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Sample records for japanese shrew mole

  1. Comparative Morphology of the Papillae Linguales and their Connective Tissue Cores in the Tongue of the Greater Japanese Shrew-mole, Urotrichus talpoides

    PubMed Central

    Yoshimura, K; Shindo, J; Kageyama, I

    2013-01-01

    The external morphology of the papillae linguales (papillae filiformes, papillae fungiformes and papillae vallatae) and their connective tissue cores (CTCs) of the greater Japanese shrew-mole (Urotrichus talpoides) were analysed by optical and scanning electron microscopy. Papillae filiformes were distributed over the dorsal surface of the apex linguae, and on the rostral and caudal regions of the corpus linguae but were less numerous in the mid-region. They were absent from the radix linguae. A pair of oval papillae vallatae was situated at the border between the corpus linguae and the radix linguae. Papillae foliatae were absent. The epithelial surface of each papilla filiformis consisted of a circular concavity, a ring-like wall and either a single thumb-like process or 2–3 slender pointed processes, depending on their location. The morphology of the CTCs of the papillae filiformes also varied regionally. The papillae linguales of the Japanese shrew-mole were morphologically similar to those of other Talpidae and Soricidae, including the common shrew, particularly with respect to the papillae filiformes in the mid- and caudal regions of the corpus linguae. PMID:22571539

  2. Genetic variants of Cao Bang hantavirus in the Chinese mole shrew (Anourosorex squamipes) and Taiwanese mole shrew (Anourosorex yamashinai).

    PubMed

    Gu, Se Hun; Arai, Satoru; Yu, Hon-Tsen; Lim, Burton K; Kang, Hae Ji; Yanagihara, Richard

    2016-06-01

    To determine the genetic diversity and geographic distribution of Cao Bang virus (CBNV) and to ascertain the existence of CBNV-related hantaviruses, natural history collections of archival tissues from Chinese mole shrews (Anourosorex squamipes) and Taiwanese mole shrews (Anourosorex yamashinai), captured in Guizho Province, People's Republic of China, and in Nantou County, Taiwan, in 2006 and 1989, respectively, were analyzed for hantavirus RNA by RT-PCR. Pair-wise alignment and comparison of the S-, M- and L-segment sequences indicated CBNV in two of five Chinese mole shrews and a previously unrecognized hantavirus, named Xinyi virus (XYIV), in seven of 15 Taiwanese mole shrews. XYIV was closely related to CBNV in Vietnam and China, as well as to Lianghe virus (LHEV), recently reported as a distinct hantavirus species in Chinese mole shrews from Yunnan Province in China. Phylogenetic analyses, using maximum-likelihood and Bayesian methods, showed that XYIV shared a common ancestry with CBNV and LHEV, in keeping with the evolutionary relationship between Anourosorex mole shrews. Until such time that tissue culture isolates of CBNV, LHEV and XYIV can be fully analyzed, XYIV and LHEV should be regarded as genetic variants, or genotypes, of CBNV.

  3. The complete mitogenome of Chinese Mole Shrew, Anourosorex squamipes (Soricidae).

    PubMed

    Li, Qun; Wang, Qiong; Chen, Guiying; Fu, Changkun; Chen, Shunde

    2016-01-01

    The Chinese Mole Shrew, Anourosorex squamipes belongs to the family Soricidae, and widely distributes in central and southern China, northern and south Burma, east India, northern Vietnam and Thailand. In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Anourosorex squamipes was determined. The mitogenome is 17,121 base pairs in length and contains 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, and 1 control region, with base composition of 34.0% A, 31.3% T, 22.0% C, and 12.7% G. The genome organization, nucleotide composition and codon usage did not differ significantly from those of other shrews. The study contributes to illuminating taxonomic status of Chinese Mole Shrew Anourosorex squamipes.

  4. Organization of the main olfactory bulbs of some mammals: musk shrews, moles, hedgehogs, tree shrews, bats, mice, and rats.

    PubMed

    Kosaka, Katsuko; Kosaka, Toshio

    2004-04-19

    We immunohistochemically examined the organization of the main olfactory bulbs (MOBs) in seven mammalian species, including moles, hedgehogs, tree shrews, bats, and mice as well as laboratory musk shrews and rats. We focused our investigation on two points: 1) whether nidi, particular spheroidal synaptic regions subjacent to glomeruli, which we previously reported for the laboratory musk shrew MOBs, are also present in other animals and 2) whether the compartmental organization of glomeruli and two types of periglomerular cells we proposed for the rat MOBs are general in other animals. The general laminar pattern was similar among these seven species, but discrete nidi and the nidal layer were recognized only in two insectivores, namely, the mole and laboratory musk shrew. Olfactory marker protein-immunoreactive (OMP-IR) axons extended beyond the limits of the glomerular layer (GL) into the superficial region of the external plexiform layer (EPL) or the nidal layer in the laboratory musk shrew, mole, hedgehog, and tree shrew but not in bat, mouse, and rat. We observed, in nidi and the nidal layer in the mole and laboratory musk shrew MOBs, only a few OMP-IR axons. In the hedgehog, another insectivore, OMP-IR processes extending from the glomeruli were scattered and intermingled with calbindin D28k-IR cells at the border between the GL and the EPL. In the superficial region of the EPL of the tree shrew MOBs, there were a small number of tiny glomerulus-like spheroidal structures where OMP-IR axons protruding from glomeruli were intermingled with dendritic branches of surrounding calbindin D28k-IR cells. Furthermore, we recognized the compartmental organization of glomeruli and two types of periglomerular cells in the MOBs of all of the mammals we examined. These structural features are therefore considered to be common and important organizational principles of the MOBs.

  5. Epidermal sensory organs of moles, shrew moles, and desmans: a study of the family talpidae with comments on the function and evolution of Eimer's organ.

    PubMed

    Catania, K C

    2000-09-01

    The epidermal sensory organs of members of the family Talpidae (moles, shrew-moles, and desmans) were investigated and compared to determine the range of sensory specializations and better understand how they evolved. Small domed mechanosensory organs called 'Eimer's organs' were present on the rhinarium of nearly all species of talpids, but not among the sister group of shrews (Soricidae) or other insectivore families. This suggests that the common ancestor to the talpids possessed Eimer's organs. Two species of moles from the driest habitats did not exhibit Eimer's organs - suggesting that their sensory organs degenerated in response to harsh, abrasive soil conditions. The semi-aquatic desmans uniquely possessed tiny sensory hairs interspersed with their Eimer's organs; these may act to sense water currents. Some species exhibited a subdivided, star-like, rhinarium - resembling an early embryonic stage of the star-nosed mole and providing clues to the evolution of the star. A single genera (Uropsilus) that branched off early in the evolution of the talpids had Eimer's organ-like structures but lacked some typical components. These findings fill a major gap in our knowledge of talpid sensory biology and suggest (1) how Eimer's organs evolved, (2) how the unusual appendages of the star-nosed mole evolved, (3) that the evolution of Eimer's organ is convergent with the mechanosensory push-rod of monotremes. The results also demonstrate the features that distinguish Eimer's organ from similar configurations of sensory receptors in other mammalian skin surfaces. Finally, a mechanism for Eimer's organ function in detecting object and prey specific surface features is proposed.

  6. Interglacial refugia preserved high genetic diversity of the Chinese mole shrew in the mountains of southwest China

    PubMed Central

    He, K; Hu, N-Q; Chen, X; Li, J-T; Jiang, X-L

    2016-01-01

    The mountains of southwest China (MSC) harbor extremely high species diversity; however, the mechanism behind this diversity is unknown. We investigated to what degree the topography and climate change shaped the genetic diversity and diversification in these mountains, and we also sought to identify the locations of microrefugia areas in these mountains. For these purposes, we sampled extensively to estimate the intraspecific phylogenetic pattern of the Chinese mole shrew (Anourosorex squamipes) in southwest China throughout its range of distribution. Two mitochondrial genes, namely, cytochrome b (CYT B) and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 (ND2), from 383 archived specimens from 43 localities were determined for phylogeographic and demographic analyses. We used the continuous-diffusion phylogeographic model, extensive Bayesian skyline plot species distribution modeling (SDM) and approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) to explore the changes in population size and distribution through time of the species. Two phylogenetic clades were identified, and significantly higher genetic diversity was preserved in the southern subregion of the mountains. The results of the SDM, continuous-diffusion phylogeographic model, extensive Bayesian skyline plot and ABC analyses were congruent and supported that the Last Interglacial Maximum (LIG) was an unfavorable period for the mole shrews because of a high degree of seasonality; A. squamipes survived in isolated interglacial refugia mainly located in the southern subregion during the LIG and rapidly expanded during the last glacial period. These results furnished the first evidence for major Pleistocene interglacial refugia and a latitudinal effect in southwest China, and the results shedding light on the higher level of species richness in the southern subregion. PMID:26286667

  7. Interglacial refugia preserved high genetic diversity of the Chinese mole shrew in the mountains of southwest China.

    PubMed

    He, K; Hu, N-Q; Chen, X; Li, J-T; Jiang, X-L

    2016-01-01

    The mountains of southwest China (MSC) harbor extremely high species diversity; however, the mechanism behind this diversity is unknown. We investigated to what degree the topography and climate change shaped the genetic diversity and diversification in these mountains, and we also sought to identify the locations of microrefugia areas in these mountains. For these purposes, we sampled extensively to estimate the intraspecific phylogenetic pattern of the Chinese mole shrew (Anourosorex squamipes) in southwest China throughout its range of distribution. Two mitochondrial genes, namely, cytochrome b (CYT B) and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 (ND2), from 383 archived specimens from 43 localities were determined for phylogeographic and demographic analyses. We used the continuous-diffusion phylogeographic model, extensive Bayesian skyline plot species distribution modeling (SDM) and approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) to explore the changes in population size and distribution through time of the species. Two phylogenetic clades were identified, and significantly higher genetic diversity was preserved in the southern subregion of the mountains. The results of the SDM, continuous-diffusion phylogeographic model, extensive Bayesian skyline plot and ABC analyses were congruent and supported that the Last Interglacial Maximum (LIG) was an unfavorable period for the mole shrews because of a high degree of seasonality; A. squamipes survived in isolated interglacial refugia mainly located in the southern subregion during the LIG and rapidly expanded during the last glacial period. These results furnished the first evidence for major Pleistocene interglacial refugia and a latitudinal effect in southwest China, and the results shedding light on the higher level of species richness in the southern subregion.

  8. Moles

    MedlinePlus

    ... sizes and shapes. Special cells that contain the pigment melanin cause the brown color. Facial moles are ... They also leave nevus cells behind and the pigment often seems to reappear. Back to Index The ...

  9. Comparative Morphology of the Penis and Clitoris in Four Species of Moles (Talpidae).

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Adriane Watkins; Glickman, Stephen; Catania, Kenneth; Shinohara, Akio; Baskin, Lawrence; Cunha, Gerald R

    2017-03-02

    The penile and clitoral anatomy of four species of Talpid moles (broad-footed, star-nosed, hairy-tailed, and Japanese shrew moles) were investigated to define penile and clitoral anatomy and to examine the relationship of the clitoral anatomy with the presence or absence of ovotestes. The ovotestis contains ovarian tissue and glandular tissue resembling fetal testicular tissue and can produce androgens. The ovotestis is present in star-nosed and hairy-tailed moles, but not in broad-footed and Japanese shrew moles. Using histology, three-dimensional reconstruction, and morphometric analysis, sexual dimorphism was examined with regard to a nine feature masculine trait score that included perineal appendage length (prepuce), anogenital distance, and presence/absence of bone. The presence/absence of ovotestes was discordant in all four mole species for sex differentiation features. For many sex differentiation features, discordance with ovotestes was observed in at least one mole species. The degree of concordance with ovotestes was highest for hairy-tailed moles and lowest for broad-footed moles. In relationship to phylogenetic clade, sex differentiation features also did not correlate with the similarity/divergence of the features and presence/absence of ovotestes. Hairy-tailed and Japanese shrew moles reside in separated clades, but they exhibit a high degree of congruence. Broad-footed and hairy-tailed moles reside within the same clade but had one of the lowest correlations in features and presence/absence of ovotestes. Thus, phylogenetic affinity and the presence/absence of ovotestes are poor predictors for most sex differentiation features within mole external genitalia.

  10. Molecular phylogenetic evidence confirming the Eulipotyphla concept and in support of hedgehogs as the sister group to shrews.

    PubMed

    Douady, Christophe J; Chatelier, Pascale I; Madsen, Ole; de Jong, Wilfried W; Catzeflis, Francois; Springer, Mark S; Stanhope, Michael J

    2002-10-01

    For more than a century, living insectivore-like mammals have been viewed as little removed from the ancestral mammalian stock based on their retention of numerous primitive characteristics. This circumstance has made "insectivores" a group of special interest in the study of mammalian evolution. included hedgehogs, moles, shrews, solenodons, golden moles, tenrecs, flying lemurs, tree shrews, and elephant shrews in Insectivora. Subsequently, morphologists excluded flying lemurs, tree shrews, and elephant shrews from Insectivora and placed these taxa in the orders Dermoptera, Scandentia, and Macroscelidea, respectively. The remaining insectivores constitute Lipotyphla, which is monophyletic based on morphology. In contrast, molecular data suggest that lipotyphlans are polyphyletic, with golden moles and tenrecs placed in their own order (Afrosoricida) in the superordinal group Afrotheria. Studies based on nuclear genes support the monophyly of the remaining lipotyphlans (=Eulipotyphla) whereas mitochondrial genome studies dissociate hedgehogs from moles and place the former as the first offshoot on the placental tree. One shortcoming of previous molecular studies investigating lipotyphlan relationships is limited taxonomic sampling. Here, we evaluate lipotyphlan relationships using the largest and taxonomically most diverse data set yet assembled for Lipotyphla. Our results provide convincing support for both lipotyphlan diphyly and the monophyly of Eulipotyphla. More surprisingly, we find strong evidence for a sister-group relationship between shrews and hedgehogs to the exclusion of moles.

  11. Chemoarchitecture of layer 4 isocortex in the American water shrew (Sorex palustris).

    PubMed

    Leitch, Duncan B; Gauthier, Danielle; Sarko, Diana K; Catania, Kenneth C

    2011-01-01

    We examined the chemoarchitecture of layer 4 isocortex and the number of myelinated nerve fibers of selected cranial nerves in the American water shrew (Sorex palustris). This study took advantage of the opportunity to examine juvenile brain tissue, which often reveals the most distinctive cortical modules related to different sensory representations. Flattened cortical sections were processed for the metabolic enzyme cytochrome oxidase, revealing a number of modules and septa. Subdivisions related to sensory representations were tentatively identified by performing microelectrode recordings in a single adult shrew in this study, combined with microelectrode recordings and anatomical findings from a previous investigation. Taken together, these results suggest that characteristic chemoarchitectonic borders in the shrew neocortex can be used to delineate and quantify cortical areas. The most obvious subdivisions in the water shrew include a relatively small primary visual cortex which responded to visual stimuli, a larger representation of vibrissae in the primary somatosensory cortex, and a prominent representation of oral structures apparent in the more rostral-lateral cortex. A presumptive auditory area was located in the far caudal cortex. These findings for the cortex are consistent with counts from optic, auditory and trigeminal nerves, suggesting that somatosensory inputs dominate the shrew's senses whereas visual and auditory inputs play a small role in navigation and in finding prey. More generally, we find that shrews share unusual features of cortical organization with moles, supporting their close taxonomic relationship.

  12. Chemical Principles Revisited: The Mole.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolb, Doris

    1978-01-01

    Discusses ways of teaching the mole concept in high school chemistry classes. Provides resource information on the mole and Avogadro's Number. Includes an explanation of four methods for measuring Avogadro's Number and instructions on how to use the mole. (MA)

  13. Dynamic Circulation and Genetic Exchange of a Shrew-borne Hantavirus, Imjin virus, in the Republic of Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung-Ho; Kim, Won-Keun; No, Jin Sun; Kim, Jeong-Ah; Kim, Jin Il; Gu, Se Hun; Kim, Heung-Chul; Klein, Terry A.; Park, Man-Seong; Song, Jin-Won

    2017-01-01

    Hantaviruses (family Bunyaviridae) are enveloped negative-sense tripartite RNA viruses. The natural hosts of hantaviruses include rodents, shrews, moles, and bats. Imjin virus (MJNV) is a shrew-borne hantavirus identified from the Ussuri white-toothed shrews (Crocidura lasiura) in the Republic of Korea (ROK) and China. We have isolated MJNV and determined its prevalence and molecular diversity in Gyeonggi province, ROK. However, the distribution and phylogeography of MJNV in other regions of ROK remain unknown. A total of 96 C. lasiura were captured from Gangwon and Gyeonggi provinces, ROK, during 2011–2014. Among them, four (4.2%) shrews were positive for anti-MJNV IgG and MJNV RNA was detected from nine (9.4%), respectively. Based on the prevalence of MJNV RNA, the preponderance of infected shrews was male and adult, consistent with the gender- and weight-specific prevalence of hantaviruses in other species. We monitored the viral load of MJNV RNA in various tissues of shrews, which would reflect the dynamic infectious status and circulation of MJNV in nature. Our phylogeographic and genomic characterization of MJNV suggested natural occurrences of recombination and reassortment in the virus population. Thus, these findings provide significant insights into the epidemiology, phylogeographic diversity, and dynamic circulation and evolution of shrew-borne hantaviruses. PMID:28295052

  14. Mole gun injury.

    PubMed

    Pistré, V; Rezzouk, J

    2013-09-01

    A mole gun is a weapon, which is used to trap and kill moles. This report provides an overview of the state of knowledge of mole gun injuries, comparable to blast injuries caused by fireworks, explosive or gunshot. Over a 2-year period, the authors reported their experience with ten hand injuries caused by mole gun. Radial side of the hand was often concerned, particularly the thumb. The authors explain their choices in the management of such lesions. Surgery was performed primarily and a large debridement currently seemed to offer the best outcome for the patient. Blast, crush, burns and lacerations may explain the higher rate of amputation to the digits. A long period of physiotherapy, specifically of the hand, was needed before the patient could return to work. This ballistic hand trauma encountered by surgeons requires knowledge and understanding of these injuries. It should be in accordance with firearms law because of severe injuries encountered and possible lethal wounds.

  15. Mosaics and moles

    PubMed Central

    Sunde, Lone; Niemann, Isa; Hansen, Estrid Staehr; Hindkjaer, Johnny; Degn, Birte; Jensen, Uffe Birk; Bolund, Lars

    2011-01-01

    Hydatidiform mole (HM) is an abnormal human pregnancy, where the placenta presents with vesicular swelling of the chorionic villi. A fetus is either not present, or malformed and not viable. Most moles are diploid androgenetic as if one spermatozoon fertilized an empty oocyte, or triploid with one maternal and two paternal chromosome sets as if two spermatozoa fertilized a normal oocyte. However, diploid moles with both paternal and maternal markers of the nuclear genome have been reported. Among 162 consecutively collected diploid moles, we have earlier found indications of both maternal and paternal genomes in 11. In the present study, we have performed detailed analysis of DNA-markers in tissue and single cells from these 11 HMs. In 3/11, we identified one biparental cell population only, whereas in 8/11, we demonstrated mosaicism: one biparental cell population and one androgenetic cell population. One mosaic mole was followed by persistent trophoblastic disease (PTD). In seven of the mosaics, one spermatozoon appeared to have contributed to the genomes of both cell types. Our observations make it likely that mosaic conceptuses, encompassing an androgenetic cell population, result from various postzygotic abnormalities, including paternal pronuclear duplication, asymmetric cytokinesis, and postzygotic diploidization. This corroborates the suggestion that fertilization of an empty egg is not mandatory for the creation of an androgenetic cell population. Future studies of mosaic conceptuses may disclose details about fertilization, early cell divisions and differentiation. Apparently, only a minority of diploid moles with both paternal and maternal markers are ‘genuine' diploid biparental moles (DiBiparHMs). PMID:21654731

  16. MOLES Information Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ventouras, Spiros; Lawrence, Bryan; Woolf, Andrew; Cox, Simon

    2010-05-01

    The Metadata Objects for Linking Environmental Sciences (MOLES) model has been developed within the Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) DataGrid project [NERC DataGrid] to fill a missing part of the ‘metadata spectrum'. It is a framework within which to encode the relationships between the tools used to obtain data, the activities which organised their use, and the datasets produced. MOLES is primarily of use to consumers of data, especially in an interdisciplinary context, to allow them to establish details of provenance, and to compare and contrast such information without recourse to discipline-specific metadata or private communications with the original investigators [Lawrence et al 2009]. MOLES is also of use to the custodians of data, providing an organising paradigm for the data and metadata. The work described in this paper is a high-level view of the structure and content of a recent major revision of MOLES (v3.3) carried out as part of a NERC DataGrid extension project. The concepts of MOLES v3.3 are rooted in the harmonised ISO model [Harmonised ISO model] - particularly in metadata standards (ISO 19115, ISO 19115-2) and the ‘Observations and Measurements' conceptual model (ISO 19156). MOLES exploits existing concepts and relationships, and specialises information in these standards. A typical sequence of data capturing involves one or more projects under which a number of activities are undertaken, using appropriate tools and methods to produce the datasets. Following this typical sequence, the relevant metadata can be partitioned into the following main sections - helpful in mapping onto the most suitable standards from the ISO 19100 series. • Project section • Activity section (including both observation acquisition and numerical computation) • Observation section (metadata regarding the methods used to obtained the data, the spatial and temporal sampling regime, quality etc.) • Observation collection section The key concepts in

  17. Complete genome sequence and molecular phylogeny of a newfound hantavirus harbored by the Doucet's musk shrew (Crocidura douceti) in Guinea.

    PubMed

    Gu, Se Hun; Nicolas, Violaine; Lalis, Aude; Sathirapongsasuti, Nuankanya; Yanagihara, Richard

    2013-12-01

    Elucidation of the molecular phylogeny of shrew-borne hantaviruses in sub-Saharan Africa has been hampered by the lack of full-length viral genomes. In this report, we present the complete genome analysis of a newfound hantavirus, designated Bowé virus, detected in ethanol-fixed intercostal muscle of a Doucet's musk shrew (Crocidura douceti), captured in southwestern Guinea in February 2012. Full-length amino acid sequence comparison of the S-, M- and L-segment gene products revealed that Bowé virus differed by 24.1-53.4%, 17.0-59.9% and 14.6-39.7%, respectively, from all other representative rodent-, shrew- and mole-borne hantaviruses. Phylogenetic analysis, using maximum-likelihood and Bayesian methods, under the GTR+I+Γ model of evolution, showed that Bowé virus shared a common ancestry with Tanganya virus, a hantavirus detected in the Therese's shrew (Crocidura theresae) in Guinea. Whole genome analysis of many more hantaviruses from sub-Saharan Africa are needed to better clarify how the radiation of African shrews might have contributed to the phylogeography of hantaviruses.

  18. The Taming of the Shrew

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gad-El-Hak, M.

    1996-11-01

    Considering the extreme complexity of the turbulence problem in general and the unattainability of first-principles analytical solutions in particular, it is not surprising that controlling a turbulent flow remains a challenging task, mired in empiricism and unfulfilled promises and aspirations. Brute force suppression, or taming, of turbulence via active control strategies is always possible, but the penalty for doing so often exceeds any potential savings. The artifice is to achieve a desired effect with minimum energy expenditure. Spurred by the recent developments in chaos control, microfabrication and neural networks, efficient reactive control of turbulent flows, where the control input is optimally adjusted based on feedforward or feedback measurements, is now in the realm of the possible for future practical devices. But regardless of how the problem is approached, combating turbulence is always as arduous as the taming of the shrew. The former task will be emphasized during the oral presentation, but for this abstract we reflect on a short verse from the latter. From William Shakespeare's The Taming of the Shrew. Curtis (Petruchio's servant, in charge of his country house): Is she so hot a shrew as she's reported? Grumio (Petruchio's personal lackey): She was, good Curtis, before this frost. But thou know'st winter tames man, woman, and beast; for it hath tamed my old master, and my new mistress, and myself, fellow Curtis.

  19. The neurobiology of Etruscan shrew active touch.

    PubMed

    Brecht, Michael; Naumann, Robert; Anjum, Farzana; Wolfe, Jason; Munz, Martin; Mende, Carolin; Roth-Alpermann, Claudia

    2011-11-12

    The Etruscan shrew, Suncus etruscus, is not only the smallest terrestrial mammal, but also one of the fastest and most tactile hunters described to date. The shrew's skeletal muscle consists entirely of fast-twitch types and lacks slow fibres. Etruscan shrews detect, overwhelm, and kill insect prey in large numbers in darkness. The cricket prey is exquisitely mechanosensitive and fast-moving, and is as big as the shrew itself. Experiments with prey replica show that shape cues are both necessary and sufficient for evoking attacks. Shrew attacks are whisker guided by motion- and size-invariant Gestalt-like prey representations. Shrews often attack their prey prior to any signs of evasive manoeuvres. Shrews whisk at frequencies of approximately 14 Hz and can react with latencies as short as 25-30 ms to prey movement. The speed of attacks suggests that shrews identify and classify prey with a single touch. Large parts of the shrew's brain respond to vibrissal touch, which is represented in at least four cortical areas comprising collectively about a third of the cortical volume. Etruscan shrews can enter a torpid state and reduce their body temperature; we observed that cortical response latencies become two to three times longer when body temperature drops from 36°C to 24°C, suggesting that endothermy contributes to the animal's high-speed sensorimotor performance. We argue that small size, high-speed behaviour and extreme dependence on touch are not coincidental, but reflect an evolutionary strategy, in which the metabolic costs of small body size are outweighed by the advantages of being a short-range high-speed touch and kill predator.

  20. The neurobiology of Etruscan shrew active touch

    PubMed Central

    Brecht, Michael; Naumann, Robert; Anjum, Farzana; Wolfe, Jason; Munz, Martin; Mende, Carolin; Roth-Alpermann, Claudia

    2011-01-01

    The Etruscan shrew, Suncus etruscus, is not only the smallest terrestrial mammal, but also one of the fastest and most tactile hunters described to date. The shrew's skeletal muscle consists entirely of fast-twitch types and lacks slow fibres. Etruscan shrews detect, overwhelm, and kill insect prey in large numbers in darkness. The cricket prey is exquisitely mechanosensitive and fast-moving, and is as big as the shrew itself. Experiments with prey replica show that shape cues are both necessary and sufficient for evoking attacks. Shrew attacks are whisker guided by motion- and size-invariant Gestalt-like prey representations. Shrews often attack their prey prior to any signs of evasive manoeuvres. Shrews whisk at frequencies of approximately 14 Hz and can react with latencies as short as 25–30 ms to prey movement. The speed of attacks suggests that shrews identify and classify prey with a single touch. Large parts of the shrew's brain respond to vibrissal touch, which is represented in at least four cortical areas comprising collectively about a third of the cortical volume. Etruscan shrews can enter a torpid state and reduce their body temperature; we observed that cortical response latencies become two to three times longer when body temperature drops from 36°C to 24°C, suggesting that endothermy contributes to the animal's high-speed sensorimotor performance. We argue that small size, high-speed behaviour and extreme dependence on touch are not coincidental, but reflect an evolutionary strategy, in which the metabolic costs of small body size are outweighed by the advantages of being a short-range high-speed touch and kill predator. PMID:21969684

  1. Common Moles, Atypical Moles (Dysplastic Nevi), and Risk of Melanoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... dysplastic nevus Having more than 50 common moles Sunlight : Sunlight is a source of UV radiation , which causes ... by spending time in the sun without protection. Sunlight can be reflected by sand, water, snow, ice, ...

  2. Modern Mathematics and the Mole.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henson, R.; Stumbles, A.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses several examples of the modern mathematics familiar to the pupils at the age where the mole concept is introduced, to help the teacher adopt an appropriate approach when dealing with this topic. (GA)

  3. Mutualism between tree shrews and pitcher plants

    PubMed Central

    Moran, Jonathan A; Chin, Lijin

    2010-01-01

    Three species of Nepenthes pitcher plants from Borneo engage in a mutualistic interaction with mountain tree shrews, the basis of which is the exchange of nutritional resources. The plants produce modified “toilet pitchers” that produce copious amounts of exudates, the latter serving as a food source for tree shrews. The exudates are only accessible to the tree shrews when they position their hindquarters over the pitcher orifice. Tree shrews mark valuable resources with feces and regularly defecate into the pitchers when they visit them to feed. Feces represent a valuable source of nitrogen for these Nepenthes species, but there are many facets of the mutualism that are yet to be investigated. These include, but are not limited to, seasonal variation in exudate production rates by the plants, behavioral ecology of visiting tree shrews and the mechanism by which the plants signal to tree shrews that their pitchers represent a food source. Further research into this extraordinary animal-plant interaction is required to gain a better understanding of the benefits to the participating species. PMID:20861680

  4. Novel hantavirus in the flat-skulled shrew (Sorex roboratus).

    PubMed

    Kang, Hae Ji; Arai, Satoru; Hope, Andrew G; Cook, Joseph A; Yanagihara, Richard

    2010-08-01

    Genetically distinct hantaviruses have been identified recently in multiple species of shrews (Order Soricomorpha, Family Soricidae) in Eurasia and North America. To corroborate decades-old reports of hantaviral antigens in shrews from Russia, archival liver and lung tissues from 4 Siberian large-toothed shrews (Sorex daphaenodon), 5 Eurasian least shrews (Sorex minutissimus), 12 flat-skulled shrews (Sorex roboratus), and 18 tundra shrews (Sorex tundrensis), captured in the Sakha Republic in northeastern Siberia during July and August 2006, were analyzed for hantavirus RNA by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. A novel hantavirus, named Kenkeme virus, was detected in a flat-skulled shrew. Sequence analysis of the full-length S and partial M and L segments indicated that Kenkeme virus was genetically and phylogenetically distinct from Seewis virus harbored by the Eurasian common shrew (Sorex araneus), as well as all other rodent-, soricid-, and talpid-borne hantaviruses.

  5. Complete genome sequence and molecular phylogeny of a newfound hantavirus harbored by the Doucet’s musk shrew (Crocidura douceti) in Guinea

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Se Hun; Nicolas, Violaine; Lalis, Aude; Sathirapongsasuti, Nuankanya; Yanagihara, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Elucidation of the molecular phylogeny of shrew-borne hantaviruses in sub-Saharan Africa has been hampered by the lack of full-length viral genomes. In this report, we present the complete genome analysis of a newfound hantavirus, designated Bowé virus, detected in ethanol-fixed intercostal muscle of a Doucet’s musk shrew (Crocidura douceti), captured in southwestern Guinea in February 2012. Full-length amino acid sequence comparison of the S-, M- and L-segment gene products revealed that Bowé virus differed by 24.1–53.4%, 17.0–59.9% and 14.6–39.7%, respectively, from all other representative rodent-, shrew- and mole-borne hantaviruses. Phylogenetic analysis, using maximum-likelihood and Bayesian methods, under the GTR+I+Γ model of evolution, showed that Bowé virus shared a common ancestry with Tanganya virus, a hantavirus detected in the Therese’s shrew (Crocidura theresae) in Guinea. Whole genome analysis of many more hantaviruses from sub-Saharan Africa are needed to better clarify how the radiation of African shrews might have contributed to the phylogeography of hantaviruses. PMID:23994121

  6. Of Bushwahckers, Termites and Moles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smelter, Richard W.

    2003-01-01

    Retired school administrator describes five types of school personnel that make an administrator's job difficult: Bushwackers, termites, CIA moles, rumor-mill addicts, and sartorial slobs. For example, termites are staff members who purposely volunteer for committees so they can sabotage the group's efforts from within. (PKP)

  7. Shared ancestry between a newfound mole-borne hantavirus and hantaviruses harbored by cricetid rodents.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hae Ji; Bennett, Shannon N; Hope, Andrew G; Cook, Joseph A; Yanagihara, Richard

    2011-08-01

    Discovery of genetically distinct hantaviruses in multiple species of shrews (order Soricomorpha, family Soricidae) and moles (family Talpidae) contests the conventional view that rodents (order Rodentia, families Muridae and Cricetidae) are the principal reservoir hosts and suggests that the evolutionary history of hantaviruses is far more complex than previously hypothesized. We now report on Rockport virus (RKPV), a hantavirus identified in archival tissues of the eastern mole (Scalopus aquaticus) collected in Rockport, TX, in 1986. Pairwise comparison of the full-length S, M, and L genomic segments indicated moderately low sequence similarity between RKPV and other soricomorph-borne hantaviruses. Phylogenetic analyses, using maximum-likelihood and Bayesian methods, showed that RKPV shared a most recent common ancestor with cricetid-rodent-borne hantaviruses. Distributed widely across the eastern United States, the fossorial eastern mole is sympatric and syntopic with cricetid rodents known to harbor hantaviruses, raising the possibility of host-switching events in the distant past. Our findings warrant more-detailed investigations on the dynamics of spillover and cross-species transmission of present-day hantaviruses within communities of rodents and moles.

  8. Arsenic speciation, distribution, and bioaccessibility in shrews and their food.

    PubMed

    Moriarty, Maeve M; Koch, Iris; Reimer, Kenneth J

    2012-04-01

    Shrews (Sorex cinereus) collected at a historic mine in Nova Scotia, Canada, had approximately twice the arsenic body burden and 100 times greater daily intake of arsenic compared with shrews from a nearby uncontaminated background site. Shrews store arsenic as inorganic and simple methylated arsenicals. Much of the arsenic associated with their primary food source, i.e., small invertebrates, may be soil adsorbed to their exoskeletons. A physiologically based extraction test estimated that 47 ± 2% of invertebrate arsenic is bioaccessible in the shrew gastrointestinal tract. Overall, shrews appear to be efficient at processing and excreting inorganic arsenic.

  9. Tool to Distinguish Moles from Melanoma

    Cancer.gov

    Moles to Melanoma: Recognizing the ABCDE Features” presents photos that show changes in individual pigmented lesions over time, and describes the different appearances of moles, dysplastic nevi, and melanomas.

  10. Detection of shrew-borne hantavirus in Eurasian pygmy shrew (Sorex minutus) in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Radosa, Lukáš; Schlegel, Mathias; Gebauer, Petra; Ansorge, Hermann; Heroldová, Marta; Jánová, Eva; Stanko, Michal; Mošanský, Ladislav; Fričová, Jana; Pejčoch, Milan; Suchomel, Josef; Purchart, Luboš; Groschup, Martin H; Krüger, Detlev H; Ulrich, Rainer G; Klempa, Boris

    2013-10-01

    Recently, it was found that not only rodents but also shrews are reservoir hosts of hantaviruses. In Central Europe, only Seewis virus, associated with the Eurasian common shrew (Sorex araneus), has been recognized until now. In the present report, tissue samples from shrews belonging to Crocidurinae and Soricinae subfamilies, trapped in Czech Republic, Germany, and Slovakia, were screened for the presence of novel hantaviruses. Three new hantavirus partial L-segment sequences were obtained from pygmy shrews (Sorex minutus) trapped in Czech Republic and Germany. Complete nucleocapsid protein- and glycoprotein precursor-coding S- and M-segment sequences were then determined for the newly recognized hantavirus strains, CZ/Beskydy/412/2010/Sm, CZ/Drahany/420/2010/Sm, and DE/Dürrbach/1912/2009/Sm. Phylogenetic analyses showed that they represent strains of Asikkala virus (ASIV), a novel hantavirus also found in pygmy shrews from Finland. Our study reveals a broad geographic distribution of ASIV across Europe and indicates pygmy shrew as the primary reservoir host. Future studies will have to determine the pathogenic relevance of ASIV.

  11. Basal physiological parameters in domesticated tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri chinensis).

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Xu, Xin-Li; Ding, Ze-Yang; Mao, Rong-Rong; Zhou, Qi-Xin; Lü, Long-Bao; Wang, Li-Ping; Wang, Shuang; Zhang, Chen; Xu, Lin; Yang, Yue-Xiong

    2013-04-01

    Establishing non-human primate models of human diseases is an efficient way to narrow the large gap between basic studies and translational medicine. Multifold advantages such as simplicity of breeding, low cost of feeding and facility of operating make the tree shrew an ideal non-human primate model proxy. Additional features like vulnerability to stress and spontaneous diabetic characteristics also indicate that the tree shrew could be a potential new animal model of human diseases. However, basal physiological indexes of tree shrew, especially those related to human disease, have not been systematically reported. Accordingly, we established important basal physiological indexes of domesticated tree shrews including several factors: (1) body weight, (2) core body temperature and rhythm, (3) diet metabolism, (4) locomotor rhythm, (5) electroencephalogram, (6) glycometabolism and (7) serum and urinary hormone level and urinary cortisol rhythm. We compared the physiological parameters of domesticated tree shrew with that of rats and macaques. Results showed that (a) the core body temperature of the tree shrew was 39.59±0.05 ℃, which was higher than that of rats and macaques; (b) Compared with wild tree shrews, with two activity peaks, domesticated tree shrews had only one activity peak from 17:30 to 19:30; (c) Compared with rats, tree shrews had poor carbohydrate metabolism ability; and (d) Urinary cortisol rhythm indicated there were two peaks at 8:00 and 17:00 in domesticated tree shrews, which matched activity peaks in wild tree shrews. These results provided basal physiological indexes for domesticated tree shrews and laid an important foundation for diabetes and stress-related disease models established on tree shrews.

  12. Muscle Aging and Oxidative Stress in Wild-Caught Shrews

    PubMed Central

    Hindle, Allyson G.; Lawler, John M.; Campbell, Kevin L.; Horning, Markus

    2010-01-01

    Red-toothed shrews (Soricidae, subfamily Soricinae) are an intriguing model system to examine the free radical theory of aging in wild mammals, given their short (<18 month) lifespan and high mass-specific metabolic rates. As muscle performance underlies both foraging ability and predator avoidance, any age-related decline should be detrimental to fitness and survival. Muscle samples of water shrews (Sorex palustris) and sympatrically distributed short-tailed shrews (Blarina brevicauda) were therefore assessed for oxidative stress markers, protective antioxidant enzymes and apoptosis. Activity levels of catalase and glutathione peroxidase increased with age in both species. Similarly, Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase isoform content was elevated significantly in older animals of both species (increases of 60% in the water shrew, 25% in the short-tailed shrew). Only one oxidative stress marker (lipid peroxidation) was age-elevated; the others were stable or declined (4-hydroxynonenal adducts and dihydroethidium oxidation). Glutathione peroxidase activity was significantly higher in the short-tailed shrew, while catalase activity was 2× higher in water shrews. Oxidative stress indicators were on average higher in short-tailed shrews. Apoptosis occurred in <1% of myocytes examined, and did not increase with age. Within the constraints of the sample size we found evidence of protection against elevated oxidative stress in wild-caught shrews. PMID:20109576

  13. Muscle aging and oxidative stress in wild-caught shrews.

    PubMed

    Hindle, Allyson G; Lawler, John M; Campbell, Kevin L; Horning, Markus

    2010-04-01

    Red-toothed shrews (Soricidae, subfamily Soricinae) are an intriguing model system to examine the free-radical theory of aging in wild mammals, given their short (<18months) lifespan and high mass-specific metabolic rates. As muscle performance underlies both foraging ability and predator avoidance, any age-related decline should be detrimental to fitness and survival. Muscle samples of water shrews (Sorex palustris) and sympatrically distributed short-tailed shrews (Blarina brevicauda) were therefore assessed for oxidative stress markers, protective antioxidant enzymes and apoptosis. Activity levels of catalase and glutathione peroxidase increased with age in both species. Similarly, Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase isoform content was elevated significantly in older animals of both species (increases of 60% in the water shrew, 25% in the short-tailed shrew). Only one oxidative stress marker (lipid peroxidation) was age-elevated; the others were stable or declined (4-hydroxynonenal adducts and dihydroethidium oxidation). Glutathione peroxidase activity was significantly higher in the short-tailed shrew, while catalase activity was 2x higher in water shrews. Oxidative stress indicators were on average higher in short-tailed shrews. Apoptosis occurred in <1% of myocytes examined, and did not increase with age. Within the constraints of the sample size we found evidence of protection against elevated oxidative stress in wild-caught shrews.

  14. Tree shrew database (TreeshrewDB): a genomic knowledge base for the Chinese tree shrew

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Yu; Yu, Dandan; Yao, Yong-Gang

    2014-01-01

    The tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri) is a small mammal with a close relationship to primates and it has been proposed as an alternative experimental animal to primates in biomedical research. The recent release of a high-quality Chinese tree shrew genome enables more researchers to use this species as the model animal in their studies. With the aim to making the access to an extensively annotated genome database straightforward and easy, we have created the Tree shrew Database (TreeshrewDB). This is a web-based platform that integrates the currently available data from the tree shrew genome, including an updated gene set, with a systematic functional annotation and a mRNA expression pattern. In addition, to assist with automatic gene sequence analysis, we have integrated the common programs Blast, Muscle, GBrowse, GeneWise and codeml, into TreeshrewDB. We have also developed a pipeline for the analysis of positive selection. The user-friendly interface of TreeshrewDB, which is available at http://www.treeshrewdb.org, will undoubtedly help in many areas of biological research into the tree shrew. PMID:25413576

  15. Retrospective analysis of mortalities in elephant shrews (Macroscelididae) and tree shrews (Tupaiidae) at the Smithsonian National Zoological Park, USA.

    PubMed

    Clancy, Meredith M; Woc-Colburn, Margarita; Viner, Tabitha; Sanchez, Carlos; Murray, Suzan

    2013-06-01

    Investigations into the cause of mortality and other important findings at necropsy were made into two families of small mammals at the Smithsonian National Zoological Park (SNZP; USA). Necropsy reports from 1976 through 2008 were reviewed for all elephant shrews in family Macroscelididae (n = 118) and all tree shrews in family Tupaiidae (n = 90) that lived for greater than 30 days at the SNZP. Causes of mortality were classified by body system and etiology to identify prevalent diseases and trends across demographics for each family. In elephant shrews, gastrointestinal disease (n = 18) and respiratory disease (n = 22) were important causes of mortality with an increased prevalence of pneumonia in adult males. Trauma was a common cause of mortality in tree shrews (n = 22). Cryptococcosis was an important cause of mortality in both families (n = 8 elephant shrews; n = 13 tree shrews). Bacterial infections, often systemic at time of mortality, were also common (n = 16 elephant shrews; n = 17 tree shrews). Arteriosclerosis was a common comorbid pathology noted at necropsy in certain populations, seen only in Elephantulus rufescens in the family Macroscelididae (n = 22) and in only males in the family Tupaiidae (n = 11). Gongylonemiasis was seen commonly in tree shrews (n = 15), as a comorbid finding, or in 5 cases directly leading to mortality. Awareness of the prevalence of these diseases can help guide prevention and intervention strategies.

  16. Mold, Mould, Mole-d: The Three M's of Career Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amundson, Norman E.

    2008-01-01

    The author explores a creative idea development process wherein one begins by applying the image of "breaking the mold" to career development and then extending the process further by considering other related images. In this article, the related images include synonyms for mold such as mould and mole-d (the mole is a small burrowing animal with…

  17. Avogadro Number and Mole: A Royal Confusion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emiliani, Cesare

    1991-01-01

    There is a great deal of confusion in physics and chemistry textbooks, dictionaries, manuals, and handbooks about the definition of Avogadro's number and the term "mole." Avogadro's number is defined simply as the number of atomic mass units in one gram. Mole is defined as the mass of one Avogadro number of identical items. (Author/PR)

  18. Distinct Lineages of Bufavirus in Wild Shrews and Nonhuman Primates.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Michihito; Orba, Yasuko; Anindita, Paulina D; Ishii, Akihiro; Ueno, Keisuke; Hang'ombe, Bernard M; Mweene, Aaron S; Ito, Kimihito; Sawa, Hirofumi

    2015-07-01

    Viral metagenomic analysis identified a new parvovirus genome in the intestinal contents of wild shrews in Zambia. Related viruses were detected in spleen tissues from wild shrews and nonhuman primates. Phylogenetic analyses showed that these viruses are related to human bufaviruses, highlighting the presence and genetic diversity of bufaviruses in wildlife.

  19. Distinct Lineages of Bufavirus in Wild Shrews and Nonhuman Primates

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki, Michihito; Orba, Yasuko; Anindita, Paulina D.; Ishii, Akihiro; Ueno, Keisuke; Hang’ombe, Bernard M.; Mweene, Aaron S.; Ito, Kimihito

    2015-01-01

    Viral metagenomic analysis identified a new parvovirus genome in the intestinal contents of wild shrews in Zambia. Related viruses were detected in spleen tissues from wild shrews and nonhuman primates. Phylogenetic analyses showed that these viruses are related to human bufaviruses, highlighting the presence and genetic diversity of bufaviruses in wildlife. PMID:26079728

  20. Genetics Home Reference: recurrent hydatidiform mole

    MedlinePlus

    ... hydatidiform mole occurs early in pregnancy when an embryo does not fully develop and the placenta develops ... that they will be inactive in the developing embryo; the corresponding paternal genes are active. NLRP7 or ...

  1. Measurement Corner Mass, Moles and Avogadro's Number

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todd, Robert M.

    1977-01-01

    Discusses and clarifies the confusion arising from the use of the terms "mass,""volume,""matter,""mole," and "Avogadro's number." Suggests three laboratory activities concerning mass, volume, and number of particles in a given volume. (CS)

  2. Tactile experience shapes prey-capture behavior in Etruscan shrews

    PubMed Central

    Anjum, Farzana; Brecht, Michael

    2012-01-01

    A crucial role of tactile experience for the maturation of neural response properties in the somatosensory system is well established, but little is known about the role of tactile experience in the development of tactile behaviors. Here we study how tactile experience affects prey capture behavior in Etruscan shrews, Suncus etruscus. Prey capture in adult shrews is a high-speed behavior that relies on precise attacks guided by tactile Gestalt cues. We studied the role of tactile experience by three different approaches. First, we analyzed the hunting skills of young shrews' right after weaning. We found that prey capture in young animals in most, but not all, aspects is similar to that of adults. Second, we performed whisker trimming for 3–4 weeks after birth. Such deprivation resulted in a lasting disruption of prey capture even after whisker re-growth: attacks lacked precise targeting and had a lower success rate. Third, we presented adult shrews with an entirely novel prey species, the giant cockroach. The shape of this roach is very different from the shrew's normal (cricket) prey and the thorax—the preferred point of attack in crickets—is protected by a heavy cuticle. Initially shrews attacked giant roaches the same way they attack crickets and targeted the thoracic region. With progressive experience, however, shrews adopted a new attack strategy targeting legs and underside of the roaches while avoiding other body parts. Speed and efficiency of attacks improved. These data suggest that tactile experience shapes prey capture behavior. PMID:22701408

  3. Characterization of the anterior cingulate cortex in adult tree shrew.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jing-Shan; Yue, Fang; Liu, Xiaoqing; Chen, Tao; Zhuo, Min

    2016-01-01

    The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is a key brain region for the perception of pain and emotion. Cellular and molecular mechanisms of the ACC are usually investigated in rodents such as mice and rats. Studies of synaptic mechanisms in primates are limited. To facilitate the translation of basic results from rodents to humans, it is critical to use a primate-like animal model for the investigation of the ACC. The tree shrew presents a great opportunity for this as they have similar genome sequences to primates and are considered to have many similarities to primates. In the present study, by combining anatomy, immunostaining and micro-optical sectioning tomography methods, we examined the morphological properties of the ACC in the tree shrew and compared them with the mouse and rat. We found that the ACC in the tree shrew is significantly larger than those found in the mouse and rat. The sizes of cell bodies of ACC pyramidal cells in tree shrew are also larger than that found in the mouse or rat. Furthermore, there are significantly more apical/basal dendritic branches and apical dendritic spines of ACC pyramidal neurons in tree shrew. These results demonstrate that pyramidal cells of the ACC in tree shrews are more advanced than those found in rodents (mice and rats), indicating that the tree shrew can be used as a useful animal model for studying the cellular mechanism for ACC-related physiological and pathological changes in humans.

  4. Tactile experience shapes prey-capture behavior in Etruscan shrews.

    PubMed

    Anjum, Farzana; Brecht, Michael

    2012-01-01

    A crucial role of tactile experience for the maturation of neural response properties in the somatosensory system is well established, but little is known about the role of tactile experience in the development of tactile behaviors. Here we study how tactile experience affects prey capture behavior in Etruscan shrews, Suncus etruscus. Prey capture in adult shrews is a high-speed behavior that relies on precise attacks guided by tactile Gestalt cues. We studied the role of tactile experience by three different approaches. First, we analyzed the hunting skills of young shrews' right after weaning. We found that prey capture in young animals in most, but not all, aspects is similar to that of adults. Second, we performed whisker trimming for 3-4 weeks after birth. Such deprivation resulted in a lasting disruption of prey capture even after whisker re-growth: attacks lacked precise targeting and had a lower success rate. Third, we presented adult shrews with an entirely novel prey species, the giant cockroach. The shape of this roach is very different from the shrew's normal (cricket) prey and the thorax-the preferred point of attack in crickets-is protected by a heavy cuticle. Initially shrews attacked giant roaches the same way they attack crickets and targeted the thoracic region. With progressive experience, however, shrews adopted a new attack strategy targeting legs and underside of the roaches while avoiding other body parts. Speed and efficiency of attacks improved. These data suggest that tactile experience shapes prey capture behavior.

  5. Moles and Mole Control on British Farms, Amenities and Gardens after Strychnine Withdrawal

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Sandra E.; Ellwood, Stephen A.; Johnson, Paul J.; Macdonald, David W.

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary Moles are burrowing mammals that are regarded as pests in Britain, and until 2006 they could legally be killed using strychnine poison. When strychnine was withdrawn there were fears that mole populations would increase. We surveyed farmers, amenity managers and householders about moles and mole control on their land in 2007, post strychnine withdrawal. Kill-trapping was by far the preferred control method used and control may be used more than can be justified by damage levels or the effect of control on damage. Mole traps are unregulated, unlike most other spring traps, and some might not meet current welfare standards. We found no evidence that mole activity had increased since a 1992 survey of farms. Abstract Moles are considered pests in Britain, but this issue has been little studied. Lower welfare standards have been tolerated for moles than for most other managed wild mammal species, as use of both the controversial poison, strychnine, and unregulated traps have been permitted. Strychnine was withdrawn in 2006 and there were fears that mole populations would increase as a result. In 2007, we conducted a comprehensive, nationwide survey of land manager perceptions, opinions and behaviour regarding moles and mole control on farms, amenities and domestic gardens in Britain. We surveyed 2150 land managers (achieving a 59% response rate) and ground-truthed 29 responses. Moles were reported to be present on most farms and amenities, and 13% of gardens, and were more common in lighter soils. Where present, moles were usually considered pests, this being more likely in Wales, Scotland and northern England, on livestock and mixed farms, and on large, high-value amenities, e.g., racecourses and golf courses. Mole control followed similar patterns to mole presence. More control may occur than is economically, and therefore potentially ethically, justified. Control should be more carefully considered and, where necessary, more effectively targeted. Kill

  6. [Genetic and morphological variation in a partially isolated population of Caucasian shrew sorex Satunini (Mammalia)].

    PubMed

    Grigor'eva, O O; Sychova, V B

    2011-09-01

    Morphological and genetic variation at microsatellite loci of Caucasian shrew Sorex satunini Ogn. is examined and compared with that of the common shrew S. araneus L. Genetic distance at microsatellite loci between the common shrew and Caucasian shrew proved to be threefold higher than between chromosome races of the common shrew. The Caucasian shrew manifested low polymorphism in studies of both microsatellites and morphometric mandibular traits. The heterozygote deficit was also typical. These properties may be a consequence of partial isolation of the population and gene drift.

  7. Moles and Mole Control on British Farms, Amenities and Gardens after Strychnine Withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Baker, Sandra E; Ellwood, Stephen A; Johnson, Paul J; Macdonald, David W

    2016-06-08

    Moles are considered pests in Britain, but this issue has been little studied. Lower welfare standards have been tolerated for moles than for most other managed wild mammal species, as use of both the controversial poison, strychnine, and unregulated traps have been permitted. Strychnine was withdrawn in 2006 and there were fears that mole populations would increase as a result. In 2007, we conducted a comprehensive, nationwide survey of land manager perceptions, opinions and behaviour regarding moles and mole control on farms, amenities and domestic gardens in Britain. We surveyed 2150 land managers (achieving a 59% response rate) and ground-truthed 29 responses. Moles were reported to be present on most farms and amenities, and 13% of gardens, and were more common in lighter soils. Where present, moles were usually considered pests, this being more likely in Wales, Scotland and northern England, on livestock and mixed farms, and on large, high-value amenities, e.g., racecourses and golf courses. Mole control followed similar patterns to mole presence. More control may occur than is economically, and therefore potentially ethically, justified. Control should be more carefully considered and, where necessary, more effectively targeted. Kill-trapping was the favoured recent and future method on farms and amenities, even if strychnine was to be reintroduced; however, because mole traps are currently unregulated, some might not meet current welfare standards if tested. We found no evidence for an increase in moles since a farm questionnaire survey conducted in 1992; this could have wider implications for future wildlife management policy changes.

  8. Molecular epidemiology of paramyxoviruses in Zambian wild rodents and shrews.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Michihito; Muleya, Walter; Ishii, Akihiro; Orba, Yasuko; Hang'ombe, Bernard M; Mweene, Aaron S; Moonga, Ladslav; Thomas, Yuka; Kimura, Takashi; Sawa, Hirofumi

    2014-02-01

    Rodents and shrews are known to harbour various viruses. Paramyxoviruses have been isolated from Asian and Australian rodents, but little is known about them in African rodents. Recently, previously unknown paramyxovirus sequences were found in South African rodents. To date, there have been no reports related to the presence and prevalence of paramyxoviruses in shrews. We found a high prevalence of paramyxoviruses in wild rodents and shrews from Zambia. Semi-nested reverse transcription-PCR assays were used to detect paramyxovirus RNA in 21 % (96/462) of specimens analysed. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that these viruses were novel paramyxoviruses and could be classified as morbillivirus- and henipavirus-related viruses, and previously identified rodent paramyxovirus-related viruses. Our findings suggest the circulation of previously unknown paramyxoviruses in African rodents and shrews, and provide new information regarding the geographical distribution and genetic diversity of paramyxoviruses.

  9. [Molecular evidence on the phylogenetic position of tree shrews].

    PubMed

    Xu, Ling; Fan, Yu; Jiang, Xue-Long; Yao, Yong-Gang

    2013-04-01

    The tree shrew is currently located in the Order Scandentia and is widely distributed in Southeast Asia, South Asia, and South China. Due to its unique characteristics, such as small body size, high brain-to-body mass ratio, short reproductive cycle and life span, and low-cost of maintenance, the tree shrew has been proposed as an alternative experimental animal to primates in biomedical research. However, there is unresolved debate regarding the phylogenetic affinity of tree shrews to primates and their phylogenetic position in Euarchontoglires. To help settle this debate, we summarized the available molecular evidence on the phylogenetic position of the tree shrew. Most nuclear DNA data, including recent genome data, suggested that the tree shrew belongs to the Euarchonta clade harboring primates and flying lemurs (colugos). However, analyses of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) data suggested a close relationship to lagomorphs and rodents. These different clustering patterns could be explained by nuclear gene data and mtDNA data discrepancies, as well as the different phylogenetic approaches used in previous studies. Taking all available conclusions together, the robust data from whole genome of this species supports tree shrews being genetically closely related to primates.

  10. Barrelettes without barrels in the American water shrew.

    PubMed

    Catania, Kenneth C; Catania, Elizabeth H; Sawyer, Eva K; Leitch, Duncan B

    2013-01-01

    Water shrews (Sorex palustris) depend heavily on their elaborate whiskers to navigate their environment and locate prey. They have small eyes and ears with correspondingly small optic and auditory nerves. Previous investigations have shown that water shrew neocortex is dominated by large representations of the whiskers in primary and secondary somatosensory cortex (S1 and S2). Flattened sections of juvenile cortex processed for cytochrome oxidase revealed clear borders of the whisker pad representation in S1, but no cortical barrels. We were therefore surprised to discover prominent barrelettes in brainstem of juvenile water shrews in the present investigation. These distinctive modules were found in the principal trigeminal nucleus (PrV), and in two of the three spinal trigeminal subnuclei (interpolaris--SpVi and caudalis--SpVc). Analysis of the shrew's whisker pad revealed the likely relationship between whiskers and barrelettes. Barrelettes persisted in adult water shrew PrV, but barrels were also absent from adult cortex. Thus in contrast to mice and rats, which have obvious barrels in primary somatosensory cortex and less clear barrelettes in the principal nucleus, water shrews have clear barrelettes in the brainstem and no barrels in the neocortex. These results highlight the diverse ways that similar mechanoreceptors can be represented in the central nervous systems of different species.

  11. Adoption of a nestling house mouse by a female short-tailed shrew

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blus, L.J.; Johnson, D.A.

    1969-01-01

    A nursing female short-tailed shrew adopted a nestling house mouse. The mouse was observed in the nest with the female and her litter of shrews three days after it was introduced into the aluminum box containing the shrews, but it was found dead in the nest four days later.

  12. The Origin of the Mole Concept

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, William B.

    2004-01-01

    German Chemist, August Wilhelm Hofmann first introduced the term "molar" (from the Latin moles, meaning "a large mass") into chemistry, around 1865. The particular use of the term molar gained currency in the physics literature, where it was in common use at least through the 1940s.

  13. Relating the Mole Concept and Fundamental Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Kenneth L.

    The high percentage of students who have difficulty in solving free-response problems related to the mole concept was addressed by implementation of reading skill strategies and computer assisted instruction. Frayer models, semantic mapping, and graphic organizers from Reading in the Content Area (RICA) were used to increase student understanding…

  14. The formation and extinction of fear memory in tree shrews

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Shujiang; Wang, Cong; Guo, Chengbing; Huang, Xu; Wang, Liecheng; Zhang, Chen

    2015-01-01

    Fear is an emotion that is well-studied due to its importance for animal survival. Experimental animals, such as rats and mice, have been widely used to model fear. However, higher animals such as nonhuman primates have rarely been used to study fear due to ethical issues and high costs. Tree shrews are small mammals that are closely related to primates; they have been used to model human-related psychosocial conditions such as stress and alcohol tolerance. Here, we describe an experimental paradigm to study the formation and extinction of fear memory in tree shrews. We designed an experimental apparatus of a light/dark box with a voltage foot shock. We found that tree shrews preferred staying in the dark box in the daytime without stimulation and showed avoidance to voltage shocks applied to the footplate in a voltage-dependent manner. Foot shocks applied to the dark box for 5 days (10 min per day) effectively reversed the light–dark preference of the tree shrews, and this memory lasted for more than 50 days without any sign of memory decay (extinction) in the absence of further stimulation. However, this fear memory was reversed with 4 days of reverse training by applying the same stimulus to the light box. When reducing the stimulus intensity during the training period, a memory extinction and subsequently reinstatement effects were observed. Thus, our results describe an efficient method of monitoring fear memory formation and extinction in tree shrews. PMID:26283941

  15. The formation and extinction of fear memory in tree shrews.

    PubMed

    Shang, Shujiang; Wang, Cong; Guo, Chengbing; Huang, Xu; Wang, Liecheng; Zhang, Chen

    2015-01-01

    Fear is an emotion that is well-studied due to its importance for animal survival. Experimental animals, such as rats and mice, have been widely used to model fear. However, higher animals such as nonhuman primates have rarely been used to study fear due to ethical issues and high costs. Tree shrews are small mammals that are closely related to primates; they have been used to model human-related psychosocial conditions such as stress and alcohol tolerance. Here, we describe an experimental paradigm to study the formation and extinction of fear memory in tree shrews. We designed an experimental apparatus of a light/dark box with a voltage foot shock. We found that tree shrews preferred staying in the dark box in the daytime without stimulation and showed avoidance to voltage shocks applied to the footplate in a voltage-dependent manner. Foot shocks applied to the dark box for 5 days (10 min per day) effectively reversed the light-dark preference of the tree shrews, and this memory lasted for more than 50 days without any sign of memory decay (extinction) in the absence of further stimulation. However, this fear memory was reversed with 4 days of reverse training by applying the same stimulus to the light box. When reducing the stimulus intensity during the training period, a memory extinction and subsequently reinstatement effects were observed. Thus, our results describe an efficient method of monitoring fear memory formation and extinction in tree shrews.

  16. Cortical organization in the Etruscan shrew (Suncus etruscus).

    PubMed

    Roth-Alpermann, Claudia; Anjum, Farzana; Naumann, Robert; Brecht, Michael

    2010-11-01

    Cortical organization in the Etruscan shrew is of comparative interest because of its small size and because the Etruscan shrew is an amazing tactile hunter. Here we investigated cortical organization in Etruscan shrews by electrophysiological mapping. We developed an anesthesia protocol for this very small mammal in which we combined massive application of local anesthesia, very slow induction of general anesthesia, and passive cooling. Under this anesthesia regime, we characterized auditory, visual, and somatosensory cortical responses. We found that large parts of shrew cortex respond to such stimuli. Of the responsive sites, a small fraction (∼14%) responded to visual stimuli in a caudally located region. Another small fraction of sites (∼11%) responded to auditory stimuli in a centrally located region. The majority of sites (∼75%) responded to tactile stimuli. We identified two topographically organized somatosensory areas with small receptive fields referred to as putative primary somatosensory cortex and putative secondary somatosensory cortex. In a posterior-lateral region that partially overlaps with piriform cortex, we observed large somatosensory receptive fields and often polysensory responses. In an anterior-lateral region that partially overlaps with piriform cortex, we observed large unimodal somatosensory receptive fields. Our findings demonstrate a remarkable degree of tactile specialization in Etruscan shrew cortex.

  17. Effects of late quaternary climate change on Palearctic shrews.

    PubMed

    Prost, Stefan; Klietmann, Johannes; van Kolfschoten, Thijs; Guralnick, Robert P; Waltari, Eric; Vrieling, Klaas; Stiller, Mathias; Nagel, Doris; Rabeder, Gernot; Hofreiter, Michael; Sommer, Robert S

    2013-06-01

    The Late Quaternary was a time of rapid climatic oscillations and drastic environmental changes. In general, species can respond to such changes by behavioral accommodation, distributional shifts, ecophenotypic modifications (nongenetic), evolution (genetic) or ultimately face local extinction. How those responses manifested in the past is essential for properly predicting future ones especially as the current warm phase is further intensified by rising levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Here, we use ancient DNA (aDNA) and morphological features in combination with ecological niche modeling (ENM) to investigate genetic and nongenetic responses of Central European Palearctic shrews to past climatic change. We show that a giant form of shrew, previously described as an extinct Pleistocene Sorex species, represents a large ecomorph of the common shrew (Sorex araneus), which was replaced by populations from a different gene-pool and with different morphology after the Pleistocene Holocene transition. We also report the presence of the cold-adapted tundra shrew (S. tundrensis) in Central Europe. This species is currently restricted to Siberia and was hitherto unknown as an element of the Pleistocene fauna of Europe. Finally, we show that there is no clear correlation between climatic oscillations within the last 50 000 years and body size in shrews and conclude that a special nonanalogous situation with regard to biodiversity and food supply in the Late Glacial may have caused the observed large body size.

  18. Cytoarchitecture, areas, and neuron numbers of the Etruscan shrew cortex.

    PubMed

    Naumann, R K; Anjum, F; Roth-Alpermann, C; Brecht, M

    2012-08-01

    The Etruscan shrew, Suncus etruscus, is one of the smallest mammals. Etruscan shrews can recognize prey shape with amazing speed and accuracy, based on whisker-mediated tactile cues. Because of its small size, quantitative analysis of the Etruscan shrew cortex is more tractable than in other animals. To quantitatively assess the anatomy of the Etruscan shrew's brain, we sectioned brains and applied Nissl staining and NeuN (neuronal nuclei) antibody staining. On the basis of these stains, we estimated the number of neurons of 10 cortical hemispheres by using Stereoinvestigator and Neurolucida (MBF Bioscience) software. On average, the neuron number per hemisphere was found to be ~1 million. We also measured cortical surface area and found an average of 11.1 mm² (n = 7) and an average volume of 5.3 mm³ (n = 10) per hemisphere. We identified 13 cortical regions by cytoarchitectonic boundaries in coronal, sagittal, and tangential sections processed for Nissl substance, myelin, cytochrome oxidase, ionic zinc, neurofilaments, and vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (VGluT2). The Etruscan shrew is a highly tactile animal with a large somatosensory cortex, which contains a barrel field, but the barrels are much less clearly defined than in rodents. The anatomically derived cortical partitioning scheme roughly corresponds to physiologically derived maps of neocortical sensory areas.

  19. Social Structure Predicts Genital Morphology in African Mole-Rats

    PubMed Central

    Seney, Marianne L.; Kelly, Diane A.; Goldman, Bruce D.; Šumbera, Radim; Forger, Nancy G.

    2009-01-01

    Background African mole-rats (Bathyergidae, Rodentia) exhibit a wide range of social structures, from solitary to eusocial. We previously found a lack of sex differences in the external genitalia and morphology of the perineal muscles associated with the phallus in the eusocial naked mole-rat. This was quite surprising, as the external genitalia and perineal muscles are sexually dimorphic in all other mammals examined. We hypothesized that the lack of sex differences in naked mole-rats might be related to their unusual social structure. Methodology/Principal Findings We compared the genitalia and perineal muscles in three African mole-rat species: the naked mole-rat, the solitary silvery mole-rat, and the Damaraland mole-rat, a species considered to be eusocial, but with less reproductive skew than naked mole-rats. Our findings support a relationship between social structure, mating system, and sexual differentiation. Naked mole-rats lack sex differences in genitalia and perineal morphology, silvery mole-rats exhibit sex differences, and Damaraland mole-rats are intermediate. Conclusions/Significance The lack of sex differences in naked mole-rats is not an attribute of all African mole-rats, but appears to have evolved in relation to their unusual social structure and reproductive biology. PMID:19829697

  20. Distribution and coexistence of shrews in patchy landscapes: A field test of multiple hypotheses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mortelliti, Alessio; Boitani, Luigi

    2009-11-01

    Despite the important role of shrews (Soricomorpha: Soricidae) in the functioning of ecosystems, as predators and prey, the effects of habitat loss and fragmentation on this guild of mammals are still unclear. We studied the distribution of 5 species (the greater white toothed shrew Crocidura leucodon; the lesser white toothed shrew Crocidura suaveolens; the pigmy shrew Sorex minutus; the Appennine shrew Sorex samniticus and the Etruscan shrew Suncus etruscus) in a fragmented landscape in central Italy. Shrews were trapped with pitfall traps made from plastic water bottles, the number of traps increased with patch size. A total of 170 individuals, of 5 species of shrews were captured. Shrews were widely distributed in our study area, however patch occupancy was determined mainly by vegetation and geometrical characteristics of the patches. Our data supports the hypotheses that patterns of habitat selection and the dynamics of seasonal abundance (habitat and temporal partitioning between similarly sized species) reduce competitive pressure, thus allowing coexistence of shrews in relatively species-rich assemblages, for such small amounts of habitat. The most important outcome of our results is the crucial role played by vegetation structure in determining distribution patterns. These results strongly suggest that measurements of the vegetation structure of habitat patches should always be included as explanatory variables when studying the distribution of shrews in fragmented landscapes.

  1. Insights: A LAP on Moles: Teaching an Important Concept.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ihde, John

    1985-01-01

    Describes a learning activity packet (LAP) designed to help students understand the basic concept of the mole as a chemical unit; know relationships between the mole and atomic weights in the periodic table; and solve basic conversion problems involving moles, atoms, and molecules. (JN)

  2. Discovery of Novel Alphacoronaviruses in European Rodents and Shrews.

    PubMed

    Tsoleridis, Theocharis; Onianwa, Okechukwu; Horncastle, Emma; Dayman, Emma; Zhu, Miaoran; Danjittrong, Taechasit; Wachtl, Marta; Behnke, Jerzy M; Chapman, Sarah; Strong, Victoria; Dobbs, Phillipa; Ball, Jonathan K; Tarlinton, Rachael E; McClure, C Patrick

    2016-03-18

    Eight hundred and thirteen European rodents and shrews encompassing seven different species were screened for alphacoronaviruses using PCR detection. Novel alphacoronaviruses were detected in the species Rattus norvegicus, Microtus agrestis, Sorex araneus and Myodes glareolus. These, together with the recently described Lucheng virus found in China, form a distinct rodent/shrew-specific clade within the coronavirus phylogeny. Across a highly conserved region of the viral polymerase gene, the new members of this clade were up to 22% dissimilar at the nucleotide level to the previously described Lucheng virus. As such they might represent distinct species of alphacoronaviruses. These data greatly extend our knowledge of wildlife reservoirs of alphacoronaviruses.

  3. Japanese language and Japanese science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanikawa, Kiyotaka

    2003-08-01

    Japanese mathematical scientists including astronomers, physicists, and mathematicians obtain ideas in Japanese, discuss their problems in Japanese, and arrive at conclusions in Japanese, and yet they write their results in foreign languages such as English. This uncomfortable situation has continued for nearly one hundred years and has had serious effects on Japanese science. In this short report, the author discusses and analyses these effects. In order to put Japanese science on a sound basis, the author proposes to increase the number of articles, reviews and textbooks in Japanese, first by translation and second by the voluntary efforts of scientists themselves. As centers devoted to this activity, the author proposes to construct "Airborne Libraries" which are maintained and accumulate in an electronic form the scientific documents written in Japanese.

  4. Japanese Competitiveness and Japanese Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minabe, Shigeo

    1986-01-01

    Analyzes and compares Japanese and American industrial policy and labor practices. Proposes that certain aspects of the Japanese system be adapted by American businesses for purpose of increasing international competitiveness. Proposes specific actions and plans for both the Japanese and American systems. (ML)

  5. Instrumented Moles for Planetary Subsurface Regolith Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, L. O.; Coste, P. A.; Grzesik, A.; Knollenberg, J.; Magnani, P.; Nadalini, R.; Re, E.; Romstedt, J.; Sohl, F.; Spohn, T.

    2006-12-01

    Soil-like materials, or regolith, on solar system objects provide a record of physical and/or chemical weathering processes on the object in question and as such possess significant scientific relevance for study by landed planetary missions. In the case of Mars, a complex interplay has been at work between impact gardening, aeolian as well as possibly fluvial processes. This resulted in regolith that is texturally as well as compositionally layered as hinted at by results from the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) missions which are capable of accessing shallow subsurface soils by wheel trenching. Significant subsurface soil access on Mars, i.e. to depths of a meter or more, remains to be accomplished on future missions. This has been one of the objectives of the unsuccessful Beagle 2 landed element of the ESA Mars Express mission having been equipped with the Planetary Underground Tool (PLUTO) subsurface soil sampling Mole system capable of self-penetration into regolith due to an internal electro-mechanical hammering mechanism. This lightweight device of less than 900 g mass was designed to repeatedly obtain and deliver to the lander regolith samples from depths down to 2 m which would have been analysed for organic matter and, specifically, organic carbon from potential extinct microbial activity. With funding from the ESA technology programme, an evolved Mole system - the Instrumented Mole System (IMS) - has now been developed to a readiness level of TRL 6. The IMS is to serve as a carrier for in situ instruments for measurements in planetary subsurface soils. This could complement or even eliminate the need to recover samples to the surface. The Engineering Model hardware having been developed within this effort is designed for accommodating a geophysical instrument package (Heat Flow and Physical Properties Package, HP3) that would be capable of measuring regolith physical properties and planetary heat flow. The chosen design encompasses a two-body Mole

  6. Cryopreservation of epididymal sperm in tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri).

    PubMed

    Ping, S; Wang, F; Zhang, Y; Wu, C; Tang, W; Luo, Y; Yang, S

    2011-07-01

    Cryopreservation of sperm from tree shrews, which are considered primitive primates, would enhance genetic management and breeding programs. Epididymal sperm were surgically harvested from male tree shrews, cryopreserved in two Tes-Tris-based cryodiluents, and used in four experiments. In Experiment 1, there were no significant differences in motility and acrosome integrity among five concentrations of egg yolk in TTE after cooling to 4 °C. However, sperm frozen in TTE containing 20% egg yolk at -172 °C/min had better (P < 0.05) post-thaw motility and acrosome integrity. In Experiment 2, sperm held for 10 min prior to storage in liquid nitrogen had greater motility than those held for 5 or 15 min (P < 0.05), but acrosome integrity was not different (P > 0.05) among treatments. In Experiment 3, sperm frozen in TTE diluent had higher (P < 0.05) motility and acrosome integrity than those in TEST diluent. In Experiment 4, there were no differences (P > 0.05) in the fertilization rate of oocytes and the proportion of tree shrews yielding fertilized oocytes, following AI with fresh versus frozen sperm. In conclusion, tree shrew epididymal sperm were successfully cryopreserved, as assessed by post-thaw motility, acrosome integrity, and fertilizing ability.

  7. Microparasite assemblages of conspecific shrew populations in Southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Laakkonen, J.; Fisher, R.N.; Case, T.J.

    2003-01-01

    The microparasite component communities of 2 species of shrews, Notiosorex crawfordi and Sorex ornatus, were investigated for the first time in 2 isolated and 3 continuous landscapes in southern California. With microscopical examination, a total of 6 parasite species was found in N. crawfordi and 8 species in S. ornatus. The highest number (5) of parasite species was detected in the lungs. The corrected estimate of parasite species richness did not significantly correlate with the host abundance in either shrew species. Altitude, and also latitude in N. crawfordi, appeared to be significantly positively associated with the parasite species richness, but this could be due to a false association because of the rare occurrence of some of the parasites or the small altitude range (or both). No other landscape variable analyzed (location, size of the study site, disturbance) was significantly associated with the parasite species richness of the shrews. The parasite assemblages of the 2 shrew species were similar despite the fact that N. crawfordi has a lower metabolic rate than S. ornatus.

  8. Immunohistochemical mapping of neuropeptide Y in the tree shrew brain.

    PubMed

    Ni, Rong-Jun; Shu, Yu-Mian; Luo, Peng-Hao; Fang, Hui; Wang, Yu; Yao, Lei; Zhou, Jiang-Ning

    2015-02-15

    Day-active tree shrews are promising animals as research models for a variety of human disorders. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) modulates many behaviors in vertebrates. Here we examined the distribution of NPY in the brain of tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri chinensis) using immunohistochemical techniques. The differential distribution of NPY-immunoreactive (-ir) cells and fibers were observed in the rhinencephalon, telencephalon, diencephalon, mesencephalon, metencephalon, and myelencephalon of tree shrews. Most NPY-ir cells were multipolar or bipolar in shape with triangular, fusiform, and/or globular perikarya. The densest cluster of NPY-ir cells were found in the mitral cell layer of the main olfactory bulb (MOB), arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus, and pretectal nucleus of the thalamus. The MOB presented a unique pattern of NPY immunoreactivity. Laminar distribution of NPY-ir cells was observed in the MOB, neocortex, and hippocampus. Compared to rats, the tree shrews exhibited a particularly robust and widespread distribution of NPY-ir cells in the MOB, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, and amygdala as well as the ventral lateral geniculate nucleus and pretectal nucleus of the thalamus. By contrast, a low density of neurons were scattered in the striatum, neocortex, polymorph cell layer of the dentate gyrus, superior colliculus, inferior colliculus, and dorsal tegmental nucleus. These findings provide the first detailed mapping of NPY immunoreactivity in the tree shrew brain and demonstrate species differences in the distribution of this neuropeptide, providing an anatomical basis for the participation of the NPY system in the regulation of numerous physiological and behavioral processes.

