots (P ¡ 0ý011) and declined at all plots over the study period (P ¡ 0ý001). Capture rates of Blarina carolinensis (P ¡ 0ý129) and Sorex longirostris (P ¡ 0ý432) did not differ between removal and control plots, but declined over the study period (P ¡ 0ý001). Age distributions of B. carolinensis differed between removal and control plots (P ¡ 0ý048) with a smaller proportion of individuals in young age categories at removal plots. Sensitivity of Cryptotis to the removal of CWD may have been due to its sociality or low population density at the study area. A reduction in the abundance of young B. carolinensis after removal of CWD may reflect reduced reproduction and immigration of older individuals from outside the plot. Effect of removal of CWD on populations of these shrews was relatively weak compared to strong seasonal and multi-year variation in abundance. However, weak treatment effects may have been partly due to low ambient levels of CWD at control plots.

  16. Effect of PAHs on MFO induction in common shrews (Crocidura russula)

    SciTech Connect

    Bosveld, A.T.C.; Bie, P. de; Weggemans, J.; Murk, A.

    1995-12-31

    PAHs are widespread environmental contaminants. Despite the relatively high turnover rates for enzymatic breakdown, PAHs have been detected in tissues from species at various trophic levels. As a consequence they have the potential to be passed on to the higher levels of the foodchain. As a model for the primary carnivores in the terrestrial foodchain the common shrew (Crocidura russula) is studied in the laboratories. The authors investigated the effect of exposure to benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) on cytochrome P450 isoenzymes in relation to the effect of a known strong inducer of the MFO system i.e. 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). The compounds were dissolved in oil and mixed with food. Shrews were exposed for a period of one week to BaP at concentrations equivalent to 10 or 100 mg/kg bodyweight per day (n = 3 for each dose group) and to TCDD at a concentration equivalent to 10 {micro}g/kg per day (n = 5). Controls received a diet with only the carier (oil) added. At termination of the experiment, hepatic CYP1A1 associated EROD activity was induced 20% in both the low and high dosed BaP group. In the TCDD exposed shrews EROD was induced up to 776% compared to the controls. Related MFO activities, including PROD, BROD, MROD and site specific testosterone hydroxylation are under investigation and the results will be presented. The relevance of MFO induction by PAHs and the use of these parameters as biomarkers for PAH exposure will be discussed.

  17. Body temperature and behavior of tree shrews and flying squirrels in a thermal gradient.

    PubMed

    Refinetti, R

    1998-02-15

    The daily rhythms of body temperature, temperature selection, and locomotor activity of tree shrews and flying squirrels were studied in a thermal gradient. In accordance with previous observations in other mammalian species, the rhythm of temperature selection was found to be 180 degrees out of phase with the body temperature rhythm in both species. Comparison of the amplitude of the body temperature rhythm in the presence and absence of the ambient temperature gradient indicated that behavioral temperature selection reduces the amplitude of the body temperature rhythm. This provides support for the hypothesis that the homeostatic control of body temperature opposes-rather than facilitates-the circadian oscillation in body temperature. PMID:9523893

  18. Japanese and Japanese American Youth in Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zitlow, Connie S.; Stover, Lois

    1998-01-01

    Explores the wealth of literature by and about Japan and Japanese Americans. Presents a structure for a history unit focusing on Japanese Americans. Summarizes curricular and literary issues to consider. Presents annotations of 69 works of literature and reference and teaching materials. (RS)

  19. The Japanese Mind: Understanding Contemporary Japanese Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Roger J., Ed.; Ikeno, Osamu, Ed.

    This collection of essays offers an overview of contemporary Japanese culture, and can serve as a resource for classes studying Japan. The 28 essays offer an informative, accessible look at the values, attitudes, behavior patterns, and communication styles of modern Japan from the unique perspective of the Japanese people. Filled with examples…

  20. English Loanwords in Japanese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kay, Gillian

    1995-01-01

    Examines the historical and cultural contexts of word borrowing from English into Japanese, processes of nativization, and functions served by English loanwords. Notes that linguistic and cultural borrowing is to some extent kept separate from native language and culture, resulting in a Japanese/Western dichotomy in Japanese life and language. (20…

  1. Japanese Radio Exercises. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jocelyn

    This unit focuses on Japanese radio exercises which became popular in Japan just after World War II and are still used among students and workers in companies to help raise morale and form group unity. The exercises reflect the general role of exercise in Japanese culture--to serve as a symbol of unity and cooperation among the Japanese, as well…

  2. Validation of a learning hierarchy for the mole concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffiths, Alan K.; Kass, Heidi; Cornish, Alan G.

    Three psychometric methods for validating learning hierarchies are applied to one data set derived from responses of grade 10 chemistry students to items representing the skills in a hypothesized hierarchy for the mole concept. Two methods which considered skills in pairs, namely the test of inclusion by White and Clark and the ordering-theoretic method by Airaisian and Bart produced generally similar results. The third method, by Dayton and Mac-ready, considered the hierarchy as a whole and produced clearer distinctions between alternative hierarchies than the first two methods. The hierarchy derived from this analysis was supported by a test for transfer of learning from subordinate to superordinate skills.

  3. A content analysis of the presentation of the mole concept in chemistry textbooks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staver, John R.; Lumpe, Andrew T.

    The goal of this study was to examine the means used by textbook authors to introduce, define, and explain the mole concept in high school and introductory college chemistry textbooks. The analysis was framed by four questions:1How is the mole defined?2What concepts about the atom are introduced prior to the mole?3Is Avogadro's constant presented as an experimentally determined value?4What is the context for introducing the mole?Twenty-nine high school and introductory college level chemistry texts were examined. After independent reading of appropriate sections of each text, discussion of differences, second or third readings of texts, and subsequent discussions, both authors reach 100% agreement concerning the results. Major conclusions were: Two ways of defining the mole dominate the texts. One way defines the mole as Avogadro's number (6.02 × 1023) particles; the other method defines the mole in terms of carbon-12. All texts that present a definition in terms of C-12 introduce and define concepts about the atom prior to introducing the mole. Most texts at all levels point out that the value 6.02 × 1023 is an experimentally determined quantity. Nearly all texts discuss the mole in relation to die problem of finding a way to count particles that are too small to be directly weighed. Most texts also use a familiar counting unit, such as the dozen, to introduce the mole by analogy. Four issues were discussed: (a) the defining attributes of the mole concept itself and the cognitive requirements for comprehending the two most frequently used definitions; (b) the connection between the definition of the mole presented in the text and the concepts about atoms that are introduced before the mole concept is developed; (c) the experimental nature of Avogadro's number; and (d) the context or setting for developing the mole concept.

  4. Resting-Associated Vocalization Emitted by Captive Asian House Shrews (Suncus murinus): Acoustic Structure and Variability in an Unusual Mammalian Vocalization

    PubMed Central

    Schneiderová, Irena; Zouhar, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Shrews have rich vocal repertoires that include vocalizations within the human audible frequency range and ultrasonic vocalizations. Here, we recorded and analyzed in detail the acoustic structure of a vocalization with unclear functional significance that was spontaneously produced by 15 adult, captive Asian house shrews (Suncus murinus) while they were lying motionless and resting in their nests. This vocalization was usually emitted repeatedly in a long series with regular intervals. It showed some structural variability; however, the shrews most frequently emitted a tonal, low-frequency vocalization with minimal frequency modulation and a low, non-vocal click that was clearly noticeable at its beginning. There was no effect of sex, but the acoustic structure of the analyzed vocalizations differed significantly between individual shrews. The encoded individuality was low, but it cannot be excluded that this individuality would allow discrimination of family members, i.e., a male and female with their young, collectively resting in a common nest. The question remains whether the Asian house shrews indeed perceive the presence of their mates, parents or young resting in a common nest via the resting-associated vocalization and whether they use it to discriminate among their family members. Additional studies are needed to explain the possible functional significance of resting-associated vocalizations emitted by captive Asian house shrews. Our study highlights that the acoustic communication of shrews is a relatively understudied topic, particularly considering that they are highly vocal mammals. PMID:25390304

  5. Iridescent colour production in hairs of blind golden moles (Chrysochloridae).

    PubMed

    Snyder, Holly K; Maia, Rafael; D'Alba, Liliana; Shultz, Allison J; Rowe, Karen M C; Rowe, Kevin C; Shawkey, Matthew D

    2012-06-23

    Relative to other metazoans, the mammalian integument is thought to be limited in colour. In particular, while iridescence is widespread among birds and arthropods, it has only rarely been reported in mammals. Here, we examine the colour, morphology and optical mechanisms in hairs from four species of golden mole (Mammalia: Chrysochloridae) that are characterized by sheens ranging from purple to green. Microspectrophotometry reveals that this colour is weak and variable. Iridescent hairs are flattened and have highly reduced cuticular scales, providing a broad and smooth surface for light reflection. These scales form multiple layers of light and dark materials of consistent thickness, strikingly similar to those in the elytra of iridescent beetles. Optical modelling suggests that the multi-layers produce colour through thin-film interference, and that the sensitivity of this mechanism to slight changes in layer thickness and number explains colour variability. While coloured integumentary structures are typically thought to evolve as sexual ornaments, the blindness of golden moles suggests that the colour may be an epiphenomenon resulting from evolution via other selective factors, including the ability to move and keep clean in dirt and sand.

  6. Ultrastructure of geniculocortical synaptic connections in the tree shrew striate cortex.

    PubMed

    Familtsev, Dmitry; Quiggins, Ranida; Masterson, Sean P; Dang, Wenhao; Slusarczyk, Arkadiusz S; Petry, Heywood M; Bickford, Martha E

    2016-04-15

    To determine whether thalamocortical synaptic circuits differ across cortical areas, we examined the ultrastructure of geniculocortical terminals in the tree shrew striate cortex to compare directly the characteristics of these terminals with those of pulvinocortical terminals (examined previously in the temporal cortex of the same species; Chomsung et al. [] Cereb Cortex 20:997-1011). Tree shrews are considered to represent a prototype of early prosimian primates but are unique in that sublaminae of striate cortex layer IV respond preferentially to light onset (IVa) or offset (IVb). We examined geniculocortical inputs to these two sublayers labeled by tracer or virus injections or an antibody against the type 2 vesicular glutamate antibody (vGLUT2). We found that layer IV geniculocortical terminals, as well as their postsynaptic targets, were significantly larger than pulvinocortical terminals and their postsynaptic targets. In addition, we found that 9-10% of geniculocortical terminals in each sublamina contacted GABAergic interneurons, whereas pulvinocortical terminals were not found to contact any interneurons. Moreover, we found that the majority of geniculocortical terminals in both IVa and IVb contained dendritic protrusions, whereas pulvinocortical terminals do not contain these structures. Finally, we found that synaptopodin, a protein uniquely associated with the spine apparatus, and telencephalin (TLCN, or intercellular adhesion molecule type 5), a protein associated with maturation of dendritic spines, are largely excluded from geniculocortical recipient layers of the striate cortex. Together our results suggest major differences in the synaptic organization of thalamocortical pathways in striate and extrastriate areas.

  7. Demography of short-tailed shrew populations living on polychlorinated biphenyl-contaminated sites.

    PubMed

    Boonstra, Rudy; Bowman, Lanna

    2003-06-01

    In ecological risk assessment, a key necessity is to understand how contaminants known to have negative impact on laboratory mammals affect the population demography of mammals living in their natural environment. We examined the demography of six local populations of the short-tailed shrew (Blarina brevicauda) living in eastern deciduous forest palustrine habitat along the Housatonic River (MA, USA) on soils contaminated with a range of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations (1.5-38.3 ppm). The objective of the study was to assess whether PCBs adversely affect the population demography of these small mammals living in their natural environment. Blarina were selected for study because they would be expected to readily bioaccumulate PCBs from the soil. Populations were intensively live trapped on 1-ha grids from spring to autumn 2001. There was no relationship between any demographic parameter and PCB soil concentrations. Densities were high (usually exceeding 20/ha, and on two grids exceeded 60/ha in summer); survival was good (typically 60-75% per 30 d); and sex ratio, reproduction rates, growth rates, and body mass were within the ranges reported in the literature. Thus, these shrew populations showed no detectable impact on their population demography from living on PCB-contaminated sites.

  8. Size evolution in Goodwin?s small-eared shrew, Cryptotis goodwini

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodman, N.; Merritt, J.F.; Churchfield, S.; Hutterer, R.; Sheftel, B.A.

    2005-01-01

    Fossils of Cryptotis goodwini from Honduras indicate that body sizes of modern individuals average at least 18% larger than among members of the late Pleistocene population of this species. Palynological and other paleoenvironmental studies provide evidence that the Neotropical montane environments that these shrews inhabit were cooler and drier in the late Pleistocene than at present and supported communities of plants without modern analog. Therefore, the most likely cause of this change in size ultimately was related to climatic change at the end of the Pleistocene?but to what specific factors did the species respond? I examined the possibilities that this species changed in size: to accommodate a change in temperature regime; to escape from predators; as a response to a change in intensity of interspecific competition; to take advantage of a newly abundant food resource. Based on evidence from studies of modern communities of shrews and niche partitioning, I hypothesized that size evolution in C. goodwini was directly related to changes in the community of soil and soil-surface invertebrates upon which the species depends, specifically an increase in the availability of earthworms (Annelida).

  9. Umbilical Cord-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Relieve Hindlimb Ischemia through Enhancing Angiogenesis in Tree Shrews

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Cunping; Liang, Yuan; Zhang, Jian; Li, Zian; Pang, Rongqing

    2016-01-01

    Hindlimb ischemia is still a clinical problem with high morbidity and mortality. Patients suffer from consequent rest pain, ulcers, cool limbs, and even amputation. Angiogenesis is a promising target for the treatment of ischemic limbs, providing extra blood for the ischemic region. In the present study, we investigated the role of umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UC-MSCs) in regulating angiogenesis and relieving hindlimb ischemia. UC-MSCs were isolated from the umbilical cord of tree shrews. Angiography results showed that UC-MSCs injection significantly promoted angiogenesis in tree shrews. Moreover, the ankle brachial index, transcutaneous oxygen pressure, blood perfusion, and capillary/muscle fiber ratio were all markedly increased by the application of UC-MSCs. In addition, the conditioned culture of human umbilical vein endothelial cells using medium collected from UC-MSCs showed higher expression of angiogenic markers and improved migration ability. In short, the isolated UC-MSCs notably contributed to restoring blood supply and alleviating the symptoms of limb ischemia through enhancing angiogenesis. PMID:27651800

  10. Prevalence of zoonotic Bartonella species among rodents and shrews in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Pangjai, Decha; Maruyama, Soichi; Boonmar, Sumalee; Kabeya, Hidenori; Sato, Shingo; Nimsuphan, Burin; Petkanchanapong, Wimol; Wootta, Wattanapong; Wangroongsarb, Piyada; Boonyareth, Maskiet; Preedakoon, Poom; Saisongkorh, Watcharee; Sawanpanyalert, Pathom

    2014-03-01

    We investigated the prevalence of Bartonella species in 10 rodent and one shrew species in Thailand. From February 2008 to May 2010, a total of 375 small animals were captured in 9 provinces in Thailand. Bartonella strains were isolated from 57 rodents (54 from Rattus species and 3 from Bandicota indica) and one shrew (Suncus murinus) in 7 of the 9 provinces, and identified to the species level. Sequence analysis of the citrate synthase and RNA polymerase β subunit genes identified the 58 isolates from each Bartonella-positive animal as B. tribocorum in 27 (46.6%) animals, B. rattimassiliensis in 17 (29.3%) animals, B. elizabethae in 10 (17.2%) animals and B. queenslandensis in 4 (6.9%) animals. R. norvegicus, R. rattus, and Suncus murinus carried B. elizabethae, which causes endocarditis in humans. The prevalence of Bartonella bacteremic animals by province was 42.9% of the animals collected in Phang Nga, 26.8% in Chiang Rai, 20.4% in Sa Kaeo, 16.7% in Nakhon Si Thammarat, 12.0% in Surat Thani, 9.1% in Mae Hong Son and Loei Provinces. These results indicate that Bartonella organisms are widely distributed in small mammals in Thailand and some animal species may serve as important reservoirs of zoonotic Bartonella species in the country.

  11. Demography of short-tailed shrew populations living on polychlorinated biphenyl-contaminated sites.

    PubMed

    Boonstra, Rudy; Bowman, Lanna

    2003-06-01

    In ecological risk assessment, a key necessity is to understand how contaminants known to have negative impact on laboratory mammals affect the population demography of mammals living in their natural environment. We examined the demography of six local populations of the short-tailed shrew (Blarina brevicauda) living in eastern deciduous forest palustrine habitat along the Housatonic River (MA, USA) on soils contaminated with a range of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations (1.5-38.3 ppm). The objective of the study was to assess whether PCBs adversely affect the population demography of these small mammals living in their natural environment. Blarina were selected for study because they would be expected to readily bioaccumulate PCBs from the soil. Populations were intensively live trapped on 1-ha grids from spring to autumn 2001. There was no relationship between any demographic parameter and PCB soil concentrations. Densities were high (usually exceeding 20/ha, and on two grids exceeded 60/ha in summer); survival was good (typically 60-75% per 30 d); and sex ratio, reproduction rates, growth rates, and body mass were within the ranges reported in the literature. Thus, these shrew populations showed no detectable impact on their population demography from living on PCB-contaminated sites. PMID:12785599

  12. Vampire bat, shrew, and bear: comparative physiology and chronic renal failure.

    PubMed

    Singer, Michael A

    2002-06-01

    In the typical mammal, energy flux, protein metabolism, and renal excretory processes constitute a set of closely linked and quantitatively matched functions. However, this matching has limits, and these limits become apparent when animals adapt to unusual circumstances. The vampire bat and shrew have an extremely high protein intake, and the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is not commensurate with the large urea load to be excreted. The vampire bat is chronically azotemic (blood urea concentration 27-57 mmol/l); yet there is no information as to how this animal has adjusted to such an azotemic internal environment. A high protein intake should also lead to chronic glomerular hyperfiltration; yet neither animal appears to develop progressive renal failure. The American black bear, on the other hand, has adapted to a prolonged period without intake or urine output. Despite continued amino acid catabolism with urea production, this mammal is able to completely salvage and reutilize urea nitrogen for protein synthesis, although the signals that initiate this metabolic adaptation are not known. The vampire bat, shrew, and bear are natural models adapted to circumstances analogous to chronic renal failure. Unraveling these adaptations could lead to new interventions for the prevention/treatment of chronic renal failure. PMID:12010738

  13. Chronic exposure to environmental stressors induces fluctuating asymmetry in shrews inhabiting protected Mediterranean sites.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Chardi, Alejandro; García-Pando, Marián; López-Fuster, María José

    2013-10-01

    Many ecotoxicological studies have addressed the effects of contaminant exposure at various levels of biological organization. However, little information exists on the effects of toxicants on wildlife populations. Here we examined exposure of populations of the greater white-toothed shrew Crocidura russula (Soricomorpha, Soricidae) occupying two protected Mediterranean sites (a polluted area, the Ebro Delta, and a control site, Garraf Massif). Bioaccumulation of selected elements (Pb, Hg, Cd, Zn, Cu, Fe, Mn, Cr, Mo, Sr, Ba, and B), a body condition index (BCI) and fluctuating asymmetry (FA) were used to assess the chronic exposure to environmental pollution. BCI was correlated neither to metal concentrations nor to FA, suggesting that this fitness measure only reflects environmental disturbances at a local level. However, shrews from the polluted area showed higher concentrations of metals and metalloids (Pb, Hg, B, and Sr) and greater shape FA than specimens from the reference area. A correlation between FA was found for both first and second principal component vectors suggesting that developmental instability increases as a result of exposure to multiple pollutants. Our results corroborate the suitability of C. russula as a bioindicator of environmental quality and show that FA is an appropriate index to examine impact of developmental stressors in populations inhabiting disturbed areas.

  14. A Comparative Analysis of the Endocannabinoid System in the Retina of Mice, Tree Shrews, and Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Bouskila, Joseph; Javadi, Pasha; Elkrief, Laurent; Casanova, Christian; Bouchard, Jean-François; Ptito, Maurice

    2016-01-01

    The endocannabinoid (eCB) system is widely expressed in various parts of the central nervous system, including the retina. The localization of the key eCB receptors, particularly CB1R and CB2R, has been recently reported in rodent and primate retinas with striking interspecies differences. Little is known about the distribution of the enzymes involved in the synthesis and degradation of these eCBs. We therefore examined the expression and localization of the main components of the eCB system in the retina of mice, tree shrews, and monkeys. We found that CB1R and FAAH distributions are well-preserved among these species. However, expression of NAPE-PLD is circumscribed to the photoreceptor layer only in monkeys. In contrast, CB2R expression is variable across these species; in mice, CB2R is found in retinal neurons but not in glial cells; in tree shrews, CB2R is expressed in Müller cell processes of the outer retina and in retinal neurons of the inner retina; in monkeys, CB2R is restricted to Müller cells. Finally, the expression patterns of MAGL and DAGLα are differently expressed across species. Overall, these results provide evidence that the eCB system is differently expressed in the retina of these mammals and suggest a distinctive role of eCBs in visual processing. PMID:26977322

  15. Confirmation of pleisiomorphic daily torpor in mammals: the round-eared elephant shrew Macroscelides proboscideus (Macroscelidea).

    PubMed

    Lovegrove, B G; Lawes, M J; Roxburgh, L

    1999-10-01

    The characteristics of daily torpor were measured in the round-eared elephant shrew Macroscelides proboscideus (Macroscelidea) in response to ambient temperature and food deprivation. Elephant shrews are an ancient mammal order within a superordinal African clade including hyraxes, elephants, dugongs and the aardvark. M. proboscideus only employed torpor when deprived of food; torpor did not occur under an ad libitum diet at ambient temperatures of 10, 15 and 25 degrees C. Torpor bout duration ranged from < 1 h to ca. 18 h. The times of entry into torpor were restricted to the scotophase, despite normothermic body temperature patterns indicating a rest phase coincident with the photophase. Full arousal was always achieved within the first 3 h of the photophase. When food deprived, the onset of the rest phase, and hence torpor, advanced with respect to the experimental photoperiod. The lowest torpor body temperature measured was 9.41 degrees C. Daily torpor in M. proboscideus confirms a pleisiomorphic origin of daily heterothermy. Torpor facilitates risk-averse foraging behaviour in these small omnivores by overcoming long-term energy shortfalls generated by the inherent variability of food availability in their semiarid, El Niño-afflicted habitats.

  16. Umbilical Cord-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Relieve Hindlimb Ischemia through Enhancing Angiogenesis in Tree Shrews

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Cunping; Liang, Yuan; Zhang, Jian; Li, Zian; Pang, Rongqing

    2016-01-01

    Hindlimb ischemia is still a clinical problem with high morbidity and mortality. Patients suffer from consequent rest pain, ulcers, cool limbs, and even amputation. Angiogenesis is a promising target for the treatment of ischemic limbs, providing extra blood for the ischemic region. In the present study, we investigated the role of umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UC-MSCs) in regulating angiogenesis and relieving hindlimb ischemia. UC-MSCs were isolated from the umbilical cord of tree shrews. Angiography results showed that UC-MSCs injection significantly promoted angiogenesis in tree shrews. Moreover, the ankle brachial index, transcutaneous oxygen pressure, blood perfusion, and capillary/muscle fiber ratio were all markedly increased by the application of UC-MSCs. In addition, the conditioned culture of human umbilical vein endothelial cells using medium collected from UC-MSCs showed higher expression of angiogenic markers and improved migration ability. In short, the isolated UC-MSCs notably contributed to restoring blood supply and alleviating the symptoms of limb ischemia through enhancing angiogenesis.

  17. Umbilical Cord-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Relieve Hindlimb Ischemia through Enhancing Angiogenesis in Tree Shrews.

    PubMed

    Yin, Cunping; Liang, Yuan; Zhang, Jian; Ruan, Guangping; Li, Zian; Pang, Rongqing; Pan, Xinghua

    2016-01-01

    Hindlimb ischemia is still a clinical problem with high morbidity and mortality. Patients suffer from consequent rest pain, ulcers, cool limbs, and even amputation. Angiogenesis is a promising target for the treatment of ischemic limbs, providing extra blood for the ischemic region. In the present study, we investigated the role of umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UC-MSCs) in regulating angiogenesis and relieving hindlimb ischemia. UC-MSCs were isolated from the umbilical cord of tree shrews. Angiography results showed that UC-MSCs injection significantly promoted angiogenesis in tree shrews. Moreover, the ankle brachial index, transcutaneous oxygen pressure, blood perfusion, and capillary/muscle fiber ratio were all markedly increased by the application of UC-MSCs. In addition, the conditioned culture of human umbilical vein endothelial cells using medium collected from UC-MSCs showed higher expression of angiogenic markers and improved migration ability. In short, the isolated UC-MSCs notably contributed to restoring blood supply and alleviating the symptoms of limb ischemia through enhancing angiogenesis. PMID:27651800

  18. Inference Based on Transitive Relation in Tree Shrews ("Tupaia belangeri") and Rats ("Rattus norvegicus") on a Spatial Discrimination Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takahashi, Makoto; Ushitani, Tomokazu; Fujita, Kazuo

    2008-01-01

    Six tree shrews and 8 rats were tested for their ability to infer transitively in a spatial discrimination task. The apparatus was a semicircular radial-arm maze with 8 arms labeled A through H. In Experiment 1, the animals were first trained in sequence on 4 discriminations to enter 1 of the paired adjacent arms, AB, BC, CD, and DE, with right…

  19. Tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri chinensis), a novel non-obese animal model of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Linqiang; Wu, Xiaoyun; Liao, Shasha; Li, Yunhai; Zhang, Zhiguo; Chang, Qing; Xiao, Ruyue

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is becoming a severe public health problem that is affecting a large proportion of the world population. Generally, NAFLD in patients is usually accompanied by obesity, hyperglycemia, insulin resistance (IR) and type 2 diabetes (T2D), for which numerous animal models have been generated in order to explore the pathogenesis and therapies of NAFLD. On the contrary, quite a number of NAFLD subjects, especially in Asian regions, are non-obese and non-diabetic; however, few animal models are available for the research of non-obese NAFLD. Here, four approaches (here called approach 1 to 4) corresponding to the variable compositions of diets were used to treat tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri chinensis), which have a closer evolutionary relationship to primates than rodents. Analysis of plasma biochemical parameters, hepatic histology, and the expression of hepatic lipid metabolic genes revealed that all four approaches led to hepatic lipid accumulation, liver injury and hypercholesterolemia, but had no effect on body weight and adipose tissue generation, or glycemia. Hepatic gene expression in tree shrews treated by approach 4 might suggest a different or non-canonical pathway leading to hepatic steatosis. In conclusion, the tree shrew displays hepatic steatosis and dyslipidemia, but remains non-obese and non-diabetic under high energy diets, which suggests that the tree shrew may be useful as a novel animal model for the research of human non-obese NAFLD. PMID:27659689

  20. Identification and characterization of toll-like receptors (TLRs) in the Chinese tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri chinensis).

    PubMed

    Yu, Dandan; Wu, Yong; Xu, Ling; Fan, Yu; Peng, Li; Xu, Min; Yao, Yong-Gang

    2016-07-01

    In mammals, the toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a major role in initiating innate immune responses against pathogens. Comparison of the TLRs in different mammals may help in understanding the TLR-mediated responses and developing of animal models and efficient therapeutic measures for infectious diseases. The Chinese tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri chinensis), a small mammal with a close relationship to primates, is a viable experimental animal for studying viral and bacterial infections. In this study, we characterized the TLRs genes (tTLRs) in the Chinese tree shrew and identified 13 putative TLRs, which are orthologs of mammalian TLR1-TLR9 and TLR11-TLR13, and TLR10 was a pseudogene in tree shrew. Positive selection analyses using the Maximum likelihood (ML) method showed that tTLR8 and tTLR9 were under positive selection, which might be associated with the adaptation to the pathogen challenge. The mRNA expression levels of tTLRs presented an overall low and tissue-specific pattern, and were significantly upregulated upon Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. tTLR4 and tTLR9 underwent alternative splicing, which leads to different transcripts. Phylogenetic analysis and TLR structure prediction indicated that tTLRs were evolutionarily conserved, which might reflect an ancient mechanism and structure in the innate immune response system. Taken together, TLRs had both conserved and unique features in the Chinese tree shrew. PMID:26923770

  1. Modelling and monitoring organochlorine and heavy metal accumulation in soils, earthworms, and shrews in Rhine-delta floodplains.

    PubMed

    Hendriks, A J; Ma, W C; Brouns, J J; de Ruiter-Dijkman, E M; Gast, R

    1995-07-01

    In the Rhine-delta, accumulation of microcontaminants in floodplain foodwebs has received little attention in comparison with aquatic communities. To investigate organochlorine and metal concentrations in a terrestrial foodchain, samples of soil, earthworms (Lumbricus rubellus), and shrew (Crocidura russula, Sorex araneus) livers and kidneys were taken from two moderately to heavily polluted floodplains. Chlorobiphenyl residues in earthworm fat were 0.10 to 3.5 times the concentrations in soil organic matter, whereas ratios for other organochlorines varied between 0.87 and 8.8. These ratios are one order of magnitude lower than expected from laboratory experiments with earthworms, and laboratory and field studies on aquatic invertebrates. Bioconcentration ratios for heavy metals are in accordance with literature values for other locations, confirming the high potential for cadmium accumulation in Lumbricidae. Concentrations of organochlorines in shrew liver lipids were 1.0 to 13 times the residues in earthworm fat. These values are higher than lipid-corrected biomagnification ratios for laboratory rodents, but equal to those measured for benthivorous birds in the Rhine-delta. On a dry weight basis, kidney-earthworm ratios for cadmium were about one order of magnitude lower than previously reported values for insectivores. Soil concentrations of many compounds in both floodplains did not meet Dutch quality standards. Yet, hexachlorobenzene, chlorobiphenyl 153 (PCB153), gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane, sigma DDT, and dieldrin residues in earthworms and shrews did not exceed diet levels expected to be safe for endothermic species. An exception was noted for cadmium in worms and shrew kidneys. Heavy metal pollution in soil was close to levels that are critical to earthworms in laboratory studies. Cadmium concentrations in shrew kidneys were below levels suggested to be safe for Sorex araneus, but above those that were critical to the rat.

  2. Cyclic voles and shrews and non-cyclic mice in a marginal grassland within European temperate forest.

    PubMed

    Zub, K; Jędrzejewska, B; Jędrzejewski, W; Bartoń, K A

    2012-07-01

    Cyclic population dynamics of small mammals are not restricted to the boreal and arctic zones of Eurasia and North America, but long-term data series from lower latitudes are still less common. We demonstrated here the presence of periodic oscillations in small mammal populations in eastern Poland using 22-year (1986-2007) trapping data from marginal meadow and river valley grasslands located in the extensive temperate woodland of Białowieża Primeval Forest. The two most common species inhabiting meadows and river valleys, root vole Microtus oeconomus and common shrew Sorex araneus, exhibited synchronous periodic changes, characterised by a 3-year time lag as indicated by an autocorrelation function. Moreover, the cycles of these two species were synchronous within both habitats. Population dynamics of the striped field mouse Apodemus agrarius was not cyclic. However, this species regularly reached maximum density 1 year before the synchronized peak of root voles and common shrews, which may suggest the existence of interspecific competition. Dynamics of all three species was dominated by direct density-dependent process, whereas delayed density dependent feedback was significant only in the root vole and common shrew. Climatic factors acting in winter and spring (affecting mainly survival and initial reproduction rates) were more important than those acting in summer and autumn and affected significantly only the common shrew. High temperatures in winter and spring had positive effects on autumn-to-autumn changes in abundance of this species, whereas deep snow in combination with high rainfall in spring negatively affected population increase rates in common shrew.

  3. Modelling and monitoring organochlorine and heavy metal accumulation in soils, earthworms, and shrews in Rhine-delta floodplains.

    PubMed

    Hendriks, A J; Ma, W C; Brouns, J J; de Ruiter-Dijkman, E M; Gast, R

    1995-07-01

    In the Rhine-delta, accumulation of microcontaminants in floodplain foodwebs has received little attention in comparison with aquatic communities. To investigate organochlorine and metal concentrations in a terrestrial foodchain, samples of soil, earthworms (Lumbricus rubellus), and shrew (Crocidura russula, Sorex araneus) livers and kidneys were taken from two moderately to heavily polluted floodplains. Chlorobiphenyl residues in earthworm fat were 0.10 to 3.5 times the concentrations in soil organic matter, whereas ratios for other organochlorines varied between 0.87 and 8.8. These ratios are one order of magnitude lower than expected from laboratory experiments with earthworms, and laboratory and field studies on aquatic invertebrates. Bioconcentration ratios for heavy metals are in accordance with literature values for other locations, confirming the high potential for cadmium accumulation in Lumbricidae. Concentrations of organochlorines in shrew liver lipids were 1.0 to 13 times the residues in earthworm fat. These values are higher than lipid-corrected biomagnification ratios for laboratory rodents, but equal to those measured for benthivorous birds in the Rhine-delta. On a dry weight basis, kidney-earthworm ratios for cadmium were about one order of magnitude lower than previously reported values for insectivores. Soil concentrations of many compounds in both floodplains did not meet Dutch quality standards. Yet, hexachlorobenzene, chlorobiphenyl 153 (PCB153), gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane, sigma DDT, and dieldrin residues in earthworms and shrews did not exceed diet levels expected to be safe for endothermic species. An exception was noted for cadmium in worms and shrew kidneys. Heavy metal pollution in soil was close to levels that are critical to earthworms in laboratory studies. Cadmium concentrations in shrew kidneys were below levels suggested to be safe for Sorex araneus, but above those that were critical to the rat. PMID:7794009

  4. Whole-brain mapping of afferent projections to the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis in tree shrews.

    PubMed

    Ni, Rong-Jun; Luo, Peng-Hao; Shu, Yu-Mian; Chen, Ju-Tao; Zhou, Jiang-Ning

    2016-10-01

    The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST) plays an important role in integrating and relaying input information to other brain regions in response to stress. The cytoarchitecture of the BST in tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri chinensis) has been comprehensively described in our previous publications. However, the inputs to the BST have not been described in previous reports. The aim of the present study was to investigate the sources of afferent projections to the BST throughout the brain of tree shrews using the retrograde tracer Fluoro-Gold (FG). The present results provide the first detailed whole-brain mapping of BST-projecting neurons in the tree shrew brain. The BST was densely innervated by the prefrontal cortex, entorhinal cortex, ventral subiculum, amygdala, ventral tegmental area, and parabrachial nucleus. Moreover, moderate projections to the BST originated from the medial preoptic area, supramammillary nucleus, paraventricular thalamic nucleus, pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus, dorsal raphe nucleus, locus coeruleus, and nucleus of the solitary tract. Afferent projections to the BST are identified in the ventral pallidum, nucleus of the diagonal band, ventral posteromedial thalamic nucleus, posterior complex of the thalamus, interfascicular nucleus, retrorubral field, rhabdoid nucleus, intermediate reticular nucleus, and parvicellular reticular nucleus. In addition, the different densities of BST-projecting neurons in various regions were analyzed in the tree shrew brains. In summary, whole-brain mapping of direct inputs to the BST is delineated in tree shrews. These brain circuits are implicated in the regulation of numerous physiological and behavioral processes including stress, reward, food intake, and arousal.

  5. Whole-brain mapping of afferent projections to the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis in tree shrews.

    PubMed

    Ni, Rong-Jun; Luo, Peng-Hao; Shu, Yu-Mian; Chen, Ju-Tao; Zhou, Jiang-Ning

    2016-10-01

    The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST) plays an important role in integrating and relaying input information to other brain regions in response to stress. The cytoarchitecture of the BST in tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri chinensis) has been comprehensively described in our previous publications. However, the inputs to the BST have not been described in previous reports. The aim of the present study was to investigate the sources of afferent projections to the BST throughout the brain of tree shrews using the retrograde tracer Fluoro-Gold (FG). The present results provide the first detailed whole-brain mapping of BST-projecting neurons in the tree shrew brain. The BST was densely innervated by the prefrontal cortex, entorhinal cortex, ventral subiculum, amygdala, ventral tegmental area, and parabrachial nucleus. Moreover, moderate projections to the BST originated from the medial preoptic area, supramammillary nucleus, paraventricular thalamic nucleus, pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus, dorsal raphe nucleus, locus coeruleus, and nucleus of the solitary tract. Afferent projections to the BST are identified in the ventral pallidum, nucleus of the diagonal band, ventral posteromedial thalamic nucleus, posterior complex of the thalamus, interfascicular nucleus, retrorubral field, rhabdoid nucleus, intermediate reticular nucleus, and parvicellular reticular nucleus. In addition, the different densities of BST-projecting neurons in various regions were analyzed in the tree shrew brains. In summary, whole-brain mapping of direct inputs to the BST is delineated in tree shrews. These brain circuits are implicated in the regulation of numerous physiological and behavioral processes including stress, reward, food intake, and arousal. PMID:27436534

  6. Application of the MOLE in post-nuclear accident characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, S.J.; Alvarez, J.L.

    1981-01-01

    Following a nuclear accident there is a need to determine the chemical composition of materials in liquid, solid and gaseous form, the crystalline structure of solids, the size and chemical composition of particles, and the chemical characterization of contaminants on surfaces. This analytical information is required to reconstruct the accident scenario, to select decontamination methods, and to determine future safety requirements. The MOLE (Molecular Optical Laser Examiner) is a Raman microprobe system which has proven to be a valuable analytical tool in providing this type of chemical information. It can determine the chemical species of polyatomic molecules and ions having characteristic Raman spectra. As little as 1 picogram of a component or a 1 ..mu..m particle can be analyzed. The imaging system can also provide mapping of selected components on a surface. A system description, sample handling techniques, and applications are presented. Specific applications to the Three Mile Island-Unit 2 accident are also addressed.

  7. Possible incipient sympatric ecological speciation in blind mole rats (Spalax).

    PubMed

    Hadid, Yarin; Tzur, Shay; Pavlícek, Tomáš; Šumbera, Radim; Šklíba, Jan; Lövy, Matěj; Fragman-Sapir, Ori; Beiles, Avigdor; Arieli, Ran; Raz, Shmuel; Nevo, Eviatar

    2013-02-12

    Sympatric speciation has been controversial since it was first proposed as a mode of speciation. Subterranean blind mole rats (Spalacidae) are considered to speciate allopatrically or peripatrically. Here, we report a possible incipient sympatric adaptive ecological speciation in Spalax galili (2n = 52). The study microsite (0.04 km(2)) is sharply subdivided geologically, edaphically, and ecologically into abutting barrier-free ecologies divergent in rock, soil, and vegetation types. The Pleistocene Alma basalt abuts the Cretaceous Senonian Kerem Ben Zimra chalk. Only 28% of 112 plant species were shared between the soils. We examined mitochondrial DNA in the control region and ATP6 in 28 mole rats from basalt and in 14 from chalk habitats. We also sequenced the complete mtDNA (16,423 bp) of four animals, two from each soil type. Remarkably, the frequency of all major haplotype clusters (HC) was highly soil-biased. HCI and HCII are chalk biased. HC-III was abundant in basalt (36%) but absent in chalk; HC-IV was prevalent in basalt (46.5%) but was low (20%) in chalk. Up to 40% of the mtDNA diversity was edaphically dependent, suggesting constrained gene flow. We identified a homologous recombinant mtDNA in the basalt/chalk studied area. Phenotypically significant divergences differentiate the two populations, inhabiting different soils, in adaptive oxygen consumption and in the amount of outside-nest activity. This identification of a possible incipient sympatric adaptive ecological speciation caused by natural selection indirectly refutes the allopatric alternative. Sympatric ecological speciation may be more prevalent in nature because of abundant and sharply abutting divergent ecologies.

  8. Adult neurogenesis and its anatomical context in the hippocampus of three mole-rat species

    PubMed Central

    Amrein, Irmgard; Becker, Anton S.; Engler, Stefanie; Huang, Shih-hui; Müller, Julian; Slomianka, Lutz; Oosthuizen, Maria K.

    2014-01-01

    African mole-rats (family Bathyergidae) are small to medium sized, long-lived, and strictly subterranean rodents that became valuable animal models as a result of their longevity and diversity in social organization. The formation and integration of new hippocampal neurons in adult mammals (adult hippocampal neurogenesis, AHN) correlates negatively with age and positively with habitat complexity. Here we present quantitative data on AHN in wild-derived mole-rats of 1 year and older, and briefly describe its anatomical context including markers of neuronal function (calbindin and parvalbumin). Solitary Cape mole-rats (Georychus capensis), social highveld mole-rats (Cryptomys hottentotus pretoriae), and eusocial naked mole-rats (Heterocephalus glaber) were assessed. Compared to other rodents, the hippocampal formation in mole-rats is small, but shows a distinct cytoarchitecture in the dentate gyrus and CA1. Distributions of the calcium-binding proteins differ from those seen in rodents; e.g., calbindin in CA3 of naked mole-rats distributes similar to the pattern seen in early primate development, and calbindin staining extends into the stratum lacunosum-moleculare of Cape mole-rats. Proliferating cells and young neurons are found in low numbers in the hippocampus of all three mole-rat species. Resident granule cell numbers are low as well. Proliferating cells expressed as a percentage of resident granule cells are in the range of other rodents, while the percentage of young neurons is lower than that observed in surface dwelling rodents. Between mole-rat species, we observed no difference in the percentage of proliferating cells. The percentages of young neurons are high in social highveld and naked mole-rats, and low in solitary Cape mole-rats. The findings support that proliferation is regulated independently of average life expectancy and habitat. Instead, neuronal differentiation reflects species-specific demands, which appear lower in subterranean rodents. PMID

  9. Development of the cornea of true moles (Talpidae): morphogenesis and expression of PAX6 and cytokeratins.

    PubMed

    Carmona, F David; Ou, Jingxing; Jiménez, Rafael; Collinson, J Martin

    2010-11-01

    Corneal development and structure were studied in the Iberian mole Talpa occidentalis, which has permanently closed eyelids, and the European mole Talpa europaea, in which the eyes are open. The vertebrate cornea typically maintains a three-layered structure - a stratified epithelium with protective and sensory function, an avascular, hypocellular, collagenous stroma, and an endothelium with both barrier and transport functions that regulates corneal hydration, hence maintaining transparency. Compared to mouse, both mole species had significant corneal specializations, but the Iberian mole had the most divergent phenotype, with no endothelium and a flattened monolayer epithelium. Nevertheless, normal epithelial cell junctions were observed and corneal transparency was maintained. Corneas of European moles have a dysmorphic phenotype that recapitulates the human disorder keratoconus for which no mouse model exists. Mole corneas are vascularized - a situation only previously observed in the manatee Trichechus- and have non-radial patterns of corneal innervation indicative of failure of corneal epithelial cell migration. The transcription factor Pax6 is required for corneal epithelial differentiation in mice, but was found to be dispensable in moles, which had mosaic patterns of PAX6 localization uniquely restricted, in European moles, to the apical epithelial cells. The apparently stalled or abnormal differentiation of corneas in adult moles is supported by their superficial similarity to the corneas of embryonic or neonatal mice, and their abnormal expression of cytokeratin-12 and cytokeratin-5. European moles seem to have maintained some barrier/protective function in their corneas. However, Iberian moles show a more significant corneal regression likely related to the permanent eyelid fusion. In this mole species, adaptation to the arid, harder, Southern European soils could have favoured the transfer of these functions to the permanently sealed eyelids. PMID

  10. [First finding of the Centrorhynchus aluconis (Muller, 1780) (Giganthorhynchidae) and Moniliformis moniliformis bremser, 1811 (Moniliformidae) larvae in shrews (Insectivora: Soricidae) of the fauna of Russia].

    PubMed

    Kirillova, N Iu; Kirillov, A A

    2007-01-01

    The larvae of acanthocephalans Centrorhynchus aluconis (Muller, 1780) and Moniliformis moniliformis Bremser, 1811 are recorded for the first time from shrews in Russia (Samarskaya Luka National Park, Samara Region). Taxonomic descriptions and figures of the specimens examined are presented.

  11. Mammals of South America, Volume 1, Marsupials, Xenarthrans, Shrews, and Bats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gardner, A.L.

    2007-01-01

    The vast terrain between Panama and Tierra del Fuego contains some of the world?s richest mammalian fauna, but until now it has lacked a comprehensive systematic reference to the identification, distribution, and taxonomy of its mammals. The first such book of its kind and the inaugural volume in a three-part series, Mammals of South America both summarizes existing information and encourages further research of the mammals indigenous to the region. Containing identification keys and brief descriptions of each order, family, and genus, the first volume of Mammals of South America covers marsupials, shrews, armadillos, sloths, anteaters, and bats. Species accounts include taxonomic descriptions, synonymies, keys to identification, distributions with maps and a gazetteer of marginal localities, lists of recognized subspecies, brief summaries of natural history information, and discussions of issues related to taxonomic interpretations. Highly anticipated and much needed, this book will be a landmark contribution to mammalogy, zoology, tropical biology, and conservation biology.

  12. White-toothed shrews (Mammalia, Soricomorpha, Crocidura) of coastal islands of Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Abramov, Alexei V.; Bannikova, Anna A.; Rozhnov, Viatcheslav V.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract New findings of the white-toothed shrews (Crocidura spp.) from offshore islands of Vietnam are reported. The species identifications have been confirmed by the analysis of complete mitochondrial cytochrome b gene (1140 bp). Crocidura phuquocensis is the only species found in the Phu Quoc Island. Crocidura fuliginosa has been recorded from two islands of the Con Dao Archipelago (Con Son and Bai Canh). The occurrence of Crocidura fuliginosa in Vietnam has been genetically confirmed for the first time. Crocidura attenuata has been collected from the Cat Ba Island for the first time, and this finding corresponds well with the proposal that the species’ distribution is confined to the north and east of the Red River only. PMID:22855639

  13. Effect of land cover, habitat fragmentation and ant colonies on the distribution and abundance of shrews in southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Laakkonen, J.; Fisher, R.N.; Case, T.J.

