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Sample records for japanese traditional herbal

  1. Traditional Japanese herbal medicines for treatment of odontopathy

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguchi, Kojiro

    2015-01-01

    This article highlights several refractory oral diseases, such as stomatitis, burning mouth syndrome (BMS), glossalgia, atypical facial pain (AFP), oral cancer, dry mouth, and Sjögren's syndrome (SJS), in which use of Japanese herbal medicines, Kampo medicines (KM), on the basis of Kampo theory could exert the maximum effects on human body. (1) In acute stomatitis, heat because of agitated vital energy may affect the head, chest, and middle abdominal region. Stomatitis is also related to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). There are many antioxidants in the crude extracts of KM. Thus, we can control environmental factors (cold, heat, dampness, dryness) and vital energy, blood, and fluid of the organ systemically using KM to treat stomatitis and eliminate local ROS accumulation. (2) BMS, glossalgia, and AFP are multifactorial syndromes involving the interaction of biological and psychological factors. Local temperature decrease and edema often occur in chronic pain. These are local circulatory disturbances that can be resolved by improving the flow of blood and fluid. Several KM, such as Tokishakuyakusan and Kamishoyosan (KSS), are effective for enhancing peripheral circulation. Those such as Saikokaryukotuboreito, Yokukansan, KSS, and Saibokutou can reduce stress and associated pain by altering glutamatergic and monoaminergic transmission in the brain. The clinical efficacy of KM for BMS and AFP may depend on the regulation of the mesolimbic dopaminergic and descending glutamatergic pain modulation systems. (3) Regarding oral cancer treatment, I introduce four possible applications of KM, inhibition of the proliferation of cancer cells, complementation of the main cancer therapy, reduction of side effect caused by the main anti-cancer therapy and improvement of quality of life such as the overall status and/or oral discomfort. This review explains in more details Hozai such as Hochuekkito (HET), Juzendaihoto, and Ninjinyoeito (NYT) that are frequently

  2. Effect of 34 kinds of traditional Japanese herbal medicines on prolongation of cardiac allograft survival.

    PubMed

    Jin, X; Uchiyama, M; Zhang, Q; Harada, T; Otsuka, K; Shimokawa, T; Niimi, M

    2014-05-01

    Herbal medicines have been used for over 3,000 years in Asian as alternative therapy for their variety effects and have recently become popular in Europe and the United States. In the last 30 years, Japanese herbal medicines were widely used for treatment of diseases after been recognized officially by Japanese government. In this study, we investigated the effect of 34 kinds of traditional Japanese herbal medicines on alloimmune responses in a murine model of cardiac allograft transplantation. CBA mice (H2(k)) underwent transplantation of a C57BL/6 (H2(b)) heart and received oral administration of 2 g/kg/d of the 34 kinds of herbal medicines from the day of transplantation until 7 days afterward. Naïve CBA mice rejected B6 cardiac grafts acutely (median survival time [MST], 7 days). CBA transplant recipients given 2 g/kg/d of Sairei-to (TJ-114) and Tokishakuyaku-san (TJ-23) had prolonged C57BL/6 allograft survival indefinitely (both MSTs > 100 days). Moreover, CBA transplant recipients given Seisinrensiin (TJ-111), Tokishigyakukagoshuyushokyoto (TJ-38), Rikkunshito (TJ-43), Maobushisaishinto (TJ-127), Ninjin-yoei-to (TJ-108), Ryokan-kyomi-shinge-nin-to (TJ-119), Inchingorei-san (TJ-117), Hochuekkito (TJ-41), Kihi-to (TJ-65), and Sinbu-to (TJ-30) had also prolonged C57BL/6 allograft survival significantly (MSTs of 28, 22, 16, 14, 14, 13, 12, 9.5, 9 and 9 days, respectively). However, none of other 22 kinds of herbal medicines could prolong the allograft survival. Furthermore, oral administration of 2 g/kg/d of Daikenchuto (TJ-100) induced sudden death (within 1 minute) in CBA mice. In conclusion, 12 kinds of Japanese herbal medicines prolonged allograft survival and one showed toxic effect in mice.

  3. Ginseng in Traditional Herbal Prescriptions

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ho Jae; Kim, Dong Hyun; Park, Se Jin; Kim, Jong Min; Ryu, Jong Hoon

    2012-01-01

    Panax ginseng Meyer has been widely used as a tonic in traditional Korean, Chinese, and Japanese herbal medicines and in Western herbal preparations for thousands of years. In the past, ginseng was very rare and was considered to have mysterious powers. Today, the efficacy of drugs must be tested through well-designed clinical trials or meta-analyses, and ginseng is no exception. In the present review, we discuss the functions of ginseng described in historical documents and describe how these functions are taken into account in herbal prescriptions. We also discuss the findings of experimental pharmacological research on the functions of ginseng in ginseng-containing prescriptions and how these prescriptions have been applied in modern therapeutic interventions. The present review on the functions of ginseng in traditional prescriptions helps to demystify ginseng and, as a result, may contribute to expanding the use of ginseng or ginseng-containing prescriptions. PMID:23717123

  4. Maturation of monocyte-derived dendritic cells by Hochu-ekki-to, a traditional Japanese herbal medicine.

    PubMed

    Nabeshima, Shigeki; Murata, Masayuki; Hamada, Maki; Chong, Yong; Yamaji, Kouzaburo; Hayashi, Jun

    2004-01-01

    To investigate the immunological effect of the traditional Japanese herbal medicine (kampo), Hochu-ekki-to (HOT), on dendritic cells (DC), we examined in vitro if HOT would stimulate the maturation process of human monocyte-derived DC as do TNF-alpha and LPS. Monocytes from a healthy volunteer were cultured in the presence of IL-4 and GM-CSF, and the generated immature DC were stimulated with HOT, TNF-alpha, or LPS (HOT-DC, TNF-DC, and LPS-DC, respectively) for 2 days. Flow cytometric analysis showed that HOT stimulated DC to express the surface maturation markers CD80, CD83, and CD86 dose-dependently and that the up-regulation level was identical to TNF-alpha and LPS. The antigen-uptake capacity of HOT-DC was determined by FITC-labeled albumin uptake. HOT-DC lost albumin uptake capacity comparable to LPS-DC, indicating DC maturity. IL-12 (p70) production by HOT-DC and TNF-DC was not increased in comparison with LPS-DC. The antigen-presenting capacity of HOT-DC as analyzed by allogeneic T cell proliferation was significantly increased in comparison with immature DC and was identical to LPS-DC. These results demonstrate that HOT stimulates DC maturation as well as the other known maturation factors, despite low IL-12 production, and suggests the possibility that DC maturation by HOT can play an important role in the improvement of the immunoregulatory function in patients with impaired host defense.

  5. Hochuekkito, a Kampo (Traditional Japanese Herbal) Medicine, and its Polysaccharide Portion Stimulate G-CSF Secretion from Intestinal Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Tsukasa; Moriya, Michiyo; Kiyohara, Hiroaki; Tabuchi, Yoshiaki; Yamada, Haruki

    2010-09-01

    Kampo (traditional Japanese herbal) medicines are taken orally due to which the gastric mucosal immune system may act as one of the major targets for the expression of pharmacological activity. The inner surface of the intestinal tract possesses a large area of mucosal membranes, and the intestinal epithelial cells sit at the interface between a lumen and a lymphocyte-rich lamina propria. The cross talk that occurs between these compartments serves to maintain intestinal homeostasis, and the cytokine network plays an important role in the cross talk. In this study, the effect of Hochuekkito (HET), one of Kampo medicines, on cytokine secretion of intestinal epithelial cells was investigated. When murine normal colonic epithelial cell-line MCE301 cells were stimulated with HET, the contents of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) in the conditioned medium were significantly increased in dose- and time-dependent manners. The enhanced G-CSF gene transcription in MCE301 cells by the stimulation of HET was observed by RT-PCR. The enhanced G-CSF secretion by HET was also observed in C3H/HeJ mice-derived primary cultured colonic epithelial cells. When the HET was fractionated, only the polysaccharide fraction (F-5) enhanced the G-CSF secretion of MCE301 cells, and the activity of F-5 lost after the treatment of periodate that can degrade the carbohydrate moiety. These results suggest that HET enhances secretion of G-CSF from colonic epithelial cells and the polysaccharide is one of the active ingredients of HET. The enhanced G-CSF secretion by HET may partly contribute to the clinically observed various pharmacological activities of HET including immunomodulating activity.

  6. Modulation of chemokine expression on intestinal epithelial cells by Kampo (traditional Japanese herbal) medicine, Hochuekkito, and its active ingredients.

    PubMed

    Sekiya, Michiko; Kiyohara, Hiroaki; Maruyama, Hiroko; Yabe, Takeshi; Yamada, Haruki

    2013-07-01

    The intestinal epithelial cells sit at the interface between a lumen and a lamina propria or lymph nodes such as Peyer's patches, where they play important roles in maintaining intestinal homeostasis through chemokine secretion. This study investigated the effect of Hochuekkito (TJ-41)-a traditional Japanese herbal (Kampo) formula used as a tonic for weakness-on chemokine expression in intestinal epithelial cells in order to explore the mechanism of its modulating effect against mucosal immunity. When cells from the rat normal small intestinal epithelial cell-line IEC-6 were stimulated with TJ-41, mRNA expression of CC chemokine ligand (CCL) 11 (eotaxin), CCL20 (MIP-3α) and CCL25 (TECK) was enhanced. Oral administration of TJ-41 to methotrexate-treated mice enhanced mRNA expression of CCL25 and keratinocyte growth factor in the jejunum with, decreasing mRNA expression of the inflammatory marker tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. Although oral administration of TJ-41 did not affect CCL20 mRNA expression in villus epithelium of methotrexate-treated mice, enhancement of CCL20 mRNA expression was observed in Peyer's patches. Immunohistochemical analysis detected dense staining with anti-CCL20 antibody in the follicle-associated epithelium region of Peyer's patches in mice administered TJ-41. Analysis of active ingredients indicates that polysaccharide-containing macromolecules in TJ-41 contribute to the enhancement of CCL20 mRNA expression through an intracellular signal cascade via nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) activation.

  7. Pharmacokinetics of Active Components of Yokukansan, a Traditional Japanese Herbal Medicine after a Single Oral Administration to Healthy Japanese Volunteers: A Cross-Over, Randomized Study

    PubMed Central

    Kitagawa, Hiroyuki; Munekage, Masaya; Ichikawa, Kengo; Fukudome, Ian; Munekage, Eri; Takezaki, Yuka; Matsumoto, Takashi; Igarashi, Yasushi; Hanyu, Haruo; Hanazaki, Kazuhiro

    2015-01-01

    Context Yokukansan (YKS) is a traditional Japanese herbal medicine called kampo medicine in Japan. Its extract comprises seven crude drugs: Atractylodis lanceae rhizoma, Poria, Cnidii rhizoma, Uncariae uncis cum ramulus, Angelicae radix, Bupleuri radix, and Glycyrrhizae radix. YKS is used to treat neurosis, insomnia, as well as behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia. Objective To confirm the exposure and pharmacokinetics of the active components of YKS in healthy volunteers. Design, Setting, and Participants A randomized, open-label, 3-arm, 3-period, crossover trial was conducted on 21 healthy Japanese volunteers at the Kochi Medical University between May 2012 and November 2012. Interventions Single oral administration of YKS (2.5 g, 5.0 g, or 7.5 g/day) during each period. Main Outcome Measure Plasma concentrations of three active compounds in YKS, namely 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid (GA), geissoschizine methyl ether (GM), and hirsuteine (HTE). Results The mean maximum plasma concentrations (Cmax) of GM and HTE increased dose-dependently (ranges: 0.650–1.98 ng/mL and 0.138–0.450 ng/mL, respectively). The times to maximum plasma concentration after drug administration (tmax) were 0.500 h for GM and 0.975–1.00 h for HTE. The apparent elimination half-lives (t1/2) were 1.72–1.95 h for GM and 2.47–3.03 h for HTE. These data indicate the rapid absorption and elimination of GM and HTE. On the other hand, the Cmax, tmax, and t1/2 of GA were 57.7–108 ng/mL, 8.00–8.01 h, and 9.39–12.3 h, respectively. Conclusion We demonstrated that pharmacologically active components of YKS are detected in humans. Further, we determined the pharmacokinetics of GM, HTE, and GA. This information will be useful to elucidate the pharmacological effects of YKS. Trial Registration Japan Pharmaceutical Information Center JAPIC CTI-121811 PMID:26151135

  8. Japanese herbal medicine in functional gastrointestinal disorders.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, H; Inadomi, J M; Hibi, T

    2009-07-01

    Management of functional gastrointestinal disorders is hindered by both poor efficacy and adverse effects of traditional pharmacological therapy. Herbal medicine may be an attractive alternative based on the perception of its 'natural' approach and low risk of side effects; however, the lack of standardization of drug components has limited the ability to perform rigorous clinical studies in Western countries. Japanese herbal medicine (JHM) is a standardized form of herbal medicine with regards to the quality and quantities of ingredients. While extensively studied and widely used in Asia, there is a paucity of data upon which physicians in other parts of the world may draw conclusions regarding the effectiveness of herbal medicine for gastrointestinal disorders. The aim of this study was to summarize the most recent developments in JHM for treatment of functional gastrointestinal disorders. Animal and human studies were systematically reviewed to identify published data of JHM used for treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. The herbal components of JHM were examined. Results describing the physiological and clinical effects of JHM were abstracted, with an emphasis on functional gastrointestinal disorders. JHM are associated with a variety of beneficial physiological on the gastrointestinal system. Patient-based clinical outcomes are improved in several conditions. Rikkunnshi-to reduces symptoms and reverses physiological abnormalities associated with functional dyspepsia, while dai-kenchu-to improves symptoms of postoperative ileus and constipation in children. This updated summary of JHM in the field of gastrointestinal disorders illustrates the potential for herbal medication to serve a valuable role in the management of patients with functional gastrointestinal disorders.

  9. Therapeutic Effects of Saireito (Chai-Ling-Tang), a Traditional Japanese Herbal Medicine, on Lymphedema Caused by Radiotherapy: A Case Series Study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Despite the development of radiotherapy machines and technologies, a proportion of patients suffer from radiation-induced lymphedema. Saireito (SRT) is a traditional Japanese herbal medicine that has been used for treating edema and inflammation in conditions such as nephritic disease. This study investigated the effect of SRT on lymphedema caused by radiotherapy. Four patients were treated with SRT at a dose of 9 g/day. The severity of lymphedema was evaluated using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4 and Numerical Rating Scale before and after SRT treatment. After the treatment with SRT, 2 of 4 patients (50%) showed apparent improvement in lymphedema. One of the cases had difficulty in wearing the custom-made thermoplastic cast, but after SRT administration, he could wear the mask easily. One case decided to stop taking SRT 3 days after initiation because cough and fever appeared. In conclusion, it is important to control the side effects of radiotherapy, which leads to improved tumor control rates. Prospective randomized studies are necessary to confirm the findings of this case series study. PMID:23861700

  10. Saireito (TJ-114), a Japanese traditional herbal medicine, reduces 5-fluorouracil-induced intestinal mucositis in mice by inhibiting cytokine-mediated apoptosis in intestinal crypt cells.

    PubMed

    Kato, Shinichi; Hayashi, Shusaku; Kitahara, Yumeno; Nagasawa, Koyo; Aono, Hitomi; Shibata, Junichiro; Utsumi, Daichi; Amagase, Kikuko; Kadowaki, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    Clinical chemotherapy frequently causes intestinal mucositis as a side effect, which is accompanied by severe diarrhea. We recently showed that the cytokine-mediated apoptotic pathway might be important for the development of intestinal mucositis induced by 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). Saireito, the traditional Japanese herbal (Kampo) medicine, is widely used to treat diarrhea and various inflammatory diseases in Japan. In the present study, we investigated the effect of saireito on 5-FU-induced intestinal mucositis in mice, especially in relation to apoptosis in the intestinal crypt. Male C57BL/6 mice were given 5-FU (50 mg/kg), i.p. once daily for 6 days. Intestinal mucositis was evaluated histochemically. Saireito (100-1000 mg/kg) was administered p.o. twice daily for 6 days. Repeated 5-FU treatment caused severe intestinal mucositis including morphological damage, which was accompanied by body weight loss and diarrhea. Daily administration of saireito reduced the severity of intestinal mucositis in a dose-dependent manner. Body weight loss and diarrhea during 5-FU treatment were also significantly attenuated by saireito administration. The number of apoptotic and caspase-3-activated cells in the intestinal crypt was increased, and was accompanied by up-regulated tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-1β mRNA within 24 h of the first 5-FU injection. However, all of these measures were significantly lower after saireito administration. These results suggest that saireito attenuates 5-FU-induced intestinal mucositis. This action may come from the reduction of apoptosis in the intestinal crypt via suppression of the up-regulation of inflammatory cytokines. Therefore, saireito may be clinically useful for the prevention of intestinal mucositis during cancer chemotherapy.

  11. Polysaccharide-Containing Macromolecules in a Kampo (Traditional Japanese Herbal) Medicine, Hochuekkito: Dual Active Ingredients for Modulation of Immune Functions on Intestinal Peyer's Patches and Epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Kiyohara, Hiroaki; Nonaka, Kazuki; Sekiya, Michiko; Matsumoto, Tsukasa; Nagai, Takayuki; Tabuchi, Yoshiaki; Yamada, Haruki

    2011-01-01

    A traditional Japanese herbal (Kampo) medicine, Hochuekkito (Bu-Zhong-Yi-Qi-Tang in Chinese, TJ-41) is a well-known Kampo formula, and has been found to enhance antigen-specific antibody response in not only local mucosal immune system in upper respiratory tract, but also systemic immune system through upper respiratory mucosal immune system. Although this immunopharmacological effect has been proposed to express by modulation of intestinal immune system including Peyer's patches and intestinal epithelial cells, active ingredients are not known. TJ-41 directly affected the production of bone marrow cell-proliferative growth factors from murine Peyer's patch immunocompetent cells in vitro. Among low molecular, intermediate size and macromolecular weight fractions prepared from TJ-41, only fraction containing macromolecular weight ingredients showed Peyer's patch-mediated bone marrow cell-proliferation enhancing activity. Anion-exchange chromatography and gel filtration gave 17 subfractions comprising polysaccharides and lignins from the macromolecular weight fraction of TJ-41, and some of the subfractions showed significant enhancing activities having different degrees. Some of the subfractions also expressed stimulating activity on G-CSF-production from colonic epithelial cells, and statistically significant positive correlation was observed among enhancing activities of the subfractions against Peyer's patch immunocompetent cells and epithelial cells. Among the fractions from TJ-41 oral administration of macromolecular weight ingredient fraction to mice succeeded to enhance antigen-specific antibody response in systemic immune system through upper respiratory mucosal immune system, but all the separated fractions failed to enhance the in vivo antibody response in upper respiratory tract. PMID:19965961

  12. Hochuekkito, a Kampo (traditional Japanese herbal) Medicine, Enhances Mucosal IgA Antibody Response in Mice Immunized with Antigen-entrapped Biodegradable Microparticles.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Tsukasa; Noguchi, Masaaki; Hayashi, Osamu; Makino, Kimiko; Yamada, Haruki

    2010-03-01

    The effect of oral administration of Hochuekkito (HET; Bu-Zhong-Yi-Qi-Tang in Chinese), a traditional Japanese herbal medicine, on mucosal IgA immune response was investigated. To induce the antigen-specific antibodies in mucosal site, ovalbumin (OVA)-entrapped biodegradable microparticles (OVA-microparticles) were used as an antigen. Mice were orally immunized with OVA-microparticles for 3 successive days with intragastric gavage. From 7 days after the onset of immunization, the mice were boosted twice a week with the same antigen for 2 weeks. HET or water alone was orally administered to the mice via the intragastric route from 7 days before to 27 days after the onset of immunization. Although no significant change in total secretory IgA antibody level was observed in intestinal and nasal washes, OVA-specific IgA titers in intestinal washes were significantly enhanced by oral administration of HET. When lymphocytes from spleen, peripheral blood and Payer's patches were investigated for cytokines production, it was found that the IFN-γ secretion from the lymphocytes was increased by the administration of HET. Microarray analysis of Peyer's patch cells revealed enhanced expression of L-selectin gene. The increase of L-selectin positive cells in B lymphocytes fraction was observed in Peyer's patch cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells by flow cytometry. These results suggest that the enhanced IFN-γ secretion and increased population of L-selectin positive B lymphocytes by orally administered HET may partly contribute to enhancement of IgA immune response against intestinal antigens, and orally administered HET may strengthen defensive systems against various pathogens and food antigens in intestine.

  13. Polysaccharide-Containing Macromolecules in a Kampo (Traditional Japanese Herbal) Medicine, Hochuekkito: Dual Active Ingredients for Modulation of Immune Functions on Intestinal Peyer's Patches and Epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Kiyohara, Hiroaki; Nonaka, Kazuki; Sekiya, Michiko; Matsumoto, Tsukasa; Nagai, Takayuki; Tabuchi, Yoshiaki; Yamada, Haruki

    2011-01-01

    A traditional Japanese herbal (Kampo) medicine, Hochuekkito (Bu-Zhong-Yi-Qi-Tang in Chinese, TJ-41) is a well-known Kampo formula, and has been found to enhance antigen-specific antibody response in not only local mucosal immune system in upper respiratory tract, but also systemic immune system through upper respiratory mucosal immune system. Although this immunopharmacological effect has been proposed to express by modulation of intestinal immune system including Peyer's patches and intestinal epithelial cells, active ingredients are not known. TJ-41 directly affected the production of bone marrow cell-proliferative growth factors from murine Peyer's patch immunocompetent cells in vitro. Among low molecular, intermediate size and macromolecular weight fractions prepared from TJ-41, only fraction containing macromolecular weight ingredients showed Peyer's patch-mediated bone marrow cell-proliferation enhancing activity. Anion-exchange chromatography and gel filtration gave 17 subfractions comprising polysaccharides and lignins from the macromolecular weight fraction of TJ-41, and some of the subfractions showed significant enhancing activities having different degrees. Some of the subfractions also expressed stimulating activity on G-CSF-production from colonic epithelial cells, and statistically significant positive correlation was observed among enhancing activities of the subfractions against Peyer's patch immunocompetent cells and epithelial cells. Among the fractions from TJ-41 oral administration of macromolecular weight ingredient fraction to mice succeeded to enhance antigen-specific antibody response in systemic immune system through upper respiratory mucosal immune system, but all the separated fractions failed to enhance the in vivo antibody response in upper respiratory tract.

  14. Efficacy of keishibukuryogan, a traditional Japanese herbal medicine, in treating cold sensation and numbness after stroke: clinical improvement and skin temperature normalization in 22 stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Keishi; Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Kamezaki, Takao; Matsumura, Akira

    2010-01-01

    Cold sensation and numbness have been reported as post-stroke sensory sequelae attributable to distal axonopathy, which is caused by chronic ischemia of diseased limbs resulting from dysfunction of vasomotor regulatory systems. Keishibukuryogan is a traditional herbal medicine used to treat symptoms of peripheral ischemia such as cold extremities. This study investigated clinical improvement and skin temperature in peripheral ischemia patients to determine the efficacy of keishibukuryogan in alleviating post-stroke cold sensation and numbness. Twenty-two stroke patients with cold sensation and/or numbness were enrolled in this study. Subjective cold sensation and numbness, evaluated using the visual analogue scale, were found in 21 and 31 limbs, respectively. The skin temperature of diseased and healthy limbs was recorded. We observed all patients for 4 weeks and 17 patients for 8 weeks after administration of keishibukuryogan. The skin temperature of diseased limbs was significantly higher than baseline at 4 weeks and 8 weeks, whereas that of healthy limbs did not change significantly. Cold sensation and numbness were significantly improved at 4 weeks and 8 weeks compared to baseline. Keishibukuryogan administration resulted in warming of diseased limbs and improved cold sensation and numbness, probably by increasing peripheral blood flow.

  15. Safety of Traditional Arab Herbal Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Saad, Bashar; Azaizeh, Hassan; Abu-Hijleh, Ghassan; Said, Omar

    2006-01-01

    Herbal remedies are widely used for the treatment and prevention of various diseases and often contain highly active pharmacological compounds. Many medicinal herbs and pharmaceutical drugs are therapeutic at one dose and toxic at another. Toxicity related to traditional medicines is becoming more widely recognized as these remedies become popular in the Mediterranean region as well as worldwide. Most reports concerning the toxic effects of herbal medicines are associated with hepatotoxicity although reports of other toxic effects including kidney, nervous system, blood, cardiovascular and dermatologic effects, mutagenicity and carcinogenicity have also been published in the medical literature. This article presents a systematic review on safety of traditional Arab medicine and the contribution of Arab scholars to toxicology. Use of modern cell biological, biochemical, in vitro and in vivo techniques for the evaluation of medicinal plants safety is also discussed. PMID:17173106

  16. The clinical use of Kampo medicines (traditional Japanese herbal treatments) for controlling cancer patients’ symptoms in Japan: a national cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Kampo medicines are traditional Japanese medicines produced from medicinal plants and herbs. Even though the efficacy of Kampo medicines for controlling cancer-related symptoms is being reported, their actual nationwide clinical use has not been comprehensively investigated. We aimed to investigate physicians’ recognition of Kampo medicines and their clinical use for cancer patients in the field of palliative care. Methods A cross-sectional self-administered anonymous questionnaire was distributed to 549 physicians working in palliative care teams at 388 core cancer treatment hospitals and 161 certified medical institutions that have palliative care units (PCUs). Results Valid responses were obtained from 311 physicians (response rate, 56.7%) who were evenly distributed throughout the country without significant geographical biases. Kampo medicines were prescribed for controlling cancer-related symptoms by 64.3% of the physicians. The symptoms treated with Kampo medicines were numbness/hypoesthesia (n = 99, 49.5%), constipation (n = 76, 38.0%), anorexia/weight loss (n = 72, 36%), muscle cramps (n = 71, 35.5%) and languor/fatigue (n = 64, 32.0%). Regarding open issues about prescription, 60.7% (n = 173) of the physicians raised the issue that the dosage forms need to be better devised. Conclusions To increase the clinical use of Kampo medicines, more evidence from clinical studies is necessary. In addition, their mechanisms of action should be clarified through laboratory studies. PMID:23167528

  17. Antifertility effect of Jamu (traditional herbal medicine).

    PubMed

    Azimahtol Hawariah Lope Pihie; Embun Naim

    1983-12-01

    Rahwana and Kursani, 2 brands of jamu, a traditional Malay herbal medicine, were investigated for antifertility properties in rats and mice. The findings suggest that jamu has an antifertility effect in both these rodents. This effect appears to be dose dependent and in addition the stage at which it was fed also appears to be crucial for the effect to manifest. Rahwana is effective when fed on day 4 of gestation. However jamu Kursani does not appear to be dose dependent and is effective when fed on days 1 and 4 of gestation. Jamu Rahwana does not alter the LH or estrogen levels in rats. Therefore, the induction of the antifertility effect is suggested to be by means other than hormonal. It is felt that jamu either inhibits the implantation of the zygote or causes resorption of the fetus. Whether any antifertility effect exists in women using jamu remain to be clarified. The mechanism of action, its reliability and effectiveness as a contraceptive, the side effects, if any, pharmacology of the active ingredient and other relevant investigations need to be carried out before it can be recommended for human use. The study does indicate that jamu has potential as an antifertility agent and could be effectively used in fertility regulation.

  18. Green Medicine: Traditional Mexican-American Herbal Remedies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres, Eliseo

    Traditional Mexican American herbal potions and remedies and their history are explained in an introductory book for the general reader. The importance of curanderismo, or green medicine, in Mexican and Mexican American cultures is explored. A brief history traces the herbal aspects of curanderismo through Mayan and Aztec cultures, the Spanish…

  19. Safety concerns of herbal products and traditional Chinese herbal medicines: Dehydopyrrolizidine alkaloids and aristolochic acid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In many countries, including the United States, herbal supplements, tisanes and vegetable products including traditional Chinese medicines are largely unregulated and their content is not registered, monitored or verified. Consequently potent plant toxins including dehydopyrrolizidine alkaloids and...

  20. Safety concerns of herbal products and traditional Chinese herbal medicines: Dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids and aristolochic acid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In many countries, including the United States, herbal supplements, tisanes and vegetable products, including traditional Chinese medicines, are largely unregulated and their content is not registered, monitored or verified. Consequently, potent plant toxins including dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids ...

  1. Traditional herbal medicines worldwide, from reappraisal to assessment in Europe.

    PubMed

    van Galen, Emiel

    2014-12-02

    Since 2004 the regulatory framework within the European Union has a specific assessment procedure for herbal medicinal products, with a medicinal use based on traditional practice. The main requirement concerning the traditional use is focussed on the period of time for medical use: at least 30 years, including 15 years in the EU. In addition to requirements for quality and safety, an evaluation of pharmacological effects or efficacy based on long-standing use, is a main objective. "Traditional Use" however encompasses European, and non-European traditional use. Outside the EU, the medicinal use of herbal substances, preparations, and combinations is well-known, with a long history, which is well-documented in the different systems of medical practice. This has been addressed by WHO, but it has been acknowledged also by European Commission that herbal products from other systems of medicine, can be subject to the procedure for traditional herbal medicinal products. This paper will focus on the possibilities, restraints, and challenges of regulatory practice in the European Union regarding these category of medicinal products.

  2. Traditional herbal remedies in Buldhana District (Maharashtra, India)

    PubMed Central

    Ahirrao, Ya; Patil, PS; Aher, UP; Dusing, YA; Patil, DA

    2009-01-01

    The paper documents traditional herbal remedies from buldhana district of Maharashtra (India). The plant parts most commonly used are bark, leaves, flowers, fruits and seeds, apart from plant products like latex and gum. The medicaments include recipes like decoction, infusion, paste, ash, extract juice, besides gum and latex. There are mainly used afresh. Occasionally, these are supplemented by domestic edible substances of plant-origin. The reliance on herbal medicines for healthcare is associated with traditional belief of effectiveness as well as poor economic status. Role of homestead gardens in native phytotherapy is being focused for the first time from this region. The first-hand information adduced is desired to divulge new lead molecules or will add new sources of herbal medicine. PMID:22557332

  3. Safety concerns of herbal products and traditional Chinese herbal medicines: dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids and aristolochic acid.

    PubMed

    Stegelmeier, Bryan L; Brown, Ammon W; Welch, Kevin D

    2015-12-01

    In many countries, including the United States, herbal supplements, tisanes and vegetable products, including traditional Chinese medicines, are largely unregulated and their content is not registered, monitored or verified. Consequently, potent plant toxins including dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids and other potential carcinogens can contaminate these products. As herbal and food supplement producers are left to their own means to determine the safety and purity of their products prior to marketing, disturbingly often good marketing practices currently in place are ignored and content is largely undocumented. Historical examples of poisoning and health issues relating to plant material containing dehydopyrrolizidine alkaloids and aristolochic acids were used as examples to demonstrate the risk and potential toxicity of herbal products, food supplements, or traditional medicines. More work is needed to educate consumers of the potential risk and require the industry to be more responsible to verify the content and insure the safety of their products.

  4. The European role on traditional herbal medicinal products and traditional plant food supplements.

    PubMed

    Serafini, Mauro; Stanzione, Alessandra; Foddai, Sebastiano; Anton, Robert; Delmulle, Luc

    2012-10-01

    Herbs are used in Europe as medicinal products, food, food supplements, and related products. This paper will discuss the concepts of Traditional Herbal Medicines and Traditional Plant Food Supplements, defined in European legislation under differing legal frameworks, regarding Traditional Plant Food Supplements (including Claims Regulation) and the role of the European Food Safety Authority in health claims.

  5. Herbal mixtures in the traditional medicine of eastern Cuba.

    PubMed

    Cano, Juan Hernández; Volpato, Gabriele

    2004-02-01

    Herbal mixtures in the traditional medicine of Eastern Cuba. Traditional herbal mixtures in Eastern Cuba are investigated through interviews with 130 knowledgeable people and traditional healers of the provinces of Santiago de Cuba and Guantánamo. One hundred seventy plant species and other products are used in 199 formulas, galones being the more complex. Cocos nucifera L. (Arecaceae), Bidens pilosa L. (Asteraceae), Cissus sicyoides L. (Vitaceae), Erythroxylum havanense Jacq. (Erythroxylaceae) and Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (L.) Vahl. (Verbenaceae) are the species most frequently cited. The ecological distribution of the taxa and cultural and anthropological aspects of mixtures are highlighted; particularly American and African influences that have shaped local knowledge about plant combinations are discussed.

  6. Traditional herbal medicine for the control of tropical diseases.

    PubMed

    Na-Bangchang, Kesara; Karbwang, Juntra

    2014-06-01

    Throughout history, traditional herbal medicine has afforded a rich repository of remedies with diverse chemical structures and bioactivities against several health disorders. A common issue of herbal medicine is the limitation of information on their pharmacological activities and their active constituents. Traditionally, the use of herbal medicine has been based on empirical treatment and passed on from generation to generation with information available only in local journals. This prevents several herbal medicines from being developed to their full potential. The presentation will focus on research and development of Atractylodes lancea (Thunb) DC. (AL: family Compositae) as a potential chemotherapeutic for cholangiocarcinoma (CCA), the bile duct cancer commonly found in Southeast Asia. The dried rhizome of AL is a medicinal plant used in Chinese ("Cang Zhu"), Japan ("So-jutsu") and Thai ("Khod-Kha-Mao") traditional medicine for its various pharmacological properties including anticancer, anti-inflammation and antimicrobial activities, activities on central nervous, cardiovascular, and gastrointestinal systems. The major constituents in the essential oils from AL rhizome are β-eudesmol, hinesol and atractylon. Preliminary investigation has demonstrated its promising anti-CCA activity both in vitro and animal (Opisthorchis viverrini/dimethylnitrosamine-induced CCA in hamsters and CCA-xenografted nude mice) models with high selectivity index comparing with the standard drug, 5-fluorouracil. It also showed virtually no toxicity with only minimal CNS effects on locomotor activity at the maximum dose of 5,000 mg/kg body weight. Studies are underway to identify active constituent(s) which contribute to anti-CCA activity as well as its pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties. The main research interest of my research group is the discovery and development of traditional herbal medicine for the treatment of two important tropical diseases, cholangiocarcinoma

  7. Herbal Medicines for Leucorrhea According to Iranian Traditional Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Dehdari, Sahar; Hajimehdipoor, Homa

    2016-01-01

    Background: Leucorrhea or vaginal discharge is a conventional complaint. It is generally whitish, yellowish, or greenish vaginal discharge in females that might be normal or a symptom of infection. It is almost mucus discharge, which exhibit exfoliation of vaginal epithelial cells due to estrogen influence on the vaginal mucosa. It is important to identify the differences between physiologic and pathologic discharges. Leucorrhea is a well-known disease in Iranian traditional medicine (ITM). In their manuscripts, the word “Sayalan-e rahem” was used by Avicenna and some other Iranian traditional practitioners to describe this condition. Ancient practitioners believed that excessive residue (kesrate fozool) and weakness of digestion (Za’afe hazm) were the main causes of leucorrhea, for which herbal therapy was the main proposed treatment. In the present study, medicinal plants used in ITM for leucorrhea are introduced. Methods: In this research, six Iranian traditional textbooks including Canon of Medicine (Avicena 980-1037 AD), A-Hawi (Razes 865-925 AD), Tuhfat ul-Momineen (Mo’men tonekaboni, 17th century), Makhzan-ul-Adwiah (Aghili 18th century), Ikhtiarat Badi’i (Ansari 1329-1404 AD), and al-jāmi li-mufradāt al-adwiyawa al-aghdhiy (Ibn al-Baitar 1197 AD) were studied and searched for anti-leucorrhea medicines. Then the herbal medicines were selected and scored depending on their frequency in the above-mentioned textbooks. Additional attention was paid to provide the most suitable scientific name for each plant. Results: This study introduced many Materia Medica with anti-leucorrhea activity and among them seven herbs including Rubus fruticosus L., Rhus coriaria L., Phoenix dactylifera L., Pimpinella anisum L., Rumex acetosa L., Olea europaea L. and Quercus lusitanica Lam. showed the most repetition in ITM prescriptions. Conclusion: These herbs can be introduced as new anti-leucorrhea herbal medicines for clinical research. PMID:27516669

  8. Herbal Medicines for Leucorrhea According to Iranian Traditional Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Dehdari, Sahar; Hajimehdipoor, Homa

    2016-01-01

    Background: Leucorrhea or vaginal discharge is a conventional complaint. It is generally whitish, yellowish, or greenish vaginal discharge in females that might be normal or a symptom of infection. It is almost mucus discharge, which exhibit exfoliation of vaginal epithelial cells due to estrogen influence on the vaginal mucosa. It is important to identify the differences between physiologic and pathologic discharges. Leucorrhea is a well-known disease in Iranian traditional medicine (ITM). In their manuscripts, the word “Sayalan-e rahem” was used by Avicenna and some other Iranian traditional practitioners to describe this condition. Ancient practitioners believed that excessive residue (kesrate fozool) and weakness of digestion (Za’afe hazm) were the main causes of leucorrhea, for which herbal therapy was the main proposed treatment. In the present study, medicinal plants used in ITM for leucorrhea are introduced. Methods: In this research, six Iranian traditional textbooks including Canon of Medicine (Avicena 980-1037 AD), A-Hawi (Razes 865-925 AD), Tuhfat ul-Momineen (Mo’men tonekaboni, 17th century), Makhzan-ul-Adwiah (Aghili 18th century), Ikhtiarat Badi’i (Ansari 1329-1404 AD), and al-jāmi li-mufradāt al-adwiyawa al-aghdhiy (Ibn al-Baitar 1197 AD) were studied and searched for anti-leucorrhea medicines. Then the herbal medicines were selected and scored depending on their frequency in the above-mentioned textbooks. Additional attention was paid to provide the most suitable scientific name for each plant. Results: This study introduced many Materia Medica with anti-leucorrhea activity and among them seven herbs including Rubus fruticosus L., Rhus coriaria L., Phoenix dactylifera L., Pimpinella anisum L., Rumex acetosa L., Olea europaea L. and Quercus lusitanica Lam. showed the most repetition in ITM prescriptions. Conclusion: These herbs can be introduced as new anti-leucorrhea herbal medicines for clinical research. PMID:27840502

  9. Traditional Knowledge of Western Herbal Medicine and Complex Systems Science

    PubMed Central

    Niemeyer, Kathryn; Bell, Iris R.; Koithan, Mary

    2013-01-01

    Traditional knowledge of Western herbal medicine (WHM) supports experiential approaches to healing that have evolved over time. This is evident in the use of polyherb formulations comprised of crude plant parts, individually tailored to treat the cause of dysfunction and imbalance by addressing the whole person holistically. The challenge for WHM is to integrate science with traditional knowledge that is a foundation of the practice of WHM. The purpose of this paper is to provide a plausible theoretical hypothesis by applying complex systems science to WHM, illustrating how medicinal plants are complex, adaptive, environmentally interactive systems exhibiting synergy and nonlinear healing causality. This paper explores the conceptual congruence between medicinal plants and humans as complex systems coherently coupled through recurrent interaction. Complex systems science provides the theoretical tenets that explain traditional knowledge of medicinal plants while supporting clinical practice and expanding research and documentation of WHM. PMID:24058898

  10. Traditional Chinese herbal remedies for Asthma and Food Allergy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiu-Min

    2009-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of allergic diseases in westernized countries is a significant health problem. Curative therapies for these diseases are not available. There are also significant concerns regarding the potential side effects from the chronic use of conventional drugs such as corticosteroids, especially in children. Many patients with chronic allergic conditions seek complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapies including traditional Chinese medicines (TCM). This trend has begun to attract interest from the mainstream healthcare providers and scientific investigators, and has stimulated government agencies in the US to provide support and guidance for the scientific investigation of CAM. This effort may lead to improved therapies and better healthcare/patient outcomes. This review presents an update on the most promising Chinese herbal remedies for asthma and food allergy. PMID:17560638

  11. Herbal Remedies for Functional Dyspepsia and Traditional Iranian Medicine Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Babaeian, Mahmoud; Naseri, Mohsen; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Ghaffari, Farzaneh; Emadi, Fatemeh; Feizi, Awat; Hosseini Yekta, Nafiseh; Adibi, Peyman

    2015-01-01

    Context: Functional dyspepsia (FD) is a functional gastro-intestinal disorder with high prevalence. Among various treatment options, treatment by complementary and alternative medicines especially herbal remedies also practiced. Traditional Iranian medicine (TIM), a valuable resource of valid applied studies of ancient Iranian scholars, recommends numerous medicinal plants to treat dyspepsia symptoms. In this study, through investigation of TIM references, we aimed to identify medicinal plants for treatment of digestion insufficiency. Evidence Acquisition: In this qualitative study, dyspepsia symptoms including fullness, early satiety, bloating, nausea, and belching were checked under reliable sources of traditional medicine. Then medicinal plants recommended for the treatment of the symptoms were extracted from the books. Likewise, for investigating the pharmacological properties of medicinal plants used for the relieving of dyspepsia symptoms, electronic databases such as PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar and some Iranian databases like SID and IranMedex were employed. Results: The study yielded 105 plants from 37 families which could treat various dyspepsia symptoms; fifty-seven plants, mainly from Apiaceae, Lamiaceae, Amaryllidaceae and Zingiberaceae had digestive effects. In this research, based on the information in TIM reference texts, we obtained 58 plants effective for bloating, 40 for nausea, 37 for appetite loss and 7 for belching. In human clinical trials conducted on medicinal plants effective for FD symptoms, 7 single plants were used. Conclusions: Finding the medicinal plants effective on digestion insufficiency based on TIM could suggest a better strategy for the relieving of dyspepsia symptoms. Traditional Iranian medicine prescribes medicinal plants based on each patient’s personal characteristics and practices multiple target therapies. PMID:26734483

  12. The influence of traditional herbal formulas on cytokine activity.

    PubMed

    Burns, J J; Zhao, Lijun; Taylor, Ethan Will; Spelman, Kevin

    2010-11-28

    Many of the botanical "immunomodulators", a class of herbal medicines widely recognized in traditional medical systems such as Chinese Medicine (TCM) and Ayurvedic Medicine, alter immune function and may offer clinically relevant therapeutics or leads to therapeutics. Many of these traditional remedies are prepared from combinations of medicinal plants which may influence numerous molecular pathways. These effects may differ from the sum of effects from the individual plants and therefore, research demonstrating the effects of the formula is crucial for insights into the effects of traditional remedies. In this review we surveyed the primary literature for research that focused on combinations of medicinal plants and effects on cytokine activity. The results demonstrate that many extracts of herb mixtures have effects on at least one cytokine. The most commonly studies cytokines were IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, TNF and IFN-γ. The majority of the formulas researched derived from TCM. The following formulas had activity on at least three cytokines; Chizukit N, CKBM, Daeganghwal-tang, Food Allergy Formula, Gamcho-Sasim-Tang, Hachimi-jio-gan, Herbkines, Hochuekki, Immune System Formula, Jeo-Dang-Tang, Juzen-taiho-to, Kakkon-to, Kan jang, Mao-Bushi-Saishin-to, MSSM-002, Ninjin-youei-to, PG201, Protec, Qing-huo-bai-du-yin, Qingfu Guanjieshu, Sambucol Active Defense, Seng-fu-tang, Shin-Xiao-Xiang, Tien Hsien, Thuja formula, Unkei-to, Vigconic, Wheeze-relief-formula, Xia-Bai-San, Yangyuk-Sanhwa-Tang, Yi-fey Ruenn-hou, and Yuldahansotang. Of the western based combinations, formulas with Echinacea spp. were common and showed multiple activities. Numerous formulas demonstrated activity on both gene and protein expression. The research demonstrates that the reviewed botanical formulas modulate cytokine activity, although the bulk of the research is in vitro. Therapeutic success using these formulas may be partially due to their effects on cytokines. Further study of phytotherapy on

  13. Monitoring of mercury, arsenic, and lead in traditional Asian herbal preparations on the Dutch market and estimation of associated risks.

    PubMed

    Martena, M J; Van Der Wielen, J C A; Rietjens, I M C M; Klerx, W N M; De Groot, H N; Konings, E J M

    2010-02-01

    Traditional herbal preparations used in Ayurveda, traditional Chinese medicine, traditional Tibetan medicine, and other Asian traditional medicine systems may contain significant amounts of mercury, arsenic or lead. Though deliberately incorporated in Asian traditional herbal preparations for therapeutic purposes, these constituents have caused intoxications worldwide. The aim of this study was therefore to determine mercury, arsenic, and lead levels in Asian traditional herbal preparations on the Dutch market. A total of 292 traditional herbal preparations used in Ayurveda, traditional Chinese medicine, and traditional Tibetan medicine were sampled between 2004 and 2007. Samples were mostly multi-ingredient traditional herbal preparations containing herbs and minerals. The labeling of less than 20% of the traditional herbal preparations suggested the presence of mercury, arsenic or lead. These elements were shown by inductively coupled mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) in 186 (64%) of 292 traditional herbal preparations. Estimated weekly mercury, arsenic, and lead intake levels were calculated for each traditional herbal preparation from the analytically determined concentrations and the recommended dose. A total of 59 traditional herbal preparations (20%) were likely to result in intakes of these elements significantly exceeding safety limits. Of these 59 traditional herbal preparations, intake estimates for 50 traditional herbal preparations significantly exceeded the safety limit for mercury (range = 1.4-1747 mg week(-1)); intake estimates for 26 traditional herbal preparations significantly exceeded the safety limit for arsenic (range = 0.53-427 mg week(-1)) and intake estimates for eight traditional herbal preparations were significantly above the safety limit for lead (range = 2.6-192 mg week(-1)). It is concluded that the mercury, arsenic, and lead contents of traditional herbal preparations used in Ayurveda, traditional Chinese medicine, and traditional Tibetan

  14. Regional Classification of Traditional Japanese Folk Songs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawase, Akihiro; Tokosumi, Akifumi

    In this study, we focus on the melodies of Japanese folk songs, and examine the basic structures of Japanese folk songs that represent the characteristics of different regions. We sample the five largest song genres within the music corpora of the Nihon Min-yo Taikan (Anthology of Japanese Folk Songs), consisting of 202,246 tones from 1,794 song pieces from 45 prefectures in Japan. Then, we calculate the probabilities of 24 transition patterns that fill the interval of the perfect fourth pitch, which is the interval that maintains most of the frequency for one-step and two-step pitch transitions within 11 regions, in order to determine the parameters for cluster analysis. As a result, we successively classify the regions into two basic groups, eastern Japan and western Japan, which corresponds to geographical factors and cultural backgrounds, and also match accent distributions in the Japanese language.

  15. Herbal mixtures in traditional medicine in Northern Peru

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The investigation of plant mixtures used in traditional medicine in Northern Peru yielded a total of 974 herbal preparations used to treat 164 different afflictions. Psychosomatic disorders were, with almost 30% of all recipes applied, the most important afflictions treated. In most cases, healers used only one or two mixtures to treat an illness. However, up to 49 different preparations were used to treat the same disease. This indicates a high degree of experimentation. Altogether 330 plant species, representing almost 65% of the medicinal flora used in the region were applied in mixtures. The overwhelming number of plant mixtures contained 2-7 different plant species, although in the most extreme case 27 distinct species were included. The cluster analysis confirmed that mixtures used for applications like inflammations, infections and blood purification, as well as cough, cold, bronchitis or other respiratory disorders, or urinary infection and kidney problems had similar floristic compositions. Mixtures used for nervous system disorders, anxiety and heart problems often had a similar composition PMID:20226092

  16. The legal framework governing the quality of (traditional) herbal medicinal products in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Kroes, Burt H

    2014-12-02

    In the European Union a complex regulatory framework is in place for the regulation of (traditional) herbal medicinal products. It is based on the principle that a marketing authorisation granted by the competent authorities is required for placing medicinal products on the market. The requirements and procedures for acquiring such a marketing authorisation are laid down in regulations, directives and scientific guidelines. This paper gives an overview of the quality requirements for (traditional) herbal medicinal products that are contained in European pharmaceutical legislation. Pharmaceutical quality of medicinal product is the basis for ensuring safe and effective medicines. The basic principles governing the assurance of the quality of medicinal products in the European Union are primarily defined in the amended Directive 2001/83/EC and Directive 2003/63/EC. Quality requirements of herbal medicinal products are also laid down in scientific guidelines. Scientific guidelines provide a basis for practical harmonisation of how the competent authorities of EU Member States interpret and apply the detailed requirements for the demonstration of quality laid down in regulations and directives. Detailed quality requirements for herbal medicinal products on the European market are contained in European Union (EU) pharmaceutical legislation. They include a system of manufacturing authorisations which ensures that all herbal medicinal products on the European market are manufactured/imported only by authorised manufacturers, whose activities are regularly inspected by the competent authorities. Additionally, as starting materials only active substances are allowed which have been manufactured in accordance with the GMP for starting materials as adopted by the Community. The European regulatory framework encompasses specific requirements for herbal medicinal products. These requirements are independent from the legal status. Thus, the same quality standards equally apply

  17. [Application of traditional Chinese medicine reference standards in quality control of Chinese herbal pieces].

    PubMed

    Lu, Tu-Lin; Li, Jin-Ci; Yu, Jiang-Yong; Cai, Bao-Chang; Mao, Chun-Qin; Yin, Fang-Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) reference standards plays an important role in the quality control of Chinese herbal pieces. This paper overviewed the development of TCM reference standards. By analyzing the 2010 edition of Chinese pharmacopoeia, the application of TCM reference standards in the quality control of Chinese herbal pieces was summarized, and the problems exiting in the system were put forward. In the process of improving the quality control level of Chinese herbal pieces, various kinds of advanced methods and technology should be used to research the characteristic reference standards of Chinese herbal pieces, more and more reasonable reference standards should be introduced in the quality control system of Chinese herbal pieces. This article discussed the solutions in the aspect of TCM reference standards, and future development of quality control on Chinese herbal pieces is prospected.

  18. Traditional Chinese Medicine and herbal hepatotoxicity: a tabular compilation of reported cases.

    PubMed

    Teschke, Rolf; Zhang, Li; Long, Hongzhu; Schwarzenboeck, Alexander; Schmidt-Taenzer, Wolfgang; Genthner, Alexander; Wolff, Albrecht; Frenzel, Christian; Schulze, Johannes; Eickhoff, Axel

    2015-01-01

    Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) with its focus on herbal use became popular worldwide. Treatment was perceived as safe, with neglect of rare adverse reactions including liver injury. To compile worldwide cases of liver injury by herbal TCM, we undertook a selective literature search in the PubMed database and searched for the items Traditional Chinese Medicine, TCM, Traditional Asian Medicine, and Traditional Oriental Medicine, also combined with the terms herbal hepatotoxicity or herb induced liver injury. The search focused primarily on English-language case reports, case series, and clinical reviews. We identified reported hepatotoxicity cases in 77 relevant publications with 57 different herbs and herbal mixtures of TCM, which were further analyzed for causality by the Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences (CIOMS) scale, positive reexposure test results, or both. Causality was established for 28/57 different herbs or herbal mixtures, Bai Xian Pi, Bo He, Ci Wu Jia, Chuan Lian Zi, Da Huang, Gan Cao, Ge Gen, Ho Shou Wu, Huang Qin, Hwang Geun Cho, Ji Gu Cao, Ji Xue Cao, Jin Bu Huan, Jue Ming Zi, Jiguja, Kudzu, Ling Yang Qing Fei Keli, Lu Cha, Rhen Shen, Ma Huang, Shou Wu Pian, Shan Chi, Shen Min, Syo Saiko To, Xiao Chai Hu Tang, Yin Chen Hao, Zexie, and Zhen Chu Cao. In conclusion, this compilation of liver injury cases establishes causality for 28/57 different TCM herbs and herbal mixtures, aiding diagnosis for physicians who care for patients with liver disease possibly related to herbal TCM.

  19. Screening test for anti-Helicobacter pylori activity of traditional Chinese herbal medicines

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Feng; Chen, Ye; Li, Jing; Qing, He-Ping; Wang, Ji-De; Zhang, Ya-Li; Long, Bei-Guo; Bai, Yang

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the anti-Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) activity of 50 traditional Chinese herbal medicines in order to provide the primary evidence for their use in clinical practice. METHODS: A susceptibility test of water extract from 50 selected traditional Chinese herbal medicines for in vitro H. pylori Sydney strain 1 was performed with broth dilution method. Anti-H. pylori activity of the selected Chinese herbal medicines was evaluated according to their minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). RESULTS: The water extract from Rhizoma Coptidis, Radix Scutellariae and Radix isatidis could significantly inhibit the H. pylori activity with their MIC less than 7.8 mg/mL, suggesting that traditional Chinese herbal medicines have anti-inflammatory and antibacterial effects and can thus be used in treatment of H. pylori infection. CONCLUSION: Rhizoma Coptidis, Radix Scutellariae and Radix isatidis are the potential sources for the synthesis of new drugs against H. pylori. PMID:21105198

  20. Rise of herbal and traditional medicine in erectile dysfunction management.

    PubMed

    Ho, Christopher C K; Tan, Hui Meng

    2011-12-01

    Herbal medicine long has been used in the management of sexual dysfunction, including erectile dysfunction. Many patients have attested to the efficacy of this treatment. However, is it evidence-based medicine? Studies have been done on animal models, mainly in the laboratory. However, randomized controlled trials on humans are scarce. The only herbal medications that have been studied for erectile dysfunction are Panax ginseng, Butea superba, Epimedium herbs (icariin), Tribulus terrestris, Securidaca longipedunculata, Piper guineense, and yohimbine. Of these, only Panax ginseng, B. superb, and yohimbine have published studies done on humans. Unfortunately, these published trials on humans were not robust. Many herbal therapies appear to have potential benefits, and similarly, the health risks of various phytotherapeutic compounds need to be elucidated. Properly designed human trials should be worked out and encouraged to determine the efficacy and safety of potential phytotherapies.

  1. Cryogenic grinding technology for traditional Chinese herbal medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shimo; Ge, Shuangyan; Huang, Zhongping; Wang, Qun; Zhao, Haoping; Pan, Huaiyu

    The fundamental principle of cryogenic grinding (cryogrinding) for Chinese herbal medicine is similar to that of grinding methods for conventional materials, but the compositions are very complex, containing aromatics of high volatility, oils and fats, which are easily oxidized. Using liquid nitrogen or liquid air as the cryogen, all of these thermosensitive Chinese herbal medicines can be ground below their brittle temperature. The colour and other properties of the products of cryo-grinding will not be changed and the flavour and nutrition of the medicines will not be lost.

  2. Herbal hepatotoxicity in traditional and modern medicine: actual key issues and new encouraging steps

    PubMed Central

    Teschke, Rolf; Eickhoff, Axel

    2015-01-01

    Plants are natural producers of chemical substances, providing potential treatment of human ailments since ancient times. Some herbal chemicals in medicinal plants of traditional and modern medicine carry the risk of herb induced liver injury (HILI) with a severe or potentially lethal clinical course, and the requirement of a liver transplant. Discontinuation of herbal use is mandatory in time when HILI is first suspected as diagnosis. Although, herbal hepatotoxicity is of utmost clinical and regulatory importance, lack of a stringent causality assessment remains a major issue for patients with suspected HILI, while this problem is best overcome by the use of the hepatotoxicity specific CIOMS (Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences) scale and the evaluation of unintentional reexposure test results. Sixty five different commonly used herbs, herbal drugs, and herbal supplements and 111 different herbs or herbal mixtures of the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) are reported causative for liver disease, with levels of causality proof that appear rarely conclusive. Encouraging steps in the field of herbal hepatotoxicity focus on introducing analytical methods that identify cases of intrinsic hepatotoxicity caused by pyrrolizidine alkaloids, and on omics technologies, including genomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and assessing circulating micro-RNA in the serum of some patients with intrinsic hepatotoxicity. It remains to be established whether these new technologies can identify idiosyncratic HILI cases. To enhance its globalization, herbal medicine should universally be marketed as herbal drugs under strict regulatory surveillance in analogy to regulatory approved chemical drugs, proving a positive risk/benefit profile by enforcing evidence based clinical trials and excellent herbal drug quality. PMID:25954198

  3. Herbal hepatotoxicity in traditional and modern medicine: actual key issues and new encouraging steps.

    PubMed

    Teschke, Rolf; Eickhoff, Axel

    2015-01-01

    Plants are natural producers of chemical substances, providing potential treatment of human ailments since ancient times. Some herbal chemicals in medicinal plants of traditional and modern medicine carry the risk of herb induced liver injury (HILI) with a severe or potentially lethal clinical course, and the requirement of a liver transplant. Discontinuation of herbal use is mandatory in time when HILI is first suspected as diagnosis. Although, herbal hepatotoxicity is of utmost clinical and regulatory importance, lack of a stringent causality assessment remains a major issue for patients with suspected HILI, while this problem is best overcome by the use of the hepatotoxicity specific CIOMS (Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences) scale and the evaluation of unintentional reexposure test results. Sixty five different commonly used herbs, herbal drugs, and herbal supplements and 111 different herbs or herbal mixtures of the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) are reported causative for liver disease, with levels of causality proof that appear rarely conclusive. Encouraging steps in the field of herbal hepatotoxicity focus on introducing analytical methods that identify cases of intrinsic hepatotoxicity caused by pyrrolizidine alkaloids, and on omics technologies, including genomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and assessing circulating micro-RNA in the serum of some patients with intrinsic hepatotoxicity. It remains to be established whether these new technologies can identify idiosyncratic HILI cases. To enhance its globalization, herbal medicine should universally be marketed as herbal drugs under strict regulatory surveillance in analogy to regulatory approved chemical drugs, proving a positive risk/benefit profile by enforcing evidence based clinical trials and excellent herbal drug quality.

  4. Traditional Herbal Management of Sickle Cell Anemia: Lessons from Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ameh, Sunday J.; Tarfa, Florence D.; Ebeshi, Benjamin U.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Patients in West Africa where sickle cell anemia (SCA) is endemic have for ages been treated with natural products, especially herbs, as, is still the case in rural communities. Objective. In this paper we look closely at some of these herbs to see if there are any lessons to be learnt or clues to be found for optimizing the treatments based on them, as had been done in the case of NIPRISAN, which was developed from herbs in Nigeria based on Yoruba Medicine. Methods. Select publications on SCA, its molecular biology and pathology, and actual and experimental cases of herbal treatment were perused in search of molecular clues that can be linked to chemical constituents of the herbs involved. Results. The study revealed that during the last 2-3 decades, much progress was made in several aspects of SCA pharmacology, especially the approval of hydroxyurea. As for SCA herbalism, this paper revealed that antisickling herbs abound in West Africa and that the most promising may yet be found. Three new antisickling herbs (Entandrophragma utile, Chenopodium ambrosioides, and Petiveria alliacea) were reported in May 2011. At NIPRD, where NIPRISAN was developed, three other recipes are currently awaiting development. Conclusion. The study raised the hope that the search in the Tropics for more effective herbal recipes for managing sickle cell anaemia will be more fruitful with time and effort. PMID:23198140

  5. Traditional herbal management of sickle cell anemia: lessons from Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ameh, Sunday J; Tarfa, Florence D; Ebeshi, Benjamin U

    2012-01-01

    Background. Patients in West Africa where sickle cell anemia (SCA) is endemic have for ages been treated with natural products, especially herbs, as, is still the case in rural communities. Objective. In this paper we look closely at some of these herbs to see if there are any lessons to be learnt or clues to be found for optimizing the treatments based on them, as had been done in the case of NIPRISAN, which was developed from herbs in Nigeria based on Yoruba Medicine. Methods. Select publications on SCA, its molecular biology and pathology, and actual and experimental cases of herbal treatment were perused in search of molecular clues that can be linked to chemical constituents of the herbs involved. Results. The study revealed that during the last 2-3 decades, much progress was made in several aspects of SCA pharmacology, especially the approval of hydroxyurea. As for SCA herbalism, this paper revealed that antisickling herbs abound in West Africa and that the most promising may yet be found. Three new antisickling herbs (Entandrophragma utile, Chenopodium ambrosioides, and Petiveria alliacea) were reported in May 2011. At NIPRD, where NIPRISAN was developed, three other recipes are currently awaiting development. Conclusion. The study raised the hope that the search in the Tropics for more effective herbal recipes for managing sickle cell anaemia will be more fruitful with time and effort.

  6. Effect of Traditional Chinese Herbal Medicine with Antiquorum Sensing Activity on Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Shuxin; Jiang, Yan; Zhu, Wei; Zhuang, Xiyi; Fu, Jiangyan

    2013-01-01

    Traditional Chinese herbal medicines (TCHMs) were tested for their ability of antiquorum sensing. Water extracts of Rhubarb, Fructus gardeniae, and Andrographis paniculata show antiquorumsensing activity when using Chromobacterium violaceum CV12472 as reporter; the sub-MIC concentrations of these TCHMs were tested against AHL-dependent phenotypic expressions of PAO1. Results showed significant reduction in pyocyanin pigment, protease, elastase production, and biofilm formation in PAO1 without inhibiting the bacterial growth, revealing that the QSI by the extracts is not related to static or killing effects on the bacteria. The results indicate a potential modulation of bacterial cell-cell communication, P. aeruginosa biofilm, and virulence factors by traditional Chinese herbal medicine. This study introduces not only a new mode of action for traditional Chinese herbal medicines, but also a potential new therapeutic direction for the treatment of bacterial infections, which have QSI activity and might be important in reducing virulence and pathogenicity of pathogenic bacteria. PMID:24319480

  7. Herbal traditional Chinese medicine and its evidence base in gastrointestinal disorders

    PubMed Central

    Teschke, Rolf; Wolff, Albrecht; Frenzel, Christian; Eickhoff, Axel; Schulze, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Herbal traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is used to treat several ailments, but its efficiency is poorly documented and hence debated, as opposed to modern medicine commonly providing effective therapies. The aim of this review article is to present a practical reference guide on the role of herbal TCM in managing gastrointestinal disorders, supported by systematic reviews and evidence based trials. A literature search using herbal TCM combined with terms for gastrointestinal disorders in PubMed and the Cochrane database identified publications of herbal TCM trials. Results were analyzed for study type, inclusion criteria, and outcome parameters. Quality of placebo controlled, randomized, double-blind clinical trials was poor, mostly neglecting stringent evidence based diagnostic and therapeutic criteria. Accordingly, appropriate Cochrane reviews and meta-analyses were limited and failed to support valid, clinically relevant evidence based efficiency of herbal TCM in gastrointestinal diseases, including gastroesophageal reflux disease, gastric or duodenal ulcer, dyspepsia, irritable bowel syndrome, ulcerative colitis, and Crohn’s disease. In conclusion, the use of herbal TCM to treat various diseases has an interesting philosophical background with a long history, but it received increasing skepticism due to the lack of evidence based efficiency as shown by high quality trials; this has now been summarized for gastrointestinal disorders, with TCM not recommended for most gastrointestinal diseases. Future studies should focus on placebo controlled, randomized, double-blind clinical trials, herbal product quality and standard criteria for diagnosis, treatment, outcome, and assessment of adverse herb reactions. This approach will provide figures of risk/benefit profiles that hopefully are positive for at least some treatment modalities of herbal TCM. Proponents of modern herbal TCM best face these promising challenges of pragmatic modern medicine by bridging the

  8. Herbal traditional Chinese medicine and its evidence base in gastrointestinal disorders.

    PubMed

    Teschke, Rolf; Wolff, Albrecht; Frenzel, Christian; Eickhoff, Axel; Schulze, Johannes

    2015-04-21

    Herbal traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is used to treat several ailments, but its efficiency is poorly documented and hence debated, as opposed to modern medicine commonly providing effective therapies. The aim of this review article is to present a practical reference guide on the role of herbal TCM in managing gastrointestinal disorders, supported by systematic reviews and evidence based trials. A literature search using herbal TCM combined with terms for gastrointestinal disorders in PubMed and the Cochrane database identified publications of herbal TCM trials. Results were analyzed for study type, inclusion criteria, and outcome parameters. Quality of placebo controlled, randomized, double-blind clinical trials was poor, mostly neglecting stringent evidence based diagnostic and therapeutic criteria. Accordingly, appropriate Cochrane reviews and meta-analyses were limited and failed to support valid, clinically relevant evidence based efficiency of herbal TCM in gastrointestinal diseases, including gastroesophageal reflux disease, gastric or duodenal ulcer, dyspepsia, irritable bowel syndrome, ulcerative colitis, and Crohn's disease. In conclusion, the use of herbal TCM to treat various diseases has an interesting philosophical background with a long history, but it received increasing skepticism due to the lack of evidence based efficiency as shown by high quality trials; this has now been summarized for gastrointestinal disorders, with TCM not recommended for most gastrointestinal diseases. Future studies should focus on placebo controlled, randomized, double-blind clinical trials, herbal product quality and standard criteria for diagnosis, treatment, outcome, and assessment of adverse herb reactions. This approach will provide figures of risk/benefit profiles that hopefully are positive for at least some treatment modalities of herbal TCM. Proponents of modern herbal TCM best face these promising challenges of pragmatic modern medicine by bridging the gap

  9. Traditional Japanese Kampo Medicine: Clinical Research between Modernity and Traditional Medicine—The State of Research and Methodological Suggestions for the Future

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Kenji; Matsuura, Keiko; Gao, Pengfei; Hottenbacher, Lydia; Tokunaga, Hideaki; Nishimura, Ko; Imazu, Yoshihiro; Reissenweber, Heidrun; Witt, Claudia M.

    2011-01-01

    The Japanese traditional herbal medicine, Kampo, has gradually reemerged and 148 different formulations (mainly herbal extracts) can be prescribed within the national health insurance system. The objective of this article is to introduce Kampo and to present information from previous clinical studies that tested Kampo formulae. In addition, suggestions on the design of future research will be stated. The literature search was based on a summary, up until January 2009, by the Japanese Society of Oriental Medicine and included only those trials which were also available in either Pubmed or ICHUSHI (Japan Medical Abstracts Society). We included 135 studies, half of these studies (n = 68) used a standard control and 28 a placebo control. Thirty-seven trials were published in English [all randomized controlled trials (RCTs)] and the remaining articles were in Japanese only. The sample size for most studies was small (two-third of the studies included less than 100 patients) and the overall methodological quality appeared to be low. None of the studies used Kampo diagnosis as the basis for the treatment. In order to evaluate Kampo as a whole treatment system, certain aspects should be taken into account while designing studies. RCTs are the appropriate study design to test efficacy or effectiveness; however, within the trial the treatment could be individualized according to the Kampo diagnosis. Kampo is a complex and individualized treatment with a long tradition, and it would be appropriate for further research on Kampo medicine to take this into account. PMID:21687585

  10. Maytenus heterophylla and Maytenus senegalensis, two traditional herbal medicines.

    PubMed

    da Silva, G; Serrano, R; Silva, O

    2011-01-01

    Maytenus heterophylla (Eckl. and Zeyh.) N.K.B. Robson and Maytenus senegalensis (Lam.) Exell are two African shrubs or trees that go under the common name of spike thorn, which belong to the Celastraceae family. Different plant parts of this species are largely used in traditional medicine for infectious and inflammatory diseases treatment. Several studies have been reported for both these species, but there are no recent review articles focusing microscopic, phytochemistry and pharmacological studies. The aim of this review is to summarize the information about these two African traditional medicines. Such kind of data can be applied in future experimental work and may guide future studies, namely in the field of validation of traditional medicine.

  11. Maytenus heterophylla and Maytenus senegalensis, two traditional herbal medicines

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, G.; Serrano, R.; Silva, O.