  9. Phylogenetic affinity of tree shrews to Glires is attributed to fast evolution rate.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jiannan; Chen, Guangfeng; Gu, Liang; Shen, Yuefeng; Zheng, Meizhu; Zheng, Weisheng; Hu, Xinjie; Zhang, Xiaobai; Qiu, Yu; Liu, Xiaoqing; Jiang, Cizhong

    2014-02-01

    Previous phylogenetic analyses have led to incongruent evolutionary relationships between tree shrews and other suborders of Euarchontoglires. What caused the incongruence remains elusive. In this study, we identified 6845 orthologous genes between seventeen placental mammals. Tree shrews and Primates were monophyletic in the phylogenetic trees derived from the first or/and second codon positions whereas tree shrews and Glires formed a monophyly in the trees derived from the third or all codon positions. The same topology was obtained in the phylogeny inference using the slowly and fast evolving genes, respectively. This incongruence was likely attributed to the fast substitution rate in tree shrews and Glires. Notably, sequence GC content only was not informative to resolve the controversial phylogenetic relationships between tree shrews, Glires, and Primates. Finally, estimation in the confidence of the tree selection strongly supported the phylogenetic affiliation of tree shrews to Primates as a monophyly.

  10. Characterization of spontaneous breast tumor in tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri chinenesis).

    PubMed

    Xia, Hou-Jun; Wang, Chun-Yan; Zhang, Hai-Lin; He, Bao-Li; Jiao, Jian-Lin; Chen, Ce-Shi

    2012-02-01

    Breast cancer is a common malignant tumor. It is essential to develop suitable animal models for discovering novel preventive and therapeutic approaches. Tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri chinensis) have a closer evolutionary relationship with humans than do rodents, which have been widely used in laboratory research. Spontaneous breast tumors were identified in tree shrews in 1960s; however, no detailed studies about tree shrew breast tumors have been conducted to date. Here, we characterized a spontaneous breast tumor from tree shrews by Haematoxylin Eosin (H&E) staining. This tumor was identified as a papillary tumor. Immunohistochemical staining (IHC) for progesterone receptor (PR), Ki-67 and cleaved caspase-3 showed that tumor cells were positive for PR, highly proliferative, and less apoptotic compared to normal breast epithelial cells. Thus, the spontaneous tumor of tree shrew is very close to human papillary tumors in terms of morphology and pathology and we concluded that tree shrew may be a suitable animal model for breast cancer research.

  11. Short-tailed shrews: Toxicity and residue relationships of DDT, dieldrin, and endrin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blus, L.J.

    1978-01-01

    Experiments involving dietary toxicity and residue relationships of DDT, dieldrin, and endrin were conducted with short-tailed shrews. Dietary concentrations of DDT dissolved in vegetable oils were usually more toxic than diets containing comparable amounts of powdered DDT. Younger shrews, particularly females, were more tolerant of powdered DDT than older animals; yet, there were no conspicuous age differences in toxicity of DDT dissolved in oils. In comparison to other mammals, short-tailed shrews are not unusually sensitive to DDT, dieldrin, or endrin on the basis of two-week feeding tests. The influence of age and sex on toxicity of DDT, endrin, and dieldrin was sometimes more important than body weight. Of those shrews of the same age and sex that were fed the same dietary dosage, heavier shrews were more tolerant than lighter individuals; and, heavier shrews tended to lose a greater percentage of body weight before death. There was a range of 15 to 105 DDT equivalents in brains of shrews dying on dietary dosages of DDT. Six shrews fed a high level of DDT seemed to have unusual metabolite capabilities and died with apparent lethal levels of DDD in their brains. Levels of dieldrin in brains of shrews that died on a dietary dosage of dieldrin ranged from 3.7 to 12.6 ppm. In the rates of gain and loss experiments where shrews were given diets containing 400 ppm DDT or 50 ppm dieldrin up to 17 days, high residues were noted in tissues of shrews after two weeks on a contaminated diet and a few died at that time. After shrews were placed on clean food, it was determined that >50% of the dieldrin residues in carcass and brain were lost in 50% of residues of DDT and metabolites in brains after 2 weeks on clean food; males lost nearly 50% of residues in carcasses after two weeks on clean food compared with a loss of only 11% in females.

  12. Mole guns in Turkey in 2003-2005.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Riza; Birincioğlu, Ismail; Cakir, Ismail; Uner, H Bülent; Açikgöz, Dinç; Seçkin, Cetin

    2007-01-01

    This study describes the frequency of mole guns in Turkey by examining the cases sent to the Council of Forensic Medicine of Turkey between 2003 and 2005. In total, 11 mole guns were examined. Mole guns are manufactured to be used as a trap against detrimental animals. Although they are not meant to be used as a firearm, they are able to cause death. Mole guns appearing in regular casework were evaluated in terms of type of the gun, number of barrels, size and caliber, rifling, design, mechanism, fitness for use, legality, and geographical distribution. Ninety-one percent of the guns were 12 gauge. Most commonly they originate from Inner Anatolia. Mole guns are typically handmade. Some examples of injuries and deaths caused by mole guns are also offered.

  13. [Tree shrews under the spot light: emerging model of human diseases].

    PubMed

    Xu, Lin; Zhang, Yun; Liang, Bin; Lü, Long-Bao; Chen, Ce-Shi; Chen, Yong-Bin; Zhou, Ju-Min; Yao, Yong-Gang

    2013-04-01

    Animal models are indispensible in biomedical research and have made tremendous contributions to answer fundamental questions on human biology, disease mechanisms, and to the development of new drugs and diagnostic tools. Due to the limitations of rodent models in translational medicine, tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri chinensis), the closest relative of primates, have attracted increasing attention in modeling human diseases and therapeutic responses. Here we discuss the recent progress in tree shrew biology and the development of tree shrews as human disease models including infectious diseases, metabolic diseases, neurological and psychiatric diseases, and cancers. Meanwhile, the current problems and future perspectives of the tree shrew model are explored.

  14. Genetic diversity and matrilineal structure in Chinese tree shrews inhabiting Kunming, China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shi-Yi; Xu, Ling; Lü, Long-Bao; Yao, Yong-Gang

    2011-02-01

    Due to their special phylogenetic position in the Euarchontoglires and close affinity to primates, tree shrews have been proposed as an alternative experimental animal to primates in biomedical research. However, the population genetic structure of tree shrews has largely remained unknown and this has hindered the development of tree shrew breeding and selection. Here we sampled 80 Chinese tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri chinensis) in Kunming, China, and analyzed partial mtDNA control region sequence variation. Based on our samples and two published sequences from northern tree shrews (T. belangeri), we identified 29 substitutions in the mtDNA control region fragment (~604 bp) across 82 individuals and defined 13 haplotypes. Seventeen samples were selected for sequencing of the cytochrome b (Cyt b; 1134 bp) gene based on control region sequence variation and were analyzed in combination with 34 published sequences to solidify the phylogenetic pattern obtained from control region data. Overall, tree shrews from Kunming have high genetic diversity and present a remarkable long genetic distance to the two reported northern tree shrews outside China. Our results provide some caution when using tree shrews to establish animal models because of this apparent genetic difference. In addition, the high genetic diversity of Chinese tree shrews inhabiting Kunming suggests that systematic genetic investigations should be conducted before establishing an inbred strain for medical and biological research.

  15. [The helminth fauna of the shrew genus Sorex (Insectivora: Soricidae) in the Kandalksha nature reserve].

    PubMed

    Anikanova, V S; Ieshko, E P; Boĭko, N S

    2005-01-01

    The helminth fauna of shrews (Sores araneus, S. caecutiens, S. minutus, S. minutissimus) from the Karelian coast and islands of the Kandalaksha nature reserve was studied. 18 helminth species belonging to 3 taxonomic groups, Trematoda (3), Cestoda (8), and Nematoda (7) were found. The main body of the helminth fauna of shrews is represented by the nematodes species Longistriata codrus, L. didas, and the cestode species Ditestolepis diaphana. Inhabiting of shrews in the insular localities leads to the decrease of the species diversity and the abundance of their helminths. The distribution ranges of the shrew parasites have been outlined more accurately.

  16. Generation recruitment and death of brain cells throughout the life cycle of Sorex shrews (Lipotyphla).

    PubMed

    Bartkowska, Katarzyna; Djavadian, Rouzanna L; Taylor, Jan R E; Turlejski, Kris

    2008-04-01

    Young shrews of the genus Sorex that are born in early summer reduce their body size before wintering, including a reduction of brain weight of 10-30%. In the spring they mature sexually, double their body weight and regain about half of the loss in brain weight. To investigate the mechanisms of brain weight oscillations we studied the rate of cell death and generation in the brain during the whole life cycle of the common shrew (Sorex araneus) and pygmy shrew (S. minutus). After weaning, shrews generate new brain cells in only two mammalian neurogenic zones and approximately 80% of these develop into neurones. The increase of the shrew brain weight in the spring did not depend on recruitment of new cells. Moreover, adult Sorex shrews did not generate new cells in the dentate gyri. Injections of 5-HT1A receptor agonists in the adult shrews induced neurogenesis in their dentate gyri, showing the presence of dormant progenitor cells. Generation of new neurones in the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricles and their recruitment to olfactory bulbs continued throughout life. TUNEL labelling showed that the rate of cell death in all brain structures, including the proliferation zones and olfactory bulb, was very low throughout life. We conclude that neither cell death nor recruitment significantly contributes to seasonal oscillations and the net loss of brain weight in the Sorex shrews. With the exception of dentate gyrus and olfactory bulb, cellular populations of brain structures are stable throughout the life cycle of these shrews.

  17. Why do shrews twitter? Communication or simple echo-based orientation.

    PubMed

    Siemers, Björn M; Schauermann, Grit; Turni, Hendrik; von Merten, Sophie

    2009-10-23

    Shrews are very vocal animals. We tested behaviourally whether the high-pitched laryngeal 'twittering' calls of as-yet unclear function serve for communication or echo-based orientation. We used a representative species from each of the two largest phylogenetic groups of shrews. In both species, experimental manipulation of substrate density, but not of the likelihood of conspecific presence, affected the shrews' call rate when exploring an unknown environment. This adaptation of call rate to the degree of habitat clutter parallels bat echolocation and suggests that shrews may use the echoes and reverberations of their calls for identifying routes through their habitat or for probing habitat type. To assess the acoustic feasibility of shrew echo orientation, we ensonified shrew habitats in the field with an 'artificial shrew' (small speaker mounted close to a sensitive microphone). The data showed that shrew-like calls can indeed yield echo scenes useful for habitat assessment at close range, but beyond the range of the shrews' vibrissae.

  18. Entomopathogenic fungi detection and avoidance by mole crickets (Orthoptera: Gryllotalpidae).

    PubMed

    Thompson, Sarah R; Brandenburg, Rick L; Roberson, Gary T

    2007-02-01

    A chamber to monitor mole cricket behavior was designed using two different soil-filled containers and photosensors constructed from infrared emitters and detectors. Mole crickets (Scapteriscus spp.) were introduced into a center tube that allowed them to choose whether to enter and tunnel in untreated soil or soil treated with Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin. Each time the cricket passed through the photosensor located near the entrance of soil-filled containers, the infrared light was blocked and the exact moment that this occurred was logged onto a computer using custom-written software. Data examined included the first photosensor trigger, total number of sensor triggers, presence of tunneling, and final location of the cricket after 18 h. These behaviors were analyzed to discern differences in mole cricket behavior in the presence of different treatments and to elucidate the mechanism that mole crickets use to detect fungal pathogens. The first study examined substrate selection and tunneling behavior of the southern mole cricket, Scapteriscus borellii Giglio-Tos, to the presence of five strains of B. bassiana relative to a control. There were no differences between the first sensor trigger and total number of triggers, indicating the mole crickets are not capable of detecting B. bassiana at a distance of 8 cm. Changes in mole cricket tunneling and residence time in treated soil occurred for some strains of B. bassiana but not others. One of the strains associated with behavioral changes in the southern mole cricket was used in a second experiment testing behavioral responses of the tawny mole cricket, S. vicinus Scudder. In addition to the formulated product of this strain, the two separate components of that product (conidia and carrier) and bifenthrin, an insecticide commonly used to control mole crickets, were tested. There were no differences in mole cricket behavior between treatments in this study. The differences in behavioral responses between

  19. Measuring airborne components of seismic body vibrations in a Middle-Asian sand-dwelling Insectivora species, the piebald shrew (Diplomesodon pulchellum).

    PubMed

    Volodin, Ilya A; Zaytseva, Alexandra S; Ilchenko, Olga G; Volodina, Elena V; Chebotareva, Anastasia L

    2012-08-15

    Self-produced seismic vibrations have been found for some subterranean rodents but have not been reported for any Insectivora species, although seismic sensitivity has been confirmed for blind sand-dwelling chrysochlorid golden moles. Studying the vocal behaviour of captive piebald shrews, Diplomesodon pulchellum, we documented vibrations, apparently generated by the whole-body wall muscles, from 11 (5 male, 6 female) of 19 animals, placed singly on a drum membrane. The airborne waves of the vibratory drumming were digitally recorded and then analysed spectrographically. The mean frequency of vibration was 160.5 Hz. This frequency matched the periodicity of the deep sinusoidal frequency modulation (159.4 Hz) found in loud screech calls of the same subjects. The body vibration was not related to thermoregulation, hunger-related depletion of energy resources or fear, as it was produced by well-fed, calm animals, at warm ambient temperatures. We hypothesize that in the solitary, nocturnal, digging desert piebald shrew, body vibrations may be used for seismic exploration of substrate density, to avoid energy-costly digging of packed sand for burrowing and foraging. At the same time, the piercing quality of screech calls due to the deep sinusoidal frequency modulation, matching the periodicity of body vibration, may be important for agonistic communication in this species.

  20. Reactivation of HSV-1 following explant of tree shrew brain.

    PubMed

    Li, Lihong; Li, Zhuoran; Li, Xin; Wang, Erlin; Lang, Fengchao; Xia, Yujie; Fraser, Nigel W; Gao, Feng; Zhou, Jumin

    2016-06-01

    Herpes Simplex Virus type I (HSV-1) latently infects peripheral nervous system (PNS) sensory neurons, and its reactivation leads to recurring cold sores. The reactivated HSV-1 can travel retrograde from the PNS into the central nervous system (CNS) and is known to be causative of Herpes Simplex viral encephalitis. HSV-1 infection in the PNS is well documented, but little is known on the fate of HSV-1 once it enters the CNS. In the murine model, HSV-1 genome persists in the CNS once infected through an ocular route. To gain more details of HSV-1 infection in the CNS, we characterized HSV-1 infection of the tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri chinensis) brain following ocular inoculation. Here, we report that HSV-1 enters the tree shrew brain following ocular inoculation and HSV-1 transcripts, ICP0, ICP4, and LAT can be detected at 5 days post-infection (p.i.), peaking at 10 days p.i. After 2 weeks, ICP4 and ICP0 transcripts are reduced to a basal level, but the LAT intron region continues to be expressed. Live virus could be recovered from the olfactory bulb and brain stem tissue. Viral proteins could be detected using anti-HSV-1 antibodies and anti-ICP4 antibody, during the acute stage but not beyond. In situ hybridization could detect LAT during acute infection in most brain regions and in olfactory bulb and brain stem tissue well beyond the acute stage. Using a homogenate from these tissues' post-acute infection, we did not recover live HSV-1 virus, supporting a latent infection, but using a modified explant cocultivation technique, we were able to recover reactivated virus from these tissues, suggesting that the HSV-1 virus latently infects the tree shrew CNS. Compared to mouse, the CNS acute infection of the tree shrew is delayed and the olfactory bulb contains most latent virus. During the acute stage, a portion of the infected tree shrews exhibit symptoms similar to human viral encephalitis. These findings, together with the fact that tree shrews are closely

  1. For Mole Problems, Call Avogadro: 602-1023.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uthe, R. E.

    2002-01-01

    Describes techniques to help introductory students become familiar with Avogadro's number and mole calculations. Techniques involve estimating numbers of common objects then calculating the length of time needed to count large numbers of them. For example, the immense amount of time required to count a mole of sand grains at one grain per second…

  2. Neurochemical Characterization of the Tree Shrew Dorsal Striatum

    PubMed Central

    Rice, Matthew W.; Roberts, Rosalinda C.; Melendez-Ferro, Miguel; Perez-Costas, Emma

    2011-01-01

    The striatum is a major component of the basal ganglia and is associated with motor and cognitive functions. Striatal pathologies have been linked to several disorders, including Huntington’s, Tourette’s syndrome, obsessive–compulsive disorders, and schizophrenia. For the study of these striatal pathologies different animal models have been used, including rodents and non-human primates. Rodents lack on morphological complexity (for example, the lack of well defined caudate and putamen nuclei), which makes it difficult to translate data to the human paradigm. Primates, and especially higher primates, are the closest model to humans, but there are ever-increasing restrictions to the use of these animals for research. In our search for a non-primate animal model with a striatum that anatomically (and perhaps functionally) can resemble that of humans, we turned our attention to the tree shrew. Evolutionary genetic studies have provided strong data supporting that the tree shrews (Scadentia) are one of the closest groups to primates, although their brain anatomy has only been studied in detail for specific brain areas. Morphologically, the tree shrew striatum resembles the primate striatum with the presence of an internal capsule separating the caudate and putamen, but little is known about its neurochemical composition. Here we analyzed the expression of calcium-binding proteins, the presence and distribution of the striosome and matrix compartments (by the use of calbindin, tyrosine hydroxylase, and acetylcholinesterase immunohistochemistry), and the GABAergic system by immunohistochemistry against glutamic acid decarboxylase and Golgi impregnation. In summary, our results show that when compared to primates, the tree shrew dorsal striatum presents striking similarities in the distribution of most of the markers studied, while presenting some marked divergences when compared to the rodent striatum. PMID:21887131

  3. Neurochemical characterization of the tree shrew dorsal striatum.

    PubMed

    Rice, Matthew W; Roberts, Rosalinda C; Melendez-Ferro, Miguel; Perez-Costas, Emma

    2011-01-01

    The striatum is a major component of the basal ganglia and is associated with motor and cognitive functions. Striatal pathologies have been linked to several disorders, including Huntington's, Tourette's syndrome, obsessive-compulsive disorders, and schizophrenia. For the study of these striatal pathologies different animal models have been used, including rodents and non-human primates. Rodents lack on morphological complexity (for example, the lack of well defined caudate and putamen nuclei), which makes it difficult to translate data to the human paradigm. Primates, and especially higher primates, are the closest model to humans, but there are ever-increasing restrictions to the use of these animals for research. In our search for a non-primate animal model with a striatum that anatomically (and perhaps functionally) can resemble that of humans, we turned our attention to the tree shrew. Evolutionary genetic studies have provided strong data supporting that the tree shrews (Scadentia) are one of the closest groups to primates, although their brain anatomy has only been studied in detail for specific brain areas. Morphologically, the tree shrew striatum resembles the primate striatum with the presence of an internal capsule separating the caudate and putamen, but little is known about its neurochemical composition. Here we analyzed the expression of calcium-binding proteins, the presence and distribution of the striosome and matrix compartments (by the use of calbindin, tyrosine hydroxylase, and acetylcholinesterase immunohistochemistry), and the GABAergic system by immunohistochemistry against glutamic acid decarboxylase and Golgi impregnation. In summary, our results show that when compared to primates, the tree shrew dorsal striatum presents striking similarities in the distribution of most of the markers studied, while presenting some marked divergences when compared to the rodent striatum.

  4. Affect intensity in voice recognized by tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri).

    PubMed

    Schehka, Simone; Zimmermann, Elke

    2012-06-01

    Shared acoustic cues in speech, music, and nonverbal emotional expressions were postulated to code for emotion quality and intensity favoring the hypothesis of a prehuman origin of affective prosody in human emotional communication. To explore this hypothesis, we examined in playback experiments using a habituation-dishabituation paradigm whether a solitary foraging, highly vocal mammal, the tree shrew, is able to discriminate two behaviorally defined states of affect intensity (low vs. high) from the voice of conspecifics. Playback experiments with communication calls of two different types (chatter call and scream call) given in the state of low affect intensity revealed that habituated tree shrews dishabituated to one call type (the chatter call) and showed a tendency to do so for the other one (the scream call), both given in the state of high affect intensity. Findings suggest that listeners perceive the acoustic variation linked to defined states of affect intensity as different within the same call type. Our findings in tree shrews provide first evidence that acoustically conveyed affect intensity is biologically relevant without any other sensory cue, even for solitary foragers. Thus, the perception of affect intensity in voice conveyed in stressful contexts represents a shared trait of mammals, independent of the complexity of social systems. Findings support the hypothesis that affective prosody in human emotional communication has deep-reaching phylogenetic roots, deriving from precursors already present and relevant in the vocal communication system of early mammals.

  5. [A depression model of social defeat etiology using tree shrews].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Zhou, Qi-Xin; Lv, Long-Bao; Xu, Lin; Yang, Yue-Xiong

    2012-02-01

    Depression is a common neuropsychiatric disorder, marked by depressed mood for at least two weeks. The World Health Organization predicts that depression will be the number one leading cause of disease and injury burden by 2030. Clinical treatment faces at least three serious obstacles. First, the disease mechanism is not fully understood and thus there are no effective ways to predict and prevent depression and no biological method of diagnosis. Second, available antidepressants are based on monoamine mechanisms that commonly have a long delay of action and possibly cause a higher risk of suicide. Third, no other antidepressant mechanisms are available, with fast action and few side effects. Unfortunately, several decades of research based on rodent models of depression have not been successful in resolving these problems, at least partially due to the huge differences in brain function between rodents and people. Tree shrews are the closest sister to primates, and brain functions in these species are closer to those of humans. In this review, we discuss a tree shrew model of depression with social defeat etiology and aspects of construct, face and predicted validity of an animal model. Although a tree shrew model of depression has long been ignored and not fully established, its similarities to those aspects of depression in humans may open a new avenue to address this human condition.

  6. First evidence of poisonous shrews with an envenomation apparatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuenca-Bescós, Gloria; Rofes, Juan

    2007-02-01

    Herein, we report evidence of an envenomation apparatus (EA) in two different species of extinct “giant” shrews, Beremendia and an indeterminate soricine (Mammalia, Eulipotyphla, Soricidae), documented by very well preserved fossil specimens recovered from two Early Pleistocene cave deposits of the Sierra de Atapuerca in Burgos, Spain. The two soricine taxa from Atapuerca have evolved specialized teeth as EAs, which differ from those of recently reported mammals of the Paleocene age, being more similar to the ones described in the modern Solenodon. This discovery reveals the first instance of shrews possessing what appears to be an EA, an evolutionary adaptation that, in these species, was probably related to an increase in body mass and hunting of a larger-sized prey. The Atapuerca specimens would have a highly specialized EA, one of the very few reported for an extinct or living mammal of any time. In addition to the presence of a gutter-like groove along the medial side of the crown of the lower incisors, these two species also present stout jaws and a modified mandibular symphysis with a conspicuous cavity, which in life would likely contain large amounts of connective tissue. The strong mandible architecture of these large shrews would be, in this way, reinforced by a more immovable symphysis, increasing the bite force exerted over a potential prey. This adaptation, together with the grooved incisors, would ensure a rapid and efficient transmission of the poisonous saliva to paralyze relatively large-sized prey.

  7. Leptospira spp. in rodents and shrews in Germany.

    PubMed

    Mayer-Scholl, Anne; Hammerl, Jens Andre; Schmidt, Sabrina; Ulrich, Rainer G; Pfeffer, Martin; Woll, Dietlinde; Scholz, Holger C; Thomas, Astrid; Nöckler, Karsten

    2014-07-24

    Leptospirosis is an acute, febrile disease occurring in humans and animals worldwide. Leptospira spp. are usually transmitted through direct or indirect contact with the urine of infected reservoir animals. Among wildlife species, rodents act as the most important reservoir for both human and animal infection. To gain a better understanding of the occurrence and distribution of pathogenic leptospires in rodent and shrew populations in Germany, kidney specimens of 2973 animals from 11 of the 16 federal states were examined by PCR. Rodent species captured included five murine species (family Muridae), six vole species (family Cricetidae) and six shrew species (family Soricidae). The most abundantly trapped animals were representatives of the rodent species Apodemus flavicollis, Clethrionomys glareolus and Microtus agrestis. Leptospiral DNA was amplified in 10% of all animals originating from eight of the 11 federal states. The highest carrier rate was found in Microtus spp. (13%), followed by Apodemus spp. (11%) and Clethrionomys spp. (6%). The most common Leptospira genomospecies determined by duplex PCR was L. kirschneri, followed by L. interrogans and L. borgpetersenii; all identified by single locus sequence typing (SLST). Representatives of the shrew species were also carriers of Leptospira spp. In 20% of Crocidura spp. and 6% of the Sorex spp. leptospiral DNA was detected. Here, only the pathogenic genomospecies L. kirschneri was identified.

  8. Bone-marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation to treat diabetic nephropathy in tree shrews.

    PubMed

    Pan, Xing-Hua; Yang, Xiao-Yan; Yao, Xiang; Sun, Xiao-Mei; Zhu, Lu; Wang, Jin-Xiang; Pang, Rong-Qing; Cai, Xue-Min; Dai, Jie-Jie; Ruan, Guang-Ping

    2014-07-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a common microvascular complication of diabetes. We used a new DN model in tree shrews to validate the use of bone-marrow mesenchymal stem cell (BM-MSC) transplantation to treat DN. The DN tree shrew model was established by a high-sugar and high-fat diet and four injections of streptozotocin. 4',6-Diamidino-2-phenylindole labelled BM-MSCs were injected into tree shrews. The DN tree shrew model was successfully established. Blood glucose was significantly increased ( p < 0.01) during the entire experiment. DN tree shrews showed dyslipidemia, insulin resistance and increased 24-h proteinuria. At 21 days after BM-MSC transplantation, glucose and levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol and 24-h urine volume were lower than in tree shrews with DN alone ( p < 0.01) but were still higher than control values ( p < 0.01). Levels of creatinine and urea nitrogen as well as 24-h proteinuria were lower for DN tree shrews with BM-MSCs transplantation than DN alone ( p < 0.05). High-sugar and high-fat diet combined with STZ injection can induce a tree shrew model of DN. BM-MSCs injection can home to damaged kidneys and pancreas, for reduced 24-h proteinuria and improved insulin resistance.

  9. Identification of Glyceraldehyde 3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Sequence and Expression Profiles in Tree Shrew (Tupaia belangeri)

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Yu; Wang, Yingjun; Smith, Wanli W.; Leng, Jing

    2014-01-01

    The tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri) diverged from the primate order (Primates) and are classified as Scandentia, a separate taxonomic group of mammals. The tree shrew has been suggested to use an animal model to study human disease but the genomic sequences of tree shrew is largely unidentified. Here we identified the full-length cDNA sequence of a housekeeping gene, Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate Dehydrogenase (GAPDH), in tree shrew. We further constructed a phylogenetic family tree base on GAPDH molecules of various organisms and compared GAPDH sequences with human and other small experimental animals. These study revealed that tree shrew was closer to human than mouse, rat, rabbit and guinea pig. The Quantitative Reverse Transcription PCR and western blot analysis further demonstrated that GAPDH expressed in various tissues in tree shrew as a general conservative housekeeping proteins as in human. Our findings provide the novel genetic knowledge of the tree shrew and strong evidences that tree shrew can be an experimental model system to study human disorders. PMID:24887411

  10. Geochemical mole-balance modeling with uncertain data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parkhurst, D.L.

    1997-01-01

    Geochemical mole-balance models are sets of chemical reactions that quantitatively account for changes in the chemical and isotopic composition of water along a flow path. A revised mole-balance formulation that includes an uncertainty term for each chemical and isotopic datum is derived. The revised formulation is comprised of mole-balance equations for each element or element redox state, alkalinity, electrons, solvent water, and each isotope; a charge-balance equation and an equation that relates the uncertainty terms for pH, alkalinity, and total dissolved inorganic carbon for each aqueous solution: inequality constraints on the size of the uncertainty terms: and inequality constraints on the sign of the mole transfer of reactants. The equations and inequality constraints are solved by a modification of the simplex algorithm combined with an exhaustive search for unique combinations of aqueous solutions and reactants for which the equations and inequality constraints can be solved and the uncertainty terms minimized. Additional algorithms find only the simplest mole-balance models and determine the ranges of mixing fractions for each solution and mole transfers for each reactant that are consistent with specified limits on the uncertainty terms. The revised formulation produces simpler and more robust mole-balance models and allows the significance of mixing fractions and mole transfers to be evaluated. In an example from the central Oklahoma aquifer, inclusion of up to 5% uncertainty in the chemical data can reduce the number of reactants in mole-balance models from seven or more to as few as three, these being cation exchange, dolomite dissolution, and silica precipitation. In another example from the Madison aquifer; inclusion of the charge-balance constraint requires significant increases in the mole transfers of calcite, dolomite, and organic matter, which reduce the estimated maximum carbon 14 age of the sample by about 10,000 years, from 22,700 years to

  11. A synopsis of records of myxozoan parasites (Cnidaria: Myxozoa) from shrews, with additional data on Soricimyxum fegati from common shrew Sorex araneus in Hungary and pygmy shrew Sorex minutus in Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Szekely, Csaba; Atkinson, Stephen D; Molnar, Kalman; Egyed, Laszlo; Gubanyi, Andras; Cech, Gabor

    2016-06-13

    Myxozoans (Cnidaria: Myxozoa) are almost exclusively endoparasites of aquatic vertebrates and invertebrates, with the notable exception being two species of Soricimyxum Prunescu, Prunescu, Pucek et Lom, 2007 described from terrestrial shrews (Soricidae) in central Europe. Myxospores of the two parasites are morphologically indistinguishable, but have SSU rDNA sequences that differ by about 4%. Herein, we report additional molecular and histology data from Soricimyxum fegati Prunescu, Prunescu, Pucek et Lom, 2007 from common shrew (Sorex araneus Linnaeus) from Hungary, and add a new geographic record for S. fegati in pygmy shrew (Sorex minutus Linnaeus) from Slovakia. A limited survey of shrews from the northern United States, Blarina brevicauda Say and Sorex sp. from New York, and Sorex spp. from Oregon, did not discover any infections, which is in stark contrast to the relatively high infection rates (up to 66%) in European shrew populations. We also provide a summary and discussion of literature records of species of Soricimyxum and a host survey. Given the lack of distinguishing morphological or morphometric characters between Soricimyxum spp., and the overlap in vertebrate hosts and geographic ranges, unambiguous identification of these closely related shrew parasites can presently only be achieved through sequence comparison of one or more variable SSU rDNA regions.

  12. [Measurement and analysis of anatomical parameter values in tree shrews].

    PubMed

    Li, Bo; Zhang, Rong-Ping; Li, Jin-Tao; He, Bao-Li; Zhen, Hong; Wang, Li-Mei; Jiao, Jian-Lin

    2013-04-01

    Anatomical parameter values in tree shrews are major biological characteristic indicators in laboratory animals. Body size, bones and mammilla, organ weights, coefficient intestinal canal and other anatomical data were measured and analyzed in laboratory domesticated tree shrews (7 to 9 months of age). Measurement of 31 anatomical parameters showed that body height, width of the right ear, ileum and colon had significant differences between males and females (P<0.05). Highly significant differences were also found in body slanting length, chest depth, torso length, left and right forelimb length, right hind limb length, left and right ear length, left ear width, keel bone length, left and right tibia length, duodenum and jejunum (P<0.01). With body length as the dependent variable, and tail length, torso length, right and left forelimb length, and left and right hind limb length as independent variables for stepwise regression analysis, the regression equation for body length = 13.90 + tail length × 0.16. The results of 37 organs weights between female and male tree shrews showed very significant differences (P<0.01) for weight of heart, lungs, spleen, left and right kidney, bladder, left and right hippocampus, left submandibular gland, and left and right thyroid gland, as well as significant (P<0.05) differences in the small intestine, right submandibular gland, and left adrenal gland. The coefficient of heart, lung, stomach, bladder, small and large intestine, brain, right hippocampus, and left adrenal gland showed highly significant differences (P<0.01), while differences in the right kidney, left hippocampus, left submandibular gland, right adrenal gland, and left and right thyroid gland were significant (P<0.05). With animal weight as the dependent variable and indicators of heart, lung, liver, spleen, left and right kidney and brain as independent variables for stepwise regression analysis, the regression equation showed that weight = 62.73 + left kidney

  13. Immunohistochemical localization of inhibin and steroidogenic enzymes in the ovary of common tree shrew (Tupaia glis) and northern smooth-tailed tree shrew (Dendrogale murina).

    PubMed

    Kimura, J; Tsukise, A; Watanabe, G; Taya, K; Rerkamnuaychoke, W; Endo, H; Kurohmaru, M; Yamada, J; Nishida, T

    2000-10-01

    To study the ovarian function of the Order Scandentia, the localization of inhibin and steroidogenic enzymes (3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/isomerase and aromatase) in the ovaries of common tree shrew (Tupaia glis) and northern smooth-tailed tree shrew (Dendrogale murina) was immunohistochemically analysed. As in the results reported for other mammals, inhibin alpha-chain was localized in the follicular epithelium of secondary or Graafian follicles in the two species. The localization of aromatase in the ovary of these two species, however, was different. In the common tree shrew, the aromatase was localized in the thecal cells, whilst in other mammals it is localized in the granulosa cells. These results indicate that in the ovary of the common tree shrew, the oestradiol may be synthesized in the thecal cells.

  14. Human and Tree Shrew Alpha-synuclein: Comparative cDNA Sequence and Protein Structure Analysis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zheng-Cun; Huang, Zhang-Qiong; Jiang, Qin-Fang; Dai, Jie-Jie; Zhang, Ying; Gao, Jia-Hong; Sun, Xiao-Mei; Chen, Nai-Hong; Yuan, Yu-He; Li, Cong; Han, Yuan-Yuan; Li, Yun; Ma, Kai-Li

    2015-10-01

    The synaptic protein alpha-synuclein (α-syn) is associated with a number of neurodegenerative diseases, and homology analyses among many species have been reported. Nevertheless, little is known about the cDNA sequence and protein structure of α-syn in tree shrews, and this information might contribute to our understanding of its role in both health and disease. We designed primers to the human α-syn cDNA sequence; then, tree shrew α-syn cDNA was obtained by RT-PCR and sequenced. Based on the acquired tree shrew α-syn cDNA sequence, both the amino acid sequence and the spatial structure of α-syn were predicted and analyzed. The homology analysis results showed that the tree shrew cDNA sequence matches the human cDNA sequence exactly except at nucleotide positions 45, 60, 65, 69, 93, 114, 147, 150, 157, 204, 252, 270, 284, 298, 308, and 324. Further protein sequence analysis revealed that the tree shrew α-syn protein sequence is 97.1 % identical to that of human α-syn. The secondary protein structure of tree shrew α-syn based on random coils and α-helices is the same as that of the human structure. The phosphorylation sites are highly conserved, except the site at position 103 of tree shrew α-syn. The predicted spatial structure of tree shrew α-syn is identical to that of human α-syn. Thus, α-syn might have a similar function in tree shrew and in human, and tree shrew might be a potential animal model for studying the pathogenesis of α-synucleinopathies.

  15. CXC Chemokine CXCL12 and Its Receptor CXCR4 in Tree Shrews (Tupaia belangeri): Structure, Expression and Function

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Shengke; Zhang, Lichao; Wang, Wenxue; Jiang, Zongmin; Yu, Min; Cui, Qinghua; Li, Meizhang

    2014-01-01

    Chemokines are small secreted proteins functionally involved in the immune system's regulation of lymphocyte migration across numerous mammalian species. Given its growing popularity in immunological models, we investigated the structure and function of chemokine CXCL12 protein in tree shrews. We found that CXCL12 and its receptor CXCR4 in tree shrew had structural similarities to their homologous human proteins. Phylogenetic analysis supports the view that tree shrew is evolutionarily-close to the primates. Our results also showed that the human recombinant CXCL12 protein directly enhanced the migration of tree shrew's lymphocytes in vitro, while AMD3100 enhanced the mobilization of hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) from bone marrow into peripheral blood in tree shrew in vivo. Collectively, these findings suggested that chemokines in tree shrews may play the same or similar roles as those in humans, and that the tree shrew is a viable animal model for studying human immunological diseases. PMID:24858548

  16. CXC chemokine CXCL12 and its receptor CXCR4 in tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri): structure, expression and function.

    PubMed

    Chen, Guiyuan; Wang, Wei; Meng, Shengke; Zhang, Lichao; Wang, Wenxue; Jiang, Zongmin; Yu, Min; Cui, Qinghua; Li, Meizhang

    2014-01-01

    Chemokines are small secreted proteins functionally involved in the immune system's regulation of lymphocyte migration across numerous mammalian species. Given its growing popularity in immunological models, we investigated the structure and function of chemokine CXCL12 protein in tree shrews. We found that CXCL12 and its receptor CXCR4 in tree shrew had structural similarities to their homologous human proteins. Phylogenetic analysis supports the view that tree shrew is evolutionarily-close to the primates. Our results also showed that the human recombinant CXCL12 protein directly enhanced the migration of tree shrew's lymphocytes in vitro, while AMD3100 enhanced the mobilization of hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) from bone marrow into peripheral blood in tree shrew in vivo. Collectively, these findings suggested that chemokines in tree shrews may play the same or similar roles as those in humans, and that the tree shrew is a viable animal model for studying human immunological diseases.

  17. Deaths caused by mole guns: three case reports.

    PubMed

    Demirci, Serafettin; Gunaydin, Gursel; Dogan, Kamil Hakan; Erkol, Zerrin

    2008-07-01

    Possession of firearms is limited because of the technological requirements in production and strict laws. However, anyone can manufacture a handmade firearm by following simple instructions and has no legal liability. A mole gun is an unusual weapon used to kill moles in agricultural areas. It propels pellets in a similar way as a shotgun. This study presents three cases of death caused by mole guns. Two of the cases were accidental, and the other case was suicidal. The first case involved a 51-year-old man who was checking the mole gun when it fired, injuring his left eye and the left region of his face. He died in the hospital after 3 days of medical treatment. The second case was a 78-year-old man, who had been intermittently treated for depression over the last 15 years. He died instantly after placing the mole gun vertically against his head and firing it. The third case was a 43-year-old man who had been trying to set up a mole gun device in his potato field when the weapon accidentally discharged. The victim was injured seriously and died in the hospital a short time later. In conclusion, because the mole gun may cause lethal wounds in humans when fired from a short distance, the researchers believe that its production and use should be in accordance with firearms laws.

  18. Results of the mole penetration tests in different materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wawrzaszek, Roman; Seweryn, Karol; Grygorczuk, Jerzy; Banaszkiewicz, Marek; Rybus, Tomasz; Wisniewski, Lukasz; Neal, Clive R.; Huang, Shaopeng

    2010-05-01

    Mole devices are low velocity, medium to high energy, self-driven penetrators, designed as a carrier of different sensors for in situ investigations of subsurface layers of planetary bodies. The maximum insertion depth of such devices is limited by energy of single mole's stroke and soil resistance for the dynamic penetration. A mole penetrator ‘KRET' has been designed, developed, and successfully tested at Space Research Centre PAS in Poland. The principle of operation of the mole bases on the interaction between three masses: the cylindrical casing, the hammer, and the rest of the mass, acting as a support mass. This approach takes advantage of the MUPUS penetrator (a payload of Philae lander on Rosetta mission) insertion tests knowledge. Main parameters of the mole KRET are listed below: - outer diameter: 20.4mm, - length: 330mm, - total mass: 488g, - energy of the driving spring: 2.2J, - average power consumption: 0.28W, - average insertion progress/stroke: 8.5mm, The present works of Space Research Center PAS team are focused on three different activities. First one includes investigations of the mole penetration effectiveness in the lunar analogues (supported by ESA PECS project). Second activity, supported by Polish national fund, is connected with numerical calculation of the heat flow investigations and designing and developing the Heat Flow Probe Hardware Component (HPHC) for L-GIP NASA project. It's worth noting that L-GIP project refers to ILN activity. Last activity focuses on preparing the second version of the mole ready to work in low thermal and pressure conditions. Progress of a mole penetrator in granular medium depends on the mechanical properties of this medium. The mole penetrator ‘KRET' was tested in different materials: dry quartz sand (0.3 - 0.8 grain size), wet quartz sand, wheat flour and lunar regolith mechanical simulant - Chemically Enhanced OB-1 (CHENOBI). Wheat flour was selected due to its high cohesion rate and small grain size

  19. Can they dig it? Functional morphology and semifossoriality among small-eared shrews, genus Cryptotis (Mammalia, Soricidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodman, Neal; Gaffney, Sarah A.

    2014-01-01

    Small-eared shrews (Mammalia: Soricidae: Cryptotis), exhibit modifications of the forelimb skeleton that have been interpreted as adaptations for semifossoriality. Most species inhabit remote regions, however, and their locomotory and foraging behaviors remain mostly speculative. To better understand the morphological modifications in the absence of direct observations, we quantified variation in these species by measuring 151 individuals representing 18 species and populations of Cryptotis and two species of moles (Talpidae) for comparison. From our measurements, we calculated 22 indices, most of which have been used previously to characterize substrate use among rodents and other taxa. We analyzed the indices using 1) average percentile ranks, 2) principal components analysis, and 3) cluster analysis. From these analyses, we determined that three basic modes of substrate adaptation are present within Cryptotis: 1) a primarily terrestrial mode, with species that are capable of burrowing, but lack adaptations to increase digging efficiency, 2) a semifossorial mode, with species whose forelimbs bones show strong muscle attachment areas and increased mechanical advantage, and 3) an intermediate mode. In addition to identifying new morphological characters and contributing to our understanding of the functional morphology of soricids, these analyses provide additional insight into the ecology of the species of interest.

  20. Can they dig it? Functional morphology and semifossoriality among small-eared shrews, genus Cryptotis (Mammalia, Soricidae).

    PubMed

    Woodman, Neal; Gaffney, Sarah A

    2014-07-01

    Small-eared shrews (Mammalia: Soricidae: Cryptotis), exhibit modifications of the forelimb skeleton that have been interpreted as adaptations for semifossoriality. Most species inhabit remote regions, however, and their locomotory and foraging behaviors remain mostly speculative. To better understand the morphological modifications in the absence of direct observations, we quantified variation in these species by measuring 151 individuals representing 18 species and populations of Cryptotis and two species of moles (Talpidae) for comparison. From our measurements, we calculated 22 indices, most of which have been used previously to characterize substrate use among rodents and other taxa. We analyzed the indices using 1) average percentile ranks, 2) principal components analysis, and 3) cluster analysis. From these analyses, we determined that three basic modes of substrate adaptation are present within Cryptotis: 1) a primarily terrestrial mode, with species that are capable of burrowing, but lack adaptations to increase digging efficiency, 2) a semifossorial mode, with species whose forelimbs bones show strong muscle attachment areas and increased mechanical advantage, and 3) an intermediate mode. In addition to identifying new morphological characters and contributing to our understanding of the functional morphology of soricids, these analyses provide additional insight into the ecology of the species of interest.

  1. Ticks of four-toed elephant shrews and Southern African hedgehogs.

    PubMed

    Horak, Ivan G; Welman, Shaun; Hallam, Stacey L; Lutermann, Heike; Mzilikazi, Nomakwezi

    2011-03-17

    Several studies on ticks infesting small mammals, including elephant shrews, have been conducted in South Africa; however, these studies have included only a single four-toed elephant shrew and no hedgehogs. This study thus aimed to identify and quantify the ixodid ticks infesting four-toed elephant shrews and Southern African hedgehogs. Four-toed elephant shrews (Petrodromus tetradactylus) were trapped in dense shrub undergrowth in a nature reserve in north-eastern KwaZulu-Natal. They were separately housed, first in cages and later in glass terraria fitted with wire-mesh bases to allow detached ticks to fall through for collection. Southern African hedgehogs (Atelerix frontalis) were hand caught on a farm in the eastern region of the Northern Cape Province and all visible ticks were collected by means of tweezers while the animals were anaesthetised. The ticks from each animal were preserved separately in 70% ethanol for later identification and counting. The immature stages of five ixodid tick species were collected from the elephant shrews, of which Rhipicephalus muehlensi was the most common. It has not been recorded previously on any species of elephant shrew. Three ixodid tick species were collected from the hedgehogs. Large numbers of adult Haemaphysalis colesbergensis, which has not been encountered previously on hedgehogs, were collected from these animals. Four-toed elephant shrews are good hosts of the larvae and nymphs of R. muehlensi, and Southern African hedgehogs are good hosts of adult H. colesbergensis.

  2. The common shrew (Sorex araneus): a neglected host of tick-borne infections?

    PubMed

    Bown, Kevin J; Lambin, Xavier; Telford, Gill; Heyder-Bruckner, Diane; Ogden, Nicholas H; Birtles, Richard J

    2011-07-01

    Although the importance of rodents as reservoirs for a number of tick-borne infections is well established, comparatively little is known about the potential role of shrews, despite them occupying similar habitats. To address this, blood and tick samples were collected from common shrews (Sorex araneus) and field voles (Microtus agrestis), a known reservoir of various tick-borne infections, from sites located within a plantation forest in northern England over a 2-year period. Of 647 blood samples collected from shrews, 121 (18.7%) showed evidence of infection with Anaplasma phagocytophilum and 196 (30.3%) with Babesia microti. By comparison, of 1505 blood samples from field voles, 96 (6.4%) were positive for A. phagocytophilum and 458 (30.4%) for Ba. microti. Both species were infested with the ticks Ixodes ricinus and Ixodes trianguliceps, although they had different burdens: on average, shrews carried almost six times as many I. trianguliceps larvae, more than twice as many I. ricinus larvae, and over twice as many nymphs (both tick species combined). The finding that the nymphs collected from shrews were almost exclusively I. trianguliceps highlights that this species is the key vector of these infections in this small mammal community. These findings suggest that common shrews are a reservoir of tick-borne infections and that the role of shrews in the ecology and epidemiology of tick-borne infections elsewhere needs to be comprehensively investigated.

  3. Anatomy of mole external genitalia: Setting the record straight.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Adriane Watkins; Glickman, Stephen E; Baskin, Laurence; Cunha, Gerald R

    2016-03-01

    Anatomy of male and female external genitalia of adult mice (Mus musculus) and broad-footed moles (Scapanus latimanus) was re-examined to provide more meaningful anatomical terminology. In the past the perineal appendage of male broad-footed moles has been called the penis, while the female perineal appendage has been given several terms (e.g. clitoris, penile clitoris, peniform clitoris and others). Histological examination demonstrates that perineal appendages of male and female broad-footed moles are the prepuce, which in both sexes are covered externally with a hair-bearing epidermis and lacks erectile bodies. The inner preputial epithelium is non-hair-bearing and defines the preputial space in both sexes. The penis of broad-footed moles lies deep within the preputial space, is an "internal organ" in the resting state and contains the penile urethra, os penis, and erectile bodies. The clitoris of broad-footed moles is defined by a U-shaped clitoral epithelial lamina. Residing within clitoral stroma encompassed by the clitoral epithelial lamina is the corpus cavernosum, blood-filled spaces and the urethra. External genitalia of male and female mice are anatomically similar to that of broad-footed moles with the exception that in female mice the clitoris contains a small os clitoridis and lacks defined erectile bodies, while male mice have an os penis and a prominent distal cartilaginous structure within the male urogenital mating protuberance (MUMP). Clitori of female broad-footed moles lack an os clitoridis but contain defined erectile bodies, while male moles have an os penis similar to the mouse but lack the distal cartilaginous structure.

  4. Amount of substance and the proposed redefinition of the mole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milton, M. J. T.; Mills, I. M.

    2009-06-01

    There has been considerable discussion about the merits of redefining four of the base units of the SI, including the mole. In this paper, the options for implementing a new definition for the mole based on a fixed value for the Avogadro constant are discussed. They are placed in the context of the macroscopic nature of the quantity amount of substance and the opportunity to introduce a system for molar and atomic masses with unchanged values and consistent relative uncertainties.

  5. Motor Function in MPTP-Treated Tree Shrews (Tupaia belangeri chinensis).

    PubMed

    Ma, Kai-Li; Gao, Jia-Hong; Huang, Zhang-Qiong; Zhang, Ying; Kuang, De-Xuan; Jiang, Qin-Fang; Han, Yuan-Yuan; Li, Cong; Wang, Wen-Guang; Huang, Xiao-Yan; Xu, Juan; Tong, Pin-Fen; Yin, Xing-Xiao; Dai, Jie-Jie

    2013-06-25

    The tree shrew, a new experimental animal model, has been used to study a variety of diseases, especially diseases of the nervous system. 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) is the gold standard for toxin-based animal models of Parkinson's disease (PD) because MPTP treatment replicates almost all of the pathological hallmarks of PD. Therefore, in this study, the effects of MPTP on the motor function of the tree shrew were examined. After five daily injections of a 3 mg/kg dose of MPTP, the motor function of MPTP-injected tree shrews decreased significantly, and the classic Parkinsonian symptoms of action and resting tremor, bradykinesia, posture abnormalities, and gait instability were observed in most MPTP-injected tree shrews. HPLC results also showed significantly reduced striatal dopamine and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid levels in tree shrews after MPTP injection. Increased oxidative stress levels are usually considered to be the cause of dopaminergic neuron depletion in the presence of MPTP and were observed in the substantia nigra of MPTP-treated tree shrews, as indicated by a significant reduction in superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activity and increased levels of malondialdehyde. In addition, elevated α-synuclein mRNA levels in the midbrain of MPTP-treated tree shrews were observed. Furthermore, MPTP-treated tree shrews showed the classic Parkinsonian symptoms at a lower MPTP dosage compared with other animal models. Thus, the MPTP-treated tree shrew may be a potential animal model for studying the pathogenesis of PD.

  6. Potassium oxonate induces acute hyperuricemia in the tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri chinensis).

    PubMed

    Tang, Dong-Hong; Ye, You-Song; Wang, Chen-Yun; Li, Zhe-Li; Zheng, Hong; Ma, Kai-Li

    2017-03-16

    Potassium oxonate, a selectively competitive uricase inhibitor, produced hyperuricemia (HUA) in rodents in a previous study. In this study, we employed the tree shrew as an animal model to study potassium oxonate-induced HUA. The effect of allopurinol (ALLO), a uric acid reducer, was also examined in this model. Potassium oxonate at doses of 5, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, and 1000 mg/kg was given intraperitoneally to tree shrews. The results showed that potassium oxonate can effectively increase the levels of uric acid in tree shrews at doses ranging from 40 to 100 mg/kg. Semiquantitative RT-PCR showed that the xanthine dehydrogenase/oxidase (XDH/XO) mRNA expression level was significantly higher in the liver tissue of tree shrews with high levels of uric acid. There were no changes in serum urea nitrogen, or serum creatinine values. ALLO can significantly decrease serum uric acid levels (P<0.01) and raise XDH/XO mRNA expression levels in the liver tissue of tree shrews with HUA. XDH/XO mRNA expression levels did not change in untreated tree shrews. Studies on acute toxicity in the tree shrew did not show any significantly abnormal signs. There were no adverse effects at the macroscopic level up to doses ≤100 mg/kg. Potassium oxonate induced acute HUA in tree shrews at lower doses compared with other animal models. Potassium oxonate-treated tree shrews may be a potential animal model for studying pathogenic mechanism and evaluating a new therapeutic agent for treatment of HUA in humans.

  7. Unusual Presentation of Invasive Mole: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Aminimoghaddam, Soheila; Maghsoudnia, Andisheh

    2017-01-01

    Background: Invasive mole is responsible for most cases of localized gestational trophoblastic neoplasia. Gestational trophoblastic disease describes a number of gynecologic tumors that originate in trophoblastic layer including hydatidiform mole (complete or partial), invasive mole, choriocarcinoma, placental site trophoblastic tumor and epitheloid trophoblastic tumor. Invasive mole may arise from any pregnancy event although in most cases is diagnosed after molar pregnancy. Overall cure rate in low risk patients is nearly 100% and in high-risk patient 90%. In rare cases, molar tissue traverses thickness of myometrium and leads to perforation and acute abdomen and invasive mole infrequently metastasis. The best treatment option is chemotherapy (according to stage and score with single or multiple agent) and in patients that fertility is not the matter, hysterectomy can be done. Case Presentation: A 41 years old G3P2ab1 woman referred to Firouzgar hospital 2 months after curettage of molar pregnancy with vaginal bleeding and acute abdomen. In workup, HCG 224000 mIU/ml and evidence of metastasis was detected. Chemotherapy due to stage 3 and score 9 and surgery due to acute abdomen was done. This case was reported for its rarity. Discussion: This case reported about ovarian metastasis and uterine rupture with acute abdomen and involvement of omentum in metastatic invasive mole. Lack of surveillance led to extensive morbidity. Management of this patient was successful. In follow up, she was free of disease without sequel of any kind for five years now. PMID:28377901

  8. An ultrastructural and lectin-histochemical study on the seminiferous epithelium of the common tree shrew (Tupaia glis).

    PubMed

    Kurohmaru, M; Maeda, S; Suda, A; Hondo, E; Ogawa, K; Endo, H; Kimura, J; Yamada, J; Rerkamnuaychoke, W; Chungsamarnyart, N; Hayashi, Y; Nishida, T

    1996-08-01

    The seminiferous epithelium of the common tree shrew (Tupaia glis) was investigated using transmission electron microscopy and lectin-histochemistry. It was compared with that of shrews examined in previous studies. Some peculiar structures were detected in the tree shrew spermatid at the electron microscopic level. The most characteristic feature was the disposition of mitochondria in early spermatids. In cap and early acrosome-phase spermatids, mitochondria accumulated in one area of the spermatid cytoplasm and then dispersed in the late acrosome phase. Subsequently they again clustered to form the middle piece of spermatozoa. While the lamellar structure was clearly seen in the caudal region of the spermatid nucleus, it gradually disappeared during the process of elongation. The dilated area in the postacrosomal space of early round spermatids was also characteristic. The dilation was not detected in elongated spermatids. These structures were not recognised in the seminiferous epithelium of shrews. With respect to lectin histochemistry, the binding patterns in the spermatid acrosome of the tree shrew were similar to those of the musk shrew. However, PNA and BPA, which reacted with the Sertoli cell cytoplasm of the musk shrew, showed no reaction in the tree shrew Sertoli cell. Thus, except for some lectin binding patterns in the spermatid acrosome, no close similarity was recognised in the morphology of the seminiferous epithelium between tree shrews and shrews.

  9. Darkness Causes Myopia in Visually Experienced Tree Shrews

    PubMed Central

    Norton, Thomas T.; Amedo, Angela O.; Siegwart, John T.

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE To examine the effect of a period of continuous darkness on the refractive state and vitreous chamber depth of normal light-reared juvenile tree shrew eyes, and to learn whether eyes that developed myopia in response to monocular minus-lens wear will recover in darkness. METHODS Starting at 16 days of visual experience (VE), the refractive state of five dark-treatment tree shrews was measured daily to confirm that it was stable and nearly emmetropic. After corneal and ocular component dimension measures, the animals were placed into continuous darkness for 10 days. On removal of the animals from darkness, corneal and ocular component measures were repeated, and daily refractive measures were resumed. The refractive state of the dark-treatment group was compared with that of a normal-lighting group (n = 5) that received standard colony lighting throughout the measurement period. Five dark-recovery animals wore a monocular -5-D lens for 11 days to induce myopia before they were placed into continuous darkness for 10 days. RESULTS The animals in the normal-lighting group completed the emmetropization process, stabilizing at approximately (mean ± SEM) 0.7 ± 0.3 D of hyperopia (noncycloplegic refraction, corrected for the small eye artifact) at 60 days of VE. Dark-treatment group eyes shifted toward myopia (mean ± SEM, -4.3 ± 0.5 D) in the dark. The vitreous chamber became elongated by 0.09 ± 0.02 mm relative to normal eyes. Corneal power showed a small, near-normal decrease (1.4 ± 0.3 D). Four of five myopic eyes in the dark-recovery group became more myopic (-2.2 ± 0.9D) in darkness, and all the fellow control eyes shifted toward myopia (-2.8 ± 0.5 D). CONCLUSIONS Maintaining emmetropia is an active process. After eyes have achieved emmetropia or have compensated for a minus lens, continued visual guidance is necessary to maintain a match between the axial length and the focal plane or for recovery to occur. Absence of light is myopiagenic in tree

  10. The complete mitogenome of Asiatic Short-tailed Shrew Blarinella quadraticauda (Soricidae).

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiong; Fu, Changkun; Chen, Shunde; Yong, Bin; Chen, Guiying; Zong, Hao

    2016-01-01

    The Asiatic Short-tailed Shrew, Blarinella quadraticauda, is an endemic shrew to China, and is only distributed in Sichuan. In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of B. quadraticauda was determined. The mitogenome is 17,014 base pairs in length and contains 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and 1 control region, with a base composition of 33.3 % A, 31.8% T, 22.3% C and 12.6% G. This study contributes to illuminating taxonomic status of the Asiatic Short-tailed Shrew, B. quadraticauda.

  11. Japanese Characters in Written Japanese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buck, James H.

    From the sixth to the eighth century A.D., Japan was the recipient of massive cultural infusions from China. This acceptance of the Chinese pattern included, and to a great extent was based on, the acceptance of the Chinese language. The Chinese writing system was applied to Japanese because there was no other model to follow and in spite of the…

  12. Role of photoperiod on hormone concentrations and adaptive capacity in tree shrews, Tupaia belangeri.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lin; Zhu, Wanlong; Wang, Zhengkun

    2012-11-01

    Environmental factors, such as photoperiod and temperature, play an important role in the regulation of an animal's physiology and behavior. In the present study, we examined the effects of short photoperiod (SD, 8L:16D) on body mass as well as on several physiological, hormonal, and biochemical measures indicative of thermogenic capacity, to test our hypothesis that short photoperiod stimulates increases thermogenic capacity and energy intake in tree shrews. At the end, these tree shrews (SD) had a significant higher body mass, energy intake, cytochrome C oxidase (COX) activity and uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1) content, serum tri-iodothyronine (T(3)) and thyroxine (T(4)) compared to LD (16L:8D) tree shrews. However, there were no significant differences in serum leptin and melatonin between the two groups. Together, these data suggest tree shrews employ a strategy of maximizing body growth and increasing energy intake in response to cues associated with short photoperiod.

  13. Nerve growth factor promotes in vitro proliferation of neural stem cells from tree shrews.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Liu-Lin; Chen, Zhi-Wei; Wang, Ting-Hua

    2016-04-01

    Neural stem cells promote neuronal regeneration and repair of brain tissue after injury, but have limited resources and proliferative ability in vivo. We hypothesized that nerve growth factor would promote in vitro proliferation of neural stem cells derived from the tree shrews, a primate-like mammal that has been proposed as an alternative to primates in biomedical translational research. We cultured neural stem cells from the hippocampus of tree shrews at embryonic day 38, and added nerve growth factor (100 μg/L) to the culture medium. Neural stem cells from the hippocampus of tree shrews cultured without nerve growth factor were used as controls. After 3 days, fluorescence microscopy after DAPI and nestin staining revealed that the number of neurospheres and DAPI/nestin-positive cells was markedly greater in the nerve growth factor-treated cells than in control cells. These findings demonstrate that nerve growth factor promotes the proliferation of neural stem cells derived from tree shrews.

  14. Sex difference in Onuf’s nucleus homologue in the Asian musk shrew

    PubMed Central

    Polak, Kathryn; Freeman, Louise M.

    2010-01-01

    Perineal muscles essential for copulatory functioning are innvervated by Onuf’s nucleus in humans and the spinal nucleus of the bulbocavernosus (SNB) and dorsolateral nucleus (DLN) in rats. These structures sexually differentiate as a result of developmental androgen exposure in most species examined. The homologous structure in the Asian musk shrew (Suncus murinus) is a single cluster in the lateral DLN/Onuf’s position in the ventral horn of the spinal cord; these motoneurons innervate both the bulbocavernosus and ischiocavernosus muscles of the musk shrew. We found the expected sex difference in motoneuron number in the shrew DLN, but not in two neighboring motoneuron clusters, the retrodorsolateral nucleus (RDLN) and ventrolateral nucleus (VLN). Male musk shrews also have significantly larger soma areas in the VLN and DLN than females, and male DLN motoneurons have significantly larger nuclei than female. The sex difference in DLN motoneuron number was evident both in raw counts and after accounting for split nuclei error. PMID:20510680

  15. Mutualism between tree shrews and pitcher plants: perspectives and avenues for future research.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Charles; Moran, Jonathan A; Chin, Lijin

    2010-10-01

    Three species of Nepenthes pitcher plants from Borneo engage in a mutualistic interaction with mountain tree shrews, the basis of which is the exchange of nutritional resources. The plants produce modified "toilet pitchers" that produce copious amounts of exudates, the latter serving as a food source for tree shrews. The exudates are only accessible to the tree shrews when they position their hindquarters over the pitcher orifice. Tree shrews mark valuable resources with faeces and regularly defecate into the pitchers when they visit them to feed. Faeces represent a valuable source of nitrogen for these Nepenthes species, but there are many facets of the mutualism that are yet to be investigated. These include, but are not limited to, seasonal variation in exudate production rates by the plants, behavioral ecology of visiting tree shrews, and the mechanism by which the plants signal to tree shrews that their pitchers represent a food source. Further research into this extraordinary animal-plant interaction is required to gain a better understanding of the benefits to the participating species.

  16. The tree shrews: adjuncts and alternatives to primates as models for biomedical research.

    PubMed

    Cao, J; Yang, E-B; Su, J-J; Li, Y; Chow, P

    2003-06-01

    The tree shrews are non-rodent, primate-like, small animals. There is increasing interest in using them to establish animal models for medical and biological research. This review focuses on the use of the tree shrews in in vivo studies on viral hepatitis, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), myopia, and psychosocial stress. Because of the susceptibility of the tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri) and their hepatocytes to infection with human hepatitis B virus (HBV) in vivo and in vitro, these animals have been used to establish human hepatitis virus-induced hepatitis and human HBV- and aflatoxin B1-associated HCC models. As these animals are phylogenetically close to primates in evolution and have a well-developed visual system and color vision in some species, they have been utilized to establish myopia models. Because dramatic behavioral, physiological, and neuroendocrine changes in subordinate male tree shrews are similar to those observed in depressed human patients, the tree shrews have been successfully employed to experimentally study psychosocial stress. However, the tree shrews holds significant promise as research models and great use could be made of these animals in biomedical research.

  17. Preservation of hippocampal neuron numbers and hippocampal subfield volumes in behaviorally characterized aged tree shrews.

    PubMed

    Keuker, Jeanine I H; de Biurrun, Gabriel; Luiten, Paul G M; Fuchs, Eberhard

    2004-01-19

    Aging is associated with a decreased ability to store and retrieve information. The hippocampal formation plays a critical role in such memory processes, and its integrity is affected during normal aging. We used tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri) as an animal model of aging, because in many characteristics, tree shrews are closer to primates than they are to rodents. Young and aged male tree shrews performed a holeboard spatial memory task, which permits assessment of reference and working memory. Upon completion of the behavioral measurements, we carried out modified stereological analyses of neuronal numbers in various subdivisions of the hippocampus and used the Cavalieri method to calculate the volumes of these subfields. Results showed that the working memory of aged tree shrews was significantly impaired compared with that of young animals, whereas the hippocampus-dependent reference memory remained unchanged by aging. Estimation of the number of neurons revealed preserved neuron numbers in the subiculum, in the subregions CA1, CA2, CA3, and in the hilus of the dentate gyrus. Volume measurements showed no aging-related changes in the volume of any of these hippocampal subregions, or in the molecular and granule cell layers of the dentate gyrus of tree shrews. We conclude that the observed changes in memory performance in aging tree shrews are not accompanied by observable reductions of hippocampal neuron numbers or hippocampal volume, rather, the changes in memory performance are more likely the result of modified subcellular mechanisms that are affected by the aging process.

  18. Biodiversity and evolution of Imjin virus and Thottapalayam virus in Crocidurinae shrews in Zhejiang Province, China.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xian-Dan; Zhou, Run-Hong; Fan, Fei-Neng; Ying, Xu-Hua; Sun, Xiao-Yu; Wang, Wen; Holmes, Edward C; Zhang, Yong-Zhen

    2014-08-30

    The recent discovery of numerous hantaviruses in insectivores has provided a new view of hantavirus biodiversity and evolution. To determine the presence and genetic diversity of Imjin virus (MJNV) and Thottapalayam virus (TPMV) in insectivores in Zhejiang Province, China, we captured and performed virus screening of 32 Ussuri white-toothed shrews (Crocidura lasiura) and 105 Asian house shrews (Suncus murinus) in different coastal regions. Hantavirus genome (S, M, and L segments) sequences were successfully recovered from one Ussuri white-toothed shrew and seven Asian house shrews. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the virus carried by the Ussuri white-toothed shrew was most closely related to MJNV, but with >15% nucleotide sequence difference, suggesting that it represents a new subtype. The hantaviruses carried by Asian house shrews were closely related to the TPMV variants found in the same geographic area, but more distantly related to those sampled in India and Nepal. Additionally, the TPMV sequences obtained in this study, as well as those found previously in this area, could be divided into three lineages reflecting their geographic origins, indicative of largely allopatric evolution. Overall, our data highlights the high genetic diversity of insectivore-borne hantaviruses in China, suggesting that more may be discovered in the future.

  19. Alternative exon usage creates novel transcript variants of tumor suppressor SHREW-1 gene with differential tissue expression profile

    PubMed Central

    Klemmt, Petra A. B.; Resch, Eduard; Smyrek, Isabell; Engels, Knut; Stelzer, Ernst H. K.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Shrew-1, also called AJAP1, is a transmembrane protein associated with E-cadherin-mediated adherence junctions and a putative tumor suppressor. Apart from its interaction with β-catenin and involvement in E-cadherin internalization, little structure or function information exists. Here we explored shrew-1 expression during postnatal differentiation of mammary gland as a model system. Immunohistological analyses with antibodies against either the extracellular or the cytoplasmic domains of shrew-1 consistently revealed the expression of full-length shrew-1 in myoepithelial cells, but only part of it in luminal cells. While shrew-1 localization remained unaltered in myoepithelial cells, nuclear localization occurred in luminal cells during lactation. Based on these observations, we identified two unknown shrew-1 transcript variants encoding N-terminally truncated proteins. The smallest shrew-1 protein lacks the extracellular domain and is most likely the only variant present in luminal cells. RNA analyses of human tissues confirmed that the novel transcript variants of shrew-1 exist in vivo and exhibit a differential tissue expression profile. We conclude that our findings are essential for the understanding and interpretation of future functional and interactome analyses of shrew-1 variants. PMID:27870635

  20. A case of true tubal hydatidiform mole and literature review.

    PubMed

    Siozos, A; Sriemevan, A

    2010-08-09

    Tubal hydatidiform mole is an uncommon condition with about 40 confirmed cases in the accessible literature. The patient usually presents with symptoms and signs of a classical ectopic pregnancy and it is only after histological examination and DNA ploidy analysis of the conceptus that a hydatidiform mole is diagnosed. Management requires complete removal of the conceptus and follow-up needs to be arranged with an appropriate supraregional centre. The authors present a case of complete molar tubal pregnancy and a review of the literature.

  1. The complete mitogenome of Asian House Shrews, Suncus murinus (Soricidae).

    PubMed

    Chen, Shunde; Wei, Haixue; Peng, Hongyuan; Yong, Bin

    2016-01-01

    The Asian House Shrew, Suncus murinus belongs to the family Soricidae, and widely distributes in East, Southeast and South Asia, Southwest Island in the Pacific Ocean and East Africa. In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Suncus murinus was determined. The mitogenome is 17,240 bp in length and contains 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, and a control region, with a base composition of 33.0% A, 32.7% T, 21.2% C and 13.1% G. The present study contributes to illuminating taxonomic status of S. murinus, and may facilitate further investigation of the molecular evolution of Soricidae.

  2. Dietary heavy metal uptake by the least shrew, Cryptotis parva

    SciTech Connect

    Brueske, C.C.; Barrett, G.W. )

    1991-12-01

    Heavy metals from sewage sludge have been reported to concentrate in producers, in primary consumers, and in detritivores. Little research, however, has focused on the uptake of heavy metals from sewage sludge by secondary consumers. The Family Soricidae represents an ideal mammalian taxonomic group to investigate rates of heavy metal transfer between primary and secondary consumers. The least shrew (Cryptotis parva) was used to evaluate the accumulation of heavy metals while maintained on a diet of earthworms collected from long-term sludge-treated old-field communities. This secondary consumer is distributed widely through the eastern United States and its natural diet includes earthworms which makes it a potentially good indicator of heavy metal transfer in areas treated with municipal sludge.

  3. Structural and functional characterization of enamel pigmentation in shrews.

    PubMed

    Dumont, M; Tütken, T; Kostka, A; Duarte, M J; Borodin, S

    2014-04-01

    Pigmented tooth enamel occurs in several vertebrate clades, ranging from mammals to fish. Although an iron compound is associated with this orange to red colored pigmentation, its chemical and structural organization within the enamel is unknown. To determine the nature of the iron compound, we investigated heavily pigmented teeth of the northern short-tailed shrew Blarina brevicauda using combined characterization techniques such as scanning and transmission electron microscopy and synchrotron X-ray diffraction. We found that the pigmentation of the enamel with an iron content of around 8wt% results from a close to amorphous magnetite phase deposited around the nm-sized enamel crystals. Furthermore, the influence of the pigmentation on the enamel hardness was determined by nanoindentation measurements. Finally, the biomechanical function and biological context are discussed in light of the obtained results.

  4. The mole, amount of substance and primary methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milton, Martin J. T.

    2013-04-01

    This paper is an introduction to the principles developed for the application of metrology to the field of chemistry and particularly to analytical chemistry. It starts with a discussion of the mole, the base unit of the SI that is most relevant to analytical chemistry. The mole has become the subject of particular discussion recently, since the publication of proposals to re-define it along with three other base units of the SI. This discussion has also generated interest in the origin of the term ‘amount of substance’ used as the quantity for which the mole is the unit. This paper reviews the origin of this term and explains why it is not sufficient to replace it with an alternative such as a ‘number of entities’. The paper concludes with some discussion of how the mole is realized through the use of primary methods of measurement. This paper is based on a lecture given at the International School of Physics ‘Enrico Fermi’, Course CLXXXV: Metrology and Physical Constants,held in Varenna on 17-27 July 2012. It will also be published in the proceedings of the school, edited by E Bava, M Kühne and A M Rossi (IOS Press, Amsterdam and SIF, Bologna).

  5. Hydatidiform mole presentation as a tubal ectopic pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Nakeer, Tabassum; Shahid, Muhammad; Ansari, Muhammad Asad; Nakeer, Rooham

    2014-05-01

    Presentation of hydatidiform mole as tubal ectopic pregnancy is very rare. These patients usually present with ectopic pregnancy and are later diagnosed with hydatidiform mole on the basis of histological examination following surgery. We present the case of a 32-year-old female who presented with abdominal pain and vaginal bleed since 2 days of presentation. She was vitally stable. There was mild tenderness in hypogastrium and left iliac fossa. Pelvic examination showed mild bleeding per vaginum and fullness in both fornices. The patient was suspected of having an ectopic pregnancy. Ultrasonography of pelvis revealed fluid in cul-de-sac and a sac like mass of 1.8 cm attached to the left ovary. On laparotomy, there was a left sided tubal ectopic pregnancy and subsequently left salpingectomy was done. Histopathology of the tissue sample showed features of partial hydatidiform mole. Ectopic pregnancy can present as hydatidiform mole in rare cases for which histological examination of the tissue is required to establish the diagnosis.

  6. Architectonic subdivisions of neocortex in the tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri)

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Peiyan; Kaas, Jon H.

    2010-01-01

    Tree shrews are small mammals that bear some semblance to squirrels, but are actually close relatives of primates. Thus, they have been extensively studied as a model for the early stages of primate evolution. In the present study, subdivisions of cortex were reconstructed from brain sections cut in the coronal, sagittal or horizontal planes, and processed for parvalbumin (PV), SMI-32 immunopositive neurofilament protein epitopes, vesicle glutamate transporter 2 (VGluT2), free ionic zinc, myelin, cytochrome oxidase (CO) and Nissl substance. These different procedures revealed similar boundaries between areas, suggesting the detection of functionally relevant borders and allowed a more precise demarcation of cortical areal boundaries. Primary cortical areas were most clearly revealed by the zinc stain, due to the poor staining of layer 4, as thalamocortical terminations lack free ionic zinc. Area 17 (V1) was especially prominent, as the broad layer 4 was nearly free of zinc stain. However, this feature was less pronounced in primary auditory and somatosensory, cortex. In primary sensory areas, thalamocortical terminations in layer 4 densely express VGluT2. Auditory cortex consists of two architectonically distinct subdivisions, a primary core region (Ac), surrounded by a belt region (Ab) that had a slightly less developed koniocellular appearance. Primary motor cortex (M1) was identified by the absence of VGluT2 staining in the poorly developed granular layer 4 and the presence of SMI-32 labeled pyramidal cells in layers 3 and 5. The presence of well-differentiated cortical areas in tree shrews indicates their usefulness in studies of cortical organization and function. PMID:19462403

  7. Thermoregulatory correlates of nausea in rats and musk shrews.

    PubMed

    Ngampramuan, Sukonthar; Cerri, Matteo; Del Vecchio, Flavia; Corrigan, Joshua J; Kamphee, Amornrat; Dragic, Alexander S; Rudd, John A; Romanovsky, Andrej A; Nalivaiko, Eugene

    2014-03-30

    Nausea is a prominent symptom and major cause of complaint for patients receiving anticancer chemo- or radiation therapy. The arsenal of anti-nausea drugs is limited, and their efficacy is questionable. Currently, the development of new compounds with anti-nausea activity is hampered by the lack of physiological correlates of nausea. Physiological correlates are needed because common laboratory rodents lack the vomiting reflex. Furthermore, nausea does not always lead to vomiting. Here, we report the results of studies conducted in four research centers to investigate whether nausea is associated with any specific thermoregulatory symptoms. Two species were studied: the laboratory rat, which has no vomiting reflex, and the house musk shrew (Suncus murinus), which does have a vomiting reflex. In rats, motion sickness was induced by rotating them in their individual cages in the horizontal plane (0.75 Hz, 40 min) and confirmed by reduced food consumption at the onset of dark (active) phase. In 100% of rats tested at three centers, post-rotational sickness was associated with marked (~1.5°C) hypothermia, which was associated with a short-lasting tail-skin vasodilation (skin temperature increased by ~4°C). Pretreatment with ondansetron, a serotonin 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, which is used to treat nausea in patients in chemo- or radiation therapy, attenuated hypothermia by ~30%. In shrews, motion sickness was induced by a cyclical back-and-forth motion (4 cm, 1 Hz, 15 min) and confirmed by the presence of retching and vomiting. In this model, sickness was also accompanied by marked hypothermia (~2°C). Like in rats, the hypothermic response was preceded by transient tail-skin vasodilation. In conclusion, motion sickness is accompanied by hypothermia that involves both autonomic and thermoeffector mechanisms: tail-skin vasodilation and possibly reduction of the interscapular brown adipose tissue activity. These thermoregulatory symptoms may serve as physiological

  8. Physical and Cognitive Performance of the Least Shrew (Cryptotis parva) on a Calcium-Restricted Diet

    PubMed Central

    Czajka, Jessica L.; McCay, Timothy S.; Garneau, Danielle E.