    2001-01-01

    1. Because effects of habitat fragmentation and anthropogenic disturbance on native animals have been relatively little studied in arid areas and in insectivores, we investigated the roles of different land covers, habitat fragmentation and ant colonies on the distribution and abundance of shrews, Notiosorex crawfordi and Sorex ornatus, in southern California. 2. Notiosorex crawfordi was the numerically dominant species (trap-success rate 0.52) occurring in 21 of the 22 study sites in 85% of the 286 pitfall arrays used in this study. Sorex ornatus was captured in 14 of the sites, in 52% of the arrays with a total trap-success rate of 0.2. Neither of the species was found in one of the sites. 3. The population dynamics of the two shrew species were relatively synchronous during the 4-5-year study; the peak densities usually occurred during the spring. Precipitation had a significant positive effect, and maximum temperature a significant negative effect on the trap-success rate of S. ornatus. 4. Occurrence and abundance of shrews varied significantly between sites and years but the size of the landscape or the study site had no effect on the abundance of shrews. The amount of urban edge had no significant effect on the captures of shrews but increased edge allows invasion of the Argentine ants, which had a highly significant negative impact on the abundance of N. crawfordi. 5. At the trap array level, the percentage of coastal sage scrub flora had a significant positive, and the percentage of other flora had a significant negative effect on the abundance of N. crawfordi. The mean canopy height and the abundance of N. crawfordi had a significant positive effect on the occurrence of S. ornatus. 6. Our study suggests that the loss of native coastal sage scrub flora and increasing presence of Argentine ant colonies may significantly effect the distribution and abundance of N. crawfordi. The very low overall population densities of both shrew species in most study sites

  14. Effect of land cover, habitat fragmentation and ant colonies on the distribution and abundance of shrews in southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Laakkonen, Juha; Fisher, Robert N.; Case, Ted J.

    2001-01-01

    Because effects of habitat fragmentation and anthropogenic disturbance on native animals have been relatively little studied in arid areas and in insectivores, we investigated the roles of different land covers, habitat fragmentation and ant colonies on the distribution and abundance of shrews, Notiosorex crawfordi and Sorex ornatus, in southern California.Notiosorex crawfordi was the numerically dominant species (trap-success rate 0·52) occurring in 21 of the 22 study sites in 85% of the 286 pitfall arrays used in this study.Sorex ornatus was captured in 14 of the sites, in 52% of the arrays with a total trap-success rate of 0·2. Neither of the species was found in one of the sites.The population dynamics of the two shrew species were relatively synchronous during the 4–5-year study; the peak densities usually occurred during the spring. Precipitation had a significant positive effect, and maximum temperature a significant negative effect on the trap-success rate of S. ornatus.Occurrence and abundance of shrews varied significantly between sites and years but the size of the landscape or the study site had no effect on the abundance of shrews. The amount of urban edge had no significant effect on the captures of shrews but increased edge allows invasion of the Argentine ants, which had a highly significant negative impact on the abundance of N. crawfordi.At the trap array level, the percentage of coastal sage scrub flora had a significant positive, and the percentage of other flora had a significant negative effect on the abundance of N. crawfordi. The mean canopy height and the abundance of N. crawfordi had a significant positive effect on the occurrence of S. ornatus.Our study suggests that the loss of native coastal sage scrub flora and increasing presence of Argentine ant colonies may significantly effect the distribution and abundance of N. crawfordi. The very low overall population densities of both shrew species in most study sites make both species

  15. Solar Radiation during Rewarming from Torpor in Elephant Shrews: Supplementation or Substitution of Endogenous Heat Production?

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Michelle L.; Mzilikazi, Nomakwezi; Bennett, Nigel C.; McKechnie, Andrew E.

    2015-01-01

    Many small mammals bask in the sun during rewarming from heterothermy, but the implications of this behaviour for their energy balance remain little understood. Specifically, it remains unclear whether solar radiation supplements endogenous metabolic thermogenesis (i.e., rewarming occurs through the additive effects of internally-produced and external heat), or whether solar radiation reduces the energy required to rewarm by substituting (i.e, replacing) metabolic heat production. To address this question, we examined patterns of torpor and rewarming rates in eastern rock elephant shrews (Elephantulus myurus) housed in outdoor cages with access to either natural levels of solar radiation or levels that were experimentally reduced by means of shade cloth. We also tested whether acclimation to solar radiation availability was manifested via phenotypic flexibility in basal metabolic rate (BMR), non-shivering thermogenesis (NST) capacity and/or summit metabolism (Msum). Rewarming rates varied significantly among treatments, with elephant shrews experiencing natural solar radiation levels rewarming faster than conspecifics experiencing solar radiation levels equivalent to approximately 20% or 40% of natural levels. BMR differed significantly between individuals experiencing natural levels of solar radiation and conspecifics experiencing approximately 20% of natural levels, but no between-treatment difference was evident for NST capacity or Msum. The positive relationship between solar radiation availability and rewarming rate, together with the absence of acclimation in maximum non-shivering and total heat production capacities, suggests that under the conditions of this study solar radiation supplemented rather than substituted metabolic thermogenesis as a source of heat during rewarming from heterothermy. PMID:25853244

  16. Species Interactions during Diversification and Community Assembly in an Island Radiation of Shrews

    PubMed Central

    Esselstyn, Jacob A.; Maher, Sean P.; Brown, Rafe M.

    2011-01-01

    Background Closely related, ecologically similar species often have adjacent distributions, suggesting competitive exclusion may contribute to the structure of some natural communities. In systems such as island archipelagos, where speciation is often tightly associated with dispersal over oceanic barriers, competitive exclusion may prevent population establishment following inter-island dispersal and subsequent cladogenesis. Methodology/Principal Findings Using a combination of tools, we test the hypothesis that the distributions of shrew (Crocidura) species in the Philippines are the result of competitive exclusion preventing secondary invasion of occupied islands. We first compare ecological niche models between two widespread, allopatric species and find statistical support for their ecological similarity, implying that competition for habitat between these species is possible. We then examine dispersion patterns among sympatric species and find some signal for overdispersion of body size, but not for phylogenetic branch length. Finally, we simulate the process of inter-island colonization under a stochastic model of dispersal lacking ecological forces. Results are dependent on the geographic scope and colonization probability employed. However, some combinations suggest that the number of inter-island dispersal events necessary to populate the archipelago may be much higher than the minimum number of colonization events necessary to explain current estimates of species richness and phylogenetic relationships. If our model is appropriate, these results imply that alternative factors, such as competitive exclusion, may have influenced the process of inter-island colonization and subsequent cladogenesis. Conclusions/Significance We interpret the combined results as providing tenuous evidence that similarity in body size may prevent co-occurrence in Philippine shrews and that competitive exclusion among ecologically similar species, rather than an inability to

  17. Solar radiation during rewarming from torpor in elephant shrews: supplementation or substitution of endogenous heat production?

    PubMed

    Thompson, Michelle L; Mzilikazi, Nomakwezi; Bennett, Nigel C; McKechnie, Andrew E

    2015-01-01

    Many small mammals bask in the sun during rewarming from heterothermy, but the implications of this behaviour for their energy balance remain little understood. Specifically, it remains unclear whether solar radiation supplements endogenous metabolic thermogenesis (i.e., rewarming occurs through the additive effects of internally-produced and external heat), or whether solar radiation reduces the energy required to rewarm by substituting (i.e, replacing) metabolic heat production. To address this question, we examined patterns of torpor and rewarming rates in eastern rock elephant shrews (Elephantulus myurus) housed in outdoor cages with access to either natural levels of solar radiation or levels that were experimentally reduced by means of shade cloth. We also tested whether acclimation to solar radiation availability was manifested via phenotypic flexibility in basal metabolic rate (BMR), non-shivering thermogenesis (NST) capacity and/or summit metabolism (Msum). Rewarming rates varied significantly among treatments, with elephant shrews experiencing natural solar radiation levels rewarming faster than conspecifics experiencing solar radiation levels equivalent to approximately 20% or 40% of natural levels. BMR differed significantly between individuals experiencing natural levels of solar radiation and conspecifics experiencing approximately 20% of natural levels, but no between-treatment difference was evident for NST capacity or Msum. The positive relationship between solar radiation availability and rewarming rate, together with the absence of acclimation in maximum non-shivering and total heat production capacities, suggests that under the conditions of this study solar radiation supplemented rather than substituted metabolic thermogenesis as a source of heat during rewarming from heterothermy.

  18. The Japanese American Story.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fukei, Budd

    This book presents a view of the Japanese American experience from the time of their immigration to this country in the 1800s to their acculturation into American society in the 1970s. Topics dealt with include the prejudice and mistrust experienced by the Japanese immigrants in this country, particularly their evacuation and internment in…

  19. Japanese Quality Control Circles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nishiyama, Kazuo

    In recent years, United States scholars with an interest in international business and organizational communication have begun to notice the success of Japanese "quality control circles." These are small groups, usually composed of seven to ten workers, who are organized at the production levels within most large Japanese factories. A typical…

  20. Japanese Media in English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanaka, Sachiko Oda

    1995-01-01

    Describes the use of English in the media in Japan, focusing on the role and history of English-language newspapers, radio, and television programs, as well as the proliferation of English-language films shown in Japanese cinemas. Discusses the implications of English in the Japanese media. (20 references) (MDM)

  1. Japanese Elementary School Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Harold W.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the development of Japanese elementary education in the context of three periods of its history. Considers salient characteristics of Japanese elementary schools and teaching procedures; these include curriculum; social and moral education; classroom environment; teachers; afterschool classes; college entrance examinations; the kyoiku…

  2. Two Investigations of Students' Understanding of the Mole Concept and Its Use in Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staver, John R.; Lumpe, Andrew

    1995-01-01

    Examines the following research questions and others: (1) How do students define the mole concept? and (2) Is there a connection between student's definition of the mole concept and their explanations of the numerical identity between the atomic or molecular mass and molar mass of a substance? Results are discussed in terms of research in chemical…

  3. Trading new neurons for status: Adult hippocampal neurogenesis in eusocial Damaraland mole-rats.

    PubMed

    Oosthuizen, M K; Amrein, I

    2016-06-01

    Diversity in social structures, from solitary to eusocial, is a prominent feature of subterranean African mole-rat species. Damaraland mole-rats are eusocial, they live in colonies that are characterized by a reproductive division of labor and a subdivision into castes based on physiology and behavior. Damaraland mole-rats are exceptionally long lived and reproductive animals show delayed aging compared to non-reproductive animals. In the present study, we described the hippocampal architecture and the rate of hippocampal neurogenesis of wild-derived, adult Damaraland mole-rats in relation to sex, relative age and social status or caste. Overall, Damaraland mole-rats were found to have a small hippocampus and low rates of neurogenesis. We found no correlation between neurogenesis and sex or relative age. Social status or caste was the most prominent modulator of neurogenesis. An inverse relationship between neurogenesis and social status was apparent, with queens displaying the lowest neurogenesis while the worker mole-rats had the most. As there is no natural progression from one caste to another, social status within a colony was relatively stable and is reflected in the level of neurogenesis. Our results correspond to those found in the naked mole-rat, and may reflect an evolutionary and environmentally conserved trait within social mole-rat species. PMID:26979050

  4. Use of Prostaglandin E2 in the Management of Missed Abortion, Missed Labour, and Hydatidiform Mole

    PubMed Central

    Karim, S. M. M.

    1970-01-01

    Treatment of six cases of missed abortion and one case of hydatidiform mole with intravenous infusion of prostaglandin E2 resulted in complete abortion in all cases. Of 15 patients with missed labour, 14 were delivered successfully with similar treatment. The technique appears to be a safe, reliable, and rapid method of managing missed abortion, missed labour, and hydatidiform mole. PMID:5448780

  5. What's the Diagnosis? An Inquiry-Based Activity Focusing on Mole-Mass Conversions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruck, Laura B.; Towns, Marcy H.

    2011-01-01

    An inquiry-based mole-to-mass activity is presented associated with the analysis of blood. Students working in groups choose between two medical cases to determine if the "patient" has higher or lower concentrations of minerals than normal. The data are presented such that students must convert moles to mass in order to compare the patient values…

  6. Eye development in the Cape dune mole rat.

    PubMed

    Nikitina, Natalya V; Kidson, Susan H

    2014-03-01

    Studies on mammalian species with naturally reduced eyes can provide valuable insights into the evolutionary developmental mechanisms underlying the reduction of the eye structures. Because few naturally microphthalmic animals have been studied and eye reduction must have evolved independently in many of the modern groups, novel evolutionary developmental models for eye research have to be sought. Here, we present a first report on embryonic eye development in the Cape dune mole rat, Bathyergus suillus. The eyes of these animals contain all the internal structures characteristic of the normal eye but exhibit abnormalities in the anterior chamber structures. The lens is small but develops normally and exhibits a normal expression of α- and γ-crystallins. One of the interesting features of these animals is an extremely enlarged and highly pigmented ciliary body. In order to understand the molecular basis of this unusual feature, the expression pattern of an early marker of the ciliary zone, Ptmb4, was investigated in this animal. Surprisingly, in situ hybridization results revealed that Ptmb4 expression was absent from the ciliary body zone of the developing Bathyergus eye.

  7. Convergence vs. Specialization in the ear region of moles (Mammalia).

    PubMed

    Crumpton, Nick; Kardjilov, Nikolay; Asher, Robert J

    2015-08-01

    We investigated if and how the inner ear region undergoes similar adaptations in small, fossorial, insectivoran-grade mammals, and found a variety of inner ear phenotypes. In our sample, afrotherian moles (Chrysochloridae) and the marsupial Notoryctes differ from most other burrowing mammals in their relatively short radii of semicircular canal curvature; chrysochlorids and fossorial talpids share a relatively long interampullar width. Chrysochlorids are unique in showing a highly coiled cochlea with nearly four turns. Extensive cochlear coiling may reflect their greater ecological dependence on low frequency auditory cues compared to talpids, tenrecids, and the marsupial Notoryctes. Correspondingly, the lack of such extensive coiling in the inner ear of other fossorial species may indicate a greater reliance on other senses to enable their fossorial lifestyle, such as tactile sensation from vibrissae and Eimer's organs. The reliance of chrysochlorids on sound is evident in the high degree of coiling and in the diversity of its mallear types, and may help explain the lack of any semiaquatic members of that group. The simplest mallear types among chrysochlorids are not present in the basal-most members of that clade, but all extant chrysochlorids investigated to date exhibit extensive cochlear coiling. The chrysochlorid ear region thus exhibits mosaic evolution; our data suggest that extensive coiling evolved in chrysochlorids prior to and independently of diversification in middle ear ossicle size and shape.

  8. Histological comparison of partial hydatidiform mole and trisomy gestation specimens.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Yancey; Bharat, Chrianna; Crook, Maxine L; Kee, Ai Rene; Peverall, Joanne; Ruba, Sukeerat; Stewart, Colin J R

    2016-10-01

    The distinction between partial hydatidiform mole (PHM) and trisomy gestation is not always straightforward histologically and it is unclear which morphological features, alone or in combination, provide the greatest diagnostic accuracy. We performed a comparative review of 89 products of conception (POC) specimens including 54 PHMs and 35 trisomy gestations, assessing the following in each case: trophoblastic atypia, cistern formation, multifocal trophoblast proliferation, lace-like trophoblast, villous enlargement, large trophoblast inclusions, scalloped villous shape, stromal apoptosis, small round villous inclusions, and fibrillary stromal collagen. There was a significant difference in the presence of trophoblast atypia, cistern formation, multifocal trophoblast proliferation, lace-like trophoblast, large trophoblastic inclusions, small round villous inclusions, fibrillary collagen (all p<0.01), and apoptosis (p=0.028), between PHM and trisomy cases. Fibrillary collagen was more common in trisomy specimens whereas the other features were more common in PHMs. There was no significant difference in villous enlargement or scalloped villous shape between the two groups. The combination of cistern formation, multifocal trophoblast proliferation and large trophoblast inclusions correctly classified 83 (93.3%) of cases where the presence of at least two features was considered diagnostic of PHM. While cytogenetic analysis is arguably the gold standard for diagnosis, this study demonstrates that histological assessment permits accurate distinction of PHM and trisomic gestations in the great majority of cases. PMID:27575970

  9. Quantitative histomorphology of the blind mole rat harderian gland.

    PubMed Central

    Shanas, U; Arensburg, B; Hammel, I; Hod, I; Terkel, J

    1996-01-01

    Anatomical, histological and morphometric studies have been performed on the harderian gland and its surroundings in the blind mole rat (Spalax ehrenbergi). The gland is tubuloalveolar with no true duct system. All ducts within the gland are formed by a single epithelial cell type and drain into a wide secretory duct. This opens into the conjunctival sac which serves as a reservoir for harderian secretions. Drainage from the conjunctival sac follows 2 possible routes: one through the nasolacrimal duct to the external nasal cavity, the other through a unique excretory duct that emerges from the anteromedial part of the conjunctival sac and runs through the dermis to the skin, opening at the base of a hair follicle. The function of this newly described duct is discussed. Morphometric studies revealed that the lumen volume fraction in the female, slightly smaller than that of the male during the summer, becomes significantly greater during the winter breeding season. The dimorphism and seasonal variations found in the gland acini suggests that the gland may be implicated in pheromone production. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8621332

  10. Convergence vs. Specialization in the ear region of moles (Mammalia).

    PubMed

    Crumpton, Nick; Kardjilov, Nikolay; Asher, Robert J

    2015-08-01

    We investigated if and how the inner ear region undergoes similar adaptations in small, fossorial, insectivoran-grade mammals, and found a variety of inner ear phenotypes. In our sample, afrotherian moles (Chrysochloridae) and the marsupial Notoryctes differ from most other burrowing mammals in their relatively short radii of semicircular canal curvature; chrysochlorids and fossorial talpids share a relatively long interampullar width. Chrysochlorids are unique in showing a highly coiled cochlea with nearly four turns. Extensive cochlear coiling may reflect their greater ecological dependence on low frequency auditory cues compared to talpids, tenrecids, and the marsupial Notoryctes. Correspondingly, the lack of such extensive coiling in the inner ear of other fossorial species may indicate a greater reliance on other senses to enable their fossorial lifestyle, such as tactile sensation from vibrissae and Eimer's organs. The reliance of chrysochlorids on sound is evident in the high degree of coiling and in the diversity of its mallear types, and may help explain the lack of any semiaquatic members of that group. The simplest mallear types among chrysochlorids are not present in the basal-most members of that clade, but all extant chrysochlorids investigated to date exhibit extensive cochlear coiling. The chrysochlorid ear region thus exhibits mosaic evolution; our data suggest that extensive coiling evolved in chrysochlorids prior to and independently of diversification in middle ear ossicle size and shape. PMID:25858660

  11. This shrew is a jumping mouse (Mammalia, Dipodidae): Sorex dichrurus Rafinesque 1833 is a synonym of Zapus hudsonius (Zimmermann 1780)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodman, Neal; Carleton, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    Constantine S. Rafinesque described Sorex dichrurus as a shrew in 1833, based on a specimen he found in a proprietary museum near Niagara Falls on the New York/Ontario border. The name subsequently has been ignored by the scientific community. By describing this specimen as a shrew and ascribing it to the genus Sorex, Rafinesque clearly indicated that his species should be considered a member of the taxonomic family now recognized as the Soricidae (Mammalia, Eulipotyphla). Yet, the description of the animal, and its comparison to ‘‘Gerbillus,’’ clearly identify it as a dipodid rodent, specifically Zapus hudsonius (Zimmermann, 1780); S. dichrurus should be treated as a junior subjective synonym of that taxon. Based on its type locality of Goat Island, New York, this name is also a junior synonym of the subspecies Z. hudsonius canadensis (Davies, 1798).

  12. A new small-eared shrew of the Cryptotis nigrescens-group from Colombia (Mammalia: Soricomorpha: Soricidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodman, N.

    2003-01-01

    Cryptotis colombiana Woodman & Timm, 1993 previously was known from few specimens from two isolated regions in the Cordillera Central and Cordillera Oriental of Colombia. Recent collecting in the northern Cordillera Central and review of older collections from the central Cordillera Oriental in the vicinity of Bogota yielded additional specimens that permit reevaluation of the two geographic populations of these small-eared shrews. Morphological and morphometrical studies indicate that the population inhabiting the Cordillera Oriental represents a distinct, previously unrecognized species that I describe herein as Cryptotis brachyonyx. Study of 54 specimens of shrews from the Cordillera Oriental in systematic collections in North America, South America, and Europe yielded only four specimens of the new species, all collected before 1926. The paucity of modern specimens suggests that C. brachyonyx may be extremely restricted in distribution, or possibly extinct.

  13. Acanthocephala Parasite (Profilicollis spp.) Loads in Correlation to Pacific Mole Crab (Emerita analoga) Size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, T.; Huang, S.; Galathe, M.; Jenkins, M.; Ramirez, A.; Crosby, L.; Barrera, J.; FitzHoward, S.

    2013-12-01

    Since 2002, San Francisco Bay students have been conducting marine ecosystem monitoring through a joint project with the Long-term Monitoring Program and Experiential Training for Students (LiMPETS), in conjunction with the Gulf of Farallones National Marine Sanctuary. Each year students collect population and demographic data on Pacific mole crabs (Emerita analoga), an indicator species that lives in the sandy beach habitat in temperate regions along the Pacific Ocean. Pacific mole crabs are filter feeding crustaceans that inhabit the intertidal swash zone and are known to be an intermediate host for parasitic ';spiny-headed' worms in the phylum Acanthocephala (Profilicollis spp.). Sampling takes place during their reproductive period, which occurs from spring to fall, and includes measuring total body length of the Pacific mole crabs and dissecting them to determine presence of Acanthocephalan parasites. We hypothesize that due to larger body mass, larger Pacific mole crabs will have a greater number of Acanthocephala parasites.We conducted several analyses using the LiMPETS long-term data. Specifically, we compared body length, crab gender, and parasite abundance from Pacific mole crabs sampled from four beaches located in the county and city of San Francisco. Our results indicated that larger Pacific mole crabs do not necessarily have more parasites, but are more likely to have at least one parasite, while female Pacific mole crabs carrying eggs, have more parasites than males or females without eggs. We also found that parasite loads per mole crab was highest in the spring. Further analysis will be conducted to determine factors affecting Pacific mole crab parasite loads. Studying Pacific mole crabs help evaluate the health of California's intertidal systems and how human activities, geologic changes, and climate changes all make huge impacts to the intertidal ecosystems.

  14. A new species of small-eared shrew (Mammalia, Eulipotyphla, Cryptotis) from the Lacandona rain forest, Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guevara, Lázaro; Sánchez-Cordero, Víctor; León-Paniagua, Livia; Woodman, Neal

    2014-01-01

    The diversity and distribution of mammals in the American tropics remain incompletely known. We describe a new species of small-eared shrew (Soricidae, Cryptotis) from the Lacandona rain forest, Chiapas, southern Mexico. The new species is distinguished from other species of Cryptotis on the basis of a unique combination of pelage coloration, size, dental, cranial, postcranial, and external characters, and genetic distances. It appears most closely related to species in the Cryptotis nigrescens species group, which occurs from southern Mexico to montane regions of Colombia. This discovery is particularly remarkable because the new species is from a low-elevation habitat (approximately 90 m), whereas most shrews in the region are restricted to higher elevations, typically > 1,000 m. The only known locality for the new shrew is in one of the last areas in southern Mexico where relatively undisturbed tropical vegetation is still found. The type locality is protected by the Mexican government as part of the Yaxchilán Archaeological Site on the border between Mexico and Guatemala.

  15. Skeletal morphology of the forefoot in shrews (Mammalia: Soricidae) of the genus Cryptotis, as revealed by digital x-rays

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodman, N.; Morgan, J.P.J.

    2005-01-01

    Variation in the forefoot skeleton of small-eared shrews (family Soricidae, genus Cryptotis) has been previously documented, but the paucity of available skeletons for most taxa makes assessment of the degrees of intraspecific and interspecific variation difficult. We used a digital X-ray system to extract images of the forefoot skeleton from 101 dried skins of eight taxa (seven species, including two subspecies of one species) of these shrews. Lengths and widths of each of the four bones of digit III were measured directly from the digital images, and we used these data to quantify variation within and among taxa. Analysis of the images and measurements showed that interspecific variation exceeds intraspecific variation. In fact, most taxa could be distinguished in multivariate and some bivariate plots. Our quantitative data helped us define a number of specific forefoot characters that we subsequently used to hypothesize evolutionary relationships among the taxa using the exhaustive search option in PAUP, a computer program for phylogenetic analysis. The resulting trees generally concur with previously published evolutionary hypotheses for small-eared shrews. Cryptotis meridensis, a taxon not previously examined in recent phylogenies, is rooted at the base of the branch leading to the C. mexicana group of species. The position of this species suggests that the mostly South American C. thomasi group shares an early ancestor with the C. mexicana group.

  16. Depression-like behaviors in tree shrews and comparison of the effects of treatment with fluoxetine and carbetocin.

    PubMed

    Meng, Xiaolu; Shen, Fang; Li, Chunlu; Li, Yonghui; Wang, Xuewei

    2016-06-01

    Tree shrews, a species phylogenetically close to primates, are regarded as a suitable and naturalistic animal model for depression studies. However, psychological symptoms that are essential for depression diagnosis and treatment, such as helplessness and social withdrawal, have not been studied in this model. Therefore, in this study, we first investigated learned helplessness, social interaction and sucrose preference induced by two chronic stress paradigms: uncontrollable foot shocks (1-week foot shocks) and multiple unpredictable stimuli (1-week foot shocks and 3-week unpredictable stressors) in tree shrews. Our results showed that uncontrollable foot shocks could only induce learned helplessness in animals; whereas animals treated with multiple unpredictable stimuli exhibited more depression-like behaviors including social withdrawal, anhedonia and learned helplessness. These findings suggested that multiple unpredictable stimuli could effectively induce various depression-like behaviors in tree shrews. More importantly, we compared the antidepressant effects of fluoxetine and carbetocin, a long-acting oxytocin analog, on specific depression-like behaviors. Our present data displayed that, compared with fluoxetine, carbetocin was also effective in reversing learned helplessness, elevating sucrose preference and improving social interaction behaviors in depression-like animals. Therefore, carbetocin might be a potential antidepressant with applications in humans. PMID:26987370

  17. Carving out turf in a biodiversity hotspot: multiple, previously unrecognized shrew species co-occur on Java Island, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Esselstyn, Jacob A; Maharadatunkamsi; Achmadi, Anang S; Siler, Cameron D; Evans, Ben J

    2013-10-01

    In theory, competition among species in a shared habitat results in niche separation. In the case of small recondite mammals such as shrews, little is known about their autecologies, leaving open questions regarding the degree to which closely related species co-occur and how or whether ecological niches are partitioned. The extent to which species are able to coexist may depend on the degree to which they exploit different features of their habitat, which may in turn influence our ability to recognize them as species. We explored these issues in a biodiversity hotspot, by surveying shrew (genus Crocidura) diversity on the Indonesian island of Java. We sequenced portions of nine unlinked genes in 100-117 specimens of Javan shrews and incorporated homologous data from most known Crocidura species from other parts of island South-East Asia. Current taxonomy recognizes four Crocidura species on Java, including two endemics. However, our phylogenetic, population genetic and species delimitation analyses identify five species on the island, and all are endemic to Java. While the individual ranges of these species may not overlap in their entirety, we found up to four species living syntopically and all five species co-occurring on one mountain. Differences in species' body size, use of above ground-level habitats by one species and habitat partitioning along ecological gradients may have facilitated species diversification and coexistence.

  18. Is evolution of blind mole rats determined by climate oscillations?

    PubMed

    Hadid, Yarin; Németh, Attila; Snir, Sagi; Pavlíček, Tomáš; Csorba, Gábor; Kázmér, Miklós; Major, Agnes; Mezhzherin, Sergey; Rusin, Mikhail; Coşkun, Yüksel; Nevo, Eviatar

    2012-01-01

    The concept of climate variability facilitating adaptive radiation supported by the "Court Jester" hypothesis is disputed by the "Red Queen" one, but the prevalence of one or the other might be scale-dependent. We report on a detailed, comprehensive phylo-geographic study on the ∼4 kb mtDNA sequence in underground blind mole rats of the family Spalacidae (or subfamily Spalacinae) from the East Mediterranean steppes. Our study aimed at testing the presence of periodicities in branching patterns on a constructed phylogenetic tree and at searching for congruence between branching events, tectonic history and paleoclimates. In contrast to the strong support for the majority of the branching events on the tree, the absence of support in a few instances indicates that network-like evolution could exist in spalacids. In our tree, robust support was given, in concordance with paleontological data, for the separation of spalacids from muroid rodents during the first half of the Miocene when open, grass-dominated habitats were established. Marine barriers formed between Anatolia and the Balkans could have facilitated the separation of the lineage "Spalax" from the lineage "Nannospalax" and of the clade "leucodon" from the clade "xanthodon". The separation of the clade "ehrenbergi" occurred during the late stages of the tectonically induced uplift of the Anatolian high plateaus and mountains, whereas the separation of the clade "vasvarii" took place when the rapidly uplifting Taurus mountain range prevented the Mediterranean rainfalls from reaching the Central Anatolian Plateau. The separation of Spalax antiquus and S. graecus occurred when the southeastern Carpathians were uplifted. Despite the role played by tectonic events, branching events that show periodicity corresponding to 400-kyr and 100-kyr eccentricity bands illuminate the important role of orbital fluctuations on adaptive radiation in spalacids. At the given scale, our results supports the "Court Jester

  19. Sleep in the Cape Mole Rat: A Short-Sleeping Subterranean Rodent.

    PubMed

    Kruger, Jean-Leigh; Gravett, Nadine; Bhagwandin, Adhil; Bennett, Nigel C; Archer, Elizabeth K; Manger, Paul R

    2016-01-01

    The Cape mole rat Georychus capensis is a solitary subterranean rodent found in the western and southern Cape of South Africa. This approximately 200-gram bathyergid rodent shows a nocturnal circadian rhythm, but sleep in this species is yet to be investigated. Using telemetric recordings of the electroencephalogram (EEG) and electromyogram (EMG) in conjunction with video recordings, we were able to show that the Cape mole rat, like all other rodents, has sleep periods composed of both rapid eye movement (REM) and slow-wave (non-REM) sleep. These mole rats spent on average 15.4 h awake, 7.1 h in non-REM sleep and 1.5 h in REM sleep each day. Cape mole rats sleep substantially less than other similarly sized terrestrial rodents but have a similar percentage of total sleep time occupied by REM sleep. In addition, the duration of both non-REM and REM sleep episodes was markedly shorter in the Cape mole rat than has been observed in terrestrial rodents. Interestingly, these features (total sleep time and episode duration) are similar to those observed in another subterranean bathyergid mole rat, i.e. Fukomys mechowii. Thus, there appears to be a bathyergid type of sleep amongst the rodents that may be related to their environment and the effect of this on their circadian rhythm. Investigating further species of bathyergid mole rats may fully define the emerging picture of sleep in these subterranean African rodents.

  20. Making Mountains out of Molehills: Sediment Transport by the European Mole (Talpa europaea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milledge, D.; Loveless, J. C.; Warburton, J.; Densmore, A. L.

    2013-12-01

    Despite its widespread occurrence (across Europe and Eastern North America) the significance of the burrowing activity of the European Mole for sediment transport in the Northern Hemisphere has not been well quantified. In many areas this may have been the dominant mechanism of hillslope sediment transport over the last one to two millenia. The European Mole (Talpa europaea) is prevalent across the UK, particularly in fertile soils. It is highly fossorial, living almost its entire 3-6 year life in a network of tunnels that it maintains to catch prey. Moles can rapidly excavate large amounts of soil (~6 kg in 20 minutes) with waste soil generally pushed to the surface to form molehills. In this study we quantify sediment flux due to mole burrowing based on measured molehill sizes and geometries and estimates of mole hill production rates from time lapse photography. We examine the evolution of the molehills after production through repeat survey of in-situ molehills in the field and rainfall simulation experiments to accelerate degradation in the laboratory. Our initial findings suggest that: 1) molehill masses are generally log-normally distributed with a geometric mean ~1.4 kg; 2) moles move approximately 1.5 times as much soil as earthworms; and 3) the sediment flux due to moles is a non-linear function of the local slope.

  1. The Insect Eaters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naturescope, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Presents information about insectivores, including definitions and characteristics of shrews, moles, hedgehogs, and tenrecs. Contains descriptions of the teaching activities "Little Starnose" and "You and a Shrew." A reproducible worksheet is provided for use in "You and a Shrew." (TW)

  2. How the Japanese work.

    PubMed

    Chambers, D W

    1998-01-01

    The Japanese do not work harder or even use different approaches so much as they aim for a different result--one that balances process and results and extends the definition of quality beyond the product itself to include cost and convenience to the customer as well. Ten methods of the Japanese kaizen culture of work are presented with applications and contrasts to American dentistry.

  3. What Are Students' Initial Ideas about "Amount of Substance"? "Is There a Specific Weight for a Mole?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claesgens, Jennifer; Stacy, Angelica

    Analyzes the role of students' prior knowledge in their emerging understanding of the mole. The research question this study seeks to answer is what knowledge, if any, do student have regarding the mole and what prior knowledge do they access when presented problems regarding the nature of the mole. Data collection focuses on student knowledge…

  4. The "Mole Environment" Studyware: Applying Multidimensional Analysis To Quantitative Chemistry Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dori, Yehudit J.; Hameiri, Mira

    1998-01-01

    Details the development of a multidimensional problem analysis, classification, and authoring method used to improve student understanding of the mole concept. Includes the results of assessment of the studyware. Contains 46 references. (DDR)

  5. Activities To Enhance Understanding of the Mole and Its Use in ChE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Duncan M.; Case, Jennifer M.

    1999-01-01

    Presents a research project in which the nature and extent of the misunderstanding of moles is quantified. Outlines a design and the implementation of a set of activities to promote conceptual change in this area. (CCM)

  6. RADIATION ECOLOGY ISSUES ASSOCIATED WITH MURINE RODENTS AND SHREWS IN THE CHERNOBYL EXCLUSION ZONE

    SciTech Connect

    Farfan, E.; Jannik, T.

    2011-10-01

    This article describes major studies performed by the Chernobyl Center's International Radioecology Laboratory (Slavutich, Ukraine) on radioecology of murine rodents and shrews inhabiting the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. The article addresses the long-term (1986-2005) and seasonal dynamics of radioactive contamination of animals, and reviews interspecies differences in radionuclide accumulations and factors affecting the radionuclide accumulations. It is shown that bioavailability of radionuclides in the 'soil-to-plant' chain and a trophic specialization of animals play key roles in determining their actual contamination levels. The total absorbed dose rates in small mammals significantly reduced during the years following the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident. In 1986, the absorbed dose rate reached 1.3-6.0 Gy hr{sup -1} in the central areas of the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (the 'Red Forest'). In 1988 and 1990, the total absorbed dose rates were 1.3 and 0.42 Gy hr{sup -1}, respectively. In 1995, 2000, and 2005, according to the present study, the total absorbed dose rates rarely exceeded 0.00023, 0.00018, and 0.00015 Gy hr{sup -1}, respectively. Contributions of individual radiation sources into the total absorbed dose are described.

  7. Bibliography of studies on hybrid zones of the common shrew chromosome races distributed in Russia

    PubMed Central

    Nadjafova, Rena S.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The common shrew, Sorex araneus Linnaeus, 1758, has become a model species for cytogenetic and evolutionary studies after discovery of extraordinary Robertsonian polymorphism at the within-species level. Development of differential staining techniques (Q-, R-and G-banding) made it possible to identify the chromosomal arms and their combination in racial karyotypes. Entering into contact with each other, the chromosomal races might form hybrid zones which represent a great interest for understanding of the process of speciation. Until recently all known hybrid zones of S. araneus were localized in Western Europe and only one was identified in Siberia (Russia) between Novosibirsk and Tomsk races (Aniskin and Lukianova 1989, Searle and Wójcik 1998, Polyakov et al. 2011). However, a rapidly growing number of reports on discovery of interracial hybrid zones of Sorex araneus in the European part of Russia and neighboring territories appeared lately. The aim of the present work is to compile the bibliography of all studies covering this topic regardless of the original language and the publishing source which hopefully could make research data more accessible to international scientists. It could also be a productive way to save current history of Sorex araneus researches in full context of the ISACC (International Sorex araneus Cytogenetics Committee) heritage (Searle et al. 2007, Zima 2008).

  8. Affinities of `hyopsodontids' to elephant shrews and a Holarctic origin of Afrotheria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zack, Shawn P.; Penkrot, Tonya A.; Bloch, Jonathan I.; Rose, Kenneth D.

    2005-03-01

    Macroscelideans (elephant shrews or sengis) are small-bodied (25-540g), cursorial (running) and saltatorial (jumping), insectivorous and omnivorous placental mammals represented by at least 15 extant African species classified in four genera. Macroscelidea is one of several morphologically diverse but predominantly African placental orders classified in the superorder Afrotheria by molecular phylogeneticists. The distribution of modern afrotheres, in combination with a basal position for Afrotheria within Placentalia and molecular divergence-time estimates, has been used to link placental diversification with the mid-Cretaceous separation of South America and Africa. Morphological phylogenetic analyses do not support Afrotheria and the fossil record favours a northern origin of Placentalia. Here we describe fossil postcrania that provide evidence for a close relationship between North American Palaeocene-Eocene apheliscine `hyopsodontid' `condylarths' (early ungulates or hoofed mammals) and extant Macroscelidea. Apheliscine postcranial morphology is consistent with a relationship to other ungulate-like afrotheres (Hyracoidea, Proboscidea) but does not provide support for a monophyletic Afrotheria. As the oldest record of an afrothere clade, identification of macroscelidean relatives in the North American Palaeocene argues against an African origin for Afrotheria, weakening support for linking placental diversification to the break-up of Gondwana.

  9. Disentangling reasons for low Y chromosome variation in the greater white-toothed shrew (Crocidura russula).

    PubMed

    Handley, Lori J Lawson; Berset-Brändli, Laura; Perrin, Nicolas

    2006-06-01

    Y chromosome variation is determined by several confounding factors including mutation rate, effective population size, demography, and selection. Disentangling these factors is essential to better understand the evolutionary properties of the Y chromosome. We analyzed genetic variation on the Y chromosome, X chromosome, and mtDNA of the greater white-toothed shrew, a species with low variance in male reproductive success and limited sex-biased dispersal, which enables us to control to some extent for life-history effects. We also compared ancestral (Moroccan) to derived (European) populations to investigate the role of demographic history in determining Y variation. Recent colonization of Europe by a small number of founders (combined with low mutation rates) is largely responsible for low diversity observed on the European Y and X chromosomes compared to mtDNA. After accounting for mutation rate, copy number, and demography, the Y chromosome still displays a deficit in variation relative to the X in both populations. This is possibly influenced by directional selection, but the slightly higher variance in male reproductive success is also likely to play a role, even though the difference is small compared to that in highly polygynous species. This study illustrates that demography and life-history effects should be scrutinized before inferring strong selective pressure as a reason for low diversity on the Y chromosome.

  10. The Challenges of Resolving a Rapid, Recent Radiation: Empirical and Simulated Phylogenomics of Philippine Shrews.

    PubMed

    Giarla, Thomas C; Esselstyn, Jacob A

    2015-09-01

    Phylogenetic relationships in recent, rapid radiations can be difficult to resolve due to incomplete lineage sorting and reliance on genetic markers that evolve slowly relative to the rate of speciation. By incorporating hundreds to thousands of unlinked loci, phylogenomic analyses have the potential to mitigate these difficulties. Here, we attempt to resolve phylogenetic relationships among eight shrew species (genus Crocidura) from the Philippines, a phylogenetic problem that has proven intractable with small (< 10 loci) data sets. We sequenced hundreds of ultraconserved elements and whole mitochondrial genomes in these species and estimated phylogenies using concatenation, summary coalescent, and hierarchical coalescent methods. The concatenated approach recovered a maximally supported and fully resolved tree. In contrast, the coalescent-based approaches produced similar topologies, but each had several poorly supported nodes. Using simulations, we demonstrate that the concatenated tree could be positively misleading. Our simulations also show that the tree shape we tend to infer, which involves a series of short internal branches, is difficult to resolve, even if substitution models are known and multiple individuals per species are sampled. As such, the low support we obtained for backbone relationships in our coalescent-based inferences reflects a real and appropriate lack of certainty. Our results illuminate the challenges of estimating a bifurcating tree in a rapid and recent radiation, providing a rare empirical example of a nearly simultaneous series of speciation events in a terrestrial animal lineage as it spreads across an oceanic archipelago. PMID:25979143

  11. Radiation ecology issues associated with murine rodents and shrews in the Chernobyl exclusion zone.

    PubMed

    Gaschak, Sergey P; Maklyuk, Yulia A; Maksimenko, Andrey M; Bondarkov, Mikhail D; Jannik, G Timothy; Farfán, Eduardo B

    2011-10-01

    This article describes major studies performed by the Chernobyl Center's International Radioecology Laboratory (Slavutich, Ukraine) on radioecology of murine rodents and shrews inhabiting the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. The article addresses the long-term (1986-2005) and seasonal dynamics of radioactive contamination of animals and reviews interspecies differences in radionuclide accumulations and factors affecting the radionuclide accumulations. It is shown that bioavailability of radionuclides in the "soil-to-plant" chain and a trophic specialization of animals play key roles in determining their actual contamination levels. The total absorbed dose rates in small mammals significantly reduced during the years following the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident. In 1986, the absorbed dose rate reached 1.3-6.0 Gy h(-1) in the central areas of the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (the "Red Forest"). In 1988 and 1990, the total absorbed dose rates were 1.3 and 0.42 Gy h(-1), respectively. In 1995, 2000, and 2005, according to the present study, the total absorbed dose rates rarely exceeded 0.00023, 0.00018, and 0.00015 Gy h(-1), respectively. Contributions of individual radiation sources into the total absorbed dose are described. PMID:21878767

  12. A climate for speciation: rapid spatial diversification within the Sorex cinereus complex of shrews

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hope, Andrew G.; Speer, Kelly A.; Demboski, John R.; Talbot, Sandra L.; Cook, Joseph A.

    2012-01-01

    The cyclic climate regime of the late Quaternary caused dramatic environmental change at high latitudes. Although these events may have been brief in periodicity from an evolutionary standpoint, multiple episodes of allopatry and divergence have been implicated in rapid radiations of a number of organisms. Shrews of the Sorex cinereus complex have long challenged taxonomists due to similar morphology and parapatric geographic ranges. Here, multi-locus phylogenetic and demographic assessments using a coalescent framework were combined to investigate spatiotemporal evolution of 13 nominal species with a widespread distribution throughout North America and across Beringia into Siberia. For these species, we first test a hypothesis of recent differentiation in response to Pleistocene climate versus more ancient divergence that would coincide with pre-Pleistocene perturbations. We then investigate the processes driving diversification over multiple continents. Our genetic analyses highlight novel diversity within these morphologically conserved mammals and clarify relationships between geographic distribution and evolutionary history. Demography within and among species indicates both regional stability and rapid expansion. Ancestral ecological differentiation coincident with early cladogenesis within the complex enabled alternating and repeated episodes of allopatry and expansion where successive glacial and interglacial phases each promoted divergence. The Sorex cinereus complex constitutes a valuable model for future comparative assessments of evolution in response to cyclic environmental change.

  13. Convergent evolution of novel protein function in shrew and lizard venom.

    PubMed

    Aminetzach, Yael T; Srouji, John R; Kong, Chung Yin; Hoekstra, Hopi E

    2009-12-01

    How do proteins evolve novel functions? To address this question, we are studying the evolution of a mammalian toxin, the serine protease BLTX [1], from the salivary glands of the North American shrew Blarina brevicauda. Here, we examine the molecular changes responsible for promoting BLTX toxicity. First, we show that regulatory loops surrounding the BLTX active site have evolved adaptively via acquisition of small insertions and subsequent accelerated sequence evolution. Second, these mutations introduce a novel chemical environment into the catalytic cleft of BLTX. Third, molecular-dynamic simulations show that the observed changes create a novel chemical and physical topology consistent with increased enzyme catalysis. Finally, we show that a toxic serine protease from the Mexican beaded lizard (GTX) [2] has evolved convergently through almost identical functional changes. Together, these results suggest that the evolution of toxicity might be predictable-arising via adaptive structural modification of analogous labile regulatory loops of an ancestral serine protease-and thus might aid in the identification of other toxic proteins. PMID:19879144

  14. Affinities of 'hyopsodontids' to elephant shrews and a Holarctic origin of Afrotheria.

    PubMed

    Zack, Shawn P; Penkrot, Tonya A; Bloch, Jonathan I; Rose, Kenneth D

    2005-03-24

    Macroscelideans (elephant shrews or sengis) are small-bodied (25-540 g), cursorial (running) and saltatorial (jumping), insectivorous and omnivorous placental mammals represented by at least 15 extant African species classified in four genera. Macroscelidea is one of several morphologically diverse but predominantly African placental orders classified in the superorder Afrotheria by molecular phylogeneticists. The distribution of modern afrotheres, in combination with a basal position for Afrotheria within Placentalia and molecular divergence-time estimates, has been used to link placental diversification with the mid-Cretaceous separation of South America and Africa. Morphological phylogenetic analyses do not support Afrotheria and the fossil record favours a northern origin of Placentalia. Here we describe fossil postcrania that provide evidence for a close relationship between North American Palaeocene-Eocene apheliscine 'hyopsodontid' 'condylarths' (early ungulates or hoofed mammals) and extant Macroscelidea. Apheliscine postcranial morphology is consistent with a relationship to other ungulate-like afrotheres (Hyracoidea, Proboscidea) but does not provide support for a monophyletic Afrotheria. As the oldest record of an afrothere clade, identification of macroscelidean relatives in the North American Palaeocene argues against an African origin for Afrotheria, weakening support for linking placental diversification to the break-up of Gondwana.