    2011-01-01

    Maytenus heterophylla (Eckl. and Zeyh.) N.K.B. Robson and Maytenus senegalensis (Lam.) Exell are two African shrubs or trees that go under the common name of spike thorn, which belong to the Celastraceae family. Different plant parts of this species are largely used in traditional medicine for infectious and inflammatory diseases treatment. Several studies have been reported for both these species, but there are no recent review articles focusing microscopic, phytochemistry and pharmacological studies. The aim of this review is to summarize the information about these two African traditional medicines. Such kind of data can be applied in future experimental work and may guide future studies, namely in the field of validation of traditional medicine. PMID:22470236

  12. Chinese herbal formulas for treating hypertension in traditional Chinese medicine: perspective of modern science

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Xingjiang; Yang, Xiaochen; Liu, Yongmei; Zhang, Yun; Wang, Pengqian; Wang, Jie

    2013-01-01

    Hypertension, which directly threatens quality of life, is a major contributor to cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events. Over the past two decades, domestic and foreign scholars have agreed upon various standards in the treatment of hypertension, and considerable progress has been made in the field of antihypertensive drugs. Oral antihypertensive drugs represent a milestone in hypertension therapy. However, the blood pressure standard for patients with hypertension is far from satisfactory. The study of Chinese herbal formulas for treating hypertension has received much research attention. These studies seek to integrate traditional and Western medicine in China. Currently, Chinese herbal formulas are known to have an outstanding advantage with regard to bodily regulation. Research shows that Chinese medicine has many protective mechanisms. This paper addresses the process of the antihypertensive mechanisms in Chinese herbal formulas for treating hypertension. These mechanisms are to be discussed in future research. PMID:23552514

  13. Traditional herbal medicine in Far-west Nepal: a pharmacological appraisal

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Plant species have long been used as principal ingredients of traditional medicine in far-west Nepal. The medicinal plants with ethnomedicinal values are currently being screened for their therapeutic potential but their data and information are inadequately compared and analyzed with the Ayurveda and the phytochemical findings. Methods The present study evaluated ethnomedicinal plants and their uses following literature review, comparison, field observations, and analysis. Comparison was made against earlier standard literature of medicinal plants and ethnomedicine of the same area, the common uses of the Ayurveda and the latest common phytochemical findings. The field study for primary data collection was carried out from 2006-2008. Results The herbal medicine in far-west Nepal is the basis of treatment of most illness through traditional knowledge. The medicine is made available via ancient, natural health care practices such as tribal lore, home herbal remedy, and the Baidhya, Ayurveda and Amchi systems. The traditional herbal medicine has not only survived but also thrived in the trans-cultural environment with its intermixture of ethnic traditions and beliefs. The present assessment showed that traditional herbal medicine has flourished in rural areas where modern medicine is parsimoniously accessed because of the high cost and long travel time to health center. Of the 48 Nepalese medicinal plants assessed in the present communication, about half of the species showed affinity with the common uses of the Ayurveda, earlier studies and the latest phytochemical findings. The folk uses of Acacia catechu for cold and cough, Aconitum spicatum as an analgesic, Aesculus indica for joint pain, Andrographis paniculata for fever, Anisomeles indica for urinary affections, Azadirachta indica for fever, Euphorbia hirta for asthma, Taxus wallichiana for tumor control, and Tinospora sinensis for diabetes are consistent with the latest pharmacological findings

  14. Anti-Freckles Herbal Treatment in Iranian Traditional Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Zakerin, Sara; Fahimi, Shirin; Rezghi, Maedeh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Freckles are numerous pigmented spots of the skin, mainly confined to the face, even arms and back. Although freckles are light-brown macules, most frequently observed in individuals with red or blond hair, they are common to Asian people too. Freckles increase in number, size, and depth of pigmentation during the summer months. Histologically, freckles show increased production of melanin pigment by a normal number of melanocytes. Freckles commonly stop spreading before adolescence and last for life, but could sometimes be subtle in adulthood. Treatments are often requested for cosmetic purposes. Before the advent of lasers, treatment modalities for pigmentary disorders included surgical excision, dermabrasion, chemical bleaching, and peeling. These treatments may lead to unwanted side effects of potential scarring or undesired pigmentation changes. In Iranian traditional medicine (ITM), freckles have been known as well. “Namash” was the term used by ITM scholars to indicate freckles. There is a wide range of plants, which were prescribed by Iranian physicians for the treatment of freckles. The purpose of this study is to find the most frequent useful herbs for freckles as mentioned in ITM references. Methods: Seven ITM references were studied for anti-freckles medicines. The references were Canon of Medicine (Avicenna), Alhavi (Razes) Tuhfat ul-Momineen (Momen tonekaboni), Makhzan-ul-Adwiah (Aghili), Ikhtiyarat Badi’i (Ansari), Al-abnia An-Haghyegh el-advia (Heravi), and al-jāmi li-mufradāt al-adwiyawa al-aghdhiya (Ibn al-Baitar). Moreover, plants were ordered according to their repetition in the references. Afterwards, traditional names of the selected plants were matched with the scientific names using botanical text references. Results: This study demonstrated that Myristica fragrans Houtt, Cicer arietema L., Eruca sativa Lam., Lilium candidium L., Amygdalus communis L., Arum italicum L. were the most frequent herbs mentioned in ITM

  15. Anti-Freckles Herbal Treatment in Iranian Traditional Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Zakerin, Sara; Fahimi, Shirin; Rezghi, Maedeh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Freckles are numerous pigmented spots of the skin, mainly confined to the face, even arms and back. Although freckles are light-brown macules, most frequently observed in individuals with red or blond hair, they are common to Asian people too. Freckles increase in number, size, and depth of pigmentation during the summer months. Histologically, freckles show increased production of melanin pigment by a normal number of melanocytes. Freckles commonly stop spreading before adolescence and last for life, but could sometimes be subtle in adulthood. Treatments are often requested for cosmetic purposes. Before the advent of lasers, treatment modalities for pigmentary disorders included surgical excision, dermabrasion, chemical bleaching, and peeling. These treatments may lead to unwanted side effects of potential scarring or undesired pigmentation changes. In Iranian traditional medicine (ITM), freckles have been known as well. “Namash” was the term used by ITM scholars to indicate freckles. There is a wide range of plants, which were prescribed by Iranian physicians for the treatment of freckles. The purpose of this study is to find the most frequent useful herbs for freckles as mentioned in ITM references. Methods: Seven ITM references were studied for anti-freckles medicines. The references were Canon of Medicine (Avicenna), Alhavi (Razes) Tuhfat ul-Momineen (Momen tonekaboni), Makhzan-ul-Adwiah (Aghili), Ikhtiyarat Badi’i (Ansari), Al-abnia An-Haghyegh el-advia (Heravi), and al-jāmi li-mufradāt al-adwiyawa al-aghdhiya (Ibn al-Baitar). Moreover, plants were ordered according to their repetition in the references. Afterwards, traditional names of the selected plants were matched with the scientific names using botanical text references. Results: This study demonstrated that Myristica fragrans Houtt, Cicer arietema L., Eruca sativa Lam., Lilium candidium L., Amygdalus communis L., Arum italicum L. were the most frequent herbs mentioned in ITM

  16. TREATMENT OF ASTHMA AND FOOD ALLERGY WITH HERBAL INTERVENTIONS FROM TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiu-Min

    2014-01-01

    Prevalence of asthma and allergy has increased over the past 2–3 decades in Westernized countries. Despite increased understanding of the pathogenesis of asthma and allergic diseases, control of severe asthma is still difficult. Asthma is also associated with high prevalence of anxiety in particular adolescents. There is no effective treatment for food allergy. Food allergy is often associated with severe and recalcitrant eczema. Novel approaches for treatment of asthma and food allergy and comorbid conditions are urgently needed. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), used in Asia for centuries, is beginning to play a role in Western health care. There is increasing scientific evidence supporting the use of TCM for asthma treatment. This review article discusses promising TCM interventions for asthma, food allergy and comorbid conditions and explores their possible mechanisms of action. Since 2005, several controlled clinical studies of “anti-asthma” herbal remedies have been published. Among the herbal medicines, anti-asthma herbal medicine intervention (ASHMI) is the only anti-asthma TCM product that is a US FDA investigational new drug (IND) that has entered clinical trials. Research into ASHMI’s effects and mechanisms of actions in animal models is actively being pursued. Research on TCM herbal medicines for treating food allergy is rare. The herbal intervention, Food Allergy Herbal Formula-2 (FAHF-2) is the only US FDA botanical IND under investigation as a multiple food allergy therapy. Published articles and abstracts, as well as new data generated in preclinical and clinical studies of ASHMI and FAHF-2 are the bases for this review. The effect of TCM therapy on food allergy associated recalcitrant eczema, based on case review, is also included. Laboratory and clinical studies demonstrate a beneficial effect of ASHMI treatment on asthma. The possible mechanisms underlying the efficacy are multiple. Preclinical studies demonstrated the efficacy and

  17. Historical Perspective of Traditional Indigenous Medical Practices: The Current Renaissance and Conservation of Herbal Resources

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Si-Yuan; Gao, Si-Hua; Zhou, Shu-Feng; Yu, Zhi-Ling; Chen, Hou-Qi; Zhang, Shuo-Feng; Tang, Min-Ke; Sun, Jian-Ning; Ko, Kam-Ming

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, increasing numbers of people have been choosing herbal medicines or products to improve their health conditions, either alone or in combination with others. Herbs are staging a comeback and herbal “renaissance” occurs all over the world. According to the World Health Organization, 75% of the world's populations are using herbs for basic healthcare needs. Since the dawn of mankind, in fact, the use of herbs/plants has offered an effective medicine for the treatment of illnesses. Moreover, many conventional/pharmaceutical drugs are derived directly from both nature and traditional remedies distributed around the world. Up to now, the practice of herbal medicine entails the use of more than 53,000 species, and a number of these are facing the threat of extinction due to overexploitation. This paper aims to provide a review of the history and status quo of Chinese, Indian, and Arabic herbal medicines in terms of their significant contribution to the health promotion in present-day over-populated and aging societies. Attention will be focused on the depletion of plant resources on earth in meeting the increasing demand for herbs. PMID:24872833

  18. Historical perspective of traditional indigenous medical practices: the current renaissance and conservation of herbal resources.

    PubMed

    Pan, Si-Yuan; Litscher, Gerhard; Gao, Si-Hua; Zhou, Shu-Feng; Yu, Zhi-Ling; Chen, Hou-Qi; Zhang, Shuo-Feng; Tang, Min-Ke; Sun, Jian-Ning; Ko, Kam-Ming

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, increasing numbers of people have been choosing herbal medicines or products to improve their health conditions, either alone or in combination with others. Herbs are staging a comeback and herbal "renaissance" occurs all over the world. According to the World Health Organization, 75% of the world's populations are using herbs for basic healthcare needs. Since the dawn of mankind, in fact, the use of herbs/plants has offered an effective medicine for the treatment of illnesses. Moreover, many conventional/pharmaceutical drugs are derived directly from both nature and traditional remedies distributed around the world. Up to now, the practice of herbal medicine entails the use of more than 53,000 species, and a number of these are facing the threat of extinction due to overexploitation. This paper aims to provide a review of the history and status quo of Chinese, Indian, and Arabic herbal medicines in terms of their significant contribution to the health promotion in present-day over-populated and aging societies. Attention will be focused on the depletion of plant resources on earth in meeting the increasing demand for herbs.

  19. Acupuncture and Traditional Herbal Medicine Therapy Prevent Deliriumin Patients with Cardiovascular Disease in Intensive Care Units.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto-Miyazaki, Jun; Ushikoshi, Hiroaki; Miyata, Shusaku; Miyazaki, Nagisa; Nawa, Takahide; Okada, Hideshi; Ojio, Shinsuke; Ogura, Shinji; Minatoguchi, Shinya

    2017-02-23

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of combination therapy consisting of acupuncture and traditional herbal medicine (Kampo medicine) for reducing the incidence rate of delirium in patients with cardiovascular (CV) disease in ICUs. Twenty-nine patients who had been urgently admitted to the ICU in the control period were treated with conventional intensive care. Thirty patients in the treatment period received conventional therapy plus a combination therapy consisting of acupuncture and herbal medicine. Acupuncture treatment was performed once a day, and the herbal formula was administered orally three times a day during the first week of the ICU stay. The standard acupuncture points were GV20, Ex-HN3, HT7, LI4, Liv3, and KI3, and the main herbal preparation was Kamikihito. The incident rates of delirium, assessed using the confusion assessment method for ICU, in the treatment and control period were compared. The incidence rate of delirium was significantly lower in the treatment group than in the control group (6.6% vs. 37.9%, [Formula: see text]). Moreover, sedative drugs and non-pharmacological approaches against aggressive behavior of patients who were delirious were used less in the treatment group than in the control group. No serious adverse events were observed in the treatment group. Combination therapy consisting of acupuncture and herbal medicine was found to be effective in lowering the incidence of delirium in patients with CV disease in ICUs. Further studies with a large sample size and parallel randomized controlled design would be required to establish the effects of this therapy.

  20. Traditional Chinese Herbal Medicine Penthorum chinense Pursh: A Phytochemical and Pharmacological Review.

    PubMed

    Wang, Anqi; Lin, Ligen; Wang, Yitao

    2015-01-01

    Penthorum chinense Pursh (ganhuangcao), a traditional Chinese medicine, is used for the prevention and treatment of liver diseases, including hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and alcoholic liver damage. A wide range of investigations have been carried out on this herbal medicine from pharmacognosy to pharmaceuticals, as well as pharmacology. The extract of P. chinense was reported to have significant liver protective effects through anti-oxidation, reduction of key enzyme levels, inhibition of hepatitis B virus DNA replication, and promotion of bile secretion. Based on the current knowledge, flavonoids and phenols are considered to be responsible for P. chinense's bioactivities. The main purpose of this review is to provide comprehensive and up-to-date knowledge of the phytochemical and pharmacological studies performed on P. chinense during the past few decades. Moreover, it intends to provide new insights into the research and development of this herbal medicine.

  1. Stimulating effect of Japanese herbal (kampo) medicine, hochuekkito on upper respiratory mucosal immune system.

    PubMed

    Kiyohara, H; Nagai, T; Munakata, K; Nonaka, K; Hanawa, T; Kim, S J; Yamada, H

    2006-12-01

    Japanese herbal (Kampo) medicine, Hochuekkito (Bu-Zhong-Yi-Qi-Tang in Chinese, TJ-41) and Juzentaihoto (Shi-Quan-Da-Bu-Tang in Chinese, TJ-48) are well-known Kampo formulas used as tonic. Although these medicines have separately been applied to the patients clinically depending on their symptoms, the differences of the pharmacological activities for these medicines have not been fully understood. TJ-48 and TJ-41 were compared for their effects on antibody response in upper respiratory mucosal immune system in vivo. Oral administration of TJ-41 (100 mg kg(-1) per day) to early aged BALB/c mice, which were nasally sensitized with influenza hemagglutinin vaccine, significantly enhanced influenza virus-specific IgA and IgG antibody titers in nasal cavity and sera, respectively. However, oral administration of TJ-48 (100 mg kg(-1) per day) failed to show the enhancing activity. TJ-41 increased not only influenza virus-specific IgA antibody titer but also total IgA antibody titer in nasal cavity. The stimulating activity of TJ-41 disappeared after treatment with methotrexate. The present study strongly suggests that TJ-41 can stimulate the mucosal immune system of upper respiratory tract, and results in enhancement of antigen-specific antibody response in upper respiratory mucosal and systemic immune systems.

  2. Stimulating Effect of Japanese Herbal (Kampo) Medicine, Hochuekkito on Upper Respiratory Mucosal Immune System

    PubMed Central

    Kiyohara, H.; Nagai, T.; Munakata, K.; Nonaka, K.; Hanawa, T.; Kim, S. J.; Yamada, H.

    2006-01-01

    Japanese herbal (Kampo) medicine, Hochuekkito (Bu-Zhong-Yi-Qi-Tang in Chinese, TJ-41) and Juzentaihoto (Shi-Quan-Da-Bu-Tang in Chinese, TJ-48) are well-known Kampo formulas used as tonic. Although these medicines have separately been applied to the patients clinically depending on their symptoms, the differences of the pharmacological activities for these medicines have not been fully understood. TJ-48 and TJ-41 were compared for their effects on antibody response in upper respiratory mucosal immune system in vivo. Oral administration of TJ-41 (100 mg kg−1 per day) to early aged BALB/c mice, which were nasally sensitized with influenza hemagglutinin vaccine, significantly enhanced influenza virus-specific IgA and IgG antibody titers in nasal cavity and sera, respectively. However, oral administration of TJ-48 (100 mg kg−1 per day) failed to show the enhancing activity. TJ-41 increased not only influenza virus-specific IgA antibody titer but also total IgA antibody titer in nasal cavity. The stimulating activity of TJ-41 disappeared after treatment with methotrexate. The present study strongly suggests that TJ-41 can stimulate the mucosal immune system of upper respiratory tract, and results in enhancement of antigen-specific antibody response in upper respiratory mucosal and systemic immune systems. PMID:17173109

  3. [Current Status of Japanese Traditional Medicine 'Kampo' in Chemotherapy].

    PubMed

    Nagata, Naoki

    2015-12-01

    Advancements in cancer chemotherapy and the introduction of Japanese traditional medicine"Kampo"have been successful in improving the prognosis of malignant tumors. Many Kampo drugs have been used in the treatment of adverse effects. We investigated the safety and efficacy of Hangeshashinto in the prevention and treatment of chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis in patients with gastric and colorectal cancer. Hangeshashinto was shown to reduce the risk of development of mucositis. We also investigated the efficacy of Goshajinkigan in the prevention of chemotherapy-induced neurotoxicity. Goshajinkigan appears to have a promising effect in delaying the onset of neurotoxicity of gradeB2 without reducing the efficacy of treatment. Kampo drugs such as Rikkunshito, Jyuzentaihoto, and Hochuekkito have also been used successfully in the prevention and treatment of chemotherapy-induced adverse effects. It is very important to know the efficacy and safety of Kampo drugs for alleviating the adverse effects of anticancer drugs in patients undergoing cancer treatment with chemotherapy.

  4. Constipation and herbal medicine

    PubMed Central

    Iizuka, Norio; Hamamoto, Yoshihiko

    2015-01-01

    Constipation is characterized by a variety of bowel symptoms such as difficulty passing stool, hard stool, and a feeling of incomplete evacuation. The multifactorial causes of constipation limit the clinical efficacy of current conventional treatments that use a single drug that acts through only one pathway. To complement the shortcomings of the current Western medical model and provide a complete holistic approach, herbal medicines capable of targeting multiple organs and cellular sites may be used. In Japan, many herbs and herbal combinations have traditionally been used as foods and medicines. Currently, Japanese physicians use standardized herbal combinations that provide consistent and essential quality and quantity. This review highlights representative Japanese herbal medicines (JHMs), Rhei rhizoma-based JHMs including Daiokanzoto and Mashiningan, and Kenchuto-based JHMs including Keishikashakuyakuto and Daikenchuto, which coordinate the motility of the alimentary tract. This review provides a framework to better understand the clinical and pharmacological efficacies of JHMs on constipation according to the unique theory of Japanese traditional medicine, known as Kampo medicine. PMID:25904866

  5. Inhibitory effect of Yukmijihwang-tang, a traditional herbal formula against testosterone-induced benign prostatic hyperplasia in rats

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Yukmijihwang-tang, a traditional herbal formula, has been used for treating disorder, diabetic mellitus and neurosis in China (Liu-wei-di-huang-tang in Chinese), Japan (Lokumijio-to in Japanese) and Korea for many years. In this study, we investigated the effects of Yukmijihwang-tang water extract (YJT) on the development of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) using a rat model of testosterone propionate (TP)-induced BPH. Methods A total of 30 rats were divided into five groups. One group was used as a control and the other groups received subcutaneous injections of TP for 4 weeks to induce BPH. YJT (200 or 400 mg/kg) was administered daily for 4 weeks to two groups by oral gavage concurrently with the TP. The animals were euthanized, the prostate and body weights were recorded, and tissues were subjected to hormone assays and histomorphology. In addition, we investigated proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) expression in the prostate using immunoblotting. Results Animals with BPH showed significantly increased absolute and relative prostate weights, increased dihydrotestosterone levels in the serum or prostate and increased PCNA expression in the prostate; however, YJT-treated animals showed significant reductions compared with the animals with TP-induced BPH. Histomorphology also showed that YJT inhibited TP-induced prostatic hyperplasia. Conclusions These findings indicate that YJT effectively inhibited the development of BPH and might be a useful drug clinically. PMID:22520510

  6. The Association between Traditional Chinese Dietary and Herbal Therapies and Uterine Involution in Postpartum Women

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Ming; Li, Tsai-Chung; Su, Shan-Yu

    2011-01-01

    Background. Traditional Chinese postpartum care is believed to help in the recovery of women after delivery. Objective. This study investigated the association of elements in dietary and herbal therapy with uterine involution. Methods. Indices of uterine involution were measured ultrasonographically in 127 postpartum women between 4-6 weeks after delivery. A self-reported retrospective questionnaire was used to query women about their frequencies of taking herbal medicines and consuming special diets during the first month after delivery. Correlation coefficients were calculated to identify the associations, then the regression models were used to identify the predictors. Result. Among the herbal medicines and diet, consumption of Eucommia ulmoides (E. ulmoides) negatively correlated with the AP diameter of the uterus and the cavity. E. ulmoides was also the only predictor of maximum AP diameter of the uterus, AP diameter of the uterus 5 cm from the fundus, and the maximum AP diameter of the cavity. Moreover, consumption of Sheng-hau-tang was significantly correlated with anteverted uterus and was a predictor of anteverted uterus. Conclusion. E. ulmoides and Sheng-hau-tang positively correlated with the degree of uterine involution after delivery, implying that both therapies might possess the pharmacological efficacy of uterine contraction in postpartum women. PMID:21584195

  7. Review of Herbal Traditional Chinese Medicine for the Treatment of Diabetic Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Guang-dong; Li, Chao-yuan; Cui, Wen-peng; Guo, Qiao-yan; Dong, Chang-qing; Zou, Hong-bin; Liu, Shu-jun; Dong, Wen-peng; Miao, Li-ning

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is the most serious chronic complications of diabetes; 20–40% of diabetic patients develop into end stage renal disease (ESRD). However, exact pathogenesis of DN is not fully clear and we have great difficulties in curing DN; poor treatment of DN led to high chances of mortality worldwide. A lot of western medicines such as ACEI and ARB have been demonstrated to protect renal function of DN but are not enough to delay or retard the progression of DN; therefore, exploring exact and feasible drug is current research hotspot in medicine. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been widely used to treat and control diabetes and its complications such as DN in a lot of scientific researches, which will give insights into the mechanism of DN, but they are not enough to reveal all the details. In this paper, we summarize the applications of herbal TCM preparations, single herbal TCM, and/or monomers from herbal TCM in the treatment of DN in the recent 10 years, depicting the renal protective effects and the corresponding mechanism, through which we shed light on the renal protective roles of TCM in DN with a particular focus on the molecular basis of the effect and provide a beneficial supplement to the drug therapy for DN. PMID:26649322

  8. Four cases of dysthymic disorder and general malaise successfully treated with traditional herbal (kampo) medicines: kamiuntanto.

    PubMed

    Kogure, Toshiaki; Tatsumi, Takeshi; Oku, Yuko

    2010-01-01

    Traditional herbal (Kampo) medicines have been used since ancient times to treat patients with mental disorders. In the present report, we describe four patients with dysthymia successfully treated with Kampo medicines: Kamiuntanto (KUT). These four patients fulfilled the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) criteria for dysthymic disorder with easy fatigability and sleeplessness, but did not fulfill the criteria for major depressive disorder. Treatment with KUT relieved depressive status, fatigue and sleeplessness in these patients. As a result, their QOL (quality of life) was considerably improved. KUT may be useful as an additional or alternative treatment for dysthymia, especially in the field of primary health care.

  9. Transferring Community Music into the Classroom: Some Issues Concerning the Pedagogy of Japanese Traditional Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shiobara, Mari

    2011-01-01

    Based on my personal experiences of learning nagauta as a case study, this article examines the process of learning traditional Japanese music. It raises attention to potential pedagogical issues when traditional music is introduced into school music classrooms, as was suggested in the 2008 Japanese Course of Study for Music. From my observation…

  10. Traditional Herbal Medicine Use Associated with Liver Fibrosis in Rural Rakai, Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Auerbach, Brandon J.; Reynolds, Steven J.; Lamorde, Mohammed; Merry, Concepta; Kukunda-Byobona, Collins; Ocama, Ponsiano; Semeere, Aggrey S.; Ndyanabo, Anthony; Boaz, Iga; Kiggundu, Valerian; Nalugoda, Fred; Gray, Ron H.; Wawer, Maria J.; Thomas, David L.; Kirk, Gregory D.; Quinn, Thomas C.; Stabinski, Lara

    2012-01-01

    Background Traditional herbal medicines are commonly used in sub-Saharan Africa and some herbs are known to be hepatotoxic. However little is known about the effect of herbal medicines on liver disease in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods 500 HIV-infected participants in a rural HIV care program in Rakai, Uganda, were frequency matched to 500 HIV-uninfected participants. Participants were asked about traditional herbal medicine use and assessed for other potential risk factors for liver disease. All participants underwent transient elastography (FibroScan®) to quantify liver fibrosis. The association between herb use and significant liver fibrosis was measured with adjusted prevalence risk ratios (adjPRR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using modified Poisson multivariable logistic regression. Results 19 unique herbs from 13 plant families were used by 42/1000 of all participants, including 9/500 HIV-infected participants. The three most-used plant families were Asteraceae, Fabaceae, and Lamiaceae. Among all participants, use of any herb (adjPRR = 2.2, 95% CI 1.3–3.5, p = 0.002), herbs from the Asteraceae family (adjPRR = 5.0, 95% CI 2.9–8.7, p<0.001), and herbs from the Lamiaceae family (adjPRR = 3.4, 95% CI 1.2–9.2, p = 0.017) were associated with significant liver fibrosis. Among HIV infected participants, use of any herb (adjPRR = 2.3, 95% CI 1.0–5.0, p = 0.044) and use of herbs from the Asteraceae family (adjPRR = 5.0, 95% CI 1.7–14.7, p = 0.004) were associated with increased liver fibrosis. Conclusions Traditional herbal medicine use was independently associated with a substantial increase in significant liver fibrosis in both HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected study participants. Pharmacokinetic and prospective clinical studies are needed to inform herb safety recommendations in sub-Saharan Africa. Counseling about herb use should be part of routine health counseling and counseling of HIV-infected persons in Uganda

  11. An Overview of Traditional Chinese Herbal Formulae and a Proposal of a New Code System for Expressing the Formula Titles.

    PubMed

    Yi, Yeong-Deug; Chang, Il-Moo

    2004-09-01

    Traditional Chinese herbal therapy can be characterized by the use of a large number of multi-herb formulae. To provide modern and Western scientists without knowledge of Chinese literature and cultural background easy access to information, a database with a total of 11 810 traditional Chinese herbal formulae was constructed. All the information was then translated into understandable scientific terms in English. While coining the formula titles in English, we discovered some principles governing the naming of titles by using computer analysis. In addition, we observed that about 92% of the formulae are in the range of single-herb formulae to thirteen-herb formulae. Most large number-herb formulae are formulated by combining pre-existing smaller number-herb formulae. The King herbs () with major therapeutic activity in a multi-herb formula were identified by the formulation concept using two parameters: the herbal dose and the herbal drug property (the degree of toxicity). Based on such analytical data, we established an English code system representing all formula titles written in ideographic Chinese characters: an array of important key words such as 'Herbal name in Latin + Efficacy (Target organs) + Preparation form + Number of herbs.' By searching the English version of the database with any of the above key words, a variety of information on the status of traditional Chinese herbal therapy can be accessed.

  12. Traditional herbal medicine as adjunctive therapy for nasopharyngeal cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Woojin; Lee, Won-Bock; Lee, Jungwoo; Min, Byung-Il; Lee, HyangSook; Cho, Seung-Hun

    2015-05-01

    The effectiveness of traditional herbal medicine (THM) as treatment for nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) has not been clearly demonstrated. The aim of this study is to assess the effectiveness of THM as adjunctive therapies for NPC using the results of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Five electronic databases, including English and Chinese databases, were systematically searched up to February 2014. All RCTs involving traditional herbal medicine in combination with conventional cancer therapy for NPC were included. Twenty-two RCTs involving 2,298 NPC patients were systematically reviewed. Of these 22 studies, 15 on 1482 patients reported a significant increase in the number surviving patients with survivals of more than 1, 3, or 5 years. Seven studies on 595 patients reported a significant increase in immediate tumor response, and three studies on 505 patients reported a significant decrease in distant metastasis. This meta-analysis of 22 studies suggests that THM combined with conventional therapy can provide an effective adjunctive therapy for NPC. More research and well-designed, rigorous, large clinical trials are required to address these issues.

  13. Establishing high temperature gas chromatographic profiles of non-polar metabolites for quality assessment of African traditional herbal medicinal products.

    PubMed

    Bony, Nicaise F; Libong, Danielle; Solgadi, Audrey; Bleton, Jean; Champy, Pierre; Malan, Anglade K; Chaminade, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    The quality assessment of African traditional herbal medicinal products is a difficult challenge since they are complex mixtures of several herbal drug or herbal drug preparations. The plant source is also often unknown and/or highly variable. Plant metabolites chromatographic profiling is therefore an important tool for quality control of such herbal products. The objective of this work is to propose a protocol for sample preparation and gas chromatographic profiling of non-polar metabolites for quality control of African traditional herbal medicinal products. The methodology is based on the chemometric assessment of chromatographic profiles of non-polar metabolites issued from several batches of leaves of Combretum micranthum and Mitracarpus scaber by high temperature gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry, performed on extracts obtained in refluxed dichloromethane, after removal of chlorophyll pigments. The method using high temperature gas chromatography after dichloromethane extraction allows detection of most non-polar bioactive and non-bioactive metabolites already identified in leaves of both species. Chemometric data analysis using Principal Component Analysis and Partial Least Squares after Orthogonal Signal Correction applied to chromatographic profiles of leaves of Combretum micranthum and Mitracarpus scaber showed slight batch to batch differences, and allowed clear differentiation of the two herbal extracts.

  14. Bioactive Constituents of Glycyrrhiza uralensis (Licorice): Discovery of the Effective Components of a Traditional Herbal Medicine.

    PubMed

    Ji, Shuai; Li, Ziwei; Song, Wei; Wang, Yongrui; Liang, Wenfei; Li, Kai; Tang, Shunan; Wang, Qi; Qiao, Xue; Zhou, Demin; Yu, Siwang; Ye, Min

    2016-02-26

    Traditional herbal medicines have been reported to possess significant bioactivities. In this investigation, a combined strategy using both phytochemical and biological approaches was conducted to discern the effective components of licorice, a widely used herbal medicine. Altogether, 122 compounds (1-122), including six new structures (1-6), were isolated and identified from the roots and rhizomes of Glycyrrhiza uralensis (licorice). These compounds were then screened using 11 cell- and enzyme-based bioassay methods, including Nrf2 activation, NO inhibition, NF-κB inhibition, H1N1 virus inhibition, cytotoxicity for cancer cells (HepG2, SW480, A549, MCF7), PTP1B inhibition, tyrosinase inhibition, and AChE inhibition. A number of bioactive compounds, particularly isoprenylated phenolics, were found for the first time. Echinatin (7), a potent Nrf2 activator, was selected as an example for further biological work. It attenuated CCl4-induced liver damage in mice (5 or 10 mg/kg, ip) and thus is responsible, at least in part, for the hepatoprotective activity of licorice.

  15. Enhanced Microbial, Functional and Sensory Properties of Herbal Yogurt Fermented with Korean Traditional Plant Extracts.

    PubMed

    Joung, Jae Yeon; Lee, Ji Young; Ha, Young Sik; Shin, Yong Kook; Kim, Younghoon; Kim, Sae Hun; Oh, Nam Su

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of two Korean traditional plant extracts (Diospyros kaki THUNB. leaf; DK, and Nelumbo nucifera leaf; NN) on the fermentation, functional and sensory properties of herbal yogurts. Compared to control fermentation, all plant extracts increased acidification rate and reduced the time to complete fermentation (pH 4.5). Supplementation of plant extracts and storage time were found to influence the characteristics of the yogurts, contributing to increased viability of starter culture and phenolic compounds. In particular, the increase in the counts of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus was highest (2.95 and 1.14 Log CFU/mL respectively) in DK yogurt. Furthermore, supplementation of the plant extracts significantly influenced to increase the antioxidant activity and water holding capacity and to produce volatile compounds. The higher antioxidant activity and water holding capacity were observed in NN yogurt than DK yogurt. Moreover, all of the sensory characteristics were altered by the addition of plant extracts. Addition of plant extracts increased the scores related to flavor, taste, and texture from plain yogurt without a plant extract, as a result of volatile compounds analysis. Thus, the overall preference was increased by plant extracts. Consequently, supplementation of DK and NN extracts in yogurt enhanced the antioxidant activity and physical property, moreover increased the acceptability of yogurt. These findings demonstrate the possibility of using plant extracts as a functional ingredient in the manufacture of herbal yogurt.

  16. Enhanced Microbial, Functional and Sensory Properties of Herbal Yogurt Fermented with Korean Traditional Plant Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Joung, Jae Yeon; Lee, Ji Young; Ha, Young Sik; Shin, Yong Kook; Kim, Younghoon; Kim, Sae Hun; Oh, Nam Su

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of two Korean traditional plant extracts (Diospyros kaki THUNB. leaf; DK, and Nelumbo nucifera leaf; NN) on the fermentation, functional and sensory properties of herbal yogurts. Compared to control fermentation, all plant extracts increased acidification rate and reduced the time to complete fermentation (pH 4.5). Supplementation of plant extracts and storage time were found to influence the characteristics of the yogurts, contributing to increased viability of starter culture and phenolic compounds. In particular, the increase in the counts of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus was highest (2.95 and 1.14 Log CFU/mL respectively) in DK yogurt. Furthermore, supplementation of the plant extracts significantly influenced to increase the antioxidant activity and water holding capacity and to produce volatile compounds. The higher antioxidant activity and water holding capacity were observed in NN yogurt than DK yogurt. Moreover, all of the sensory characteristics were altered by the addition of plant extracts. Addition of plant extracts increased the scores related to flavor, taste, and texture from plain yogurt without a plant extract, as a result of volatile compounds analysis. Thus, the overall preference was increased by plant extracts. Consequently, supplementation of DK and NN extracts in yogurt enhanced the antioxidant activity and physical property, moreover increased the acceptability of yogurt. These findings demonstrate the possibility of using plant extracts as a functional ingredient in the manufacture of herbal yogurt. PMID:27499669

  17. Antimalarial activities of medicinal plants and herbal formulations used in Thai traditional medicine.

    PubMed

    Thiengsusuk, Artitaya; Chaijaroenkul, Wanna; Na-Bangchang, Kesara

    2013-04-01

    Malaria is one of the world's leading killer infectious diseases with high incidence and morbidity. The problem of multidrug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum has been aggravating particularly in Southeast Asia. Therefore, development of new potential antimalarial drugs is urgently required. The present study aimed to investigate antimalarial activities of a total of 27 medicinal plants and 5 herbal formulations used in Thai traditional medicine against chloroquine-resistant (K1) and chloroquine-sensitive (3D7) P. falciparum clones. Antimalarial activity of the ethanolic extracts of all plants/herbal formulations against K1 and 3D7 P. falciparum clones was assessed using SYBR Green I-based assay. All plants were initially screened at the concentration of 50 μg/ml to select the candidate plants that inhibited malaria growth by ≥50%. Each candidate plant was further assessed for the IC50 value (concentration that inhibits malaria growth by 50%) to select the potential plants. Selectivity index (SI) of each extract was determined from the IC50 ratio obtained from human renal epithelial cell and K1 or 3D7 P. falciparum clone. The ethanolic extracts from 19 medicinal plants/herbal formulation exhibited promising activity against both K1 and 3D7 clones of P. falciparum with survival of less than 50% at the concentration of 50 μg/ml. Among these, the extracts from the eight medicinal plants (Plumbago indica Linn., Garcinia mangostana Linn., Dracaena loureiri Gagnep., Dioscorea membranacea Pierre., Artemisia annua Linn., Piper chaba Hunt., Myristica fragrans Houtt., Kaempferia galanga Linn.) and two herbal formulations (Benjakul Formulation 1 and Pra-Sa-Prao-Yhai Formulation) showed potent antimalarial activity with median range IC50 values of less than 10 μg/ml against K1 or 3D7 P. falciparum clone or both. All except G. mangostana Linn. and A. annua Linn. showed high selective antimalarial activity against both clones with SI>10. Further studies on antimalarial

  18. Effect of the Japanese herbal medicine, Boiogito, on the osteoarthritis of the knee with joint effusion

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Boiogito (Japanese herbal medicine, Tsumura Co. Tokyo, Japan) contains sinomenin which inhibits inflammatory reactions. Since sinomenine is a principle component of the Boiogito, there is a possibility of it being effective on osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee with joint effusion. However, there is no report concerning the effectiveness of Boiogito on knee OA. The objective of the present study is to investigate the therapeutic effect of Boiogito on OA of the knee associated with joint effusion in a comparative study among randomly assigned groups. Methods Study was performed using 50 patients who were diagnosed with primary osteoarthritis of the knee with joint effusion. The patients were randomly assigned to two groups: one group (25 patients) using both loxoprofen (2-{4-[(2-oxocyclopentyl) methyl]} propanoic acid) and Boiogito and the other group (25 patients) using loxoprofen, and were evaluated during a 12 week observation period. The assessment parameters including knee scores in the Knee Society Rating System including Knee score and Functional scores, amount of joint effusion by joint puncture in clinically detected cases, the 36-items short form of the Medical Outcome Study Questionnaire (SF-36) as a measurement of health related quality of life were used. Results The knee scores based on the Knee Society Rating System were improved in both groups. The staircase climbing up and down ability in the Knee society rating system functional score was significantly improved in the group using Boiogito and loxoprofen compared to the loxoprofen group. In the evaluation using SF-36, significant improvements were found in the scores in both groups in physical functioning after 12 weeks. The amount of joint fluid was significantly decreased at 4, 8 and 12 weeks compared to pre-administration baseline in the group using Boiogito and loxoprofen. A side effect of Boiogito, dry mouth, was found in one case. The symptom was mild and improved immediately after

  19. Traditional, Natural, and TPR Approaches to ESL: A Study of Japanese Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furuhata, Hamako

    1999-01-01

    Reports a study of Japanese students' perception of traditional methods versus the natural approach and total physical response (TPR) methods for learning English, and their preferred styles of learning. Subjects were Japanese students attending intensive language schools in the U.S. Students generally preferred innovative methods, such as…

  20. Enforcement of the ban on aristolochic acids in Chinese traditional herbal preparations on the Dutch market.

    PubMed

    Martena, Martijn J; van der Wielen, Jacqueline C A; van de Laak, Leo F J; Konings, Erik J M; de Groot, Henk N; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M

    2007-09-01

    In traditional Chinese medicine several Aristolochia species are used. Aristolochia spp. contain a mixture of aristolochic acids (AAs), mainly AA I and AA II which are nephrotoxicants and carcinogens. After AA-related nephropathy (AAN) and urothelial cancer were described in female patients in Belgium following intake of AA-contaminated herbal preparations, herbs with AAs were prohibited worldwide. Confusing nomenclature can cause AA contamination of certain Chinese traditional herbal preparations (THPs). Here we report the results of investigations by the Dutch Food and Consumer Product Safety Authority (VWA) into the presence of AAs in THPs sampled on the Dutch market using a liquid-chromatography--mass spectrometry method. Between 2002 and 2006 we sampled 190 Chinese THPs using recent information on Chinese THPs potentially containing AAs. AA I was found in 25 samples up to a concentration of 1,676 mg/kg. AA II was also found in 13 of these samples up to 444 mg/kg. All 25 positive samples including Mu Tong, Fang Ji, Tian Xian Teng and Xi Xin were part of a group of 68 THPs identified as possibly containing AAs. In a worst-case scenario, use of a sample of Mu Tong with the highest AA content over a 7-day period would result in the same intake levels of AAs which significantly raised the cancer risk in the Belgian AAN cases. Our results show that contaminated THPs still can be found on the market following worldwide publicity. Therefore, it can be concluded that testing of possibly AA-contaminated THPs is still essential.

  1. Clinical Strategy for Optimal Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) Herbal Dose Selection in Disease Therapeutics: Expert Consensus on Classic TCM Herbal Formula Dose Conversion.

    PubMed

    Zha, Lin-Hua; He, Li-Sha; Lian, Feng-Mei; Zhen, Zhong; Ji, Hang-Yu; Xu, Li-Peng; Tong, Xiao-Lin

    2015-01-01

    The clinical therapeutics of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) constitutes a complicated process which involves theory, diagnosis, and formula prescription with specific herbal dosage. Zhang Zhong-Jing's classic work, Treatise on Febrile and Miscellaneous Diseases, has been influencing TCM practice for almost 2000 years. However, during this extended period of time in Chinese history, the Chinese weight measurement system experienced noticeable changes. This change in the weight measurement system inevitably, and perhaps even negatively, affected TCM herbal dosage determination and treatment outcome. Thus, in modern society, a full understanding of the accuracy of herbal dose selection has a critical importance in the TCM daily practice of delivering the best treatment to the patients suffering from different illnesses. In the 973 Project of the Chinese National Basic Research Program, expert consensus on classic TCM formula dose conversion has been reached based on extensive literature review and discussion on the dose-effect relationship of classic TCM formulas. One "liang" in classic TCM formulas is equivalent to 13.8 g. However, based on many TCM basic and clinical studies of variable herbal formula prescriptions and herbal drug preparations, the rule of one liang equals 13.8 g should be adjusted according to different disease conditions. Recommended by the committee on TCM formula dose-effect relationship of the China Association of Chinese Medicine and the World Federation of Chinese Medicine Societies, the following expert consensus has been reached: (i) One liang converts to 6-9 g for the severely and critically ill patients. (ii) One liang converts to 3-6 g for the patients suffering from chronic diseases. (iii) One liang converts to 1-3 g in preventive medicine. The above conversions should be used as a future TCM practice guideline. Using this recommended guideline should enhance the effectiveness of daily TCM practice.

  2. Therapeutic use of traditional Chinese herbal medications for chronic kidney diseases

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Yifei; Deng, Yueyi; Chen, Yiping; Chuang, Peter Y; He, John Cijiang

    2013-01-01

    Traditional Chinese herbal medications (TCHM) are frequently used in conjunction with western pharmacotherapy for treatment of chronic kidney diseases (CKD) in China and many other Asian countries. The practice of traditional Chinese medicine is guided by cumulative empiric experience. Recent in vitro and animal studies have confirmed the biological activity and therapeutic effects of several TCHM in CKD. However, the level of evidence supporting TCHM is limited to small, non-randomized trials. Due to variations in the prescription pattern of TCHM and the need for frequent dosage adjustment, which are inherent to the practice of traditional Chinese medicine, it has been challenging to design and implement large randomized clinical trials of TCHM. Several TCHM are associated with significant adverse effects, including nephrotoxicity. However, reporting of adverse effects associated with TCHM has been inadequate. To fully realize the therapeutic use of TCHM in CKD we need molecular studies to identify active ingredients of TCHM and their mechanism of action, rigorous pharmacologic studies to determine the safety and meet regulatory standards required for clinical therapeutic agents, and well-designed clinical trials to provide evidence-based support of their safety and efficacy. PMID:23868014

  3. [Study on combination components and effectiveness of Chinese traditional herbal formulas].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jie; Guo, Li-li; Wang, Yong-yan

    2006-01-01

    Chinese herbal prescriptions enhance the clinical curative effect through the use of multi-composition formulas, and the combined use of several components from herbal extracts is an enhanced mode of formulae organization and compatibility. The research with the combination components is under the guidance of the traditional Chinese medical theory which apply medical therapy following syndrome differentiation. The purpose is to enhance drug safety, clinical suitability, and to use drugs with clearer ingredients and mechanisms of action, with more stable and controllable product quality for commercial production. So the study of combination components must establish the methodology of combining standard components, confirming the main components through trial design, removing the poisonous components, and ascertaining dosage and ratios of all the components used. The mode of combination component has three forms: the one from the combined use of prepared medicinal herbs, the one from directly combined use of components, and the one from the standard ingredient composition of single herb. These three forms strictly follow the mechanisms of multi-component and multi-target medical intervention. The significance of using combined effective components is to ensure the accuracy and safety of clinical dosage, enhance the clinical effectiveness, reduce the use of medicinal herbs, decrease the side-effects, and to promote modern Chinese medicines that have clear ingredients and mechanisms. Our study on the chemistry and pharmacology of Chinese herbs provided scientific foundation to the combination effective components. Nowadays the modern medicine is faced with the complicated disease spectra, meanwhile, the single-ingredient chemical drug is not able to achieve satisfactory curative effect. So there is a need to develop new medicine with effective combination components to meet new opportunities and challenges. Therefore, it has becomes a new mode of developing combined

  4. An in vitro study of neuroprotective properties of traditional Chinese herbal medicines thought to promote healthy ageing and longevity

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    activity of some Chinese herbal medicines traditionally used to promote healthy ageing and longevity. Our results provide a justification for further study of these herbal extracts in neurodegenerative animal models to assess their safety and effectiveness as a basis for subsequent clinical trials. These herbal medicines might potentially offer a novel preemptive neuroprotective approach in neurodegenerative diseases and might be developed for use in persons at risk. PMID:24373151

  5. Greco-Arab and Islamic Herbal-Derived Anticancer Modalities: From Tradition to Molecular Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Zaid, Hilal; Silbermann, Michael; Ben-Arye, Eran; Saad, Bashar

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of cancer is increasing in the developed countries and even more so in developing countries parallel to the increase in life expectancy. In recent years, clinicians and researchers advocate the need to include supportive and palliative care since the establishment of the diagnosis and throughout the duration of treatment, with the goal of improving patients' quality of life. This patient-centered approach in supportive care is also shared by various traditional and complementary medicine approaches. Traditional Arab-Islamic medicine offers a variety of therapeutic modalities that include herbal, nutritional, and spiritual approaches. Physicians and scholars, such as Avicenna (980–1037), Rhazes (965–915), Al Zahrawi (936–1013), and Ibn al Nafis (1218–1288) referred to cancer etiology in various medicinal texts and suggested both preventive and therapeutic remedies to alleviate suffering. This review presents research data related to the anticancer activities of herbs used in Arab-Islamic medicine and allude to their potential role in improving the quality of life of cancer patients. PMID:22203868

  6. Nine traditional Chinese herbal formulas for the treatment of depression: an ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry, and pharmacology review

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Dan-dan; Tang, Tao; Lin, Xiang-ping; Yang, Zhao-yu; Yang, Shu; Xia, Zi-an; Wang, Yun; Zheng, Piao; Wang, Yang; Zhang, Chun-hu

    2016-01-01

    Depression is a major mental disorder, and is currently recognized as the second-leading cause of disability worldwide. However, the therapeutic effect of antidepressants remains unsatisfactory. For centuries, Chinese herbal formulas (CHFs) have been widely used in the treatment of depression, achieving better therapeutic effects than placebo and having fewer side effects than conventional antidepressants. Here, we review the ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry, and pharmacology studies of nine common CHFs: “banxia houpo” decoction, “chaihu shugansan”, “ganmaidazao” decoction, “kaixinsan”, “shuganjieyu” capsules, “sinisan”, “wuling” capsules, “xiaoyaosan”, and “yueju”. Eight clinical trials and seven meta-analyses have supported the theory that CHFs are effective treatments for depression, decreasing Hamilton Depression Scale scores and showing few adverse effects. Evidence from 75 preclinical studies has also elucidated the multitarget and multipathway mechanisms underlying the antidepressant effect of the nine CHFs. Decoctions, capsules, and pills all showed antidepressant effects, ranked in descending order of efficacy. According to traditional Chinese medicine theory, these CHFs have flexible compatibility and mainly act by soothing the liver and relieving depression. This review highlights the effective treatment choices and candidate compounds for patients, practitioners, and researchers in the field of traditional Chinese medicine. In summary, the current evidence supports the efficacy of CHFs in the treatment of depression, but additional large-scale randomized controlled clinical trials and sophisticated pharmacology studies should be performed. PMID:27703356

  7. Nine traditional Chinese herbal formulas for the treatment of depression: an ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry, and pharmacology review.

    PubMed

    Feng, Dan-Dan; Tang, Tao; Lin, Xiang-Ping; Yang, Zhao-Yu; Yang, Shu; Xia, Zi-An; Wang, Yun; Zheng, Piao; Wang, Yang; Zhang, Chun-Hu

    2016-01-01

    Depression is a major mental disorder, and is currently recognized as the second-leading cause of disability worldwide. However, the therapeutic effect of antidepressants remains unsatisfactory. For centuries, Chinese herbal formulas (CHFs) have been widely used in the treatment of depression, achieving better therapeutic effects than placebo and having fewer side effects than conventional antidepressants. Here, we review the ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry, and pharmacology studies of nine common CHFs: "banxia houpo" decoction, "chaihu shugansan", "ganmaidazao" decoction, "kaixinsan", "shuganjieyu" capsules, "sinisan", "wuling" capsules, "xiaoyaosan", and "yueju". Eight clinical trials and seven meta-analyses have supported the theory that CHFs are effective treatments for depression, decreasing Hamilton Depression Scale scores and showing few adverse effects. Evidence from 75 preclinical studies has also elucidated the multitarget and multipathway mechanisms underlying the antidepressant effect of the nine CHFs. Decoctions, capsules, and pills all showed antidepressant effects, ranked in descending order of efficacy. According to traditional Chinese medicine theory, these CHFs have flexible compatibility and mainly act by soothing the liver and relieving depression. This review highlights the effective treatment choices and candidate compounds for patients, practitioners, and researchers in the field of traditional Chinese medicine. In summary, the current evidence supports the efficacy of CHFs in the treatment of depression, but additional large-scale randomized controlled clinical trials and sophisticated pharmacology studies should be performed.

  8. Traditional Values and Contemporary Achievement of Japanese-American Pupils.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Audrey James

    Americans of Japanese ancestry rank higher than any other physically identifiable subgroup on positive attributes and lowest on negative ones. The thesis of this paper is that their success depends more on the value orientations that differentiate the two groups than upon those held in common. Data were obtained from a survey of 2200 pupils…

  9. HPLC determination of (+)-pseudoephedrine and (-)-ephedrine in Japanese herbal medicines containing Ephedra herb using solid-phase extraction.

    PubMed

    Ichikawa, Makoto; Udayama, Manabu; Imamura, Kazuhiko; Shiraishi, Sumihiro; Matsuura, Hiromichi

    2003-06-01

    We developed a rapid and simple HPLC method combined with solid-phase extraction (SPE) for quantitative analysis of (+)-pseudoephedrine (PEP) and (-)-ephedrine (EP) in Japanese herbal (Kampo) medicines such as Kakkon-to, Sho-seiryu-to, Goshaku-san and Bofu-tsusho-san. SPE was performed on TOYOPAK IC-SP M containing propylsulfonic groups. Determination of PEP and EP was carried out using ion-pair reversed-phase HPLC with sodium dodecyl sulfate. N-Benzyldiethylamine was used as an internal standard. The analytical procedure was validated with regard to specificity, linearity, accuracy, and precision. These data suggest that the analytical method developed in this study is useful for quantitative analysis of PEP and EP in various formulations of Kampo medicine containing Ephedra herb.

  10. Who are the users of a traditional Chinese sanfu acupoint herbal patching therapy in China?

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Fen; Wu, Hong-jun; Zhai, Jun-ping; Zhang, Gui-yan; Shao, Yan; Tian, Xia; Xia, Ru-yu; Jia, Li-yan; Li, Wen-yuan; Liang, Ning; Yan, Xiao-yi; Wu, Ruo-han; Zhang, Kang; Li, Xin-lin; Wang, Cong-cong; Liu, Jian-ping

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Sanfu acupoint herbal patching (SAHP) is a unique traditional Chinese medicine therapy, which has become popular for preventing acute attack of respiratory diseases such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, in many regions of mainland China. However, the knowledge about its users is lacking, especially the characteristics of the users and their experience and perspectives. To investigate the demographics of users, conditions for its use and the previous experience of SAHP, as well as users’ perspectives to provide baseline information for its practice. A cross-sectional consecutive-sample survey was conducted at outpatient departments from 3 traditional Chinese medicine hospitals in northern China. Each participant completed a questionnaire, after informed consent. Data description and analyses were done using SPSS 20.0. Among 949 SAHP users from 3 hospitals, female was predominant (n = 592; 62.4%), aged from 2 to 96 years (median = 52 years). 64.7% (380/587) of regular users have applied consecutively for 3 years or over, and the self-perceived satisfaction rates of respiratory diseases were from 45.9% to 77.7%. Positive attitude toward traditional Chinese medicine was the top reason for choosing SAHP. 42.4% of users held a motivation of being cured by SAHP and with great outcome expectancy on SAHP (70.8%). SAHP users were mainly female adults or elderly population; more than half were regular users, who predominantly used SAHP for various chronic respiratory diseases during their stable stage. The majority of users expressed satisfaction to previous SAHP for their respiratory diseases. 42.4% of users held a motivation of being cured by SAHP and with great outcome expectancy on SAHP (70.8%). The findings from this survey deserve further clinical trials for their clinical effectiveness. PMID:27930519

  11. Case Reports of Idiopathic Thrombocytopenia Unresponsive to First-Line Therapies Treated With Traditional Herbal Medicines Based on Syndrome Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Juno; Lee, Beom-Joon; Lee, Jun-Hwan

    The objective of our study is to present two cases showing the effects of traditional Korean herbal medicines based on traditional Korean medicine (TKM) for the treatment of immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP). One patient showed no response to treatment with steroids and an immunosuppressive agent. Moreover, liver toxicity and side effects of steroids were evident. However, after he ceased conventional treatment and started to take an herbal medicine, his liver function normalized and the steroid side effects resolved. Ultimately, he achieved complete remission. Another patient with ITP had sustained remission after steroid therapy in childhood, but extensive uterine bleeding and thrombocytopenia recurred when she was 16 years old. She was managed with steroids again for 2 years, but severe side effects occurred, and eventually she ceased taking steroids. She refused a splenectomy, and was then treated with a herbal medicine for 7 months, ultimately leading to sustained remission again. Many patients with resistance to first-line treatments tend to be reluctant to undergo a splenectomy, considered a standard second-line treatment. In conclusion, herbal medicines, based on TKM, may offer alternative treatments for persistent or chronic ITP that is resistant to existing first-line treatments.

  12. Inhibition of Staphylococcus epidermidis Biofilm Formation by Traditional Thai Herbal Recipes Used for Wound Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Chusri, S.; Sompetch, K.; Mukdee, S.; Jansrisewangwong, S.; Srichai, T.; Maneenoon, K.; Limsuwan, S.; Voravuthikunchai, S. P.

    2012-01-01

    Development of biofilm is a key mechanism involved in Staphylococcus epidermidis virulence during device-associated infections. We aimed to investigate antibiofilm formation and mature biofilm eradication ability of ethanol and water extracts of Thai traditional herbal recipes including THR-SK004, THR-SK010, and THR-SK011 against S. epidermidis. A biofilm forming reference strain, S. epidermidis ATCC 35984 was employed as a model for searching anti-biofilm agents by MTT reduction assay. The results revealed that the ethanol extract of THR-SK004 (THR-SK004E) could inhibit the formation of S. epidermidis biofilm on polystyrene surfaces. Furthermore, treatments with the extract efficiently inhibit the biofilm formation of the pathogen on glass surfaces determined by scanning electron microscopy and crystal violet staining. In addition, THR-SK010 ethanol extract (THR-SK010E; 0.63–5 μg/mL) could decrease 30 to 40% of the biofilm development. Almost 90% of a 7-day-old staphylococcal biofilm was destroyed after treatment with THR-SK004E (250 and 500 μg/mL) and THR-SK010E (10 and 20 μg/mL) for 24 h. Therefore, our results clearly demonstrated THR-SK004E could prevent the staphylococcal biofilm development, whereas both THR-SK004E and THR-SK010E possessed remarkable eradication ability on the mature staphylococcal biofilm. PMID:22919409

  13. Chunggan extract, a traditional herbal formula, ameliorated alcohol-induced hepatic injury in rat model

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyeong-Geug; Kim, Jung-Min; Han, Jong-Min; Lee, Jin-Seok; Choi, Min-Kyung; Lee, Dong-Soo; Park, Yeon-Hwa; Son, Chang-Gue

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate protective effects of Chunggan extract (CGX), a traditional herbal formula, under 4 wk of alcohol consumption-induced liver injury. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley Rats were orally administered 30% ethanol daily for 4 wk with or without CGX. The pharmaceutical properties were assessed through liver enzymes, histopathology, fibrogenic cytokines, and alcohol metabolism in hepatic tissues as well as by in vitro experiment using HSC-T6 cells. RESULTS: Four weeks of alcohol consumption notably increased liver enzymes and malondialdehyde levels in serum and hepatic tissue. CGX not only prevented the collagen deposition determined by histopathology and hydroxyproline content, but also normalized transforming growth factor-beta, platelet-derived growth factor-beta and connective tissue growth factor at the gene expression and protein levels in liver tissue. Moreover, CGX treatment also significantly normalized the abnormal changes in gene expression profiles of extracellular matrix proteins, matrix metalloproteinase and their inhibitors, alcohol metabolism, and inflammatory reactions. In the acetaldehyde-stimulated HSC-T6 cells, CGX considerably inhibited collagen production and normalized fibrogenic cytokines in both gene expression and protein levels. CONCLUSION: The present study evidenced that CGX has hepatoprotective properties via modulation of fibrogenic cytokines and alcohol metabolism in alcoholic liver injury. PMID:25400454

  14. Traditional Herbal Formula Oyaksungi-San Inhibits Adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Chang-Seob; Shin, Hyeun-Kyoo

    2015-01-01

    Background. Oyaksungi-san (OYSGS) is a herbal formula that has been used for treating cardiovascular diseases in traditional Asian medicine. Here, we investigated the antiadipogenic effect of OYSGS extract in 3T3-L1 adipose cells. Methods. 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were differentiated into adipocytes with or without OYSGS. After differentiation, we measured Oil Red O staining, glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) activity, leptin production, mRNA, and protein levels of adipogenesis-related factors. Results. OYSGS extract dramatically inhibited intracellular lipid accumulation in the differentiated adipocytes. It also significantly suppressed the (GPDH) activity, triglyceride (TG) content, and leptin production by reducing the expression of adipogenesis-related genes including lipoprotein lipase, fatty acid binding protein 4, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-alpha (C/EBP-α), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ). Furthermore, OYSGS clearly enhanced phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) as well as its substrate acetyl CoA (ACC) carboxylase. Conclusions. Our results demonstrate that OYSGS negatively controls TG accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. We suggest antiadipogenic activity of OYSGS and its potential benefit in preventing obesity. PMID:25802547

  15. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of Thai traditional nootropic remedy and its herbal ingredients.

    PubMed

    Tappayuthpijarn, Pimolvan; Itharat, Arunporn; Makchuchit, Sunita

    2011-12-01

    The incidence of Alzheimer disease (AD) is increasing every year in accordance with the increasing of elderly population and could pose significant health problems in the future. The use of medicinal plants as an alternative prevention or even for a possible treatment of the AD is, therefore, becoming an interesting research issue. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors are well-known drugs commonly used in the treatment of AD. The aim of the present study was to screen for AChE inhibitory activity of the Thai traditional nootropic recipe and its herbal ingredients. The results showed that ethanolic extracts of four out of twenty-five herbs i.e. Stephania pierrei Diels. Kaempfera parviflora Wall. ex Baker, Stephania venosa (Blume) Spreng, Piper nigrum L at 0.1 mg/mL showed % AChE inhibition of 89, 64, 59, 50; the IC50 were 6, 21, 29, 30 microg/mL respectively. The other herbs as well as combination of the whole recipe had no synergistic inhibitory effect on AChE activity. However some plants revealed antioxidant activity. More research should have be performed on this local wisdom remedy to verify the uses in scientific term.

  16. Traditional chinese herbal products for coronary heart disease: an overview of cochrane reviews.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Yu; Xu, Hao; Shi, Dazhuo

    2012-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this overview was to evaluate and summarize Cochrane reviews of traditional Chinese herbal products (TCHPs) as the treatment for coronary heart disease (CHD). Methods. We searched the Cochrane Database that was concerned with the effectiveness of TCHPs for CHD. We also searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Reviews and primary studies of TCHP as the treatment of any type of CHD were included. Data were extracted according to predefined inclusion criteria by two independent reviewers. Results. Six Cochrane reviews were included. They related to a wide range of TCHPs for different types of CHD. Four reviews were concerned with angina pectoris (unstable or stable), one review was concerned with heart failure, and for acute myocardial infarction. No reviews concluded that TCHPs were definitely effective for CHD because of the weak evidence. Eight primary studies were TCHPs from CHD. These studies also maybe result in bias, but better than before. Conclusion. Several Cochrane reviews of TCHPs for the treatment of different types of CHD have recently been published. None of these reviews got definite conclusion favoring the effectiveness of TCHPs due to the weak evidence. With the improved quality of the new registered RCTs. The potential role of TCHPs in treating CHD is anticipated to be detected.

  17. Traditional herbal remedies and dietary spices from Cameroon as novel sources of larvicides against filariasis mosquitoes?

    PubMed

    Pavela, Roman; Maggi, Filippo; Mbuntcha, Hélène; Woguem, Verlaine; Fogang, Hervet Paulin Dongmo; Womeni, Hilaire Macaire; Tapondjou, Léon Azefack; Barboni, Luciano; Nicoletti, Marcello; Canale, Angelo; Benelli, Giovanni

    2016-12-01

    In Cameroon, many dietary spices are used by traditional healers to cure several diseases such as cancer and microbial infections. Aframomum daniellii, Dichrostachys cinerea and Echinops giganteus are Cameroonian spices widely used as flavourings and as food additives. Moreover, they are traditionally herbal remedies employed to treat several diseases, as well as to control populations of insect pests. In this research, we analysed the chemical composition of A. daniellii, D. cinerea and E. giganteus essential oils and we evaluated their larvicidal potential against larvae of the filariasis and West Nile virus vector Culex quinquefasciatus. The essential oils were obtained from different plant parts by hydrodistillation and their composition was analysed by GC-MS. The three spices exhibited different volatile chemical profiles, being characterized by 1,8-cineole, sabinene and β-pinene (A. daniellii), geraniol and terpinen-4-ol (D. cinerea), and silphiperfol-6-ene and presilphiperfolan-8-ol (E. giganteus). Results showed that the highest larvicidal toxicity on Cx. quinquefasciatus was exerted by D. cinerea essential oil (LC50 = 39.1 μL L(-1)), followed by A. daniellii (pericarp essential oil: LC50 = 65.5 μL L(-1); leaves: LC50 = 65.5μL L(-1); seeds: LC50 = 106.5μL L(-1)) and E. giganteus (LC50 = 227.4 μL L(-1)). Overall, the chance to use the D. cinerea essential oil against Cx. quinquefasciatus young instars seems promising, since it is effective at moderate doses and could be an advantageous alternative to build newer mosquito control tools.

  18. Multicentre, randomised, placebo-controlled trial of extract of Japanese herbal medicine Daikenchuto to prevent bowel dysfunction after adult liver transplantation (DKB 14 Study)

    PubMed Central

    Kaido, Toshimi; Shimamura, Tsuyoshi; Sugawara, Yasuhiko; Sadamori, Hiroshi; Shirabe, Ken; Yamamoto, Michio; Uemoto, Shinji

    2015-01-01

    Introduction This multicentre randomised controlled clinical trial will aim to determine the ability of an extract (TJ-100) of Daikenchuto (traditional Japanese herbal medicine; Kampo) to prevent bowel dysfunction in at least 110 patients after liver transplantation (LT). Methods and analysis The following co-primary end points will be evaluated on postoperative day 7: total oral and enteral caloric intake, abdominal distension and abdominal pain. The secondary end points will comprise sequential changes of total oral and enteral caloric intake after LT, sequential changes in numeric rating scales for abdominal distension and pain, elapsed time to the first postoperative passage of stool, quality of life assessment using the Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale score (Japanese version), postoperative liver function, liver regeneration rate, incidence of bacteraemia and bacterial strain, trough level of immunosuppressants, occurrence of acute cellular rejection, discharge or not within 2 months after LT, sequential changes of portal venous flow to the graft and ascites discharge. The two arms of the study will comprise 55 patients per arm. Ethics and dissemination The study has been conducted according to the CONSORT statement. All participants signed a written consent form, and the study has been approved by the institutional review board of each participating institute and conducted in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki of 1996. The findings will be disseminated through scientific and professional conferences, and in peer-reviewed journals. Trial registration number The DKB 14 Study was registered in the University Hospital Medical Information Network Clinical Trial Registration (UMIN-CTR), Japan (registration number: UMIN000014326) during 2014. PMID:26419681

  19. Effect of orally administered Hochu-ekki-to, a Japanese herbal medicine, on contact hypersensitivity caused by repeated application of antigen.

    PubMed

    Nakada, Tsutomu; Watanabe, Kenji; Matsumoto, Tsukasa; Santa, Kazuki; Triizuka, Kazuo; Hanawa, Toshihiko

    2002-06-01

    The effects of oral administration of Hochu-ekki-to (HET; bu-zhong-yi-qi-tang in Chinese), a traditional Japanese and Chinese herbal medicine, on chronic contact hypersensitivity were investigated. HET suppressed ear swelling due to chronic contact hypersensitivity caused by repeated application of 2,4,6-trinitro-1-chlorobenzene (TNCB). HET significantly suppressed not only increases in hapten-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) and IgG1 titer due to repeated application of TNCB, but also total IgE and IgG1 concentration in the serum. Interleukin 4 (IL-4) level in inflamed ear tissue was significantly increased by repeated application of TNCB, and this increase in IL-4 level in the ear was significantly suppressed by oral administration of HET. Interferon gamma (IFN-gamma), IL-2, IL-5, IL-10 and IL-12 levels are not changed as much as IL4 by TNCB and HET did not alter these cytokines as much as IL-4. These results suggest that oral administration of HET suppresses chronic contact hypersensitivity, and it can be assumed that the suppression of serum Ig E and Ig G1 and IL-4 in inflamed ear.

  20. Evaluation of Herbal Medicines: Value Addition to Traditional Medicines Through Metabolism, Pharmacokinetic and Safety Studies.

    PubMed

    Thelingwani, Roslyn; Masimirembwa, Collen

    2014-01-01

    The safety and efficacy of herbal medicines remain major issues of concern especially in the developing world where the use is high. The World Health Organisation estimates up to 80% of the population in Africa relies on herbal medicines for treatment of many diseases. Minimum safety evaluations need to be done for both the herbal and conventional drugs, in particular when there is a high likelihood of co-administration. This is particularly important in Africa where there is increased access to antiretrovirals in the treatment of HIV/AIDS, which are being used in a population background characterized by rampant use of herbal medicines. Many techniques used in the discovery and evaluation of conventional drugs can be adapted to herbal medicines. Such evaluations will add value to herbal medicines as doctors and patients will be better informed on which drugs and herbal medicines to take or not take together. This can also lead to the adoption of guidelines by regulatory agents such as the European Medicines Agency (EMA), Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and governmental agencies controlling the use of medicines. Of current interest is the evaluation of drug-herb interactions (DHI) involving the absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME) of medicines where there is a promising possibility to adopt the current FDA and EMA guidelines on the evaluation of herbal medicines for drug-drug interactions (DDI). In this review we demonstrate progress made so far in DHI and point to possible future developments that will contribute to the safe use of herbal medicines.

  1. Traditional Chinese herbal extracts inducing autophagy as a novel approach in therapy of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Cong; Liao, Jia-Zhi; Li, Pei-Yuan

    2017-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the leading causes of chronic liver diseases around the world due to the modern sedentary and food-abundant lifestyle, which is characterized by excessive fat accumulation in the liver related with causes other than alcohol abuse. It is widely acknowledged that insulin resistance, dysfunctional lipid metabolism, endoplasmic reticulum stress, oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis/necrosis may all contribute to NAFLD. Autophagy is a protective self-digestion of intracellular organelles, including lipid droplets (lipophagy), in response to stress to maintain homeostasis. Lipophagy is another pathway for lipid degradation besides lipolysis. It is reported that impaired autophagy also contributes to NAFLD. Some studies have suggested that the histological characteristics of NAFLD (steatosis, lobular inflammation, and peri-sinusoid fibrosis) might be improved by treatment with traditional Chinese herbal extracts, while autophagy may be induced. This review will provide insights into the characteristics of autophagy in NAFLD and the related role/mechanisms of autophagy induced by traditional Chinese herbal extracts such as resveratrol, Lycium barbarum polysaccharides, dioscin, bergamot polyphenol fraction, capsaicin, and garlic-derived S-allylmercaptocysteine, which may inhibit the progression of NAFLD. Regulation of autophagy/lipophagy with traditional Chinese herbal extracts may be a novel approach for treating NAFLD, and the molecular mechanisms should be elucidated further in the near future. PMID:28373762

  2. The Relation between Hepatotoxicity and the Total Coumarin Intake from Traditional Japanese Medicines Containing Cinnamon Bark.

    PubMed

    Iwata, Naohiro; Kainuma, Mosaburo; Kobayashi, Daisuke; Kubota, Toshio; Sugawara, Naoko; Uchida, Aiko; Ozono, Sahoko; Yamamuro, Yuki; Furusyo, Norihiro; Ueda, Koso; Tahara, Eiichi; Shimazoe, Takao

    2016-01-01

    Cinnamon bark is commonly used in traditional Japanese herbal medicines (Kampo medicines). The coumarin contained in cinnamon is known to be hepatotoxic, and a tolerable daily intake (TDI) of 0.1 mg/kg/day, has been quantified and used in Europe to insure safety. Risk assessments for hepatotoxicity by the cinnamon contained in foods have been reported. However, no such assessment of cinnamon bark has been reported and the coumarin content of Kampo medicines derived from cinnamon bark is not yet known. To assess the risk for hepatotoxicity by Kampo medicines, we evaluated the daily coumarin intake of patients who were prescribed Kampo medicines and investigated the relation between hepatotoxicity and the coumarin intake. The clinical data of 129 outpatients (18 male and 111 female, median age 58 years) who had been prescribed keishibukuryogankayokuinin (TJ-125) between April 2008 and March 2013 was retrospectively investigated. Concurrent Kampo medicines and liver function were also surveyed. In addition to TJ-125, the patients took some of the other 32 Kampo preparations and 22 decoctions that include cinnamon bark. The coumarin content of these Kampo medicines was determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). TJ-125 had the highest daily content of coumarin (5.63 mg/day), calculated from the daily cinnamon bark dosage reported in the information leaflet inserted in each package of Kampo medicine. The coumarin content in 1g cinnamon bark decoction was 3.0 mg. The daily coumarin intake of the patients was 0.113 (0.049-0.541) mg/kg/day, with 98 patients (76.0%) exceeding the TDI. Twenty-three patients had an abnormal change in liver function test value, but no significant difference was found in the incidence of abnormal change between the group consuming less than the TDI value (6/31, 19.4%) and the group consuming equal to or greater than the TDI value (17/98, 17.3%). In addition, no abnormal change related to cinnamon bark was found for individual

  3. The Relation between Hepatotoxicity and the Total Coumarin Intake from Traditional Japanese Medicines Containing Cinnamon Bark

    PubMed Central

    Iwata, Naohiro; Kainuma, Mosaburo; Kobayashi, Daisuke; Kubota, Toshio; Sugawara, Naoko; Uchida, Aiko; Ozono, Sahoko; Yamamuro, Yuki; Furusyo, Norihiro; Ueda, Koso; Tahara, Eiichi; Shimazoe, Takao

    2016-01-01

    Cinnamon bark is commonly used in traditional Japanese herbal medicines (Kampo medicines). The coumarin contained in cinnamon is known to be hepatotoxic, and a tolerable daily intake (TDI) of 0.1 mg/kg/day, has been quantified and used in Europe to insure safety. Risk assessments for hepatotoxicity by the cinnamon contained in foods have been reported. However, no such assessment of cinnamon bark has been reported and the coumarin content of Kampo medicines derived from cinnamon bark is not yet known. To assess the risk for hepatotoxicity by Kampo medicines, we evaluated the daily coumarin intake of patients who were prescribed Kampo medicines and investigated the relation between hepatotoxicity and the coumarin intake. The clinical data of 129 outpatients (18 male and 111 female, median age 58 years) who had been prescribed keishibukuryogankayokuinin (TJ-125) between April 2008 and March 2013 was retrospectively investigated. Concurrent Kampo medicines and liver function were also surveyed. In addition to TJ-125, the patients took some of the other 32 Kampo preparations and 22 decoctions that include cinnamon bark. The coumarin content of these Kampo medicines was determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). TJ-125 had the highest daily content of coumarin (5.63 mg/day), calculated from the daily cinnamon bark dosage reported in the information leaflet inserted in each package of Kampo medicine. The coumarin content in 1g cinnamon bark decoction was 3.0 mg. The daily coumarin intake of the patients was 0.113 (0.049–0.541) mg/kg/day, with 98 patients (76.0%) exceeding the TDI. Twenty-three patients had an abnormal change in liver function test value, but no significant difference was found in the incidence of abnormal change between the group consuming less than the TDI value (6/31, 19.4%) and the group consuming equal to or greater than the TDI value (17/98, 17.3%). In addition, no abnormal change related to cinnamon bark was found for individual

  4. Microbial contamination of traditional liquid herbal medicinal products marketed in Mwanza city: magnitude and risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Walther, Clementine; Marwa, Karol Julius; Seni, Jeremiah; Hamis, Peter; Silago, Vitus; Mshana, Stephen Eliatosha; Jande, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The use of the traditional herbal medicinal products (THMPs) has been increasing worldwide due to the readily availability of raw materials and low cost compared to the synthetic industrial preparations. With this trend in mind, the safety and quality of THMPs need to be addressed so as to protect the community. The present study evaluated the magnitude and risk factors associated with microbial contamination of liquid THMPs marketed in Mwanza. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in Mwanza city involving 59 participants from whom 109 liquid THMPs were collected and processed following the standard operating procedures. The data were analyzed using STATA software version 11. Results The median age (interquartile range) of participants was 35 (27-43) years, with males accounting for 36 (61%). Of 109 liquid THMPs collected, 89 (81.7%) were found to be contaminated; with predominant fecal coliforms being Klebsiella spp and Enterobacter spp. fortunately, no pathogenic bacteria like Salmonella spp and Shigella spp were isolated. There was a significant association of liquid THMPs contamination with low education level (p< 0.001), lack of formal training on THMPs (p = 0.023), lack of registration with the Ministry of Health (p = 0.001), lack of packaging of products (p < 0.001) and use of unboiled solvents during preparation of THMPs (p < 0.001). Conclusion There is high contamination rate of liquid THMPs in Mwanza City which is attributable to individuals and system-centered factors. Urgent measures to provide education to individuals involved in THMPs as well as setting up policies and regulations to reinforce THMPs safety is needed. PMID:27217889

  5. Will the Europe Union's Traditional Herbal Medicinal Products Directive (Directive 2004/24/EC) be against traditional Chinese medicine in EU market?