    2012-01-01

    Geological substrates and air pollution affect the availability of calcium to mammals in many habitats, including the Adirondack Mountain Region (Adirondacks) of the United States. Mammalian insectivores, such as shrews, may be particularly restricted in environments with low calcium. We examined the consequences of calcium restriction on the least shrew (Cryptotis parva) in the laboratory. We maintained one group of shrews (5 F, 5 M) on a mealworm diet with a calcium concentration comparable to beetle larvae collected in the Adirondacks (1.1 ± 0.3 mg/g) and another group (5 F, 3 M) on a mealworm diet with a calcium concentration almost 20 times higher (19.5 ± 5.1 mg/g). Animals were given no access to mineral sources of calcium, such as snail shell or bone. We measured running speed and performance in a complex maze over 10 weeks. Shrews on the high-calcium diet made fewer errors in the maze than shrews on the low-calcium diet (F1,14 = 12.8, p < 0.01). Females made fewer errors than males (F1,14 = 10.6, p < 0.01). Running speeds did not markedly vary between diet groups or sexes, though there was a trend toward faster running by shrews on the high calcium diet (p = 0.087). Shrews in calcium-poor habitats with low availability of mineral sources of calcium may have greater difficulty with cognitive tasks such as navigation and recovery of food hoards. PMID:25379219

  9. [Analysis of the molecular characteristics and cloning of full-length coding sequence of interleukin-2 in tree shrews].

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiao-Yan; Li, Ming-Li; Xu, Juan; Gao, Yue-Dong; Wang, Wen-Guang; Yin, An-Guo; Li, Xiao-Fei; Sun, Xiao-Mei; Xia, Xue-Shan; Dai, Jie-Jie

    2013-04-01

    While the tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri chinensis) is an excellent animal model for studying the mechanisms of human diseases, but few studies examine interleukin-2 (IL-2), an important immune factor in disease model evaluation. In this study, a 465 bp of the full-length IL-2 cDNA encoding sequence was cloned from the RNA of tree shrew spleen lymphocytes, which were then cultivated and stimulated with ConA (concanavalin). Clustal W 2.0 was used to compare and analyze the sequence and molecular characteristics, and establish the similarity of the overall structure of IL-2 between tree shrews and other mammals. The homology of the IL-2 nucleotide sequence between tree shrews and humans was 93%, and the amino acid homology was 80%. The phylogenetic tree results, derived through the Neighbour-Joining method using MEGA5.0, indicated a close genetic relationship between tree shrews, Homo sapiens, and Macaca mulatta. The three-dimensional structure analysis showed that the surface charges in most regions of tree shrew IL-2 were similar to between tree shrews and humans; however, the N-glycosylation sites and local structures were different, which may affect antibody binding. These results provide a fundamental basis for the future study of IL-2 monoclonal antibody in tree shrews, thereby improving their utility as a model.

  10. Neuropeptide Y influences acute food intake and energy status affects NPY immunoreactivity in the female musk shrew (Suncus murinus).

    PubMed

    Bojkowska, Karolina; Hamczyk, Magdalena M; Tsai, Houng-Wei; Riggan, Anna; Rissman, Emilie F

    2008-02-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) stimulates feeding, depresses sexual behavior, and its expression in the brain is modulated by energetic status. We examined the role of NPY in female musk shrews, a species with high energetic and reproductive demands; they store little fat, and small changes in energy can rapidly diminish or enhance sexual receptivity. Intracerebroventricular infusion of NPY enhanced acute food intake in shrews; however, NPY had little affect on sexual receptivity. The distribution of NPY immunoreactivity in the female musk shrew brain was unremarkable, but energy status differentially affected NPY immunoreactivity in several regions. Similar to what has been noted in other species, NPY immunoreactivity was less dense in brains of ad libitum shrews and greater in shrews subjected to food restriction. In two midbrain regions, both of which contain high levels of gonadotropin releasing hormone II (GnRH II), which has anorexigenic actions in shrews, NPY immunoreactivity was more sensitive to changes in food intake. In these regions, acute re-feeding (90-180 min) after food restriction reduced NPY immunoreactivity to levels noted in ad libitum shrews. We hypothesize that interactions between NPY and GnRH II maintain energy homeostasis and reproduction in the musk shrew.

  11. Tuning of color contrast signals to visual sensitivity maxima of tree shrews by three Bornean highland Nepenthes species.

    PubMed

    Moran, Jonathan A; Clarke, Charles; Greenwood, Melinda; Chin, Lijin

    2012-10-01

    Three species of Nepenthes pitcher plants (Nepenthes rajah, Nepenthes lowii and Nepenthes macrophylla) specialize in harvesting nutrients from tree shrew excreta in their pitchers. In all three species, nectaries on the underside of the pitcher lid are the focus of the tree shrews' attention. Tree shrews are dichromats, with visual sensitivity in the blue and green wavebands. All three Nepenthes species were shown to produce visual signals, in which the underside of the pitcher lid (the area of highest nectar production) stood out in high contrast to the adjacent area on the pitcher (i.e., was brighter), in the blue and green wavebands visible to the tree shrews. N. rajah showed the tightest degree of "tuning," notably in the green waveband. Conversely, pitchers of Nepenthes burbidgeae, a typical insectivorous species sympatric with N. rajah, did not produce a color pattern tuned to tree shrew sensitivity maxima.

  12. Tuning of color contrast signals to visual sensitivity maxima of tree shrews by three Bornean highland Nepenthes species

    PubMed Central

    Moran, Jonathan A.; Clarke, Charles; Greenwood, Melinda; Chin, Lijin

    2012-01-01

    Three species of Nepenthes pitcher plants (Nepenthes rajah, Nepenthes lowii and Nepenthes macrophylla) specialize in harvesting nutrients from tree shrew excreta in their pitchers. In all three species, nectaries on the underside of the pitcher lid are the focus of the tree shrews' attention. Tree shrews are dichromats, with visual sensitivity in the blue and green wavebands. All three Nepenthes species were shown to produce visual signals, in which the underside of the pitcher lid (the area of highest nectar production) stood out in high contrast to the adjacent area on the pitcher (i.e., was brighter), in the blue and green wavebands visible to the tree shrews. N. rajah showed the tightest degree of “tuning,” notably in the green waveband. Conversely, pitchers of Nepenthes burbidgeae, a typical insectivorous species sympatric with N. rajah, did not produce a color pattern tuned to tree shrew sensitivity maxima. PMID:22902686

  13. Incidence of dental lesions in musk shrews (Suncus murinus) and their association with sex, age, body weight and diet.

    PubMed

    Dudley, Emily S; Grunden, Beverly K; Crocker, Conan; Boivin, Gregory P

    2013-10-22

    Both wild and laboratory strains of the musk shrew (Suncus murinus) have a high incidence of periodontitis. The authors completed necropsy examinations in 51 shrews to identify dental lesions including tooth loss, mobility and fractures. Dental lesions were identified in significantly more females than males, and older animals were more likely to have lesions present. Shrews with one or more dental lesions weighed significantly less than those without lesions present. Dietary supplementation with mealworms did not significantly affect the incidence of dental lesions or the body weight of male or female shrews. The authors recommend routine body weight measurement as a simple, noninvasive method of detecting shrews with an increased likelihood of having dental lesions.

  14. The identity of the enigmatic "Black Shrew" (Sorex niger Ord, 1815)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodman, Neal

    2013-01-01

    The scientific name Sorex niger Ord, 1815 (Mammalia, Soricidae) was originally applied to a North American species that George Ord called the “Black Shrew.” The origin of the name “Black Shrew,” however, was obscure, and Samuel Rhoads subsequently wrote that the species represented by this name could not be determined. The names Sorex niger Ord and Black Shrew have since been mostly forgotten. Two of Ord's contemporaries, however, noted that Ord's use of these names probably alluded to Benjamin Smith Barton's Black Shrew, whose discovery near Philadelphia was announced by Barton in 1806. Examination of two unpublished illustrations of the Black Shrew made by Barton indicates that the animal depicted is Blarina brevicauda (Say, 1822). Had the connection between Ord's and Barton's names been made more clearly, one of the most common mammals in eastern North America would bear a different scientific name today. This connection also would have affected the validity of Sorex niger Horsfield, 1851. While Sorex niger Ord remains a nomen nudum, the animal it referenced can now be identified.

  15. Protection of tree shrews by pVAX-PS DNA vaccine against HBV infection.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Feng-Juan; Hu, Zhen-Lin; Dai, Jian-Xin; Chen, Rui-Wen; Shi, Ke; Lin, Yi; Sun, Shu-Han

    2003-07-01

    The immunological protection of pVAX-PS, a DNA vaccine, was assessed in the tree shrews model. pVAX-PS was constructed by inserting the gene encoding the middle (pre-S2 plus S) envelope protein of HBV into a plasmid vector pVAX1. Tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri chinenesis) were experimentally infected with human HBV by inoculation with human serum positive for HBV markers. DNA vaccination-induced seroconversion and antibody to HBV surface antigen (anti-HBs) were analyzed by ELISA, and protective effects elicited by pVAX-PS vaccination against subsequent HBV challenge were evaluated by detection of HBV seromarkers and observation of hepatic lesions in HBV-infected tree shrews. The results shown that anti-HBs were detectable in serum at week 2 after pVAX-PS vaccination and peaked at week 4, and immunization with pVAX-PS decreased the positive conversion rate of HBV seromarkers and relieved hepatic lesions in tree shrews challenged with HBV. These results indicated that pVAX-PS immunization could induce remarkable humoral immune response and prevent the experimental tree shrews from infection of HBV.

  16. Drug Target Mining and Analysis of the Chinese Tree Shrew for Pharmacological Testing

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jie; Lee, Wen-hui; Zhang, Yun

    2014-01-01

    The discovery of new drugs requires the development of improved animal models for drug testing. The Chinese tree shrew is considered to be a realistic candidate model. To assess the potential of the Chinese tree shrew for pharmacological testing, we performed drug target prediction and analysis on genomic and transcriptomic scales. Using our pipeline, 3,482 proteins were predicted to be drug targets. Of these predicted targets, 446 and 1,049 proteins with the highest rank and total scores, respectively, included homologs of targets for cancer chemotherapy, depression, age-related decline and cardiovascular disease. Based on comparative analyses, more than half of drug target proteins identified from the tree shrew genome were shown to be higher similarity to human targets than in the mouse. Target validation also demonstrated that the constitutive expression of the proteinase-activated receptors of tree shrew platelets is similar to that of human platelets but differs from that of mouse platelets. We developed an effective pipeline and search strategy for drug target prediction and the evaluation of model-based target identification for drug testing. This work provides useful information for future studies of the Chinese tree shrew as a source of novel targets for drug discovery research. PMID:25105297

  17. Factors influencing the variation in capture rates of shrews in southern California, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Laakkonen, Juha; Fisher, Robert N.; Case, Ted J.

    2003-01-01

    We examined the temporal variation in capture rates of shrewsNotiosorex crawfordi (Coues, 1877) and Sorex ornatus (Merriam, 1895) in 20 sites representing fragmented and continuous habitats in southern California, USA. InN. crawfordi, the temporal variation was significantly correlated with the mean capture rates. Of the 6 landscape variables analyzed (size of the landscape, size of the sample area, altitude, edge, longitude and latitude), sample area was positively correlated with variation in capture rates ofN. crawfordi. InS. ornatus, longitude was negatively correlated with variation in capture rates. Analysis of the effect of precipitation on the short- and long-term capture rates at 2 of the sites showed no correlation between rainfall and capture rates of shrews even though peak number of shrews at both sites were reached during the year of highest amount of rainfall. A key problem confounding capture rates of shrews in southern California is the low overall abundance of both shrew species in all habitats and seasons.

  18. Colonization of Ireland: revisiting 'the pygmy shrew syndrome' using mitochondrial, Y chromosomal and microsatellite markers.

    PubMed

    McDevitt, A D; Vega, R; Rambau, R V; Yannic, G; Herman, J S; Hayden, T J; Searle, J B

    2011-12-01

    There is great uncertainty about how Ireland attained its current fauna and flora. Long-distance human-mediated colonization from southwestern Europe has been seen as a possible way that Ireland obtained many of its species; however, Britain has (surprisingly) been neglected as a source area for Ireland. The pygmy shrew has long been considered an illustrative model species, such that the uncertainty of the Irish colonization process has been dubbed 'the pygmy shrew syndrome'. Here, we used new genetic data consisting of 218 cytochrome (cyt) b sequences, 153 control region sequences, 17 Y-intron sequences and 335 microsatellite multilocus genotypes to distinguish between four possible hypotheses for the colonization of the British Isles, formulated in the context of previously published data. Cyt b sequences from western Europe were basal to those found in Ireland, but also to those found in the periphery of Britain and several offshore islands. Although the central cyt b haplotype in Ireland was found in northern Spain, we argue that it most likely occurred in Britain also, from where the pygmy shrew colonized Ireland as a human introduction during the Holocene. Y-intron and microsatellite data are consistent with this hypothesis, and the biological traits and distributional data of pygmy shrews argue against long-distance colonization from Spain. The compact starburst of the Irish cyt b expansion and the low genetic diversity across all markers strongly suggests a recent colonization. This detailed molecular study of the pygmy shrew provides a new perspective on an old colonization question.

  19. Body temperature patterns in two syntopic elephant shrew species during winter.

    PubMed

    Boyles, Justin G; Smit, Ben; Sole, Catherine L; McKechnie, Andrew E

    2012-01-01

    We measured body temperature (T(b)) in free-ranging individuals of two species of elephant shrews, namely western rock elephant shrews (Elephantulus rupestris) and Cape rock elephant shrews (E. edwardii), during winter in a winter-rainfall region of western South Africa. These syntopic species have similar ecologies and morphologies and thus potential for large overlaps in diet and habitat use. Unexpectedly, they displayed different T(b) patterns. Western rock elephant shrews were heterothermic, with all individuals decreasing T(b) below 30°C on at least 34% of nights. The level of heterothermy expressed was similar to other species traditionally defined as daily heterotherms and was inversely related to T(a), as is commonly seen in small heterothermic endotherms. In contrast, Cape rock elephant shrews rarely allowed their T(b) to decrease below 30°C. The level of heterothermy was similar to species traditionally defined as homeotherms and there was no relationship between the level of heterothermy expressed and T(a). In both species, the minimum daily T(b) was recorded almost exclusively at night, often shortly before sunrise, although in some individuals minimum T(b) occasionally occurred during the day. The interspecific variation in T(b) patterns among Elephantulus species recorded to date reiterates the importance of ecological determinants of heterothermy that interact with factors such as body mass and phylogeny.

  20. Placental diversity in malagasy tenrecs: placentation in shrew tenrecs (Microgale spp.), the mole-like rice tenrec (Oryzorictes hova) and the web-footed tenrec (Limnogale mergulus).

    PubMed

    Enders, A C; Blankenship, T N; Goodman, S M; Soarimalala, V; Carter, A M

    2007-07-01

    Placentation in tenrecs of the subfamily Oryzorictinae, family Tenrecidae, has not been described previously. The structure of the placenta of this group and especially of the genus Microgale was investigated to determine its similarity or dissimilarity to previously described placentas of the tenrec subfamilies Potamogalinae and Tenrecinae. Fifteen specimens of the genus Microgale ranging from an early yolk sac stage to near term were available for study. Placentation in Microgale was found to be different from other tenrecids in that there is an early simple lateral rather than central haemophagous region. In addition, a more villous portion of the placental disk forms before the formation of a more compact labyrinth. Although the definitive placenta is cellular haemomonochorial, it lacks the spongy zone found in the Tenrecinae. Neither does it resemble the endotheliochorial condition found in the Potamogalinae. Of the two genera of the subfamily Oryzorictinae represented by single specimens, the placenta of Limnogale resembled that of the Microgale but Oryzorictes had several differences including a lobulated placental disk. It is concluded that there is more variation in placentation both within the subfamily Oryzorictinae and within the family Tenrecidae than would ordinarily be expected.

  1. Relationships between body weight, fasting blood glucose concentration, sex and age in tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri chinensis).

    PubMed

    Wu, X; Chang, Q; Zhang, Y; Zou, X; Chen, L; Zhang, L; Lv, L; Liang, B

    2013-12-01

    The tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri chinensis) is a squirrel-like lower primate or a close relative of primates, commonly used as an animal model in biomedical research. Despite more than three decades of usage in research, the clear relationships between body weight, fasting blood glucose concentration, sex and age among tree shrews remain unclear. Based on an investigation of 992 tree shrews (454 males and 538 females) aged between 4 months and 4 years old, we found that male tree shrews have significantly higher body weight and fasting blood glucose concentration than female tree shrews (p < 0.001). The concentration of fasting blood glucose slightly increased with body weight in males (r = 0.152, p < 0.001). Meanwhile, in females, the body weight, concentration of fasting blood glucose and waist circumference positively increased with age (p < 0.001). Additionally, 17 tree shrews with Lee index [body weight (g)*0.33*1000/body length (cm)] above 290 had significantly higher body weight, waist circumference and glycated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) than non-obese tree shrews with a Lee index score below 290 (p < 0.001). Interestingly, 6 of 992 tree shrews (three males and three females, 2-4 years old) displayed impaired plasma triglycerides, HbA1c, low-density lipoprotein and oral glucose tolerance test, suggestive of the early symptoms of metabolic syndrome. This study provides the first clear relationships between body weight, fasting blood glucose concentration, sex and age in tree shrews, further improving our understanding of this relationship in metabolic syndrome (MetS). Given the similarity of tree shrews to humans and non-human primates, this finding supports their potential use as an animal model in the research of MetS.

  2. Long-term propagation of tree shrew spermatogonial stem cells in culture and successful generation of transgenic offspring.

    PubMed

    Li, Chao-Hui; Yan, Lan-Zhen; Ban, Wen-Zan; Tu, Qiu; Wu, Yong; Wang, Lin; Bi, Rui; Ji, Shuang; Ma, Yu-Hua; Nie, Wen-Hui; Lv, Long-Bao; Yao, Yong-Gang; Zhao, Xu-Dong; Zheng, Ping

    2017-02-01

    Tree shrews have a close relationship to primates and have many advantages over rodents in biomedical research. However, the lack of gene manipulation methods has hindered the wider use of this animal. Spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) have been successfully expanded in culture to permit sophisticated gene editing in the mouse and rat. Here, we describe a culture system for the long-term expansion of tree shrew SSCs without the loss of stem cell properties. In our study, thymus cell antigen 1 was used to enrich tree shrew SSCs. RNA-sequencing analysis revealed that the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway was active in undifferentiated SSCs, but was downregulated upon the initiation of SSC differentiation. Exposure of tree shrew primary SSCs to recombinant Wnt3a protein during the initial passages of culture enhanced the survival of SSCs. Use of tree shrew Sertoli cells, but not mouse embryonic fibroblasts, as feeder was found to be necessary for tree shrew SSC proliferation, leading to a robust cell expansion and long-term culture. The expanded tree shrew SSCs were transfected with enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-expressing lentiviral vectors. After transplantation into sterilized adult male tree shrew's testes, the EGFP-tagged SSCs were able to restore spermatogenesis and successfully generate transgenic offspring. Moreover, these SSCs were suitable for the CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene modification. The development of a culture system to expand tree shrew SSCs in combination with a gene editing approach paves the way for precise genome manipulation using the tree shrew.

  3. Isolation and characterization of a novel arenavirus harbored by Rodents and Shrews in Zhejiang province, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Kun; Lin, Xian-Dan; Wang, Wen; Shi, Mang; Guo, Wen-Ping; Zhang, Xiao-He; Xing, Jian-Guang; He, Jin-Rong; Wang, Ke; Li, Ming-Hui; Cao, Jian-Hai; Jiang, Mu-Liu; Holmes, Edward C; Zhang, Yong-Zhen

    2015-02-01

    To determine the biodiversity of arenaviruses in China, we captured and screened rodents and shrews in Wenzhou city, Zhejiang province, a locality where hemorrhagic fever diseases are endemic in humans. Accordingly, arenaviruses were detected in 42 of 351 rodents from eight species, and in 12 of 272 Asian house shrews (Suncus murinus), by RT-PCR targeting the L segment. From these, a single arenavirus was successfully isolated in cell culture. The virion particles exhibited a typical arenavirus morphology under transmission electron microscopy. Comparison of the S and L segment sequences revealed high levels of nucleotide (>32.2% and >39.6%) and amino acid (>28.8% and >43.8%) sequence differences from known arenaviruses, suggesting that it represents a novel arenavirus, which we designated Wenzhou virus (WENV). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that all WENV strains harbored by both rodents and Asian house shrews formed a distinct lineage most closely related to Old World arenaviruses.

  4. Experimental infection of tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri) with Coxsackie virus A16.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian-Ping; Liao, Yun; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Jing-Jing; Wang, Li-Chun; Feng, Kai; Li, Qi-Han; Liu, Long-Ding

    2014-11-18

    Coxsackie virus A16 (CA16) is commonly recognized as one of the main human pathogens of hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD). The clinical manifestations of HFMD include vesicles of hand, foot and mouth in young children and severe inflammatory CNS lesions. In this study, experimentally CA16 infected tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri) were used to investigate CA16 pathogenesis. The results showed that both the body temperature and the percentages of blood neutrophilic granulocytes / monocytes of CA16 infected tree shrews increased at 4-7 days post infection. Dynamic distributions of CA16 in different tissues and stools were found at different infection stages. Moreover, the pathological changes in CNS and other organs were also observed. These findings indicate that tree shrews can be used as a viable animal model to study CA16 infection.

  5. Experimental infection of tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri) with Coxsackie virus A16

    PubMed Central

    LI, Jian-Ping; LIAO, Yun; ZHANG, Ying; WANG, Jing-Jing; WANG, Li-Chun; FENG, Kai; LI, Qi-Han; LIU, Long-Ding

    2014-01-01

    Coxsackie virus A16 (CA16) is commonly recognized as one of the main human pathogens of hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD). The clinical manifestations of HFMD include vesicles of hand, foot and mouth in young children and severe inflammatory CNS lesions. In this study, experimentally CA16 infected tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri) were used to investigate CA16 pathogenesis. The results showed that both the body temperature and the percentages of blood neutrophilic granulocytes / monocytes of CA16 infected tree shrews increased at 4-7 days post infection. Dynamic distributions of CA16 in different tissues and stools were found at different infection stages. Moreover, the pathological changes in CNS and other organs were also observed. These findings indicate that tree shrews can be used as a viable animal model to study CA16 infection. PMID:25465084

  6. How tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri) perform in a searching task: evidence for strategy use.

    PubMed

    Bartolomucci, A; de Biurrun, G; Fuchs, E

    2001-12-01

    This study investigated how male tree shrews (Tupaia belangen) performed in a searching task while in their home cages and assessed whether different food distributions affected their performance. The animals were faced with a holeboard containing 9 food sources arranged in a 3 x 3 matrix or in 3 clusters, each containing 3 sources. Animals tended to start and end the trials from preferred locations, thereafter solving the task by strategically organizing the reward collection according to a minimum-distance principle. In the cluster configuration, they visited the sources hierarchically. Food distribution did not affect the performance. Comparison with data from mice and capuchin monkeys revealed that tree shrews and capuchins solved the task in a similar strategic way, whereas mice did not. These findings attract particular attention because of the phylogenetic position of tree shrews, which are regarded as closely related to primates.

  7. High shrew diversity on Alaska's Seward Peninsula: Community assembly and environmental change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hope, Andrew G.

    2012-01-01

    In September 2010, 6 species of shrews (genus: Sorex) were collected at a single locality on the Seward Peninsula of Alaska. Such high sympatric diversity within a single mammalian genus is seldom realized. This phenomenon at high latitudes highlights complex Arctic community dynamics that reflect significant turnover through time as a consequence of environmental change. Each of these shrew species occupies a broad geographic distribution collectively spanning the entire Holarctic, although the study site lies within Eastern Beringia, near the periphery of all individual ranges. A review of published genetic evidence reflects a depauperate shrew community within ice-free Beringia through the last glaciation, and recent assembly of current diversity during the Holocene.

  8. Molecular evidence and high genetic diversity of shrew-borne Seewis virus in Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Resman, Katarina; Korva, Miša; Fajs, Luka; Zidarič, Tanja; Trilar, Tomi; Zupanc, Tatjana Avšič

    2013-10-01

    Seewis virus, the shrew-borne hantavirus from Sorex araneus, has been molecularly detected in reservoir hosts in many different central European countries and Russia. Slovenia is a known endemic country for rodent-borne hantaviruses, therefore the aim of the study was to investigate the presence of shrew-borne hantaviruses in insectivores. Viral L, S and M segment have been recovered only from tissue samples of 7 S. araneus, despite several shrew species were tested. Phylogenetic analysis showed high genetic diversity of SWSV in Slovenia, ranging from 3 to 19.4% for different viral segments. The most divergent were M segment sequences, with 19.4% nucleotide divergence among Slovenian strains. Above that, different SWSV strains from Slovenia do not group into separate geographic clusters. While three separate genetic clades were determined, two of them were simultaneously present in one location at the same time.

  9. Classification of the cycle of the seminiferous epithelium in the common tree shrew (Tupaia glis).

    PubMed

    Maeda, S; Endo, H; Kimura, J; Rerkamnuaychoke, W; Chungsamarnyart, N; Yamada, J; Kurohmarum; Hayashi, Y; Nishida, T

    1996-05-01

    The classification of the cycle of the seminiferous epithelium was carried out in the common tree shrew (Tupaia glis). The tree shrew captured in Thailand were fixed with Bouin's fixative, embedded in paraffin wax, and stained with PAS-hematoxylin. The cycle was classified into twelve stages on the basis of the acrosomal changes of spermatids. Relative frequencies of stages form I to XII were 11.9, 7.2, 8.9, 22.5, 12.9, 9.7, 8.0, 5.9, 4.0, 3.2, 2.9, and 3.6%, respectively. Different stages did no appear in a cross-sectioned tubule as did in primates. The head of matured spermatid was discoidal in shape and different from that of primates and rodents. Spermatogenesis of the common tree shrew is different from that of primates and rodents according to its morphological features.

  10. Analysis of dental anomalies in the Siberian mole, Talpa altaica (Insectivora, Talpidae).

    PubMed

    Kawada, Shin-ichiro; Koyasu, Kazuhiro; Zholnerovskaya, Elena I; Oda, Sen-ichi

    2006-11-01

    We re-examined tooth variation in specimens of the Siberian mole, Talpa altaica, from the collection of the Siberian Zoological Museum and discuss the mechanisms of dental evolution. The number of teeth counted in 1789 specimens ranged from 34 to 47, and supernumerary, absent, and connate teeth were observed. The most frequent tooth anomaly was an absent tooth in the premolar region (200 maxillary first premolars and 190 mandibular third premolars), which does not support Fujita and Kirino's terminal reduction hypothesis in the mandible [Fujita T, Kirino T. Ha No Kaibougaku. 21st ed. Tokyo: Kanehara Publishers Inc.; 1976 (in Japanese)]. Supernumerary teeth were found in premolar rows and in the incisor and molar regions. An maxillary fourth molar, positioned distal to the normal third molar, was thought to result from a genetically programmed atavistic event during the natal stages. Connate teeth were observed only in the premolar rows and were thought to have developed with the fusion of two independent tooth germs. Connate premolars appeared to result from an expression of an incomplete division of tooth germ at an early developmental stage or a reunion of independent tooth germs, based on the morphological similarity of the normal and supernumerary premolars. These extraordinarily frequent tooth anomalies of T. altaica are of much interest both in terms of tooth development and classification.

  11. Mole and Chemical Amount: A Discussion of the Fundamental Measurements of Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorin, George

    1994-01-01

    Teachers and students alike report difficulties with the measurement unit called mole. This article tries to demonstrate that mole and the corresponding quantity are not exceptional. Mole lacks the context of a given amount because the unit measures the relative number of atoms compared with those present in a standard. Discusses history of…

  12. Teaching the Mole Concept Using a Conceptual Change Method at College Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uce, Musa

    2009-01-01

    Chemistry is a subject area that is difficult to understand for some students as it contains abstract concepts, such as mole, molecule and particle. The mole concept is one of the most important topics in which students have difficulty in understanding. There are many studies in the literature on the mole concept. Students who do not fully…

  13. Unpacking the Meaning of the Mole Concept for Secondary School Teachers and Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fang, Su-Chi; Hart, Christina; Clarke, David

    2014-01-01

    The "mole" is a fundamental concept in quantitative chemistry, yet research has shown that the mole is one of the most perplexing concepts in the teaching and learning of chemistry. This paper provides a survey of the relevant literature, identifies the necessary components of a sound understanding of the mole concept, and unpacks and…

  14. New records of Merriam’s Shrew (Sorex merriami) from western North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    M. J.Shaughnessy Jr.,; Woodman, Neal

    2015-01-01

    Despite having a broad geographic distribution, Merriam's Shrew (Sorex merriami Dobson 1890) is known from a relatively few, widely-scattered localities. In North Dakota, the species was known from only a single poorly-preserved specimen collected in 1913 near Medora. We recently collected two new specimens of Merriam's Shrew from Billings and McKenzie counties in the western quarter of the state. These specimens confirm the presence of S. merriami in North Dakota and better define the northeastern edge of the species' distribution.

  15. A new species of Pterygodermatites (Nematoda: Rictulariidae) from the Incan shrew opossum, Lestoros inca.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, F Agustín; Patterson, Bruce D

    2012-06-01

    Pterygodermatites ( Paucipectines ) hymanae n. sp. (Rictulariidae) collected from the Incan shrew opossum, Lestoros inca , from Peru is described herein. These nematodes show a subapical, slightly dorsal oral opening and a laterally compressed buccal capsule with 2 conspicuous lateral walls and a dorsal wall. Each lateroventral wall possesses 4 relatively large denticles, and the dorsal wall has 6 denticles. Females are characterized by a conspicuously large postvulvar 37th spine, which may reach 1 mm. This is the first record of endoparasites in the Incan shrew opossum and the fifth species of Pterygodermatites recorded in New World marsupials.

  16. The complete mitogenome of Stripe-Backed Shrew, Sorex cylindricauda (Soricidae).

    PubMed

    Chen, Shunde; Tu, Feiyun; Zhang, Xiuyue; Li, Wei; Chen, Guiying; Zong, Hao; Wang, Qiong

    2015-06-01

    The Stripe-Backed Shrew, Sorex cylindricauda belongs to the family Soricidae, and distributes in northwestern Yunnan, central Sichuan, southern Gansu and Shaanxi. In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of S. cylindricauda was determined. The mitogenome is 17,191 bp in length and contains 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and 1 control region, with a base composition of 33.2% A, 30.2% T, 23.8% C and 12.8% G. The study contributes to illuminating taxonomic status of Stripe-Backed Shrew Sorex cylindricauda.

  17. Early embryonic development and transplantation in tree shrews.

    PubMed

    Yan, Lan-Zhen; Sun, Bin; Lyu, Long-Bao; Ma, Yu-Hua; Chen, Jia-Qi; Lin, Qing; Zheng, Ping; Zhao, Xu-Dong

    2016-07-18

    As a novel experimental animal model, tree shrews have received increasing attention in recent years. Despite this, little is known in regards to the time phases of their embryonic development. In this study, surveillance systems were used to record the behavior and timing of copulations; embryos at different post-copulation stages were collected and cultured in vitro; and the developmental characteristics of both early-stage and in vitro cultured embryos were determined. A total of 163 females were collected following effective copulation, and 150 were used in either unilateral or bilateral oviduct embryo collections, with 307 embryos from 111 females obtained (conception rate=74%). Among them, 237 embryos were collected from 78 females, bilaterally, i.e., the average embryo number per female was 3.04; 172 fertilized eggs collected from 55 females, bilaterally, were cultured for 24-108 h in vitro for developmental observations; finally, 65 embryos from 23 bilateral cases and 70 embryos from 33 unilateral cases were used in embryo transplantation.

  18. Novel dynamic measures of emetic behavior in musk shrews

    PubMed Central

    Horn, Charles C.; Wang, Hong; Estival, Laureline; Meyers, Kelly; Magnusson, Magnus

    2013-01-01

    The emetic reflex occurs as a pattern of motor responses produced by a network of neurons in the hindbrain. Despite an understanding of the sequence of motor outputs that form an emetic episode (EE), the variability in the dynamics of multiple EEs across time remains a mystery. Nearly all clinical studies rely on once a day patient recall of total amount of vomiting, and preclinical studies frequently report only the total number of EE per unit time. The aim of the current study was to develop novel temporal measures of emetic activation in a preclinical model. Male and female musk shrews were tested with prototypical emetic stimuli: motion exposure (1 Hz), nicotine (5 mg/kg, sc), and copper sulfate (120 mg/kg, ig). New emetic measures included duration (time from first to last episode), rate, standard deviation of the inter-episode interval (SD-I), and a survival analysis of emetic latency (analyzed with Cox regression). Behavioral patterns associated with emesis were also assessed using statistical temporal pattern (T-pattern) analysis to measure nausea-like behaviors (e.g., immobility). The emetic stimuli produced different levels of total EE number, duration, rate, and SD-I. A typical antiemetic, the neurokinin 1 receptor antagonist CP-99,994, suppressed the number of EEs but was less effective for reducing the duration or prolonging the emetic latency. Overall, the current study shows the use of novel dynamic behavioral measures to more comprehensively assess emesis and the impact of therapies. PMID:23953843

  19. Early embryonic development and transplantation in tree shrews

    PubMed Central

    YAN, Lan-Zhen; SUN, Bin; LYU, Long-Bao; MA, Yu-Hua; CHEN, Jia-Qi; LIN, Qing; ZHENG, Ping; ZHAO, Xu-Dong

    2016-01-01

    As a novel experimental animal model, tree shrews have received increasing attention in recent years. Despite this, little is known in regards to the time phases of their embryonic development. In this study, surveillance systems were used to record the behavior and timing of copulations; embryos at different post-copulation stages were collected and cultured in vitro; and the developmental characteristics of both early-stage and in vitro cultured embryos were determined. A total of 163 females were collected following effective copulation, and 150 were used in either unilateral or bilateral oviduct embryo collections, with 307 embryos from 111 females obtained (conception rate=74%). Among them, 237 embryos were collected from 78 females, bilaterally, i.e., the average embryo number per female was 3.04; 172 fertilized eggs collected from 55 females, bilaterally, were cultured for 24-108 h in vitro for developmental observations; finally, 65 embryos from 23 bilateral cases and 70 embryos from 33 unilateral cases were used in embryo transplantation. PMID:27469257

  20. [Cloning of full-length coding sequence of tree shrew CD4 and prediction of its molecular characteristics].

    PubMed

    Tian, Wei-Wei; Gao, Yue-Dong; Guo, Yan; Huang, Jing-Fei; Xiao, Chang; Li, Zuo-Sheng; Zhang, Hua-Tang

    2012-02-01

    The tree shrews, as an ideal animal model receiving extensive attentions to human disease research, demands essential research tools, in particular cellular markers and monoclonal antibodies for immunological studies. In this paper, a 1 365 bp of the full-length CD4 cDNA encoding sequence was cloned from total RNA in peripheral blood of tree shrews, the sequence completes two unknown fragment gaps of tree shrews predicted CD4 cDNA in the GenBank database, and its molecular characteristics were analyzed compared with other mammals by using biology software such as Clustal W2.0 and so forth. The results showed that the extracellular and intracellular domains of tree shrews CD4 amino acid sequence are conserved. The tree shrews CD4 amino acid sequence showed a close genetic relationship with Homo sapiens and Macaca mulatta. Most regions of the tree shrews CD4 molecule surface showed positive charges as humans. However, compared with CD4 extracellular domain D1 of human, CD4 D1 surface of tree shrews showed more negative charges, and more two N-glycosylation sites, which may affect antibody binding. This study provides a theoretical basis for the preparation and functional studies of CD4 monoclonal antibody.

  1. The bicolored white-toothed shrew Crocidura leucodon (HERMANN 1780) is an indigenous host of mammalian Borna disease virus.

    PubMed

    Dürrwald, Ralf; Kolodziejek, Jolanta; Weissenböck, Herbert; Nowotny, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    Borna disease (BD) is a sporadic neurologic disease of horses and sheep caused by mammalian Borna disease virus (BDV). Its unique epidemiological features include: limited occurrence in certain endemic regions of central Europe, yearly varying disease peaks, and a seasonal pattern with higher disease frequencies in spring and a disease nadir in autumn. It is most probably not directly transmitted between horses and sheep. All these features led to the assumption that an indigenous virus reservoir of BDV other than horses and sheep may exist. The search for such a reservoir had been unsuccessful until a few years ago five BDV-infected shrews were found in a BD-endemic area in Switzerland. So far, these data lacked further confirmation. We therefore initiated a study in shrews in endemic areas of Germany. Within five years 107 shrews of five different species were collected. BDV infections were identified in 14 individuals of the species bicolored white-toothed shrew (Crocidura leucodon, HERMANN 1780), all originating from BD-endemic territories. Immunohistological analysis showed widespread distribution of BDV antigen both in the nervous system and in epithelial and mesenchymal tissues without pathological alterations. Large amounts of virus, demonstrated by presence of viral antigen in epithelial cells of the oral cavity and in keratinocytes of the skin, may be a source of infection for natural and spill-over hosts. Genetic analyses reflected a close relationship of the BDV sequences obtained from the shrews with the regional BDV cluster. At one location a high percentage of BDV-positive shrews was identified in four consecutive years, which points towards a self-sustaining infection cycle in bicolored white-toothed shrews. Analyses of behavioral and population features of this shrew species revealed that the bicolored white-toothed shrew may indeed play an important role as an indigenous host of BDV.

  2. Generation and characterization of a breast carcinoma model by PyMT overexpression in mammary epithelial cells of tree shrew, an animal close to primates in evolution.

    PubMed

    Ge, Guang-Zhe; Xia, Hou-Jun; He, Bao-Li; Zhang, Hai-Lin; Liu, Wen-Jing; Shao, Ming; Wang, Chun-Yan; Xiao, Ji; Ge, Fei; Li, Fu-Bing; Li, Yi; Chen, Ceshi

    2016-02-01

    The tree shrew is becoming an attractive experimental animal model for human breast cancer owing to a closer relationship to primates/humans than rodents. Tree shrews are superior to classical primates because tree shrew are easier to manipulate, maintain and propagate. It is required to establish a high-efficiency tree shrew breast cancer model for etiological research and drug assessment. Our previous studies suggest that 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) and medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) induce breast tumors in tree shrews with a low frequency (<50%) and long latency (∼ 7-month), making these methods less than ideal. We induced mammary tumors in tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri chinensis) by injection of lentivirus expressing the PyMT oncogene into mammary ducts of 22 animals. Most tree shrews developed mammary tumors with a latency of about three weeks, and by 7 weeks all injected tree shrews had developed mammary tumors. Among these, papillary carcinoma is the predominant tumor type. One case showed lymph node and lung metastasis. Interestingly, the expression levels of phosphorylated AKT, ERK and STAT3 were elevated in 41-68% of PyMT-induced mammary tumors, but not all tumors. Finally, we observed that the growth of PyMT-induced tree shrew mammary tumors was significantly inhibited by Cisplatin and Epidoxorubicin. PyMT-induced tree shrew mammary tumor model may be suitable for further breast cancer research and drug development, due to its high efficiency and short latency.

  3. The Japanese Mind: Understanding Contemporary Japanese Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Roger J., Ed.; Ikeno, Osamu, Ed.

    This collection of essays offers an overview of contemporary Japanese culture, and can serve as a resource for classes studying Japan. The 28 essays offer an informative, accessible look at the values, attitudes, behavior patterns, and communication styles of modern Japan from the unique perspective of the Japanese people. Filled with examples…

  4. Bullying in Japanese Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobayashi, Futoshi

    Noting that although many Western educators praise the Japanese educational system because of its students' academic achievements, schools in Japan have developed severe and prevalent problems with student bullying. This paper examines the problem of bullying in Japanese schools. Part 1 of the paper reviews bullying incidents in Japanese schools…

  5. A content analysis of the presentation of the mole concept in chemistry textbooks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staver, John R.; Lumpe, Andrew T.

    The goal of this study was to examine the means used by textbook authors to introduce, define, and explain the mole concept in high school and introductory college chemistry textbooks. The analysis was framed by four questions:1How is the mole defined?2What concepts about the atom are introduced prior to the mole?3Is Avogadro's constant presented as an experimentally determined value?4What is the context for introducing the mole?Twenty-nine high school and introductory college level chemistry texts were examined. After independent reading of appropriate sections of each text, discussion of differences, second or third readings of texts, and subsequent discussions, both authors reach 100% agreement concerning the results. Major conclusions were: Two ways of defining the mole dominate the texts. One way defines the mole as Avogadro's number (6.02 × 1023) particles; the other method defines the mole in terms of carbon-12. All texts that present a definition in terms of C-12 introduce and define concepts about the atom prior to introducing the mole. Most texts at all levels point out that the value 6.02 × 1023 is an experimentally determined quantity. Nearly all texts discuss the mole in relation to die problem of finding a way to count particles that are too small to be directly weighed. Most texts also use a familiar counting unit, such as the dozen, to introduce the mole by analogy. Four issues were discussed: (a) the defining attributes of the mole concept itself and the cognitive requirements for comprehending the two most frequently used definitions; (b) the connection between the definition of the mole presented in the text and the concepts about atoms that are introduced before the mole concept is developed; (c) the experimental nature of Avogadro's number; and (d) the context or setting for developing the mole concept.

  6. Multilocus phylogeography and systematic revision of North American water shrews (genus: Sorex)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hope, Andrew G.; Panter, Nicholas; Cook, Joseph A.; Talbot, Sandra L.; Nagorsen, David W.

    2014-01-01

    North American water shrews, which have traditionally included Sorex alaskanus, S. bendirii, and S. palustris, are widely distributed through Nearctic boreal forests and adapted for life in semiaquatic environments. Molecular mitochondrial signatures for these species have recorded an evolutionary history with variable levels of regional divergence, suggesting a strong role of Quaternary environmental change in speciation processes. We expanded molecular analyses, including more-comprehensive rangewide sampling of specimens representing North American water shrew taxa, except S. alaskanus, and sequencing of 4 independent loci from the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes. We investigated relative divergence of insular populations along the North Pacific Coast, and newly recognized diversity from southwestern montane locations, potentially representing refugial isolates. Congruent independent genealogies, lack of definitive evidence for contemporary gene flow, and high support from coalescent species trees indicated differentiation of 4 major geographic lineages over multiple glacial cycles of the late Quaternary, similar to a growing number of boreal taxa. Limited divergence of insular populations suggested colonization following the last glacial. Characterization of southwestern montane diversity will require further sampling but divergence over multiple loci is indicative of a relictual sky-island fauna. We have reviewed and revised North American water shrew taxonomy including the recognition of 3 species within what was previously known as S. palustris. The possibility of gene flow between most distantly related North American water shrew lineages coupled with unresolved early diversification of this group and other sibling species reflects a complex but potentially productive system for investigating speciation processes.

  7. Chronic Clomipramine Treatment Reverses Core Symptom of Depression in Subordinate Tree Shrews

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jing; Chai, Anping; Zhou, Qixin; Lv, Longbao; Wang, Liping; Yang, Yuexiong; Xu, Lin

    2013-01-01

    Chronic stress is the major cause of clinical depression. The behavioral signs of depression, including anhedonia, learning and memory deficits, and sleep disruption, result from the damaging effects of stress hormones on specific neural pathways. The Chinese tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri chinensis) is an aggressive non-human primate with a hierarchical social structure that has become a well-established model of the behavioral, endocrine, and neurobiological changes associated with stress-induced depression. The tricyclic antidepressant clomipramine treats many of the core symptoms of depression in humans. To further test the validity of the tree shrew model of depression, we examined the effects of clomipramine on depression-like behaviors and physiological stress responses induced by social defeat in subordinate tree shrews. Social defeat led to weight loss, anhedonia (as measured by sucrose preference), unstable fluctuations in locomotor activity, sustained urinary cortisol elevation, irregular cortisol rhythms, and deficient hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP). Clomipramine ameliorated anhedonia and irregular locomotor activity, and partially rescued the irregular cortisol rhythm. In contrast, weight loss increased, cortisol levels were even higher, and in vitro LTP was still impaired in the clomipramine treatment group. These results demonstrate the unique advantage of the tree shrew social defeat model of depression. PMID:24312510

  8. Chronic clomipramine treatment reverses core symptom of depression in subordinate tree shrews.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Chai, Anping; Zhou, Qixin; Lv, Longbao; Wang, Liping; Yang, Yuexiong; Xu, Lin

    2013-01-01

    Chronic stress is the major cause of clinical depression. The behavioral signs of depression, including anhedonia, learning and memory deficits, and sleep disruption, result from the damaging effects of stress hormones on specific neural pathways. The Chinese tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri chinensis) is an aggressive non-human primate with a hierarchical social structure that has become a well-established model of the behavioral, endocrine, and neurobiological changes associated with stress-induced depression. The tricyclic antidepressant clomipramine treats many of the core symptoms of depression in humans. To further test the validity of the tree shrew model of depression, we examined the effects of clomipramine on depression-like behaviors and physiological stress responses induced by social defeat in subordinate tree shrews. Social defeat led to weight loss, anhedonia (as measured by sucrose preference), unstable fluctuations in locomotor activity, sustained urinary cortisol elevation, irregular cortisol rhythms, and deficient hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP). Clomipramine ameliorated anhedonia and irregular locomotor activity, and partially rescued the irregular cortisol rhythm. In contrast, weight loss increased, cortisol levels were even higher, and in vitro LTP was still impaired in the clomipramine treatment group. These results demonstrate the unique advantage of the tree shrew social defeat model of depression.

  9. Social stress in tree shrews: effects on physiology, brain function, and behavior of subordinate individuals.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Eberhard; Flügge, Gabriele

    2002-08-01

    Social stress is known to be involved in the etiology of central nervous disorders such as depression. In recent years, animal models have been developed that use chronic stress to induce neuroendocrine and central nervous changes that might be similar to those occurring in the course of the development of depressive disorders. The present review gives a summary of observations made in the tree shrew chronic social stress model. During periods of daily social stress, male tree shrews develop symptoms that are known from many depressed patients such as persistent hyperactivities of both the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and sympathetic nervous system, disturbances in sleeping patterns, and reduced motor activity. Moreover, various physiological parameters indicate an acceleration of the over all metabolic rate in socially stressed tree shrews. Some of these parameters can be renormalized by antidepressants thus supporting the view of the tree shrew social stress paradigm as model for major depression. In the brains of socially stressed animals, monoamine receptors show dynamic changes that reflect adaptation to the persistent monoaminergic hyperactivity during periods of chronic stress. In addition to the changes in neurotransmitter systems, there are structural changes in neurons, e.g., retraction of the dendrites of hippocampal pyramidal neurons. Together, these processes are suggested as a cause of behavioral alterations that can be counteracted by antidepressants in this naturalistic social stress model.

  10. Nerve growth factor promotes in vitro proliferation of neural stem cells from tree shrews

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Liu-lin; Chen, Zhi-wei; Wang, Ting-hua

    2016-01-01

    Neural stem cells promote neuronal regeneration and repair of brain tissue after injury, but have limited resources and proliferative ability in vivo. We hypothesized that nerve growth factor would promote in vitro proliferation of neural stem cells derived from the tree shrews, a primate-like mammal that has been proposed as an alternative to primates in biomedical translational research. We cultured neural stem cells from the hippocampus of tree shrews at embryonic day 38, and added nerve growth factor (100 μg/L) to the culture medium. Neural stem cells from the hippocampus of tree shrews cultured without nerve growth factor were used as controls. After 3 days, fluorescence microscopy after DAPI and nestin staining revealed that the number of neurospheres and DAPI/nestin-positive cells was markedly greater in the nerve growth factor-treated cells than in control cells. These findings demonstrate that nerve growth factor promotes the proliferation of neural stem cells derived from tree shrews. PMID:27212919

  11. [Preliminary investigation of viruses to the wild tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri Chinese)].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin-Xing; Li, Jing-Xiao; Wang, Wen-Guang; Sun, Xiao-Mei; He, Chun-Yan; Dai, Jie-Jie

    2011-02-01

    Virological testing and monitoring is a fundamental part of quality control of experimental animals. However, there are few papers regarding the spectrum and status of natural infection in wild tree shrews with human and animal pathogenic viruses. Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent adsorption assay (ELISA), we tested sixty wild tree shrews captured from Qinglong, an outskirt region of Kunming, Yunnan Province, China for eleven viruses, including herpes simplex virus, coxsackie virus, influenza virus, HAV, HBV, HCV, HDV, dengue virus, hemorrhagic fever virus and measles virus. Our results showed that, in the serum samples, 22/60 (36.7%) and 1/60 (1.67%) were antibody positive for herpes simplex virus and coxsackie virus, respectively, and 4/60 (6.7%) were antigen positive for rotavirus in the feces. The remaining species of viruses were negative in these tree shrews. Based on these results, we propose that herpes simplex virus, coxsackie virus and cotavirus should be listed as top priority for routine virological monitoring of tree shrews.

  12. Two new species of shrews (Soricidae) from the western highlands of Guatemala

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodman, Neal

    2010-01-01

    The broad-clawed shrews (Soricomorpha: Soricidae: Cryptotis) encompass a clade of 5 species—Cryptotis alticolus (Merriam), C. goldmani (Merriam), C. goodwini Jackson, C. griseoventris Jackson, and C. peregrinus (Merriam)—that is known collectively as the Cryptotis goldmani group and is characterized by broadened forefeet, elongated and broadened fore claws, and broadened humeri. These shrews are distributed in highland regions from central Mexico to Honduras. Two broad-clawed shrews, C. goodwini and C. griseoventris, occur in southern Mexico and Guatemala and are presumed sister species whose primary distinguishing feature is the larger size of C. goodwini. In an investigation of variation within and between these 2 species, I studied characteristics of the postcranial skeleton. Statistical analyses of a variety of character suites indicate that the forelimb morphology in this group exhibits less intraspecific variation and greater interspecific variation than cranio-mandibular morphology, although most skull characters support groupings based on forelimb characters. Together, these characters define 4 distinct groups among the specimens examined. C. griseoventris is restricted to the northern highlands of Chiapas, Mexico, and C. goodwini occurs in the southern highlands of Chiapas and Guatemala. Herein, I describe 2 new species of broad-clawed shrews from the Sierra de los Cuchumatanes, Guatemala.

  13. Persistence and diversification of the Holarctic shrew, Sorex tundrensis (Family Soricidae), in response to climate change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hope, A.G.; Waltari, Eric; Fedorov, V.B.; Goropashnaya, A.V.; Talbot, S.L.; Cook, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Environmental processes govern demography, species movements, community turnover and diversification and yet in many respects these dynamics are still poorly understood at high latitudes. We investigate the combined effects of climate change and geography through time for a widespread Holarctic shrew, Sorex tundrensis. We include a comprehensive suite of closely related outgroup taxa and three independent loci to explore phylogeographic structure and historical demography. We then explore the implications of these findings for other members of boreal communities. The tundra shrew and its sister species, the Tien Shan shrew (Sorex asper), exhibit strong geographic population structure across Siberia and into Beringia illustrating local centres of endemism that correspond to Late Pleistocene refugia. Ecological niche predictions for both current and historical distributions indicate a model of persistence through time despite dramatic climate change. Species tree estimation under a coalescent process suggests that isolation between populations has been maintained across timeframes deeper than the periodicity of Pleistocene glacial cycling. That some species such as the tundra shrew have a history of persistence largely independent of changing climate, whereas other boreal species shifted their ranges in response to climate change, highlights the dynamic processes of community assembly at high latitudes. ?? 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Persistence and diversification of the Holarctic shrew, Sorex tundrensis (Family Soricidae), in response to climate change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hope, Andrew G.; Waltari, Eric; Fedorov, V.B.; Goropashnaya, A.V.; Talbot, Sandra; Cook, Joseph A.

    2014-01-01

    Environmental processes govern demography, species movements, community turnover and diversification and yet in many respects these dynamics are still poorly understood at high latitudes. We investigate the combined effects of climate change and geography through time for a widespread Holarctic shrew, Sorex tundrensis. We include a comprehensive suite of closely related outgroup taxa and three independent loci to explore phylogeographic structure and historical demography. We then explore the implications of these findings for other members of boreal communities. The tundra shrew and its sister species, the Tien Shan shrew (Sorex asper), exhibit strong geographic population structure across Siberia and into Beringia illustrating local centres of endemism that correspond to Late Pleistocene refugia. Ecological niche predictions for both current and historical distributions indicate a model of persistence through time despite dramatic climate change. Species tree estimation under a coalescent process suggests that isolation between populations has been maintained across timeframes deeper than the periodicity of Pleistocene glacial cycling. That some species such as the tundra shrew have a history of persistence largely independent of changing climate, whereas other boreal species shifted their ranges in response to climate change, highlights the dynamic processes of community assembly at high latitudes.

  15. Phenotypic flexibility in the energetic strategy of the greater white-toothed shrew, Crocidura russula.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Flávio G; Tapisso, Joaquim T; Monarca, Rita I; Cerveira, Ana M; Mathias, Maria L

    2016-02-01

    The balance between energetic acquisition and expenditure depends on the amount of energy allocated to biological functions such as thermoregulation, growth, reproduction and behavior. Ambient temperature has a profound effect on this balance, with species inhabiting colder climates often needing to invest more energy in thermoregulation to maintain body temperature. This leads to local behavioral and physiological adaptations that increase energetic efficiency. In this study, we investigated the role of activity, behavior and thermogenic capacity in the ability of the greater white-toothed shrew, Crocidura russula, to cope with seasonal changes. Individuals were captured in the Sintra-Cascais Natural Park, a Mediterranean region, and separated into three experimental groups: a control group, acclimated to a 12L:12D photoperiod and temperature of 18-20°C; a winter group, acclimatized to natural winter fluctuations of light and temperature; and a summer group, acclimatized to natural summer fluctuations of light and temperature. No differences were found in resting metabolic rate and nonshivering thermogenesis between the three groups. However, winter shrews significantly reduced their activity, particularly at night, compared to the control and summer groups. Differences in torpor use were also found between groups, with winter shrews entering torpor more frequently and during shorter periods of time than summer and control shrews. Our results indicate C. russula from Sintra relies on the flexibility of energy saving mechanisms, namely daily activity level and torpor use, to cope with seasonal changes in a Mediterranean climate, rather than mechanisms involving body heat production.

  16. "The Taming of the Shrew." A Play Packet To Accompany "Elementary, My Dear Shakespeare."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engen, Barbara; Campbell, Joy

    Intended for use by elementary school teachers as a supplement to the book, "Elementary, My Dear Shakespeare," or for use by itself to produce one Shakespeare play, this play packet contains ready-to-reproduce materials for the production of "The Taming of the Shrew." Materials include: staging suggestions for scenery, props,…

  17. Persistence and diversification of the Holarctic shrew, Sorex tundrensis (Family Soricidae), in response to climate change.

    PubMed

    Hope, Andrew G; Waltari, Eric; Fedorov, Vadim B; Goropashnaya, Anna V; Talbot, Sandra L; Cook, Joseph A

    2011-10-01

    Environmental processes govern demography, species movements, community turnover and diversification and yet in many respects these dynamics are still poorly understood at high latitudes. We investigate the combined effects of climate change and geography through time for a widespread Holarctic shrew, Sorex tundrensis. We include a comprehensive suite of closely related outgroup taxa and three independent loci to explore phylogeographic structure and historical demography. We then explore the implications of these findings for other members of boreal communities. The tundra shrew and its sister species, the Tien Shan shrew (Sorex asper), exhibit strong geographic population structure across Siberia and into Beringia illustrating local centres of endemism that correspond to Late Pleistocene refugia. Ecological niche predictions for both current and historical distributions indicate a model of persistence through time despite dramatic climate change. Species tree estimation under a coalescent process suggests that isolation between populations has been maintained across timeframes deeper than the periodicity of Pleistocene glacial cycling. That some species such as the tundra shrew have a history of persistence largely independent of changing climate, whereas other boreal species shifted their ranges in response to climate change, highlights the dynamic processes of community assembly at high latitudes.

  18. The neurobiology and behavior of the American water shrew (Sorex palustris).

    PubMed

    Catania, Kenneth C

    2013-06-01

    American water shrews (Sorex palustris) are aggressive predators that dive into streams and ponds to find prey at night. They do not use eyesight for capturing fish or for discriminating shapes. Instead they make use of vibrissae to detect and attack water movements generated by active prey and to detect the form of stationary prey. Tactile investigations are supplemented with underwater sniffing. This remarkable behavior consists of exhalation of air bubbles that spread onto objects and are then re-inhaled. Recordings for ultrasound both above and below water provide no evidence for echolocation or sonar, and presentation of electric fields and anatomical investigations provide no evidence for electroreception. Counts of myelinated fibers show by far the largest volume of sensory information comes from the trigeminal nerve compared to optic and cochlear nerves. This is in turn reflected in the organization of the water shrew's neocortex, which contains two large somatosensory areas and much smaller visual and auditory areas. The shrew's small brain with few cortical areas may allow exceptional speed in processing sensory information and producing motor output. Water shrews can accurately attack the source of a water disturbance in only 50 ms, perhaps outpacing any other mammalian predator.

  19. 2-arachidonoylglycerol interferes with lithium-induced vomiting in the house musk shrew, Suncus murinus.

    PubMed

    Sticht, M A; Rock, E M; Parker, L A

    2013-08-15

    The role of the endocannabinoid system in vomiting has been previously studied using several animal species. These investigations have clearly demonstrated an anti-emetic role for the eCB, anandamide, in these animal models; however, research concerning the role of 2-arhachidonoylglycerol (2AG) has been less clear. The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of exogenous 2AG administration in the house musk shrew, Suncus murinus. In Experiment 1, shrews were injected with vehicle or 2AG (1, 2, 5, 10 mg/kg) 15 min prior to behavioral testing in which the frequency of vomiting episodes was observed. In Experiment 2, shrews were pre-treated with 2AG (2, 5 mg/kg) prior to being administered the emetic drug, lithium chloride (LiCl). It was found that 2AG alone did not induce emesis, but interfered with vomiting in response to LiCl administration. The anti-emetic effects of 2AG in Suncus murinus do not appear to be mediated by CB1 receptors, as concomitant pretreatment with the CB1 receptor antagonist, SR141716, did not reverse the suppressive effects of 2AG. These results confirm that manipulations that increase levels of 2AG exert anti-emetic effects in the house musk shrew.

  20. Isolation and characterization of a novel arenavirus harbored by Rodents and Shrews in Zhejiang province, China

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Kun; Lin, Xian-Dan; Wang, Wen; Shi, Mang; Guo, Wen-Ping; Zhang, Xiao-He; Xing, Jian-Guang; and others

    2015-02-15

    To determine the biodiversity of arenaviruses in China, we captured and screened rodents and shrews in Wenzhou city, Zhejiang province, a locality where hemorrhagic fever diseases are endemic in humans. Accordingly, arenaviruses were detected in 42 of 351 rodents from eight species, and in 12 of 272 Asian house shrews (Suncus murinus), by RT-PCR targeting the L segment. From these, a single arenavirus was successfully isolated in cell culture. The virion particles exhibited a typical arenavirus morphology under transmission electron microscopy. Comparison of the S and L segment sequences revealed high levels of nucleotide (>32.2% and >39.6%) and amino acid (>28.8% and >43.8%) sequence differences from known arenaviruses, suggesting that it represents a novel arenavirus, which we designated Wenzhou virus (WENV). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that all WENV strains harbored by both rodents and Asian house shrews formed a distinct lineage most closely related to Old World arenaviruses. - Highlights: • A novel arenavirus (Wenzhou virus) was identified in Zhejiang province, China. • The virus is highly circulating in five species of rats and one species of shrews • More efforts are needed to infer whether it is pathogenic to humans or not.

  1. High activity of the stress promoter contributes to susceptibility to stress in the tree shrew

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Hui; Sun, Yun-Jun; Lv, Yan-Hong; Ni, Rong-Jun; Shu, Yu-Mian; Feng, Xiu-Yu; Wang, Yu; Shan, Qing-Hong; Zu, Ya-Nan; Zhou, Jiang-Ning

    2016-01-01

    Stress is increasingly present in everyday life in our fast-paced society and involved in the pathogenesis of many psychiatric diseases. Corticotrophin-releasing-hormone (CRH) plays a pivotal role in regulating the stress responses. The tree shrews are highly vulnerable to stress which makes them the promising animal models for studying stress responses. However, the mechanisms underlying their high stress-susceptibility remained unknown. Here we confirmed that cortisol was the dominate corticosteroid in tree shrew and was significantly increased after acute stress. Our study showed that the function of tree shrew CRH - hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis was nearly identical to human that contributed little to their hyper-responsiveness to stress. Using CRH transcriptional regulation analysis we discovered a peculiar active glucocorticoid receptor response element (aGRE) site within the tree shrew CRH promoter, which continued to recruit co-activators including SRC-1 (steroid receptor co-activator-1) to promote CRH transcription under basal or forskolin/dexamethasone treatment conditions. Basal CRH mRNA increased when the aGRE was knocked into the CRH promoter in human HeLa cells using CAS9/CRISPR. The aGRE functioned critically to form the “Stress promoter” that contributed to the higher CRH expression and susceptibility to stress. These findings implicated novel molecular bases of the stress-related diseases in specific populations. PMID:27125313

  2. Description of the mitogenome of Gansu mole (Scapanulus oweni).

    PubMed

    Xu, Yu; Huang, Xiaofeng; Hu, Yunting; Tu, Feiyun

    2016-05-01

    The Gansu mole Scapanulus oweni belongs to family Talpidae, and is distributed in the Central and Southwest China. In this study, the total mitochondrial genome of S. oweni was firstly determined. The genome is 16,826 bases in length and contains 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes and a displacement loop region, with a base composition of A 34.0%, G 13.5%, T 28.7% and C 23.9%. All of the protein-coding genes initiate with the orthodox ATG start codon execpt for Nd2 and Nd3 begin with ATT, Nd4 and Nd5, start with GTG and ATA, respectively. Four types of stop codons are used by the coding genes, including TAA for Nd1, Cox1, Cox2, Atp8, Atp6, Nd4L, Nd5, Nd6, TAG for Nd2, AGA for Cytb, and an incomplete stop codon T for Cox3, Nd3 and Nd4. The mito-genomic data of Gansu mole, S. oweni will be useful in determining its taxonomic status within Talpidae.

  3. Iridescent colour production in hairs of blind golden moles (Chrysochloridae).

    PubMed

    Snyder, Holly K; Maia, Rafael; D'Alba, Liliana; Shultz, Allison J; Rowe, Karen M C; Rowe, Kevin C; Shawkey, Matthew D

    2012-06-23

    Relative to other metazoans, the mammalian integument is thought to be limited in colour. In particular, while iridescence is widespread among birds and arthropods, it has only rarely been reported in mammals. Here, we examine the colour, morphology and optical mechanisms in hairs from four species of golden mole (Mammalia: Chrysochloridae) that are characterized by sheens ranging from purple to green. Microspectrophotometry reveals that this colour is weak and variable. Iridescent hairs are flattened and have highly reduced cuticular scales, providing a broad and smooth surface for light reflection. These scales form multiple layers of light and dark materials of consistent thickness, strikingly similar to those in the elytra of iridescent beetles. Optical modelling suggests that the multi-layers produce colour through thin-film interference, and that the sensitivity of this mechanism to slight changes in layer thickness and number explains colour variability. While coloured integumentary structures are typically thought to evolve as sexual ornaments, the blindness of golden moles suggests that the colour may be an epiphenomenon resulting from evolution via other selective factors, including the ability to move and keep clean in dirt and sand.

  4. The crouching of the shrew: Mechanical consequences of limb posture in small mammals

    PubMed Central

    Kendall, Corinne J.; Hermanson, John W.

    2016-01-01

    An important trend in the early evolution of mammals was the shift from a sprawling stance, whereby the legs are held in a more abducted position, to a parasagittal one, in which the legs extend more downward. After that transition, many mammals shifted from a crouching stance to a more upright one. It is hypothesized that one consequence of these transitions was a decrease in the total mechanical power required for locomotion, because side-to-side accelerations of the body have become smaller, and thus less costly with changes in limb orientation. To test this hypothesis we compared the kinetics of locomotion in two mammals of body size close to those of early mammals (< 40 g), both with parasagittally oriented limbs: a crouching shrew (Blarina brevicauda; 5 animals, 17 trials) and a more upright vole (Microtus pennsylvanicus; 4 animals, 22 trials). As predicted, voles used less mechanical power per unit body mass to perform steady locomotion than shrews did (P = 0.03). However, while lateral forces were indeed smaller in voles (15.6 ± 2.0% body weight) than in shrews (26.4 ± 10.9%; P = 0.046), the power used to move the body from side-to-side was negligible, making up less than 5% of total power in both shrews and voles. The most power consumed for both species was that used to accelerate the body in the direction of travel, and this was much larger for shrews than for voles (P = 0.01). We conclude that side-to-side accelerations are negligible for small mammals–whether crouching or more upright–compared to their sprawling ancestors, and that a more upright posture further decreases the cost of locomotion compared to crouching by helping to maintain the body’s momentum in the direction of travel. PMID:27413633

  5. Short report: Genetic diversity of Thottapalayam virus, a Hantavirus harbored by the Asian house shrew (Suncus murinus) in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hae Ji; Kosoy, Michael Y; Shrestha, Sanjaya K; Shrestha, Mrigendra P; Pavlin, Julie A; Gibbons, Robert V; Yanagihara, Richard

    2011-09-01

    Despite the recent discovery of genetically divergent hantaviruses in shrews of multiple species in widely separated geographic regions, data are unavailable about the genetic diversity and phylogeography of Thottapalayam virus (TPMV), a hantavirus originally isolated from an Asian house shrew (Suncus murinus) captured in southern India more than four decades ago. To bridge this knowledge gap, the S, M, and L segments of hantavirus RNA were amplified by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction from archival lung tissues of Asian house shrews captured in Nepal from January to September 1996. Pair-wise alignment and comparison revealed approximately 80% nucleotide and > 94% amino acid sequence similarity to prototype TPMV. Phylogenetic analyses, generated by maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods, showed geographic-specific clustering of TPMV, similar to that observed for rodent- and soricid-borne hantaviruses. These findings confirm that the Asian house shrew is the natural reservoir of TPMV and suggest a long-standing virus-host relationship.

  6. Metagenomic analysis of the shrew enteric virome reveals novel viruses related to human stool-associated viruses.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Michihito; Orba, Yasuko; Ueno, Keisuke; Ishii, Akihiro; Moonga, Ladslav; Hang'ombe, Bernard M; Mweene, Aaron S; Ito, Kimihito; Sawa, Hirofumi

    2015-02-01

    Shrews are small insectivorous mammals that are distributed worldwide. Similar to rodents, shrews live on the ground and are commonly found near human residences. In this study, we investigated the enteric virome of wild shrews in the genus Crocidura using a sequence-independent viral metagenomics approach. A large portion of the shrew enteric virome was composed of insect viruses, whilst novel viruses including cyclovirus, picornavirus and picorna-like virus were also identified. Several cycloviruses, including variants of human cycloviruses detected in cerebrospinal fluid and stools, were detected in wild shrews at a high prevalence rate. The identified picornavirus was distantly related to human parechovirus, inferring the presence of a new genus in this family. The identified picorna-like viruses were characterized as different species of calhevirus 1, which was discovered previously in human stools. Complete or nearly complete genome sequences of these novel viruses were determined in this study and then were subjected to further genetic characterization. Our study provides an initial view of the diversity and distinctiveness of the shrew enteric virome and highlights unique novel viruses related to human stool-associated viruses.

  7. Isolation and identification of symbiotic bacteria from the skin, mouth, and rectum of wild and captive tree shrews

    PubMed Central

    LI, Gui; LAI, Ren; DUAN, Gang; LIU, Long-Bao; ZHANG, Zhi-Ye; LIU, Huang; XIANG, Xun

    2014-01-01

    Endosymbionts influence many aspects of their hosts’ health conditions, including physiology, development, immunity, metabolism, etc. Tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri chinensis) have attracted increasing attention in modeling human diseases and therapeutic responses due to their close relationship with primates. To clarify the situation of symbiotic bacteria from their body surface, oral cavity, and anus, 12 wild and 12 the third generation of captive tree shrews were examined. Based on morphological and cultural characteristics, physiological and biochemical tests, as well as the 16S rDNA full sequence analysis, 12 bacteria strains were isolated and identified from the wild tree shrews: body surface: Bacillus subtilis (detection rate 42%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (25%), Staphlococcus aureus (33%), S. Epidermidis (75%), Micrococcus luteus (25%), Kurthia gibsonii (17%); oral cavity: Neisseria mucosa (58%), Streptococcus pneumonia (17%); anus: Enterococcus faecalis (17%), Lactococus lactis (33%), Escherichia coli (92%), Salmonella typhosa (17%); whereas, four were indentified from the third generation captive tree shrews: body surface: S. epidermidis (75%); oral cavity: N.mucosa (67%); anus: L. lactis (33%), E. coli (100%). These results indicate that S. epidermidis, N. mucosa, L. lactis and E. coli were major bacteria in tree shrews, whereas, S. aureus, M. luteus, K. gibsonii, E. faecalis and S. typhosa were species-specific flora. This study facilitates the future use of tree shrews as a standard experimental animal and improves our understanding of the relationship between endosymbionts and their hosts. PMID:25465085

  8. Isolation and identification of symbiotic bacteria from the skin, mouth, and rectum of wild and captive tree shrews.

    PubMed

    Li, Gui; Lai, Ren; Duan, Gang; Lyu, Long-Bao; Zhang, Zhi-Ye; Liu, Huang; Xiang, Xun

    2014-11-18

    Endosymbionts influence many aspects of their hosts' health conditions, including physiology, development, immunity, metabolism, etc. Tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri chinensis) have attracted increasing attention in modeling human diseases and therapeutic responses due to their close relationship with primates. To clarify the situation of symbiotic bacteria from their body surface, oral cavity, and anus, 12 wild and 12 the third generation of captive tree shrews were examined. Based on morphological and cultural characteristics, physiological and biochemical tests, as well as the 16S rDNA full sequence analysis, 12 bacteria strains were isolated and identified from the wild tree shrews: body surface: Bacillus subtilis (detection rate 42%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (25%), Staphlococcus aureus (33%), S. Epidermidis (75%), Micrococcus luteus (25%), Kurthia gibsonii (17%); oral cavity: Neisseria mucosa (58%), Streptococcus pneumonia (17%); anus: Enterococcus faecalis (17%), Lactococus lactis (33%), Escherichia coli (92%), Salmonella typhosa (17%); whereas, four were indentified from the third generation captive tree shrews: body surface: S. epidermidis (75%); oral cavity: N.mucosa (67%); anus: L. lactis (33%), E. coli (100%). These results indicate that S. epidermidis, N. mucosa, L. lactis and E. coli were major bacteria in tree shrews, whereas, S. aureus, M. luteus, K. gibsonii, E. faecalis and S. typhosa were species-specific flora. This study facilitates the future use of tree shrews as a standard experimental animal and improves our understanding of the relationship between endosymbionts and their hosts.

  9. Vocal development during postnatal growth and ear morphology in a shrew that generates seismic vibrations, Diplomesodon pulchellum.

    PubMed

    Zaytseva, Alexandra S; Volodin, Ilya A; Mason, Matthew J; Frey, Roland; Fritsch, Guido; Ilchenko, Olga G; Volodina, Elena V

    2015-09-01

    The ability of adult and subadult piebald shrews (Diplomesodon pulchellum) to produce 160Hz seismic waves is potentially reflected in their vocal ontogeny and ear morphology. In this study, the ontogeny of call variables and body traits was examined in 11 litters of piebald shrews, in two-day intervals from birth to 22 days (subadult), and ear structure was investigated in two specimens using micro-computed tomography (micro-CT). Across ages, the call fundamental frequency (f0) was stable in squeaks and clicks and increased steadily in screeches, representing an unusual, non-descending ontogenetic pathway of f0. The rate of the deep sinusoidal modulation (pulse rate) of screeches increased from 75Hz at 3-4 days to 138Hz at 21-22 days, probably relating to ontogenetic changes in contraction rates of the same muscles which are responsible for generating seismic vibrations. The ear reconstructions revealed that the morphologies of the middle and inner ears of the piebald shrew are very similar to those of the common shrew (Sorex araneus) and the lesser white-toothed shrew (Crocidura suaveolens), which are not known to produce seismic signals. These results suggest that piebald shrews use a mechanism other than hearing for perceiving seismic vibrations.

  10. Characterization of Imjin virus, a newly isolated hantavirus from the Ussuri white-toothed shrew (Crocidura lasiura).