  15. Psychosocial stress, glucocorticoids, and structural alterations in the tree shrew hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, E; Flügge, G; Ohl, F; Lucassen, P; Vollmann-Honsdorf, G K; Michaelis, T

    2001-06-01

    Animal models for chronic stress represent an indispensable preclinical approach to human pathology since clinical data point to a major role of psychological stress experiences, acute and/or chronic, to the development of behavioral and physiological disturbances. Chronic emotional arousal is a consequence of various types of social interactions, and one major neurohumoral accompaniment is the activation of the classic stress circuit, the limbic--hypothalamic--pituitary--adrenocortical (LHPA) axis. The adrenocortical glucocorticoid hormones cortisol and corticosterone are principal effectors within this circuit since they affect neurotransmission and neuroendocrine control, thus having profound effects on mood and behavior. Using the experimental paradigm of chronic psychosocial stress in tree shrews, we investigated the impact of aversive chronic social encounters on hippocampal structure and function. In chronically stressed animals, we observed dendritic atrophy of hippocampal pyramidal neurons and an impairment of neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus. However, a stress-induced loss of hippocampal neurons was not observed in this animal model. This review summarizes our recent results on structural changes occurring during chronic stress in neurons of the hippocampus and their potential influence on learning and memory. We discuss whether these changes are reversible and to what extent glucocorticoids might be responsible for the stress-induced effects.

  16. Food restriction, refeeding, and gastric fill fail to affect emesis in musk shrews.

    PubMed

    Horn, Charles C; Still, Liz; Fitzgerald, Christiana; Friedman, Mark I

    2010-01-01

    Nausea and emesis are common side effects of gastrointestinal disease. Reports indicate that ghrelin and endocannabinoids, agents that stimulate appetite, also reduce emesis evoked by chemotherapy treatment, which suggests that stimulation of feeding inhibits the emetic system. In the following study we conducted a more direct test of this hypothesis by determining the impact of manipulating the motivation to eat on emesis, using food restriction and refeeding. Emesis was induced in musk shrews, a commonly used animal model for emesis research, using the cancer chemotherapy agent cisplatin (20 mg/kg ip), nicotine (2 mg/kg sc), or motion (1 Hz, horizontal, 4-cm displacement), because these treatments are known to target separate emetic pathways: gut vagal afferents, area postrema, and vestibular pathways, respectively. Twenty-four hours of food restriction was sufficient to stimulate food intake, and 1 h of refeeding filled the stomach. The results indicate that food restriction, refeeding, and gastric fill had no significant effects on the amount of emesis produced by any of the emetic treatments tested here. This suggests that, although activation of the emetic system might have prominent effects on food intake, neural controls for feeding behavior do not significantly affect the neural pathways for emesis. These results may have implications for how we treat patients who experience a constellation of side effects, including nausea and emesis, since stimulating appetite may not necessarily inhibit emetic pathways.

  17. Shrews, rats, and a polecat in "the pardoner’s tale": Chapter 3

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Feinstein, Sandy; Woodman, Neal; Van Dyke, Carolynn

    2012-01-01

    While historically existing animals and literary animal characters inform allegorical and metaphorical characterization in The Canterbury Tales, figurative usage does not erase recognition of the material animal. "The Pardoner's Tale," for one, challenges the terms of conventional animal metaphors by refocusing attention on common animals as common animals and common human creatures as something worse than vermin. Most attention has been paid to the larger animals-goat, hare, and horse-that constitute the physical portrait of Chaucer's Pardoner in the "General Prologue" and in the prologue to his tale.! Like these animals, rats and a polecat, together with rhetorical shrews, appear in this tale as well as in other literature, including bestiaries and natural histories. Equally to the purpose, these animals could be physically observed as constituents of both urban and rural landscapes in fourteenth-century England.2 In the Middle Ages, animals were part of the environment as well as part of the culture: they lived inside as well as outside the city gates, priory walls, and even domestic spaces; a rat in the street or the garden might not be any less welcome or uncommon than encountering someone's horses and goats nibbling vegetation or blocking a passage. Not being out of the ordinary, though, such animals could (and can) be overlooked or dismissed as com­mon, too familiar to register. This chapter reveals why readers and listeners should pay close attention to the things they think they know and what they hear about what they think they know.

  18. Radiation ecology issues associated with murine rodents and shrews in the Chernobyl exclusion zone.

    PubMed

    Gaschak, Sergey P; Maklyuk, Yulia A; Maksimenko, Andrey M; Bondarkov, Mikhail D; Jannik, G Timothy; Farfán, Eduardo B

    2011-10-01

    This article describes major studies performed by the Chernobyl Center's International Radioecology Laboratory (Slavutich, Ukraine) on radioecology of murine rodents and shrews inhabiting the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. The article addresses the long-term (1986-2005) and seasonal dynamics of radioactive contamination of animals and reviews interspecies differences in radionuclide accumulations and factors affecting the radionuclide accumulations. It is shown that bioavailability of radionuclides in the "soil-to-plant" chain and a trophic specialization of animals play key roles in determining their actual contamination levels. The total absorbed dose rates in small mammals significantly reduced during the years following the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident. In 1986, the absorbed dose rate reached 1.3-6.0 Gy h(-1) in the central areas of the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (the "Red Forest"). In 1988 and 1990, the total absorbed dose rates were 1.3 and 0.42 Gy h(-1), respectively. In 1995, 2000, and 2005, according to the present study, the total absorbed dose rates rarely exceeded 0.00023, 0.00018, and 0.00015 Gy h(-1), respectively. Contributions of individual radiation sources into the total absorbed dose are described.

  19. Blood supply to the retina in the laboratory shrew (Suncus murinus).

    PubMed

    Isomura, G; Ikeda, S; Ikezaki, K; Miyashita, Y

    1997-06-01

    The blood supply to both retinae was studied light microscopically and by scanning electron microscopy in 48 adult laboratory shrews (Suncus murinus) of both sexes. Thirty-eight of the animals were injected into the left ventricle with Neoprene latex (Du Pont. 601A) or with Mercox (Dai Nippon Ink Ltd., CL-2R) to elucidate the blood supply to the retina from the ophthalmic artery. The remaining animals were kept for histological study of the retina. The central retinal artery, originating from the ophthalmic artery in the muscular part of the orbit, enters the optic nerve, passes through the optic disk together with the central retinal vein and penetrates the vitreous space (cavity of the eye) between the lens and the inner limiting membrane of the retina, where it divides into the dorsal, ventral, and caudal branches. Each branch, moreover, bifurcates into nasal and temporal arterioles and is distributed throughout the retina on the inner limiting membrane as far as the ciliary body and the lens. On the way they obliquely send small vessels through the inner limiting membrane into the outer plexiform layer of the retina. Their vascularization appears to correspond to the membrana vasculosa retinae found in teleosts, amphibia and reptiles.

  20. Sticky snack for sengis: The Cape rock elephant-shrew, Elephantulus edwardii (Macroscelidea), as a pollinator of the Pagoda lily, Whiteheadia bifolia (Hyacinthaceae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wester, Petra

    2010-12-01

    Following the recent discovery of rodent pollination in the Pagoda lily, Whiteheadia bifolia (Hyacinthaceae) in South Africa, now the Cape rock elephant-shrew, Elephantulus edwardii (Macroscelidea, Afrotheria) is reported as an additional pollinator. Elephant-shrews, live-trapped near W. bifolia plants, were released in two terraria, containing the plants. The animals licked nectar with their long and slender tongues while being dusted with pollen and touching the stigmas of the flowers with their long and flexible noses. The captured elephant-shrews had W. bifolia pollen in their faeces, likely as a result of grooming their fur as they visited the flowers without eating or destroying them. The animals mostly preferred nectar over other food. This is the first record of pollination and nectar consumption in the primarily insectivorous E. edwardii, contributing to the very sparse knowledge about the behaviour of this unique clade of African mammals, as well as pollination by small mammals.

  1. SHORT COMMUNICATION: Comments on recent proposals for redefining the mole and kilogram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonard, B. P.

    2010-06-01

    The fundamental concept of the mole requires the number of entities comprising one mole, i.e. Avogadro's number, to be exactly equal to the gram-to-dalton mass ratio. If this compatibility condition is to be satisfied, the mole, the kilogram and the dalton cannot all be defined independently. This note concerns recent Metrologia publications that do, however, propose independent definitions of all three quantities: the mole by fixing the value of Avogadro's number and the kilogram by fixing the value of the Planck constant, while retaining the current carbon-12-based dalton. Adoption of these incompatible definitions would likely cause serious widespread confusion and might even result in a split in scholarly and technical communication between the quantum physics and chemistry communities. Other entirely compatible alternatives are possible: either retaining the current (inexact) carbon-12-based mole and dalton with an independently redefined kilogram or redefining the mole by fixing the value of Avogadro's number, with a compatible dalton that is exact in terms of the redefined kilogram.

  2. Australia's first fossil marsupial mole (Notoryctemorphia) resolves controversies about their evolution and palaeoenvironmental origins.

    PubMed

    Archer, Michael; Beck, Robin; Gott, Miranda; Hand, Suzanne; Godthelp, Henk; Black, Karen

    2011-05-22

    Fossils of a marsupial mole (Marsupialia, Notoryctemorphia, Notoryctidae) are described from early Miocene deposits in the Riversleigh World Heritage Area, northwestern Queensland, Australia. These represent the first unequivocal fossil record of the order Notoryctemorphia, the two living species of which are among the world's most specialized and bizarre mammals, but which are also convergent on certain fossorial placental mammals (most notably chrysochlorid golden moles). The fossil remains are genuinely 'transitional', documenting an intermediate stage in the acquisition of a number of specializations and showing that one of these-the dental morphology known as zalambdodonty-was acquired via a different evolutionary pathway than in placentals. They, thus, document a clear case of evolutionary convergence (rather than parallelism) between only distantly related and geographically isolated mammalian lineages-marsupial moles on the island continent of Australia and placental moles on most other, at least intermittently connected continents. In contrast to earlier presumptions about a relationship between the highly specialized body form of the blind, earless, burrowing marsupial moles and desert habitats, it is now clear that archaic burrowing marsupial moles were adapted to and probably originated in wet forest palaeoenvironments, preadapting them to movement through drier soils in the xeric environments of Australia that developed during the Neogene.

  3. The Mole as an Explanatory Device: How Do You Know a Mole if You See One? A Manual for Chemistry Students. Sample Teaching Materials: The Explanatory Modes Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Douglas A.

    This booklet is designed to supplement the study of introductory chemistry. It deals particularly with the mole concept but also includes ideas for analyzing the kinds of statements that appear in all science textbooks and scientific writing. The material in the booklet should be studied after the completion of an introductory textbook study of…

  4. Species of coccidia (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) in shrews from Alaska, U.S.A., and northeastern Siberia, Russia, with description of two new species.

    PubMed

    Lynch, A J; Duszynski, D W

    2008-08-01

    Fecal samples (n = 636) from 10 species of shrews collected in Alaska (n = 540) and northeastern Siberia (n = 96) were examined for the presence of coccidia (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae). Five distinct oocyst morphotypes were observed. Three types were consistent with oocysts of previously recognized coccidia species from other shrew hosts. These were Eimeria inyoni, E. vagrantis, and Isospora brevicauda, originally described from the inyo shrew (Sorex tenellus), dusky shrew (S. monticolus), and northern short-tailed shrew (Blarina brevicauda), respectively. We found 5 new host records for E. inyoni, 3 for E. vagrantis, and 3 for I. brevicauda. The 2 additional oocyst morphotypes, both from the tundra shrew (Sorex tundrensis), are putative new species. Sporulated oocysts of Eimeria beringiacea n. sp. are subspheroidal, 17.7 x 15.6 microm (14-24 x 13-20 microm) with a length (L)/width (W) ratio of 1.1 (1.0-1.4); these lack a micropyle (M), an oocyst residuum (OR), and a polar granule (PG). Sporocysts are ellipsoidal, 10.3 x 6.1 microm (7-14 x 4-8 microm), with a L/W ratio of 1.7 (1.3-2.3) and have a Stieda body (SB), Substieda body (SSB), and sporocyst residuum (SR). Oocysts of Eimeria tundraensis n. sp. are spheroidal to subspheroidal, 24.8 x 23.5 microm (23-26 x 22-25 microm), with a L/W ratio of 1.1 (1.0-1.2); these lack a M and OR, but a single PG is present. Sporocysts are elongate ellipsoidal, 15.4 x 8.3 microm (13-17 x 7-9 microm), with a L/W ratio of 1.9 (1.4-2.1) and have a SB, SSB, and SR. PMID:18576829

  5. Japanese Encephalitis: Frequently Asked Questions

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Page How long does the Japanese encephalitis vaccination last? The duration of protection is unknown. For ... What are the side effects of Japanese encephalitis vaccination? Pain and tenderness are the most commonly reported ...

  6. Structure of the ovaries of the Nimba otter shrew, Micropotamogale lamottei, and the Madagascar hedgehog tenrec, Echinops telfairi.

    PubMed

    Enders, A C; Carter, A M; Künzle, H; Vogel, P

    2005-01-01

    The otter shrews are members of the subfamily Potamogalinae within the family Tenrecidae. No description of the ovaries of any member of this subfamily has been published previously. The lesser hedgehog tenrec, Echinops telfairi, is a member of the subfamily Tenrecinae of the same family and, although its ovaries have not been described, other members of this subfamily have been shown to have ovaries with non-antral follicles. Examination of these two species illustrated that non-antral follicles were characteristic of the ovaries of both species, as was clefting and lobulation of the ovaries. Juvenile otter shrews range from those with only small follicles in the cortex to those with 300- to 400-microm follicles similar to those seen in non-pregnant and pregnant adults. As in other species, most of the growth of the oocyte occurred when follicles had one to two layers of granulosa cells. When larger follicles became atretic in the Nimba otter shrew, hypertrophy of the theca interna produced nodules of glandular interstitial tissue. In the tenrec, the hypertrophying theca interna cells in most large follicles appeared to undergo degeneration. Both species had some follicular fluid in the intercellular spaces between the more peripheral granulosa cells. It is suggested that this fluid could aid in separation of the cumulus from the remaining granulosa at ovulation. The protruding follicles in lobules and absence of a tunica albuginea might also facilitate ovulation of non-antral follicles. Ovaries with a thin-absent tunica albuginea and follicles with small-absent antra are widespread within both the Eulipotyphla and in the Afrosoricida, suggesting that such features may represent a primitive condition in ovarian development. Lobulated and deeply crypted ovaries are found in both groups but are not as common in the Eulipotyphla making inclusion of this feature as primitive more speculative.

  7. Invading and Expanding: Range Dynamics and Ecological Consequences of the Greater White-Toothed Shrew (Crocidura russula) Invasion in Ireland

    PubMed Central

    McDevitt, Allan D.; Montgomery, W. Ian; Tosh, David G.; Lusby, John; Reid, Neil; White, Thomas A.; McDevitt, C. Damien; O'Halloran, John; Searle, Jeremy B.; Yearsley, Jon M.

    2014-01-01

    Establishing how invasive species impact upon pre-existing species is a fundamental question in ecology and conservation biology. The greater white-toothed shrew (Crocidura russula) is an invasive species in Ireland that was first recorded in 2007 and which, according to initial data, may be limiting the abundance/distribution of the pygmy shrew (Sorex minutus), previously Ireland's only shrew species. Because of these concerns, we undertook an intensive live-trapping survey (and used other data from live-trapping, sightings and bird of prey pellets/nest inspections collected between 2006 and 2013) to model the distribution and expansion of C. russula in Ireland and its impacts on Ireland's small mammal community. The main distribution range of C. russula was found to be approximately 7,600 km2 in 2013, with established outlier populations suggesting that the species is dispersing with human assistance within the island. The species is expanding rapidly for a small mammal, with a radial expansion rate of 5.5 km/yr overall (2008–2013), and independent estimates from live-trapping in 2012–2013 showing rates of 2.4–14.1 km/yr, 0.5–7.1 km/yr and 0–5.6 km/yr depending on the landscape features present. S. minutus is negatively associated with C. russula. S. minutus is completely absent at sites where C. russula is established and is only present at sites at the edge of and beyond the invasion range of C. russula. The speed of this invasion and the homogenous nature of the Irish landscape may mean that S. minutus has not had sufficient time to adapt to the sudden appearance of C. russula. This may mean the continued decline/disappearance of S. minutus as C. russula spreads throughout the island. PMID:24955824

  8. Fine structure of the submandibular salivary gland of the venomous short-tailed shrew, Blarina brevicauda Say (Insectivora: Soricidae).

    PubMed

    Carson, K A; Rose, R K

    1993-01-01

    Adult male short-tailed shrews, Blarina brevicauda, (Insectivora: Soricidae) were trapped in Virginia and Pennsylvania, anesthetized, and perfused via the left ventricle of the heart with fixative. The submandibular glands were dissected free and prepared for transmission electron microscopy. The lobular, compound tubuloacinar glands had secretory endpieces consisting of seromucous acini and serous tubules connected to intercalated ducts, granular ducts, striated ducts, and excretory ducts. The general cytology of the submandibular gland of Blarina shared morphological characters with individuals in several other mammalian orders and yet differed in many ways from another Insectivore, the European hedgehog, Erinaceus europaeus. PMID:8398545

  9. Analysis and Characterization of the Complete Genome of Tupaia (Tree Shrew) Herpesvirus

    PubMed Central

    Bahr, Udo; Darai, Gholamreza

    2001-01-01

    The tupaia herpesvirus (THV) was isolated from spontaneously degenerating tissue cultures of malignant lymphoma, lung, and spleen cell cultures of tree shrews (Tupaia spp.). The determination of the complete nucleotide sequence of the THV strain 2 genome resulted in a 195,857-bp-long, linear DNA molecule with a G+C content of 66.5%. The terminal regions of the THV genome and the loci of conserved viral genes were found to be G+C richer. Furthermore, no large repetitive DNA sequences could be identified. This is in agreement with the previous classification of THV as the prototype species of herpesvirus genome group F. The search for potential coding regions resulted in the identification of 158 open reading frames (ORFs) regularly distributed on both DNA strands. Seventy-six out of the 158 ORFs code for proteins that are significantly homologous to known herpesvirus proteins. The highest homologies found were to primate and rodent cytomegaloviruses. Biological properties, protein homologies, the arrangement of conserved viral genes, and phylogenetic analysis revealed that THV is a member of the subfamily Betaherpesvirinae. The evolutionary lineages of THV and the cytomegaloviruses seem to have branched off from a common ancestor. In addition, it was found that the arrangements of conserved genes of THV and murine cytomegalovirus strain Smith, both of which are not able to form genomic isomers, are colinear with two different human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) strain AD169 genomic isomers that differ from each other in the orientation of the long unique region. The biological properties and the high degree of relatedness of THV to the mammalian cytomegaloviruses allow the consideration of THV as a model system for investigation of HCMV pathogenicity. PMID:11312357

  10. Comparative morphology and morphometry of the nasal fossae of four species of North American shrews (Soricinae).

    PubMed

    Larochelle, R; Baron, G

    1989-11-01

    The present study compares the morphology of the nasal conchae and the relative development (i.e., surface area and neurosensory cell number) of the olfactory epithelium between four species of shrews occupying different ecotopes (Blarina brevicauda, Sorex cinereus, S. fumeus, S. palustris). The number of olfactory cells was corrected for split cell error. Data were analyzed by using size indices based on the allometric method. The convoluted shape of the maxilloturbinal in Blarina, with large respiratory epithelial surface area, could not be related with certainty to the subterranean ecotope. From the comparison between Soricinae and Crocidurinae, one major difference concerned the shape and attachment of ectoturbinal 3. Differences in the relative development of the olfactory organ are discussed with regard to differences in the use of chemical signals. The semi-fossorial B. brevicauda, with the more developed olfactory organ, is reported to possess more scent-glands and to manifest active scent-marking behaviors and fecal deposits associated with territoriality. The two terrestrial species, S. cinereus and S. fumeus, have olfactory epithelia showing an intermediate development. Published accounts of fewer scent-glands and a lack of active scent-marking behavior indicate a lesser use of olfactory communication in these two species where mutual avoidance seems the rule. Indication of an even more reduced use of olfactory signals in social interactions by the semiaquatic S. palustris is suggested by its least-developed olfactory epithelium. The comparison between Soricinae and Crocidurinae supports a relationship between the development of the olfactory organ and the relative use of olfactory communication known to occur in social interactions. PMID:2618929

  11. Phenotypic Variation across Chromosomal Hybrid Zones of the Common Shrew (Sorex araneus) Indicates Reduced Gene Flow

    PubMed Central

    Polly, P. David; Polyakov, Andrei V.; Ilyashenko, Vadim B.; Onischenko, Sergei S.; White, Thomas A.; Shchipanov, Nikolay A.; Bulatova, Nina S.; Pavlova, Svetlana V.; Borodin, Pavel M.; Searle, Jeremy B.

    2013-01-01

    Sorex araneus, the Common shrew, is a species with more than 70 karyotypic races, many of which form parapatric hybrid zones, making it a model for studying chromosomal speciation. Hybrids between races have reduced fitness, but microsatellite markers have demonstrated considerable gene flow between them, calling into question whether the chromosomal barriers actually do contribute to genetic divergence. We studied phenotypic clines across two hybrid zones with especially complex heterozygotes. Hybrids between the Novosibirsk and Tomsk races produce chains of nine and three chromosomes at meiosis, and hybrids between the Moscow and Seliger races produce chains of eleven. Our goal was to determine whether phenotypes show evidence of reduced gene flow at hybrid zones. We used maximum likelihood to fit tanh cline models to geometric shape data and found that phenotypic clines in skulls and mandibles across these zones had similar centers and widths as chromosomal clines. The amount of phenotypic differentiation across the zones is greater than expected if it were dissipating due to unrestricted gene flow given the amount of time since contact, but it is less than expected to have accumulated from drift during allopatric separation in glacial refugia. Only if heritability is very low, Ne very high, and the time spent in allopatry very short, will the differences we observe be large enough to match the expectation of drift. Our results therefore suggest that phenotypic differentiation has been lost through gene flow since post-glacial secondary contact, but not as quickly as would be expected if there was free gene flow across the hybrid zones. The chromosomal tension zones are confirmed to be partial barriers that prevent differentiated races from becoming phenotypically homogenous. PMID:23874420

  12. Differences in cooperative behavior among Damaraland mole rats are consequences of an age-related polyethism.

    PubMed

    Zöttl, Markus; Vullioud, Philippe; Mendonça, Rute; Torrents Ticó, Miquel; Gaynor, David; Mitchell, Adam; Clutton-Brock, Tim

    2016-09-13

    In many cooperative breeders, the contributions of helpers to cooperative activities change with age, resulting in age-related polyethisms. In contrast, some studies of social mole rats (including naked mole rats, Heterocephalus glaber, and Damaraland mole rats, Fukomys damarensis) suggest that individual differences in cooperative behavior are the result of divergent developmental pathways, leading to discrete and permanent functional categories of helpers that resemble the caste systems found in eusocial insects. Here we show that, in Damaraland mole rats, individual contributions to cooperative behavior increase with age and are higher in fast-growing individuals. Individual contributions to different cooperative tasks are intercorrelated and repeatability of cooperative behavior is similar to that found in other cooperatively breeding vertebrates. Our data provide no evidence that nonreproductive individuals show divergent developmental pathways or specialize in particular tasks. Instead of representing a caste system, variation in the behavior of nonreproductive individuals in Damaraland mole rats closely resembles that found in other cooperatively breeding mammals and appears to be a consequence of age-related polyethism. PMID:27588902

  13. Unraveling the message: insights into comparative genomics of the naked mole-rat.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Kaitlyn N; Soifer, Ilya; Melamud, Eugene; Roy, Margaret; McIsaac, R Scott; Hibbs, Matthew; Buffenstein, Rochelle

    2016-08-01

    Animals have evolved to survive, and even thrive, in different environments. Genetic adaptations may have indirectly created phenotypes that also resulted in a longer lifespan. One example of this phenomenon is the preternaturally long-lived naked mole-rat. This strictly subterranean rodent tolerates hypoxia, hypercapnia, and soil-based toxins. Naked mole-rats also exhibit pronounced resistance to cancer and an attenuated decline of many physiological characteristics that often decline as mammals age. Elucidating mechanisms that give rise to their unique phenotypes will lead to better understanding of subterranean ecophysiology and biology of aging. Comparative genomics could be a useful tool in this regard. Since the publication of a naked mole-rat genome assembly in 2011, analyses of genomic and transcriptomic data have enabled a clearer understanding of mole-rat evolutionary history and suggested molecular pathways (e.g., NRF2-signaling activation and DNA damage repair mechanisms) that may explain the extraordinarily longevity and unique health traits of this species. However, careful scrutiny and re-analysis suggest that some identified features result from incorrect or imprecise annotation and assembly of the naked mole-rat genome: in addition, some of these conclusions (e.g., genes involved in cancer resistance and hairlessness) are rejected when the analysis includes additional, more closely related species. We describe how the combination of better study design, improved genomic sequencing techniques, and new bioinformatic and data analytical tools will improve comparative genomics and ultimately bridge the gap between traditional model and nonmodel organisms.

  14. Naked mole rats exhibit metabolic but not ventilatory plasticity following chronic sustained hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Chung, Danielle; Dzal, Yvonne A; Seow, Allison; Milsom, William K; Pamenter, Matthew E

    2016-03-30

    Naked mole rats are among the most hypoxia-tolerant mammals identified and live in chronic hypoxia throughout their lives. The physiological mechanisms underlying this tolerance, however, are poorly understood. Most vertebrates hyperventilate in acute hypoxia and exhibit an enhanced hyperventilation following acclimatization to chronic sustained hypoxia (CSH). Conversely, naked mole rats do not hyperventilate in acute hypoxia and their response to CSH has not been examined. In this study, we explored mechanisms of plasticity in the control of the hypoxic ventilatory response (HVR) and hypoxic metabolic response (HMR) of freely behaving naked mole rats following 8-10 days of chronic sustained normoxia (CSN) or CSH. Specifically, we investigated the role of the major inhibitory neurotransmitter γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) in mediating these responses. Our study yielded three important findings. First, naked mole rats did not exhibit ventilatory plasticity following CSH, which is unique among adult animals studied to date. Second, GABA receptor (GABAR) antagonism altered breathing patterns in CSN and CSH animals and modulated the acute HVR in CSN animals. Third, naked mole rats exhibited GABAR-dependent metabolic plasticity following long-term hypoxia, such that the basal metabolic rate was approximately 25% higher in normoxic CSH animals than CSN animals, and GABAR antagonists modulated this increase.

  15. Reversed palatal perforation by upper incisors in ageing blind mole-rats (Spalax ehrenbergi)

    PubMed Central

    ZURI, I.; TERKEL, J.

    2001-01-01

    Blind mole-rats (Spalax ehrenbergi) are fossorial solitary rodents that present striking morphological, physiological and behavioural adaptations to the subterranean environment in which they live. Previous studies have shown that mole-rats are specialised in tooth-digging. The rapid eruption-rate of their incisors has evolved to compensate for their excessive wear by excavation. Males use their incisors more than females for digging and fighting, and their rate of incisor eruption is significantly more rapid than in females. Since mole-rats use their incisors for digging throughout the year, we suggest that continuous mechanical pressure on their oral tissues concentrated at the apical sites of the upper incisors leads to cell and tissue fatigue. We provide evidence for 5 stages of palatal perforation by the upper incisors at their apical sites, with maximum perforation characterising aged males. Interspecies comparisons with 7 other fossorial and semi-fossorial rodent species, and with beavers, which expose their incisors to enormous mechanical pressure, revealed that this palatal perforation is unique to the male mole-rat. We suggest that while the fast eruption rate of incisors in the mole-rat compensates for the rapid wear resulting from digging, evolutionary adaptation to continuous tooth-digging is still ongoing, since the physical pressure of digging at the apical sites of the upper incisors leads to tissue destruction, breakage of the palatal bone and possibly to death, as a result of maxillary inflammation. PMID:11760890

  16. iMole, a web based image retrieval system from biomedical literature.

    PubMed

    Giordano, Manuela; Natale, Massimo; Cornaz, Moreno; Ruffino, Andrea; Bonino, Dario; Bucci, Enrico M

    2013-07-01

    iMole is a platform that automatically extracts images and captions from biomedical literature. Images are tagged with terms contained in figure captions by means of a sophisticate text-mining tool. Moreover, iMole allows the user to upload directly their own images within the database and manually tag images by curated dictionary. Using iMole the researchers can develop a proper biomedical image database, storing the images extracted from paper of interest, image found on the web repositories, and their own experimental images. In order to show the functioning of the platform, we used iMole to build a 2DE database. Briefly, tagged 2DE gel images were collected and stored in a searchable 2DE gel database, available to users through an interactive web interface. Images were obtained by automatically parsing 16,608 proteomic publications, which yielded more than 16,500 images. The database can be further expanded by users with images of interest trough a manual uploading process. iMole is available with a preloaded set of 2DE gel data at http://imole.biodigitalvalley.com.

  17. Orexinergic neuron numbers in three species of African mole rats with rhythmic and arrhythmic chronotypes.

    PubMed

    Bhagwandin, A; Gravett, N; Hemingway, J; Oosthuizen, M K; Bennett, N C; Siegel, J M; Manger, P R

    2011-12-29

    In the present study, orexinergic cell bodies within the brains of rhythmic and arrhythmic circadian chronotypes from three species of African mole rat (Highveld mole rat-Cryptomys hottentotus pretoriae, Ansell's mole rat--Fukomys anselli and the Damaraland mole rat--Fukomys damarensis) were identified using immunohistochemistry for orexin-A. Immunopositive orexinergic (Orx+) cell bodies were stereologically assessed and absolute numbers of orexinergic cell bodies were determined for the distinct circadian chronotypes of each species of mole rat examined. The aim of the study was to investigate whether the absolute numbers of identified orexinergic neurons differs between distinct circadian chronotypes with the hypothesis of elevated hypothalamic orexinergic neurons in the arrhythmic chronotypes compared with the rhythmic chronotypes. We found statistically significant differences between the circadian chronotypes ofF. anselli, where the arrhythmic group had higher mean numbers of hypothalamic orexin neurons compared with the rhythmic group. These differences were observed when the raw data was compared and when the raw data was corrected for body mass (M(b)) and brain mass (M(br)). For the two other species investigated, no significant differences were noted between the chronotypes, although a statistically significant difference was noted between all rhythmic and arrhythmic individuals of the current study when the counts of orexin neurons were corrected for M(b)--the arrhythmic individuals had larger numbers of orexin cells.

  18. Fasting metabolism and thermoregulatory competence of the star-nosed mole, Condylura cristata (Talpidae: Condylurinae).

    PubMed

    Campbell, K L; McIntyre, I W; MacArthur, R A

    1999-07-01

    Metabolic and body temperature (Tb) responses of star-nosed moles (Condylura cristata) exposed to air temperatures ranging from 0 to 33 degrees C were investigated. The thermoneutral zone of this semi-aquatic mole extended from 24.5 to 33 degrees C, over which its basal rate of metabolism averaged 2.25 ml O2 g-1 h-1 (45.16 J g-1 h-1). This rate of metabolism is higher than predicted for terrestrial forms, and substantially higher than for other moles examined to date. Minimum thermal conductance was nearly identical to that predicted for similar-sized eutherians and may represent a compromise between the need to dissipate heat while digging and foraging in subterranean burrows, and the need to conserve heat and avoid hypothermia during exposure to cold. C. cristata precisely regulated Tb (mean +/- SE = 37.7 +/- 0.05 degrees C) over the entire range of test temperatures. Over three separate 24-h periods, Tb of a radio-implanted mole varied from 36.6 to 38.8 degrees C, and generally tracked level of activity. No obvious circadian variation in Tb and activity was apparent, although cyclic 2-4 h intervals of activity punctuated by periods of inactivity lasting 3-5 h were routinely observed. We suggest that the elevated basal metabolic rate and relatively high Tb of star-nosed moles may reflect the semi-aquatic habits of this unique talpid.

  19. Differences in cooperative behavior among Damaraland mole rats are consequences of an age-related polyethism.

    PubMed

    Zöttl, Markus; Vullioud, Philippe; Mendonça, Rute; Torrents Ticó, Miquel; Gaynor, David; Mitchell, Adam; Clutton-Brock, Tim

    2016-09-13

    In many cooperative breeders, the contributions of helpers to cooperative activities change with age, resulting in age-related polyethisms. In contrast, some studies of social mole rats (including naked mole rats, Heterocephalus glaber, and Damaraland mole rats, Fukomys damarensis) suggest that individual differences in cooperative behavior are the result of divergent developmental pathways, leading to discrete and permanent functional categories of helpers that resemble the caste systems found in eusocial insects. Here we show that, in Damaraland mole rats, individual contributions to cooperative behavior increase with age and are higher in fast-growing individuals. Individual contributions to different cooperative tasks are intercorrelated and repeatability of cooperative behavior is similar to that found in other cooperatively breeding vertebrates. Our data provide no evidence that nonreproductive individuals show divergent developmental pathways or specialize in particular tasks. Instead of representing a caste system, variation in the behavior of nonreproductive individuals in Damaraland mole rats closely resembles that found in other cooperatively breeding mammals and appears to be a consequence of age-related polyethism.

  20. Japanese Experiences: "Hentai" Narratives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kama, Amit

    2011-01-01

    For those acquainted with Japanese lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) issues, "Queer Voices from Japan" can be good reading. But with only 1 of its 22 chapters informative for researchers, those interested in LGBT youth studies will only indirectly gain insight into a non-Western perspective on youth and sexuality.

  1. Japanese American Intermarriage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Endo, Russell; Hirokawa, Dale

    Data for this study of Japanese American intermarriage in Denver (Colorado) from 1910-11 to 1980-81 were collected from marriage records in the Office of the Clerk and Recorder for the City and County of Denver. In order to compare intermarriage trends with available census figures (mostly on population size and sex composition), records were…

  2. Reflections on Japanese Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pegels, Joyce

    1979-01-01

    Describes the educational system in Japan and outlines a secondary level social studies unit. Topics include the agricultural, industrial, artistic, and religious aspects of Japan. The author observed a genuine "term spirit" among Japanese students, greater respect for school property, and a heightened awareness for the value of education. (KC)

  3. Japanese Temple Geometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vincent, Jill; Vincent, Claire

    2004-01-01

    Between the 17th and 19th centuries, the Japanese government closed its borders to the outside world in an attempt to become more powerful. Foreign books were banned, people could not travel, and foreigners were not allowed to enter the country. One result of this isolation was the flourishing of sangaku--wooden tablets inscribed with intricately…

  4. Reciprocal Predicates in Japanese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ishii, Yasuo

    A study of reciprocals in Japanese compares two kinds: (1) a verbal suffix "aw"; and (2) an NP argument "otagai." Although "otagai" appears to be taken care of by syntactic binding theory, it is proposed that there is no evidence for the existence of a syntactic position of the object NP in the case of "aw." The suffix can be characterized as…

  5. A multi-locus phylogeny of Nectogalini shrews and influences of the paleoclimate on speciation and evolution.

    PubMed

    He, Kai; Li, Ya-Jie; Brandley, Matthew C; Lin, Liang-Kong; Wang, Ying-Xiang; Zhang, Ya-Ping; Jiang, Xue-Long

    2010-08-01

    Nectogaline shrews are a major component of the small mammalian fauna of Europe and Asia, and are notable for their diverse ecology, including utilization of aquatic habitats. So far, molecular phylogenetic analyses including nectogaline species have been unable to infer a well-resolved, well-supported phylogeny, thus limiting the power of comparative evolutionary and ecological analyses of the group. Here, we employ Bayesian phylogenetic analyses of eight mitochondrial and three nuclear genes to infer the phylogenetic relationships of nectogaline shrews. We subsequently use this phylogeny to assess the genetic diversity within the genus Episoriculus, and determine whether adaptation to aquatic habitats evolved independently multiple times. Moreover, we both analyze the fossil record and employ Bayesian relaxed clock divergence dating analyses of DNA to assess the impact of historical global climate change on the biogeography of Nectogalini. We infer strong support for the polyphyly of the genus Episoriculus. We also find strong evidence that the ability to heavily utilize aquatic habitats evolved independently in both Neomys and Chimarrogale+Nectogale lineages. Our Bayesian molecular divergence analysis suggests that the early history of Nectogalini is characterized by a rapid radiation at the Miocene/Pliocene boundary, thus potentially explaining the lack of resolution at the base of the tree. Finally, we find evidence that nectogalines once inhabited northern latitudes, but the global cooling and desiccating events at the Miocene/Pliocene and Pliocene/Pleistocene boundaries and Pleistocene glaciation resulted in the migration of most Nectogalini lineages to their present day southern distribution. PMID:20363345

  6. Cholesterol induces lipoprotein lipase expression in a tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri chinensis) model of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Linqiang; Zhang, Zhiguo; Li, Yunhai; Liao, Shasha; Wu, Xiaoyun; Chang, Qing; Liang, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Animal models are indispensible to investigate the pathogenesis and treatments of non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases (NAFLD). Altered cholesterol metabolism has been implicated into the pathogenesis of NAFLD. Here, using high fat, cholesterol and cholate diet (HFHC), we generated a novel tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri chinensis) model of NAFLD, which displayed dyslipidemia with increased levels of plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-c) and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-c), but decreased level of triglycerides (TG). Liver histopathology and genes expression indicated that HFHC diet successfully induced liver steatosis to inflammation and fibrosis progressively within 10 weeks. Moreover, HFHC induced the transcriptional expression of lipoprotein lipase (lpl) in the liver, but repressed the expression of LDL receptor, and the endogenous synthesis pathway and excretion of cholesterol. Notably, Poloxamer 407 (P-407) inhibition of LPL improved the severity of steatosis and reduced inflammation. These results illustrated that LPL plays an important role in cholesterol metabolism in NAFLD, and the tree shrew may be a valuable animal model for further research into NAFLD. PMID:26522240

  7. [Genetic Structure of the Common Shrew Sorex araneus L. 1758 (Mammalia, Lipotyphla) in Continuous and Fragmented Areas].

    PubMed

    Grigoryeva, O O; Borisova, Yu M; Stakheev, V V; Balakirev, A E; Krivonogov, D M; Orlov, V N

    2015-06-01

    In this work the genetic variability of the common shrew populations Sorex araneus L. in Eastern Europe was studied via sequencing of the mitochondrial gene cyt b. A total of 82 sequences of the mitochondrial gene cyt b with a length of 953 basepairs were analyzed, including five chromosome races in a continuous area of the species in forest zone and two races in fragmented area in the steppe zone. Phylogeographic subdivision of the common shrew was not expressed, and there was no significant correlation between genetic and geographic distances in continuous areas. We did not acquire convincing evidence of the influence of narrow hybrid zones between chromosome races on the flow of neutral alleles. A significant p-distance (0.69 ± 0.27%) of geographically close populations of the chromosome race Neroosa indicates the formation of the karyotype of this race in the Pliocene or Pleistocene. In our work, the phylogeographic structure was determined more by species area fragmentation than by its karyotypic features. PMID:26310034

  8. Molecular Phylogeny Supports Repeated Adaptation to Burrowing within Small-Eared Shrews Genus of Cryptotis (Eulipotyphla, Soricidae).

    PubMed

    He, Kai; Woodman, Neal; Boaglio, Sean; Roberts, Mariel; Supekar, Sunjana; Maldonado, Jesús E

    2015-01-01

    Small-eared shrews of the New World genus Cryptotis (Eulipotyphla, Soricidae) comprise at least 42 species that traditionally have been partitioned among four or more species groups based on morphological characters. The Cryptotis mexicana species group is of particular interest, because its member species inhibit a subtly graded series of forelimb adaptations that appear to correspond to locomotory behaviors that range from more ambulatory to more fossorial. Unfortunately, the evolutionary relationships both among species in the C. mexicana group and among the species groups remain unclear. To better understand the phylogeny of this group of shrews, we sequenced two mitochondrial and two nuclear genes. To help interpret the pattern and direction of morphological changes, we also generated a matrix of morphological characters focused on the evolutionarily plastic humerus. We found significant discordant between the resulting molecular and morphological trees, suggesting considerable convergence in the evolution of the humerus. Our results indicate that adaptations for increased burrowing ability evolved repeatedly within the genus Cryptotis. PMID:26489020

  9. Genomic Characterization of Yogue, Kasokero, Issyk-Kul, Keterah, Gossas, and Thiafora Viruses: Nairoviruses Naturally Infecting Bats, Shrews, and Ticks.

    PubMed

    Walker, Peter J; Widen, Steven G; Firth, Cadhla; Blasdell, Kim R; Wood, Thomas G; Travassos da Rosa, Amelia P A; Guzman, Hilda; Tesh, Robert B; Vasilakis, Nikos

    2015-11-01

    The genus Nairovirus of arthropod-borne bunyaviruses includes the important emerging human pathogen, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), as well as Nairobi sheep disease virus and many other poorly described viruses isolated from mammals, birds, and ticks. Here, we report genome sequence analysis of six nairoviruses: Thiafora virus (TFAV) that was isolated from a shrew in Senegal; Yogue (YOGV), Kasokero (KKOV), and Gossas (GOSV) viruses isolated from bats in Senegal and Uganda; Issyk-Kul virus (IKV) isolated from bats in Kyrgyzstan; and Keterah virus (KTRV) isolated from ticks infesting a bat in Malaysia. The S, M, and L genome segments of each virus were found to encode proteins corresponding to the nucleoprotein, polyglycoprotein, and polymerase protein of CCHFV. However, as observed in Leopards Hill virus (LPHV) and Erve virus (ERVV), polyglycoproteins encoded in the M segment lack sequences encoding the double-membrane-spanning CCHFV NSm protein. Amino acid sequence identities, complement-fixation tests, and phylogenetic analysis indicated that these viruses cluster into three groups comprising KKOV, YOGV, and LPHV from bats of the suborder Yingochiroptera; KTRV, IKV, and GOSV from bats of the suborder Yangochiroptera; and TFAV and ERVV from shrews (Soricomorpha: Soricidae). This reflects clade-specific host and vector associations that extend across the genus. PMID:26324724

  10. Functional skeletal morphology and its implications for locomotory behavior among three genera of myosoricine shrews (Mammalia: Eulipotyphla: Soricidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodman, Neal; Stabile, Frank A.

    2015-01-01

    Myosoricinae is a small clade of shrews (Mammalia, Eulipotyphla, Soricidae) that is currently restricted to the African continent. Individual species have limited distributions that are often associated with higher elevations. Although the majority of species in the subfamily are considered ambulatory in their locomotory behavior, species of the myosoricine genus Surdisorex are known to be semifossorial. To better characterize variation in locomotory behaviors among myosoricines, we calculated 32 morphological indices from skeletal measurements from nine species representing all three genera that comprise the subfamily (i.e., Congosorex, Myosorex, Surdisorex) and compared them to indices calculated for two species with well-documented locomotory behaviors: the ambulatory talpid Uropsilus soricipes and the semifossorial talpid Neurotrichus gibbsii. We summarized the 22 most complete morphological variables by 1) calculating a mean percentile rank for each species and 2) using the first principal component from principal component analysis of the indices. The two methods yielded similar results and indicate grades of adaptations reflecting a range of potential locomotory behaviors from ambulatory to semifossorial that exceeds the range represented by the two talpids. Morphological variation reflecting grades of increased semifossoriality among myosoricine shrews is similar in many respects to that seen for soricines, but some features are unique to the Myosoricinae.

  11. Molecular Phylogeny Supports Repeated Adaptation to Burrowing within Small-Eared Shrews Genus of Cryptotis (Eulipotyphla, Soricidae)

    PubMed Central

    He, Kai; Woodman, Neal; Boaglio, Sean; Roberts, Mariel; Supekar, Sunjana; Maldonado, Jesús E.