    PubMed

    Xu, Juncai; Liu, Min; Xia, Zhijie

    2013-05-01

    As human civilization develops, biomedicine stays robust. Faced with the challenge of Europe Union's Traditional Herbal Medicinal Products Directive, if traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) wants to be still used as one kind of medicine to treat patients, China should be in line with scientific law, that is, each claim that TCM treats any disease or indication should be supported by the data of evidence-based randomized clinical trials. As a priority, there is an urgent need to conduct more scientific experiments and clinical trials to verify the concepts and mechanisms of TCM. Also, China is encouraged to get rid of non-scientific concepts and theories of TCM.

  6. Liver injury induced by a Japanese herbal medicine, sairei-to (TJ-114, Bupleurum and Hoelen Combination, Chai-Ling-Tang) R1.

    PubMed

    Aiba, Tsuneo; Takahashi, Toru; Suzuki, Kenji; Okoshi, Shogo; Nomoto, Minoru; Uno, Katsuji; Aoyagi, Yutaka

    2007-05-01

    The case is reported of a man who showed acute hepatitis with jaundice after he was given a Japanese herbal medicine, sairei-to (TJ-114, Bupleurum and Hoelen Combination, Chai-Ling-Tang). Unusually, the component thought to be responsible for the observed drug-induced liver injury was able to be identified. Lymphocyte migration inhibition testing indicated that the tuber of the perennial herbage Pinellia ternate was the causative agent.

  7. Integration of religious traditions in Japanese children's view of death and afterlife.

    PubMed

    Sagara-Rosemeyer, Miharu; Davies, Betty

    2007-03-01

    Open and public discussion of death, particularly among children, remains one of the greatest Japanese societal taboos; therefore, little is known about Japanese children's perceptions of death. To explore Japanese children's notions of life and death, 16 healthy children (7 girls and 9 boys, mean age 8.9) were each interviewed 3 times and asked to draw and describe pictures of what "to live" and "to die" meant to them. Transcribed interviews were interpreted based on thematic analysis, incorporating paradigm cases and exemplars within the hermeneutical tradition. The children perceived life as an evolving process that leads to death, and regarded death as a transitional point to an afterlife. Some children perceived this process, or flow, as linear; others as circular. Their notions of death and the afterlife incorporated three main religious traditions in Japan (Shintoism, Buddhism, and Confucianism) as well as Christianity, as illustrated by 3 case examples and children's drawings.

  8. Treatment of food anaphylaxis with traditional Chinese herbal remedies – from mouse model to human clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review To describe the development of a novel treatment for food allergy, named the food allergy herbal formula-2 (FAHF-2), that is based on Traditional Chinese Medicine. Recent findings FAHF-2 has proven to be safe and effective for the treatment of food allergies in murine models of peanut and multiple food allergies. These results are accompanied by evidence of favorable immune modulation, and the effects are persistent after discontinuation of treatment. Early clinical trials demonstrate the safety and tolerability of this formula in subjects with food allergies. An on-going Phase II clinical trial will evaluate the efficacy of FAHF-2 in protecting individuals from allergen-induced allergic reactions during oral food challenges. Summary FAHF-2 is an herbal formula that has a high safety profile and has shown to prevent anaphylaxis in murine models of food allergy. Similar findings in clinical trials could bring a novel treatment for food allergies. PMID:23799334

  9. Oyaksungisan, a Traditional Herbal Formula, Inhibits Cell Proliferation by Induction of Autophagy via JNK Activation in Human Colon Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yim, Nam-Hui; Jung, Young Pil; Kim, Aeyung; Ma, Choong Je; Cho, Won-Kyung; Ma, Jin Yeul

    2013-01-01

    Oyaksungisan (OY) is a traditional herbal formula broadly used to treat beriberi, vomiting, diarrhea, and circulatory disturbance in Asian countries from ancient times. The effect of OY on cancer, however, was not reported until now. In this study, we have demonstrated that OY inhibits cell proliferation and induces cell death via modulating the autophagy on human colon cancer cells. In HCT116 cells, OY increased the ratio of LC3-II/LC3-I, a marker of autophagy, and treatment with 3-MA, an inhibitor of autophagy, and considerably reduced the formation of autophagosomes. In addition, OY regulated mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades; especially, JNK activation was closely related with autophagy effect by OY in HCT116 cells. Our results indicate that autophagy induction is responsible for the antiproliferative effect by OY, despite the weak apoptosis induction in HCT116 cells. In conclusion, OY might have a potential to be developed as an herbal anticancer remedy. PMID:23573119

  10. Traditional Herbal Medicine: A Review of Potential of Inhibitory Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Basic Research and Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhidong; Li, Jun; Ji, Yuanyuan; An, Peng; Zhang, Shu; Li, Zongfang

    2013-01-01

    Although significantly develops in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), features of HCC remain an aggressive cancer with a dismal outcome. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), specifically Chinese herbal medicine (CHM), is one of the most popular complementary and alternative medicine modalities worldwide. The use of heat-clearing and detoxicating (Chinese named qingre jiedu) CHM has attracted great attention as an alternative antitumor including HCC considering its low toxicity and high activity. Together these reports indicate that CHM is a promising anti-HCC herbal remedy in basic research. For patients with advanced HCC, CHM including formula and single combined with transcatheter arterial chemoembolization or chemotherapy is able to decrease tumor growth and the side effect of toxicity and improve overall survival, quality of life, and immune function. Due to its abundance, low cost, and safety in consumption, CHM remains a species with tremendous potential for further investigation in HCC. PMID:23956767

  11. An Overview of Reform and Tradition in Japanese Moral Education since 1868.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takahashi, Susumu

    1988-01-01

    Reviews the various conflicts that have occurred between the traditional and reformist elements in Japanese moral education since the Meiji Restoration in 1868, the time when Japan began to shift toward a modern society and political system. Attempts to clarify the special characteristics of moral education in Japan. (GEA)

  12. Dichotomous effect of a traditional Japanese medicine, bu-zhong-yi-qi-tang on allergic asthma in mice.

    PubMed

    Ishimitsu, R; Nishimura, H; Kawauchi, H; Kawakita, T; Yoshikai, Y

    2001-05-01

    To determine the potentiality of prophylactic and/or therapeutic approaches using a traditional herbal medicine, Bu-zhong-yi-qi-tang (Japanese name: Hochu-ekki-to, HOT), for the control of allergic disease, we examined the effects of oral administration of HOT on a murine model of asthma allergic responses. When oral administration of HOT was begun at the induction phase immediately after OVA sensitization, eosinophilia and Th2-type cytokine production in the airway were reduced in OVA-sensitized mice following OVA inhalation. The serum levels of OVA-specific immunoglobulin (Ig)E and IgG1 were significantly decreased, whereas the level of OVA-specific IgG2a was increased. Interleukin (IL)-4 production by spleen T cells in response to OVA was significantly suppressed, while Interferon (IFN)-gamma production was increased in mice treated with HOT in the induction phase. On the other hand, HOT given in the eliciting phase induced a predominant Th2 response with increased IgE production in OVA-sensitized mice following OVA inhalation. These results suggest that the oral administration of HOT dichotomously modulates allergic inflammation in a murine model for asthma, thus offering a different approach for the treatment of allergic disorders.

  13. Adjuvant effect of Japanese herbal medicines on the mucosal type 1 immune responses to human papillomavirus (HPV) E7 in mice immunized orally with Lactobacillus-based therapeutic HPV vaccine in a synergistic manner.

    PubMed

    Taguchi, Ayumi; Kawana, Kei; Yokoyama, Terufumi; Adachi, Katsuyuki; Yamashita, Aki; Tomio, Kensuke; Kojima, Satoko; Oda, Katsutoshi; Fujii, Tomoyuki; Kozuma, Shiro

    2012-08-03

    The Japanese herbal medicines, Juzen-taiho-to (JTT) and Hochu-ekki-to (HET), have been shown to enhance humoral immune responses to vaccine antigen when used as adjuvants for prophylactic vaccines. However, their adjuvant effect on mucosal cellular immune responses remains unstudied. The precursor lesion of cervical cancer, high-grade CIN that expresses HPV E7 oncoprotein ubiquitously is a target for HPV therapeutic vaccines that elicit mucosal E7-specific type 1 T cell responses. We have demonstrated that oral immunization with recombinant Lactobacillus casei expressing HPV16 E7 (LacE7) is more effective in eliciting mucosal E7-specific IFNγ-producing cells than subcutaneous or intramuscular antigen delivery. Here we report the synergistic effect of an oral Lactobacillus-based vaccine and Japanese herbal medicines on mucosal immune responses. Oral immunization of mice with LacE7 plus either a Japanese herbal medicine (JTT or HET) or a mucosal adjuvant, heated-labile enterotoxin T subunit (LTB), promotes systemic E7-specific type 1 T cell responses but not mucosal responses. Administration of LacE7 plus either Japanese herbal medicine and LTB enhanced mucosal E7-specific type 1 T cell response to levels approximately 3-fold higher than those after administration of LacE7 alone. Furthermore, secretion of IFNγ and IL-2 into the intestinal lumen was observed after oral administration of LacE7 and was enhanced considerably by the addition of Japanese herbal medicines and LTB. Our data indicated that Japanese herbal medicines, in synergy with Lactobacillus and LTB, enhance the mucosal type 1 immune responses to orally immunized antigen. Japanese herbal medicines may be excellent adjuvants for oral Lactobacillus-based vaccines and oral immunization of LacE7, HET and LTB may have the potential to elicit extremely high E7-specific mucosal cytotoxic immune response to HPV-associated neoplastic lesions.

  14. [Herbal medicines against respiratory diseases--traditional empiricism or pharmacological evidence?].

    PubMed

    2014-11-01

    Sinusitis and bronchitis belong to the most frequent respiratory infections. The relevant guidelines mention the therapy with herbal substances and assign a good activity to cineole and Myrtol as well as to combination preparations with cowslip. There is no final statement of the guidelines' authors concerning the extract of Pelargonium sidoides. Further studies will be necessary to give reliable therapeutic recommendations.

  15. Prescription of Chinese Herbal Medicine in Pattern-Based Traditional Chinese Medicine Treatment for Depression: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Yeung, Wing-Fai; Chung, Ka-Fai; Ng, Ka-Yan; Yu, Yee-Man; Zhang, Shi-Ping; Ng, Bacon Fung-Leung; Ziea, Eric Tat-Chi

    2015-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) treatments are often prescribed based on individuals' pattern diagnoses. A systematic review of randomized controlled trials in Chinese and English literatures on TCM pattern-based treatment for depression has therefore been conducted. A total of 61 studies, 2504 subjects, and 27 TCM patterns were included. Due to the large variation of TCM pattern among participants, we only analyzed the top four commonly studied TCM patterns: liver qi depression, liver depression and spleen deficiency, dual deficiency of the heart, and spleen and liver depression and qi stagnation. We found that Xiaoyao decoction was the most frequently used herbal formula for the treatment of liver qi depression and liver depression with spleen deficiency, while Chaihu Shugan decoction was often used for liver depression and qi stagnation. Bai Shao (Paeonia lactiflora Pall.) and Chai Hu (Bupleurum chinense DC.) were commonly used across different TCM patterns regardless of the prescribed Chinese herbal formulas. The rationale underlying herb selection was seldom provided. Due to the limited number of studies on TCM pattern-based treatment of depression and their low methodological quality, we are unable to draw any conclusion regarding which herbal formulas have higher efficacy and which TCM patterns respond better to CHM. PMID:26180532

  16. The State of the Art of Traditional Arab Herbal Medicine in the Eastern Region of the Mediterranean: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Azaizeh, Hassan; Saad, Bashar; Khalil, Khalid; Said, Omar

    2006-01-01

    Historical and current studies indicate that the Eastern region of the Mediterranean has been distinguished from other regions by a rich inventory of complementary alternative medicine (CAM), in particular herbal medicine. Data collected from several surveys and studies indicate that there is a flourishing and well-developed trade of herbs. These surveys also reveal that 200–250 herbs are used in treating human diseases and are sold or traded in market places in the Mediterranean region or internationally. In addition, some of these herbs are rare or even endangered species. In regard to the status of the know-how of herbalists, unfortunately, herbal medicine in our region is mostly prescribed by ethnopharmacologists symptomatically—based on signs and symptoms alone, rather than as a result of a full understanding of the underlying disease. In some cases, herbs used today may not even correspond to the plants described originally in the old literature, as the former are cultivated from herbs that went through different breeding procedures throughout several centuries. This article presents a systematic review of both the state of the art of traditional Arab herbal medicine and the status of the know-how of Arab herbalists. PMID:16786053

  17. Salmonella typhimurium A1-R tumor targeting in immunocompetent mice is enhanced by a traditional Chinese medicine herbal mixture.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong; Zhang, Nan; Su, Shibing; Hoffman, Robert M; Zhao, Ming

    2013-05-01

    We have developed a bacterial cancer therapy strategy using the genetically-engineered strain Salmonella typhimurium A1-R (A1-R). A1-R is auxotrophic for leu and arg which attenuates bacterial growth in normal tissue but allows high tumor virulence. A1-R is effective against metastatic human and murine cancer cell lines in clinically-relevant nude-mouse models. However, A1-R treatment of tumors in immunocompetent mouse models with high doses is limited by toxicity. The current study evaluated a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) herbal mixture in combination with A1-R therapy in a syngeneic metastatic immunocompetent mouse model of highly aggressive lung cancer. In a model of Lewis lung carcinoma, the combination of a TCM herbal mixture and S. typhimurium A1-R enabled bacteria to be safely administered at the large dose of 2 × 10(7) colony forming units once a week i.v. with increased treatment efficacy and reduced toxicity compared to monotherapy with A1-R. The herbal mixture prevented body weight loss, spleen weight gain and liver infection by A1-R, as well as hemorrhagic lesions on the skin, liver, and spleen, all observed with A1-R monotherapy. The results of the present study suggest that the combination of A1-R and TCM has important potential for therapy of highly aggressive types of cancer, including those which are resistant to standard therapy.

  18. A multidisciplinary view on cultural primatology: behavioral innovations and traditions in Japanese macaques.

    PubMed

    Leca, Jean-Baptiste; Gunst, Noëlle; Pelletier, Amanda N; Vasey, Paul L; Nahallage, Charmalie A D; Watanabe, Kunio; Huffman, Michael A

    2016-07-01

    Cultural primatology (i.e., the study of behavioral traditions in nonhuman primates as a window into the evolution of human cultural capacities) was founded in Japan by Kinji Imanishi in the early 1950s. This relatively new research area straddles different disciplines and now benefits from collaborations between Japanese and Western primatologists. In this paper, we return to the cradle of cultural primatology by revisiting our original articles on behavioral innovations and traditions in Japanese macaques. For the past 35 years, our international team of biologists, psychologists and anthropologists from Japan, France, Sri Lanka, the USA and Canada, has been taking an integrative approach to addressing the influence of environmental, sociodemographic, developmental, cognitive and behavioral constraints on the appearance, diffusion, and maintenance of behavioral traditions in Macaca fuscata across various domains; namely, feeding innovation, tool use, object play, and non-conceptive sex.

  19. Natural formulas and the nature of formulas: Exploring potential therapeutic targets based on traditional Chinese herbal formulas.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qianru; Yu, Hua; Qi, Jin; Tang, Daisheng; Chen, Xiaojia; Wan, Jian-Bo; Li, Peng; Hu, Hao; Wang, Yi-Tao; Hu, Yuanjia

    2017-01-01

    By comparing the target proteins (TPs) of classic traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) herbal formulas and modern drugs used for treating coronary artery disease (CAD), this study aimed to identify potential therapeutic TPs for treating CAD. Based on the theory of TCM, the Xuefu-Zhuyu decoction (XZD) and Gualou-Xiebai-Banxia decoction (GXBD), both of which are classic herbal formulas, were selected for treating CAD. Data on the chemical ingredients and corresponding TPs of the herbs in these two formulas and data on modern drugs approved for treating CAD and related TPs were retrieved from professional TCM and bioinformatics databases. Based on the associations between the drugs or ingredients and their TPs, the TP networks of XZD, GXBD, and modern drugs approved for treating CAD were constructed separately and then integrated to create a complex master network in which the vertices represent the TPs and the edges, the ingredients or drugs that are linked to the TPs. The reliability of this master network was validated through statistical tests. The common TPs of the two herbal formulas have a higher possibility of being targeted by modern drugs in comparison with the formula-specific TPs. A total of 114 common XZD and GXBD TPs that are not yet the target of modern drugs used for treating CAD should be experimentally investigated as potential therapeutic targets for treating CAD. Among these TPs, the top 10 are NOS3, PTPN1, GABRA1, PRKACA, CDK2, MAOB, ESR1, ADH1C, ADH1B, and AKR1B1. The results of this study provide a valuable reference for further experimental investigations of therapeutic targets for CAD. The established method shows promise for searching for potential therapeutic TPs based on herbal formulas. It is crucial for this work to select beneficial therapeutic targets of TCM, typical TCM syndromes, and corresponding classic formulas.

  20. Natural formulas and the nature of formulas: Exploring potential therapeutic targets based on traditional Chinese herbal formulas

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Jin; Tang, Daisheng; Chen, Xiaojia; Wan, Jian-bo; Li, Peng; Hu, Hao; Wang, Yi-tao; Hu, Yuanjia

    2017-01-01

    By comparing the target proteins (TPs) of classic traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) herbal formulas and modern drugs used for treating coronary artery disease (CAD), this study aimed to identify potential therapeutic TPs for treating CAD. Based on the theory of TCM, the Xuefu-Zhuyu decoction (XZD) and Gualou-Xiebai-Banxia decoction (GXBD), both of which are classic herbal formulas, were selected for treating CAD. Data on the chemical ingredients and corresponding TPs of the herbs in these two formulas and data on modern drugs approved for treating CAD and related TPs were retrieved from professional TCM and bioinformatics databases. Based on the associations between the drugs or ingredients and their TPs, the TP networks of XZD, GXBD, and modern drugs approved for treating CAD were constructed separately and then integrated to create a complex master network in which the vertices represent the TPs and the edges, the ingredients or drugs that are linked to the TPs. The reliability of this master network was validated through statistical tests. The common TPs of the two herbal formulas have a higher possibility of being targeted by modern drugs in comparison with the formula-specific TPs. A total of 114 common XZD and GXBD TPs that are not yet the target of modern drugs used for treating CAD should be experimentally investigated as potential therapeutic targets for treating CAD. Among these TPs, the top 10 are NOS3, PTPN1, GABRA1, PRKACA, CDK2, MAOB, ESR1, ADH1C, ADH1B, and AKR1B1. The results of this study provide a valuable reference for further experimental investigations of therapeutic targets for CAD. The established method shows promise for searching for potential therapeutic TPs based on herbal formulas. It is crucial for this work to select beneficial therapeutic targets of TCM, typical TCM syndromes, and corresponding classic formulas. PMID:28182702

  1. Inhibitory Effects of Japanese Herbal Medicines Sho-saiko-to and Juzen-taiho-to on Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Yoshihisa; Soejima, Yurie; Kumagai, Arisa; Watanabe, Masato; Uozaki, Hiroshi; Fukusato, Toshio

    2014-01-01

    Although Japanese herbal medicines (JHMs) are widely used in Japan, only a few studies have investigated their effects on nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). In the present study, we examined the effect of 4 kinds of JHMs [sho-saiko-to (TJ-9), inchin-ko-to (TJ-135), juzen-taiho-to (TJ-48), and keishi-bukuryo-gan (TJ-25)] on a mouse model of NASH. Db/db mice were divided into 6 groups: control diet (control), methionine- and choline-deficient diet (MCD), and MCD diet supplemented with TJ-9, TJ-135, TJ-48, and TJ-25 (TJ-9, TJ-135, TJ-48, and TJ-25, respectively). All mice were sacrificed after 4 weeks of treatment, and biochemical, pathological, and molecular analyses were performed. Serum alanine aminotransferase levels and liver histology, including necroinflammation and fibrosis, were significantly alleviated in the TJ-9 and TJ-48 groups compared with the MCD group. The expression level of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 mRNA in the liver was significantly suppressed by TJ-48. Although the differences were not statistically significant, the expression levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-6 were lower, and those of peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor (PPAR)γ were higher in the TJ-9 and/or TJ-48 groups than in the MCD group. Similarly, even though the results were not statistically significant, malondialdehyde levels in liver tissues were lower in the TJ-9 and TJ-48 groups than in the MCD group. We showed that JHMs, especially TJ-9 and TJ-48, inhibited the necroinflammation and fibrosis in the liver of a mouse model of NASH, even though the mechanisms were not fully elucidated. Further studies are needed in the future to investigate the possibility of clinical application of these medicines in the treatment for NASH. PMID:24466347

  2. Knowledge, attitudes and perceptions of HIV/AIDS among traditional birth attendants and herbal practitioners in Lagos State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Omowunmi, Ahmed; Nkiru, Odunukwe; Yekeen, Raheem; Chinyere, Efienemokwu; Muinat, Junaid; Segun, Adesesan; Olasubomi, Ogedengbe; Tekena, Harry; Lateef, Salako

    2004-11-01

    Recognising the widespread role of traditional birth attendants (TBAs) and herbal practitioners (HPs) in health care at community level in Nigeria, we set out to assess their knowledge, attitudes and practices in relation to HIV infection and prevention. Questionnaires were administered to a convenience sample of 189 participants in 20 local government areas of Lagos State. We found that knowledge of modes of transmission of HIV was less than adequate and included lack of knowledge of the existence of HIV/AIDS amongst some practitioners, claims for the ability to treat HIV/AIDS, failure to name major avenues of transmission and confusion of HIV/AIDS with other conditions. The use of measures to prevent infection of clients and themselves showed that normal standards of infection control are not adhered to. Considering that as many as 60% of children born in Nigeria are delivered by traditional birth attendants and that use of the services of herbal practitioners extends across the entire society in both rural and urban settings, this is seen as reason for concern. It is suggested that better incorporation of TBAs/HPs into the well-developed primary health care system offers not only a way of overcoming the risks of infection posed by traditional health practices but also offers an opportunity to extend the reach of voluntary counselling and testing and prevention of mother-to-child infection programmes. The research has shown the need for appropriate training of TBAs, to enable them to recognise the risk of HIV infection in their own practices and to encourage them to adopt universal precautions against spreading infection. We also recommend that they be more extensively integrated as primary health care workers in VCT and PMTCT programmes in Nigeria. We further suggest that referrals made between the traditional practitioners and professional health care providers can be an effective and successful element of HIV/AIDS prevention and control programmes.

  3. Hyperspectral imaging in the quality control of herbal medicines - the case of neurotoxic Japanese star anise.

    PubMed

    Vermaak, Ilze; Viljoen, Alvaro; Lindström, Susanne Wiklund

    2013-03-05

    Illicium verum (Chinese star anise) dried fruit is popularly used as a remedy to treat infant colic. However, instances of life-threatening adverse events in infants have been recorded after use, in some cases due to substitution and/or adulteration of I. verum with Illicium anisatum (Japanese star anise), which is toxic. It is evident that rapid and efficient quality control methods are of utmost importance to prevent re-occurrence of such dire consequences. The potential of short wave infrared (SWIR) hyperspectral imaging and image analysis as a rapid quality control method to distinguish between I. anisatum and I. verum whole dried fruit was investigated. Images were acquired using a sisuChema SWIR hyperspectral pushbroom imaging system with a spectral range of 920-2514 nm. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to the images to reduce the high dimensionality of the data, remove unwanted background and to visualise the data. A classification model with 4 principal components and an R²X_cum of 0.84 and R²Y_cum of 0.81 was developed for the 2 species using partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). The model was subsequently used to accurately predict the identity of I. anisatum (98.42%) and I. verum (97.85%) introduced into the model as an external dataset. The results show that SWIR hyperspectral imaging is an objective and non-destructive quality control method that can be successfully used to identify whole dried fruit of I. anisatum and I. verum. In addition, this method has the potential to detect I. anisatum whole dried fruits within large batches of I. verum through upscaling to a conveyor belt system.

  4. Pro-toxic dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids in the traditional Andean herbal medicine “asmachilca”

    PubMed Central

    Colegate, Steven M.; Boppré, Michael; Monzón, Julio; Betz, Joseph M.

    2015-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevance Asmachilca is a Peruvian medicinal herb preparation ostensibly derived from Eupatorium gayanum Wedd. = Aristeguietia gayana (Wedd.) R.M. King & H. Rob. (Asteraceae: Eupatorieae). Decoctions of the plant have a reported bronchodilation effect that is purported to be useful in the treatment of respiratory allergies, common cold and bronchial asthma. However, its attractiveness to pyrrolizidine alkaloid-pharmacophagous insects indicated a potential for toxicity for human consumers. Aim of the study To determine if commercial asmachilca samples, including fully processed herbal teas, contain potentially toxic 1,2-dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids. Materials and methods Two brands of “Asmachilca” herbal tea bags and four other commercial samples of botanical materials for preparing asmachilca medicine were extracted and analyzed using HPLC-esi(+)MS and MS/MS for the characteristic retention times and mass spectra of known dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids. Other suspected dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids were tentatively identified based on MS/MS profiles and high resolution molecular weight determinations. Further structure elucidation of isolated alkaloids was based on 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy. Results Asmachilca attracted many species of moths which are known to pharmacophagously gather dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids. Analysis of 5 of the asmachilca samples revealed the major presence of the dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloid monoesters rinderine and supinine, and their N-oxides. The 6th sample was very similar but did not contain supinine or its N-oxide. Small quantities of other dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloid monoesters, including echinatine and intermedine, were also detected. In addition, two major metabolites, previously undescribed, were isolated and identified as dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloid monoesters with two “head-to-tail” linked viridifloric and/or trachelanthic acids. Estimates of total pyrrolizidine alkaloid and N

  5. Significance of Kampo, Japanese traditional medicine, in the treatment of obesity: basic and clinical evidence.

    PubMed

    Yamakawa, Jun-Ichi; Moriya, Junji; Takeuchi, Kenji; Nakatou, Mio; Motoo, Yoshiharu; Kobayashi, Junji

    2013-01-01

    The cause of obesity includes genetic and environmental factors, including cytokines derived from adipocytes (adipo-cytokines). Although drug therapy is available for obesity, it is highly risky. Our main focus in this review is on the traditional form of Japanese medicine, Kampo, in the treated of obesity. Two Kampo formulas, that is, bofutsushosan () and boiogito (), are covered by the national health insurance in Japan for the treatment of obesity. Various issues related to their action mechanisms remain unsolved. Considering these, we described the results of basic experiments and presented clinical evidence and case reports on osteoarthritis as examples of clinical application of their two Kampo medicine. Traditional medicine is used not only for treatment but also for prevention. In clinical practice, it is of great importance to prove the efficacy of combinations of traditional medicine and Western medicine and the utility of traditional medicine in the attenuation of adverse effects of Western medicine.

  6. Studies on the individual and combined diuretic effects of four Vietnamese traditional herbal remedies (Zea mays, Imperata cylindrica, Plantago major and Orthosiphon stamineus).

    PubMed

    Doan, D D; Nguyen, N H; Doan, H K; Nguyen, T L; Phan, T S; van Dau, N; Grabe, M; Johansson, R; Lindgren, G; Stjernström, N E

    1992-06-01

    Herbal remedies are widely used in Vietnam alongside modern drugs. We assessed the diuretic effect of four traditional Vietnamese herbal remedies from Zea mays, Imperata cylindrica, Plantago major and Orthosiphon stamineus, all claimed to produce an increase of diuresis. No influence was recorded for the 12- and 24-h urine output or on the sodium excretion for any of the drugs when tested under standardized conditions in a placebo controlled double-blind crossover model. The present study indicates the need for critical review of the present recommendations regarding therapy with plant materials in countries relying on empiric traditions.

  7. Anti-HBV effect of individual traditional Chinese herbal medicine in vitro and in vivo: an analytic review.

    PubMed

    Chen, Y; Zhu, J

    2013-07-01

    Traditional Chinese herbal medicine (TCHM) has been widely used in the treatment of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) in China. The systematic analysis of clinical research of TCHM against CHB revealed its potential but not confirmed its therapeutic effect. To understand the detailed antiviral effect of TCHM against HBV infection, we systematically analysed the anti-HBV effect of individual Chinese herbs on the basis of the research on individual TCHM in vitro and in vivo, which were published from 1995 to 2012. Among 171 herbal components isolated from 76 Chinese herbs, we found 13 compounds and 9 extracts isolated from 18 Chinese herbs showing strong inhibitory effect on HBV DNA, HBeAg or HBsAg release with low cytotoxicity in HepG2.2.15 cells, and agents from 12 Chinese herbs showing the highest inhibition rates of plasma DHBV DNA of more than 50% in DHBV-infected ducks. In addition, the two compounds chrysophanol 8-O-beta-D-glucoside isolated from Rheum palmatum and wogonin isolated from Scutellaria baicalensis were found to display strong anti-HBV activity. Interestingly, compounds isolated from 5 of these effective anti-HBV Chinese herbs were found to show strong antibacterial or antifungal activity also. This review summarizes and analyses the studies on the anti-HBV effect of individual TCHM in cell and animal models, providing potential perspective in the understanding of TCHM in the treatment of hepatitis B and the development of new anti-HBV drugs from TCHM.

  8. Quality Assessment of Ojeok-San, a Traditional Herbal Formula, Using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Combined with Chemometric Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jung-Hoon; Seo, Chang-Seob; Kim, Seong-Sil; Shin, Hyeun-Kyoo

    2015-01-01

    Ojeok-san (OJS) is a traditional herbal formula consisting of 17 herbal medicines that has been used to treat various disorders. In this study, quantitative analytical methods were developed using high-performance liquid chromatography equipped with a photodiode array detector to determine 19 marker compounds in OJS preparations, which was then combined with chemometric analysis. The method developed was validated in terms of its precision and accuracy. The intra- and interday precision of the marker compounds were <3.0% of the relative standard deviation (RSD) and the recovery of the marker compounds was 92.74%–104.16% with RSD values <3.0%. The results of our quantitative analysis show that the quantities of the 19 marker compounds varied between a laboratory water extract and commercial OJS granules. The chemometric analysis used, principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA), also showed that the OJS water extract produced using a laboratory method clearly differed from the commercial OJS granules; therefore, an equalized production process is required for quality control of OJS preparations. Our results suggest that the HPLC analytical methods developed are suitable for the quantification and quality assessment of OJS preparations when combined with chemometric analysis involving PCA and HCA. PMID:26539304

  9. Recent progress of research on medicinal mushrooms, foods, and other herbal products used in traditional Chinese medicine.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kuo-Hsiung; Morris-Natschke, Susan L; Yang, Xiaoming; Huang, Rong; Zhou, Ting; Wu, Shou-Fang; Shi, Qian; Itokawa, Hideji

    2012-04-01

    This article will review selected herbal products used in traditional Chinese medicine, including medicinal mushrooms ( bā xī mó gū; Agaricus blazei, yún zhī; Coriolus versicolor, líng zhī; Ganoderma lucidum, xiāng xùn; shiitake, Lentinus edodes, niú zhāng zhī; Taiwanofungus camphoratus), Cordyceps ( dōng chóng xià cǎo), pomegranate ( shí liú; Granati Fructus), green tea ( lǜ chá; Theae Folium Non Fermentatum), garlic ( dà suàn; Allii Sativi Bulbus), turmeric ( jiāng huáng; Curcumae Longae Rhizoma), and Artemisiae Annuae Herba ( qīng hāo; sweet wormwood). Many of the discussed herbal products have gained popularity in their uses as dietary supplements for health benefits. The review will focus on the active constituents of the herbs and their bioactivities, with emphasis on the most recent progress in research for the period of 2003 to 2011.

  10. Recent progress of research on medicinal mushrooms, foods, and other herbal products used in traditional Chinese medicine

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kuo-Hsiung; Morris-Natschke, Susan L.; Yang, Xiaoming; Huang, Rong; Zhou, Ting; Wu, Shou-Fang; Shi, Qian; Itokawa, Hideji

    2012-01-01

    This article will review selected herbal products used in traditional Chinese medicine, including medicinal mushrooms (巴西蘑菇 bā xī mó gū; Agaricus blazei, 雲芝 yún zhī; Coriolus versicolor, 靈芝 líng zhī; Ganoderma lucidum, 香蕈 xiāng xùn; shiitake, Lentinus edodes, 牛樟芝 niú zhāng zhī; Taiwanofungus camphoratus), Cordyceps (冬蟲夏草 dōng chóng xià cǎo), pomegranate (石榴 shí liú; Granati Fructus), green tea (綠茶 lǜ chá; Theae Folium Non Fermentatum), garlic (大蒜 dà suàn; Allii Sativi Bulbus), turmeric (薑黃 jiāng huáng; Curcumae Longae Rhizoma), and Artemisiae Annuae Herba (青蒿 qīng hāo; sweet wormwood). Many of the discussed herbal products have gained popularity in their uses as dietary supplements for health benefits. The review will focus on the active constituents of the herbs and their bioactivities, with emphasis on the most recent progress in research for the period of 2003 to 2011. PMID:24716120

  11. Wound Healing Activity of a Traditionally Used Poly Herbal Product in a Burn Wound Model in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Fahimi, Shirin; Abdollahi, Mohammad; Mortazavi, Seyed Alireza; Hajimehdipoor, Homa; Abdolghaffari, Amir Hossein; Rezvanfar, Mohammad Amin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Burns are known as one of the most common and destructive forms of injury with a vast spectrum of consequences. Despite the discovery of various antibacterial and antiseptic agents, burn wound healing still has remained a challenge to modern medicine. Plants, with a valuable traditional support, have been considered as potential agents for prevention and treatment of disorders in recent years. However, modern scientific methods should be applied to validate the claims about the therapeutic effects of the herbal products. Objectives: This study was conducted to evaluate the wound-healing activity of a poly herbal cream (PHC), retrieved from Iranian Traditional Medicine (ITM), in a rat burn wound model in Iran. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, PHC containing aqueous extracts of Malva sylvestris and Solanum nigrum leaves and oily extract of Rosa damascena petals was used. Second-degree burn wounds were induced in four groups of five rats each. Group 1 received no treatment while groups 2, 3 and 4 were given cream base, silver sulfadiazine (SS) 1% and PHC, respectively to compare the efficacy of PHC with the negative and positive control groups. The percentage of wound healing on days 2, 6, 10 and 14 and histopathological parameters of healed wounds on the 14th day were assessed. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of PHC were evaluated using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and micro-dilution methods, respectively. Results: There was a significant improvement in healing percentage of PHC-treated rats in comparison to the other groups at the end of the treatment period (87.0% ± 2.1% for PHC in comparison to 32.2% ± 1.6%, 57.0% ± 5.3% and 70.8% ± 3.5% for the control, cream base and SS groups, respectively). Moreover, the healed wounds in PHC-treated animals contained less inflammatory cells and had desirable re-epithelialization with remarkable neovascularization. In addition to the antioxidant activity, PHC exhibited

  12. Pharmacokinetic interactions between Japanese traditional medicine (kampo) and modern medicine (III). Effect of Sho-seiryu-to on the pharmacokinetics of azelastine hydrochloride in rats.

    PubMed

    Makino, Toshiaki; Inagaki, Takahiro; Komatsu, Ken-Ichi; Kano, Yoshihiro

    2004-05-01

    Sho-seiryu-to (SST) is widely used herbal formula in Japanese traditional medicine (kampo) to treat allergic diseases. Since Japanese physicians frequently prescribe this formula combined with azelastine hydrochloride, one of anti-histamine and anti-allergic medicines, we evaluated the pharmacokinetic interactions between SST and azelastine hydrochloride in rats to obtain the drug information for the prevention from disadvantage or adverse effects by their combined therapy. Oral administration of SST did not influence the plasma concentration profile of azelastine after its intravaneous injection, suggesting that SST would not change the activities of metabolic enzymes such as cytochrome P450s. However, maximum concentration (C(max)) of azelastine after oral administration of azelastine hydrochloride was significantly reduced and mean residence time (MRT) was significantly lengthened when SST was orally administered at 20 times amount of human daily dosage. There was not significant difference in the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC), suggesting that SST might delay the absorption of azelastine without affecting the extent of bioavailability. Since this delay was independent of ephedrine that is a main constituent of SST and that a suppressor for gastric transit, SST might form unsoluble complex with azelastine to reduce its absorption. At the double of human daily dose, SST did not made the absorption of azelastine delay. The possibility that SST reduce the absorption of azelastine hydrochloride could not be denied completely, however, it is suggested that SST would not cause pharmacokinetic interaction with azelastine hydrochloride clinically.

  13. New Finding of an Anti-TB Compound in the Genus Marsypopetalum (Annonaceae) from a Traditional Herbal Remedy of Laos

    PubMed Central

    Elkington, Bethany G.; Sydara, Kongmany; Newsome, Andrew; Hwang, Chang Hwa; Lankin, David C.; Simmler, Charlotte; Napolitano, José G.; Ree, Richard; Graham, James G.; Gyllenhaal, Charlotte; Bouamanivong, Somsanith; Souliya, Onevilay; Pauli, Guido F.; Franzblau, Scott G.; Soejarto, Djaja Djendoel

    2014-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevance There is widespread use of traditional herbal remedies in the Lao PDR (Laos). It is common practice to treat many diseases with local plants. This research project documented and analysed some of these traditional remedies used to treat symptoms of tuberculosis (TB). Materials and methods This research was executed by interviewing healers about plants used traditionally to treat the symptoms of TB. Samples of some of the plants were collected, and extracts of 77 species were submitted to various in vitro assays in order to determine the amount of growth inhibition of virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv (Mtb), as opposed to other microbes and mammalian Vero cells. Results Interviews took place with 58 contemporary healers in 5 different provinces about plants currently used, giving a list of 341 plants. Bioassay-guided fractionation was performed on Marsypopetalum modestum (Pierre) B. Xue & R.M.K. Saunders (Annonaceae), leading to the isolation of dipyrithione, an anti-mycobacterial compound isolated for the first time from the genus Marsypopetalum through this research. Conclusions This research has helped to increase awareness of Laos’ rich diversity of medicinal plants and will hopefully provide incentive to preserve the undeveloped forested areas that remain, which still hold a wealth of medical information for future discoveries. PMID:24333958

  14. Treating emotion-related disorders in Japanese traditional medicine: language, patients and doctors.

    PubMed

    Daidoji, Keiko

    2013-03-01

    This paper analyses how the conceptual and therapeutic formation of Japanese traditional medicine (Kampo) has been socially constructed through interactions with popular interpretations of illness. Taking the example of emotion-related disorders, this paper focuses on the changing meaning of constraint (utsu) in Kampo medicine. Utsu was once a name for one of the most frequently cited emotion-related disorders and pathological concerns during the Edo period. With the spread of Western medicine in the Meiji period, neurasthenia replaced utsu as the dominant emotion-related disorder in Japanese society. As a result, post-Meiji doctors developed other conceptual tools and strategies to respond to these new disease categories, innovations that continue to influence contemporary practitioners. I begin this history by focusing on Wada Tōkaku, a Japanese doctor of the Edo period who developed a unique theory and treatment strategy for utsu. Secondly, I examine. Yomuto Kyūshin and Mori Dōhaku, Kampo doctors of the early twentieth century, who privileged neurasthenia over utsu in their medical practice. The paper concludes with a discussion of the flexibility and complexity of Kampo medicine, how its theory and practices have been influenced by cross-cultural changes in medicine and society, while incorporating the popular experience of illness as well.

  15. Efficacy and Safety of a Traditional Chinese Herbal Formula Xuefu Zhuyu Decoction for Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Pengqian; Xiong, Xingjiang; Li, Shengjie

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The cardioprotective role of xuefu zhuyu decoction (XZD), a well-known classical herbal formula, has been documented for hypertension treatment recently. This study aims to summarize the efficacy and safety of XZD in treating hypertension. Seven databases were searched to identify randomized controlled trials evaluating the efficacy of XZD in hypertensive patients. Fifteen studies involving 1364 hypertensive patients were included. All studies compared XZD and antihypertensive drugs with antihypertensive drugs used alone. In all, 15 studies reported significant effects of XZD for lowering blood pressure compared with the control group (P < 0.05), and 7 studies reported significant effects of XZD for improving symptoms compared with the control group (P < 0.00001). Meanwhile, studies reported XZD was more efficacious than antihypertensive drugs in improving total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, homocysteine, hemorheology, carotid intima-media thickness, and left ventricular mass index (P < 0.05). No severe adverse event was reported. This meta-analysis provides evidence that XZD is beneficial for hypertension. Although concerns regarding selective bias and methodologic flaws were raised, our findings suggests XZD as a new candidate cardioprotective drug for hypertension, which should be given priority for future preclinical and clinical studies. PMID:26496333

  16. Prevalence and factors associated with traditional herbal medicine use among patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In Africa, herbal medicines are often used as primary treatment for Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) related problems. Concurrent use of traditional herbal medicines (THM) with antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) is widespread among HIV infected patients. However, the extent of THM use is not known in most settings in Sub-Saharan Africa. This study aimed at determining the prevalence and factors associated with THM use among HIV infected patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) attending The AIDS Support Organization (TASO) in Uganda. TASO is a non-governmental organization devoted to offering HIV/AIDS care and treatment services in the population. Methods This was a cross-sectional study carried out in two TASO treatment centres in Uganda among 401 randomly selected eligible participants. We included participants who were 18 years and above, were enrolled on HAART, and consented to participate in the study. Data was collected using an interviewer-administered semi-structured questionnaire. THM use referred to someone who had ever used or was currently using herbal medicine while on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) by the time of the study. Data was captured in Epi-data version 3.1 and exported to STATA version 9.0 for analysis. Results The prevalence of THM use was 33.7%. Patients on HAART for < 4 years were more likely to use THM (OR = 5.98, 95% CI 1.13 - 31.73) as well as those who experienced HAART side effects (OR = 3.66, 95% CI: 1.15 - 11.68). Older patients (≥39 years) were less likely to use THM (OR = 0.26 95% CI: 0.08 - 0.83). Participants with HAART adherence levels > 95% were less likely to use THM (OR = 0.09, 95% CI 0.01 - 0.65). Conclusion The prevalence of THM use among participants on HAART was high. This raises clinical and pharmacological concerns that need attention by the health care service providers. PMID:22074367

  17. Subacute toxicity and stability of Soshiho-tang, a traditional herbal formula, in Sprague–Dawley rats

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Backgroud Soshiho-tang (SST, Xiao-chai-hu-tang in Chinese and Sho-saiko-to in Japanese), an oriental herbal formula, is used for treatment of chronic liver diseases. Although many researchers have studied the pharmacological properties of SST, information about its safety and toxicity is limited. Therefore, we evaluated the potential safety of SST in Sprague–Dawley rats over a period of 4-weeks. Methods The SST was administered once daily by gavage to male and female rats at doses of 0, 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg/day for 4 weeks. We measured the body weight, mortality, food consumption, ophthalmoscopy, urinalysis, hematology, serum biochemistry, gross pathological findings, absolute/relative organ weights and histopathology. In addition, we analyzed the component of SST and measured the stability of its component in SST according to study periods using high performance liquid chromatography. Results The SST treatment did not result in any toxicologically significant changes in mortality, food consumption, ophthalmoscopy, urinalysis, hematology, serum biochemistry, gross pathological findings, absolute/relative organ weights and histopathology, except for salivation and reduction in body weight in the 2000 mg/kg/day male group. These findings in the 2000 mg/kg/day male group are considered toxicologically insignificant because they are not accompanied by other pathological findings, including in hematology, serum biochemistry and histopatholgy, and they do not exhibit a dose–response relationship. SST is detected three components including liquiritin, baicalin, and glycyrrhizin. In addition, there were not observed the significant differences among the contents of three components in SST according to storage periods. Conclusion These results indicate that SST may be a safe material. Based on these results, the no-observed-adverse-effect level was more than 2000 mg/kg for both genders. PMID:23268740

  18. Herbal medicines used by Bapedi traditional healers to treat reproductive ailments in the Limpopo Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Semenya, Ss; Maroyi, A; Potgieter, Mj; Erasmus, Ljc

    2013-01-01

    The current study focussed on documenting the ethnobotanical knowledge of herbal medicines used by the Bapedi traditional healers to treat reproductive ailments in the Limpopo Province, South Africa. Fifty one healers from 17 municipalities covering Capricorn, Sekhukhune and Waterberg districts of the Limpopo Province were interviewed between January and July 2011. Semi-structured interviews, observations and guided field surveys with the healers were employed. Thirty-six medicinal plant species belonging to 35 genera and 20 families were documented. The most used species were Zanthoxylum humile (25.5%), Catha edulis (21.6%), Ozoroa sphaerocarpa (15.7%), Hypoxis hemerocallidea (13.7%), Hypoxis obtusa (11.7%), Gomphocarpus fruticosus subsp. fruticosus and Gymnosporia senegalensis (9.8% each). The dominant growth forms among the reported medicinal plants were herbs (39%), followed by shrubs and trees with 33% and 28%, respectively. The preferred plant parts were roots (63.9%), followed by bark (13.9%), whole plant (11.1%), tubers (8.3%), bulbs (5.6%), fruits, leaves, stems and twigs (2.8% each). The majority of the species were used to treat gender specific reproductive ailments; while a minority were used for treating reproductive ailments of both genders. Twenty-two species (61.1%) are supported by reports of similar uses in other countries or have proven biological activity. This study illustrates that Bapedi traditional healers possess remarkable knowledge on medicinal plants used for treating and managing reproductive ailments.

  19. Effect of tao-hong-si-wu-tang, a traditional Chinese herbal medicine formula, on physical fatigue in mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Shan-shan; Chen, Zi-chao; Zhang, Chao-hui

    2012-01-01

    Tao-Hong-Si-Wu-Tang (THSWT) is a famous traditional Chinese herbal medicine formula, which has traditionally been used in China for about one thousand years. The present study investigated the effect of THSWT on physical fatigue. 32 male mice were randomly divided into 4 groups with 8 in each group. All were administered orally and daily for 28 days. Group I received isotonic saline solution as control; Group II, III and IV obtained 5, 10 and 20ml/ kg body weight of THSWT solutions, respectively. After 28 days, the anti-physical fatigue effect of THSWT was evaluated by using a forced swimming test, along with the determination of blood lactic acid, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), liver glycogen and muscle glycogen contents. The data showed that THSWT could extend exhaustive swimming time of mice, as well as decrease the BLA and BUN contents and increase the liver glycogen and muscle glycogen contents. The results support that THSWT had anti-physical fatigue effect.

  20. Investigation of targeted pyrrolizidine alkaloids in traditional Chinese medicines and selected herbal teas sourced in Ireland using LC-ESI-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Caroline T; Gosetto, Francesca; Danaher, Martin; Sabatini, Stefano; Furey, Ambrose

    2014-01-01

    Publications linking hepatotoxicity to the use of herbal preparations are escalating. Herbal teas, traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) and dietary supplements have been shown to contain pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs). Acute PA toxicosis of the liver can result in sinusoidal-obstruction syndrome, also known as veno-occlusive disease (VOD). This paper describes a sensitive and robust method for the detection of targeted PAs and their N-oxides (PANOs) in herbal products (selected herbal teas and TCMs) sourced within Ireland. The sample preparation includes a simple acidic extraction with clean-up via solid-phase extraction (SPE). Sample extracts were accurately analysed by using LC-ESI-MS/MS applying for the first time a pentafluorophenyl (PFP) core-shell column to the chromatographic separation of PAs and PANOs. The method was validated for selectivity, taking into consideration matrix effects, specificity, linearity, precision and trueness. Limits of detection (LOD) and limits of quantitation (LOQ) were quantified for all PAs and PANOs ranging from 0.4 to 1.9 µg kg⁻¹ and from 1.3 to 6.3 µg kg⁻¹, respectively. In this study 10 PAs and four PANOs were targeted because they are commercially available as reference standards. Therefore, this study can only report the levels of these PAs and PANOs analysed in the herbal teas and TCMs. The results reported represent the minimum levels of PAs and PANOs present in the samples analysed; commercially available herbal teas (n = 18) and TCMs (n = 54). A total of 50% herbal teas and 78% Chinese medicines tested positive for one or more PAs and/or PANOs included within this study, ranging from 10 to 1733 and from 13 to 3668 µg kg⁻¹, respectively.

  1. Significance of Kampo, Japanese Traditional Medicine, in the Treatment of Obesity: Basic and Clinical Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Yamakawa, Jun-ichi; Moriya, Junji; Takeuchi, Kenji; Nakatou, Mio; Motoo, Yoshiharu; Kobayashi, Junji

    2013-01-01

    The cause of obesity includes genetic and environmental factors, including cytokines derived from adipocytes (adipo-cytokines). Although drug therapy is available for obesity, it is highly risky. Our main focus in this review is on the traditional form of Japanese medicine, Kampo, in the treated of obesity. Two Kampo formulas, that is, bofutsushosan (防風通聖散) and boiogito (防己黄耆湯), are covered by the national health insurance in Japan for the treatment of obesity. Various issues related to their action mechanisms remain unsolved. Considering these, we described the results of basic experiments and presented clinical evidence and case reports on osteoarthritis as examples of clinical application of their two Kampo medicine. Traditional medicine is used not only for treatment but also for prevention. In clinical practice, it is of great importance to prove the efficacy of combinations of traditional medicine and Western medicine and the utility of traditional medicine in the attenuation of adverse effects of Western medicine. PMID:23662155

  2. Studies on the traditional herbal anthelmintic Chenopodium ambrosioides L.: ethnopharmacological evaluation and clinical field trials.

    PubMed

    Kliks, M M

    1985-01-01

    Infusions and decoctions of the leaves, roots and inflorescences of the herbaceous shrub Chenopodium ambrosioides (American wormseed, goosefoot, epazote, paico) and related species indigenous to the New World have been used for centuries as dietary condiments and as traditional anthelmintics by native peoples for the treatment of intestinal worms. Commercial preparations of oil of chenopodium and its active constituent, ascaridol, obtained by steam distillation, have been and continue to be, used with considerable success in mass treatment campaigns. Ethnopharmacological studies in a community of Mayan subsistence farmers in Chiapas, Mexico, confirmed that decoctions containing up to 300 mg of dry plant material per kg body weight (MGKGW) were widely used and traditionally highly regarded in the treatment of ascariasis. However, therapeutic doses of up to 6000 MGKGW of powdered, dried plant had no significant anthelmintic effect on the adults of Necator, Trichuris of Ascaris. Gas-liquid chromatographic analyses of plant samples used consistently demonstrated the presence of ascaridol in the expected amounts. Possible origins of subjective belief in the efficacy of C. ambrosioides as used, may be related to the positive association of spontaneous, or peristalsis-induced passage of senescent worms immediately following a therapeutic episode. It is also possible that in the past varieties of the plant containing much more ascaridol were used. The results of these controlled field studies did not sustain widely held traditional beliefs, nor the value of therapeutic practices regarding this plant. It is, therefore, essential that all indigenous ethnomedical practices be objectively evaluated for efficacy and safety using appropriate protocols before being considered for adoptation or promotion in health care programs.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Determination of melatonin content in traditional Thai herbal remedies used as sleeping aids

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Melatonin content was screened in leaves of seven edible herbs used as sleeping aids in Thai traditional medicine. These plants are Piper nigrum L, Sesbania glandiflora (L.) Desv., Sesbania sesban (L.) Merr., Senna tora (L.) Roxb., Moringa oleifera Lam., Momordica charantia L. and Baccaurea ramiflora Lour. Dried leaves were extracted by sonication in methanol for six hours at room temperature, and then melatonin was purified by C18 solid phase extraction (SPE). Melatonin was then quantified by a validated RP-C18 HPLC method with fluorescent detection. Findings Melatonin contents in extracts of B. ramiflora, S. glandiflora, M. charantia, S. tora and S. sesban were 43.2, 26.3, 21.4, 10.5 and 8.7 ng/g of dry sample weight, respectively. The highest melatonin content was from P. nigrum extract (1092.7 ng/g of dry sample weight). Melatonin was not detected in the extract of M. oleifera. Melatonin identification was confirmed by ELISA. Conclusions Melatonin was found in six of the seven herbs in the traditional Thai sleeping recipe. One of these, P. nigrum, exhibited an encouragingly high amount of melatonin. PMID:24393215

  4. Importance of wine-treated Angelica Sinensis Radix in Si Wu Tang, a traditional herbal formula for treating women's ailments.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Janis Y X; Zheng, Ken Y Z; Zhu, Kevin Y; Zhang, Wendy L; Bi, Cathy W C; Chen, J P; Du, Crystal Y Q; Dong, Tina T X; Lau, David T W; Tsim, Karl W K

    2013-05-01

    Si Wu Tang (Four Agents Decoction), a traditional Chinese decoction composed of Angelica Sinensis Radix, Chuanxiong Rhizoma, Paeoniae Radix Alba, and Rehmanniae Radix Praeparata in a ratio of 1 : 1 : 1 : 1, has been used to treat women's diseases for more than a thousand years. According to the original description of Si Wu Tang, Angelica Sinensis Radix should be treated with wine. However, the importance of this wine-treated Angelica Sinensis Radix in Si Wu Tang's function has not been identified. In this article, the chemical and biological properties of two decoctions processed in different ways (Si Wu Tang with crude Angelica Sinensis Radix and Si Wu Tang with wine-treated Angelica Sinensis Radix) were compared for examination. The herbal decoction Si Wu Tang prepared from wine-treated Angelica Sinensis Radix contained much different amounts of its active compounds. Compared with Si Wu Tang using crude Angelica Sinensis Radix, Si Wu Tang prepared from wine-treated Angelica Sinensis Radix had better biological responses. Therefore, these findings accentuate the functional importance of herbs treated with wine in the Chinese decoction.

  5. Treatment for an Adult Patient With Psoriasis with Traditional Korean Medicine, Especially Sa-Am Acupuncture and Herbal Medicine.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Yong-Cheol

    2016-04-01

    In this clinical study, the author tried to prove that meridians, each having its own characteristics, exist in humans through which skin diseases can be treated. Three meridians, the hand tai-yin meridian, the hand tai-yang meridian, and the shao-yang meridian, were used to control lung dryness and heat and liver fire. By using the LU9 and SP3 acupoints to tonify the hand tai-yin meridian and the SI3 acupoint to tonify the hand tai-yang meridian, we could sedate lung dryness and heat, and by using the TW2 acupoint to sedate the hand shao-yang meridian, we could sedate liver fire. As psoriasis is known not to respond well to many clinical treatments, this report presents the case of an adult woman with psoriasis who was effectively treated using traditional Korean medicine (TKM). The patient was diagnosed with psoriasis based on lung dryness and heat and liver fire. Acupuncture and herbal medicine based on the theory of Sa-Am acupuncture were given to the patient. With this treatment, her symptoms completely disappeared in ∼14 months. This study gives a preliminary indication that TKM, especially Sa-Am acupuncture, can be effective for treating psoriasis. Thus, further study is warranted.

  6. To Set Up a Logistic Regression Prediction Model for Hepatotoxicity of Chinese Herbal Medicines Based on Traditional Chinese Medicine Theory

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hongjie; Li, Tianhao; Zhan, Sha; Pan, Meilan; Ma, Zhiguo; Li, Chenghua

    2016-01-01

    Aims. To establish a logistic regression (LR) prediction model for hepatotoxicity of Chinese herbal medicines (HMs) based on traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) theory and to provide a statistical basis for predicting hepatotoxicity of HMs. Methods. The correlations of hepatotoxic and nonhepatotoxic Chinese HMs with four properties, five flavors, and channel tropism were analyzed with chi-square test for two-way unordered categorical data. LR prediction model was established and the accuracy of the prediction by this model was evaluated. Results. The hepatotoxic and nonhepatotoxic Chinese HMs were related with four properties (p < 0.05), and the coefficient was 0.178 (p < 0.05); also they were related with five flavors (p < 0.05), and the coefficient was 0.145 (p < 0.05); they were not related with channel tropism (p > 0.05). There were totally 12 variables from four properties and five flavors for the LR. Four variables, warm and neutral of the four properties and pungent and salty of five flavors, were selected to establish the LR prediction model, with the cutoff value being 0.204. Conclusions. Warm and neutral of the four properties and pungent and salty of five flavors were the variables to affect the hepatotoxicity. Based on such results, the established LR prediction model had some predictive power for hepatotoxicity of Chinese HMs. PMID:27656240

  7. Review on a Traditional Herbal Medicine, Eurycoma longifolia Jack (Tongkat Ali): Its Traditional Uses, Chemistry, Evidence-Based Pharmacology and Toxicology.

    PubMed

    Rehman, Shaheed Ur; Choe, Kevin; Yoo, Hye Hyun

    2016-03-10

    Eurycoma longifolia Jack (known as tongkat ali), a popular traditional herbal medicine, is a flowering plant of the family Simaroubaceae, native to Indonesia, Malaysia, Vietnam and also Cambodia, Myanmar, Laos and Thailand. E. longifolia, is one of the well-known folk medicines for aphrodisiac effects as well as intermittent fever (malaria) in Asia. Decoctions of E. longifolia leaves are used for washing itches, while its fruits are used in curing dysentery. Its bark is mostly used as a vermifuge, while the taproots are used to treat high blood pressure, and the root bark is used for the treatment of diarrhea and fever. Mostly, the roots extract of E. longifolia are used as folk medicine for sexual dysfunction, aging, malaria, cancer, diabetes, anxiety, aches, constipation, exercise recovery, fever, increased energy, increased strength, leukemia, osteoporosis, stress, syphilis and glandular swelling. The roots are also used as an aphrodisiac, antibiotic, appetite stimulant and health supplement. The plant is reported to be rich in various classes of bioactive compounds such as quassinoids, canthin-6-one alkaloids, β-carboline alkaloids, triterpene tirucallane type, squalene derivatives and biphenyl neolignan, eurycolactone, laurycolactone, and eurycomalactone, and bioactive steroids. Among these phytoconstituents, quassinoids account for a major portion of the E. longifolia root phytochemicals. An acute toxicity study has found that the oral Lethal Dose 50 (LD50) of the alcoholic extract of E. longifolia in mice is between 1500-2000 mg/kg, while the oral LD50 of the aqueous extract form is more than 3000 mg/kg. Liver and renal function tests showed no adverse changes at normal daily dose and chronic use of E. longifolia. Based on established literature on health benefits of E. longifolia, it is important to focus attention on its more active constituents and the constituents' identification, determination, further development and most importantly, the

  8. Are herb-pairs of traditional Chinese medicine distinguishable from others? Pattern analysis and artificial intelligence classification study of traditionally defined herbal properties.

    PubMed

    Ung, Choong Yong; Li, Hu; Cao, Zhi Wei; Li, Yi Xue; Chen, Yu Zong

    2007-05-04

    Multi-herb prescriptions of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) often include special herb-pairs for mutual enhancement, assistance, and restraint. These TCM herb-pairs have been assembled and interpreted based on traditionally defined herbal properties (TCM-HPs) without knowledge of mechanism of their assumed synergy. While these mechanisms are yet to be determined, properties of TCM herb-pairs can be investigated to determine if they exhibit features consistent with their claimed unique synergistic combinations. We analyzed distribution patterns of TCM-HPs of TCM herb-pairs to detect signs indicative of possible synergy and used artificial intelligence (AI) methods to examine whether combination of their TCM-HPs are distinguishable from those of non-TCM herb-pairs assembled by random combinations and by modification of known TCM herb-pairs. Patterns of the majority of 394 known TCM herb-pairs were found to exhibit signs of herb-pair correlation. Three AI systems, trained and tested by using 394 TCM herb-pairs and 2470 non-TCM herb-pairs, correctly classified 72.1-87.9% of TCM herb-pairs and 91.6-97.6% of the non-TCM herb-pairs. The best AI system predicted 96.3% of the 27 known non-TCM herb-pairs and 99.7% of the other 1,065,100 possible herb-pairs as non-TCM herb-pairs. Our studies suggest that TCM-HPs of known TCM herb-pairs contain features distinguishable from those of non-TCM herb-pairs consistent with their claimed synergistic or modulating combinations.

  9. [6]-gingerol and [6]-shogaol, active ingredients of the traditional Japanese medicine hangeshashinto, relief oral ulcerative mucositis-induced pain via action on Na(+) channels.

    PubMed

    Hitomi, Suzuro; Ono, Kentaro; Terawaki, Kiyoshi; Matsumoto, Chinami; Mizuno, Keita; Yamaguchi, Kiichiro; Imai, Ryota; Omiya, Yuji; Hattori, Tomohisa; Kase, Yoshio; Inenaga, Kiyotoshi

    2017-03-01

    The traditional Japanese herbal medicine hangeshashinto (HST) has beneficial effects for the treatment of oral ulcerative mucositis (OUM) in cancer patients. However, the ingredient-based mechanism that underlies its pain-relieving activity remains unknown. In the present study, to clarify the analgesic mechanism of HST on OUM-induced pain, we investigated putative HST ingredients showing antagonistic effects on Na(+) channels in vitro and in vivo. A screen of 21 major ingredients using automated patch-clamp recordings in channel-expressing cells showed that [6]-gingerol and [6]-shogaol, two components of a Processed Ginger extract, considerably inhibited voltage-activated Na(+) currents. These two ingredients inhibited the stimulant-induced release of substance P and action potential generation in cultured rat sensory neurons. A submucosal injection of a mixture of [6]-gingerol and [6]-shogaol increased the mechanical withdrawal threshold in healthy rats. In a rat OUM model, OUM-induced mechanical pain was alleviated 30min after the swab application of HST despite the absence of anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory actions in the OUM area. A swab application of a mixture of [6]-gingerol and [6]-shogaol induced sufficient analgesia of OUM-induced mechanical or spontaneous pain when co-applied with a Ginseng extract containing abundant saponin. The Ginseng extract demonstrated an acceleration of substance permeability into the oral ulcer tissue without an analgesic effect. These findings suggest that Na(+) channel blockage by gingerol/shogaol plays an essential role in HST-associated analgesia of OUM-induced pain. This pharmacological mechanism provides scientific evidence supporting the use of this herbal medicine in patients suffering from OUM-induced pain.

  10. Effects of the Japanese Herbal Medicine “Sho-saiko-to” (TJ-9) on Interleukin-12 Production in Patients with HCV-Positive Liver Cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Nishimura, Akira; Huang, Xian-Xi; Nobori, Tsutomu; Sakaguchi, Seigo; Suzuki, Hiroyuki

    1999-01-01

    Interleukin-12 (IL-12) is an important cytokine for maintainence of normal systemic defense and bioregulation. The Japanese herbal medicine Sho-saiko-to (TJ-9) has been administered to 1.5 million Japanese patients with chronic liver diseases. TJ-9 is known to significantly suppress cancer development in the liver and has macrobiotic effects. In the present study, we examined the in vitro production of IL-12 by circulating mononuclear cells from liver cirrhosis patients and the effects of TJ-9 on IL-12 production. The monocyte/macrophage fraction and the lymphocyte fraction of peripheral blood were obtained from 11 HCV-positive liver cirrhosis patients and 12 healthy subjects. Interleukin-12 levels in the supernatants were measured using ELISA kits. The levels of IL-12 produced by the patients fractions were significantly lower than those produced by healthy subjects (p < 0.01, p < 0.05). However, when TJ-9 was added to the cultures, the IL-12 production levels in both cell fractions increased approximately three fold, and the levels from the monocyte/macrophage fraction were almost the same as those from healthy subjects. This effect of TJ-9 was attributable to two of its seven herb components, that is, scutellaria root and glycyrrhiza root. One possible mechanism for the macrobiotic effects of TJ-9 on liver cirrhosis patients may be the improvement in IL-12 production. PMID:10636475

  11. The Traditional Japanese Formula Keishibukuryogan Inhibits the Production of Inflammatory Cytokines by Dermal Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yoshihisa, Yoko; Furuichi, Megumi; Ur Rehman, Mati; Ueda, Chieko; Makino, Teruhiko; Shimizu, Tadamichi

    2010-01-01

    Keishibukuryogan (KBG) is one of the traditional herbal formulations widely administered to patients with blood stagnation for improving blood circulation; currently, it is the most frequently prescribed medicine in Japan. KBG has been reported to improve conjunctional microcirculation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of KBG and paeoniflorin, a bioactive compound of KBG, in inhibiting the production of inflammatory cytokines using human dermal microvessel endothelial cells (HDMECs). The authors observed that lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 1 μg/mL) stimulated the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines in HDMECs. KBG treatment (10 mg/mL) significantly suppressed the mRNA levels of migration inhibitory factor (MIF), interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in LPS-stimulated cultured HDMECs. Similarly, paeoniflorin significantly suppressed the mRNA levels of these cytokines in LPS-stimulated cultured HDMECs. ELISA showed that KBG and paeoniflorin suppressed the production of MIF, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α in LPS-stimulated HDMECs. Moreover, KBG and paeoniflorin decreased the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in these cells. These results suggest that KBG may be useful for improving microvascular inflammation in patients with skin diseases. PMID:21253500

  12. From non-aligned medicines to market-based herbals: China's relationship to the shifting politics of traditional medicine in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Langwick, Stacey

    2010-01-01

    The institutionalization of traditional medicine in Tanzania reveals how strategies for socialist liberation are morphing into strategies for neoliberalization. In the 1960s and 1970s, traditional medicine promised the raw material for the scientific development of an indigenous pharmaceutical industry. At the turn of the millennium, however, traditional medicine has re-emerged in Tanzania as a new path into the fast-growing global herbals market. Tanzania's relationship with China has been central to these dynamics. Development programs rooted in socialist friendship trained Tanzanian doctors in China throughout the 1970s and into the 1980s. These practitioners forged Tanzanian efforts to develop and modernize traditional medicine. In this article, I look with particular detail at one woman who was chosen to start the Office of Traditional Medicine in the Ministry of Health in Tanzania, in order to elaborate the continuities and discontinuities central to the emerging field of market-based traditional medicines.

  13. Analysis of Sheng-Mai-San, a Ginseng-Containing Multiple Components Traditional Chinese Herbal Medicine Using Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry and Physical Examination by Electron and Light Microscopies.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yung-Yi; Tsai, Tung-Hu

    2016-09-01

    Sheng-Mai-San is a multi-component traditional Chinese herbal preparation. Due to the fact granulated additives, such as starch, carboxymethyl cellulose, lactose and raw herbal powder may alter the content of the bioactive markers in the herbal products, a developed ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method was used to measure the herbal biomarkers of ginsenoside Rb₁, Rb₂, Rc, Rd, Re, Rg₁, Rh₁, compound K, ophiopogonin D and schizandrin from the Sheng-Mai-San herbal formulation. Besides, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to observe the morphology of the herbal granular powders. Light microscopy with Congo red and iodine-KI reagent staining was used to identify the cellulose fiber and cornstarch added to pharmaceutical herbal products. The swelling power (SP), water solubility index (WSI), and crude fiber analysis were used to determine the contents of cellulose fiber and cornstarch in pharmaceutical herbal products. In this study, we developed a novel skill to assess the quantification of appended cornstarch in pharmaceutical herbal products using Aperio ImageScope software. Compared with the traditional cornstarch analysis, our analysis method is a rapid, simple and conversion process which could be applied to detect the percentage of added cornstarch in unknown powder products. The various range of the herbal content for the five pharmaceutical manufacturers varied by up to several hundreds-fold. The physical examination reveals that the morphology of the herbal pharmaceutical products is rough and irregular with sharp layers. This study provides a reference standard operating procedure guide for the quality control of the Chinese herbal pharmaceutical products of Sheng-Mai-San.