    PubMed

    Song, Jin-Won; Kang, Hae Ji; Gu, Se Hun; Moon, Sung Sil; Bennett, Shannon N; Song, Ki-Joon; Baek, Luck Ju; Kim, Heung-Chul; O'Guinn, Monica L; Chong, Sung-Tae; Klein, Terry A; Yanagihara, Richard

    2009-06-01

    Until recently, the single known exception to the rodent-hantavirus association was Thottapalayam virus (TPMV), a long-unclassified virus isolated from the Asian house shrew (Suncus murinus). Robust gene amplification techniques have now uncovered several genetically distinct hantaviruses from shrews in widely separated geographic regions. Here, we report the characterization of a newly identified hantavirus, designated Imjin virus (MJNV), isolated from the lung tissues of Ussuri white-toothed shrews of the species Crocidura lasiura (order Soricomorpha, family Soricidae, subfamily Crocidurinae) captured near the demilitarized zone in the Republic of Korea during 2004 and 2005. Seasonal trapping revealed the highest prevalence of MJNV infection during the autumn, with evidence of infected shrews' clustering in distinct foci. Also, marked male predominance among anti-MJNV immunoglobulin G antibody-positive Ussuri shrews was found, whereas the male-to-female ratio among seronegative Ussuri shrews was near 1. Plaque reduction neutralization tests showed no cross neutralization for MJNV and rodent-borne hantaviruses but one-way cross neutralization for MJNV and TPMV. The nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences for the different MJNV genomic segments revealed nearly the same calculated distances from hantaviruses harbored by rodents in the subfamilies Murinae, Arvicolinae, Neotominae, and Sigmodontinae. Phylogenetic analyses of full-length S, M, and L segment sequences demonstrated that MJNV shared a common ancestry with TPMV and remained in a distinct out-group, suggesting early evolutionary divergence. Studies are in progress to determine if MJNV is pathogenic for humans.

  11. Application of the MOLE in post-nuclear accident characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, S.J.; Alvarez, J.L.

    1981-01-01

    Following a nuclear accident there is a need to determine the chemical composition of materials in liquid, solid and gaseous form, the crystalline structure of solids, the size and chemical composition of particles, and the chemical characterization of contaminants on surfaces. This analytical information is required to reconstruct the accident scenario, to select decontamination methods, and to determine future safety requirements. The MOLE (Molecular Optical Laser Examiner) is a Raman microprobe system which has proven to be a valuable analytical tool in providing this type of chemical information. It can determine the chemical species of polyatomic molecules and ions having characteristic Raman spectra. As little as 1 picogram of a component or a 1 ..mu..m particle can be analyzed. The imaging system can also provide mapping of selected components on a surface. A system description, sample handling techniques, and applications are presented. Specific applications to the Three Mile Island-Unit 2 accident are also addressed.

  12. Adult neurogenesis and its anatomical context in the hippocampus of three mole-rat species

    PubMed Central

    Amrein, Irmgard; Becker, Anton S.; Engler, Stefanie; Huang, Shih-hui; Müller, Julian; Slomianka, Lutz; Oosthuizen, Maria K.

    2014-01-01

    African mole-rats (family Bathyergidae) are small to medium sized, long-lived, and strictly subterranean rodents that became valuable animal models as a result of their longevity and diversity in social organization. The formation and integration of new hippocampal neurons in adult mammals (adult hippocampal neurogenesis, AHN) correlates negatively with age and positively with habitat complexity. Here we present quantitative data on AHN in wild-derived mole-rats of 1 year and older, and briefly describe its anatomical context including markers of neuronal function (calbindin and parvalbumin). Solitary Cape mole-rats (Georychus capensis), social highveld mole-rats (Cryptomys hottentotus pretoriae), and eusocial naked mole-rats (Heterocephalus glaber) were assessed. Compared to other rodents, the hippocampal formation in mole-rats is small, but shows a distinct cytoarchitecture in the dentate gyrus and CA1. Distributions of the calcium-binding proteins differ from those seen in rodents; e.g., calbindin in CA3 of naked mole-rats distributes similar to the pattern seen in early primate development, and calbindin staining extends into the stratum lacunosum-moleculare of Cape mole-rats. Proliferating cells and young neurons are found in low numbers in the hippocampus of all three mole-rat species. Resident granule cell numbers are low as well. Proliferating cells expressed as a percentage of resident granule cells are in the range of other rodents, while the percentage of young neurons is lower than that observed in surface dwelling rodents. Between mole-rat species, we observed no difference in the percentage of proliferating cells. The percentages of young neurons are high in social highveld and naked mole-rats, and low in solitary Cape mole-rats. The findings support that proliferation is regulated independently of average life expectancy and habitat. Instead, neuronal differentiation reflects species-specific demands, which appear lower in subterranean rodents. PMID

  13. Possible incipient sympatric ecological speciation in blind mole rats (Spalax)

    PubMed Central

    Hadid, Yarin; Tzur, Shay; Pavlíček, Tomáš; Šumbera, Radim; Šklíba, Jan; Lövy, Matěj; Fragman-Sapir, Ori; Beiles, Avigdor; Arieli, Ran; Raz, Shmuel; Nevo, Eviatar

    2013-01-01

    Sympatric speciation has been controversial since it was first proposed as a mode of speciation. Subterranean blind mole rats (Spalacidae) are considered to speciate allopatrically or peripatrically. Here, we report a possible incipient sympatric adaptive ecological speciation in Spalax galili (2n = 52). The study microsite (0.04 km2) is sharply subdivided geologically, edaphically, and ecologically into abutting barrier-free ecologies divergent in rock, soil, and vegetation types. The Pleistocene Alma basalt abuts the Cretaceous Senonian Kerem Ben Zimra chalk. Only 28% of 112 plant species were shared between the soils. We examined mitochondrial DNA in the control region and ATP6 in 28 mole rats from basalt and in 14 from chalk habitats. We also sequenced the complete mtDNA (16,423 bp) of four animals, two from each soil type. Remarkably, the frequency of all major haplotype clusters (HC) was highly soil-biased. HCI and HCII are chalk biased. HC-III was abundant in basalt (36%) but absent in chalk; HC-IV was prevalent in basalt (46.5%) but was low (20%) in chalk. Up to 40% of the mtDNA diversity was edaphically dependent, suggesting constrained gene flow. We identified a homologous recombinant mtDNA in the basalt/chalk studied area. Phenotypically significant divergences differentiate the two populations, inhabiting different soils, in adaptive oxygen consumption and in the amount of outside-nest activity. This identification of a possible incipient sympatric adaptive ecological speciation caused by natural selection indirectly refutes the allopatric alternative. Sympatric ecological speciation may be more prevalent in nature because of abundant and sharply abutting divergent ecologies. PMID:23359700

  14. High-molecular-mass hyaluronan mediates the cancer resistance of the naked mole rat.

    PubMed

    Tian, Xiao; Azpurua, Jorge; Hine, Christopher; Vaidya, Amita; Myakishev-Rempel, Max; Ablaeva, Julia; Mao, Zhiyong; Nevo, Eviatar; Gorbunova, Vera; Seluanov, Andrei

    2013-07-18

    The naked mole rat (Heterocephalus glaber) displays exceptional longevity, with a maximum lifespan exceeding 30 years. This is the longest reported lifespan for a rodent species and is especially striking considering the small body mass of the naked mole rat. In comparison, a similarly sized house mouse has a maximum lifespan of 4 years. In addition to their longevity, naked mole rats show an unusual resistance to cancer. Multi-year observations of large naked mole-rat colonies did not detect a single incidence of cancer. Here we identify a mechanism responsible for the naked mole rat's cancer resistance. We found that naked mole-rat fibroblasts secrete extremely high-molecular-mass hyaluronan (HA), which is over five times larger than human or mouse HA. This high-molecular-mass HA accumulates abundantly in naked mole-rat tissues owing to the decreased activity of HA-degrading enzymes and a unique sequence of hyaluronan synthase 2 (HAS2). Furthermore, the naked mole-rat cells are more sensitive to HA signalling, as they have a higher affinity to HA compared with mouse or human cells. Perturbation of the signalling pathways sufficient for malignant transformation of mouse fibroblasts fails to transform naked mole-rat cells. However, once high-molecular-mass HA is removed by either knocking down HAS2 or overexpressing the HA-degrading enzyme, HYAL2, naked mole-rat cells become susceptible to malignant transformation and readily form tumours in mice. We speculate that naked mole rats have evolved a higher concentration of HA in the skin to provide skin elasticity needed for life in underground tunnels. This trait may have then been co-opted to provide cancer resistance and longevity to this species.

  15. Binding sites of atrial natriuretic peptide in tree shrew adrenal gland

    SciTech Connect

    Fuchs, E.; Shigematsu, K.; Saavedra, J.M.

    1986-09-01

    Adrenal gland binding sites for atrial natriuretic peptide-(99-126) (ANP) were quantitated in tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri) by incubation of adrenal sections with (3-(/sup 125/I)-iodotyrosyl28) atrial natriuretic peptide-(99-126), followed by autoradiography with computerized microdensitometry. In the adrenal glands, there are three types of ANP binding sites. One is located in the zona glomerulosa (BMax 84 +/- 6 fmol/mg protein; Kd 122 +/- 9 pM); the second in the zona fasciculata and reticularis (BMax 29 +/- 2 fmol/mg protein; Kd 153 +/- 6 pM) and the third in the adrenal medulla (BMax 179 +/- 1 fmol/mg protein; Kd 70 +/- 2 pM). Besides the influence of ANP on the regulation of adrenocortical mineralcorticoid and glucocorticoid secretion our findings raise the possibility for a local site of action of atrial natriuretic peptide in the regulation of adrenomedullary catecholamines in the tree shrew, primates and man.

  16. Sequencing and analysis of the complete mitochondrial genome of tundra shrew (Sorex tundrensis) from China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chunzhu; Zhao, Shuai; Wu, Hualin; Wu, Shengyang; Zhang, Zhongwen; Wang, Bo; Dou, Huashan

    2016-07-01

    The complete mitogenome sequence of tundra shrew (Sorex tundrensis) was determined using long PCR. The genome was 17,444 bp in length and contained 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 23 transfer RNA genes, 1 origin of L strand replication and 1 control region. The overall base composition of the heavy strand is A (32.9%), C (24.8%), T (29.0%), and G (13.3%). The base compositions present clearly the A-T skew, which is most obviously in the control region and protein-coding genes. The extended termination-associated sequence domain, the central conserved domain and the conserved sequence block domain are defined in the mitochondrial genome control region of tundra shrew. Mitochondrial genome analyses based on MP, ML, NJ and Bayesian analyses yielded identical phylogenetic trees. The three Sorex species formed a monophyletic group with the high bootstrap value (100 %) in all examinations.

  17. Histopathological changes in the liver of tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri chinensis) persistently infected with hepatitis B virus

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background An animal model for HBV that more closely approximates the disease in humans is needed. The tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri) is closely related to primates and susceptible to HBV. We previously established that neonatal tree shrews can be persistently infected with HBV in vivo, and here present a six year follow-up histopathological study of these animals. Methods Group A consists of six tree shrews with persistent HBV infection, group B consists of three tree shrews with suspected persistent HBV infection, while group C consists of four tree shrews free of HBV infection. Serum and liver tissues samples were collected periodically from all animals. HBV antigen and HBV antibodies were detected by ELISA and/or TRFIA. HBV DNA in serum and in liver biopsies was measured by FQ-PCR. Liver biopsies were applied for general histopathologic observation and scoring, immunohistochemical detections of HBsAg and HBcAg, and ultrastructural observation with electron microscope technique. Results Hydropic, fatty and eosinophilic degeneration of hepatocytes, lymphocytic infiltration and hyperplasia of small bile ducts in the portal area were observed in group A. One animal infected with HBV for over six years showed multiple necrotic areas which had fused to form bridging necrosis and fibrosis, and megalocytosis. The hepatic histopathological scores of group A were higher than those of group B and C. The histopathological score correlated positively with the duration of infection. Conclusions Hepatic histopathological changes observed in chronically HBV-infected tree shrews are similar to those observed in HBV-infected humans. The tree shrew may represent a novel animal model for HBV infection. PMID:24220021

  18. Pacific Mole Crab (Emerita analoga) Abundance in Correlation with Waste Water Effluence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, L.; Dangerfield, L.; Minor, D.; Subedar, R.

    2012-12-01

    Previous studies have shown that pollutants such as ammonia and copper have had negative effects on marine invertebrate lifecycles. Along the Pacific Coast of California, a filter feeding invertebrate, the Pacific mole crab, Emerita analoga, is exposed to such pollutants regularly. In San Francisco, habitats for populations of Pacific mole crabs are located near the Oceanside Water Pollution Control Plant, which dumps waste water 4.5 miles off the coast. Due to this disturbance at the south end of Ocean Beach, we hypothesize that there is a negative correlation between the abundance of mole crabs and the levels of copper, zinc and ammonia in sewage released from the Oceanside plant each year. By analyzing four years of Pacific mole crab abundance data and utilizing yearly waste water discharge figures, we found that there is a slight negative correlation (-0.67057) between mole crab abundances and the total amount of waste water being released annually. The amount of copper released from 2007-2010 and the abundance of E. analoga also has a slight negative correlation (-0.6714). The correlation between Pacific mole crab abundance and the total amount of zinc is also a slightly negative (-0.48434). However, the correlation between the abundance of mole crabs and total amount of ammonia released is positive (0.4497). Further data are needed to ascertain the relationship between the abundance of the Pacific mole crab and the amount of pollutants released from nearby waste water treatment plants.

  19. Whole-Genome Sequence of a Novel Hantavirus Isolated from the European Mole (Talpa europaea)

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Se Hun; Hejduk, Janusz; Markowski, Janusz; Markowski, Marcin; Liberski, Paweł P.

    2015-01-01

    The complete genome sequence of Nova virus, a novel hantavirus isolated from a European mole (Talpa europaea) captured in central Poland, was determined. The availability of this sequence will facilitate the search for other mole-borne hantaviruses and will accelerate the acquisition of new knowledge about their phylogeography and evolutionary origin. PMID:26021917

  20. What's the Diagnosis? An Inquiry-Based Activity Focusing on Mole-Mass Conversions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruck, Laura B.; Towns, Marcy H.

    2011-01-01

    An inquiry-based mole-to-mass activity is presented associated with the analysis of blood. Students working in groups choose between two medical cases to determine if the "patient" has higher or lower concentrations of minerals than normal. The data are presented such that students must convert moles to mass in order to compare the patient values…

  1. The Naked Mole Rat Genome Resource: facilitating analyses of cancer and longevity-related adaptations

    PubMed Central

    Keane, Michael; Craig, Thomas; Alföldi, Jessica; Berlin, Aaron M.; Johnson, Jeremy; Seluanov, Andrei; Gorbunova, Vera; Di Palma, Federica; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin; Church, George M.; de Magalhães, João Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Motivation: The naked mole rat (Heterocephalus glaber) is an exceptionally long-lived and cancer-resistant rodent native to East Africa. Although its genome was previously sequenced, here we report a new assembly sequenced by us with substantially higher N50 values for scaffolds and contigs. Results: We analyzed the annotation of this new improved assembly and identified candidate genomic adaptations which may have contributed to the evolution of the naked mole rat’s extraordinary traits, including in regions of p53, and the hyaluronan receptors CD44 and HMMR (RHAMM). Furthermore, we developed a freely available web portal, the Naked Mole Rat Genome Resource (http://www.naked-mole-rat.org), featuring the data and results of our analysis, to assist researchers interested in the genome and genes of the naked mole rat, and also to facilitate further studies on this fascinating species. Availability and implementation: The Naked Mole Rat Genome Resource is freely available online at http://www.naked-mole-rat.org. This resource is open source and the source code is available at https://github.com/maglab/naked-mole-rat-portal. Contact: jp@senescence.info PMID:25172923

  2. Trading new neurons for status: Adult hippocampal neurogenesis in eusocial Damaraland mole-rats.

    PubMed

    Oosthuizen, M K; Amrein, I

    2016-06-02

    Diversity in social structures, from solitary to eusocial, is a prominent feature of subterranean African mole-rat species. Damaraland mole-rats are eusocial, they live in colonies that are characterized by a reproductive division of labor and a subdivision into castes based on physiology and behavior. Damaraland mole-rats are exceptionally long lived and reproductive animals show delayed aging compared to non-reproductive animals. In the present study, we described the hippocampal architecture and the rate of hippocampal neurogenesis of wild-derived, adult Damaraland mole-rats in relation to sex, relative age and social status or caste. Overall, Damaraland mole-rats were found to have a small hippocampus and low rates of neurogenesis. We found no correlation between neurogenesis and sex or relative age. Social status or caste was the most prominent modulator of neurogenesis. An inverse relationship between neurogenesis and social status was apparent, with queens displaying the lowest neurogenesis while the worker mole-rats had the most. As there is no natural progression from one caste to another, social status within a colony was relatively stable and is reflected in the level of neurogenesis. Our results correspond to those found in the naked mole-rat, and may reflect an evolutionary and environmentally conserved trait within social mole-rat species.

  3. The visual pulvinar in tree shrews II. Projections of four nuclei to areas of visual cortex.

    PubMed

    Lyon, David C; Jain, Neeraj; Kaas, Jon H

    2003-12-22

    Patterns of thalamocortical connections were related to architectonically defined subdivisions of the pulvinar complex and the dorsolateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) in tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri). Tree shrews are of special interest because they are considered close relatives of primates, and they have a highly developed visual system. Several distinguishable tracers were injected within and across cortical visual areas in individual tree shrews in order to reveal retinotopic patterns and cortical targets of subdivisions of the pulvinar. The results indicate that each of the three architectonic regions of the pulvinar has a distinctive pattern of cortical connections and that one of these divisions is further divided into two regions with different patterns of connections. Two of the pulvinar nuclei have similar retinotopic patterns of projections to caudal visual cortex. The large central nucleus of the pulvinar (Pc) projects to the first and second visual areas, V1 and V2, and an adjoining temporal dorsal area (TD) in retinotopic patterns indicating that the upper visual quadrant is represented dorsal to the lower quadrant in Pc. The smaller ventral nucleus (Pv) which stains darkly for the Cat-301 antigen, projects to these same cortical areas, with a retinotopic pattern. Pv also projects to a temporal anterior area, TA. The dorsal nucleus (Pd), which densely expresses AChE, projects to posterior and ventral areas of temporal extrastriate cortex, areas TP and TPI. A posterior nucleus, Pp, projects to anterior areas TAL and TI, of the temporal lobe, as well as TPI. Injections in different cortical areas as much as 6 mm apart labeled overlapping zones in Pp and double-labeled some cells. These results indicate that the visual pulvinar of tree shrews contains at least four functionally distinct subdivisions, or nuclei. In addition, the cortical injections revealed that the LGN projects topographically and densely to V1 and that a significant number of LGN neurons

  4. [cDNA cloning and sequence analysis of pluripotency genes in tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri)].

    PubMed

    Wang, Cai-Yun; Ma, Yun-Han; He, Da-Jian; Yang, Shi-Hua

    2013-04-01

    In this paper, partial sequences of the tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri) Klf4, Sox2, and c-Myc genes were cloned and sequenced, which were 382, 612, and 485 bp in length and encoded 127, 204, and 161 amino acids, respectively. Whereas, their cDNA sequence identities with those of human were 89%, 98%, and 89%, respectively. Their phylogenetic tree results indicated different topologies and suggested individual evolutional pathways. These results can facilitate further functional studies.

  5. Early-life nutritional environment and spatial navigation in the water shrew, Sorex palustris (Insectivora).

    PubMed

    Punzo, F

    2004-10-01

    Studies were conducted to study the effects of early-life nutritional environment on spatial navigation ability in the water shrew (Sorex palustris), as well as to provide information on life history traits and husbandry. The mean longevity of males and females in captivity was 652.3 +/- 33.8 SD and 616.2 +/- 22.5 days, respectively. Litter sizes ranged from 5 to 8 and neonatal mass ranged from 0.71 to 0.83 g. Spatial navigation was examined by use of the Morris water apparatus, where animals were required to locate the position of an escape platform in a circular tank of water. The platform was visible (proximal cue version of the task) in some tests. In other tests it was hidden beneath the surface (distal cue version) by making the water opaque using a non-toxic white dye. The tank was divided into 4 quadrants and the position of the plafform in any quadrant could be fixed for any subject or varied between subjects. Early-life under-nutrition was achieved by maintaining some shrews on a restricted diet (received half the amount of food as did controls). Under-nutrition was found to have an adverse effect on spatial navigation. Regardless of nutritional status, shrews were able to locate a hidden plafform that was placed at the center of a given quadrant more rapidly (escape latency) when it was visible (44 to 69 sec) than when it was hidden (83 to 164 sec). Results also showed that these shrews utilize both proximal and distal cues in this spatial task. Control subjects spent more time at a location where the platform had been in a previous test (69% of the trial period) than their undernourished counterparts (45 to 51%). This is the first experimental analysis of spatial navigation and the effects of early-life under-nutrition on this task, for S. palustris.

  6. Kisspeptin neurons mediate reflex ovulation in the musk shrew (Suncus murinus).

    PubMed

    Inoue, Naoko; Sasagawa, Karin; Ikai, Kotaro; Sasaki, Yuki; Tomikawa, Junko; Oishi, Shinya; Fujii, Nobutaka; Uenoyama, Yoshihisa; Ohmori, Yasushige; Yamamoto, Naoyuki; Hondo, Eiichi; Maeda, Kei-ichiro; Tsukamura, Hiroko

    2011-10-18

    The present study investigated whether kisspeptin-G protein-coupled receptor 54 (GPR54) signaling plays a role in mediating mating-induced ovulation in the musk shrew (Suncus murinus), a reflex ovulator. For this purpose, we cloned suncus Kiss1 and Gpr54 cDNA from the hypothalamus and found that suncus kisspeptin (sKp) consists of 29 amino acid residues (sKp-29). Injection of exogenous sKp-29 mimicked the mating stimulus to induce follicular maturation and ovulation. Administration of several kisspeptins and GPR54 agonists also induced presumed ovulation in a dose-dependent manner, and Gpr54 mRNA was distributed in the hypothalamus, showing that kisspeptins induce ovulation through binding to GPR54. The sKp-29-induced ovulation was blocked completely by pretreatment with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist, suggesting that kisspeptin activates GnRH neurons to induce ovulation in the musk shrew. In addition, in situ hybridization revealed that Kiss1-expressing cells are located in the medial preoptic area (POA) and arcuate nucleus in the musk shrew hypothalamus. The number of Kiss1-expressing cells in the POA or arcuate nucleus was up-regulated or down-regulated by estradiol, suggesting that kisspeptin neurons in these regions were the targets of the estrogen feedback action. Finally, mating stimulus largely induced c-Fos expression in Kiss1-positive cells in the POA, indicating that the mating stimulus activates POA kisspeptin neurons to induce ovulation. Taken together, these results indicate that kisspeptin-GPR54 signaling plays a role in the induction of ovulation in the musk shrew, a reflex ovulator, as it does in spontaneous ovulators.

  7. Histomorphology and immunohistochemistry of the lower esophageal sphincter of the least shrew (Cryptotis parva).

    PubMed

    Al-Tikriti, Mohammed S; Khamas, Wael; Chebolu, Seetha; Darmani, Nissar A

    2013-01-01

    The biochemical and histopathological changes in the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) in the pathogenesis of gastroesophageal reflux disease have gained interest. The least shrew is able to vomit in response to emetogens and provides a good model to study the histology of this phenomenon relative to the published reports in the commonly used but vomit-incompetent laboratory species. The LES is located at the junction of the esophagus and stomach. It typically closes at rest and opens in response to swallowing. Our findings demonstrate that the least shrew does not have a well-defined LES, lacks esophageal glands and has a mucosal valve-like projection from the terminal end of the esophagus before joining the gastric epithelium at the lesser curvature. In addition, the least shrew has thoracic and abdominal components prior to joining the gastric epithelium. The mucosal lining of the esophagus is folded, becoming clearly convoluted and forming a bucket-like structure at the level of the esophageocardiac junction (ECJ). No significant differences are to be found between the structure and thickness of the wall before and after the ECJ. Thus, the ECJ forming the LES is relatively less complex than those of other mammals including man. The distribution of enterochromaffin (EC) cells is confined to the lamina propria of the junction and is not associated with the cardiac glands, suggesting its functional involvement with the smooth muscle in and around the ECJ. In conclusion, the least shrew's anatomical sphincter appears ill-defined and is replaced by a less sturdy valve-like mucosal flap.

  8. Japanese American Identity Dilemma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maykovich, Minako K.

    The major theme of this book is the label "Quiet American" for the Japanese American. In order to locate Japanese Americans sociologically and psychologically in the structure of American society, various concepts such as "marginal man,""alienation," and "inauthenticity" are examined, specifying these…

  9. Incarcerating Japanese Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Roger

    2002-01-01

    Presents the history of the Japanese American incarceration during World War II. Focuses on issues such as Executive Order 9066, what happened to the Japanese Americans during the war, and the forms of resistance that occurred. Questions whether something like this could ever happen again. (CMK)

  10. The Japanese American Story.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fukei, Budd

    This book presents a view of the Japanese American experience from the time of their immigration to this country in the 1800s to their acculturation into American society in the 1970s. Topics dealt with include the prejudice and mistrust experienced by the Japanese immigrants in this country, particularly their evacuation and internment in…

  11. The Japanese containerless experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Azuma, Hisao

    1990-01-01

    There are three sets of Japanese containerless experiments. The first is Drop dynamics research. It consists of acoustic levitation and large amplitude drop oscillation. The second is Optical materials processing in an acoustic levitation furnace. And the third is Electrostatic levitator development by two different Japanese companies.

  12. Tree shrew lavatories: a novel nitrogen sequestration strategy in a tropical pitcher plant

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Charles M.; Bauer, Ulrike; Lee, Ch'ien C.; Tuen, Andrew A.; Rembold, Katja; Moran, Jonathan A.

    2009-01-01

    Nepenthes pitcher plants are typically carnivorous, producing pitchers with varying combinations of epicuticular wax crystals, viscoelastic fluids and slippery peristomes to trap arthropod prey, especially ants. However, ant densities are low in tropical montane habitats, thereby limiting the potential benefits of the carnivorous syndrome. Nepenthes lowii, a montane species from Borneo, produces two types of pitchers that differ greatly in form and function. Pitchers produced by immature plants conform to the ‘typical’ Nepenthes pattern, catching arthropod prey. However, pitchers produced by mature N. lowii plants lack the features associated with carnivory and are instead visited by tree shrews, which defaecate into them after feeding on exudates that accumulate on the pitcher lid. We tested the hypothesis that tree shrew faeces represent a significant nitrogen (N) source for N. lowii, finding that it accounts for between 57 and 100 per cent of foliar N in mature N. lowii plants. Thus, N. lowii employs a diversified N sequestration strategy, gaining access to a N source that is not available to sympatric congeners. The interaction between N. lowii and tree shrews appears to be a mutualism based on the exchange of food sources that are scarce in their montane habitat. PMID:19515656

  13. Tree shrew lavatories: a novel nitrogen sequestration strategy in a tropical pitcher plant.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Charles M; Bauer, Ulrike; Lee, Ch'ien C; Tuen, Andrew A; Rembold, Katja; Moran, Jonathan A

    2009-10-23

    Nepenthes pitcher plants are typically carnivorous, producing pitchers with varying combinations of epicuticular wax crystals, viscoelastic fluids and slippery peristomes to trap arthropod prey, especially ants. However, ant densities are low in tropical montane habitats, thereby limiting the potential benefits of the carnivorous syndrome. Nepenthes lowii, a montane species from Borneo, produces two types of pitchers that differ greatly in form and function. Pitchers produced by immature plants conform to the 'typical' Nepenthes pattern, catching arthropod prey. However, pitchers produced by mature N. lowii plants lack the features associated with carnivory and are instead visited by tree shrews, which defaecate into them after feeding on exudates that accumulate on the pitcher lid. We tested the hypothesis that tree shrew faeces represent a significant nitrogen (N) source for N. lowii, finding that it accounts for between 57 and 100 per cent of foliar N in mature N. lowii plants. Thus, N. lowii employs a diversified N sequestration strategy, gaining access to a N source that is not available to sympatric congeners. The interaction between N. lowii and tree shrews appears to be a mutualism based on the exchange of food sources that are scarce in their montane habitat.

  14. Acoustic features to arousal and identity in disturbance calls of tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri).

    PubMed

    Schehka, Simone; Zimmermann, Elke

    2009-11-05

    Across mammalian species, comparable morphological and physiological constraints in the production of airborne vocalisations are suggested to lead to commonalities in the vocal conveyance of acoustic features to specific attributes of callers, such as arousal and individual identity. To explore this hypothesis we examined intra- and interindividual acoustic variation in chatter calls of tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri). The calls were induced experimentally by a disturbance paradigm and related to two defined arousal states of a subject. The arousal state of an animal was primarily operationalised by the habituation of the subject to a new environment and additionally determined by behavioural indicators of stress in tree shrews (tail-position and piloerection). We investigated whether the arousal state and indexical features of the caller, namely individual identity and sex, are conveyed acoustically. Frame-by-frame videographic and multiparametric sound analyses revealed that arousal and identity, but not sex of a caller reliably predicted spectral-temporal variation in sound structure. Furthermore, there was no effect of age or body weight on individual-specific acoustic features. Similar results in another call type of tree shrews and comparable findings in other mammalian lineages provide evidence that comparable physiological and morphological constraints in the production of airborne vocalisations across mammals lead to commonalities in acoustic features conveying arousal and identity, respectively.

  15. The tree shrews: useful animal models for the viral hepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Yang, Er-Bin; Cao, Ji; Su, Jian-Jia; Chow, Pierce

    2005-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV)-induced hepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are major diseases worldwide. HBV infection and chemical carcinogens such as aflatoxin B1 are known to be two key factors in the development of HCC. Animal models for hepatitis and HCC are very useful in the in vivo studies of mechanism involved in the development and prevention of these diseases and the pre-clinical research of drugs for the treatment of these diseases. Now, several animals, such as woodchucks, ground squirrels, chimpanzees, ducks and tree shrews, have been used to establish hepatitis and HCC models. HCC occurs in some woodchucks and ground squirrels that are infected with their own hepatitis viruses and exposed to carcinogens. Chimpanzees and ducks can be infected with human and duck hepatitis B viruses, respectively, but HCC is rarely observed in these animals. The tree shrews are non-rodent, small animals and close to primates in evolution. This review focuses on the establishment of human HBV-induced hepatitis and human HBV-associated HCC in tree shrews and their applications in the study of HCC development.

  16. How did pygmy shrews colonize Ireland? Clues from a phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial cytochrome b sequences.

    PubMed Central

    Mascheretti, Silvia; Rogatcheva, Margarita B; Gündüz, Islam; Fredga, Karl; Searle, Jeremy B

    2003-01-01

    There is a long-standing debate as to how Ireland attained its present fauna; we help to inform this debate with a molecular study of one species. A 1110 base pair fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene was sequenced in 74 specimens of the pygmy shrew, Sorex minutus, collected from throughout its western Palaearctic range. Phylogenetic analysis of these sequences revealed several well-supported lineages. Most of the 65 haplotypes belonged to a northern lineage, which ranged from Britain in the west to Lake Baikal in the east. The other lineages were largely limited to Iberia, Italy and the Balkans. One exception, however, was a lineage found in both Ireland and Andorra. This affinity, and the large difference between the mitochondrial sequences of Irish and British individuals, suggest that pygmy shrews did not colonize Ireland via a land connection from Britain, as has been previously supposed, but instead were introduced by boat from southwest continental Europe. All the Irish pygmy shrews analysed were identical or very similar in cytochrome b sequence, suggesting an extreme founding event. PMID:12908980

  17. Molecular Survey on Brucellosis in Rodents and Shrews - Natural Reservoirs of Novel Brucella Species in Germany?

    PubMed

    Hammerl, J A; Ulrich, R G; Imholt, C; Scholz, H C; Jacob, J; Kratzmann, N; Nöckler, K; Al Dahouk, S

    2017-04-01

    Brucellosis is a widespread zoonotic disease introduced from animal reservoirs to humans. In Germany, bovine and ovine/caprine brucellosis were eradicated more than a decade ago and mandatory measures in livestock have been implemented to keep the officially brucellosis-free status. In contrast, surveillance of wildlife is still challenging, and reliable data on the prevalence of brucellae in small mammal populations do not exist. To assess the epidemiology of Brucella spp. in rodents and shrews, a molecular survey was carried out. A total of 537 rodents and shrews were trapped in four federal states located throughout Germany and investigated for the presence of Brucella. Using a two-step molecular assay based on the detection of the Brucella-specific bcsp31 and IS711 sequences in tissue samples, 14.2% (n = 76) of the tested animals were positive. These originated mainly from western and south-western Germany, where preliminary analyses indicate population density-dependent Brucella prevalence in voles (Myodes glareolus) and mice (Apodemus spp.). recA typing revealed a close relationship to a potentially novel Brucella species recently isolated from red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in Austria. The molecular detection of brucellae in various rodent taxa and for the first time in shrew species shows that these animals may be naturally infected or at least have a history of exposure to Brucella spp.

  18. A new subtype of Thottapalayam virus carried by the Asian house shrew (Suncus murinus) in China.

    PubMed

    Guo, Wen-Ping; Lin, Xian-Dan; Wang, Wen; Zhang, Xiao-He; Chen, Yi; Cao, Jian-Hai; Ni, Qing-Xiang; Li, Wang-Cang; Li, Ming-Hui; Plyusnin, Alexander; Zhang, Yong-Zhen

    2011-12-01

    Recently, many novel hantavirus species carried by insectivore had been found. In order to know whether the insectivore-associated hantaviruses exist in China, Asian house shrew (Suncus murinus) were analyzed for the presence of hantaviruses. 362 Asian house shrews were captured in Wenzhou of Zhejiang province. Hantavirus-specific RNA was detected by RT-PCR in lung tissue samples of six shrews. The complete hantavirus S and M segment sequences and also partial L segment sequences were successfully recovered. Pairwise comparison of the nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences showed that the newly discovered virus strains are most closely related to Thottapalayam virus (TPMV) isolated from S. murinus in India, with 82.5-84.7% sequence identity at the nucleotide level and 95.0-98.2% at the amino acid level. Corresponding sequences of Imjin virus (MJNV) were more distant and other rodent- and insectivore-associated hantaviruses appeared even less related. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the new variants formed a distinct lineage within TPMV.

  19. Daily metabolic patterns of short-tailed shrews (Blarina) in three natural seasonal temperature regimes

    SciTech Connect

    Randolph, J.C.

    1980-01-01

    An automatic, continuous-flow gas analysis system was used to determine daily metabolic patterns of individual short-tailed shrews (Blarina) in three natural seasonal temperature regimes in eastern Tennessee. Average daily metabolic rates (ADMR) were lowest in the summer (0.426 kcal g/sup -1/day/sup -1/), approximately doubled under winter conditions (0.810 kcal g/sup -1/day/sup -1/) but were the highest under fall conditions (1.110 kcal g/sup -1/day/sup -1/) possibly due to incomplete acclimatization of the shrews. The shape of the daily metabolic pattern for Blarina does not change seasonally; however, summer metabolic rates are the least variable and are lower than most values previously reported in the literature. Polynomial multiple regression analyses were conducted to examine the relative influence of body mass, ambient temperature, and time of day on metabolic rates; only ambient temperature was significant in predicting metabolic rates of this shrew. Average daily metabolic rates of Blarina observed under summer and winter conditions further substantiate the general predictive equations of metabolic rates formulated for small mammals by French et al. (1976). Comparisons of metabolic patterns of Blarina with those of Peromyscus leucopus observed under nearly identical conditions indicate similar rates with strong seasonal influences.

  20. Cardiac musculature of the cranial vena cava in the common tree shrew (Tupaia glis).

    PubMed

    Endo, H; Maeda, S; Kimura, J; Yamada, J; Rerkamnuaychoke, W; Chungsamarnyart, N; Tanigawa, M; Kurohmaru, M; Hayashi, Y; Nishida, T

    1995-10-01

    Cardiac musculature of the cranial vena cava in the common tree shrew (Tupaia glis) was examined by light and transmission electron microscopy. The common tree shrew has well developed cardiac myocyte layers in the tunica media of the cranial vena cava, extending from the right atrium to the root of the subclavian vein. Because the common tree shrew belongs to a primitive group of mammals, the occurrence of cardiac musculature in the cranial vena cava may be a common feature in lower mammals. The development of this musculature indicates that active contraction of the cranial vena cava wall occurs in this species. Electron micrographs showed the typical ultrastructure of myocytes and nerve endings. These observations suggest that this musculature may serve as a regulatory pump for the return of venous blood to the right atrium and as a blood reservoir system under conditions of rapid heart rate. Additionally, the presence of atrial natriuretic polypeptide (ANP) was also demonstrated in the myocytes of the vena cava immunohistochemically. These findings show that the cardiac endocrine organ for ANP develops even in the principal veins including the cranial vena cava.

  1. Eye development in the Cape dune mole rat.

    PubMed

    Nikitina, Natalya V; Kidson, Susan H

    2014-03-01

    Studies on mammalian species with naturally reduced eyes can provide valuable insights into the evolutionary developmental mechanisms underlying the reduction of the eye structures. Because few naturally microphthalmic animals have been studied and eye reduction must have evolved independently in many of the modern groups, novel evolutionary developmental models for eye research have to be sought. Here, we present a first report on embryonic eye development in the Cape dune mole rat, Bathyergus suillus. The eyes of these animals contain all the internal structures characteristic of the normal eye but exhibit abnormalities in the anterior chamber structures. The lens is small but develops normally and exhibits a normal expression of α- and γ-crystallins. One of the interesting features of these animals is an extremely enlarged and highly pigmented ciliary body. In order to understand the molecular basis of this unusual feature, the expression pattern of an early marker of the ciliary zone, Ptmb4, was investigated in this animal. Surprisingly, in situ hybridization results revealed that Ptmb4 expression was absent from the ciliary body zone of the developing Bathyergus eye.

  2. MODERN JAPANESE, A BASIC READER. VOLUME II, JAPANESE TEXTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HIBBETT, HOWARD; ITASAKA, GEN

    VOLUME II OF THIS INTRODUCTION TO WRITTEN JAPANESE CONTAINS 60 READING PASSAGES IN JAPANESE SCRIPT TO BE USED WITH THE VOCABULARY AND NOTES IN VOLUME I. THE READINGS ARE GRADED AND HAVE BEEN SELECTED TO REPRESENT GOOD MODERN JAPANESE USAGE. THE BEGINNING LESSONS ARE IN EASY INFORMAL STYLES AND ARE CONCERNED WITH THE JAPANESE LANGUAGE AND CULTURE.…

  3. Acanthocephala Parasite (Profilicollis spp.) Loads in Correlation to Pacific Mole Crab (Emerita analoga) Size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, T.; Huang, S.; Galathe, M.; Jenkins, M.; Ramirez, A.; Crosby, L.; Barrera, J.; FitzHoward, S.

    2013-12-01

    Since 2002, San Francisco Bay students have been conducting marine ecosystem monitoring through a joint project with the Long-term Monitoring Program and Experiential Training for Students (LiMPETS), in conjunction with the Gulf of Farallones National Marine Sanctuary. Each year students collect population and demographic data on Pacific mole crabs (Emerita analoga), an indicator species that lives in the sandy beach habitat in temperate regions along the Pacific Ocean. Pacific mole crabs are filter feeding crustaceans that inhabit the intertidal swash zone and are known to be an intermediate host for parasitic ';spiny-headed' worms in the phylum Acanthocephala (Profilicollis spp.). Sampling takes place during their reproductive period, which occurs from spring to fall, and includes measuring total body length of the Pacific mole crabs and dissecting them to determine presence of Acanthocephalan parasites. We hypothesize that due to larger body mass, larger Pacific mole crabs will have a greater number of Acanthocephala parasites.We conducted several analyses using the LiMPETS long-term data. Specifically, we compared body length, crab gender, and parasite abundance from Pacific mole crabs sampled from four beaches located in the county and city of San Francisco. Our results indicated that larger Pacific mole crabs do not necessarily have more parasites, but are more likely to have at least one parasite, while female Pacific mole crabs carrying eggs, have more parasites than males or females without eggs. We also found that parasite loads per mole crab was highest in the spring. Further analysis will be conducted to determine factors affecting Pacific mole crab parasite loads. Studying Pacific mole crabs help evaluate the health of California's intertidal systems and how human activities, geologic changes, and climate changes all make huge impacts to the intertidal ecosystems.

  4. Development of a tree shrew metabolic syndrome model and use of umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cell transplantation for treatment.

    PubMed

    Pan, Xing-Hua; Zhu, Lu; Yao, Xiang; Liu, Ju-Fen; Li, Zi-An; Yang, Jian-Yong; Pang, Rong-Qing; Ruan, Guang-Ping

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to establish a tree shrew metabolic syndrome model and demonstrate the utility of MSCs in treating metabolic syndrome. We used tree shrew umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cell (TS-UC-MSC) transplantation for the treatment of metabolic syndrome to demonstrate the clinical application of these stem cells and to provide a theoretical basis and reference methods for this treatment. Tree shrew metabolic syndrome model showed significant insulin resistance, high blood sugar, lipid metabolism disorders, and hypertension, consistent with the diagnostic criteria. TS-UC-MSC transplantation at 16 weeks significantly reduced blood sugar and lipid levels, improved insulin resistance and the regulation of insulin secretion, and reduced the expression levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1 and IL-6 (P < 0.05). The transplanted TS-UC-MSCs targeted the liver, kidney and pancreas; reduced liver cell degeneration, necrosis, and inflammatory exudation; mitigated bleeding congestion and inflammatory cell infiltration in the kidney; and reduced islet cell degeneration and necrosis. We successfully developed a tree shrew metabolic syndrome model and showed that MSC migrate in diseased organs and can attenuate metabolic syndrome severity in a tree shrew model.

  5. Molecular and physicochemical characterization of hemoglobin from the high-altitude Taiwanese brown-toothed shrew (Episoriculus fumidus).

    PubMed

    Campbell, Kevin L; Signore, Anthony V; Harada, Masashi; Weber, Roy E

    2012-08-01

    Red-toothed shrews (subfamily Soricinae) exhibit the highest mass-specific rates of O₂ consumption recorded among eutherian mammals, though surprisingly no data appears to be available on the functional characteristics of their hemoglobin (Hb). As a first step in addressing this shortcoming, we investigated the O₂ binding characteristics of Taiwanese brown-toothed shrew (Episoriculus fumidus) Hb and its temperature and pH dependence in the absence and presence of anionic red blood cell effectors. Although comparative data regarding the intrinsic O₂ affinity of other shrew species are currently unavailable, our data suggest that the sensitivity of this high-elevation endemic species' Hb to allosteric effector molecules is similar to that of the two lowland species of white-toothed (crocidurine) shrews examined to date. The efficient exploitation of blood O₂ reserves by E. fumidus appears to be achieved via synergistic modulation of O₂ affinity by Cl⁻ and organic phosphates that moreover dramatically lowers the overall enthalpy of oxygenation of their Hb. Oxygen unloading is presumably further enhanced by a relatively high Bohr effect (ΔLog P₅₀/ΔpH = -0.69) and marked reduction in the titratable histidine content (predicted low proton buffering value) of the component globin chains relative to human HbA. Notably, however, the limited data available suggest these latter attributes may be widespread among shrews and hence likely are not adaptations to chronic altitudinal hypoxia per se.

  6. Experimental chronic hepatitis B infection of neonatal tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri chinensis): A model to study molecular causes for susceptibility and disease progression to chronic hepatitis in humans

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection continues to be an escalating global health problem. Feasible and effective animal models for HBV infection are the prerequisite for developing novel therapies for this disease. The tree shrew (Tupaia) is a small animal species evolutionary closely related to humans, and thus is permissive to certain human viral pathogens. Whether tree shrews could be chronically infected with HBV in vivo has been controversial for decades. Most published research has been reported on adult tree shrews, and only small numbers of HBV infected newborn tree shrews had been observed over short time periods. We investigated susceptibility of newborn tree shrews to experimental HBV infection as well as viral clearance over a protracted time period. Results Forty-six newborn tree shrews were inoculated with the sera from HBV-infected patients or tree shrews. Serum and liver samples of the inoculated animals were periodically collected and analyzed using fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Southern blot, and immunohistochemistry. Six tree shrews were confirmed and four were suspected as chronically HBV-infected for more than 48 (up to 228) weeks after inoculation, including three that had been inoculated with serum from a confirmed HBV-infected tree shrew. Conclusions Outbred neonatal tree shrews can be long-term chronically infected with HBV at a frequency comparable to humans. The model resembles human disease where also a smaller proportion of infected individuals develop chronic HBV related disease. This model might enable genetic and immunologic investigations which would allow determination of underlying molecular causes favoring susceptibility for chronic HBV infection and disease establishment vs. viral clearance. PMID:22913805

  7. Making Mountains out of Molehills: Sediment Transport by the European Mole (Talpa europaea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milledge, D.; Loveless, J. C.; Warburton, J.; Densmore, A. L.

    2013-12-01

    Despite its widespread occurrence (across Europe and Eastern North America) the significance of the burrowing activity of the European Mole for sediment transport in the Northern Hemisphere has not been well quantified. In many areas this may have been the dominant mechanism of hillslope sediment transport over the last one to two millenia. The European Mole (Talpa europaea) is prevalent across the UK, particularly in fertile soils. It is highly fossorial, living almost its entire 3-6 year life in a network of tunnels that it maintains to catch prey. Moles can rapidly excavate large amounts of soil (~6 kg in 20 minutes) with waste soil generally pushed to the surface to form molehills. In this study we quantify sediment flux due to mole burrowing based on measured molehill sizes and geometries and estimates of mole hill production rates from time lapse photography. We examine the evolution of the molehills after production through repeat survey of in-situ molehills in the field and rainfall simulation experiments to accelerate degradation in the laboratory. Our initial findings suggest that: 1) molehill masses are generally log-normally distributed with a geometric mean ~1.4 kg; 2) moles move approximately 1.5 times as much soil as earthworms; and 3) the sediment flux due to moles is a non-linear function of the local slope.

  8. Selective inflammatory pain insensitivity in the African naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber).

    PubMed

    Park, Thomas J; Lu, Ying; Jüttner, René; Smith, Ewan St J; Hu, Jing; Brand, Antje; Wetzel, Christiane; Milenkovic, Nevena; Erdmann, Bettina; Heppenstall, Paul A; Laurito, Charles E; Wilson, Steven P; Lewin, Gary R

    2008-01-01

    In all mammals, tissue inflammation leads to pain and behavioral sensitization to thermal and mechanical stimuli called hyperalgesia. We studied pain mechanisms in the African naked mole-rat, an unusual rodent species that lacks pain-related neuropeptides (e.g., substance P) in cutaneous sensory fibers. Naked mole-rats show a unique and remarkable lack of pain-related behaviors to two potent algogens, acid and capsaicin. Furthermore, when exposed to inflammatory insults or known mediators, naked mole-rats do not display thermal hyperalgesia. In contrast, naked mole-rats do display nocifensive behaviors in the formalin test and show mechanical hyperalgesia after inflammation. Using electrophysiology, we showed that primary afferent nociceptors in naked mole-rats are insensitive to acid stimuli, consistent with the animal's lack of acid-induced behavior. Acid transduction by sensory neurons is observed in birds, amphibians, and fish, which suggests that this tranduction mechanism has been selectively disabled in the naked mole-rat in the course of its evolution. In contrast, nociceptors do respond vigorously to capsaicin, and we also show that sensory neurons express a transient receptor potential vanilloid channel-1 ion channel that is capsaicin sensitive. Nevertheless, the activation of capsaicin-sensitive sensory neurons in naked mole-rats does not produce pain-related behavior. We show that capsaicin-sensitive nociceptors in the naked mole-rat are functionally connected to superficial dorsal horn neurons as in mice. However, the same nociceptors are also functionally connected to deep dorsal horn neurons, a connectivity that is rare in mice. The pain biology of the naked mole-rat is unique among mammals, thus the study of pain mechanisms in this unusual species can provide major insights into what constitutes "normal" mammalian nociception.

  9. Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Infection of Tree Shrews Differs from That of Mice in the Severity of Acute Infection and Viral Transcription in the Peripheral Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lihong; Li, Zhuoran; Wang, Erlin; Yang, Rui; Xiao, Yu; Han, Hongbo; Lang, Fengchao; Li, Xin; Xia, Yujie; Gao, Feng; Li, Qihan; Fraser, Nigel W.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Studies of herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections of humans are limited by the use of rodent models such as mice, rabbits, and guinea pigs. Tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri chinensis) are small mammals indigenous to southwest Asia. At behavioral, anatomical, genomic, and evolutionary levels, tree shrews are much closer to primates than rodents are, and tree shrews are susceptible to HSV infection. Thus, we have studied herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) infection in the tree shrew trigeminal ganglion (TG) following ocular inoculation. In situ hybridization, PCR, and quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) analyses confirm that HSV-1 latently infects neurons of the TG. When explant cocultivation of trigeminal ganglia was performed, the virus was recovered after 5 days of cocultivation with high efficiency. Swabbing the corneas of latently infected tree shrews revealed that tree shrews shed virus spontaneously at low frequencies. However, tree shrews differ significantly from mice in the expression of key HSV-1 genes, including ICP0, ICP4, and latency-associated transcript (LAT). In acutely infected tree shrew TGs, no level of ICP4 was observed, suggesting the absence of infection or a very weak, acute infection compared to that of the mouse. Immunofluorescence staining with ICP4 monoclonal antibody, and immunohistochemistry detection by HSV-1 polyclonal antibodies, showed a lack of viral proteins in tree shrew TGs during both acute and latent phases of infection. Cultivation of supernatant from homogenized, acutely infected TGs with RS1 cells also exhibited an absence of infectious HSV-1 from tree shrew TGs. We conclude that the tree shrew has an undetectable, or a much weaker, acute infection in the TGs. Interestingly, compared to mice, tree shrew TGs express high levels of ICP0 transcript in addition to LAT during latency. However, the ICP0 transcript remained nuclear, and no ICP0 protein could be seen during the course of mouse and tree shrew TG

  10. Monoclonal antibody TSd-1 is specific to elongating and matured spermatids in testis of common tree shrew (Tupaia glis).

    PubMed

    Maeda, S; Nakamuta, N; Nam, S Y; Kimura, J; Endo, H; Rerkamnuaychoke, W; Kurohmaru, M; Yamada, J; Hayashi, Y; Nishida, T

    1998-03-01

    The monoclonal antibody (MAb), named TSd-1, specific to spermatogenic cells of the common tree shrew (Tupaia glis) was established and characterized using immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting. MAb TSd-1 reacted with elongating and matured spermatids in a stage-dependent manner. TSd-1 recognized a 94 kilodalton (kDa) peptide in the plasma membrane and cytosol. Additionally, an extremely weak 107 kDa band was detected only in the cytosol. The reactions were not detected in round spermatids. In elongating Stage VI spermatids, the plasma membrane and the granular structure within the cytoplasm were intensely positive, and most intense after the appearance of new round spermatids in the lower layer (Stage I). The reactions were observed neither in the other organs of the common tree shrew nor in the testes of other animals, indicating that TSd-1 antigen is specific to the spermatogenic cells of the common tree shrew, and may act on elongating or matured spermatids.

  11. Pregnancy outcome with coexisting mole after intracytoplasmic sperm injection: A case series

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Asha R.; Dafle, Karishma; Padmashri, G.; Rao, Damodar R.; Sivakumar, N. C.

    2015-01-01

    Partial/complete hydatidiform mole with coexisting fetus is a rare condition. Optimal management is a challenge that remains a dilemma since these pregnancies are associated with maternal as well as fetal complications including hemorrhage, preeclampsia, thromboembolic disease, intra uterine demise and increased risk of persistent trophoblastic disease. Here we report 2 cases of partial mole with live fetus after ICSI and a case of complete mole with coexisting fetus after ICSI in a turner mosaic that resulted in a live birth. PMID:26538863

  12. Development and characterization of 21 polymorphic microsatellite markers for the barren-ground shrew, Sorex ugyunak (Mammalia: Sorcidae), through next-generation sequencing, and cross-species amplification in the masked shrew, S. cinereus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sonsthagen, S.A.; Sage, G.K.; Fowler, M.; Hope, A.G.; Cook, J.A.; Talbot, S.L.

    2013-01-01

    We used next generation shotgun sequencing to develop 21 novel microsatellite markers for the barren-ground shrew (Sorex ugyunak), which were polymorphic among individuals from northern Alaska. The loci displayed moderate allelic diversity (averaging 6.81 alleles per locus) and heterozygosity (averaging 70 %). Two loci deviated from Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) due to heterozygote deficiency. While the population did not deviate from HWE overall, it showed significant linkage disequilibrium suggesting this population is not in mutation-drift equilibrium. Nineteen of 21 loci were polymorphic in masked shrews (S. cinereus) from interior Alaska and exhibited linkage equilibrium and HWE overall. All loci yielded sufficient variability for use in population studies.

  13. What Are Students' Initial Ideas about "Amount of Substance"? "Is There a Specific Weight for a Mole?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claesgens, Jennifer; Stacy, Angelica

    Analyzes the role of students' prior knowledge in their emerging understanding of the mole. The research question this study seeks to answer is what knowledge, if any, do student have regarding the mole and what prior knowledge do they access when presented problems regarding the nature of the mole. Data collection focuses on student knowledge…

  14. Establishment of the tree shrew as an alcohol-induced Fatty liver model for the study of alcoholic liver diseases.

    PubMed

    Xing, Huijie; Jia, Kun; He, Jun; Shi, Changzheng; Fang, Meixia; Song, Linliang; Zhang, Pu; Zhao, Yue; Fu, Jiangnan; Li, Shoujun

    2015-01-01

    Currently, the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver diseases (ALDs) is not clear. As a result, there is no effective treatment for ALDs. One limitation is the lack of a suitable animal model for use in studying ALDs. The tree shrew is a lower primate animal, characterized by a high-alcohol diet. This work aimed to establish a fatty liver model using tree shrews and to assess the animals' suitability for the study of ALDs. Tree shrews were treated with alcohol solutions (10% and 20%) for two weeks. Hemophysiology, blood alcohol concentrations (BACs), oxidative stress factors, alcohol metabolic enzymes and hepatic pathology were checked and assayed with an automatic biochemical analyzer, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), western blot, hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining and oil red O staining, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Compared with the normal group, the levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), reactive oxygen species (ROS), and malondialdehyde (MDA) were significantly enhanced in alcohol-treated tree shrews. However, the activity of reduced glutathione hormone (GSH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) declined. Notable changes in alcohol dehydrogenase(ADH1), aldehyde dehydrogenase(ALDH2), CYP2E1, UDP-glucuronosyl transferase 1A1 (UGT1A1) and nuclear factor erythroid-related factor 2 (Nrf2) were observed. HE and oil red O staining showed that hepatocyte swelling, hydropic degeneration, and adipohepatic syndrome occurred in the tree shrews. Alcohol can induce fatty liver-like pathological changes and result in alterations in liver function, oxidative stress factors, alcohol metabolism enzymes and Nrf2. Therefore, the established fatty liver model of tree shrews induced by alcohol should be a promising tool for the study of ALDs.

  15. 2011 Japanese Nuclear Incident

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA’s RadNet system monitored the environmental radiation levels in the United States and parts of the Pacific following the Japanese Nuclear Incident. Learn about EPA’s response and view historical laboratory data and news releases.

  16. How the Japanese work.

    PubMed

    Chambers, D W

    1998-01-01

    The Japanese do not work harder or even use different approaches so much as they aim for a different result--one that balances process and results and extends the definition of quality beyond the product itself to include cost and convenience to the customer as well. Ten methods of the Japanese kaizen culture of work are presented with applications and contrasts to American dentistry.

  17. A new species of small-eared shrew from Colombia and Venezuela (Mammalia: Soricomorpha: Soricidae: Genus Cryptotis)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodman, N.

    2002-01-01

    Populations of small-eared shrews inhabiting the northern Cordillera Oriental of Colombia and adjoining Venezuelan highlands in the vicinity of Paramo de Tama have been referred alternatively to Cryptotis thomssi or Cryptotis meridensis. Morphological and morphometrical study of this population indicates that it belongs to neither taxon, but represents a distinct, previously unrecognized species. I describe this new species as Cryptotis tamensis and redescribe C. meridensis. Recognition of the population at Paramo de Tama as a separate taxon calls into question the identities of populations of shrews currently represented only by single specimens from Cerro Pintado in the Sierra de Perija, Colombia, and near El Junquito in the coastal highlands of Venezuela.

  18. [Significance of the smell of a conspecific for the spatial distribution of the common shrew Sorex araneus L].

    PubMed

    Tumas'ian, F A; Shchipanova, N A

    2013-01-01

    The significance of smell marks of conspecifics for the spatial distribution of common shrews was studied. The existence of two groups of individuals, which differ in their reaction to the smell of a conspecific, was shown. Individuals with different reactions were shown to have reliable differences in the sizes of the areas visited by them, the mutual location of their plots, and the percent of activity combined with the activity of the neighbor. The significance of such differences in reactions for the formation of the social system of shrews is discussed.

  19. Unique regulation of thyroid hormone metabolism during fasting in the house musk shrew (Suncus murinus, Insectivora: Soricidae).

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Yoko; Suzuki, Daisuke; Oda, Sen-Ichi; Refetoff, Samuel; Seki, Koji; Tsunekawa, Katsuhiko; Kasahara, Takayuki; Murakami, Masami; Murata, Yoshiharu

    2006-05-01

    The active hormone, 3,3',5-triiodothyronine (T3) is derived from thyroxine (T4) by the action of iodothyronine 5'-deiodinases (5'-D). By now two types of 5'-D have been identified; Type 1 (D1) and type 2 (D2). A relative contribution of these isotypes to the circulating T3 levels in the human remains to be determined whereas a number of reports indicate that, under physiological conditions, D1 plays a major role in maintaining circulating T3 levels in rodents. In both human and rodents, sickness and starvation reduce serum T3 concentration mainly through decrease in D1 activity. Recently, we found that the house musk shrew (Suncus murinus, Insectivora: Soricidae) has a different tissue distribution of D1 activity. Because compared to rodents D1 activity in the shrew was found only in liver at a much reduced level, D2 rather than D1 may play a role in the maintenance of serum T3. Therefore, we questioned how D1 and D2 activities change in fasted shrews and how these changes affect circulating thyroid hormone levels. We thus starved shrews for 24, 48 or 72 h and measured changes in serum concentration of T3, T4, and 3,3',5'-triiodothyronine (reverse T3, rT3) and D1 activities as well as its mRNA expression in liver. D2 activities were also measured in brown adipose tissue (BAT) and cerebral cortex of shrews. Unlike in human and rodents, T3 levels in shrews remained constant during fasting while T4 levels tended to decrease, resulting in an increase in its T3/T4 ratio. On the other hand, changes in rT3 levels were similar to those in human and rodents, being elevated with fasting. D1 mRNA and its activity were significantly reduced in the liver whereas D2 activities in BAT and cerebral cortex were increased by fasting. These results indicated that fasting in shrews also reduced hepatic D1 activity but it did not affect circulating T3 levels. The increased T3/T4 ratio together with increased D2 activity in BAT and cerebral cortex with fasting suggest that D2 rather

  20. The Mole and Avogadro's Number: A Forced Fusion of Ideas for Teaching Purposes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawthorne, Robert M., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    Reports a review of existing texts in which it was found that many textbooks exist which do not make any particular connection between Avogadro's number and the mole. Some books do not mention or use Avogadro's number at all. (DF)

  1. Resting-Associated Vocalization Emitted by Captive Asian House Shrews (Suncus murinus): Acoustic Structure and Variability in an Unusual Mammalian Vocalization

    PubMed Central

    Schneiderová, Irena; Zouhar, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Shrews have rich vocal repertoires that include vocalizations within the human audible frequency range and ultrasonic vocalizations. Here, we recorded and analyzed in detail the acoustic structure of a vocalization with unclear functional significance that was spontaneously produced by 15 adult, captive Asian house shrews (Suncus murinus) while they were lying motionless and resting in their nests. This vocalization was usually emitted repeatedly in a long series with regular intervals. It showed some structural variability; however, the shrews most frequently emitted a tonal, low-frequency vocalization with minimal frequency modulation and a low, non-vocal click that was clearly noticeable at its beginning. There was no effect of sex, but the acoustic structure of the analyzed vocalizations differed significantly between individual shrews. The encoded individuality was low, but it cannot be excluded that this individuality would allow discrimination of family members, i.e., a male and female with their young, collectively resting in a common nest. The question remains whether the Asian house shrews indeed perceive the presence of their mates, parents or young resting in a common nest via the resting-associated vocalization and whether they use it to discriminate among their family members. Additional studies are needed to explain the possible functional significance of resting-associated vocalizations emitted by captive Asian house shrews. Our study highlights that the acoustic communication of shrews is a relatively understudied topic, particularly considering that they are highly vocal mammals. PMID:25390304

  2. Resting-associated vocalization emitted by captive Asian house shrews (Suncus murinus): acoustic structure and variability in an unusual mammalian vocalization.

    PubMed

    Schneiderová, Irena; Zouhar, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Shrews have rich vocal repertoires that include vocalizations within the human audible frequency range and ultrasonic vocalizations. Here, we recorded and analyzed in detail the acoustic structure of a vocalization with unclear functional significance that was spontaneously produced by 15 adult, captive Asian house shrews (Suncus murinus) while they were lying motionless and resting in their nests. This vocalization was usually emitted repeatedly in a long series with regular intervals. It showed some structural variability; however, the shrews most frequently emitted a tonal, low-frequency vocalization with minimal frequency modulation and a low, non-vocal click that was clearly noticeable at its beginning. There was no effect of sex, but the acoustic structure of the analyzed vocalizations differed significantly between individual shrews. The encoded individuality was low, but it cannot be excluded that this individuality would allow discrimination of family members, i.e., a male and female with their young, collectively resting in a common nest. The question remains whether the Asian house shrews indeed perceive the presence of their mates, parents or young resting in a common nest via the resting-associated vocalization and whether they use it to discriminate among their family members. Additional studies are needed to explain the possible functional significance of resting-associated vocalizations emitted by captive Asian house shrews. Our study highlights that the acoustic communication of shrews is a relatively understudied topic, particularly considering that they are highly vocal mammals.

  3. Genome sequencing reveals insights into physiology and longevity of the naked mole rat.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun Bae; Fang, Xiaodong; Fushan, Alexey A; Huang, Zhiyong; Lobanov, Alexei V; Han, Lijuan; Marino, Stefano M; Sun, Xiaoqing; Turanov, Anton A; Yang, Pengcheng; Yim, Sun Hee; Zhao, Xiang; Kasaikina, Marina V; Stoletzki, Nina; Peng, Chunfang; Polak, Paz; Xiong, Zhiqiang; Kiezun, Adam; Zhu, Yabing; Chen, Yuanxin; Kryukov, Gregory V; Zhang, Qiang; Peshkin, Leonid; Yang, Lan; Bronson, Roderick T; Buffenstein, Rochelle; Wang, Bo; Han, Changlei; Li, Qiye; Chen, Li; Zhao, Wei; Sunyaev, Shamil R; Park, Thomas J; Zhang, Guojie; Wang, Jun; Gladyshev, Vadim N

    2011-10-12

    The naked mole rat (Heterocephalus glaber) is a strictly subterranean, extraordinarily long-lived eusocial mammal. Although it is the size of a mouse, its maximum lifespan exceeds 30 years, making this animal the longest-living rodent. Naked mole rats show negligible senescence, no age-related increase in mortality, and high fecundity until death. In addition to delayed ageing, they are resistant to both spontaneous cancer and experimentally induced tumorigenesis. Naked mole rats pose a challenge to the theories that link ageing, cancer and redox homeostasis. Although characterized by significant oxidative stress, the naked mole rat proteome does not show age-related susceptibility to oxidative damage or increased ubiquitination. Naked mole rats naturally reside in large colonies with a single breeding female, the 'queen', who suppresses the sexual maturity of her subordinates. They also live in full darkness, at low oxygen and high carbon dioxide concentrations, and are unable to sustain thermogenesis nor feel certain types of pain. Here we report the sequencing and analysis of the naked mole rat genome, which reveals unique genome features and molecular adaptations consistent with cancer resistance, poikilothermy, hairlessness and insensitivity to low oxygen, and altered visual function, circadian rythms and taste sensing. This information provides insights into the naked mole rat's exceptional longevity and ability to live in hostile conditions, in the dark and at low oxygen. The extreme traits of the naked mole rat, together with the reported genome and transcriptome information, offer opportunities for understanding ageing and advancing other areas of biological and biomedical research.

  4. Hypersensitivity to contact inhibition provides a clue to cancer resistance of naked mole-rat.

    PubMed

    Seluanov, Andrei; Hine, Christopher; Azpurua, Jorge; Feigenson, Marina; Bozzella, Michael; Mao, Zhiyong; Catania, Kenneth C; Gorbunova, Vera

    2009-11-17

    The naked mole-rat is the longest living rodent with a maximum lifespan exceeding 28 years. In addition to its longevity, naked mole-rats have an extraordinary resistance to cancer as tumors have never been observed in these rodents. Furthermore, we show that a combination of activated Ras and SV40 LT fails to induce robust anchorage-independent growth in naked mole-rat cells, while it readily transforms mouse fibroblasts. The mechanisms responsible for the cancer resistance of naked mole-rats were unknown. Here we show that naked mole-rat fibroblasts display hypersensitivity to contact inhibition, a phenomenon we termed "early contact inhibition." Contact inhibition is a key anticancer mechanism that arrests cell division when cells reach a high density. In cell culture, naked mole-rat fibroblasts arrest at a much lower density than those from a mouse. We demonstrate that early contact inhibition requires the activity of p53 and pRb tumor suppressor pathways. Inactivation of both p53 and pRb attenuates early contact inhibition. Contact inhibition in human and mouse is triggered by the induction of p27(Kip1). In contrast, early contact inhibition in naked mole-rat is associated with the induction of p16(Ink4a). Furthermore, we show that the roles of p16(Ink4a) and p27(Kip1) in the control of contact inhibition became temporally separated in this species: the early contact inhibition is controlled by p16(Ink4a), and regular contact inhibition is controlled by p27(Kip1). We propose that the additional layer of protection conferred by two-tiered contact inhibition contributes to the remarkable tumor resistance of the naked mole-rat.

  5. Atypical mole syndrome and dysplastic nevi: identification of populations at risk for developing melanoma - review article

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Juliana Hypólito; de Sá, Bianca Costa Soares; de Ávila, Alexandre Leon Ribeiro; Landman, Gilles; Neto, João Pedreira Duprat

    2011-01-01

    Atypical Mole Syndrome is the most important phenotypic risk factor for developing cutaneous melanoma, a malignancy that accounts for about 80% of deaths from skin cancer. Because the diagnosis of melanoma at an early stage is of great prognostic relevance, the identification of Atypical Mole Syndrome carriers is essential, as well as the creation of recommended preventative measures that must be taken by these patients. PMID:21552679

  6. Alteration of p53 and p21 during hepatocarcinogenesis in tree shrews

    PubMed Central

    Su, Jian-Jia; Ban, Ke-Chen; Li, Yuan; Qin, Liu-Liang; Wang, Hui-Yun; Yang, Chun; Ou, Chao; Duan, Xiao-Xian; Lee, Young-Lk; Yang, Rui-Qi

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate p53 mutation and p21 expression in hepatocarcinogenesis induced by hepatitis B virus (HBV) and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in tree shrews, and to reveal the role of these genes in hepatocarcinogenesis. METHODS: Tree shrews were divided into four groups: group A, those infected with HBV and fed with AFB1 (n = 39); group B, those infected with HBV alone (n = 28); group C, those fed with AFB1 alone (n = 29); and group D, normal controls (n = 20). The tree shrews underwent liver biopsies once every 15 wk. Expression of p53 and p21 proteins and genes in the biopsies and tumor tissues of the experimental tree shrews was detected, respectively, by immunohistochemistry, and by Southern blotting and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and sequencing. RESULTS: The incidence of hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC) was higher in group A (66.7%) than that in group B (3.57%) and C (30%). The time of HCC occurrence was also earlier in group A than that in group C (120.0 ± 16.6 wk vs 153.3 ± 5.8 wk, respectively, P < 0.01). p53 protein was not detected by immunohistochemistry in all groups before the 75th wk of the experiment. At the 105th wk, the positive rates fo p53 were 78.6%, 60% and 71.4% in groups A, B and C, respectively, which were significantly higher than that in group D (10%) (all P < 0.05). An abnormal band of p53 gene was observed in groups A and C. The mutation points of p53 gene in tree shrews with HCC were at codons 275, 78 and 13. The nucleotide sequence and amino acid sequence of tree shrew’s wild-type p53 showed 91.7% and 93.4% homologies with those of human p53, respectively. The immunopositivity for p21 was found before HCC development. The incidence of HCC was significantly higher in tree shrews that were positive for p21 than those negative for p21 (80.0% vs 11.0%, P < 0.001). The incidence of HCC in p21 positive animals in group A was significantly higher than those positive for p21 in group C (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: A remarkable

  7. Australia's first fossil marsupial mole (Notoryctemorphia) resolves controversies about their evolution and palaeoenvironmental origins.

    PubMed

    Archer, Michael; Beck, Robin; Gott, Miranda; Hand, Suzanne; Godthelp, Henk; Black, Karen

    2011-05-22

    Fossils of a marsupial mole (Marsupialia, Notoryctemorphia, Notoryctidae) are described from early Miocene deposits in the Riversleigh World Heritage Area, northwestern Queensland, Australia. These represent the first unequivocal fossil record of the order Notoryctemorphia, the two living species of which are among the world's most specialized and bizarre mammals, but which are also convergent on certain fossorial placental mammals (most notably chrysochlorid golden moles). The fossil remains are genuinely 'transitional', documenting an intermediate stage in the acquisition of a number of specializations and showing that one of these-the dental morphology known as zalambdodonty-was acquired via a different evolutionary pathway than in placentals. They, thus, document a clear case of evolutionary convergence (rather than parallelism) between only distantly related and geographically isolated mammalian lineages-marsupial moles on the island continent of Australia and placental moles on most other, at least intermittently connected continents. In contrast to earlier presumptions about a relationship between the highly specialized body form of the blind, earless, burrowing marsupial moles and desert habitats, it is now clear that archaic burrowing marsupial moles were adapted to and probably originated in wet forest palaeoenvironments, preadapting them to movement through drier soils in the xeric environments of Australia that developed during the Neogene.

  8. SHORT COMMUNICATION: Comments on recent proposals for redefining the mole and kilogram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonard, B. P.

    2010-06-01

    The fundamental concept of the mole requires the number of entities comprising one mole, i.e. Avogadro's number, to be exactly equal to the gram-to-dalton mass ratio. If this compatibility condition is to be satisfied, the mole, the kilogram and the dalton cannot all be defined independently. This note concerns recent Metrologia publications that do, however, propose independent definitions of all three quantities: the mole by fixing the value of Avogadro's number and the kilogram by fixing the value of the Planck constant, while retaining the current carbon-12-based dalton. Adoption of these incompatible definitions would likely cause serious widespread confusion and might even result in a split in scholarly and technical communication between the quantum physics and chemistry communities. Other entirely compatible alternatives are possible: either retaining the current (inexact) carbon-12-based mole and dalton with an independently redefined kilogram or redefining the mole by fixing the value of Avogadro's number, with a compatible dalton that is exact in terms of the redefined kilogram.

  9. Blunted neuronal calcium response to hypoxia in naked mole-rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Bethany L; Larson, John; Buffenstein, Rochelle; Park, Thomas J; Fall, Christopher P

    2012-01-01

    Naked mole-rats are highly social and strictly subterranean rodents that live in large communal colonies in sealed and chronically oxygen-depleted burrows. Brain slices from naked mole-rats show extreme tolerance to hypoxia compared to slices from other mammals, as indicated by maintenance of synaptic transmission under more hypoxic conditions and three fold longer latency to anoxic depolarization. A key factor in determining whether or not the cellular response to hypoxia is reversible or leads to cell death may be the elevation of intracellular calcium concentration. In the present study, we used fluorescent imaging techniques to measure relative intracellular calcium changes in CA1 pyramidal cells of hippocampal slices during hypoxia. We found that calcium accumulation during hypoxia was significantly and substantially attenuated in slices from naked mole-rats compared to slices from laboratory mice. This was the case for both neonatal (postnatal day 6) and older (postnatal day 20) age groups. Furthermore, while both species demonstrated more calcium accumulation at older ages, the older naked mole-rats showed a smaller calcium accumulation response than even the younger mice. A blunted intracellular calcium response to hypoxia may contribute to the extreme hypoxia tolerance of naked mole-rat neurons. The results are discussed in terms of a general hypothesis that a very prolonged or arrested developmental process may allow adult naked mole-rat brain to retain the hypoxia tolerance normally only seen in neonatal mammals.

  10. Demographic responses of shrews to removal of coarse woody debris in a managed pine forest.

    SciTech Connect

    McCay, Timothy, S.; Komoroski, Mark, J.

    2004-01-01

    McCay, T.S., and M.J. Komoroski. 2004. Demographic responses of shrews to removal of coarse woody debris in a managed pine forest. For. Ecol., and Mgt. 189:387-395. We trapped shrews at six 9.3 ha plots from which logs ý 10 cm diameter (coarse woody debris; CWD) had been manually removed and six control plots inmanaged loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) forests of the southeastern coastal plain, USA. Trapping was conducted seasonally between autumn 1997 and summer 2001. Capture rates of Cryptotis parva were lower at plots from which CWD was removed than at control plots (P ¡ 0ý011) and declined at all plots over the study period (P ¡ 0ý001). Capture rates of Blarina carolinensis (P ¡ 0ý129) and Sorex longirostris (P ¡ 0ý432) did not differ between removal and control plots, but declined over the study period (P ¡ 0ý001). Age distributions of B. carolinensis differed between removal and control plots (P ¡ 0ý048) with a smaller proportion of individuals in young age categories at removal plots. Sensitivity of Cryptotis to the removal of CWD may have been due to its sociality or low population density at the study area. A reduction in the abundance of young B. carolinensis after removal of CWD may reflect reduced reproduction and immigration of older individuals from outside the plot. Effect of removal of CWD on populations of these shrews was relatively weak compared to strong seasonal and multi-year variation in abundance. However, weak treatment effects may have been partly due to low ambient levels of CWD at control plots.

  11. A Novel Organ Culture Model to Quantify Collagen Remodeling in Tree Shrew Sclera

    PubMed Central

    Baldivia, Sarah; Levy, Alexander; Hegde, Shylaja; Aper, Stijn J. A.; Merkx, Maarten

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that unknown collagen remodeling mechanisms in the sclera underlie myopia development. We are proposing a novel organ culture system in combination with two-photon fluorescence imaging to quantify collagen remodeling at the tissue- and lamella-level. Tree shrew scleral shells were cultured up to 7 days in serum-free media and cellular viability was investigated under: (i) minimal tissue manipulations; (ii) removal of intraocular tissues; gluing the eye to a washer using (iii) 50 μL and (iv) 200 μL of cyanoacrylate adhesive; (v) supplementing media with Ham's F-12 Nutrient Mixture; and (vi) culturing eyes subjected to 15 mmHg intraocular pressure in our new bioreactor. Two scleral shells of normal juvenile tree shrews were fluorescently labeled using a collagen specific protein and cultured in our bioreactor. Using two-photon microscopy, grid patterns were photobleached into and across multiple scleral lamellae. These patterns were imaged daily for 3 days, and tissue-/lamella-level strains were calculated from the deformed patterns. No significant reduction in cell viability was observed under conditions (i) and (v). Compared to condition (i), cell viability was significantly reduced starting at day 0 (condition (ii)) and day 3 (conditions (iii, iv, vi)). Tissue-level strain and intralamellar shear angel increased significantly during the culture period. Some scleral lamellae elongated while others shortened. Findings suggest that tree shrew sclera can be cultured in serum-free media for 7 days with no significant reduction in cell viability. Scleral fibroblasts are sensitive to tissue manipulations and tissue gluing. However, Ham's F-12 Nutrient Mixture has a protective effect on cell viability and can offset the cytotoxic effect of cyanoacrylate adhesive. This is the first study to quantify collagen micro-deformations over a prolonged period in organ culture providing a new methodology to study scleral remodeling in myopia. PMID

  12. Effect of PAHs on MFO induction in common shrews (Crocidura russula)

    SciTech Connect

    Bosveld, A.T.C.; Bie, P. de; Weggemans, J.; Murk, A.