    2015-01-01

    Small-eared shrews of the New World genus Cryptotis (Eulipotyphla, Soricidae) comprise at least 42 species that traditionally have been partitioned among four or more species groups based on morphological characters. The Cryptotis mexicana species group is of particular interest, because its member species inhibit a subtly graded series of forelimb adaptations that appear to correspond to locomotory behaviors that range from more ambulatory to more fossorial. Unfortunately, the evolutionary relationships both among species in the C. mexicana group and among the species groups remain unclear. To better understand the phylogeny of this group of shrews, we sequenced two mitochondrial and two nuclear genes. To help interpret the pattern and direction of morphological changes, we also generated a matrix of morphological characters focused on the evolutionarily plastic humerus. We found significant discordant between the resulting molecular and morphological trees, suggesting considerable convergence in the evolution of the humerus. Our results indicate that adaptations for increased burrowing ability evolved repeatedly within the genus Cryptotis. PMID:26489020

  12. Loss of RIG-I leads to a functional replacement with MDA5 in the Chinese tree shrew.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ling; Yu, Dandan; Fan, Yu; Peng, Li; Wu, Yong; Yao, Yong-Gang

    2016-09-27

    The function of the RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs; including RIG-I, MDA5, and LGP2) as key cytoplasmic sensors of viral pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) has been subjected to numerous pathogenic challenges and has undergone a dynamic evolution. We found evolutionary evidence that RIG-I was lost in the Chinese tree shrew lineage. Along with the loss of RIG-I, both MDA5 (tMDA5) and LGP2 (tLGP2) have undergone strong positive selection in the tree shrew. tMDA5 or tMDA5/tLGP2 could sense Sendai virus (an RNA virus posed as a RIG-I agonist) for inducing type I IFN, although conventional RIG-I and MDA5 were thought to recognize distinct RNA structures and viruses. tMDA5 interacted with adaptor tMITA (STINGTMEM173/ERIS), which was reported to bind only with RIG-I. The positively selected sites in tMDA5 endowed the substitute function for the lost RIG-I. These findings provided insights into the adaptation and functional diversity of innate antiviral activity in vertebrates. PMID:27621475

  13. Prevalence of leptospirosis and toxoplasmosis: a study of rodents and shrews in cultivated and fallow land, Morogoro rural district, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Mgode, Georgies F; Katakweba, Abdul S; Mhamphi, Ginethon G; Fwalo, Frank; Bahari, Mohamed; Mdangi, Mashaka; Kilonzo, Bukheti S; Mulungu, Loth S

    2014-07-01

    Leptospirosis and toxoplasmosis are among understudied zoonotic diseases that are also not diagnosed routinely in Tanzania. Humans get leptospirosis and toxoplasmosis through contact with an environment contaminated with Leptospira bacteria and Toxoplasma protozoa from reservoir hosts, which are rodents and cats, respectively. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of Leptospira and Toxoplasma infections in rodents and shrews in Mikese area of Morogoro Rural District in eastern Tanzania. A total of 89 rodents and one shrew from cultivated and fallow land were tested for leptospirosis using six Leptospira serovars: Sokoine, Kenya, Canicola, Lora, Hebdomadis and Pomona. Toxoplasmosis was determined in 46 rodents brain smears. The prevalence of leptospirosis was 25.8%, and Leptospira serovar Sokoine was the most prevalent serovar (16.9%). Toxoplasma was detected in one rodent (2.17%) individual while three rodent individuals had Toxoplasma-like parasites hence were considered suspect positive. Findings suggest potential existence of human leptospirosis which needs to be further investigated. Public awareness of leptospirosis and toxoplasmosis should be promoted and their diagnosis considered in patients in health care facilities.

  14. Energy-Gap Dependence on the Mn Mole Fraction and Temperature in Cdmnte Crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, K.; Bolotnikov, A; Camarda, G; Yang, G; Hossain, A; Cui, Y; James, r; Hong, J; Kim, S

    2009-01-01

    We measured the dependence of the energy gap in Bridgman-grown Cd1-xMnxTe crystals, 0 {le} x {le} 0.25, on the Mn mole fraction and temperatures from 40 to 300 K. We determined the Mn mole fraction and energy gap, respectively, from electron probe microanalysis and near-infrared Fourier-transform infrared transmission spectra. The energy gap increased linearly with an increase in the Mn content in the crystal and with a decrease in temperature. We formulated new equations from these experimental results, wherein we expressed the energy gap as a function of Mn mole fraction and temperature. Also, we compare our findings with published results.

  15. Mole fraction imaging of transverse injection in a ducted supersonic flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbitt, John D. Iii; Hartfield, Roy J.; Mcdaniel, James C.

    1989-01-01

    Laser-induced iodine fluorescence has been used to generate two-dimensional images of the mixing characteristics of air injected transversely as underexpanded jets behind a rearward-facing step into a ducted Mach 2 freestream; the images thus obtained were processed digitally in order to yield planar-injectant mole fraction distributions. The resulting planar images represent a three-dimensional data base of the injectant mole fraction distribution throughout the flowfield which is then used to reconstruct images exhibiting mole-fraction distributions normal to the duct. These images furnish a direct representation of the evolution of supersonic mixing along the duct, and facilitate the development of one-dimensional mixing schedules on the basis of the three-dimensional data base.

  16. Anesthetic management of a patient with hyperthyroidism due to hydatidiform mole.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Shigekiyo; Shingu, Chihiro; Hidaka, Seigo; Goto, Koji; Hagiwara, Satoshi; Iwasaka, Hideo; Noguchi, Takayuki

    2009-01-01

    Secondary hyperthyroidism can often complicate gestational trophoblastic disease, a malignant uterine cancer. We report here the perioperative management of hyperthyroidism due to hydatidiform mole. A 53-year-old woman underwent emergency surgery due to suspicion of hydatidiform mole. Tachycardiac atrial fibrillation was detected by electrocardiography at the preoperative examination. No abnormalities were found in blood count, coagulation, biochemical tests, chest radiographs, or respiratory function. General anesthesia with nitrous oxide, oxygen, and sevoflurane, combined with fentanyl and 1% mepivacaine, was administered intermittently from an epidural catheter. Intraoperative events included hypotension and tachycardia, although in general, tachycardia was prevented with antiarrhythmic agents and transfusion with a plasma expander and crystalloid fluid. Hyperthyroidism was highly suspected from the patient's clinical course and was confirmed by high levels of preoperative serum free triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4). The patient became euthyroid within a few days after mole evacuation and did not require an antiarrhythmic agent after her return to the inpatient ward. PMID:19921374

  17. Fossil shrews from Honduras and their significance for late glacial evolution in body size (Mammalia: Soricidae: Cryptotis)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodman, N.; Croft, D.A.

    2005-01-01

    Our study of mammalian remains excavated in the 1940s from McGrew Cave, north of Copan, Honduras, yielded an assemblage of 29 taxa that probably accumulated predominantly as the result of predation by owls. Among the taxa present are three species of small-eared shrews, genus Cryptotis. One species, Cryptotis merriami, is relatively rare among the fossil remains. The other two shrews, Cryptotis goodwini and Cryptotis orophila, are abundant and exhibit morpho metrical variation distinguishing them from modern populations. Fossils of C. goodwini are distinctly and consistently smaller than modern members of the species. To quantify the size differences, we derived common measures of body size for fossil C. goodwini using regression models based on modern samples of shrews in the Cryptotis mexicana-group. Estimated mean length of head and body for the fossil sample is 72-79 mm, and estimated mean mass is 7.6-9.6 g. These numbers indicate that the fossil sample averaged 6-14% smaller in head and body length and 39-52% less in mass than the modern sample and that increases of 6-17% in head and body length and 65-108% in mass occurred to achieve the mean body size of the modern sample. Conservative estimates of fresh (wet) food intake based on mass indicate that such a size increase would require a 37-58% increase in daily food consumption. In contrast to C. goodwini, fossil C. orophila from the cave is not different in mean body size from modern samples. The fossil sample does, however, show slightly greater variation in size than is currently present throughout the modern geographical distribution of the taxon. Moreover, variation in some other dental and mandibular characters is more constrained, exhibiting a more direct relationship to overall size. Our study of these species indicates that North American shrews have not all been static in size through time, as suggested by some previous work with fossil soricids. Lack of stratigraphic control within the site and our

  18. Moles of a Substance per Cell Is a Highly Informative Dosing Metric in Cell Culture

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Brett A.; Buettner, Garry R.

    2015-01-01

    Background The biological consequences upon exposure of cells in culture to a dose of xenobiotic are not only dependent on biological variables, but also the physical aspects of experiments e.g. cell number and media volume. Dependence on physical aspects is often overlooked due to the unrecognized ambiguity in the dominant metric used to express exposure, i.e. initial concentration of xenobiotic delivered to the culture medium over the cells. We hypothesize that for many xenobiotics, specifying dose as moles per cell will reduce this ambiguity. Dose as moles per cell can also provide additional information not easily obtainable with traditional dosing metrics. Methods Here, 1,4-benzoquinone and oligomycin A are used as model compounds to investigate moles per cell as an informative dosing metric. Mechanistic insight into reactions with intracellular molecules, differences between sequential and bolus addition of xenobiotic and the influence of cell volume and protein content on toxicity are also investigated. Results When the dose of 1,4-benzoquinone or oligomycin A was specified as moles per cell, toxicity was independent of the physical conditions used (number of cells, volume of medium). When using moles per cell as a dose-metric, direct quantitative comparisons can be made between biochemical or biological endpoints and the dose of xenobiotic applied. For example, the toxicity of 1,4-benzoquinone correlated inversely with intracellular volume for all five cell lines exposed (C6, MDA-MB231, A549, MIA PaCa-2, and HepG2). Conclusions Moles per cell is a useful and informative dosing metric in cell culture. This dosing metric is a scalable parameter that: can reduce ambiguity between experiments having different physical conditions; provides additional mechanistic information; allows direct comparison between different cells; affords a more uniform platform for experimental design; addresses the important issue of repeatability of experimental results, and could

  19. The Naked Mole-Rat Response to Oxidative Stress: Just Deal with It

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Kaitlyn N.; Andziak, Blazej; Yang, Ting

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Significance: The oxidative stress theory of aging has been the most widely accepted theory of aging providing insights into why we age and die for over 50 years, despite mounting evidence from a multitude of species indicating that there is no direct relationship between reactive oxygen species (ROS) and longevity. Here we explore how different species, including the longest lived rodent, the naked mole-rat, have defied the most predominant aging theory. Recent Advances: In the case of extremely long-lived naked mole-rat, levels of ROS production are found to be similar to mice, antioxidant defenses unexceptional, and even under constitutive conditions, naked mole-rats combine a pro-oxidant intracellular milieu with high, steady state levels of oxidative damage. Clearly, naked mole-rats can tolerate this level of oxidative stress and must have mechanisms in place to prevent its translation into potentially lethal diseases. Critical Issues: In addition to the naked mole-rat, other species from across the phylogenetic spectrum and even certain mouse strains do not support this theory. Moreover, overexpressing or knocking down antioxidant levels alters levels of oxidative damage and even cancer incidence, but does not modulate lifespan. Future Directions: Perhaps, it is not oxidative stress that modulates healthspan and longevity, but other cytoprotective mechanisms that allow animals to deal with high levels of oxidative damage and stress, and nevertheless live long, relatively healthy lifespans. Studying these mechanisms in uniquely long-lived species, like the naked mole-rat, may help us tease out the key contributors to aging and longevity. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 19, 1388–1399. PMID:23025341

  20. Mechanical Performance of Rat, Mouse and Mole Spring Traps, and Possible Implications for Welfare Performance

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Sandra E.; Ellwood, Stephen A.; Tagarielli, Vito L.; Macdonald, David W.

    2012-01-01

    Lethal spring traps are widely used for killing small mammals in the UK. Many require government approval, based primarily on humaneness. However, mole traps and break-back traps for rats and mice are exempt; those available vary widely in price and apparent quality. The EU is considering implementing a Trapping Directive that would alter UK legislation, and a recent report advised the EU that trapping legislation should cover all trapped species and encourage improvement of traps. Mechanical trap performance is often used as an indicator of welfare impact. We examined the mechanical evidence for scope to improve the welfare standards of rat, mouse and mole spring traps. We measured mechanical performance among a range of rat, mouse and mole traps. Impact momentum values varied 6-8 fold, and clamping force values 4-5.5 fold, among traps for killing each species. There was considerable overlap in the performance of rat and mouse traps. Trap-opening angle and spring type were related to impact momentum and clamping force in traps for both species. There was no relationship between price and mechanical performance in traps for any species, except talpa mole traps. We are unable to judge the direct welfare impact of the traps tested, but rather the potential welfare threat associated with their exemption from approval. The wide variation in mechanical performance in traps for each species, overlap in performance between rat and mouse traps and increasing availability of weaker plastic rodent traps indicate considerable scope for improving the humaneness of spring traps for rats, mice and moles. We conclude that all such traps should be subject to the UK approval process. New welfare categories might improve trap standards further. Our results could also help improve rodent trap design and assist consumers in selecting more powerful traps. Many thousands of rats, mice and moles might benefit. PMID:22768073

  1. High-efficiency plasma display panel based on a high xenon mole fraction

    SciTech Connect

    Uhm, Han S.; Son, Chang G.; Hong, Byung H.; Choi, Eun H.

    2009-09-15

    The luminance efficiency of a plasma display panel is directly related to the vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) light emitted from excited xenon atoms and molecules. The emission efficiency of 173 nm VUV light is measured in terms of the xenon mole fraction ({chi}) and is shown to become considerably enhanced at a high xenon mole fraction. For example, the emission efficiency at {chi}=0.35 under a pressure of 400 Torr is more than 2.5 times that at {chi}=0.1. The experimental data agree remarkably well with theoretical predictions.

  2. A Mitochondrial Phylogeny and Biogeographical Scenario for Asiatic Water Shrews of the Genus Chimarrogale: Implications for Taxonomy and Low-Latitude Migration Routes

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Shou-Li; Jiang, Xue-Long; Li, Zhen-Ji; He, Kai; Harada, Masashi; Oshida, Tatsuo; Lin, Liang-Kong

    2013-01-01

    The six species and three subspecies in the genus Chimarrogale (Soricomorpha: Soricidae) are commonly referred to as Asiatic water shrews. The Chimarrogale are the most widely distributed group of Nectogaline shrews, extending throughout the Oriental region and Japan. Because of the limited numbers of specimens available for study, the phylogenetic relationships and biogeographical history of this genus have not been comprehensively discussed. We used mitochondrial cytochrome b gene sequences to estimate phylogenetic relationships and divergence times among four Chimarrogale species, including all three subspecies of Chimarrogale himalayica. We also conducted a species delimitation analysis and tested two alternative migration scenarios in Asia through species distribution modeling and a reconstruction of the ancestral distribution. Here, we present the first proposed hypothesis regarding the Asiatic water shrew phylogeny and reveal ten putative species within the four recognized species. Distinct phylogenetic statuses of Chimarrogale phaeura, Chimarrogale platycephala, and Chimarrogale styani were confirmed. Chimarrogale himalayica was strongly supported as paraphyletic. We suggest that three subspecies of Chimarrogale himalayica should be reconsidered as distinct species. However, these suggestions must be considered with caution because only a single locus of a mtDNA gene was used. Four additional putative species, possibly distributed in central southwestern China and Taiwan, are currently undescribed; therefore, comprehensive morphological analyses are warranted to test their taxonomic statuses. The estimated molecular divergence times indicated that rapid speciation occurred during the early Pliocene, and current distribution patterns may have been affected by global cooling during the Pliocene/Pleistocene boundary. Reconstruction of the ancestral distribution and species distribution modeling for Asiatic water shrews revealed a low-latitude migration route

  3. Fine structure of the parotid gland in tree shrew (Tupaia glis).

    PubMed

    Suzuki, S; Mifune, H; Nishida, T; Obara, T; Kamimura, R; Sakamoto, H; Mohammad Abdul, A; Nishinakagawa, H

    1995-10-01

    The parotid glands of Tupaia glis were examined by light and transmission electron microscopy. The acinar cells were seromucous in nature, and contained many acidophilic granules with strong affinity for periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) and weak affinity for alcian blue (AB). These granules consisted of a fine granular matrix of moderate density in which a denser corpuscles or semilunar materials were present. Intercalated duct cells had a few fine vesicles, vacuoles and very few dense granules in the apical region. In occasional epithelial cells, acidophilic, PAS-positive and AB-negative bodies with moderate density were observed in the supranuclear region. The striated ducts consisted of columnar light and dark cells containing round or small ovoid granules of moderate density and did not show the granular duct as seen in the parotid glands of kobe mole and tenrec which are placed in the order insectivora.

  4. Flowering of Japanese astronomy

    SciTech Connect

    Kozai, Y.

    1988-06-01

    A development history is presented for Japanese astronomy from the 6th century to the present day, together with a status report and account of future plans. About 500 professionals currently belong to the Astronomical Society of Japan. Tokyo's Mitaka Observatory employs a staff of about 70 astronomers; most modern astronomical instruments, however, have been installed at sites outside the Tokyo area. The limitations of present instruments are notably severe for astronomers working in the visible and IR wavelengths.

  5. Japanese technology assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Albus, J.

    1986-01-01

    This series of studies assesses Japanese technology in four of today's most visible high-technology areas. Selected part and chapter titles: COMPUTER SCIENCE - Artificial Intelligence and Man-Machine Interface, Processor Architecture and Computer Organization; OPTO- and MICROELECTRONICS - Metal Contacts to III-V Semi-conductors, Josephson Devices and Technology; MECHATRONICS - Flexible Manufacturing Systems Development, Manipulators/Actuators; BIOTECHNOLOGY - Genetic Information Transfer Biosensors.

  6. Suicide of Japanese Youth.

    PubMed

    Iga, M

    1981-01-01

    The uniquely intense stress due to the Examination Hell (shiken jigoku) not only generates a basic drive for Japan's economic success but also contributes to a high rate of young people's suicide. This paper discusses the major factors in the intensity of Japanese stress on both institutional and psychological levels. The social structural factors which convert stress to suicide are analyzed in terms of weak ego; restraint on aggression; a lack of social resources; and views of life, death and suicide. Japanese views of life, death and suicide are treated in terms of Absolute phenomenalism, the original form of Shintoism, to which Buddhism and Confucianism have been adjusted in Japan. Japanese phenomenalism affects suicide through its three aspects: animism, present-time oriented small groupism, and the absolute acceptance of the established social order. Confusion and conflict since World War II have increased anomic suicides; however, elements of fatalistic suicide (due to excessive formal or informal social regulations) and altruistic suicide (due to excessive formal or informal social regulations) and altruistic suicide (due to strong social integration) are evident. Suicide is still a highly institutionalized adjustment mechanism in Japan.

  7. A new species of Gryllotalpa mole cricket (Orthoptera: Gryllotalpidae: Gryllotalpinae) from Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Tan, Ming Kai; Kamaruddin, Khairul Nizam

    2016-01-01

    A new species of Gryllotalpa mole cricket (Orthoptera: Gryllotalpidae) is described from Bukit Larut, Perak, Peninsular Malaysia: Gryllotalpa permai sp. n. Acoustic analysis of the male calling songs were also provided for Gryllotalpa permai sp. n. and the morphologically similar Gryllotalpa fulvipes.

  8. Reading about the Power of Music: "Mole Music" and "Children of the Stone"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardany, Audrey Berger

    2016-01-01

    In this article, I review two books that address the power of music for the individual and group. Both books address the benefits of making, learning, and listening to music during times of conflict. The first brief review is David McPhail's picture book "Mole Music." The second is "Children of the Stone: The Power of Music in a…

  9. Water metabolism in the Namib Desert golden mole, Eremitalpa granti namibensis (Chrysochloridae).

    PubMed

    Fielden, L J; Perrin, M R; Hickman, G C

    1990-01-01

    1. Laboratory and field studies of energy and water metabolism employing isotopic dilution methods examined the ability of Namib Desert moles to survive on an insect diet without drinking water. 2. Water independence is achieved through efficient renal function while low rates of energy usage and torpor are further effective in reducing overall water requirements.

  10. Trauma and humanitarian translation in Liberia: the tale of open mole.

    PubMed

    Abramowitz, Sharon Alane

    2010-06-01

    The focus of this paper is the intercultural process through which Open Mole and trauma-related mental illnesses are brought together in the postconflict mental health encounter. In this paper, I explore the historical dimension of this process by reviewing the history of Open Mole, and the ways in which it has been interpreted, acted on, and objectified by external observers over the last half-century. Moving into Liberia's recent war and postconflict period, I examine the process by which Open Mole is transformed from a culture-bound disorder into a local idiom of trauma, and how it has become a gateway diagnosis of PTSD-related mental illnesses, and consider how it is produced as an objectified experience of psychiatric disorder in clinical humanitarian contexts. By studying how Open Mole is transformed in the humanitarian encounter, I address the structure and teleology of the humanitarian encounter and challenge some of the foundational assumptions about cultural sensitivity and community-based mental health care in postconflict settings that are prevalent in scholarship and practice today. PMID:20401629

  11. Somatosensory organ topography across the star of the star-nosed mole (Condylura cristata).

    PubMed

    Sawyer, Eva K; Catania, Kenneth C

    2016-04-01

    Quantifying somatosensory receptor distribution in glabrous skin is usually difficult because of the diversity of skin receptor subtypes and their location within the dermis and epidermis. However, the glabrous noses of moles are an exception. In most species of moles, the skin on the nose is covered with domed mechanosensory units known as an Eimer's organs. Eimer's organs contain a stereotyped array of different mechanosensory neurons, meaning that the distribution of mechanosensitive nerve endings can be inferred by visual inspection of the skin surface. Here we detail the distribution of Eimer's organs on the highly derived somatosensory star on the rostrum of the star-nosed mole (Condylura cristata). The star consists of 22 fleshy appendages, or rays, that are covered in Eimer's organs. We find that the density of Eimer's organs increases from proximal to distal locations along the length of the star's rays with a ratio of 1:2.3:3.1 from the surface nearest to the nostril, to the middle part of ray, to the ray tip, respectively. This ratio is comparable to the increase in receptor unit density reported for the human hand, from the palm, to the middle of the digits, to the distal fingertips. We also note that the tactile fovea of the star-nosed mole, located on the medial ventral ray, does not have increased sensory organ density, and we describe these findings in comparison with other sensory fovea.

  12. Difficulties in Teaching the Concepts of "Amount of Substance" and "Mole."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furio, Carlos; Azcona, Rafael; Guisasola, Jenaro; Ratcliffe, Mary

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the origin and evolution of the meanings of the concepts 'amount of substance' and 'mole'. Identifies serious disagreements about these concepts among chemistry teachers and the recommendations of the international scientific community. Also draws attention to the didactic implications that these epistemological difficulties may have for…

  13. Plasticity and constraints on social evolution in African mole-rats: ultimate and proximate factors

    PubMed Central

    Faulkes, Chris G.; Bennett, Nigel C.

    2013-01-01

    Here, we review comparative studies of African mole-rats (family Bathyergidae) to explain how constraints acting at the ultimate (environmental) and proximate (organismal) levels have led to convergent gains and losses of sociality within this extensive adaptive radiation of subterranean rodents endemic to sub-Saharan Africa. At the ultimate level, living in environments that range from mesic through to arid has led to both variation and flexibility in social organization among species, culminating in the pinnacle of social evolution in the eusocial naked and Damaraland mole-rats (Heterocephalus glaber and Fukomys damarensis). The common mole-rat (Cryptomys hottentotus) provides a model example of how plasticity in social traits exists within a single species inhabiting areas with different ecological constraint. At the proximate level, reproductive strategies and cooperative breeding may be constrained by the correlated evolution of a suite of traits including physiological suppression of reproduction, the development of physiological and morphological castes, and the mode of ovulatory control and seasonality in breeding. Furthermore, recent neurobiological advances indicate that differential patterns of neurotransmitter expression within the forebrain may underpin (and limit) either a solitary or group living/cooperative lifestyle not only in mole-rats, but also more widely among disparate mammalian taxa. PMID:23569295

  14. Family Wide Molecular Adaptations to Underground Life in African Mole-Rats Revealed by Phylogenomic Analysis.

    PubMed

    Davies, Kalina T J; Bennett, Nigel C; Tsagkogeorga, Georgia; Rossiter, Stephen J; Faulkes, Christopher G

    2015-12-01

    During their evolutionary radiation, mammals have colonized diverse habitats. Arguably the subterranean niche is the most inhospitable of these, characterized by reduced oxygen, elevated carbon dioxide, absence of light, scarcity of food, and a substrate that is energetically costly to burrow through. Of all lineages to have transitioned to a subterranean niche, African mole-rats are one of the most successful. Much of their ecological success can be attributed to a diet of plant storage organs, which has allowed them to colonize climatically varied habitats across sub-Saharan Africa, and has probably contributed to the evolution of their diverse social systems. Yet despite their many remarkable phenotypic specializations, little is known about molecular adaptations underlying these traits. To address this, we sequenced the transcriptomes of seven mole-rat taxa, including three solitary species, and combined new sequences with existing genomic data sets. Alignments of more than 13,000 protein-coding genes encompassed, for the first time, all six genera and the full spectrum of ecological and social variation in the clade. We detected positive selection within the mole-rat clade and along ancestral branches in approximately 700 genes including loci associated with tumorigenesis, aging, morphological development, and sociality. By combining these results with gene ontology annotation and protein-protein networks, we identified several clusters of functionally related genes. This family wide analysis of molecular evolution in mole-rats has identified a suite of positively selected genes, deepening our understanding of the extreme phenotypic traits exhibited by this group.

  15. Perimenopausal invasive hyadatidiform mole treated by total abdominal hysterectomy followed by chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Nakashima, Ayaka; Miyoshi, Ai; Miyatake, Takashi; Kazuhide, Ogita; Takeshi, Yokoi

    2016-01-01

    Gestational trophoblastic neoplasias (GTNs) are rare tumors that constitute <1% of all gynecological malignancies. GTNs in postmenopausal women are rare and usually malignant. We present a rare case of an invasive mole of the uterus with metastasis to the right ovary and labium minus treated by total abdominal hysterectomy followed by chemotherapy. PMID:27651108

  16. Perimenopausal invasive hyadatidiform mole treated by total abdominal hysterectomy followed by chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, Ayaka; Miyoshi, Ai; Miyatake, Takashi; Kazuhide, Ogita; Takeshi, Yokoi

    2016-01-01

    Gestational trophoblastic neoplasias (GTNs) are rare tumors that constitute <1% of all gynecological malignancies. GTNs in postmenopausal women are rare and usually malignant. We present a rare case of an invasive mole of the uterus with metastasis to the right ovary and labium minus treated by total abdominal hysterectomy followed by chemotherapy. PMID:27651108

  17. Complete Genome Sequence of Nova Virus, a Hantavirus Circulating in the European Mole in Belgium

    PubMed Central

    Laenen, Lies; Vergote, Valentijn; Nauwelaers, Inne; Verbeeck, Ina; Kafetzopoulou, Liana E.; Van Ranst, Marc

    2015-01-01

    The complete genome sequence of Nova virus, a divergent hantavirus, originating from the kidney tissue of a European mole (Talpa europaea) from Belgium was determined. The 3 genomic segments have a total length of 11,979 nucleotides, and nucleotide identities to other Nova viruses are between 80 and 89%. PMID:26251483

  18. The Atomic Mass Unit, the Avogadro Constant, and the Mole: A Way to Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baranski, Andrzej

    2012-01-01

    Numerous articles have been published that address problems encountered in teaching basic concepts of chemistry such as the atomic mass unit, Avogadro's number, and the mole. The origin of these problems is found in the concept definitions. If these definitions are adjusted for teaching purposes, understanding could be improved. In the present…

  19. Background Mole Fractions of Hydrocarbons in North America Determined from NOAA Global Reference Network Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mielke-Maday, I.

    2015-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Global Monitoring Division (GMD) maintains a global reference network for over 50 trace gas species and analyzes discrete air samples collected by this network throughout the world at the Earth System Research Laboratory in Boulder, Colorado. In particular, flask samples are analyzed for a number of hydrocarbons with policy and health relevance such as ozone precursors, greenhouse gases, and hazardous air pollutants. Because this global network's sites are remote and therefore minimally influenced by local anthropogenic emissions, these data yield information about background ambient mole fractions and can provide a context for observations collected in intensive field campaigns, such as the Front Range Air Pollution and Photochemistry Experiment (FRAPPE), the Southeast Nexus (SENEX) study, and the DISCOVER-AQ deployments. Information about background mole fractions during field campaigns is critical for calculating hydrocarbon enhancements in the region of study and for assessing the extent to which a particular region's local emissions sources contribute to these enhancements. Understanding the geographic variability of the background and its contribution to regional ambient mole fractions is also crucial for the development of realistic regulations. We present background hydrocarbon mole fractions and their ratios in North America using data from air samples collected in the planetary boundary layer at tall towers and aboard aircraft from 2008 to 2014. We discuss the spatial and seasonal variability in these data. We present trends over the time period of measurements and propose possible explanations for these trends.

  20. Identifying the Critical Components for a Conceptual Understanding of the Mole in Secondary Science Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fang, Su-Chi; Hart, Christina; Clarke, David

    2016-01-01

    The amount of substance and its unit the mole is a basic concept in chemistry. However, previous research has shown that teaching and learning the concept are challenging tasks for both teachers and students. The purpose of this study was to pinpoint the problems which emerge in the teaching and learning process, and provide integrated suggestions…

  1. Perimenopausal invasive hyadatidiform mole treated by total abdominal hysterectomy followed by chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Nakashima, Ayaka; Miyoshi, Ai; Miyatake, Takashi; Kazuhide, Ogita; Takeshi, Yokoi

    2016-01-01

    Gestational trophoblastic neoplasias (GTNs) are rare tumors that constitute <1% of all gynecological malignancies. GTNs in postmenopausal women are rare and usually malignant. We present a rare case of an invasive mole of the uterus with metastasis to the right ovary and labium minus treated by total abdominal hysterectomy followed by chemotherapy.

  2. Development of An Instrumented, Modular "mole" For In-situ Subsurface Measurements On Planetary Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, L.; Kochan, H.; Michaelis, H.; Möhlmann, D.; Neuhaus, D.; Popp, J.; Spohn, T.; Stuffler, T.; Tokano, T.; Wernecke, R.

    On the Beagle 2 lander of ESA's Mars Express mission in 2003, a small mechanical "Mole" on a tether will be used to achieve percussive penetration into the Martian regolith to a maximum depth of some 1E1.5 m with the main objective of acquiring subsurface soil samples for analysis on the lander. For future planetary missions it is proposed to develop this concept further in order to accommodate a number of instru- ment sensor heads inside the Mole, enabling different measurements to be performed in the regolith as a function of depth. Such an instrumented, and perhaps even modular, Mole could be utilized to probe the regolith of solar system objects such as Mercury, Mars, the Earth's moon or asteroids. Depending on the mission target, different in- struments to be deployed to the subsurface will be of relevance. Candidates include thermal sensors, volatile detection sensors (including water vapor and adsorbed water for Mars applications), a multispectral imaging sensor head (soil texture and spectral reflectance) and a Raman spectrometer optical head (detailed soil mineralogy). Based on applications on various space missions, most of these instruments are already under development and will be small enough that at least their front ends can be accommo- dated inside a compact cylindrical Mole having an expected internal diameter between 20E35 mm. A particular design challenge is going to be the internal electronics and the electrical/optical interface required to pre-process sensor data and transmit them to the lander above the surface. To minimize the overall mass and length of the instrumented Mole, internal electronics should serve common functions among the accommodated instruments. Another area to be closely studied is temperature rise of the Mole due to its internal dissipation while in the subsurface which could jeopardize thermal mea- surements or could even render internal equipment inoperable. Where the physical integration of sensors is concerned

  3. Unraveling the message: insights into comparative genomics of the naked mole-rat.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Kaitlyn N; Soifer, Ilya; Melamud, Eugene; Roy, Margaret; McIsaac, R Scott; Hibbs, Matthew; Buffenstein, Rochelle

    2016-08-01

    Animals have evolved to survive, and even thrive, in different environments. Genetic adaptations may have indirectly created phenotypes that also resulted in a longer lifespan. One example of this phenomenon is the preternaturally long-lived naked mole-rat. This strictly subterranean rodent tolerates hypoxia, hypercapnia, and soil-based toxins. Naked mole-rats also exhibit pronounced resistance to cancer and an attenuated decline of many physiological characteristics that often decline as mammals age. Elucidating mechanisms that give rise to their unique phenotypes will lead to better understanding of subterranean ecophysiology and biology of aging. Comparative genomics could be a useful tool in this regard. Since the publication of a naked mole-rat genome assembly in 2011, analyses of genomic and transcriptomic data have enabled a clearer understanding of mole-rat evolutionary history and suggested molecular pathways (e.g., NRF2-signaling activation and DNA damage repair mechanisms) that may explain the extraordinarily longevity and unique health traits of this species. However, careful scrutiny and re-analysis suggest that some identified features result from incorrect or imprecise annotation and assembly of the naked mole-rat genome: in addition, some of these conclusions (e.g., genes involved in cancer resistance and hairlessness) are rejected when the analysis includes additional, more closely related species. We describe how the combination of better study design, improved genomic sequencing techniques, and new bioinformatic and data analytical tools will improve comparative genomics and ultimately bridge the gap between traditional model and nonmodel organisms. PMID:27364349

  4. No evidence for mutations in NLRP7 and KHDC3L in women with androgenetic hydatidiform moles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the mutational spectrum of NLRP7 and KHDC3L (C6orf221) in women with sporadic and recurrent androgenetic complete hydatidiform moles (AnCHM) and biparental hydatidiform moles (BiHM) to address the hypothesis that autosomal recessive mutations in these gene...

  5. An Investigation into Chemical Engineering Students' Understanding of the Mole and the Use of Concrete Activities To Promote Conceptual Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Case, Jennifer M.; Fraser, Duncan M.

    1999-01-01

    Describes an investigation of first-year chemical engineering students' understanding of the mole concept. Finds that a series of activities designed to provide students with visual or experiential points of reference for the mole concept had a strong positive effect on student misconceptions. Contains 16 references. (Author/WRM)

  6. A new hantavirus from the stripe-backed shrew (Sorex cylindricauda) in the People's Republic of China.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Shu-Qing; Gong, Zheng-Da; Fang, Li-Qun; Jiang, Jia-Fu; Zhang, Jiu-Song; Zhao, Qiu-Min; Cao, Wu-Chun

    2014-05-12

    Inspired by the recent discovery of genetically distinct hantaviruses from insectivore species worldwide, we performed a small-scale search for insectivore-borne hantaviruses. In this paper, we report the discovery of a new hantavirus, which was designated the Qian Hu Shan virus (QHSV). This virus was detected in the lung tissues of three stripe-backed shrews (Sorex cylindricauda), which were captured in the Yunnan Province, China. The full-length S genomic segment of the representative QHSV strain YN05-284 was 1661 nucleotides and is predicted to encode a nucleocapsid protein of 429 amino acids that starts at nucleotide position 48. It exhibited the highest similarity with other Sorex-related hantaviruses, with 68.1%-72.8% nucleotide and 71.9%-84.4% amino acid sequence identities. An analysis of a 1430-nucleotide region of the partial M segment exhibited approximately 54.4%-79.5% nucleotide and 43.2%-90.8% amino acid sequence identities to other hantaviruses. A comparison of a 432-nucleotide region of the L segment also showed similar degrees of identity, with 68.9%-78.4% nucleotide and 71.1%-93.8% amino acid sequence identities to other hantaviruses. Phylogenetic analyses using Bayesian methods indicated that QHSV shared the most recent common ancestor with other Sorex-related hantaviruses. The host was identified using a morphological assessment and verified using mitochondrial cytochrome b (mt-Cyt b) gene sequencing. A pair-wise comparison of the 1140-nucleotide mt-Cyt b gene sequence from the host demonstrated that the host was close to S. cylindricauda from Nepal with 94.3% identity. The virus-host association tanglegram, which was constructed using the Dendroscope software, indicated that the QHSV phylogeny and the host phylogeny were approximately matched, which suggests no evidence of host switching for QHSV. Our results contribute to a wider viewpoint regarding the heterogeneity of viruses that infect shrews.

  7. Agomelatine in the tree shrew model of depression: effects on stress-induced nocturnal hyperthermia and hormonal status.

    PubMed

    Schmelting, Barthel; Corbach-Söhle, Silke; Kohlhause, Susan; Schlumbohm, Christina; Flügge, Gabriele; Fuchs, Eberhard

    2014-03-01

    The antidepressive drug agomelatine combines the properties of an agonist of melatonergic receptors 1 and 2 with an antagonist of the 5-HT2C receptor. We analyzed the effects of agomelatine in psychosocially stressed male tree shrews, an established preclinical model of depression. Tree shrews experienced daily social stress for a period of 5 weeks and were concomitantly treated with different drugs daily for 4 weeks. The effects of agomelatine (40 mg/kg/day) were compared with those of the agonist melatonin (40 mg/kg/day), the inverse 5-HT2C antagonist S32006 (10mg/kg/day), and the SSRI fluoxetine (15 mg/kg/day). Nocturnal core body temperature (CBT) was recorded by telemetry, and urinary norepinephrine and cortisol concentrations were measured. Chronic social stress induced nocturnal hyperthermia. Agomelatine normalized the CBT in the fourth week of the treatment (T4), whereas the other drugs did not significantly counteract the stress-induced hyperthermia. Agomelatine also reversed the stress-induced reduction in locomotor activity. Norepinephrine concentration was elevated by the stress indicating sympathetic hyperactivity, and was normalized in the stressed animals treated with agomelatine or fluoxetine but not in those treated with melatonin or S32006. Cortisol concentration was elevated by stress but returned to basal levels by T4 in all animals, irrespective of the treatment. These observations show that agomelatine has positive effects to counteract stress-induced physiological processes and to restore the normal rhythm of nocturnal CBT. The data underpin the antidepressant properties of agomelatine and are consistent with a distinctive profile compared to its constituent pharmacological components and other conventional agents.

  8. Distributional records of shrews (Mammalia, Soricomorpha, Soricidae) from Northern Central America with the first record of Sorex from Honduras

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodman, Neal; Matson, John O.; McCarthy, Timothy J.; Eckerlin, Ralph P.; Bulmer, Walter; Ordonez-Garza, Nicte

    2012-01-01

    Short term surveys for small mammals in Guatemala and Honduras during 1992–2009 provided important new records for 12 taxa of shrews from 24 localities. These locality records expand the known geographic distributions for five species and for the genus Sorex Linnaeus, 1758: the geographic range of Cryptotis goodwini Jackson, 1933, now includes the Sierra de las Minas, Guatemala, and several isolated highlands in western Honduras; the known distribution of Cryptotis mayensis (Merriam, 1901) is increased with the first definite modern record for this shrew from Guatemala; Cryptotis merriami Choate, 1970, is now known to occur in the Sierra de las Minas and the Sierra del Merendon, Guatemala, as well as the isolated Sierra de Omoa and Montana de La Muralla in Honduras, and its documented elevational range (600–1720 m) is expanded; records of Sorex veraepacis Alston, 1877, expand the known distribution of this species to include the Sierra de Yalijux, Guatemala; and discovery of Sorex salvini Merriam, 1897, at Celaque, Honduras (1825–3110 m), represents a considerable extension of the geographic range of the species, and it is the first record of the genus Sorex from Honduras. In addition, the first record of potential syntopy among C. goodwini, C merriami, and Cryptotis orophilus (J.A. Allen, 1895), is reported at an elevation of 1430 m in the Sierra de Celaque, Honduras. Information associated with these records contributes substantially to knowledge of habitat use, elevational distributions, reproductive patterns, diet, and parasites of the species encountered. General patterns include the first evidence that Neotropical species of soricids have smaller litters than their temperate congeners.

  9. Agomelatine in the tree shrew model of depression: effects on stress-induced nocturnal hyperthermia and hormonal status.

    PubMed

    Schmelting, Barthel; Corbach-Söhle, Silke; Kohlhause, Susan; Schlumbohm, Christina; Flügge, Gabriele; Fuchs, Eberhard

    2014-03-01

    The antidepressive drug agomelatine combines the properties of an agonist of melatonergic receptors 1 and 2 with an antagonist of the 5-HT2C receptor. We analyzed the effects of agomelatine in psychosocially stressed male tree shrews, an established preclinical model of depression. Tree shrews experienced daily social stress for a period of 5 weeks and were concomitantly treated with different drugs daily for 4 weeks. The effects of agomelatine (40 mg/kg/day) were compared with those of the agonist melatonin (40 mg/kg/day), the inverse 5-HT2C antagonist S32006 (10mg/kg/day), and the SSRI fluoxetine (15 mg/kg/day). Nocturnal core body temperature (CBT) was recorded by telemetry, and urinary norepinephrine and cortisol concentrations were measured. Chronic social stress induced nocturnal hyperthermia. Agomelatine normalized the CBT in the fourth week of the treatment (T4), whereas the other drugs did not significantly counteract the stress-induced hyperthermia. Agomelatine also reversed the stress-induced reduction in locomotor activity. Norepinephrine concentration was elevated by the stress indicating sympathetic hyperactivity, and was normalized in the stressed animals treated with agomelatine or fluoxetine but not in those treated with melatonin or S32006. Cortisol concentration was elevated by stress but returned to basal levels by T4 in all animals, irrespective of the treatment. These observations show that agomelatine has positive effects to counteract stress-induced physiological processes and to restore the normal rhythm of nocturnal CBT. The data underpin the antidepressant properties of agomelatine and are consistent with a distinctive profile compared to its constituent pharmacological components and other conventional agents. PMID:23978391

  10. The effect of intravitreal injection of vehicle solutions on form deprivation myopia in tree shrews.

    PubMed

    Ward, Alexander H; Siegwart, John T; Frost, Michael R; Norton, Thomas T

    2016-04-01

    lntravitreal injection of substances dissolved in a vehicle solution is a common tool used to assess retinal function. We examined the effect of injection procedures (three groups) and vehicle solutions (four groups) on the development of form deprivation myopia (FDM) in juvenile tree shrews, mammals closely related to primates, starting at 24 days of visual experience (about 45 days of age). In seven groups (n = 7 per group), the myopia produced by monocular form deprivation (FD) was measured daily for 12 days during an 11-day treatment period. The FD eye was randomly selected; the contralateral eye served as an untreated control. The refractive state of both eyes was measured daily, starting just before FD began (day 1); axial component dimensions were measured on day 1 and after eleven days of treatment (day 12). Procedure groups: the myopia (treated eye - control eye refraction) in the FD group was the reference. The sham group only underwent brief daily anesthesia and opening of the conjunctiva to expose the sclera. The puncture group, in addition, had a pipette inserted daily into the vitreous. In four vehicle groups, 5 μL of vehicle was injected daily. The NaCl group received 0.85% NaCl. In the NaCl + ascorbic acid group, 1 mg/mL of ascorbic acid was added. The water group received sterile water. The water + ascorbic acid group received water with ascorbic acid (1 mg/mL). We found that the procedures associated with intravitreal injections (anesthesia, opening of the conjunctiva, and puncture of the sclera) did not significantly affect the development of FDM. However, injecting 5 μL of any of the four vehicle solutions slowed the development of FDM. NaCl had a small effect; myopia development in the last 6 days (-0.15 ± 0.08 D/day) was significantly less than in the FD group (-0.55 ± 0.06 D/day). NaCl + Ascorbic acid further slowed the development of FDM on several treatment days. H2O (-0.09 ± 0.05 D/day) and H2O + ascorbic acid

  11. Issei: Japanese Immigrants in Hawaii.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimura, Yukiko

    Coming to Hawaii before July 1, 1924, when the Japanese Exclusion Act became effective, the experiences of the Issei or first generation are described. Divided into four parts, this book examines the experiences of Japanese immigrants in Hawaii from 1885 through 1970. Part 1, "The Formation and Stabilization of the Issei Community," explores the…

  12. Counseling Japanese Men on Fathering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seto, Atsuko; Becker, Kent W.; Akutsu, Motoko

    2006-01-01

    The authors review an article (J. Yamamoto & F. Tagami, 2004) published in the "Japanese Journal of Counseling Science" that described changes in contemporary Japanese family structures and illustrated a therapy process with a father to enhance the father-son relationship. Implications for the counseling profession in working with men on…

  13. Language Habits of the Japanese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinosita, Koreo

    1988-01-01

    Contrasts Japanese language habits with Western language habits, asserting that Japanese need to speak more concisely, express themselves clearly and frankly, and eliminate superfluous polite language and preliminaries in order to be successful in the efficiency-oriented civilization that is a product of Western culture. (RAE)

  14. Asian Pacific Perspectives: Japanese Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Los Angeles Unified School District, CA.

    These instructional materials on Japanese Americans for elementary students were developed through the K.E.Y.S. project (Knowledge of English Yields Success). Information is included on early immigrants, their historical and cultural background, and current problems of Japanese Americans. Resource guides describe the purpose of the unit, how to…

  15. A GLOSSARY OF JAPANESE NEOLOGISMS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BAILEY, DON C.

    THIS GLOSSARY COMPRISES A LIST OF USEFUL NEW WORDS AND PHRASES IN CURRENT USE NOT FOUND IN JAPANESE-ENGLISH DICTIONARIES, SPECIFICALLY KENKYUSHA'S NEW JAPANESE-ENGLISH DICTIONARY, 1954 EDITION, WHICH HAS SERVED AS THE MODEL IN MOST RESPECTS FOR THE FORMAT AND STYLE. ROMANIZATION OF THE ORTHOGRAPHY FOLLOWS A MODIFIED HEPBURN SYSTEM AND THE JAPANESE…

  16. Moles (Nevi)

    MedlinePlus

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  17. Hydatidiform mole

    MedlinePlus

    ... tissue that is supposed to develop into the placenta. The placenta feeds the fetus during pregnancy. With a molar ... masses: Partial molar pregnancy. There is an abnormal placenta and some fetal development. Complete molar pregnancy. There ...

  18. Mole (Nevus)

    MedlinePlus

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  19. Atypical Moles

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sections of the JAOCD JAOCD Archive Published Members Online Dermatology Journals Edit This Favorite Name: Category: Share: Yes ... 2/2017 2017 AOCD Spring Current Concepts in Dermatology Meeting more Latest News ... Surveys About AOCD The AOCD was recognized in ...

  20. Sociality and the telencephalic distribution of corticotrophin-releasing factor, urocortin 3, and binding sites for CRF type 1 and type 2 receptors: A comparative study of eusocial naked mole-rats and solitary Cape mole-rats.