  14. The Integration of Religious Traditions in Japanese Children's View of Death and Afterlife

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sagara-Rosemeyer, Miharu; Davies, Betty

    2007-01-01

    Open and public discussion of death, particularly among children, remains one of the greatest Japanese societal taboos; therefore, little is known about Japanese children's perceptions of death. To explore Japanese children's notions of life and death, 16 healthy children (7 girls and 9 boys, mean age 8.9) were each interviewed 3 times and asked…

  15. Suppression of IgE production in mice treated with a traditional Chinese medicine, bu-zhong-yi-qi-tang (Japanese name: hochu-ekki-to).

    PubMed

    Kaneko, M; Kishihara, K; Kawakita, T; Nakamura, T; Takimoto, H; Nomoto, K

    1997-04-01

    The ability of a traditional herbal medicine, Bu-zhong-yi-qi-tang (Japanese name: Hochu-ekki-to, HOT), to suppress IgE production was investigated. BALB/c mice were intraperitoneally immunized with aluminium hydroxide adsorbed with DNP-KLH (DNP-KLH + alum). When oral administration of HOT was begun just after immunization, the serum level of antigen-specific IgE was significantly decreased, although those of antigen-specific IgG1 and IgG2a were not influenced. In the culture of spleen cells obtained 14 days after immunization with DNP-KLH, antigen-specific IgE and IgG1 production by the cells of the HOT-treated mice was significantly suppressed compared to that in immunized mice. Furthermore, in the combination culture with CD4+ T cells and B cells separated from spleen cells, IgE production by the cells from immunized mice was inhibited by replacement of their corresponding cell population with either CD4+ T cells or B cells of HOT-treated mice. Additionally, production of interleukin 2 (IL-2) and IL-4 was significantly suppressed in HOT-treated mice but not that of IFN-gamma in comparison to the immunized mice. These results suggested that HOT decreased the IgE level in serum by inhibiting the development of IL-4-producing CD4+ T cells.

  16. Analysis of the bacterial community found in clay wall material used in the construction of traditional Japanese buildings.

    PubMed

    Kitajima, Sakihito; Shiono, Takeshi; Ujihara, Tomomi; Sato, Hiroyuki

    2008-02-01

    Clay wall (also called mud wall in English and tsuchikabe in Japanese) material is used in traditional Japanese buildings. Clay wall material is manufactured by fermenting a mixture of clay, sand, and rice straw. A culture-independent study based on 16s rRNA sequences revealed that Clostridiales of Firmicutes, alpha-, gamma- and delta-proteobacteria of Proteobacteria, and Acidobacterium of Acidobacteria exist in the clay wall material. Of these, we focused on Clostridium and Geobacter and their possible roles in the degradation of the cellulose component of the straw and the reduction of ferric iron in the clay during fermentation.

  17. Quali-quantitative analysis of best selling drugs from pharmacy, street market and traditional herbal medicine: a pilot study of market surveillance in Senegal.

    PubMed

    Pichini, Simona; Rotolo, Maria Concetta; Bellotti, Pasquale; Minutillo, Adele; Mastrobattista, Luisa; Pacifici, Roberta

    2015-02-01

    A pilot study of market surveillance in Senegal has been performed analyzing best selling drugs from an official pharmacy and a street market in two principal cities of Senegal and some traditional preparations from herbal medicine from the same market. A simple and rapid gas chromatography method with mass spectrometry detection has been applied after a liquid-liquid extraction of pharmaceutical products and traditional preparations at acidic, neutral and basic pH with chloroform-isopropanol (9:1, v/v). The assay was validated in the range from 10mg to 250 mg/g powder preparations with good determination coefficients (r(2)≥ 0.99) for the calibration curves. At three concentrations spanning the linear dynamic ranges of the calibration curves, mean recoveries of substances under investigation were always higher than 90% and intra-assay and inter-assay precision and accuracy were always better than 15%. The four best selling drugs purchased from a Dakar local pharmacy exactly contained the amount of active principles reported in the respective labels while the best selling drugs freely purchased from Kaolack market contained an amount of active ingredients lower than that declared on the label. No pharmacological active compound, but salicylic acid was found in one of the traditional herbal preparations. This pilot study showed that whereas official drugs sold in pharmacies at prices accessible for a very few portion of the population contained the amount of active principles as reported in the labels, those from street market bought by the majority of population contained an amount of active ingredients lower than that declared on the label and finally traditional herbal preparations seldom contain pharmacological active principles.

  18. Meta-analysis of the effectiveness of traditional Chinese herbal formula Zhen Wu Decoction for the treatment of hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Xingjiang; Wang, Pengqian; Li, Shengjie

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Zhen Wu Decoction (ZWD), a famous classic herbal formula documented in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), is widely available in China for treating hypertensive patients with kidney yang deficiency and fluid retention syndrome. This systematic review aims to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of ZWD for hypertension. Methods Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, PubMed, Embase, the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, the Chinese Scientific Journal Database, the Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, and the Wanfang Database were searched from their inception to November 2014. Randomised controlled trials of ZWD used alone or in combination with antihypertensive drugs against placebo, no intervention or antihypertensive drugs in hypertensive patients were identified. Two assessors independently reviewed each trial. The Cochrane risk of bias assessment tool was used for quality assessment. Results Seven trials involving 472 hypertensive patients were identified. Compared with antihypertensive drugs, ZWD showed no significant effects in lowering blood pressure (BP) (n=177; risk ratio (RR) 1.06; 95% CI 0.87 to 1.28; p=0.58); however, ZWD plus antihypertensive drugs (ZPAD) significantly lowered systolic BP (n=80; weighted mean difference (WMD) −14.00 mm Hg, 95% CI −18.84 to −9.16 mm Hg; p<0.00001), diastolic BP (n=80; WMD −8.00 mm Hg, 95% CI −11.35 to −4.65 mm Hg; p<0.00001), and BP (n=215; RR 1.21, 95% CI 1.08 to 1.37; p=0.001). TCM symptoms and syndromes were significantly improved by either ZWD (n=177; RR 1.58, 95% CI 1.28 to 1.95; p<0.0001) or ZPAD (n=215; RR 1.30, 95% CI 1.14 to 1.49; p=0.0001). Adverse effects were not reported. Conclusions This systematic review revealed no definite conclusion about the application of ZWD for hypertension due to the poor methodological quality, high risk of bias, and inadequate reporting on clinical data. More rigorously designed trials, especially addressing continuous BP

  19. Rheological properties of somen noodles--a traditional Japanese wheat product.

    PubMed

    Katagiri, Mina; Kitabatake, Naofumi

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the rheological properties of the Japanese wheat product tenobe somen noodles manufactured using a unique traditional process-"Te-nobe (hand-stretched)." In an extension test, the maximum resistance to extension (R(max)) and extensibility until rupture (Erup) of boiled somen noodles were measured on a Texture Analyzer in the tension test mode and compared with those of machine-made somen noodles. The R(max) and Erup values per unit cross-sectional area were significantly higher for boiled tenobe somen noodles than for machine-made somen noodles, clearly indicating the higher resistance to extension and extensibility of the former. A compression test performed using the Texture Analyzer in the biting-test mode revealed that although the maximum force of compression (F(max)) was lower for boiled tenobe somen noodles than for machine-made somen noodles, the former had more characteristic texture than the latter, which was shown by comparing the force-deformation curve of each somen noodle. Scanning electron microscopy revealed differences between dried tenobe and machine-made somen noodles, which may reflect their rheological differences. Lateral and sectional micrographs of tenobe somen noodles showed regular arrays of starch granules and gluten networks, and some air spaces. Tenobe somen noodles exhibited significantly higher dityrosine content than the flour used for their manufacture, indicating that tyrosine residues in gluten proteins cross-link during the manufacturing process; however, the dityrosine content in tenobe somen noodles were not higher than that in machine-made somen noodles.

  20. Multiple Psychopharmacological Effects of the Traditional Japanese Kampo Medicine Yokukansan, and the Brain Regions it Affects

    PubMed Central

    Mizoguchi, Kazushige; Ikarashi, Yasushi

    2017-01-01

    Yokukansan (YKS), a traditional Japanese Kampo medicine, has indications for use in night crying and irritability in children, as well as neurosis and insomnia. It is currently also used for the remedy of the behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD), such as aggressiveness, agitation, and hallucinations. In parallel with clinical evidence, a significant amount of fundamental researches have been undertaken to clarify the neuropsychopharmacological efficacies of YKS, with approximately 70 articles, including our own, being published to date. Recently, we reviewed the neuropharmacological mechanisms of YKS, including its effects on glutamatergic, serotonergic, and dopaminergic neurotransmission, and pharmacokinetics of the ingredients responsible for the effects. This review is aimed to integrate the information regarding the psychopharmacological effects of YKS with the brain regions known to be affected, to facilitate our understanding of the clinical efficacy of YKS. In this review, we first show that YKS has several effects that act to improve symptoms that are similar to BPSDs, like aggressiveness, hallucinations, anxiety, and sleep disturbance, as well as symptoms like tardive dyskinesia and cognitive deficits. We next provide the evidence showing that YKS can interact with various brain regions, including the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, striatum, and spinal cord, dysfunctions of which are related to psychiatric symptoms, cognitive deficits, abnormal behaviors, and dysesthesia. In addition, the major active ingredients of YKS, geissoschizine methyl ether and 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid, are shown to predominantly bind to the frontal cortex and hippocampus, respectively. Our findings suggest that YKS has multiple psychopharmacological effects, and that these are probably mediated by interactions among several brain regions. In this review, we summarize the available information about the valuable effects of a multicomponent medicine YKS on complex

  1. Ethnopharmacological in vitro studies on Austria's folk medicine—An unexplored lore in vitro anti-inflammatory activities of 71 Austrian traditional herbal drugs☆

    PubMed Central

    Vogl, Sylvia; Picker, Paolo; Mihaly-Bison, Judit; Fakhrudin, Nanang; Atanasov, Atanas G.; Heiss, Elke H.; Wawrosch, Christoph; Reznicek, Gottfried; Dirsch, Verena M.; Saukel, Johannes; Kopp, Brigitte

    2013-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevance In Austria, like in most Western countries, knowledge about traditional medicinal plants is becoming scarce. Searching the literature concerning Austria's ethnomedicine reveals its scant scientific exploration. Aiming to substantiate the potential of medicinal plants traditionally used in Austria, 63 plant species or genera with claimed anti-inflammatory properties listed in the VOLKSMED database were assessed for their in vitro anti-inflammatory activity. Material and methods 71 herbal drugs from 63 plant species or genera were extracted using solvents of varying polarities and subsequently depleted from the bulk constituents, chlorophylls and tannins to avoid possible interferences with the assays. The obtained 257 extracts were assessed for their in vitro anti-inflammatory activity. The expression of the inflammatory mediators E-selectin and interleukin-8 (IL-8), induced by the inflammatory stimuli tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and the bacterial product lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was measured in endothelial cells. The potential of the extracts to activate the nuclear factors PPARα and PPARγ and to inhibit TNF-α-induced activation of the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) in HEK293 cells was determined by luciferase reporter gene assays. Results In total, extracts from 67 of the 71 assessed herbal drugs revealed anti-inflammatory activity in the applied in vitro test systems. Thereby, 30 could downregulate E-selectin or IL-8 gene expression, 28 were strong activators of PPARα or PPARγ (inducing activation of more than 2-fold at a concentration of 10 µg/mL) and 21 evoked a strong inhibition of NF-κB (inhibition of more than 80% at 10 µg/mL). Conclusion Our research supports the efficacy of herbal drugs reported in Austrian folk medicine used for ailments associated with inflammatory processes. Hence, an ethnopharmacological screening approach is a useful tool for the discovery of new drug leads. PMID:23770053

  2. A Randomised Placebo-Controlled Trial of a Traditional Chinese Herbal Formula in the Treatment of Primary Dysmenorrhoea

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Lan Lan Liang; Liu, Jah-Yao; Lin, Kao-Si; Liu, Yu-Shen; Chiou, Jeng-Min; Liang, Kung-Yee; Tsai, Te-Feng; Wang, Li-Hsiang; Chen, Chiung-Tong; Huang, Ching-Yi

    2007-01-01

    Background Most traditional Chinese herbal formulas consist of at least four herbs. Four-Agents-Decoction (Si Wu Tang) is a documented eight hundred year old formula containing four herbs and has been widely used to relieve menstrual discomfort in Taiwan. However, no specific effect had been systematically evaluated. We applied Western methodology to assess its effectiveness and safety for primary dysmenorrhoea and to evaluate the compliance and feasibility for a future trial. Methodology/Principal Findings A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, pilot clinical trial was conducted in an ad hoc clinic setting at a teaching hospital in Taipei, Taiwan. Seventy-eight primary dysmenorrheic young women were enrolled after 326 women with self-reported menstrual discomfort in the Taipei metropolitan area of Taiwan were screened by a questionnaire and subsequently diagnosed by two gynaecologists concurrently with pelvic ultrasonography. A dosage of 15 odorless capsules daily for five days starting from the onset of bleeding or pain was administered. Participants were followed with two to four cycles for an initial washout interval, one to two baseline cycles, three to four treatment cycles, and three follow-up cycles. Study outcome was pain intensity measured by using unmarked horizontal visual analog pain scale in an online daily diary submitted directly by the participants for 5 days starting from the onset of bleeding or pain of each menstrual cycle. Overall-pain was the average pain intensity among days in pain and peak-pain was the maximal single-day pain intensity. At the end of treatment, both the overall-pain and peak-pain decreased in the Four-Agents-Decoction (Si Wu Tang) group and increased in the placebo group; however, the differences between the two groups were not statistically significant. The trends persisted to follow-up phase. Statistically significant differences in both peak-pain and overall-pain appeared in the first follow-up cycle, at which

  3. Analysis of the eukaryotic community and metabolites found in clay wall material used in the construction of traditional Japanese buildings.

    PubMed

    Kitajima, Sakihito; Kamei, Kaeko; Nishitani, Maiko; Sato, Hiroyuki

    2010-01-01

    Clay wall (tsuchikabe in Japanese) material for Japanese traditional buildings is manufactured by fermenting a mixture of clay, sand, and rice straw. The aim of this study was to understand the fermentation process in order to gain insight into the ways waste biomass can be used to produce useful materials. In this study, in addition to Clostridium, we suggested that the family Nectriaceae and the Scutellinia sp. of fungi were important in degrading cell wall materials of rice straw, such as cellulose and/or lignin. The microorganisms in the clay wall material produced sulfur-containing inorganic compounds that may sulfurate minerals in clay particles, and polysaccharides that give viscosity to clay wall material, thus increasing workability for plastering, and possibly giving water-resistance to the dried clay wall.

  4. Acute effects of traditional Japanese alcohol beverages on blood glucose and polysomnography levels in healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    Kido, Megumi; Asakawa, Akihiro; Koyama, Ken-Ichiro K.; Takaoka, Toshio; Tajima, Aya; Takaoka, Shigeru; Yoshizaki, Yumiko; Okutsu, Kayu; Takamine, Kazunori T.; Sameshima, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-01

    Background. Alcohol consumption is a lifestyle factor associated with type 2 diabetes. This relationship is reportedly different depending on the type of alcohol beverage. The purpose of this study was to examine the acute effects of traditional Japanese alcohol beverages on biochemical parameters, physical and emotional state, and sleep patterns. Methods. Six healthy subjects (three men and three women; age, 28.8 ± 9.5 years; body mass index, 21.4 ± 1.6 kg/m2) consumed three different types of alcohol beverages (beer, shochu, and sake, each with 40 g ethanol) or mineral water with dinner on different days in the hospital. Blood samples were collected before and 1, 2, and 12 h after drinking each beverage, and assessments of physical and emotional state were administered at the same time. In addition, sleep patterns and brain waves were examined using polysomnography. Results. Blood glucose levels at 1 h and the 12-h area under the curve (AUC) value after drinking shochu were significantly lower than that with water and beer. The 12-h blood insulin AUC value after drinking shochu was significantly lower than that with beer. Blood glucose × insulin level at 1 h and the 2-h blood glucose × insulin AUC value with shochu were significantly lower than that with beer. The insulinogenic indexes at 2 h with beer and sake, but not shochu, were significantly higher than that with water. The visual analogue scale scores of physical and emotional state showed that the tipsiness levels with beer, shochu, and sake at 1 h were significantly higher than that with water. These tipsiness levels were maintained at 2 h. The polysomnography showed that the rapid eye movement (REM) sleep latency with shochu and sake were shorter than that with water and beer. Conclusions. Acute consumption of alcohol beverages with a meal resulted in different responses in postprandial glucose and insulin levels as well as REM sleep latency. Alcohol beverage type should be taken into consideration

  5. In vivo anti-influenza virus activity of kampo (Japanese herbal) medicine "sho-seiryu-to" and its mode of action.

    PubMed

    Nagai, T; Yamada, H

    1994-08-01

    When BALB/c mice were treated with a Kampo (Japanese herbal) medicine "Sho-seiryu-to" (SST) (2 g/kg, 10 times) orally from 7 days before to 4 days after the infection and infected with mouse-adapted influenza virus A/PR/8/34 by nasal site-restricted infection, replication of the virus in the nasal cavity and spread of the virus to the lung were efficiently inhibited at 5 days after infection in comparison with water-treated mice. However, another Kampo medicine "Kakkon-to" showed no anti-influenza virus activity in the same condition. The antiviral IgA antibody in the nasal and broncho-alveolar washes of the SST treated mice increased significantly in comparison with that of water-treated control. Oral administration of SST (2 g/kg, 18 times) from 7 days before to 13 days after vaccination also significantly augmented serum hemagglutination-inhibiting antibody by nasal inoculation of influenza HA vaccine (5 micrograms/mouse) that was insufficient to induce antiviral antibody. SST did not inhibit the replication of mouse-adapted influenza virus A/PR/8/34 in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells. SST also did not inhibit the influenza virus sialidase activity against sodium p-nitrophenyl-N-acetyl-alpha-D-neuraminate and hemagglutination by mouse-adapted influenza virus A/PR/8/34. SST showed no influence on interferon production in nasal wash of mice at 5 days after the virus infection. These results suggest that SST confers better protection against influenza virus infection through augmentation of production of antiviral IgA antibody but not direct action to the virus, and can be used as an adjuvant to nasally inoculated influenza HA vaccine.

  6. Proteomic Analysis of Anti-inflammatory Effects of a Kampo (Japanese Herbal) Medicine "Shoseiryuto (Xiao-Qing-Long-Tang)" on Airway Inflammation in a Mouse Model.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Takayuki; Nakao, Marino; Shimizu, Yuliko; Kodera, Yoshio; Oh-Ishi, Masamichi; Maeda, Tadakazu; Yamada, Haruki

    2011-01-01

    Effects of a Kampo (Japanese herbal) medicine "shoseiryuto (SST, xiao-qing-long-tang in Chinese)", which has been used for the treatment of allergic bronchial asthma clinically, were examined on ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized allergic airway inflammation model (i.e., bronchial asthma) in a mouse. When SST was orally administered at 0.5 g kg(-1) day(-1) from day 1 to 6 after OVA inhalation, SST reduced the inflammation in lung tissue, the number of eosinophils and the OVA-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibody titer in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluids at 7 days after the OVA inhalation. SST also reduced the airway hyperreactivity at 6 days after the OVA inhalation. Proteomic analysis with the agarose two-dimensional electrophoresis showed that the expression of spectrin α2 was reduced in the lung tissue of OVA-sensitized mice and SST recovered the expression. Western blot and immunohistochemical analyses of lung tissue also confirmed this result. When prednisolone was orally administered at 3 mg kg(-1) day(-1) from day 1 to 6 after OVA inhalation, the inflammation in lung tissue, the number of eosinophils in BAL fluids and airway hyperreactivity were reduced in the OVA-sensitized mice. However, prednisolone did not reduce the OVA-specific IgE antibody titer in BAL fluids and did not recover the expression of spectrin α2 in lung tissue. These results suggest that at least a part of action mechanism of SST against OVA-sensitized allergic airway inflammation in a mouse model is different from that of prednisolone.

  7. Use of Japanese Honorifics in Daily Life: What the Traditional Theories Do Not Say.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okushi, Yoshiko

    This study investigated how native Japanese speakers use honorifics in everyday social interaction. Honorifics are affixes, words, and formulaic phrases that follow linguistic and sociolinguistic rules and are believed to mark a speaker's politeness toward an addressee or another referenced person. The honorific system is incorporated into most…

  8. Understanding traditional Chinese medicine anti-inflammatory herbal formulae by simulating their regulatory functions in the human arachidonic acid metabolic network.

    PubMed

    Gu, Shuo; Yin, Ning; Pei, Jianfeng; Lai, Luhua

    2013-07-01

    Through history, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has adopted oriental philosophical practices of drug combination and interaction to address human diseases. To investigate this from a systems biology point of view, we analysed 28 TCM herbs for their anti-inflammatory function, using molecular docking and arachidonic acid (AA) metabolic network simulation. The inhibition potential of each herb toward five essential enzymes as well as their possible side effects were examined. Three commonly prescribed anti-inflammatory formulae were simulated to discover the combinatorial properties of each contained herb in regulating the whole metabolic network. We discovered that different ingredients of a formula tend to inhibit different targets, which almost covered all the targets in the whole network. We also found that herbal combinations could achieve the same therapeutic effect at lower doses compared with individual usage. New herbal combinations were also predicted based on the inhibition potentials and two types of synergistic drug combinations of TCM theory were discussed from the perspective of systems biology. Using this combined approach of molecular docking and network simulation, we were able to computationally elucidate the combinatorial effects of TCM to intervene disease networks. We expect novel TCM formulae or modern drug combinations to be developed based on this research.

  9. Cancer Chemoprevention by Traditional Chinese Herbal Medicine and Dietary Phytochemicals: Targeting Nrf2-Mediated Oxidative Stress/Anti-Inflammatory Responses, Epigenetics, and Cancer Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hun Lee, Jong; Shu, Limin; Fuentes, Francisco; Su, Zheng-Yuan; Tony Kong, Ah-Ng

    2013-01-01

    Excessive oxidative stress induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS), reactive nitrogen species (RNS), and reactive metabolites of carcinogens alters cellular homeostasis, leading to genetic/epigenetic changes, genomic instability, neoplastic transformation, and cancer initiation/progression. As a protective mechanism against oxidative stress, antioxidant/detoxifying enzymes reduce these reactive species and protect normal cells from endo-/exogenous oxidative damage. The transcription factor nuclear factor-erythroid 2 p45 (NF-E2)-related factor 2 (Nrf2), a master regulator of the antioxidative stress response, plays a critical role in the expression of many cytoprotective enzymes, including NAD(P)H:quinine oxidoreductase (NQO1), heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT), and glutathione S-transferase (GST). Recent studies demonstrated that many dietary phytochemicals derived from various vegetables, fruits, spices, and herbal medicines induce Nrf2-mediated antioxidant/detoxifying enzymes, restore aberrant epigenetic alterations, and eliminate cancer stem cells (CSCs). The Nrf2-mediated antioxidant response prevents many age-related diseases, including cancer. Owing to their fundamental contribution to carcinogenesis, epigenetic modifications and CSCs are novel targets of dietary phytochemicals and traditional Chinese herbal medicine (TCHM). In this review, we summarize cancer chemoprevention by dietary phytochemicals, including TCHM, which have great potential as a safer and more effective strategy for preventing cancer. PMID:24716158

  10. [A case of chronic lower respiratory tract infection in which the traditional herbal medicine Hochuekkito was effective to prevent exacerbation].

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Masayuki; Bando, Masashi; Saito, Takefumi; Yamasawa, Hideaki; Sugiyama, Yukihiko; Itoh, Koichi

    2011-03-01

    A thin, 63-year-old man was receiving low-dose macrolide therapy for a diagnosis of chronic lower respiratory tract infection, but frequent exacerbations due to Streptococcus pneumoniae were observed. High-resolution computed tomography (CT) of the chest showed bronchiectasis and small centrilobular nodules in the right lower lobe. He had previously had several episodes of exacerbation of chronic lower respiratory tract infection, for which he had received antibiotic treatments (oral fluoroquinolones or intravenous cephems). However, he continued to experience recurrent exacerbations, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was also isolated from his sputum. To improve his general condition, Hochuekkito, a herbal medicine, was initiated. His body weight and serum albumin level gradually increased, and after 6 months of administration, neither S. pneumoniae nor P. aeruginosa were isolated from his

  11. Usage and attitudes of physicians in Japan concerning traditional Japanese medicine (kampo medicine): a descriptive evaluation of a representative questionnaire-based survey.

    PubMed

    Moschik, E C; Mercado, C; Yoshino, T; Matsuura, K; Watanabe, K

    2012-01-01

    Kampo medicine has been the primary medical model in Japan until the mid 1800s, regained a prominent role in today's Japanese medical system. Today, 148 herbal Kampo formulas can be prescribed under the national health insurance system, allowing physicians to integrate Kampo in their daily practice. This article aims to provide information about the extent to which Kampo is now used in clinics throughout Japan and about physician's current attitudes toward Kampo. We used the results of a 2008 survey that was administered to physicians throughout Japan (n = 684). The data showed that 83.5% of physicians currently use Kampo in the clinic, although the distribution of physicians who use Kampo differ widely depending on the specialty and provided a breakdown of Kampo usage by specialty. It will be interesting to see how each specialty incorporates Kampo into its respective field as Kampo continues to play a pertinent role in Japanese medical system.

  12. Usage and Attitudes of Physicians in Japan Concerning Traditional Japanese Medicine (Kampo Medicine): A Descriptive Evaluation of a Representative Questionnaire-Based Survey

    PubMed Central

    Moschik, E. C.; Mercado, C.; Yoshino, T.; Matsuura, K.; Watanabe, K.

    2012-01-01

    Kampo medicine has been the primary medical model in Japan until the mid 1800s, regained a prominent role in today's Japanese medical system. Today, 148 herbal Kampo formulas can be prescribed under the national health insurance system, allowing physicians to integrate Kampo in their daily practice. This article aims to provide information about the extent to which Kampo is now used in clinics throughout Japan and about physician's current attitudes toward Kampo. We used the results of a 2008 survey that was administered to physicians throughout Japan (n = 684). The data showed that 83.5% of physicians currently use Kampo in the clinic, although the distribution of physicians who use Kampo differ widely depending on the specialty and provided a breakdown of Kampo usage by specialty. It will be interesting to see how each specialty incorporates Kampo into its respective field as Kampo continues to play a pertinent role in Japanese medical system. PMID:22319543

  13. Herbal Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    ... for its scent, flavor, or therapeutic properties. Herbal medicines are one type of dietary supplement. They are ... and fresh or dried plants. People use herbal medicines to try to maintain or improve their health. ...

  14. Anti-allergic activity of a Kampo (Japanese herbal) medicine "Sho-seiryu-to (Xiao-Qing-Long-Tang)" on airway inflammation in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Takayuki; Arai, Yumiko; Emori, Michiko; Nunome, Shin-Yu; Yabe, Takeshi; Takeda, Tadahiro; Yamada, Haruki

    2004-10-01

    Effects of a Kampo (Japanese herbal) medicine "Sho-seiryu-to (SST, Xiao-Qing-Long-Tang in Chinese)", which has been used for the treatment of allergic bronchial asthma clinically, were examined on ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized allergic airway inflammation model (i.e., bronchial asthma) in a mouse. When SST was orally administered at 0.5 g/kg/day from day 1 to 6 days after OVA inhalation, SST reduced the OVA-specific IgE antibody titer in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluids at 7 days after the OVA inhalation. CD4(+) T cells obtained from the mouse lung produced more interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-5 but less interferon (IFN)-gamma than T cells from nonsensitized control animals. However, oral administration of SST reduced the production of IL-4 and IL-5 and the production of IFN-gamma returned to the control level. In addition, the IL-4 level was increased in the BAL fluid of the OVA-sensitized animals compared to the nonsensitized control, while the IFN-gamma levels decreased. SST reduced the IL-4 levels in the BAL fluids and returned the IFN-gamma level to control levels. Nerve growth factor (NGF) was increased in the BAL fluids of the OVA-sensitized mice over that of nonsensitized mice, but oral administration of SST augmented the NGF levels to approximately 2 times higher than in the sensitized mice. Although lung cells obtained from sensitized mice produced higher levels of NGF than nonsensitized mice, oral administration of SST augmented the production of NGF by the lung cells even higher ( approximately 2 times more than cells from sensitized mice). Administration of anti-NGF antibody to the airway blocked the effects of SST. These results suggest that SST modulates Th1/Th2 balance in the lungs and augmentation of NGF in the lungs may be related to the effects of SST. Pinellic acid (9S, 12S, 13S-trihydroxy-10E-octadecenoic acid), one component of the herbs of SST [Int. Immunopharmacol. 2 (2002) 1183], was purified from the tuber of Pinellia ternata Breitenbach. Oral

  15. Examination of Traditional Medicine and Herbal Pharmacology and the Implications for Teaching and Education: A Ghanaian Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asabere-Ameyaw, Akwasi; Sefa Dei, George J.; Raheem, Kolawole

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the preliminary findings of a pilot study of the practice, uses, and effectiveness of traditional medicine in Ghana. Based on in-depth interviews with local key practitioners and users of traditional medicine, the article points to some of the educational significance of local cultural knowledge on the environment and the…

  16. Ethical quandaries in spiritual healing and herbal medicine: a critical analysis of the morality of traditional medicine advertising in southern African urban societies.

    PubMed

    Munyaradzi, Mawere

    2011-01-01

    This paper critically examines the morality of advertising by practitioners in spiritual healing and herbal medicine heretofore referred to as traditional medicine, in southern African urban societies. While the subject of traditional medicine has been heavily contested in medical studies in the last few decades, the monumental studies on the subject have emphasised the place of traditional medicine in basic health services. Insignificant attention has been devoted to examine the ethical problems associated with traditional medicine advertising. Critical look at the worthiness of some advertising strategies used by practitioners in traditional medicine in launching their products and services on market thus has been largely ignored. Yet, though advertising is key to helping traditional medicine practitioners' products and services known by prospective customers, this research registers a number of morally negative effects that seem to outweigh the merits that the activity brings to prospective customers. The paper adopts southern African urban societies, and in particular Mozambique, South Africa and Zimbabwe as particular references. The choice of the trio is not accidental, but based on the fact that these countries have in the last few decades been flooded with traditional medicine practitioners/traditional healers from within the continent and from abroad. Most of these practitioners use immoral advertising strategies in communicating to the public the products and services they offer. It is against this background that this paper examines the morality of advertising strategies deployed by practitioners in launching their products and services. To examine the moral worthiness of the advertising strategies used by traditional medical practitioners, I used qualitative analysis of street adverts as well as electronic and print media. From the results obtained through thematic content analysis, the paper concludes that most of the practitioners in traditional

  17. Ethical quandaries in spiritual healing and herbal medicine: A critical analysis of the morality of traditional medicine advertising in southern African urban societies

    PubMed Central

    Munyaradzi, Mawere

    2011-01-01

    This paper critically examines the morality of advertising by practitioners in spiritual healing and herbal medicine heretofore referred to as traditional medicine, in southern African urban societies. While the subject of traditional medicine has been heavily contested in medical studies in the last few decades, the monumental studies on the subject have emphasised the place of traditional medicine in basic health services. Insignificant attention has been devoted to examine the ethical problems associated with traditional medicine advertising. Critical look at the worthiness of some advertising strategies used by practitioners in traditional medicine in launching their products and services on market thus has been largely ignored. Yet, though advertising is key to helping traditional medicine practitioners’ products and services known by prospective customers, this research registers a number of morally negative effects that seem to outweigh the merits that the activity brings to prospective customers. The paper adopts southern African urban societies, and in particular Mozambique, South Africa and Zimbabwe as particular references. The choice of the trio is not accidental, but based on the fact that these countries have in the last few decades been flooded with traditional medicine practitioners/traditional healers from within the continent and from abroad. Most of these practitioners use immoral advertising strategies in communicating to the public the products and services they offer. It is against this background that this paper examines the morality of advertising strategies deployed by practitioners in launching their products and services. To examine the moral worthiness of the advertising strategies used by traditional medical practitioners, I used qualitative analysis of street adverts as well as electronic and print media. From the results obtained through thematic content analysis, the paper concludes that most of the practitioners in traditional

  18. A Preliminary Investigation of the Jack-Bean Urease Inhibition by Randomly Selected Traditionally Used Herbal Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Biglar, Mahmood; Soltani, Khadijeh; Nabati, Farzaneh; Bazl, Roya; Mojab, Faraz; Amanlou, Massoud

    2012-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection leads to different clinical and pathological outcomes in humans, including chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer disease and gastric neoplasia and even gastric cancer and its eradiation dependst upon multi-drug therapy. The most effective therapy is still unknown and prompts people to make great efforts to find better and more modern natural or synthetic anti-H. pylori agents. In this report 21 randomly selected herbal methanolic extracts were evaluated for their effect on inhibition of Jack-bean urease using the indophenol method as described by Weatherburn. The inhibition potency was measured by UV spectroscopy technique at 630 nm which attributes to released ammonium. Among these extracts, five showed potent inhibitory activities with IC50 ranges of 18-35 μg/mL. These plants are Matricaria disciforme (IC50:35 μg/mL), Nasturtium officinale (IC50:18 μg/mL), Punica granatum (IC50:30 μg/mL), Camelia sinensis (IC50:35 μg/mL), Citrus aurantifolia (IC50:28 μg/mL). PMID:24250509

  19. Effects of oral dosage form and storage period on the antioxidant properties of four species used in traditional herbal medicine.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Rafaela; Barreira, João C M; Barros, Lillian; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2011-04-01

    Herbal infusions and decoctions in water are some of the most commonly consumed beverages in the world. Although water is not a good solvent for many of the active components in herbs, liquid preparations are rich in several bioactive compounds. Most of them have powerful antioxidant activity and have been related to medicinal herbs' properties. Herein, decoctions and infusions in water of lemon-verbena (Aloysia citrodora) aerial parts and leaves, fennel (Foeniculum vulgare), pennyroyal (Mentha pulegium) and spearmint (Mentha spicata) aerial parts with different periods of storage (0, 30, 60 and 120 days), were prepared. The effects of the method of preparation and storage period on their antioxidant properties were analysed. For all the analysed species, infusions gave better results than the corresponding decoctions. Spearmint infusions showed the highest antioxidant properties, at all the storage periods, probably due to the highest levels and synergy between phenolics, flavonoids and ascorbic acid found in this sample. Linear discriminant analysis confirmed that the length of storage period has a significant influence on the antioxidant activity and antioxidant content. Flavonoids and reducing sugars proved to be the parameters that most highly contributed to cluster individual groups according to different periods of storage.

  20. Pharmacovigilance of herbal medicines.

    PubMed

    Gromek, Kamila; Drumond, Nélio; Simas, Paula

    2015-01-01

    The importance of herbal remedies in pharmacovigilance systems is becoming one of the primary tasks, due to the constantly ascending potential of herbal products and herbal medicines worldwide. Nowadays, the drug development is focused on finding new active compounds or combinations, but costs are simultaneously growing, which makes herbal medicines an attractive, harmless and cheaper alternative to synthetic drugs.Like all drugs, herbal are not free of risk and many studies suggest for potential adverse reactions and interactions. Available statistics show that some herbal products, used in traditional medication for generations, may possess carcinogenic, hepatotoxic, cardiotoxic and other severe actions. Evaluation of the safety should include at least in vitro and in vivo genotoxicity assays, long-term rodent carcinogenicity tests (for drugs intended to be continuously used for >3 months or intermittently for >6 months), reproductive and developmental toxicity studies in some cases and examination of the effects on drug-metabolizing enzymes. Drug safety of herbal medicines should be developed, focusing on specific groups of patients.

  1. Recent Progress of Research on Herbal Products Used in Traditional Chinese Medicine: the Herbs belonging to The Divine Husbandman's Herbal Foundation Canon (神農本草經 Shén Nóng Běn Cǎo Jīng)

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kuo-Hsiung; Morris-Natschke, Susan; Qian, Keduo; Dong, Yizhou; Yang, Xiaoming; Zhou, Ting; Belding, Eileen; Wu, Shou-Fang; Wada, Koji; Akiyama, Toshiyuki

    2012-01-01

    This article will review selected herbal products from Chinese Materia Medica that are used in Traditional Chinese Medicine. The herbs come from the upper, middle, and lower class medicines as listed in The Divine Husbandman's Herbal Foundation Canon (神農本草經 Shén Nóng Běn Cǎo Jīng). The review will focus on the active constituents of the herbs and their bioactivities, with emphasis on the most recent progress in research for the period of 2003 to 2011. PMID:24716110

  2. Samsoeum, a traditional herbal medicine, elicits apoptotic and autophagic cell death by inhibiting Akt/mTOR and activating the JNK pathway in cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Samsoeum (SSE), a traditional herbal formula, has been widely used to treat cough, fever, congestion, and emesis for centuries. Recent studies have demonstrated that SSE retains potent pharmacological efficiency in anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory reactions. However, the anti-cancer activity of SSE and its underlying mechanisms have not been studied. Thus, the present study was designed to determine the effect of SSE on cell death and elucidate its detailed mechanism. Methods Following SSE treatment, cell growth and cell death were measured using an MTT assay and trypan blue exclusion assay, respectively. Cell cycle arrest and YO-PRO-1 uptake were assayed using flow cytometry, and LC3 redistribution was observed using confocal microscope. The mechanisms of anti-cancer effect of SSE were investigated through western blot analysis. Results We initially found that SSE caused dose- and time-dependent cell death in cancer cells but not in normal primary hepatocytes. In addition, during early SSE treatment (6–12 h), cells were arrested in G2/M phase concomitant with up-regulation of p21 and p27 and down-regulation of cyclin D1 and cyclin B1, followed by an increase in apoptotic YO-PRO-1 (+) cells. SSE also induced autophagy via up-regulation of Beclin-1 expression, conversion of microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3) I to LC3-II, and re-distribution of LC3, indicating autophagosome formation. Moreover, the level of B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), which is critical for cross-talk between apoptosis and autophagy, was significantly reduced in SSE-treated cells. Phosphorylation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) was increased, followed by suppression of the protein kinase B/mammalian target of rapamycin (Akt/mTOR) pathway, and phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in response to SSE treatment. In particular, among MAPKs inhibitors, only the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)-specific inhibitor SP600125 nearly

  3. An Astronomical Problem in a Japanese Traditional Mathematical Text: The 49th Problem of the Kenki-sanpo of Takebe Katahiro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ôhashi, Yukio

    During the Edo period (Tokugawa-shogunate period) (1603-1867), there was a mathematical tradition now called "Wasan" which was primarily based on Chinese mathematics, but Japanese mathematicians also created new devices. It was quite popular, and common people could enjoy solving mathematical problems through Wasan regardless of their social status. Some astronomical problems were also treated there.

  4. Antinociceptive and Antihyperalgesic Activity of a Traditional Maya Herbal Preparation Composed of Pouteria Campechiana, Chrysophyllum Cainito, Citrus Limonum, and Annona Muricata.

    PubMed

    Déciga-Campos, Myrna; Ortiz-Andrade, Rolffy; Sanchez-Recillas, Amanda; Flores-Guido, José Salvador; Ramírez Camacho, Mario A

    2017-02-08

    Preclinical Research The purpose of this work was to assess the antinociceptive and antihyperalgesic properties of an herbal preparation, composed of four vegetal species: Pouteria campechiana (P. campechiana), Chrysophyllum cainito (C. cainito), Citrus limonum (C. limonum), and Annona muricata (A. muricata), that is commonly used in combination (PCCA) in traditional Mayan medicine for the treatment of diabetes and pain. An ethanolic extract of PCCA was prepared at a ratio of 1:1:1:1 for each plant. The systemic antinociceptive effect of PCCA extract (50-600 mg/kg, p.o.) was dose-dependent in the rat formalin (1%) producing 66% antinociceptive response at 400 mg/kg, p.o. A concentration-dependent antinociceptive effect of the PCCA extract (20-160 mg/paw) was also demonstrated in the rat capsaicin (0.2%) test. The PCCA extract (100-400 mg/kg, p.o.) had antihyperalgesic effects in alloxan diabetic rats. These findings demonstrate the antinociceptive and antihyperalgesic effects of PCCA and supports the use of the plant extracts in Mayan folk medicine.Drug Dev Res, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Traditional Korean Herbal Formula Samsoeum Attenuates Adipogenesis by Regulating the Phosphorylation of ERK1/2 in 3T3-L1 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Soo-Jin; Yoo, Sae-Rom; Seo, Chang-Seob; Shin, Hyeun-Kyoo

    2015-01-01

    Adipogenesis is the cell differentiation process from preadipocytes into adipocytes and the critical action in the development of obesity. In the present study, we conducted in vitro analyses to investigate the inhibitory effects of Samsoeum (SSE), a traditional herbal decoction. SSE had no significant cytotoxic effect against either the undifferentiated or differentiated 3T3-L1 cells. Oil Red O staining results showed that SSE significantly inhibited fat accumulation in adipocytes. SSE treatment consistently reduced the intracellular triglyceride content in the cells. SSE significantly inactivated glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH), a major link between carbohydrate and lipid metabolisms in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, and markedly inhibited the production of leptin, an important adipokine, in differentiated cells. SSE markedly suppressed the mRNA expression of the adipogenesis-related genes peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-γ), CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-alpha (C/EBP-α), fatty acid synthase (FAS), lipoprotein lipase (LPL), and fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4). Importantly, SSE increased the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, but not p38 MAPK and JNK, in adipose cells. Overall, our results indicate that SSE exerts antiadipogenic activity and modulates expressions of adipogenesis-related genes and ERK1/2 activation in adipocytes. PMID:26483846

  6. Traditional Herbal Formula Banhasasim-tang Exerts Anti-Inflammatory Effects in RAW 264.7 Macrophages and HaCaT Keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Hye-Sun; Kim, Yeji; Seo, Chang-Seob; Shin, Hyeun-Kyoo

    2015-01-01

    Banhasasim-tang (BHSST) is a Korean traditional herbal formula comprising eight medicinal herbs. The aim of the present study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of BHSST using macrophage and keratinocyte cell lines. First, we evaluated the effects of BHSST on inflammatory mediator and cytokine production in lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. BHSST markedly inhibited the production of nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and interleukin- (IL-) 6. BHSST significantly suppressed the protein expression of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and phosphorylated nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) p65 in RAW 264.7 cells. Second, we examined whether BHSST influences the production of chemokines and STAT1 phosphorylation in tumor necrosis factor-α/interferon-γ TI-stimulated HaCaT keratinocytes. BHSST significantly suppressed the production of RANTES/CCL5, TARC/CCL17, MDC/CCL22, and IL-8 in TI-stimulated HaCaT cells. BHSST also suppressed TI-induced phosphorylation of STAT1 in HaCaT cells. These results suggest that BHSST may be useful as an anti-inflammatory agent, especially for inflammatory skin diseases. PMID:25838833

  7. Determination and comparison of mineral elements in traditional Chinese herbal formulae at different decoction times used to improve kidney function--chemometric approach.

    PubMed

    Kolasani, Archana; Xu, Hong; Millikan, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Traditional Chinese herbal formulae Liu wei di huang (LW) (six-ingredient pill with Rehmannia) and Jin gui shen qi wan (JG) (kidney Qi pill from the golden cabinet) were analysed for Ca, Fe, Mg, Mn, Na, K and Zn at different decoction intervals by atomic absorption spectroscopy. LW and JG were used to improve the kidney function. JG was higher in all elements than LW. K (1691.29 - 2372.71 mg l(-1)) was highest in both formulae LW and JG followed by Ca (245.31 - 562.91 mg l(-1)). Ca, Fe, Mg, Mn and K were highest at 40 min for LW and Fe, Mn, Na and K were highest at 40 min for JG. Chemometrics such as principal component analysis, hierarchical cluster analysis and linear discriminate analysis were applied to classify the data and to understand the relation between the elements. Metal intake related to the consumption of decoction has also been studied. Mn made the highest contribution to average daily dietary intakes from the formulae.

  8. Bu-Zhong-Yi-Qi Decoction, the Water Extract of Chinese Traditional Herbal Medicine, Enhances Cisplatin Cytotoxicity in A549/DDP Cells through Induction of Apoptosis and Autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Ying

    2017-01-01

    Cisplatin is one of the most active cytotoxic agents for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treatment. However, the development of cisplatin resistance is common. Bu-Zhong-Yi-Qi decoction (BZYQD), a Chinese traditional herbal medicine, is widely used for the enhancement of antitumor effect in other medications. In this study, we evaluated the effect and drug-resistance reversal mechanism of BZYQD combined with cisplatin on cisplatin-resistant A549/DDP cells. Our results showed that BZYQD exhibited direct cytotoxic and chemosensitizing effects. Cotreatment with BZYQD and cisplatin induced intrinsic apoptotic pathways which were measured by condensed nuclear chromatin, Annexin V/PI apoptosis assay, and apoptosis related proteins expression. In addition, cotreatment with BZYQD and cisplatin also activated autophagy, as indicated by an increase in LC3 puncta, classical autophagosomes and/or autolysosomes, and an accumulation of LC3-II and ATG7 protein. Finally, cotreatment with BZYQD and cisplatin resulted in the generation of ROS and scavenging ROS by NAC almost completely suppressing cell death. These results suggest that cotreatment with BZYQD and cisplatin might reverse cisplatin resistance by inducing ROS accumulation, which activates apoptosis and autophagy by oxidative stress. The combination of BZYQD and cisplatin may represent a novel approach in treatment for NSCLC and thus offer a new target for chemotherapy. PMID:28154825

  9. Effect of a traditional herbal medicine, hangekobokuto, on the sensation of a lump in the throat in patients with respiratory diseases.

    PubMed

    Kagohashi, Katsunori; Tamura, Tomohiro; Ohara, Gen; Satoh, Hiroaki

    2016-03-01

    The sensation of a lump in the throat (SLT) is not a rarely encountered symptom. The etiology of SLT appears to be multifactorial, and the psychological characteristics, stress and pressure of a psychiatric disorder may be significant factors in SLT. Hangekobokuto, one of the traditional herbal medicines, is a known drug that has an effect on SLT. The efficacy of a short-term hangekobokuto treatment on SLT was evaluated. To assess whether a 2-week prescription of hangekobokuto improves SLT mainly in patients with respiratory diseases, a retrospective study was performed between April 2013 and August 2015. During the study period, a total of 43 patients were treated with hangekobokuto. Twelve (27.9%) of the 43 patients were reported to experience completely effective treatment (SLT completely disappeared), and 14 (32.6%) experienced moderately effective treatment (25-99% SLT disappeared). Patients with bronchial asthma and those without a medical history of respiratory disease exhibited a good response to hangekobokuto. No specific predictive factor of the response to hangekobokuto on SLT was identified in the multivariate regression analysis. Therefore, the present results suggested that hangekobokuto could be one of the treatment choices for uncontrolled SLT.

  10. Bu-Zhong-Yi-Qi Decoction, the Water Extract of Chinese Traditional Herbal Medicine, Enhances Cisplatin Cytotoxicity in A549/DDP Cells through Induction of Apoptosis and Autophagy.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ning; Xiong, Ying; Wang, Chun

    2017-01-01

    Cisplatin is one of the most active cytotoxic agents for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treatment. However, the development of cisplatin resistance is common. Bu-Zhong-Yi-Qi decoction (BZYQD), a Chinese traditional herbal medicine, is widely used for the enhancement of antitumor effect in other medications. In this study, we evaluated the effect and drug-resistance reversal mechanism of BZYQD combined with cisplatin on cisplatin-resistant A549/DDP cells. Our results showed that BZYQD exhibited direct cytotoxic and chemosensitizing effects. Cotreatment with BZYQD and cisplatin induced intrinsic apoptotic pathways which were measured by condensed nuclear chromatin, Annexin V/PI apoptosis assay, and apoptosis related proteins expression. In addition, cotreatment with BZYQD and cisplatin also activated autophagy, as indicated by an increase in LC3 puncta, classical autophagosomes and/or autolysosomes, and an accumulation of LC3-II and ATG7 protein. Finally, cotreatment with BZYQD and cisplatin resulted in the generation of ROS and scavenging ROS by NAC almost completely suppressing cell death. These results suggest that cotreatment with BZYQD and cisplatin might reverse cisplatin resistance by inducing ROS accumulation, which activates apoptosis and autophagy by oxidative stress. The combination of BZYQD and cisplatin may represent a novel approach in treatment for NSCLC and thus offer a new target for chemotherapy.

  11. Inhibitory Effect of Yongdamsagan-Tang Water Extract, a Traditional Herbal Formula, on Testosterone-Induced Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Mee-Young; Lee, Nari

    2016-01-01

    Yongdamsagan-tang, a traditional herbal formula, is used widely for the treatment of inflammation and viral diseases. In this study, we investigated whether Yongdamsagan-tang water extract (YSTE) affects testosterone propionate- (TP-) induced benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in a rat model. To induce BPH, rats were injected subcutaneously with 10 mg/kg of TP every day. YSTE was administrated daily by oral gavage at doses of 200 and 500 mg/kg along with the TP injection. After 4 weeks, prostates were collected, weighed, and analyzed. The relative prostrate weight was significantly lower in both YSTE groups (200 and 500 mg/kg/day) compared with the TP-induced BPH group. YSTE administration reduced the expression of proliferation markers PCNA, cyclin D1, and Ki-67 and the histological abnormalities observed in the prostate in TP-induced BPH rats. YSTE attenuated the increase in the TP-induced androgen concentration in the prostate. The YSTE groups also showed decreased lipid peroxidation and increased glutathione reductase activity in the prostate. These findings suggest that YSTE effectively prevented the development of TP-induced BPH in rats through antiproliferative and antioxidative activities and might be useful in the clinical treatment of BPH. PMID:27504137

  12. Comparison of Efficacy and Toxicity of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) Herbal Mixture LQ and Conventional Chemotherapy on Lung Cancer Metastasis and Survival in Mouse Models

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lei; Wu, Chengyu; Zhang, Yong; Liu, Fang; Wang, Xiaoen; Zhao, Ming; Hoffman, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    Unlike Western medicine that generally uses purified compounds and aims to target a single molecule or pathway, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) compositions usually comprise multiple herbs and components that are necessary for efficacy. Despite the very long-time and wide-spread use of TCM, there are very few direct comparisons of TCM and standard cytotoxic chemotherapy. In the present report, we compared the efficacy of the TCM herbal mixture LQ against lung cancer in mouse models with doxorubicin (DOX) and cyclophosphamide (CTX). LQ inhibited tumor size and weight measured directly as well as by fluorescent-protein imaging in subcutaneous, orthotopic, spontaneous experimental metastasis and angiogenesis mouse models of lung cancer. LQ was efficacious against primary and metastatic lung cancer without weight loss and organ toxicity. In contrast, CTX and DOX, although efficacious in the lung cancer models caused significant weight loss, and organ toxicity. LQ also had anti-angiogenic activity as observed in lung tumors growing in nestin-driven green fluorescent protein (ND-GFP) transgenic nude mice, which selectively express GFP in nascent blood vessels. Survival of tumor-bearing mice was also prolonged by LQ, comparable to DOX. In vitro, lung cancer cells were killed by LQ as observed by time-lapse imaging, comparable to cisplatinum. LQ was more potent to induce cell death on cancer cell lines than normal cell lines unlike cytotoxic chemotherapy. The results indicate that LQ has non-toxic efficacy against metastatic lung cancer. PMID:25286158

  13. Significance of Kampo, Traditional Japanese Medicine, in Supportive Care of Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Yamakawa, Jun-ichi; Motoo, Yoshiharu; Moriya, Junji; Ogawa, Masao; Uenishi, Hiroaki; Akazawa, Sumiyo; Sasagawa, Toshiyuki; Nishio, Matomo; Kobayashi, Junji

    2013-01-01

    The current standard treatment for cancer is a multidisciplinary therapy whereby various types of treatment are properly combined. Chemotherapy with multiple anticancer drugs is now common, and traditional, complementary, and alternative therapies are adopted as supportive measures. Medical care in Japan is distinguished by the ability for patients to access both Western and Kampo medical cares at the same time. There is a high degree of trust in the safety of Kampo therapies because they are practiced by medical doctors who are educated with fundamental diagnosis of Western medicine. Highly reliable clinical studies are being published, demonstrating that palliative or supportive care for cancer patients using Kampo preparations alleviates adverse effects of chemotherapy or radiotherapy. This paper reports the circumstances around cancer care in Japan where traditional therapeutic Kampo formulas are used for patients undergoing cancer treatment with cutting-edge chemotherapy, specifically to alleviate adverse effects of anticancer drugs. PMID:23861712

  14. Efficacy of Japanese traditional (Kampo) medicine for treating chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy: A retrospective case series study

    PubMed Central

    Kimata, Yumiko; Ogawa, Keiko; Okamoto, Hideki; Chino, Atsushi; Namiki, Takao

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate Japanese traditional (Kampo) medicine’s effectiveness on cancer chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN), we carried out this retrospective study. METHODS By searching our outpatient database of 3154 patients who consulted our outpatient clinic of Japanese-Oriental (Kampo) Medicine at Chiba University Hospital from November 2005 to December 2010, a total of 281 patients diagnosed with cancer were identified. Twenty-four patients out of the 281 patients identified met the following three conditions and were eligible for further investigation of the effectiveness of Kampo treatment: At least one course of cancer chemotherapy had been administered; numbness and pain appeared after the chemotherapy; and CIPN was diagnosed before they were given Kampo treatment. RESULTS The 24 patients included 6 males and 18 females and ranged in age from 39 to 86 (mean 61.2 ± 11.5) years old. Kampo formulas were individually chosen by Kampo expert doctors based on Kampo-specific diagnostics. Beneficial outcomes were obtained by Kampo treatment in 20 out of the 24 cases (83.3%). Nine out 20 cases had a major response (the numbness and pain showed improvement or reduction by 50% or more), with 7 of 9 cases showing a more than 70% symptom reduction. Eleven out of 20 cases showed a minor response (less than 50% symptom reduction), and 4 out of the 24 cases had no beneficial response. The most frequently used formula was goshajinkigan (GJG), followed by hachimijiogan (HJG) and keishibukuryogan. Thirteen of the 24 cases (54.2%) were prescribed aconite root-containing formulas including GJG and HJG. Aconite root has “warming” effects and ameliorates pain and numbness; 21 out of 24 cases (87.5%) in total used warming formulas such as aconite root-containing formulas to reduce CIPN. CONCLUSION Our current study suggested that Kampo formulas chosen based on Kampo-specific diagnostics could be for treating CIPN that is refractory to conventional medicine. PMID

  15. Traditional Chinese medicine herbal extracts of Cibotium barometz, Gentiana scabra, Dioscorea batatas, Cassia tora, and Taxillus chinensis inhibit SARS-CoV replication.

    PubMed

    Wen, Chih-Chun; Shyur, Lie-Fen; Jan, Jia-Tsrong; Liang, Po-Huang; Kuo, Chih-Jung; Arulselvan, Palanisamy; Wu, Jin-Bin; Kuo, Sheng-Chu; Yang, Ning-Sun

    2011-10-01

    Development of anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) agents is pivotal to prevent the reemergence of the life-threatening disease, SARS. In this study, more than 200 extracts from Chinese medicinal herbs were evaluated for anti-SARS-CoV activities using a cell-based assay that measured SARS-CoV-induced cytopathogenic effect (CPE) in vitro on Vero E6 cells. Six herbal extracts, one each from Gentianae Radix ( lóng dǎn; the dried rhizome of Gentiana scabra), Dioscoreae Rhizoma ( shān yào; the tuber of Dioscorea batatas), Cassiae Semen ( jué míng zǐ; the dried seed of Cassia tora) and Loranthi Ramus ( sāng jì shēng; the dried stem, with leaf of Taxillus chinensis) (designated as GSH, DBM, CTH and TCH, respectively), and two from Rhizoma Cibotii ( gǒu jǐ; the dried rhizome of Cibotium barometz) (designated as CBE and CBM), were found to be potent inhibitors of SARS-CoV at concentrations between 25 and 200 μg/ml. The concentrations of the six extracts needed to inhibit 50% of Vero E6 cell proliferation (CC50) and 50% of viral replication (EC50) were determined. The resulting selective index values (SI = CC50/EC50) of the most effective extracts CBE, GSH, DBM, CTH and TCH were > 59.4, > 57.5, > 62.1, > 59.4, and > 92.9, respectively. Among these extracts, CBM and DBM also showed significant inhibition of SARS-CoV 3CL protease activity with IC50 values of 39 μg/ml and 44 μg/ml, respectively. Our findings suggest that these six herbal extracts may have potential as candidates for future development of anti-SARS therapeutics.AbbreviationsSARS,severe acute respiratory syndromeCoV,coronavirusCPE,cytopathogenic effectTCM,traditional Chinese medicine.

  16. Traditional Chinese medicine herbal extracts of Cibotium barometz, Gentiana scabra, Dioscorea batatas, Cassia tora, and Taxillus chinensis inhibit SARS-CoV replication

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Chih-Chun; Shyur, Lie-Fen; Jan, Jia-Tsrong; Liang, Po-Huang; Kuo, Chih-Jung; Arulselvan, Palanisamy; Wu, Jin-Bin; Kuo, Sheng-Chu; Yang, Ning-Sun

    2011-01-01

    Development of anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) agents is pivotal to prevent the reemergence of the life-threatening disease, SARS. In this study, more than 200 extracts from Chinese medicinal herbs were evaluated for anti-SARS-CoV activities using a cell-based assay that measured SARS-CoV-induced cytopathogenic effect (CPE) in vitro on Vero E6 cells. Six herbal extracts, one each from Gentianae Radix (龍膽 lóng dǎn; the dried rhizome of Gentiana scabra), Dioscoreae Rhizoma (山藥 shān yào; the tuber of Dioscorea batatas), Cassiae Semen (決明子 jué míng zǐ; the dried seed of Cassia tora) and Loranthi Ramus (桑寄生 sāng jì shēng; the dried stem, with leaf of Taxillus chinensis) (designated as GSH, DBM, CTH and TCH, respectively), and two from Rhizoma Cibotii (狗脊 gǒu jǐ; the dried rhizome of Cibotium barometz) (designated as CBE and CBM), were found to be potent inhibitors of SARS-CoV at concentrations between 25 and 200 μg/ml. The concentrations of the six extracts needed to inhibit 50% of Vero E6 cell proliferation (CC50) and 50% of viral replication (EC50) were determined. The resulting selective index values (SI = CC50/EC50) of the most effective extracts CBE, GSH, DBM, CTH and TCH were > 59.4, > 57.5, > 62.1, > 59.4, and > 92.9, respectively. Among these extracts, CBM and DBM also showed significant inhibition of SARS-CoV 3CL protease activity with IC50 values of 39 μg/ml and 44 μg/ml, respectively. Our findings suggest that these six herbal extracts may have potential as candidates for future development of anti-SARS therapeutics. Abbreviations SARS, severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV, coronavirus CPE, cytopathogenic effect TCM, traditional Chinese medicine PMID:24716104

  17. Age-related differences in the performance, diffusion, and maintenance of stone handling, a behavioral tradition in Japanese macaques.

    PubMed

    Leca, Jean-Baptiste; Gunst, Noëlle; Huffman, Michael A

    2007-12-01

    Identifying the sources of behavioral diversity in non-human primates is vital to understanding the evolution of human behavior. Stone handling (SH, hereafter) is a form of object play consisting of the manipulation of stones by performing various behavioral patterns. This behavior is socially transmitted from generation to generation in Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata), as a behavioral tradition. SH behavior in particular may reflect on the origin and evolution of stone-tool material culture. The objective of this study was to assess how group size, age structure, and age- and sex-related differences may account for the substantial intra- and inter-troop variations in SH reported in ten troops of Japanese macaques. Our results supported the hypothesis that patterns of variation in SH across troops reflected variability in group size and composition in age classes. We found that troop size was correlated with the proportion of troop members exhibiting SH simultaneously. The effect of troop size on the synchronized performance of SH may reveal the contagious nature of play. Our results suggest that the age structure of the group may affect the diffusion of SH. As predicted by the surplus energy hypothesis, a major functional hypothesis about play, intra-group variation in SH reflected more age- than sex-related differences. SH mainly occurred and was more frequent in younger than in older individuals, whereas no significant sex differences were found. SH episodes were shorter, more vigorous, and SH patterns were more diverse and less complex in immature than in mature individuals. The present findings reveal that age-related factors and group size may constrain the performance, diffusion, and maintenance of SH within a troop. Contrary to most other socially transmitted stone-tool using behaviors in non-human primates and early hominids, there is no optimal SH pattern. Provided some form of social learning, the non-adaptive nature of SH may allow particular SH

  18. Gluconacetobacter kakiaceti sp. nov., an acetic acid bacterium isolated from a traditional Japanese fruit vinegar.

    PubMed

    Iino, Takao; Suzuki, Rei; Tanaka, Naoto; Kosako, Yoshimasa; Ohkuma, Moriya; Komagata, Kazuo; Uchimura, Tai

    2012-07-01

    Two novel acetic acid bacteria, strains G5-1(T) and I5-1, were isolated from traditional kaki vinegar (produced from fruits of kaki, Diospyros kaki Thunb.), collected in Kumamoto Prefecture, Japan. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strains G5-1(T) and I5-1 formed a distinct subline in the genus Gluconacetobacter and were closely related to Gluconacetobacter swingsii DST GL01(T) (99.3% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity). The isolates showed 96-100% DNA-DNA relatedness with each other, but <53% DNA-DNA relatedness with closely related members of the genus Gluconacetobacter. The isolates could be distinguished from closely related members of the genus Gluconacetobacter by not producing 2- and 5-ketogluconic acids from glucose, producing cellulose, growing without acetic acid and with 30% (w/v) d-glucose, and producing acid from sugars and alcohols. Furthermore, the genomic DNA G+C contents of strains G5-1(T) and I5-1 were a little higher than those of their closest phylogenetic neighbours. On the basis of the phenotypic characteristics and phylogenetic position, strains G5-1(T) and I5-1 are assigned to a novel species, for which the name Gluconacetobacter kakiaceti sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain is G5-1(T) (=JCM 25156(T)=NRIC 0798(T)=LMG 26206(T)).

  19. Influence of air flow on the behavior of thoron and its progeny in a traditional Japanese house

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Jizeng; Doi, Masahiro; Kobayashi, Sadayoshi

    1997-01-01

    Air flow influence on the spatial distribution of thoron ({sup 220}Rn) concentration in a typical Japanese traditional house was investigated at various indoor air flow levels. The effect of air flow on the behavior of both thoron and radon progeny were examined simultaneously. Measurements were carried out by using two types of passive monitors, the radon-thoron discriminative monitor and the Radtrak monitor. Thoron and radon progeny were measured by filter grab sampling with ZnS scintillation counting. Under static condition, a horizontal distribution with greatly varied thoron concentrations was found as reported by previous studies. Under turbulent conditions, thoron concentrations in the middle of the room increased and the concentration gradient of thoron gas became lower. An obvious vertical distribution of thoron was also observed. Prominent diurnal variation of radon progeny concentrations was observed whereas that of thoron progeny concentrations was not. Concentration of thoron progeny changed little at different air flow levels, although the thoron gas level at the middle of the room varied significantly. The influence of air flows on detection efficiencies of the two types of thoron monitors were also checked. The mechanism of behavioral change of thoron and its progeny in turbulent atmosphere is discussed. 18 refs., 7 figs.

  20. The traditional Japanese formula keishibukuryogan reduces liver injury and inflammation in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, Makoto; Tsuneyama, Koichi; Kinoshita, Hideki; Goto, Hirozo; Takano, Yasuo; Selmi, Carlo; Keen, Carl L; Gershwin, M Eric; Shimada, Yutaka

    2010-03-01

    The Kampo formula keishibukuryogan (KBG, Guizhifulingwan) is frequently used in traditional Japanese and Chinese medicine to treat several symptoms and manifests anti-inflammatory and scavenging effects. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common manifestation of the metabolic syndrome and has the potential to evolve to liver cirrhosis through chronic inflammation and steatohepatisis (NASH). We have recently reported the KBG significant effectiveness on liver injury in a NASH animal model that prompted us to prescribe to KBG (TJ-25). We performed a retrospective study and reviewed the charts of outpatients who were prescribed KBG for 8-12 weeks due to non-liver-related symptoms (n= 11) over the past year to evaluate the clinical outcome. In six of these cases, biochemical and ultrasound signs of NAFLD were observed. KBG led to a significant reduction in liver injury tests and blood cholesterol but had no effects on body weight in all NAFLD cases. Further, liver tests and lipid profiles returned to baseline values when KBG treatment was stopped. On the basis of data on a small number of subjects, we suggest that the use of KBG is a safe complementary treatment in patients with NAFLD. While it is unlikely that Kampo formulas may substitute the current nutritional approaches to the metabolic syndrome, future studies should address the possibility of an additive effect, possibly through anti-inflammatory mechanisms.

  1. Plasma Pharmacokinetics of Polyphenols in a Traditional Japanese Medicine, Jumihaidokuto, Which Suppresses Propionibacterium acnes-Induced Dermatitis in Rats.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Takashi; Matsubara, Yousuke; Mizuhara, Yasuharu; Sekiguchi, Kyoji; Koseki, Junichi; Tsuchiya, Kazuaki; Nishimura, Hiroaki; Watanabe, Junko; Kaneko, Atsushi; Maemura, Kazuya; Hattori, Tomohisa; Kase, Yoshio

    2015-09-30

    Most orally administered polyphenols are metabolized, with very little absorbed as aglycones and/or unchanged forms. Metabolic and pharmacokinetic studies are therefore necessary to understand the pharmacological mechanisms of polyphenols. Jumihaidokuto (JHT), a traditional Japanese medicine, has been used for treatment of skin diseases including inflammatory acne. Because JHT contains various types of bioactive polyphenols, our aim was to clarify the metabolism and pharmacokinetics of the polyphenols in JHT and identify active metabolites contributing to its antidermatitis effects. Orally administered JHT inhibited the increase in ear thickness in rats induced by intradermal injection of Propionibacterium acnes. Quantification by LC-MS/MS indicated that JHT contains various types of flavonoids and is also rich in hydrolysable tannins, such as 1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloyl glucose. Pharmacokinetic and antioxidant analyses showed that some flavonoid conjugates, such as genistein 7-O-glucuronide and liquiritigenin 7-O-glucuronide, appeared in rat plasma and had an activity to inhibit hydrogen peroxide-dependent oxidation. Furthermore, 4-O-methylgallic acid, a metabolite of Gallic acid, appeared in rat plasma and inhibited the nitric oxide reaction. JHT has numerous polyphenols; it inhibited dermatitis probably via the antioxidant effect of its metabolites. Our study is beneficial for understanding in vivo actions of orally administered polyphenol drugs.

  2. Inhibition of angiotensin I converting enzyme by subtilisin NAT (nattokinase) in natto, a Japanese traditional fermented food.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Keiko; Yamanaka, Naoki; Ohnishi, Katsunori; Fukayama, Minoru; Yoshino, Masataka

    2012-06-01

    Angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) was inhibited by the culture medium of Bacillus subtilis subsp. natto, which ferments boiled soy beans to natto, a Japanese traditional food. Subtilisin NAT (nattokinase) produced by B. subtilis also inhibited ACE, and the inhibition was markedly stimulated by heat treatment of subtilisin at 120 °C for 15 min. Inhibition of ACE by subtilisin was of a mixed type: the decrease in V(max) and the increase in K(m) value. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that heat treatment of subtilisin caused inactivation with fragmentation of the enzyme protein into small peptides. The inhibitory action of subtilisin was not due to an enzymatic action of protease, but may be ascribed to the potent ACE-inhibitory peptides such as LY and FY, amino acid sequences in subtilisin. HPLC-MS analysis of heat-inactivated subtilisin confirmed that LY and FY were liberated by fragmentation of the enzyme. Inhibition of ACE by subtilisin and its degradation peptides such as LY and FY may participate in the suppression of blood pressure by ingestion of natto.

  3. Structural determination of glucosylceramides in the distillation remnants of shochu, the Japanese traditional liquor, and its production by Aspergillus kawachii.

    PubMed

    Hirata, Miyo; Tsuge, Keisuke; Jayakody, Lahiru N; Urano, Yoshitaka; Sawada, Kazutaka; Inaba, Shigeki; Nagao, Koji; Kitagaki, Hiroshi

    2012-11-21

    Shochu is traditional Japanese liquor produced from various crops and fungi Aspergillus kawachi or A. awamorii . The amount of unutilized shochu distillation remnants is increasing because of the recent prohibition of ocean dumping of these remnants. In this Article, we first describe the structures of glucosylceramides contained in shochu distillation remnants by fragment ion analysis using ESI-tandem mass spectrometry. Shochu distillation remnant produced from barley contained glucosylceramides d18:2/C16:0h, d18:2/C20:0h, d19:2/C18:1h, and d18:2/C18:0h. Koji (barley fermented with A. kawachii) contained the same glucosylceramides. Shochu distillation remnants produced from rice contained glucosylceramides d18:2/C18:0h and d19:2/C18:1h. The culture broth of A. kawachii contained glucosylceramides d19:2/C18:1h and d19:2/C18:0h. These results indicate that the glucosylceramides contained in crops and those produced by A. kawachii transfer through the processes of fermentation with yeast and distillation to the shochu distillation remnant. This information will enable utilization of shochu distillation remnants and koji as novel sources of sphingolipids.

  4. Herbal Medicine and Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Applications and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yan; Martin, Robert C. G.

    2011-01-01

    Use of herbal medicine in the treatment of liver cancer has a long tradition. The compounds derived from the herb and herbal composites are of considerable interest among oncologists. In the past, certain herbal compounds and herbal composite formulas have been studied through in vitro and in vivo as an anti-hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) agent, enhancing our knowledge about their biologic functions and targets. However there is a significant distinction between the herbal medicine and the herbal production even though both are the plant-based remedies used in the practice. In this article, for the sake of clarity, the effective herbal compounds and herbal composite formulas against HCC are discussed, with emphasizing the basic conceptions of herbal medicine in order to have a better understanding of the prevention and treatment of HCC by herbal active compounds and herbal composite formulas. PMID:21799681

  5. Studies on interactions between traditional herbal and Western medicines. I. Effects of Sho-seiryu-to on the pharmacokinetics of carbamazepine in rats.