    1995-12-31

    PAHs are widespread environmental contaminants. Despite the relatively high turnover rates for enzymatic breakdown, PAHs have been detected in tissues from species at various trophic levels. As a consequence they have the potential to be passed on to the higher levels of the foodchain. As a model for the primary carnivores in the terrestrial foodchain the common shrew (Crocidura russula) is studied in the laboratories. The authors investigated the effect of exposure to benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) on cytochrome P450 isoenzymes in relation to the effect of a known strong inducer of the MFO system i.e. 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). The compounds were dissolved in oil and mixed with food. Shrews were exposed for a period of one week to BaP at concentrations equivalent to 10 or 100 mg/kg bodyweight per day (n = 3 for each dose group) and to TCDD at a concentration equivalent to 10 {micro}g/kg per day (n = 5). Controls received a diet with only the carier (oil) added. At termination of the experiment, hepatic CYP1A1 associated EROD activity was induced 20% in both the low and high dosed BaP group. In the TCDD exposed shrews EROD was induced up to 776% compared to the controls. Related MFO activities, including PROD, BROD, MROD and site specific testosterone hydroxylation are under investigation and the results will be presented. The relevance of MFO induction by PAHs and the use of these parameters as biomarkers for PAH exposure will be discussed.

  13. Is there a significant gas exchange through the skin of the shrew Crocidura russula monacha?

    PubMed

    Mover-Lev, H; Minzberg, H; Ar, A

    1998-01-01

    Because of its small body mass, the shrew Crocidura russula monacha has a relatively high surface area to volume ratio, thin skin, and high thermal conductance compared with larger mammals. This study was aimed at examining the possibility that such a mammal may exhibit a significant skin gas exchange. Gas composition was measured in subcutaneous gas pockets. CO2 and O2 exchange through skin were measured both in vitro and in vivo. In 7-wk-old gas pockets, the steady-state PO2 and PCO2 values were 50 Torr (where 1 Torr = 133.322 Pa) and 35 Torr, respectively, compared with PO2 and Pco2 values of 73 Torr and 33 Torr, respectively, in 1-wk-old gas pockets. These changes are attributed to an increased capillary density and a decreased skin thickness after 7 wk. There was no significant gas exchange through skin during in vitro measurements. In vivo measurements indicated that O2 uptake was 0.5% and CO2 loss was 0.9% of total body metabolism at 20 degrees C. At 35 degrees C, skin O2 uptake and CO2 loss increased to 1.3% and 2.9%, respectively. These values are only part of the expected skin metabolism; thus, the rest must come from blood. Because gas exchange through the skin of this shrew is within the range of other mammals, the relatively low PCO2 and high PO2 in the gas pockets is better explained by the relative hyperventilation state exhibited by this shrew.

  14. [Effects of some extenders and monoamines on sperm cryopreservation in tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri)].

    PubMed

    Ping, Shu-Huang; Wang, Cai-Yun; Tang, Wen-Ru; Luo, Ying; Yang, Shi-Hua

    2012-02-01

    The tree shrew may be an important experimental animal for disease models in humans. The effects of some extenders and momamines on sperm cryopreservation will provide helpful data for experimentation of strains and conservation of genetic resources in tree shrews. Epididymal sperm were surgically harvested from male tree shrews captured around Kunming, China and sperm motility, acrosome integrity and fertility were assessed during cryopreservation. In Experiment 1 eight extenders (TTE, TCG, TCF, TTG, BWW, BTS, DM, and SR) supplemented with 0.4 mol/L DMSO were used to dilute the sperm: only TTE, DM and SR showed no differences in motility and acrosome integrity compared to fresh controls after equilibration. After freezing and thawing, sperm in any extender showed lower motility than fresh control and sperm in DM showed higher motility than other groups. However, BWW produced the lowest motility. For acrosome integrity, TTE and DM showed higher than BWW, BTS and SR after equilibration. The parameter in DM was higher than other groups (except TTE) after thawing. In Experiment 2 four penetrating cryoprotectant agents (CPA) [dimethyl-formamide (DF), formamide (F), dimethylacetamide (DA), and acetamide (A)] at 0.2 mol/L, 0.4 mol/L, 0.8 mol/L, and 1.2 mol/L, respectively were added to the DM extender. Motility showed no difference among CPA groups and non-CPA group (control) after equilibration, but all thawed sperm showed lower values in motility and acrosome integrity than pre-freezing groups. However, sperm in 0.8 mol/L DF and 0.4 mol/L DMSO showed higher values in both parameters than that in other CPA groups (P>0.05). In Experiment 3 the fertilization rate of oocytes inseminated with 0.4mol/L DMSO (50%) were higher than that with 0.8mol/L DF (16%). In conclusion, non-ion extenders supplemented with egg yolk may be better for sperm cryopreservation in tree shrews and cryoprotectant effects of monoamines agents should be further studied in this species.

  15. Jugulo-sternal-gland tumors in male tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri).

    PubMed

    Brack, M

    1991-12-01

    Adenocarcinomas of the jugulo-sternal glands were observed in seven adult male tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri) at biopsy or necrospy. Five of these tumors were classified as carcinomas of the sebaceous gland compartment; one was diagnosed as a papilliform adenoma of apocrine (monoptychic) sweat glands; and one was of a mixed sebaceous gland/apocrine sweat gland structure. Four sebaceous gland carcinomas had histologic evidence of vascular invasion; one had metastasized to the regional lymph nodes and lungs and had also invaded the thoracic muscles.

  16. In-situ Subsurface Science Addressed By The "mole" On The Beagle 2 Mars Lander

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, L.; Gromov, V. V.; Möhlmann, D.; Kochan, H.; Tokano, T.

    The payload of the Beagle 2 lander of ESA's Mars Express mission includes a regolith- penetrating, tethered "Mole" intended for acquisition of several subsurface soil sam- ples from depths between about 30 cm and some 1E1.5 m. These samples will then be analysed by the Gas Analysis Package instrument on the lander, primarily with re- gard to isotopic composition and to organic molecules. However, after giving a brief overview of the Mole experiment, this paper focuses on additional in-situ science con- ducted by the Beagle 2 Mole system, also referred to as the PLanetary Underground TOol (PLUTO): while it penetrates into the Martian regolith by way of soil displace- ment through the action of an internal hammering mechanism, the Mole will allow mechanical properties of the regolith to be studied as a function of depth - being a first on a Mars mission - and additionally, a temperature sensor mounted on the outside of the Mole will support investigations of soil thermophysical properties and measure- ments of the subsurface temperature profile, again as a first-time achievement. Using a Mole soil penetration theory calibrated by ground-based experiments, regolith bulk density, cohesion, and internal friction angle can be constrained as a function of depth using the Mole penetration path (and retrieval path) vs. time which is measured by a winch rotation sensor indicating the amount of tether extracted by the Mole. The obtained depth profiles of these quantities should provide insight into the depositional history and stratigraphy of the regolith at the site. Measurements of the regolith tem- perature will be conducted by the Mole both as a function of depth during soil in- trusion, and as a function of time for constant depth, as the Mole can be left in the subsurface for periods of days or weeks before it is retrieved, especially during the later part of the Beagle 2 landed mission. Subsurface temperature measurements will support calibrations of Mars regolith

  17. In-situ subsurface science addressed by the Mole on the Beagle 2 Mars lander

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, L.; Gromov, V.; Kochan, H.; Möhlmann, D.; Tokano, T.

    The payload of the Beagle 2 lander of ESA's Mars Express mission includes a regolithpenetrating, tethered "Mole" intended for acquisition of several subsurface soil sam ples from depths between about 30 cm and some 1E1.5 m. These samples will then be analysed by the Gas Analysis Package instrument on the lander, primarily with regard to isotopic composition and to organic molecules. However, after giving a brief overview of the Mole experiment, this paper focuses on additional in-situ science conducted by the Beagle 2 Mole system, also referred to as the PLanetary Underground TOol (PLUTO): while it penetrates into the Martian regolith by way of soil displacement through the action of an internal hammering mechanism, the Mole will allow mechanical properties of the regolith to be studied as a function of depth - being a first on a Mars mission - and additionally, a temperature sensor mounted on the outside of the Mole will support investigations of soil thermophysical properties and measurements of the subsurface temperature profile, again as a first-time achievement. Using a Mole soil penetration theory calibrated by ground-based experiments, regolith bulk density, cohesion, and internal friction angle can be constrained as a function of depth using the Mole penetration path (and retrieval path) vs. time which is measured by a winch rotation sensor indicating the amount of tether extracted by the Mole. The obtained depth profiles of these quantities should provide insight into the depositional history and stratigraphy of the regolith at the site. Measurements of the regolith temperature will be conducted by the Mole both as a function of depth during soil intrusion, and as a function of time for constant depth, as the Mole can be left in the subsurface for periods of days or weeks before it is retrieved, especially during the later part of the Beagle 2 landed mission. Subsurface temperature measurements will support calibrations of Mars regolith thermophysical

  18. The Insect Eaters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naturescope, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Presents information about insectivores, including definitions and characteristics of shrews, moles, hedgehogs, and tenrecs. Contains descriptions of the teaching activities "Little Starnose" and "You and a Shrew." A reproducible worksheet is provided for use in "You and a Shrew." (TW)

  19. Trap geometry in three giant montane pitcher plant species from Borneo is a function of tree shrew body size.

    PubMed

    Chin, Lijin; Moran, Jonathan A; Clarke, Charles

    2010-04-01

    *Three Bornean pitcher plant species, Nepenthes lowii, N. rajah and N. macrophylla, produce modified pitchers that 'capture' tree shrew faeces for nutritional benefit. Tree shrews (Tupaia montana) feed on exudates produced by glands on the inner surfaces of the pitcher lids and defecate into the pitchers. *Here, we tested the hypothesis that pitcher geometry in these species is related to tree shrew body size by comparing the pitcher characteristics with those of five other 'typical' (arthropod-trapping) Nepenthes species. *We found that only pitchers with large orifices and lids that are concave, elongated and oriented approximately at right angles to the orifice capture faeces. The distance from the tree shrews' food source (that is, the lid nectar glands) to the front of the pitcher orifice precisely matches the head plus body length of T. montana in the faeces-trapping species, and is a function of orifice size and the angle of lid reflexion. *Substantial changes to nutrient acquisition strategies in carnivorous plants may occur through simple modifications to trap geometry. This extraordinary plant-animal interaction adds to a growing body of evidence that Nepenthes represents a candidate model for adaptive radiation with regard to nitrogen sequestration strategies.

  20. Tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri chinensis), a novel non-obese animal model of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Linqiang; Wu, Xiaoyun; Liao, Shasha; Li, Yunhai; Zhang, Zhiguo; Chang, Qing; Xiao, Ruyue; Liang, Bin

    2016-10-15

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is becoming a severe public health problem that is affecting a large proportion of the world population. Generally, NAFLD in patients is usually accompanied by obesity, hyperglycemia, insulin resistance (IR) and type 2 diabetes (T2D), for which numerous animal models have been generated in order to explore the pathogenesis and therapies of NAFLD. On the contrary, quite a number of NAFLD subjects, especially in Asian regions, are non-obese and non-diabetic; however, few animal models are available for the research of non-obese NAFLD. Here, four approaches (here called approach 1 to 4) corresponding to the variable compositions of diets were used to treat tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri chinensis), which have a closer evolutionary relationship to primates than rodents. Analysis of plasma biochemical parameters, hepatic histology, and the expression of hepatic lipid metabolic genes revealed that all four approaches led to hepatic lipid accumulation, liver injury and hypercholesterolemia, but had no effect on body weight and adipose tissue generation, or glycemia. Hepatic gene expression in tree shrews treated by approach 4 might suggest a different or non-canonical pathway leading to hepatic steatosis. In conclusion, the tree shrew displays hepatic steatosis and dyslipidemia, but remains non-obese and non-diabetic under high energy diets, which suggests that the tree shrew may be useful as a novel animal model for the research of human non-obese NAFLD.

  1. The chronic psychosocial stress paradigm in male tree shrews: evaluation of a novel animal model for depressive disorders.

    PubMed

    van Kampen, Marja; Kramer, Marian; Hiemke, Christoph; Flügge, Gabriele; Fuchs, Eberhard

    2002-02-01

    To improve our knowledge of the causal mechanisms of stress-related disorders such as depression, we need animal models that mirror the situation in patients. One promising model is the chronic psychosocial stress paradigm in male tree shrews, which is based on the territorial behaviour of these animals that can be used to establish naturally occurring challenging situations under experimental control in the laboratory. Co-existence of two males in visual and olfactory contact leads to a stable dominant-subordinate relationship, with subordinates showing distinct stress-induced behavioural and neuroendocrine alterations that are comparable to the symptoms observed during episodes of depression in patients such as constantly elevated circulating glucocorticoid hormones due to a chronic hyperactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. To elucidate whether the chronic psychosocial stress model in tree shrews besides its "face validity" for depression also has "predictive validity", we treated subordinate tree shrews with the tricyclic antidepressant clomipramine and found a time-dependent restoration of both endocrine and behavioural parameters. In contrast, the anxiolytic diazepam was ineffective. Although the chronic psychosocial stress model in tree shrews requires further validation, it has sufficient face, predictive, and construct validity to become an interesting non-rodent model for research on the etiology and pathophysiology of depression.

  2. Distribution of vasopressin, oxytocin and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide in the hypothalamus and extrahypothalamic regions of tree shrews.

    PubMed

    Ni, R-J; Shu, Y-M; Wang, J; Yin, J-C; Xu, L; Zhou, J-N

    2014-04-18

    Vasopressin (VP), oxytocin (OXT) and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) in the brain modulate physiological and behavioral processes in many vertebrates. Day-active tree shrews, the closest relatives of primates, live singly or in pairs in territories that they defend vigorously against intruding conspecifics. However, anatomy concerning peptidergic neuron distribution in the tree shrew brain is less clear. Here, we examined the distribution of VP, OXT and VIP immunoreactivity in the hypothalamus and extrahypothalamic regions of tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri chinensis) using the immunohistochemical techniques. Most of VP and OXT immunoreactive (-ir) neurons were found in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and supraoptic nucleus (SON) of the hypothalamus. In addition, VP-ir or OXT-ir neurons were scattered in the preoptic area, anterior hypothalamic areas, dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus, stria terminalis, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and medial amygdala. Interestingly, a high density of VP-ir fibers within the ventral lateral septum was observed in males but not in females. Both VP-ir and VIP-ir neurons were found in different subdivisions of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) with partial overlap. VIP-ir cells and fibers were also scattered in the cerebral cortex, anterior olfactory nucleus, amygdala and dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. These findings provide a comprehensive description of VIP and a detailed mapping of VP and OXT in the hypothalamus and extrahypothalamic regions of tree shrews, which is an anatomical basis for the participation of these neuropeptides in the regulation of circadian behavior and social behavior.

  3. Tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri) exhibit novelty preference in the novel location memory task with 24-h retention periods.

    PubMed

    Nair, Jayakrishnan; Topka, Marlene; Khani, Abbas; Isenschmid, Manuela; Rainer, Gregor

    2014-01-01

    Novelty preference is pervasive in mammalian species, and describes an inherent tendency to preferentially explore novelty. The novel location memory task studied here assesses the ability of animals to form accurate memories of a spatial configuration, consisting of several identical objects placed within an arena. Tree shrews were first familiarized with a particular object configuration during several sessions, and then an object was displaced during a test session. Tree shrews exhibited enhanced exploration when confronted with this novel configuration. The most reliable indicator associated with novelty preference was an enhancement in directed exploration towards the novel object, although we also observed a non-specific overall increase in exploration in one experiment. During the test session, we also observed an exploration of the location, which had previously been occupied by the displaced object, an effect termed empty quadrant. Our behavioral findings suggest multiple stages of spatial memory formation in tree shrews that are associated with various forms of behavioral responses to novelty. Reduced novelty preference has been linked to major depressive disorder in human patients. Given the established social conflict depression model in tree shrews, we anticipate that the study of the neural circuits of novelty preference and their malfunction during depression may have implications for understanding or treating depression in humans.

  4. Inference Based on Transitive Relation in Tree Shrews ("Tupaia belangeri") and Rats ("Rattus norvegicus") on a Spatial Discrimination Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takahashi, Makoto; Ushitani, Tomokazu; Fujita, Kazuo

    2008-01-01

    Six tree shrews and 8 rats were tested for their ability to infer transitively in a spatial discrimination task. The apparatus was a semicircular radial-arm maze with 8 arms labeled A through H. In Experiment 1, the animals were first trained in sequence on 4 discriminations to enter 1 of the paired adjacent arms, AB, BC, CD, and DE, with right…

  5. Identification and characterization of toll-like receptors (TLRs) in the Chinese tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri chinensis).

    PubMed

    Yu, Dandan; Wu, Yong; Xu, Ling; Fan, Yu; Peng, Li; Xu, Min; Yao, Yong-Gang

    2016-07-01

    In mammals, the toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a major role in initiating innate immune responses against pathogens. Comparison of the TLRs in different mammals may help in understanding the TLR-mediated responses and developing of animal models and efficient therapeutic measures for infectious diseases. The Chinese tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri chinensis), a small mammal with a close relationship to primates, is a viable experimental animal for studying viral and bacterial infections. In this study, we characterized the TLRs genes (tTLRs) in the Chinese tree shrew and identified 13 putative TLRs, which are orthologs of mammalian TLR1-TLR9 and TLR11-TLR13, and TLR10 was a pseudogene in tree shrew. Positive selection analyses using the Maximum likelihood (ML) method showed that tTLR8 and tTLR9 were under positive selection, which might be associated with the adaptation to the pathogen challenge. The mRNA expression levels of tTLRs presented an overall low and tissue-specific pattern, and were significantly upregulated upon Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. tTLR4 and tTLR9 underwent alternative splicing, which leads to different transcripts. Phylogenetic analysis and TLR structure prediction indicated that tTLRs were evolutionarily conserved, which might reflect an ancient mechanism and structure in the innate immune response system. Taken together, TLRs had both conserved and unique features in the Chinese tree shrew.

  6. Tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri) exhibit novelty preference in the novel location memory task with 24-h retention periods

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Jayakrishnan; Topka, Marlene; Khani, Abbas; Isenschmid, Manuela; Rainer, Gregor

    2014-01-01

    Novelty preference is pervasive in mammalian species, and describes an inherent tendency to preferentially explore novelty. The novel location memory task studied here assesses the ability of animals to form accurate memories of a spatial configuration, consisting of several identical objects placed within an arena. Tree shrews were first familiarized with a particular object configuration during several sessions, and then an object was displaced during a test session. Tree shrews exhibited enhanced exploration when confronted with this novel configuration. The most reliable indicator associated with novelty preference was an enhancement in directed exploration towards the novel object, although we also observed a non-specific overall increase in exploration in one experiment. During the test session, we also observed an exploration of the location, which had previously been occupied by the displaced object, an effect termed empty quadrant. Our behavioral findings suggest multiple stages of spatial memory formation in tree shrews that are associated with various forms of behavioral responses to novelty. Reduced novelty preference has been linked to major depressive disorder in human patients. Given the established social conflict depression model in tree shrews, we anticipate that the study of the neural circuits of novelty preference and their malfunction during depression may have implications for understanding or treating depression in humans. PMID:24782805

  7. Tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri chinensis), a novel non-obese animal model of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Linqiang; Wu, Xiaoyun; Liao, Shasha; Li, Yunhai; Zhang, Zhiguo; Chang, Qing; Xiao, Ruyue

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is becoming a severe public health problem that is affecting a large proportion of the world population. Generally, NAFLD in patients is usually accompanied by obesity, hyperglycemia, insulin resistance (IR) and type 2 diabetes (T2D), for which numerous animal models have been generated in order to explore the pathogenesis and therapies of NAFLD. On the contrary, quite a number of NAFLD subjects, especially in Asian regions, are non-obese and non-diabetic; however, few animal models are available for the research of non-obese NAFLD. Here, four approaches (here called approach 1 to 4) corresponding to the variable compositions of diets were used to treat tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri chinensis), which have a closer evolutionary relationship to primates than rodents. Analysis of plasma biochemical parameters, hepatic histology, and the expression of hepatic lipid metabolic genes revealed that all four approaches led to hepatic lipid accumulation, liver injury and hypercholesterolemia, but had no effect on body weight and adipose tissue generation, or glycemia. Hepatic gene expression in tree shrews treated by approach 4 might suggest a different or non-canonical pathway leading to hepatic steatosis. In conclusion, the tree shrew displays hepatic steatosis and dyslipidemia, but remains non-obese and non-diabetic under high energy diets, which suggests that the tree shrew may be useful as a novel animal model for the research of human non-obese NAFLD. PMID:27659689

  8. The molecular basis of defective lens development in the Iberian mole

    PubMed Central

    Carmona, F David; Jiménez, Rafael; Collinson, J Martin

    2008-01-01

    Background Fossorial mammals face natural selection pressures that differ from those acting on surface dwelling animals, and these may lead to reduced visual system development. We have studied eye development in a species of true mole, the Iberian mole Talpa occidentalis, and present the molecular basis of abnormal lens development. This is the first embryological developmental study of the eyes of any fossorial mammal at the molecular level. Results Lens fibre differentiation is not completed in the Iberian mole. Although eye development starts normally (similar to other model species), defects are seen after closure of the lens vesicle. PAX6 is not down-regulated in developing lens fibre nuclei, as it is in other species, and there is ectopic expression of FOXE3, a putative downstream effector of PAX6, in some, but not all lens fibres. FOXE3-positive lens fibres continue to proliferate within the posterior compartment of the embryonic lens, but unlike in the mouse, no proliferation was detected anywhere in the postnatal mole lens. The undifferentiated status of the anterior epithelial cells was compromised, and most of them undergo apoptosis. Furthermore, β-crystallin and PROX1 expression patterns are abnormal and our data suggest that genes encoding β-crystallins are not directly regulated by PAX6, c-MAF and PROX1 in the Iberian mole, as they are in other model vertebrates. Conclusion In other model vertebrates, genetic pathways controlling lens development robustly compartmentalise the lens into a simple, undifferentiated, proliferative anterior epithelium, and quiescent, anuclear, terminally differentiated posterior lens fibres. These pathways are not as robust in the mole, and lead to loss of the anterior epithelial phenotype and only partial differentiation of the lens fibres, which continue to express 'epithelial' genes. Paradigms of genetic regulatory networks developed in other vertebrates appear not to hold true for the Iberian mole. PMID:18939978

  9. Conditioned Flavor Preference and the US Postexposure Effect in the House Musk Shrew (Suncus Murinus)

    PubMed Central

    Sawa, Kosuke; Ishii, Kiyoshi

    2012-01-01

    The house musk shrew (Suncus murinus) is the only species of mammalian insectivore that can be domesticated and used as a laboratory animal, and is an interesting subject in terms of evolutionary and comparative aspects. The present study on the learning faculties of shrews examines the possibility of acquiring a conditioned flavor preference and the effects of US postexposure. Subjects were allowed to a drink sucrose solution with flavor A and tap water with flavor B during training. Two extinction tests were administered after every four conditioning trials, and a significant preference for flavor A was observed. After each test, the animals were divided into two groups. Subjects in Group US were presented with a sucrose solution without flavor, while those in Group Water were given tap water. After these trials, all subjects received choice tests where they were presented with water containing the two flavors. The preference ratio was lower in Group US than in Group Water, suggesting a postexposure effect. The findings were discussed in terms of habituation to the US. PMID:22811673

  10. Conditioned Flavor Preference and the US Postexposure Effect in the House Musk Shrew (Suncus Murinus).

    PubMed

    Sawa, Kosuke; Ishii, Kiyoshi

    2012-01-01

    The house musk shrew (Suncus murinus) is the only species of mammalian insectivore that can be domesticated and used as a laboratory animal, and is an interesting subject in terms of evolutionary and comparative aspects. The present study on the learning faculties of shrews examines the possibility of acquiring a conditioned flavor preference and the effects of US postexposure. Subjects were allowed to a drink sucrose solution with flavor A and tap water with flavor B during training. Two extinction tests were administered after every four conditioning trials, and a significant preference for flavor A was observed. After each test, the animals were divided into two groups. Subjects in Group US were presented with a sucrose solution without flavor, while those in Group Water were given tap water. After these trials, all subjects received choice tests where they were presented with water containing the two flavors. The preference ratio was lower in Group US than in Group Water, suggesting a postexposure effect. The findings were discussed in terms of habituation to the US.

  11. Anaplasma phagocytophilum strains from voles and shrews exhibit specific ankA gene sequences

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Anaplasma phagocytophilum is a Gram-negative bacterium that replicates obligate intracellularly in neutrophils. It is transmitted by Ixodes spp. ticks and causes acute febrile disease in humans, dogs, horses, cats, and livestock. Because A. phagocytophilum is not transmitted transovarially in Ixodes spp., it is thought to depend on reservoir hosts to complete its life cycle. In Europe, A. phagocytophilum was detected in roe deer, red deer, wild boars, and small mammals. In contrast to roe deer, red deer and wild boars have been considered as reservoir hosts for granulocytic anaplasmosis in humans, dogs, and horses according to groESL- and ankA-based genotyping. A. phagocytophilum variants infecting small mammals in Europe have not been characterized extensively to date. Results We amplified the total ankA open reading frames of 27 strains from voles and shrews. The analysis revealed that they harboured A. phagocytophilum strains that belonged to a distinct newly described ankA gene cluster. Further, we provide evidence that the heterogeneity of ankA gene sequences might have arisen via recombination. Conclusions Based on ankA-based genotyping voles and shrews are unlikely reservoir hosts for granulocytic anaplasmosis in humans, dogs, horses, and livestock in Europe. PMID:24283328

  12. Angioarchitecture of the coeliac sympathetic ganglion complex in the common tree shrew (Tupaia glis)

    PubMed Central

    PROMWIKORN, WARAPORN; THONGPILA, SAKPORN; PRADIDARCHEEP, WISUIT; MINGSAKUL, THAWORN; CHUNHABUNDIT, PANJIT; SOMANA, REON

    1998-01-01

    The angioarchitecture of the coeliac sympathetic ganglion complex (CGC) of the common tree shrew (Tupaia glis) was studied by the vascular corrosion cast technique in conjunction with scanning electron microscopy. The CGC of the tree shrew was found to be a highly vascularised organ. It normally received arterial blood supply from branches of the inferior phrenic, superior suprarenal and inferior suprarenal arteries and of the abdominal aorta. In some animals, its blood supply was also derived from branches of the middle suprarenal arteries, coeliac artery, superior mesenteric artery and lumbar arteries. These arteries penetrated the ganglion at variable points and in slightly different patterns. They gave off peripheral branches to form a subcapsular capillary plexus while their main trunks traversed deeply into the inner part before branching into the densely packed intraganglionic capillary networks. The capillaries merged to form venules before draining into collecting veins at the peripheral region of the ganglion complex. Finally, the veins coursed to the dorsal aspect of the ganglion to drain into the renal and inferior phrenic veins and the inferior vena cava. The capillaries on the coeliac ganglion complex do not possess fenestrations. PMID:9877296

  13. [Cellular aspects of aging in the pineal gland of the shrew, Crocidura russula].

    PubMed

    Dekar-Madoui, Aicha; Besseau, Laurence; Magnanou, Elodie; Fons, Roger; Ouali, Saliha; Bendjelloul, Mounira; Falcon, Jack

    2012-01-01

    The Greater White-toothed shrew Crocidura russula is short-lived species and the phase of senescence is greatly elongated in captivity. The loss of rhythmicity of biological functions that accompanies its aging is also well documented. C. russula is thus an excellent model to test the effects of aging on biological clocks. Melatonin is a key hormone in the synchronization of behaviors, metabolisms and physiological regulations with environmental factors. In the present work we want to know if the loss of rhythmicity and the reduced melatonin levels registered by the second year of life in this species could be associated to modified ultrastructural features of the pineal parenchyma, site of melatonin synthesis. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis of young (1-4 months) and old (25-28 months) shrew's pineals show that in older individuals, the parenchyma undergoes alterations affecting mainly nucleus, mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum cisternae, with increased numbers of dense bodies and the formation of many concretions as well as a depletion of secretory products. These changes suggest a process of slowing pinealocytes metabolism which could explain the gradual reduction of melatonin levels registered during aging in C. russula.

  14. Cortical projections to the superior colliculus in tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri)

    PubMed Central

    Baldwin, Mary K L; Wei, Haiyang; Reed, Jamie L; Bickford, Martha E; Petry, Heywood M; Kaas, Jon H

    2012-01-01

    The visuomotor functions of the superior colliculus depend not only on direct inputs from the retina, but also on inputs from neocortex. As mammals vary in the areal organization of neocortex, and in the organization of the number of visual and visuomotor areas, patterns of corticotectal projections vary. Primates in particular have a large number of visual areas projecting to the superior colliculus. As tree shrews are close relatives of primates, and they are also highly visual, we studied the distribution of cortical neurons projecting to the superior colliculus by injecting anatomical tracers into the colliculus. Since projections from visuotopically organized visual areas are expected to match the visuotopy of the superior colliculus, injections at different retinotopic locations in the superior colliculus provide information about the locations and organization of topographic areas in extrastriate cortex. Small injections in the superior colliculus labeled neurons in locations within areas 17 (V1) and 18 (V2) that are consistent with the known topography of these areas and the superior colliculus. In addition, the separate locations of clusters of labeled cells in temporal visual cortex provide evidence for five or more topographically organized areas. Injections that included deeper layers of the superior colliculus also labeled neurons in medial frontal cortex, likely in premotor cortex. Only occasional labeled neurons were observed in somatosensory or auditory cortex. Regardless of tracer injection location, we found that unlike primates, a substantial projection to the superior colliculus from posterior parietal cortex is not a characteristic of tree shrews. PMID:23124770

  15. Cortical projections to the superior colliculus in tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri).

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Mary K L; Wei, Haiyang; Reed, Jamie L; Bickford, Martha E; Petry, Heywood M; Kaas, Jon H

    2013-05-01

    The visuomotor functions of the superior colliculus depend not only on direct inputs from the retina, but also on inputs from neocortex. As mammals vary in the areal organization of neocortex, and in the organization of the number of visual and visuomotor areas, patterns of corticotectal projections vary. Primates in particular have a large number of visual areas projecting to the superior colliculus. As tree shrews are close relatives of primates, and they are also highly visual, we studied the distribution of cortical neurons projecting to the superior colliculus by injecting anatomical tracers into the colliculus. Since projections from visuotopically organized visual areas are expected to match the visuotopy of the superior colliculus, injections at different retinotopic locations in the superior colliculus provide information about the locations and organization of topographic areas in extrastriate cortex. Small injections in the superior colliculus labeled neurons in locations within areas 17 (V1) and 18 (V2) that are consistent with the known topography of these areas and the superior colliculus. In addition, the separate locations of clusters of labeled cells in temporal visual cortex provide evidence for five or more topographically organized areas. Injections that included deeper layers of the superior colliculus also labeled neurons in medial frontal cortex, likely in premotor cortex. Only occasional labeled neurons were observed in somatosensory or auditory cortex. Regardless of tracer injection location, we found that, unlike primates, a substantial projection to the superior colliculus from posterior parietal cortex is not a characteristic of tree shrews.

  16. Umbilical Cord-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Relieve Hindlimb Ischemia through Enhancing Angiogenesis in Tree Shrews

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Cunping; Liang, Yuan; Zhang, Jian; Li, Zian; Pang, Rongqing

    2016-01-01

    Hindlimb ischemia is still a clinical problem with high morbidity and mortality. Patients suffer from consequent rest pain, ulcers, cool limbs, and even amputation. Angiogenesis is a promising target for the treatment of ischemic limbs, providing extra blood for the ischemic region. In the present study, we investigated the role of umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UC-MSCs) in regulating angiogenesis and relieving hindlimb ischemia. UC-MSCs were isolated from the umbilical cord of tree shrews. Angiography results showed that UC-MSCs injection significantly promoted angiogenesis in tree shrews. Moreover, the ankle brachial index, transcutaneous oxygen pressure, blood perfusion, and capillary/muscle fiber ratio were all markedly increased by the application of UC-MSCs. In addition, the conditioned culture of human umbilical vein endothelial cells using medium collected from UC-MSCs showed higher expression of angiogenic markers and improved migration ability. In short, the isolated UC-MSCs notably contributed to restoring blood supply and alleviating the symptoms of limb ischemia through enhancing angiogenesis. PMID:27651800

  17. The visual pulvinar in tree shrews I. Multiple subdivisions revealed through acetylcholinesterase and Cat-301 chemoarchitecture.

    PubMed

    Lyon, David C; Jain, Neeraj; Kaas, Jon H

    2003-12-22

    Tree shrews are highly visual mammals closely related to primates. They have a large visual pulvinar complex, but its organization and relation to visual cortex is only partly known. We processed brain sections through the pulvinar with seven different procedures in an effort to reveal histologically distinct compartments. The results revealed three major subdivisions. A dorsal subdivision, Pd, stains darkly for acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and occupies the dorsoposterior one-third of the pulvinar complex. A ventral subdivision, Pv, stains darkly when processed with the Cat-301 antibody and occupies the ventroanterior fifth of the pulvinar complex along the brachium of the superior colliculus. Unexpectedly, part of Pv is ventral to the brachium. A large central subdivision, Pc, stains moderately dark for AChE and cytochrome oxidase (CO), and very light for Cat-301. Pc includes about half of the pulvinar complex, with parts on both sides of the brachium of the superior colliculus. These architectonic results demonstrate that the pulvinar complex of tree shrews is larger and has more subdivisions than previously described. The complex resembles the pulvinar of primates by having a portion ventral to the brachium and by having histochemically distinct nuclei; the number of nuclei is less than in primates, however.

  18. Acoustical expression of arousal in conflict situations in tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri).

    PubMed

    Schehka, Simone; Esser, Karl-Heinz; Zimmermann, Elke

    2007-08-01

    Empirical research on human and non-human primates suggests that communication sounds express the intensity of an emotional state of a signaller. In the present study, we have examined communication sounds during induced social interactions of a monogamous mammal, the tree shrew. To signal their unwillingness to mate, female tree shrews show defensive threat displays towards unfamiliar males paralleled by acoustically variable squeaks. We assumed that the distance between interacting partners as well as the behavior of the male towards the female indicates the intensity of perceived social threat and thereby the arousal state of a female. To explore this hypothesis we analyzed dynamic changes in communication sounds uttered during induced social interactions between a female and an unfamiliar male. Detailed videographic and sound analyzes revealed that the arousal state predicted variations in communication sound structure reliably. Both, a decrease of distance and a male approaching the female led to an increase in fundamental frequency and repetition rate of syllables. These findings support comparable results in human and non-human primates and suggest that common coding rules in communication sounds govern acoustic conflict regulation in mammals.

  19. Cloning and characterization of a novel apolipoprotein gene, apolipoprotein AV, in tree shrews.

    PubMed

    Li, Guoping; Luo, Huairong; Sun, Guotao; Wu, Guisheng; Wu, Gang; Wang, Yan; Man, Yong; Wang, Shu; Li, Jian; Chen, Baosheng

    2013-09-01

    Apolipoprotein AV (apoAV) modulates plasma triglyceride levels, which is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. ApoAV is also involved in atherosclerosis lesion formation. In order to systematically evaluate the apolipoprotein-related gene profile in tree shrew, a model for its insusceptibility to atherosclerosis, we performed apoAV cloning and characterization. The full-length cDNA of apoAV was identified using SMART-RACE. ApoAV cDNA sequence revealed two transcripts, 1,948 and 1,397 base pairs, due to alternative polyadenylation. These two transcripts share the same open reading frame (ORF), which encodes a 369-amino acid protein with high identity to human apoAV (75 %), including a 23-amino acid N-terminal signal peptide. ApoAV is expressed exclusively in the liver. Mature apoAV was expressed in E. coli BL21(DE3) and purified by Ni-chelated resin. Lipoprotein lipase activity was significantly stimulated by this recombinant protein. The full-length ORF of apoAV was cloned into pDsRed-monomer-N1 vector with a red fluorescent protein tag and was primarily localized in cytoplasm of hepG2 cells. The successful cloning, expression and localization of apoAV in tree shrew has laid down the foundation for further investigation on its structure and functions.

  20. Umbilical Cord-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Relieve Hindlimb Ischemia through Enhancing Angiogenesis in Tree Shrews.

    PubMed

    Yin, Cunping; Liang, Yuan; Zhang, Jian; Ruan, Guangping; Li, Zian; Pang, Rongqing; Pan, Xinghua

    2016-01-01

    Hindlimb ischemia is still a clinical problem with high morbidity and mortality. Patients suffer from consequent rest pain, ulcers, cool limbs, and even amputation. Angiogenesis is a promising target for the treatment of ischemic limbs, providing extra blood for the ischemic region. In the present study, we investigated the role of umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UC-MSCs) in regulating angiogenesis and relieving hindlimb ischemia. UC-MSCs were isolated from the umbilical cord of tree shrews. Angiography results showed that UC-MSCs injection significantly promoted angiogenesis in tree shrews. Moreover, the ankle brachial index, transcutaneous oxygen pressure, blood perfusion, and capillary/muscle fiber ratio were all markedly increased by the application of UC-MSCs. In addition, the conditioned culture of human umbilical vein endothelial cells using medium collected from UC-MSCs showed higher expression of angiogenic markers and improved migration ability. In short, the isolated UC-MSCs notably contributed to restoring blood supply and alleviating the symptoms of limb ischemia through enhancing angiogenesis.

  1. A Comparative Analysis of the Endocannabinoid System in the Retina of Mice, Tree Shrews, and Monkeys.

    PubMed

    Bouskila, Joseph; Javadi, Pasha; Elkrief, Laurent; Casanova, Christian; Bouchard, Jean-François; Ptito, Maurice

    2016-01-01

    The endocannabinoid (eCB) system is widely expressed in various parts of the central nervous system, including the retina. The localization of the key eCB receptors, particularly CB1R and CB2R, has been recently reported in rodent and primate retinas with striking interspecies differences. Little is known about the distribution of the enzymes involved in the synthesis and degradation of these eCBs. We therefore examined the expression and localization of the main components of the eCB system in the retina of mice, tree shrews, and monkeys. We found that CB1R and FAAH distributions are well-preserved among these species. However, expression of NAPE-PLD is circumscribed to the photoreceptor layer only in monkeys. In contrast, CB2R expression is variable across these species; in mice, CB2R is found in retinal neurons but not in glial cells; in tree shrews, CB2R is expressed in Müller cell processes of the outer retina and in retinal neurons of the inner retina; in monkeys, CB2R is restricted to Müller cells. Finally, the expression patterns of MAGL and DAGLα are differently expressed across species. Overall, these results provide evidence that the eCB system is differently expressed in the retina of these mammals and suggest a distinctive role of eCBs in visual processing.

  2. The evolutionary history of the two karyotypic groups of the common shrew, Sorex araneus, in Poland.

    PubMed

    Ratkiewicz, M; Fedyk, S; Banaszek, A; Gielly, L; Chetnicki, W; Jadwiszczak, K; Taberlet, P

    2002-04-01

    Genetic variability within and among two karyotypic groups and five chromosome races of the common shrew (Sorex araneus) in Poland was assayed by sequencing a 1023 bp part of the cytochrome b gene (mtDNA) from 28 individuals. Thirty-four variable positions defined 21 distinct haplotypes with a maximum sequence divergence of 0.88%. No significant differentiation in the cytochrome b gene between Western and Eastern Karyotypic groups was found. Haplotype diversity estimates within the races and groups sampled were high (h = 0.800-0.928), while nucleotide diversity estimates were low (pi = 0.0034-0.0053). The distribution of pairwise nucleotide differences fits well with expectations of a "sudden expansion" model. High haplotype diversity was accompanied by relatively high expected heterozygosity (H(E)) values in nuclear genes (calculated over 47 enzyme loci: H(E) = 0.031 - 0.049), giving no evidence for a recent bottleneck after the process of post-Pleistocene recolonization of Poland by the shrews. Thus, for S. araneus chromosome races in Poland, the data on the cytochrome b gene variability support the hypothesis assuming the Robertsonian fusions having spread into an ancestral acrocentric distribution.

  3. Robertsonian chromosomal rearrangements in the short-tailed shrew, Blarina carolinensis, in western Tennessee.

    PubMed

    Qumsiyeh, M B; Coate, J L; Peppers, J A; Kennedy, P K; Kennedy, M L

    1997-01-01

    We report significant heterozygosity for numerous Robertsonian translocations in the southern short-tailed shrew (Blarina carolinensis) in western Tennessee. Eight Robertsonian rearrangements were documented using G-banding techniques that explain the variability in diploid numbers from 46 throughout most of the range of the species to 34-40 in western Tennessee. These fusions resulted in the loss of telomere sequences and were not associated with nucleolar organizer regions. When heterozygocity is considered, the lowest diploid number possibly present would be 30. Four localities with distances of over 180 km apart were sampled, and 80-90% of the collected animals were heterozygous for at least one rearrangement. No putative parental type was found in western Tennessee. Heterozygosity for the same rearrangements was found in these different localities, and no monobrachial fusions were noted. Thus, this is a very wide hybrid zone with rare or absent parental types in the areas sampled or is an evolutionary stage preceding establishment of Robertsonian races. Selective forces, if any, were minimal, as evidenced by the wide area of polymorphism, significant heterozygosity, and the fact that the Robertsonian translocations were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The origin of such extensive polymorphism in western Tennessee is discussed, especially in light of putative effects of the New Madrid seismic activity. Similarities and differences are noted between the Blarina model and the well-documented variation in the European common shrew (Sorex araneus) and Mus musculus groups.

  4. Energy expenditure in Crocidurinae shrews (Insectivora): is metabolism a key component of the insular syndrome?

    PubMed

    Magnanou, Elodie; Fons, Roger; Blondel, Jacques; Morand, Serge

    2005-11-01

    A cascade of morphological, ecological, demographical and behavioural changes operates within island communities compared to mainland. We tested whether metabolic rates change on islands. Using a closed circuit respirometer, we investigated resting metabolic rate (RMR) of three species of Crocidurinae shrews: Suncus etruscus, Crocidura russula, and C. suaveolens. For the latter, we compared energy expenditure of mainland and island populations. Our measurements agree with those previously reported for others Crocidurinae: the interspecific comparison (ANCOVA) demonstrated an allometric relation between energy requirements and body mass. Energy expenditure also scaled with temperature. Island populations (Corsica and Porquerolles) of C. suaveolens differed in size from mainland (gigantism). A GLM showed a significant relationship between energy expenditure, temperature, body mass and locality. Mass specific RMR allometrically scales body mass, but total RMR does not significantly differ between mainland and island, although island shrews are giant. Our results are consistent with other studies: that demonstrated that the evolution of mammalian metabolism on islands is partially independent of body mass. In relation to the insular syndrome, we discuss how island selective forces (changes in resource availability, decrease in competition and predation pressures) can operate in size and physiological adjustments.

  5. A Comparative Analysis of the Endocannabinoid System in the Retina of Mice, Tree Shrews, and Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Bouskila, Joseph; Javadi, Pasha; Elkrief, Laurent; Casanova, Christian; Bouchard, Jean-François; Ptito, Maurice

    2016-01-01

    The endocannabinoid (eCB) system is widely expressed in various parts of the central nervous system, including the retina. The localization of the key eCB receptors, particularly CB1R and CB2R, has been recently reported in rodent and primate retinas with striking interspecies differences. Little is known about the distribution of the enzymes involved in the synthesis and degradation of these eCBs. We therefore examined the expression and localization of the main components of the eCB system in the retina of mice, tree shrews, and monkeys. We found that CB1R and FAAH distributions are well-preserved among these species. However, expression of NAPE-PLD is circumscribed to the photoreceptor layer only in monkeys. In contrast, CB2R expression is variable across these species; in mice, CB2R is found in retinal neurons but not in glial cells; in tree shrews, CB2R is expressed in Müller cell processes of the outer retina and in retinal neurons of the inner retina; in monkeys, CB2R is restricted to Müller cells. Finally, the expression patterns of MAGL and DAGLα are differently expressed across species. Overall, these results provide evidence that the eCB system is differently expressed in the retina of these mammals and suggest a distinctive role of eCBs in visual processing. PMID:26977322

  6. Prevalence of zoonotic Bartonella species among rodents and shrews in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Pangjai, Decha; Maruyama, Soichi; Boonmar, Sumalee; Kabeya, Hidenori; Sato, Shingo; Nimsuphan, Burin; Petkanchanapong, Wimol; Wootta, Wattanapong; Wangroongsarb, Piyada; Boonyareth, Maskiet; Preedakoon, Poom; Saisongkorh, Watcharee; Sawanpanyalert, Pathom

    2014-03-01

    We investigated the prevalence of Bartonella species in 10 rodent and one shrew species in Thailand. From February 2008 to May 2010, a total of 375 small animals were captured in 9 provinces in Thailand. Bartonella strains were isolated from 57 rodents (54 from Rattus species and 3 from Bandicota indica) and one shrew (Suncus murinus) in 7 of the 9 provinces, and identified to the species level. Sequence analysis of the citrate synthase and RNA polymerase β subunit genes identified the 58 isolates from each Bartonella-positive animal as B. tribocorum in 27 (46.6%) animals, B. rattimassiliensis in 17 (29.3%) animals, B. elizabethae in 10 (17.2%) animals and B. queenslandensis in 4 (6.9%) animals. R. norvegicus, R. rattus, and Suncus murinus carried B. elizabethae, which causes endocarditis in humans. The prevalence of Bartonella bacteremic animals by province was 42.9% of the animals collected in Phang Nga, 26.8% in Chiang Rai, 20.4% in Sa Kaeo, 16.7% in Nakhon Si Thammarat, 12.0% in Surat Thani, 9.1% in Mae Hong Son and Loei Provinces. These results indicate that Bartonella organisms are widely distributed in small mammals in Thailand and some animal species may serve as important reservoirs of zoonotic Bartonella species in the country.

  7. Ultrastructure of geniculocortical synaptic connections in the tree shrew striate cortex.

    PubMed

    Familtsev, Dmitry; Quiggins, Ranida; Masterson, Sean P; Dang, Wenhao; Slusarczyk, Arkadiusz S; Petry, Heywood M; Bickford, Martha E

    2016-04-15

    To determine whether thalamocortical synaptic circuits differ across cortical areas, we examined the ultrastructure of geniculocortical terminals in the tree shrew striate cortex to compare directly the characteristics of these terminals with those of pulvinocortical terminals (examined previously in the temporal cortex of the same species; Chomsung et al. [] Cereb Cortex 20:997-1011). Tree shrews are considered to represent a prototype of early prosimian primates but are unique in that sublaminae of striate cortex layer IV respond preferentially to light onset (IVa) or offset (IVb). We examined geniculocortical inputs to these two sublayers labeled by tracer or virus injections or an antibody against the type 2 vesicular glutamate antibody (vGLUT2). We found that layer IV geniculocortical terminals, as well as their postsynaptic targets, were significantly larger than pulvinocortical terminals and their postsynaptic targets. In addition, we found that 9-10% of geniculocortical terminals in each sublamina contacted GABAergic interneurons, whereas pulvinocortical terminals were not found to contact any interneurons. Moreover, we found that the majority of geniculocortical terminals in both IVa and IVb contained dendritic protrusions, whereas pulvinocortical terminals do not contain these structures. Finally, we found that synaptopodin, a protein uniquely associated with the spine apparatus, and telencephalin (TLCN, or intercellular adhesion molecule type 5), a protein associated with maturation of dendritic spines, are largely excluded from geniculocortical recipient layers of the striate cortex. Together our results suggest major differences in the synaptic organization of thalamocortical pathways in striate and extrastriate areas.

  8. Angioarchitecture of the coeliac sympathetic ganglion complex in the common tree shrew (Tupaia glis).

    PubMed

    Promwikorn, W; Thongpila, S; Pradidarcheep, W; Mingsakul, T; Chunhabundit, P; Somana, R

    1998-10-01

    The angioarchitecture of the coeliac sympathetic ganglion complex (CGC) of the common tree shrew (Tupaia glis) was studied by the vascular corrosion cast technique in conjunction with scanning electron microscopy. The CGC of the tree shrew was found to be a highly vascularised organ. It normally received arterial blood supply from branches of the inferior phrenic, superior suprarenal and inferior suprarenal arteries and of the abdominal aorta. In some animals, its blood supply was also derived from branches of the middle suprarenal arteries, coeliac artery, superior mesenteric artery and lumbar arteries. These arteries penetrated the ganglion at variable points and in slightly different patterns. They gave off peripheral branches to form a subcapsular capillary plexus while their main trunks traversed deeply into the inner part before branching into the densely packed intraganglionic capillary networks. The capillaries merged to form venules before draining into collecting veins at the peripheral region of the ganglion complex. Finally, the veins coursed to the dorsal aspect of the ganglion to drain into the renal and inferior phrenic veins and the inferior vena cava. The capillaries on the coeliac ganglion complex do not possess fenestrations.

  9. Types of vascular wall as related to vasa vasorum in common tree shrew (Tupaia glis).

    PubMed

    Chuncher, Sununta; Somana, Reon

    2005-08-15

    Blood vessels of the common tree shrew (Tupaia glis) were embedded in Araldite, sectioned at 0.5-1 microm thickness, and observed with light microscope (LM). It was found that the vascular wall could be classified into three categories: (1) those with proper vasa vasorum (PVV); (2) those with collaborative vasa vasorum in perimural tissues; (3) those without vasa vasorum. The PVV were located in the the tunica media, between the tunica media and the tunica adventitia, and in the tunica adventitia of the vascular wall. On studying the vascular casts with a scanning electron microscope (SEM), it was noted that what appeared to be vasa vasorum did not always conform to those found under the LM. Furthermore, the PVV seen in a particular blood vessel among different tree shrews were not always related to intraluminal partial pressure of oxygen, vascular size, and thickness of the wall. In contrast, the results of this study indicate that the activeness of the vascular wall in varying the amount of blood flow to certain organs is an important factor that is associated with the existence, density, and distribution of the vasa vasorum.

  10. Scanning electron microscopic study of the splenic vascular casts in common tree shrew (Tupaia glis).

    PubMed

    Bamroongwong, S; Somana, R; Rojananeungnit, S; Chunhabundit, P; Rattanachaikunsopon, P

    1991-01-01

    Splenic vascular casts of the common tree shrew, Tupaia glis, were constructed with Batson's No. 17 plastic mixture and studied with the scanning electron microscope (SEM). Fifteen adult animals of both sexes, weighing between 120 and 180 g were used. Under ether anaesthesia, each animal was injected with 0.05 ml heparin intracardially; the right atrium was cut open and then 250 ml of 0.9% NaCl, followed by 50 ml of 10% neutral formalin, (in four animals) was injected through the left ventricle. Plastic mixture was injected through the same opening. After complete polymerization of the plastic, the spleen and surrounding tissues were removed and macerated in 40% KOH. The air-dried casts were then coated with carbon and gold before viewing and photographing under SEM at 15 kV. It was found that the splenic arteries penetrated deep into the organ before they divided into trabecular arteries and divided again into central arterioles. Each central arteriole sent out 15 to 30 radiating arterioles, called penicillar arterioles, and further divided into smaller vessels entering the marginal zone and red pulp. In this area each arteriole continued directly into either marginal or red pulp sinusoids. The sinusoids emptied into pulp venules which joined to form trabecular veins. Most of the trabecular veins travelled to the cortical area underneath the splenic capsule before approaching the hilum, where they finally drained into splenic and short gastric veins. It is likely that the spleen of the common tree shrew has a closed circulation.

  11. Multiaxonal horizontal cells in the retina of the tree shrew, Tupaia glis.

    PubMed

    Mariani, A P

    1985-03-22

    The retinas of most vertebrates contain two or more morphologically distinct types of horizontal cell, and usually one of these types lacks an axon. Among mammals, in which two types are observed, primates are exceptional in that both types of horizontal cell have axons. It then seemed of interest to study the horizontal cells of tree shrews (Tupaia glis), insectivores thought to be closely related to primates. Golgi impregnations of whole, flat-preparations revealed two types of horizontal cell. Uniaxonal cells have a compact dendritic organization with clusters of terminals, and a single thin axon with short collaterals and a few terminals, located along its length. Multiaxonal cells have a relatively large dendritic tree, and arising from the tips of about four to eight dendrites of an individual cell are thin axonlike processes which terminate as profusely branched telodendritic arborizations. This identification of the multiaxonal horizontal cells in Tupaia retina is the first time any vertebrate horizontal cell has been found to possess more than a single axon. A comparison of horizontal cells in tree shrew, monkey, cat, and squirrel retinas shows a remarkable morphological diversity within this class of mammalian retinal neuron.

  12. Size evolution in Goodwin’s small-eared shrew, Cryptotis goodwini

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodman, N.; Merritt, J.F.; Churchfield, S.; Hutterer, R.; Sheftel, B.A.

    2005-01-01

    Fossils of Cryptotis goodwini from Honduras indicate that body sizes of modern individuals average at least 18% larger than among members of the late Pleistocene population of this species. Palynological and other paleoenvironmental studies provide evidence that the Neotropical montane environments that these shrews inhabit were cooler and drier in the late Pleistocene than at present and supported communities of plants without modern analog. Therefore, the most likely cause of this change in size ultimately was related to climatic change at the end of the Pleistocene?but to what specific factors did the species respond? I examined the possibilities that this species changed in size: to accommodate a change in temperature regime; to escape from predators; as a response to a change in intensity of interspecific competition; to take advantage of a newly abundant food resource. Based on evidence from studies of modern communities of shrews and niche partitioning, I hypothesized that size evolution in C. goodwini was directly related to changes in the community of soil and soil-surface invertebrates upon which the species depends, specifically an increase in the availability of earthworms (Annelida).

  13. Whole-brain mapping of afferent projections to the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis in tree shrews.

    PubMed

    Ni, Rong-Jun; Luo, Peng-Hao; Shu, Yu-Mian; Chen, Ju-Tao; Zhou, Jiang-Ning

    2016-10-01

    The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST) plays an important role in integrating and relaying input information to other brain regions in response to stress. The cytoarchitecture of the BST in tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri chinensis) has been comprehensively described in our previous publications. However, the inputs to the BST have not been described in previous reports. The aim of the present study was to investigate the sources of afferent projections to the BST throughout the brain of tree shrews using the retrograde tracer Fluoro-Gold (FG). The present results provide the first detailed whole-brain mapping of BST-projecting neurons in the tree shrew brain. The BST was densely innervated by the prefrontal cortex, entorhinal cortex, ventral subiculum, amygdala, ventral tegmental area, and parabrachial nucleus. Moreover, moderate projections to the BST originated from the medial preoptic area, supramammillary nucleus, paraventricular thalamic nucleus, pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus, dorsal raphe nucleus, locus coeruleus, and nucleus of the solitary tract. Afferent projections to the BST are identified in the ventral pallidum, nucleus of the diagonal band, ventral posteromedial thalamic nucleus, posterior complex of the thalamus, interfascicular nucleus, retrorubral field, rhabdoid nucleus, intermediate reticular nucleus, and parvicellular reticular nucleus. In addition, the different densities of BST-projecting neurons in various regions were analyzed in the tree shrew brains. In summary, whole-brain mapping of direct inputs to the BST is delineated in tree shrews. These brain circuits are implicated in the regulation of numerous physiological and behavioral processes including stress, reward, food intake, and arousal.

  14. Modelling and monitoring organochlorine and heavy metal accumulation in soils, earthworms, and shrews in Rhine-delta floodplains.

    PubMed

    Hendriks, A J; Ma, W C; Brouns, J J; de Ruiter-Dijkman, E M; Gast, R

    1995-07-01

    In the Rhine-delta, accumulation of microcontaminants in floodplain foodwebs has received little attention in comparison with aquatic communities. To investigate organochlorine and metal concentrations in a terrestrial foodchain, samples of soil, earthworms (Lumbricus rubellus), and shrew (Crocidura russula, Sorex araneus) livers and kidneys were taken from two moderately to heavily polluted floodplains. Chlorobiphenyl residues in earthworm fat were 0.10 to 3.5 times the concentrations in soil organic matter, whereas ratios for other organochlorines varied between 0.87 and 8.8. These ratios are one order of magnitude lower than expected from laboratory experiments with earthworms, and laboratory and field studies on aquatic invertebrates. Bioconcentration ratios for heavy metals are in accordance with literature values for other locations, confirming the high potential for cadmium accumulation in Lumbricidae. Concentrations of organochlorines in shrew liver lipids were 1.0 to 13 times the residues in earthworm fat. These values are higher than lipid-corrected biomagnification ratios for laboratory rodents, but equal to those measured for benthivorous birds in the Rhine-delta. On a dry weight basis, kidney-earthworm ratios for cadmium were about one order of magnitude lower than previously reported values for insectivores. Soil concentrations of many compounds in both floodplains did not meet Dutch quality standards. Yet, hexachlorobenzene, chlorobiphenyl 153 (PCB153), gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane, sigma DDT, and dieldrin residues in earthworms and shrews did not exceed diet levels expected to be safe for endothermic species. An exception was noted for cadmium in worms and shrew kidneys. Heavy metal pollution in soil was close to levels that are critical to earthworms in laboratory studies. Cadmium concentrations in shrew kidneys were below levels suggested to be safe for Sorex araneus, but above those that were critical to the rat.

  15. Natural hybridization between extremely divergent chromosomal races of the common shrew (Sorex araneus, Soricidae, Soricomorpha): hybrid zone in European Russia.

    PubMed

    Bulatova, N; Jones, R M; White, T A; Shchipanov, N A; Pavlova, S V; Searle, J B

    2011-03-01

    The Moscow and Seliger chromosomal races of the common shrew differ by Robertsonian fusions and possibly whole-arm reciprocal translocations (WARTs) such that their F₁ hybrids produce a chain-of-eleven configuration at meiosis I and are expected to suffer substantial infertility. Of numerous hybrid zones that have been described in the common shrew, those between the Moscow and Seliger races involve the greatest chromosomal difference. We collected 211 individuals from this zone to generate a total dataset of 298 individuals from 187 unique global positioning system (GPS) locations within the vicinity of interracial contact. We used a geographic information system (GIS) to map the location of the hybrid zone, which follows a direct route between two lakes, as would be anticipated from tension zone theory. Even within the central area of the hybrid zone, there is a much higher frequency of pure race individuals than hybrid, making this a clear example of a bimodal zone in the sense of Jiggins & Mallet (2000). The zone runs through good habitat for common shrews, but nevertheless it is very narrow (standard cline widths: 3-4 km), as would be anticipated from low hybrid fitness. There is clear potential for an interruption to gene flow and build-up of reproductive isolation. As found in some other hybrid zones, there is a high frequency of novel genetic variants, in this case, new chromosomal rearrangements. Here, we report a de novo Robertsonian fission and a de novo reciprocal translocation, both for the first time in the common shrew. There is an extraordinarily high frequency of de novo mutations recorded in F₁ hybrids in the zone and we discuss how chromosomal instability may be associated with such hybrids. The occurrence of a de novo Robertsonian fission is of considerable significance because it provides missing evidence that fissions are the basis of the novel acrocentric forms found and apparently selected for in certain common shrew hybrid zones.

  16. Description and phylogenetic relationships of Rodentolepis gnoskei n. sp. (Cyclophyllidea: Hymenolepididae) from a shrew Suncus varilla minor in Malawi.

    PubMed

    Greiman, Stephen E; Tkach, Vasyl V

    2012-06-01

    Rodentolepis gnoskei n. sp. is described based on specimens obtained from a lesser dwarf shrew Suncus varilla minor collected in the Nyika National Park, Malawi. The new species is one of the smallest hymenolepidids known from African shrews and is morphologically closest to two other miniature hymenolepidids from African shrews, Staphylocystis loossi and S. khalili. The new species differs from both of them by a much smaller strobila size and fewer proglottids. The rostellar hooks in the new species are more numerous and smaller in size than in S. loossi. The rostellar hooks in R. gnoskei n. sp. are almost three times shorter than hooks in S. khalili. The hook shape in both S. loossi and S. khalili is substantially different from that in the new species. Molecular phylogenetic analysis indicates that the new species is close to Rodentolepis fraterna, a parasite of rodents. The new species clearly differs from R. fraterna by the much shorter strobila, larger hooks, relatively longer cirrus sac, rate of proglottid development, the number of eggs per proglottid and parasitism in shrews. Although the new species fits the current diagnosis of Rodentolepis, its generic allocation is provisional and will likely be revised in the future because the type species of Rodentolepis, R. straminea, belongs to a different well supported clade. Thus, a new genus needs to be established for the lineage that includes R. fraterna and R. gnoskei n. sp. However, this systematic rearrangement is not recommended until Staphylocystis pistillum, the type species of Staphylocystis, is included in future phylogenetic analyses. Rodentolepis gnoskei n. sp. is the first tapeworm species reported from shrews in Malawi and the first species of cestode reported from S. varilla minor and any member of Suncus in Africa.

  17. [First finding of the Centrorhynchus aluconis (Muller, 1780) (Giganthorhynchidae) and Moniliformis moniliformis bremser, 1811 (Moniliformidae) larvae in shrews (Insectivora: Soricidae) of the fauna of Russia].

    PubMed

    Kirillova, N Iu; Kirillov, A A

    2007-01-01

    The larvae of acanthocephalans Centrorhynchus aluconis (Muller, 1780) and Moniliformis moniliformis Bremser, 1811 are recorded for the first time from shrews in Russia (Samarskaya Luka National Park, Samara Region). Taxonomic descriptions and figures of the specimens examined are presented.

  18. Differences in cooperative behavior among Damaraland mole rats are consequences of an age-related polyethism

    PubMed Central

    Zöttl, Markus; Vullioud, Philippe; Mendonça, Rute; Torrents Ticó, Miquel; Gaynor, David; Mitchell, Adam; Clutton-Brock, Tim

    2016-01-01

    In many cooperative breeders, the contributions of helpers to cooperative activities change with age, resulting in age-related polyethisms. In contrast, some studies of social mole rats (including naked mole rats, Heterocephalus glaber, and Damaraland mole rats, Fukomys damarensis) suggest that individual differences in cooperative behavior are the result of divergent developmental pathways, leading to discrete and permanent functional categories of helpers that resemble the caste systems found in eusocial insects. Here we show that, in Damaraland mole rats, individual contributions to cooperative behavior increase with age and are higher in fast-growing individuals. Individual contributions to different cooperative tasks are intercorrelated and repeatability of cooperative behavior is similar to that found in other cooperatively breeding vertebrates. Our data provide no evidence that nonreproductive individuals show divergent developmental pathways or specialize in particular tasks. Instead of representing a caste system, variation in the behavior of nonreproductive individuals in Damaraland mole rats closely resembles that found in other cooperatively breeding mammals and appears to be a consequence of age-related polyethism. PMID:27588902

  19. Differences in cooperative behavior among Damaraland mole rats are consequences of an age-related polyethism.

    PubMed

    Zöttl, Markus; Vullioud, Philippe; Mendonça, Rute; Torrents Ticó, Miquel; Gaynor, David; Mitchell, Adam; Clutton-Brock, Tim

    2016-09-13

    In many cooperative breeders, the contributions of helpers to cooperative activities change with age, resulting in age-related polyethisms. In contrast, some studies of social mole rats (including naked mole rats, Heterocephalus glaber, and Damaraland mole rats, Fukomys damarensis) suggest that individual differences in cooperative behavior are the result of divergent developmental pathways, leading to discrete and permanent functional categories of helpers that resemble the caste systems found in eusocial insects. Here we show that, in Damaraland mole rats, individual contributions to cooperative behavior increase with age and are higher in fast-growing individuals. Individual contributions to different cooperative tasks are intercorrelated and repeatability of cooperative behavior is similar to that found in other cooperatively breeding vertebrates. Our data provide no evidence that nonreproductive individuals show divergent developmental pathways or specialize in particular tasks. Instead of representing a caste system, variation in the behavior of nonreproductive individuals in Damaraland mole rats closely resembles that found in other cooperatively breeding mammals and appears to be a consequence of age-related polyethism.

  20. Unraveling the message: insights into comparative genomics of the naked mole-rat.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Kaitlyn N; Soifer, Ilya; Melamud, Eugene; Roy, Margaret; McIsaac, R Scott; Hibbs, Matthew; Buffenstein, Rochelle

    2016-08-01

    Animals have evolved to survive, and even thrive, in different environments. Genetic adaptations may have indirectly created phenotypes that also resulted in a longer lifespan. One example of this phenomenon is the preternaturally long-lived naked mole-rat. This strictly subterranean rodent tolerates hypoxia, hypercapnia, and soil-based toxins. Naked mole-rats also exhibit pronounced resistance to cancer and an attenuated decline of many physiological characteristics that often decline as mammals age. Elucidating mechanisms that give rise to their unique phenotypes will lead to better understanding of subterranean ecophysiology and biology of aging. Comparative genomics could be a useful tool in this regard. Since the publication of a naked mole-rat genome assembly in 2011, analyses of genomic and transcriptomic data have enabled a clearer understanding of mole-rat evolutionary history and suggested molecular pathways (e.g., NRF2-signaling activation and DNA damage repair mechanisms) that may explain the extraordinarily longevity and unique health traits of this species. However, careful scrutiny and re-analysis suggest that some identified features result from incorrect or imprecise annotation and assembly of the naked mole-rat genome: in addition, some of these conclusions (e.g., genes involved in cancer resistance and hairlessness) are rejected when the analysis includes additional, more closely related species. We describe how the combination of better study design, improved genomic sequencing techniques, and new bioinformatic and data analytical tools will improve comparative genomics and ultimately bridge the gap between traditional model and nonmodel organisms.

  1. Naked mole rats exhibit metabolic but not ventilatory plasticity following chronic sustained hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Chung, Danielle; Dzal, Yvonne A; Seow, Allison; Milsom, William K; Pamenter, Matthew E

    2016-03-30

    Naked mole rats are among the most hypoxia-tolerant mammals identified and live in chronic hypoxia throughout their lives. The physiological mechanisms underlying this tolerance, however, are poorly understood. Most vertebrates hyperventilate in acute hypoxia and exhibit an enhanced hyperventilation following acclimatization to chronic sustained hypoxia (CSH). Conversely, naked mole rats do not hyperventilate in acute hypoxia and their response to CSH has not been examined. In this study, we explored mechanisms of plasticity in the control of the hypoxic ventilatory response (HVR) and hypoxic metabolic response (HMR) of freely behaving naked mole rats following 8-10 days of chronic sustained normoxia (CSN) or CSH. Specifically, we investigated the role of the major inhibitory neurotransmitter γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) in mediating these responses. Our study yielded three important findings. First, naked mole rats did not exhibit ventilatory plasticity following CSH, which is unique among adult animals studied to date. Second, GABA receptor (GABAR) antagonism altered breathing patterns in CSN and CSH animals and modulated the acute HVR in CSN animals. Third, naked mole rats exhibited GABAR-dependent metabolic plasticity following long-term hypoxia, such that the basal metabolic rate was approximately 25% higher in normoxic CSH animals than CSN animals, and GABAR antagonists modulated this increase.

  2. Reversed palatal perforation by upper incisors in ageing blind mole-rats (Spalax ehrenbergi)

    PubMed Central

    ZURI, I.; TERKEL, J.

    2001-01-01

    Blind mole-rats (Spalax ehrenbergi) are fossorial solitary rodents that present striking morphological, physiological and behavioural adaptations to the subterranean environment in which they live. Previous studies have shown that mole-rats are specialised in tooth-digging. The rapid eruption-rate of their incisors has evolved to compensate for their excessive wear by excavation. Males use their incisors more than females for digging and fighting, and their rate of incisor eruption is significantly more rapid than in females. Since mole-rats use their incisors for digging throughout the year, we suggest that continuous mechanical pressure on their oral tissues concentrated at the apical sites of the upper incisors leads to cell and tissue fatigue. We provide evidence for 5 stages of palatal perforation by the upper incisors at their apical sites, with maximum perforation characterising aged males. Interspecies comparisons with 7 other fossorial and semi-fossorial rodent species, and with beavers, which expose their incisors to enormous mechanical pressure, revealed that this palatal perforation is unique to the male mole-rat. We suggest that while the fast eruption rate of incisors in the mole-rat compensates for the rapid wear resulting from digging, evolutionary adaptation to continuous tooth-digging is still ongoing, since the physical pressure of digging at the apical sites of the upper incisors leads to tissue destruction, breakage of the palatal bone and possibly to death, as a result of maxillary inflammation. PMID:11760890

  3. iMole, a web based image retrieval system from biomedical literature.

    PubMed

    Giordano, Manuela; Natale, Massimo; Cornaz, Moreno; Ruffino, Andrea; Bonino, Dario; Bucci, Enrico M

    2013-07-01

    iMole is a platform that automatically extracts images and captions from biomedical literature. Images are tagged with terms contained in figure captions by means of a sophisticate text-mining tool. Moreover, iMole allows the user to upload directly their own images within the database and manually tag images by curated dictionary. Using iMole the researchers can develop a proper biomedical image database, storing the images extracted from paper of interest, image found on the web repositories, and their own experimental images. In order to show the functioning of the platform, we used iMole to build a 2DE database. Briefly, tagged 2DE gel images were collected and stored in a searchable 2DE gel database, available to users through an interactive web interface. Images were obtained by automatically parsing 16,608 proteomic publications, which yielded more than 16,500 images. The database can be further expanded by users with images of interest trough a manual uploading process. iMole is available with a preloaded set of 2DE gel data at http://imole.biodigitalvalley.com.

  4. Japanese Temple Geometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vincent, Jill; Vincent, Claire

    2004-01-01

    Between the 17th and 19th centuries, the Japanese government closed its borders to the outside world in an attempt to become more powerful. Foreign books were banned, people could not travel, and foreigners were not allowed to enter the country. One result of this isolation was the flourishing of sangaku--wooden tablets inscribed with intricately…

  5. Reciprocal Predicates in Japanese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ishii, Yasuo

    A study of reciprocals in Japanese compares two kinds: (1) a verbal suffix "aw"; and (2) an NP argument "otagai." Although "otagai" appears to be taken care of by syntactic binding theory, it is proposed that there is no evidence for the existence of a syntactic position of the object NP in the case of "aw." The suffix can be characterized as…

  6. Reflexives in Japanese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kishida, Maki

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation is to reconsider reflexives in Japanese through the following three steps: (a) separation of genuine reflexive elements from elements that are confounded as reflexives, (b) classification of reflexive anaphors into subtypes based on their semantic difference, and (c) classification of predicates that occur with…

  7. JAPANESE READERS (TITLE SUPPLIED).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    THREE JAPANESE READERS ARE PRESENTED WHICH CONTAIN VOCABULARY, NOTES, AND DRILL SENTENCES. THE THREE READERS--(1) ARU SARARIIMAN NO ITI-NITI, (2) OTOOSAN WA KAMI-SAMA, AND (3) ARU GAKUSEI NO HANNITI--ARE WRITTEN IN THE ROMAJI ALPHABET. EACH READER HAS A VOCABULARY LISTING WITH ENGLISH EXPLANATIONS AND DRILL SENTENCES. AN ENGLISH WORD DEFINITION…

  8. On Japanese Children's Books.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watanare, Shigeo

    This report, given at a special meeting held in Tehran, presents data and facts concerning yearly publications (books, magazines, and textbooks), translations, and illustrations of Japanese children's literature. The report then discusses at length recent trends in children's literature and library activities for children in the past, present, and…

  9. Reconstruction of Japanese Vowels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aoki, Haruo

    1972-01-01

    This paper discusses the relationship between linguistic reconstructions and their historical validity using the case of Old Japanese (8th century A.D.) vowels as an example. Reconstructions throughout the paper include only those cases in which the modern reflexes and phonological correspondences between two or more genetically related languages…

  10. Japanese Experiences: "Hentai" Narratives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kama, Amit

    2011-01-01

    For those acquainted with Japanese lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) issues, "Queer Voices from Japan" can be good reading. But with only 1 of its 22 chapters informative for researchers, those interested in LGBT youth studies will only indirectly gain insight into a non-Western perspective on youth and sexuality.

  11. Dietary competition between the alien Asian Musk Shrew (Suncus murinus) and a re-introduced population of Telfair's Skink (Leiolopisma telfairii).

    PubMed

    Brown, D S; Burger, R; Cole, N; Vencatasamy, D; Clare, E L; Montazam, A; Symondson, W O C

    2014-08-01

    Re-introduction of rare species to parts of their historical range is becoming increasingly important as a conservation strategy. Telfair's Skinks (Leiolopisma telfairii), once widespread on Mauritius, were until recently found only on Round Island. There it is vulnerable to stochastic events, including the introduction of alien predators that may either prey upon it or compete for food resources. Consequently, skinks have been introduced to Ile aux Aigrettes, another small Mauritian island that has been cleared of rats. However, the island has been invaded by Asian Musk Shrews (Suncus murinus), a commensal species spread by man well beyond its natural Asian range. Our aim was to use next-generation sequencing to analyse the diets of the shrews and skinks to look for niche competition. DNA was extracted from skink faeces and from the stomach contents of shrews. Application of shrew- and skink-specific primers revealed no mutual predation. The DNA was then amplified using general invertebrate primers with tags to identify individual predators, and then sequenced by 454 pyrosequencing. 119 prey MOTUs (molecular taxonomic units) were isolated, although none could be identified to species. Seeding of cladograms with known sequences allowed higher taxonomic assignments in some cases. Although most MOTUs were not shared by shrews and skinks, Pianka's niche overlap test showed significant prey overlap, suggesting potentially strong competition where food resources are limited. These results suggest that removal of the shrews from the island should remain a priority.