    PubMed

    Coen, Clive W; Kalamatianos, Theodosis; Oosthuizen, Maria K; Poorun, Ravi; Faulkes, Christopher G; Bennett, Nigel C

    2015-11-01

    Various aspects of social behavior are influenced by the highly conserved corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) family of peptides and receptors in the mammalian telencephalon. This study has mapped and compared the telencephalic distribution of the CRF receptors, CRF1 and CRF2 , and two of their ligands, CRF and urocortin 3, respectively, in African mole-rat species with diametrically opposed social behavior. Naked mole-rats live in large eusocial colonies that are characterized by exceptional levels of social cohesion, tolerance, and cooperation in burrowing, foraging, defense, and alloparental care for the offspring of the single reproductive female. Cape mole-rats are solitary; they tolerate conspecifics only fleetingly during the breeding season. The telencephalic sites at which the level of CRF1 binding in naked mole-rats exceeds that in Cape mole-rats include the basolateral amygdaloid nucleus, hippocampal CA3 subfield, and dentate gyrus; in contrast, the level is greater in Cape mole-rats in the shell of the nucleus accumbens and medial habenular nucleus. For CRF2 binding, the sites with a greater level in naked mole-rats include the basolateral amygdaloid nucleus and dentate gyrus, but the septohippocampal nucleus, lateral septal nuclei, amygdalostriatal transition area, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, and medial habenular nucleus display a greater level in Cape mole-rats. The results are discussed with reference to neuroanatomical and behavioral studies of various species, including monogamous and promiscuous voles. By analogy with findings in those species, we speculate that the abundance of CRF1 binding in the nucleus accumbens of Cape mole-rats reflects their lack of affiliative behavior.

  1. DNA "fingerprinting" reveals high levels of inbreeding in colonies of the eusocial naked mole-rat.

    PubMed

    Reeve, H K; Westneat, D F; Noon, W A; Sherman, P W; Aquadro, C F

    1990-04-01

    Using the technique of DNA fingerprinting, we investigated the genetic structure within and among four wild-caught colonies (n = 50 individuals) of a eusocial mammal, the naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber; Rodentia: Bathyergidae). We found that DNA fingerprints of colony-mates were strikingly similar and that between colonies they were much more alike than fingerprints of non-kin in other free-living vertebrates. Extreme genetic similarity within colonies is due to close genetic relationship (mean relatedness estimate +/- SE, r = 0.81 +/- 0.10), which apparently results from consanguineous mating. The inbreeding coefficient (F = 0.45 +/- 0.18) is the highest yet recorded among wild mammals. The genetic structure of naked mole-rat colonies lends support to kin selection and ecological constraints models for the evolution of cooperative breeding and eusociality. PMID:2320570

  2. Geographic dialects in blind mole rats: role of vocal communication in active speciation.

    PubMed Central

    Nevo, E; Heth, G; Beiles, A; Frankenberg, E

    1987-01-01

    We compared and contrasted the physical structure of male "courtship" calls of 59 subterranean mole rats belonging to the Spalax ehrenbergi superspecies in Israel, comprising 11 populations of four chromosomal species (2N = 52, 54, 58, and 60). We also conducted behavioral auditory discrimination tests of 144 females of the four species in the laboratory. The results indicate that each chromosomal species has a vocal dialect significantly different from all others, although the call of 2N = 60, the last derivative of speciation, is not yet fully differentiated. Females of 2N = 52, 54, and 58 preferred their homospecific mates' calls, whereas females of 2N = 60 did not. We conclude that call differentiation builds up gradually and provides an efficient ethological reproductive premating isolation mechanism between the emerging species in the active speciation of mole rats in Israel. PMID:3472211

  3. Injectant mole fraction measurements of transverse injection in constant area supersonic ducts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollo, Steven D.; Hartfield, Roy J., Jr.; Mcdaniel, James C.

    1990-01-01

    Planar measurements of the injectant mole fraction distribution in a nonreacting model SCRAMJET combustor have been made using a nonintrusive optical technique, laser-induced iodine fluorescence. The combustor geometry investigated in this work was staged, transverse sonic injection of air into Mach 2 and Mach 2.9 freestreams. Accurate three-dimensional surveys of the injectant mole fraction distribution for both freestream Mach numbers have been generated. These experimental measurements provide valuable insight into the fluid mechanics of the mixing process. The existence of streamwise vortices is shown to dominate the mixing in the injector nearfield while shock wave interactions with the injectant plume are seen to significantly enhance mixing downstream of the injectors. The effect of combustor Mach number on injectant mixing is found to be small for this geometry. These measurements provide an accurate data set for the validation of computational fluid dynamics codes being developed for the calculation of highly three-dimensional nonreacting supersonic combustor flow fields.

  4. Seismic signal transmission between burrows of the Cape mole-rat, Georychus capensis.

    PubMed

    Narins, P M; Reichman, O J; Jarvis, J U; Lewis, E R

    1992-01-01

    Both seismic and auditory signals were tested for their propagation characteristics in a field study of the Cape mole-rat (Georychus capensis), a subterranean rodent in the family Bathyergidae. This solitary animal is entirely fossorial and apparently communicates with its conspecifics by alternately drumming its hind legs on the burrow floor. Signal production in this species is sexually dimorphic, and mate attraction is likely mediated primarily by seismic signalling between individuals in neighboring burrows. Measurements within, and at various distances away from, natural burrows suggest that seismic signals propagate at least an order of magnitude better than auditory signals. Moreover, using a mechanical thumper which could be triggered from a tape recording of the mole-rat's seismic signals, we established that the vertically-polarized surface wave (Rayleigh wave) propagates with less attenuation than either of the two horizontally-polarized waves. Thus, we tentatively hypothesize that Rayleigh waves subserve intraspecific communication in this species.

  5. The effects of ultraviolet C radiation on the ultrastructure of the liver cells of mole rats.

    PubMed

    Tekın, Saban; Türker, Hüseyin; Güven, Turan; Yel, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the ultrastructural changes in the liver cells of mole rats (Spalax leucodon) exposed to ultraviolet radiation (UVR). Thirteen mole rats used in this study were caught from nature. They were divided into four groups. The first group was separated as a control and was not given any radiation. The rest were exposed to ultraviolet C (UVC) radiation for 7, 14, and 21 days. The electron microscopic examinations revealed that significant ultrastructural changes occurred in the liver tissue. These changes were the reduction in cytoplasmic organelles, dilatation in rough endoplasmic reticulum, impairment of nucleus membrane, and broadened and vacuolated mitochondria in the cytoplasm. Also, UVC radiation caused significant changes in liver enzymes of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and gama-glutamiltransferase values. After long-term exposure to radiation, some excessive ultrastructural changes occurred. These results indicated that longer exposure to UVR would cause more ultrastructural effects on the liver cells and liver enzymes.

  6. DNA "fingerprinting" reveals high levels of inbreeding in colonies of the eusocial naked mole-rat.

    PubMed Central

    Reeve, H K; Westneat, D F; Noon, W A; Sherman, P W; Aquadro, C F

    1990-01-01

    Using the technique of DNA fingerprinting, we investigated the genetic structure within and among four wild-caught colonies (n = 50 individuals) of a eusocial mammal, the naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber; Rodentia: Bathyergidae). We found that DNA fingerprints of colony-mates were strikingly similar and that between colonies they were much more alike than fingerprints of non-kin in other free-living vertebrates. Extreme genetic similarity within colonies is due to close genetic relationship (mean relatedness estimate +/- SE, r = 0.81 +/- 0.10), which apparently results from consanguineous mating. The inbreeding coefficient (F = 0.45 +/- 0.18) is the highest yet recorded among wild mammals. The genetic structure of naked mole-rat colonies lends support to kin selection and ecological constraints models for the evolution of cooperative breeding and eusociality. Images PMID:2320570

  7. Brevinema andersonii gen. nov., sp. nov., an infectious spirochete isolated from the short-tailed shrew (Blarina brevicauda) and the white-footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus).

    PubMed

    Defosse, D L; Johnson, R C; Paster, B J; Dewhirst, F E; Fraser, G J

    1995-01-01

    A spirochete which infects short-tailed shrews (Blarina brevicauda) and white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) has been shown previously to be ultrastructurally and serologically distinct from other spirochetes. Two of the original isolates from Connecticut and Minnesota and 16 new isolates obtained from shrews captured in Minnesota were characterized phenotypically and genetically in this study. A comparative analysis of the 16S rRNA sequences of two shrew isolates and one mouse isolate and the 16S rRNA sequences of 16 other spirochetes and Escherichia coli revealed that these organisms exhibited low levels of similarity (range of similarity values, 73.9 to 77.8%; average level of similarity, 74.7%). The shrew and mouse isolates which we examined formed a deeply branching subgroup that was clearly distinct from the other genera of spirochetes examined. These and other results indicated that the new spirochetes represent a unique taxon in the order Spirochaetales. Accordingly, we propose that they should be classified as members of a new genus, Brevinema. The three strains of Brevinema which we examined had 16S rRNA sequences that were nearly identical. We also compared these isolates by using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, fatty acid and enzyme analyses, restriction endonuclease analysis, and Southern hybridization and found that the levels of genetic and phenotypic homogeneity among the strains were very high. We concluded that the isolates which we examined were members of a single species, for which we propose the name Brevinema andersonii. The type strain of Brevinema andersonii is CT11616 (= ATCC 43811).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7857811

  8. Family Wide Molecular Adaptations to Underground Life in African Mole-Rats Revealed by Phylogenomic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Kalina T.J.; Bennett, Nigel C.; Tsagkogeorga, Georgia; Rossiter, Stephen J.; Faulkes, Christopher G.

    2015-01-01

    During their evolutionary radiation, mammals have colonized diverse habitats. Arguably the subterranean niche is the most inhospitable of these, characterized by reduced oxygen, elevated carbon dioxide, absence of light, scarcity of food, and a substrate that is energetically costly to burrow through. Of all lineages to have transitioned to a subterranean niche, African mole-rats are one of the most successful. Much of their ecological success can be attributed to a diet of plant storage organs, which has allowed them to colonize climatically varied habitats across sub-Saharan Africa, and has probably contributed to the evolution of their diverse social systems. Yet despite their many remarkable phenotypic specializations, little is known about molecular adaptations underlying these traits. To address this, we sequenced the transcriptomes of seven mole-rat taxa, including three solitary species, and combined new sequences with existing genomic data sets. Alignments of more than 13,000 protein-coding genes encompassed, for the first time, all six genera and the full spectrum of ecological and social variation in the clade. We detected positive selection within the mole-rat clade and along ancestral branches in approximately 700 genes including loci associated with tumorigenesis, aging, morphological development, and sociality. By combining these results with gene ontology annotation and protein–protein networks, we identified several clusters of functionally related genes. This family wide analysis of molecular evolution in mole-rats has identified a suite of positively selected genes, deepening our understanding of the extreme phenotypic traits exhibited by this group. PMID:26318402

  9. Digital dissection of the masticatory muscles of the naked mole-rat, Heterocephalus glaber (Mammalia, Rodentia)

    PubMed Central

    Faulkes, Chris G.

    2014-01-01

    The naked mole-rat, Heterocephalus glaber, of the family Bathyergidae is a subterranean rodent that feeds on underground roots and tubers and digs extensive tunnel systems with its incisors. It is a highly unusual mammal with regard to its social structure, longevity, pain insensitivity and cancer resistance, all of which have made it the subject of a great deal of research in recent years. Yet, much of the basic anatomy of this species remains undocumented. In this paper, we describe the morphology of the jaw-closing musculature of the naked mole-rat, as revealed by contrast-enhanced micro-computed tomography. This technique uses an iodine stain to enable the imaging of soft tissues with microCT. The iodine-enhanced scans were used to create 3D reconstructions of the naked mole-rat masticatory muscles from which muscle masses were calculated. The jaw-closing musculature of Heterocephalus glaber is relatively very large compared to other rodents and is dominated by the superficial masseter, the deep masseter and the temporalis. The temporalis in particular is large for a rodent, covering the entirety of the braincase and much of the rear part of the orbit. The morphology of the masseter complex described here differs from two other published descriptions of bathyergid masticatory muscles, but is more similar to the arrangement seen in other rodent families. The zygomaticomandibularis (ZM) muscle does not protrude through the infraorbital foramen on to the rostrum and thus the naked mole-rat should be considered protrogomorphous rather than hystricomorphous, and the morphology is consistent with secondarily lost hystricomorphy as has been previously suggested for Bathyergidae. Overall, the morphology of the masticatory musculature indicates a species with a high bite force and a wide gape–both important adaptations for a life dominated by digging with the incisors. PMID:25024917

  10. Compartmentation of the cerebellar cortex: adaptation to lifestyle in the star-nosed mole Condylura cristata.

    PubMed

    Marzban, Hassan; Hoy, Nathan; Buchok, Matthew; Catania, Kenneth C; Hawkes, Richard

    2015-04-01

    The adult mammalian cerebellum is histologically uniform. However, concealed beneath the simple laminar architecture, it is organized rostrocaudally and mediolaterally into complex arrays of transverse zones and parasagittal stripes that is both highly reproducible between individuals and generally conserved across mammals and birds. Beyond this conservation, the general architecture appears to be adapted to the animal's way of life. To test this hypothesis, we have examined cerebellar compartmentation in the talpid star-nosed mole Condylura cristata. The star-nosed mole leads a subterranean life. It is largely blind and instead uses an array of fleshy appendages (the "star") to navigate and locate its prey. The hypothesis suggests that cerebellar architecture would be modified to reduce regions receiving visual input and expand those that receive trigeminal afferents from the star. Zebrin II and phospholipase Cß4 (PLCß4) immunocytochemistry was used to map the zone-and-stripe architecture of the cerebellum of the adult star-nosed mole. The general zone-and-stripe architecture characteristic of all mammals is present in the star-nosed mole. In the vermis, the four typical transverse zones are present, two with alternating zebrin II/PLCß4 stripes, two wholly zebrin II+/PLCß4-. However, the central and nodular zones (prominent visual receiving areas) are proportionally reduced in size and conversely, the trigeminal-receiving areas (the posterior zone of the vermis and crus I/II of the hemispheres) are uncharacteristically large. We therefore conclude that cerebellar architecture is generally conserved across the Mammalia but adapted to the specific lifestyle of the species.

  11. Injectant mole-fraction imaging in compressible mixing flows using planar laser-induced iodine fluorescence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartfield, Roy J., Jr.; Abbitt, John D., III; Mcdaniel, James C.

    1989-01-01

    A technique is described for imaging the injectant mole-fraction distribution in nonreacting compressible mixing flow fields. Planar fluorescence from iodine, seeded into air, is induced by a broadband argon-ion laser and collected using an intensified charge-injection-device array camera. The technique eliminates the thermodynamic dependence of the iodine fluorescence in the compressible flow field by taking the ratio of two images collected with identical thermodynamic flow conditions but different iodine seeding conditions.

  12. Family Wide Molecular Adaptations to Underground Life in African Mole-Rats Revealed by Phylogenomic Analysis.

    PubMed

    Davies, Kalina T J; Bennett, Nigel C; Tsagkogeorga, Georgia; Rossiter, Stephen J; Faulkes, Christopher G

    2015-12-01

    During their evolutionary radiation, mammals have colonized diverse habitats. Arguably the subterranean niche is the most inhospitable of these, characterized by reduced oxygen, elevated carbon dioxide, absence of light, scarcity of food, and a substrate that is energetically costly to burrow through. Of all lineages to have transitioned to a subterranean niche, African mole-rats are one of the most successful. Much of their ecological success can be attributed to a diet of plant storage organs, which has allowed them to colonize climatically varied habitats across sub-Saharan Africa, and has probably contributed to the evolution of their diverse social systems. Yet despite their many remarkable phenotypic specializations, little is known about molecular adaptations underlying these traits. To address this, we sequenced the transcriptomes of seven mole-rat taxa, including three solitary species, and combined new sequences with existing genomic data sets. Alignments of more than 13,000 protein-coding genes encompassed, for the first time, all six genera and the full spectrum of ecological and social variation in the clade. We detected positive selection within the mole-rat clade and along ancestral branches in approximately 700 genes including loci associated with tumorigenesis, aging, morphological development, and sociality. By combining these results with gene ontology annotation and protein-protein networks, we identified several clusters of functionally related genes. This family wide analysis of molecular evolution in mole-rats has identified a suite of positively selected genes, deepening our understanding of the extreme phenotypic traits exhibited by this group. PMID:26318402

  13. Raman line imaging for spatially and temporally resolved mole fraction measurements in internal combustion engines.

    PubMed

    Miles, P C

    1999-03-20

    An optical diagnostic system based on line imaging of Raman-scattered light has been developed to study the mixing processes in internal combustion engines. The system permits multipoint, single laser-shot measurements of CO(2), O(2), N(2), C(3)H(8), and H(2)O mole fractions with submillimeter spatial resolution. Selection of appropriate system hardware is discussed, as are subsequent data reduction and analysis procedures. Results are reported for data obtained at multiple crank angles and in two different engine flow fields. Measurements are made at 12 locations simultaneously, each location having measurement volume dimensions of 0.5 mm x 0.5 mm x 0.9 mm. The data are analyzed to obtain statistics of species mole fractions: mean, rms, histograms, and both spatial and cross-species covariance functions. The covariance functions are used to quantify the accuracy of the measured rms mole fraction fluctuations, to determine the integral length scales of the mixture inhomogeneities, and to quantify the cycle-to-cycle fluctuations in bulk mixture composition under well-mixed conditions. PMID:18305796

  14. Sex, social status, and CRF receptor densities in naked mole-rats.

    PubMed

    Beery, Annaliese K; Bicks, Lucy; Mooney, Skyler J; Goodwin, Nastacia L; Holmes, Melissa M

    2016-02-01

    Naked mole-rats (Heterocephalus glaber) live in groups that are notable for their large size and caste structure, with breeding monopolized by a single female and a small number of males. Recent studies have demonstrated substantial differences between the brains of breeders and subordinates induced by changes in social standing. Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) receptors-which bind the hormone CRF as well as related peptides-are important regulators of stress and anxiety, and are emerging as factors affecting social behavior. We conducted autoradiographic analyses of CRF1 and CRF2 receptor binding densities in female and male naked mole-rats varying in breeding status. Both globally and in specific brain regions, CRF1 receptor densities varied with breeding status. CRF1 receptor densities were higher in subordinates across brain regions, and particularly in the piriform cortex and cortical amygdala. Sex differences were present in CRF2 receptor binding densities, as is the case in multiple vole species. CRF2 receptor densities were higher in females, both globally and in the cortical amygdala and lateral amygdalar nucleus. These results provide novel insights into the neurobiology of social hierarchy in naked mole-rats, and add to a growing body of work that links changes in the CRF system with social behavior.

  15. Considerations on future redefinitions of the kilogram, the mole and of other units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, P.; DeBièvre, P.; Fujii, K.; Glaeser, M.; Inglis, B.; Luebbig, H.; Mana, G.

    2007-02-01

    The definitions of some units of the Système International are likely to be revised as early as 2011 by basing them on fixed values of fundamental constants of nature, provided experimental realizations are demonstrated with sufficiently small uncertainties. As regards the kilogram, experiments aiming at linking it to the Planck constant and the atomic mass constant are under way in several laboratories. The other units likely to be redefined are the ampere, the kelvin and the mole. We discuss the advantages and disadvantages of different alternatives for revised definitions of the kilogram and the mole. From physical considerations, metrological consequences and ease of understanding, a definition of the kilogram based on the mass of a particle, such as an atom or the electron, is favoured. One of the proposed definitions fixes the value of the Planck constant through the Compton frequency of a material, though unphysical, particle. Finally, a redefinition of the mole, the counting unit of the amount-of-substance, is proposed which fixes the Avogadro constant as a dimensionless number.

  16. Raman line imaging for spatially and temporally resolved mole fraction measurements in internal combustion engines.

    PubMed

    Miles, P C

    1999-03-20

    An optical diagnostic system based on line imaging of Raman-scattered light has been developed to study the mixing processes in internal combustion engines. The system permits multipoint, single laser-shot measurements of CO(2), O(2), N(2), C(3)H(8), and H(2)O mole fractions with submillimeter spatial resolution. Selection of appropriate system hardware is discussed, as are subsequent data reduction and analysis procedures. Results are reported for data obtained at multiple crank angles and in two different engine flow fields. Measurements are made at 12 locations simultaneously, each location having measurement volume dimensions of 0.5 mm x 0.5 mm x 0.9 mm. The data are analyzed to obtain statistics of species mole fractions: mean, rms, histograms, and both spatial and cross-species covariance functions. The covariance functions are used to quantify the accuracy of the measured rms mole fraction fluctuations, to determine the integral length scales of the mixture inhomogeneities, and to quantify the cycle-to-cycle fluctuations in bulk mixture composition under well-mixed conditions.

  17. Cutaneous and periodontal inputs to the cerebellum of the naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber)

    PubMed Central

    Sarko, Diana K.; Leitch, Duncan B.; Catania, Kenneth C.

    2013-01-01

    The naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber) is a small fossorial rodent with specialized dentition that is reflected by the large cortical area dedicated to representation of the prominent incisors. Due to naked mole-rats’ behavioral reliance on the incisors for digging and for manipulating objects, as well as their ability to move the lower incisors independently, we hypothesized that expanded somatosensory representations of the incisors would be present within the cerebellum in order to accommodate a greater degree of proprioceptive, cutaneous, and periodontal input. Multiunit electrophysiological recordings targeting the ansiform lobule were used to investigate tactile inputs from receptive fields on the entire body with a focus on the incisors. Similar to other rodents, a fractured somatotopy appeared to be present with discrete representations of the same receptive fields repeated within each folium of the cerebellum. These findings confirm the presence of somatosensory inputs to a large area of the naked mole-rat cerebellum with particularly extensive representations of the lower incisors and mystacial vibrissae. We speculate that these extensive inputs facilitate processing of tactile cues as part of a sensorimotor integration network that optimizes how sensory stimuli are acquired through active exploration and in turn adjusts motor outputs (such as independent movement of the lower incisors). These results highlight the diverse sensory specializations and corresponding brain organizational schemes that have evolved in different mammals to facilitate exploration of and interaction with their environment. PMID:24302898

  18. Recurrent partial hydatidiform mole, with a first twin pregnancy, after treatment with clomiphene citrate.

    PubMed

    Tica, Andrei Adrian; Tica, Oana Sorina; Georgescu, Claudia Valentina; Mixich, Francisc; Tica, Vlad Justin; Berceanu, Sabina; Ebanca, Elena; Patrascu, Anca; Simionescu, Cristina

    2009-08-01

    We present a patient, treated for 3 months with clomiphen citrate after 5 years of infertility. This treatment resulted in a twin pregnancy, one degenerated into a partial hydatidiform mole and the other into a very early embryo death. The karyotype was a mosaic one: 63% of metaphases showed triploidy - 69 XXX and 37% diploidy - 46 XX. Despite all medical advice, she returned 8 months later with a new pregnancy, which proved to be a new partial hydatidiform mole, this time a single one. Karyotype was, also, a triploidy - 69 XXX. The genetic map of both genitors was performed, showing no aberrations. Unfortunately, the patient came back, once again, 5 months later, with a new positive pregnancy test. Ultrasonography revealed a new very early embryo death, the histopathological analysis establishing to be a single 'pure' stop in evolution of the pregnancy. As all the three pregnancies obtained after treatment with clomiphene were abnormal, two being partial hydatidiform moles and one being a premature miscarriage, without any genetic aberrations of the genitors, it seems very possible that clomiphene, apart from improving fertility, also increases the risk of abnormal ovum appearance.

  19. The genetics of hydatidiform moles: new lights on an ancient disease.

    PubMed

    Slim, R; Mehio, A

    2007-01-01

    Hydatidiform mole (HM) is a human pregnancy with no embryo but cystic degeneration of chorionic villi. The common form of this condition occurs in 1 in every 1500 pregnancies in western societies and at a higher incidence in some geographic regions and populations. Recurrent moles account for 2% of all molar cases and a few of them occur in more than one family member. By studying a familial form of recurrent moles, a recessive maternal locus responsible for this condition was mapped to 19q13.4 and causative mutations identified. The defective protein, NALP7, is part of the CATERPILLAR protein family with roles in pathogen-induced inflammation and apoptosis. The exact role of NALP7 in the pathophysiology of molar pregnancies is unknown yet. NALP7 could have a role either in oogenesis or in the endometrium during trophoblast invasion and decidualization. In this review, we outlined recent advances in the field of HMs and reviewed the literature in the light of the new data.

  20. Is there an association of Pneumocystis infection with the presence of arena-, hanta-, and poxvirus antibodies in wild mice and shrews in Finland?

    PubMed

    Laakkonen, J; Kallio, E R; Kallio-Kokko, H; Vapalahti, O; Vaheri, A; Henttonen, H

    2006-04-01

    As part of studies on the nature of the endemic virus infections in natural rodent hosts, the possible association of cyst forms of Pneumocystis spp. with the presence of hanta-, cowpox-, and arenavirus antibodies in wild mice (Apodemus flavicollis, N=105; Apodemus agrarius, N=63; Micromys minutus, N=50) and the common shrew (Sorex araneus, N=101) was studied in south-central Finland. One hantavirus (Saaremaa virus, SAAV) seropositive A. agrarius, and 2 cowpoxvirus (CPXV) seropositive S. araneus were detected, and antibodies against an arenavirus (Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, LCMV) were found in all 3 mouse species but not in shrews. Cyst forms of Pneumocystis spp. were detected in all species except A. agrarius. There was no significant association between virus antibodies (LCMV in mice, and CPXV in shrews) and cyst forms of Pneumocystis in any of the species. Concurrent presence of virus antibodies (LCMV) and cyst forms of Pneumocystis were detected only in 1 M. minutus. In conclusion, we found no evidence of any association between Pneumocystis and antibodies to any of the viruses tested.

  1. Transcriptome Profiles Using Next-Generation Sequencing Reveal Liver Changes in the Early Stage of Diabetes in Tree Shrew (Tupaia belangeri chinensis)

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Haibo; Zhang, Zhiguo; Chang, Qing; Liao, Shasha; Zhang, Linqiang; Li, Yunhai; Wu, Dongdong

    2016-01-01

    Determining the liver changes during the early stages of diabetes is critical to understand the nature of the disease and development of novel treatments for it. Advances in the use of animal models and next-generation sequencing technologies offer a powerful tool in connection between liver changes and the diabetes. Here, we created a tree shrew diabetes model akin to type 1 diabetes by using streptozotocin to induce hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia. Using RNA-seq, we compiled liver transcriptome profiles to determine the differentially expressed genes and to explore the role of hyperglycemia in liver changes. Our results, respectively, identified 14,060 and 14,335 genes in healthy tree shrews and those with diabetes, with 70 genes differentially expressed between the two groups. Gene orthology and KEGG annotation revealed that several of the main biological processes of these genes were related to translational processes, steroid metabolic processes, oxidative stress, inflammation, and hypertension, all of which are highly associated with diabetes and its complications. These results collectively suggest that STZ induces hyperglycemia in tree shrew and that hyperglycemia induced oxidative stress led to high expression of aldose reductase, inflammation, and even cell death in liver tissues during the early stage of diabetes. PMID:27069931

  2. Identification and distribution of the Olympic Shrew (Eulipotyphla: Soricidae), Sorex rohweriRausch et al., 2007 in Oregon and Washington, based on USNM specimens

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodman, Neal; Fisher, Robert D.

    2016-01-01

    Review of specimens of long-tailed shrews (Mammalia, Soricidae, Sorex) from the northwestern United States in the National Museum of Natural History (USNM), Washington, DC, has revealed the presence of the Olympic Shrew, Sorex rohweri Rausch et al., 2007, in the Coastal Range west of the Willamette Valley in Oregon. This determination nearly doubles the documented distribution for this species and increases the species diversity of soricids in Oregon to eleven. Sorex rohweri is relatively uncommon, but it occurs in a variety of forest successional stages and even clear cuts, as long as there is nearby forest and trees are allowed to regenerate. All USNM specimens from Washington formerly identified as S. cinereus streatori Merriam, 1895 are instead referable to the Olympic Shrew. The distribution of S. c. streatori is thereby restricted to the Pacific coasts of British Columbia north of the lower Frasier River and south central Alaska. Our study highlights the importance of taking and preserving high-quality voucher specimens in a collection where they are readily available for re-study.

  3. Adult neurogenesis in the hedgehog (Erinaceus concolor) and mole (Talpa europaea).

    PubMed

    Bartkowska, K; Turlejski, K; Grabiec, M; Ghazaryan, A; Yavruoyan, E; Djavadian, R L

    2010-01-01

    We investigated adult neurogenesis in two species of mammals belonging to the superorder Laurasiatheria, the southern white-breasted hedgehog (order Erinaceomorpha, species Erinaceus concolor) from Armenia and the European mole (order Soricomorpha, species Talpa europaea) from Poland. Neurogenesis in the brain of these species was examined immunohistochemically, using the endogenous markers doublecortin (DCX) and Ki-67, which are highly conserved among species. We found that in both the hedgehog and mole, like in the majority of earlier investigated mammals, neurogenesis continues in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricles and in the dentate gyrus (DG). In the DG of both species, DCX-expressing cells and Ki-67-labeled cells were present in the subgranular and granular layers. In the mole, a strong bundle of DCX-labeled processes, presumably axons of granule cells, was observed in the center of the hilus. Proliferating cells (expressing Ki-67) were identified in the SVZ of lateral ventricles of both species, but neuronal precursor cells (expressing DCX) were also observed in the olfactory bulb (OB). In both species, the vast majority of cells expressing DCX in the OB were granule cells with radially orientated dendrites, although some periglomerular cells surrounding the glomeruli were also labeled. In addition, this paper is the first to show DCX-labeled fibers in the anterior commissure of the hedgehog and mole. These fibers must be axons of new neurons making interhemispheric connections between the two OB or piriform (olfactory) cortices. DCX-expressing neurons were observed in the striatum and piriform cortex of both hedgehog and mole. We postulate that in both species a fraction of cells newly generated in the SVZ migrates along the rostral migratory stream to the piriform cortex. This pattern of migration resembles that of the 'second-wave neurons' generated during embryonal development of the neocortex rather than the pattern observed during

  4. "Honeymoon psychosis" in Japanese tourists to Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Langen, D; Streltzer, J; Kai, M

    1997-01-01

    Although Japanese tourists in Hawaii are infrequently treated for acute psychiatric emergencies, we observed several cases among Japanese honeymooners. To investigate this phenomenon, we retrospectively and prospectively collected such cases of honeymooners. Sixteen cases of acute psychiatric disturbance in Japanese honeymooners in Hawaii are described. This phenomenon occurs more frequently than in other Japanese tourists or non-Japanese honeymooners. The tradition of arranged marriage and other cultural factors may be associated with the potential for "honeymoon psychosis."

  5. Japanese viral encephalitis

    PubMed Central

    Tiroumourougane, S; Raghava, P; Srinivasan, S

    2002-01-01

    One of the leading causes of acute encephalopathy in children in the tropics is Japanese encephalitis (JE). Transmitted by the culex mosquito, this neurotropic virus predominately affects the thalamus, anterior horns of the spinal cord, cerebral cortex, and cerebellum. It mainly affects children <15 years and is mostly asymptomatic. The occasional symptomatic child typically presents with a neurological syndrome characterised by altered sensorium, seizures, and features of intracranial hypertension. Aetiological diagnosis is based on virus isolation or demonstration of virus specific antigen or antibodies in the cerebrospinal fluid/blood. Though no antiviral drug is available against JE, effective supportive management can improve the outcome. Control of JE involves efficient vector control and appropriate use of vaccines. PMID:11930023

  6. Japanese attitudes towards foreign languages.

    PubMed

    Abe, Keiko

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to clarify Japanese attitudes towards foreign languages based on the kinds and changes of TV and radio programs that aired on the Japanese national broadcasting station (NHK) between 1955 and 2000. Foreign language programs are classified into three groups according to their content: 1) cultivation, 2) education, or 3) communication. For Japanese people, foreign languages are the measures of intelligence and intellect. Studying a foreign language is considered a sign of intelligence whether or not it is used for actual communication. The number of foreign language programs has increased tremendously since 1965 in part because the global economy has brought many countries in such close contact. Since 1990, programs for the purpose of communication have increased because of the necessity to communicate with foreign people. Japanese attitudes towards studying foreign languages have been changing gradually from an intellectual purpose to a communication purpose. PMID:15156734

  7. Nocturnal hyperthermia induced by social stress in male tree shrews: relation to low testosterone and effects of age.

    PubMed

    Kohlhause, Susan; Hoffmann, Kerstin; Schlumbohm, Christina; Fuchs, Eberhard; Flügge, Gabriele

    2011-10-24

    Stress is known to elevate core body temperature (CBT). We recorded CBT in a diurnal animal, the male tree shrew, during a one-week control period and a one-week period of social stress using a telemetric system. During the stress period, when animals were confronted with a dominant male for about 1h daily, CBT was increased throughout the day. We analyzed CBT during the night when animals were left undisturbed and displayed no locomotor activity. To determine whether nocturnal hyperthermia may be related to stress-induced changes in hormonal status, we measured testosterone, noradrenalin and cortisol in the animals' morning urine. The daily social stress increased the mean nocturnal temperature by 0.37 °C. Urinary testosterone was reduced during the stress period, and there was a significant negative correlation between testosterone and the area under the curve (AUC) of the nocturnal CBT. This means that stress-induced hyperthermia was strongest in the animals with the lowest testosterone concentrations. As expected, urinary noradrenalin was elevated during the stress week but a positive correlation with the AUC data was only found for animals younger than 12 months. Cortisol was also increased during the stress week but there were no correlations with nocturnal hyperthermia. However, the stress-induced increases in noradrenalin and cortisol correlated with each other. Furthermore, there were no correlations between the stress-induced increase in nocturnal CBT and body weight reduction or locomotor activity during the light phase. Interestingly, the extent of nocturnal hyperthermia depended on the animals' ages: In animals younger than 12 months, stress increased the AUC by 48%, in animals aged between 12 and 24 months, stress increased the AUC by 36%, and older animals showed only a 7% increase. However, testosterone was not significantly reduced in the older animals. The present data reveal an interrelation between the extent of stress-induced nocturnal

  8. Two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) mobility affected by the in mole fraction fluctuation in InxAl1-xN/GaN heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Guipeng; Zhang, Jinfeng; Lu, Kunyi; Chen, Wenjie; Tian, Yonghui; Yang, Jianhong

    2016-09-01

    In an InxAl1-xN/GaN heterostructure, we have studied the mobility limited by the In mole fraction fluctuation scattering. The In mole fraction fluctuation characterizes the quality of the InxAl1-xN material with two parameters, one is the mole fraction fluctuation δx and the other is its lateral s Λ. Similar to a roughness scattering, for a fixed mole fraction x, the mobility limited by the In mole fraction fluctuation initially decreases with Λ increasing, reaches a minimum at a certain value of Λ and then increases.

  9. Investigation of the presence and antinociceptive function of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in the African naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber).

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, Kristine B; Krogh-Jensen, Karen; Pickering, Darryl S; Kanui, Titus I; Abelson, Klas S P

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the cholinergic system in the African naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber) with focus on the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes M1 and M4. The protein sequences for the subtypes m 1-5 of the naked mole-rat were compared to that of the house mouse (Mus musculus) using basic local alignment search tool (BLAST). The presence and function of M1 and M4 was investigated in vivo, using the formalin test with the muscarinic receptor agonists xanomeline and VU0152100. Spinal cord tissue from the naked mole-rat was used for receptor saturation binding studies with [(3)H]-N-methylscopolamine. The BLAST test revealed 95 % protein sequence homology showing the naked mole-rat to have the genetic potential to express all five muscarinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes. A significant reduction in pain behavior was demonstrated after administration of 8.4 mg/kg in the formalin test. Administration of 50 mg/kg VU0152100 resulted in a non-significant tendency towards antinociception. The antinociceptive effects were reversed by the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist atropine. Binding studies indicated presence of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors with a radioligand affinity comparable to that reported in mice. In conclusion, muscarinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes are present in the naked mole-rat and contribute to antinociception in the naked mole-rat.

  10. Management of pest mole crickets in Florida and Puerto Rico with a nematode and parasitic wasp

    SciTech Connect

    Leppla, N.C.; Frank, J.H.; Adjei, M.B.; Vicente, N.E.

    2007-03-15

    Non-indigenous invasive mole crickets, Scapteriscus vicinus Scudder (Orthoptera: Gryllotalpidae) in Florida and S. didactylus (Latreille) (the 'changa') in Puerto Rico, are being managed with an entomopathogenic nematode, Steinernema scapterisci (Nguyen and Smart) (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae), and a parasitic wasp, Larra bicolor L. (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae). Pest mole cricket populations have declined by 95% in north central Florida since these specialist natural enemies were released and established in the 1980s. Commercial production of the nematode was initiated, nearly 70 billion were applied in 34 Florida counties, and their establishment, spread, and impact on mole crickets were monitored. The infected mole crickets dispersed the nematode rapidly, so that within 6 months these parasites were present in most of the insects trapped in experimental pastures. Three years later, mole cricket populations were reduced to acceptable levels and the bahiagrass had recovered. The nematode was released for the first time in Puerto Rico during 2001 and has persisted; the wasp was introduced in the late 1930s. The geographical distribution of the wasp is being expanded in Florida and Puerto Rico by planting plots of Spermacoce verticillata (L.), a wildflower indigenous to Puerto Rico and widely distributed in southern Florida. Pastures, sod farms, golf courses, landscapes, and vegetable farms in Florida and Puerto Rico are benefiting from biological control of invasive mole crickets. (author) [Spanish] Los grillotopos invasores no indigenas, Scapteriscus vicinus (Orthoptera: Gryllotalpidae) en el estado de Florida y S. didactylus ('changa') en Puerto Rico, estan siendo manejados por el nematodo entomopathogeno, Steinernema scapterisci (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae) y la avispa parasitica, Larra bicolor (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae). Las poblaciones de los grillotopo plagas han declinado un 95% en el norte central de la Florida desde que estos enemigos naturales especialistas

  11. Social cues elicit sexual behavior in subordinate Damaraland mole-rats independent of gonadal status.

    PubMed

    Carter, Sara N; Goldman, Bruce D; Goldman, Sharry L; Freeman, David A

    2014-01-01

    Damaraland mole-rats (Fukomys damarensis) are among a small number of eusocial mammals. Eusociality is a social system where only a few individuals within a colony engage in direct reproduction, while remaining subordinate members are non-breeders and support reproductive efforts of breeding individuals. Inbreeding avoidance precludes mating between subordinate siblings and between offspring and parents. Interestingly, non-breeders readily attempt to mate with unrelated opposite-sex individuals. This is unusual since the non-breeding females do not attain puberty while in their natal colony. Based on this finding, the present study investigated the role of the gonads in the regulation of mating behaviors in this species and identified the mechanism of inbreeding avoidance. Gonadal-intact and gonadectomized non-breeders from different colonies were removed from their colonies and tested for the expression of sexual behavior. Results indicated that gonadal status had only minor effects on the expression of sexual behavior in either males or females. In a second experiment, sexual behaviors were absent between opposite-sex siblings so long as they had frequent contact with each other; however, following 5 weeks of separation, sexual behavior between these siblings was robustly expressed. Thus, Damaraland mole-rats avoid establishing mating relationships with familiar individuals but will readily mate with unfamiliar individuals of the opposite sex, with genetic relatedness apparently playing little role. The initiation of sexual behavior in Damaraland mole-rats does not require the presence of the gonads, but does require that the members of the pair have not been in contact with one another for at least several weeks.

  12. Genetic Signatures for Enhanced Olfaction in the African Mole-Rats

    PubMed Central

    Stathopoulos, Sofia; Bishop, Jacqueline M.; O’Ryan, Colleen

    2014-01-01

    The Olfactory Receptor (OR) superfamily, the largest in the vertebrate genome, is responsible for vertebrate olfaction and is traditionally subdivided into 17 OR families. Recent studies characterising whole-OR subgenomes revealed a ‘birth and death’ model of evolution for a range of species, however little is known about fine-scale evolutionary dynamics within single-OR families. This study reports the first assessment of fine-scale OR evolution and variation in African mole-rats (Bathyergidae), a family of subterranean rodents endemic to sub-Saharan Africa. Because of the selective pressures of life underground, enhanced olfaction is proposed to be fundamental to the evolutionary success of the Bathyergidae, resulting in a highly diversified OR gene-repertoire. Using a PCR-sequencing approach, we analysed variation in the OR7 family across 14 extant bathyergid species, which revealed enhanced levels of functional polymorphisms concentrated across the receptors’ ligand-binding region. We propose that mole-rats are able to recognise a broad range of odorants and that this diversity is reflected throughout their OR7 gene repertoire. Using both classic tests and tree-based methods to test for signals of selection, we investigate evolutionary forces across the mole-rat OR7 gene tree. Four well-supported clades emerged in the OR phylogeny, with varying signals of selection; from neutrality to positive and purifying selection. Bathyergid life-history traits and environmental niche-specialisation are explored as possible drivers of adaptive OR evolution, emerging as non-exclusive contributors to the positive selection observed at OR7 genes. Our results reveal unexpected complexity of evolutionary mechanisms acting within a single OR family, providing insightful perspectives into OR evolutionary dynamics. PMID:24699281

  13. Organization of the spinal trigeminal nucleus in Star-Nosed Moles

    PubMed Central

    Sawyer, Eva K.; Leitch, Duncan B.; Catania, Kenneth C.

    2014-01-01

    Somatosensory inputs from the face project to multiple regions of the trigeminal nuclear complex in the brainstem. In mice and rats three subdivisions contain visible representations of the mystacial vibrissae: the principal sensory nucleus, the spinal trigeminal subnucleus interpolaris and subnucleus caudalis. These regions are considered important for touch with high spatial acuity, active touch, and pain and temperature sensation, respectively. Like mice and rats, the star-nosed mole (Condylura cristata) is a somatosensory specialist. Given the visible star pattern in preparations of the star-nosed mole cortex and the principal sensory nucleus, we hypothesized there were star patterns in the spinal trigeminal nucleus subnuclei interpolaris and caudalis. In sections processed for cytochrome oxidase we found star-like segmentation consisting of lightly stained septa separating darkly stained patches in subnucleus interpolaris (juvenile tissue) and subnucleus caudalis (juvenile and adult tissue). Subnucleus caudalis represented the face in a three-dimensional map with the most anterior part of the face represented more rostrally than posterior parts of the face. Multi-unit electrophysiological mapping was used to map the ipsilateral face. Ray-specific receptive fields in adults matched the CO-segmentation. The mean areas of multiunit receptive fields in subnucleus interpolaris and caudalis were larger than previously mapped receptive fields in the mole's principal sensory nucleus. The proportion of tissue devoted to each ray's representation differed between subnucleus interpolaris and the principal sensory nucleus. Our finding that different trigeminal brainstem maps can exaggerate different parts of the face could provide new insights for the roles of these different somatosensory stations. PMID:24715542

  14. Multidimensional MRI-CT atlas of the naked mole-rat brain (Heterocephalus glaber).

    PubMed

    Seki, Fumiko; Hikishima, Keigo; Nambu, Sanae; Okanoya, Kazuo; Okano, Hirotaka J; Sasaki, Erika; Miura, Kyoko; Okano, Hideyuki

    2013-01-01

    Naked mole-rats have a variety of distinctive features such as the organization of a hierarchical society (known as eusociality), extraordinary longevity, and cancer resistance; thus, it would be worthwhile investigating these animals in detail. One important task is the preparation of a brain atlas database that provide comprehensive information containing multidimensional data with various image contrasts, which can be achievable using a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Advanced MRI techniques such as diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), which generates high contrast images of fiber structures, can characterize unique morphological properties in addition to conventional MRI. To obtain high spatial resolution images, MR histology, DTI, and X-ray computed tomography were performed on the fixed adult brain. Skull and brain structures were segmented as well as reconstructed in stereotaxic coordinates. Data were also acquired for the neonatal brain to allow developmental changes to be observed. Moreover, in vivo imaging of naked mole-rats was established as an evaluation tool of live animals. The data obtained comprised three-dimensional (3D) images with high tissue contrast as well as stereotaxic coordinates. Developmental differences in the visual system were highlighted in particular by DTI. Although it was difficult to delineate optic nerves in the mature adult brain, parts of them could be distinguished in the immature neonatal brain. From observation of cortical thickness, possibility of high somatosensory system development replaced to the visual system was indicated. 3D visualization of brain structures in the atlas as well as the establishment of in vivo imaging would promote neuroimaging researches towards detection of novel characteristics of eusocial naked mole-rats. PMID:24391551

  15. Study of atmospheric CH4 mole fractions at three WMO/GAW stations in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Shuang-Xi; Zhou, Ling-Xi; Masarie, Kenneth A.; Xu, Lin; Rella, Chris W.