    PubMed

    Ohnishi, N; Yonekawa, Y; Nakasako, S; Nagasawa, K; Yokoyama, T; Yoshioka, M; Kuroda, K

    1999-05-01

    The effects of oral co- and pre-administration of Sho-seiryu-to extract powder (TJ-19, 1 g/kg), a widely used Kampo (traditional Chinese herbal) medicine, on the pharmacokinetics of an anti-epileptic drug, carbamazepine (CBZ), and its active metabolite (carbamazepine-10,11-epoxide, CBZ-E) after oral administration of CBZ (50 mg/kg) were examined in male rats. The simultaneous administration of TJ-19 significantly lengthened the time to reach the peak plasma concentration (Tmax), but did not influence the peak plasma concentration, area under the plasma concentration-time curve or terminal elimination half-life (t1/2). Each parameter for CBZ or CBZ-E with a single pretreatment with TJ-19 was not significantly different from that with the vehicle. Tmax and the elimination rate constant for CBZ were significantly increased by 1-week repeated pretreatment with TJ-19, by 83% (p<0.01) and 88% (p<0.001), respectively. t1/2 and the mean residence time from zero to infinity (MRT0-infinity) in the TJ-19 pretreatment group were significantly shortened, by 52 and 34% (p<0.005), respectively. No significant difference in the bound fraction of each drug at two concentrations (1 and 10 microg/ml) was observed between the control and TJ-19 pretreatment groups. These results indicate that simultaneous oral administration of TJ-19 delays the oral absorption of CBZ, while 1-week repeated pretreatment with TJ-19 accelerates the metabolism of CBZ in rats, without affecting the protein binding of CBZ.

  6. Protective effect of Bu-Zhong-Yi-Qi decoction, the water extract of Chinese traditional herbal medicine, on 5-fluorouracil-induced intestinal mucositis in mice.

    PubMed

    Gou, H; Gu, L Y; Shang, B Z; Xiong, Y; Wang, C

    2016-12-01

    Intestinal mucositis is a serious toxic side effect of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) treatment. Bu-Zhong-Yi-Qi decoction (BZYQD), a water extract of Chinese traditional herbal medicine, is widely used in chemotherapy in Asia as an alternative treatment to reduce the side effects of chemotherapy. However, the mechanism is unknown. To evaluate its mechanism, we investigated the effect of BZYQD on 5-FU-induced intestinal mucositis in mice, especially with regard to apoptosis in the intestinal mucosal epithelia. In the present study, mice were divided into three groups: control, 5-FU, and 5-FU + BZYQD. Mice in the 5-FU and 5-FU + BZYQD groups were administered 5-FU (100 mg/kg/day, intraperitoneally) for 6 days, and the mice in the latter group were given BZYQD (8 g/kg/day, intragastrically) beginning 4 days before 5-FU and continuing until the termination of the experiment. Loss in body weight and diarrhea during the 5-FU treatment were significantly attenuated by administration of BZYQD. The morphological signs of intestinal damage, including shortened villi height, crypt destruction, apoptosis, and necrosis, in intestinal mucosal epithelia were also reversed, accompanied by reduced neutrophil infiltration, nitrite levels, and inflammatory factors (tumor necrosis factor α and interleukin 1β) and increased levels of reduced glutathione. These results suggest that BZYQD inhibits 5-FU-induced intestinal mucositis, and this effect may be due to the reduction in apoptosis and necrosis in intestinal mucosal epithelia via the suppression of inflammatory cytokine upregulation. In conclusion, inhibiting cytokine-mediated apoptosis or necrosis can be the molecular mechanism by which BZYQD reduces the gastrointestinal side effects of cancer chemotherapy.

  7. Herbal medicine in healthcare--an overview.

    PubMed

    Mosihuzzaman, Mohammed

    2012-06-01

    It is generally accepted by all concerned that modern pharmaceuticals will remain out of reach of many people and 'health for all' may only be realized by the use of adequately assessed herbal products. Mankind has been using herbal medicine for healing right from the beginning of human civilization. With the advent of 'modern medicine' herbal products have been looked down upon, especially by western societies. Yet, in recent times, use of herbal medicine for heathcare has increased steadily all over the world. However, serious concerns are being realized regarding the safety, claimed efficacy and quality of herbal products used as herbal medicine, nutraceuticals, health food and cosmetics. Although herbal products are generally considered safe due to their age-old usage, significant side effects have been reported for many herbal products, including herbal medicine. Accidental contamination and intentional adulteration are considered as primary reasons for the side effects. The historical perspective and the philosophy of herbal medical practice along with its present status in the light of present day science have been reviewed and included in the present article. Assurance of safety by identification of contaminants and assessment of toxicity has been outlined. Assessment of claimed efficacy of herbal medicine is difficult due to its holistic approach. Practical ways of assessing efficacy of herbal medicine by adapting the methodologies used for modern pharmaceutical are described. The maintenance of standard of herbal medicine has been stressed and pragmatic approaches of assuring quality of herbal medicine by using modern tools of fingerprinting the chemical profile of herbal medicine are discussed. As much of the traditional herbal medical knowledge is scattered around the world at the family and community levels, and more so in the indigeneous people, the knowledge base is continuously being lost and so needs immediate documentation. Difficulties in

  8. A Proteomic Approach for the Diagnosis of ‘Oketsu’ (blood stasis), a Pathophysiologic Concept of Japanese Traditional (Kampo) Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Chinami; Kojima, Tetsuko; Ogawa, Kazuo; Kamegai, Satoshi; Oyama, Takuya; Shibagaki, Yukari; Kawasaki, Tetsuo; Fujinaga, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Kozo; Hikiami, Hiroaki; Goto, Hirozo; Kiga, Chizuru; Koizumi, Keiichi; Sakurai, Hiroaki; Muramoto, Hiroshi; Shimada, Yutaka; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Terasawa, Katsutoshi; Takeda, Shuichi

    2008-01-01

    ‘Oketsu’ is a pathophysiologic concept in Japanese traditional (Kampo) medicine, primarily denoting blood stasis/stagnant syndrome. Here we have explored plasma protein biomarkers and/or diagnostic algorithms for ‘Oketsu’. Sixteen rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients were treated with keishibukuryogan (KBG), a representative Kampo medicine for improving ‘Oketsu’. Plasma samples were diagnosed as either having an ‘Oketsu’ (n = 19) or ‘non-Oketsu’ (n = 29) state according to Terasawa's ‘Oketsu’ scoring system. Protein profiles were obtained by surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF MS) and hierarchical clustering and decision tree analyses were performed. KBG treatment for 4 or 12 weeks decreased the ‘Oketsu’ scores significantly. SELDI protein profiles gave 266 protein peaks, whose expression was significantly different between the ‘Oketsu’ and ‘non-Oketsu’ states. Hierarchical clustering gave three major clusters (I, II, III). The majority (68.4%) of ‘Oketsu’ samples were clustered into one cluster as the principal component of cluster I. The remaining ‘Oketsu’ profiles constituted a minor component of cluster II and were all derived from patients cured of the ‘Oketsu’ state at 12 weeks. Construction of the decision tree addressed the possibility of developing a diagnostic algorithm for ‘Oketsu’. A reduction in measurement/pre-processing conditions (from 55 to 16) gave a similar outcome in the clustering and decision tree analyses. The present study suggests that the pathophysiologic concept of Kampo medicine ‘Oketsu’ has a physical basis in terms of the profile of blood proteins. It may be possible to establish a set of objective criteria for diagnosing ‘Oketsu’ using a combination of proteomic and bioinformatics-based classification methods. PMID:18955217

  9. A Proteomic Approach for the Diagnosis of 'Oketsu' (blood stasis), a Pathophysiologic Concept of Japanese Traditional (Kampo) Medicine.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Chinami; Kojima, Tetsuko; Ogawa, Kazuo; Kamegai, Satoshi; Oyama, Takuya; Shibagaki, Yukari; Kawasaki, Tetsuo; Fujinaga, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Kozo; Hikiami, Hiroaki; Goto, Hirozo; Kiga, Chizuru; Koizumi, Keiichi; Sakurai, Hiroaki; Muramoto, Hiroshi; Shimada, Yutaka; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Terasawa, Katsutoshi; Takeda, Shuichi; Saiki, Ikuo

    2008-12-01

    'Oketsu' is a pathophysiologic concept in Japanese traditional (Kampo) medicine, primarily denoting blood stasis/stagnant syndrome. Here we have explored plasma protein biomarkers and/or diagnostic algorithms for 'Oketsu'. Sixteen rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients were treated with keishibukuryogan (KBG), a representative Kampo medicine for improving 'Oketsu'. Plasma samples were diagnosed as either having an 'Oketsu' (n = 19) or 'non-Oketsu' (n = 29) state according to Terasawa's 'Oketsu' scoring system. Protein profiles were obtained by surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF MS) and hierarchical clustering and decision tree analyses were performed. KBG treatment for 4 or 12 weeks decreased the 'Oketsu' scores significantly. SELDI protein profiles gave 266 protein peaks, whose expression was significantly different between the 'Oketsu' and 'non-Oketsu' states. Hierarchical clustering gave three major clusters (I, II, III). The majority (68.4%) of 'Oketsu' samples were clustered into one cluster as the principal component of cluster I. The remaining 'Oketsu' profiles constituted a minor component of cluster II and were all derived from patients cured of the 'Oketsu' state at 12 weeks. Construction of the decision tree addressed the possibility of developing a diagnostic algorithm for 'Oketsu'. A reduction in measurement/pre-processing conditions (from 55 to 16) gave a similar outcome in the clustering and decision tree analyses. The present study suggests that the pathophysiologic concept of Kampo medicine 'Oketsu' has a physical basis in terms of the profile of blood proteins. It may be possible to establish a set of objective criteria for diagnosing 'Oketsu' using a combination of proteomic and bioinformatics-based classification methods.

  10. Ameliorative effect of traditional Japanese medicine yokukansan on age-related impairments of working memory and reversal learning in rats.

    PubMed

    Mizoguchi, K; Shoji, H; Tanaka, Y; Tabira, T

    2011-03-17

    Aging is thought to impair prefrontal cortical (PFC) structure-sensitive cognitive functions and flexibility, such as working memory and reversal learning. A traditional Japanese medicine, yokukansan (YKS), is frequently used to treat age-related neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease in Japan, but its pharmacological properties have not been elucidated. The present study was designed to examine whether YKS improves age-related cognitive deficits using aged rats. YKS was administered to 21-month-old rats for 3 months. The ability to learn initially a reward rule for a T-maze discrimination task (initial learning) was examined in young control (4-month-old), aged control (24-month-old) and YKS-treated aged (24-month-old) rats. Subsequently, working memory and reversal learning were examined in delayed alternation and reversal discrimination T-maze tasks, respectively. Locomotor activity was also measured in new environments. Although performance accuracy in the initial learning procedure did not differ among any experimental groups, accuracy in the delayed alternation task was significantly decreased in aged rats compared to young rats. Aged rats also showed significant decreases in accuracy in the reversal discrimination task. YKS treatment significantly ameliorated the age-related decreases in accuracy in the delayed alternation and reversal discrimination tasks. The ameliorative effects of YKS on impaired delayed alternation performance were reduced by intracranial infusions of a dopamine D1 receptor antagonist, SCH 23390, into the prelimbic cortical region of the PFC, and the YKS effects on impaired reversal learning were done by the infusions into the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). Locomotor activity did not change in any experimental group. Thus, YKS ameliorated age-related impairments of working memory and reversal learning, which might be mediated by a dopaminergic mechanism in the PFC structure. These investigations provide information

  11. Microarray analysis on germfree mice elucidates the primary target of a traditional Japanese medicine juzentaihoto: acceleration of IFN-α response via affecting the ISGF3-IRF7 signaling cascade

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The traditional Japanese medicine juzentaihoto (JTX) is a pharmaceutical grade multi-herbal medicine widely used for the prevention of cancer metastasis and infection in immuno-compromized patients in Japan. The effect of JTX has been supposed to be intimately affected by the immunological properties of host and enteric microflora. The influence of JTX on the gene expression profile in the large and small intestines was investigated by microarray analyses using mice of different strains with or without enteric microflora. Results In all types of mice, including germfree (GF) animals, the genes most affected by two-week oral JTX treatment were the type 1 interferon (IFN)-related genes including Stat1, Isgf3g and Irf7, which play a critical role in the feedback loop of IFN-α production cascade. In IQI specific pathogen free (SPF) mice JTX increased the steady state level of the expression of IFN-related genes, but had the opposite effect in IQI GF and BALB/c SPF mice. Promoter analysis suggests that tandem repeated $IRFF (the promoter sequences for interferon regulatory factors) may be a primary target for JTX action. Pre-treatment of JTX accelerated the effects of an oral IFN "inducer" 2-amino-5-bromo-6-methyl-4-pyrimidinol (ABMP) (up-regulation of IFN-α production in IQI strain and down-regulation in BALB/c mice), which is in good accordance with the effect of JTX on gene expression of type 1 IFN-related genes. Conclusions Microarray analysis revealed that the target of JTX might be the transcription machinery regulating the steady-state level of genes involved in the ISGF3-IRF7 cascade, whose effect is bi-directional in a strain- and microbiota-dependent manner. PMID:22257721

  12. Traditional Herbal Formulas to as Treatments for Musculoskeletal Disorders: Their Inhibitory Effects on the Activities of Human Microsomal Cytochrome P450s and UDP-glucuronosyltransferases

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Seong Eun; Seo, Chang-Seob; Shin, Hyeun-Kyoo; Ha, Hyekyung

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the influence of traditional herbal formulas, including Bangpungtongseong-san (BPTSS; Fangfengtongsheng-san, Bofu-tsusho-san), Ojeok-san (OJS; Wuji-san, Goshaku-san), and Oyaksungi-san (OYSGS; Wuyaoshungi-san, Uyakujyunki-san), on the activities of the human cytochrome P450s (CYP450s) and UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs), which are drug-metabolizing enzymes. Materials and Methods: The activities of the major human CYP450 isozymes (CYP1A2, CYP3A4, CYP2B6, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, and CYP2E1) and UGTs (UGT1A1, UGT1A4, and UGT2B7) were investigated using in vitro fluorescence-based and luminescence-based enzyme assays, respectively. The inhibitory effects of the herbal formulas were characterized, and their IC50 values were determined. Results: BPTSS inhibited the activities of CYP1A2, CYP2C19, CYP2E1, and UGT1A1 while it exerted relatively weak inhibition on CYP2B6, CYP2C9, CYP2D6, and CYP3A4. BPTSS also negligibly inhibited the activities of UGT1A4 and UGT2B7, with IC50 values in the excess of 1000 μg/mL. OJS and OYSGS inhibited the activity of CYP2D6, whereas they exhibited no inhibition of the UGT1A4 activity at doses <1000 μg/mL. In addition, OJS inhibited the CYP1A2 activity but exerted a relatively weak inhibition on the activities of CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2E1, and CYP3A4. Conversely, OJS negligibly inhibited the activities of CYP2B6, UGT1A1, and UGT2B7 with IC50 values in excess of 1000 μg/mL. OYSGS weakly inhibited the activities of CYP1A2, CYP2C19, CYP2E1, CYP3A4, and UGT1A1, with a negligible inhibition on the activities of CYP2B6, CYP2C9, and UGT2B7, with IC50 values in excess of 1000 μg/mL. Conclusions: These results provide information regarding the safety and effectiveness of BPTSS, OJS, and OYSGS when combined with conventional drugs. SUMMARY Bangpungtongseong-san inhibited the activities of human microsomal CYP1A2, CYP2C19, CYP2E1, and UGT1A1, with a negligibly inhibition on the activities of CYP2B6

  13. Are herbal compounds the next frontier for alleviating learning and memory impairments? An integrative look at memory, dementia and the promising therapeutics of traditional chinese medicines.

    PubMed

    Jesky, Robert; Hailong, Chen

    2011-08-01

    Recent advances in neuroscience have revealed a greater, in-depth understanding of the complexities associated with memory. Contemporary theories hold that an integral relationship between memory formation, stabilization and consolidation revolve around plasticity of neuronal networks. The associated requisite receptors α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA) and N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) and cellular mechanisms surrounding plasticity (posed to incite molecular functionality), also display strong correlations in the pathogenesis of dementias. When the brain is in a diseased state as a result of malignant neurotransmission (i.e. in Alzheimer's disease; AD), the homeostatic balance required for normal neuronal processes is disrupted, which leads to degeneration of neural circuitry. Present efforts to find new treatments aimed at reversing or halting neurodegeneration are immense, with increasing attention being placed on investigating various herbal medicines. A wide variety of herbal plants (i.e. Panax ginseng, Polygala tenuifolia, Acorus gramineus and Huperzia serrata, examined here within), extracts and compounds have, to date, already presented advantageous results when tested against known pathogenic markers related to AD-associated dementia. The efficaciousness of herbal medicines appears to be a modulatory effect on neurotrophins, kinases and their substrates that, in turn, initiate or take part in intracellular cascades related to memory processes.

  14. Proteomic Analysis of Anti-inflammatory Effects of a Kampo (Japanese Herbal) Medicine “Shoseiryuto (Xiao-Qing-Long-Tang)” on Airway Inflammation in a Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Nagai, Takayuki; Nakao, Marino; Shimizu, Yuliko; Kodera, Yoshio; Oh-Ishi, Masamichi; Maeda, Tadakazu; Yamada, Haruki

    2011-01-01

    Effects of a Kampo (Japanese herbal) medicine “shoseiryuto (SST, xiao-qing-long-tang in Chinese)”, which has been used for the treatment of allergic bronchial asthma clinically, were examined on ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized allergic airway inflammation model (i.e., bronchial asthma) in a mouse. When SST was orally administered at 0.5 g kg−1 day−1 from day 1 to 6 after OVA inhalation, SST reduced the inflammation in lung tissue, the number of eosinophils and the OVA-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibody titer in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluids at 7 days after the OVA inhalation. SST also reduced the airway hyperreactivity at 6 days after the OVA inhalation. Proteomic analysis with the agarose two-dimensional electrophoresis showed that the expression of spectrin α2 was reduced in the lung tissue of OVA-sensitized mice and SST recovered the expression. Western blot and immunohistochemical analyses of lung tissue also confirmed this result. When prednisolone was orally administered at 3 mg kg−1 day−1 from day 1 to 6 after OVA inhalation, the inflammation in lung tissue, the number of eosinophils in BAL fluids and airway hyperreactivity were reduced in the OVA-sensitized mice. However, prednisolone did not reduce the OVA-specific IgE antibody titer in BAL fluids and did not recover the expression of spectrin α2 in lung tissue. These results suggest that at least a part of action mechanism of SST against OVA-sensitized allergic airway inflammation in a mouse model is different from that of prednisolone. PMID:19861507

  15. In vivo anti-influenza virus activity of Kampo (Japanese herbal) medicine "sho-seiryu-to"--stimulation of mucosal immune system and effect on allergic pulmonary inflammation model mice.

    PubMed

    Nagai, T; Yamada, H

    1998-05-01

    When BALB/c mice were treated with a Kampo (Japanese herbal) medicine "Sho-seiryu-to (SST)" (1 g/kg, 10 times) orally from 7 days before to 5 days after the infection and infected with mouse-adapted influenza virus A/PR/8/34 by nasal-site restricted infection, SST caused increment of the influenza virus hemagglutinin-specific IgA antibody secreting cells in nasal lymphocyte but not in Peyer's patch lymphocyte at 6 days after infection in comparison with water-treated mice. Oral administration of SST also augmented IL-2 receptor beta chain+ (activated) T-cell in Peyer's patch lymphocyte, but not in the nasal lymphocyte. We previously reported that SST showed potent anti-influenza virus activity through augmentation of the antiviral IgA antibody titer in the nasal and broncho-alveolar cavities of the mice (T. Nagai and H. Yamada, 1994, Int. J. Immunopharmacol. 16, 605-613). These results suggest that oral administration of SST shows anti-influenza virus activity in the nasal cavity by activation of T-cell in Peyer's patch lymphocyte and stimulation of production of anti-influenza virus IgA antibody in nasal lymphocyte. When ovalbumin-sensitized allergic pulmonary inflammation model mice were administered orally with SST (1 g/kg) from 8 days before (11 times) or from 2 h after (4 times) to 4 days after the infection and infected with mouse-adapted influenza virus A/PR/8/34, replications of the virus in the both nasal and broncho-alveolar cavities or only nasal cavity were significantly inhibited at 5 days after infection in comparison with water-treated control by augmenting antiviral IgA antibody, respectively. These results suggest that SST is useful for both prophylaxis and treatment of influenza virus infection on patients with allergic pulmonary inflammation, such as bronchial asthma.

  16. Protective effect of a traditional Japanese medicine, Bu-zhong-yi-qi-tang (Japanese name: Hochu-ekki-to), on the restraint stress-induced susceptibility against Listeria monocytogenes.

    PubMed

    Yamaoka, Y; Kawakita, T; Nomoto, K

    2000-06-01

    In this study, the effect of traditional Japanese (Chinese) medicine, Bu-zhong-yi-qi-tang (Japanese name: Hochu-ekki-to, HOT), on the restraint stress treatment (RST)-induced susceptibility against Listeria monocytogenes (L. monocytogenes) was examined. When RST was performed every day for 10 h from the day of infection, the bacterial numbers were increased at 3 and 5 days after the infection. Oral pretreatment with HOT for 7 days prevented such increases. Pretreatment with HOT prevented the suppression of antigen-specific IFN-gamma production by RST. HOT also prevented suppression of macrophage accumulation, including MHC-class II positives, in the peritoneal cavity and their bactericidal activity by RST. HOT suppressed the serum corticosterone level elevated by RST in infected mice. Taken together, the suppression of corticosterone using HOT participates in the prevention of suppressions of the bactericidal activity of macrophages, migration of macrophages and antigen-specific IFN-gamma production of Th1 cells by RST. Our findings suggest that HOT is a useful drug for patients suffering from stress disease to reduce the susceptibility to bacterial infection.

  17. Effect of a traditional Japanese herbal medicine, hochu-ekki-to (Bu-Zhong-Yi-Qi Tang), on immunity in elderly persons.

    PubMed

    Kuroiwa, Ataru; Liou, Shin'yu; Yan, Hong; Eshita, Akihiko; Naitoh, Seiko; Nagayama, Ariaki

    2004-02-01

    In general, the elderly show a significant age-related decline in their immune response, thus leading to an increased vulnerability to infections or to an increase in the occurrence of malignant tumors. In this study, we examined the effect of Hochu-ekki-to (HOT or TJ-41) on the immunological capacity of the elderly. A group of elderly patients complaining of general fatigue or weakness were orally administered 7.5 g of HOT everyday for at least 120 days (4 months), whereas another group of aged patients mainly complaining of a loss of appetite were daily given 7.5 g of Anchu-san (TJ-5) during the same period and served as a control group. From the immunological point of view, the total number of circulating leukocytes remained unchanged, during the observation period both in the HOT and Anchu-san groups, as well as the ratios between CD3(+) T and CD20(+) B cells and between CD4(+) T and CD8(+) T cells. In addition, no differences were observed in the expression of CD25 antigen, which represents an activated state of T cells. However, as verified on day 30 as well as on day 120 after the administration of HOT, the natural killer (NK) activity against K562 target cells was significantly enhanced, in comparison to the results on day 0 in the HOT group, as well as to that activity on days 0, 30 and 120 in the Anchu-san group. In addition, on days 30 and 120 in the HOT group, there was a significant increase in the serum IFN-gamma level, which is thought to be associated with the NK activity, whereas no significant changes in that level were observed in the Anchu-san group, during the study period. From these results, it may be concluded that the administration of HOT to elderly people may help them improve, at least to some degree, their immunological capacity.

  18. Recent advances in herbal medicines treating Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Li, Xu-Zhao; Zhang, Shuai-Nan; Liu, Shu-Min; Lu, Fang

    2013-01-01

    Herbal medicines have attracted considerable attention in recent years, which are used to treat Parkinson's disease (PD) in China based on traditional Chinese medicine or modern pharmacological theories. We summarized and analyzed the anti-Parkinsonian activities of herbal medicines and herbal formulations investigated in PD models and provide future references for basic and clinical investigations. All the herbal medicines and herbal formulations were tested on PD models in vitro and in vivo. The relevant compounds and herbal extracts with anti-Parkinsonian activities were included and analyzed according to their genera or pharmacological activities. A total of 38 herbal medicines and 11 herbal formulations were analyzed. The relevant compounds, herbal extracts and formulations were reported to be effective on PD models by modulating multiple key events or signaling pathways implicated in the pathogenesis of PD. The plant species of these herbal medicines belong to 24 genera and 18 families, such as Acanthopanax, Alpinia and Astragalus, etc. These herbal medicines can be an alternative and valuable source for anti-Parkinsonian drug discovery. The plant species in these genera and families may be the most promising candidates for further investigation and deserve further consideration in clinical trials. Active components in some of the herbal extracts and the compatibility law of herbal formulations remain to be further investigated.

  19. Duplex real-time PCR assay using SYBR Green to detect and quantify Malayan box turtle (Cuora amboinensis) materials in meatballs, burgers, frankfurters and traditional Chinese herbal jelly powder.

    PubMed

    Asing; Ali, Eaqub; Hamid, Sharifah Bee Abd; Hossain, Motalib; Ahamad, Mohammad Nasir Uddin; Hossain, S M Azad; Naquiah, Nina; Zaidul, I S M

    2016-11-01

    The Malayan box turtle (Cuora amboinensis) (MBT) is a vulnerable and protected species widely used in exotic foods and traditional medicines. Currently available polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays to identify MBT lack automation and involve long targets which break down in processed or denatured tissue. This SYBR Green duplex real-time PCR assay has addressed this research gap for the first time through the combination of 120- and 141-bp targets from MBT and eukaryotes for the quantitative detection of MBT DNA in food chain and herbal medicinal preparations. This authentication ensures better security through automation, internal control and short targets that were stable under the processing treatments of foods and medicines. A melting curve clearly demonstrated two peaks at 74.63 ± 0.22 and 78.40 ± 0.31°C for the MBT and eukaryotic products, respectively, under pure, admixed and commercial food matrices. Analysis of 125 reference samples reflected a target recovery of 93.25-153.00%, PCR efficiency of 99-100% and limit of detection of 0.001% under various matrices. The quantification limits were 0.00001, 0.00170 ± 0.00012, 0.00228 ± 0.00029, 0.00198 ± 0.00036 and 0.00191 ± 0.00043 ng DNA for the pure meat, binary mixtures, meatball, burger and frankfurter products, respectively. The assay was used to screen 100 commercial samples of traditional Chinese herbal jelly powder from eight different brands; 22% of them were found to be MBT-positive (5.37 ± 0.50-7.00 ± 0.34% w/w), which was reflected through the Ct values (26.37 ± 0.32-28.90 ± 0.42) and melting curves (74.63-78.65 ± 0.22°C) of the amplified MBT target (120 bp), confirming the speculation that MBT materials are widely used in Chinese herbal desserts, exotic dishes consumed with the hope of prolonging life and youth.

  20. Identification of crude drugs in the Japanese pharmacopoeia using a DNA barcoding system

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiaochen; Xiang, Li; Shi, Linchun; Li, Gang; Yao, Hui; Han, Jianping; Lin, Yulin; Song, Jingyuan; Chen, Shilin

    2017-01-01

    Kampo is the general designation for traditional Japanese herbal medicines, which are recognized as official medicines and listed in the Japanese pharmacopoeia (JP). In most cases, it is difficult to identify the crude drug materials to species level using only traditional identification methods. We report the first online DNA barcode identification system, which includes standard barcode sequences from approximately 95% of the species recorded in the JP (16th edition). This tool provides users with basic information on each crude drug recorded in the JP, DNA barcoding identification of herbal material, and the standard operating procedure (SOP) from sampling to data analysis. ITS2 sequences (psbA-trnH was an alternative when ITS2 could not be amplified) were generated from a total of 576 samples to establish the database. An additional 100 samples (from different medicinal parts, from both single origin and multiple origins and from both retailers and the planting base) were identified using the system. A total of 78% of the test samples were identified as the species listed on their label. This system establishes a model platform for other pharmacopeias from countries like China, Korea, the US and the European Union, for the safe and effective utilization of traditional herbal medicines. PMID:28186159

  1. [Effect of Japanese traditional medicine, TJ-41, on quality of life of patients with non-small cell lung cancer receiving outpatient chemotherapy].

    PubMed

    Ishiura, Yoshihisa; Yamamoto, Hiroki; Shiba, Yasutaka; Terasaki, Yasushi; Ishida, Youichi; Tanikawa, Fumiko; Hayase, Hideko; Maruyama, Kazumi; Obata, Chiemi; Ishikawa, Mika; Hirokami, Kazunori; Kasahara, Kazuo; Fujimura, Masaki

    2013-07-01

    An increasing number of patients with lung cancer are undergoing outpatient chemotherapy. It is very important to maintain good quality of life(QOL)for these patients, and Japanese traditional medicine, TJ-41, has been reported to improve the QOL of patients with advanced cancer. However, the effect of TJ-41 on patients with lung cancer undergoing outpatient chemotherapy is unknown. Therefore, we conducted this study. To investigate the factors influencing the QOL of these patients, we distributed a QOL questionaire,"The QOL Questionnaire for Cancer Patients Treated with Anticancer Drugs"(QOL-ACD)to 11 patients with non-small cell lung cancer. The medical factors related to the overall QOL scores and other categories, indicating"activity","physical condition","psychological condition","social relationships","psychological condition"and"face scale"were analyzed. A significant decrease in each of the factors was not observed in this study.

  2. Cyclosporine and herbal supplement interactions.

    PubMed

    Colombo, D; Lunardon, L; Bellia, G

    2014-01-01

    Cyclosporine (CyA) is a well-known immunosuppressant with a narrow therapeutic window. Its bioavailability is affected by many other traditional drugs and herbal extracts. Cytochrome P-450 isoenzymes CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 and protein P-glycoprotein (P-gp) are involved in CyA bioavailability. Interactions of CyA with herbal extracts are not well known, but, given their increased concomitant use, it is important to know which extracts, many of which are commonly self-prescribed, can affect CyA blood concentrations. Decreased CyA blood concentration has been shown with St John's wort in case reports and, in vivo animal studies, with ginger, liquorice, scutellariae radix, and quercetin. Increased CyA concentration has been reported in patients with grapefruit juice, chamomile, or berberine, and with cannabidiol or resveratrol in animal studies. Effects of Echinacea and Serenoa repens on CyA levels have not been shown consistently, but concomitant use should be avoided. Although findings from animal studies cannot be directly translated into humans, avoiding concomitant use of herbal extracts is prudent until human clinical studies have ruled out any possible interaction. Clinicians should interview their patients carefully about their use of herbal supplements before CyA administration, and those receiving CyA should be warned about possible interactions between herbal preparations and CyA.

  3. Cyclosporine and Herbal Supplement Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Colombo, D.; Lunardon, L.; Bellia, G.

    2014-01-01

    Cyclosporine (CyA) is a well-known immunosuppressant with a narrow therapeutic window. Its bioavailability is affected by many other traditional drugs and herbal extracts. Cytochrome P-450 isoenzymes CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 and protein P-glycoprotein (P-gp) are involved in CyA bioavailability. Interactions of CyA with herbal extracts are not well known, but, given their increased concomitant use, it is important to know which extracts, many of which are commonly self-prescribed, can affect CyA blood concentrations. Decreased CyA blood concentration has been shown with St John's wort in case reports and, in vivo animal studies, with ginger, liquorice, scutellariae radix, and quercetin. Increased CyA concentration has been reported in patients with grapefruit juice, chamomile, or berberine, and with cannabidiol or resveratrol in animal studies. Effects of Echinacea and Serenoa repens on CyA levels have not been shown consistently, but concomitant use should be avoided. Although findings from animal studies cannot be directly translated into humans, avoiding concomitant use of herbal extracts is prudent until human clinical studies have ruled out any possible interaction. Clinicians should interview their patients carefully about their use of herbal supplements before CyA administration, and those receiving CyA should be warned about possible interactions between herbal preparations and CyA. PMID:24527031

  4. In vivo anti-influenza virus activity of Kampo (Japanese herbal) medicine "Sho-seiryu-to"--effects on aged mice, against subtypes of a viruses and B virus, and therapeutic effect.

    PubMed

    Nagai, T; Urata, M; Yamada, H

    1996-05-01

    When aged BALB/c mice (approximately 6 months old) were treated with a Kampo (Japanese herbal) medicine "Sho-seiryu-to (SST)" (1 g/kg, 10 times) orally from 7 days before to 4 days after the infection and infected with mouse-adapted influenza virus A/PR/8/34 (H1N1 subtype) by nasal site-restricted infection, replication of the virus in the broncho-alveolar cavity was efficiently inhibited at 5 days after infection in comparison with water-treated mice. The antiviral IgA antibody in the broncho-alveolar wash of the SST treated aged mice increased significantly. When mice (7 weeks old) were administered orally with SST (1 and 2 g/kg, 7 times) from 4 days before to 3 days after the infection and infected with mouse-adapted influenza virus A/Guizhou/54/89 (H3N2 subtype) or B/Ibaraki/2/85, replication of the viruses in the nasal cavity and lung were significantly inhibited at 4 days after infection in comparison with control mice. When mice infected with influenza virus A/Fukuoka/C29/85 (H3N2) before 14 days were secondary infected with A/PR/8 virus and administered orally with SST (1 g/kg, 5 times) from 2 h to 5 days after the secondary infection, replication of the virus in both nasal and broncho-alveolar cavities were significantly inhibited at 5 days after the secondary infection in comparison with water-treated control. Oral administration of SST (1 g/kg, 18 times) from 7 days before to 14 days after vaccination followed by secondary nasal inoculation of influenza HA vaccine (5 micrograms/mouse) at 14 days after the first vaccination significantly augmented nasal antiviral IgA antibody and broncho-alveolar and serum antiviral IgG antibodies. These results suggest that SST is useful for influenza virus infection on aged persons and for cross-protection of subtypes of influenza A viruses and influenza B virus. SST is also useful for the treatment of influenza virus infection on human which has a history of influenza virus infection and/or influenza vaccination.

  5. Requirements on efficacy of herbal medicinal products.

    PubMed

    Claeson, Per

    2014-12-02

    Based on the regulatory requirements on efficacy documentation in the European Union, the herbal medicinal products have been grouped into the following sections: (i) Herbal medicinal products for which the efficacy is demonstrated by results of a "full" set of clinical trials that are in conformity with the relevant guidelines of the therapeutic area in question. This regulatory pathway to obtain a marketing authorisation for a new medicinal product (new chemical entity) is open to herbal medicinal products, but the examples are in reality few. (ii) Herbal medicinal products which have a "well-established medicinal use with a recognised efficacy and an acceptable level of safety" in the European Union. Results of new and product specific clinical trials are not required to obtain a marketing authorisation for products that fulfil these criteria, but a substantial clinical experience must be documented and sufficient scientific data on efficacy must be publicly available. (iii) "Traditional" herbal medicinal products, that do not fulfil the efficacy requirements for a marketing authorisation, but for which a medicinal use of at least 30 years including 15 years in the European Union can be documented. Traditional herbal medicinal products can only be registered with therapeutic indications that are considered safe for use without the supervision of a physician. After briefly reviewing the regulatory requirements on efficacy documentation of herbal medicinal products in the European Union, some concluding remarks on the past and future developments in the area are made.

  6. Contaminants of medicinal herbs and herbal products.

    PubMed

    Kosalec, Ivan; Cvek, Josipa; Tomić, Sinisa

    2009-12-01

    Medicinal plants have a long history of use in therapy throughout the world and still make an important part of traditional medicine. Thus, medicinal plants and herbal products must be safe for the patient (consumer). This review addresses biological contaminants (microbes and other organisms) and chemical contaminants (mycotoxins, toxic elements such as heavy metals, and pesticide residues) as major common contaminants of medicinal herbs and herbal products. To prevent and screen for contamination and ensure safety and conformity to quality standards, medicinal herbs and herbal products should be included in appropriate regulatory framework.

  7. [Application of kidney-nourishing herbal medicine for treating hypertension].

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiao-Chen; Xiong, Xing-Jiang; Wang, Jie

    2013-12-01

    Recent years, the pathogenesis of hypertension in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been changed. Kidney-deficiency has become the key of modern pathogenesis, and the new problem of treating hypertension. It has become the new strategy for treating hypertension with kidney-nourishing herbal medicine. This article reviewed the clinical and experimental researches of kidney-nourishing herbal medicine, including single herb, herbal formulae and traditional Chinese patent medicine, in order to strengthen the evidence of kidney-nourishing herbal medicine for treating hypertension.

  8. Traditional/Alternative Medicine: An Investigation into Identification, Knowledge and Consumption Practices of Herbal Medicine among Students with Hearing Impairment in Ibadan, South-Western Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adeniyi, Samuel O.; Olufemi-Adeniyi, Olubukola A.; Erinoso, Sakiru M.

    2015-01-01

    The use of traditional medicine as alternative or complimentary therapy is gaining prominence in primary health care worldwide. This is because of the efficacy in the management of mild, chronic seemingly incurable ailments/diseases. Though the publicity is on the increase from country to country in the world, however, one cannot conclude that the…

  9. Maintaining A Physiological Blood Glucose Level with ‘Glucolevel’, A Combination of Four Anti-Diabetes Plants Used in the Traditional Arab Herbal Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Fulder, Stephen; Khalil, Khaled; Azaizeh, Hassan; Kassis, Eli; Saad, Bashar

    2008-01-01

    Safety and anti-diabetic effects of Glucolevel, a mixture of dry extract of leaves of the Juglans regia L, Olea europea L, Urtica dioica L and Atriplex halimus L were evaluated using in vivo and in vitro test systems. No sign of toxic effects (using LDH assay) were seen in cultured human fibroblasts treated with increasing concentrations of Glucolevel. Similar observations were seen in vivo studies using rats (LD50: 25 g/kg). Anti-diabetic effects were evidenced by the augmentation of glucose uptake by yeast cells (2-folds higher) and by inhibition of glucose intestinal absorption (∼49%) in a rat gut-segment. Furthermore, treatment with Glucolevel of Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats for 2–3 weeks showed a significant reduction in glucose levels [above 400 ± 50 mg/dl to 210 ± 22 mg/dl (P < 0.001)] and significantly improved sugar uptake during the glucose tolerance test, compared with positive control. In addition, glucose levels were tested in sixteen human volunteers, with the recent onset of type 2 diabetes mellitus, who received Glucolevel tablets 1 × 3 daily for a period of 4 weeks. Within the first week of Glucolevel consumption, baseline glucose levels were significantly reduced from 290 ± 40 to 210 ± 20 mg/dl. At baseline, a subgroup of eleven of these subjects had glucose levels below 300 mg% and the other subgroup had levels ≥ 300 mg%. Clinically acceptable glucose levels were achieved during the 2–3 weeks of therapy in the former subgroup and during the 4th week of therapy in the latter subgroup. No side effect was reported. In addition, a significant reduction in hemoglobin A1C values (8.2 ± 1.03 to 6.9 ± 0.94) was found in six patients treated with Glucolevel. Results demonstrate safety, tolerability and efficacy of herbal combinations of four plants that seem to act differently but synergistically to regulate glucose-homeostasis. PMID:18955212

  10. Herbal Products and Supplements

    MedlinePlus

    ... of dietary supplement that contains one or more herbs.Herbal health products and supplements are available in ... wort.Are herbal health products and supplements safe?Herbs aren't necessarily safer than the ingredients in ...

  11. Herbal preparations for uterine fibroids

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jian Ping; Yang, Hong; Xia, Yun; Cardini, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    Background Uterine fibroids are the most common non-malignant growths in women of childbearing age. They are associated with heavy menstrual bleeding and subfertility. Herbal preparations are commonly used as alternatives to surgical procedures. Objectives To assess the benefits and risks of herbal preparations for uterine fibroids. Search strategy Authors searched following electronic databases: the Trials Registers of the Cochrane Menstrual Disorders and Subfertility Group and the Cochrane Complementary Medicine Field, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2008, Issue 3), MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Chinese Biomedical Database, the Traditional Chinese Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System (TCMLARS), AMED, and LILACS. The searches ended on 31st December 2008. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials comparing herbal preparations with no intervention, placebo, medical treatment or surgical procedures in women with uterine fibroids. We also included trials of herbal preparations with or without conventional therapy. Data collection and analysis Two review authors collected data independently. We assessed trial risk of bias according to our methodological criteria. We presented dichotomous data as risk ratios (RR) and continuous outcomes as mean difference (MD), both with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Main results We included two randomised trials (involved 150 women) with clear description of randomisation methods. The methodological risk of bias of the trials varied. There were variations in the tested herbal preparations, and the treatment duration was six months. The outcomes available were not the primary outcomes selected for this review, such as symptom relief or the need for surgical treatment; trials mainly reported outcomes in terms of shrinkage of the fibroids. Compared with mifepristone, Huoxue Sanjie decoction showed no significant difference in the disappearance of uterine fibroids, number of

  12. Herbal Medicines for the Treatment of Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis: Current Scenario and Future Prospects

    PubMed Central

    Devkar, Ranjitsinh V.

    2014-01-01

    Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a multifactorial disease and has close correlations with other metabolic disorders. This makes its treatment difficult using a single pharmacological drug. Use of plant extract/decoction or polyherbal formulation to treat various liver diseases is very well mentioned in various traditional systems of medicine (Ayurveda, Japanese or traditional Chinese Medicine, and Kampo medicine). Medicinal herbs are known for their multifaceted implications and thus can form an effective treatment schedule against NASH. Till date, several plant extracts, polyherbal formulations, and phytochemicals have been evaluated for their possible therapeutic potential in preventing onset and progression of NASH in experimental models, but clinical studies using the same are sparse. Herbal extracts with antioxidants, antidiabetic, and antihyperlipidemic properties have been shown to ameliorate symptoms of NASH. This review article is a meticulous compilation of our current knowledge on the role of natural products in alleviating NASH and possible lacunae in research that needs to be addressed. PMID:24987431

  13. Mother/offspring co-administration of the traditional herbal remedy yokukansan during the nursing period influences grooming and cerebellar serotonin levels in a rat model of neurodevelopmental disorders.

    PubMed

    Muneoka, Katsumasa; Kuwagata, Makiko; Ogawa, Tetsuo; Shioda, Seiji

    2015-04-01

    Neurodevelopmental impairment in the serotonergic system may be involved in autism spectrum disorder. Yokukansan is a traditional herbal remedy for restlessness and agitation in children, and mother-infant co-administration (MICA) to both the child and the nursing mother is one of the recommended treatment approaches. Recent studies have revealed the neuropharmacological properties of Yokukansan (YKS), including its 5-HT1A (serotonin) receptor agonistic effects. We investigated the influence of YKS treatment on behavior in a novel environment and on brain monoamine metabolism during the nursing period in an animal model of neurodevelopmental disorders, prenatally BrdU (5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine)-treated rats (BrdU-rats). YKS treatment did not influence locomotor activity in BrdU-rats but reduced grooming in open-field tests. YKS treatment without MICA disrupted the correlation between locomotor behaviors and rearing and altered levels of serotonin and its metabolite in the cerebellum. These effects were not observed in the group receiving YKS treatment with MICA. These data indicate a direct pharmacological effect of YKS on the development of grooming behavior and profound effects on cerebellar serotonin metabolism, which is thought to be influenced by nursing conditions.

  14. Comprehensive multiresidue method for the simultaneous determination of 74 pesticides and metabolites in traditional Chinese herbal medicines by accelerated solvent extraction with high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Jia, Zhengwei; Mao, Xiuhong; Chen, Ke; Wang, Ke; Ji, Shen

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a multiresidue method for the simultaneous target analysis of 74 pesticides and metabolites in traditional Chinese herbal medicines (TCHMs) was developed using accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) coupled with HPLC/MS/MS. Pesticide residues were extracted from the different samples using ASE, then purified by gel permeation chromatography and graphitized carbon black/primary, secondary amine SPE. Gradient elution was used in conjunction with positive mode electrospray ionization MS/MS to detect 74 pesticides and metabolites from Cortex Cinnamomi, Flos Carthami, Folium Ginkgo, Herba Pogostemonis, Radix Ginseng, and Semen Ginkgo using a single chromatographic run. The analytical performance was demonstrated by the analysis of extracts spiked at three concentration levels ranging from 0.005 to 0.125 mg/kg for each pesticide and metabolite. In general, recoveries ranging from 70 to 110%, with RSDs better than 15%, were obtained. The recovery and repeatability data were in good accordance with European Union guidelines for pesticide residue analysis. The LOD for most of the targeted pesticides and metabolites tested was below 0.01 mg/kg.

  15. Traditional Chinese medicine herbal mixture LQ arrests FUCCI-expressing HeLa cells in G₀/G₁ phase in 2D plastic, 2.5D Matrigel, and 3D Gelfoam culture visualized with FUCCI imaging.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Wu, Chengyu; Bouvet, Michael; Yano, Shuya; Hoffman, Robert M

    2015-03-10

    We used the fluorescence ubiquitination-based cell cycle indicator (FUCCI) to monitor cell cycle arrest after treatment of FUCCI-expressing HeLa cells (FUCCI-HeLa) with a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) herbal mixture LQ, previously shown to have anti-tumor and anti-metastatic activity in mouse models. Paclitaxel was used as the positive control. In 2D monolayer culture, the untreated control had approximately 45% of the cells in S/G₂/M phase. In contrast, the LQ-treated cells (9 mg/ml) were mostly in the G₀/G₁ (>90%) after 72 hours. After treatment with paclitaxel (0.01 μm), for 72 hours, 95% of the cells were in S/G₂/M. In 2.5D Matrigel culture, the colonies in the untreated control group had 40% of the cells in S/G₂/M. LQ arrested the cells in G₀/G₁ after 72 hours. Paclitaxel arrested almost all the cells in S/G₂/M after 72 hours. In 3D Gelfoam culture, the untreated control culture had approximately 45% of cells in G₂/M. In contrast, the LQ-treated cells were mostly in G₀/G₁ phase (>80%) after 72 hours treatment. Paclitaxel resulted in 90% of the cells arrested in S/G₂/M after 72 hours. The present report suggests the non-toxic LQ has potential to maintain cancers in a quiescent state for long periods of time.

  16. Identification of a predictive biomarker for the beneficial effect of keishibukuryogan, a kampo (Japanese traditional) medicine, on patients with climacteric syndrome.

    PubMed

    Namiki, Takao; Sato, Hiromi; Matsumoto, Yukari; Kakikura, Haruka; Ueno, Koichi; Chino, Atsushi; Okamoto, Hideki; Hisanaga, Akito; Kaneko, Akiyo; Kita, Toshiaki; Kihara, Maki; Shozu, Makio; Terasawa, Katsutoshi

    2014-01-01

    Keishibukuryogan (KBG; Guizhi-Fuling-Wan in Chinese) is one of the Kampo (Japanese traditional) medicines used to treat patients with climacteric syndrome. KBG can be used by patients who cannot undergo hormone replacement therapy due to a history of breast cancer. We evaluated whether cytosine-adenine (CA) repeat polymorphism of the estrogen receptor β gene can be a predictor of the beneficial effect of KBG on climacteric syndrome. We also investigated the relationship between CA repeat polymorphism, the patients' profiles, and the therapeutic effect. We found that CA was an SS, SL, or LL genotype according to the number of repeats. We studied 39 consecutive patients with climacteric disorders who took KBG for 12 weeks. The diagnosis of climacteric disorders was made on the basis of the Kupperman index. KBG significantly improved the patients' climacteric symptoms (i.e., vasomotor symptoms in the patients with the LL genotype and melancholia in the patients with the SL genotype). No relationship between the patients' profiles and CA repeat polymorphism was recognized. CA repeat polymorphism could thus be a potential biomarker to predict the efficacy of KBG in climacteric syndrome, and its use will help to reduce the cost of treating this syndrome by focusing the administration of KBG on those most likely to benefit from it.

  17. Identification of a Predictive Biomarker for the Beneficial Effect of Keishibukuryogan, a Kampo (Japanese Traditional) Medicine, on Patients with Climacteric Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Namiki, Takao; Sato, Hiromi; Matsumoto, Yukari; Kakikura, Haruka; Ueno, Koichi; Chino, Atsushi; Hisanaga, Akito; Kaneko, Akiyo; Kita, Toshiaki; Kihara, Maki; Shozu, Makio; Terasawa, Katsutoshi

    2014-01-01

    Keishibukuryogan (KBG; Guizhi-Fuling-Wan in Chinese) is one of the Kampo (Japanese traditional) medicines used to treat patients with climacteric syndrome. KBG can be used by patients who cannot undergo hormone replacement therapy due to a history of breast cancer. We evaluated whether cytosine-adenine (CA) repeat polymorphism of the estrogen receptor β gene can be a predictor of the beneficial effect of KBG on climacteric syndrome. We also investigated the relationship between CA repeat polymorphism, the patients' profiles, and the therapeutic effect. We found that CA was an SS, SL, or LL genotype according to the number of repeats. We studied 39 consecutive patients with climacteric disorders who took KBG for 12 weeks. The diagnosis of climacteric disorders was made on the basis of the Kupperman index. KBG significantly improved the patients' climacteric symptoms (i.e., vasomotor symptoms in the patients with the LL genotype and melancholia in the patients with the SL genotype). No relationship between the patients' profiles and CA repeat polymorphism was recognized. CA repeat polymorphism could thus be a potential biomarker to predict the efficacy of KBG in climacteric syndrome, and its use will help to reduce the cost of treating this syndrome by focusing the administration of KBG on those most likely to benefit from it. PMID:24639885

  18. In vitro identification of human cytochrome P450 isoforms involved in the metabolism of Geissoschizine methyl ether, an active component of the traditional Japanese medicine Yokukansan.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Takashi; Kushida, Hirotaka; Maruyama, Takeshi; Nishimura, Hiroaki; Watanabe, Junko; Maemura, Kazuya; Kase, Yoshio

    2016-01-01

    1. Yokukansan (YKS) is a traditional Japanese medicine also called kampo, which has been used to treat neurosis, insomnia, and night crying and peevishness in children. Geissoschizine methyl ether (GM), a major indole alkaloid found in Uncaria hook, has been identified as a major active component of YKS with psychotropic effects. Recently, GM was reported to have a partial agonistic effect on serotonin 5-HT1A receptors. However, there is little published information on GM metabolism in humans, although several studies reported the blood kinetics of GM in rats and humans. In this study, we investigated the GM metabolic pathways and metabolizing enzymes in humans. 2. Using recombinant human cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoforms and polyclonal antibodies to CYP isoforms, we found that GM was metabolized into hydroxylated, dehydrogenated, hydroxylated+dehydrogenated, demethylated and water adduct forms by some CYP isoforms. 3. The relative activity factors in human liver microsomes were calculated to determine the relative contributions of individual CYP isoforms to GM metabolism in human liver microsomes (HLMs). We identified CYP3A4 as the CYP isoform primarily responsible for GM metabolism in human liver microsomes. 4. These findings provide an important basis for understanding the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of GM and YKS.

  19. Protective effect of a traditional Japanese medicine Hochu-ekki-to (Chinese name: Bu-zhong-yi-qi-tang), on the susceptibility against Listeria monocytogenes in infant mice.

    PubMed

    Yamaoka, Y; Kawakita, T; Nomoto, K

    2001-09-01

    In this study, the effect of traditional Japanese (Chinese) medicine, Hochu-ekki-to, HOT (Chinese name: Bu-zhong-yi-qi-tang), on the susceptibility against Listeria monocytogenes in postneonatal infant mice was examined. Numbers of bacteria in infant mice (infected at 4 weeks of age) were significantly higher than those in adult mice (infected at 8 weeks of age) on day 3 (non-specific resistance phase) and day 5 (specific resistance phase) after infection. Oral administration of 1,000 mg/kg of HOT for 7 days to infant mice reduced bacterial numbers in the liver and spleen at 5 days after the infection. The amount of IFN-gamma and the number of IFN-gamma-producing CD4+ T cells were lower in infant mice than adult mice but those in infant mice enhanced by HOT treatment. HOT also enhanced the antigen-presenting function along with the expression of MHC class II in infant macrophages induced by heat-killed L. monocytogenes. Further, HOT enhanced the IFN-gamma production from infant CD4+ T cells independent of the deficiency in the antigen-presenting function. These findings suggest that HOT induced simultaneously functional maturation of both infant antigen-presenting cells and T cells, and consequently developed an anti-listerial Th1 response.

  20. Inhibition of eosinophil infiltration into the mouse peritoneal cavity by a traditional Chinese medicine, Bu-zhong-yi-qi-tang (Japanese name: Hochu-ekki-to).

    PubMed

    Kaneko, M; Kawakita, T; Nomoto, K

    1999-02-01

    Our previous study showed that the serum level of antigen-specific IgE antibodies in primary response was decreased by a traditional Chinese medicine, Bu-zhong-yi-qi-tang (Japanese name; Hochu-ekki-to, HOT). In this study, we examined inhibition of secondary IgE response and of eosinophil infiltration by HOT. BALB/c mice were intraperitoneally immunized with aluminum hydroxide adsorbed with DNP-KLH (DNP-KLH + alum) on day -14 and on day 0. In mice treated with HOT daily from day -14, the serum level of antigen-specific IgE antibodies after the secondary immunization was significantly decreased compared to that in mice not treated with HOT. Eosinophils increased in number after 6 and 24 hr, and CD4+ T cells in the peritoneal cavity increased in number 24 hr after the secondary immunization. HOT suppressed accumulation of eosinophils and CD4+ T cells in the peritoneal cavity. Furthermore, HOT suppressed the numbers of IL-4- and IL-5-producing cells 24 hr after the secondary immunization, but did not inhibit the number of IFN-gamma-producing cells. HOT also suppressed IL-5 mRNA expression. Furthermore, HOT also inhibited antigen-induced late-phase reaction (LPR) in the skin. These results suggested that HOT exhibited anti-allergic effects mainly by inhibiting Th2 cell responses.

  1. Herbal medicines and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Yao, Hong; Qiao, Yu-Jie; Zhao, Ya-Li; Tao, Xu-Feng; Xu, Li-Na; Yin, Lian-Hong; Qi, Yan; Peng, Jin-Yong

    2016-08-14

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which is characterized by excessive fat accumulation in the liver of patients who consume little or no alcohol, becomes increasingly common with rapid economic development. Long-term excess fat accumulation leads to NAFLD and represents a global health problem with no effective therapeutic approach. NAFLD is considered to be a series of complex, multifaceted pathological processes involving oxidative stress, inflammation, apoptosis, and metabolism. Over the past decades, herbal medicines have garnered growing attention as potential therapeutic agents to prevent and treat NAFLD, due to their high efficacy and low risk of side effects. In this review, we evaluate the use of herbal medicines (including traditional Chinese herbal formulas, crude extracts from medicinal plants, and pure natural products) to treat NAFLD. These herbal medicines are natural resources that can inform innovative drug research and the development of treatments for NAFLD in the future.

  2. Herbal medicines and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Hong; Qiao, Yu-Jie; Zhao, Ya-Li; Tao, Xu-Feng; Xu, Li-Na; Yin, Lian-Hong; Qi, Yan; Peng, Jin-Yong

    2016-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which is characterized by excessive fat accumulation in the liver of patients who consume little or no alcohol, becomes increasingly common with rapid economic development. Long-term excess fat accumulation leads to NAFLD and represents a global health problem with no effective therapeutic approach. NAFLD is considered to be a series of complex, multifaceted pathological processes involving oxidative stress, inflammation, apoptosis, and metabolism. Over the past decades, herbal medicines have garnered growing attention as potential therapeutic agents to prevent and treat NAFLD, due to their high efficacy and low risk of side effects. In this review, we evaluate the use of herbal medicines (including traditional Chinese herbal formulas, crude extracts from medicinal plants, and pure natural products) to treat NAFLD. These herbal medicines are natural resources that can inform innovative drug research and the development of treatments for NAFLD in the future. PMID:27570425

  3. Comparative study of double blind clinical trial in side-effects among Areca catechu l., Thai traditional herbal formula and mebendazole

    PubMed Central

    Samappito, Supachai; Srichaikul, Buavaroon; Viroj, Jaruwan; Bakker, Gordon

    2012-01-01

    Background: This study was carried out in Mahasarakham Primary Healthcare Center, Mahasarakham province in the area of Northeastern of Thailand. The experiment was randomized control trial clinical study in order to examine the side effects of Areca catechu Linn., Thai traditional formulae medicine, mebendazole in the treatment of anti-helmintic activity of mixed worms infection in human. Materials and Methods: The experimental group consisted of 15 patients and 5 patients for control group with inclusion and exclusion criteria, which were screened by parasitologist with the selection of mixed worm infection patient samples. The investigation of side effects was recorded after the treatment of each group of patient with different kinds of 4 group of medicine. Results: The percentage of side effects was collected by nurses and confirmed by the physician at Mahasarakham Health Center, which were diarrhea and nausea side effects. The percentage of side effects by the treatments of Areca catechu Linn., Thai traditional formulae medicine, mebendazole were investigated by the physician and the pharmacist, which the result showed 20% of diarrhea in Areca catechu Linn., 20% of nausea in Areca catechu Linn, 20% in side effect of diarrhea in mebendazole treatment, and no side effects were found by the treatment of TTFM. The result showed that Areca catechu Linn. had higher side effects among the 3 anti-helmintic drugs. Conclusion: The findings indicate to increase the numbers of samples of worm-infected patients, which the samples can be identified with the specification of helminthes genus and species in order to obtain the efficacy by the treatment using Areca catechu Linn and also indicates to increase various forms of dosage preparations and various demographic locations in Thailand. PMID:23767018

  4. Herbal Medicine Research in Taiwan*

    PubMed Central

    Kaphle, Krishna; Wu, Leang-Shin; Yang, Nai-Yen Jack; Lin, Jen-Hsou

    2006-01-01

    Of all the countries in the world, why did you choose Taiwan to pursue your study? It is a question that I (comments of the first author) have answered a thousand times. My first visit to a laboratory at National Taiwan University opened my eyes to the possibilities of herbal medicine research, especially in the area of veterinary medicine. It became my ambition to link the knowledge of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) and Ayurveda from the Indian subcontinent and their integration with other systems of medicine, including Western medicine (WM), to achieve the concept of Sustainable Medicine, firstly for animals and then for humans. The Ministry of Economic Affairs (MOEA) has implemented a technology development program to quickly establish the key technologies, and this is a moment of opportunity for Taiwan's traditional herbal medicine industry to upgrade and transform itself. This paper, initially intended to be a student's narration, has evolved into a multi-author treatise on the present state and likely future scenario of herbal medicine research in Taiwan. PMID:16550238

  5. Preparation and Evaluation of Herbal Shampoo Powder

    PubMed Central

    Dubey, Sachin; Nema, Neelesh; Nayak, S.

    2004-01-01

    Two preparations of herbal shampoo powder were formulated using some common traditional drugs used by folk and traditional people of Bundelkhand region (M.P) India, for hair care. The preparations were formulated using bahera, amla, neem tulsi, shikakai henna & brahmi evaluated for organoleptic, powder charecterestics, foam test and physical evaluation. As the selected drugs being used since long time as single drug or in combination, present investigations will further help to establish a standard formulation and evaluation parameters, which will certainly help in the standardization for quality and purity of such type of herbal powder shampoos. PMID:22557149

  6. Traditional food and herbal uses of wild plants in the ancient South-Slavic diaspora of Mundimitar/Montemitro (Southern Italy)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In Europe, only a limited number of cross-cultural comparative field studies or meta-analyses have been focused on the dynamics through which folk plant knowledge changes over space and time, while a few studies have contributed to the understanding of how plant uses change among newcomers. Nevertheless, ethnic minority groups and/or linguistic “isles” in Southern and Eastern Europe may provide wonderful arenas for understanding the various factors that influence changes in plant uses. Methods A field ethnobotanical study was carried out in Mundimitar (Montemitro in Italian), a village of approx. 450 inhabitants, located in the Molise region of South-Eastern Italy. Mundimitar is a South-Slavic community, composed of the descendants of people who migrated to the area during the first half of the 14th century, probably from the lower Neretva valley (Dalmatia and Herzegovina regions). Eighteen key informants (average age: 63.7) were selected using the snowball sampling technique and participated in in-depth interviews regarding their Traditional Knowledge (TK) of the local flora. Results Although TK on wild plants is eroded in Montemitro among the youngest generations, fifty-seven taxa (including two cultivated species, which were included due to their unusual uses) were quoted by the study participants. Half of the taxa have correspondence in the Croatian and Herzegovinian folk botanical nomenclature, and the other half with South-Italian folk plant names. A remarkable link to the wild vegetable uses recorded in Dalmatia is evident. A comparison of the collected data with the previous ethnobotanical data of the Molise region and of the entire Italian Peninsula pointed out a few uses that have not been recorded in Italy thus far: the culinary use of boiled black bryony (Tamus communis) shoots in sauces and also on pasta; the use of squirting cucumber ( Ecballium elaterium) juice for treating malaria in humans; the aerial parts of the elderberry tree

  7. Sho-saiko-to, a traditional herbal medicine, regulates gene expression and biological function by way of microRNAs in primary mouse hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Sho-saiko-to (SST) (also known as so-shi-ho-tang or xiao-chai-hu-tang) has been widely prescribed for chronic liver diseases in traditional Oriental medicine. Despite the substantial amount of clinical evidence for SST, its molecular mechanism has not been clearly identified at a genome-wide level. Methods By using a microarray, we analyzed the temporal changes of messenger RNA (mRNA) and microRNA expression in primary mouse hepatocytes after SST treatment. The pattern of genes regulated by SST was identified by using time-series microarray analysis. The biological function of genes was measured by pathway analysis. For the identification of the exact targets of the microRNAs, a permutation-based correlation method was implemented in which the temporal expression of mRNAs and microRNAs were integrated. The similarity of the promoter structure between temporally regulated genes was measured by analyzing the transcription factor binding sites in the promoter region. Results The SST-regulated gene expression had two major patterns: (1) a temporally up-regulated pattern (463 genes) and (2) a temporally down-regulated pattern (177 genes). The integration of the genes and microRNA demonstrated that 155 genes could be the targets of microRNAs from the temporally up-regulated pattern and 19 genes could be the targets of microRNAs from the temporally down-regulated pattern. The temporally up-regulated pattern by SST was associated with signaling pathways such as the cell cycle pathway, whereas the temporally down-regulated pattern included drug metabolism-related pathways and immune-related pathways. All these pathways could be possibly associated with liver regenerative activity of SST. Genes targeted by microRNA were moreover associated with different biological pathways from the genes not targeted by microRNA. An analysis of promoter similarity indicated that co-expressed genes after SST treatment were clustered into subgroups, depending on the temporal

  8. Long-term consumption of dried bonito dashi (a traditional Japanese fish stock) reduces anxiety and modifies central amino acid levels in rats.

    PubMed

    Funatsu, Shoichiro; Kondoh, Takashi; Kawase, Takahiro; Ikeda, Hiromi; Nagasawa, Mao; Denbow, D Michael; Furuse, Mitsuhiro

    2015-08-01

    Dried bonito dashi, a traditional Japanese fish stock, enhances palatability of various dishes because of its specific flavor. Daily intake of dashi has also been shown to improve mood status such as tension-anxiety in humans. This study aimed at investigating beneficial effects of dashi ingestion on anxiety/depression-like behaviors and changes in amino acid levels in the brain and plasma in rats. Male Wistar rats were given either dried bonito dashi or water for long-term (29 days; Experiment 1) or single oral administration (Experiment 2). Anxiety and depression-like behaviors were tested using the open field and forced swimming tests, respectively. Concentrations of amino acids were measured in the hippocampus, hypothalamus, cerebellum, and jugular vein. During the long-term (29 days) consumption, rats given 2% dashi frequently entered the center zone and spent more time compared with the water controls in the open field test. However, the dashi was ineffective on depression-like behavior. In the hippocampus, concentrations of hydroxyproline, anserine, and valine were increased by dashi while those of asparagine and phenylalanine were decreased. In the hypothalamus, the methionine concentration was decreased. In a single oral administration experiment, the dashi (1%, 2% or 10%) showed no effects on behaviors. Significance was observed only in the concentrations of α-aminoadipic acid, cystathionine, and ornithine in the hippocampus. Dried bonito dashi is a functional food having anxiolytic-like effects. Daily ingestion of the dashi, even at lower concentrations found in the cuisine, reduces anxiety and alters amino acid levels in the brain.

  9. Effects of Hochu-ekki-to and Ninjin-youei-to, traditional Japanese medicines, on porcine serum-induced liver fibrosis in rats.

    PubMed

    Ochi, Takashi; Kawakita, Takuya; Nomoto, Kikuo

    2004-05-01

    In this study, we estimated the effects of traditional Japanese medicines on liver fibrosis in Wistar rats injected with porcine serum twice a week for 8 weeks. The rats were orally administered Hochu-ekki-to, Ninjin-youei-to (100 and 300 mg/kg/day) or Sho-saiko-to (300 mg/kg/day) 5 days per week. Serum and liver samples were obtained 2 days after the last porcine serum injection. Hochu-ekki-to and Ninjin-youei-to showed significant suppressive effects on the increase in hepatic hydroxyproline, namely total collagen. Further, Ninjin-youei-to significantly suppressed the increases of type IV collagen localized in the basement membrane and prolyl 4-hydroxylase, a collagen synthesis enzyme, in serum or liver. Hochu-ekki-to showed a similar trend. Although Sho-saiko-to did not significantly suppress the increase in hepatic hydroxyproline, it intensely suppressed serum type IV collagen. Further, Hochu-ekki-to, Ninjin-youei-to, and Sho-saiko-to inhibited the production of fibrogenic cytokines, namely TGF-beta1 and IL-13, in the serum and liver. Additionally, we showed that IL-13 levels were positively correlated with hydroxyproline contents in the liver. These results suggest that Ninjin-youei-to as well as Hochu-ekki-to suppress porcine serum-induced liver fibrosis more effectively than Sho-saiko-to. The effects of these three medicines probably depend on the inhibition of fibrogenic cytokine production, resulting in the suppression of collagen synthesis and deposition in the liver, though different mechanisms underlie their anti-fibrogenic effects.

  10. Yokukansan, a Traditional Japanese Medicine, Enhances the L-DOPA-Induced Rotational Response in 6-Hydroxydopamine-Lesioned Rats: Possible Inhibition of COMT.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Yasushi; Ebihara, Kosuke; Tabuchi, Masahiro; Imamura, Sachiko; Sekiguchi, Kyoji; Mizoguchi, Kazushige; Kase, Yoshio; Koganemaru, Go; Abe, Hiroshi; Ikarashi, Yasushi

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of the traditional Japanese medicine yokukansan (YKS) on the function of dopamine (DA) in the rat nigrostriatal system. Unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesions were produced in the rat nigrostriatal system. Despite a marked loss in the striatal immunoreactivity of tyrosine hydroxylase on the lesion side, striatal serotonin (5-HT) immunoreactivity was not affected. Treatment using L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) in conjunction with benserazide for 15 d induced abnormal involuntary movements (AIMs) such as locomotive (rotational response), axial, forelimb, and orolingual movements in the lesioned rats. The L-DOPA-induced locomotive and axial, but not forelimb and orolingual, AIMs were significantly increased and prolonged by the pre-administration of YKS. We next investigated the effects of YKS on the production of DA from L-DOPA in 5-HT synthetic RIN 14B cells. RIN 14B cells produced DA and its metabolite, 3-methoxytyramine (3-MT), following L-DOPA treatment. YKS significantly augmented DA production and inhibited its metabolism to 3-MT in a manner similar to the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) inhibitor entacapone. YKS and some alkaloids (corynoxeine: CX, geissoschizine methyl ether: GM) in Uncaria hook, a constituent herb of YKS, also inhibited COMT activity, indicating that the augmenting effect of YKS on L-DOPA-induced DA production in 5-HT synthetic cells was due to the inhibition of COMT by CX and GM. Our results suggest that YKS facilitates the DA supplemental effect of L-DOPA, and that COMT inhibition by CX and GM contributes, at least in part, to the effects of YKS.

  11. Effectiveness of Saikokaryukotsuboreito (Herbal Medicine) for Antipsychotic-Induced Sexual Dysfunction in Male Patients with Schizophrenia: A Description of Two Cases

    PubMed Central

    Takashi, Tsuboi; Uchida, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    Antipsychotics sometimes cause sexual dysfunction in people with schizophrenia. The authors report the effectiveness of Saikokaryukotsuboreito (Japanese traditional herbal medicine, Chai-Hu-Jia-Long-Gu-Mu-Li-Tang in Chinese) for antipsychotic-induced sexual dysfunction in two male patients with schizophrenia. The first patient was a 28-year-old man with schizophrenia who suffered erectile dysfunction induced by olanzapine 10 mg/day; the erectile dysfunction significantly improved following the treatment of Saikokaryukotsuboreito 7.5 g/day. The other case was a 43-year-old man with schizophrenia who was receiving fluphenazine decanoate at 50 mg/month and had difficulties in ejaculation; add-on of Saikokaryukotsuboreito 7.5 g/day recovered his ejaculatory function. There has been no report on the effectiveness of Japanese herbal medicine formulations for antipsychotic-induced sexual dysfunction. Although the effectiveness of Saikokaryukotsuboreito needs to be tested in systematic clinical trials, this herbal medicine may be a treatment option to consider for this annoying side effect. PMID:24587934

  12. Herbal Medicines: Malaysian Women's Knowledge and Practice.

    PubMed

    Kim Sooi, Law; Lean Keng, Soon

    2013-01-01

    This is a cross-sectional, descriptive study among Malay women admitted in the antenatal and postnatal ward to determine the prevalence and use of herbal medicines during pregnancy and elemental analysis in the most popular herbs. A total of 460 women were surveyed. Herbal medicine use during pregnancy was 34.3%, while 73% utilized herbal medicines during labor, because of a belief that it may shorten and ease labor. The most commonly used herbal medicines in pregnancy were Anastatica hierochuntica L. (60.1%) followed by coconut oil (35.4%). The majority of women (89.2%) used only one type of herbal medicines and took one capsule/glass (38%) per day. Herbal medicines use by pregnant women is largely unsupervised (81%), with most women getting information from their parents (60.7%) and buying the products directly from traditional midwives (32.2%) and 77% agreed upon its efficacy and safety. From the 460 respondents, 89.8% women were in the low end of the herbs knowledge. There was a significant difference found between knowledge score and income (P < 0.05). Microdiffraction analysis revealed significant presence of carbon, oxygen, silica, calcium, magnesium, aluminium, potassium, zinc, and iron that were found in Anastatica hierochuntica L. and proved to have good benefits for pregnancy.