  12. Twin Pregnancy with a Complete Hydatidiform Mole and a Coexisting Live Fetus: Rare entity.

    PubMed

    Sheik, Shahila; Al-Riyami, Nihal; Mathew, Namitha R; Al-Sukaiti, Rashid; Qureshi, Asim; Mathew, Mariam

    2015-11-01

    A hydatidiform mole with a coexisting live fetus is a rare occurrence and the optimal management for this condition is not yet known. We report the case of a 32-year-old woman (gravida 3, para 2) who presented to the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Muscat, Oman, in March 2012 at 13 gestational weeks with abdominal pain and vaginal bleeding. An ultrasound examination revealed a hydatidiform mole pregnancy coexisting with a live fetus. After extensive counselling, the patient and her husband opted for a conservative management approach. Unfortunately, a hysterotomy had to be performed at 17 gestational weeks due to severe haemorrhage. The postoperative period was uneventful and histopathology results confirmed one complete mole with a coexisting fetus and normal placenta. The patient's serum β-human chorionic gonadotropin level remained normal for 18 months following her surgery.

  13. Moles of a Substance per Cell Is a Highly Informative Dosing Metric in Cell Culture

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Brett A.; Buettner, Garry R.

    2015-01-01

    Background The biological consequences upon exposure of cells in culture to a dose of xenobiotic are not only dependent on biological variables, but also the physical aspects of experiments e.g. cell number and media volume. Dependence on physical aspects is often overlooked due to the unrecognized ambiguity in the dominant metric used to express exposure, i.e. initial concentration of xenobiotic delivered to the culture medium over the cells. We hypothesize that for many xenobiotics, specifying dose as moles per cell will reduce this ambiguity. Dose as moles per cell can also provide additional information not easily obtainable with traditional dosing metrics. Methods Here, 1,4-benzoquinone and oligomycin A are used as model compounds to investigate moles per cell as an informative dosing metric. Mechanistic insight into reactions with intracellular molecules, differences between sequential and bolus addition of xenobiotic and the influence of cell volume and protein content on toxicity are also investigated. Results When the dose of 1,4-benzoquinone or oligomycin A was specified as moles per cell, toxicity was independent of the physical conditions used (number of cells, volume of medium). When using moles per cell as a dose-metric, direct quantitative comparisons can be made between biochemical or biological endpoints and the dose of xenobiotic applied. For example, the toxicity of 1,4-benzoquinone correlated inversely with intracellular volume for all five cell lines exposed (C6, MDA-MB231, A549, MIA PaCa-2, and HepG2). Conclusions Moles per cell is a useful and informative dosing metric in cell culture. This dosing metric is a scalable parameter that: can reduce ambiguity between experiments having different physical conditions; provides additional mechanistic information; allows direct comparison between different cells; affords a more uniform platform for experimental design; addresses the important issue of repeatability of experimental results, and could

  14. The Naked Mole-Rat Response to Oxidative Stress: Just Deal with It

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Kaitlyn N.; Andziak, Blazej; Yang, Ting

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Significance: The oxidative stress theory of aging has been the most widely accepted theory of aging providing insights into why we age and die for over 50 years, despite mounting evidence from a multitude of species indicating that there is no direct relationship between reactive oxygen species (ROS) and longevity. Here we explore how different species, including the longest lived rodent, the naked mole-rat, have defied the most predominant aging theory. Recent Advances: In the case of extremely long-lived naked mole-rat, levels of ROS production are found to be similar to mice, antioxidant defenses unexceptional, and even under constitutive conditions, naked mole-rats combine a pro-oxidant intracellular milieu with high, steady state levels of oxidative damage. Clearly, naked mole-rats can tolerate this level of oxidative stress and must have mechanisms in place to prevent its translation into potentially lethal diseases. Critical Issues: In addition to the naked mole-rat, other species from across the phylogenetic spectrum and even certain mouse strains do not support this theory. Moreover, overexpressing or knocking down antioxidant levels alters levels of oxidative damage and even cancer incidence, but does not modulate lifespan. Future Directions: Perhaps, it is not oxidative stress that modulates healthspan and longevity, but other cytoprotective mechanisms that allow animals to deal with high levels of oxidative damage and stress, and nevertheless live long, relatively healthy lifespans. Studying these mechanisms in uniquely long-lived species, like the naked mole-rat, may help us tease out the key contributors to aging and longevity. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 19, 1388–1399. PMID:23025341

  15. Mechanical Performance of Rat, Mouse and Mole Spring Traps, and Possible Implications for Welfare Performance

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Sandra E.; Ellwood, Stephen A.; Tagarielli, Vito L.; Macdonald, David W.

    2012-01-01

    Lethal spring traps are widely used for killing small mammals in the UK. Many require government approval, based primarily on humaneness. However, mole traps and break-back traps for rats and mice are exempt; those available vary widely in price and apparent quality. The EU is considering implementing a Trapping Directive that would alter UK legislation, and a recent report advised the EU that trapping legislation should cover all trapped species and encourage improvement of traps. Mechanical trap performance is often used as an indicator of welfare impact. We examined the mechanical evidence for scope to improve the welfare standards of rat, mouse and mole spring traps. We measured mechanical performance among a range of rat, mouse and mole traps. Impact momentum values varied 6-8 fold, and clamping force values 4-5.5 fold, among traps for killing each species. There was considerable overlap in the performance of rat and mouse traps. Trap-opening angle and spring type were related to impact momentum and clamping force in traps for both species. There was no relationship between price and mechanical performance in traps for any species, except talpa mole traps. We are unable to judge the direct welfare impact of the traps tested, but rather the potential welfare threat associated with their exemption from approval. The wide variation in mechanical performance in traps for each species, overlap in performance between rat and mouse traps and increasing availability of weaker plastic rodent traps indicate considerable scope for improving the humaneness of spring traps for rats, mice and moles. We conclude that all such traps should be subject to the UK approval process. New welfare categories might improve trap standards further. Our results could also help improve rodent trap design and assist consumers in selecting more powerful traps. Many thousands of rats, mice and moles might benefit. PMID:22768073

  16. Detraditionalisation: Japanese Students in the USA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ueno, Junko

    2001-01-01

    Focuses on the identity formation of Japanese students temporarily living in the United States. The students were enrolled in Japanese Saturday school and in American public schools. Student interviews reveal a mixture of Japanese and American characteristics. Suggests Japanese students do not reject either culture--Japanese or American--but that…

  17. The tree shrew provides a useful alternative model for the study of influenza H1N1 virus

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The influenza pandemics have resulted in significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Animal models are useful in the study of influenza virus pathogenesis. Because of various limitations in current laboratory animal models, it is essential to develop new alternative animal models for influenza virus research aimed at understanding the viral and host factors that contribute to virus infection in human. Method We investigated the replicative efficiency of influenza H1N1 virus (classic strain (Influenza A/PR/8/34), seasonal influenza isolate (A/Guangzhou/GIRD/02/09) and swine-origin human influenza virus (A/Guangzhou/GIRD/07/09)) at Day1,2,4,6 and 9 p.i. using TCID50 and qPCR assay in tree shrew model. Body temperature was monitored in the morning and evening for 3 days before infection and for 14 days. Seroconversion was detected by determining the neutralizing antibody titers against the challenge viruses in the pre- and exposure serum samples collected before infection and at 14 days p.i., respectively. Lungs and tracheas of tree shews were collected at day 14 post p.i. for histopathological analysis. Lectinhistochemistry analysis was conducted to identify the distribution of SAα2,3 Gal and SAα2,6 Gal receptors in the lung and trachea. Results The infected tree shrew displayed mild or moderate systemic and respiratory symptoms and pathological changes in respiratory tracts. The human H1N1 influenza virus may replicate in the upper respiratory tract of tree shrews. Analysis of the receptors distribution in the respiratory tract of tree shrews by lectinhistochemistry showed that sialic acid (SA)α2,6-Gal receptors were widely distributed in the trachea and nasal mucosa, whereas (SA)α2,3-Gal receptor was the main receptor in the lung tissue. Conclusions Based on these findings, tree shrew seemed to mimic well influenza virus infection in humans. We propose that tree shrews could be a useful alternative mammalian model to study pathogenesis of

  18. Effect of land cover, habitat fragmentation and ant colonies on the distribution and abundance of shrews in southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Laakkonen, Juha; Fisher, Robert N.; Case, Ted J.

    2001-01-01

    Because effects of habitat fragmentation and anthropogenic disturbance on native animals have been relatively little studied in arid areas and in insectivores, we investigated the roles of different land covers, habitat fragmentation and ant colonies on the distribution and abundance of shrews, Notiosorex crawfordi and Sorex ornatus, in southern California.Notiosorex crawfordi was the numerically dominant species (trap-success rate 0·52) occurring in 21 of the 22 study sites in 85% of the 286 pitfall arrays used in this study.Sorex ornatus was captured in 14 of the sites, in 52% of the arrays with a total trap-success rate of 0·2. Neither of the species was found in one of the sites.The population dynamics of the two shrew species were relatively synchronous during the 4–5-year study; the peak densities usually occurred during the spring. Precipitation had a significant positive effect, and maximum temperature a significant negative effect on the trap-success rate of S. ornatus.Occurrence and abundance of shrews varied significantly between sites and years but the size of the landscape or the study site had no effect on the abundance of shrews. The amount of urban edge had no significant effect on the captures of shrews but increased edge allows invasion of the Argentine ants, which had a highly significant negative impact on the abundance of N. crawfordi.At the trap array level, the percentage of coastal sage scrub flora had a significant positive, and the percentage of other flora had a significant negative effect on the abundance of N. crawfordi. The mean canopy height and the abundance of N. crawfordi had a significant positive effect on the occurrence of S. ornatus.Our study suggests that the loss of native coastal sage scrub flora and increasing presence of Argentine ant colonies may significantly effect the distribution and abundance of N. crawfordi. The very low overall population densities of both shrew species in most study sites make both species

  19. Mammals of South America, Volume 1, Marsupials, Xenarthrans, Shrews, and Bats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gardner, A.L.

    2007-01-01

    The vast terrain between Panama and Tierra del Fuego contains some of the world?s richest mammalian fauna, but until now it has lacked a comprehensive systematic reference to the identification, distribution, and taxonomy of its mammals. The first such book of its kind and the inaugural volume in a three-part series, Mammals of South America both summarizes existing information and encourages further research of the mammals indigenous to the region. Containing identification keys and brief descriptions of each order, family, and genus, the first volume of Mammals of South America covers marsupials, shrews, armadillos, sloths, anteaters, and bats. Species accounts include taxonomic descriptions, synonymies, keys to identification, distributions with maps and a gazetteer of marginal localities, lists of recognized subspecies, brief summaries of natural history information, and discussions of issues related to taxonomic interpretations. Highly anticipated and much needed, this book will be a landmark contribution to mammalogy, zoology, tropical biology, and conservation biology.

  20. Proportion and cluster analyses of the skull in various species of the tree shrews.

    PubMed

    Endo, Hideki; Hikida, Tsutomu; Chou, Loke Ming; Fukuta, Katsuhiro; Stafford, Brian J

    2004-01-01

    The skull adaptation was functional-morphologically examined in 14 species of the tree shrews. From the data of the proportion indices, the similarities were confirmed between T. minor and T. gracilis, T. tana and T. dorsalis, and T. longipes and T. glis. We demonstrated that the splanchnocranium was elongated in terrestrial T. tana and T. dorsalis and shortened in arboreal T. minor and T. gracilis from the proportion data. In both dendrogram from the matrix of the Q-mode correlation coefficients and scattergram from the canonical discriminant analysis, the morphological similarities in the skull shape suggested the terrestrial-insectivorous adaptation of T. tana and T. dorsalis, and the arboreal adaptation of T. minor and T. gracilis. Since the osteometrical skull similarities were indicated among the three species of Tupaia by cluster and canonical discriminant analyses, the arbo-terrestrial behavior and its functional-morphological adaptation may be commonly established in T. montana, T. longipes and T. glis.

  1. White-toothed shrews (Mammalia, Soricomorpha, Crocidura) of coastal islands of Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Abramov, Alexei V.; Bannikova, Anna A.; Rozhnov, Viatcheslav V.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract New findings of the white-toothed shrews (Crocidura spp.) from offshore islands of Vietnam are reported. The species identifications have been confirmed by the analysis of complete mitochondrial cytochrome b gene (1140 bp). Crocidura phuquocensis is the only species found in the Phu Quoc Island. Crocidura fuliginosa has been recorded from two islands of the Con Dao Archipelago (Con Son and Bai Canh). The occurrence of Crocidura fuliginosa in Vietnam has been genetically confirmed for the first time. Crocidura attenuata has been collected from the Cat Ba Island for the first time, and this finding corresponds well with the proposal that the species’ distribution is confined to the north and east of the Red River only. PMID:22855639

  2. Complete mitochondrial genome of the Ussuri white-toothed shrew Crocidura lasiura (Insectivora, Soricidae).

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae-Wook; Kim, Yoo-Kyung; Oh, Dae-Ju; Park, Jun-Ho; Kim, Dongmin; Adhikari, Pradeep; Kim, Garam; Park, Seon-Mi; Lee, Jun-Won; Jung, Yong-Hwan; Oh, Hong-Shik; Han, Sang-Hyun

    2017-03-01

    We obtained the complete mitochondrial genome of the Ussuri white-toothed shrew Crocidura lasiura (Insectivora, Soricidae) at 17 362 base pairs (bp) containing 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNAs, 22 transfer RNAs, and a non-coding control region. Its gene order is identical to that of other vertebrates. Several repeat elements were identified in the non-coding control region (D-loop). Phylogenetic tree using mt protein-coding gene sequences showed that C. lasiura was closely related to C. attenuata. The reports of mt genome sequences of Crocidura were not enough to study phylogenetic relationships in genome levels. However, this report may help us to understand the phylogenetic relationships and evolutionary history of Crocidura.

  3. Crystalloid configuration in the adrenal cortex of the Siamese tree shrew (Tupaia glis).

    PubMed

    Hostetler, J R; Cannon, M S; Belt, W D

    1976-07-01

    Crystalloids of what appear to be smooth reticulum have been observed in the zona fasciculata and zona reticularis in both the stressed and nonstressed adrenal gland of the Siamese tree shrew (Tupaia glis). No crystalloids are observed in the zona glomerulosa. Similar crystalloids have been described in other steroid-secreting organs, including the antebrachial organ of the lemur (Lemur catta), the parotoid gland of Bufo alvarius and in sebaceous gland cells of the Galagos and Macaques. Moreover, the crystalloids in the present investigation resemble the paracrystalline arrays of smooth reticulum present in the adrenal cortex of the fetal guinea pig. The crystalloids show much variation in degree of organization, sometimes appearing as wavy tubules parallel with one another or as fused tubules having a "donut" configuration. In addition, the crystalloids are nearly identical to configurations which have been described in mitochondrial cristae of the protozoan, Pelomyxa carolinensis.

  4. Geographical variation of the skull morphology of the common tree shrew (Tupaia glis).

    PubMed

    Endo, H; Cuisin, J; Nadee, N; Nabhitabhata, J; Suyanto, A; Kawamoto, Y; Nishida, T; Yamada, J

    1999-09-01

    Geographical variation was examined morphologically in the common tree shrew (Tupaia glis) in some Indochinese and Malayan regions. Osteometrical examination and principal component analysis elucidated the morphological differences among various populations. The populations from southern and western Thailand were distinguished morphologically from the other populations. Variation in males from south Thailand and Kuala Lumpur suggests that the Isthmus of Kra may have an influence on the variation of skull morphology. However, the Isthmus of Kra was not completely considered as a factor of geographical separation in this species, because we could not confirm the separation in skull size and shape between the localities at least in females. While, the Kanchanaburi population in western Thailand was significantly smaller than the other population in skull size, and constituted the morphologically separable group in our study.

  5. Trauma and humanitarian translation in Liberia: the tale of open mole.

    PubMed

    Abramowitz, Sharon Alane

    2010-06-01

    The focus of this paper is the intercultural process through which Open Mole and trauma-related mental illnesses are brought together in the postconflict mental health encounter. In this paper, I explore the historical dimension of this process by reviewing the history of Open Mole, and the ways in which it has been interpreted, acted on, and objectified by external observers over the last half-century. Moving into Liberia's recent war and postconflict period, I examine the process by which Open Mole is transformed from a culture-bound disorder into a local idiom of trauma, and how it has become a gateway diagnosis of PTSD-related mental illnesses, and consider how it is produced as an objectified experience of psychiatric disorder in clinical humanitarian contexts. By studying how Open Mole is transformed in the humanitarian encounter, I address the structure and teleology of the humanitarian encounter and challenge some of the foundational assumptions about cultural sensitivity and community-based mental health care in postconflict settings that are prevalent in scholarship and practice today.

  6. A new species of Gryllotalpa mole cricket (Orthoptera: Gryllotalpidae: Gryllotalpinae) from Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Tan, Ming Kai; Kamaruddin, Khairul Nizam

    2016-01-19

    A new species of Gryllotalpa mole cricket (Orthoptera: Gryllotalpidae) is described from Bukit Larut, Perak, Peninsular Malaysia: Gryllotalpa permai sp. n. Acoustic analysis of the male calling songs were also provided for Gryllotalpa permai sp. n. and the morphologically similar Gryllotalpa fulvipes.

  7. Plasticity and constraints on social evolution in African mole-rats: ultimate and proximate factors

    PubMed Central

    Faulkes, Chris G.; Bennett, Nigel C.

    2013-01-01

    Here, we review comparative studies of African mole-rats (family Bathyergidae) to explain how constraints acting at the ultimate (environmental) and proximate (organismal) levels have led to convergent gains and losses of sociality within this extensive adaptive radiation of subterranean rodents endemic to sub-Saharan Africa. At the ultimate level, living in environments that range from mesic through to arid has led to both variation and flexibility in social organization among species, culminating in the pinnacle of social evolution in the eusocial naked and Damaraland mole-rats (Heterocephalus glaber and Fukomys damarensis). The common mole-rat (Cryptomys hottentotus) provides a model example of how plasticity in social traits exists within a single species inhabiting areas with different ecological constraint. At the proximate level, reproductive strategies and cooperative breeding may be constrained by the correlated evolution of a suite of traits including physiological suppression of reproduction, the development of physiological and morphological castes, and the mode of ovulatory control and seasonality in breeding. Furthermore, recent neurobiological advances indicate that differential patterns of neurotransmitter expression within the forebrain may underpin (and limit) either a solitary or group living/cooperative lifestyle not only in mole-rats, but also more widely among disparate mammalian taxa. PMID:23569295

  8. Effectiveness of Using Computer-Assisted Supplementary Instruction for Teaching the Mole Concept.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yalcinalp, Serpil; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examines the effect of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) on students' understanding of chemical formulas and mole concept, and their attitudes toward chemistry and CAI. Reports that students who used the CAI accompanied with lectures scored significantly higher and demonstrated significant improvement in attitudes compared to the control group…

  9. The Atomic Mass Unit, the Avogadro Constant, and the Mole: A Way to Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baranski, Andrzej

    2012-01-01

    Numerous articles have been published that address problems encountered in teaching basic concepts of chemistry such as the atomic mass unit, Avogadro's number, and the mole. The origin of these problems is found in the concept definitions. If these definitions are adjusted for teaching purposes, understanding could be improved. In the present…

  10. Family Wide Molecular Adaptations to Underground Life in African Mole-Rats Revealed by Phylogenomic Analysis.

    PubMed

    Davies, Kalina T J; Bennett, Nigel C; Tsagkogeorga, Georgia; Rossiter, Stephen J; Faulkes, Christopher G

    2015-12-01

    During their evolutionary radiation, mammals have colonized diverse habitats. Arguably the subterranean niche is the most inhospitable of these, characterized by reduced oxygen, elevated carbon dioxide, absence of light, scarcity of food, and a substrate that is energetically costly to burrow through. Of all lineages to have transitioned to a subterranean niche, African mole-rats are one of the most successful. Much of their ecological success can be attributed to a diet of plant storage organs, which has allowed them to colonize climatically varied habitats across sub-Saharan Africa, and has probably contributed to the evolution of their diverse social systems. Yet despite their many remarkable phenotypic specializations, little is known about molecular adaptations underlying these traits. To address this, we sequenced the transcriptomes of seven mole-rat taxa, including three solitary species, and combined new sequences with existing genomic data sets. Alignments of more than 13,000 protein-coding genes encompassed, for the first time, all six genera and the full spectrum of ecological and social variation in the clade. We detected positive selection within the mole-rat clade and along ancestral branches in approximately 700 genes including loci associated with tumorigenesis, aging, morphological development, and sociality. By combining these results with gene ontology annotation and protein-protein networks, we identified several clusters of functionally related genes. This family wide analysis of molecular evolution in mole-rats has identified a suite of positively selected genes, deepening our understanding of the extreme phenotypic traits exhibited by this group.

  11. The sense of touch in the star-nosed mole: from mechanoreceptors to the brain.

    PubMed

    Catania, Kenneth C

    2011-11-12

    Star-nosed moles are somatosensory specialists that explore their environment with 22 appendages that ring their nostrils. The appendages are covered with sensory domes called Eimer's organs. Each organ is associated with a Merkel cell-neurite complex, a lamellated corpuscle, and a series of 5-10 free nerve endings that form a circle of terminal swellings. Anatomy and electrophysiological recordings suggest that Eimer's organs detect small shapes and textures. There are parallels between the organization of the mole's somatosensory system and visual systems of other mammals. The centre of the star is a tactile fovea used for detailed exploration of objects and prey items. The tactile fovea is over-represented in the neocortex, and this is evident in the modular, anatomically visible representation of the star. Multiple maps of the star are visible in flattened cortical preparations processed for cytochrome oxidase or NADPH-diaphorase. Star-nosed moles are the fastest known foragers among mammals, able to identify and consume a small prey item in 120 ms. Together these behavioural and nervous system specializations have made star-nosed moles an intriguing model system for examining general and specialized aspects of mammalian touch.

  12. Background Mole Fractions of Hydrocarbons in North America Determined from NOAA Global Reference Network Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mielke-Maday, I.

    2015-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Global Monitoring Division (GMD) maintains a global reference network for over 50 trace gas species and analyzes discrete air samples collected by this network throughout the world at the Earth System Research Laboratory in Boulder, Colorado. In particular, flask samples are analyzed for a number of hydrocarbons with policy and health relevance such as ozone precursors, greenhouse gases, and hazardous air pollutants. Because this global network's sites are remote and therefore minimally influenced by local anthropogenic emissions, these data yield information about background ambient mole fractions and can provide a context for observations collected in intensive field campaigns, such as the Front Range Air Pollution and Photochemistry Experiment (FRAPPE), the Southeast Nexus (SENEX) study, and the DISCOVER-AQ deployments. Information about background mole fractions during field campaigns is critical for calculating hydrocarbon enhancements in the region of study and for assessing the extent to which a particular region's local emissions sources contribute to these enhancements. Understanding the geographic variability of the background and its contribution to regional ambient mole fractions is also crucial for the development of realistic regulations. We present background hydrocarbon mole fractions and their ratios in North America using data from air samples collected in the planetary boundary layer at tall towers and aboard aircraft from 2008 to 2014. We discuss the spatial and seasonal variability in these data. We present trends over the time period of measurements and propose possible explanations for these trends.

  13. Reading about the Power of Music: "Mole Music" and "Children of the Stone"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardany, Audrey Berger

    2016-01-01

    In this article, I review two books that address the power of music for the individual and group. Both books address the benefits of making, learning, and listening to music during times of conflict. The first brief review is David McPhail's picture book "Mole Music." The second is "Children of the Stone: The Power of Music in a…

  14. Identifying the Critical Components for a Conceptual Understanding of the Mole in Secondary Science Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fang, Su-Chi; Hart, Christina; Clarke, David

    2016-01-01

    The amount of substance and its unit the mole is a basic concept in chemistry. However, previous research has shown that teaching and learning the concept are challenging tasks for both teachers and students. The purpose of this study was to pinpoint the problems which emerge in the teaching and learning process, and provide integrated suggestions…

  15. Neoteny, Prolongation of Youth: From Naked Mole Rats to "Naked Apes" (Humans).

    PubMed

    Skulachev, Vladimir P; Holtze, Susanne; Vyssokikh, Mikhail Y; Bakeeva, Lora E; Skulachev, Maxim V; Markov, Alexander V; Hildebrandt, Thomas B; Sadovnichii, Viktor A

    2017-04-01

    It has been suggested that highly social mammals, such as naked mole rats and humans, are long-lived due to neoteny (the prolongation of youth). In both species, aging cannot operate as a mechanism facilitating natural selection because the pressure of this selection is strongly reduced due to 1) a specific social structure where only the "queen" and her "husband(s)" are involved in reproduction (naked mole rats) or 2) substituting fast technological progress for slow biological evolution (humans). Lists of numerous traits of youth that do not disappear with age in naked mole rats and humans are presented and discussed. A high resistance of naked mole rats to cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular and brain diseases, and many infections explains why their mortality rate is very low and almost age-independent and why their lifespan is more than 30 years, versus 3 years in mice. In young humans, curves of mortality versus age start at extremely low values. However, in the elderly, human mortality strongly increases. High mortality rates in other primates are observed at much younger ages than in humans. The inhibition of the aging process in humans by specific drugs seems to be a promising approach to prolong our healthspan. This might be a way to retard aging, which is already partially accomplished via the natural physiological phenomenon neoteny.

  16. Somatosensory organ topography across the star of the star-nosed mole (Condylura cristata).

    PubMed

    Sawyer, Eva K; Catania, Kenneth C

    2016-04-01

    Quantifying somatosensory receptor distribution in glabrous skin is usually difficult because of the diversity of skin receptor subtypes and their location within the dermis and epidermis. However, the glabrous noses of moles are an exception. In most species of moles, the skin on the nose is covered with domed mechanosensory units known as an Eimer's organs. Eimer's organs contain a stereotyped array of different mechanosensory neurons, meaning that the distribution of mechanosensitive nerve endings can be inferred by visual inspection of the skin surface. Here we detail the distribution of Eimer's organs on the highly derived somatosensory star on the rostrum of the star-nosed mole (Condylura cristata). The star consists of 22 fleshy appendages, or rays, that are covered in Eimer's organs. We find that the density of Eimer's organs increases from proximal to distal locations along the length of the star's rays with a ratio of 1:2.3:3.1 from the surface nearest to the nostril, to the middle part of ray, to the ray tip, respectively. This ratio is comparable to the increase in receptor unit density reported for the human hand, from the palm, to the middle of the digits, to the distal fingertips. We also note that the tactile fovea of the star-nosed mole, located on the medial ventral ray, does not have increased sensory organ density, and we describe these findings in comparison with other sensory fovea.

  17. Somatosensory organ topography across the star of the star-nosed mole (Condylura cristata)

    PubMed Central

    Sawyer, Eva K.; Catania, Kenneth C.

    2015-01-01

    Quantifying somatosensory receptor distribution in glabrous skin is usually difficult due to the diversity of skin receptor subtypes and their location within the dermis and epidermis. However, the glabrous noses of moles are an exception. In most species of moles, the skin on the nose is covered with domed mechanosensory units known as an Eimer’s organs. Eimer’s organs contain a stereotyped array of different mechanosensory neurons, meaning the distribution of mechanosensitive nerve endings can be inferred by visual inspection of the skin surface. Here we detail the distribution of Eimer’s organs on the highly derived somatosensory star on the rostrum of the star-nosed mole (Condylura cristata). The star consists of 22 fleshy appendages, or rays, that are covered in Eimer’s organs. We find that the density of Eimer’s organs increases from proximal to distal along the length of the star’s rays with a ratio of 1: 2.3: 3.1 from the surface nearest to the nostril, to the middle part of ray, to the ray tip, respectively. This ratio is comparable to the increase in receptor unit density reported in the human hand, from the palm to the middle of the digits, to the distal fingertips. We also note that the tactile fovea of the star nosed mole, located on the medial ventral ray, does not have increased sensory organ density, and we describe these findings in comparison to other sensory fovea. PMID:26659700

  18. c-FOS expression in the visual system of tree shrews after monocular inactivation.

    PubMed

    Takahata, Toru; Kaas, Jon H

    2017-01-01

    Tree shrews possess an unusual segregation of ocular inputs to sublayers rather than columns in the primary visual cortex (V1). In this study, the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN), superior colliculus (SC), pulvinar, and V1 were examined for changes in c-FOS, an immediate-early gene, expression after 1 or 24 hours of monocular inactivation with tetrodotoxin (TTX) in tree shrews. Monocular inactivation greatly reduced gene expression in LGN layers related to the blocked eye, whereas normally high to moderate levels were maintained in the layers that receive inputs from the intact eye. The SC and caudal pulvinar contralateral to the blocked eye had greatly (SC) or moderately (pulvinar) reduced gene expressions reflective of dependence on the contralateral eye. c-FOS expression in V1 was greatly reduced contralateral to the blocked eye, with most of the expression that remained in upper layer 4a and lower 4b and lower layer 6 regions. In contrast, much of V1 contralateral to the active eye showed normal levels of c-FOS expression, including the inner parts of sublayers 4a and 4b and layers 2, 3, and 6. In some cases, upper layer 4a and lower 4b showed a reduction of gene expression. Layers 5 and sublayer 3c had normally low levels of gene expression. The results reveal the functional dominance of the contralateral eye in activating the SC, pulvinar, and V1, and the results from V1 suggest that the sublaminar organization of layer 4 is more complex than previously realized. J. Comp. Neurol. 525:151-165, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Gene expression analysis in the hippocampal formation of tree shrews chronically treated with cortisol.

    PubMed

    Alfonso, Julieta; Agüero, Fernán; Sanchez, Daniel O; Flugge, Gabriele; Fuchs, Eberhard; Frasch, Alberto C C; Pollevick, Guido D

    2004-12-01

    Adrenal corticosteroids influence the function of the hippocampus, the brain structure in which the highest expression of glucocorticoid receptors is found. Chronic high levels of cortisol elicited by stress or through exogenous administration can cause irreversible damage and cognitive deficits. In this study, we searched for genes expressed in the hippocampal formation after chronic cortisol treatment in male tree shrews. Animals were treated orally with cortisol for 28 days. At the end of the experiments, we generated two subtractive hippocampal hybridization libraries from which we sequenced 2,246 expressed sequenced tags (ESTs) potentially regulated by cortisol. To validate this approach further, we selected some of the candidate clones to measure mRNA expression levels in hippocampus using real-time PCR. We found that 66% of the sequences tested (10 of 15) were differentially represented between cortisol-treated and control animals. The complete set of clones was subjected to a bioinformatic analysis, which allowed classification of the ESTs into four different main categories: 1) known proteins or genes (approximately 28%), 2) ESTs previously published in the database (approximately 16%), 3) novel ESTs matching only the reference human or mouse genome (approximately 5%), and 4) sequences that do not match any public database (50%). Interestingly, the last category was the most abundant. Hybridization assays revealed that several of these clones are indeed expressed in hippocampal tissue from tree shrew, human, and/or rat. Therefore, we discovered an extensive inventory of new molecular targets in the hippocampus that serves as a reference for hippocampal transcriptional responses under various conditions. Finally, a detailed analysis of the genomic localization in human and mouse genomes revealed a survey of putative novel splicing variants for several genes of the nervous system.

  20. Gene expression signatures in tree shrew choroid in response to three myopiagenic conditions

    PubMed Central

    He, Li; Frost, Michael R.; Siegwart, John T.; Norton, Thomas T.

    2014-01-01

    We examined gene expression in tree shrew choroid in response to three different myopiagenic conditions: minus lens (ML) wear, form deprivation (FD), and continuous darkness (DK). Four groups of tree shrews (n = 7 per group) were used. Starting 24 days after normal eye opening (days of visual experience [DVE]), the ML group wore a monocular −5 D lens for 2 days. The FD group wore a monocular translucent diffuser for 2 days. The DK group experienced continuous darkness binocularly for 11 days, starting at 17 DVE. An age-matched normal group was examined at 26 DVE. Quantitative PCR was used to measure the relative (treated eye vs. control eye) differences in mRNA levels in the choroid for 77 candidate genes. Small myopic changes were observed in the treated eyes (relative to the control eyes) of the ML group (−1.0 ± 0.2 D; mean ± SEM) and FD group (−1.9 ± 0.2 D). A larger myopia developed in the DK group (−4.4 ± 1.0 D) relative to Normal eyes (both groups, mean of right and left eyes). In the ML group, 28 genes showed significant differential mRNA expression; eighteen were down-regulated. A very similar pattern occurred in the FD group; twenty-seven of the same genes were similarly regulated, along with five additional genes. Fewer expression differences in the DK group were significant compared to normal or the control eyes of the ML and FD groups, but the pattern was similar to that of the ML and FD differential expression patterns. These data suggest that, at the level of the choroid, the gene expression signatures produced by “GO” emmetropization signals are highly similar despite the different visual conditions. PMID:25072854

  1. Changing Material Properties of the Tree Shrew Sclera During Minus Lens Compensation and Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Grytz, Rafael; Siegwart, John T.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To estimate two collagen-specific material properties (crimp angle and elastic modulus of collagen fibrils) of the remodeling tree shrew sclera during monocular −5 diopter (D) lens wear and recovery. Methods. Tensile tests were performed on scleral strips obtained from juvenile tree shrews exposed to three different visual conditions: normal, monocular −5 D lens wear to induce myopia, and recovery. Collagen fibrils are crimped in the unloaded sclera and uncrimp as the tissue stiffens under load. Inverse numerical analyses were performed to estimate the (unloaded) crimp angle and elastic modulus of collagen fibrils using a microstructure-based constitutive model. Results. Compared with the control eye, the crimp angle was significantly higher in the treated eye after 2 days and remained significantly higher until 21 days of lens wear (P < 0.05). The difference between the crimp angle of the treated and control eye rapidly vanished during recovery in concert with the changes in axial elongation rate. A rapid and extensive increase in the elastic modulus was seen in both eyes after starting and stopping the lens wear. Conclusions. The estimated change in the crimp of scleral collagen fibrils is temporally associated with the change in axial elongation rate during myopia development and recovery. This finding suggests that axial elongation may be controlled by a remodeling mechanism that modulates the collagen fibril crimp. The observed binocular changes in scleral stiffness are not temporally associated with the axial elongation rate, indicating that scleral stiffening may not be causally related to myopia. PMID:25736788

  2. Immunolocalization of androgen receptors and aromatase enzyme in the adult musk shrew brain.

    PubMed

    Veney, S L; Rissman, E F

    2000-07-01

    In the brain and other tissues, estrogens are produced by aromatization of androgens. Biochemical data suggest that aromatase enzyme is regulated by the androgen receptor (AR). Neurons that contain either AR or aromatase (AROM) enzyme reside in many of the same brain regions. In this report, we examined the codistribution of AR- and AROM-enzyme-immunoreactive (-ir) neurons in several regions of the adult male and female musk shrew brain. Data were collected from the intermediate nucleus of the lateral septum (LS), medial anterior (BNSTMA) and medial posterointerior (BNSTMP) divisions of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, medial preoptic area (mPOA), ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMN), medial (MeA), cortical and central nuclei of the amygdala. Males had significantly more AR-ir neurons in the BNSTMP, mPOA, VMN and LS as compared to females. With the exception of the BNSTMA and LS, males had more AROM-ir neurons in each region than females. Furthermore, males had significantly more double-labeled neurons than females in the BNSTMP, mPOA, VMN, LS and MeA. The percentage of AROM-ir neurons that also contained AR immunoreactivity ranged from 13 to 82% depending on sex and region. The highest percentage of dual-labeled neurons (79% in females and 82% in males) was found in the VMN. Taken together, these data show that there is extensive cellular colocalization of AR and AROM enzyme in specific regions of the musk shrew brain. We propose that in both sexes, androgen receptors may act as transcription factors to regulate AROM enzyme.

  3. Microvascularization in trigeminal ganglion of the common tree shrew (Tupaia glis).

    PubMed

    Kongstaponkit, S; Pradidarcheep, W; Toutip, S; Chunhabundit, P; Somana, R

    1997-01-01

    Since there is only a limited number of studies of the blood supply to the trigeminal ganglion (TG) in mammalian species, the TG from 16 common tree shrews (Tupaia glis) were investigated by light microscope, transmission electron microscope (TEM) and the corrosion cast technique in conjunction with scanning electron microscope (SEM). It was found that the TG contained clusters of neurons in the peripheral region whereas the bundles of nerve fibers were located more centrally. Each ganglionic neuron had a concentric nucleus and was ensheathed by satellite cells. It was noted that blood vessels of a continuous type were predominantly found in the area where the neurons were densely located and were much less frequently observed in the area occupied by nerve fibers. With TEM, the TG was shown to be mainly associated with large neurons containing big nuclei and prominent nucleoli. The blood supply of the TG is derived from the most rostral branch of the pontine artery, from the stapedial artery or sometimes from the supraorbital artery, and from the accessory meningeal artery which is a branch of the maxillary artery passing through the foramen ovale. These arteries give off branches and become capillary networks in the ganglion before draining blood to the peripheral region. The veins at the medial border drained into the cavernous sinus directly or through the inferior hypophyseal vein, while those at the lateral side of the ganglion carried the blood into the pterygoid plexus via an accessory meningeal vein. The veins along the trigeminal nerve root joined the posterior part of the cavernous sinus. These studies establish a unique anatomical distribution of the TG blood supply in the tree shrew and the utility of the cast/SEM technique in discerning detailed features of the blood supply in the nervous system.

  4. Broad characterization of endogenous peptides in the tree shrew visual system.

    PubMed

    Ranc, Vaclav; Petruzziello, Filomena; Kretz, Robert; Argandoña, Enrike G; Zhang, Xiaozhe; Rainer, Gregor

    2012-05-17

    Endogenous neuropeptides, acting as neurotransmitters or hormones in the brain, carry out important functions including neural plasticity, metabolism and angiogenesis. Previous neuropeptide studies have focused on peptide-rich brain regions such as the striatum or hypothalamus. Here we present an investigation of peptides in the visual system, composed of brain regions that are generally less rich in peptides, with the aim of providing the first broad overview of peptides involved in mammalian visual functions. We target three important parts of the visual system: the primary visual cortex (V1), lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) and superior colliculus (SC). Our study is performed in the tree shrew, a close relative of primates. Using a combination of data dependent acquisition and targeted LC-MS/MS based neuropeptidomics; we identified a total of 52 peptides from the tree shrew visual system. A total of 26 peptides, for example GAV and neuropeptide K were identified in the visual system for the first time. Out of the total 52 peptides, 27 peptides with high signal-to-noise-ratio (>10) in extracted ion chromatograms (EIC) were subjected to label-free quantitation. We observed generally lower abundance of peptides in the LGN compared to V1 and SC. Consistently, a number of individual peptides showed high abundance in V1 (such as neuropeptide Y or somatostatin 28) and in SC (such as somatostatin 28 AA1-12). This study provides the first in-depth characterization of peptides in the mammalian visual system. These findings now permit the investigation of neuropeptide-regulated mechanisms of visual perception.

  5. A new small-eared shrew of the Cryptotis nigrescens-group from Colombia (Mammalia: Soricomorpha: Soricidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodman, N.

    2003-01-01

    Cryptotis colombiana Woodman & Timm, 1993 previously was known from few specimens from two isolated regions in the Cordillera Central and Cordillera Oriental of Colombia. Recent collecting in the northern Cordillera Central and review of older collections from the central Cordillera Oriental in the vicinity of Bogota yielded additional specimens that permit reevaluation of the two geographic populations of these small-eared shrews. Morphological and morphometrical studies indicate that the population inhabiting the Cordillera Oriental represents a distinct, previously unrecognized species that I describe herein as Cryptotis brachyonyx. Study of 54 specimens of shrews from the Cordillera Oriental in systematic collections in North America, South America, and Europe yielded only four specimens of the new species, all collected before 1926. The paucity of modern specimens suggests that C. brachyonyx may be extremely restricted in distribution, or possibly extinct.

  6. This shrew is a jumping mouse (Mammalia, Dipodidae): Sorex dichrurus Rafinesque 1833 is a synonym of Zapus hudsonius (Zimmermann 1780)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodman, Neal; Carleton, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    Constantine S. Rafinesque described Sorex dichrurus as a shrew in 1833, based on a specimen he found in a proprietary museum near Niagara Falls on the New York/Ontario border. The name subsequently has been ignored by the scientific community. By describing this specimen as a shrew and ascribing it to the genus Sorex, Rafinesque clearly indicated that his species should be considered a member of the taxonomic family now recognized as the Soricidae (Mammalia, Eulipotyphla). Yet, the description of the animal, and its comparison to ‘‘Gerbillus,’’ clearly identify it as a dipodid rodent, specifically Zapus hudsonius (Zimmermann, 1780); S. dichrurus should be treated as a junior subjective synonym of that taxon. Based on its type locality of Goat Island, New York, this name is also a junior synonym of the subspecies Z. hudsonius canadensis (Davies, 1798).

  7. Directory of Japanese researchers available

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The National Center for Science Information System Japanese Scientific and Engineering Database Access Project, sponsored by the National Science Foundation and Japan's NACSIS, has added four new databases to its free service, bringing the total number of available databases to 13.The new Directory of Japanese Researchers covers researchers affiliated with Japanese universities and academic research centers. Each researcher is listed by name, date of birth, organizational affiliation, education and degrees, memberships and awards, areas of specialization, and representative publications. Non-Japanese researchers are also covered.

  8. No evidence for mutations in NLRP7 and KHDC3L in women with androgenetic hydatidiform moles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the mutational spectrum of NLRP7 and KHDC3L (C6orf221) in women with sporadic and recurrent androgenetic complete hydatidiform moles (AnCHM) and biparental hydatidiform moles (BiHM) to address the hypothesis that autosomal recessive mutations in these gene...

  9. The Mole Mapper Study, mobile phone skin imaging and melanoma risk data collected using ResearchKit

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Dan E.; Suver, Christine; Doerr, Megan; Mounts, Erin; Domenico, Lisa; Petrie, Tracy; Leachman, Sancy A.; Trister, Andrew D.; Bot, Brian M.

    2017-01-01

    Sensor-embedded phones are an emerging facilitator for participant-driven research studies. Skin cancer research is particularly amenable to this approach, as phone cameras enable self-examination and documentation of mole abnormalities that may signal a progression towards melanoma. Aggregation and open sharing of this participant-collected data can be foundational for research and the development of early cancer detection tools. Here we describe data from Mole Mapper, an iPhone-based observational study built using the Apple ResearchKit framework. The Mole Mapper app was designed to collect participant-provided images and measurements of moles, together with demographic and behavioral information relating to melanoma risk. The study cohort includes 2,069 participants who contributed 1,920 demographic surveys, 3,274 mole measurements, and 2,422 curated mole images. Survey data recapitulates associations between melanoma and known demographic risks, with red hair as the most significant factor in this cohort. Participant-provided mole measurements indicate an average mole size of 3.95 mm. These data have been made available to engage researchers in a collaborative, multidisciplinary effort to better understand and prevent melanoma. PMID:28195576

  10. The Mole Mapper Study, mobile phone skin imaging and melanoma risk data collected using ResearchKit.

    PubMed

    Webster, Dan E; Suver, Christine; Doerr, Megan; Mounts, Erin; Domenico, Lisa; Petrie, Tracy; Leachman, Sancy A; Trister, Andrew D; Bot, Brian M

    2017-02-14

    Sensor-embedded phones are an emerging facilitator for participant-driven research studies. Skin cancer research is particularly amenable to this approach, as phone cameras enable self-examination and documentation of mole abnormalities that may signal a progression towards melanoma. Aggregation and open sharing of this participant-collected data can be foundational for research and the development of early cancer detection tools. Here we describe data from Mole Mapper, an iPhone-based observational study built using the Apple ResearchKit framework. The Mole Mapper app was designed to collect participant-provided images and measurements of moles, together with demographic and behavioral information relating to melanoma risk. The study cohort includes 2,069 participants who contributed 1,920 demographic surveys, 3,274 mole measurements, and 2,422 curated mole images. Survey data recapitulates associations between melanoma and known demographic risks, with red hair as the most significant factor in this cohort. Participant-provided mole measurements indicate an average mole size of 3.95 mm. These data have been made available to engage researchers in a collaborative, multidisciplinary effort to better understand and prevent melanoma.

  11. Delineation of vagal emetic pathways: intragastric copper sulfate-induced emesis and viral tract tracing in musk shrews

    PubMed Central

    Meyers, Kelly; Lim, Audrey; Dye, Matthew; Pak, Diana; Rinaman, Linda; Yates, Bill J.

    2014-01-01

    Signals from the vestibular system, area postrema, and forebrain elicit nausea and vomiting, but gastrointestinal (GI) vagal afferent input arguably plays the most prominent role in defense against food poisoning. It is difficult to determine the contribution of GI vagal afferent input on emesis because various agents (e.g., chemotherapy) often act on multiple sensory pathways. Intragastric copper sulfate (CuSO4) potentially provides a specific vagal emetic stimulus, but its actions are not well defined in musk shrews (Suncus murinus), a primary small animal model used to study emesis. The aims of the current study were 1) to investigate the effects of subdiaphragmatic vagotomy on CuSO4-induced emesis and 2) to conduct preliminary transneuronal tracing of the GI-brain pathways in musk shrews. Vagotomy failed to inhibit the number of emetic episodes produced by optimal emetic doses of CuSO4 (60 and 120 mg/kg ig), but the effects of lower doses were dependent on an intact vagus (20 and 40 mg/kg). Vagotomy also failed to affect emesis produced by motion (1 Hz, 10 min) or nicotine administration (5 mg/kg sc). Anterograde transport of the H129 strain of herpes simplex virus-1 from the ventral stomach wall identified the following brain regions as receiving inputs from vagal afferents: the nucleus of the solitary tract, area postrema, and lateral parabrachial nucleus. These data indicate that the contribution of vagal pathways to intragastric CuSO4-induced emesis is dose dependent in musk shrews. Furthermore, the current neural tracing data suggest brain stem anatomical circuits that are activated by GI signaling in the musk shrew. PMID:24430885

  12. Western Siberia rivers and the boundaries between chromosomal races of the common shrew (Sorex araneus L. Lipotyphla, Mammalia).

    PubMed

    Sheftel, B I; Demidova, T B; Burskaya, V O

    2016-11-01

    In Western Siberia, most boundaries between common shrew chromosomal races have been found to pass along the banks of rivers, mainly those flowing in the meridional direction. The races Serov and Novosibirsk co-inhabited the right bank of the Irtysh. The easternmost point of the Novosibirsk race has been found on the middle Yenisei River, while the race Tomsk in this area was only on the right (eastern) bank.

  13. Delineation of vagal emetic pathways: intragastric copper sulfate-induced emesis and viral tract tracing in musk shrews.

    PubMed

    Horn, Charles C; Meyers, Kelly; Lim, Audrey; Dye, Matthew; Pak, Diana; Rinaman, Linda; Yates, Bill J

    2014-03-01

    Signals from the vestibular system, area postrema, and forebrain elicit nausea and vomiting, but gastrointestinal (GI) vagal afferent input arguably plays the most prominent role in defense against food poisoning. It is difficult to determine the contribution of GI vagal afferent input on emesis because various agents (e.g., chemotherapy) often act on multiple sensory pathways. Intragastric copper sulfate (CuSO4) potentially provides a specific vagal emetic stimulus, but its actions are not well defined in musk shrews (Suncus murinus), a primary small animal model used to study emesis. The aims of the current study were 1) to investigate the effects of subdiaphragmatic vagotomy on CuSO4-induced emesis and 2) to conduct preliminary transneuronal tracing of the GI-brain pathways in musk shrews. Vagotomy failed to inhibit the number of emetic episodes produced by optimal emetic doses of CuSO4 (60 and 120 mg/kg ig), but the effects of lower doses were dependent on an intact vagus (20 and 40 mg/kg). Vagotomy also failed to affect emesis produced by motion (1 Hz, 10 min) or nicotine administration (5 mg/kg sc). Anterograde transport of the H129 strain of herpes simplex virus-1 from the ventral stomach wall identified the following brain regions as receiving inputs from vagal afferents: the nucleus of the solitary tract, area postrema, and lateral parabrachial nucleus. These data indicate that the contribution of vagal pathways to intragastric CuSO4-induced emesis is dose dependent in musk shrews. Furthermore, the current neural tracing data suggest brain stem anatomical circuits that are activated by GI signaling in the musk shrew.

  14. Nuclear organization of cholinergic, putative catecholaminergic and serotonergic nuclei in the brain of the eastern rock elephant shrew, Elephantulus myurus.

    PubMed

    Pieters, Raymond P; Gravett, Nadine; Fuxe, Kjell; Manger, Paul R

    2010-05-01

    The organization of the nuclear subdivisions of the cholinergic, putative catecholaminergic and serotonergic systems of the brain of the elephant shrew (Elephantulus myurus) were determined following immunohistochemistry for choline acetyltransferase, tyrosine hydroxylase and serotonin, respectively. This was done in order to determine if differences in the nuclear organization of these systems in comparison to other mammals were evident and how any noted differences may relate to specialized behaviours of the elephant shrew. The elephant shrew belongs to the order Macroscelidea, and forms part of the Afrotherian mammalian cohort. In general, the organization of the nuclei of these systems resembled that described in other mammalian species. The cholinergic system showed many features in common with that seen in the rock hyrax, rodents and primates; however, specific differences include: (1) cholinergic neurons were observed in the superior and inferior colliculi, as well as the cochlear nuclei; (2) cholinergic neurons were not observed in the anterior nuclei of the dorsal thalamus as seen in the rock hyrax; and (3) cholinergic parvocellular nerve cells forming subdivisions of the laterodorsal and pedunculopontine tegmental nuclei were not observed at the midbrain/pons interface as seen in the rock hyrax. The organization of the putative catecholaminergic system was very similar to that seen in the rock hyrax and rodents except for the lack of the rodent specific C3 nucleus, the dorsal division of the anterior hypothalamic group (A15d) and the compact division of the locus coeruleus (A6c). The nuclear organization of the serotonergic system was identical to that seen in all eutherian mammals studied to date. The additional cholinergic neurons found in the cochlear nucleus and colliculi may relate to a specific acoustic signalling system observed in elephant shrews expressed when the animals are under stress or detect a predator. These neurons may then function to

  15. A new species of small-eared shrew in the Cryptotis thomasi species group from Costa Rica (Mammalia: Eulipotyphla: Soricidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodman, Neal; Timm, Robert M.

    2017-01-01

    We describe a new species of small-eared shrew, genus Cryptotis Pomel, 1848 (Eulipotyphla: Soricidae), from near the community of Monteverde in the Tilarán highlands of northwestern Costa Rica. The new species is immediately distinguished from all other Costa Rican shrews its large size and long tail. Morphologically, it belongs to the Cryptotis thomasi group of small-eared shrews, a clade that is more typically distributed in the Andes Cordillera and other highland regions of northern South America. The new Costa Rican species and the Panamanian endemic Cryptotis endersi Setzer, 1950 are the only two members of this species group known to occur in Central America. Like most other members of the C. thomasi group for which the postcranial skeleton has been studied, the new species tends be more ambulatory (rather than semi-fossorial) when compared with other members of the genus. Our survey efforts over several decades failed to locate a population of the new species, and we discuss its conservation status in light of its limited potential distribution in the Tilarán highlands and the significant climatic change that has been documented in the Monteverde region during the past four decades.

  16. Depression-like behaviors in tree shrews and comparison of the effects of treatment with fluoxetine and carbetocin.

    PubMed

    Meng, Xiaolu; Shen, Fang; Li, Chunlu; Li, Yonghui; Wang, Xuewei

    2016-06-01

    Tree shrews, a species phylogenetically close to primates, are regarded as a suitable and naturalistic animal model for depression studies. However, psychological symptoms that are essential for depression diagnosis and treatment, such as helplessness and social withdrawal, have not been studied in this model. Therefore, in this study, we first investigated learned helplessness, social interaction and sucrose preference induced by two chronic stress paradigms: uncontrollable foot shocks (1-week foot shocks) and multiple unpredictable stimuli (1-week foot shocks and 3-week unpredictable stressors) in tree shrews. Our results showed that uncontrollable foot shocks could only induce learned helplessness in animals; whereas animals treated with multiple unpredictable stimuli exhibited more depression-like behaviors including social withdrawal, anhedonia and learned helplessness. These findings suggested that multiple unpredictable stimuli could effectively induce various depression-like behaviors in tree shrews. More importantly, we compared the antidepressant effects of fluoxetine and carbetocin, a long-acting oxytocin analog, on specific depression-like behaviors. Our present data displayed that, compared with fluoxetine, carbetocin was also effective in reversing learned helplessness, elevating sucrose preference and improving social interaction behaviors in depression-like animals. Therefore, carbetocin might be a potential antidepressant with applications in humans.

  17. Carving out turf in a biodiversity hotspot: multiple, previously unrecognized shrew species co-occur on Java Island, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Esselstyn, Jacob A; Maharadatunkamsi; Achmadi, Anang S; Siler, Cameron D; Evans, Ben J

    2013-10-01

    In theory, competition among species in a shared habitat results in niche separation. In the case of small recondite mammals such as shrews, little is known about their autecologies, leaving open questions regarding the degree to which closely related species co-occur and how or whether ecological niches are partitioned. The extent to which species are able to coexist may depend on the degree to which they exploit different features of their habitat, which may in turn influence our ability to recognize them as species. We explored these issues in a biodiversity hotspot, by surveying shrew (genus Crocidura) diversity on the Indonesian island of Java. We sequenced portions of nine unlinked genes in 100-117 specimens of Javan shrews and incorporated homologous data from most known Crocidura species from other parts of island South-East Asia. Current taxonomy recognizes four Crocidura species on Java, including two endemics. However, our phylogenetic, population genetic and species delimitation analyses identify five species on the island, and all are endemic to Java. While the individual ranges of these species may not overlap in their entirety, we found up to four species living syntopically and all five species co-occurring on one mountain. Differences in species' body size, use of above ground-level habitats by one species and habitat partitioning along ecological gradients may have facilitated species diversification and coexistence.

  18. [Craniometric differences between karyotypic races of the common shrew Sorex araneus (Mammalia) as a result of limited hybridization].

    PubMed

    Orlov, V N; Sycheva, V B; Cherepanova, E V; Borisov, Iu M

    2013-04-01

    The contact points of four karyotypic races (St. Petersburg, Moscow, Seliger and West Dvina) of the common shrew Sorex araneus L. were studied at the Valdai Hills (European Russia) in an area unimpeded by geographic barriers. The populations of the races are separated by narrow hybrid zones that represent the most complex heterozygous hybrid karyotypes. At these points of contact, the morphometric differentiation of karyotype races was examined in 12 cranial measurements in 190 shrews of a known karyotype. A. comparison of the mean values in studied samples of immature shrews revealed statistically significant differences and the correlation of some measurements in order to describe the level of musculus temporalis. It has been proposed that morphometric differences in the karyotypic races were preserved and accumulated because of a 50% reduction of the frequencies of hybrids. The deviation from the Hardy-Weinberg ration in the frequencies of the genotype and haploid sets of chromosomes in the hybrid zones can be attributed to a number of fatalities of hybrid embryos or the nonrandom mating of karyotypic races. The ethological isolation might arise in the evolution of some karyotypic races from the reduced fitness of the hybrids.

  19. A new species of small-eared shrew (Mammalia, Eulipotyphla, Cryptotis) from the Lacandona rain forest, Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guevara, Lázaro; Sánchez-Cordero, Víctor; León-Paniagua, Livia; Woodman, Neal

    2014-01-01

    The diversity and distribution of mammals in the American tropics remain incompletely known. We describe a new species of small-eared shrew (Soricidae, Cryptotis) from the Lacandona rain forest, Chiapas, southern Mexico. The new species is distinguished from other species of Cryptotis on the basis of a unique combination of pelage coloration, size, dental, cranial, postcranial, and external characters, and genetic distances. It appears most closely related to species in the Cryptotis nigrescens species group, which occurs from southern Mexico to montane regions of Colombia. This discovery is particularly remarkable because the new species is from a low-elevation habitat (approximately 90 m), whereas most shrews in the region are restricted to higher elevations, typically > 1,000 m. The only known locality for the new shrew is in one of the last areas in southern Mexico where relatively undisturbed tropical vegetation is still found. The type locality is protected by the Mexican government as part of the Yaxchilán Archaeological Site on the border between Mexico and Guatemala.

  20. Skeletal morphology of the forefoot in shrews (Mammalia: Soricidae) of the genus Cryptotis, as revealed by digital x-rays

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodman, N.; Morgan, J.J.P.

    2005-01-01

    Variation in the forefoot skeleton of small-eared shrews (family Soricidae, genus Cryptotis) has been previously documented, but the paucity of available skeletons for most taxa makes assessment of the degrees of intraspecific and interspecific variation difficult. We used a digital X-ray system to extract images of the forefoot skeleton from 101 dried skins of eight taxa (seven species, including two subspecies of one species) of these shrews. Lengths and widths of each of the four bones of digit III were measured directly from the digital images, and we used these data to quantify variation within and among taxa. Analysis of the images and measurements showed that interspecific variation exceeds intraspecific variation. In fact, most taxa could be distinguished in multivariate and some bivariate plots. Our quantitative data helped us define a number of specific forefoot characters that we subsequently used to hypothesize evolutionary relationships among the taxa using the exhaustive search option in PAUP, a computer program for phylogenetic analysis. The resulting trees generally concur with previously published evolutionary hypotheses for small-eared shrews. Cryptotis meridensis, a taxon not previously examined in recent phylogenies, is rooted at the base of the branch leading to the C. mexicana group of species. The position of this species suggests that the mostly South American C. thomasi group shares an early ancestor with the C. mexicana group.

  1. The distribution of doublecortin-immunopositive cells in the brains of four afrotherian mammals: the Hottentot golden mole (Amblysomus hottentotus), the rock hyrax (Procavia capensis), the eastern rock sengi (Elephantulus myurus) and the four-toed sengi (Petrodromus tetradactylus).

    PubMed

    Patzke, Nina; LeRoy, Andrea; Ngubane, Nhlanhla W; Bennett, Nigel C; Medger, Katarina; Gravett, Nadine; Kaswera-Kyamakya, Consolate; Gilissen, Emmanuel; Chawana, Richard; Manger, Paul R

    2014-01-01

    Adult neurogenesis in the mammalian brain is now a widely accepted phenomenon, typically occurring in two forebrain structures: the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the hippocampal dentate gyrus and the subventricular zone (SVZ). Until recently, the majority of studies have focused on laboratory rodents, and it is under debate whether the process of adult neurogenesis occurs outside of the SGZ and the SVZ in other mammalian species. In the present study, we investigated potential adult neurogenetic sites in the brains of two elephant shrews/sengis, a golden mole and a rock hyrax, all members of the superorder Afrotheria. Doublecortin (DCX) immunoreactivity was used as a proxy to visualise adult neurogenesis, which is expressed in neuronal precursor cells and immature neurons. In all four species, densely packed DCX-positive cells were present in the SVZ, from where cells appear to migrate along the rostral migratory stream towards the olfactory bulb (OB). DCX-immunopositive cells were present in the granular cell layer and the glomerular layer of the OB. In the hippocampus, DCX-immunopositive cells were observed in the SGZ and in the granular layer of the dentate gyrus, with DCX-immunopositive processes extending into the molecular layer. In addition to these well-established adult neurogenic regions, DCX-immunopositive cells were also observed in layer II of the neocortex and the piriform cortex. While the present study reveals a similar pattern of adult neurogenesis to that reported previously in other mammals, further studies are needed to clarify if the cortical DCX-immunopositive cells are newly generated neurons or cells undergoing cortical remodelling.

  2. Reproducible Large-Scale Neuroimaging Studies with the OpenMOLE Workflow Management System.

    PubMed

    Passerat-Palmbach, Jonathan; Reuillon, Romain; Leclaire, Mathieu; Makropoulos, Antonios; Robinson, Emma C; Parisot, Sarah; Rueckert, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    OpenMOLE is a scientific workflow engine with a strong emphasis on workload distribution. Workflows are designed using a high level Domain Specific Language (DSL) built on top of Scala. It exposes natural parallelism constructs to easily delegate the workload resulting from a workflow to a wide range of distributed computing environments. OpenMOLE hides the complexity of designing complex experiments thanks to its DSL. Users can embed their own applications and scale their pipelines from a small prototype running on their desktop computer to a large-scale study harnessing distributed computing infrastructures, simply by changing a single line in the pipeline definition. The construction of the pipeline itself is decoupled from the execution context. The high-level DSL abstracts the underlying execution environment, contrary to classic shell-script based pipelines. These two aspects allow pipelines to be shared and studies to be replicated across different computing environments. Workflows can be run as traditional batch pipelines or coupled with OpenMOLE's advanced exploration methods in order to study the behavior of an application, or perform automatic parameter tuning. In this work, we briefly present the strong assets of OpenMOLE and detail recent improvements targeting re-executability of workflows across various Linux platforms. We have tightly coupled OpenMOLE with CARE, a standalone containerization solution that allows re-executing on a Linux host any application that has been packaged on another Linux host previously. The solution is evaluated against a Python-based pipeline involving packages such as scikit-learn as well as binary dependencies. All were packaged and re-executed successfully on various HPC environments, with identical numerical results (here prediction scores) obtained on each environment. Our results show that the pair formed by OpenMOLE and CARE is a reliable solution to generate reproducible results and re-executable pipelines. A

  3. Reproducible Large-Scale Neuroimaging Studies with the OpenMOLE Workflow Management System

    PubMed Central

    Passerat-Palmbach, Jonathan; Reuillon, Romain; Leclaire, Mathieu; Makropoulos, Antonios; Robinson, Emma C.; Parisot, Sarah; Rueckert, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    OpenMOLE is a scientific workflow engine with a strong emphasis on workload distribution. Workflows are designed using a high level Domain Specific Language (DSL) built on top of Scala. It exposes natural parallelism constructs to easily delegate the workload resulting from a workflow to a wide range of distributed computing environments. OpenMOLE hides the complexity of designing complex experiments thanks to its DSL. Users can embed their own applications and scale their pipelines from a small prototype running on their desktop computer to a large-scale study harnessing distributed computing infrastructures, simply by changing a single line in the pipeline definition. The construction of the pipeline itself is decoupled from the execution context. The high-level DSL abstracts the underlying execution environment, contrary to classic shell-script based pipelines. These two aspects allow pipelines to be shared and studies to be replicated across different computing environments. Workflows can be run as traditional batch pipelines or coupled with OpenMOLE's advanced exploration methods in order to study the behavior of an application, or perform automatic parameter tuning. In this work, we briefly present the strong assets of OpenMOLE and detail recent improvements targeting re-executability of workflows across various Linux platforms. We have tightly coupled OpenMOLE with CARE, a standalone containerization solution that allows re-executing on a Linux host any application that has been packaged on another Linux host previously. The solution is evaluated against a Python-based pipeline involving packages such as scikit-learn as well as binary dependencies. All were packaged and re-executed successfully on various HPC environments, with identical numerical results (here prediction scores) obtained on each environment. Our results show that the pair formed by OpenMOLE and CARE is a reliable solution to generate reproducible results and re-executable pipelines. A

  4. Issei: Japanese Immigrants in Hawaii.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimura, Yukiko

    Coming to Hawaii before July 1, 1924, when the Japanese Exclusion Act became effective, the experiences of the Issei or first generation are described. Divided into four parts, this book examines the experiences of Japanese immigrants in Hawaii from 1885 through 1970. Part 1, "The Formation and Stabilization of the Issei Community,"…

  5. Developmental Sentence Scoring for Japanese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miyata, Susanne; MacWhinney, Brian; Otomo, Kiyoshi; Sirai, Hidetosi; Oshima-Takane, Yuriko; Hirakawa, Makiko; Shirai, Yasuhiro; Sugiura, Masatoshi; Itoh, Keiko

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on the development and use of the Developmental Sentence Scoring for Japanese (DSSJ), a new morpho-syntactical measure for Japanese constructed after the model of Lee's English Developmental Sentence Scoring model. Using this measure, the authors calculated DSSJ scores for 84 children divided into six age groups between 2;8…

  6. Asian Pacific Perspectives: Japanese Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Los Angeles Unified School District, CA.

    These instructional materials on Japanese Americans for elementary students were developed through the K.E.Y.S. project (Knowledge of English Yields Success). Information is included on early immigrants, their historical and cultural background, and current problems of Japanese Americans. Resource guides describe the purpose of the unit, how to…

  7. The modern Japanese color lexicon.

    PubMed

    Kuriki, Ichiro; Lange, Ryan; Muto, Yumiko; Brown, Angela M; Fukuda, Kazuho; Tokunaga, Rumi; Lindsey, Delwin T; Uchikawa, Keiji; Shioiri, Satoshi

    2017-03-01

    Despite numerous prior studies, important questions about the Japanese color lexicon persist, particularly about the number of Japanese basic color terms and their deployment across color space. Here, 57 native Japanese speakers provided monolexemic terms for 320 chromatic and 10 achromatic Munsell color samples. Through k-means cluster analysis we revealed 16 statistically distinct Japanese chromatic categories. These included eight chromatic basic color terms (aka/red, ki/yellow, midori/green, ao/blue, pink, orange, cha/brown, and murasaki/purple) plus eight additional terms: mizu ("water")/light blue, hada ("skin tone")/peach, kon ("indigo")/dark blue, matcha ("green tea")/yellow-green, enji/maroon, oudo ("sand or mud")/mustard, yamabuki ("globeflower")/gold, and cream. Of these additional terms, mizu was used by 98% of informants, and emerged as a strong candidate for a 12th Japanese basic color term. Japanese and American English color-naming systems were broadly similar, except for color categories in one language (mizu, kon, teal, lavender, magenta, lime) that had no equivalent in the other. Our analysis revealed two statistically distinct Japanese motifs (or color-naming systems), which differed mainly in the extension of mizu across our color palette. Comparison of the present data with an earlier study by Uchikawa & Boynton (1987) suggests that some changes in the Japanese color lexicon have occurred over the last 30 years.

  8. Counseling Japanese Men on Fathering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seto, Atsuko; Becker, Kent W.; Akutsu, Motoko

    2006-01-01

    The authors review an article (J. Yamamoto & F. Tagami, 2004) published in the "Japanese Journal of Counseling Science" that described changes in contemporary Japanese family structures and illustrated a therapy process with a father to enhance the father-son relationship. Implications for the counseling profession in working with…

  9. Sociality and the telencephalic distribution of corticotrophin-releasing factor, urocortin 3, and binding sites for CRF type 1 and type 2 receptors: A comparative study of eusocial naked mole-rats and solitary Cape mole-rats.

    PubMed

    Coen, Clive W; Kalamatianos, Theodosis; Oosthuizen, Maria K; Poorun, Ravi; Faulkes, Christopher G; Bennett, Nigel C

    2015-11-01

    Various aspects of social behavior are influenced by the highly conserved corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) family of peptides and receptors in the mammalian telencephalon. This study has mapped and compared the telencephalic distribution of the CRF receptors, CRF1 and CRF2 , and two of their ligands, CRF and urocortin 3, respectively, in African mole-rat species with diametrically opposed social behavior. Naked mole-rats live in large eusocial colonies that are characterized by exceptional levels of social cohesion, tolerance, and cooperation in burrowing, foraging, defense, and alloparental care for the offspring of the single reproductive female. Cape mole-rats are solitary; they tolerate conspecifics only fleetingly during the breeding season. The telencephalic sites at which the level of CRF1 binding in naked mole-rats exceeds that in Cape mole-rats include the basolateral amygdaloid nucleus, hippocampal CA3 subfield, and dentate gyrus; in contrast, the level is greater in Cape mole-rats in the shell of the nucleus accumbens and medial habenular nucleus. For CRF2 binding, the sites with a greater level in naked mole-rats include the basolateral amygdaloid nucleus and dentate gyrus, but the septohippocampal nucleus, lateral septal nuclei, amygdalostriatal transition area, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, and medial habenular nucleus display a greater level in Cape mole-rats. The results are discussed with reference to neuroanatomical and behavioral studies of various species, including monogamous and promiscuous voles. By analogy with findings in those species, we speculate that the abundance of CRF1 binding in the nucleus accumbens of Cape mole-rats reflects their lack of affiliative behavior.

  10. Moles (Nevi)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Us Media contacts Advertising contacts AAD logo Advertising, marketing and sponsorships Legal notice Copyright © 2017 American Academy ... prohibited without prior written permission. AAD logo Advertising, marketing and sponsorships Legal notice Copyright © 2017 American Academy ...

  11. Hydatidiform mole

    MedlinePlus

    ... egg). It results in an abnormal fetus. The placenta grows normally with little or no growth of ... types: Partial molar pregnancy. There is an abnormal placenta and some fetal development. Complete molar pregnancy. There ...

  12. Atypical Moles

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sections of the JAOCD JAOCD Archive Published Members Online Dermatology Journals Edit This Favorite Name: Category: Share: Yes ... About Tanning 4/24/2013 Sun Safety IQ Online Surveys ... Osteopathic Association. The AOCD now oversees 32 dermatology residency programs that are currently training 163 residents ...

  13. Uterine rupture in twin pregnancy with normal fetus and complete hydatidiform mole.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Ferrer, María Luisa; Hernández-Martínez, Florentina; Machado-Linde, Francisco; Ferri, Belén; Carbonel, Pablo; Nieto-Diaz, Anibal

    2014-01-01

    We describe a rare case of complete hydatidiform mole with twin live fetus (CHMTF) confirmed by histopathology, flow cytometry and polymerase chain reaction techniques. No malformations were observed, fetal karyotype was normal and β-human chorionic gonadotropin levels were high (>100,000 IU/ml). The patient was informed of the risks and decided to continue with the pregnancy, but at week 15, she had to undergo hysterectomy due to uterine rupture. She subsequently developed persistent trophoblastic disease (PTD) with pulmonary metastases that required treatment with polychemotherapy. Patients with CHMTF should be informed of all known risks, including the considerable risk of PTD, which is similar to or, even higher than that associated with a singleton complete mole. The risk does not appear to be increased by continuing the pregnancy. Because so few series have been published, there is a lack of evidence-based clinical management guidelines. To our knowledge, this is the first report of uterine rupture in CHMTF.

  14. The effects of ultraviolet C radiation on the ultrastructure of the liver cells of mole rats.

    PubMed

    Tekın, Saban; Türker, Hüseyin; Güven, Turan; Yel, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the ultrastructural changes in the liver cells of mole rats (Spalax leucodon) exposed to ultraviolet radiation (UVR). Thirteen mole rats used in this study were caught from nature. They were divided into four groups. The first group was separated as a control and was not given any radiation. The rest were exposed to ultraviolet C (UVC) radiation for 7, 14, and 21 days. The electron microscopic examinations revealed that significant ultrastructural changes occurred in the liver tissue. These changes were the reduction in cytoplasmic organelles, dilatation in rough endoplasmic reticulum, impairment of nucleus membrane, and broadened and vacuolated mitochondria in the cytoplasm. Also, UVC radiation caused significant changes in liver enzymes of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and gama-glutamiltransferase values. After long-term exposure to radiation, some excessive ultrastructural changes occurred. These results indicated that longer exposure to UVR would cause more ultrastructural effects on the liver cells and liver enzymes.

  15. Androgen receptor distribution in the social decision-making network of eusocial naked mole-rats.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Melissa M; Van Mil, Spencer; Bulkowski, Camila; Goldman, Sharry L; Goldman, Bruce D; Forger, Nancy G

    2013-11-01

    Naked mole-rats are highly social rodents that live in large groups and exhibit a strict reproductive and social hierarchy. Only a few animals in each colony breed; the remainder are non-reproductive and are socially subordinate to breeders. We have examined androgen receptor immunoreactive (AR+) cells in brain regions comprising the recently described social decision-making network in subordinate and breeder naked mole-rats of both sexes. We find that subordinates have a significantly higher percentage of AR+ cells in all brain regions expressing this protein. By contrast, there were no significant effects of sex and no sex-by-status interactions on the percentage of AR+ cells. Taken together with previous findings, the present data complete a systematic assessment of the distribution of AR protein in the social decision-making network of the eusocial mammalian brain and demonstrate a significant role for social status in the regulation of this protein throughout many nodes of this network.

  16. Geographic dialects in blind mole rats: role of vocal communication in active speciation.

    PubMed Central

    Nevo, E; Heth, G; Beiles, A; Frankenberg, E

    1987-01-01

    We compared and contrasted the physical structure of male "courtship" calls of 59 subterranean mole rats belonging to the Spalax ehrenbergi superspecies in Israel, comprising 11 populations of four chromosomal species (2N = 52, 54, 58, and 60). We also conducted behavioral auditory discrimination tests of 144 females of the four species in the laboratory. The results indicate that each chromosomal species has a vocal dialect significantly different from all others, although the call of 2N = 60, the last derivative of speciation, is not yet fully differentiated. Females of 2N = 52, 54, and 58 preferred their homospecific mates' calls, whereas females of 2N = 60 did not. We conclude that call differentiation builds up gradually and provides an efficient ethological reproductive premating isolation mechanism between the emerging species in the active speciation of mole rats in Israel. PMID:3472211

  17. Seasonal changes in burrow geometry of the common mole rat (Rodentia: Bathyergidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, H. G.; Scantlebury, M.; Swanepoel, D.; Bateman, P. W.; Bennett, N. C.

    2013-11-01

    Sociality in mole rats has been suggested to have evolved as a response to the widely dispersed food resources and the limited burrowing opportunities that result from sporadic rainfall events. In the most arid regions, individual foraging efficiency is reduced, and energetic constraints increase. In this study, we investigate seasonal differences in burrow architecture of the social Cryptomys hottentotus hottentotus in a mesic region. We describe burrow geometry in response to seasonal weather conditions for two seasons (wet and dry). Interactions occurred between seasons and colony size for the size of the burrow systems, but not the shape of the burrow systems. The fractal dimension values of the burrow systems did not differ between seasons. Thus, the burrow complexity was dependent upon the number of mole rats present in the social group.

  18. The number of cysteine residues per mole in apolipoprotein E affects systematically synchronous neural interactions in women's healthy brains.

    PubMed

    Leuthold, Arthur C; Mahan, Margaret Y; Stanwyck, John J; Georgopoulos, Angeliki; Georgopoulos, Apostolos P

    2013-05-01

    Apolipoprotein E (apoE) is involved in lipid metabolism in the brain, but its effects on brain function are not understood. Three apoE isoforms (E4, E3, and E2) are the result of cysteine-arginine interchanges at two sites: there are zero interchanges in E4, one interchange in E3, and two interchanges in E2. The resulting six apoE genotypes (E4/4, E4/3, E4/2, E3/3, E3/2, E2/2) yield five groups with respect to the number of cysteine residues per mole (CysR/mole), as follows. ApoE4/4 has zero cysteine residues per mole (0-CysR/mole), E4/3 has one (1-CysR/mole), E4/2 and E3/3 each has two (2-CysR/mole), E3/2 has three (3-CysR/mole), and E2/2 has four (4-CysR/mole). The use of the number of CysR/mole to characterize the apoE molecule converts the categorical apoE genotype scale, consisting of 6 distinct genotypes above, to a 5-point continuous scale (0-4 CysR/mole). This allows the use of statistical analyses suitable for continuous variables (e.g. regression) to quantify the relations between various variables and apoE. Using such analyses, here, we show for the first time that apoE affects in a graded and orderly manner neural communication, as assessed by analyzing the relation between the number of CysR/mole and synchronous neural interactions (SNI) measured by magnetoencephalography (MEG) in 130 cognitively healthy women. At the one end of the CysR/mole range, the 4-CysR/mole (E2/2) SNI distribution had the highest mean, lowest variance, lowest range, and lowest coefficient of variation, whereas at the other end, 0-CysR/mole (E4/4) SNI distribution had the lowest mean, highest variance, highest range, and highest coefficient of variation. The special status of the 4-CysR/mole distribution was reinforced by the results of a hierarchical tree analysis where the 4-CysR/mole (E2/2) SNI distribution occupied a separate branch by itself and the remaining CysR/mole SNI distributions were placed at increasing distances from the 4-CysR/mole distribution, according to

  19. Digital dissection of the masticatory muscles of the naked mole-rat, Heterocephalus glaber (Mammalia, Rodentia)

    PubMed Central

    Faulkes, Chris G.