    2013-05-01

    CH4 mole fractions were continuously measured from 2009 to 2011 at three WMO/GAW stations in China (Lin'an, LAN; Longfengshan, LFS; and Waliguan, WLG) using three Cavity Ring Down Spectroscopy instruments. LAN and LFS are GAW regional measurement stations. LAN is located in China's most economically developed region, and LFS is in a rice production area (planting area > 40,000 km2). WLG is a global measurement station in remote northwest China. At LAN, high methane mole fractions are observed in all seasons. Surface winds from the northeast enhance CH4 values, with a maximum increase of 32 ± 15 ppb in summer. The peak to peak amplitude of the seasonal cycle is 77 ± 35 ppb. At LFS, the diurnal cycle amplitude is approximately constant throughout the year except summer, when a value of 196 ± 65 ppb is observed. CH4 values at LFS reach their peak in July, which is different from seasonal variations typically observed in the northern hemisphere. CH4 mole fractions at WLG show both the smallest values and the lowest variability. Maximum values occur during summer, which is different from other northern hemisphere WMO/GAW global stations. The seasonal cycle amplitude is 17 ± 11 ppb. The linear growth rates at LAN, LFS, and WLG are 8.0 ± 1.2, 7.9 ± 0.9, and 9.4 ± 0.2 ppb yr-1, respectively, which are all larger than the global mean over the same 3 year period. Results from this study attempt to improve our basic understanding of observed atmospheric CH4 in China.

  16. Mechanisms regulating proteostasis are involved in sympatric speciation of the blind mole rat, Spalax galili.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Karl A; Li, Kexin; Nevo, Eviatar; Buffenstein, Rochelle

    2016-01-01

    Genome-wide analysis demonstrates extensive genomic adaptive complexes involved in sympatric speciation between blind mole rats (Spalax galili) in abutting populations living in basalt and chalk soils. Among the gene ontology (GO) enrichment, musculature and metabolism stood out in basalt dwellers while nutrition and neurogenetics were highlighted in chalk residents. Measurements of mechanisms regulating protein homeostasis inspired by these GO terms suggest that at the proteomic level there is also a habitat/soil-type driven divergence with the basalt residents exhibiting higher proteasome activity whereas elevated levels of markers of autophagy are evident in the chalk inhabitants.

  17. Mechanisms regulating proteostasis are involved in sympatric speciation of the blind mole rat, Spalax galili.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Karl A; Li, Kexin; Nevo, Eviatar; Buffenstein, Rochelle

    2016-01-01

    Genome-wide analysis demonstrates extensive genomic adaptive complexes involved in sympatric speciation between blind mole rats (Spalax galili) in abutting populations living in basalt and chalk soils. Among the gene ontology (GO) enrichment, musculature and metabolism stood out in basalt dwellers while nutrition and neurogenetics were highlighted in chalk residents. Measurements of mechanisms regulating protein homeostasis inspired by these GO terms suggest that at the proteomic level there is also a habitat/soil-type driven divergence with the basalt residents exhibiting higher proteasome activity whereas elevated levels of markers of autophagy are evident in the chalk inhabitants. PMID:27050459

  18. Two-dimensional Raman mole-fraction and temperature measurements for hydrogen-nitrogen mixture analysis.

    PubMed

    Braeuer, Andreas; Leipertz, Alfred

    2009-02-01

    A two-dimensional laser Raman technique was developed and applied to directly probe the population number of selected rotational and vibrational energy levels of hydrogen and nitrogen. Using three cameras simultaneously, temperature and mole fraction images could be detected. Three different combinations of rotational and vibrational Raman signals of hydrogen and nitrogen were analyzed to identify the combination that is most suitable for future mixture analysis in hydrogen internal combustion engines. Here the experiments were conducted in an injection chamber where hot hydrogen was injected into room temperature nitrogen at 1.1 MPa. PMID:19183582

  19. Hearing in mole crickets (Orthoptera: gryllotalpidae) at sonic and ultrasonic frequencies

    PubMed

    Mason; Forrest; Hoy

    1998-05-21

    We have studied auditory responses in two species of mole cricket (Scapteriscus borellii and S. abbreviatus) to determine (1) whether they show sensitivity to ultrasound, (2) whether their hearing (at both low and high frequencies) is based on the same neural circuitry as that of true crickets, and (3) whether ultrasound sensitivity in different mole cricket species varies with their ability to fly. S. borellii are sensitive to ultrasonic frequencies. There is evidence of a segregation of frequency bands in prothoracic auditory neurons. There are two pairs of &ohgr ; neurons (ONs) with similar morphology to ON1 of true crickets. The two pairs of ONs differ in tuning. One pair has two sensitivity peaks: at the frequency of the calling song of this species (3 kHz), and in the ultrasonic range (25 kHz). The other pair lacks the high-frequency sensitivity and responds exclusively to frequencies in the range of the species song. These two types are not morphologically distinguishable. In S. abbreviatus, only one class of ON was found. S. abbreviatus ONs are narrowly tuned to the frequency of the species' calls. A T-neuron had the best ultrasonic frequency sensitivity in S. borellii. This cell showed a broad tuning to ultrasonic frequencies and was inhibited by low-frequency stimuli. A morphologically similar neuron was also recorded in S. abbreviatus, but lacked the high-frequency sensitivity peak of that in S. borellii. We also assessed the responses of flying S. borellii to ultrasound using field playbacks to free-flying animals. The attractiveness of broadcast calling song was diminished by the addition of an ultrasound signal, indicating that S. borellii avoid high-frequency sound. The results indicate that mole crickets process low-frequency auditory stimuli using mechanisms similar to those of true crickets. They show a negative behavioural response to high-frequency stimuli, as do true crickets, but the organization of ultrasound-sensitive auditory circuitry in

  20. Hearing in mole crickets (Orthoptera: Gryllotalpidae) at sonic and ultrasonic frequencies.

    PubMed

    Mason, A C; Forrest, T G; Hoy, R R

    1998-06-01

    We have studied auditory responses in two species of mole cricket (Scapteriscus borellii and S. abbreviatus) to determine (1) whether they show sensitivity to ultrasound, (2) whether their hearing (at both low and high frequencies) is based on the same neural circuitry as that of true crickets, and (3) whether ultrasound sensitivity in different mole cricket species varies with their ability to fly. S. borellii are sensitive to ultrasonic frequencies. There is evidence of a segregation of frequency bands in prothoracic auditory neurons. There are two pairs of omega neurons (ONs) with similar morphology to ON1 of true crickets. The two pairs of ONs differ in tuning. One pair has two sensitivity peaks: at the frequency of the calling song of this species (3 kHz), and in the ultrasonic range (25 kHz). The other pair lacks the high-frequency sensitivity and responds exclusively to frequencies in the range of the species song. These two types are not morphologically distinguishable. In S. abbreviatus, only one class of ON was found. S. abbreviatus ONs are narrowly tuned to the frequency of the species' calls. A T-neuron had the best ultrasonic frequency sensitivity in S. borellii. This cell showed a broad tuning to ultrasonic frequencies and was inhibited by low-frequency stimuli. A morphologically similar neuron was also recorded in S. abbreviatus, but lacked the high-frequency sensitivity peak of that in S. borellii. We also assessed the responses of flying S. borellii to ultrasound using field playbacks to free-flying animals. The attractiveness of broadcast calling song was diminished by the addition of an ultrasound signal, indicating that S. borellii avoid high-frequency sound. The results indicate that mole crickets process low-frequency auditory stimuli using mechanisms similar to those of true crickets. They show a negative behavioural response to high-frequency stimuli, as do true crickets, but the organization of ultrasound-sensitive auditory circuitry in

  1. Mechanisms regulating proteostasis are involved in sympatric speciation of the blind mole rat, Spalax galili

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Karl A.; Li, Kexin; Nevo, Eviatar; Buffenstein, Rochelle

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Genome-wide analysis demonstrates extensive genomic adaptive complexes involved in sympatric speciation between blind mole rats (Spalax galili) in abutting populations living in basalt and chalk soils. Among the gene ontology (GO) enrichment, musculature and metabolism stood out in basalt dwellers while nutrition and neurogenetics were highlighted in chalk residents. Measurements of mechanisms regulating protein homeostasis inspired by these GO terms suggest that at the proteomic level there is also a habitat/soil-type driven divergence with the basalt residents exhibiting higher proteasome activity whereas elevated levels of markers of autophagy are evident in the chalk inhabitants. PMID:27050459

  2. The shrew tamed by Wolff's law: do functional constraints shape the skull through muscle and bone covariation?

    PubMed

    Cornette, Raphaël; Tresset, Anne; Herrel, Anthony

    2015-03-01

    Bone is a highly plastic tissue that reflects the many potential sources of variation in shape. Here, we focus on the functional aspects of bone remodeling. We choose the skull for our analyses because it is a highly integrated system that plays a fundamental role in feeding and is thus, likely under strong natural selection. Its principal mechanical components are the bones and muscles that jointly produce bite force and jaw motion. Understanding the covariations among these three components is of interest to understand the processes driving the evolution of the feeding apparatus. In this study, we quantitatively and qualitatively compare interactions between these three components in shrews from populations known to differ in shape and bite force. Bite force was measured in the field using a force transducer and skull shape was quantified using surface geometric morphometric approaches based on µCT-scans of the skulls of same individuals. The masseter, temporalis, pterygoideus, and digastricus muscles of these individuals were dissected and their cross sectional areas determined. Our results show strong correlations between bite force and muscle cross sectional areas as well as between bite force and skull shape. Moreover, bite force explains an important amount of skull shape variation. We conclude that interactions between bone shape and muscle characteristics can produce different morpho-functional patterns that may differ between populations and may provide a suitable target for selection to act upon.

  3. Addiction: From Context-Induced Hedonia to Appetite, Based on Transition of Micro-behaviors in Morphine Abstinent Tree Shrews

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Ying; Shen, Fang; Gu, Tingting; Sui, Nan

    2016-01-01

    Drug addiction is viewed as a maladaptive memory induced by contextual cues even in the abstinent state. However, the variations of hedonia and appetite induced by the context during the abstinence have been neglected. To distinguish the representative behaviors between hedonia and appetite, micro-behaviors in abstinent animal such as psycho-activity and drug seeking behaviors were observed in morphine conditioned place preference (CPP). To confirm the different effects of reward between drug and natural reward, a palatable food CPP paradigm was compared in current work. After a 10-day training in CPP with morphine or food, the preference was tested on day 1, 14, 28, and the changes of micro-behaviors were analyzed further. Our data showed that tree shrews treated with morphine performed more jumps on day 1 and more visits to saline paired side on day 28, which indicated a featured behavioral transition from psycho-activity to seeking behavior during drug abstinence. Meanwhile, food-conditioned animals only displayed obvious seeking behaviors in the three tests. The results suggest that the variations of micro-behaviors could imply such a transition from hedonic response to appetitive behaviors during morphine abstinence, which provided a potential behavioral basis for further neural mechanism studies. PMID:27375516

  4. Lethal disease in infant and juvenile Syrian hamsters experimentally infected with Imjin virus, a newfound crocidurine shrew-borne hantavirus.

    PubMed

    Gu, Se Hun; Kim, Young-Sik; Baek, Luck Ju; Kurata, Takeshi; Yanagihara, Richard; Song, Jin-Won

    2015-12-01

    To gain insights into the pathogenicity of Imjin virus (MJNV), a newfound hantavirus isolated from the Ussuri white-toothed shrew (Crocidura lasiura), groups of Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) of varying ages (<1, 5, 10, 14, 21, 35 and 56 days) were inoculated by the intraperitoneal route with 1000 pfu of MJNV strains 04-55 and 05-11. MJNV-infected Syrian hamsters, aged 21 days or less, exhibited reduced activity, weight loss, respiratory distress, hind-limb paralysis and seizures. Death ensued 1 to 6 days after onset of clinical disease. MJNV RNA was detected in brain and other major organs by RT-PCR and real time-PCR. Histopathological examination showed alveolar hemorrhage, interstitial pneumonia and severe pulmonary congestion; focal hepatic necrosis and portal inflammation; and acute meningoencephalitis. By immunohistochemistry, MJNV antigen was detected in pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells and glial cells. Older hamsters (35 and 56 days of age) developed subclinical infection without histopathological changes. Future studies are warranted to determine the pathophysiologic bases for the differential age susceptibility of Syrian hamsters to lethal MJNV disease.

  5. Phylogeny and Taxonomy of the Round-Eared Sengis or Elephant-Shrews, Genus Macroscelides (Mammalia, Afrotheria, Macroscelidea)

    PubMed Central

    Dumbacher, John P.; Rathbun, Galen B.; Smit, Hanneline A.; Eiseb, Seth J.

    2012-01-01

    The round-eared sengis or elephant-shrews (genus Macroscelides) exhibit striking pelage variation throughout their ranges. Over ten taxonomic names have been proposed to describe this variation, but currently only two taxa are recognized (M. proboscideus proboscideus and M. p. flavicaudatus). Here, we review the taxonomic history of Macroscelides, and we use data on the geographic distribution, morphology, and mitochondrial DNA sequence to evaluate the current taxonomy. Our data support only two taxa that correspond to the currently recognized subspecies M. p. proboscideus and M. p. flavicaudatus. Mitochondrial haplotypes of these two taxa are reciprocally monophyletic with over 13% uncorrected sequence divergence between them. PCA analysis of 14 morphological characters (mostly cranial) grouped the two taxa into non-overlapping clusters, and body mass alone is a relatively reliable distinguishing character throughout much of Macroscelides range. Although fieldworkers were unable to find sympatric populations, the two taxa were found within 50 km of each other, and genetic analysis showed no evidence of gene flow. Based upon corroborating genetic data, morphological data, near sympatry with no evidence of gene flow, and differences in habitat use, we elevate these two forms to full species. PMID:22479325

  6. Blarina toxin, a mammalian lethal venom from the short-tailed shrew Blarina brevicauda: Isolation and characterization.

    PubMed

    Kita, Masaki; Nakamura, Yasuo; Okumura, Yuushi; Ohdachi, Satoshi D; Oba, Yuichi; Yoshikuni, Michiyasu; Kido, Hiroshi; Uemura, Daisuke

    2004-05-18

    Venomous mammals are rare, and their venoms have not been characterized. We have purified and characterized the blarina toxin (BLTX), a lethal mammalian venom with a tissue kallikrein-like activity from the submaxillary and sublingual glands of the short-tailed shrew Blarina brevicauda. Mice administered BLTX i.p. developed irregular respiration, paralysis, and convulsions before dying. Based on the amino acid sequence of purified protein, we cloned the BLTX cDNA. It consists of a prosequence and an active form of 253 aa with a typical catalytic triad of serine proteases, with a high identity with tissue kallikreins. BLTX is an N-linked microheterogeneous glycoprotein with a unique insertion of 10 residues, L(106)TFFYKTFLG(115). BLTX converted kininogens to kinins, which may be one of the toxic pathogens, and had dilatory effects on the blood vessel walls. The acute toxicity and proteolytic activity of BLTX were strongly inhibited by aprotinin, a kallikrein inhibitor, suggesting that its toxicity is due to a kallikrein-like activity of the venom. PMID:15136743

  7. Lethal disease in infant and juvenile Syrian hamsters experimentally infected with Imjin virus, a newfound crocidurine shrew-borne hantavirus.

    PubMed

    Gu, Se Hun; Kim, Young-Sik; Baek, Luck Ju; Kurata, Takeshi; Yanagihara, Richard; Song, Jin-Won

    2015-12-01

    To gain insights into the pathogenicity of Imjin virus (MJNV), a newfound hantavirus isolated from the Ussuri white-toothed shrew (Crocidura lasiura), groups of Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) of varying ages (<1, 5, 10, 14, 21, 35 and 56 days) were inoculated by the intraperitoneal route with 1000 pfu of MJNV strains 04-55 and 05-11. MJNV-infected Syrian hamsters, aged 21 days or less, exhibited reduced activity, weight loss, respiratory distress, hind-limb paralysis and seizures. Death ensued 1 to 6 days after onset of clinical disease. MJNV RNA was detected in brain and other major organs by RT-PCR and real time-PCR. Histopathological examination showed alveolar hemorrhage, interstitial pneumonia and severe pulmonary congestion; focal hepatic necrosis and portal inflammation; and acute meningoencephalitis. By immunohistochemistry, MJNV antigen was detected in pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells and glial cells. Older hamsters (35 and 56 days of age) developed subclinical infection without histopathological changes. Future studies are warranted to determine the pathophysiologic bases for the differential age susceptibility of Syrian hamsters to lethal MJNV disease. PMID:26371066

  8. The Japanese Balloon Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimura, J.

    The Japanese scientific ballooning program has been organized by ISAS since the institute was founded in mid 1960s. Since then, the balloon group of ISAS has been engaged in the development of the balloon technologies and scientific observations in collaboration with scientists and engineers in other universities and organizations. Here, I describe several subjects of recent activities, the details of some items will also be reported in the separate papers in this meeting.Preparation of a new mobile receiving station.

  9. Balloons of made of the EVAL (Ethylene-Vinyl-Alcohol) films. EVAL film has specific Infra-red absorption bands, and is expected to be useful for saving the ballast for a long duration flight.
  10. A high altitude balloon with thin polyethylene films achieving at an altitude of above 50km. Further improvement of this type of balloons is continued by inventing how to extrude thin films less than 5 microns of thickness.
  11. Recent achievement of Antarctica Flights under the collaboration of ISAS and National Polar Institute.
  12. Other new efforts to long duration flights such as satellite link boomerang balloon systems and others.
  13. New balloon borne scientific instrumentation for observations of high energy electrons and Anti-protons in cosmic-rays.
  14. Phylogenetic positions of insectivora in eutheria inferred from mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit II gene.

    PubMed

    Onuma, M; Kusakabe, T; Kusakabe, S

    1998-02-01

    For the elucidation of the phylogenetic position of insectivora in eutheria, we have sequenced the cytochrome c oxidase subunit II (COII) gene of mitochondria for three insectivoran species [musk screw (Suncus murinus), shrew mole (Urotrichus talpoides), Japanese mole (Mogera wogura)] and analyzed these amino acid sequences with neighbor-joining (NJ) method and maximum likelihood (ML) method. NJ analysis shows polyphyly of Insectivora and Chiroptera. Assuming that each of Primates, Ferungulata, Chiroptera, Insectivora and Rodentia is a monophyletic group, ML analysis suggests that Chiroptera is a sister group of Insectivora and that Ferungulata is the closest outgroup to the (Insectivora and Chiroptera) clade.

  15. Detecting CO2 and CH4 Urban Emissions using Column-Integrated Dry Air mole Fractions, In-Situ Tower Dry Air Mole Fractions, and WRF Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillyard, P. W.; Lauvaux, T.; Podolske, J. R.; Iraci, L. T.; Miles, N. L.; Richardson, S.; Davis, K.; Roehl, C. M.; Wunch, D.; Wennberg, P. O.; Blavier, J. F.; Allen, N.; Barrow, E.; Deng, A.

    2015-12-01

    Total column measurements of atmospheric gases are important because of their ability to be performed via satellites that provide global coverage. Here we will present measurements of CO2 and CH4 dry air mole fractions obtained using a Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) as part of the Total Carbon Column Observing Nework (TCCON). These measurements were performed in Indianapolis as part of the Indianapolis Flux Experiment (INFLUX). We will extract urban emission signals using high resolution modeling and in-situ tower measurements of CO2 and CH4 mixing ratios. In addition to quantifying the influence of surface emissions on the column measurements, we will also decompose the atmospheric columns into sub-layers to identify the origin of air masses at various altitudes. We will show that the variability in the origins of air masses increases the complexity of the observed signals in the column, which limits our ability to combine surface and column measurements. This work will also highlight the potential application of using total column measurements to detect local urban signals. We conclude that the deployment of multiple column sensors is required in order to measure the upwind (background) and downwind (urban) conditions. Such work provides a test case for using these methods with satellite measurements such as GOSAT and OCO-2 that provide global coverage.

  16. Language Attitudes in the Second Generation Japanese Group in Melbourne.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nasu, Tsuneo

    This study investigated language attitudes and Japanese language maintenance among a group of second-generation Japanese in Melbourne (Australia). Subjects were 66 Japanese high school students (second-generation) attending Japanese-language schools and 109 Japanese mothers (first-generation) self-identified as Japanese-identity,…

  17. Adaptations to a subterranean environment and longevity revealed by the analysis of mole rat genomes

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Xiaodong; Seim, Inge; Huang, Zhiyong; Gerashchenko, Maxim V.; Xiong, Zhiqiang; Turanov, Anton A.; Zhu, Yabing; Lobanov, Alexei V.; Fan, Dingding; Yim, Sun Hee; Yao, Xiaoming; Ma, Siming; Yang, Lan; Lee, Sang-Goo; Kim, Eun Bae; Bronson, Roderick T.; Šumbera, Radim; Buffenstein, Rochelle; Zhou, Xin; Krogh, Anders; Park, Thomas J.; Zhang, Guojie; Wang, Jun; Gladyshev, Vadim N.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Subterranean mammals spend their lives in dark, unventilated environments rich in carbon dioxide and ammonia, and low in oxygen. Many of these animals are also long-lived and exhibit reduced aging-associated diseases, such as neurodegenerative disorders and cancer. We sequenced the genome of the Damaraland mole rat (DMR, Fukomys damarensis) and improved the genome assembly of the naked mole rat (NMR, Heterocephalus glaber). Comparative genome analysis, along with transcriptomes of related subterranean rodents, reveal candidate molecular adaptations for subterranean life and longevity, including a divergent insulin peptide, expression of oxygen-carrying globins in the brain, prevention of high CO2-induced pain perception, and enhanced ammonia detoxification. Juxtaposition of the genomes of DMR and other more conventional animals with the genome of NMR revealed several truly exceptional NMR features: unusual thermogenesis, aberrant melatonin system, pain insensitivity, and novel processing of 28S rRNA. Together, the new genomes and transcriptomes extend our understanding of subterranean adaptations, stress resistance and longevity. PMID:25176646

  18. Reproduction, aging and mortality rate in social subterranean mole voles (Ellobius talpinus Pall.).

    PubMed

    Novikov, E; Kondratyuk, E; Petrovski, D; Titova, T; Zadubrovskaya, I; Zadubrovskiy, P; Moshkin, M

    2015-12-01

    Eusocial subterranean rodents of the Bathyergidae family have enormous longevity. The long lifespan of these species is associated with negligible senescence, that is, an absence of the signs of age-related deterioration in physical condition. The question arises as to whether these features are unique to eusocial Bathyergids or typical of other social subterranean rodents as well. In the present study, we analysed data from observations of a social subterranean Microtinae rodent, the northern mole vole (Ellobius talpinus Pall.), which, like mole-rats, has reproductive skew. Among the individuals captured in the wild and maintained in captivity, females that reproduced lived significantly longer than non-breeding females. We did not find any changes in muscle strength with age in any of the demographic groups studied. Faecal glucocorticoid concentrations before death were significantly higher in non-breeding females than in breeding females and males. Increased adrenocortical activity may be one mechanism responsible for the decreased lifespan of non-reproducing individuals of social subterranean rodents. We conclude that the patterns of aging, although different in some respects, are generally common for social subterranean rodents of different taxonomic groups. PMID:26208910

  19. The anomalous mole fraction effect in calcium channels: a measure of preferential selectivity.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, Dirk; Boda, Dezso

    2008-09-15

    The cause of the anomalous mole fraction effect (AMFE) in calcium-selective ion channels is studied. An AMFE occurs when the conductance through a channel is lower in a mixture of salts than in the pure salts at the same concentration. The textbook interpretation of the AMFE is that multiple ions move through the pore in coordinated, single-file motion. Instead of this, we find that at its most basic level an AMFE reflects a channel's preferential binding selectivity for one ion species over another. The AMFE is explained by considering the charged and uncharged regions of the pore as electrical resistors in series: the AMFE is produced by these regions of high and low ion concentration changing differently with mole fraction due to the preferential ion selectivity. This is demonstrated with simulations of a model L-type calcium channel and a mathematical analysis of a simplistic point-charge model. The particle simulations reproduce the experimental data of two L-type channel AMFEs. Conditions under which an AMFE may be found experimentally are discussed. The resistors-in-series model provides a fundamentally different explanation of the AMFE than the traditional theory and does not require single filing, multiple occupancy, or momentum-correlated ion motion.

  20. Structural Features of the Telomerase RNA Gene in the Naked Mole Rat Heterocephalus glaber

    PubMed Central

    Evfratov, S. A.; Smekalova, E. M.; Golovin, A. V.; Logvina, N. A.; Zvereva, M. I.; Dontsova, O. A.

    2014-01-01

    Telomere length, an important feature of life span control, is dependent on the activity of telomerase (a key enzyme of the telomere-length-maintaining system). Telomerase RNA is a component of telomerase and, thus, is crucial for its activity. The structures of telomerase RNA genes and their promoter regions were compared for the long-living naked mole rat and different organisms. Two rare polymorphisms in Heterocephalus glaber telomerase RNA (hgTER) were identified: A→G in the first loop of pseudoknot P2b-p3 (an equivalent of 111nt in hTR) and G→A in the scaRNA domain CR7-p8b (an equivalent of 421nt in hTR). Analysis of TER promoter regions allowed us to identify two new transcription factor binding sites. The first one is the ETS family site, which was found to be a conserved element for all the analyzed TER promoters. The second site is unique for the promoter region of TER of the naked mole rat and is a binding site for the SOX17 transcription factor. The absence of one Sp1 site in the TER promoter region of the naked small rat is an additional specific feature of the promoter area of hgTER. Such variation in the hgTER transcription regulation region and hgTER itself could provide increased telomerase activity in stem cells and an extended lifespan to H. glaber. PMID:25093110

  21. Simultaneously Sizing and Quantitating Zepto-Mole DNA at High-Throughput in Free Solution

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Zaifang; Chen, Huang; Chen, Apeng; Lu, Joann J.

    2014-01-01

    Determining the sizes and measuring the quantities of DNA molecules are fundamental tasks in molecular biology. DNA sizes are usually evaluated by gel electrophoresis, but this method cannot simultaneously size and quantitate a DNA at low zepto-mole levels. We have recently developed a new technique, called Bare Narrow Capillary-Hydrodynamic Chromatography or BaNC-HDC, for resolving DNA based on their sizes without using any sieving matrices. In this report, we utilize BaNC-HDC for measuring the sizes and quantities of DNA fragments at zepto-mole to several-molecule levels. DNA ranging from a few base pairs to dozens of kilo base pairs are accurately sized and quantitated at a throughput of 15 samples per hour, and each sample contains dozens of DNA having different lengths. BaNC-HDC can be a cost-effective means and an excellent tool for high-throughput DNA sizing and quantitation at extremely low quantity level. PMID:25223843

  22. Neoplasia and granulomas surrounding microchip transponders in Damaraland mole rats (Cryptomys damarensis).

    PubMed

    Sura, R; French, R A; Goldman, B D; Schwartz, D R

    2011-07-01

    Damaraland mole rats (Cryptomys damarensis) are among the longest-living rodents, with a maximum longevity of approximately 16 years. As one of the few mammals termed eusocial, these animals have been used in behavioral, genetic, metabolic, and physiologic research at the University of Connecticut since 1997. For individual identification at 3 to 4 months of age, mole rats were subcutaneously implanted with microchip transponders (11 mm in length) in the dorsal cervical region. In 2007, 2 of the 90 implanted adults, 10-year-old and 9-year-old females, developed subcutaneous masses at the site of the implant. Histopathological and immunohistochemical examinations revealed amelanotic melanoma and fibrosarcoma, respectively, with metastasis of the amelanotic melanoma. In 2008, a total of 3 adult males were castrated as part of a sex behavior study; 3 months later, all 3 castrated males developed subcutaneous masses around their implants, whereas none of the noncastrated males had masses. After an additional 9 months, these masses were found to be granulomas. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of neoplasia in this species. Both the tumors and the granulomas surrounded the microchip transponder.

  23. Coccidian parasites (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from insectivores. VIII. Four new species from the star-nosed mole, Condylura cristata.

    PubMed

    Duszynski, D W

    1989-08-01

    Twenty-four star-nosed moles, Condylura cristata, collected from the northeastern United States (Maine, Massachusetts, Ohio, Vermont) were examined for coccidian oocysts. All of the moles were infected with from 1 to 4 species of coccidia representing 2 eimerian and 3 isosporan spp., but oocysts of only 4 of these species were present in sufficient numbers for detailed study; these are described as new. Sporulated oocysts of Eimeria condylurae n. sp. were subspheroid, 17.7 x 15.7 (17-23 x 14-21) microns, with sporocysts ellipsoid, 11.7 x 5.6 (11-14 x 5-6) microns; E. condylurae was found in 3 of 24 (12.5%) moles. Sporulated oocysts of Isospora condylurae n. sp. were ellipsoid, 19.4 x 9.3 (17-21 x 8-11) microns, with sporocysts ovoid, 11.7 x 5.8 (11-13 x 5-7) microns; I. condylurae was found in 12 of 24 (50%) moles. Sporulated oocysts of Isospora cristatae n. sp. were ellipsoid, 15.7 x 10.1 (13-18 x 9-13) microns, with sporocysts ovoid, 11.0 x 5.7 (10-12 x 5-7) microns; I. cristatae was found in 19 of 24 (79%) moles. Sporulated oocysts of Isospora lamoillensis n. sp. were ellipsoid, tapering at both ends, 21.6 x 13.0 (19-23 x 11-14) microns, with sporocysts spindle-shaped, 14.9 x 7.7 (14-16 x 7-8) microns; I. lamoillensis was found in 2 of 24 (8%) moles. Although the second eimerian seen was in 7 of the 24 (29%) moles from Massachusetts, Ohio, and Vermont, there were not enough sporulated oocysts to study in detail to warrant a new species description.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  24. Color constancy in Japanese animation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichihara, Yasuyo G.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, we measure the colors used in a Japanese Animations. The result can be seen on CIE-xy color spaces. It clearly shows that the color system is not a natural appearance system but an imagined and artistic appearance system. Color constancy of human vision can tell the difference in skin and hair colors between under moonlight and day light. Human brain generates a match to the memorized color of an object from daylight viewing conditions to the color of the object in different viewing conditions. For example, Japanese people always perceive the color of the Rising Sun in the Japanese flag as red even in a different viewing condition such as under moonlight. Color images captured by a camera cannot present those human perceptions. However, Japanese colorists in Animation succeeded in painting the effects of color constancy not only under moonlight but also added the memory matching colors. They aim to create a greater impact on viewer's perceptions by using the effect of the memory matching colors. In this paper, we propose the Imagined Japanese Animation Color System. This system in art is currently a subject of research in Japan. Its importance is that it could also provide an explanation on how human brain perceives the same color under different viewing conditions.

  25. Homogamy and Intermarriage of Japanese and Japanese Americans with Whites Surrounding World War II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ono, Hiromi; Berg, Justin

    2010-01-01

    Although some sociologists have suggested that Japanese Americans quickly assimilated into mainstream America, scholars of Japanese America have highlighted the heightened exclusion that the group experienced. This study tracked historical shifts in the exclusion level of Japanese and Japanese Americans in the United States surrounding World War…

  1. Japanese respond to campaign.

    PubMed

    1994-08-01

    A unique campaign launched by JOICFP in August 1993 had by the end of June 1994 netted US $41,200 to support activities of the integrated Project (IP) in developing countries. Under the campaign, the public, institutions, organizations, and businesses have been sending in used prepaid cards for sale to collectors in Japan and abroad. Prepaid cards are widely used throughout Japan for phones, subways, railways and highways. Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corporation (NTT) alone issues 20 million cards annually. The campaign, which has been widely featured in the media, has proved effective for drawing attention to JOICFP and to population and family planning issues. Gaining the understanding of the Japanese public about population issues has grown in importance since the government's announcement of the new Global Issues Initiative (GII). Word about the campaign was carried by radio, television, newspapers, and magazines nationwide. The number of cards sent in escalated with the attention. By the end of June, JOICFP had received around 700,000 cards, of which 550,000 have been exchanged for cash. The funds generated by the card sales have been allocated to support grassroots IP activities and encourage the self-reliance of projects in China, Ghana, Guatemala, Nepal, Tanzania, and Zambia. Responses to the campaign have come from individuals as well as local governments, hospitals, enterprises, and educational institutions. Many of these have initiated their own card-collection system and information-dissemination activities to support JOICFP. Over 5000 different organizations are now collaborating with JOICFP for the campaign, including Tenmaya Department Store in Okayama City.

  2. Coccidian parasites (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from insectivores. III. Seven new species in shrews (Soricidae: Soricinae) from Canada, Japan, and the United States.

    PubMed

    Hertel, L A; Duszynski, D W

    1987-02-01

    Since May 1979, 458 shrews (Blarina sp. and Sorex spp.) representing 20 species collected in Canada, Japan, and the United States were examined for coccidia; 110 (24%) had oocysts in their feces, including 8 of 21 (38%) B. brevicauda from Massachusetts, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and Vermont; 2 of 7 (29%) S. caecutiens from Hokkaido and Honshu; 14 of 63 (22%) S. cinereus from Colorado, New Mexico, Pennsylvania, Vermont, Manitoba, and Ontario; 3 of 7 (43%) S. fontinalis from Pennsylvania; 11 of 16 (69%) S. fumeus from Massachusetts, Minnesota, Pennsylvania, Vermont, and Ontario; 1 of 4 (25%) S. haydeni from Minnesota; 6 of 8 (75%) S. longirostris from Florida and Virginia; 1 of 2 (50%) S. ornatus from California; 5 of 12 (42%) S. pacificus from California and Oregon; 13 of 41 (32%) S. palustris from California, Colorado, and New Mexico; 1 of 2 (50%) S. tenellus from California; 11 of 105 (10%) S. trowbridgii from California, Oregon, and Washington; 10 of 48 (21%) S. unguiculatus from Hokkaido; and 24 of 112 (21%) S. vagrans from Arizona, California, Colorado, New Mexico, Oregon, and Washington. The following coccidians were identified from infected shrews: Eimeria brevicauda n. sp. from B. brevicauda; Eimeria fumeus n. sp. from S. fumeus, S. pacificus, S. unguiculatus, and S. vagrans; Eimeria inyoni n. sp. from S. tenellus; Eimeria palustris n. sp. from S. cinereus, S. fontinalis, S. fumeus, S. haydeni, S. longirostris, S. ornatus, S. pacificus, S. palustris, S. tenellus, S. trowbridgii, and S. vagrans; Eimeria vagrantis n. sp. from S. fumeus, S. trowbridgii, and S. vagrans; Isospora brevicauda n. sp. from B. brevicauda; and Isospora palustris n. sp. from S. pacificus, S. palustris, S. trowbridgii, S. unguiculatus, and S. vagrans. The world literature on coccidian parasites of shrews (16 eimerians and 3 isosporans exclusive of the 7 new species described here) is reviewed. PMID:3572649

  3. JABEE in Japanese Engineering Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeda, Kunihiko; Ishikawa, Tomoyuki

    JABEE in Japanese engineering education is discussed by focusing on the status and treatment of engineers in Japanese society and their achievements. The entrance fee and tuition of the engineering departments of higher education facilities are higher than those of the law, economy and literature departments. On the other hand, an engineer's lifelong wage is smaller than that of those who have graduated from the latter fields. Although engineering students must study for a longer period of time, the scholarship system to support these students in Japan falls far behind that in the U.S.A. The achievements of Japanese engineering were summarized from the viewpoint of economic indications such as 1) production of steel, 2) energy consumption per person as a function of GDP, 3) income 4) real estate abroad and miscellaneous factors such as the life spans and criminal rates of many countries. These analyses made it clear that Japanese engineers have the highest ability even compared to advanced countries and this is because of the higher engineering education in Japan ; but their status is unreasonably low in Japanese society. The four points by which the present status of Japanese engineers can be improved were discussed in relation to the introduction and the achievement of the JABEE system. The true aim of education reform by JABEE is that the engineering education in Japan should shift “from government to non-government”, “from organization to individual” and “from control to interdependency.” The expected points of improvement are discussed.

  4. Marine Biodiversity in Japanese Waters

    PubMed Central

    Fujikura, Katsunori; Lindsay, Dhugal; Kitazato, Hiroshi; Nishida, Shuhei; Shirayama, Yoshihisa

    2010-01-01

    To understand marine biodiversity in Japanese waters, we have compiled information on the marine biota in Japanese waters, including the number of described species (species richness), the history of marine biology research in Japan, the state of knowledge, the number of endemic species, the number of identified but undescribed species, the number of known introduced species, and the number of taxonomic experts and identification guides, with consideration of the general ocean environmental background, such as the physical and geological settings. A total of 33,629 species have been reported to occur in Japanese waters. The state of knowledge was extremely variable, with taxa containing many inconspicuous, smaller species tending to be less well known. The total number of identified but undescribed species was at least 121,913. The total number of described species combined with the number of identified but undescribed species reached 155,542. This is the best estimate of the total number of species in Japanese waters and indicates that more than 70% of Japan's marine biodiversity remains un-described. The number of species reported as introduced into Japanese waters was 39. This is the first attempt to estimate species richness for all marine species in Japanese waters. Although its marine biota can be considered relatively well known, at least within the Asian-Pacific region, considering the vast number of different marine environments such as coral reefs, ocean trenches, ice-bound waters, methane seeps, and hydrothermal vents, much work remains to be done. We expect global change to have a tremendous impact on marine biodiversity and ecosystems. Japan is in a particularly suitable geographic situation and has a lot of facilities for conducting marine science research. Japan has an important responsibility to contribute to our understanding of life in the oceans. PMID:20689840

  5. Schooling in Micronesia during Japanese Mandate Rule.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shuster, Donald R.

    1979-01-01

    This review of Japanese educational policy in Micronesia from 1920-36 describes the separate school systems established for natives and for Japanese immigrants. Native schools offered a shorter, less rigorous program whose main intent was socialization to Japanese language and culture. (SJL)

  6. Japanese/Korean Linguistics, Volume 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, David J., Ed.

    A collection of research in Japanese and Korean linguistics includes: "Repetition, Reformulation, and Definitions: Prosodic Indexes of Elaboration in Japanese" (Mieko Banno); "Projection of Talk Using Language, Intonation, Deictic and Iconic Gestures and Other Body Movements" (Keiko Emmett); "Turn-taking in Japanese Political Debate: Syntax,…

  7. Persistence of Ethnicity: The Japanese of Colorado.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Endo, Russell

    This paper presents an overview of the history of Japanese in Colorado. Japanese immigrants first came to Colorado between 1900 and 1910 as railroad laborers. Some became coal miners in southern Colorado; most others became farm laborers. Although the Japanese population during this period was small, communities developed in several locales. The…

  8. Two Modes of Counting in Japanese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Backus, Robert L.

    1972-01-01

    This paper seeks to formulate a principle that explains the working of the Japanese number system with respect to Japanese nouns and that defines the kinds of nouns and contexts that condition the forms of number expressions. It is the author's theory that in applying numbers to nouns, the Japanese make a formal distinction between things they…

  9. RESEARCH IN JAPANESE SOURCES--A GUIDE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    RYAN, MARLEIGH; WEBB, HERSCHEL

    A BEGINNER'S GUIDE HAS BEEN PREPARED FOR THE SUBJECT OF JAPANESE BIBLIOGRAPHIES. IT WAS DESIGNED FOR THREE KINDS OF USERS--(1) THE STUDENT IN SOME DISCIPLINE OF THE HUMANITIES WHO WISHES TO CONDUCT RESEARCH ON JAPAN AND MAKE USE OF JAPANESE LANGUAGE MATERIALS, (2) THE STUDENT OR LIBRARIAN WHO KNOWS NO JAPANESE BUT WISHES INFORMATION ABOUT JAPAN,…

  10. The Work Values of Japanese Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engel, John W.

    Empirical studies of Japanese work ethics have tended to focus on male workers while neglecting women. In addition, work values in both Japan and the United States appear to be changing. More information is needed on the work values of American and Japanese female workers. A study was conducted to explore the work ethics of Japanese women and to…

  11. A Cultural Context for Japanese Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wojtan, Linda S.

    1985-01-01

    Certain Japanese educational practices serving as worthwhile examples to the United States' educational system are highlighted in this overview of Japanese education. However, it is stressed that because the United States and the Japanese educational systems are dependent upon their social context and exist in a symbiotic relationship within that…

  12. Generations and Identity: The Japanese American.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitano, Harry H. L.

    The story of people of Japanese descent in the United States is told in its historic context. The Japanese came to America with cultural values that differed greatly from the mainstream U.S. society. They were also set apart by appearance. Conflict between Japan and the United States exacerbated the problems between the Japanese Americans and the…

  13. Shattering Myths: Japanese American Educational Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoshiwara, Florence M.

    An historical review of the immigration and resettlement patterns, and a demographic profile of Japanese Americans reveals a myth of the "successful minority." Since the founding of the Japanese American Citizens League in 1928, Japanese Americans have defeated alien land laws, discriminatory immigration quotas, anti-miscengenation laws, and…

  14. Gender and Language in Japanese Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakamura, Keiko

    2001-01-01

    Explores the relation between gender and language use in Japanese preschool children. Gender-based differences in Japanese include phonological, lexical, and morphosyntactical differences, as well as differences in conversational style. Data come from monthly naturalistic observations of 24 monolingual Japanese boys and girls engaged in same-sex…

  15. A NEW CLASSIFICATION FOR THE JAPANESE VERB.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    TAKAHASHI, GEORGE

    JAPANESE VERBS AND THE PARTICLES WHICH OFTEN ACCOMPANY THEM PRESENT DIFFICULTIES TO LEARNERS OF THAT LANGUAGE. THE TRADITIONAL GRAMMATICAL TERMS, "TRANSITIVE" AND "INTRANSITIVE" (VERBS), REFLECT CONCEPTS WHICH ARE VALID IN ENGLISH BUT NOT IN JAPANESE. THE AUTHOR, IN ATTEMPTING TO CLASSIFY ALL JAPANESE VERBS ACCORDING TO THEIR NATURE AND BEHAVIOR,…

  16. The Nonacademic Curriculum of the Japanese Preschool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peach, Mark

    1994-01-01

    Japanese nursery school and kindergarten activities are designed to facilitate the socialization of Japanese children. The culture of the home and the culture of the school (and by extension the rest of Japanese society) are so different from each other that it is believed the open and unselfconscious help of the education system is necessary to…

  17. Japanese management. Implications for nursing administration.

    PubMed

    Smith, H L; Reinow, F D; Reid, R A

    1984-09-01

    Does Japanese management possess sufficient practical validity to warrant retraining of nursing administrators and their staffs? Can Japanese management really address the complexities of contemporary nursing administration? Before espousing the benefits of Theory Z and implementing quality circles in your hospital, read this analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of Japanese management--the benefits can be substantial but so can the costs!

  18. Expression pattern of cadherins in the naked mole rat (Heterocephalus glaber) suggests innate cortical diversification of the cerebrum.

    PubMed

    Matsunaga, Eiji; Nambu, Sanae; Iriki, Atsushi; Okanoya, Kazuo

    2011-06-15

    The cerebral cortex is an indispensable region for higher cognitive function that is remarkably diverse among mammalian species. Although previous research has shown that the cortical area map in the mammalian cerebral cortex is formed by innate and activity-dependent mechanisms, it remains unknown how these mechanisms contribute to the evolution and diversification of the functional cortical areas in various species. The naked mole rat (Heterocephalus glaber) is a subterranean, eusocial rodent. Physiological and anatomical studies have revealed that the visual system is regressed and the somatosensory system is enlarged. To examine whether species differences in cortical area development are caused by intrinsic factors or environmental factors, we performed comparative gene expression analysis of neonatal naked mole rat and mouse brains. The expression domain of cadherin-6, a somatosensory marker, was expanded caudally and shifted dorsally in the cortex, whereas the expression domain of cadherin-8, a visual marker, was reduced caudally in the neonatal naked mole rat cortex. The expression domain of cadherin-8 was also reduced in other visual areas, such as the lateral geniculate nucleus and superior colliculus. Immunohistochemical analysis of thalamocortical fibers further suggested that somatosensory input did not affect cortical gene expression in the neonatal naked mole rat brain. These results suggest that the development of the somatosensory system and the regression of the visual system in the naked mole rat cortex are due to intrinsic genetic mechanisms as well as sensory input-dependent mechanisms. Intrinsic genetic mechanisms thus appear to contribute to species diversity in cortical area formation.

  19. Community structure variability of Uropodina mites (Acari: Mesostigmata) in nests of the common mole, Talpa europaea, in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Napierała, Agnieszka; Mądra, Anna; Leszczyńska-Deja, Kornelia; Gwiazdowicz, Dariusz J; Gołdyn, Bartłomiej; Błoszyk, Jerzy

    2016-04-01

    Underground nests of Talpa europaea, known as the common mole, are very specific microhabitats, which are also quite often inhabited by various groups of arthropods. Mites from the suborder Uropodina (Acari: Mesostigmata) are only one of them. One could expect that mole nests that are closely located are inhabited by communities of arthropods with similar species composition and structure. However, results of empirical studies clearly show that even nests which are close to each other can be different both in terms of the species composition and abundance of Uropodina communities. So far, little is known about the factors that can cause these differences. The major aim of this study was to identify factors determining species composition, abundance, and community structure of Uropodina communities in mole nests. The study is based on material collected during a long-term investigation conducted in western parts of Poland. The results indicate that the two most important factors influencing species composition and abundance of Uropodina communities in mole nests are nest-building material and depth at which nests are located. Composition of Uropodina communities in nests of moles was also compared with that of other microhabitats (e.g. rotten wood, forest litter, soil) based on data from 4421 samples collected in Poland. Communities of this habitat prove most similar to these of open areas, especially meadows, as well as some forest types. PMID:26861069

  20. Community structure variability of Uropodina mites (Acari: Mesostigmata) in nests of the common mole, Talpa europaea, in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Napierała, Agnieszka; Mądra, Anna; Leszczyńska-Deja, Kornelia; Gwiazdowicz, Dariusz J; Gołdyn, Bartłomiej; Błoszyk, Jerzy

    2016-04-01

    Underground nests of Talpa europaea, known as the common mole, are very specific microhabitats, which are also quite often inhabited by various groups of arthropods. Mites from the suborder Uropodina (Acari: Mesostigmata) are only one of them. One could expect that mole nests that are closely located are inhabited by communities of arthropods with similar species composition and structure. However, results of empirical studies clearly show that even nests which are close to each other can be different both in terms of the species composition and abundance of Uropodina communities. So far, little is known about the factors that can cause these differences. The major aim of this study was to identify factors determining species composition, abundance, and community structure of Uropodina communities in mole nests. The study is based on material collected during a long-term investigation conducted in western parts of Poland. The results indicate that the two most important factors influencing species composition and abundance of Uropodina communities in mole nests are nest-building material and depth at which nests are located. Composition of Uropodina communities in nests of moles was also compared with that of other microhabitats (e.g. rotten wood, forest litter, soil) based on data from 4421 samples collected in Poland. Communities of this habitat prove most similar to these of open areas, especially meadows, as well as some forest types.