  13. Aqueous Extract of Gumiganghwal-tang, a Traditional Herbal Medicine, Reduces Pulmonary Fibrosis by Transforming Growth Factor-β1/Smad Signaling Pathway in Murine Model of Chronic Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Shin, In-Sik; Shin, Hyeun-Kyoo; Jin, Seong Eun; Lee, Mee-Young

    2016-01-01

    Gumiganghwal-tang is a traditional herbal prescription that is used widely for the treatment of the common cold and inflammatory diseases in Korea and other Asian countries. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of a Gumiganghwal-tang aqueous extract (GGTA) against airway inflammation and pulmonary fibrosis using a mouse model of chronic asthma. Chronic asthma was modeled in BALB/c mice via sensitization/challenge with an intraperitoneal injection of 1% ovalbumin (OVA) and inhalation of nebulized 1% OVA for 4 weeks. GGTA (100 mg/kg or 200 mg/kg) was also administered by oral gavage once a day for 4 weeks. We investigated the number of inflammatory cells, production of T-helper type 2 (Th2) cytokines, chemokine and the total transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF); the levels of immunoglobulin E (IgE) in the plasma; the infiltration of inflammatory cells in lung tissue; and the expression of TGF-β1, Smad-3, and collagen in lung tissue. Our results revealed that GGTA lowered the recruitment of inflammatory cells (particularly, lymphocyte); and decreased the production of Th2 cytokines, chemokine and total TGF-β1; and attenuated the levels of total and OVA-specific IgE; and decreased the infiltration of inflammatory cells. Moreover, GGTA significantly reduced the expression of TGF-β1 and Smad-3, and lowered collagen deposition. These results indicate that GGTA reduces airway inflammation and pulmonary fibrosis by regulating Th2 cytokines production and the TGF-β1/Smad-3 pathway, thus providing a potential treatment for chronic asthma. PMID:27741312

  14. Herbal Products and Your Anesthestic

    MedlinePlus

    Using Herbal Products Safely The dietary and herbal supplement industry is unregulated. Safety and effectiveness are largely unstudied. To use an herbal product as safely as possible: • C onsult your doctor first. • ...

  15. Context Effects in Western Herbal Medicine: Fundamental to Effectiveness?

    PubMed

    Snow, James

    2016-01-01

    Western herbal medicine (WHM) is a complex healthcare system that uses traditional plant-based medicines in patient care. Typical preparations are individualized polyherbal formulae that, unlike herbal pills, retain the odor and taste of whole herbs. Qualitative studies in WHM show patient-practitioner relationships to be collaborative. Health narratives are co-constructed, leading to assessments, and treatments with personal significance for participants. It is hypothesized that the distinct characteristics of traditional herbal preparations and patient-herbalist interactions, in conjunction with the WHM physical healthcare environment, evoke context (placebo) effects that are fundamental to the overall effectiveness of herbal treatment. These context effects may need to be minimized to demonstrate pharmacological efficacy of herbal formulae in randomized, placebo-controlled trials, optimized to demonstrate effectiveness of WHM in pragmatic trials, and consciously harnessed to enhance outcomes in clinical practice.

  16. Recipes and general herbal formulae in books: causes of herbal poisoning.

    PubMed

    Chong, Y K; Ching, C K; Ng, S W; Tse, M L; Mak, Tony W L

    2014-08-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine is commonly used locally, not only for disease treatment but also for improving health. Many people prepare soups containing herbs or herbal decoctions according to recipes and general herbal formulae commonly available in books, magazines, and newspapers without consulting Chinese medicine practitioners. However, such practice can be dangerous. We report five cases of poisoning from 2007 to 2012 occurring as a result of inappropriate use of herbs in recipes or general herbal formulae acquired from books. Aconite poisoning due to overdose or inadequate processing accounted for three cases. The other two cases involved the use of herbs containing Strychnos alkaloids and Sophora alkaloids. These cases demonstrated that inappropriate use of Chinese medicine can result in major morbidity, and herbal formulae and recipes containing herbs available in general publications are not always safe.

  17. Protective effect of the Japanese traditional medicine juzentaihoto on myelosuppression induced by the anticancer drug TS-1 and identification of a potential biomarker of this effect

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background TS-1 is an oral anticancer drug containing a 5-fluorouracil derivative (Tegafur) that is widely used in Japan for the treatment of cancer, especially gastrointestinal tumors. Frequently, however, TS-1 therapy has to be discontinued because of leukopenia. If it were possible to predict the development of bone marrow suppression before the white blood cell (WBC) count had actually decreased, treatment could be improved by strict dosage control and/or the prophylactic administration of hematopoietic drugs. Juzentaihoto (JTT), a traditional Japanese medicine (Kampo), has been reported to activate hematopoiesis and reduce the side effects associated with chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Here, we 1) evaluate the efficacy of JTT in alleviating myelosuppression induced by TS-1 therapy in mice, and 2) explore biomarkers that reflect both induction by TS-1 and alleviation by JTT of bone marrow suppression using a proteomics approach. Methods Ten mg/kg of TS-1 was administered to Balb/c mice with or without 1 g/kg of oral JTT for 3, 5 and 7 days. WBC count and ratio of CD34+ bone marrow cells (BMCs) were estimated by flow cytometry. Plasma samples were analyzed using surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SELDI TOF-MS). A biomarker candidate from SELDI profiling was identified using a combination of cation exchange spin column purification, SDS-PAGE, enzymatic digestion and LC-MS/MS. Results After administration of TS-1, a significant decrease in WBC count and CD34+ BMC ratio were observed at days 5 and 3, respectively. JTT treatment improved WBC count on day 7 and CD34+ BMC ratio on days 5 and 7. SELDI analysis highlighted three protein peaks that had increased on day 3 after treatment with TS-1 but remained unchanged in mice co-treated with JTT. One of the three peaks, m/z 4223.1, was further investigated and identified as a specific C-terminal fragment of albumin. Conclusion This study indicates that bone marrow

  18. Challenges and guidelines for clinical trial of herbal drugs

    PubMed Central

    Parveen, Abida; Parveen, Bushra; Parveen, Rabea; Ahmad, Sayeed

    2015-01-01

    World Health Organization (WHO) has defined herbal medicines as finished labeled medicinal product that contain an active ingredient, aerial, or underground parts of the plant or other plant material or combinations. According to a report of WHO, about 80% of the world population is reported to rely on traditional medicine for their primary health care needs. Even in the developed countries, complementary or alternative medicine is gaining popularity. A report of a global survey on national policy on traditional medicine and regulation of herbal medicines indicated that about 50 countries including China, Japan, and Germany already have their national policy and laws on regulations of traditional medicines. Herbal drugs possess a long history of its use and better patient tolerance. These are cheaper and easily available in countries like India due to rich agro culture conditions. However, reckless utilization of resources threatens the sustainability of several plant species. Traditional medicines are governed by the Drugs and Cosmetics Act of 1940 and the Drugs and Cosmetics Rules of 1945. In 1959, the Government of India amended the Drugs and Cosmetics Act to include drugs that are derived from traditional Indian medicine. In 1993, the guidelines for the safety and efficacy of herbal medicines developed by an expert committee directed that the procedures laid down by the office of the Drug Controller General of India for allopathic drugs should be followed for all traditional and herbal products to enter into clinical trials for any therapeutic condition. However, there are certain loop holes in the clinical trials of herbal drugs as the lack of stringent bylaws and regulations. Hence, a deep insight of important challenges and major regulatory guidelines for clinical trial of herbal drugs and botanicals is discussed in the present communication. There is lack of scientific evidence to evaluate safety and efficacy of herbal drugs. The quality of the trial drug

  19. Essential concepts and vocabulary in herbal medicine.

    PubMed

    Tillotson, Alan Keith

    2008-01-01

    Western-trained scientists and physicians can better understand herbal medicine if they learn the basic terminologies and essential concepts used by herbal practitioners around the globe to describe how herbs work on the body. Specific and general chemical actions, pharmacokinetics, and plant constituents (such as carotenoids and flavonoids) can all be used to understand how herbs work. Other important tools for understanding herbal medicine include organoleptic methods (personal sensory based information), such as heating and cooling effects, tastes, and physically felt actions. Tissue affinity is also an important method, one aspect of which is tissue-specific antioxidant effects. In addition, broad concepts from the Oriental traditions--such as the Chinese Yin and Yang, and the Ayurvedic Vata, Pitta, and Kapha--can and have been effectively used to organize and focus understanding and guide treatment.

  20. Herbal remedies for dyspepsia: peppermint seems effective.

    PubMed

    2008-06-01

    (1) Functional dyspepsia is extremely common, yet few if any treatments have been shown to be effective. This review examines the potential benefits and risks of using herbal products in treating symptoms of dyspepsia. (2) About forty plants have been approved in France in the composition of products traditionally used for dyspepsia. (3) The clinical efficacy of most of these plants has not been assessed. Some essential oils can cause severe adverse effects, including seizures. Herbal teas appear to be safe when used appropriately. (4) A few randomised controlled clinical trials suggest that peppermint essential oil is effective in reducing abdominal pain, flatulence and diarrhea in patients with "irritable bowel syndrome". Peppermint tea, containing essential oil, has no known adverse effects. (5) There is no sound reason to discourage patients from using herbal teas made from plants such as lemon balm, German chamomile or star anise.

  1. [Herbal medicines alternative to synthetical medicines].

    PubMed

    Beer, A M; Schilcher, H; Loew, D

    2013-12-16

    Herbal pharmaceuticals in medical practice are similarly used as chemically well defined drugs. Like other synthetical drugs, they are subject to pharmaceutical legislature (AMG) and EU directives. It is to differentiate between phytopharmaceuticals with effectiveness of proven indications and traditional registered herbal medicine. Through the Health Reform Act January 2004 and the policy of the Common Federal Committee (G-BA)on the contractual medical care from March 2009--with four exceptions--Non-prescription Phytopharmaka of the legal Health insurance is no longer (SHI) refundable and must be paid by the patients. The result is that more and more well-established preparations disappear from the market. This article gives an overview of practical relevant indications for herbal medicines, which according to its licensing status, the scientific assessment by the Cochrane Collaboration and the Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG) and evidence-based Medicine (EBM)/ meta-analyzes as an alternative to synthetics can be used.

  2. Patented herbal formulations and their therapeutic applications.

    PubMed

    Musthaba, Mohamed; Baboota, Sanjula; Athar, Tanwir M D; Thajudeen, Kamal Y; Ahmed, Sayeed; Ali, Javed

    2010-11-01

    Recently, there is a greater global interest in non synthetic, natural medicines derived from plant sources due to better tolerance and minimum adverse drug reactions as compared to synthetic medicines. Herbal products are also commonly used by the patients with certain chronic medical conditions, including breast cancer, liver disease, human immunodeficiency, asthma and rheumatological disorders. WHO estimates that about three-quarters of the world's population currently uses herbs and other forms of traditional medicines for the treatment of various diseases. The herbs are formulated in different modern dosage forms, such as Tablets, Capsules, Topical cream, Gel, Ointment and even some novel drug delivery forms, like extended release, sustained release, and microencapsules dosage forms. Patenting of herbal formulations has increased over the past few years and scientific evidence of therapeutic activity has been reported by performing various in vitro and in vivo experiments. This manuscript deals with various patented herbal formulations with their therapeutic application against various diseases.

  3. Rapid Discrimination for Traditional Complex Herbal Medicines from Different Parts, Collection Time, and Origins Using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography and Near-Infrared Spectral Fingerprints with Aid of Pattern Recognition Methods

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Haiyan; Fan, Yao; Zhang, Xu; Lan, Hanyue; Yang, Tianming; Shao, Mei; Li, Sihan

    2015-01-01

    As an effective method, the fingerprint technique, which emphasized the whole compositions of samples, has already been used in various fields, especially in identifying and assessing the quality of herbal medicines. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and near-infrared (NIR), with their unique characteristics of reliability, versatility, precision, and simple measurement, played an important role among all the fingerprint techniques. In this paper, a supervised pattern recognition method based on PLSDA algorithm by HPLC and NIR has been established to identify the information of Hibiscus mutabilis L. and Berberidis radix, two common kinds of herbal medicines. By comparing component analysis (PCA), linear discriminant analysis (LDA), and particularly partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLSDA) with different fingerprint preprocessing of NIR spectra variables, PLSDA model showed perfect functions on the analysis of samples as well as chromatograms. Most important, this pattern recognition method by HPLC and NIR can be used to identify different collection parts, collection time, and different origins or various species belonging to the same genera of herbal medicines which proved to be a promising approach for the identification of complex information of herbal medicines. PMID:26345990

  4. Changing the knowledge base in Western herbal medicine.

    PubMed

    Evans, Sue

    2008-12-01

    The project of modernising Western herbal medicine in order to allow it to be accepted by the public and to contribute to contemporary healthcare is now over two decades old. One aspect of this project involves changes to the ways knowledge about medicinal plants is presented. This paper contrasts the models of Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM) and Traditional Knowledge (TK) to illuminate some of the complexities which have arisen consequent to these changes, particularly with regard to the concept of vitalism, the retention or rejection of which may have broad implications for the clinical practice of herbal medicine. Illustrations from two herbals (central texts on the medicinal use of plants) demonstrate the differences between these frameworks in regard to how herbs are understood. Further, a review of articles on herbal therapeutics published in the Australian Journal of Herbal Medicine indicates that practitioners are moving away from TK and towards the use of EBM in their clinical discussions.

  5. Marketing herbal medicines.

    PubMed

    Lazarus, M

    1999-01-01

    HIV-positive support groups, together with hospital pharmacists in Thailand are fighting the high cost and lack of access to pharmaceuticals by producing and distributing herbal medicines. In Theung district, Chiang Rai province, members of the local support group for people with HIV produce their own, low-cost, herbal medicines. Although the herbal medicines they produce do not provide a cure for HIV/AIDS, they do offer relief for some of the symptoms of opportunistic infections. The herbs are prepared by the group members under the supervision of the pharmacy department at the district hospital. Local people judge their effectiveness by hearing testimonials from people who have witnessed improvement in symptoms. In response to the popularity and effectiveness of herbal medicines, the Ministry of Public Health has approved plans to sell products derived from local herbs in the pharmacies of government hospitals.

  6. A NEW CLASSIFICATION FOR THE JAPANESE VERB.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    TAKAHASHI, GEORGE

    JAPANESE VERBS AND THE PARTICLES WHICH OFTEN ACCOMPANY THEM PRESENT DIFFICULTIES TO LEARNERS OF THAT LANGUAGE. THE TRADITIONAL GRAMMATICAL TERMS, "TRANSITIVE" AND "INTRANSITIVE" (VERBS), REFLECT CONCEPTS WHICH ARE VALID IN ENGLISH BUT NOT IN JAPANESE. THE AUTHOR, IN ATTEMPTING TO CLASSIFY ALL JAPANESE VERBS ACCORDING TO THEIR…

  7. Effect of the herbal medicine dai-kenchu-to on gastrointestinal motility in patients with megacystis-microcolon-intestinal hypoperistalsis syndrome (MMIHS) and chronic idiopathic intestinal pseudo-obstruction (CIIP): report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Hirakawa, Hitoshi; Ueno, Shigeru; Matuda, Hiromitu; Hinoki, Tomoya; Kato, Yuko

    2009-04-20

    Dai-kenchu-to (DKT), a traditional Japanese herbal medicine (Kampo medicine), composed of zanthoxylum fruit, ginseng root, dried ginger rhizome and malt sugar, is clinically effective for postoperative ileus and chronic constipation. MMIHS and CIIP are severe motility disorder associated with high morbidity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of DKT on functional intestinal obstruction. DKT was clinically effective for gastrointestinal motility in a case with MMIHS, but not effective in one with CIIP. MMIHS and CIIP are speculated to have different pathogenesis regarding gastrointestinal pseudo-obstruction based upon the effect of this drug.

  8. Japanese language and Japanese science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanikawa, Kiyotaka

    2003-08-01

    Japanese mathematical scientists including astronomers, physicists, and mathematicians obtain ideas in Japanese, discuss their problems in Japanese, and arrive at conclusions in Japanese, and yet they write their results in foreign languages such as English. This uncomfortable situation has continued for nearly one hundred years and has had serious effects on Japanese science. In this short report, the author discusses and analyses these effects. In order to put Japanese science on a sound basis, the author proposes to increase the number of articles, reviews and textbooks in Japanese, first by translation and second by the voluntary efforts of scientists themselves. As centers devoted to this activity, the author proposes to construct "Airborne Libraries" which are maintained and accumulate in an electronic form the scientific documents written in Japanese.

  9. Japanese Competitiveness and Japanese Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minabe, Shigeo

    1986-01-01

    Analyzes and compares Japanese and American industrial policy and labor practices. Proposes that certain aspects of the Japanese system be adapted by American businesses for purpose of increasing international competitiveness. Proposes specific actions and plans for both the Japanese and American systems. (ML)

  10. A guide to herbal remedies

    MedlinePlus

    ... and quality of their products. DO NOT give herbal supplements to children or use them if you are ... sites can help you learn more about specific herbal supplements: NIH MedlinePlus database of herbs and supplements -- www. ...

  11. Nurse Practitioners’ Experience With Herbal Therapy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-05-01

    Nursing Services Approval Letter APPENDIX B: USUHS IRB Approval Letter APPENDIX C: Malcolm Grow IRB Approval Letter APPENDIX D: Research Study...schools are beginning to recognize the growing trend of patients resorting to complementary and non-traditional therapies, including the use of herbal...response to this growing trend has not been well documented. Because patients are at an increased risk for medication-herb interactions, adverse side

  12. [Suggestions to strengthen quality management of herbal decoction pieces--based on production chain of herbal decoction pieces].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan; Nie, Qing; Chen, Jing

    2015-08-01

    With the development of society and the improvement of people's living standards, the effect of Chinese medicine in treatment and health care is more and more prominent. The herbal decoction pieces are the important part of Chinese medicine,it can be applied directly to clinical treatment and it's also the raw material of Chinese patent medicine. Therefore, the quality of herbal decoction pieces is quite important. The parts of the production of herbal decoction pieces are numerous, and there are possibilities of adverse effects on the quality of the herbal decoction pieces in every part. In this paper, we based on the production chain of herbal decoction pieces, analyzed the main problem that affect the quality of herbal decoction pieces in the part of selection of Chinese herbal medicines, planting, purchasing, processing, packaging, storage and transport, such as the poor quality of seed and seedlings of plant-based Chinese medicines, some plants left their place of origin and have been introduced in the place that is not suitable for this kind of plant, the insufficient growth time and the excessive harmful substances. The purchasers and the accepters lack of professional knowledge and professional ethics. The mechanism of processing is not clear, the standards can not be uniformed, and lack of qualified person in processing, etc. So we suggest: intensify the basic research of key scientific issues. Improve the quality of persons who work in herbal decoction pieces; Establish an "integration" mode of operation in herbal decoction pieces enterprise; Breeding high quality plant resources, establish the large-scale planting basement; Make the packing of herbal decoction pieces standard; Establish the modernization traditional Chinese medicine logistics enterprise.

  13. Herbal medicine in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Pinn, Graham; Pallett, Linda

    2002-05-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the frequency of alternative medical usage in an antenatal population. A survey of alternative medicine usage was carried out among 305 consecutive patients over 2 months at their registration in mid-pregnancy at an Australian Antenatal Clinic. The study showed that something like 40% of patients used alternative medical therapy, including 12% herbal therapy. No specific study of pregnancy outcome was carried out, but it is of concern that some herbs taken had the potential to adversely affect pregnancy outcome. The herbal therapies commonly used in pregnancy are reviewed with their potential complications; examples of toxicity are also discussed. It is important to obtain a herbal medicine history at any time but particularly in pregnancy. Herbs may have unrecognised effects on pregnancy or labour, have interactions with prescribed medications and have potentially serious complications for the foetus.

  14. Phototoxicity of herbal plants and herbal products.

    PubMed

    Fu, Peter P; Xia, Qingsu; Zhao, Yuewei; Wang, Shuguang; Yu, Hongtao; Chiang, Hsiu-Mei

    2013-01-01

    Plants are used by humans in daily life in many different ways, including as food, herbal medicines, and cosmetics. Unfortunately, many natural plants and their chemical constituents are photocytotoxic and photogenotoxic, and these phototoxic phytochemicals are widely present in many different plant families. To date, information concerning the phototoxicity and photogenotoxicity of many plants and their chemical constituents is limited. In this review, we discuss phototoxic plants and their major phototoxic constituents; routes of human exposure; phototoxicity of these plants and their constituents; general mechanisms of phototoxicity of plants and phototoxic components; and several representative phototoxic plants and their photoactive chemical constituents.

  15. Herbal medicine in the treatment of ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Ke, Fei; Yadav, Praveen Kumar; Ju, Liu Zhan

    2012-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a refractory, chronic, and nonspecific disease occurred usually in the rectum and the entire colon. The etiopathology is probably related to dysregulation of the mucosal immune response toward the resident bacterial flora together with genetic and environmental factors. Several types of medications are used to control the inflammation or reduce symptoms. Herbal medicine includes a wide range of practices and therapies outside the realms of conventional Western medicine. However, there are limited controlled evidences indicating the efficacy of traditional Chinese medicines, such as aloe vera gel, wheat grass juice, Boswellia serrata, and bovine colostrum enemas in the treatment of UC. Although herbal medicines are not devoid of risk, they could still be safer than synthetic drugs. The potential benefits of herbal medicine could lie in their high acceptance by patients, efficacy, relative safety, and relatively low cost. Patients worldwide seem to have adopted herbal medicine in a major way, and the efficacy of herbal medicine has been tested in hundreds of clinical trials in the management of UC. The evidences on herbal medicine are incomplete, complex, and confusing, and certainly associated with both risks and benefits. There is a need for further controlled clinical trials of the potential efficacy of herbal medicine approaches in the treatment of UC, together with enhanced legislation to maximize their quality and safety.

  16. A review of herbal medicines in wound healing.

    PubMed

    Maver, Tina; Maver, Uroš; Stana Kleinschek, Karin; Smrke, Dragica M; Kreft, Samo

    2015-07-01

    Herbs have been integral to both traditional and non-traditional forms of medicine dating back at least 5000 years. The enduring popularity of herbal medicines may be explained by the perception that herbs cause minimal unwanted side effects. More recently, scientists increasingly rely on modern scientific methods and evidence-based medicine to prove efficacy of herbal medicines and focus on better understanding of mechanisms of their action. However, information concerning quantitative human health benefits of herbal medicines is still rare or dispersed, limiting their proper valuation. Preparations from traditional medicinal plants are often used for wound healing purposes covering a broad area of different skin-related diseases. Herbal medicines in wound management involve disinfection, debridement, and provision of a suitable environment for aiding the natural course of healing. Here we report on 22 plants used as wound healing agents in traditional medicine around the world. The aim of this review is therefore to review herbal medicines, which pose great potential for effective treatment of minor wounds.

  17. Herbal reference standards.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Michael; Klier, Bernhard; Sievers, Hartwig

    2009-06-01

    This review describes the current definitions and regulatory requirements that apply to reference standards that are used to analyse herbal products. It also describes and discusses the current use of reference substances and reference extracts in the European and United States pharmacopoeias.

  18. [Advance in herbal medicine applied to intracanal antisepsis].

    PubMed

    Zhongpeng, Yang; Ling, Zou

    2014-12-01

    Intracanal antisepsis acts as one of the fundamental steps in root canal therapy. Intracanal medication is very common among the multitudinous root canal disinfection methods so far. However, as the most frequently-used intracanal medication, calcium hydroxide exists some problems, such as insufficient antimicrobial power and antibiogram. Thus exploring new root canal disinfectant is necessary. Herbal medicine is gaining favor for its wide varieties, broad efficacy and affordable prices. The current researches revealed that many kinds of herbs or compound herbal preparations possess good ability of antimicrobial and other properties that superior to those of traditional root canal disinfectants. However, herbal medicine itself and the studies have shortcomings. This paper will provide a review of various herbal alternatives that are being studied of late years.

  19. Herbal products in pregnancy: experimental studies and clinical reports.

    PubMed

    Smeriglio, Antonella; Tomaino, Antonio; Trombetta, Domenico

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this work is to provide an update from an overview of the literature of the most frequently consumed herbal remedies during pregnancy, both alone and concomitantly with prescribed medications and particularly on their side effects to the mother and fetus. We have also analyzed some of the adverse interactions that may occur due to concomitant use of herbal and pharmaceutical products during pregnancy. Herbal remedies are not evaluated according to the same standards as pharmaceuticals, and in the USA some of it are not licensed but sold as food supplements. There is a lack of basic knowledge on the part of both clinicians and patients as to the indications for use and safety of herbal medicines used in pregnancy and lactation. If 'traditional use' is the only available information, the pregnant woman should be made aware of this to enable her to make an informed decision concerning potential use.

  20. Herbal Hepatotoxicity: Clinical Characteristics and Listing Compilation.

    PubMed

    Frenzel, Christian; Teschke, Rolf

    2016-04-27

    Herb induced liver injury (HILI) and drug induced liver injury (DILI) share the common characteristic of chemical compounds as their causative agents, which were either produced by the plant or synthetic processes. Both, natural and synthetic chemicals are foreign products to the body and need metabolic degradation to be eliminated. During this process, hepatotoxic metabolites may be generated causing liver injury in susceptible patients. There is uncertainty, whether risk factors such as high lipophilicity or high daily and cumulative doses play a pathogenetic role for HILI, as these are under discussion for DILI. It is also often unclear, whether a HILI case has an idiosyncratic or an intrinsic background. Treatment with herbs of Western medicine or traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) rarely causes elevated liver tests (LT). However, HILI can develop to acute liver failure requiring liver transplantation in single cases. HILI is a diagnosis of exclusion, because clinical features of HILI are not specific as they are also found in many other liver diseases unrelated to herbal use. In strikingly increased liver tests signifying severe liver injury, herbal use has to be stopped. To establish HILI as the cause of liver damage, RUCAM (Roussel Uclaf Causality Assessment Method) is a useful tool. Diagnostic problems may emerge when alternative causes were not carefully excluded and the correct therapy is withheld. Future strategies should focus on RUCAM based causality assessment in suspected HILI cases and more regulatory efforts to provide all herbal medicines and herbal dietary supplements used as medicine with strict regulatory surveillance, considering them as herbal drugs and ascertaining an appropriate risk benefit balance.

  1. Herbal Hepatotoxicity: Clinical Characteristics and Listing Compilation

    PubMed Central

    Frenzel, Christian; Teschke, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    Herb induced liver injury (HILI) and drug induced liver injury (DILI) share the common characteristic of chemical compounds as their causative agents, which were either produced by the plant or synthetic processes. Both, natural and synthetic chemicals are foreign products to the body and need metabolic degradation to be eliminated. During this process, hepatotoxic metabolites may be generated causing liver injury in susceptible patients. There is uncertainty, whether risk factors such as high lipophilicity or high daily and cumulative doses play a pathogenetic role for HILI, as these are under discussion for DILI. It is also often unclear, whether a HILI case has an idiosyncratic or an intrinsic background. Treatment with herbs of Western medicine or traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) rarely causes elevated liver tests (LT). However, HILI can develop to acute liver failure requiring liver transplantation in single cases. HILI is a diagnosis of exclusion, because clinical features of HILI are not specific as they are also found in many other liver diseases unrelated to herbal use. In strikingly increased liver tests signifying severe liver injury, herbal use has to be stopped. To establish HILI as the cause of liver damage, RUCAM (Roussel Uclaf Causality Assessment Method) is a useful tool. Diagnostic problems may emerge when alternative causes were not carefully excluded and the correct therapy is withheld. Future strategies should focus on RUCAM based causality assessment in suspected HILI cases and more regulatory efforts to provide all herbal medicines and herbal dietary supplements used as medicine with strict regulatory surveillance, considering them as herbal drugs and ascertaining an appropriate risk benefit balance. PMID:27128912

  2. Immunomodulation of Autoimmune Arthritis by Herbal CAM

    PubMed Central

    Venkatesha, Shivaprasad H.; Rajaiah, Rajesh; Berman, Brian M.; Moudgil, Kamal D.

    2011-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a debilitating autoimmune disease of global prevalence. The disease is characterized by synovial inflammation leading to cartilage and bone damage. Most of the conventional drugs used for the treatment of RA have severe adverse reactions and are quite expensive. Over the years, increasing proportion of patients with RA and other immune disorders are resorting to complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for their health needs. Natural plant products comprise one of the most popular CAM for inflammatory and immune disorders. These herbal CAM belong to diverse traditional systems of medicine, including traditional Chinese medicine, Kampo, and Ayurvedic medicine. In this paper, we have outlined the major immunological pathways involved in the induction and regulation of autoimmune arthritis and described various herbal CAM that can effectively modulate these immune pathways. Most of the information about the mechanisms of action of herbal products in the experimental models of RA is relevant to arthritis patients as well. The study of immunological pathways coupled with the emerging application of genomics and proteomics in CAM research is likely to provide novel insights into the mechanisms of action of different CAM modalities. PMID:21234398

  3. Herbal Medicine in Mexico: A Cause of Hepatotoxicity. A Critical Review

    PubMed Central

    Valdivia-Correa, Bárbara; Gómez-Gutiérrez, Cristina; Uribe, Misael; Méndez-Sánchez, Nahum

    2016-01-01

    In Mexico, herbal products are commonly used as therapeutic tools. The analysis of several publications reveals that there are dozens of different herbs and herbal products used for different reasons, some of which have been implicated in causing toxic liver disease. However, methodological aspects limit the attribution of causality, and the precise incidence and clinical manifestations of herb-induced liver injury have not been well characterized. This review outlines the history of traditional herbal medicine in Mexico, critically summarizes the mechanisms and adverse effects of commonly used herbal plants, and examines the regulatory issues regarding the legal use of these products. PMID:26891292

  4. Herbal Medicine in Mexico: A Cause of Hepatotoxicity. A Critical Review.

    PubMed

    Valdivia-Correa, Bárbara; Gómez-Gutiérrez, Cristina; Uribe, Misael; Méndez-Sánchez, Nahum

    2016-02-15

    In Mexico, herbal products are commonly used as therapeutic tools. The analysis of several publications reveals that there are dozens of different herbs and herbal products used for different reasons, some of which have been implicated in causing toxic liver disease. However, methodological aspects limit the attribution of causality, and the precise incidence and clinical manifestations of herb-induced liver injury have not been well characterized. This review outlines the history of traditional herbal medicine in Mexico, critically summarizes the mechanisms and adverse effects of commonly used herbal plants, and examines the regulatory issues regarding the legal use of these products.

  5. Herbal Compounds and Toxins Modulating TRP Channels

    PubMed Central

    Vriens, Joris; Nilius, Bernd; Vennekens, Rudi

    2008-01-01

    Although the benefits are sometimes obvious, traditional or herbal medicine is regarded with skepticism, because the mechanism through which plant compounds exert their powers are largely elusive. Recent studies have shown however that many of these plant compounds interact with specific ion channels and thereby modulate the sensing mechanism of the human body. Especially members of the Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) channels have drawn large attention lately as the receptors for plant-derived compounds such as capsaicin and menthol. TRP channels constitute a large and diverse family of channel proteins that can serve as versatile sensors that allow individual cells and entire organisms to detect changes in their environment. For this family, a striking number of empirical views have turned into mechanism-based actions of natural compounds. In this review we will give an overview of herbal compounds and toxins, which modulate TRP channels. PMID:19305789

  6. What risks do herbal products pose to the Australian community?

    PubMed

    Byard, Roger W; Musgrave, Ian; Maker, Garth; Bunce, Michael

    2017-02-06

    Traditional herbal products are widely used in Australia to treat a broad range of conditions and diseases. It is popularly believed that these products are safer than prescribed drugs. While many may be safe, it is worrying that the specific effects and harmful interactions of a number of their components with prescription medications is not well understood. Some traditional herbal preparations contain heavy metals and toxic chemicals, as well as naturally occurring organic toxins. The effects of these substances can be dire, including acute hepatic and renal failure, exacerbation of pre-existing conditions and diseases, and even death. The content and quality of herbal preparations are not tightly controlled, with some ingredients either not listed or their concentrations recorded inaccurately on websites or labels. Herbal products may also include illegal ingredients, such as ephedra, Asarum europaeum (European wild ginger) and endangered animal species (eg, snow leopard). An additional problem is augmentation with prescription medications to enhance the apparent effectiveness of a preparation. Toxic substances may also be deliberately or inadvertently added: less expensive, more harmful plants may be substituted for more expensive ingredients, and processing may not be adequate. The lack of regulation and monitoring of traditional herbal preparations in Australia and other Western countries means that their contribution to illness and death is unknown. We need to raise awareness of these problems with health care practitioners and with the general public.

  7. Effect of a traditional Chinese medicine, bu-zhong-yi-qi-tang (Japanese name: Hochu-ekki-to) on the protection against Listeria monocytogenes infection in mice.

    PubMed

    Li, X Y; Takimoto, H; Miura, S; Yoshikai, Y; Matsuzaki, G; Nomoto, K

    1992-01-01

    Effects of Bu-Zhong-Yi-Qi-Tang (Japanese name: Hochu-ekki-to) on the resistance against Listeria monocytogenes were observed in ICR mice orally administered this medicine daily for 10 days. Survival rates were increased by the pretreatment in mice inoculated i.v. with bacteria 1 day after the last administration and in mice inoculated i.p. 4 days after the last administration. After an i.v. inoculation of L. monocytogenes, the numbers of bacteria in the spleen and liver increased gradually to kill mice by day 5 in untreated group but the bacterial numbers increased slightly by day 3 and decreased from day 3 to day 8 in Hochu-ekki-to pretreated group. After an i.p. inoculation, the number of bacteria in the peritoneal cavity decreased very rapidly within 6h in Hochu-ekki-to treated group compared to that in untreated group. After the administration, number of polymorphonuclear cells increased in the peripheral blood, peritoneal cavity and spleen. In treated mice, macrophages increased in number in the peritoneal cavity and the spleen but decreased in the peripheral blood. Peritoneal macrophages from treated mice showed an enhanced activity to kill L. monocytogenes in vitro within 60 min after ingestion of bacteria. Hochu-ekki-to may augment the host defense against L. monocytogenes through the activation of macrophage series during an early phase of infection.

  8. Cytochrome P450 enzyme mediated herbal drug interactions (Part 2)

    PubMed Central

    Wanwimolruk, Sompon; Phopin, Kamonrat; Prachayasittikul, Virapong

    2014-01-01

    To date, a number of significant herbal drug interactions have their origins in the alteration of cytochrome P450 (CYP) activity by various phytochemicals. Among the most noteworthy are those involving St. John's wort and drugs metabolized by human CYP3A4 enzyme. This review article is the continued work from our previous article (Part 1) published in this journal (Wanwimolruk and Prachayasittikul, 2014[ref:133]). This article extends the scope of the review to six more herbs and updates information on herbal drug interactions. These include black cohosh, ginseng, grape seed extract, green tea, kava, saw palmetto and some important Chinese medicines are also presented. Even though there have been many studies to determine the effects of herbs and herbal medicines on the activity of CYP, most of them were in vitro and in animal studies. Therefore, the studies are limited in predicting the clinical relevance of herbal drug interactions. It appeared that the majority of the herbal medicines have no clear effects on most of the CYPs examined. For example, the existing clinical trial data imply that black cohosh, ginseng and saw palmetto are unlikely to affect the pharmacokinetics of conventional drugs metabolized by human CYPs. For grape seed extract and green tea, adverse herbal drug interactions are unlikely when they are concomitantly taken with prescription drugs that are CYP substrates. Although there were few clinical studies on potential CYP-mediated interactions produced by kava, present data suggest that kava supplements have the ability to inhibit CYP1A2 and CYP2E1 significantly. Therefore, caution should be taken when patients take kava with CYP1A2 or CYP2E1 substrate drugs as it may enhance their therapeutic and adverse effects. Despite the long use of traditional Chinese herbal medicines, little is known about the potential drug interactions with these herbs. Many popularly used Chinese medicines have been shown in vitro to significantly change the

  9. Safety Surveillance of Traditional Chinese Medicine: Current and Future

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shwu-Huey; Chuang, Wu-Chang; Lam, Wing; Jiang, Zaoli

    2015-01-01

    Herbal medicine, including traditional Chinese medicine, has been used for the prevention, treatment, and cure of disorders or diseases for centuries. In addition to being used directly as therapeutic agents, medicinal plants are also important sources for pharmacological drug research and development. With the increasing consumption of herbal products intended to promote better health, it is extremely important to assure the safety and quality of herbal preparations. However, under current regulation surveillance, herbal preparations may not meet expectations in safety, quality, and efficacy. The challenge is how to assure the safety and quality of herbal products for consumers. It is the responsibility of producers to minimize hazardous contamination and additives during cultivation, harvesting, handling, processing, storage, and distribution. This article reviews the current safety obstacles that have been involved in traditional Chinese herbal medicine preparations with examples of popular herbs. Approaches to improve the safety of traditional Chinese medicine are proposed. PMID:25647717

  10. Synergism of Chinese Herbal Medicine: Illustrated by Danshen Compound

    PubMed Central

    Su, Xuefeng; Yao, Zhuoting; Li, Shengting; Sun, He

    2016-01-01

    The primary therapeutic effects of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) are based on the properties of each herb and the strategic combination of herbs in formulae. The herbal formulae are constructed according to Chinese medicine theory: the “Traditional Principles for Constructing Chinese Herbal Medicinal Formulae” and the “Principles of Combining Medicinal Substances.” These principles of formulation detail how and why multiple medicinal herbs with different properties are combined together into a single formula. However, the concept of herbal synergism in CHM still remains a mystery due to lack of scientific data and modern assessment methods. The Compound Danshen Formula (CDF) is a validated formula that has been used to treat a variety of diseases for hundreds of years in China and other countries. The CDF will be employed to illustrate the theory and principle of Chinese herbal medicine formulation. The aim of this review is to describe how Chinese herbal medicinal formulae are constructed according to Chinese medicine theory and to illustrate with scientific evidence how Chinese herbs work synergistically within a formula, thereby supporting Chinese medicine theory and practice. PMID:27190537

  11. A renaissance in herbal medicine identification: from morphology to DNA.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shilin; Pang, Xiaohui; Song, Jingyuan; Shi, Linchun; Yao, Hui; Han, Jianping; Leon, Christine

    2014-11-15

    Numerous adverse reactions have arisen following the use of inaccurately identified medicinal plant ingredients, resulting in conditions such as aristolochic acid nephropathy and herb-induced poisoning. This problem has prompted increased global concern over the safety of herbal medicines. DNA barcoding, a technique aiming at detecting species-specific differences in a short region of DNA, provides a powerful new tool for addressing this problem. A preliminary system for DNA barcoding herbal materials has been established based on a two-locus combination of ITS2+psbA-trnH barcodes. There are 78,847 sequences belonging to 23,262 species in the system, which include more than 95% of crude herbal drugs in pharmacopeia, such as those of China, Japan, Korea, India, USA, and Europe. The system has been widely used in traditional herbal medicine enterprises. This review summarizes recent key advances in the DNA barcoding of medicinal plant ingredients (herbal materia medica) as a contribution towards safe and efficacious herbal medicines.

  12. Synergism of Chinese Herbal Medicine: Illustrated by Danshen Compound.

    PubMed

    Su, Xuefeng; Yao, Zhuoting; Li, Shengting; Sun, He

    2016-01-01

    The primary therapeutic effects of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) are based on the properties of each herb and the strategic combination of herbs in formulae. The herbal formulae are constructed according to Chinese medicine theory: the "Traditional Principles for Constructing Chinese Herbal Medicinal Formulae" and the "Principles of Combining Medicinal Substances." These principles of formulation detail how and why multiple medicinal herbs with different properties are combined together into a single formula. However, the concept of herbal synergism in CHM still remains a mystery due to lack of scientific data and modern assessment methods. The Compound Danshen Formula (CDF) is a validated formula that has been used to treat a variety of diseases for hundreds of years in China and other countries. The CDF will be employed to illustrate the theory and principle of Chinese herbal medicine formulation. The aim of this review is to describe how Chinese herbal medicinal formulae are constructed according to Chinese medicine theory and to illustrate with scientific evidence how Chinese herbs work synergistically within a formula, thereby supporting Chinese medicine theory and practice.

  13. [Regulatory sciences in herbal medicines and dietary supplements].

    PubMed

    Tsutani, Kiichiro; Takuma, Hiroki

    2008-06-01

    Regulatory science began in the late 1980's in the pharmaceutical area in Japan. It aimed not only at vertical, top-down regulation but also horizontal regulation to suit the social value system. Herbal medicines and dietary supplements are two areas where regulatory science is still not well developed and used. Risk perception, risk assessment and risk management in these areas are often neglected by regulators, academicians and the public. Since the risk of using herbal medicines and dietary supplements is a global concern, development of a global regulatory system is needed. In this paper, we introduce the current situation of several projects which deal with regulatory science in herbal medicines and dietary supplements, namely: (1) Herbal ATC (HATC) classification project initiated by Uppsala Monitoring Centre (UMC) which led to the development of the provisional HATC code of 228 Kampo formulae and Standard Kampo Formula Nomenclature (SKFN) in Japan, (2) WHO/WPRO International Standardization of Terminology (IST) which resulted in the publication of "WHO Internal Standard Terminologies on Traditional Medicine in the Western Pacific Region Forum for Herbal Harmonization", (3) Forum for the Harmonization of Herbal Medicines (FHH), (4) CONSORT extension for herbal medicines, (5) ICH M5 (Data elements and standards for drug dictionaries), and (6) activities on nomenclature at the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). However, there is a lack of coordination among these projects. Therefore, harmonization of all projects aimed at harmonizing and standardizing all aspects of regulatory science for herbal medicines and dietary supplements is recommended. However, careful consideration should be given to each unique local situation.

  14. A Kampo (traditional Japanese herbal) medicine, Hochuekkito, pretreatment in mice prevented influenza virus replication accompanied with GM-CSF expression and increase in several defensin mRNA levels.

    PubMed

    Dan, Katsuaki; Akiyoshi, Hiroko; Munakata, Kaori; Hasegawa, Hideki; Watanabe, Kenji

    2013-01-01

    A Kampo medicine, Hochuekkito (TJ-41), with an influenza virus-preventing effect had life-extending effectiveness, and immunological responses other than interferon (IFN)-α release were examined. TJ-41 (1 g/kg) was given to C57BL/6 male mice orally once a day for 2 weeks. Mice were then intranasally infected with influenza virus. After infection, virus titers and various parameters, mRNA levels and protein expression, for immunoresponses in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid or removed lung homogenate, were measured by plaque assay, quantitative RT-PCR and ELISA. IFN-α and -β levels of TJ-41-treated mice were higher than those of the control. Toll-like receptor TLR7 and TLR9 mRNAs were elevated after infection, but retinoic acid-inducible gene (RIG-1) family mRNA levels, RIG-1, melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 and Leishmania G protein 2 showed no response in either TJ-41 or control groups. Interferon regulatory transcription factor (IRF)-3 mRNA levels to stimulate type I (α/β) IFN were increased, but IRF-7 did not change. Only granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) after Hochuekkito treatment was significantly elevated 2 and 3 days after infection. The mRNA levels of 7 defensins after infection increased compared to preinfection values. The key roles of TJ-41 were not only stimulation of type I IFN release but also GM-CSF-derived anti-inflammation activity. Furthermore, defensin (antimicrobial peptide) mRNA levels increased by infection and were further enhanced by TJ-41 treatment. Defensin might prevent influenza virus replication.

  15. [Herbals and herbal nutritional products hepatotoxicity].

    PubMed

    Mengual-Moreno, Edgardo; Lizarzábal-García, Maribel; Hernández-Rincón, Ileana; Barboza-Nobrega, María De Freitas

    2015-09-01

    Herbs and other botanicals have been used in different cultures with medicinal and dietary purposes for centuries. Contrary to the belief of being natural and safe products, their hepatotoxic potential is recognized in several studies worldwide, and represent a health problem that deserves greater attention. The reported prevalence of hepatotoxicity associated with botanicals is variable and depends on various factors such as population, period and design of the study. There have been reports of a total of 60 products with herbal medicinal and dietary purposes, which may cause liver damage; however, the pathophysiological mechanisms involved are not fully elucidated. Their clinical and histological features, not unlike liver injury associated with drugs in most patients, have a pattern of hepatocellular injury. Diagnosis is by exclusion, and represents a clinical challenge. It is essential the clinical suspicion and the differential diagnosis with other acute and chronic conditions. Hence, future researches are aimed at improving existing diagnostic methods and introducing new toxicological, genetic and immunological technologies. Treatment is complex and presents a challenge for the specialist, as there are no antidotes. Management based on the discontinued use of the product and in the symptomatic treatment, decreases the progression to an acute fulminant hepatic failure.

  16. Use of herbal therapies among midlife Mexican women.

    PubMed

    Zenk, S N; Shaver, J L; Peragallo, N; Fox, P; Chávez, N

    2001-09-01

    The cultural traditions of Mexican women living in the United States make it likely that some women promote their health and manage their symptoms using various herbal therapies, yet we know little about this phenomenon. The purpose of this study was to describe and compare midlife Mexican women living in the U.S. who were or were not using herbal therapies with regard to the extent of their acculturation, beliefs about herbs, and factors associated with their utilization of health services. A convenience sample of 30 Mexican women between the ages of 40 and 56 years completed face-to-face interviews in either English or Spanish. Nearly half reported using herbal therapies. With the exception of positive beliefs about herbs, we found few differences between herbal users and nonusers on acculturation or access to, and satisfaction with, health services. Although acculturation did not appear to influence whether the women used herbal therapies, it did relate to the types of herbs selected. Women most commonly reported using herbs popular in traditional Mexican culture, including manzanilla (chamomile), savila (aloe vera), ajo (garlic), uña de gato (cat's claw), and yerba buena (spearmint).

  17. Use of Herbal Medicine Among Pregnant Women on Antenatal Care at Nekemte Hospital, Western Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Bayisa, Bodena; Tatiparthi, Ramanjireddy; Mulisa, Eshetu

    2014-01-01

    Background: Investigations across the world confirm dramatic increment in the use of complementary and alternative medicine in pregnant women. The most important aspect is lack of awareness of pregnant women about potential effects of using traditional medicine on fetus; some herbal products may be teratogenic in human and animal models. In this area, so far, no research has been conducted in Ethiopia to assess traditional medicine use in pregnant women. Objectives: Therefore, the main objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence and use of herbal drugs among pregnant women attending Nekemte Hospital to provide baseline information for future studies. Patients and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted by quantitative and qualitative approaches to identify the prevalence of using herbal medicines among pregnant women. About 50.4% of study participants used herbal drugs during their pregnancy. The proportion of herbal drug usage was gradually decreased along with the first, second and third trimesters of pregnancy. The most and least commonly used herbs were ginger (44.36%) and tenaadam (9.15 %), respectively. The common indications of herbal remedies use during pregnancy were nausea (23.90%) and morning sickness (21.05%). Results: The result of the present study confirmed wide use of herbal drugs use during pregnancy that need to report the safety concerns of these drugs during pregnancy. Conclusions: To achieve the requirements of pregnant women, it is vital for health care workers to be familiar with the effect of herbal medicine in pregnancy. PMID:25625049

  18. Generational Differences in Japanese Attitudes toward Women's Employment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engel, John W.

    Traditional ideals discourage Japanese women from working outside the home. This study was conducted to explore generational differences in Japanese attitudes toward women's employment and to interpret those differences in terms of social change. Questionnaires were distributed to approximately 900 Japanese men and women. Subjects were classified…

  19. Der Begriff des "Ki" und die japanische Padagogik: Uber Konflikte zwischen westlicher und japanischer Padagogik (The Concept of "Ki" and Japanese Pedagogy: On Conflicts between Western and Japanese Pedagogics).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fujikawa, Nobuo

    1997-01-01

    Sketches the characteristics of the Japanese educational tradition and analyzes conflicts between modern western pedagogies and traditional education. Argues that Japanese socialization processes stress a specifically Japanese construction of the "self" and of behavior. Concludes that Japanese educators should be more aware of this…

  20. Herbal hepatotoxicity: a critical review

    PubMed Central

    Teschke, Rolf; Frenzel, Christian; Glass, Xaver; Schulze, Johannes; Eickhoff, Axel

    2013-01-01

    This review deals with herbal hepatotoxicity, identical to herb induced liver injury (HILI), and critically summarizes the pitfalls associated with the evaluation of assumed HILI cases. Analysis of the relevant publications reveals that several dozens of different herbs and herbal products have been implicated to cause toxic liver disease, but major quality issues limit the validity of causality attribution. In most of these reports, discussions around quality specifications regarding herbal products, case data presentations and causality assessment methods prevail. Though the production of herbal drugs is under regulatory surveillance and quality aspects are normally not a matter of concern, low quality of the less regulated herbal supplements may be a critical issue considering product batch variability, impurities, adulterants and herb misidentifications. Regarding case data presentation, essential diagnostic information is often lacking, as is the use of valid and liver specific causality assessment methods that also consider alternative diseases. At present, causality is best assessed by using the Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences scale ( CIOMS) in its original or updated form, which should primarily be applied prospectively by the treating physician when evaluating a patient rather than retrospectively by regulatory agencies. To cope with these problems, a common quality approach by manufacturers, physicians and regulatory agencies should strive for the best quality. We propose steps for improvements with impact on future cases of liver injury by herbs, herbal drugs and herbal supplements. PMID:22831551

  1. Herbal medicine-related hepatotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Stournaras, Evangelos; Tziomalos, Konstantinos

    2015-01-01

    Herbal medicine products represent a common therapeutic approach in the East and are gaining increasing popularity in Western countries. They are unjustifiably considered to be side-effect free; on the contrary, severe toxicity, including catastrophic hepatic injury has been reported in association with their use. Vigilance is required from both physicians and the general public. Physicians should always suspect herbal medicines when evaluating a patient with unexplained liver injury. Regulation standards for herbal products need to be reconsidered, so that the efficacy and safety of these products have been clearly demonstrated before they enter the markets. PMID:26380043

  2. HIM-herbal ingredients in-vivo metabolism database

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Herbal medicine has long been viewed as a valuable asset for potential new drug discovery and herbal ingredients’ metabolites, especially the in vivo metabolites were often found to gain better pharmacological, pharmacokinetic and even better safety profiles compared to their parent compounds. However, these herbal metabolite information is still scattered and waiting to be collected. Description HIM database manually collected so far the most comprehensive available in-vivo metabolism information for herbal active ingredients, as well as their corresponding bioactivity, organs and/or tissues distribution, toxicity, ADME and the clinical research profile. Currently HIM contains 361 ingredients and 1104 corresponding in-vivo metabolites from 673 reputable herbs. Tools of structural similarity, substructure search and Lipinski’s Rule of Five are also provided. Various links were made to PubChem, PubMed, TCM-ID (Traditional Chinese Medicine Information database) and HIT (Herbal ingredients’ targets databases). Conclusions A curated database HIM is set up for the in vivo metabolites information of the active ingredients for Chinese herbs, together with their corresponding bioactivity, toxicity and ADME profile. HIM is freely accessible to academic researchers at http://www.bioinformatics.org.cn/. PMID:23721660

  3. Effects and Mechanisms of Chinese Herbal Medicine in Ameliorating Myocardial Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qing; Li, Jiqiang; Wang, Jing; Li, Jianping; Janicki, Joseph S.

    2013-01-01

    Myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (MIR) injury is a major contributor to the morbidity and mortality associated with coronary artery disease, which accounts for approximately 450,000 deaths a year in the United States alone. Chinese herbal medicine, especially combined herbal formulations, has been widely used in traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of myocardial infarction for hundreds of years. While the efficacy of Chinese herbal medicine is well documented, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain elusive. In this review, we highlight recent studies which are focused on elucidating the cellular and molecular mechanisms using extracted compounds, single herbs, or herbal formulations in experimental settings. These studies represent recent efforts to bridge the gap between the enigma of ancient Chinese herbal medicine and the concepts of modern cell and molecular biology in the treatment of myocardial infarction. PMID:24288571

  4. [Significance of re-evaluation and development of Chinese herbal drugs].

    PubMed

    Gao, Yue; Ma, Zengchun; Zhang, Boli

    2012-01-01

    The research of new herbal drugs involves in new herbal drugs development and renew the old drugs. It is necessary to research new herbal drugs based on the theory of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). The current development of famous TCM focuses on the manufacture process, quality control standards, material basis and clinical research. But system management of security evaluation is deficient, the relevant system for the safety assessment TCM has not been established. The causes of security problems, security risks, target organ of toxicity, weak link of safety evaluation, and ideas of safety evaluation are discussed in this paper. The toxicology research of chinese herbal drugs is necessary based on standard of good laboratory practices (GLP), the characteristic of Chinese herbal drugs is necessary to be fully integrated into safety evaluation. The safety of new drug research is necessary to be integrated throughout the entire process. Famous Chinese medicine safety research must be paid more attention in the future.

  5. Kampo Medicine: Evaluation of the Pharmacological Activity of 121 Herbal Drugs on GABAA and 5-HT3A Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Katrin M.; Herbrechter, Robin; Ziemba, Paul M.; Lepke, Peter; Beltrán, Leopoldo; Hatt, Hanns; Werner, Markus; Gisselmann, Günter

    2016-01-01

    Kampo medicine is a form of Japanese phytotherapy originating from traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). During the last several decades, much attention has been paid to the pharmacological effects of these medical plants and their constituents. However, in many cases, a systematic screening of Kampo remedies to determine pharmacologically relevant targets is still lacking. In this study, a broad screening of Kampo remedies was performed to look for pharmacologically relevant 5-HT3A and GABAA receptor ligands. Several of the Kampo remedies are currently used for symptoms such as nausea, emesis, gastrointestinal motility disorders, anxiety, restlessness, or insomnia. Therefore, the pharmacological effects of 121 herbal drugs from Kampo medicine were analyzed as ethanol tinctures on heterologously expressed 5-HT3A and GABAA receptors, due to the involvement of these receptors in such pathophysiological processes. The tinctures of Lindera aggregata (radix) and Leonurus japonicus (herba) were the most effective inhibitory compounds on the 5-HT3A receptor. Further investigation of known ingredients in these compounds led to the identification of leonurine from Leonurus as a new natural 5-HT3A receptor antagonist. Several potentiating herbs (e.g., Magnolia officinalis (cortex), Syzygium aromaticum (flos), and Panax ginseng (radix)) were also identified for the GABAA receptor, which are all traditionally used for their sedative or anxiolytic effects. A variety of tinctures with antagonistic effects Salvia miltiorrhiza (radix) were also detected. Therefore, this study reveals new insights into the pharmacological action of a broad spectrum of herbal drugs from Kampo, allowing for a better understanding of their physiological effects and clinical applications. PMID:27524967

  6. [Traditional Chinese medicine in urology].

    PubMed

    Hüsch, T; Tsaur, I; Reiter, M; Mager, R; Haferkamp, A

    2014-11-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is an ancient holistic medicine based on the doctrine of Tao and Qi. Tao represents an alteration from which the polarity of Yin and Yang arises and Qi is the vitality which circulates through the body. Therapeutic concepts of TCM include acupuncture, herbal therapy, nutrition and Tuina, a form of manual therapy. TCM is now gaining increased acceptance in the Western society as a complementary therapy. Acupuncture and herbal therapy are the main forms of implementation of TCM in urology.

  7. The Japanese Domestic Labor Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ueno, Chizuko

    The changing role of Japanese women can be seen in the stages of a domestic labor debate which occurred at three different times in the past 30 years. The first debate began with Ayako Ishigaki's (1955) insistence that women should have a job outside the home. Wartime production helped break down traditional divisions of labor by encouraging women…

  8. HPTLC in Herbal Drug Quantification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinde, Devanand B.; Chavan, Machindra J.; Wakte, Pravin S.

    For the past few decades, compounds from natural sources have been gaining importance because of the vast chemical diversity they offer. This has led to phenomenal increase in the demand for herbal medicines in the last two decades and need has been felt for ensuring the quality, safety, and efficacy of herbal drugs. Phytochemical evaluation is one of the tools for the quality assessment, which include preliminary phytochemical screening, chemoprofiling, and marker compound analysis using modern analytical techniques. High-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) has been emerged as an important tool for the qualitative, semiquantitative, and quantitative phytochemical analysis of the herbal drugs and formulations. This includes developing TLC fingerprinting profiles and estimation of biomarkers. This review has an attempt to focus on the theoretical considerations of HPTLC and some examples of herbal drugs and formulations analyzed by HPTLC.

  9. Pharmacogenomics Implications of Using Herbal Medicinal Plants on African Populations in Health Transition

    PubMed Central

    Thomford, Nicholas E.; Dzobo, Kevin; Chopera, Denis; Wonkam, Ambroise; Skelton, Michelle; Blackhurst, Dee; Chirikure, Shadreck; Dandara, Collet

    2015-01-01

    The most accessible points of call for most African populations with respect to primary health care are traditional health systems that include spiritual, religious, and herbal medicine. This review focusses only on the use of herbal medicines. Most African people accept herbal medicines as generally safe with no serious adverse effects. However, the overlap between conventional medicine and herbal medicine is a reality among countries in health systems transition. Patients often simultaneously seek treatment from both conventional and traditional health systems for the same condition. Commonly encountered conditions/diseases include malaria, HIV/AIDS, hypertension, tuberculosis, and bleeding disorders. It is therefore imperative to understand the modes of interaction between different drugs from conventional and traditional health care systems when used in treatment combinations. Both conventional and traditional drug entities are metabolized by the same enzyme systems in the human body, resulting in both pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics interactions, whose properties remain unknown/unquantified. Thus, it is important that profiles of interaction between different herbal and conventional medicines be evaluated. This review evaluates herbal and conventional drugs in a few African countries and their potential interaction at the pharmacogenomics level. PMID:26402689

  10. A brief review on the application of nanoparticle enclosed herbal medicine for the treatment of infective endocarditis.

    PubMed

    Namdari, Mehrdad; Eatemadi, Ali; Soleimaninejad, Maryam; Hammed, Aiyelabegan T

    2017-03-01

    Herbal medicines have been routinely employed all over the world dated back from the ancient time and have been identified by patients and physicians for their excellent therapeutic value as they have lower adverse effects when compared with the modern medicines. Phytotherapeutics requires a scientific technique to deliver the active herbal extract in a controlled manner to avoid repeated administration and increase patient compliance. This can be reached by fabricating a novel drug delivery systems (NDDS) for herbal components. NDDSs does not only decrease the repeated dose to overcome ineffectiveness, but also help to increase potency by decreasing toxicity and elevating drug bioavailability. Nano-sized DDS of herbal drugs have a potential application for improving the activity and countering the problems related to herbal medicines. Hence, application of nanocarriers as an NDDS in the traditional herbal medicine system is important to treat more chronic diseases like infectious endocarditis.

  11. Re-Examining Patriotism in Japanese Education: Analysis of Japanese Elementary School Moral Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anzai, Shinobu

    2015-01-01

    In 1947 the Fundamental Law of Education (FLE) defined the pacifist principles for post-war Japanese education and was revised in 2006 for the first time in nearly 60 years. The revised FLE stipulates the importance of teaching love for country and region and Japanese culture and traditions with special emphasis on moral education. Today, this…

  12. Japanese Characters in Written Japanese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buck, James H.

    From the sixth to the eighth century A.D., Japan was the recipient of massive cultural infusions from China. This acceptance of the Chinese pattern included, and to a great extent was based on, the acceptance of the Chinese language. The Chinese writing system was applied to Japanese because there was no other model to follow and in spite of the…

  13. Toxic hepatitis induced by a herbal medicine: Tinospora crispa.

    PubMed

    Langrand, J; Regnault, H; Cachet, X; Bouzidi, C; Villa, A F; Serfaty, L; Garnier, R; Michel, S

    2014-01-01

    Herbal remedies are becoming increasingly popular in many countries. Tinospora species (Menispermaceae) is commonly used as a herbal medicine in South Asia, but very few toxic effects have been described. We report a case of acute hepatitis associated with chronic use of high doses of Tinospora crispa. A 49-year-old male with chronic low back pain bought a herbal medicine at a market in Vietnam that was supposed to be Tinospora crispa, and started to take 10 pellets per day. He had no medical history and did not take any other drugs or toxins. Four weeks later; he developed dark urine and pale stools, associated with asthenia and right hypochondrial pain. Two months after starting treatment, he was referred to the hepatology department with jaundice. Blood tests showed aspartate aminotransferase: 1.169 IU/l, alanine aminotransferase: 2.029 IU/l, total bilirubin: 20.47 mg/dl, direct bilirubin: 13.29 mg/dl, and γ-glutamyltransferase: 243 IU/l. Viral and autoimmune hepatitis were eliminated. Upper abdominal ultrasound was normal. Histopathological findings were consistent with a toxic reaction. The herbal medicine was stopped on admission and the patient fully recovered without treatment, with normal liver function 2 months after the acute episode. Tinospora crispa was clearly identified in the pellets by microscopic analysis of the botanical characters combined with chromatographic fingerprints. The use of herbal medicines containing Tinospora crispa can induce toxic hepatitis. Recovery can be complete after discontinuation. This case highlights the risk associated with traditional herbal remedies.

  14. Sip-jeon-dea-bo-tang, a traditional herbal medicine, ameliorates cisplatin-induced anorexia via the activation of JAK1/STAT3-mediated leptin and IL-6 production in the fat tissue of mice.

    PubMed

    Woo, Sang-Mi; Choi, Youn Kyung; Kim, Ah-Jeong; Yun, Yee Jin; Shin, Yong Cheol; Cho, Sung-Gook; Ko, Seong Gyu

    2016-04-01

    Despite its therapeutic advantages, chemotherapy can also cause adverse effects, including anorexia and loss of appetite. Although numerous patients with cancer have been reported to suffer from anorexia during or following chemotherapy, treatment options for anorexia remain to be determined. In Asian countries, traditional medicines are widely used to treat problems with appetite; sip-jeon-dea-bo-tang (SJDBT) is one of those medicines used for the treatment of anorexia. The present study demonstrated that SJDBT ameliorated cisplatin-induced anorexia. In a mouse model of chemotherapy-induced anorexia, oral administration of SJDBT prevented the cisplatin-induced reduction of food intake, inhibiting weight loss. The results of multiplex assays showed that SJDBT only altered the levels of interleukin (IL)-6 and leptin in the serum and fat tissue. In addition, SJDBT maintained the serum leptin level and increased the serum IL-6 level, whereas cisplatin reduced the levels of both serum leptin and IL‑6. Furthermore, SJDBT was revealed to increase the levels of leptin and IL-6 in the fat tissue by activating the JAK1/STAT3 signaling pathway. In conclusion, the present results revealed that SJDBT ameliorated cisplatin-induced anorexia, suggesting its usefulness in the prevention of anorexia during chemotherapy.

  15. Shikonin Inhibits the Migration and Invasion of Human Glioblastoma Cells by Targeting Phosphorylated β-Catenin and Phosphorylated PI3K/Akt: A Potential Mechanism for the Anti-Glioma Efficacy of a Traditional Chinese Herbal Medicine.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Feng-Ying; Hu, Yi; Que, Zhong-You; Wang, Ping; Liu, Yun-Hui; Wang, Zhen-Hua; Xue, Yi-Xue

    2015-10-09

    Shikonin is an anthraquinone derivative extracted from the root of lithospermum. Shikonin is traditionally used in the treatment of inflammatory and infectious diseases such as hepatitis. Shikonin also inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis in various tumors. However, the effect of shikonin on gliomas has not been fully elucidated. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the effects of shikonin on the migration and invasion of human glioblastoma cells as well as the underlying mechanisms. U87 and U251 human glioblastoma cells were treated with shikonin at 2.5, 5, and 7.5 μmol/L and cell viability, migration and invasiveness were assessed with CCK8, scratch wound healing, in vitro Transwell migration, and invasion assays. The expression and activity of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and the expression of phosphorylated β-catenin (p-β-catenin) and phosphorylated PI3K/Akt were also checked. Results showed that shikonin significantly inhibited the cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in U87 and U251 cells. The expression of p-β-catenin showed contrary trends in two cell lines. It was significantly inhibited in U87 cells and promoted in U251 cells. Results in this work indicated that shikonin displayed an inhibitory effect on the migration and invasion of glioma cells by inhibiting the expression and activity of MMP-2 and -9. In addition, shikonin also inhibited the expression of p-PI3K and p-Akt to attenuate cell migration and invasion and MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression in both cell lines, which could be reversed by the PI3K/Akt pathway agonist, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1).

  16. Shikonin Inhibits the Migration and Invasion of Human Glioblastoma Cells by Targeting Phosphorylated β-Catenin and Phosphorylated PI3K/Akt: A Potential Mechanism for the Anti-Glioma Efficacy of a Traditional Chinese Herbal Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Feng-Ying; Hu, Yi; Que, Zhong-You; Wang, Ping; Liu, Yun-Hui; Wang, Zhen-Hua; Xue, Yi-Xue

    2015-01-01

    Shikonin is an anthraquinone derivative extracted from the root of lithospermum. Shikonin is traditionally used in the treatment of inflammatory and infectious diseases such as hepatitis. Shikonin also inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis in various tumors. However, the effect of shikonin on gliomas has not been fully elucidated. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the effects of shikonin on the migration and invasion of human glioblastoma cells as well as the underlying mechanisms. U87 and U251 human glioblastoma cells were treated with shikonin at 2.5, 5, and 7.5 μmol/L and cell viability, migration and invasiveness were assessed with CCK8, scratch wound healing, in vitro Transwell migration, and invasion assays. The expression and activity of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and the expression of phosphorylated β-catenin (p-β-catenin) and phosphorylated PI3K/Akt were also checked. Results showed that shikonin significantly inhibited the cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in U87 and U251 cells. The expression of p-β-catenin showed contrary trends in two cell lines. It was significantly inhibited in U87 cells and promoted in U251 cells. Results in this work indicated that shikonin displayed an inhibitory effect on the migration and invasion of glioma cells by inhibiting the expression and activity of MMP-2 and -9. In addition, shikonin also inhibited the expression of p-PI3K and p-Akt to attenuate cell migration and invasion and MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression in both cell lines, which could be reversed by the PI3K/Akt pathway agonist, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). PMID:26473829

  17. Comparison of "herbal highs" composition.

    PubMed

    Zuba, Dariusz; Byrska, Bogumila; Maciow, Martyna

    2011-04-01

    Popularity of new psychoactive substances, known as legal highs or herbal highs, is continuously growing. These products are typically sold via internet and in so-called head shops. The aim of this study was to identify active ingredients of herbal highs and to compare their chemical composition. Twenty-nine various products seized by the police in one of the "head shops" were analysed. Herbal mixtures (0.2 g) were prepared by ultrasonic-assisted extraction with 2.0 ml of ethanol for 2 h. The extracts were analysed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The main active compounds of the herbal mixtures were synthetic cannabinoids: JWH-018, JWH-073 and cannabicyclohexanol (CP-47,497-C8-homolog). Their content differed between the products; some contained only one cannabinoid whereas the others contained two or more. Cluster analysis and principal component analysis revealed that chemical composition of many products was very similar. The similarity was connected with their flavour and not the common name. This statement was true for the synthetic cannabinoids, other potential agonists of cannabinoid receptors (amides of fatty acids) and ingredients of natural origin and confirms that herbal highs are a threat to human health because the purchaser has no information on their real composition.

  18. Herbal Treatment for Anxiety: Is It Effective?

    MedlinePlus

    ... abdominal pain. If you're considering taking any herbal supplement as a treatment for anxiety, talk to your ... you take other medications. The interaction of some herbal supplements and certain medications can cause serious side effects. ...

  19. Quality of herbal medicines: challenges and solutions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Junhua; Wider, Barbara; Shang, Hongcai; Li, Xuemei; Ernst, Edzard

    2012-01-01

    The popularity of herbal medicines has risen worldwide. This increase in usage renders safety issues important. Many adverse events of herbal medicines can be attributed to the poor quality of the raw materials or the finished products. Different types of herbal medicines are associated with different problems. Quality issues of herbal medicines can be classified into two categories: external and internal. In this review, external issues including contamination (e.g. toxic metals, pesticides residues and microbes), adulteration and misidentification are detailed. Complexity and non-uniformity of the ingredients in herbal medicines are the internal issues affecting the quality of herbal medicines. Solutions to the raised problems are discussed. The rigorous implementation of Good Agricultural and Collection Practices (GACP) and Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) would undoubtedly reduce the risk of external issues. Through the use of modern analytical methods and pharmaceutical techniques, previously unsolved internal issues have become solvable. Standard herbal products can be manufactured from the standard herbal extracts.

  20. Pharmacovigilance of herbal medicines: the potential contributions of ethnobotanical and ethnopharmacological studies.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Eliana; Barnes, Joanne

    2013-01-01

    Typically, ethnobotanical/ethnopharmacological (EB/EP) surveys are used to describe uses, doses/dosages, sources and methods of preparation of traditional herbal medicines; their application to date in examining the adverse effects, contraindications and other safety aspects of these preparations is limited. From a pharmacovigilance perspective, numerous challenges exist in applying its existing methods to studying the safety profile of herbal medicines, particularly where used by indigenous cultures. This paper aims to contribute to the methodological aspects of EB/EP field work, and to extend the reach of pharmacovigilance, by proposing a tool comprising a list of questions that could be applied during interview and observational studies. The questions focus on the collection of information on the safety profile of traditional herbal medicines as it is embedded in traditional knowledge, as well as on identifying personal experiences (spontaneous reports) of adverse or undesirable effects associated with the use of traditional herbal medicines. Questions on the precise composition of traditional prescriptions or 'recipes', their preparation, storage, administration and dosing are also included. Strengths and limitations of the tool are discussed. From this interweaving of EB/EP and pharmacovigilance arises a concept of ethnopharmacovigilance for traditional herbal medicines: the scope of EB/EP is extended to include exploration of the potential harmful effects of medicinal plants, and the incorporation of pharmacovigilance questions into EB/EP studies provides a new opportunity for collection of 'general' traditional knowledge on the safety of traditional herbal medicines and, importantly, a conduit for collection of spontaneous reports of suspected adverse effects. Whether the proposed tool can yield data sufficiently rich and of an appropriate quality for application of EB/EP (e.g. data verification and quantitative analysis tools) and pharmacovigilance

  1. [The medicines of herbal and animal origin in ancient Greece].