    2014-01-01

    The naked mole-rat, Heterocephalus glaber, of the family Bathyergidae is a subterranean rodent that feeds on underground roots and tubers and digs extensive tunnel systems with its incisors. It is a highly unusual mammal with regard to its social structure, longevity, pain insensitivity and cancer resistance, all of which have made it the subject of a great deal of research in recent years. Yet, much of the basic anatomy of this species remains undocumented. In this paper, we describe the morphology of the jaw-closing musculature of the naked mole-rat, as revealed by contrast-enhanced micro-computed tomography. This technique uses an iodine stain to enable the imaging of soft tissues with microCT. The iodine-enhanced scans were used to create 3D reconstructions of the naked mole-rat masticatory muscles from which muscle masses were calculated. The jaw-closing musculature of Heterocephalus glaber is relatively very large compared to other rodents and is dominated by the superficial masseter, the deep masseter and the temporalis. The temporalis in particular is large for a rodent, covering the entirety of the braincase and much of the rear part of the orbit. The morphology of the masseter complex described here differs from two other published descriptions of bathyergid masticatory muscles, but is more similar to the arrangement seen in other rodent families. The zygomaticomandibularis (ZM) muscle does not protrude through the infraorbital foramen on to the rostrum and thus the naked mole-rat should be considered protrogomorphous rather than hystricomorphous, and the morphology is consistent with secondarily lost hystricomorphy as has been previously suggested for Bathyergidae. Overall, the morphology of the masticatory musculature indicates a species with a high bite force and a wide gape–both important adaptations for a life dominated by digging with the incisors. PMID:25024917

  20. Family Wide Molecular Adaptations to Underground Life in African Mole-Rats Revealed by Phylogenomic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Kalina T.J.; Bennett, Nigel C.; Tsagkogeorga, Georgia; Rossiter, Stephen J.; Faulkes, Christopher G.

    2015-01-01

    During their evolutionary radiation, mammals have colonized diverse habitats. Arguably the subterranean niche is the most inhospitable of these, characterized by reduced oxygen, elevated carbon dioxide, absence of light, scarcity of food, and a substrate that is energetically costly to burrow through. Of all lineages to have transitioned to a subterranean niche, African mole-rats are one of the most successful. Much of their ecological success can be attributed to a diet of plant storage organs, which has allowed them to colonize climatically varied habitats across sub-Saharan Africa, and has probably contributed to the evolution of their diverse social systems. Yet despite their many remarkable phenotypic specializations, little is known about molecular adaptations underlying these traits. To address this, we sequenced the transcriptomes of seven mole-rat taxa, including three solitary species, and combined new sequences with existing genomic data sets. Alignments of more than 13,000 protein-coding genes encompassed, for the first time, all six genera and the full spectrum of ecological and social variation in the clade. We detected positive selection within the mole-rat clade and along ancestral branches in approximately 700 genes including loci associated with tumorigenesis, aging, morphological development, and sociality. By combining these results with gene ontology annotation and protein–protein networks, we identified several clusters of functionally related genes. This family wide analysis of molecular evolution in mole-rats has identified a suite of positively selected genes, deepening our understanding of the extreme phenotypic traits exhibited by this group. PMID:26318402

  1. Injectant mole-fraction imaging in compressible mixing flows using planar laser-induced iodine fluorescence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartfield, Roy J., Jr.; Abbitt, John D., III; Mcdaniel, James C.

    1989-01-01

    A technique is described for imaging the injectant mole-fraction distribution in nonreacting compressible mixing flow fields. Planar fluorescence from iodine, seeded into air, is induced by a broadband argon-ion laser and collected using an intensified charge-injection-device array camera. The technique eliminates the thermodynamic dependence of the iodine fluorescence in the compressible flow field by taking the ratio of two images collected with identical thermodynamic flow conditions but different iodine seeding conditions.

  2. Compartmentation of the cerebellar cortex: adaptation to lifestyle in the star-nosed mole Condylura cristata.

    PubMed

    Marzban, Hassan; Hoy, Nathan; Buchok, Matthew; Catania, Kenneth C; Hawkes, Richard

    2015-04-01

    The adult mammalian cerebellum is histologically uniform. However, concealed beneath the simple laminar architecture, it is organized rostrocaudally and mediolaterally into complex arrays of transverse zones and parasagittal stripes that is both highly reproducible between individuals and generally conserved across mammals and birds. Beyond this conservation, the general architecture appears to be adapted to the animal's way of life. To test this hypothesis, we have examined cerebellar compartmentation in the talpid star-nosed mole Condylura cristata. The star-nosed mole leads a subterranean life. It is largely blind and instead uses an array of fleshy appendages (the "star") to navigate and locate its prey. The hypothesis suggests that cerebellar architecture would be modified to reduce regions receiving visual input and expand those that receive trigeminal afferents from the star. Zebrin II and phospholipase Cß4 (PLCß4) immunocytochemistry was used to map the zone-and-stripe architecture of the cerebellum of the adult star-nosed mole. The general zone-and-stripe architecture characteristic of all mammals is present in the star-nosed mole. In the vermis, the four typical transverse zones are present, two with alternating zebrin II/PLCß4 stripes, two wholly zebrin II+/PLCß4-. However, the central and nodular zones (prominent visual receiving areas) are proportionally reduced in size and conversely, the trigeminal-receiving areas (the posterior zone of the vermis and crus I/II of the hemispheres) are uncharacteristically large. We therefore conclude that cerebellar architecture is generally conserved across the Mammalia but adapted to the specific lifestyle of the species.

  3. Digital dissection of the masticatory muscles of the naked mole-rat, Heterocephalus glaber (Mammalia, Rodentia).

    PubMed

    Cox, Philip G; Faulkes, Chris G

    2014-01-01

    The naked mole-rat, Heterocephalus glaber, of the family Bathyergidae is a subterranean rodent that feeds on underground roots and tubers and digs extensive tunnel systems with its incisors. It is a highly unusual mammal with regard to its social structure, longevity, pain insensitivity and cancer resistance, all of which have made it the subject of a great deal of research in recent years. Yet, much of the basic anatomy of this species remains undocumented. In this paper, we describe the morphology of the jaw-closing musculature of the naked mole-rat, as revealed by contrast-enhanced micro-computed tomography. This technique uses an iodine stain to enable the imaging of soft tissues with microCT. The iodine-enhanced scans were used to create 3D reconstructions of the naked mole-rat masticatory muscles from which muscle masses were calculated. The jaw-closing musculature of Heterocephalus glaber is relatively very large compared to other rodents and is dominated by the superficial masseter, the deep masseter and the temporalis. The temporalis in particular is large for a rodent, covering the entirety of the braincase and much of the rear part of the orbit. The morphology of the masseter complex described here differs from two other published descriptions of bathyergid masticatory muscles, but is more similar to the arrangement seen in other rodent families. The zygomaticomandibularis (ZM) muscle does not protrude through the infraorbital foramen on to the rostrum and thus the naked mole-rat should be considered protrogomorphous rather than hystricomorphous, and the morphology is consistent with secondarily lost hystricomorphy as has been previously suggested for Bathyergidae. Overall, the morphology of the masticatory musculature indicates a species with a high bite force and a wide gape-both important adaptations for a life dominated by digging with the incisors.

  4. Raman line imaging for spatially and temporally resolved mole fraction measurements in internal combustion engines.

    PubMed

    Miles, P C

    1999-03-20

    An optical diagnostic system based on line imaging of Raman-scattered light has been developed to study the mixing processes in internal combustion engines. The system permits multipoint, single laser-shot measurements of CO(2), O(2), N(2), C(3)H(8), and H(2)O mole fractions with submillimeter spatial resolution. Selection of appropriate system hardware is discussed, as are subsequent data reduction and analysis procedures. Results are reported for data obtained at multiple crank angles and in two different engine flow fields. Measurements are made at 12 locations simultaneously, each location having measurement volume dimensions of 0.5 mm x 0.5 mm x 0.9 mm. The data are analyzed to obtain statistics of species mole fractions: mean, rms, histograms, and both spatial and cross-species covariance functions. The covariance functions are used to quantify the accuracy of the measured rms mole fraction fluctuations, to determine the integral length scales of the mixture inhomogeneities, and to quantify the cycle-to-cycle fluctuations in bulk mixture composition under well-mixed conditions.

  5. [From human andro- and parthenogenesis (hydatidiform moles and benign ovarian teratomas) to cancer].

    PubMed

    Coullin, P

    2005-01-01

    Genomic imprinting is a process that appeared in mammals. This phenomenon blocks the normal development of parthenogenic and androgenic conceptuses, that is to say benign ovarian teratomas and hydatidiform moles respectively. Pathological modifications of these conceptuses depend on whether the chromosomes come from the mother or father. These pathologies are associated with an accidental anomaly during gametogenesis and/or fertilizing. These reproductive anomalies are sporadic and some familial cases may exist suggesting a genetic control of such diseases. The human andro- and parthenogenetic conceptuses, but more frequently the moles, may be invasive (choriocarcinoma). An imbalance of the imprinting genes may initiate the deregulation of other genes, including oncogenes and anti-oncogenes, which can explain the cancerous modification. Immunological and environmental factors must be also considered (presence of the only paternal chromosomes in the choriocarcinoma). Numerous works on this subject are published and some recent important discoveries underline the roles of genes HOX, Tim P3, E-cad and p-16, and the recurrent chromosome anomalies 7q21+and 8p21- in the mole to choriocarcinoma processing. Although these phenomena are complex and heterogeneous, the andro- and parthenogenote conceptuses are particularly interesting models with which to understand developmental disorders and cancerous progression.

  6. Considerations on future redefinitions of the kilogram, the mole and of other units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, P.; DeBièvre, P.; Fujii, K.; Glaeser, M.; Inglis, B.; Luebbig, H.; Mana, G.

    2007-02-01

    The definitions of some units of the Système International are likely to be revised as early as 2011 by basing them on fixed values of fundamental constants of nature, provided experimental realizations are demonstrated with sufficiently small uncertainties. As regards the kilogram, experiments aiming at linking it to the Planck constant and the atomic mass constant are under way in several laboratories. The other units likely to be redefined are the ampere, the kelvin and the mole. We discuss the advantages and disadvantages of different alternatives for revised definitions of the kilogram and the mole. From physical considerations, metrological consequences and ease of understanding, a definition of the kilogram based on the mass of a particle, such as an atom or the electron, is favoured. One of the proposed definitions fixes the value of the Planck constant through the Compton frequency of a material, though unphysical, particle. Finally, a redefinition of the mole, the counting unit of the amount-of-substance, is proposed which fixes the Avogadro constant as a dimensionless number.

  7. Cutaneous and periodontal inputs to the cerebellum of the naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber).

    PubMed

    Sarko, Diana K; Leitch, Duncan B; Catania, Kenneth C

    2013-01-01

    The naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber) is a small fossorial rodent with specialized dentition that is reflected by the large cortical area dedicated to representation of the prominent incisors. Due to naked mole-rats' behavioral reliance on the incisors for digging and for manipulating objects, as well as their ability to move the lower incisors independently, we hypothesized that expanded somatosensory representations of the incisors would be present within the cerebellum in order to accommodate a greater degree of proprioceptive, cutaneous, and periodontal input. Multiunit electrophysiological recordings targeting the ansiform lobule were used to investigate tactile inputs from receptive fields on the entire body with a focus on the incisors. Similar to other rodents, a fractured somatotopy appeared to be present with discrete representations of the same receptive fields repeated within each folium of the cerebellum. These findings confirm the presence of somatosensory inputs to a large area of the naked mole-rat cerebellum with particularly extensive representations of the lower incisors and mystacial vibrissae. We speculate that these extensive inputs facilitate processing of tactile cues as part of a sensorimotor integration network that optimizes how sensory stimuli are acquired through active exploration and in turn adjusts motor outputs (such as independent movement of the lower incisors). These results highlight the diverse sensory specializations and corresponding brain organizational schemes that have evolved in different mammals to facilitate exploration of and interaction with their environment.

  8. Sex, social status, and CRF receptor densities in naked mole-rats.

    PubMed

    Beery, Annaliese K; Bicks, Lucy; Mooney, Skyler J; Goodwin, Nastacia L; Holmes, Melissa M

    2016-02-01

    Naked mole-rats (Heterocephalus glaber) live in groups that are notable for their large size and caste structure, with breeding monopolized by a single female and a small number of males. Recent studies have demonstrated substantial differences between the brains of breeders and subordinates induced by changes in social standing. Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) receptors-which bind the hormone CRF as well as related peptides-are important regulators of stress and anxiety, and are emerging as factors affecting social behavior. We conducted autoradiographic analyses of CRF1 and CRF2 receptor binding densities in female and male naked mole-rats varying in breeding status. Both globally and in specific brain regions, CRF1 receptor densities varied with breeding status. CRF1 receptor densities were higher in subordinates across brain regions, and particularly in the piriform cortex and cortical amygdala. Sex differences were present in CRF2 receptor binding densities, as is the case in multiple vole species. CRF2 receptor densities were higher in females, both globally and in the cortical amygdala and lateral amygdalar nucleus. These results provide novel insights into the neurobiology of social hierarchy in naked mole-rats, and add to a growing body of work that links changes in the CRF system with social behavior.

  9. Locomotor Activity and Body Temperature Patterns over a Temperature Gradient in the Highveld Mole-Rat (Cryptomys hottentotus pretoriae).

    PubMed

    Haupt, Meghan; Bennett, Nigel C; Oosthuizen, Maria K

    2017-01-01

    African mole-rats are strictly subterranean mammals that live in extensive burrow systems. High humidity levels in the burrows prevent mole-rats from thermoregulating using evaporative cooling. However, the relatively stable environment of the burrows promotes moderate temperatures and small daily temperature fluctuations. Mole-rats therefore display a relatively wide range of thermoregulation abilities. Some species cannot maintain their body temperatures at a constant level, whereas others employ behavioural thermoregulation. Here we test the effect of ambient temperature on locomotor activity and body temperature, and the relationship between the two parameters, in the highveld mole-rat. We exposed mole-rats to a 12L:12D and a DD light cycle at ambient temperatures of 30°C, 25°C and 20°C while locomotor activity and body temperature were measured simultaneously. In addition, we investigated the endogenous rhythms of locomotor activity and body temperature at different ambient temperatures. Mole-rats displayed nocturnal activity at all three ambient temperatures and were most active at 20°C, but least active at 30°C. Body temperature was highest at 30°C and lowest at 20°C, and the daily cycle was highly correlated with locomotor activity. We show that the mole-rats have endogenous rhythms for both locomotor activity and body temperature. However, the endogenous body temperature rhythm appears to be less robust compared to the locomotor activity rhythm. Female mole-rats appear to be more sensitive to temperature changes than males, increased heterothermy is evident at lower ambient temperatures, whilst males show smaller variation in their body temperatures with changing ambient temperatures. Mole-rats may rely more heavily on behavioural thermoregulation as it is more energy efficient in an already challenging environment.

  10. Locomotor Activity and Body Temperature Patterns over a Temperature Gradient in the Highveld Mole-Rat (Cryptomys hottentotus pretoriae)

    PubMed Central

    Haupt, Meghan; Bennett, Nigel C.

    2017-01-01

    African mole-rats are strictly subterranean mammals that live in extensive burrow systems. High humidity levels in the burrows prevent mole-rats from thermoregulating using evaporative cooling. However, the relatively stable environment of the burrows promotes moderate temperatures and small daily temperature fluctuations. Mole-rats therefore display a relatively wide range of thermoregulation abilities. Some species cannot maintain their body temperatures at a constant level, whereas others employ behavioural thermoregulation. Here we test the effect of ambient temperature on locomotor activity and body temperature, and the relationship between the two parameters, in the highveld mole-rat. We exposed mole-rats to a 12L:12D and a DD light cycle at ambient temperatures of 30°C, 25°C and 20°C while locomotor activity and body temperature were measured simultaneously. In addition, we investigated the endogenous rhythms of locomotor activity and body temperature at different ambient temperatures. Mole-rats displayed nocturnal activity at all three ambient temperatures and were most active at 20°C, but least active at 30°C. Body temperature was highest at 30°C and lowest at 20°C, and the daily cycle was highly correlated with locomotor activity. We show that the mole-rats have endogenous rhythms for both locomotor activity and body temperature. However, the endogenous body temperature rhythm appears to be less robust compared to the locomotor activity rhythm. Female mole-rats appear to be more sensitive to temperature changes than males, increased heterothermy is evident at lower ambient temperatures, whilst males show smaller variation in their body temperatures with changing ambient temperatures. Mole-rats may rely more heavily on behavioural thermoregulation as it is more energy efficient in an already challenging environment. PMID:28072840

  11. Sticky snack for sengis: The Cape rock elephant-shrew, Elephantulus edwardii (Macroscelidea), as a pollinator of the Pagoda lily, Whiteheadia bifolia (Hyacinthaceae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wester, Petra

    2010-12-01

    Following the recent discovery of rodent pollination in the Pagoda lily, Whiteheadia bifolia (Hyacinthaceae) in South Africa, now the Cape rock elephant-shrew, Elephantulus edwardii (Macroscelidea, Afrotheria) is reported as an additional pollinator. Elephant-shrews, live-trapped near W. bifolia plants, were released in two terraria, containing the plants. The animals licked nectar with their long and slender tongues while being dusted with pollen and touching the stigmas of the flowers with their long and flexible noses. The captured elephant-shrews had W. bifolia pollen in their faeces, likely as a result of grooming their fur as they visited the flowers without eating or destroying them. The animals mostly preferred nectar over other food. This is the first record of pollination and nectar consumption in the primarily insectivorous E. edwardii, contributing to the very sparse knowledge about the behaviour of this unique clade of African mammals, as well as pollination by small mammals.

  12. Adult neurogenesis in the hedgehog (Erinaceus concolor) and mole (Talpa europaea).

    PubMed

    Bartkowska, K; Turlejski, K; Grabiec, M; Ghazaryan, A; Yavruoyan, E; Djavadian, R L

    2010-01-01

    We investigated adult neurogenesis in two species of mammals belonging to the superorder Laurasiatheria, the southern white-breasted hedgehog (order Erinaceomorpha, species Erinaceus concolor) from Armenia and the European mole (order Soricomorpha, species Talpa europaea) from Poland. Neurogenesis in the brain of these species was examined immunohistochemically, using the endogenous markers doublecortin (DCX) and Ki-67, which are highly conserved among species. We found that in both the hedgehog and mole, like in the majority of earlier investigated mammals, neurogenesis continues in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricles and in the dentate gyrus (DG). In the DG of both species, DCX-expressing cells and Ki-67-labeled cells were present in the subgranular and granular layers. In the mole, a strong bundle of DCX-labeled processes, presumably axons of granule cells, was observed in the center of the hilus. Proliferating cells (expressing Ki-67) were identified in the SVZ of lateral ventricles of both species, but neuronal precursor cells (expressing DCX) were also observed in the olfactory bulb (OB). In both species, the vast majority of cells expressing DCX in the OB were granule cells with radially orientated dendrites, although some periglomerular cells surrounding the glomeruli were also labeled. In addition, this paper is the first to show DCX-labeled fibers in the anterior commissure of the hedgehog and mole. These fibers must be axons of new neurons making interhemispheric connections between the two OB or piriform (olfactory) cortices. DCX-expressing neurons were observed in the striatum and piriform cortex of both hedgehog and mole. We postulate that in both species a fraction of cells newly generated in the SVZ migrates along the rostral migratory stream to the piriform cortex. This pattern of migration resembles that of the 'second-wave neurons' generated during embryonal development of the neocortex rather than the pattern observed during

  13. Species of coccidia (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) in shrews from Alaska, U.S.A., and northeastern Siberia, Russia, with description of two new species.

    PubMed

    Lynch, A J; Duszynski, D W

    2008-08-01

    Fecal samples (n = 636) from 10 species of shrews collected in Alaska (n = 540) and northeastern Siberia (n = 96) were examined for the presence of coccidia (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae). Five distinct oocyst morphotypes were observed. Three types were consistent with oocysts of previously recognized coccidia species from other shrew hosts. These were Eimeria inyoni, E. vagrantis, and Isospora brevicauda, originally described from the inyo shrew (Sorex tenellus), dusky shrew (S. monticolus), and northern short-tailed shrew (Blarina brevicauda), respectively. We found 5 new host records for E. inyoni, 3 for E. vagrantis, and 3 for I. brevicauda. The 2 additional oocyst morphotypes, both from the tundra shrew (Sorex tundrensis), are putative new species. Sporulated oocysts of Eimeria beringiacea n. sp. are subspheroidal, 17.7 x 15.6 microm (14-24 x 13-20 microm) with a length (L)/width (W) ratio of 1.1 (1.0-1.4); these lack a micropyle (M), an oocyst residuum (OR), and a polar granule (PG). Sporocysts are ellipsoidal, 10.3 x 6.1 microm (7-14 x 4-8 microm), with a L/W ratio of 1.7 (1.3-2.3) and have a Stieda body (SB), Substieda body (SSB), and sporocyst residuum (SR). Oocysts of Eimeria tundraensis n. sp. are spheroidal to subspheroidal, 24.8 x 23.5 microm (23-26 x 22-25 microm), with a L/W ratio of 1.1 (1.0-1.2); these lack a M and OR, but a single PG is present. Sporocysts are elongate ellipsoidal, 15.4 x 8.3 microm (13-17 x 7-9 microm), with a L/W ratio of 1.9 (1.4-2.1) and have a SB, SSB, and SR.

  14. Japanese viral encephalitis

    PubMed Central

    Tiroumourougane, S; Raghava, P; Srinivasan, S

    2002-01-01

    One of the leading causes of acute encephalopathy in children in the tropics is Japanese encephalitis (JE). Transmitted by the culex mosquito, this neurotropic virus predominately affects the thalamus, anterior horns of the spinal cord, cerebral cortex, and cerebellum. It mainly affects children <15 years and is mostly asymptomatic. The occasional symptomatic child typically presents with a neurological syndrome characterised by altered sensorium, seizures, and features of intracranial hypertension. Aetiological diagnosis is based on virus isolation or demonstration of virus specific antigen or antibodies in the cerebrospinal fluid/blood. Though no antiviral drug is available against JE, effective supportive management can improve the outcome. Control of JE involves efficient vector control and appropriate use of vaccines. PMID:11930023

  15. Japanese Experiment Module (JEM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) pressure module is removed from its shipping crate and moved across the floor of the Space Station Processing Facility at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) to a work stand. A research laboratory, the pressurized module is the first element of the JEM, named 'Kibo' (Hope) to arrive at KSC. Japan's primary contribution to the International Space Station, the module will enhance unique research capabilities of the orbiting complex by providing an additional environment in which astronauts will conduct experiments. The JEM also includes an exposed facility or platform for space environment experiments, a robotic manipulator system, and two logistics modules. The various JEM components will be assembled in space over the course of three Shuttle missions.

  16. Anthropophobia and Japanese performance.

    PubMed

    Takano, R

    1977-08-01

    Actors are not the only people who act on a regular basis--everyone does some "acting" in his everyday life. The merchant is acting when he pays compliments to his annoying customers. Neurotics often exaggerate their sufferings and assume poses in order to impress their therapists with the seriousness of their illness. When this acting is done so poorly that everyone but the person himself perceives its penny-dreadful nature, the neurosis might be designated a hysteria. Such dramatics can be observed not only in the demeanor of neurotics, but also in their symptoms. The unconscious and concealed acting revealed in the symptoms of neurotics, especially in those of anthropophobiacs, whose main concern is with their appearance in the eyes of others, is what I would like to examine in this paper. I will attempt to eludicate the psychopathology of a large element in Japanese neurosis--that is, of anthropophobia--in relation to unconscious acting.

  17. RADIATION ECOLOGY ISSUES ASSOCIATED WITH MURINE RODENTS AND SHREWS IN THE CHERNOBYL EXCLUSION ZONE

    SciTech Connect

    Farfan, E.; Jannik, T.

    2011-10-01

    This article describes major studies performed by the Chernobyl Center's International Radioecology Laboratory (Slavutich, Ukraine) on radioecology of murine rodents and shrews inhabiting the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. The article addresses the long-term (1986-2005) and seasonal dynamics of radioactive contamination of animals, and reviews interspecies differences in radionuclide accumulations and factors affecting the radionuclide accumulations. It is shown that bioavailability of radionuclides in the 'soil-to-plant' chain and a trophic specialization of animals play key roles in determining their actual contamination levels. The total absorbed dose rates in small mammals significantly reduced during the years following the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident. In 1986, the absorbed dose rate reached 1.3-6.0 Gy hr{sup -1} in the central areas of the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (the 'Red Forest'). In 1988 and 1990, the total absorbed dose rates were 1.3 and 0.42 Gy hr{sup -1}, respectively. In 1995, 2000, and 2005, according to the present study, the total absorbed dose rates rarely exceeded 0.00023, 0.00018, and 0.00015 Gy hr{sup -1}, respectively. Contributions of individual radiation sources into the total absorbed dose are described.

  18. Tropical photoperiods affect reproductive development in the musk shrew, Suncus murinus.

    PubMed

    Wayne, N L; Rissman, E F

    1991-09-01

    The purpose of the present studies was to determine whether reproductive development in male musk shrews (original stock from Guam Island, 13 degrees N latitude) could be altered by small, ecologically relevant changes in photoperiod. In the first experiment, effects of changes in photoperiod equivalent to those seen between the 2 solstices on Guam Island (90 min) on reproductive maturation were investigated. The results showed that a 90-min difference in photoperiod had a significant effect on weights of various androgen-sensitive target tissues. Furthermore, there was little evidence that the preweaning photoperiod had an effect on the response to the postweaning photoperiod. In the second experiment, effects of changes in photoperiod equivalent to those seen between the equinoxes and solstices on Guam Island (45 min) on reproductive maturation were investigated. The results showed that both a decrease and an increase in photoperiod by 45 min had a significant effect on weights of various androgen-sensitive target tissues. Overall, these results suggest that animals living close to the equator can potentially use small changes in day length to alter or time reproductive function.

  19. Shrews, rats, and a polecat in "the pardoner’s tale": Chapter 3

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Feinstein, Sandy; Woodman, Neal; Van Dyke, Carolynn

    2012-01-01

    While historically existing animals and literary animal characters inform allegorical and metaphorical characterization in The Canterbury Tales, figurative usage does not erase recognition of the material animal. "The Pardoner's Tale," for one, challenges the terms of conventional animal metaphors by refocusing attention on common animals as common animals and common human creatures as something worse than vermin. Most attention has been paid to the larger animals-goat, hare, and horse-that constitute the physical portrait of Chaucer's Pardoner in the "General Prologue" and in the prologue to his tale.! Like these animals, rats and a polecat, together with rhetorical shrews, appear in this tale as well as in other literature, including bestiaries and natural histories. Equally to the purpose, these animals could be physically observed as constituents of both urban and rural landscapes in fourteenth-century England.2 In the Middle Ages, animals were part of the environment as well as part of the culture: they lived inside as well as outside the city gates, priory walls, and even domestic spaces; a rat in the street or the garden might not be any less welcome or uncommon than encountering someone's horses and goats nibbling vegetation or blocking a passage. Not being out of the ordinary, though, such animals could (and can) be overlooked or dismissed as com­mon, too familiar to register. This chapter reveals why readers and listeners should pay close attention to the things they think they know and what they hear about what they think they know.

  20. Calretinin and FMRFamide immunoreactivity in the nervus terminalis of prenatal tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri).

    PubMed

    Malz, Cordula Renate; Kuhn, Hans-Jürg

    2002-04-30

    The distribution and development of FMRFamide- and calretinin-immunoreactive neurons were investigated in the nervus terminalis of prenatal tree shrews from gestation day 19 onwards. The first FMRFamide-immunoreactive cells were observed medially in the olfactory epithelium on gestation day 20. From gestation day 23 onwards, the migrating nervus terminalis ganglion cells showed FMRFamide calretinin immunoreactivity. The distribution pattern of FMRFamide- and calretinin-immunoreactive cells was similar along the migratory route and in the ganglion of the terminal nerve. However, most probably calretinin and FMRFamide were expressed in separate neuronal populations. For the first time in a mammal, FMRFamide and calretinin are reported to occur in the migrating perikarya and neuronal processes of the nervus terminalis during prenatal development. The results suggest (i) an early activation of the rostral FMRFamide-immunoreactive migratory stream comparable to that described for the GnRH-immunoreactive part of the terminal nerve in other mammals and possibly (ii) an involvement of calretinin in mechanisms of cell migration and outgrowth of neuronal processes in the terminal nerve during the studied period.

  1. [Lectin histochemical studies on the musk gland in the house musk shrew (Suncus murinus)].

    PubMed

    Aoki-Komori, S; Saito, T R; Umeda, M; Sugiyama, M; Takahashi, K W; Taniguchi, K

    1993-07-01

    The musk gland of the adult house musk shrews (Suncus murinus) of both sexes was studied lectin histochemically. The musk gland was a kind of scent gland, consisted of congregation of branched or unbranched simple tubuloalveolar gland holocrine in nature and was attached by an apocrine gland-like structure (sweat gland) in the deeper layer of its periphery. Acinar cells of the musk gland were distinguishable into three type from basal to luminal parts of the acinus; immature cells, mature cells and degenerating cells. There was no histological difference between both sexes. Lectin-binding pattern of the musk gland was examined in comparison with that of the sweat gland and ordinary sebaceous gland by histochemical staining techniques using seven lectins: ConA, RCA I, PNA, SBA, UEA-I, DBA, WGA, WGA and PNA labelled the duct of the musk gland more intense than the acinus. Several lectins showed a tendency to label the cells situated near the luminal surface more intense than those near the basement membrane in both the acinus and duct of the musk gland. In the sweat gland and ordinary sebaceous gland, the lectin-binding pattern was different with each other and from that in the musk gland. These findings suggest that the musk gland, sweat gland, and ordinary sebaceous gland are different to each other in nature of cells and the secretion.

  2. Eimeria species from Cryptotis shrews (Insectivora: Soricidae) with description of a new species.

    PubMed

    Duszynski, Donald W; Eckerlin, Ralph P; McCarthy, Timothy J

    2003-10-01

    Fresh fecal samples from 12 shrews, 10 Cryptotis goodwini Jackson, 1933, and 2 Cryptotis merriami Thomas, 1898, were collected between December 1994 and May 1998; 11 (92%) were positive for eimeriid coccidia, including 8 of 8 C. goodwini and 2 of 2 C. merriami from Honduras and 1 of 2 C. goodwini from Guatemala. Two Eimeria species were found: 1 is consistent with the description of Eimeria whitakeri Upton and McAllister, 1991, and 1 is described in this study as new. Sporulated oocysts of the new species are subspheroidal, 16.8 x 15.7 (14-20 x 15-19) microm, with a length-width (L/W) ratio of 1.1 (1.0-1.2); they lack a micropyle and oocyst residuum, but 1-2 polar granules are always present. Sporocysts are elongate and ovoidal, 8.4 x 6.0 (6-10 x 4.5-7.5) microm, with a L/W ratio of 1.4 (1.2-1.7) and have a Stieda body and sporocyst residuum. This is the 49th Eimeria species described from all Insectivora but only the third from Cryptotis species.

  3. Affinities of `hyopsodontids' to elephant shrews and a Holarctic origin of Afrotheria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zack, Shawn P.; Penkrot, Tonya A.; Bloch, Jonathan I.; Rose, Kenneth D.

    2005-03-01

    Macroscelideans (elephant shrews or sengis) are small-bodied (25-540g), cursorial (running) and saltatorial (jumping), insectivorous and omnivorous placental mammals represented by at least 15 extant African species classified in four genera. Macroscelidea is one of several morphologically diverse but predominantly African placental orders classified in the superorder Afrotheria by molecular phylogeneticists. The distribution of modern afrotheres, in combination with a basal position for Afrotheria within Placentalia and molecular divergence-time estimates, has been used to link placental diversification with the mid-Cretaceous separation of South America and Africa. Morphological phylogenetic analyses do not support Afrotheria and the fossil record favours a northern origin of Placentalia. Here we describe fossil postcrania that provide evidence for a close relationship between North American Palaeocene-Eocene apheliscine `hyopsodontid' `condylarths' (early ungulates or hoofed mammals) and extant Macroscelidea. Apheliscine postcranial morphology is consistent with a relationship to other ungulate-like afrotheres (Hyracoidea, Proboscidea) but does not provide support for a monophyletic Afrotheria. As the oldest record of an afrothere clade, identification of macroscelidean relatives in the North American Palaeocene argues against an African origin for Afrotheria, weakening support for linking placental diversification to the break-up of Gondwana.

  4. A climate for speciation: rapid spatial diversification within the Sorex cinereus complex of shrews

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hope, Andrew G.; Speer, Kelly A.; Demboski, John R.; Talbot, Sandra L.; Cook, Joseph A.

    2012-01-01

    The cyclic climate regime of the late Quaternary caused dramatic environmental change at high latitudes. Although these events may have been brief in periodicity from an evolutionary standpoint, multiple episodes of allopatry and divergence have been implicated in rapid radiations of a number of organisms. Shrews of the Sorex cinereus complex have long challenged taxonomists due to similar morphology and parapatric geographic ranges. Here, multi-locus phylogenetic and demographic assessments using a coalescent framework were combined to investigate spatiotemporal evolution of 13 nominal species with a widespread distribution throughout North America and across Beringia into Siberia. For these species, we first test a hypothesis of recent differentiation in response to Pleistocene climate versus more ancient divergence that would coincide with pre-Pleistocene perturbations. We then investigate the processes driving diversification over multiple continents. Our genetic analyses highlight novel diversity within these morphologically conserved mammals and clarify relationships between geographic distribution and evolutionary history. Demography within and among species indicates both regional stability and rapid expansion. Ancestral ecological differentiation coincident with early cladogenesis within the complex enabled alternating and repeated episodes of allopatry and expansion where successive glacial and interglacial phases each promoted divergence. The Sorex cinereus complex constitutes a valuable model for future comparative assessments of evolution in response to cyclic environmental change.

  5. Radiation ecology issues associated with murine rodents and shrews in the Chernobyl exclusion zone.

    PubMed

    Gaschak, Sergey P; Maklyuk, Yulia A; Maksimenko, Andrey M; Bondarkov, Mikhail D; Jannik, G Timothy; Farfán, Eduardo B

    2011-10-01

    This article describes major studies performed by the Chernobyl Center's International Radioecology Laboratory (Slavutich, Ukraine) on radioecology of murine rodents and shrews inhabiting the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. The article addresses the long-term (1986-2005) and seasonal dynamics of radioactive contamination of animals and reviews interspecies differences in radionuclide accumulations and factors affecting the radionuclide accumulations. It is shown that bioavailability of radionuclides in the "soil-to-plant" chain and a trophic specialization of animals play key roles in determining their actual contamination levels. The total absorbed dose rates in small mammals significantly reduced during the years following the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident. In 1986, the absorbed dose rate reached 1.3-6.0 Gy h(-1) in the central areas of the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (the "Red Forest"). In 1988 and 1990, the total absorbed dose rates were 1.3 and 0.42 Gy h(-1), respectively. In 1995, 2000, and 2005, according to the present study, the total absorbed dose rates rarely exceeded 0.00023, 0.00018, and 0.00015 Gy h(-1), respectively. Contributions of individual radiation sources into the total absorbed dose are described.

  6. Convergent evolution of novel protein function in shrew and lizard venom.

    PubMed

    Aminetzach, Yael T; Srouji, John R; Kong, Chung Yin; Hoekstra, Hopi E

    2009-12-01

    How do proteins evolve novel functions? To address this question, we are studying the evolution of a mammalian toxin, the serine protease BLTX [1], from the salivary glands of the North American shrew Blarina brevicauda. Here, we examine the molecular changes responsible for promoting BLTX toxicity. First, we show that regulatory loops surrounding the BLTX active site have evolved adaptively via acquisition of small insertions and subsequent accelerated sequence evolution. Second, these mutations introduce a novel chemical environment into the catalytic cleft of BLTX. Third, molecular-dynamic simulations show that the observed changes create a novel chemical and physical topology consistent with increased enzyme catalysis. Finally, we show that a toxic serine protease from the Mexican beaded lizard (GTX) [2] has evolved convergently through almost identical functional changes. Together, these results suggest that the evolution of toxicity might be predictable-arising via adaptive structural modification of analogous labile regulatory loops of an ancestral serine protease-and thus might aid in the identification of other toxic proteins.

  7. A climate for speciation: rapid spatial diversification within the Sorex cinereus complex of shrews.

    PubMed

    Hope, Andrew G; Speer, Kelly A; Demboski, John R; Talbot, Sandra L; Cook, Joseph A

    2012-09-01

    The cyclic climate regime of the late Quaternary caused dramatic environmental change at high latitudes. Although these events may have been brief in periodicity from an evolutionary standpoint, multiple episodes of allopatry and divergence have been implicated in rapid radiations of a number of organisms. Shrews of the Sorex cinereus complex have long challenged taxonomists due to similar morphology and parapatric geographic ranges. Here, multi-locus phylogenetic and demographic assessments using a coalescent framework were combined to investigate spatiotemporal evolution of 13 nominal species with a widespread distribution throughout North America and across Beringia into Siberia. For these species, we first test a hypothesis of recent differentiation in response to Pleistocene climate versus more ancient divergence that would coincide with pre-Pleistocene perturbations. We then investigate the processes driving diversification over multiple continents. Our genetic analyses highlight novel diversity within these morphologically conserved mammals and clarify relationships between geographic distribution and evolutionary history. Demography within and among species indicates both regional stability and rapid expansion. Ancestral ecological differentiation coincident with early cladogenesis within the complex enabled alternating and repeated episodes of allopatry and expansion where successive glacial and interglacial phases each promoted divergence. The Sorex cinereus complex constitutes a valuable model for future comparative assessments of evolution in response to cyclic environmental change.

  8. The Challenges of Resolving a Rapid, Recent Radiation: Empirical and Simulated Phylogenomics of Philippine Shrews.

    PubMed

    Giarla, Thomas C; Esselstyn, Jacob A

    2015-09-01

    Phylogenetic relationships in recent, rapid radiations can be difficult to resolve due to incomplete lineage sorting and reliance on genetic markers that evolve slowly relative to the rate of speciation. By incorporating hundreds to thousands of unlinked loci, phylogenomic analyses have the potential to mitigate these difficulties. Here, we attempt to resolve phylogenetic relationships among eight shrew species (genus Crocidura) from the Philippines, a phylogenetic problem that has proven intractable with small (< 10 loci) data sets. We sequenced hundreds of ultraconserved elements and whole mitochondrial genomes in these species and estimated phylogenies using concatenation, summary coalescent, and hierarchical coalescent methods. The concatenated approach recovered a maximally supported and fully resolved tree. In contrast, the coalescent-based approaches produced similar topologies, but each had several poorly supported nodes. Using simulations, we demonstrate that the concatenated tree could be positively misleading. Our simulations also show that the tree shape we tend to infer, which involves a series of short internal branches, is difficult to resolve, even if substitution models are known and multiple individuals per species are sampled. As such, the low support we obtained for backbone relationships in our coalescent-based inferences reflects a real and appropriate lack of certainty. Our results illuminate the challenges of estimating a bifurcating tree in a rapid and recent radiation, providing a rare empirical example of a nearly simultaneous series of speciation events in a terrestrial animal lineage as it spreads across an oceanic archipelago.

  9. Microvascularization of thalamus and metathalamus in common tree shrew (Tupaia glis).

    PubMed

    Chuncher, Sununta; Somana, Reon

    2006-06-01

    The microangioarchitecture of the thalamus and metathalamus in common tree shrew (Tupaia glis) was studied using vascular corrosion cast/stereomicroscope and SEM technique. The arterial supply of the thalamus and metathalamus was found to originate from perforating branches of the posterior communicating artery, the posterior cerebral artery, the middle cerebral artery, and the anterior choroidal artery. These perforating arteries gave rise to numerous bipinnate arterioles which in turn, with decreasing vessel diameters, branched into a non-fenestrated capillary bed. Venous blood from the superficial parts of the thalamus and metathalamus was collected into the thalamocollicular vein, whereas venous blood from internal aspects of the thalamus was conveyed to the internal cerebral vein. Some venous blood from the most rostral part of the thalamus flowed into tributaries of the middle cerebral vein before draining into the cavernous sinus. Further, the thalamic and metathalamic vascular arrangement was found to be of centripetal type. In addition, thalamic arterial anastomosis was rarely observed. Thus, obstruction of thalamic blood supply could easily lead to thalamic infraction.

  10. Spermiogenesis and chromatin condensation in the common tree shrew, Tupaia glis.

    PubMed

    Suphamungmee, Worawit; Wanichanon, Chaitip; Vanichviriyakit, Rapeepun; Sobhon, Prasert

    2008-03-01

    We have investigated the cellular characteristics, especially chromatin condensation and the basic nuclear protein profile, during spermiogenesis in the common tree shrew, Tupaia glis. Spermatids could be classified into Golgi phase, cap phase, acrosome phase, and maturation phase. During the Golgi phase, chromatin was composed of 10-nm and 30-nm fibers with few 50-nm to 60-nm knobby fibers. The latter were then transformed into 70-nm knobby fibers during the cap phase. In the acrosome phase, all fibers were packed into the highest-order knobby fibers, each about 80-100 nm in width. These chromatin fibers became tightly packed in the maturation phase. In a mature spermatozoon, the discoid-shaped head was occupied by the acrosome and completely condensed chromatin. H3, the core histone, was detected by immunostaining in all nuclei of germ cell stages, except in spermatid steps 15-16 and spermatozoa. Protamine, the basic nuclear protein causing the tight packing of sperm chromatin, was detected by immunofluorescence in the nuclei of spermatids at steps 12-16 and spermatozoa. Cross-immunoreactivity of T. glis H3 and protamine to those of primates suggests the evolutionary resemblance of these nuclear basic proteins in primate germ cells.

  11. Microscopic anatomy of the orbital Harderian gland in the common tree shrew (Tupaia glis).

    PubMed

    Pradidarcheep, Wisuit; Asavapongpatana, Somluk; Mingsakul, Thaworn; Poonkhum, Raksawan; Nilbu-nga, Somneuk; Somana, Reon

    2003-03-01

    The orbital Harderian gland of the common tree shrew (Tupaia glis) was investigated at the macroscopic and microscopic levels. In the glands of both sexes only one acinar cell type was found. The cell is characterized by the presence of numerous lipid vacuoles of variable size and by a small number of PAS-positive, electron-dense granules distributed throughout the cytoplasm, which are predominant at the basal portion of each acinar cell. The duct system is well developed within the gland. The content of lipid vacuoles within the acinar cells is secreted from the apical portions by exocytosis, indicating the exocrine function of the organ. Apart from the lipid vacuoles, both acinar and ductal luminal contents of the Harderian gland also contain accretion of electron-dense materials. The vascularization within the Harderian gland is unique in that two capillary types (small fenestrated and irregular sinusoidal capillaries) could be demonstrated. The presence of fenestrated capillaries together with other morphological features (such as accumulation of the small electron-dense granules at the basal pole and the presence of basolateral microvilli) near the basal portion of the acinar cells suggest that the Harderian gland in T. glis might also be involved in an endocrine function.

  12. Synaptic Organization of Connections between the Temporal Cortex and Pulvinar Nucleus of the Tree Shrew

    PubMed Central

    Chomsung, Ranida D.; Wei, Haiyang; Day-Brown, Jonathan D.; Petry, Heywood M.

    2010-01-01

    We examined the synaptic organization of reciprocal connections between the temporal cortex and the dorsal (Pd) and central (Pc) subdivisions of the tree shrew pulvinar nucleus, regions innervated by the medial and lateral superior colliculus, respectively. Both Pd and Pc subdivisions project topographically to 2 separate regions of the temporal cortex; small injections of anterograde tracers placed in either Pd or Pc labeled 2 foci of terminals in the temporal cortex. Pulvinocortical pathways innervated layers I–IV, with beaded axons oriented perpendicular to the cortical surface, where they synapsed with spines that did not contain gamma amino butyric acid (GABA), likely located on the apical dendrites of pyramidal cells. Projections from the temporal cortex to the Pd and Pc originate from layer VI cells, and form small terminals that contact small caliber non-GABAergic dendrites. These results suggest that cortical terminals are located distal to tectopulvinar terminals on the dendritic arbors of Pd and Pc projection cells, which subsequently contact pyramidal cells in the temporal cortex. This circuitry could provide a mechanism for the pulvinar nucleus to activate subcortical visuomotor circuits and modulate the activity of other visual cortical areas. The potential relation to primate tecto-pulvino-cortical pathways is discussed. PMID:19684245

  13. [Soricinia sawadai sp. n. (Cyclophyllidea: Hymenolepididae), a new cestode species from the shrews of Sakhalin Island].

    PubMed

    Zubova, O A; Guliaev, V D; Kornienko, S A

    2010-01-01

    A new species Soricinia sawadai sp. n. parasitizing shrews of Sakhalin Island (Sores unguiculatus and S. caecutiens) is described. The new species differs from other species of the genus Soricinia Spassky et Spasskaja, 1954 in having specific armament and size of the cirrus. Soricinia sawadai sp. n. differs from S. aurita (Irzhavsky et al., 2005) in having half size of the ovary (0.076-0.08 x 0.03-0.038 versus 0.135-0.14 x 0.037-0.04) and the cirrus bursa extending into the aporal fraction of the middle part of segment. The new species differs from S. quarta (Karpenko, 1983) in having half size of the cirrus (0.025-0.026 versus 0.05-0.055) and half number of hexacants in uterine segments (20-22 versus 40-45). The new species differs from S. infirma (Zarnowski, 1955) in having other cirrus armament, larger number of segments and lesser number of hexacants. The species Insectivorolepis macracetobulosa Sawada et Koyasu, 1991 parasitizing Sorex unguiculatus on Hokkaido Island is synonymized with Soricinia quarta. The species Insectivorolepis macracetobulosa sensu Sawada et Harada, 1993 parasitizing Sorex shinto shinto on Honshu Island is described as a separate species Soricinia haradai sp. n.

  14. Four Cases of Spontaneous Neoplasia in the Naked Mole-Rat (Heterocephalus glaber), A Putative Cancer-Resistant Species.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Kyle R; Milone, Nicholas A; Rodriguez, Carlos E

    2017-01-01

    The naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber) is widely acclaimed to be cancer-resistant and of considerable research interest based on a paucity of reports of neoplasia in this species. We have, however, encountered four spontaneous cases of neoplasia and one presumptive case of neoplasia through routine necropsy and biopsy of individuals in a zoo collection of nonhybrid naked mole-rats bred from a single pair. One case each of metastasizing hepatocellular carcinoma, nephroblastoma (Wilms' tumor), and multicentric lymphosarcoma, as well as presumptive esophageal adenocarcinoma (Barrett's esophagus-like) was identified postmortem among 37 nonautolyzed necropsy submissions of naked mole-rats over 1-year-old that were submitted for necropsy between 1998 and August 2015. One incidental case of cutaneous hemangioma was also identified antemortem by skin biopsy from one naked mole-rat examined for trauma.

  15. Japanese Management: An American Challenge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rehder, Robert R.

    1979-01-01

    In contrast to the American system of management, Japanese management motivates its employees by challenging them with high goals and by providing inhouse training and development opportunities to meet their self-fulfillment needs. (Author/LD)

  16. Japanese attitudes towards foreign languages.

    PubMed

    Abe, Keiko

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to clarify Japanese attitudes towards foreign languages based on the kinds and changes of TV and radio programs that aired on the Japanese national broadcasting station (NHK) between 1955 and 2000. Foreign language programs are classified into three groups according to their content: 1) cultivation, 2) education, or 3) communication. For Japanese people, foreign languages are the measures of intelligence and intellect. Studying a foreign language is considered a sign of intelligence whether or not it is used for actual communication. The number of foreign language programs has increased tremendously since 1965 in part because the global economy has brought many countries in such close contact. Since 1990, programs for the purpose of communication have increased because of the necessity to communicate with foreign people. Japanese attitudes towards studying foreign languages have been changing gradually from an intellectual purpose to a communication purpose.

  17. The Japanese "Internment" Cases Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Edward T.

    2003-01-01

    Reviews topics discussed in the OAH article, "Incarcerating Japanese Americans" (Roger Daniels). States that the three internment cases were correct. Asks whether internment could re-occur given the climate in U.S. society since September 11, 2001. (CMK)

  18. Japanese Encephalitis: Frequently Asked Questions

    MedlinePlus

    ... by a virus spread by infected mosquitoes in Asia and the western Pacific. JE virus is one ... Where does Japanese encephalitis occur? JE occurs in Asia and parts of the western Pacific. It usually ...

  19. PTEN/PIK3CA genes are frequently mutated in spontaneous and medroxyprogesterone acetate-accelerated 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced mammary tumours of tree shrews.

    PubMed

    Xia, Hou-Jun; He, Bao-Li; Wang, Chun-Yan; Zhang, Hai-Lin; Ge, Guang-Zhe; Zhang, Yuan-Xu; Lv, Long-Bao; Jiao, Jian-Lin; Chen, Ceshi

    2014-12-01

    Tree shrew has increasingly become an attractive experimental animal model for human diseases, particularly for breast cancer due to spontaneous breast tumours and their close relationship to primates and by extension to humans. However, neither normal mammary glands nor breast tumours have been well characterised in the Chinese tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri chinensis). In this study, normal mammary glands from four different developmental stages and 18 spontaneous breast tumours were analysed. Haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining and immunohistochemistry (IHC) showed that normal mammary gland morphology and structures of tree shrews were quite similar to those found in humans. Spontaneous breast tumours of tree shrews were identified as being intraductal papilloma, papillary carcinoma, and invasive ductal carcinoma with or without lung metastasis. To further analyse breast cancer tumours among tree shrews, 40 3-4 month-old female tree shrews were orally administrated 20 mg 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) or peanut oil thrice, and then, 15 of these DMBA administrated tree shrews were implanted with medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) pellets. DMBA was shown to induce breast tumours (12%) while the addition of MPA increased the tumour incidence (50%). Of these, three induced breast tumours were intraductal papillary carcinomas and one was invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC). The PTEN/PIK3CA (phosphatase and tensin homologue/phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit alpha), but not TP53 and GATA3, genes are frequently mutated in breast tumours, and the PTEN/PIK3CA gene mutation status correlated with the expression of pAKT in tree shrew breast tumours. These results suggest that tree shrews may be a promising animal model for a subset of human breast cancers with PTEN/PIK3CA gene mutations.

  20. Clinical Usefulness of Immunohistochemical Staining of p57kip2 for the Differential Diagnosis of Complete Mole

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki, Shigeru; Sasaki, Yasushi; Kunimura, Toshiaki; Sekizawa, Akihiko; Kojima, Yoshihiro; Iino, Koichi

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Can polymer-based immunohistochemical staining of p57kip2 replace DNA analysis as an inexpensive means of differentiating complete mole from partial mole or hydropic abortion? Methods and Materials. Original paraffin-embedded tissue blocks from 14 equivocal cases were turned over to our laboratory and examined by immunohistochemical staining of p57kip2. Results. Four of the 14 cases showed clearly negative nuclear staining in cytotrophoblasts and villous stromal cells: these results were fully concordant with the control staining. The remaining 10 cases showed apparently positive staining in cytotrophoblasts and villous stromal cells. Without DNA analysis we are able to clearly differentiate the 4 cases of complete mole among the 14 equivocal cases. During follow-up, secondary low-risk gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN) developed in 1 of the 4 cases of complete mole: the GTN was treated by single-agent chemotherapy. No subsequent changes were observed during follow-up in the other cases. Conclusion. Polymer-based immunohistochemical staining of p57kip2 (paternally imprinted gene, expressed from maternal allele) is a very effective method that can be used to differentiate androgenetic complete mole from partial mole and hydropic abortion. We might be able to avoid the cost of DNA analysis. PMID:26161420

  1. Hypofunctional TrkA Accounts for the Absence of Pain Sensitization in the African Naked Mole-Rat.

    PubMed

    Omerbašić, Damir; Smith, Ewan St J; Moroni, Mirko; Homfeld, Johanna; Eigenbrod, Ole; Bennett, Nigel C; Reznick, Jane; Faulkes, Chris G; Selbach, Matthias; Lewin, Gary R

    2016-10-11

    The naked mole-rat is a subterranean rodent lacking several pain behaviors found in humans, rats, and mice. For example, nerve growth factor (NGF), an important mediator of pain sensitization, fails to produce thermal hyperalgesia in naked mole-rats. The sensitization of capsaicin-sensitive TRPV1 ion channels is necessary for NGF-induced hyperalgesia, but naked mole-rats have fully functional TRPV1 channels. We show that exposing isolated naked mole-rat nociceptors to NGF does not sensitize TRPV1. However, the naked mole-rat NGF receptor TrkA displays a reduced ability to engage signal transduction pathways that sensitize TRPV1. Between one- and three-amino-acid substitutions in the kinase domain of the naked mole-rat TrkA are sufficient to render the receptor hypofunctional, and this is associated with the absence of heat hyperalgesia. Our data suggest that evolution has selected for a TrkA variant that abolishes a robust nociceptive behavior in this species but is still compatible with species fitness.

  2. Investigation of the presence and antinociceptive function of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in the African naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber).

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, Kristine B; Krogh-Jensen, Karen; Pickering, Darryl S; Kanui, Titus I; Abelson, Klas S P

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the cholinergic system in the African naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber) with focus on the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes M1 and M4. The protein sequences for the subtypes m 1-5 of the naked mole-rat were compared to that of the house mouse (Mus musculus) using basic local alignment search tool (BLAST). The presence and function of M1 and M4 was investigated in vivo, using the formalin test with the muscarinic receptor agonists xanomeline and VU0152100. Spinal cord tissue from the naked mole-rat was used for receptor saturation binding studies with [(3)H]-N-methylscopolamine. The BLAST test revealed 95 % protein sequence homology showing the naked mole-rat to have the genetic potential to express all five muscarinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes. A significant reduction in pain behavior was demonstrated after administration of 8.4 mg/kg in the formalin test. Administration of 50 mg/kg VU0152100 resulted in a non-significant tendency towards antinociception. The antinociceptive effects were reversed by the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist atropine. Binding studies indicated presence of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors with a radioligand affinity comparable to that reported in mice. In conclusion, muscarinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes are present in the naked mole-rat and contribute to antinociception in the naked mole-rat.

  3. Structural, magnetic and microwave properties of barium hexaferrite thick films with different Fe/Ba mole ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Samiksha; Dhawan, S. K.; Paesano, Andrea; Pandey, O. P.; Sharma, Puneet

    2015-12-01

    Barium hexaferrite (BaFe12O19) thick films (∼60 μm) with different BaO·xFe2O3 mole ratio (x=5.0-6.0) were prepared by screen printing method. X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the formation of single phase BaFe12O19 (BaM). Preferential site occupation of Fe3+ ion at five different crystallographic sites, with varied mole ratio was measured by Mössbauer spectroscopy. Vacancy fraction found to be higher at 4f1, 4f2 and 2b sites for mole ratio 5.5 and 5.0 respectively. Magnetic measurement shows that the magnetization (M) and magnetocrystalline anisotropy field (Ha) depends upon mole ratio. M and Ha are found to be maximum for mole ratio 5.5, while the coercivity (Hc) remains constant. Reflection losses (RL) in the frequency range of 12-18 GHz were also studied. Present investigation demonstrates the effect of mole ratio on structural, magnetic and microwave absorption properties of BaM thick films for microwave device applications.

  4. Structure of the ovaries of the Nimba otter shrew, Micropotamogale lamottei, and the Madagascar hedgehog tenrec, Echinops telfairi.

    PubMed

    Enders, A C; Carter, A M; Künzle, H; Vogel, P

    2005-01-01

    The otter shrews are members of the subfamily Potamogalinae within the family Tenrecidae. No description of the ovaries of any member of this subfamily has been published previously. The lesser hedgehog tenrec, Echinops telfairi, is a member of the subfamily Tenrecinae of the same family and, although its ovaries have not been described, other members of this subfamily have been shown to have ovaries with non-antral follicles. Examination of these two species illustrated that non-antral follicles were characteristic of the ovaries of both species, as was clefting and lobulation of the ovaries. Juvenile otter shrews range from those with only small follicles in the cortex to those with 300- to 400-microm follicles similar to those seen in non-pregnant and pregnant adults. As in other species, most of the growth of the oocyte occurred when follicles had one to two layers of granulosa cells. When larger follicles became atretic in the Nimba otter shrew, hypertrophy of the theca interna produced nodules of glandular interstitial tissue. In the tenrec, the hypertrophying theca interna cells in most large follicles appeared to undergo degeneration. Both species had some follicular fluid in the intercellular spaces between the more peripheral granulosa cells. It is suggested that this fluid could aid in separation of the cumulus from the remaining granulosa at ovulation. The protruding follicles in lobules and absence of a tunica albuginea might also facilitate ovulation of non-antral follicles. Ovaries with a thin-absent tunica albuginea and follicles with small-absent antra are widespread within both the Eulipotyphla and in the Afrosoricida, suggesting that such features may represent a primitive condition in ovarian development. Lobulated and deeply crypted ovaries are found in both groups but are not as common in the Eulipotyphla making inclusion of this feature as primitive more speculative.

  5. Invading and expanding: range dynamics and ecological consequences of the greater white-toothed shrew (Crocidura russula) invasion in Ireland.

    PubMed

    McDevitt, Allan D; Montgomery, W Ian; Tosh, David G; Lusby, John; Reid, Neil; White, Thomas A; McDevitt, C Damien; O'Halloran, John; Searle, Jeremy B; Yearsley, Jon M

    2014-01-01

    Establishing how invasive species impact upon pre-existing species is a fundamental question in ecology and conservation biology. The greater white-toothed shrew (Crocidura russula) is an invasive species in Ireland that was first recorded in 2007 and which, according to initial data, may be limiting the abundance/distribution of the pygmy shrew (Sorex minutus), previously Ireland's only shrew species. Because of these concerns, we undertook an intensive live-trapping survey (and used other data from live-trapping, sightings and bird of prey pellets/nest inspections collected between 2006 and 2013) to model the distribution and expansion of C. russula in Ireland and its impacts on Ireland's small mammal community. The main distribution range of C. russula was found to be approximately 7,600 km2 in 2013, with established outlier populations suggesting that the species is dispersing with human assistance within the island. The species is expanding rapidly for a small mammal, with a radial expansion rate of 5.5 km/yr overall (2008-2013), and independent estimates from live-trapping in 2012-2013 showing rates of 2.4-14.1 km/yr, 0.5-7.1 km/yr and 0-5.6 km/yr depending on the landscape features present. S. minutus is negatively associated with C. russula. S. minutus is completely absent at sites where C. russula is established and is only present at sites at the edge of and beyond the invasion range of C. russula. The speed of this invasion and the homogenous nature of the Irish landscape may mean that S. minutus has not had sufficient time to adapt to the sudden appearance of C. russula. This may mean the continued decline/disappearance of S. minutus as C. russula spreads throughout the island.

  6. Invading and Expanding: Range Dynamics and Ecological Consequences of the Greater White-Toothed Shrew (Crocidura russula) Invasion in Ireland

    PubMed Central

    McDevitt, Allan D.; Montgomery, W. Ian; Tosh, David G.; Lusby, John; Reid, Neil; White, Thomas A.; McDevitt, C. Damien; O'Halloran, John; Searle, Jeremy B.; Yearsley, Jon M.

    2014-01-01

    Establishing how invasive species impact upon pre-existing species is a fundamental question in ecology and conservation biology. The greater white-toothed shrew (Crocidura russula) is an invasive species in Ireland that was first recorded in 2007 and which, according to initial data, may be limiting the abundance/distribution of the pygmy shrew (Sorex minutus), previously Ireland's only shrew species. Because of these concerns, we undertook an intensive live-trapping survey (and used other data from live-trapping, sightings and bird of prey pellets/nest inspections collected between 2006 and 2013) to model the distribution and expansion of C. russula in Ireland and its impacts on Ireland's small mammal community. The main distribution range of C. russula was found to be approximately 7,600 km2 in 2013, with established outlier populations suggesting that the species is dispersing with human assistance within the island. The species is expanding rapidly for a small mammal, with a radial expansion rate of 5.5 km/yr overall (2008–2013), and independent estimates from live-trapping in 2012–2013 showing rates of 2.4–14.1 km/yr, 0.5–7.1 km/yr and 0–5.6 km/yr depending on the landscape features present. S. minutus is negatively associated with C. russula. S. minutus is completely absent at sites where C. russula is established and is only present at sites at the edge of and beyond the invasion range of C. russula. The speed of this invasion and the homogenous nature of the Irish landscape may mean that S. minutus has not had sufficient time to adapt to the sudden appearance of C. russula. This may mean the continued decline/disappearance of S. minutus as C. russula spreads throughout the island. PMID:24955824

  7. Spatio-temporal patterns of habitat use in voles and shrews modified by density, season and predators.

    PubMed

    Sundell, Janne; Church, Christina; Ovaskainen, Otso

    2012-07-01

    1. Although the intrinsic habitat preferences of a species can be considered to be fixed, the realized habitat use depends on the prevailing abiotic and biotic conditions. Often the core habitats are occupied by dense and stable populations, while marginal habitats become occupied only at times of high density. In a community of interacting species, habitat uses of different species become inter-related, for example an increased density of a strong competitor forcing a weaker competitor to use more marginal habitats. 2. We studied the spatio-temporal distribution patterns of three common small mammal species, the bank vole Myodes glareolus; the field vole Microtus agrestis; and the common shrew Sorex araneus, in a 4-year trapping study carried out on six large islands, each containing a mixture of three main habitat types (forest, field and clear-cut). We experimentally released least weasels (Mustela n. nivalis) to some of the islands to see how the focal species respond to increased predation pressure. 3. Both vole species were largely restricted to their core habitats (bank voles to forests and field voles to fields) at times of low population density. With increasing density, the relative habitat use of both species increased in the clear-cut areas. The common shrew was a generalist in its habitat use at all population densities. 4. The release of the weasels changed the habitat use of all study species. 5. The vole species showed a stronger aggregated pattern than the common shrew, especially at low population density. The vole aggregations remained in the same localities between seasons, except in the case of bank voles after the weasels were released. 6. Bank voles and field voles avoided each other at high density. 7. We conclude that intrinsically differential habitat requirements and flexibility to modify habitat use facilitate the coexistence of the two competing vole species in mosaic landscapes consisting of boreal forests and open

  8. Management of pest mole crickets in Florida and Puerto Rico with a nematode and parasitic wasp

    SciTech Connect

    Leppla, N.C.; Frank, J.H.; Adjei, M.B.; Vicente, N.E.

    2007-03-15

    Non-indigenous invasive mole crickets, Scapteriscus vicinus Scudder (Orthoptera: Gryllotalpidae) in Florida and S. didactylus (Latreille) (the 'changa') in Puerto Rico, are being managed with an entomopathogenic nematode, Steinernema scapterisci (Nguyen and Smart) (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae), and a parasitic wasp, Larra bicolor L. (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae). Pest mole cricket populations have declined by 95% in north central Florida since these specialist natural enemies were released and established in the 1980s. Commercial production of the nematode was initiated, nearly 70 billion were applied in 34 Florida counties, and their establishment, spread, and impact on mole crickets were monitored. The infected mole crickets dispersed the nematode rapidly, so that within 6 months these parasites were present in most of the insects trapped in experimental pastures. Three years later, mole cricket populations were reduced to acceptable levels and the bahiagrass had recovered. The nematode was released for the first time in Puerto Rico during 2001 and has persisted; the wasp was introduced in the late 1930s. The geographical distribution of the wasp is being expanded in Florida and Puerto Rico by planting plots of Spermacoce verticillata (L.), a wildflower indigenous to Puerto Rico and widely distributed in southern Florida. Pastures, sod farms, golf courses, landscapes, and vegetable farms in Florida and Puerto Rico are benefiting from biological control of invasive mole crickets. (author) [Spanish] Los grillotopos invasores no indigenas, Scapteriscus vicinus (Orthoptera: Gryllotalpidae) en el estado de Florida y S. didactylus ('changa') en Puerto Rico, estan siendo manejados por el nematodo entomopathogeno, Steinernema scapterisci (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae) y la avispa parasitica, Larra bicolor (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae). Las poblaciones de los grillotopo plagas han declinado un 95% en el norte central de la Florida desde que estos enemigos naturales especialistas

  9. Purkinje-like cells in the cochlear nucleus of the Common Tree Shrew (Tupaia glis) identified by calbindin immunohistochemistry.

    PubMed

    Spatz, W B

    2003-09-05

    The dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN) of Tree Shrews (Tupaia glis; n=2) was examined by calbindin (CB) immunohistochemistry for the presence of Purkinje-like cells (PLCs), detected previously in only four different mammals. We found up to eight CB-immunoreactive PLCs in the left and right DCN, and a few axons, likely of PLC origin, that appeared to leave the DCN. These findings suggest that PLCs may have a wider distribution through mammalian species, and may represent more than just misrouted cells.

  10. Social cues elicit sexual behavior in subordinate Damaraland mole-rats independent of gonadal status.

    PubMed

    Carter, Sara N; Goldman, Bruce D; Goldman, Sharry L; Freeman, David A

    2014-01-01

    Damaraland mole-rats (Fukomys damarensis) are among a small number of eusocial mammals. Eusociality is a social system where only a few individuals within a colony engage in direct reproduction, while remaining subordinate members are non-breeders and support reproductive efforts of breeding individuals. Inbreeding avoidance precludes mating between subordinate siblings and between offspring and parents. Interestingly, non-breeders readily attempt to mate with unrelated opposite-sex individuals. This is unusual since the non-breeding females do not attain puberty while in their natal colony. Based on this finding, the present study investigated the role of the gonads in the regulation of mating behaviors in this species and identified the mechanism of inbreeding avoidance. Gonadal-intact and gonadectomized non-breeders from different colonies were removed from their colonies and tested for the expression of sexual behavior. Results indicated that gonadal status had only minor effects on the expression of sexual behavior in either males or females. In a second experiment, sexual behaviors were absent between opposite-sex siblings so long as they had frequent contact with each other; however, following 5 weeks of separation, sexual behavior between these siblings was robustly expressed. Thus, Damaraland mole-rats avoid establishing mating relationships with familiar individuals but will readily mate with unfamiliar individuals of the opposite sex, with genetic relatedness apparently playing little role. The initiation of sexual behavior in Damaraland mole-rats does not require the presence of the gonads, but does require that the members of the pair have not been in contact with one another for at least several weeks.

  11. Genetic Signatures for Enhanced Olfaction in the African Mole-Rats

    PubMed Central

    Stathopoulos, Sofia; Bishop, Jacqueline M.; O’Ryan, Colleen

    2014-01-01

    The Olfactory Receptor (OR) superfamily, the largest in the vertebrate genome, is responsible for vertebrate olfaction and is traditionally subdivided into 17 OR families. Recent studies characterising whole-OR subgenomes revealed a ‘birth and death’ model of evolution for a range of species, however little is known about fine-scale evolutionary dynamics within single-OR families. This study reports the first assessment of fine-scale OR evolution and variation in African mole-rats (Bathyergidae), a family of subterranean rodents endemic to sub-Saharan Africa. Because of the selective pressures of life underground, enhanced olfaction is proposed to be fundamental to the evolutionary success of the Bathyergidae, resulting in a highly diversified OR gene-repertoire. Using a PCR-sequencing approach, we analysed variation in the OR7 family across 14 extant bathyergid species, which revealed enhanced levels of functional polymorphisms concentrated across the receptors’ ligand-binding region. We propose that mole-rats are able to recognise a broad range of odorants and that this diversity is reflected throughout their OR7 gene repertoire. Using both classic tests and tree-based methods to test for signals of selection, we investigate evolutionary forces across the mole-rat OR7 gene tree. Four well-supported clades emerged in the OR phylogeny, with varying signals of selection; from neutrality to positive and purifying selection. Bathyergid life-history traits and environmental niche-specialisation are explored as possible drivers of adaptive OR evolution, emerging as non-exclusive contributors to the positive selection observed at OR7 genes. Our results reveal unexpected complexity of evolutionary mechanisms acting within a single OR family, providing insightful perspectives into OR evolutionary dynamics. PMID:24699281

  12. [Twin pregnancy with complete mole and coexisting fetus: Reach fetal viability is possible].

    PubMed

    Arsène, E; Clouqueur, E; Stichelbout, M; Devisme, L; Vaast, P; Subtil, D

    2015-11-01

    Twin pregnancies combining complete hydatidiform mole and coexistent fetus are a rare situation (incidence in 1/20,000 in 1/100,000 pregnancies) and a challenge for diagnosis. Their complications can be important - bleeding, preeclampsia, miscarriage - and their management remains complex and controversial. In case of continuing the pregnancy, nearly 40% of women have lives babies. Three quarters of fetal loss occur before 24weeks gestation. We report here three new cases; only one of these cases had a favorable outcome.

  13. Mechanisms regulating proteostasis are involved in sympatric speciation of the blind mole rat, Spalax galili.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Karl A; Li, Kexin; Nevo, Eviatar; Buffenstein, Rochelle

    2016-01-01

    Genome-wide analysis demonstrates extensive genomic adaptive complexes involved in sympatric speciation between blind mole rats (Spalax galili) in abutting populations living in basalt and chalk soils. Among the gene ontology (GO) enrichment, musculature and metabolism stood out in basalt dwellers while nutrition and neurogenetics were highlighted in chalk residents. Measurements of mechanisms regulating protein homeostasis inspired by these GO terms suggest that at the proteomic level there is also a habitat/soil-type driven divergence with the basalt residents exhibiting higher proteasome activity whereas elevated levels of markers of autophagy are evident in the chalk inhabitants.

  14. Metabolic regulatory clues from the naked mole rat: toward brain regulatory functions during stroke.

    PubMed

    Nathaniel, Thomas I; Otukonyong, Effiong E; Okon, Marvin; Chaves, Jose; Cochran, Thomas; Nathaniel, Adebobola I

    2013-09-01

    Resistance to tissue hypoxia is a robust fundamental adaptation to low oxygen supply, and represents a novel neuroscience problem with significance to mammalian physiology as well as human health. With the underlying mechanisms strongly conserved in evolution, the ability to resist tissue hypoxia in natural systems has recently emerged as an interesting model in mammalian physiology research to understand mechanisms that can be manipulated for the clinical management of stroke. The extraordinary ability to resist tissue hypoxia by the naked mole rat (NMR) indicates the presence of a unique mechanism that underlies the remarkable healthy life span and exceptional hypoxia resistance. This opens an interesting line of research into understanding the mechanisms employed by the naked mole rat (Heterocephalus glaber) to protect the brain during hypoxia. In a series of studies, we first examined the presence of neuroprotection in the brain cells of naked mole rats (NMRs) subjected to hypoxic insults, and then characterized the expression of such neuroprotection in a wide range of time intervals. We used oxygen nutrient deprivation (OND), an in vitro model of resistance to tissue hypoxia to determine whether there is evidence of neuronal survival in the hippocampal (CA1) slices of NMRs that are subjected to chronic hypoxia. Hippocampus neurons of NMRs that were kept in hypoxic condition consistently tolerated OND right from the onset time of 5h. This tolerance was maintained for 24h. This finding indicates that there is evidence of resistance to tissue hypoxia by CA1 neurons of NMRs. We further examined the effect of hypoxia on metabolic rate in the NMR. Repeated measurement of metabolic rates during exposure of naked mole rats to hypoxia over a constant ambient temperature indicates that hypoxia significantly decreased metabolic rates in the NMR, suggesting that the observed decline in metabolic rate during hypoxia may contribute to the adaptive mechanism used by the NMR

  15. Mechanisms regulating proteostasis are involved in sympatric speciation of the blind mole rat, Spalax galili

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Karl A.; Li, Kexin; Nevo, Eviatar; Buffenstein, Rochelle

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Genome-wide analysis demonstrates extensive genomic adaptive complexes involved in sympatric speciation between blind mole rats (Spalax galili) in abutting populations living in basalt and chalk soils. Among the gene ontology (GO) enrichment, musculature and metabolism stood out in basalt dwellers while nutrition and neurogenetics were highlighted in chalk residents. Measurements of mechanisms regulating protein homeostasis inspired by these GO terms suggest that at the proteomic level there is also a habitat/soil-type driven divergence with the basalt residents exhibiting higher proteasome activity whereas elevated levels of markers of autophagy are evident in the chalk inhabitants. PMID:27050459

  16. Emerging infectious disease implications of invasive mammalian species: the greater white-toothed shrew (Crocidura russula) is associated with a novel serovar of pathogenic Leptospira in Ireland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The greater white-toothed shrew (Crocidura russula) is an invasive mammalian species that was first recorded in Ireland in 2007. It currently occupies an area of approximately 7,600 km2 on the island. C. russula is normally distributed in Northern Africa and Western Europe, and was previously absent...

  17. The position of tree shrews in the mammalian tree: Comparing multi-gene analyses with phylogenomic results leaves monophyly of Euarchonta doubtful.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xuming; Sun, Fengming; Xu, Shixia; Yang, Guang; Li, Ming

    2015-03-01

    The well-accepted Euarchonta grandorder is a pruned version of Archonta nested within the Euarchontoglires (or Supraprimates) clade. At present, it includes tree shrews (Scandentia), flying lemurs (Dermoptera) and primates (Primates). Here, a phylogenomic dataset containing 1912 exons from 22 representative mammals was compiled to investigate the phylogenetic relationships within this group. Phylogenetic analyses and hypothesis testing suggested that tree shrews can be classified as a sister group to Primates or to Glires or even as a basal clade within Euarchontoglires. Further analyses of both modified and original previously published datasets found that the phylogenetic position of tree shrews is unstable. We also found that two of three exonic indels reported as synapomorphies of Euarchonta in a previous study do not unambiguously support the monophyly of such a clade. Therefore, the monophyly of both Euarchonta and Sundatheria (Dermoptera + Scandentia) are suspect. Molecular dating and divergence rate analyses suggested that the ancestor of Euarchontoglires experienced a rapid divergence, which may cause the unresolved position of tree shrews even using the whole genomic data.