  1. Nomenclatural notes and identification of small-eared shrews (Mammalia: genus Cryptotis) from Cobán, Guatemala, in The Natural History Museum, London

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodman, Neal

    2011-01-01

    A small series of shrews collected in Guatemala and registered in the British Museum between 1843 and 1907 includes parts of type series for three species: Corsira tropicalis Gray (1843), Sorex micrurus Tomes (1862), and Blarina tropicalis Merriam (1895). These three names are now considered equivalent, but my recent review of the specimens comprising the series indicates that they include three distinct species: Cryptotis merriami Choate (1970), Cryptotis oreoryctes Woodman (2011), and Cryptotis tropicalis (Merriam 1895). I review the taxonomic history of these specimens, provide current identifications tied directly to museum register numbers, describe how to distinguish the three species, and provide revised synonymies for these species.

  2. Other Japanese Educations and Japanese Education Otherwise. Review Essay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takayama, Keita

    2011-01-01

    Education in the United States was in a state of "crisis" at the time of the 1983 release of "A Nation at Risk," the landmark report on the US education reform. This was the time when the rising Japanese economy started threatening the post-war US economic dominance and conservative figures such as Ronald Reagan gained popular support. Subsequent…

  3. Microvascular architecture of the filiform papillae in primates and insectivores.

    PubMed

    Okada, S; Ohta, Y; Matsukawa, N; Sugioka, S

    1993-03-01

    The microvascular architecture of filiform papillae was investigated under a scanning electron microscope in man, Japanese monkeys, common squirrel monkeys, common marmosets, common tree shrews, large Japanese moles and dwarf shrews utilizing microvascular corrosion casts. Filiform papillae were circularly arranged in primates, and each of them was supplied by a hairpin capillary loop. These papillae sometimes were aggregated. The filiform papillae of Japanese monkeys exhibited markedly locational differences on the lingual dorsum and were supplied by circularly arranged capillary loops or by an intrapapillary capillary network. Small filiform papillae were located on an epithelial eminence in the lingual radix, each of them supplied by a low and simple hairpin capillary loop. The aggregated filiform papillae of common squirrel monkeys were less frequent without any locational differences. Low filiform papillae of common marmosets and tree shrews were simpler in form, being arranged in a circle and supplied by a simple hairpin capillary loop. The filiform papillae of insectivores were not arranged in a circle. The filiform papillae of dwarf shrews were supplied by an incomplete capillary ring without a loop. With respect to species differences, the circularly arranged capillary loops in man were most complicated and highly developed. Microvascular architecture of the filiform papillae of insectivores was much simpler, different from those observed in primates.

  4. Effect of daily linear acceleration training on the hypergravity-induced vomiting response in house musk shrew (Suncus murinus).

    PubMed

    Abe, Chikara; Iwata, Chihiro; Shiina, Takahiko; Shimizu, Yasutake; Morita, Hironobu

    2011-09-20

    The effects of repeated linear acceleration training and the antimotion sickness drug, promethazine, on hypergravity-induced motion sickness were examined in musk shrew (Suncus murinus), which is known to show a vomiting response to motion stimulation. Animals were assigned into five groups: vestibular intact, untreated animals (Sham), vestibular lesioned (VL) animals, vestibular intact animals with promethazine hydrochloride administered as daily drinking water (Prom), vestibular intact animals who underwent horizontal linear accelerator motion training (Train), and vestibular intact animals treated with both promethazine hydrochloride and linear acceleration training (Prom+Train). In Sham animals, the number of vomiting episodes was 14±2 during 2 G exposure for 10min, and was accompanied by intense Fos expression in the medial vestibular nucleus (MVe), the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS), the area postrema (AP), and the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus (PVN). The vomiting response and Fos expression were completely abolished in VL animals, indicating that these responses are mediated via the vestibular system. Although Train and Prom animals experienced a significantly reduced number of hypergravity-induced vomiting episodes compared with Sham animals, the effect was significantly greater in Train animals than in Prom animals. Fos expression in the NTS, AP, and PVN were significantly more reduced in Train animals than in Prom animals. Higher dose of bolus injection of promethazine (50mg/kg, i.p.) completely abolished the vomiting episodes, although the animals were drowsy and sedated due to side effects. In conclusion, daily linear acceleration training and promethazine could prevent the hypergravity-induced vomiting episodes.

  5. Phylogeography of the dusky shrew, Sorex monticolus (Insectivora, Soricidae): insight into deep and shallow history in northwestern North America.

    PubMed

    Demboski, J R; Cook, J A

    2001-05-01

    Phylogenetic relationships among the dusky shrew (Sorexmonticolus) and eight related species (S. bairdi, S. bendirii, S. neomexicanus, S.ornatus, S. pacificus, S. palustris, S. sonomae and S.vagrans) were assessed using sequences from the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene (801 bp). Analyses using parsimony and maximum likelihood revealed significant molecular variation not reflected in previous morphological studies of these species. Conversely, three morphologically defined species (S.bairdi, S.neomexicanus and S.pacificus) were poorly differentiated. Sorexornatus and S.vagrans represented basal taxa for a more inclusive group that included: (i) a widespread Continental clade containing S.monticolus (Arizona to Alaska, including S. neomexicanus); (ii) a Coastal clade containing S.monticolus (Oregon to south-east Alaska, including S. bairdi and S. pacificus); (iii) the semiaquatic species (S. bendirii and S. palustris); and (iv) S.sonomae. Additional subdivision was observed within the Continental clade corresponding to populations from the northern and southern Rocky Mountains. Average uncorrected sequence divergence between the Coastal and Continental clades was 5.3% (range 4.5-6.2%), which exceeds many interspecific comparisons within this species complex and within the genus Sorex. Lack of resolution of internal nodes within topologies suggests a deep history of rapid diversification within this group. Late Pleistocene/Holocene glacial perturbations are reflected in the shallow phylogeographic structure within these clades in western North America. Our results suggest also that S. monticolus is not monophyletic under current taxonomic nomenclature. This perspective on phylogeographic history was developed within a growing comparative framework for other organisms in western North America. PMID:11380879

  6. Mechanism of Ghrelin-Induced Gastric Contractions in Suncus murinus (House Musk Shrew): Involvement of Intrinsic Primary Afferent Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Mondal, Anupom; Aizawa, Sayaka; Sakata, Ichiro; Goswami, Chayon; Oda, Sen-ichi; Sakai, Takafumi

    2013-01-01

    Here, we have reported that motilin can induce contractions in a dose-dependent manner in isolated Suncus murinus (house musk shrew) stomach. We have also shown that after pretreatment with a low dose of motilin (10−10 M), ghrelin also induces gastric contractions at levels of 10−10 M to 10−7 M. However, the neural mechanism of ghrelin action in the stomach has not been fully revealed. In the present study, we studied the mechanism of ghrelin-induced contraction in vitro using a pharmacological method. The responses to ghrelin in the stomach were almost completely abolished by hexamethonium and were significantly suppressed by the administration of phentolamine, prazosin, ondansetron, and naloxone. Additionally, N-nitro-l-arginine methylester significantly potentiated the contractions. Importantly, the mucosa is essential for ghrelin-induced, but not motilin-induced, gastric contractions. To evaluate the involvement of intrinsic primary afferent neurons (IPANs), which are multiaxonal neurons that pass signals from the mucosa to the myenteric plexus, we examined the effect of the IPAN-related pathway on ghrelin-induced contractions and found that pretreatment with adenosine and tachykinergic receptor 3 antagonists (SR142801) significantly eliminated the contractions and GR113808 (5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 4 antagonist) almost completely eliminated it. The results indicate that ghrelin stimulates and modulates suncus gastric contractions through cholinergic, adrenergic, serotonergic, opioidergic neurons and nitric oxide synthases in the myenteric plexus. The mucosa is also important for ghrelin-induced gastric contractions, and IPANs may be the important interneurons that pass the signal from the mucosa to the myenteric plexus. PMID:23565235

  7. Current transport mechanism in graphene/AlGaN/GaN heterostructures with various Al mole fractions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandit, Bhishma; Seo, Tae Hoon; Ryu, Beo Deul; Cho, Jaehee

    2016-06-01

    The current transport mechanism of graphene formed on AlxGa1-xN/GaN heterostructures with various Al mole fractions (x = 0.15, 0.20, 0.30, and 0.40) is investigated. The current-voltage measurement from graphene to AlGaN/GaN shows an excellent rectifying property. The extracted Schottky barrier height of the graphene/AlGaN/GaN contacts increases with the Al mole fraction in AlGaN. However, the current transport mechanism deviates from the Schottky-Mott theory owing to the deterioration of AlGaN crystal quality at high Al mole fractions confirmed by reverse leakage current measurement.

  8. (H2)2 mole-fraction altitude profile in the atmosphere of Jupiter: A computational study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slanina, Zdenek; Kim, Sang J.; Fox, Kenneth

    1994-01-01

    The mole fraction x(sub 2) of (H2)2 in equilibrium mixture with H2 under the atmospheric conditions of Jupiter is evaluated from the dimerization equilibrium constant calculated by quantum-chemical treatments and also from the Lennard-Jones potential. The treatments are of an ab initio type with the second and fourth order Moller-Plesset perturbation techniques and a basis set superposition error evaluation. The computed dimerization equilibrium constant is combined with observed height profiles of temperature and pressure. In six treatments considered it is found that the mole fraction decreases with increasing height. Various approximations suggest the dimeric mole fraction at the Jupiter 1 atm pressure level between 0.04 and 1.06%.

  9. Evaluation of germline CDKN2A, ARF, CDK4, PTEN, and BRAF alterations in atypical mole syndrome.

    PubMed

    Celebi, J T; Ward, K M; Wanner, M; Polsky, D; Kopf, A W

    2005-01-01

    Atypical mole syndrome is a sporadic or an inherited condition with an increased risk of melanoma. Germline mutations in the CDKN2A, ARF, CDK4 and somatic mutations in the PTEN and BRAF genes have been associated with melanoma. In this study, we evaluated genes associated with familial and sporadic melanoma for mutations in 28 probands with the atypical mole syndrome. No sequence alterations in the coding regions or in the splice junctions of CDKN2A, ARF, CDK4, PTEN or BRAF were identified. These data suggest that genes evaluated in this study are unlikely to be candidate genes for atypical mole syndrome and support the notion that unknown susceptibility gene/s for this disease exist.

  10. Heavy metal accumulation in the mole, Talpa europea, and earthworms as an indicator of metal bioavailability in terrestrial environments

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, W.

    1987-12-01

    Bioaccumulation studies in animals can supply valuable information to supplement the data obtained by chemical analysis of pollutants in abiotic samples. With respect to the terrestrial ecosystem, suitable indicator species in the decomposer subsystem can be identified on the basis of functional characteristics and trophic level. Investigations on metal behavior at the first trophic level, done in lumbricid earthworms showed that the potential for bioaccumulation depends on the degree of contamination as well as on the metal-binding capacity of the soil. The present study was performed to investigate metal behavior at a higher trophic level, and the mole (Talpa europea) was chosen a representative of the terrestrial decomposer subsystem. As earthworms are the preferred food of moles, they provide the major source of ingested metals to these animals. The food chain involving earthworms and moles provides an example of a critical pathway for potentially toxic non-essential metals such as cadmium and lead.

  11. Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome in a spontaneous pregnancy with invasive mole: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Rachad, Myriam; Chaara, Hikmat; Zahra Fdili, Fatim; Bouguern, Hakima; Melhouf, Abdilah

    2011-01-01

    It is known that most cases of Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome (OHSS) are associated with the therapies for ovulation induction. However, OHSS may rarely be associated with a spontaneous ovulatory cycle, usually in the case of multiple gestations, hypothyroidism or polycystic ovary syndrome. We report a case of severe OHSS in spontaneous pregnancy with invasive mole in a 34 years old woman. The clinical picture showed abdominal pain, massive ascites, nausea, dyspnea and amenorrhea. After imaging examinations and laboratory tests, the diagnosis was established. The patient was managed expectantly with no complications. Although spontaneous ovarian hyperstimulation is a rare entity, it is important that the physician recognizes this condition. Prompt diagnosis and successful management is likely to avoid serious complications, which may develop rapidly. PMID:22355432

  12. Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome in a spontaneous pregnancy with invasive mole: report of a case

    PubMed Central

    Rachad, Myriam; Chaara, Hikmat; Zahra Fdili, Fatim; Bouguern, Hakima; Melhouf, Abdilah

    2011-01-01

    It is known that most cases of Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome (OHSS) are associated with the therapies for ovulation induction. However, OHSS may rarely be associated with a spontaneous ovulatory cycle, usually in the case of multiple gestations, hypothyroidism or polycystic ovary syndrome. We report a case of severe OHSS in spontaneous pregnancy with invasive mole in a 34 years old woman. The clinical picture showed abdominal pain, massive ascites, nausea, dyspnea and amenorrhea. After imaging examinations and laboratory tests, the diagnosis was established. The patient was managed expectantly with no complications. Although spontaneous ovarian hyperstimulation is a rare entity, it is important that the physician recognizes this condition. Prompt diagnosis and successful management is likely to avoid serious complications, which may develop rapidly. PMID:22355432

  13. Complete hydatidiform mole coexisting with a twin live fetus: clinical course.

    PubMed

    Hurteau, J A; Roth, L M; Schilder, J M; Sumners, J

    1997-07-01

    A 33-year-old G4P0 white female presented for a pregnancy ultrasound at 9 weeks gestation and was found to have a complete hydatidiform mole coexisting with a live twin fetus (CHTF). The beta-hCG level was 600,000 mIU/ml and the chest X ray was negative. The pregnancy was uneventfully terminated by suction curettage and oral contraceptives were prescribed. The initial beta-hCG declined appropriately; however, it subsequently rose. The metastatic workup was negative and the patient was treated with weekly intramuscular methotrexate at 30 mg/m2. The hCG levels declined appropriately and then plateaued. Salvage chemotherapy with intravenous actinomycin D at 1.25 mg/m2 every 14 days was started. The hCG level normalized after 3 cycles and the patient was free of disease at 1 year follow-up.

  14. A mobile one-sided NMR sensor with a homogeneous magnetic field: the NMR-MOLE.

    PubMed

    Manz, B; Coy, A; Dykstra, R; Eccles, C D; Hunter, M W; Parkinson, B J; Callaghan, P T

    2006-11-01

    A new portable NMR sensor with a novel one-sided access magnet design, termed NMR-MOLE (MObile Lateral Explorer), has been characterised in terms of sensitivity and depth penetration. The magnet has been designed to be portable and create a volume with a relatively homogeneous magnetic field, 15,000 ppm over a region from 4 to 16 mm away from the probe, with maximum sensitivity at a depth of 10 mm. The proton NMR frequency is 3.3 MHz. We have demonstrated that with this approach a highly sensitive, portable, unilateral NMR sensor can be built. Such a design is especially suited for the characterisation of liquids in situations where unilateral or portable access is required.

  15. Whack-A-Mole Model: Towards a Unified Description of Biological Effects Caused by Radiation Exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manabe, Yuichiro; Wada, Takahiro; Tsunoyama, Yuichi; Nakajima, Hiroo; Nakamura, Issei; Bando, Masako

    2015-04-01

    We present a novel model to for estimating biological effects caused by artificial radiation exposure, i.e., the Whack-A-Mole (WAM) model. It is important to take into account the recovery effects during the time course of cellular reactions. The inclusion of dose-rate dependence is essential in the risk estimation of low-dose radiation, while nearly all the existing theoretical models rely on the total dose dependence only. By analyzing experimental data of the relationship between the radiation dose and the induced mutation frequency of five organisms, namely, mouse, Drosophila, chrysanthemum, maize, Tradescantia, we found that all the data can be reproduced by the WAM model. Most remarkably, a scaling function, which is derived from the WAM model, consistently accounts for the observed mutation frequencies of the five organisms. This is the first rationale to account for the dose rate dependence as well as to provide a unified understanding of a general feature of organisms.

  16. On the dimensionality of the Avogadro constant and the definition of the mole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheatley, Nigel

    2011-06-01

    There is a common misconception among educators, and even some metrologists, that the Avogadro constant NA is (or should be) a pure number, and not a constant of dimension N-1 (where N is the dimension amount of substance). Amount of substance is (and always has been) measured as a ratio of other physical quantities, and not in terms of a specified pure number of elementary entities. Hence the Avogadro constant has always been defined in terms of the unit of amount of substance, and not vice versa. The proposed redefinition of the mole in terms of a fixed value of the Avogadro constant is examined, and it is shown that such a redefinition would not bring any significant metrological benefit. It is contended that such a redefinition would only add to the confusion in this field, and so should be rejected.

  17. Determinants of helminth infection in a subterranean rodent, the Cape dune mole-rat ( Bathyergus suillus ).

    PubMed

    Lutermann, Heike; Bennett, Nigel C

    2012-06-01

    The helminth fauna of the largest bathyergid, the Cape mole-rat ( Bathyergus suillus ) was studied throughout an entire calendar year. The species richness encountered was low, with only 3 species of nematodes ( Longistriata bathyergi , Mammalakis macrospiculum, and Trichostrongylus sp.) and 2 species of cestodes ( Taenia sp. and Rodentolepis sp.). At less than 10%, the prevalence for all helminths species was similarly low and may be a result of the solitary lifestyle and the subterranean habitat exploited by this rodent. Clear seasonal patterns were apparent for the most common nematode ( L. bathyergi ), and prevalence and abundance were highest among non-pregnant females compared to males and pregnant females. Dispersal patterns associated with the mating system of the host could explain this pattern. In contrast, the prevalence of the most common cestode ( Taenia sp.) was neither determined by season nor host sex, suggesting that foraging habits may constantly expose B. suillus to this parasite.

  18. Genome-wide adaptive complexes to underground stresses in blind mole rats Spalax.

    PubMed

    Fang, Xiaodong; Nevo, Eviatar; Han, Lijuan; Levanon, Erez Y; Zhao, Jing; Avivi, Aaron; Larkin, Denis; Jiang, Xuanting; Feranchuk, Sergey; Zhu, Yabing; Fishman, Alla; Feng, Yue; Sher, Noa; Xiong, Zhiqiang; Hankeln, Thomas; Huang, Zhiyong; Gorbunova, Vera; Zhang, Lu; Zhao, Wei; Wildman, Derek E; Xiong, Yingqi; Gudkov, Andrei; Zheng, Qiumei; Rechavi, Gideon; Liu, Sanyang; Bazak, Lily; Chen, Jie; Knisbacher, Binyamin A; Lu, Yao; Shams, Imad; Gajda, Krzysztof; Farré, Marta; Kim, Jaebum; Lewin, Harris A; Ma, Jian; Band, Mark; Bicker, Anne; Kranz, Angela; Mattheus, Tobias; Schmidt, Hanno; Seluanov, Andrei; Azpurua, Jorge; McGowen, Michael R; Ben Jacob, Eshel; Li, Kexin; Peng, Shaoliang; Zhu, Xiaoqian; Liao, Xiangke; Li, Shuaicheng; Krogh, Anders; Zhou, Xin; Brodsky, Leonid; Wang, Jun

    2014-01-01

    The blind mole rat (BMR), Spalax galili, is an excellent model for studying mammalian adaptation to life underground and medical applications. The BMR spends its entire life underground, protecting itself from predators and climatic fluctuations while challenging it with multiple stressors such as darkness, hypoxia, hypercapnia, energetics and high pathonecity. Here we sequence and analyse the BMR genome and transcriptome, highlighting the possible genomic adaptive responses to the underground stressors. Our results show high rates of RNA/DNA editing, reduced chromosome rearrangements, an over-representation of short interspersed elements (SINEs) probably linked to hypoxia tolerance, degeneration of vision and progression of photoperiodic perception, tolerance to hypercapnia and hypoxia and resistance to cancer. The remarkable traits of the BMR, together with its genomic and transcriptomic information, enhance our understanding of adaptation to extreme environments and will enable the utilization of BMR models for biomedical research in the fight against cancer, stroke and cardiovascular diseases. PMID:24892994

  19. Coccidian parasites (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from insectivores. VII. Six new species from the hairy-tailed mole, Parascalops breweri.

    PubMed

    Ford, P L; Duszynski, D W

    1989-08-01

    Sixteen hairy-tailed moles, Parascalops breweri, collected from the northeastern U.S.A. were examined for coccidian oocysts; all were infected with multiple species of coccidia and 3 genera were represented. Two cyclosporans, 2 eimerians, and 2 isosporans are described as new species. Sporulated oocysts of Cyclospora ashtabulensis n. sp. are subspheroid to ellipsoid, 18 X 14 (14-23 X 11-19) microns, and sporocysts are ovoid, 12 X 7 (8-14 X 5-9) microns; C. ashtabulensis was found in 7 of 16 (44%) moles. Sporulated oocysts of Cyclospora parascalopi n. sp. are spheroid, 17 X 14 (13-20 X 11-20) microns, and sporocysts are ovoid, 11 X 7 (8-14 X 5-8) microns; C. parascalopi was found in 8 of 16 (50%) moles. Sporulated oocysts of Eimeria aethiospora n. sp. are subspheroid to ellipsoid, 19 X 13 (15-24 X 10-16) microns, and sporocysts are ovoid, 11 X 6 (8-13 X 4-7) microns; E. aethiospora was found in 4 of 16 (25%) moles. Sporulated oocysts of Eimeria titthus n. sp. are subspheroid, 16 X 14 (13-19 X 11-17) microns, and sporocysts are ellipsoid, 11 X 6 (9-13 X 4-7) microns; E. titthus was found in 4 of 16 (25%) moles. Sporulated oocysts of Isospora ashtabulensis n. sp. are ellipsoid, 20 X 14 (16-24 X 10-18) microns, and sporocysts are ovoid, 10 X 7 (7-14 X 5-10) microns; I. ashtabulensis was found in 5 of 16 (31%) moles.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Middle ear dynamics in response to seismic stimuli in the Cape golden mole (Chrysochloris asiatica).

    PubMed

    Willi, U B; Bronner, G N; Narins, P M

    2006-01-01

    The hypertrophied malleus in the middle ear of some golden moles has been assumed to be an adaptation for sensing substrate vibrations by inertial bone conduction, but this has never been conclusively demonstrated. The Cape golden mole (Chrysochloris asiatica) exhibits this anatomical specialization, and the dynamic properties of its middle ear response to vibrations were the subjects of this study. Detailed three-dimensional middle ear anatomy was obtained by x-ray microcomputed tomography (muCT) at a resolution of 12 microm. The ossicular chain exhibits large malleus mass, selective reduction of stiffness and displacement of the center of mass from the suspension points, all favoring low-frequency tuning of the middle ear response. Orientation of the stapes relative to the ossicular chain and the structure of the stapes footplate enable transmission of substrate vibrations arriving from multiple directions to the inner ear. With the long axes of the mallei aligned parallel to the surface, the animal's head was stimulated by a vibration exciter in the vertical and lateral directions over a frequency range from 10 to 600 Hz. The ossicular chain was shown to respond to both vertical and lateral vibrations. Resonant frequencies were found between 71 and 200 Hz and did not differ significantly between the two stimulation directions. Below resonance, the ossicular chain moves in phase with the skull. Near resonance and above, the malleus moves at a significantly larger mean amplitude (5.8+/-2.8 dB) in response to lateral vs vertical stimuli and is 180 degrees out of phase with the skull in both cases. A concise summary of the propagation characteristics of both seismic body (P-waves) and surface (R-waves) is provided. Potential mechanisms by which the animal might exploit the differential response of the ossicular chain to vertical and lateral excitation are discussed in relation to the properties of surface seismic waves.

  1. Transcriptome, genetic editing, and microRNA divergence substantiate sympatric speciation of blind mole rat, Spalax.

    PubMed

    Li, Kexin; Wang, Liuyang; Knisbacher, Binyamin A; Xu, Qinqin; Levanon, Erez Y; Wang, Huihua; Frenkel-Morgenstern, Milana; Tagore, Satabdi; Fang, Xiaodong; Bazak, Lily; Buchumenski, Ilana; Zhao, Yang; Lövy, Matěj; Li, Xiangfeng; Han, Lijuan; Frenkel, Zeev; Beiles, Avigdor; Cao, Yi Bin; Wang, Zhen Long; Nevo, Eviatar

    2016-07-01

    Incipient sympatric speciation in blind mole rat, Spalax galili, in Israel, caused by sharp ecological divergence of abutting chalk-basalt ecologies, has been proposed previously based on mitochondrial and whole-genome nuclear DNA. Here, we present new evidence, including transcriptome, DNA editing, microRNA, and codon usage, substantiating earlier evidence for adaptive divergence in the abutting chalk and basalt populations. Genetic divergence, based on the previous and new evidence, is ongoing despite restricted gene flow between the two populations. The principal component analysis, neighbor-joining tree, and genetic structure analysis of the transcriptome clearly show the clustered divergent two mole rat populations. Gene-expression level analysis indicates that the population transcriptome divergence is displayed not only by soil divergence but also by sex. Gene ontology enrichment of the differentially expressed genes from the two abutting soil populations highlights reproductive isolation. Alternative splicing variation of the two abutting soil populations displays two distinct splicing patterns. L-shaped FST distribution indicates that the two populations have undergone divergence with gene flow. Transcriptome divergent genes highlight neurogenetics and nutrition characterizing the chalk population, and energetics, metabolism, musculature, and sensory perception characterizing the abutting basalt population. Remarkably, microRNAs also display divergence between the two populations. The GC content is significantly higher in chalk than in basalt, and stress-response genes mostly prefer nonoptimal codons. The multiple lines of evidence of ecological-genomic and genetic divergence highlight that natural selection overrules the gene flow between the two abutting populations, substantiating the sharp ecological chalk-basalt divergence driving sympatric speciation.

  2. Transcriptome, genetic editing, and microRNA divergence substantiate sympatric speciation of blind mole rat, Spalax.

    PubMed

    Li, Kexin; Wang, Liuyang; Knisbacher, Binyamin A; Xu, Qinqin; Levanon, Erez Y; Wang, Huihua; Frenkel-Morgenstern, Milana; Tagore, Satabdi; Fang, Xiaodong; Bazak, Lily; Buchumenski, Ilana; Zhao, Yang; Lövy, Matěj; Li, Xiangfeng; Han, Lijuan; Frenkel, Zeev; Beiles, Avigdor; Cao, Yi Bin; Wang, Zhen Long; Nevo, Eviatar

    2016-07-01

    Incipient sympatric speciation in blind mole rat, Spalax galili, in Israel, caused by sharp ecological divergence of abutting chalk-basalt ecologies, has been proposed previously based on mitochondrial and whole-genome nuclear DNA. Here, we present new evidence, including transcriptome, DNA editing, microRNA, and codon usage, substantiating earlier evidence for adaptive divergence in the abutting chalk and basalt populations. Genetic divergence, based on the previous and new evidence, is ongoing despite restricted gene flow between the two populations. The principal component analysis, neighbor-joining tree, and genetic structure analysis of the transcriptome clearly show the clustered divergent two mole rat populations. Gene-expression level analysis indicates that the population transcriptome divergence is displayed not only by soil divergence but also by sex. Gene ontology enrichment of the differentially expressed genes from the two abutting soil populations highlights reproductive isolation. Alternative splicing variation of the two abutting soil populations displays two distinct splicing patterns. L-shaped FST distribution indicates that the two populations have undergone divergence with gene flow. Transcriptome divergent genes highlight neurogenetics and nutrition characterizing the chalk population, and energetics, metabolism, musculature, and sensory perception characterizing the abutting basalt population. Remarkably, microRNAs also display divergence between the two populations. The GC content is significantly higher in chalk than in basalt, and stress-response genes mostly prefer nonoptimal codons. The multiple lines of evidence of ecological-genomic and genetic divergence highlight that natural selection overrules the gene flow between the two abutting populations, substantiating the sharp ecological chalk-basalt divergence driving sympatric speciation. PMID:27339131

  3. Micro- and macrogeographical genetic structure of colonies of naked mole-rats Heterocephalus glaber.

    PubMed

    Faulkes, C G; Abbott, D H; O'Brien, H P; Lau, L; Roy, M R; Wayne, R K; Bruford, M W

    1997-07-01

    Patterns of genetic structure in eusocial naked mole-rat populations were quantified within and among geographically distant populations using multilocus DNA fingerprinting and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence analysis. Individuals within colonies were genetically almost monomorphic, sharing the same mtDNA control region haplotype and having coefficients of band sharing estimated from DNA fingerprints ranging from 0.93 to 0.99. Family analysis of a hybrid captive colony of naked mole-rats with increased levels of genetic variability using multilocus DNA fingerprinting gave results consistent with Mendelian inheritance, and has revealed for the first time that multiple paternity can occur. In a survey of wild colonies from Ethiopia, Somalia and locations in northern and southern Kenya, we have examined mtDNA control region sequence variation in 42 individuals from 15 colonies, and together with multilocus DNA fingerprinting and mtDNA cytochrome-b sequence analysis in selected individuals have shown that these populations show considerable genetic divergence. Most of the variance in sequence divergence was found to be between geographical locations (phi ct = 0.68) and there was a significant correlation between sequence divergence and geographical separation of haplotypes. Six colonies from Mtito Andei in southern Kenya shared the same control region haplotype, suggesting a recent common maternal ancestor. In contrast, out of four colonies at Lerata in north Kenya, three haplotypes were identified, and phylogenetic analysis suggests that this area may be a zone where two distinct lineages are in close proximity. Genetic distances were maximal between Ethiopian and southern Kenyan populations at 5.8% for cytochrome-b, and are approaching interspecific values seen between other Bathyergids.

  4. Adaptation of Pelage Color and Pigment Variations in Israeli Subterranean Blind Mole Rats, Spalax Ehrenbergi

    PubMed Central

    Singaravelan, Natarajan; Raz, Shmuel; Tzur, Shay; Belifante, Shirli; Pavlicek, Tomas; Beiles, Avigdor; Ito, Shosuke; Wakamatsu, Kazumasa; Nevo, Eviatar

    2013-01-01

    Background Concealing coloration in rodents is well established. However, only a few studies examined how soil color, pelage color, hair-melanin content, and genetics (i.e., the causal chain) synergize to configure it. This study investigates the causal chain of dorsal coloration in Israeli subterranean blind mole rats, Spalax ehrenbergi. Methods We examined pelage coloration of 128 adult animals from 11 populations belonging to four species of Spalax ehrenbergi superspecies (Spalax galili, Spalax golani, Spalax carmeli, and Spalax judaei) and the corresponding coloration of soil samples from the collection sites using a digital colorimeter. Additionally, we quantified hair-melanin contents of 67 animals using HPLC and sequenced the MC1R gene in 68 individuals from all four mole rat species. Results Due to high variability of soil colors, the correlation between soil and pelage color coordinates was weak and significant only between soil hue and pelage lightness. Multiple stepwise forward regression revealed that soil lightness was significantly associated with all pelage color variables. Pelage color lightness among the four species increased with the higher southward aridity in accordance to Gloger's rule (darker in humid habitats and lighter in arid habitats). Darker and lighter pelage colors are associated with darker basalt and terra rossa, and lighter rendzina soils, respectively. Despite soil lightness varying significantly, pelage lightness and eumelanin converged among populations living in similar soil types. Partial sequencing of the MC1R gene identified three allelic variants, two of which were predominant in northern species (S. galili and S. golani), and the third was exclusive to southern species (S. carmeli and S. judaei), which might have caused the differences found in pheomelanin/eumelanin ratio. Conclusion/Significance Darker dorsal pelage in darker basalt and terra rossa soils in the north and lighter pelage in rendzina and loess soils in the

  5. Molecular basis of a novel adaptation to hypoxic-hypercapnia in a strictly fossorial mole

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Elevated blood O2 affinity enhances survival at low O2 pressures, and is perhaps the best known and most broadly accepted evolutionary adjustment of terrestrial vertebrates to environmental hypoxia. This phenotype arises by increasing the intrinsic O2 affinity of the hemoglobin (Hb) molecule, by decreasing the intracellular concentration of allosteric effectors (e.g., 2,3-diphosphoglycerate; DPG), or by suppressing the sensitivity of Hb to these physiological cofactors. Results Here we report that strictly fossorial eastern moles (Scalopus aquaticus) have evolved a low O2 affinity, DPG-insensitive Hb - contrary to expectations for a mammalian species that is adapted to the chronic hypoxia and hypercapnia of subterranean burrow systems. Molecular modelling indicates that this functional shift is principally attributable to a single charge altering amino acid substitution in the β-type δ-globin chain (δ136Gly→Glu) of this species that perturbs electrostatic interactions between the dimer subunits via formation of an intra-chain salt-bridge with δ82Lys. However, this replacement also abolishes key binding sites for the red blood cell effectors Cl-, lactate and DPG (the latter of which is virtually absent from the red cells of this species) at δ82Lys, thereby markedly reducing competition for carbamate formation (CO2 binding) at the δ-chain N-termini. Conclusions We propose this Hb phenotype illustrates a novel mechanism for adaptively elevating the CO2 carrying capacity of eastern mole blood during burst tunnelling activities associated with subterranean habitation. PMID:20637064

  6. Does the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus with the DPP-4 inhibitor vildagliptin reduce HbA1c to a greater extent in Japanese patients than in Caucasian patients?

    PubMed Central

    Foley, James E; Bhosekar, Vaishali; Kawamori, Ryuzo

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous work suggests that Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) may respond more favorably to a DPP-4 (dipeptidyl peptidase-4) inhibitor than Caucasians. We aimed to compare the efficacy of the DPP-4 inhibitor vildagliptin (50 mg twice daily [bid]) between Japanese and Caucasian populations. Methods This analysis pooled data from 19 studies of drug-naïve patients with T2DM who were treated for 12 weeks with vildagliptin 50 mg bid as monotherapy. The pool comprised Japanese patients (n=338) who had been treated in Japan and Caucasian patients (n=1,275) who were treated elsewhere. Change from baseline (Δ) in glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) at 12 weeks (in millimoles per mole) versus baseline HbA1c (both in percentage National Glycohemoglobin Standardization Program units [NGSP%] and millimoles per mole) for each population was reported. Universal HbA1c in millimoles per mole was calculated from either the Japanese Diabetes Society or the NGSP% HbA1c standards. Results At baseline, mean values for Japanese and Caucasian patients, respectively, were as follows: age, 59 years and 56 years; % male, 69% and 57%. The average HbA1c was reduced from 7.90% to 6.96% (Japanese Diabetes Society) and from 8.57% to 7.50% (United States National Glycohemoglobin Standardization Program), while HbA1c was reduced from 63 mmol/mol to 53 mmol/mol and from 70 mmol/mol to 58 mmol/mol in Japanese and Caucasians, respectively. ΔHbA1c increased with increasing baseline in both populations. The slopes were the same (0.41, r2=0.36; and 0.41, r2=0.15), and the intercepts were 15.4 mmol/mol and 17.2 mmol/mol, respectively. In Japanese patients, mean ΔHbA1c was greater by 1.7 mmol/mol (0.2% NGSP HbA1c) at any given baseline HbA1c than in Caucasians (P=0.01). Conclusion The present pooled analysis suggests that Japanese patients respond better to vildagliptin treatment compared with Caucasians. However, when glycemic control was corrected by using the same glycemic

  7. Japanese Industry Boosts Pollution Spending

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAbee, Michael K.

    1975-01-01

    In response to tightening emission standards imposed by the government, Japanese industry will increase its capital spending on pollution control equipment to account for about 20 percent of all industrial capital spending. Preferential treatment and loans from government-affiliated financial institutions are available for projects. (Author/MLH)

  8. Japanese macaques as laboratory animals.

    PubMed

    Isa, Tadashi; Yamane, Itaru; Hamai, Miya; Inagaki, Haruhisa

    2009-10-01

    The Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata), along with rhesus and long-tailed macaques, is one of the macaca species. In Japan, it has been preferred for use as a laboratory animal, particularly in the field of neuroscience, because of its high level of intelligence and its gentle nature. In addition, the species has a relatively homogeneous genetic background and field researchers have accumulated abundant information on the social behavior of wild Japanese macaques. As future neuroscience research will undoubtedly be more focused on the higher cognitive functions of the brain, including social behavior among multiple individuals, the Japanese macaque can be expected to become even more valuable as a laboratory animal in the near future. The Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology has launched a National BioResource Project (NBRP) to establish a stable breeding and supply system for Japanese macaques for laboratory use. The project is in progress and should lead to the establishment of a National Primate Center in Japan, which will support the supply of monkeys as well as social outreach and handling of animal welfare issues.

  9. Teaching Japanese-American Incarceration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miksch, Karen L.; Ghere, David

    2004-01-01

    Few events in American history are so universally deplored as the incarceration of Japanese Americans during World War II. The United States government has acknowledged the error and the injustice that resulted with an official Presidential apology and a Congressional disbursement of reparations to the victims of the incarceration policy. The…

  10. Dilemmas of Japanese Professional Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osako, Masako Murakami

    1978-01-01

    Despite advanced industrialization, Japanese women are subjected to occupational inequality by businesses that place them on a career track separate from men in terms of wages, promotion, and retirement and by a cultural environment that fosters the values of motherhood and stresses female authority only in domestic situations. (WI)

  11. The Effects of Japanese Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummings, William K.

    In this paper, selected evidence on the effects of Japanese schools is presented. The author believes that Japan is one modern society where the schools have fostered individual and social development. The primary focus is on the effects for individuals in the area of cognitive skills, motivation, educational and occupational attainments, and…

  12. Contrastive Rhetoric: Japanese and English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinds, John

    Research is reviewed on systematic differences in expository styles due to cultural or linguistic diversity. The critique concentrates on the method of data gathering, the usage of the categorization "Oriental," and the description of English paragraph development. An investigation is reported that consisted of an analysis of the Japanese and…

  13. Point substitutions in Japanese alloalbumins.

    PubMed

    Arai, K; Madison, J; Huss, K; Ishioka, N; Satoh, C; Fujita, M; Neel, J V; Sakurabayashi, I; Putnam, F W

    1989-08-01

    We have completed the structural study of five rare types of inherited albumin variants (alloalbumins) discovered in the Biochemical Genetics Study of 15,581 unrelated children in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. We have also identified the structural change in five other alloalbumin specimens detected during clinical electrophoresis of sera from Japanese living near Tokyo. Each of the five albumin variants from Nagasaki and Hiroshima has a single amino acid substitution. All of these substitutions differ, and none has been reported in non-Japanese populations. No instances of proalbumin variants or of albumin B (the most frequent alloalbumins in Caucasians) were detected in the children in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. However, one instance of a variant proalbumin and two examples of albumin B occurred in Japanese from the vicinity of Tokyo. In addition a previously unreported point substitution was found in albumin Tochigi, which is present in two unrelated persons from Tochigi prefecture. Four of the point mutations in the Japanese alloalbumins are in close proximity in a short segment of the polypeptide chain (residues 354-382) in which three additional point substitutions have been reported in diverse populations. These results, combined with earlier data, suggest that point substitutions are grouped in certain segments of the albumin molecule.

  14. Three Plays from the Japanese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayfield, M. Kent

    This study is both an interpretation and a translation of three modern Japanese plays, providing an artistic perspective on the radical reordering of experience and thought with which modern man must grapple in cross-cultural encounters. An introductory essay prefaces each play, providing a historical, critical, or appreciative perspective from…

  15. Overview of Japanese aerospace plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamanaka, Tatsuo

    1992-12-01

    The Japanese NAL, NASDA, and ISAS agencies have undertaken development of a Highly Maneuverable Experimental Spaceplane ('HIMES') which will integrate hypersonic technologies currently under development. A development status evaluation of these activities is presented. Attention is given to the configurational features of HIMES, its aerodynamic developmental tests to date, structures and materials considerations, flight control/guidance systems, airbreathing propulsion options, and CFD modeling.

  16. Japanese Americans: Oppression and Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersen, William

    This book is less a study of Japanese Americans per se than an analysis of the puzzle that they present to theorists of ethnic relations. What made them different? What gave them the strength to thrive on adversity? How must our theories of intergroup relations be amended to take account of this deviant case? After an introductory chapter, the…

  17. The Japanese Copula: A Dummy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wenck, G.

    1973-01-01

    Discussion of whether the Japanese copula can adequately be described as a dummy, i.e., as an element which although existing in the surface structure can be dispensed with in the deep structure of a sentence; based on a paper read at the 1970 meeting of the Societas Linguistica Europaea, Prague, Czechoslovakia. (RS)

  18. Japanese Logic Puzzles and Proof

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wanko, Jeffrey J.

    2009-01-01

    An understanding of proof does not start in a high school geometry course. Rather, attention to logical reasoning throughout a student's school experience can help the development of proof readiness. In the spirit of problem solving, the author has begun to use some Japanese logic puzzles other than sudoku to help students develop additional…

  19. The Japanese Domestic Labor Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ueno, Chizuko

    The changing role of Japanese women can be seen in the stages of a domestic labor debate which occurred at three different times in the past 30 years. The first debate began with Ayako Ishigaki's (1955) insistence that women should have a job outside the home. Wartime production helped break down traditional divisions of labor by encouraging women…

  20. Twin pregnancy with complete hydatidiform mole (46,XX) and fetus (46,XY): genetic origin proved by analysis of chromosome polymorphisms.

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, R A; Sheppard, D M; Lawler, S D

    1982-01-01

    In a case of complete hydatidiform mole with fetus the genetic origins were defined by the use of chromosomal polymorphisms. The fetus had a normal 46,XY karyotype with evidence of the presence of both maternal and paternal chromosomes. The mole was 46,XX and of androgenetic origin. There was no evidence of a maternal contribution, and duplication of paternal chromosomes was shown. In such atypical molar pregnancies examining genetic polymorphisms yields much more information than do sex chromosome studies and karyotyping, particularly in confirming the diagnosis and defining the origin and aetiology of the condition. Images FIG 1 FIG 2 PMID:6803908

  1. Ecological risk assessment for mink and short-tailed shrew exposed to PCBs, dioxins, and furans in the Housatonic River area.

    PubMed

    Moore, Dwayne R J; Breton, Roger L; DeLong, Tod R; Ferson, Scott; Lortie, John P; MacDonald, Drew B; McGrath, Richard; Pawlisz, Andrzej; Svirsky, Susan C; Teed, R Scott; Thompson, Ryan P; Whitfield Aslund, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    A probabilistic risk assessment was conducted to characterize risks to a representative piscivorous mammal (mink, Mustela vison) and a representative carnivorous mammal (short-tailed shrew, Blarina brevicauda) exposed to PCBs, dioxins, and furans in the Housatonic River area downstream of the General Electric (GE) facility in Pittsfield, Massachusetts. Contaminant exposure was estimated using a probabilistic total daily intake model and parameterized using life history information of each species and concentrations of PCBs, dioxins, and furans in prey collected in the Housatonic River study area. The effects assessment preferentially relied on dose-response curves but defaulted to benchmarks or other estimates of effect when there were insufficient toxicity data. The risk characterization used a weight of evidence approach. Up to 3 lines of evidence were used to estimate risks to the selected mammal species: 1) probabilistic exposure and effects modeling, 2) field surveys, and 3) species-specific feeding or field studies. The weight of evidence assessment indicated a high risk for mink and an intermediate risk for short-tailed shrew. PMID:25976918

  2. Receptor-Selective Agonists Induce Emesis and Fos Expression in the Brain and Enteric Nervous System of the Least Shrew (Cryptotis parva)

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Andrew P.; Chebolu, Seetha; Darmani, Nissar A.

    2009-01-01

    Research on the mechanisms of emesis has implicated multiple neurotransmitters via both central (dorsal vagal complex) and peripheral (enteric neurons and enterochromaffin cells) anatomical substrates. Taking advantage of advances in receptor-specific agonists, and utilizing Fos expression as a functional activity marker, this study demonstrates a strong, but incomplete, overlap in anatomical substrates for a variety of emetogens. We used cisplatin and specific agonists to 5-HT3 serotonergic, D2/D3 dopaminergic, and NK1 tachykininergic receptors to induce vomiting in the least shrew (Cryptotis parva), and quantified the resulting Fos expression. The least shrew is a small mammal whose responses to emetic challenges are very similar to its human counterparts. In all cases, the enteric nervous system, nucleus of the solitary tract, and dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus demonstrated significantly increased Fos immunoreactivity (Fos-IR). However, Fos-IR induction was notably absent from the area postrema following the dopaminergic and NK1 receptor-specific agents. Two brain nuclei not usually discussed regarding emesis, the dorsal raphe nucleus and paraventricular thalamic nucleus, also demonstrated increased emesis-related Fos-IR. Taken together, these data suggest the dorsal vagal complex is part of a common pathway for a variety of distinct emetogens, but there are central emetic substrates, both medullary and diencephalic, that can be accessed without directly stimulating the area postrema. PMID:19699757

  3. Maximal enzyme activities, and myoglobin and glutathione concentrations in heart, liver and skeletal muscle of the Northern Short-tailed shrew (Blarina brevicauda; Insectivora: Soricidae).