    PubMed

    Skaltsa, Hélène

    2014-01-01

    The present study concerns an effort to present historic data on the evolution of the medicines used by the ancient Greeks from the prehippocratic period until the greco-roman times. In addition, information is given for the influence of this accumulated knowledge based on the greek traditional herbal medicines in the first editions of the Hellenic Pharmacopoeia (19th century) through the byzantin manuscripts.

  2. Herbal Excipients in Novel Drug Delivery Systems

    PubMed Central

    Shirwaikar, A.; Shirwaikar, Annie; Prabu, S. Lakshmana; Kumar, G. Aravind

    2008-01-01

    The use of natural excipients to deliver the bioactive agents has been hampered by the synthetic materials. However advantages offered by these natural excipients are their being non-toxic, less expensive and freely available. The performance of the excipients partly determines the quality of the medicines. The traditional concept of the excipients as any component other than the active substance has undergone a substantial evolution from an inert and cheap vehicle to an essential constituent of the formulation. Excipients are any component other than the active substance(s) intentionally added to formulation of a dosage form. This article gives an overview of herbal excipients which are used in conventional dosage forms as well as novel drug delivery systems. PMID:20046764

  3. Capacity for Clinical Research on Herbal Medicines in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Siegfried, Nandi; Johnson, Quinton

    2012-01-01

    Abstract An electronic survey was used to assess the training needs of clinical and public health researchers who have been involved, and/or plan to become involved, in clinical trials of herbal medicines in Africa. Over 90 researchers were contacted through pre-existing networks, of whom 58 (64%) responded, from 35 institutions in 14 African countries. Over half (57%) had already been involved in a clinical trial of an herbal medicine, and gave information about a total of 23 trials that have already been completed. Of these, only five had been published, and only one had resulted in a licensed product. Fifty-four (54) of the researchers were planning to conduct a clinical trial of an herbal medicine in the future, and gave information about 54 possible trials. Respondents outlined the following most commonly encountered difficulties when conducting clinical trials: resource constraints (including lack of funding, equipment, staff, and infrastructure); social acceptance of the clinical trial (including difficulty recruiting enough patients, poor rapport with traditional healers, and willingness of biomedical staff to be involved); herbal medicine supply (including insufficient cultivation, production, and quality control); lack of trained staff; and logistical issues in conducting trials. The topics in which researchers were least confident were Intellectual Property Rights issues, statistical issues, and issues related to Good Clinical Practice guidelines. PMID:22784350

  4. Current status of herbal product: Regulatory overview.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    A review of the regulatory status of herbal drugs/products was done for few countries forming part of Asia, Africa, America, Europe, and Australia, to understand various categories under which the trade of herbal products is permitted and their premarketing requirements. A critical assessment was done, to know the hindrances in the process of harmonization of herbal products. It has been found that there is a lack of harmonization in the regulatory requirements of herbal products internationally, besides the issues of availability of herbs and their conservation. These are hindering the international trade and growth of the herbal products segment.

  5. Current status of herbal product: Regulatory overview

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    A review of the regulatory status of herbal drugs/products was done for few countries forming part of Asia, Africa, America, Europe, and Australia, to understand various categories under which the trade of herbal products is permitted and their premarketing requirements. A critical assessment was done, to know the hindrances in the process of harmonization of herbal products. It has been found that there is a lack of harmonization in the regulatory requirements of herbal products internationally, besides the issues of availability of herbs and their conservation. These are hindering the international trade and growth of the herbal products segment. PMID:26681886

  6. Techniques: Bioprospecting historical herbal texts by hunting for new leads in old tomes.

    PubMed

    Buenz, Eric J; Schnepple, David J; Bauer, Brent A; Elkin, Peter L; Riddle, John M; Motley, Timothy J

    2004-09-01

    Ethnobotany has led to the identification of novel pharmacological agents but many challenges to using ethnobotany as a research tool remain. In particular, the loss of traditional knowledge together with the advent of high-throughput screening has made ethnobotanical techniques laborious and potentially unnecessary. However, historical herbal texts provide a preexisting resource that documents the traditional uses of various species as medicines. As generational losses of traditional knowledge accrue, these herbal texts become increasingly valuable. The methodology for extracting useful information contained within these resources had been cumbersome and consuming. However, the application of new bioinformatics data-mining systems to herbal texts holds great promise for identifying novel pharmacotherapeutic leads for bioactive compounds.

  7. Veterinary herbal medicines in India

    PubMed Central

    Rastogi, Shruti; Pandey, Manoj Kumar; Prakash, Jai; Sharma, Alok; Singh, Gyanendra Nath

    2015-01-01

    India has a rich and diversified flora. It is seen that synthetic drugs could pose serious problems, are toxic and costly. In contrast to this, herbal medicines are relatively nontoxic, cheaper and are eco-friendly. Moreover, the people have used them for generations. They have also been used in day-to-day problems of healthcare in animals. 25% of the drugs prescribed worldwide come from plants. Almost 75% of the medicinal plants grow naturally in different states of India. These plants are known to cure many ailments in animals like poisoning, cough, constipation, foot and mouth disease, dermatitis, cataract, burning, pneumonia, bone fractures, snake bites, abdominal pains, skin diseases etc. There is scarce review of such information (veterinary herbals) in the literature. The electronic and manual search was made using various key words such as veterinary herbal, ethno-veterinary medicines etc. and the content systematically arranged. This article deals with the comprehensive review of 45 medicinal plant species that are official in Indian Pharmacopoeia (IP) 2014. The botanical names, family, habitat, plant part used and pharmacological actions, status in British Pharmacopoeia 2014, USP 36 are mentioned. Also, a relationship between animal and human dose, standardization and regulatory aspects of these selected veterinary herbals are provided. PMID:26392714

  8. Application of Herbal Medicines with Bitter Flavor and Cold Property on Treating Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hongdong; Guo, Jing; Pang, Bing; Zhao, Linhua; Tong, Xiaolin

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus has been a global pandemic. Traditional Chinese Medicine has been used on diabetes mellitus for thousands of years and the modern Chinese medicine studies have found a curative effect of herbal medicine with bitter flavor and cold property on diabetes. This review will introduce the theory summary of flavor and property in TCM, argument basis, the evidences from clinical trails and animal experiments, the possible antidiabetic mechanisms, and advantages on lowering glucose of herbal medicines with bitter flavor and cold property and take rhizome, Chinese rhubarb, and Momordica charantia, the three herbal medicines with bitter flavor and cold property, as examples to illustrate the exact antidiabetic effect. It is hoped that this review can provide some ideas and inspiration for the treatment of diabetes with herbal medicine. PMID:26557150

  9. Untargeted metabolomics: an emerging approach to determine the composition of herbal products

    PubMed Central

    Commisso, Mauro; Strazzer, Pamela; Toffali, Ketti; Stocchero, Matteo; Guzzo, Flavia

    2013-01-01

    Natural remedies, such as those based on traditional Chinese medicines, have become more popular also in western countries over the last 10 years. The composition of these herbal products is largely unknown and difficult to determine. Moreover, since plants respond to their environment changing the metabolome, the composition of plant material can vary depending on the plant growth conditions. However, there is a growing need of a deeper knowledge on such natural remedies also in view of the growing number of reports of toxicity following the consumption of herbal supplements. Untargeted metabolomics is a useful approach for the simultaneous analysis of many compounds in herbal products. In particular, liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC-MS) can determine presence, amount and sometime structures of plant metabolites in complex herbal mixtures, with significant advantages over techniques such as nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS). PMID:24688688

  10. [A complexity analysis of Chinese herbal property theory: the multiple expressions of herbal property].

    PubMed

    Jin, Rui; Zhang, Bing

    2012-12-01

    Chinese herbal property is the highly summarized concept of herbal nature and pharmaceutical effect, which reflect the characteristics of herbal actions on human body. These herbal actions, also interpreted as presenting the information about pharmaceutical effect contained in herbal property on the biological carrier, are defined as herbal property expressions. However, the biological expression of herbal property is believed to possess complex features for the involved complexity of Chinese medicine and organism. Firstly, there are multiple factors which could influence the expression results of herbal property such as the growth environment, harvest season and preparing methods of medicinal herbs, and physique and syndrome of body. Secondly, there are multiple biological approaches and biochemical indicators for the expression of the same property. This paper elaborated these complexities for further understanding of herbal property. The individuality of herbs and expression factors should be well analyzed in the related studies.

  11. Herbal medicines for the treatment of functional and inflammatory bowel disorders.

    PubMed

    Holtmann, Gerald; Talley, Nicholas J

    2015-03-01

    In many parts of the world, there continues to be a long-standing tradition of prescribing herbal products for a range of gastrointestinal conditions. Scientific evidence supporting the use of all herbal preparations is imperfect, however, and available studies are plagued by methodological limitations. For functional gastrointestinal disorders, there is limited evidence supporting the use of some well-characterized preparations. A number of herbals have immunomodulatory activity, and in inflammatory bowel disease there are limited positive placebo-controlled trials; other studies used active controls with suboptimal doses of the comparators. Like all drugs, herbals can lead to serious adverse events (eg, hepatic failure). Quality control is a serious issue to consider when prescribing herbal medicines. Many herbal preparations are marketed without evidence for stringent adherence to good manufacturing practice guidelines. Unpredictable environmental conditions may affect the composition and the concentration of the active ingredients of plant extracts. Further, commercial herbal products usually combine a variable plethora of chemical families with possible medicinal utility. While some of these ingredients might be of benefit, the concentration and dose of these constituents needs to be closely monitored. Physicians and regulators need to remain very cautious about the use of herbal remedies. Appropriate scientific evidence for the claimed clinical benefits should become mandatory worldwide, and the standards for production and safety monitoring should comply with established standards for chemically defined products. If these principles were adopted, the full value of herbal remedies may come to light, particularly as the individually bioactive compounds present in these preparations become recognized.

  12. HPTLC Fingerprint Analysis: A Quality Control for Authentication of Herbal Phytochemicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ram, Mauji; Abdin, M. Z.; Khan, M. A.; Jha, Prabhakar

    Authentication and consistent quality are the basic requirement for Indian traditional medicine (TIM), Chinese traditional herbal medicine (TCHM), and their commercial products, regardless of the kind of research conducted to modernize the TIM and TCHM. The complexities of TIM and TCHM challenge the current official quality control mode, for which only a few biochemical markers were selected for identification and quantitative assay. Referring too many unknown factors existed in TIM and TCHM, it is impossible and unnecessary to pinpoint qualitatively and quantitatively every single component contained in the herbal drug. Chromatographic fingerprint is a rational option to meet the need for more effective and powerful quality assessment to TIM and TCHM. The optimized chromatographic fingerprint is not only an alternative analytical tool for authentication, but also an approach to express the various pattern of chemical ingredients distribution in the herbal drugs and preserve such "database" for further multifaced sustainable studies. Analytical separation techniques, for example, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), gas chromatography (GC) and mass spectrometry (MS) were among the most popular methods of choice used for quality control of raw material and finished herbal product. Fingerprint analysis approach using high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) has become the most potent tool for quality control of herbal medicines because of its simplicity and reliability. It can serve as a tool for identification, authentication, and quality control of herbal drugs. In this chapter, attempts are being made to expand the use of HPTLC and at the same time create interest among prospective researcher in herbal analysis. The developed method can be used as a quality control tool for rapid authentication from a wide variety of herbal samples. Some examples demonstrated the role of fingerprinting in quality control and assessment.

  13. The use of community herbal monographs to facilitate registrations and authorisations of herbal medicinal products in the European Union 2004-2012.

    PubMed

    Peschel, Wieland

    2014-12-02

    The provisions for the simplified registration of traditional herbal medicinal products in the European Union were introduced by Directive 2004/24/EC amending Directive 2001/83/EC (Chapter 2a) in 2004. Since implementation in the European member states until December 2012 a total of 1015 registrations (traditional use) and 514 authorisations (well-established use) have been granted for products containing substances/ preparations from about 200 different herbal drugs. The overall number of received applications with more than one third still under assessment suggests a further increase for the next years. This review summarises the main features of registered and authorised herbal medicinal products in the EU and evaluates available data against provisions of Directive 2004/24/EC and European standards established by the Committee on Herbal Medicinal Products at the European Medicines Agency. The supportive function of Community herbal monographs is described as regards availability and their use in national procedures, which is complemented by an analysis of specific future challenges from experiences made with the implementation of Directive 2004/24/EC so far.

  14. Prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in herbal products.

    PubMed

    Brown, Joseph C; Jiang, Xiuping

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in various herbal products. Twenty-nine herbal supplements (18 traditional and 11 organic products) were purchased from stores and analyzed microbiologically. Total bacterial counts were determined by pour plate and surface spreading on tryptic soy agar (TSA). Antibiotic-resistant bacteria were enumerated on TSA supplemented with ceftriaxone (64 microg/ml) or tetracycline (16 microg/ml). Total bacterial counts ranged from <5 to 2.9 x 10(5) CFU/g. Ceftriaxone- and tetracycline-resistant bacteria were detected in ground garlic samples at 1.1 x 10(2) CFU/g and 3.0 x 102 CFU/g, respectively. Traditional and organic onion powder samples contained tetracycline-resistant bacteria at 17 and 28 CFU/g and ceftriaxone-resistant bacteria at 35 and 2.0 x 10(3) CFU/g, respectively. Other products such as ginger, rosemary, mustard, and goldenseal contained low levels of resistant bacteria. Fifty-two isolates were further evaluated against nine antibiotics, and the prevalence of antibiotic resistance was in the following order: ampicillin, nalidixic acid, trimethoprim, ceftriaxone, and streptomycin. Resistant bacteria were identified as Bacillus spp., Erwinia spp., and Ewingella americana. Staphylococcus spp., Enterobacter cloacae, and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia also were isolated. The presence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and pathogens in these herbal products suggests that production and use of these products may need further evaluation.

  15. Influence of herbal combinations on the extraction efficiencies of chemical compounds from Cinnamomum cassia, Paeonia lactiflora, and Glycyrrhiza uralensis, the herbal components of Gyeji-tang, evaluated by HPLC method.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung-Hoon; Ha, Woo-Ram; Park, Jin-Hyung; Lee, Guemsan; Choi, Goya; Lee, Seung-Ho; Kim, Young-Sik

    2016-09-10

    During decoction process, the ingredients of herbal formula interact with each other, such that therapeutic properties and chemical extraction characteristics are altered. The crude drugs, Cinnamomum cassia (CC), Paeonia lactiflora (PL), and Glycyrrhiza uralensis (GU), are the main herbal constituents of Gyeji-tang, a traditional herbal formula. To evaluate the chemical interaction between CC, PL, and GU during the course of decoction, quantification of 16 marker compounds in the herbal decoction, performed using a Box-Behnken experimental design, was carried out by HPLC-diode array detection using validated method. Correlations between the amounts of marker compounds from CC, PL, and GU were assessed by multiple regression analysis. The results obtained showed that amounts of single herb marker compounds significantly changed (usually decreased) by decoction in the presence of other herbs and that these changes depended on the chemical natures of the markers and the herbal medicines present. Results also demonstrated that the extraction efficiencies of marker compounds increased when the proportion of the herb containing them was increased and decreased in proportion to amounts of herbs added. In conclusion, chemical interactions between compositional herbal medicines may occur when herbs are co-decocted. This study provides insight of understanding the herbal interactions in herbal formulae.

  16. Russian olive (Elaeagnus angustifolia) as a herbal healer.

    PubMed

    Amiri Tehranizadeh, Zeinab; Baratian, Ali; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Introduction:Elaeagnus spp. is one in the family of riparian trees growing near the rivers or water corridors. In this family, Elaeagnus angustifolia (Russian olive) is famous because of its medical applications. Methods: A comprehensive review was performed to extract the related data from published literature. Results: Traditionally, it has been used as an analgesic, antipyretic and diuretic herbal medicine. A large number of compounds have been derived from Russian olive and made this plant a source of flavonoids, alkaloids, minerals and vitamins. Although the purpose of most studies is to use this plant for preparation of herbal medicines and as an ingredient for drug formulation, there is no available drug dosage form commercially. Conclusion: This review aimed to provide the most important documentary information on the active components of Elaeagnus spp. and their relation to the pharmacological properties and compare them with reported medicinal effects.

  17. Russian olive (Elaeagnus angustifolia) as a herbal healer

    PubMed Central

    Amiri Tehranizadeh, Zeinab; Baratian, Ali; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Elaeagnus spp. is one in the family of riparian trees growing near the rivers or water corridors. In this family, Elaeagnus angustifolia (Russian olive) is famous because of its medical applications. Methods: A comprehensive review was performed to extract the related data from published literature. Results: Traditionally, it has been used as an analgesic, antipyretic and diuretic herbal medicine. A large number of compounds have been derived from Russian olive and made this plant a source of flavonoids, alkaloids, minerals and vitamins. Although the purpose of most studies is to use this plant for preparation of herbal medicines and as an ingredient for drug formulation, there is no available drug dosage form commercially. Conclusion: This review aimed to provide the most important documentary information on the active components of Elaeagnus spp. and their relation to the pharmacological properties and compare them with reported medicinal effects. PMID:27853679

  18. Chinese Herbal Therapy and Western Drug Use, Belief and Adherence for Hypertension Management in the Rural Areas of Heilongjiang Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yuan; Hao, Yanhua; Sun, Hong; Gao, Lijun; Wu, Qunhong; Quan, Hude

    2015-01-01

    Background Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) including Chinese herbal therapy has been widely practiced in China. However, little is known about Chinese herbal therapy use for hypertension management, which is one of the most prevalent chronic conditions in China. Thus we described Chinese herbal therapy and western drug users, beliefs, hypertension knowledge, and Chinese herbal and western drug adherence and determinants of Chinese herbal therapy use among patients with hypertension in rural areas of Heilongjiang Province, China. Methodology and Principal Findings This face-to-face cross sectional survey included 665 hypertensive respondents aged 30 years or older in rural areas of Heilongjiang Province, China. Of 665 respondents, 39.7% were male, 27.4% were aged 65 years or older. At the survey, 14.0% reported using Chinese herbal therapy and 71.3% reported using western drug for hypertension management. A majority of patients had low level of treatment adherence (80.6% for the Chinese herbal therapy users and 81.2% for the western drug users). When respondents felt that their blood pressure was under control, 72.0% of the Chinese herbal therapy users and 69.2% of the western drug users sometimes stopped taking their medicine. Hypertensive patients with high education level or better quality of life are more likely use Chinese herbal therapy. Conclusions and Significance Majority of patients diagnosed with hypertension use western drugs to control blood pressure. Chinese herbal therapy use was associated with education level and quality of life. PMID:25923438

  19. Tanko Bushi: Designing a Japanese-American Dance Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweeting, Terry; Werner, Peter; Williams, Lori H.; Crump, Alyssa

    2012-01-01

    Many folk dances reflect the everyday activities of the people, celebrating the commonplace through physical forms of expression. The traditional Japanese folk dance, Tanko Bushi, is still performed in Japan and among Japanese-Americans today, and its theme of coal mining makes it relatable to many cultures around the world. With its traditional…

  20. Conducting Japanese Negotiations: Strategic Vision and Cultural Adaptation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-28

    meeting takes place at a local Japanese restaurant. The Japanese traditionally like to host the guests for an evening of food and karaoke . The...supporting the bureaucratic and political environment. Understanding that negotiation is just a tool , it is essential for Strategic Leaders to know and

  1. Pharmacokinetics-pharmacology disconnection of herbal medicines and its potential solutions with cellular pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic strategy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingwei; Zhou, Fang; Lu, Meng; Ji, Wei; Niu, Fang; Zha, Weibin; Wu, Xiaolan; Hao, Haiping; Wang, Guangji

    2012-06-01

    Recently, there is a global trend of using herbal medicines to treat various chronic diseases and promote health. But the controversy over the safety and efficacy of herbal medicines is a focus of attention, primarily because of the many unknown and unrevealed natures of herbal medicines, which strongly restricts their application and development. Pharmacokinetics is a bridge linking the herbal medicines and their pharmacological responses. It is assumed in traditional pharmacokinetics that an excellent drug should have appropriate pharmacokinetic behaviours and its pharmacological effect is related with plasma drug concentrations. However, most herbal medicines exhibit excellent pharmacological responses despite poor pharmacokinetic behaviours. As most drugs are intracellulartargeted, we put forward cellular pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic strategy, which is focused on the intracellular fate of drugs. This strategy could partially explain the marked pharmacological activities of herbal medicines from their intracellular pharmacokinetic behaviours, rather than their plasma concentrations. It is a helpful complementarity to traditional pharmacokinetics, and takes a potential role in the research and development of new herb-origined drugs. In this review, the pharmacokinetics-pharmacology disconnections of herbal medicines (such as ginseng, berberine and danshen) are retrospected. Then our proposed cellular pharmacokineticpharmacodynamic strategy, its characteristics, as well as its research procedures are described, followed by the subcellular distributions of drug transporters and metabolic enzymes which are the determinants of cellular pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics. Finally, our successful applications of cellular pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic strategy in elucidating ginsenoside Rh2 as an adjuvant agent and tanshinone IIA as an anticancer agent are illustrated.

  2. The European Herbal Medicines Directive: could it have saved the lives of Romeo and Juliet?

    PubMed

    Routledge, Philip A

    2008-01-01

    Herbal medicines have a long tradition of therapeutic use. However, they may occasionally cause dose-related (type A) or idiosyncratic (type B) toxicity and herb-drug interactions are also possible. Toxicity can arise as a result of misidentification or adulteration of the preparation. Legislation (the Directive on traditional herbal medicinal products 2004/24/EC) was enacted on 30 April 2004 to improve public health protection and promote the free movement of traditional medicinal products in the EU. It requires each Member State to set up a simplified registration scheme for manufactured traditional herbal medicines that are suitable for use without medical supervision. Evidence of 30 years of traditional use, at least 15 years of which should normally be within the EU, is required to permit minor claims, replacing the requirement to demonstrate efficacy. Safety is based on evidence in the published literature, although the regulator can also ask for more data if there are safety concerns. The pharmacovigilance requirements and quality standards are the same as for licensed medicines. Patient information is similar to that for any over-the-counter medicine, with an additional requirement for a statement on labels and in advertisements that the indication is based on traditional use. A European positive list of herbal substances will set out the indication, strength, dosing recommendations, route of administration and other information on safe use. Where a product complies with the list, the applicant will not need to demonstrate either the traditional use or the safety of the product. The list will be compiled by the recently established Committee on Herbal Medicinal Products at the European Medicines Agency. EU Member States were required to comply with the Directive by 30 October 2005. Traditional herbal medicinal products already on the market when the Directive became law need not comply with its provisions for 7 years after its coming into force. The public

  3. Taxonomic evaluation of misidentification of crude herbal drugs marketed in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Joharchi, Mohammad Reza; Amiri, Mohammad Sadegh

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Medicinal plants organize an effective source of folk and modern medicine. Correct identification, authentication and quality control are essential to ensure safety, therapeutic potency, efficacy and reproducible quality of herbal medicines. The aim of this study is to use taxonomic method for authentication of traditional herbal drugs which are commonly sold in herbal shops in Iran. In this regard, twenty-seven cases of herbal drugs suspected to be adulterated were investigated. Material and Methods: Crude raw material of herbal drugs was prepared from the various markets in Iran and was identified at the Ferdowsi University of Mashhad Herbarium (FUMH). Results: Taxonomic evaluation revealed that 78 species belonging to 21 families which are traded in Iranian market should be considered as authentic, adulterated and substituted samples. Conclusion: It was concluded that nowadays, many of the medicinal plants available in the market have ambiguous identification along with adulteration and contamination. The present study provides awareness amongst the traders, researchers, clinicians and manufacturing units about the ambiguity of authenticity in the traded herbal raw materials. PMID:25050238

  4. The use of herbal medicine in cancer-related anorexia/ cachexia treatment around the world.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Kai-Chun; Li, Ying-Xiao; Cheng, Juei-Tang

    2012-01-01

    Cancer-related cachexia, a condition in which the body is consumed by deranged carbohydrate, lipid and protein metabolism that is induced by inflammatory cytokines. Cachexia is associated with poor treatment outcome, fatigue and poor quality of life. Pharmacological intervention in the treatment and/or prevention of cachexia has been mainly aimed at the use of appetite enhancers to increase oral nutritional intake so far. Herbal remedies are part of traditional and folk healing methods with long histories of use. In this report, we have assessed which herbal approaches have had associated cancer cachexia case reports. Commonly used herbal medicines in western countries include essiac, iscador, pau d'arco tea, cannabinoids and so on. Some Kampo herbs and formulations are commonly used by cancer patients reduce the side effects and complications during the antitumor therapy. The relevant herbal medicines include ginseng, C. rhizome and radix astragali, and the related herbal remedies, such as TJ-48, TJ-41, PHY906 and Rikkunshito. However, there still have some adverse effects caused or amplified by herb and drug interactions that are difficult to separate. However, randomized effectiveness of herbal medicines shall be further identified in controlled clinical trials involving cancer patients with cachexia.

  5. Efficacy of combination herbal product (Curcuma longa and Eugenia jambolana) used for diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Rao, Sadia Saleem; Najam, Rahila

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to evaluate the efficacy of a combination herbal product that is traditionally used for managing diabetes mellitus. Herbal drug contains Curcuma longa and Eugenia jambolanain the ratio of 1:1. It was orally administered at the dose of 1082 mg/70 kg twice a day for a period of 6 weeks to alloxan induced diabetic rats and compared with glibenclamide (standard). The effects of drug were observed at intervals, with respect to random and fasting glucose levels. HbA1C was also monitored after the drug treatment to monitor the overall diabetic effect. Results revealed that the combination of two herbs significantly reduced fasting and random glucose levels with HbA1C of less than 6% (p<0.001) in comparison to diabetic control. The control of fasting blood glucose levels by herbal combination is similar to the standard drug, glibenclamide (p<0.05). Random glucose levels by herbal combination is better than standard drug after one week and six weeks of treatment (p<0.01 and p<0.001 respectively) and similar after third week of treatment (p<0.05). Also, herbal drug combination showed HbA1C closer to the standard drug. It shows that this herbal combination can be of potential benefit in managing diabetes mellitus in future.

  6. Dai-Kenchu-To, a Herbal Medicine, Attenuates Colorectal Distention-induced Visceromotor Responses in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Nakaya, Kumi; Nagura, Yohko; Hasegawa, Ryoko; Ito, Hitomi; Fukudo, Shin

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims Dai-kenchu-to (DKT), a traditional Japanese herbal medicine, is known to increase gastrointestinal motility and improve ileal function. We tested our hypotheses that (1) pretreatment with DKT would block the colorectal distention-induced visceromotor response in rats, and (2) pretreatment with DKT would attenuate colorectal distention-induced adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) release and anxiety-related behavior. Methods Rats were pretreated with vehicle or DKT (300 mg/kg/5 mL, per os). Visceromotor responses were analyzed using electromyography in response to colorectal distention (10, 20, 40, 60, and 80 mmHg for 20 seconds at 3-minutes intervals). Anxiety-related behavior was measured during exposure to an elevated-plus maze after colorectal distention. Plasma ACTH and serum corticosterone levels were measured after exposure to the elevated-plus maze. Results Colorectal distention produced robust contractions of the abdominal musculature, graded according to stimulus intensity, in vehicle-treated rats. At 40, 60, and 80 mmHg of colorectal distention, the visceromotor responses of DKT-treated rats was significantly lower than that of vehicle-treated rats. At 80 mmHg, the amplitude was suppressed to approximately one-third in DKT-treated rats, compared with that in vehicle-treated rats. Smooth muscle compliance and the velocity of accommodation to 60 mmHg of stretching did not significantly differ between the vehicle-treated and DKT-treated rats. Similarly, the DKT did not influence colorectal distention-induced ACTH release, corticosterone levels, or anxiety-related behavior in rats. Conclusions Our results suggest that DKT attenuates the colorectal distention-induced visceromotor responses, without increasing smooth muscle compliance, ACTH release or anxiety-related behavior in rats. PMID:27095743

  7. Nudity in Japanese visual media: a cross-cultural observation.

    PubMed

    Downs, J F

    1990-12-01

    The depiction of nude human beings in Japanese print, film, and electronic media is reported. Modern practices are then related to traditional Japanese culture. The various contexts in which nudes are regularly presented are described and various types of nude presentations are classified. It is suggested that the nude body evokes different responses in Japanese culture and is not always intended to convey sexual or erotic meanings. Sentiment, particularly that evoked by the family and motherhood, and nonsexual humor, are other responses that nudity is intended to elicit. The Japanese situation is compared to presentation of nudity in the United States.

  8. The Japanese Mind: Understanding Contemporary Japanese Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Roger J., Ed.; Ikeno, Osamu, Ed.

    This collection of essays offers an overview of contemporary Japanese culture, and can serve as a resource for classes studying Japan. The 28 essays offer an informative, accessible look at the values, attitudes, behavior patterns, and communication styles of modern Japan from the unique perspective of the Japanese people. Filled with examples…

  9. Bullying in Japanese Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobayashi, Futoshi

    Noting that although many Western educators praise the Japanese educational system because of its students' academic achievements, schools in Japan have developed severe and prevalent problems with student bullying. This paper examines the problem of bullying in Japanese schools. Part 1 of the paper reviews bullying incidents in Japanese schools…

  10. Herbal panacea: The need for today in dentistry

    PubMed Central

    Seal, Mukut; Rishi, Rahul; Satish, G.; Divya, K. T.; Talukdar, Pratim; Maniyar, Radhika

    2016-01-01

    Among ancient civilizations, India has been known to be a rich repository of medicinal plants. Herbal extracts have been used in traditional medicine for several thousand years. Some plants contain phytochemicals that have effects on the body. The use of phytotherapy is staging a comeback and an era of herbal renaissance is being revolutionized all over the globe. Herbs are a class of plants that are devoid of the woody tissue characteristic of shrubs or trees and have been known for their aromatic, flavoring, and medicinal values over the past centuries. Since the birth of contemporary practices, many have turned away from herbal therapies in favor of synthetic drugs. But these synthetic medicines can alter microbiota and have several side effects. However, the blind dependence on synthetics is over and people are returning to the naturals with the hope of safety and security. Hence, the search for alternative natural products continue. This review includes a few herbs, which can be used in dentistry as alternatives to allopathic medicines. PMID:27114947

  11. [Herbalism, botany and components analysis study on original plants of frankincense].

    PubMed

    Sun, Lei; Xu, Jimin; Jin, Hongyu; Tian, Jingai; Lin, Ruichao

    2011-01-01

    In order to clarify original plants of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) frankincense, a GC method for determination essential oils and a HPLC method for determination boswellic acids were carried out together with analysis of herbalism, botany, components and pharmacology papers of frankincense. It was concluded that original plants of TCM frankincense include at least Boswellia sacra, B. papyrifera and B. serrata.

  12. [Does the utilization of traditional Chinese herbs threaten the biodiversity?].

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-qian; Yang, Jiao-na; Su, Yong-hua

    2007-07-01

    In the view of the idea that the utilization of wild plants and animals in traditional Chinese medicine is destroying the biodiversity, this article discusses the relationship between traditional Chinese medicine and the biodiversity from a new point of view. The authors consider that reasonable utilization of the wildlife in traditional Chinese herbal medicine is beneficial to the protection of wildlife under proper management and guidance. However, there is still a long way to go to balance the relationship between the wildlife protection and exploration. In view of this, some propositions are put forward, including enforcing the relative laws and rules for herbal resources protection, carrying out the research work of the background data, formulating the standard for the classification of the rare and endangered species, accelerating the investigation of the substitute resources of extinctive wildlife for medical use, enforcing the citizens' consciousness of wildlife protection and developing the industrial and artificial cultivation of traditional Chinese herbal medicinal plants and animals.

  13. Bioavailability enhancers of herbal origin: An overview

    PubMed Central

    Kesarwani, Kritika; Gupta, Rajiv

    2013-01-01

    Recently, the use of herbal medicines has been increased all over the world due to their therapeutic effects and fewer adverse effects as compared to the modern medicines. However, many herbal drugs and herbal extracts despite of their impressive in-vitro findings demonstrates less or negligible in-vivo activity due to their poor lipid solubility or improper molecular size, resulting in poor absorption and hence poor bioavailability. Nowadays with the advancement in the technology, novel drug delivery systems open the door towards the development of enhancing bioavailability of herbal drug delivery systems. For last one decade many novel carriers such as liposomes, microspheres, nanoparticles, transferosomes, ethosomes, lipid based systems etc. have been reported for successful modified delivery of various herbal drugs. Many herbal compounds including quercetin, genistein, naringin, sinomenine, piperine, glycyrrhizin and nitrile glycoside have demonstrated capability to enhance the bioavailability. The objective of this review is to summarize various available novel drug delivery technologies which have been developed for delivery of drugs (herbal), and to achieve better therapeutic response. An attempt has also been made to compile a profile on bioavailability enhancers of herbal origin with the mechanism of action (wherever reported) and studies on improvement in drug bioavailability, exhibited particularly by natural compounds. PMID:23620848

  14. Herbal Supplements: Considerations for the Athletic Trainer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winterstein, Andrew P.; Storrs, Cordial M.

    2001-01-01

    Examines common herbal supplements, exploring potential risks associated with herbal use and providing recommendations to athletic trainers regarding patient care issues. Data from searches of the MEDLINE, SPORT Discus, CINAHL, and Academic Search Elite databases indicate that athletes must understand that natural does not equal safe, and most…

  15. Bioavailability enhancers of herbal origin: an overview.

    PubMed

    Kesarwani, Kritika; Gupta, Rajiv; Mukerjee, Alok

    2013-04-01

    Recently, the use of herbal medicines has been increased all over the world due to their therapeutic effects and fewer adverse effects as compared to the modern medicines. However, many herbal drugs and herbal extracts despite of their impressive in-vitro findings demonstrates less or negligible in-vivo activity due to their poor lipid solubility or improper molecular size, resulting in poor absorption and hence poor bioavailability. Nowadays with the advancement in the technology, novel drug delivery systems open the door towards the development of enhancing bioavailability of herbal drug delivery systems. For last one decade many novel carriers such as liposomes, microspheres, nanoparticles, transferosomes, ethosomes, lipid based systems etc. have been reported for successful modified delivery of various herbal drugs. Many herbal compounds including quercetin, genistein, naringin, sinomenine, piperine, glycyrrhizin and nitrile glycoside have demonstrated capability to enhance the bioavailability. The objective of this review is to summarize various available novel drug delivery technologies which have been developed for delivery of drugs (herbal), and to achieve better therapeutic response. An attempt has also been made to compile a profile on bioavailability enhancers of herbal origin with the mechanism of action (wherever reported) and studies on improvement in drug bioavailability, exhibited particularly by natural compounds.

  16. DNA Barcoding and Pharmacovigilance of Herbal Medicines.

    PubMed

    de Boer, Hugo J; Ichim, Mihael C; Newmaster, Steven G

    2015-07-01

    Pharmacovigilance of herbal medicines relies on the product label information regarding the ingredients and the adherence to good manufacturing practices along the commercialisation chain. Several studies have shown that substitution of plant species occurs in herbal medicines, and this in turn poses a challenge to herbal pharmacovigilance as adverse reactions might be due to adulterated or added ingredients. Authentication of constituents in herbal medicines using analytical chemistry methods can help detect contaminants and toxins, but are often limited or incapable of detecting the source of the contamination. Recent developments in molecular plant identification using DNA sequence data enable accurate identification of plant species from herbal medicines using defined DNA markers. Identification of multiple constituent species from compound herbal medicines using amplicon metabarcoding enables verification of labelled ingredients and detection of substituted, adulterated and added species. DNA barcoding is proving to be a powerful method to assess species composition in herbal medicines and has the potential to be used as a standard method in herbal pharmacovigilance research of adverse reactions to specific products.

  17. THE FOREMAN PROBLEM IN JAPANESE INDUSTRY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    THURLEY, KEITH

    BRITAIN STUDIED SUPERVISORY TRAINING IN JAPAN, IN ORDER TO GAIN INSIGHT INTO ITS OWN TRAINING PROBLEMS. TRADITIONAL SUPERVISION IN JAPANESE INDUSTRY HAD PRODUCED INCAPABLE FOREMEN THROUGH SENIORITY PROMOTION, CAUSED DIFFICULT RELATIONSHIPS BECAUSE OF AUTHORITARIAN ATTITUDES, AND FAILED TO CLARIFY AUTHORITY ROLES. THE GOVERNMENT RECOMMENDED MORE…

  18. [Passion Flower (Passiflora incarnata L.)--a reliable herbal sedative].

    PubMed

    Krenn, Liselotte

    2002-01-01

    Extracts and fluid extracts from the aerial parts from Passiflora incarnata L. are widely used as components of herbal sedatives. Many pharmacological investigations confirm the sedative effects of Passiflorae herba. From some of the studies also anxiolytic effects can be deduced. As Passionflower is mainly used in combinations, clinical studies of the single drug are not available. Based on pharmacological data, the experiences of traditional use and the use in combinations Passiflora extracts are an important factor in the phytotherapy of tenseness, restlessness and irritability with difficulty in falling asleep.

  19. [Functional targets of Chinese herbal medicine].

    PubMed

    Xiao, Bin; Wang, Yun

    2010-12-01

    In order to elucidate the mechanisms of Chinese herbal medicine, much work has been done based on chemical constituent-target in the molecular system. It cannot comply with the holistic efficacy of Chinese herbal medicine. Thus, the authors of this paper proposed to study the functional target adopted from Western medicine. The data of Chinese herbal function were collected from 2005 edition of The People's Republic of China Pharmacopoeia. A total of 135 functional targets were found, and a network about functional target and mode of action was built. The authors also explored the applications of functional target and the network combined with Sijunzi Decoction and Mahuang Decoction. The results, reflecting the feature of Chinese herbal medicine, will not only be helpful to elucidate the holistic mechanisms of Chinese herbal medicine, but also beneficial to studying the theory of Chinese formulas and developing new formulas.

  20. Herbal medicine use in the districts of Nakapiripirit, Pallisa, Kanungu, and Mukono in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Traditional medicine (TM) occupies a special place in the management of diseases in Uganda. Not with standing the many people relying on TM, indigenous knowledge (IK) related to TM is getting steadily eroded. To slow down this loss it is necessary to document and conserve as much of the knowledge as possible. This study was conducted to document the IK relevant to traditional medicine in the districts of Mukono, Nakapiripirit, Kanungu and Pallisa, in Uganda. Methods An ethnobotanical survey was conducted between October 2008 and February 2009 using techniques of key informant interviews and household interviews. Results The common diseases and conditions in the four districts include malaria, cough, headache, diarrhea, abdominal pain, flu, backache and eye diseases. Respondents stated that when they fall sick they self medicate using plant medicines or consult western-trained medicine practitioners. Self medication using herbal medicines was reported mostly by respondents of Nakapiripirit and Mukono. Respondents have knowledge to treat 78 ailments using herbal medicines. 44 species, mentioned by three or more respondents have been prioritized. The most frequently used part in herbal medicines is the leaf, followed by the stem and root. People sometime use animal parts, soil, salt and water from a grass roof, in traditional medicines. Herbal medicines are stored for short periods of time in bottles. The knowledge to treat ailments is acquired from parents and grandparents. Respondents’ age and tribe appears to have a significant influence on knowledge of herbal medicine, while gender does not. Conclusion This survey has indicated that IK associated with TM stills exists and that TM is still important in Uganda because many people use it as a first line of health care when they fall sick. Age and tribe influence the level of IK associated with herbal medicine, but gender does not. PMID:22943789

  1. Comments on serious anaphylaxis caused by nine Chinese herbal injections used to treat common colds and upper respiratory tract infections.

    PubMed

    Ji, Kunmei; Chen, Jiajie; Li, Meng; Liu, Zhigang; Xia, Lixin; Wang, Chunbo; Zhan, Zhengke; Wu, Xuli

    2009-11-01

    Reports describing severe allergic shock and fatality following treatment of a common cold or upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) with a Chinese herbal injection were collected. Our analysis of the risks associated with this treatment suggested that the potential risk of serious, or even lethal, anaphylaxis should preclude its use in treating common colds and URTIs. In light of our findings herein, we propose the following five suggestions for improving the clinical safety of delivering Chinese herbal injections as medical treatments. First, Chinese herbal injections should not be delivered in the clinic to treat patients in accordance with Bian zheng lun zhi (broad-spectrum application based on holistic Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) theory and methodology), but rather they should be administered to target specific indicated disease processes. Second, Chinese herbal injection indications should be based on the results of double-blind randomized controlled clinical trials. Third, Chinese herbal injections should be used only in cases involving severe disease or to rescue patients in critical condition; they should not be used to treat mild, relatively innocuous diseases, such as common colds and upper respiratory tract infections, given the risk of doing harm. Fourth, Chinese herbal injection formulas should include materials from only a single or a small number of plant sources in known quantities. Fifth, more studies examining the toxicology and allergenic potential of Chinese herbal injections are needed.

  2. [Sulfur-fumigation, maintenance method of Chinese herbal medicine-discard or inheritance].

    PubMed

    Duan, Yu; Qin, Kun-Ming; Zou, Nuo-Shu; Lou, Ya-Jing; Cai, Hao; Cai, Bao-Chang

    2013-10-01

    Sulfur-fumigation processing technology is an ancient maintenance method, which plays a certain role in storage and preservation for Chinese herbal medicine. But in recent years, with the further explanation of sulfur-fumigation processing mechanism and more attention to the safety of drugs, such traditional maintenance method of Chinese herbal medicine is now being questioned by more and more people. The authors think we should have selective inheritance rather than abslute discard to this ancient processing technology after reviewing the literatures published in recent 20 years, and some suggestions are also put forward, which can supply some references for related drug supervision departments.

  3. Communication Characteristics of Asians in American Urban Settings: The Case of Honolulu Japanese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogawa, Dennis M.

    Traditional familialism as a basic antecedent for understanding Japanese-American communication in Honolulu is examined. The traditional Japanese extended family evolved from economic interdependencies in agricultural, rural communities. This familial communalism demanded that individualism be suppressed so that the needs of the corporate group…

  4. Systems pharmacology in drug discovery and therapeutic insight for herbal medicines.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chao; Zheng, Chunli; Li, Yan; Wang, Yonghua; Lu, Aiping; Yang, Ling

    2014-09-01

    Systems pharmacology is an emerging field that integrates systems biology and pharmacology to advance the process of drug discovery, development and the understanding of therapeutic mechanisms. The aim of the present work is to highlight the role that the systems pharmacology plays across the traditional herbal medicines discipline, which is exemplified by a case study of botanical drugs applied in the treatment of depression. First, based on critically examined pharmacology and clinical knowledge, we propose a large-scale statistical analysis to evaluate the efficiency of herbs used in traditional medicines. Second, we focus on the exploration of the active ingredients and targets by carrying out complex structure-, omics- and network-based systematic investigations. Third, specific informatics methods are developed to infer drug-disease connections, with purpose to understand how drugs work on the specific targets and pathways. Finally, we propose a new systems pharmacology method, which is further applied to an integrated platform (Herbal medicine Systems Pharmacology) of blended herbal medicine and omics data sets, allowing for the systematization of current and traditional knowledge of herbal medicines and, importantly, for the application of this emerging body of knowledge to the development of new drugs for complex human diseases.

  5. Sociocultural dilemma of Japanese steeplejacks.

    PubMed

    Iwata, H

    1997-12-01

    Japanese steeplejacks are good at working in high places as construction workers, and they have been called tobi for a longtime. They now play an important role in completing modern civil engineering projects and in the construction of high-rise buildings; however, their lifestyle is considered by most to be quaint but outdated. Originally, they were unskilled workmen at construction sites. In the 18th century, they were engaged in repairing houses or setting up scaffolding, helping carpenters, but they worked as firefighters whenever fires broke out. Their traditional work system did not change throughout the Meiji era, although Japanese society became greatly modernized. After World War II, the industrialization of Japanese society required highly developed technology in civil engineering and architecture. This provided an opportunity for them to establish their positions as trained professional workers. However, the number of skilled tobi professionals has continued to decrease because the younger generation does not consider this profession desirable career. Improving not only the professional skills but also the way of living to the extent as a modern high-tech society demands will be the key for the tobi's work system to become attractive.

  6. Sustainable Utilization of Traditional Chinese Medicine Resources: Systematic Evaluation on Different Production Modes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiwen; Chen, Yuning; Yang, Qing; Wang, Yitao

    2015-01-01

    The usage amount of medicinal plant rapidly increased along with the development of traditional Chinese medicine industry. The higher market demand and the shortage of wild herbal resources enforce us to carry out large-scale introduction and cultivation. Herbal cultivation can ease current contradiction between medicinal resources supply and demand while they bring new problems such as pesticide residues and plant disease and pests. Researchers have recently placed high hopes on the application of natural fostering, a new method incorporated herbal production and diversity protecting practically, which can solve the problems brought by artificial cultivation. However no modes can solve all problems existing in current herbal production. This study evaluated different production modes including cultivation, natural fostering, and wild collection to guide the traditional Chinese medicine production for sustainable utilization of herbal resources. PMID:26074987

  7. Herbal Extracts Induce Dermal Papilla Cell Proliferation of Human Hair Follicles

    PubMed Central

    Rastegar, Hosein; Aghaei, Mahmoud; Barikbin, Behrooz; Ehsani, Amirohushang

    2015-01-01

    Background The number of people suffering from balding or hair thinning is increasing, despite the advances in various medical therapies. Therefore, it is highly important to develop new therapies to inhibit balding and increase hair proliferation. Objective We investigated the effects of herbal extracts commonly used for improving balding in traditional medicine to identify potential agents for hair proliferation. Methods The expression levels of 5α-reductase isoforms (type I and II) were analyzed using quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction in the human follicular dermal papilla cells (DPCs). The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenylteterazolium bromide and bromodeoxyuridine tests were used to evaluate the cell proliferation effect of herbal extracts in DPCs. The expression levels of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), Akt, cyclin D1, cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (Cdk4), B-cell lymphoma (Bcl-2) and Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) were measured using western blot analysis. Results The 5α-reductase isoform mRNAs and proteins were detected in the cultured DPCs, and the expression level of 5α-R2 in DPCs in the presence of the herbal extracts was gradually decreased. Herbal extracts were found to significantly increase the proliferation of human DPCs at concentrations ranging from 1.5% to 4.5%. These results show that the herbal extracts tested affected the protein expressions of ERK, Akt, cyclin D1, Cdk4, Bcl-2, and Bax in DPCs. Conclusion These results suggest that herbal extracts exert positive effects on hair proliferation via ERK, Akt, cyclin D1, and Cdk4 signaling in DPCs; they also suggest that herbal extracts could be a great alternative therapy for increasing hair proliferation. PMID:26719634

  8. DNA barcoding: an efficient tool to overcome authentication challenges in the herbal market.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Priyanka; Kumar, Amit; Nagireddy, Akshitha; Mani, Daya N; Shukla, Ashutosh K; Tiwari, Rakesh; Sundaresan, Velusamy

    2016-01-01

    The past couple of decades have witnessed global resurgence of herbal-based health care. As a result, the trade of raw drugs has surged globally. Accurate and fast scientific identification of the plant(s) is the key to success for the herbal drug industry. The conventional approach is to engage an expert taxonomist, who uses a mix of traditional and modern techniques for precise plant identification. However, for bulk identification at industrial scale, the process is protracted and time-consuming. DNA barcoding, on the other hand, offers an alternative and feasible taxonomic tool box for rapid and robust species identification. For the success of DNA barcode, the barcode loci must have sufficient information to differentiate unambiguously between closely related plant species and discover new cryptic species. For herbal plant identification, matK, rbcL, trnH-psbA, ITS, trnL-F, 5S-rRNA and 18S-rRNA have been used as successful DNA barcodes. Emerging advances in DNA barcoding coupled with next-generation sequencing and high-resolution melting curve analysis have paved the way for successful species-level resolution recovered from finished herbal products. Further, development of multilocus strategy and its application has provided new vistas to the DNA barcode-based plant identification for herbal drug industry. For successful and acceptable identification of herbal ingredients and a holistic quality control of the drug, DNA barcoding needs to work harmoniously with other components of the systems biology approach. We suggest that for effectively resolving authentication challenges associated with the herbal market, DNA barcoding must be used in conjunction with metabolomics along with need-based transcriptomics and proteomics.

  9. A chemical family-based strategy for uncovering hidden bioactive molecules and multicomponent interactions in herbal medicines.

    PubMed

    Song, Hui-Peng; Wu, Si-Qi; Hao, Haiping; Chen, Jun; Lu, Jun; Xu, Xiaojun; Li, Ping; Yang, Hua

    2016-03-30

    Two concepts involving natural products were proposed and demonstrated in this paper. (1) Natural product libraries (e.g. herbal extract) are not perfect for bioactivity screening because of the vast complexity of compound compositions, and thus a library reconstruction procedure is necessary before screening. (2) The traditional mode of "screening single compound" could be improved to "screening single compound, drug combination and multicomponent interaction" due to the fact that herbal medicines work by integrative effects of multi-components rather than single effective constituents. Based on the two concepts, we established a novel strategy aiming to make screening easier and deeper. Using thrombin as the model enzyme, we firstly uncovered the minor lead compounds, potential drug combinations and multicomponent interactions in an herbal medicine of Dan-Qi pair, showing a significant advantage over previous methods. This strategy was expected to be a new and promising mode for investigation of herbal medicines.

  10. A chemical family-based strategy for uncovering hidden bioactive molecules and multicomponent interactions in herbal medicines

    PubMed Central

    Song, Hui-Peng; Wu, Si-Qi; Hao, Haiping; Chen, Jun; Lu, Jun; Xu, Xiaojun; Li, Ping; Yang, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Two concepts involving natural products were proposed and demonstrated in this paper. (1) Natural product libraries (e.g. herbal extract) are not perfect for bioactivity screening because of the vast complexity of compound compositions, and thus a library reconstruction procedure is necessary before screening. (2) The traditional mode of “screening single compound” could be improved to “screening single compound, drug combination and multicomponent interaction” due to the fact that herbal medicines work by integrative effects of multi-components rather than single effective constituents. Based on the two concepts, we established a novel strategy aiming to make screening easier and deeper. Using thrombin as the model enzyme, we firstly uncovered the minor lead compounds, potential drug combinations and multicomponent interactions in an herbal medicine of Dan-Qi pair, showing a significant advantage over previous methods. This strategy was expected to be a new and promising mode for investigation of herbal medicines. PMID:27025397

  11. Unsafe and potentially safe herbal therapies.

    PubMed

    Klepser, T B; Klepser, M E

    1999-01-15

    Unsafe and potentially safe herbal therapies are discussed. The use of herbal therapies is on the rise in the United States, but most pharmacists are not adequately prepared educationally to meet patients' requests for information on herbal products. Pharmacists must also cope with an environment in which there is relatively little regulation of herbal therapies by FDA. Many herbs have been identified as unsafe, including borage, calamus, coltsfoot, comfrey, life root, sassafras, chaparral, germander, licorice, and ma huang. Potentially safe herbs include feverfew, garlic, ginkgo, Asian ginseng, saw palmetto, St. John's wort, and valerian. Clinical trials have been used to evaluate feverfew for migraine prevention and rheumatoid arthritis; garlic for hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and infections; ginkgo for circulatory disturbances and dementia; ginseng for fatigue and cancer prevention; and saw palmetto for benign prostatic hyperplasia. Also studied in formal trials have been St. John's wort for depression and valerian for insomnia. The clinical trial results are suggestive of efficacy of some herbal therapies for some conditions. German Commission E, a regulatory body that evaluates the safety and efficacy of herbs on the basis of clinical trials, cases, and other scientific literature, has established indications and dosage recommendations for many herbal therapies. Pharmacists have a responsibility to educate themselves about herbal therapies in order to help patients discern the facts from the fiction, avoid harm, and gain what benefits may be available.

  12. Emerging Trends of Herbal Care in Dentistry

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Gunjan; Jalaluddin, Md.; Rout, Purnendu; Mohanty, Rajat; Dileep, C.L.

    2013-01-01

    Herbs are staging a comeback and herbal ‘renaissance’ is happening all over the globe. The herbal products, today, symbolize safety, in contrast to the synthetics that are regarded as unsafe to humans and the environment. A herb, botanically speaking, is any plant that lacks the woody tissue which is characteristic of shrubs or trees. More specifically, herbs are plants which are used medicinally or for their flavour or scent. Herbs with medicinal properties are a useful and an effective source of treatment for various disease processes. Herbal extracts have been successfully used in dentistry as tooth cleaning and antimicrobial plaque agents. The use of herbal medicines continues to expand rapidly across the world. Many people take herbal medicines or herbal products now for their health care in different national healthcare settings. Herbal extracts have been used in dentistry for reducing inflammation, as antimicrobial plaque agents, for preventing release of histamine and as antiseptics, antioxidants, antimicrobials, antifungals, antibacterials, antivirals and analgesics. They also aid in healing and are effective in controlling microbial plaque in gingivitis and periodontitis, thereby improving immunity. PMID:24086929

  13. Chinese Herbal Compounds for the Prevention and Treatment of Atherosclerosis: Experimental Evidence and Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jianping; Hartstone-Rose, Adam; Wang, Jing; Li, Jiqiang; Janicki, Joseph S.

    2015-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a leading cause of disability and death worldwide. Research into the disease has led to many compelling hypotheses regarding the pathophysiology of atherosclerotic lesion formation and the resulting complications such as myocardial infarction and stroke. Herbal medicine has been widely used in China as well as other Asian countries for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases for hundreds of years; however, the mechanisms of action of Chinese herbal medicine in the prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis have not been well studied. In this review, we briefly describe the mechanisms of atherogenesis and then summarize the research that has been performed in recent years regarding the effectiveness and mechanisms of antiatherogenic Chinese herbal compounds in an attempt to build a bridge between traditional Chinese medicine and cellular and molecular cardiovascular medicine. PMID:26089946

  14. Synergistic Effects of Chinese Herbal Medicine: A Comprehensive Review of Methodology and Current Research

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xian; Seto, Sai Wang; Chang, Dennis; Kiat, Hosen; Razmovski-Naumovski, Valentina; Chan, Kelvin; Bensoussan, Alan

    2016-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is an important part of primary health care in Asian countries that has utilized complex herbal formulations (consisting 2 or more medicinal herbs) for treating diseases over thousands of years. There seems to be a general assumption that the synergistic therapeutic effects of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) derive from the complex interactions between the multiple bioactive components within the herbs and/or herbal formulations. However, evidence to support these synergistic effects remains weak and controversial due to several reasons, including the very complex nature of CHM, misconceptions about synergy and methodological challenges to study design. In this review, we clarify the definition of synergy, identify common errors in synergy research and describe current methodological approaches to test for synergistic interaction. We discuss the strengths and weaknesses of these models in the context of CHM and summarize the current status of synergy research in CHM. Despite the availability of some scientific data to support the synergistic effects of multi-herbal and/or herb-drug combinations, the level of evidence remains low, and the clinical relevancy of most of these findings is undetermined. There remain significant challenges in the development of suitable methods for synergistic studies of complex herbal combinations. PMID:27462269

  15. Synergistic Effects of Chinese Herbal Medicine: A Comprehensive Review of Methodology and Current Research.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xian; Seto, Sai Wang; Chang, Dennis; Kiat, Hosen; Razmovski-Naumovski, Valentina; Chan, Kelvin; Bensoussan, Alan

    2016-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is an important part of primary health care in Asian countries that has utilized complex herbal formulations (consisting 2 or more medicinal herbs) for treating diseases over thousands of years. There seems to be a general assumption that the synergistic therapeutic effects of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) derive from the complex interactions between the multiple bioactive components within the herbs and/or herbal formulations. However, evidence to support these synergistic effects remains weak and controversial due to several reasons, including the very complex nature of CHM, misconceptions about synergy and methodological challenges to study design. In this review, we clarify the definition of synergy, identify common errors in synergy research and describe current methodological approaches to test for synergistic interaction. We discuss the strengths and weaknesses of these models in the context of CHM and summarize the current status of synergy research in CHM. Despite the availability of some scientific data to support the synergistic effects of multi-herbal and/or herb-drug combinations, the level of evidence remains low, and the clinical relevancy of most of these findings is undetermined. There remain significant challenges in the development of suitable methods for synergistic studies of complex herbal combinations.

  16. HERBAL THERAPY USE BY CANCER PATIENTS: A LITERATURE REVIEW ON CASE REPORTS

    PubMed Central

    Olaku, Oluwadamilola; White, Jeffrey D.

    2011-01-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine use is common among cancer patients. In many surveys, herbal medicines are among the most commonly used group of treatments. Herbal remedies are believed by the general public to be safe, cause less side effects and less likely to cause dependency. The authors performed a literature review to assess which herbal approaches have had associated cancer case reports and determine which of these have been studied in prospective research. Eighteen case reports of patients having apparent antitumour effects from herbal therapy and 21 case reports of toxic effects of herbs used by cancer patients were identified. Clinicaltrials.gov and MEDLINE (via PubMed) were searched for each of the herbal products identified in these reports. Clinical trials in cancer populations were identified for green tea extracts or compounds (n = 34), phytoestrogens (n=27), mistletoe (n =8), Ganoderma lucidum (n=1), Noni (n = 1) and Silymarin (n = 1). Daikenchuto, PC-SPES, Nyoshinsan/TJ and Saw palmetto have also been studied prospectively. In conclusion, some of the herbs with promising case report findings have undergone prospective clinical investigations but many others have either not yet been explored or the results have not been reported in English. Unconventional therapies, such as herbs and minerals, used in ancient medical traditions have led to the identification of active anticancer agents. Mechanisms to support prospective research with such approaches are discussed. PMID:21185719

  17. Chinese Herbal Medicine on Cardiovascular Diseases and the Mechanisms of Action

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Cuiqing; Huang, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are the principal cause of death worldwide. The potentially serious adverse effects of therapeutic drugs lead to growing awareness of the role of Chinese herbal medicine in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Chinese herbal medicine has been widely used in many countries especially in China from antiquity; however, the mechanisms by which herbal medicine acts in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases are far from clear. In this review, we briefly describe the characteristics of Chinese herbal medicine by comparing with western medicine. Then we summarize the formulae and herbs/natural products applied in the clinic and animal studies being sorted according to the specific cardiovascular diseases. Most importantly, we elaborate the existing investigations into mechanisms by which herbal compounds act at the cellular levels, including vascular smooth muscle cells, endothelial cells, cardiomyocytes and immune cells. Future research should focus on well-designed clinic trial, in-depth mechanic study, investigations on side effects of herbs and drug interactions. Studies on developing new agents with effectiveness and safety from traditional Chinese medicine is a promising way for prevention and treatment of patients with cardiovascular diseases. PMID:27990122

  18. Chinese Herbal Medicine on Cardiovascular Diseases and the Mechanisms of Action.

    PubMed

    Liu, Cuiqing; Huang, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are the principal cause of death worldwide. The potentially serious adverse effects of therapeutic drugs lead to growing awareness of the role of Chinese herbal medicine in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Chinese herbal medicine has been widely used in many countries especially in China from antiquity; however, the mechanisms by which herbal medicine acts in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases are far from clear. In this review, we briefly describe the characteristics of Chinese herbal medicine by comparing with western medicine. Then we summarize the formulae and herbs/natural products applied in the clinic and animal studies being sorted according to the specific cardiovascular diseases. Most importantly, we elaborate the existing investigations into mechanisms by which herbal compounds act at the cellular levels, including vascular smooth muscle cells, endothelial cells, cardiomyocytes and immune cells. Future research should focus on well-designed clinic trial, in-depth mechanic study, investigations on side effects of herbs and drug interactions. Studies on developing new agents with effectiveness and safety from traditional Chinese medicine is a promising way for prevention and treatment of patients with cardiovascular diseases.

  19. An improved association-mining research for exploring Chinese herbal property theory: based on data of the Shennong's Classic of Materia Medica.

    PubMed

    Jin, Rui; Lin, Zhi-jian; Xue, Chun-miao; Zhang, Bing

    2013-09-01

    Knowledge Discovery in Databases is gaining attention and raising new hopes for traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) researchers. It is a useful tool in understanding and deciphering TCM theories. Aiming for a better understanding of Chinese herbal property theory (CHPT), this paper performed an improved association rule learning to analyze semistructured text in the book entitled Shennong's Classic of Materia Medica. The text was firstly annotated and transformed to well-structured multidimensional data. Subsequently, an Apriori algorithm was employed for producing association rules after the sensitivity analysis of parameters. From the confirmed 120 resulting rules that described the intrinsic relationships between herbal property (qi, flavor and their combinations) and herbal efficacy, two novel fundamental principles underlying CHPT were acquired and further elucidated: (1) the many-to-one mapping of herbal efficacy to herbal property; (2) the nonrandom overlap between the related efficacy of qi and flavor. This work provided an innovative knowledge about CHPT, which would be helpful for its modern research.

  20. Herbal haemorrhoidal cream for haemorrhoids.

    PubMed

    Gurel, Ebru; Ustunova, Savas; Ergin, Bulent; Tan, Nur; Caner, Metin; Tortum, Osman; Demirci-Tansel, Cihan

    2013-10-31

    Although hemorrhoids are one of the most common diseases in the world, the exact etiology underlying the development of hemorrhoids is not clear. Many different ointments are currently used to treat hemorrhoids; however, there is little evidence of the efficacy of these treatments to support their use. The aim of this study was to compare different herbal creams used for the treatment of hemorrhoids. Twenty-eight male Wistar albino rats, 6-8 weeks old and weighing 160-180 g, were used in this study as 1-control, 2-croton oil, 3-croton oil+fig leaves+artichoke leaves+walnut husks and 4-croton oil+fig leaves+artichoke leaves+walnut husks+horse chestnut fruit. After 3 days of croton oil application, rats were treated with 0.1 ml of cream or saline twice a day for 15 days by syringe. Tissue and blood samples were collected for histological, immunohistochemical and biochemical studies. Statistical significance was determined using one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's multiple comparison tests. Croton oil administration resulted in severe inflammation. The third group showed partial improvement in inflammation; however, the greatest degree of improvement was seen in the fourth group, and some recovered areas were observed. Myeloperoxidase immunoreactivity was found to be decreased in the third and fourth groups compared to the second group. Additionally, biochemical analyses (Myeloperoxidase, Malondyaldehyde, nitrate/nitrite and nitrotyrosine levels and Superoxide Dismutase activity) were in agreement with the histological and immunohistochemical results. In conclusion, croton oil causes inflammation in the anal area and results in hemorrhoids. Treatment with our herbal hemorrhoid creams demonstrated anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects in this model.

  1. Herbal supplements: Facts and myths--talking to your patients about herbal supplements.

    PubMed

    Messina, Barbara Ann M

    2006-08-01

    The use of herbal supplements in the United States is steadily growing and raises concerns about safety, efficacy, and how they affect safe patient care. The direct health risks associated with herbal supplements include hypertension, prolonged bleeding, and the potential for drug-herb interactions. These potential drug interactions are of particular concern for patients undergoing anesthesia. This article provides a review of literature on the 10 most popular herbal supplements and addresses the herbal supplements' reported use, possible adverse effect(s), patient teaching, possible drug interaction(s), and recommendations regarding discontinuation before surgery.

  2. Comparison of the contents of kampo decoctions containing ephedra herb when prepared simply or by re-boiling according to the traditional theory.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Katsuhiro; Shimura, Kyoko; Makino, Toshiaki; Mizukami, Hajime

    2010-01-01

    Herbal formulas containing ephedra herb (mao-zai) are among the most important medicinal prescriptions in Japanese traditional kampo medicine to treat cold symptoms, bronchial asthma, arthralgia, and rheumatism. Shokan-zatsubyo-ron (Shanghan zabing lun in Chinese), a classical textbook of kampo medicine published in 220 A.D., describes that when herbal formulas containing ephedra herb (stem of Ephedra sinica) such as maoto (mahuang-tang) and kakkonto (gegen-tang) are prepared, ephedra herb is first boiled alone, the scum is removed, and then other crude drugs are added and decocted. In the present study, we evaluated evidence for the benefit of boiling ephedra herb prior to other crude drugs by analyzing the contents of the extract and four ephedrine alkaloids (ephedrine, methylephedrine, pseudoephedrine, and norephedrine), which are considered the main active ingredients in ephedra herb. We prepared two different decoctions of maoto and kakkonto: one decoction was prepared by boiling all the crude drugs at the same time and the other decoction was prepared according to the classical textbook. In both decoctions of maoto and kakkonto, neither alkaloid contents in the extract nor extracting ratio of four ephedrine alkaloids exhibited significant difference. As far as the ephedrine alkaloid content goes, there is no evidence for the benefit of the boiling method for ephedra herb described in the classical textbook of kampo medicine.

  3. Antibacterial effect of Kampo herbal formulation Hochu-ekki-to (Bu-Zhong-Yi-Qi-Tang) on Helicobacter pylori infection in mice.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xiaoqun; Kita, Masakazu; Minami, Masato; Yamamoto, Toshiro; Kuriyama, Hiroko; Ohno, Tomoyuki; Iwakura, Yoichiro; Imanishi, Jiro

    2002-01-01

    Because Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is a major cause of gastroduodenal diseases in humans, the eradication of H. pylori using antibiotics is very effective for the treatment of gastroduodenal diseases. However, it has recently been reported that resistance to these antibiotics is developing. In the present study, the antibacterial effect of a Kampo (traditional Japanese medicine) herbal formulation, Hochu-ekki-to (RET; Formula repletionis animalis et supletionis medii), against H. pylori was examined in vitro and in vivo. HET inhibited the growth of antibiotic-resistant strains of H. pylori as well as antibiotic-sensitive strains at a dose of 2.5 mg/ml in vitro. When 1,000 mg/kg of HET was administered orally to C57BL/6 mice for 7 days before or after inoculation with H. pylori, H. pylori in the stomach was significantly reduced in the HET-pre-treatment group compared with the control group. Furthermore, HET in combination with antibiotics completely eradicated the bacteria in mice. The expression of interferon (IFN)-gamma was induced in the gastric mucosa of the mice pre-treated with HET. There were no significant differences between the colonization of H. pylori in the control and HET treatment groups in IFN-gamma gene-deficient mice. These results suggest that the antibacterial effect of HET may be partly due to IFN-gamma induction, and that HET may be clinically useful for treatment of H. pylori infection.

  4. Herbal remedies and supplements for weight loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... dangerous. Before using an over-the-counter or herbal diet remedy, talk with your health care provider. Nearly all over-the-counter supplements with claims of weight-loss properties contain some ...

  5. Herbal medicines--a cautionary tale.

    PubMed

    Gray, Sophie; West, Lance M

    2012-06-01

    We report an extensive intra-operative bleed which may have occurred as a result of the patient taking a herbal medicine. The patient underwent orthognathic surgery as a part of his orthodontic treatment, and lost approximately 3.5 litres of blood during the procedure. Preoperative blood tests were normal; the patient took no prescription medications and an appendectomy had been performed without incident. To aid healing, however, the patient had taken arnica the day before his operation. A concise literature review is presented which outlines the causes of surgical bleeding and discusses some of the bleeding concerns that herbal medicine use may raise for clinicians. Herbal medicines may contribute to unexplained surgical bleeding in the absence of other causative factors; it would therefore be useful to include an enquiry about the taking of herbal remedies at the history-taking stage for dental and maxillofacial surgical procedures.

  6. Herbal Medications in Cardiovascular Medicine.

    PubMed

    Liperoti, Rosa; Vetrano, Davide L; Bernabei, Roberto; Onder, Graziano

    2017-03-07

    Herbal medications are commonly used for clinical purposes, including the treatment of cardiovascular conditions. Compared with conventional medications, herbal medications do not require clinical studies before their marketing or formal approval from regulatory agencies, and for this reason their efficacy and safety are rarely proven. In this review, we summarize available evidence on herbal medications mostly used in cardiovascular medicine. We show that the use of these medications for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases is often not supported by scientific evidence. Despite most of these herbs showing an effect on biological mechanisms related to the cardiovascular system, data on their clinical effects are lacking. Potential relevant side effects, including increased risk of drug interactions, are described, and the possibility of contamination or substitution with other medications represents a concern. Physicians should always assess the use of herbal medications with patients and discuss the possible benefits and side effects with them.

  7. Traditional Chinese medicine in the prevention and treatment of cancer and cancer metastasis

    PubMed Central

    YE, LIN; JIA, YONGNING; JI, KE; SANDERS, ANDREW J.; XUE, KAN; JI, JIAFU; MASON, MALCOLM D.; JIANG, WEN G.