  18. Characterization and phylogenetic analysis of Krüppel-like transcription factor (KLF) gene family in tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri chinensis).

    PubMed

    Shao, Ming; Ge, Guang-Zhe; Liu, Wen-Jing; Xiao, Ji; Xia, Hou-Jun; Fan, Yu; Zhao, Feng; He, Bao-Li; Chen, Ceshi

    2016-12-10

    Krüppel-like factors (KLFs) are a family of zinc finger transcription factors regulating embryonic development and diseases. The phylogenetics of KLFs has not been studied in tree shrews, an animal lineage with a closer relationship to primates than rodents. Here, we identified 17 KLFs from Chinese tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri chinensis). KLF proteins are highly conserved among humans, monkeys, rats, mice and tree shrews compared to zebrafish and chickens. The CtBP binding site, Sin3A binding site and nuclear localization signals are largely conserved between tree shrews and human beings. Tupaia belangeri (Tb) KLF5 contains several conserved post-transcriptional modification motifs. Moreover, the mRNA and protein expression patterns of multiple tbKLFs are tissue-specific . TbKLF5, like hKLF5, significantly promotes NIH3T3 cell proliferation in vitro. These results provide insight for future studies regarding the structure and function of the tbKLF gene family.

  19. Overview of the Cestode fauna of European shrews of the genus Sorex with an exploration of historical processes in post-glacial Europe

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cestode fauna in shrews of the genus Sorex from the European region consists of seventeen species. Twelve cestode species have broad Palearctic distributions, three belong to the Western-Asian–European faunistic complex, and only two are endemic to the European zone. Postglacial expansion into ...

  20. Visual Guidance of Recovery from Lens-Induced Myopia in Tree Shrews (Tupaia glis belangeri)

    PubMed Central

    Amedo, Angela O.; Norton, Thomas T.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To examine, in tree shrews, the visual guidance of recovery from negative lens-induced myopia by measuring the effect of wearing low-power negative or positive lenses during recovery. To learn if removing a negative lens for two hours per day, after compensation has occurred, is sufficient to produce recovery. Methods Starting 16 days after natural eye opening (days of visual experience), juvenile tree shrews wore a monocular –5 D lens for 11 days to produce compensation (age-appropriate refraction while wearing the lens). Recovery in four groups was started by discontinuing −5 D lens wear, which caused the treated eyes to be refractively myopic, and substituting: no lens (n = 7), a plano lens (n = 8), a −2 D lens (n = 6) or a +2 D lens (n = 10). In a fifth group (n = 6), the −5 D lens was removed for 2 hours each day but worn the remainder of the time. Non-cycloplegic refractive measurements were made daily for the first 10 days and then less frequently. After 31 to 35 days, the lens-guided recovery period was ended for most animals; periodic measures were continued to assess post-lens recovery changes. Results All the eyes responded to the −5 D lens and were myopic (-4.8±0.1 D, mean ± SEM) compared to the untreated fellow control eye. In all groups except the −2 D Lens group, some animals exhibited slow or incomplete recovery. During recovery, the treated eye of most animals recovered until its refraction, measured with the recovery-lens in place, was near to that of the control eye. Measured without the lens, the −2 D group was myopic and the +2 D group was hyperopic. With the lens in place, the plano-lens, −2 D lens, and +2 D lens groups remained slightly myopic (−1.0±0.3 D, −0.6±0.2 D and −1.3±0.1 D, respectively). The rate of recovery during the first four days was unrelated to the amount of myopia initially experienced by the recovering eyes. Removal of the −5 D lens for two hours each day produced recovery. Conclusions

  1. Absence of histamine-induced itch in the African naked mole-rat and "rescue" by Substance P.

    PubMed

    Smith, Ewan St John; Blass, Gregory R C; Lewin, Gary R; Park, Thomas J

    2010-05-24

    Recent research has proposed a pathway in which sensory neurons expressing the capsaicin activated ion channel TRPV1 are required for histamine-induced itch and subsequent scratching behavior. We examined histamine-induced itch in the African naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber) and found that although naked mole-rats display innate scratching behavior, histamine was unable to evoke increased scratching as is observed in most mouse strains. Using calcium imaging, we examined the histamine sensitivity of naked mole-rat dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons and identified a population of small diameter neurons activated by histamine, the majority of which are also capsaicin-sensitive. This suggested that naked mole-rat sensory neurons are activated by histamine, but that spinal dorsal horn processing of sensory information is not the same as in other rodents. We have previously shown that naked mole-rats naturally lack substance P (SP) in cutaneous C-fibers, but that the neurokinin-1 receptor is expressed in the superficial spinal cord. This led us to investigate if SP deficiency plays a role in the lack of histamine-induced scratching in this species. After intrathecal administration of SP into the spinal cord we observed robust scratching behavior in response to histamine injection. Our data therefore support a model in which TRPV1-expressing sensory neurons are important for histamine-induced itch. In addition, we demonstrate a requirement for active, SP-induced post-synaptic drive to enable histamine sensitive afferents to drive itch-related behavior in the naked mole-rat. These results illustrate that it is altered dorsal horn connectivity of nociceptors that underlies the lack of itch and pain-related behavior in the naked mole-rat.

  2. Identification of aflatoxin M1-N7-guanine in liver and urine of tree shrews and rats following administration of aflatoxin B1.

    PubMed

    Egner, Patricia A; Yu, Xiang; Johnson, Jesse K; Nathasingh, Christopher K; Groopman, John D; Kensler, Thomas W; Roebuck, Bill D

    2003-09-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown that exposure to aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)) and concurrent infection with hepatitis B lead to a multiplicative risk of developing liver cancer. This chemical-viral interaction can be recapitulated in the tree shrew (Tupia belangeri chinensis). As an initial characterization of this model, the metabolism of AFB(1) in tree shrews has been examined and compared to a sensitive bioassay species, the rat. Utilizing LC/MS/MS, an unreported product, aflatoxin M(1)-N(7)-guanine (AFM(1)-N(7)-guanine), was detected in urine and hepatic DNA samples 24 h after administration of 400 microg/kg AFB(1). In hepatic DNA isolated from tree shrews, AFM(1)-N(7)-guanine was the predominant adduct, 0.74 +/- 0.14 pmol/mg DNA, as compared to 0.37 +/- 0.07 pmol/mg DNA of AFB(1)-N(7)-guanine. Conversely, in rat liver, 6.56 +/- 2.41 pmol/mg DNA of AFB(1)-N(7)-guanine and 0.42 +/- 0.13 pmol/mg DNA of AFM(1)-N(7)-guanine were detected. Rats excreted 1.00 +/- 0.21 pmol AFB(1)-N(7)-guanine/mg creatinine and 0.29 +/- 0.10 pmol AFM(1)-N(7)-guanine/mg creatinine as compared to 0.60 +/- 0.12 pmol AFB(1)-N(7)-guanine/mg creatinine and 0.69 +/- 0.16 pmol AFM(1)-N(7)-guanine/mg creatinine excreted by the tree shrew. Furthermore, tree shrew urine contained 40 times more of the hydroxylated metabolite, AFM(1), than was excreted by rats. In vitro experiments confirmed this difference in oxidative metabolism. Hepatic microsomes isolated from tree shrews failed to produce aflatoxin Q(1) or aflatoxin P(1) but formed a significantly greater amount of AFM(1) than rat microsomes. Bioassays indicated that the tree shrew was considerably more resistant than the rat to AFB(1) hepatocarcinogenesis, which may reflect the significant differences in metabolic profiles of the two species.

  3. Dominance and queen succession in captive colonies of the eusocial naked mole-rat, Heterocephalus glaber.

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, F M; Faulkes, C G

    1997-01-01

    Naked mole-rat colonies exhibit a high reproductive skew, breeding being typically restricted to one female (the 'queen') and one to three males. Other colony members are reproductively suppressed, although this suppression can be reversed following the removal or death of the queen. We examined dominance and queen succession within captive colonies to investigate the relationship between urinary testosterone and cortisol, dominance rank and reproductive status; and to determine if behavioural and/or physiological parameters can be used as predictors of queen succession. Social structure was characterized by a linear dominance hierarchy before and after queen removal. Prior to queen removal, dominance rank was negatively correlated with body weight and urinary testosterone and cortisol titres in males and females. Queen removal results in social instability and aggression between high ranking individuals. Dominance rank appears to be a good predictor of reproductive status: queens are the highest ranking colony females and are succeeded by the next highest ranking females. The intense dominance-related aggression that accompanies reproductive succession in naked mole-rats provides empirical support for optimal skew theory. PMID:9263466

  4. Adaptations to a subterranean environment and longevity revealed by the analysis of mole rat genomes

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Xiaodong; Seim, Inge; Huang, Zhiyong; Gerashchenko, Maxim V.; Xiong, Zhiqiang; Turanov, Anton A.; Zhu, Yabing; Lobanov, Alexei V.; Fan, Dingding; Yim, Sun Hee; Yao, Xiaoming; Ma, Siming; Yang, Lan; Lee, Sang-Goo; Kim, Eun Bae; Bronson, Roderick T.; Šumbera, Radim; Buffenstein, Rochelle; Zhou, Xin; Krogh, Anders; Park, Thomas J.; Zhang, Guojie; Wang, Jun; Gladyshev, Vadim N.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Subterranean mammals spend their lives in dark, unventilated environments rich in carbon dioxide and ammonia, and low in oxygen. Many of these animals are also long-lived and exhibit reduced aging-associated diseases, such as neurodegenerative disorders and cancer. We sequenced the genome of the Damaraland mole rat (DMR, Fukomys damarensis) and improved the genome assembly of the naked mole rat (NMR, Heterocephalus glaber). Comparative genome analysis, along with transcriptomes of related subterranean rodents, reveal candidate molecular adaptations for subterranean life and longevity, including a divergent insulin peptide, expression of oxygen-carrying globins in the brain, prevention of high CO2-induced pain perception, and enhanced ammonia detoxification. Juxtaposition of the genomes of DMR and other more conventional animals with the genome of NMR revealed several truly exceptional NMR features: unusual thermogenesis, aberrant melatonin system, pain insensitivity, and novel processing of 28S rRNA. Together, the new genomes and transcriptomes extend our understanding of subterranean adaptations, stress resistance and longevity. PMID:25176646

  5. Effects of Freshwater Discharge in Sandy Beach Populations: The Mole Crab Emerita brasiliensis in Uruguay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lercari, D.; Defeo, O.

    1999-10-01

    Sandy beaches are ecosystems which are heavily affected by human activities. An example of this is freshwater discharges, which are known to change salinity, temperature and nutrient regimes and degrade nearshore environments. However, the effects of this kind of disturbance on sandy beach fauna have been little studied. This paper reports the spatial effects of a man-made freshwater canal discharge on the population structure, abundance and reproductive characteristics of the sandy beach mole crab Emerita brasiliensis. Along the 22 km of sandy beach sampled, the mole crab showed a marked longshore variability in population structure and abundance. Abundance of different population components (juveniles, males, females and ovigerous females) significantly decreased towards the canal. Population structure by sex and size, individual weight, fecundity and female maturity patterns at size also displayed a non-linear response to the distance from the freshwater discharge. Only the size structure of males did not follow this pattern. For males, spatial heterogeneity enhanced the detection of density-dependence at less disturbed sites. The authors conclude that artificial freshwater discharges could significantly influence the distribution, abundance and life-history traits of the biota of sandy beaches, and that further study of these ecosystems should include human activities as important factors affecting spatial and temporal trends. The need to consider different spatial and temporal scales in order to detect the effect of anthropogenically-driven impacts in sandy beach populations is stressed.

  6. Structural Features of the Telomerase RNA Gene in the Naked Mole Rat Heterocephalus glaber

    PubMed Central

    Evfratov, S. A.; Smekalova, E. M.; Golovin, A. V.; Logvina, N. A.; Zvereva, M. I.; Dontsova, O. A.

    2014-01-01

    Telomere length, an important feature of life span control, is dependent on the activity of telomerase (a key enzyme of the telomere-length-maintaining system). Telomerase RNA is a component of telomerase and, thus, is crucial for its activity. The structures of telomerase RNA genes and their promoter regions were compared for the long-living naked mole rat and different organisms. Two rare polymorphisms in Heterocephalus glaber telomerase RNA (hgTER) were identified: A→G in the first loop of pseudoknot P2b-p3 (an equivalent of 111nt in hTR) and G→A in the scaRNA domain CR7-p8b (an equivalent of 421nt in hTR). Analysis of TER promoter regions allowed us to identify two new transcription factor binding sites. The first one is the ETS family site, which was found to be a conserved element for all the analyzed TER promoters. The second site is unique for the promoter region of TER of the naked mole rat and is a binding site for the SOX17 transcription factor. The absence of one Sp1 site in the TER promoter region of the naked small rat is an additional specific feature of the promoter area of hgTER. Such variation in the hgTER transcription regulation region and hgTER itself could provide increased telomerase activity in stem cells and an extended lifespan to H. glaber. PMID:25093110

  7. Retinal ganglion cell survival and axon regeneration after optic nerve injury in naked mole-rats.

    PubMed

    Park, Kevin K; Luo, Xueting; Mooney, Skyler J; Yungher, Benjamin J; Belin, Stephane; Wang, Chen; Holmes, Melissa M; He, Zhigang

    2017-02-01

    In the adult mammalian central nervous system (CNS), axonal damage often triggers neuronal cell death and glial activation, with very limited spontaneous axon regeneration. In this study, we performed optic nerve injury in adult naked mole-rats, the longest living rodent, with a maximum life span exceeding 30 years, and found that injury responses in this species are quite distinct from those in other mammalian species. In contrast to what is seen in other mammals, the majority of injured retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) survive with relatively high spontaneous axon regeneration. Furthermore, injured RGCs display activated signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3), whereas astrocytes in the optic nerve robustly occupy and fill the lesion area days after injury. These neuron-intrinsic and -extrinsic injury responses are reminiscent of those in "cold-blooded" animals, such as fish and amphibians, suggesting that the naked mole-rat is a powerful model for exploring the mechanisms of neuronal injury responses and axon regeneration in mammals. J. Comp. Neurol. 525:380-388, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Differential effects of chronic fluoxetine on the behavior of dominant and subordinate naked mole-rats.

    PubMed

    Mongillo, Daniel L; Kosyachkova, Ekaterina A; Nguyen, Tam M; Holmes, Melissa M

    2014-01-01

    Naked mole-rats are eusocial rodents that live in large subterranean colonies with a strict reproductive and social hierarchy. The breeding female (referred to as the queen) and 1 to 3 breeding males are the only reproductive members of the colony. Breeders are socially dominant and all other colony members are non-reproductive subordinates. The effects of manipulating the serotonergic neurotransmitter system on aggression and dominance behaviors are well studied in many species, but not in eusocial rodents like the naked mole-rat. The current study investigated how the serotonergic system influences aggressive/dominant behaviors in this species. To do this, two separate but related experiments were conducted: the effects of fluoxetine hydrochloride (FLX) on status-specific behaviors of subordinates (Experiment 1) and dominant queens (Experiment 2) were evaluated both in-colony and in a social-pairing paradigm. In accordance with our main hypothesis, chronic treatment of FLX attenuated the frequency and duration of aggression in queens, but not subordinates, when paired with an unfamiliar conspecific. Further exploration of pharmacological manipulation on status-specific behaviors of this eusocial species may elucidate the neurobiological mechanisms underlying their unique and rigid social hierarchy.

  9. Complete Hydatidiform Mole Coexisting with Three Viable Fetuses in a Quadruplet Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Tariq, Nabia; Ghazali, Usman; Uddin, Zeeshan; Rasheed, Kamran; Tariq, Hina

    2016-04-01

    We hereby report a case of quadruplet pregnancy with delivery of 3 viable infants and a complete mole. This was an induced conception with clomiphene citrate. At 22 weeks, cystic structures were noticed in one of the placentae and a suspicion of co-existant molar pregnancy was made. The case discussed with oncologist and pregnancy was continued with close monitoring of β-hCG and Ultrasound. Her β-hCG at 23 weeks was 748 mIU/ml, which continued to rise until the 29th week of gestation to a level of 305881.68 mIU/ml and declined gradually thereafter. Similarly, hydropic change in placenta also continued to increase progressively. She was given steroid cover at 32 weeks and delivery was aimed at 34 weeks of gestation. The patient went into preterm labour at 33 weeks and 3 female infants delivered by lower segment cesarean section (LSCS) followed by removal of 3 placentae along with copious molar tissue at the end. The newborns were kept in the nursery, non-requiring assisted ventilation and discharged in satisfactory condition. The histopathologyand immunohistochemistry confirmed the diagnosis of a quadruplet pregnancy comprising of one complete mole with 3 normal placentae.

  10. Analysis and Characterization of the Complete Genome of Tupaia (Tree Shrew) Herpesvirus

    PubMed Central

    Bahr, Udo; Darai, Gholamreza

    2001-01-01

    The tupaia herpesvirus (THV) was isolated from spontaneously degenerating tissue cultures of malignant lymphoma, lung, and spleen cell cultures of tree shrews (Tupaia spp.). The determination of the complete nucleotide sequence of the THV strain 2 genome resulted in a 195,857-bp-long, linear DNA molecule with a G+C content of 66.5%. The terminal regions of the THV genome and the loci of conserved viral genes were found to be G+C richer. Furthermore, no large repetitive DNA sequences could be identified. This is in agreement with the previous classification of THV as the prototype species of herpesvirus genome group F. The search for potential coding regions resulted in the identification of 158 open reading frames (ORFs) regularly distributed on both DNA strands. Seventy-six out of the 158 ORFs code for proteins that are significantly homologous to known herpesvirus proteins. The highest homologies found were to primate and rodent cytomegaloviruses. Biological properties, protein homologies, the arrangement of conserved viral genes, and phylogenetic analysis revealed that THV is a member of the subfamily Betaherpesvirinae. The evolutionary lineages of THV and the cytomegaloviruses seem to have branched off from a common ancestor. In addition, it was found that the arrangements of conserved genes of THV and murine cytomegalovirus strain Smith, both of which are not able to form genomic isomers, are colinear with two different human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) strain AD169 genomic isomers that differ from each other in the orientation of the long unique region. The biological properties and the high degree of relatedness of THV to the mammalian cytomegaloviruses allow the consideration of THV as a model system for investigation of HCMV pathogenicity. PMID:11312357

  11. Behavioral Patterns Associated with Chemotherapy-Induced Emesis: A Potential Signature for Nausea in Musk Shrews

    PubMed Central

    Horn, Charles C.; Henry, Séverine; Meyers, Kelly; Magnusson, Magnus S.

    2011-01-01

    Nausea and vomiting are common symptoms in patients with many diseases, including cancer and its treatments. Although the neurological basis of vomiting is reasonably well known, an understanding of the physiology of nausea is lacking. The primary barrier to mechanistic research on the nausea system is the lack of an animal model. Indeed investigating the effects of anti-nausea drugs in pre-clinical models is difficult because the primary readout is often emesis. It is known that animals show a behavioral profile of sickness, associated with reduced feeding and movement, and possibly these general measures are signs of nausea. Studies attempting to relate the occurrence of additional behaviors to emesis have produced mixed results. Here we applied a statistical method, temporal pattern (t-pattern) analysis, to determine patterns of behavior associated with emesis. Musk shrews were injected with the chemotherapy agent cisplatin (a gold standard in emesis research) to induce acute (<24 h) and delayed (>24 h) emesis. Emesis and other behaviors were coded and tracked from video files. T-pattern analysis revealed hundreds of non-random patterns of behavior associated with emesis, including sniffing, changes in body contraction, and locomotion. There was little evidence that locomotion was inhibited by the occurrence of emesis. Eating, drinking, and other larger body movements including rearing, grooming, and body rotation, were significantly less common in emesis-related behavioral patterns in real versus randomized data. These results lend preliminary evidence for the expression of emesis-related behavioral patterns, including reduced ingestive behavior, grooming, and exploratory behaviors. In summary, this statistical approach to behavioral analysis in a pre-clinical emesis research model could be used to assess the more global effects and limitations of drugs used to control nausea and its potential correlates, including reduced feeding and activity levels. PMID

  12. Action of Bacopa monnieri to antagonize cisplatin-induced emesis in Suncus murinus (house musk shrew).

    PubMed

    Ullah, Ihsan; Subhan, Fazal; Lu, Zengbing; Chan, Sze Wa; Rudd, John A

    2017-03-12

    Bacopa monnieri (BM, family Scrophulariaceae) is used in several traditional systems of medicine for the management of epilepsy, depression, neuropathic pain, sleep disorders and memory deficits. The present study investigated the potential of BM methanol (BM-MetFr) and BM n-butanol fractions (BM-ButFr) to reduce chemotherapy-induced emesis in Suncus murinus (house musk shrew). Cisplatin (30 mg/kg, i.p.) reliably induced retching and/or vomiting over a 2 day period. BM-MetFr (10-40 mg/kg, s.c.) and BM-ButFr (5-20 mg/kg, s.c.) antagonized the retching and/or vomiting response by ∼59.4% (p < 0.05) and 78.9% (p < 0.05), respectively, while the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, palonosetron (0.5 mg/kg, s.c.), reduced the response by ∼71% (p < 0.05). The free radical scavenger/antioxidant, N-(2-mercaptopropionyl)-glycine (30-300 mg/kg, s.c.) reduced the retching and/or vomiting response occurring on day one non-significantly by 44% (p > 0.05). In conclusion, the n-butanol fractions of BM have anti-emetic activity comparable with palonosetron and MPG. BM may be useful alone or in combination with other anti-emetic drugs for the treatment of chemotherapy-induced emesis in man.

  13. Retinal thinning in tree shrews with induced high myopia: optical coherence tomography and histological assessment.

    PubMed

    Abbott, Carla J; Grünert, Ulrike; Pianta, Michael J; McBrien, Neville A

    2011-02-09

    This study determined retinal thinning in a mammalian model of high myopia using optical coherence tomography (OCT) and histological sections from the same retinal tissue. High myopia was induced in three tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri) by deprivation of form vision via lid suture of one eye, with the other eye a control. Ocular biometry data was obtained by Ascan ultrasonography, keratometry and retinoscopy. The Zeiss StratusOCT was used to obtain Bscans in vivo across the retina. Subsequently, eyes were enucleated and retinas fixed, dehydrated, embedded and sectioned. Treated eyes developed a high degree of axial myopia (-15.9 ± 2.3D; n = 3). The OCT analysis showed that in myopic eyes the nasal retina thinned more than the temporal retina relative to the disc (p=0.005). Histology showed that the retinas in the myopic eyes comprise all layers but were thinner than the retinas in normal and control eyes. Detailed thickness measurements in corresponding locations of myopic and control eyes in superior nasal retina using longitudinal reflectivity profiles from OCT and semithin vertical histological sections showed the percentage of retinal thinning in the myopic eyes was similar between methods (OCT 15.34 ± 5.69%; histology 17.61 ± 3.02%; p = 0.10). Analysis of retinal layers revealed that the inner plexiform, inner nuclear and outer plexiform layers thin the most. Cell density measurements showed all neuronal cell types are involved in retinal thinning. The results indicate that in vivo OCT measurements can accurately detect retinal thinning in high myopia.

  14. House musk shrew (Suncus murinus, order: Insectivora) as a new model animal for motilin study.

    PubMed

    Tsutsui, Chihiro; Kajihara, Kie; Yanaka, Takatsugu; Sakata, Ichiro; Itoh, Zen; Oda, Sen-ichi; Sakai, Takafumi

    2009-02-01

    Although many studies have demonstrated the action of motilin on migrating motor complex by using human subjects and relatively large animals, the precise physiological mechanisms of motilin remain obscure. One reason for the lack of progress in this research field is that large animals are generally not suitable for molecular-level study. To overcome this problem, in this study, we focused on the house musk shrew (Suncus murinus, order: Insectivora, suncus named as laboratory strain) as a small model animal, and we present here the results of motilin gene cloning and its availability for motilin study. The motilin gene has a high homology sequence with that of other mammals, including humans. Suncus motilin is predicted to exist as a 117-residue prepropeptide that undergoes proteolytic cleavage to form a 22-amino-acid mature peptide. The results of RT-PCR showed that motilin mRNA is highly expressed in the upper small intestine, and low levels of expression were found in many tissues. Morphological analysis revealed that suncus motilin-producing cells were present in the upper small intestinal mucosal layer but not in the myenteric plexus. Administration of suncus motilin to prepared muscle strips of rabbit duodenum showed almost the same contractile effect as that of human motilin. Moreover, suncus stomach preparations clearly responded to suncus or human motilin stimulation. To our knowledge, this is the first report that physiological active motilin was determined in small laboratory animals, and the results of this study suggest that suncus is a suitable model animal for studying the motilin-ghrelin family.

  15. Action of anti-tussive drugs on the emetic reflex of Suncus murinus (house musk shrew).

    PubMed

    Chan, Shun-Wan; Rudd, John A; Lin, Ge; Li, Ping

    2007-03-22

    The cough and emetic reflexes involve a synchronized firing of motor neurones involved in respiratory control. Tachykinin NK1 receptor antagonists and 5-HT1A receptor agonists are examples of centrally acting drugs that reduce cough and emesis. In the present studies, therefore, we examined the possibility that other classes of drugs known to reducing cough have anti-emetic properties to prevent emesis induced by diverse challenges. We examined the potential of codeine (1-10 mg/kg), baclofen (1-10 mg/kg), scopolamine (0.3-10 mg/kg), diphenhydramine (1-10 mg/kg), imperialine (1-30 mg/kg) and verticine (0.3-3 mg/kg) to inhibit emesis induced by nicotine (5 mg/kg, s.c.), copper sulphate (120 mg/kg, intragastric), and provocative motion (4 cm horizontal displacement, delivered at 1 Hz) in Suncus murinus (house musk shrew). Only codeine had broad inhibitory properties (P<0.05) to antagonize emesis induced by all challenges with ID50 values ranging from 1.2 to 2.3 mg/kg. Baclofen antagonized emesis induced by nicotine (maximum reduction was 44.9%, P<0.05) and motion (maximum reduction was 97.3%, P<0.01), but potentiated copper sulphate-induced emesis (maximum potentiation was 73.0%, P<0.05). Scopolamine antagonized copper sulphate-induced emesis (maximum reduction was 61.2%, P<0.05) and imperialine antagonized nicotine-induced emesis (maximum reduction was 30.2%, P<0.01), but verticine potentiated motion-induced emesis (maximum potentiation was 60.0%, P<0.05). Diphenhydramine did not significantly reduce emesis induced by any of the challenges (P>0.05). In conclusion, codeine has broad inhibitory anti-emetic actions but a known ability to reduce coughing does not necessarily predict broad inhibitory anti-emetic properties.

  16. Phenotypic variation across chromosomal hybrid zones of the common shrew (Sorex araneus) indicates reduced gene flow.

    PubMed

    Polly, P David; Polyakov, Andrei V; Ilyashenko, Vadim B; Onischenko, Sergei S; White, Thomas A; Shchipanov, Nikolay A; Bulatova, Nina S; Pavlova, Svetlana V; Borodin, Pavel M; Searle, Jeremy B

    2013-01-01

    Sorex araneus, the Common shrew, is a species with more than 70 karyotypic races, many of which form parapatric hybrid zones, making it a model for studying chromosomal speciation. Hybrids between races have reduced fitness, but microsatellite markers have demonstrated considerable gene flow between them, calling into question whether the chromosomal barriers actually do contribute to genetic divergence. We studied phenotypic clines across two hybrid zones with especially complex heterozygotes. Hybrids between the Novosibirsk and Tomsk races produce chains of nine and three chromosomes at meiosis, and hybrids between the Moscow and Seliger races produce chains of eleven. Our goal was to determine whether phenotypes show evidence of reduced gene flow at hybrid zones. We used maximum likelihood to fit tanh cline models to geometric shape data and found that phenotypic clines in skulls and mandibles across these zones had similar centers and widths as chromosomal clines. The amount of phenotypic differentiation across the zones is greater than expected if it were dissipating due to unrestricted gene flow given the amount of time since contact, but it is less than expected to have accumulated from drift during allopatric separation in glacial refugia. Only if heritability is very low, Ne very high, and the time spent in allopatry very short, will the differences we observe be large enough to match the expectation of drift. Our results therefore suggest that phenotypic differentiation has been lost through gene flow since post-glacial secondary contact, but not as quickly as would be expected if there was free gene flow across the hybrid zones. The chromosomal tension zones are confirmed to be partial barriers that prevent differentiated races from becoming phenotypically homogenous.

  17. Morphological adaptation of the skull for various behaviors in the tree shrews.

    PubMed

    Endo, Hideki; Hikida, Tsutomu; Motokawa, Masaharu; Chou, Loke Ming; Fukuta, Katsuhiro; Stafford, Brian J

    2003-08-01

    Skull size and shape were examined among 14 species of the tree shrews (Tupaia montana, T. picta, T. splendidula, T. mulleri, T. longipes, T. glis, T. javanica, T. minor, T. gracilis, T. dorsalis, T. tana, Dendrogale melanura, D. murina, and Ptilocercus lowii). The bones of face were rostro-caudally longer in T. tana and T. dorsalis, contrasting with T. minor and T. gracilis, D. melanura, D. murina and P. lowii which have smaller facial length ratios. The arbo-terrestrial species (T. longipes and T. glis) were similar to terrestrial species in length ratios of bones of face unlike the other arbo-terrestrial species (T. montana, T. picta, T. splendidula, and T. mulleri). We propose that T. longipes and T. glis have adapted to foraging for termites and ants as have T. tana and T. dorsalis. Additionally small body size in T. javanica may be the result of being isolated in Java. We separated the species into 5 groups from the measurment values of skulls: 1) Terrestrial species; T. tana and T. dorsalis, 2) Arboreal species; T. minor and T. gracilis, 3) Arbo-terrestrial species group 1: T. montana, T. splendidula, T. picta and T. mulleri, and T. javanica, 4) Arbo-terrestrial species group 2: T. glis and T. longipes, 5) Arboreal species of Dendrogale and Ptilocercus. Principal component analysis separated species into 8 clusters as follows: 1) T. tana, 2) T. dorsalis, 3) T. montana, T. splendidula, T. picta and T. mulleri, 4) T. glis and T. longipes, 5) T. javanica, 6) T. minor and T. gracilis, 7) D. melanura and D. murina, and 8) P. lowii. We suggest that these clusters correspond to behavioral strategies and peculiarities observed in foraging, feeding and locomotion in each species.

  18. Cerebral microvascular architecture in the common tree shrew (Tupaia glis) revealed by plastic corrosion casts.

    PubMed

    Poonkhum, R; Pongmayteegul, S; Meeratana, W; Pradidarcheep, W; Thongpila, S; Mingsakul, T; Somana, R

    2000-09-01

    The vascularization of the cerebrum (cerebral cortex and basal ganglia) in the common tree shrew (Tupaia glis) has been studied in detail using vinyl injection and vascular corrosion cast/SEM techniques. It is found that the arterial supply of the cerebral cortex are from cortical branches of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) and of the anterior cerebral artery (ACA). These arteries are in turn branches of the internal carotid artery (ICA). In addition, the cerebral cortex receives the blood from the cortical branches of the posterior cerebral artery (PCA) that originates from the basilar artery (BA). These cortical arteries gives rise to rectilinear orientated intracortical arteries that are divided into dense capillary networks to supply the cerebral cortex. The capillary networks drain the blood into intracortical veins and then into the tributaries of major superficial cerebral veins. The basal ganglia (caudate and lentiform nuclei) are supplied by central or perforating branches of the ACA and MCA. These central or medullary arteries give rise to arterioles that ramify into dense capillary plexuses. The venous blood from both nuclei drains into venules and finally into the tributaries of internal cerebral veins. It is obvious that on the ventral aspect, the diameter of the lateral striate artery (LSA) and of the penetrating arterioles from the MCA are much smaller than that of the MCA. These arterioles have few side branches while the peripheral branches of the superficial cerebral arteries exhibit several series of branches that are gradually reduced in diameter before branching into intracortical arteries. This could be one of the reasons why the rupture of cerebral arteries in man mostly occurs in the those originating from the ventral surface rather than from the dorsolateral surface.

  19. Language Attitudes in the Second Generation Japanese Group in Melbourne.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nasu, Tsuneo

    This study investigated language attitudes and Japanese language maintenance among a group of second-generation Japanese in Melbourne (Australia). Subjects were 66 Japanese high school students (second-generation) attending Japanese-language schools and 109 Japanese mothers (first-generation) self-identified as Japanese-identity,…

  20. Functional and laminar dissociations between muscarinic and nicotinic cholinergic neuromodulation in the tree shrew primary visual cortex.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, Anwesha; Bießmann, Felix; Veit, Julia; Kretz, Robert; Rainer, Gregor

    2012-04-01

    Acetylcholine is an important neuromodulator involved in cognitive function. The impact of cholinergic neuromodulation on computations within the cortical microcircuit is not well understood. Here we investigate the effects of layer-specific cholinergic drug application in the tree shrew primary visual cortex during visual stimulation with drifting grating stimuli of varying contrast and orientation. We describe differences between muscarinic and nicotinic cholinergic effects in terms of both the layer of cortex and the attribute of visual representation. Nicotinic receptor activation enhanced the contrast response in the granular input layer of the cortex, while tending to reduce neural selectivity for orientation across all cortical layers. Muscarinic activation modestly enhanced the contrast response across cortical layers, and tended to improve orientation tuning. This resulted in highest orientation selectivity in the supra- and infragranular layers, where orientation selectivity was already greatest in the absence of pharmacological stimulation. Our results indicate that laminar position plays a crucial part in functional consequences of cholinergic stimulation, consistent with the differential distribution of cholinergic receptors. Nicotinic receptors function to enhance sensory representations arriving in the cortex, whereas muscarinic receptors act to boost the cortical computation of orientation tuning. Our findings suggest close homology between cholinergic mechanisms in tree shrew and primate visual cortices.

  1. Loss of RIG-I leads to a functional replacement with MDA5 in the Chinese tree shrew

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ling; Yu, Dandan; Fan, Yu; Peng, Li; Wu, Yong; Yao, Yong-Gang

    2016-01-01

    The function of the RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs; including RIG-I, MDA5, and LGP2) as key cytoplasmic sensors of viral pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) has been subjected to numerous pathogenic challenges and has undergone a dynamic evolution. We found evolutionary evidence that RIG-I was lost in the Chinese tree shrew lineage. Along with the loss of RIG-I, both MDA5 (tMDA5) and LGP2 (tLGP2) have undergone strong positive selection in the tree shrew. tMDA5 or tMDA5/tLGP2 could sense Sendai virus (an RNA virus posed as a RIG-I agonist) for inducing type I IFN, although conventional RIG-I and MDA5 were thought to recognize distinct RNA structures and viruses. tMDA5 interacted with adaptor tMITA (STINGTMEM173/ERIS), which was reported to bind only with RIG-I. The positively selected sites in tMDA5 endowed the substitute function for the lost RIG-I. These findings provided insights into the adaptation and functional diversity of innate antiviral activity in vertebrates. PMID:27621475

  2. Blockade of glucocorticoid receptors with ORG 34116 does not normalize stress-induced symptoms in male tree shrews.

    PubMed

    Van Kampen, Marja; De Kloet, E Ronald; Flügge, Gabriele; Fuchs, Eberhard

    2002-12-20

    Glucocorticoid receptors play an important role in the regulation of the activity of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis, and are thought to be involved in the pathophysiology of depressive disorders. The present study investigated the effect of the specific glucocorticoid receptor antagonist ORG 34116 (a substituted 11,21 bisarylsteroid compound) in the tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri) chronic psychosocial stress model, an established animal model for depressive disorders. Animals were stressed for 10 days before treatment with ORG 34116 started (25 mg/kg p.o. for 28 days). Stress induced a decrease in body weight, which just failed significance, whereas ORG 34116 did not affect body weight in stress and control animals. ORG 34116 enhanced the stress-induced increase in the concentration of urinary-free cortisol, although no differences between the different experimental groups existed during the last week of treatment. In stressed animals, ORG 34116 did not affect marking behavior, but decreased locomotor activity. Post mortem analysis of 5-HT(1A) receptors revealed a decreased affinity of 3[H]-8-OH-DPAT (3[H]-8-hydroxy-2-[di-n-propylamino]tetralin) binding sites in the hippocampus of animals treated with the glucocorticoid receptor antagonist. In conclusion, under our experimental conditions, the glucocorticoid receptor antagonist ORG 34116 did not normalize the depressive-like symptoms in the psychosocial stress model of male tree shrews. This finding, however, does not exclude that specific central, neuroendocrine and behavioral features are affected by the compound.

  3. Genomic Characterization of Yogue, Kasokero, Issyk-Kul, Keterah, Gossas, and Thiafora Viruses: Nairoviruses Naturally Infecting Bats, Shrews, and Ticks

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Peter J.; Widen, Steven G.; Firth, Cadhla; Blasdell, Kim R.; Wood, Thomas G.; Travassos da Rosa, Amelia P. A.; Guzman, Hilda; Tesh, Robert B.; Vasilakis, Nikos

    2015-01-01

    The genus Nairovirus of arthropod-borne bunyaviruses includes the important emerging human pathogen, Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), as well as Nairobi sheep disease virus and many other poorly described viruses isolated from mammals, birds, and ticks. Here, we report genome sequence analysis of six nairoviruses: Thiafora virus (TFAV) that was isolated from a shrew in Senegal; Yogue (YOGV), Kasokero (KKOV), and Gossas (GOSV) viruses isolated from bats in Senegal and Uganda; Issyk-Kul virus (IKV) isolated from bats in Kyrgyzstan; and Keterah virus (KTRV) isolated from ticks infesting a bat in Malaysia. The S, M, and L genome segments of each virus were found to encode proteins corresponding to the nucleoprotein, polyglycoprotein, and polymerase protein of CCHFV. However, as observed in Leopards Hill virus (LPHV) and Erve virus (ERVV), polyglycoproteins encoded in the M segment lack sequences encoding the double-membrane-spanning CCHFV NSm protein. Amino acid sequence identities, complement-fixation tests, and phylogenetic analysis indicated that these viruses cluster into three groups comprising KKOV, YOGV, and LPHV from bats of the suborder Yingochiroptera; KTRV, IKV, and GOSV from bats of the suborder Yangochiroptera; and TFAV and ERVV from shrews (Soricomorpha: Soricidae). This reflects clade-specific host and vector associations that extend across the genus. PMID:26324724

  4. Functional skeletal morphology and its implications for locomotory behavior among three genera of myosoricine shrews (Mammalia: Eulipotyphla: Soricidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodman, Neal; Stabile, Frank A.

    2015-01-01

    Myosoricinae is a small clade of shrews (Mammalia, Eulipotyphla, Soricidae) that is currently restricted to the African continent. Individual species have limited distributions that are often associated with higher elevations. Although the majority of species in the subfamily are considered ambulatory in their locomotory behavior, species of the myosoricine genus Surdisorex are known to be semifossorial. To better characterize variation in locomotory behaviors among myosoricines, we calculated 32 morphological indices from skeletal measurements from nine species representing all three genera that comprise the subfamily (i.e., Congosorex, Myosorex, Surdisorex) and compared them to indices calculated for two species with well-documented locomotory behaviors: the ambulatory talpid Uropsilus soricipes and the semifossorial talpid Neurotrichus gibbsii. We summarized the 22 most complete morphological variables by 1) calculating a mean percentile rank for each species and 2) using the first principal component from principal component analysis of the indices. The two methods yielded similar results and indicate grades of adaptations reflecting a range of potential locomotory behaviors from ambulatory to semifossorial that exceeds the range represented by the two talpids. Morphological variation reflecting grades of increased semifossoriality among myosoricine shrews is similar in many respects to that seen for soricines, but some features are unique to the Myosoricinae.

  5. Helminth associations in white-toothed shrews Crocidura russula (Insectivora: Soricidae) from the Albufera Natural Park, Spain.

    PubMed

    Portolés, Enrique; Granel, Pedro; Esteban, J Guillermo; Cabaret, Jacques

    2004-06-01

    The helminths of 218 white-toothed shrews from 29 sites in 2 biotopes in the Albufera Natural Park (Valencia, Spain) were examined from July 1990 to August 1991. An association analysis of helminths occurring at a prevalence of more than 4% was carried out for 4 species of cestodes located in the intestine (Hymenolepis pistillum, H. scalaris, H. tiara, and Pseudhymenolepis redonica) and 3 species of nematodes (Pseudophysaloptera sp. located in the stomach, Stammerinema rhopocephala larvae in the intestine and abdominal cavity, and Porrocaecum sp. in the thoracic and abdominal cavities). Bivariate (species pairs) versus multivariate analyses (associations within the entire set of species) were performed of presence-absence and of quantitative records (influence of intensity on associations). The associations were evaluated with respect to the sex and age of the host and to the sampling date and sites. The host and environment played a limited role, and the major determinant of species assemblage was phylogenetic. Positive associations were found among both the cestodes and the nematodes, whereas negative associations were found between cestodes and nematodes. The type of life cycle was probably the second greatest determinant of species associations. Nematodes using shrews as a paratenic host or as their definitive host were both positively associated.

  6. Molecular Phylogeny Supports Repeated Adaptation to Burrowing within Small-Eared Shrews Genus of Cryptotis (Eulipotyphla, Soricidae)

    PubMed Central

    He, Kai; Woodman, Neal; Boaglio, Sean; Roberts, Mariel; Supekar, Sunjana; Maldonado, Jesús E.

    2015-01-01

    Small-eared shrews of the New World genus Cryptotis (Eulipotyphla, Soricidae) comprise at least 42 species that traditionally have been partitioned among four or more species groups based on morphological characters. The Cryptotis mexicana species group is of particular interest, because its member species inhibit a subtly graded series of forelimb adaptations that appear to correspond to locomotory behaviors that range from more ambulatory to more fossorial. Unfortunately, the evolutionary relationships both among species in the C. mexicana group and among the species groups remain unclear. To better understand the phylogeny of this group of shrews, we sequenced two mitochondrial and two nuclear genes. To help interpret the pattern and direction of morphological changes, we also generated a matrix of morphological characters focused on the evolutionarily plastic humerus. We found significant discordant between the resulting molecular and morphological trees, suggesting considerable convergence in the evolution of the humerus. Our results indicate that adaptations for increased burrowing ability evolved repeatedly within the genus Cryptotis. PMID:26489020

  7. Molecular Phylogeny Supports Repeated Adaptation to Burrowing within Small-Eared Shrews Genus of Cryptotis (Eulipotyphla, Soricidae).

    PubMed

    He, Kai; Woodman, Neal; Boaglio, Sean; Roberts, Mariel; Supekar, Sunjana; Maldonado, Jesús E

    2015-01-01

    Small-eared shrews of the New World genus Cryptotis (Eulipotyphla, Soricidae) comprise at least 42 species that traditionally have been partitioned among four or more species groups based on morphological characters. The Cryptotis mexicana species group is of particular interest, because its member species inhibit a subtly graded series of forelimb adaptations that appear to correspond to locomotory behaviors that range from more ambulatory to more fossorial. Unfortunately, the evolutionary relationships both among species in the C. mexicana group and among the species groups remain unclear. To better understand the phylogeny of this group of shrews, we sequenced two mitochondrial and two nuclear genes. To help interpret the pattern and direction of morphological changes, we also generated a matrix of morphological characters focused on the evolutionarily plastic humerus. We found significant discordant between the resulting molecular and morphological trees, suggesting considerable convergence in the evolution of the humerus. Our results indicate that adaptations for increased burrowing ability evolved repeatedly within the genus Cryptotis.

  8. Description and molecular differentiation of a new Staphylocystoides (Cyclophyllidea: Hymenolepididae) from the dusky shrew Sorex monticolus in Southeast Alaska.

    PubMed

    Greiman, Stephen E; Tkach, Vasyl V; Cook, Joseph A

    2013-12-01

    Staphylocystoides gulyaevi n. sp. is described based on specimens obtained from the dusky shrew Sorex monticolus collected on Sukkwan Island, southeast Alaska. Staphylocystoides gulyaevi n. sp. is compared with other North American members of the genus having 10 rostellar hooks. The new species is morphologically similar to Staphylocystoides parvissima and Staphylocystoides asketus. The uterus in S. gulyaevi n. sp. develops much more rapidly, and a well-developed uterus appears abruptly after it is barely visible in a previous proglottid. In S. parvissima the uterus grows gradually, and its early development is seen in several proglottids. At the level of pre-gravid proglottids the uterus of S. gulyaevi n. sp. occupies only the middle field of the proglottid, while in S. parvissima it fills the whole proglottid including lateral fields. The rostellar hooks in the new species are significantly smaller in size than in S. asketus. Additionally, the new species has fewer proglottids than S. asketus, while having a similar strobila length. Molecular comparison, using 3 genes (28s rDNA, cox1, and nad1), between S. gulyaevi n. sp. and S. parvissima, further corroborates the status of S. gulyaevi n. sp. as a new species. The new species is the seventh species of Staphylocystoides found in North America and the first cestode or any helminth reported from shrews in southeast Alaska.

  9. Cholesterol induces lipoprotein lipase expression in a tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri chinensis) model of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Linqiang; Zhang, Zhiguo; Li, Yunhai; Liao, Shasha; Wu, Xiaoyun; Chang, Qing; Liang, Bin

    2015-11-02

    Animal models are indispensible to investigate the pathogenesis and treatments of non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases (NAFLD). Altered cholesterol metabolism has been implicated into the pathogenesis of NAFLD. Here, using high fat, cholesterol and cholate diet (HFHC), we generated a novel tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri chinensis) model of NAFLD, which displayed dyslipidemia with increased levels of plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-c) and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-c), but decreased level of triglycerides (TG). Liver histopathology and genes expression indicated that HFHC diet successfully induced liver steatosis to inflammation and fibrosis progressively within 10 weeks. Moreover, HFHC induced the transcriptional expression of lipoprotein lipase (lpl) in the liver, but repressed the expression of LDL receptor, and the endogenous synthesis pathway and excretion of cholesterol. Notably, Poloxamer 407 (P-407) inhibition of LPL improved the severity of steatosis and reduced inflammation. These results illustrated that LPL plays an important role in cholesterol metabolism in NAFLD, and the tree shrew may be a valuable animal model for further research into NAFLD.

  10. [Genetic Structure of the Common Shrew Sorex araneus L. 1758 (Mammalia, Lipotyphla) in Continuous and Fragmented Areas].

    PubMed

    Grigoryeva, O O; Borisova, Yu M; Stakheev, V V; Balakirev, A E; Krivonogov, D M; Orlov, V N

    2015-06-01

    In this work the genetic variability of the common shrew populations Sorex araneus L. in Eastern Europe was studied via sequencing of the mitochondrial gene cyt b. A total of 82 sequences of the mitochondrial gene cyt b with a length of 953 basepairs were analyzed, including five chromosome races in a continuous area of the species in forest zone and two races in fragmented area in the steppe zone. Phylogeographic subdivision of the common shrew was not expressed, and there was no significant correlation between genetic and geographic distances in continuous areas. We did not acquire convincing evidence of the influence of narrow hybrid zones between chromosome races on the flow of neutral alleles. A significant p-distance (0.69 ± 0.27%) of geographically close populations of the chromosome race Neroosa indicates the formation of the karyotype of this race in the Pliocene or Pleistocene. In our work, the phylogeographic structure was determined more by species area fragmentation than by its karyotypic features.

  11. Genomic Characterization of Yogue, Kasokero, Issyk-Kul, Keterah, Gossas, and Thiafora Viruses: Nairoviruses Naturally Infecting Bats, Shrews, and Ticks.

    PubMed

    Walker, Peter J; Widen, Steven G; Firth, Cadhla; Blasdell, Kim R; Wood, Thomas G; Travassos da Rosa, Amelia P A; Guzman, Hilda; Tesh, Robert B; Vasilakis, Nikos

    2015-11-01

    The genus Nairovirus of arthropod-borne bunyaviruses includes the important emerging human pathogen, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), as well as Nairobi sheep disease virus and many other poorly described viruses isolated from mammals, birds, and ticks. Here, we report genome sequence analysis of six nairoviruses: Thiafora virus (TFAV) that was isolated from a shrew in Senegal; Yogue (YOGV), Kasokero (KKOV), and Gossas (GOSV) viruses isolated from bats in Senegal and Uganda; Issyk-Kul virus (IKV) isolated from bats in Kyrgyzstan; and Keterah virus (KTRV) isolated from ticks infesting a bat in Malaysia. The S, M, and L genome segments of each virus were found to encode proteins corresponding to the nucleoprotein, polyglycoprotein, and polymerase protein of CCHFV. However, as observed in Leopards Hill virus (LPHV) and Erve virus (ERVV), polyglycoproteins encoded in the M segment lack sequences encoding the double-membrane-spanning CCHFV NSm protein. Amino acid sequence identities, complement-fixation tests, and phylogenetic analysis indicated that these viruses cluster into three groups comprising KKOV, YOGV, and LPHV from bats of the suborder Yingochiroptera; KTRV, IKV, and GOSV from bats of the suborder Yangochiroptera; and TFAV and ERVV from shrews (Soricomorpha: Soricidae). This reflects clade-specific host and vector associations that extend across the genus.

  12. Prevalence of leptospirosis and toxoplasmosis: a study of rodents and shrews in cultivated and fallow land, Morogoro rural district, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Mgode, Georgies F; Katakweba, Abdul S; Mhamphi, Ginethon G; Fwalo, Frank; Bahari, Mohamed; Mdangi, Mashaka; Kilonzo, Bukheti S; Mulungu, Loth S

    2014-07-01

    Leptospirosis and toxoplasmosis are among understudied zoonotic diseases that are also not diagnosed routinely in Tanzania. Humans get leptospirosis and toxoplasmosis through contact with an environment contaminated with Leptospira bacteria and Toxoplasma protozoa from reservoir hosts, which are rodents and cats, respectively. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of Leptospira and Toxoplasma infections in rodents and shrews in Mikese area of Morogoro Rural District in eastern Tanzania. A total of 89 rodents and one shrew from cultivated and fallow land were tested for leptospirosis using six Leptospira serovars: Sokoine, Kenya, Canicola, Lora, Hebdomadis and Pomona. Toxoplasmosis was determined in 46 rodents brain smears. The prevalence of leptospirosis was 25.8%, and Leptospira serovar Sokoine was the most prevalent serovar (16.9%). Toxoplasma was detected in one rodent (2.17%) individual while three rodent individuals had Toxoplasma-like parasites hence were considered suspect positive. Findings suggest potential existence of human leptospirosis which needs to be further investigated. Public awareness of leptospirosis and toxoplasmosis should be promoted and their diagnosis considered in patients in health care facilities.

  13. A multi-locus phylogeny of Nectogalini shrews and influences of the paleoclimate on speciation and evolution.

    PubMed

    He, Kai; Li, Ya-Jie; Brandley, Matthew C; Lin, Liang-Kong; Wang, Ying-Xiang; Zhang, Ya-Ping; Jiang, Xue-Long

    2010-08-01

    Nectogaline shrews are a major component of the small mammalian fauna of Europe and Asia, and are notable for their diverse ecology, including utilization of aquatic habitats. So far, molecular phylogenetic analyses including nectogaline species have been unable to infer a well-resolved, well-supported phylogeny, thus limiting the power of comparative evolutionary and ecological analyses of the group. Here, we employ Bayesian phylogenetic analyses of eight mitochondrial and three nuclear genes to infer the phylogenetic relationships of nectogaline shrews. We subsequently use this phylogeny to assess the genetic diversity within the genus Episoriculus, and determine whether adaptation to aquatic habitats evolved independently multiple times. Moreover, we both analyze the fossil record and employ Bayesian relaxed clock divergence dating analyses of DNA to assess the impact of historical global climate change on the biogeography of Nectogalini. We infer strong support for the polyphyly of the genus Episoriculus. We also find strong evidence that the ability to heavily utilize aquatic habitats evolved independently in both Neomys and Chimarrogale+Nectogale lineages. Our Bayesian molecular divergence analysis suggests that the early history of Nectogalini is characterized by a rapid radiation at the Miocene/Pliocene boundary, thus potentially explaining the lack of resolution at the base of the tree. Finally, we find evidence that nectogalines once inhabited northern latitudes, but the global cooling and desiccating events at the Miocene/Pliocene and Pliocene/Pleistocene boundaries and Pleistocene glaciation resulted in the migration of most Nectogalini lineages to their present day southern distribution.

  14. Microvascularization of the common tree shrew (Tupaia glis) superior cervical ganglion studied by vascular corrosion cast with scanning electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Chunhabundit, P; Thongpila, S; Mingsakul, T; Somana, R

    1993-01-01

    Microvascularization of the superior cervical ganglion (SCG) of the common tree shrew (Tupaia glis) was investigated by the vascular-corrosion-cast technique in conjunction with scanning electron microscopy. It was found that the SCG of the tree shrew is a highly vascularized organ. It receives arterial blood from branches of the external and common carotid arteries which enter the rostral and caudal portions of the ganglion. These arteries give rise to a subcapsular capillary plexus before branching off to form a group of densely packed intraganglionic capillaries. Moreover, the intraganglionic capillaries tend to follow a tortuous course that is essentially parallel to the longitudinal axis of the ganglion, and they form anastomoses with each other. In addition, the intraganglionic capillaries are also connected to a subcapsular capillary plexus. The capillaries of the SCG converge into venules and collecting veins which subsequently drain rostrally and caudally into the systemic veins. However, neither a pattern of blood vessels resembling glomeruli nor a portal-like intraganglionic microcirculation was observed.

  15. Adrenal microvascularization in the common tree shrew (Tupaia glis) as revealed by scanning electron microscopy of vascular corrosion casts.

    PubMed

    Thongpila, S; Rojananeungnit, S; Chunhabundit, P; Cherdchu, C; Samritthong, A; Somana, R

    1998-01-01

    The blood supply of the adrenal gland in the common tree shrew (Tupaia glis) was studied by use of transmission electron microscopy and vascular corrosion cast/scanning electron microscopy techniques. It was found that the gland receives its blood supply from branches of the inferior phrenic, aorta and renal arteries. Upon reaching the gland, these arteries divide into cortical and medullary arteries. The cortical arteries give rise to the subcapsular capillary plexuses which partially enclose the clusters of cells in the zona glomerulosa (ZG) and appear as lobular-like microvascular networks before running among the cellular cords in the zona fasciculata (ZF) and zona reticularis (ZR). It was noted that the capillaries in ZG and ZR are with more anastomoses than those in the ZF. Capillaries from the ZR become the sinusoidal capillaries in the adrenal medulla before proceeding to the peripheral radicles of the central vein. The medullary arteries penetrate the adrenal cortex and occasionally give off small branches to supply the inner cortex, especially the ZR. Their main branches break up into small or conventional capillaries in the adrenal medulla. These capillaries drain the blood into the peripheral radicles of the central vein and medullary collecting veins which proceed further into a very large central vein. The present findings illustrate that the adrenal medulla receives two blood supplies that yield somewhat different influences upon the adrenal medulla. The portal blood vessel could not be illustrated in the tree shrew adrenal gland.

  16. Intracortical Microstimulation Maps of Motor, Somatosensory, and Posterior Parietal Cortex in Tree Shrews (Tupaia belangeri) Reveal Complex Movement Representations.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Mary K L; Cooke, Dylan F; Krubitzer, Leah

    2017-02-01

    Long-train intracortical microstimulation (LT-ICMS) is a popular method for studying the organization of motor and posterior parietal cortex (PPC) in mammals. In primates, LT-ICMS evokes both multijoint and multiple-body-part movements in primary motor, premotor, and PPC. In rodents, LT-ICMS evokes complex movements of a single limb in motor cortex. Unfortunately, very little is known about motor/PPC organization in other mammals. Tree shrews are closely related to both primates and rodents and could provide insights into the evolution of complex movement domains in primates. The present study investigated the extent of cortex in which movements could be evoked with ICMS and the characteristics of movements elicited using both short train (ST) and LT-ICMS in tree shrews. We demonstrate that LT-ICMS and ST-ICMS maps are similar, with the movements elicited with ST-ICMS being truncated versions of those elicited with LT-ICMS. In addition, LT-ICMS-evoked complex movements within motor cortex similar to those in rodents. More complex movements involving multiple body parts such as the hand and mouth were also elicited in motor cortex and PPC, as in primates. Our results suggest that complex movement networks present in PPC and motor cortex were present in mammals prior to the emergence of primates.

  17. [Japanese Board Certified Thoracic Surgeon].

    PubMed

    Chihara, Koji

    2017-01-01

    The Japanese Board of General Thoracic Surgery (JBGTS) consisted by Japanese Association of Chest Surgery (JACS) and The Japanese Association of Thoracic Surgery (JATS) has been certified Japanese Board Certified Thoracic Surgeon (JBCTS) since 2004. At present, JBCTS is obtained by being of Certified Surgeon by Japan Surgical Society( JSS), completion of minimum requirement of surgical experience, scientific papers, presentation at medical assembly, learning of postgraduate educational programs, and examination approximate 11 years after graduation of medical school. Thirteen hundreds JBCTS throughout Japan are engaged in operation for 77,000 cases/year, including 38,000 lung cancer patients/year. The operative volume has been growing lineally these 30 years, and operative mortality in lung cancer patients has been less than 1% these several years. Japanese Medical Specialty Board (JMSB) published a guideline of the new system of medical specialty certification system in Jury 2014, in which fundamental structure is consisted by basic specialties of 19 medical fields and following subspecialties and program based system rather than curriculum based system. According to this guideline, JBGTS has been collaborated with JSS in order to establish sequential programs of the 2 specialties, and proposed an improved certification system to accomplish the mission that it educates trainees to be thoracic surgical professionals who is able to perform safe and standalized procedures.

  18. Color constancy in Japanese animation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichihara, Yasuyo G.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, we measure the colors used in a Japanese Animations. The result can be seen on CIE-xy color spaces. It clearly shows that the color system is not a natural appearance system but an imagined and artistic appearance system. Color constancy of human vision can tell the difference in skin and hair colors between under moonlight and day light. Human brain generates a match to the memorized color of an object from daylight viewing conditions to the color of the object in different viewing conditions. For example, Japanese people always perceive the color of the Rising Sun in the Japanese flag as red even in a different viewing condition such as under moonlight. Color images captured by a camera cannot present those human perceptions. However, Japanese colorists in Animation succeeded in painting the effects of color constancy not only under moonlight but also added the memory matching colors. They aim to create a greater impact on viewer's perceptions by using the effect of the memory matching colors. In this paper, we propose the Imagined Japanese Animation Color System. This system in art is currently a subject of research in Japan. Its importance is that it could also provide an explanation on how human brain perceives the same color under different viewing conditions.

  19. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome compared between native Japanese and Japanese-Americans.

    PubMed

    Yoneda, Masayasu; Yamane, Kiminori; Jitsuiki, Kuniaki; Nakanishi, Shuhei; Kamei, Nozomu; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Kohno, Nobuoki

    2008-03-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a condition characterized by the accumulation of multiple risk factors for atherosclerosis. Japanese-Americans in the U.S. have a more rapid and intense progression of atherosclerosis than native Japanese in Japan due to a westernization of their lifestyle. We investigated the prevalence of metabolic syndrome between 416 native Japanese (194 men and 222 women) in Hiroshima and 574 Japanese-Americans (217 men and 357 women) in Los Angeles, aged 30-89 years. According to the criteria proposed by the Japanese Society of Internal Medicine, the prevalence was 13.9 and 2.7% for native Japanese men and women, and 32.7 and 3.4% for Japanese-American men and women, respectively. According to the IDF or AHA/NHLBI criteria, the prevalence was 20.1 and 6.3%, and 38.7 and 4.5%, or 13.4 and 14.4%, and 30.9 and 27.7%, respectively. Thus, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in men was significantly higher in Japanese-American than in native Japanese by all the three criteria. However, the prevalence in women was similar between native Japanese and Japanese-American by the Japanese and IDF criteria, whereas it was significantly higher in Japanese-American than in native Japanese by the AHA/NHLBI criteria. This report demonstrates that a westernization of lifestyle can increase the prevalence of metabolic syndrome among Japanese-Americans as compared to native Japanese.

  20. Homogamy and Intermarriage of Japanese and Japanese Americans with Whites Surrounding World War II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ono, Hiromi; Berg, Justin

    2010-01-01

    Although some sociologists have suggested that Japanese Americans quickly assimilated into mainstream America, scholars of Japanese America have highlighted the heightened exclusion that the group experienced. This study tracked historical shifts in the exclusion level of Japanese and Japanese Americans in the United States surrounding World War…

  1. A Japanese Agenda for Management Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Howard

    1982-01-01

    Discusses myths about the Japanese management styles; what the West can learn from the Japanese; the concept of nonlinear management; and training modules which teach self-discipline, tolerance, and nonlinear management. (CT)

  2. A Mitochondrial Phylogeny and Biogeographical Scenario for Asiatic Water Shrews of the Genus Chimarrogale: Implications for Taxonomy and Low-Latitude Migration Routes

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Shou-Li; Jiang, Xue-Long; Li, Zhen-Ji; He, Kai; Harada, Masashi; Oshida, Tatsuo; Lin, Liang-Kong

    2013-01-01

    The six species and three subspecies in the genus Chimarrogale (Soricomorpha: Soricidae) are commonly referred to as Asiatic water shrews. The Chimarrogale are the most widely distributed group of Nectogaline shrews, extending throughout the Oriental region and Japan. Because of the limited numbers of specimens available for study, the phylogenetic relationships and biogeographical history of this genus have not been comprehensively discussed. We used mitochondrial cytochrome b gene sequences to estimate phylogenetic relationships and divergence times among four Chimarrogale species, including all three subspecies of Chimarrogale himalayica. We also conducted a species delimitation analysis and tested two alternative migration scenarios in Asia through species distribution modeling and a reconstruction of the ancestral distribution. Here, we present the first proposed hypothesis regarding the Asiatic water shrew phylogeny and reveal ten putative species within the four recognized species. Distinct phylogenetic statuses of Chimarrogale phaeura, Chimarrogale platycephala, and Chimarrogale styani were confirmed. Chimarrogale himalayica was strongly supported as paraphyletic. We suggest that three subspecies of Chimarrogale himalayica should be reconsidered as distinct species. However, these suggestions must be considered with caution because only a single locus of a mtDNA gene was used. Four additional putative species, possibly distributed in central southwestern China and Taiwan, are currently undescribed; therefore, comprehensive morphological analyses are warranted to test their taxonomic statuses. The estimated molecular divergence times indicated that rapid speciation occurred during the early Pliocene, and current distribution patterns may have been affected by global cooling during the Pliocene/Pleistocene boundary. Reconstruction of the ancestral distribution and species distribution modeling for Asiatic water shrews revealed a low-latitude migration route

  3. A mitochondrial phylogeny and biogeographical scenario for Asiatic water shrews of the genus Chimarrogale: implications for taxonomy and low-latitude migration routes.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Shou-Li; Jiang, Xue-Long; Li, Zhen-Ji; He, Kai; Harada, Masashi; Oshida, Tatsuo; Lin, Liang-Kong

    2013-01-01

    The six species and three subspecies in the genus Chimarrogale (Soricomorpha: Soricidae) are commonly referred to as Asiatic water shrews. The Chimarrogale are the most widely distributed group of Nectogaline shrews, extending throughout the Oriental region and Japan. Because of the limited numbers of specimens available for study, the phylogenetic relationships and biogeographical history of this genus have not been comprehensively discussed. We used mitochondrial cytochrome b gene sequences to estimate phylogenetic relationships and divergence times among four Chimarrogale species, including all three subspecies of Chimarrogale himalayica. We also conducted a species delimitation analysis and tested two alternative migration scenarios in Asia through species distribution modeling and a reconstruction of the ancestral distribution. Here, we present the first proposed hypothesis regarding the Asiatic water shrew phylogeny and reveal ten putative species within the four recognized species. Distinct phylogenetic statuses of Chimarrogale phaeura, Chimarrogale platycephala, and Chimarrogale styani were confirmed. Chimarrogale himalayica was strongly supported as paraphyletic. We suggest that three subspecies of Chimarrogale himalayica should be reconsidered as distinct species. However, these suggestions must be considered with caution because only a single locus of a mtDNA gene was used. Four additional putative species, possibly distributed in central southwestern China and Taiwan, are currently undescribed; therefore, comprehensive morphological analyses are warranted to test their taxonomic statuses. The estimated molecular divergence times indicated that rapid speciation occurred during the early Pliocene, and current distribution patterns may have been affected by global cooling during the Pliocene/Pleistocene boundary. Reconstruction of the ancestral distribution and species distribution modeling for Asiatic water shrews revealed a low-latitude migration route

  4. Fossil shrews from Honduras and their significance for late glacial evolution in body size (Mammalia: Soricidae: Cryptotis)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodman, N.; Croft, D.A.

    2005-01-01

    Our study of mammalian remains excavated in the 1940s from McGrew Cave, north of Copan, Honduras, yielded an assemblage of 29 taxa that probably accumulated predominantly as the result of predation by owls. Among the taxa present are three species of small-eared shrews, genus Cryptotis. One species, Cryptotis merriami, is relatively rare among the fossil remains. The other two shrews, Cryptotis goodwini and Cryptotis orophila, are abundant and exhibit morpho metrical variation distinguishing them from modern populations. Fossils of C. goodwini are distinctly and consistently smaller than modern members of the species. To quantify the size differences, we derived common measures of body size for fossil C. goodwini using regression models based on modern samples of shrews in the Cryptotis mexicana-group. Estimated mean length of head and body for the fossil sample is 72-79 mm, and estimated mean mass is 7.6-9.6 g. These numbers indicate that the fossil sample averaged 6-14% smaller in head and body length and 39-52% less in mass than the modern sample and that increases of 6-17% in head and body length and 65-108% in mass occurred to achieve the mean body size of the modern sample. Conservative estimates of fresh (wet) food intake based on mass indicate that such a size increase would require a 37-58% increase in daily food consumption. In contrast to C. goodwini, fossil C. orophila from the cave is not different in mean body size from modern samples. The fossil sample does, however, show slightly greater variation in size than is currently present throughout the modern geographical distribution of the taxon. Moreover, variation in some other dental and mandibular characters is more constrained, exhibiting a more direct relationship to overall size. Our study of these species indicates that North American shrews have not all been static in size through time, as suggested by some previous work with fossil soricids. Lack of stratigraphic control within the site and our

  5. Japanese respond to campaign.

    PubMed

    1994-08-01

    A unique campaign launched by JOICFP in August 1993 had by the end of June 1994 netted US $41,200 to support activities of the integrated Project (IP) in developing countries. Under the campaign, the public, institutions, organizations, and businesses have been sending in used prepaid cards for sale to collectors in Japan and abroad. Prepaid cards are widely used throughout Japan for phones, subways, railways and highways. Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corporation (NTT) alone issues 20 million cards annually. The campaign, which has been widely featured in the media, has proved effective for drawing attention to JOICFP and to population and family planning issues. Gaining the understanding of the Japanese public about population issues has grown in importance since the government's announcement of the new Global Issues Initiative (GII). Word about the campaign was carried by radio, television, newspapers, and magazines nationwide. The number of cards sent in escalated with the attention. By the end of June, JOICFP had received around 700,000 cards, of which 550,000 have been exchanged for cash. The funds generated by the card sales have been allocated to support grassroots IP activities and encourage the self-reliance of projects in China, Ghana, Guatemala, Nepal, Tanzania, and Zambia. Responses to the campaign have come from individuals as well as local governments, hospitals, enterprises, and educational institutions. Many of these have initiated their own card-collection system and information-dissemination activities to support JOICFP. Over 5000 different organizations are now collaborating with JOICFP for the campaign, including Tenmaya Department Store in Okayama City.

  6. Phylogenetic positions of insectivora in eutheria inferred from mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit II gene.

    PubMed

    Onuma, M; Kusakabe, T; Kusakabe, S

    1998-02-01

    For the elucidation of the phylogenetic position of insectivora in eutheria, we have sequenced the cytochrome c oxidase subunit II (COII) gene of mitochondria for three insectivoran species [musk screw (Suncus murinus), shrew mole (Urotrichus talpoides), Japanese mole (Mogera wogura)] and analyzed these amino acid sequences with neighbor-joining (NJ) method and maximum likelihood (ML) method. NJ analysis shows polyphyly of Insectivora and Chiroptera. Assuming that each of Primates, Ferungulata, Chiroptera, Insectivora and Rodentia is a monophyletic group, ML analysis suggests that Chiroptera is a sister group of Insectivora and that Ferungulata is the closest outgroup to the (Insectivora and Chiroptera) clade.

  7. Community structure variability of Uropodina mites (Acari: Mesostigmata) in nests of the common mole, Talpa europaea, in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Napierała, Agnieszka; Mądra, Anna; Leszczyńska-Deja, Kornelia; Gwiazdowicz, Dariusz J; Gołdyn, Bartłomiej; Błoszyk, Jerzy

    2016-04-01

    Underground nests of Talpa europaea, known as the common mole, are very specific microhabitats, which are also quite often inhabited by various groups of arthropods. Mites from the suborder Uropodina (Acari: Mesostigmata) are only one of them. One could expect that mole nests that are closely located are inhabited by communities of arthropods with similar species composition and structure. However, results of empirical studies clearly show that even nests which are close to each other can be different both in terms of the species composition and abundance of Uropodina communities. So far, little is known about the factors that can cause these differences. The major aim of this study was to identify factors determining species composition, abundance, and community structure of Uropodina communities in mole nests. The study is based on material collected during a long-term investigation conducted in western parts of Poland. The results indicate that the two most important factors influencing species composition and abundance of Uropodina communities in mole nests are nest-building material and depth at which nests are located. Composition of Uropodina communities in nests of moles was also compared with that of other microhabitats (e.g. rotten wood, forest litter, soil) based on data from 4421 samples collected in Poland. Communities of this habitat prove most similar to these of open areas, especially meadows, as well as some forest types.

  8. Expression pattern of cadherins in the naked mole rat (Heterocephalus glaber) suggests innate cortical diversification of the cerebrum.

    PubMed

    Matsunaga, Eiji; Nambu, Sanae; Iriki, Atsushi; Okanoya, Kazuo

    2011-06-15

    The cerebral cortex is an indispensable region for higher cognitive function that is remarkably diverse among mammalian species. Although previous research has shown that the cortical area map in the mammalian cerebral cortex is formed by innate and activity-dependent mechanisms, it remains unknown how these mechanisms contribute to the evolution and diversification of the functional cortical areas in various species. The naked mole rat (Heterocephalus glaber) is a subterranean, eusocial rodent. Physiological and anatomical studies have revealed that the visual system is regressed and the somatosensory system is enlarged. To examine whether species differences in cortical area development are caused by intrinsic factors or environmental factors, we performed comparative gene expression analysis of neonatal naked mole rat and mouse brains. The expression domain of cadherin-6, a somatosensory marker, was expanded caudally and shifted dorsally in the cortex, whereas the expression domain of cadherin-8, a visual marker, was reduced caudally in the neonatal naked mole rat cortex. The expression domain of cadherin-8 was also reduced in other visual areas, such as the lateral geniculate nucleus and superior colliculus. Immunohistochemical analysis of thalamocortical fibers further suggested that somatosensory input did not affect cortical gene expression in the neonatal naked mole rat brain. These results suggest that the development of the somatosensory system and the regression of the visual system in the naked mole rat cortex are due to intrinsic genetic mechanisms as well as sensory input-dependent mechanisms. Intrinsic genetic mechanisms thus appear to contribute to species diversity in cortical area formation.

  9. Effect of hypoxia on metabolic rate, core body temperature, and c-fos expression in the naked mole rat.

    PubMed

    Nathaniel, Thomas I; Otukonyong, Effiong; Abdellatif, Ahmed; Soyinka, Julius O

    2012-10-01

    Recent investigations of hypoxia physiology in the naked mole rat have opened up an interesting line of research into the basic physiological and genomic alterations that accompany hypoxia survival. The extent to which such findings connect the effect of hypoxia to metabolic rate (O₂ consumption), core body temperature (Tb), and transcripts encoding the immediate early gene product (such as c-fos) under a constant ambient temperature (Ta) is not well known. We investigated this issue in the current study. Our first sets of experiments measured Tb and metabolic rates during exposure of naked mole rats to hypoxia over a constant Ta. Hypoxia significantly decreased metabolic rates in the naked mole rat. Although core Tb also decreased during hypoxia, the effect of hypoxia in suppressing core Tb was not significant. The second series of experiments revealed that c-fos protein and mRNA expression in the hippocampus neurons (CA1) increased in naked mole rats that were repeatedly exposed to 3% O₂ for 60 min per day for 5 days when compared to normoxia. Our findings provide evidence for the up-regulation of c-fos and suppression of metabolic rate in hypoxia tolerating naked mole rats under constant ambient temperature. Metabolic suppression and c-fos upregulation constitute part of the physiological complex associated with adaptation to hypoxia.

  10. Three Views from Abroad: A Japanese Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakadome, Takeaki

    1993-01-01

    Japanese school management should consider more broad-based, active participation in school board policymaking and should democratize school board-school relationships by adopting the lay-control principle. Both U.S. and Japanese schools should improve the exercise of appropriate administrator leadership. Japanese schools are evaluated on a…

  11. A Cultural Context for Japanese Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wojtan, Linda S.

    1985-01-01

    Certain Japanese educational practices serving as worthwhile examples to the United States' educational system are highlighted in this overview of Japanese education. However, it is stressed that because the United States and the Japanese educational systems are dependent upon their social context and exist in a symbiotic relationship within that…

  12. Persistence of Ethnicity: The Japanese of Colorado.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Endo, Russell

    This paper presents an overview of the history of Japanese in Colorado. Japanese immigrants first came to Colorado between 1900 and 1910 as railroad laborers. Some became coal miners in southern Colorado; most others became farm laborers. Although the Japanese population during this period was small, communities developed in several locales. The…

  13. Schooling in Micronesia during Japanese Mandate Rule.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shuster, Donald R.

    1979-01-01

    This review of Japanese educational policy in Micronesia from 1920-36 describes the separate school systems established for natives and for Japanese immigrants. Native schools offered a shorter, less rigorous program whose main intent was socialization to Japanese language and culture. (SJL)

  14. The Work Values of Japanese Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engel, John W.

    Empirical studies of Japanese work ethics have tended to focus on male workers while neglecting women. In addition, work values in both Japan and the United States appear to be changing. More information is needed on the work values of American and Japanese female workers. A study was conducted to explore the work ethics of Japanese women and to…

  15. The Life Cycle of the Japanese Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumagai, Fumie

    1984-01-01

    Analyzes the existing Japanese population data, focusing on changes in the timing of e