    PubMed

    Stewart, J M; Woods, A K; Blakely, J A

    2005-07-01

    We measured the enzymes of glycolysis, Krebs Cycle, beta-oxidation and electron transport in the heart, liver and skeletal muscle of the Northern Short-tailed Shrew, Blarina brevicauda. Additionally, we measured the amount of myoglobin in skeletal and heart muscle as well as the concentration of glutathione in heart. The picture that emerges is of an aerobically well-endowed animal with constrained anaerobic capacity as indicated by small activities of glycolytic enzymes and creatine kinase. Lipid metabolism and amino acid transamination, as well as gluconeogenesis, are predominant in processing carbon resources and probably reflect the large contribution lipid and protein make to the diet of this carnivore. The citrate synthase activity is the largest of any reported value for vertebrate heart (250 U/g). The additional, very active cytochrome c oxidase activity (220 U/g) and large myoglobin concentrations (8 mg/g) in heart are clearly the underpinnings of the rapid metabolic rates reported for small insectivores. The potential for generation of reactive oxygen species must be great since the total glutathione concentration (165 mumol/g) is 300-fold greater in shrew hearts than in hearts of rats. PMID:15914053

  4. Purification and characterisation of blarinasin, a new tissue kallikrein-like protease from the short-tailed shrew Blarina brevicauda: comparative studies with blarina toxin.

    PubMed

    Kita, Masaki; Okumura, Yuushi; Ohdachi, Satoshi D; Oba, Yuichi; Yoshikuni, Michiyasu; Nakamura, Yasuo; Kido, Hiroshi; Uemura, Daisuke

    2005-02-01

    A new tissue kallikrein-like protease, blarinasin, has been purified from the salivary glands of the short-tailed shrew Blarina brevicauda. Blarinasin is a 32-kDa N-glycosylated protease with isoelectric values ranging between 5.3 and 5.7, and an optimum pH of 8.5 for enzyme activity. The cloned blarinasin cDNA coded for a pre-pro-sequence and a mature peptide of 252 amino acids with a catalytic triad typical for serine proteases and 43.7-54.0% identity to other mammalian tissue kallikreins. Blarinasin preferentially hydrolysed Pro-Phe-Arg-4-methylcoumaryl-7-amide (MCA) and N-tert-butyloxycarbonyl-Val-Leu-Lys-MCA, and preferentially converted human high-molecular-weight kininogen (HK) to bradykinin. The activity of blarinasin was prominently inhibited by aprotinin (K(i) =3.4 nM). A similar kallikrein-like protease, the lethal venom blarina toxin, has previously been purified from the salivary glands of the shrew Blarina and shows 67.9% identity to blarinasin. However, blarinasin was not toxic in mice. Blarinasin is a very abundant kallikrein-like protease and represents 70-75% of kallikrein-like enzymes in the salivary gland of B. brevicauda. PMID:15843162

  5. Genetic diversity of Imjin virus in the Ussuri white-toothed shrew (Crocidura lasiura) in the Republic of Korea, 2004-2010

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Recently, Imjin virus (MJNV), a genetically distinct hantavirus, was isolated from lung tissues of the Ussuri white-toothed shrew (Crocidura lasiura) captured near the demilitarized zone in the Republic of Korea. To clarify the genetic diversity of MJNV, partial M- and L-segment sequences were amplified from lung tissues of 12 of 37 (32.4%) anti-MJNV IgG antibody-positive Ussuri white-toothed shrews captured between 2004 and 2010. A 531-nucleotide region of the M segment (coordinates 2,255 to 2,785) revealed that the 12 MJNV strains differed by 0-12.2% and 0-2.3% at the nucleotide and amino acid levels, respectively. A similar degree of nucleotide (0.2-11.9%) and amino acid (0-3.8%) difference was found in a 632-nucleotide length of the L segment (coordinates 962 to 1,593) of nine MJNV strains. Phylogenetic analyses, based on the partial M and L segments of MJNV strains generated by the neighbor-joining and maximum likelihood methods, showed geographic-specific clustering, akin to the phylogeography of rodent-borne hantaviruses. PMID:21303516

  6. Evolutionary history of the greater white-toothed shrew (Crocidura russula) inferred from analysis of mtDNA, Y, and X chromosome markers.

    PubMed

    Brändli, Laura; Handley, Lori-Jayne Lawson; Vogel, Peter; Perrin, Nicolas

    2005-12-01

    We investigate the evolutionary history of the greater white-toothed shrew across its distribution in northern Africa and mainland Europe using sex-specific (mtDNA and Y chromosome) and biparental (X chromosome) markers. All three loci confirm a large divergence between eastern (Tunisia and Sardinia) and western (Morocco and mainland Europe) lineages, and application of a molecular clock to mtDNA divergence estimates indicates a more ancient separation (2.25 M yr ago) than described by some previous studies, supporting claims for taxonomic revision. Moroccan ancestry for the mainland European population is inconclusive from phylogenetic trees, but is supported by greater nucleotide diversity and a more ancient population expansion in Morocco than in Europe. Signatures of rapid population expansion in mtDNA, combined with low X and Y chromosome diversity, suggest a single colonization of mainland Europe by a small number of Moroccan shrews >38 K yr ago. This study illustrates that multilocus genetic analyses can facilitate the interpretation of species' evolutionary history but that phylogeographic inference using X and Y chromosomes is restricted by low levels of observed polymorphism.

  7. Pair-List Readings in Korean-Japanese, Chinese-Japanese and English-Japanese Interlanguage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsden, Heather

    2008-01-01

    In English and Chinese, questions with a "wh"-object and a universally quantified subject (e.g. "What did everyone buy?") allow an individual answer ("Everyone bought apples.") and a pair-list answer ("Sam bought apples, Jo bought bananas, Sally bought..."). By contrast, the pair-list answer is reportedly unavailable in Japanese and Korean. This…

  8. Successful Outcome of Twin Gestation with Partial Mole and Co-Existing Live Fetus: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Rathod, Setu; Rani, Reddi; John, Lopamudra B.

    2015-01-01

    Sad fetus syndrome comprising of a live twin gestation with a hydatidiform mole is a rare entity. The condition is even rarer when the co-existing live fetus is associated with a partial mole than a complete mole. We report the case of a 24-year-old G2P1L1 at 28 weeks gestation who presented to our casualty in the second stage of labour. She had a previous ultrasound scan at 13 weeks which showed a live fetus with a focal area of multicystic placenta. She delivered an alive preterm male fetus weighing 1.32 kg vaginally. Following expulsion of normal placenta of the live fetus, partial mole was expelled. The fetus was admitted to neonatal ICU and discharged after two weeks. Soon after delivery, β-hCG (human chorionic gonadotropin) was 1,21,993 mIU/ml which decreased to 30mIU/ml within two weeks. The patient was discharged with advice of regular follow up of β-hCG reports. PMID:26436001

  9. A cytosolic protein factor from the naked mole-rat activates proteasomes of other species and protects these from inhibition.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Karl A; Osmulski, Pawel A; Pierce, Anson; Weintraub, Susan T; Gaczynska, Maria; Buffenstein, Rochelle

    2014-11-01

    The naked mole-rat maintains robust proteostasis and high levels of proteasome-mediated proteolysis for most of its exceptional (~31years) life span. Here, we report that the highly active proteasome from the naked mole-rat liver resists attenuation by a diverse suite of proteasome-specific small molecule inhibitors. Moreover, mouse, human, and yeast proteasomes exposed to the proteasome-depleted, naked mole-rat cytosolic fractions, recapitulate the observed inhibition resistance, and mammalian proteasomes also show increased activity. Gel filtration coupled with mass spectrometry and atomic force microscopy indicates that these traits are supported by a protein factor that resides in the cytosol. This factor interacts with the proteasome and modulates its activity. Although Heat shock protein 72 kDa (HSP72) and Heat shock protein 40 kDa (Homolog of bacterial DNAJ1) (HSP40(Hdj1)) are among the constituents of this factor, the observed phenomenon, such as increasing peptidase activity and protecting against inhibition cannot be reconciled with any known chaperone functions. This novel function may contribute to the exceptional protein homeostasis in the naked mole-rat and allow it to successfully defy aging.

  10. A recurrent intragenic genomic duplication, other novel mutations in NLRP7 and imprinting defects in recurrent biparental hydatidiform moles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A complete hydatidiform mole (CHM) is an abnormal pregnancy with hyperproliferative vesicular trophoblast and no fetal development. Most CHM are sporadic and androgenetic, but recurrent HM have biparental inheritance (BiHM) with disrupted DNA methylation at differentially methylated regions (DMRs) o...

  11. A Study Comparing the Efficacy of a Mole Ratio Flow Chart to Dimensional Analysis for Teaching Reaction Stoichiometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Eugene P.

    2001-01-01

    Reaction stoichiometry calculations have always been difficult for students. Offers the use of a mole ratio flow chart (MRFC) as a logistical sequence of steps that incorporates molar proportions as alternative problem solving techniques to improve student understanding. Indicates that MRFC users performed as well on exam problems covering…

  12. A Modified Mole Cricket Lure and Description of Scapteriscus borellii (Orthoptera: Gryllotalpidae) Range Expansion and Calling Song in California

    PubMed Central

    Dillman, Adler R.; Cronin, Christopher J.; Tang, Joseph; Gray, David A.; Sternberg, Paul W.

    2014-01-01

    Invasive mole cricket species in the genus Scapteriscus have become significant agricultural pests and are continuing to expand their range in North America. Though largely subterranean, adults of some species such as S. borellii are capable of long dispersive flights and phonotaxis to male calling songs to find suitable habitats and mates. Mole crickets in the genus Scapteriscus are known to be attracted to and can be caught by audio lure traps that broadcast synthesized or recorded calling songs. We report improvements in the design and production of electronic controllers for the automation of semi-permanent mole cricket trap lures as well as highly portable audio trap collection designs. Using these improved audio lure traps we collected the first reported individuals of the pest mole cricket S. borellii in California. We describe several characteristic features of the calling song of the California population including that the pulse rate is a function of soil temperature, similar to Florida populations of S. borellii. Further, we show that other calling song characteristics (carrier frequency, intensity, and pulse rate) are significantly different between the populations. PMID:24472207

  13. Habitat and Burrow System Characteristics of the Blind Mole Rat Spalax galili in an Area of Supposed Sympatric Speciation

    PubMed Central

    Lövy, Matěj; Šklíba, Jan; Hrouzková, Ema; Dvořáková, Veronika; Nevo, Eviatar; Šumbera, Radim

    2015-01-01

    A costly search for food in subterranean rodents resulted in various adaptations improving their foraging success under given ecological conditions. In Spalax ehrenbergi superspecies, adaptations to local ecological conditions can promote speciation, which was recently supposed to occur even in sympatry at sites where two soil types of contrasting characteristics abut each other. Quantitative description of ecological conditions in such a site has been, nevertheless, missing. We measured characteristics of food supply and soil within 16 home ranges of blind mole rats Spalax galili in an area subdivided into two parts formed by basaltic soil and pale rendzina. We also mapped nine complete mole rat burrow systems to compare burrowing patterns between the soil types. Basaltic soil had a higher food supply and was harder than rendzina even under higher moisture content and lower bulk density. Population density of mole rats was five-times lower in rendzina, possibly due to the lower food supply and higher cover of Sarcopoterium shrubs which seem to be avoided by mole rats. A combination of food supply and soil parameters probably influences burrowing patterns resulting in shorter and more complex burrow systems in basaltic soil. PMID:26192762

  14. HP3 on ExoMars - Cutting airbag cloths with the sharp tip of a mechanical mole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krause, C.; Izzo, M.; Re, E.; Mehls, C.; Richter, L.; Coste, P.

    2009-04-01

    The HP3 - Heat Flow and Physical Properties Package - is planned to be one of the Humboldt lander-based instruments on the ESA ExoMars mission. HP3 will allow the measurement of the subsurface temperature gradient and physical as well as thermophysical properties of the subsurface regolith of Mars down to a depth of 5 meters. From these measurements, the planetary heat flux can be inferred. The HP³ instrument package consists of a mole trailing a package of thermal and electrical sensors into the regolith. Beside the payload elements Thermal Excitation and Measurement Suite and a Permittivity Probe the HP3 experiment includes sensors to detect the forward motion and the tilt of the HP3 payload compartment. The HP3 experiment will be integrated into the lander platform of the ExoMars mission. The original accommodation featured a deployment device or a robotic arm to place HP3 onto the soil outside the deflated lander airbags. To avoid adding such deployment devices, it was suggested that the HP3 mole should be capable of piercing the airbags under the lander. The ExoMars lander airbag is made of 4 Kevlar layers (2 abrasive and 2 bladders). A double fold of the airbag (a worst case) would represent a pile of 12 layers. An exploratory study has examined the possibility of piercing airbag cloths by adding sharp cutting blades on the tip of a penetrating mole. In the experimental setup representative layers were laid over a Mars soil simulant. Initial tests used a hammer-driven cutting tip and had moderate to poor results. More representative tests used a prototype of the HP3 mole and were fully successful: the default 4 layer configuration was pierced as well as the 12 layer configuration, the latter one within 3 hours and about 3000 mole strokes This improved behaviour is attributed to the use of representative test hardware where guidance and suppression of mole recoil were concerned. The presentation will provide an explanation of the technical requirements on

  15. Assessing filtering of mountaintop CO2 mole fractions for application to inverse models of biosphere-atmosphere carbon exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, B.-G. J.; Desai, A. R.; Stephens, B. B.; Bowling, D. R.; Burns, S. P.; Watt, A. S.; Heck, S. L.; Sweeney, C.

    2012-02-01

    There is a widely recognized need to improve our understanding of biosphere-atmosphere carbon exchanges in areas of complex terrain including the United States Mountain West. CO2 fluxes over mountainous terrain are often difficult to measure due to unusual and complicated influences associated with atmospheric transport. Consequently, deriving regional fluxes in mountain regions with carbon cycle inversion of atmospheric CO2 mole fraction is sensitive to filtering of observations to those that can be represented at the transport model resolution. Using five years of CO2 mole fraction observations from the Regional Atmospheric Continuous CO2 Network in the Rocky Mountains (Rocky RACCOON), five statistical filters are used to investigate a range of approaches for identifying regionally representative CO2 mole fractions. Test results from three filters indicate that subsets based on short-term variance and local CO2 gradients across tower inlet heights retain nine-tenths of the total observations and are able to define representative diel variability and seasonal cycles even for difficult-to-model sites where the influence of local fluxes is much larger than regional mole fraction variations. Test results from two other filters that consider measurements from previous and following days using spline fitting or sliding windows are overly selective. Case study examples showed that these windowing-filters rejected measurements representing synoptic changes in CO2, which suggests that they are not well suited to filtering continental CO2 measurements. We present a novel CO2 lapse rate filter that uses CO2 differences between levels in the model atmosphere to select subsets of site measurements that are representative on model scales. Our new filtering techniques provide guidance for novel approaches to assimilating mountain-top CO2 mole fractions in carbon cycle inverse models.

  16. Japanese encephalitis in the USSR*

    PubMed Central

    Graščenkov, N. I.

    1964-01-01

    The author sketches the history of Japanese encephalitis in the USSR, where it has been thoroughly studied since it first occurred in 1938. After a brief outline of its epidemiology, he describes the pathogenesis, the signs and symptoms, and the pathophysiological mechanisms that make this form of encephalitis so dangerous. He also discusses the diagnosis and the methods of treatment and prevention practised in the USSR. PMID:14153405

  17. The isotopic ecology of African mole rats informs hypotheses on the evolution of human diet.

    PubMed

    Yeakel, Justin D; Bennett, Nigel C; Koch, Paul L; Dominy, Nathaniel J

    2007-07-22

    The diets of Australopithecus africanus and Paranthropus robustus are hypothesized to have included C4 plants, such as tropical grasses and sedges, or the tissues of animals which themselves consumed C4 plants. Yet inferences based on the craniodental morphology of A. africanus and P. robustus indicate a seasonal diet governed by hard, brittle foods. Such mechanical characteristics are incompatible with a diet of grasses or uncooked meat, which are too tough for efficient mastication by flat, low-cusped molars. This discrepancy, termed the C4 conundrum, has led to the speculation that C4 plant underground storage organs (USOs) were a source of nutrition for hominin species. We test this hypothesis by examining the isotopic ecology of African mole rats, which consume USOs extensively. We measured delta18O and delta13C of enamel and bone apatite from fossil and modern species distributed across a range of habitats. We show that delta18O values vary little and that delta13C values vary along the C3 to C4/CAM-vegetative axis. Relatively high delta13C values exist in modern Cryptomys hottentotus natalensis and Cryptomys spp. recovered from hominin-bearing deposits. These values overlap those reported for A. africanus and P. robustus and we conclude that the USO hypothesis for hominin diets retains certain plausibility.

  18. Two novel mutations in the KHDC3L gene in Asian patients with recurrent hydatidiform mole.

    PubMed

    Rezaei, Maryam; Nguyen, Ngoc Minh Phuong; Foroughinia, Leila; Dash, Pratima; Ahmadpour, Fatemeh; Verma, Ishwar Chandra; Slim, Rima; Fardaei, Majid

    2016-01-01

    Recurrent hydatidiform mole (RHM) is defined by the occurrence of repeated molar pregnancies in affected women. Two genes, NLRP7 and KHDC3L, play a causal role in RHM and are responsible for 48-80% and 5% of cases, respectively. Here, we report the results of screening these two genes for mutations in one Iranian and one Indian patient with RHM. No mutations in NLRP7 were identified in the two patients. KHDC3L sequencing identified two novel protein-truncating mutations in a homozygous state, a 4-bp deletion, c.17_20delGGTT (p.Arg6Leufs*7), in the Iranian patient and a splice mutation, c.349+1G>A, that affects the invariant donor site at the junction of exon 2 and intron 2 in the Indian patient. To date, only four mutations in KHDC3L have been reported. The identification of two additional mutations provides further evidence for the important role of KHDC3L in the pathophysiology of RHM and increases the diversity of mutations described in Asian populations. PMID:27621838

  19. Renal Pathology in a Nontraditional Aging Model: The Naked Mole-Rat (Heterocephalus glaber).

    PubMed

    Delaney, M A; Kinsel, M J; Treuting, P M

    2016-03-01

    The naked mole-rat (NMR; Heterocephalus glaber) is growing in popularity as a model for aging research due to its extreme longevity (up to 30 years), highly adapted physiology, and resistance to cancer, particularly when compared with traditional aging models such as laboratory mice and rats. Despite the NMR's seemingly lengthy health span, several age-related lesions have been documented. During a 15-year retrospective evaluation of a zoo-housed population, histologic changes in the kidneys were reported in 127 of 138 (92%) adult NMRs. Of these, renal tubular mineralization was very common (115 of 127; 90.6%) and found in NMRs without concurrent renal lesions (36 of 127; 28.3%). Many of the other described lesions were considered progressive stages of a single process, generally referred to as chronic nephritis or nephropathy, and diagnosed in 73 of 127 (57.5%), while end-stage renal disease was reported in only 12 (9.4%) NMRs. Renal lesions of these NMRs were comparable to disease entities reported in laboratory rats and certain strains of inbred and noninbred mice. Although many lesions of NMR kidneys were similar to those found in aged laboratory rodents, some common urinary diseases were not represented in the examined colonies. The goal of this study was to describe renal lesions in NMRs from a zoologic setting to familiarize investigators and pathologists with an apparently common and presumably age-related disease in this nontraditional model.

  20. Initial Case Reports of Cancer in Naked Mole-rats (Heterocephalus glaber).

    PubMed

    Delaney, M A; Ward, J M; Walsh, T F; Chinnadurai, S K; Kerns, K; Kinsel, M J; Treuting, P M

    2016-05-01

    Naked mole-rats (NMRs;Heterocephalus glaber) are highly adapted, eusocial rodents renowned for their extreme longevity and resistance to cancer. Because cancer has not been formally described in this species, NMRs have been increasingly utilized as an animal model in aging and cancer research. We previously reported the occurrence of several age-related diseases, including putative pre-neoplastic lesions, in zoo-housed NMR colonies. Here, we report for the first time 2 cases of cancer in zoo-housed NMRs. In Case No. 1, we observed a subcutaneous mass in the axillary region of a 22-year-old male NMR, with histologic, immunohistochemical (pancytokeratin positive, rare p63 immunolabeling, and smooth muscle actin negative), and ultrastructural characteristics of an adenocarcinoma possibly of mammary or salivary origin. In Case No. 2, we observed a densely cellular, poorly demarcated gastric mass of polygonal cells arranged in nests with positive immunolabeling for synaptophysin and chromogranin indicative of a neuroendocrine carcinoma in an approximately 20-year-old male NMR. We also include a brief discussion of other proliferative growths and pre-cancerous lesions diagnosed in 1 zoo colony. Although these case reports do not alter the longstanding observation of cancer resistance, they do raise questions about the scope of cancer resistance and the interpretation of biomedical studies in this model. These reports also highlight the benefit of long-term disease investigations in zoo-housed populations to better understand naturally occurring disease processes in species used as models in biomedical research.

  1. NLRP7 and the Genetics of Hydatidiform Moles: Recent Advances and New Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Slim, Rima; Wallace, Evan P.

    2013-01-01

    NOD-like receptor proteins (NLRPs) are emerging key players in several inflammatory pathways in Mammals. The first identified gene coding for a protein from this family is Nlrp5 and was originally called Mater for “Maternal Antigen That Mouse Embryos Require” for normal development beyond the two-cell stage. This important discovery was followed by the identification of other NLRPs playing roles in inflammatory disorders and of the first maternal-effect gene in humans, NLRP7, which is responsible for an aberrant form of human pregnancy called hydatidiform mole (HM). In this review, we recapitulate the various aspects of the pathology of HM, highlight recent advances regarding NLRP7 and its role in HM and related forms of reproductive losses, and expand our discussion to other NLRPs with a special emphasis on those with known roles in mammalian reproduction. Our aim is to facilitate the genetic complexity of recurrent fetal loss in humans and encourage interdisciplinary collaborations in the fields of NLRPs and reproductive loss. PMID:23970884

  2. Adaptive methylation regulation of p53 pathway in sympatric speciation of blind mole rats, Spalax.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yang; Tang, Jia-Wei; Yang, Zhi; Cao, Yi-Bin; Ren, Ji-Long; Ben-Abu, Yuval; Li, Kexin; Chen, Xue-Qun; Du, Ji-Zeng; Nevo, Eviatar

    2016-02-23

    Epigenetic modifications play significant roles in adaptive evolution. The tumor suppressor p53, well known for controlling cell fate and maintaining genomic stability, is much less known as a master gene in environmental adaptation involving methylation modifications. The blind subterranean mole rat Spalax eherenbergi superspecies in Israel consists of four species that speciated peripatrically. Remarkably, the northern Galilee species Spalax galili (2n = 52) underwent adaptive ecological sympatric speciation, caused by the sharply divergent chalk and basalt ecologies. This was demonstrated by mitochondrial and nuclear genomic evidence. Here we show that the expression patterns of the p53 regulatory pathway diversified between the abutting sympatric populations of S. galili in sharply divergent chalk-basalt ecologies. We identified higher methylation on several sites of the p53 promoter in the population living in chalk soil (chalk population). Site mutagenesis showed that methylation on these sites linked to the transcriptional repression of p53 involving Cut-Like Homeobox 1 (Cux1), paired box 4 (Pax 4), Pax 6, and activator protein 1 (AP-1). Diverse expression levels of p53 between the incipiently sympatrically speciating chalk-basalt abutting populations of S. galili selectively affected cell-cycle arrest but not apoptosis. We hypothesize that methylation modification of p53 has adaptively shifted in supervising its target genes during sympatric speciation of S. galili to cope with the contrasting environmental stresses of the abutting divergent chalk-basalt ecologies.

  3. Titan's Surface Brightness Temperatures and H2 Mole Fraction from Cassini CIRS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jennings, Donald E.; Flasar, F. M.; Kunde, V. G.; Samuelson, R. E.; Pearl, J. C.; Nixon, C. A.; Carlson, R. C.; Mamoutkine, A. A.; Brasunas, J. C.; Guandique, E.; Achterberg, R. K.; Bjoraker, G. L.; Romani, P. N.; Segura, M. E.; Albright, S. A.; Elliott, M. H.; Tingley, J. S.; Calcutt, S.; Coustenis, A.; Bezard, B.; Courtin, R.

    2008-01-01

    The atmosphere of Titan has a spectral window of low opacity around 530/cm in the thermal infrared where radiation from the surface can be detected from space. The Composite Infrared spectrometer1 (CIRS) uses this window to measure the surface brightness temperature of Titan. By combining all observations from the Cassini tour it is possible to go beyond previous Voyager IRIS studies in latitude mapping of surface temperature. CIRS finds an average equatorial surface brightness temperature of 93.7+/-0.6 K, which is close to the 93.65+/-0.25 K value measured at the surface by Huygens HASi. The temperature decreases toward the poles, reaching 91.6+/-0.7 K at 90 S and 90.0+/-1.0 K at 87 N. The temperature distribution is centered in latitude at approximately 12 S, consistent with Titan's season of late northern winter. Near the equator the temperature varies with longitude and is higher in the trailing hemisphere, where the lower albedo may lead to relatively greater surface heating5. Modeling of radiances at 590/cm constrains the atmospheric H2 mole fraction to 0.12+/-0.06 %, in agreement with results from Voyager iris.

  4. Macroalgal fouling on the intertidal mole crab Emerita analoga facilitates bird predation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidalgo, Fernando J.; Firstater, Fausto N.; Lomovasky, Betina J.; Gallegos, Percy; Gamero, Patricia; Iribarne, Oscar O.

    2010-12-01

    In this work, we studied the effects of predation by birds on the intertidal mole crab Emerita analoga fouled by macroalgae in a sandy beach of central Peru (11° S). The epibiosis affected mostly the larger animals, especially adult females. Epibiosis prevalence for the entire intertidal population was relatively low (1-2%), however, within the size range affected by epibiosis in the intertidal zone (18-23 mm in carapace length), 20-38% of the animals were fouled. Focal observations of birds showed that fouled animals are preferred over those non-fouled of the same size class and hence the same sex, being consumed at a higher rate than their proportion in the intertidal (Chesson’s alpha index of prey selection >0.96), and estimations of mortality rates indicated that more than 35% of the intertidal fouled animals are removed everyday by birds. The effect of epibiosis may be mainly attributed to a higher burrowing time or an increased visual attractive effect of the algae, which make fouled animals more conspicuous to predatory birds, or because of fouling enhances profitability of the animals. The results show that epibiosis has negative effects on E. analoga through increasing predation by birds, which in turn restricts the distribution and abundance of fouled E. analoga in the intertidal zone.

  5. Two novel mutations in the KHDC3L gene in Asian patients with recurrent hydatidiform mole

    PubMed Central

    Rezaei, Maryam; Nguyen, Ngoc Minh Phuong; Foroughinia, Leila; Dash, Pratima; Ahmadpour, Fatemeh; Verma, Ishwar Chandra; Slim, Rima; Fardaei, Majid

    2016-01-01

    Recurrent hydatidiform mole (RHM) is defined by the occurrence of repeated molar pregnancies in affected women. Two genes, NLRP7 and KHDC3L, play a causal role in RHM and are responsible for 48–80% and 5% of cases, respectively. Here, we report the results of screening these two genes for mutations in one Iranian and one Indian patient with RHM. No mutations in NLRP7 were identified in the two patients. KHDC3L sequencing identified two novel protein-truncating mutations in a homozygous state, a 4-bp deletion, c.17_20delGGTT (p.Arg6Leufs*7), in the Iranian patient and a splice mutation, c.349+1G>A, that affects the invariant donor site at the junction of exon 2 and intron 2 in the Indian patient. To date, only four mutations in KHDC3L have been reported. The identification of two additional mutations provides further evidence for the important role of KHDC3L in the pathophysiology of RHM and increases the diversity of mutations described in Asian populations.

  6. Mice and moles inhabiting mountainous areas of Shimane Peninsula as sources of infection with Yersinia pseudotuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, H; Gomyoda, M; Kaneko, S

    1990-11-01

    A total of 1,835 Yersinia spp. were isolated from 925 (60.5%) of 1,530 wild mice and from 139 (79.9%) of 174 moles living in mountainous areas of eastern Shimane Prefecture, Japan. The Yersinia spp. included 1,106 Yersinia enterocolitica, 26 Y. enterocolitica-like, 176 Yersinia mollaretii, 149 Yersinia frederiksenii, 70 Yersinia intermedia, 231 Yersinia kristensenii, 5 Yersinia aldovae, and 72 Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. Human pathogenic Y. enterocolitica was not isolated. Y. pseudotuberculosis was divided into 10 virulent 40- to 50-MDa plasmid-positive (P+) strains (serotypes 1b, 4b, and untypeable) and 62 plasmid-negative (P-) strains (serotypes 1b, 2b, 2c, 4a, 5a, 5b, 6, 7, and untypeable). P+ strains of serotypes 1b (two strains), 4b (seven strains), and untypeable (one strain) were isolated from nine Apodemus specious and one Apodemus argenteus. The isolates of Yersinia spp. were more frequently detected in newborn mice and during the breeding season. The P+ Y. pseudotuberculosis strains were recovered at less than 10(4) cells per g of the cecal contents. Thus, the prevalence of Yersinia spp. in small wild animals depends on the newborn animals born during the cold months, and wild mice in mountainous areas are important reservoirs of Y. pseudotuberculosis.

  7. Mice and moles inhabiting mountainous areas of Shimane Peninsula as sources of infection with Yersinia pseudotuberculosis.

    PubMed Central

    Fukushima, H; Gomyoda, M; Kaneko, S

    1990-01-01

    A total of 1,835 Yersinia spp. were isolated from 925 (60.5%) of 1,530 wild mice and from 139 (79.9%) of 174 moles living in mountainous areas of eastern Shimane Prefecture, Japan. The Yersinia spp. included 1,106 Yersinia enterocolitica, 26 Y. enterocolitica-like, 176 Yersinia mollaretii, 149 Yersinia frederiksenii, 70 Yersinia intermedia, 231 Yersinia kristensenii, 5 Yersinia aldovae, and 72 Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. Human pathogenic Y. enterocolitica was not isolated. Y. pseudotuberculosis was divided into 10 virulent 40- to 50-MDa plasmid-positive (P+) strains (serotypes 1b, 4b, and untypeable) and 62 plasmid-negative (P-) strains (serotypes 1b, 2b, 2c, 4a, 5a, 5b, 6, 7, and untypeable). P+ strains of serotypes 1b (two strains), 4b (seven strains), and untypeable (one strain) were isolated from nine Apodemus specious and one Apodemus argenteus. The isolates of Yersinia spp. were more frequently detected in newborn mice and during the breeding season. The P+ Y. pseudotuberculosis strains were recovered at less than 10(4) cells per g of the cecal contents. Thus, the prevalence of Yersinia spp. in small wild animals depends on the newborn animals born during the cold months, and wild mice in mountainous areas are important reservoirs of Y. pseudotuberculosis. Images PMID:2254420

  8. Adaptive methylation regulation of p53 pathway in sympatric speciation of blind mole rats, Spalax.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yang; Tang, Jia-Wei; Yang, Zhi; Cao, Yi-Bin; Ren, Ji-Long; Ben-Abu, Yuval; Li, Kexin; Chen, Xue-Qun; Du, Ji-Zeng; Nevo, Eviatar

    2016-02-23

    Epigenetic modifications play significant roles in adaptive evolution. The tumor suppressor p53, well known for controlling cell fate and maintaining genomic stability, is much less known as a master gene in environmental adaptation involving methylation modifications. The blind subterranean mole rat Spalax eherenbergi superspecies in Israel consists of four species that speciated peripatrically. Remarkably, the northern Galilee species Spalax galili (2n = 52) underwent adaptive ecological sympatric speciation, caused by the sharply divergent chalk and basalt ecologies. This was demonstrated by mitochondrial and nuclear genomic evidence. Here we show that the expression patterns of the p53 regulatory pathway diversified between the abutting sympatric populations of S. galili in sharply divergent chalk-basalt ecologies. We identified higher methylation on several sites of the p53 promoter in the population living in chalk soil (chalk population). Site mutagenesis showed that methylation on these sites linked to the transcriptional repression of p53 involving Cut-Like Homeobox 1 (Cux1), paired box 4 (Pax 4), Pax 6, and activator protein 1 (AP-1). Diverse expression levels of p53 between the incipiently sympatrically speciating chalk-basalt abutting populations of S. galili selectively affected cell-cycle arrest but not apoptosis. We hypothesize that methylation modification of p53 has adaptively shifted in supervising its target genes during sympatric speciation of S. galili to cope with the contrasting environmental stresses of the abutting divergent chalk-basalt ecologies. PMID:26858405

  9. Ectoparasite Burdens of the Damaraland Mole-Rat (Fukomys damarensis) from Southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Lutermann, Heike; Carpenter-Kling, Tegan; Ueckermann, Edward A; Gutjahr, Gundula; Bennett, Nigel C

    2015-12-01

    Damaraland mole-rats (Fukomys damarensis) of the family Bathyergidae are widely distributed subterranean rodents in sub-Saharan Africa. No parasites have ever been reported for this species and only 1 ectoparasite is described for the entire genus. In the current study ectoparasites were collected from individuals captured at 3 localities in South Africa and Namibia to document the ectoparasite community of F. damarensis, investigate their aggregation patterns, and evaluate the influence of season on ectoparasite burden. A total of 2,071 arthropods from 9 mite taxa and 1 louse species (Eulinognathus hilli) were collected from 293 hosts sampled. Of these, 5 mite species (Androlaelaps scapularis, Androlaelaps capensis, Androlaelaps tauffliebi, Radfordia sp., and unidentified chiggers) and the louse were parasites while the remainder was soil mites. All ectoparasites were highly aggregated and the species richness as well as the prevalence and abundance of 4 of them were significantly greater in summer compared to winter, possibly as a result of seasonal changes in rainfall patterns affecting the ectoparasites, host behavior, or both. PMID:26249137

  10. Cardiac function of the naked mole-rat: ecophysiological responses to working underground.

    PubMed

    Grimes, Kelly M; Voorhees, Andrew; Chiao, Ying Ann; Han, Hai-Chao; Lindsey, Merry L; Buffenstein, Rochelle

    2014-03-01

    The naked mole-rat (NMR) is a strictly subterranean rodent with a low resting metabolic rate. Nevertheless, it can greatly increase its metabolic activity to meet the high energetic demands associated with digging through compacted soils in its xeric natural habitat where food is patchily distributed. We hypothesized that the NMR heart would naturally have low basal function and exhibit a large cardiac reserve, thereby mirroring the species' low basal metabolism and large metabolic scope. Echocardiography showed that young (2-4 yr old) healthy NMRs have low fractional shortening (28 ± 2%), ejection fraction (43 ± 2%), and cardiac output (6.5 ± 0.4 ml/min), indicating low basal cardiac function. Histology revealed large NMR cardiomyocyte cross-sectional area (216 ± 10 μm(2)) and cardiac collagen deposition of 2.2 ± 0.4%. Neither of these histomorphometric traits was considered pathological, since biaxial tensile testing showed no increase in passive ventricular stiffness. NMR cardiomyocyte fibers showed a low degree of rotation, contributing to the observed low NMR cardiac contractility. Interestingly, when the exercise mimetic dobutamine (3 μg/g ip) was administered, NMRs showed pronounced increases in fractional shortening, ejection fraction, cardiac output, and stroke volume, indicating an increased cardiac reserve. The relatively low basal cardiac function and enhanced cardiac reserve of NMRs are likely to be ecophysiological adaptations to life in an energetically taxing environment. PMID:24363308

  11. Water-Methanol Mixtures: Simulations of Mixing Properties over the Entire Range of Mole Fractions.

    PubMed

    Soetens, Jean-Christophe; Bopp, Philippe A

    2015-07-01

    Numerous experimental and theoretical investigations have been devoted to the hydrogen bond in pure liquids and mixtures. Among the different theoretical approaches, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are predominant in obtaining detailed information, on the molecular level, simultaneously on the structure and the dynamics. Water and methanol are the two most prominent hydrogen-bonded liquids, and they and their mixtures have consequently been the subject of many studies; we revisit here the problem of the mixtures. An important first step is to check whether a classical potential model, the components of which are deemed to be satisfactory for the pure liquids, is able to reproduce the known thermodynamic excess properties of the mixtures sufficiently well. We have used the available BJH (water) and PHH (methanol) flexible models because they are by construction mutually compatible and also well suited to study, in a second step, some dynamic property characteristic of hydrogen-bonded liquids. In this article we show that these models, after a slight reparametrization for use in NpT simulations, reproduce the essential features of the excess mixing and molar properties of water-methanol mixtures. Furthermore, in the pure liquids, the agreement of the radial distribution functions with experiment remains as satisfactory as before. Similarly, the translation self-diffusion coefficients D are modified by less than 10%. In the mixtures, they evolve nonmonotonously as a function of mole fraction.

  12. Single nucleotide polymorphism-based microarray analysis for the diagnosis of hydatidiform moles

    PubMed Central

    XIE, YINGJUN; PEI, XIAOJUAN; DONG, YU; WU, HUIQUN; WU, JIANZHU; SHI, HUIJUAN; ZHUANG, XUYING; SUN, XIAOFANG; HE, JIALING

    2016-01-01

    In clinical diagnostics, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based microarray analysis enables the detection of copy number variations (CNVs), as well as copy number neutral regions, that are absent of heterozygosity throughout the genome. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness and sensitivity of SNP-based microarray analysis in the diagnosis of hydatidiform mole (HM). By using whole-genome SNP microarray analysis, villous genotypes were detected, and the ploidy of villous tissue was determined to identify HMs. A total of 66 villous tissues and two twin tissues were assessed in the present study. Among these samples, 11 were triploid, one was tetraploid, 23 were abnormal aneuploidy, three were complete genome homozygosity, and the remaining ones were normal ploidy. The most noteworthy finding of the present study was the identification of six partial HMs and three complete HMs from those samples that were not identified as being HMs on the basis of the initial diagnosis of experienced obstetricians. This study has demonstrated that the application of an SNP-based microarray analysis was able to increase the sensitivity of diagnosis for HMs with partial and complete HMs, which makes the identification of these diseases at an early gestational age possible. PMID:27151252

  13. The energy costs of sexual dimorphism in mole-rats are morphological not behavioural

    PubMed Central

    Scantlebury, M; Speakman, J.R; Bennett, N.C

    2005-01-01

    Different reproductive strategies of males and females may lead to the evolution of differences in their energetic costs of reproduction, overall energetic requirements and physiological performances. Sexual dimorphism is often associated with costly behaviours (e.g. large males might have a competitive advantage in fighting, which is energetically expensive). However, few studies of mammals have directly compared the energy costs of reproductive activities between sexes. We compared the daily energy expenditure (DEE) and resting metabolic rate (RMR) of males and females of two species of mole-rat, Bathyergus janetta and Georychus capensis (the former is sexually dimorphic in body size and the latter is not) during a period of intense digging when males seek females. We hypothesized that large body size might be indicative of greater digging or fighting capabilities, and hence greater mass-independent DEE values in males of the sexually dimorphic species. In contrast to this prediction, although absolute values of DEE were greater in B. janetta males, mass-independent values were not. No differences were apparent between sexes in G. capensis. By comparison, although RMR values were greater in B. janetta than G. capensis, no differences were apparent between the sexes for either species. The energy cost of dimorphism is most likely to be the cost of maintenance of a large body size, and not the cost of behaviours performed when an individual is large. PMID:16519235

  14. Cryptic sex? Estimates of genome exchange in unisexual mole salamanders (Ambystoma sp.).

    PubMed

    Gibbs, H Lisle; Denton, Robert D

    2016-06-01

    Cryptic sex has been argued to explain the exceptional longevity of certain parthenogenetic vertebrate lineages, yet direct measurements of genetic exchange between sexual and apparently parthenogenetic forms are rare. Female unisexual mole salamanders (Ambystoma sp.) are the oldest known unisexual vertebrate lineage (~5 million years), and one hypothesis for their persistence is that allopolyploid female unisexuals periodically exchange haploid genomes 'genome exchange' during gynogenetic reproduction with males from sympatric sexual species. We test this hypothesis by using genome-specific microsatellite DNA markers to estimate the rates of genome exchange between sexual males and unisexual females in two ponds in NE Ohio. We also test the prediction that levels of gene flow should be higher for 'sympatric' (sexual males present) genomes in unisexuals compared to 'allopatric' (sexual males absent) unisexual genomes. We used a model testing framework in the coalescent-based program MIGRATE-N to compare models where unidirectional gene flow is present and absent between sexual species and unisexuals. As predicted, our results show higher levels of gene flow between sexuals and sympatric unisexual genomes compared to lower (likely artefactual) levels of gene flow between sexuals and allopatric unisexual genomes. Our results provide direct evidence that genome exchange between sexual and unisexual Ambystoma occurs and demonstrate that the magnitude depends on which sexual species are present. The relatively high levels of gene flow suggest that unisexuals must be at a selective advantage over sexual forms so as to avoid extinction due to genetic swamping through genome exchange. PMID:27100619

  15. Two novel mutations in the KHDC3L gene in Asian patients with recurrent hydatidiform mole

    PubMed Central

    Rezaei, Maryam; Nguyen, Ngoc Minh Phuong; Foroughinia, Leila; Dash, Pratima; Ahmadpour, Fatemeh; Verma, Ishwar Chandra; Slim, Rima; Fardaei, Majid

    2016-01-01

    Recurrent hydatidiform mole (RHM) is defined by the occurrence of repeated molar pregnancies in affected women. Two genes, NLRP7 and KHDC3L, play a causal role in RHM and are responsible for 48–80% and 5% of cases, respectively. Here, we report the results of screening these two genes for mutations in one Iranian and one Indian patient with RHM. No mutations in NLRP7 were identified in the two patients. KHDC3L sequencing identified two novel protein-truncating mutations in a homozygous state, a 4-bp deletion, c.17_20delGGTT (p.Arg6Leufs*7), in the Iranian patient and a splice mutation, c.349+1G>A, that affects the invariant donor site at the junction of exon 2 and intron 2 in the Indian patient. To date, only four mutations in KHDC3L have been reported. The identification of two additional mutations provides further evidence for the important role of KHDC3L in the pathophysiology of RHM and increases the diversity of mutations described in Asian populations. PMID:27621838

  16. Americans and Japanese Nonverbal Communication. Linguistic Communications 15 (Papers in Japanese Linguistics 3).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Harvey M.

    Each culture has its own nonverbal as well as its verbal language. Movements, gestures and sounds have distinct and often conflicting interpretations in different countries. For Americans communicating with Japanese, misunderstandings are of two types: Japanese behavior which is completely new to the American, and Japanese behavior which is…

  17. Compliment Responses: Comparing American Learners of Japanese, Native Japanese Speakers, and American Native English Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatsumi, Naofumi

    2012-01-01

    Previous research shows that American learners of Japanese (AJs) tend to differ from native Japanese speakers in their compliment responses (CRs). Yokota (1986) and Shimizu (2009) have reported that AJs tend to respond more negatively than native Japanese speakers. It has also been reported that AJs' CRs tend to lack the use of avoidance or…

  18. An experience in Japanese academic medicine.

    PubMed Central

    Tierney, L M

    1994-01-01

    The Japanese health care system has been highly praised for its universal access, freedom of patient choice, maintenance of a private system, and creative funding. Japanese citizens enjoy general good health, low infant mortality, and long life expectancy. Nevertheless, aspects of Japanese medical education, both graduate and undergraduate, and the structure of academic departments differ from those seen in the United States. A sabbatical spent teaching general internal medicine in Japan provided the experience for this review of the Japanese system. I describe the structure and function of departments of medicine and observations made at daily clinical teaching exercises in hospitals throughout the country. PMID:8160464

  19. Japanese Pitch Accent Acquisition by Learners of Japanese: Effects of Training on Japanese Accent Instruction, Perception, and Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirano-Cook, Erika

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation investigated 1) American L2 learners' perceptual ability to accurately identify Japanese pitch accent, and 2) learners' realization of Japanese pitch accent. This study was conducted to determine whether these abilities could be improved through training. Study 1 tested the ability to identify the accent location (pitch fall)…

  20. [Description of Hymenolepis cerberensis n. sp. (Cestoda: Hymenolepididae) and first general considerations on the fauna of cestode parasites of the pygmy shrew Suncus etruscus (Savi, 1822) (Insectivora: Soricidae)].

    PubMed

    Mas-Coma, S; Fons, R; Galan-Puchades, M T; Valero, M A

    1986-01-01

    Description and differentiation of the adult stage of Hymenolepis cerberensis n. sp. (Cestoda: Hymenolepididae), an intestinal parasite of the Pygmy white-toothed shrew, Suncus etruscus (Savi, 1822) (Insectivora: Soricidae: Crocidurinae) in the region of Banyuls-sur-Mer and Cerbère (Oriental Pyrenees, France). The new species is characterized by the size of the gravid specimens and by the presence of 18-21 rostellar hooks of 18.5-20 micron and of filaments around the embryophore. The general composition of the fauna of Cyclophyllidea parasitizing S. etruscus is analysed. There are three less specialised Hymenolepis species with a scolex of the same type and one Pseudhymenolepis species, with the absence of unarmed species lacking a rostrum. The oioxenous character of the Cestodes parasitizing Suncus species sustains the validity of the genus Suncus. The resemblance of the Cestodefaunas suggests a narrow phyletic relationship between the genera Suncus and Crocidura.