    2015-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been a major part of healthcare in China, and has extensively affected medicine and healthcare in surrounding countries over a long period of time. In the fight against cancer, certain anticancer remedies using herbs or herbal formulas derived from TCM have been developed for the management of malignancies. Furthermore, there are clinical trials registered for the use of herbal remedies in cancer management. Herbal medicine has been used as part of combined therapies to reduce the side-effects of chemotherapy, including bone marrow suppression, nausea and vomiting. Herbal remedies have also been used as chemopreventive therapies to treat precancerous conditions in order to reduce the incidence of cancer in high-risk populations. Emerging evidence has revealed that herbal remedies can regulate the proliferation, apoptosis, adhesion and migration of cancer cells. In addition to this direct effect upon cancer cells, a number of herbal remedies have been identified to suppress angiogenesis and therefore reduce tumour growth. The inhibition of tumour growth may also be due to modifications of the host immune system by the herbal treatment. However, the precise mechanisms underlying the therapeutic effects of herbal remedies remain poorly understood and are yet to be fully elucidated. The present study aims to summarize the current literature and clinical trial results of herbal remedies for cancer treatment, with a particular focus on the recent findings and development of the Yangzheng Xiaoji capsule. PMID:26622657

  8. Effects and treatment methods of acupuncture and herbal medicine for premenstrual syndrome/premenstrual dysphoric disorder: systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background During their reproductive years about 10% of women experience some kind of symptoms before menstruation (PMS) in a degree that affects their quality of life (QOL). Acupuncture and herbal medicine has been a recent favorable therapeutic approach. Thus we aimed to review the effects of acupuncture and herbal medicine in the past decade as a preceding research in order to further investigate the most effective Korean Medicine treatment for PMS/PMDD. Methods A systematic literature search was conducted using electronic databases on studies published between 2002 and 2012. Our review included randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs) of acupuncture and herbal medicine for PMS/PMDD. Interventions include acupuncture or herbal medicine. Clinical information including statistical tests was extracted from the articles and summarized in tabular form or in the text. Study outcomes were presented as the rate of improvement (%) and/or end-of-treatment scores. Results The search yielded 19 studies. In screening the RCTs, 8 studies in acupuncture and 11 studies in herbal medicine that matched the criteria were identified. Different acupuncture techniques including traditional acupuncture, hand acupuncture and moxibustion, and traditional acupuncture technique with auricular points, have been selected for analysis. In herbal medicine, studies on Vitex Agnus castus, Hypericum perforatum, Xiao yao san, Elsholtzia splendens, Cirsium japonicum, and Gingko biloba L. were identified. Experimental groups with Acupuncture and herbal medicine treatment (all herbal medicine except Cirsium japonicum) had significantly improved results regarding PMS/PMDD. Conclusions Limited evidence supports the efficacy of alternative medicinal interventions such as acupuncture and herbal medicine in controlling premenstrual syndrome and premenstrual dysphoric disorder. Acupuncture and herbal medicine treatments for premenstrual syndrome and premenstrual dysphoric disorder showed a 50% or

  9. Risks associated with consumption of herbal teas.

    PubMed

    Manteiga, R; Park, D L; Ali, S S

    1997-01-01

    Plants have been used for medicinal purposes for centuries. Health-oriented individuals are turning to herbal teas as alternatives to caffeinated beverages such as coffee, tea, and cocoa and for low-caloric supplements. The popularity of herbal tea consumption has increased significantly during the past two decades in the U.S. Hundreds of different teas made up of varied mixtures of roots, leaves, seeds, barks, or other parts of shrubs, vines, or trees are sold in health food stores. Although chemists have been characterizing toxic plant constituents for over 100 years, toxicological studies of herbal teas have been limited and, therefore, the safety of many of these products is unknown. Plants synthesize secondary metabolites that are not essential in the production of energy and whose role may be in the defense mechanisms as plant toxins to their interactions with other plants, herbivores, and parasites. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) were among the first naturally occurring carcinogens identified in plant products, and their presence in herbal teas is a matter of public health significance. Some herbal tea mixtures and single-ingredient herbal teas have been analyzed for toxic/mutagenic potential by bioassay and chromatographic techniques. Numerous human and animal intoxications have been associated with naturally occurring components, including pyrrolizidine alkaloids, tannins, and safrole. Thus, the prevention of human exposure to carcinogens or mutagens present in herbal tea mixture extracts is crucial. Preparation of infusion drinks prepared from plants appears to concentrate biologically active compounds and is a major source of PA poisoning. The quantity and consumption over a long period of time is of major concern. It is recommended that widespread consumption of herbal infusions should be minimized until data on the levels and varieties of carcinogens, mutagens, and toxicants are made available.

  10. Herbal Medicine for Anxiety, Depression and Insomnia

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lei; Liu, Changhong; Wang, Yicun; Wang, Pu; Li, Yuxin; Li, Bingjin

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence and comorbidity of psychiatric disorders such as depression, anxiety and insomnia are very common. These well-known forms of psychiatric disorders have been affecting many people from all around the world. Herb alone, as well as herbal formula, is commonly prescribed for the therapies of mental illnesses. Since various adverse events of western medication exist, the number of people who use herbs to benefit their health is increasing. Over the past decades, the exploration in the area of herbal psychopharmacology has received much attention. Literatures showed a variety of herbal mechanisms of action used for the therapy of depression, anxiety and insomnia, involving re-uptake of monoamines, affecting neuroreceptor binding and channel transporter activity, modulating neuronal communication or hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal axis (HPA) etc. Nonetheless, a systematic review on herbal pharmacology in depression, anxiety and insomnia is still lacking. This review has been performed to further identify modes of action of different herbal medicine, and thus provides useful information for the application of herbal medicine. PMID:26412068

  11. Japanese American Identity Dilemma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maykovich, Minako K.

    The major theme of this book is the label "Quiet American" for the Japanese American. In order to locate Japanese Americans sociologically and psychologically in the structure of American society, various concepts such as "marginal man,""alienation," and "inauthenticity" are examined, specifying these…

  12. Incarcerating Japanese Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Roger

    2002-01-01

    Presents the history of the Japanese American incarceration during World War II. Focuses on issues such as Executive Order 9066, what happened to the Japanese Americans during the war, and the forms of resistance that occurred. Questions whether something like this could ever happen again. (CMK)

  13. The Japanese American Story.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fukei, Budd

    This book presents a view of the Japanese American experience from the time of their immigration to this country in the 1800s to their acculturation into American society in the 1970s. Topics dealt with include the prejudice and mistrust experienced by the Japanese immigrants in this country, particularly their evacuation and internment in…

  14. The Japanese containerless experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Azuma, Hisao

    1990-01-01

    There are three sets of Japanese containerless experiments. The first is Drop dynamics research. It consists of acoustic levitation and large amplitude drop oscillation. The second is Optical materials processing in an acoustic levitation furnace. And the third is Electrostatic levitator development by two different Japanese companies.

  15. South African herbal teas: Aspalathus linearis, Cyclopia spp. and Athrixia phylicoides--a review.

    PubMed

    Joubert, E; Gelderblom, W C A; Louw, A; de Beer, D

    2008-10-28

    Rooibos (Aspalathus linearis (Brum.f) Dahlg.) and honeybush (Cyclopia Vent. species) are popular indigenous South African herbal teas enjoyed for their taste and aroma. Traditional medicinal uses of rooibos in South Africa include alleviation of infantile colic, allergies, asthma and dermatological problems, while a decoction of honeybush was used as a restorative and as an expectorant in chronic catarrh and pulmonary tuberculosis. Traditional medicinal uses of Athrixia phylicoides DC., or bush tea, another indigenous South African plant with very limited localised use as herbal tea, include treatment of boils, acne, infected wounds and infected throats. Currently rooibos and honeybush are produced for the herbal tea market, while bush tea has potential for commercialisation. A summary of the historical and modern uses, botany, distribution, industry and chemical composition of these herbal teas is presented. A comprehensive discussion of in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo biological properties, required to expand their applications as nutraceutical and cosmeceutical products, is included, with the main emphasis on rooibos. Future research needs include more comprehensive chemical characterisation of extracts, identification of marker compounds for extract standardisation and quality control, bioavailability and identification of bio-markers of dietary exposure, investigation of possible herb-drug interactions and plant improvement with regards to composition and bioactivity.

  16. Herbal Insomnia Medications that Target GABAergic Systems: A Review of the Psychopharmacological Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Yuan; Dong, Jing-Wen; Zhao, Jiang-He; Tang, Li-Na; Zhang, Jian-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Insomnia is a common sleep disorder which is prevalent in women and the elderly. Current insomnia drugs mainly target the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor, melatonin receptor, histamine receptor, orexin, and serotonin receptor. GABAA receptor modulators are ordinarily used to manage insomnia, but they are known to affect sleep maintenance, including residual effects, tolerance, and dependence. In an effort to discover new drugs that relieve insomnia symptoms while avoiding side effects, numerous studies focusing on the neurotransmitter GABA and herbal medicines have been conducted. Traditional herbal medicines, such as Piper methysticum and the seed of Zizyphus jujuba Mill var. spinosa, have been widely reported to improve sleep and other mental disorders. These herbal medicines have been applied for many years in folk medicine, and extracts of these medicines have been used to study their pharmacological actions and mechanisms. Although effective and relatively safe, natural plant products have some side effects, such as hepatotoxicity and skin reactions effects of Piper methysticum. In addition, there are insufficient evidences to certify the safety of most traditional herbal medicine. In this review, we provide an overview of the current state of knowledge regarding a variety of natural plant products that are commonly used to treat insomnia to facilitate future studies. PMID:24851093

  17. Factors Influencing Japanese Women to Choose Two-Year Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anzai, Shinobu

    2009-01-01

    Two-year colleges in Japan have traditionally absorbed the major portion of female college entrants due at least partially to long-held gender stereotypes: women are to prepare themselves for marriage and homemaking at a two-year college. Recently, Japanese women began to explore selfhood outside the traditional realm of motherhood and womanhood.…

  18. Ayurveda and Traditional Chinese Medicine: A Comparative Overview

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Ayurveda, the traditional Indian medicine (TIM) and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) remain the most ancient yet living traditions. There has been increased global interest in traditional medicine. Efforts to monitor and regulate herbal drugs and traditional medicine are underway. China has been successful in promoting its therapies with more research and science-based approach, while Ayurveda still needs more extensive scientific research and evidence base. This review gives an overview of basic principles and commonalities of TIM and TCM and discusses key determinants of success, which these great traditions need to address to compete in global markets. PMID:16322803

  19. MODERN JAPANESE, A BASIC READER. VOLUME II, JAPANESE TEXTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HIBBETT, HOWARD; ITASAKA, GEN

    VOLUME II OF THIS INTRODUCTION TO WRITTEN JAPANESE CONTAINS 60 READING PASSAGES IN JAPANESE SCRIPT TO BE USED WITH THE VOCABULARY AND NOTES IN VOLUME I. THE READINGS ARE GRADED AND HAVE BEEN SELECTED TO REPRESENT GOOD MODERN JAPANESE USAGE. THE BEGINNING LESSONS ARE IN EASY INFORMAL STYLES AND ARE CONCERNED WITH THE JAPANESE LANGUAGE AND CULTURE.…

  20. [Wood creosote: a historical study and its preparation in combination with herbal drugs].

    PubMed

    Baba, T; Tani, T

    2001-01-01

    Two kinds of creosote have been found based on historical evidence of the medicinal uses and origins. One is wood creosote, and distillate of wood-tar containing guaiacol and creosol. The other type of creosote is coal-tar creosote, obtained from coal-tar, containing naphthalene and anthracene as the major constituents. Wood creosote was prepared for the first time in Germany in 1830 and was used for medicinal purposes. It had been listed officially in the German, American, and Japanese Pharmacopoeia as an antibacterial agent for the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis, diarrhea, and external injury. In recent days, it has been deleted from the Pharmacopoeia in Western countries and not officially used for medicinal purposes. However, wood creosote is still been listed in the Japanese Pharmacopoeia and is used for the treatment of diarrhea. Since the interest of common people in herbal medicines and self-medication has been increasing, the use of wood creosote has also been modified in combination with some herbal drugs, "Seiro-gan" especially is quite popular in Japan as a self-medication for digestive trouble, including food poisoning or diarrhea.

  1. [Progress of sulfur fumigation and modern processing technology of Chinese traditional medicines].

    PubMed

    Lu, Tu-Lin; Shan, Xin; Li, Lin; Mao, Chun-Qin; Ji, De; Yin, Fang-Zhou; Lang, Yong-Ying

    2014-08-01

    Infestation, moldy and other phenomenon in the processing and storage of Chinese herbal medicines is a problem that faced in the production of Chinese traditional medicine. The low productivity of traditional processing methods can not guarantee the quality of Chinese herbal medicines. Sulfur fumigation is the first choice of grassroots to process the Chinese herbal medicine with its low cost and easy operation. Sulfur fumigation can solve some problems in the processing and storage of Chinese herbal medicines, but modern pharmacological studies show that long-term use of Chinese traditional medicine which is fumigated by sulfur can cause some serious harm to human liver, kidney and other organs. This paper conducts a review about the application history of sulfur fumigation, its influence to the quality of Chinese herbal medicines as well as domestic and foreign limits to sulfur quantity, and a brief introduction of the status of modern processing technologies in the processing of food and some Chinese herbal medicines, the problems ex- isting in the Chinese herbal medicines processing, which can provide a reference basis for the further research, development and application of investigating alternative technologies of sulfur fumigation.

  2. Proposed correlation of modern processing principles for Ayurvedic herbal drug manufacturing: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Rahi; Venkatasubramanian, Padma

    2014-01-01

    Quality Ayurvedic herbal medicines are potential, low-cost solutions for addressing contemporary healthcare needs of both Indian and global community. Correlating Ayurvedic herbal preparations with modern processing principles (MPPs) can help develop new and use appropriate technology for scaling up production of the medicines, which is necessary to meet the growing demand. Understanding the fundamental Ayurvedic principles behind formulation and processing is also important for improving the dosage forms. Even though Ayurvedic industry has adopted technologies from food, chemical and pharmaceutical industries, there is no systematic study to correlate the traditional and modern processing methods. This study is an attempt to provide a possible correlation between the Ayurvedic processing methods and MPPs. A systematic literature review was performed to identify the Ayurvedic processing methods by collecting information from English editions of classical Ayurveda texts on medicine preparation methods. Correlation between traditional and MPPs was done based on the techniques used in Ayurvedic drug processing. It was observed that in Ayurvedic medicine preparations there were two major types of processes, namely extraction, and separation. Extraction uses membrane rupturing and solute diffusion principles, while separation uses volatility, adsorption, and size-exclusion principles. The study provides systematic documentation of methods used in Ayurveda for herbal drug preparation along with its interpretation in terms of MPPs. This is the first step which can enable improving or replacing traditional techniques. New technologies or use of existing technologies can be used to improve the dosage forms and scaling up while maintaining the Ayurvedic principles similar to traditional techniques. PMID:25737605

  3. Proposed correlation of modern processing principles for Ayurvedic herbal drug manufacturing: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Jain, Rahi; Venkatasubramanian, Padma

    2014-01-01

    Quality Ayurvedic herbal medicines are potential, low-cost solutions for addressing contemporary healthcare needs of both Indian and global community. Correlating Ayurvedic herbal preparations with modern processing principles (MPPs) can help develop new and use appropriate technology for scaling up production of the medicines, which is necessary to meet the growing demand. Understanding the fundamental Ayurvedic principles behind formulation and processing is also important for improving the dosage forms. Even though Ayurvedic industry has adopted technologies from food, chemical and pharmaceutical industries, there is no systematic study to correlate the traditional and modern processing methods. This study is an attempt to provide a possible correlation between the Ayurvedic processing methods and MPPs. A systematic literature review was performed to identify the Ayurvedic processing methods by collecting information from English editions of classical Ayurveda texts on medicine preparation methods. Correlation between traditional and MPPs was done based on the techniques used in Ayurvedic drug processing. It was observed that in Ayurvedic medicine preparations there were two major types of processes, namely extraction, and separation. Extraction uses membrane rupturing and solute diffusion principles, while separation uses volatility, adsorption, and size-exclusion principles. The study provides systematic documentation of methods used in Ayurveda for herbal drug preparation along with its interpretation in terms of MPPs. This is the first step which can enable improving or replacing traditional techniques. New technologies or use of existing technologies can be used to improve the dosage forms and scaling up while maintaining the Ayurvedic principles similar to traditional techniques.

  4. Determination the active compounds of herbal preparation by UHPLC-MS/MS and its application on the preclinical pharmacokinetics of pure ephedrine, single herbal extract of Ephedra, and a multiple herbal preparation in rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ju-Wen; Chiang, Meng-Hsuan; Lu, Chia-Ming; Tsai, Tung-Hu

    2016-07-15

    The herbal preparation Ma-Xing-Gan-Shi-Tang (MXGST) is a popular traditional Chinese formulation that has been used for the treatment of coughs and fevers. The potential active components of MXGST are ephedrine, amygdalin, and glycyrrhizic acid. The aim of this study was to develop a validated analytical method to measure these analytes in the herbal preparation MXGST using ultra high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). Multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) was used to monitor m/z 166.1→148.1 for ephedrine ([M+H](+)), 475.2→163.0 for amygdalin ([M+NH4](+)), and 840.6→453.3 ([M+NH4](+)) for glycyrrhizic acid. The analytes were separated by a reverse phase C18 column (100×2.1mm, 2.6μm). The mobile phase consisted of 5mM ammonium acetate (0.1% formic acid) and 100% methanol (0.1% formic acid) with a linear gradient elution. Five brands of commercial pharmaceutical herbal products and a laboratory extract of MXGST were analyzed. Moreover, the modified UHPLC-MS/MS method was applied to the comparative pharmacokinetics of ephedrine in rats from the following three sources: (1) pure ephedrine, (2) an herbal extract of Ephedra, and (3) an herbal preparation of MXGST. Plasma samples from rats were prepared by protein precipitation, evaporation and reconstitution. The pharmacokinetic data showed that pure ephedrine was absorbed significantly faster than ephedrine of the Ephedra extract or the MXGST herbal preparation. However, the elimination half-life of ephedrine administered as the pure compound was 93.9±8.07min, but for ephedrine from the Ephedra extract and the MXGST, the half-lives were 133±17 and 247±57.6min, respectively. The area under the concentration curves (AUC) did not show significant differences among the three groups. These data suggest that the rest of the herbal ingredients in the Ephedra extract and the MXGST may provide a compensation effect that reduces the peak concentration of ephedrine and prolongs the

  5. Metals Content in Herbal Supplements.

    PubMed

    Barrella, Michelle Vieira; Heringer, Otavio Arruda; Cardoso, Priscylla Maria Martins; Pimentel, Elisangela Flavia; Scherer, Rodrigo; Lenz, Dominik; Endringer, Denise C

    2017-02-01

    Obesity has become an international epidemic. To evaluate the level of metals in extracts of plants prescribed as weight loss supplements, different brands containing Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze, Citrus aurantium L., Cordia ecalyculata Vell, Ilex paraguariensis A. St.-Hil, Cissus quadrangularis L., Senna alexandrina Mill were purchased in local market, hot acid digested, and analyzed while metal content by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry, ICP-OES. Quality assurance and quality control tests were carried out in order to monitor and control the reliability of the analytical method. For each metal evaluated, a calibration curve was prepared with certified reference material. The recovery test was performed for each batch of samples. Analyses were performed in triplicate. Quantification of aluminum, barium, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, copper, iron, lithium, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, lead, vanadium, and zinc were determined. The metals most frequently detected were manganese (15.3-329,60 mg kg(-1)) aluminum (11.76-342.4 mg kg(-1)), and iron (11.14-73.01 mg kg(-1)) with higher levels in products containing C. sinensis China origin, I. paraguariensis Brazilian origin, C. quadrangularis, and C. aurantium China origin, respectively. To ensure safety consumption, an adequacy of the certification of Brazilian suppliers for herbal weight loss products is indispensable.

  6. Herbal and dietary supplement hepatotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Victor J

    2009-11-01

    Herbal and dietary supplements (HDS) are commonly used in the United States and throughout the world. The Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act and public standards set through the U.S. Pharmacopeia provide regulatory framework for these products. These regulations help to ensure the safety of grandfathered and new HDS coming onto the market, and the opportunity to identify and take action against unsafe products that have been distributed. The clinical patterns of presentation and severity of HDS-associated hepatotoxicity can be highly variable, even for the same product. In addition, accurate causality assessment in cases of suspected HDS hepatotoxicity is confounded by infrequent ascertainment of product intake by healthcare providers, under-reporting of HDS use by patients, the ubiquity of HDS and the complexity of their components, and the possibility for product adulteration. Additional measures to prevent HDS-induced hepatotoxicity include greater consumer and provider awareness, increased spontaneous reporting, and reassessment of regulations regarding the manufacturing, distribution, and marketing of these products.

  7. Chinese Traditional Medicine and Adult Neurogenesis in the Hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Endong; Shen, Jiangang; So, Kwok Fai

    2014-01-01

    Adult neurogenesis is an important therapeutic target in treating neurological disorders. Adult neurogenesis takes place in two regions of the brain: Subventricular zone and dentate gyrus in the hippocampus. The progressive understanding on hippocampal neurogenesis in aging and mood disorders increases the demand to explore powerful and subtle interventions on hippocampal neurogenesis. Traditional Chinese herbal medicine provides an abundant pharmaceutical platform for modulating hippocampal neurogenesis. Recent progress in exploring the effects of Chinese herbal medicine and the related mechanisms opens a new direction for regeneration therapy. The current review gives a thorough summary of the research progress made in traditional Chinese herbal formulas, and the effective compounds in Chinese herbs which are beneficial on hippocampal neurogenesis and the possible mechanisms involved. PMID:24860729

  8. [Briefly analysis on academic origins of traditional Chinese medicine dispensing].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xue-Min; Zhang, Xiao-Juan; Zhai, Hua-Qiang; Jin, Shi-Yuan

    2014-04-01

    Through collecting and collating the development process of traditional Chinese medicine dispensing, the development of modern Chinese medicine dispensing on the basis of experience could be promoted. "Heyaofenji", "Hehe", " Heji" in ancient Chinese medicine, herbal medicine literature and law were collected, and then things were sorted out according to traditional Chinese medicine dispensing theory, skills and legal norms. Firstly, "Tang Ye Jing Fa" is the earliest book which marks the rudiment of traditional Chinese medicine dispensing. Secondly, traditional Chinese medicine dispensing theory formed in "Shen Nong's herbal classic". Thirdly, Zhang Zhongjing's "Treatise on Febrile Diseases" marked the formation of Chinese medicine dispensing skills. Lastly, Provisions in Tang Dynasty law marks the development of traditional Chinese medicine dispensing.

  9. Evaluation of Herbal and Dietary Supplement Resource Term Coverage

    PubMed Central

    Manohar, Nivedha; Adam, Terrance J.; Pakhomov, Serguei V.; Melton, Genevieve B.; Zhang, Rui

    2016-01-01

    The use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) is increasingly popular in places like North America and Europe where western medicine is primarily practiced. People are consuming herbal and dietary supplements along with western medications simultaneously. Sometimes, supplements and drugs react with one another via antagonistic or potentiation actions of the drug or supplement resulting in an adverse event. Unfortunately, it is not easy to study drug-supplement interactions without a standard terminology to describe herbal and dietary supplements. This pilot study investigated coverage of supplement databases to one another as well as coverage by the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) and RxNorm for supplement terms. We found that none of the supplement databases completely covers supplement terms. UMLS, MeSH, SNOMED CT, RxNorm and NDF-RT cover 54%, 40%, 32%, 22% and 14% of supplement concepts, respectively. NDF-RT provides some value for grouping supplements into drug classes. Enhancing our understanding of the gap between the traditional biomedical terminology systems and supplement terms could lead to the development of a comprehensive terminology resources for supplements, and other secondary uses such as better detection and extraction of drug-supplement interactions. PMID:26262159

  10. Lessons learned from herbal medicinal products: the example of St. John's Wort (perpendicular).

    PubMed

    Nahrstedt, Adolf; Butterweck, Veronika

    2010-05-28

    The example of St. John's wort offers convincing evidence for the concept that modern methods of pharmacological and phytochemical research are effective in advancing the development of traditional herbal remedies. As a consequence of these efforts, it is known today that several compounds from different structural groups and with different mechanisms of action seem to be responsible for the observed antidepressant efficacy of St. John's Wort. Co-effectors in the extract improve the bioavailability of active constituents such as hypericin (1) (pharmacokinetic synergy). Unwanted side effects are preventable without remarkable loss of activity when the responsible constituent(s) are carefully removed during the extraction process, as demonstrated for hyperforin (3), which is responsible for the induction of cytochrome P450 (CYP)-metabolizing enzymes (CYP3A4, in particular). On the basis of our findings, it is likely that positive interactions between single compounds occur more frequently in traditionally used herbal preparations than is known presently.

  11. Review Raises Questions about Herbal Meds for Heart Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163808.html Review Raises Questions About Herbal Meds for Heart Problems ... popular among people with heart disease, a new review suggests. "Physicians should improve their knowledge of herbal ...

  12. Herbal Supplements May Not Mix with Heart Medicines

    MedlinePlus

    Healthy Lifestyle Consumer health Some herbal supplements can have dangerous interactions with heart medications. By Mayo Clinic Staff ... 26, 2016 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/consumer-health/in-depth/herbal-supplements/art-20046488 . ...

  13. Analysis of lead content in herbal preparations in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Ang, H H; Lee, E L; Matsumoto, K

    2003-08-01

    In Malaysia, the phase 3 registration for traditional medicines was implemented on 1 January 1992 under the Control of Drugs and Cosmetics Regulation 1984, emphasizing quality, efficacy and safety (including the detection of the presence of heavy metals) in all pharmaceutical dosage forms of traditional medicine preparations. Therefore, a total of 100 products in various pharmaceutical dosage forms of a herbal preparation, were analysed for lead content using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Results showed that 8% (eight products) possessed 10.64-20.72 ppm of lead, and therefore, do not comply with the quality requirement for traditional medicines in Malaysia. One of these products, M-Tongkat Ali (exhibited 10.64 +/-0.37 ppm of lead), was in fact already registered with the DCA Malaysia. The rest, Sukarno Tongkat Ali, Eurycoma Madu, Super Pill Tongkat Ali, Force Pill Tongkat Ali, Tender Pill Tongkat Ali, Super Pill Tongkat Ali Plus and Great Pill Tongkat Ali Plus have not registered with the DCA Malaysia and exhibited 12.24-20.72 ppm of lead. Although this study showed that only 92% of the products complied with the quality requirement for traditional medicines in Malaysia, however, they cannot be assumed safe from lead contamination because of batch-to-batch inconsistency.

  14. 2011 Japanese Nuclear Incident

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA’s RadNet system monitored the environmental radiation levels in the United States and parts of the Pacific following the Japanese Nuclear Incident. Learn about EPA’s response and view historical laboratory data and news releases.

  15. Phenacetin isolated from Bursera grandifolia, a herbal remedy with antipyretic properties.

    PubMed

    Velázquez, Francisco; Manríquez, Ricardo; Maya, Leticia; Barrientos, Lucia; López-Dellamary, Fernando

    2009-11-01

    Bursera grandifolia and other related species have been used in traditional herbal medicine in Mexico and other Latin American countries for their analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory properties. From the chloroform extract of leaves of B. grandifolia, a substance was isolated and identified as phenacetin, a well known compound with widely tested analgesic and antipyretic properties. The structural identity of the compound was elucidated on the basis of chemical and spectroscopic evidence and by comparison with an authentic sample.

  16. How the Japanese work.

    PubMed

    Chambers, D W

    1998-01-01

    The Japanese do not work harder or even use different approaches so much as they aim for a different result--one that balances process and results and extends the definition of quality beyond the product itself to include cost and convenience to the customer as well. Ten methods of the Japanese kaizen culture of work are presented with applications and contrasts to American dentistry.

  17. Herbal medicines as adjuvants for cancer therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chong-Zhi; Calway, Tyler; Yuan, Chun-Su

    2012-01-01

    In the United States, many patients, including cancer patients, concurrently take prescription drugs and herbal supplements. Co-administration of prescription medicines and herbal supplements may have negative outcomes via pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic herb-drug interactions. However, multiple constituents in botanicals may also yield beneficial pharmacological activities. Botanicals could possess effective anticancer compounds that may be used as adjuvants to existing chemotherapy to improve efficacy and/or reduce drug-induced toxicity. Herbal medicines, such as ginseng, potentiated the effects of chemotherapeutic agents via synergistic activities, supported by cell cycle evaluations, apoptotic observations, and computer-based docking analysis. Since botanicals are nearly always administrated orally, the role of intestinal microbiota in metabolizing ginseng constituents is presented. Controlled clinical studies are warranted to verify the clinical utility of the botanicals in cancer chemoprevention.

  18. PLANTS FROM THE TRADITIONAL MEDICAL SYSTEM OF THE NILGIRI TRIBES

    PubMed Central

    Rajan, S.; Sethuraman, M.; Baburaj, D. Suresh

    1997-01-01

    This study highlights the medico-ethono botanical information interviewed from Nilgin tribes. The results of this study brought forth 41 medicinal applications involving 34 plants that have been found incorporated into their traditional therapeutic relam of herbal cure for various common ailments the observations are discussed in the light of cross-cltural perspective among nilgiri abongies. PMID:22556812

  19. Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of the Clinical Efficacy and Adverse Effects of Chinese Herbal Decoction for the Treatment of Gout

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaoyu; Chen, Pinyi; Liu, Ling; Zhang, Yanqi; Wu, Yazhou; Pettigrew, Julia Christine; Cheng, Dixiang; Yi, Dong

    2014-01-01

    Background In East Asia, numerous reports describe the utilization of traditional Chinese herbal decoctions to treat gout. However, the reported clinical effects vary. Objectives In this study, we reviewed and analyzed a large number of randomized controlled clinical trials to systematically assess the clinical efficacy and adverse reactions of Chinese herbal decoctions for treating gout. Methods We performed a comprehensive search of databases, such as PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Chinese biomedical literature database, et al. In addition, we manually searched the relevant meeting information in the library of the Third Military Medical University. Results Finally, 17 randomized controlled trials with a sample size of 1,402 cases met the criteria and were included in the study. The results of the meta-analysis showed that when gout had progressed to the stage of acute arthritis, there was no significant difference in clinical efficacy between Chinese herbal decoctions and traditional Western medicine, as indicated based on the following parameters: serum uric acid (standardized mean difference (SMD):0.35, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.03 to 0.67), C reactive protein (SMD: 0.25, 95% CI: −0.18 to 0.69), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (SMD: 0.21, 95% CI: −0.02 to 0.45) and overall clinical response (relative risk (RR): 1.05, 95% CI: 1.01 to 1.10). However, the Chinese herbal decoction was significantly better than traditional Western medicine in controlling adverse drug reactions (RR: 0.06, 95% CI: 0.03 to 0.13). Conclusions Through a systematic review of the clinical efficacy and safety of Chinese herbal decoctions and traditional Western medicine for the treatment of gout, we found that Chinese herbal decoction and traditional Western medicine led to similar clinical efficacy, but the Chinese herbal decoctions were superior to Western medicine in terms of controlling adverse drug reactions. PMID:24465466

  20. Underestimating the Toxicological Challenges Associated with the Use of Herbal Medicinal Products in Developing Countries

    PubMed Central

    Neergheen-Bhujun, Vidushi S.

    2013-01-01

    Various reports suggest a high contemporaneous prevalence of herb-drug use in both developed and developing countries. The World Health Organisation indicates that 80% of the Asian and African populations rely on traditional medicine as the primary method for their health care needs. Since time immemorial and despite the beneficial and traditional roles of herbs in different communities, the toxicity and herb-drug interactions that emanate from this practice have led to severe adverse effects and fatalities. As a result of the perception that herbal medicinal products have low risk, consumers usually disregard any association between their use and any adverse reactions hence leading to underreporting of adverse reactions. This is particularly common in developing countries and has led to a paucity of scientific data regarding the toxicity and interactions of locally used traditional herbal medicine. Other factors like general lack of compositional and toxicological information of herbs and poor quality of adverse reaction case reports present hurdles which are highly underestimated by the population in the developing world. This review paper addresses these toxicological challenges and calls for natural health product regulations as well as for protocols and guidance documents on safety and toxicity testing of herbal medicinal products. PMID:24163821

  1. Efficacy and Side Effects of Chinese Herbal Medicine for Menopausal Symptoms: A Critical Review

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Lian-Wei; Jia, Man; Salchow, Roland; Kentsch, Michael; Cui, Xue-Jun; Deng, Hong-Yong; Sun, Zhuo-Jun; Kluwe, Lan

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluates 23 (9 Chinese and 14 non-Chinese) randomized controlled trials for efficacy and side effects of Chinese herbal medicine on menopausal symptoms. Menopause was diagnosed according to western medicine criteria in all studies while seven Chinese studies and one non-Chinese study further stratified the participants using traditional Chinese medical diagnosis “Zheng differentiation.” Efficacy was reported by all 9 Chinese and 9/14 non-Chinese papers. Side effects and adverse events were generally mild and infrequent. Only ten severe adverse events were reported, two with possible association with the therapy. CHM did not increase the endometrial thickness, a common side effect of hormone therapy. None of the studies investigated long-term side effects. Critical analysis revealed that (1) high-quality studies on efficacy of Chinese herbal medicine for menopausal syndrome are rare and have the drawback of lacking traditional Chinese medicine diagnosis (Zheng-differentiation). (2) Chinese herbal medicine may be effective for at least some menopausal symptoms while side effects are likely less than hormone therapy. (3) All these findings need to be confirmed in further well-designed comprehensive studies meeting the standard of evidence-based medicine and including Zheng-differentiation of traditional Chinese medicine. PMID:23365599

  2. Chamomile: A herbal medicine of the past with bright future

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Janmejai K; Shankar, Eswar; Gupta, Sanjay

    2010-01-01

    Chamomile is one of the most ancient medicinal herbs known to mankind. It is a member of Asteraceae/Compositae family and represented by two common varieties viz. German Chamomile (Chamomilla recutita) and Roman Chamomile (Chamaemelum nobile). The dried flowers of chamomile contain many terpenoids and flavonoids contributing to its medicinal properties. Chamomile preparations are commonly used for many human ailments such as hay fever, inflammation, muscle spasms, menstrual disorders, insomnia, ulcers, wounds, gastrointestinal disorders, rheumatic pain, and hemorrhoids. Essential oils of chamomile are used extensively in cosmetics and aromatherapy. Many different preparations of chamomile have been developed, the most popular of which is in the form of herbal tea consumed more than one million cups per day. In this review we describe the use of chamomile in traditional medicine with regard to evaluating its curative and preventive properties, highlight recent findings for its development as a therapeutic agent promoting human health. PMID:21132119

  3. Quality assurance of herbal raw materials in supply chain: challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Govindaraghavan, Suresh

    2008-01-01

    The herbal medicine industry is presently adopting modern scientific tools to substantiate the guarantee of efficacy that, in the past, rested only on anecdotal evidence derived from traditional knowledge systems. This is particularly true for the processes of identification of herbal raw materials adopting modern tools for phytochemical fingerprinting. The successful adaptation of available technologies and practices depends on an understanding of the phytochemical complexity and variability innate in biological material. It challenges the "mainstream medicinal mindset" that "tend(s) to reject …. therapies for which mechanisms of action do not fit within Newtonian, biochemical orientation" (Dumoff, 2003). The herbal medicinal industry is independently evolving its own rigid quality assurance and control systems using Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) and Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) guidelines, but it faces unique difficulties. These include lack of Good Agricultural and Collection Practice (GACP), lack of transparency in the raw material supply chain so as to preclude the use of unsafe practices, problems in the authentication of herbal raw materials, and a general lack of understanding of the need to reduce phytochemical variability in these materials. This paper explores these difficulties and outlines strategies to overcome them, but these strategies will require coordinated international government regulations to be fully effective.

  4. A Survey of Chinese Medicinal Herbal Treatment for Chemotherapy-Induced Oral Mucositis

    PubMed Central

    Meyer-Hamme, Gesa; Beckmann, Kathrin; Radtke, Janine; Efferth, Thomas; Greten, Henry Johannes; Rostock, Matthias; Schröder, Sven

    2013-01-01

    Oral mucositis is one of the common side effects of chemotherapy treatment with potentially severe implications. Despite several treatment approaches by conventional and complementary western medicine, the therapeutic outcome is often not satisfactory. Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) offers empirical herbal formulas for the treatment of oral ulceration which are used in adaptation to chemotherapy-induced mucositis. While standard concepts for TCM treatment do not exist and acceptance by conventional oncologists is still low, we conducted a review to examine the evidence of Chinese herbal treatment in oral mucositis. Eighteen relevant studies on 4 single herbs, 2 combinations of 2 herbs, and 11 multiherbal prescriptions involving 3 or more compounds were included. Corresponding molecular mechanisms were investigated. The knowledge about detailed herbal mechanisms, especially in multi-herbal prescriptions is still limited. The quality of clinical trials needs further improvement. Meta-analysis on the existent database is not possible but molecular findings on Chinese medicinal herbs indicate that further research is still promising for the treatment of chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis. PMID:24285975

  5. Dosing effects of an antiosteoporosis herbal formula--a preclinical investigation using a rat model.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ye; Lee, Simon Ming Yuen; Wong, Yin Mei; Lau, Ching Po; Shaw, Pang Chui; Qin, Ling; Leung, Ping Chung; Fung, Kwok Pui

    2008-02-01

    Herba Epimedii, Fructus Ligustri Lucidi and Fructus Psoraleae are three frequently used Chinese herbs traditionally used for tonifying the 'kidney system'. They were selected for the present study to formulate an herbal preparation with a weight ratio of 5:4:1 based on their phytochemical, nature, documented treatment efficacy and toxicity. The dosing effects (1 g/day, 0.5 g/day and 0.175 g/day) of the antiosteoporosis function of the water extract of this formula were tested in ovariectomy- and calcium deficiency-induced osteoporotic rats. Eleven weeks of herbal treatment demonstrated a beneficial effect on the preservation of bone mineral density (BMD) at the femur neck in a dose-dependent manner with the preference for higher dosage. No significant increase in uterus weight was observed in the herbal formula treated rats. In addition, microarray data of kidney tissue revealed that this herbal formula was able to down-regulate the expression of phase II drug metabolizing enzymes, similar to the effects of estrogens.

  6. Efficacy and safety of herbal stimulants and sedatives in sleep disorders.

    PubMed

    Gyllenhaal, Charlotte; Merritt, Sharon L.; Peterson, Sara Davia; Block, Keith I.; Gochenour, Tom

    2000-06-01

    World-wide use of herbal medicines is increasing, following regulatory and manufacturing developments. Herbs are attractive alternative medications to many patients with sleep disorders, who may be averse to using conventional drugs. We review here the most common herbal stimulants and sedatives. Caffeine, in herbal teas, black tea, coffee, soft drinks and pharmaceuticals, is used widely to control sleepiness, but more research is needed on its use in sleep disorders. Ephedra, and its constituent ephedrine, are used in both stimulant and weight loss preparations, sometimes with caffeine; safety concerns have arisen with this practice. Yohimbe is another herb used in stimulant and body-building preparations which has safety concerns. Asian and Siberian ginseng have been traditionally used for fatigue, and have some supportive experimental evidence for this use. Herbal sedatives also have some evidence for efficacy; the observations that certain plant flavonoid compounds bind to benzodiazepine receptors adds interest to their use. Valerian and kava have received the most research attention; both have decreased sleep onset time and promoted deeper sleep in small studies, and kava also shows anxiolytic effects. German chamomile, lavender, hops, lemon balm and passionflower are reputed to be mild sedatives but need much more experimental examination.

  7. Traditional Chinese Medicine Induced Liver Injury

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is popular around the world and encompasses many different practices with particular emphasis on herbal TCM. Using the PubMed database, a literature search was undertaken to assess the extent herbal TCM products exert rare hepatotoxicity. Analysis of reported cases revealed numerous specified herbal TCM products with potential hepatotoxicity. Among these were An Shu Ling, Bai Fang, Bai Xian Pi, Ban Tu Wan, Bo He, Bo Ye Qing Niu Dan, Bofu Tsu Sho San, Boh Gol Zhee, Cang Er Zi, Chai Hu, Chaso, Chi R Yun, Chuan Lian Zi, Ci Wu Jia, Da Chai Hu Tang, Da Huang, Du Huo, Gan Cao, Ge Gen, Ho Shou Wu, Hu Bohe You, Hu Zhang, Huang Qin, Huang Yao Zi, Hwang Geun Cho, Ji Gu Cao, Ji Ji, Ji Xue Cao, Jiguja, Jin Bu Huan, Jue Ming Zi, Kamishoyosan, Kudzu, Lei Gong Teng, Long Dan Xie Gan Tang, Lu Cha, Ma Huang, Mao Guo Tian Jie Cai, Onshido, Polygonum multiflorum, Qian Li Guang, Ren Shen, Sairei To, Shan Chi, Shen Min, Shi Can, Shi Liu Pi, Shou Wu Pian, Tian Hua Fen, White flood, Wu Bei Zi, Xi Shu, Xiao Chai Hu Tang, Yin Chen Hao, Zexie, Zhen Chu Cao, and various unclassified Chinese herbal mixtures. Causality was firmly established for a number of herbal TCM products by a positive reexposure test result, the liver specific scale of CIOMS (Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences), or both. Otherwise, the quality of case data was mixed, especially regarding analysis of the herb ingredients because of adulteration with synthetic drugs, contamination with heavy metals, and misidentification. In addition, non-herbal TCM elements derived from Agaricus blazei, Agkistrodon, Antelope, Bombyx, Carp, Fish gallbladder, Phellinus, Scolopendra, Scorpio, and Zaocys are also known or potential hepatotoxins. For some patients, the clinical course was severe, with risks for acute liver failure, liver transplantation requirement, and lethality. In conclusion, the use of few herbal TCM products may rarely be associated with hepatotoxicity in some

  8. Herbal medicine use among urban residents in Lagos, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Over three-quarter of the world's population is using herbal medicines with an increasing trend globally. Herbal medicines may be beneficial but are not completely harmless. This study aimed to assess the extent of use and the general knowledge of the benefits and safety of herbal medicines among urban residents in Lagos, Nigeria. Methods The study involved 388 participants recruited by cluster and random sampling techniques. Participants were interviewed with a structured open- and close-ended questionnaire. The information obtained comprises the demography and types of herbal medicines used by the respondents; indications for their use; the sources, benefits and adverse effects of the herbal medicines they used. Results A total of 12 herbal medicines (crude or refined) were used by the respondents, either alone or in combination with other herbal medicines. Herbal medicines were reportedly used by 259 (66.8%) respondents. 'Agbo jedi-jedi' (35%) was the most frequently used herbal medicine preparation, followed by 'agbo-iba' (27.5%) and Oroki herbal mixture® (9%). Family and friends had a marked influence on 78.4% of the respondents who used herbal medicine preparations. Herbal medicines were considered safe by half of the respondents despite 20.8% of those who experienced mild to moderate adverse effects. Conclusions Herbal medicine is popular among the respondents but they appear to be ignorant of its potential toxicities. It may be necessary to evaluate the safety, efficacy and quality of herbal medicines and their products through randomised clinical trial studies. Public enlightenment programme about safe use of herbal medicines may be necessary as a means of minimizing the potential adverse effects. PMID:22117933

  9. Physical Settings and Materials Recommended for Play Therapy with Japanese Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ji, Yuanhong; Ramirez, Sylvia Z.; Kranz, Peter L.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes a number of important issues to consider in play therapy with Japanese children. They include the waiting room and playroom decor, toys, and other materials, as well as terminology that are commonly used in Japan. The layout of the small and large playrooms, use of the "Wa-Shitsu" (a traditional Japanese room…

  10. East Meets West in Japanese Doctoral Education: Form, Dependence, and the Strange

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarty, Luise Prior; Hirata, Yoshitsugu

    2010-01-01

    Against the background of current reforms in higher education, we analyze the traditional education of Japanese doctoral students in philosophy of education from Western and Japanese perspectives by focusing on learning as self-education, on being and learning with others, on the socialization into the profession, and on the study of the foreign…

  11. The Japanese value of harmony and nursing ethics.

    PubMed

    Konishi, Emiko; Yahiro, Michiko; Nakajima, Naoko; Ono, Miki

    2009-09-01

    Harmony is one of the most fundamental Japanese values. It is derived from Confucianism and encompasses a state of mind, an action process and outcomes of the action. This article draws on research data and discusses Japanese nurses' perceptions of harmony as reflected in their everyday practice. The most important virtues for these nurses were reported as politeness and respect for other persons. The outcome from the nurses' harmonious practice, it is claimed, benefited patients and created peaceful, harmonious relationships for all. Because of the unique link between harmony and the location of interaction, the ideal 'workplace harmony' threatened some nurses' professional decision making. These nurses confused harmony with conformity by superficial agreement. The Japanese seniority system could be a major factor contributing to this problem. Ethics education that includes traditional values and concepts in Japanese culture is strongly urged.

  12. Herbal Energizers: Speed By Any Other Name.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Andrew P.

    This guide focuses on over-the-counter (OTC) stimulants sold to high school aged athletes and dieters as "herbal energizers," food supplements, and fatigue reducers. While advertising often makes them appear healthful and harmless, all of these stimulants belong in the class "sympathomimetic amines," so called because they…

  13. A Prairie Pharmacy: An Introduction to Herbalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Susan A.

    2003-01-01

    Presents a laboratory activity to teach medical biology to undergraduate nonmajor business students. Uses herbalism as the theme concept to integrate subjects, such as anatomy, physiology, medical theory, and terminology. Includes topics, such as herb collection, medicine preparation, and herb storage. (SOE)

  14. Herbal Medicine Along the Trail of Tears.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Melinda B.

    1994-01-01

    Describes an assignment that allows students to explore the life of the Cherokee Indians during a tragic period in history when the U.S. Government removed the Cherokees from their ancestral homeland. Students demonstrate learning by creating skits that incorporate Cherokee history, culture, and herbal remedies. (ZWH)

  15. HERBAL FOLK MEDICINES OF JALGAON DISTRICT (MAHARASHTRA)

    PubMed Central

    Fawar, Shubhangi; Patil, D.A.

    2001-01-01

    Fifty plants belonging to 33 angiospermic families used by aborigines and rurals for different human ailments hitherto unreported from Jalgaon district. Maharashtra, India are communicated. Further scientific evaluation on pharmacological and clinical lines is needed for these widely employed herbal medicines. PMID:22557036

  16. Online sources of herbal product information.

    PubMed

    Owens, Christopher; Baergen, Ralph; Puckett, Derek

    2014-02-01

    Herbal products are commonly used to treat clinical conditions and are often purchased online without the supervision of a healthcare provider. The use of herbals remains controversial because of widespread exaggerated claims of clinical efficacy and safety. We conducted an online search of 13 common herbals (including black cohosh, echinacea, garlic, ginkgo, ginseng, green tea, kava, saw palmetto, and St John's wort) and reviewed the top 50 Web sites for each using a Google search. We analyzed clinical claims, warnings, and other safety information. A total of 1179 Web sites were examined. Less than 8% of retail sites provided information regarding potential adverse effects, drug interactions, and other safety information; only 10.5% recommended consultation with a healthcare professional. Less than 3% cited scientific literature to accompany their claims. Key safety information is still lacking from many online sources of herbal information. Certain nonretail site types may be more reliable, but physicians and other healthcare professionals should be aware of the variable quality of these sites to help patients make more informed decisions.

  17. [A complexity analysis of Chinese herbal property theory: the multiple formations of herbal property].

    PubMed

    Jin, Rui; Zhang, Bing

    2012-11-01

    Chinese herbal property theory (CHPT) is the fundamental characteristic of Chinese materia medica different from modern medicines. It reflects the herbal properties associated with efficacy and formed the early framework of four properties and five flavors in Shennong's Classic of Materia Medica. After the supplement and improvement of CHPT in the past thousands of years, it has developed a theory system including four properties, five flavors, meridian entry, direction of medicinal actions (ascending, descending, floating and sinking) and toxicity. However, because of the influence of philosophy about yin-yang theory and five-phase theory and the difference of cognitive approach and historical background at different times, CHPT became complex. One of the complexity features was the multiple methods for determining herbal property, which might include the inference from herbal efficacy, the thought of Chinese Taoist School and witchcraft, the classification thinking according to manifestations, etc. Another complexity feature was the multiselection associations between herbal property and efficacy, which indicated that the same property could be inferred from different kinds of efficacy. This paper analyzed these complexity features and provided the importance of cognitive approaches and efficacy attributes corresponding to certain herbal property in the study of CHPT.

  18. [The species traceability of the ultrafine powder and the cell wall-broken powder of herbal medicine based on DNA barcoding].

    PubMed

    Xiang, Li; Tang, Huan; Cheng, Jin-le; Chen, Yi-long; Deng, Wen; Zheng, Xia-sheng; Lai, Zhi-tian; Chen, Shi-lin

    2015-12-01

    Ultrafine powder and cell wall-broken powder of herbal medicine lack of the morphological characters and microscopic identification features. This makes it hard to identify herb's authenticity with traditional methods. We tested ITS2 sequence as DNA barcode in identification of herbal medicine in ultrafine powder and cell wall-broken powder in this study. We extracted genomic DNAs of 93 samples of 31 representative herbal medicines (28 species), which include whole plant, roots and bulbs, stems, leaves, flowers, fruits and seeds. The ITS2 sequences were amplified and sequenced bidirectionally. The ITS2 sequences were identified using Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) method in the GenBank database and DNA barcoding system to identify the herbal medicine. The genetic distance was analyzed using the Kimura 2-parameter (K2P) model and the Neighbor-joining (NJ) phylogenetic tree was constructed using MEGA 6.0. The results showed that DNA can be extracted successfully from 93 samples and high quality ITS2 sequences can be amplified. All 31 herbal medicines can get correct identification via BLAST method. The ITS2 sequences of raw material medicines, ultrafine powder and cell wall-broken powder have same sequence in 26 herbal medicines, while the ITS2 sequences in other 5 herbal medicines exhibited variation. The maximum intraspecific genetic-distances of each species were all less than the minimum interspecific genetic distances. ITS2 sequences of each species are all converged to their standard DNA barcodes using NJ method. Therefore, using ITS2 barcode can accurately and effectively distinguish ultrafine powder and cell wall-broken powder of herbal medicine. It provides a new molecular method to identify ultrafine powder and cell wall-broken powder of herbal medicine in the quality control and market supervision.

  19. Effects of herbal medicinal formulas on suppressing viral replication and modulating immune responses.

    PubMed

    Liao, Hui-Fen; Lu, Min-Chi; Chang, Hon-Chou; Wei, Cheng-Chung; Kao, Chih-Hsiung; Chen, Zong-Huei; Huang, Chin-Chin; Li, Ching

    2010-01-01

    The Chinese medicinal herbs Radix Isatidis and Viola yedoensis Makino have been suggested to possess antiviral activity. This study tests whether these and other Chinese and Western herbal medicinal formulas can modulate the immune functions involving virus-suppression in BALB/c mouse. We first confirmed the extract from Viola yedoensis Makino, but not from Radix Isatidis, the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formula Chui-Uren-Chien (CUC), or a Western homeopathic medicinal drink Método Canova, could inhibit the replications of herpes simplex virus-1 and enterovirus 71 in the human neuroblastoma SK-N-SH cell line. Subsequently, the same herbal extracts and drink underwent toxicity and immunomodulatory tests on mice of 5-7 weeks old. After 8 weeks of feeding different herbal medicinal formulas, no hepatic or renal toxicity was noted in any tested animal; whereas among the immune function evaluations, only the mice treated with CUC extract were found to be associated with significant increases (p < 0.05) in both the level of plasma IgG and the percentage of monocyte in blood mononuclear cells as well as the activation of macrophage Raw264.7 cells for nitric oxide production, suggesting its role in modulating the non-specific immune response. Analyses using protein arrays showed CUC was the most potent herbal medicinal formula eliciting fluctuations in plasma cytokine and chemokine concentrations. Taking all experimental data together, we conclude Chui-Uren-Chien possesses immunomodulatory capability in mouse, but none of the herbal medicinal formulas tested here are involved in strengthening antiviral immunity.

  20. An Integrative Platform of TCM Network Pharmacology and Its Application on a Herbal Formula, Qing-Luo-Yin

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Bo; Wang, Xu; Li, Shao

    2013-01-01

    The scientific understanding of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been hindered by the lack of methods that can explore the complex nature and combinatorial rules of herbal formulae. On the assumption that herbal ingredients mainly target a molecular network to adjust the imbalance of human body, here we present a-self-developed TCM network pharmacology platform for discovering herbal formulae in a systematic manner. This platform integrates a set of network-based methods that we established previously to catch the network regulation mechanism and to identify active ingredients as well as synergistic combinations for a given herbal formula. We then provided a case study on an antirheumatoid arthritis (RA) formula, Qing-Luo-Yin (QLY), to demonstrate the usability of the platform. We revealed the target network of QLY against RA-related key processes including angiogenesis, inflammatory response, and immune response, based on which we not only predicted active and synergistic ingredients from QLY but also interpreted the combinatorial rule of this formula. These findings are either verified by the literature evidence or have the potential to guide further experiments. Therefore, such a network pharmacology strategy and platform is expected to make the systematical study of herbal formulae achievable and to make the TCM drug discovery predictable. PMID:23653662

  1. Integrating targeted glycomics and untargeted metabolomics to investigate the processing chemistry of herbal medicines, a case study on Rehmanniae Radix.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Li; Xu, Jin-Di; Zhou, Shan-Shan; Mao, Qian; Kong, Ming; Shen, Hong; Li, Xiu-Yang; Duan, Su-Min; Xu, Jun; Li, Song-Lin

    2016-11-11

    It is well-recognized that multiple components, the majority of which are secondary metabolites and carbohydrates, collectively contribute to the therapeutic effects of herbal medicines. The chemical characterization of herbal medicines has focused extensively on secondary metabolites but has largely overlooked carbohydrates. Here, we proposed an integrated chromatographic technique based targeted glycomics and untargeted metabolomics strategy simultaneously determining carbohydrates and secondary metabolites for the overall chemical profiling of herbal medicines; this strategy was successfully exemplified in an investigation of processing chemistry of Rehmanniae Radix (RR), a Chinese medicinal herb. It was demonstrated that the integrated strategy holistically illuminated the variations in the glycome and metabolome of RR samples processed by the traditionally-adopted nine cycles of steaming and drying, and further elucidated the processing-induced chemical transformation mechanisms of carbohydrates and secondary metabolites, and thereby revealed the inherent chemical connections between carbohydrates and secondary metabolites. The result suggested that the proposed strategy meets the technical demands for the overall chemical characterization of herbal medicines, and therefore could serve as a powerful tool for deciphering the scientific basis of herbal medicines.

  2. Steroids in traditional Chinese medicine: what is the evidence?

    PubMed Central

    Fung, Foon Yin; Linn, Yeh Ching

    2017-01-01

    Local healthcare providers often question the possible steroidal activity of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) herbs or herbal products and implicate them as a cause for adrenal insufficiency or Cushing’s syndrome in patients with a history of TCM intake. We conducted a comprehensive database search for evidence of potential glucocorticoid, mineralocorticoid, androgenic or oestrogenic activity of herbs or herbal products. Overall, there are not many herbs whose steroidal activity is well established; among these, most cases were based on preclinical studies. Liquorice root may cause pseudoaldosteronism through interference with the steroidogenesis pathway. Although ginseng and cordyceps have some in vitro glucocorticoid activities, the corroborating clinical data is lacking. Deer musk and deer antler contain androgenic steroids, while epimedium has oestrogenic activity. On the other hand, adulteration of herbal products with exogenous glucocorticoids is a recurrent problem encountered locally in illegal products masquerading as TCM. Healthcare providers should stay vigilant and report any suspicion to the relevant authorities for further investigations. PMID:28361161

  3. Adaptive ingredients against food spoilage in Japanese cuisine.

    PubMed

    Ohtsubo, Yohsuke

    2009-12-01

    Billing and Sherman proposed the antimicrobial hypothesis to explain the worldwide spice use pattern. The present study explored whether two antimicrobial ingredients (i.e. spices and vinegar) are used in ways consistent with the antimicrobial hypothesis. Four specific predictions were tested: meat-based recipes would call for more spices/vinegar than vegetable-based recipes; summer recipes would call for more spices/vinegar than winter recipes; recipes in hotter regions would call for more spices/vinegar; and recipes including unheated ingredients would call for more spices/vinegar. Spice/vinegar use patterns were compiled from two types of traditional Japanese cookbooks. Dataset I included recipes provided by elderly Japanese housewives. Dataset II included recipes provided by experts in traditional Japanese foods. The analyses of Dataset I revealed that the vinegar use pattern conformed to the predictions. In contrast, analyses of Dataset II generally supported the predictions in terms of spices, but not vinegar.

  4. Traditional Chinese medicine network pharmacology: theory, methodology and application.

    PubMed

    Li, Shao; Zhang, Bo

    2013-03-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has a long history of viewing an individual or patient as a system with different statuses, and has accumulated numerous herbal formulae. The holistic philosophy of TCM shares much with the key ideas of emerging network pharmacology and network biology, and meets the requirements of overcoming complex diseases, such as cancer, in a systematic manner. To discover TCM from a systems perspective and at the molecular level, a novel TCM network pharmacology approach was established by updating the research paradigm from the current "one target, one drug" mode to a new "network target, multi-components" mode. Subsequently, a set of TCM network pharmacology methods were created to prioritize disease-associated genes, to predict the target profiles and pharmacological actions of herbal compounds, to reveal drug-gene-disease co-module associations, to screen synergistic multi-compounds from herbal formulae in a high-throughput manner, and to interpret the combinatorial rules and network regulation effects of herbal formulae. The effectiveness of the network-based methods was demonstrated for the discovery of bioactive compounds and for the elucidation of the mechanisms of action of herbal formulae, such as Qing-Luo-Yin and the Liu-Wei-Di-Huang pill. The studies suggest that the TCM network pharmacology approach provides a new research paradigm for translating TCM from an experience-based medicine to an evidence-based medicine system, which will accelerate TCM drug discovery, and also improve current drug discovery strategies.

  5. Chinese Herbal Products for Female Infertility in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Yu-Chiang; Kao, Chao-Wei; Lin, Che-Chen; Liao, Yen-Nung; Wu, Bei-Yu; Hung, I-Ling; Hu, Wen-Long

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Female infertility and low birth rate are significant public health issues with profound social, psychological, and economic consequences. Some infertile women resort to conventional, complementary, or alternative therapies to conceive. The aim of this study was to identify the Chinese herbal products (CHPs) most commonly used for female infertility in Taiwan. The usage of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and the frequency of CHP prescriptions to infertile women were determined based on a nationwide 1-million randomly sampled cohort of National Health Insurance Research Database beneficiaries. Descriptive statistics and multiple logistic regression analysis were employed to estimate the adjusted odds ratio (aOR) for TCM usage and potential risk factors. In total, 8766 women with newly diagnosed infertility were included in this study. Of those, 8430 (96.17%) had sought TCM treatment in addition to visiting the gynecologist. We noted that female infertility patients with risk factors (e.g., endometriosis, uterine fibroids, or irregular menstrual cycle) were more likely to use TCM than those without TCM medication (aOR = 1.83, 1.87, and 1.79, respectively). The most commonly used formula and single CHP were Dang-Gui-Sha-Yao-San (17.25%) and Semen Cuscutae (27.40%), respectively. CHP formula combinations (e.g., Dang-Gui-Sha-Yao-San plus Wen-Jing-Tang 3.10%) or single Chinese herbal combinations (e.g., Semen Cuscutae plus Leonurus japonicus 6.31%) were also commonly used to treat female infertility. Further well-conducted, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled studies will be needed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of these CHP combinations for female infertility. PMID:26986137

  6. Japanese Temple Geometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vincent, Jill; Vincent, Claire

    2004-01-01

    Between the 17th and 19th centuries, the Japanese government closed its borders to the outside world in an attempt to become more powerful. Foreign books were banned, people could not travel, and foreigners were not allowed to enter the country. One result of this isolation was the flourishing of sangaku--wooden tablets inscribed with intricately…

  7. Reciprocal Predicates in Japanese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ishii, Yasuo

    A study of reciprocals in Japanese compares two kinds: (1) a verbal suffix "aw"; and (2) an NP argument "otagai." Although "otagai" appears to be taken care of by syntactic binding theory, it is proposed that there is no evidence for the existence of a syntactic position of the object NP in the case of "aw." The suffix can be characterized as…

  8. Reflexives in Japanese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kishida, Maki

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation is to reconsider reflexives in Japanese through the following three steps: (a) separation of genuine reflexive elements from elements that are confounded as reflexives, (b) classification of reflexive anaphors into subtypes based on their semantic difference, and (c) classification of predicates that occur with…

  9. JAPANESE READERS (TITLE SUPPLIED).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    THREE JAPANESE READERS ARE PRESENTED WHICH CONTAIN VOCABULARY, NOTES, AND DRILL SENTENCES. THE THREE READERS--(1) ARU SARARIIMAN NO ITI-NITI, (2) OTOOSAN WA KAMI-SAMA, AND (3) ARU GAKUSEI NO HANNITI--ARE WRITTEN IN THE ROMAJI ALPHABET. EACH READER HAS A VOCABULARY LISTING WITH ENGLISH EXPLANATIONS AND DRILL SENTENCES. AN ENGLISH WORD DEFINITION…

  10. On Japanese Children's Books.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watanare, Shigeo

    This report, given at a special meeting held in Tehran, presents data and facts concerning yearly publications (books, magazines, and textbooks), translations, and illustrations of Japanese children's literature. The report then discusses at length recent trends in children's literature and library activities for children in the past, present, and…

  11. Reconstruction of Japanese Vowels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aoki, Haruo

    1972-01-01

    This paper discusses the relationship between linguistic reconstructions and their historical validity using the case of Old Japanese (8th century A.D.) vowels as an example. Reconstructions throughout the paper include only those cases in which the modern reflexes and phonological correspondences between two or more genetically related languages…

  12. Japanese Experiences: "Hentai" Narratives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kama, Amit

    2011-01-01

    For those acquainted with Japanese lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) issues, "Queer Voices from Japan" can be good reading. But with only 1 of its 22 chapters informative for researchers, those interested in LGBT youth studies will only indirectly gain insight into a non-Western perspective on youth and sexuality.

  13. "Yakudoku" EFL Instruction in a Japanese High School Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorsuch, Greta J.

    "Yakudoku," the traditional, non-oral method of teaching language in Japan, is described and compared with the grammar translation method of language instruction. The methods differ in that "yakudoku" focuses mainly on translation of the foreign language text into Japanese, with grammar instruction a secondary concern, and that…

  14. Teacher's Resistance: A Case of a Japanese Middle School Teacher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kato, Reiko

    2013-01-01

    This study focuses on the life history of a Japanese teacher who was actively involved in social and educational movements in the 1960s. There are traditions of teacher resistance against social oppression worldwide, and this study brings forth one such example in Japan. This study highlights how one teacher, collaborating with his colleagues,…

  15. Functions of Japanese Exemplifying Particles in Spoken and Written Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Yuki Io

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation examines how the Japanese particles "nado", "toka", and "tari" which all may be translated as "such as", "etc.", or "like" behave differently in written and spoken discourse. According to traditional analyses (e.g. Martin, 1987), these particles are assumed to be Exemplifying Particles (EP) used to provide concrete examples to…

  16. Student Preconceptions of Japanese Language Learning in 1989 and 2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayashi, Atsuko

    2009-01-01

    This study compares student preconceptions and expectations of Japanese language learning from studies conducted in 1989 and 2004. Over the years, student interests and pedagogical approaches have changed. However, the changes do not reflect on the student preconceptions and expectations. They still believe in traditional approaches to language…

  17. Verbs and Adjectives in Literary Japanese According to Suzuki Akira.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bedell, George

    This paper presents two views on the categorization of Japanese nouns, verbs, and adjectives into form classes: the traditional view and a view set forth in the writing of Suzuki Akira. The fundamental issue here is the criterion for categorization. Is it the meaning of words, or is it their grammatical behavior that determines the system of…

  18. Japanese Negotiation through Emerging Final Particles in Everyday Talk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ono, Tsuyoshi; Thompson, Sandra A.; Sasaki, Yumi

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on the grammar of Japanese "kara" "because/so" and "kedo" "but", traditionally understood as conjunctive particles whose function is to mark a "subordinate" clause and connect it to a following "main" clause. This article shows that, in conversation, these forms are often used turn-finally without an apparent main clause and…

  19. Impact of Chinese Herbal Medicine on American Society and Health Care System: Perspective and Concern

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Winston I.; Lu, Dominic P.

    2014-01-01

    Many Americans, not completely satisfied with traditional western medicine, have turned to alternative and complementary medicine which explains the increasing popularity of the herbal products and the Chinese herbal medicine. The lack of government regulations and the increasing advertisements by the manufactures have created an impression to the common public that the natural herbal remedies are inherently safer and cheaper than conventional medicine. The skyrocketing rise of healthcare cost and the adverse reaction and side effects incurred from the prescribed drugs have both reinforced such an impression. Herbs in the USA and in many European countries have been prepared as capsules, tablets, teas, lozenges, juice extracts, tincture, and ointments. Most of the herbs are administered as a single herb in the USA and Europe. However, the traditional Chinese herbal medicine contains multiple active ingredients from various herbs and is prepared as concoctions by simmering them for hours to produce pharma-therapeutic properties useful for the treatment of a particular disease. Those prepared concoctions are taken gingerly with specific treatment purposes. In the USA and some European counties, herbs are distributed and labeled as dietary supplements and are taken by many individuals for a long period of time creating some medical and dental complex problems among them, especially in terms of anesthesia-surgery complications. This paper provides insight into basic differences in how herbs are prepared before administration to the patients in China versus a single unprepared herb sold in the USA and Europe. Also addressed are the interdisciplinary issues with health professionals, the proper regulations for better quality control of imported herbs, and the proper warning on the labels of the herbs. PMID:24719641

  20. Integrative physicians and an herbal cancer "cure".

    PubMed

    Ben-Arye, Eran; Rosenberg, Shoshana Keren; Samuels, Noah

    2016-08-01

    Oncologists are frequently asked about herbal remedies claiming to "cure" cancer, or at least delay its progression. While complementary and integrative medicine (CIM) should be aimed primarily at improving quality-of-life (QOL) related concerns, "wonder cures" are part of an alternative health belief model providing hope for a "miracle" where conventional treatment has failed. We describe a physician with extensive small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) undergoing chemotherapy, with significant toxicities and impaired daily function. He had come for an integrative physician (IP) consultation, provided by a medical doctor dually trained in CIM and supportive cancer care, taking place in a conventional supportive cancer care service. We describe the IP consultation in general and regarding an herbal remedy which was being promoted as a "cure" for cancer. The subsequent patient-tailored CIM treatment process, in which patients receive evidence-based guidance on treatments which address QOL-related concerns, are presented.

  1. Nurse Practitioners Experience With Herbal Therapy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-05-01

    Grow IRB Approval Letter APPENDIX D: Research Study Information Sheet Herbal Therapy 1 CHAPTER I: AIM OF THE STUDY Introduction This chapter will...opportunity for intervention. American medical schools are beginning to recognize the growing trend of patients resorting to complementary and non...both in the United States and worldwide. Providers’ response to this growing trend has not been well documented. Because patients are at an increased

  2. A Southern University Embraces a Sacred Japanese Tradition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Scott

    2008-01-01

    This article features the reconstitution of the Place of Peace, a Buddhist temple disassembled in Japan, shipped in four containers across the Pacific Ocean, and reassembled in Furman University campus in South Carolina. How Furman decided to take on the project is an unusual tale. The temple once belonged to the Tsuzuki family, which owned and…

  3. Distribution of Herbal Remedy Knowledge in Tabi, Yucatan, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Hopkins, Allison; Stepp, John Richard

    2013-01-01

    The distribution of herbal remedy knowledge among a group of people is studied for two main reasons: (1) to identify plants that are promising for pharmacological analysis, and (2) to examine the factors that lead to herbal remedy knowledge erosion as opposed to dynamism in the acquisition of knowledge. The goal of this particular study, which is aligned with the second reason, is to establish the variation in herbal remedy knowledge among the Yucatec Maya in Tabi, Yucatan, Mexico. Free listing and cultural consensus analysis revealed that knowledge about a few medicinal plants and herbal remedies was distributed widely among the Yucatec Maya in Tabi, whereas the majority of knowledge was idiosyncratic. This finding was consistent with other studies of herbal remedy knowledge distribution among indigenous groups in Latin America and Africa. Assessing patterns in the distribution of herbal remedy knowledge is an important next step in determining the degree of dynamism or erosion in knowledge acquisition and transmission in Tabi. PMID:23539665

  4. Extensive screening for edible herbal extracts with potent scavenging activity against superoxide anions.

    PubMed

    Saito, Keita; Kohno, Masahiro; Yoshizaki, Fumihiko; Niwano, Yoshimi

    2008-06-01

    To search for edible herbal extracts with potent antioxidant activity, we conducted a large scale screening based on the superoxide scavenging activity. That is, scavenging activity against superoxide anions were extensively screened from ethanol extracts of approximately 1,000 kinds of herbs by applying an electron spin resonance (ESR)-spin trapping method. Among them we chose four edible herbal extracts with prominently potent ability to reduce the signal intensity of 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide (DMPO)-OOH, a spin adduct formed by DMPO and superoxide anion. They are the extracts from Punica granatum (Peel), Syzygium aromaticum (Bud), Mangifera indica (Kernel), and Phyllanthus emblica (Fruit), and are allowed to be used as foodstuffs according to the Japanese legal regulation. The ESR-spin trapping method coupled with steady state kinetic analysis showed that all of the four extracts directly scavenge superoxide anions, and that the superoxide scavenging potential of any of the extracts was comparable to that of L-ascorbic acid. Furthermore, polyphenol determination indicates that the activity is at least in part attributable to polyphenols. These results with such large scale screening might give useful information when choosing a potent antioxidant as a foodstuff.

  5. The rediscovery of ancient Chinese herbal formulas.

    PubMed

    Jia, Wei; Gao, Wen-Yuan; Yan, Yong-Qing; Wang, Jie; Xu, Zhao-Hui; Zheng, Wen-Jie; Xiao, Pei-Gen

    2004-08-01

    This review presents some recent discoveries of ancient Chinese herbal formulas evolved through thousands of years of clinical practice. It appears that many of the ancient combination formulas have sound scientific basis through modern pharmacological evaluation. Significant chemical changes occurred during the preparation (decoction) process of a prescribed herbal formula. For example, some toxic ingredients were significantly reduced and new active compounds generated due to the chemical interactions among the ingredients. Many combination formulas showed significantly better pharmacological results than individual herbal medicines participated in the formula. These findings suggest that the current drug screening and regulatory methodology will not be appropriate for the development of a botanical drug containing a group of phytochemicals, in which a synergistic interaction from chemical ingredients plays a fundamental role in the treatment of disease. If we view a diseased state in a holistic and dynamic way, i.e. it involves interactions among many biological systems in human body and these interactions change as the disease improves or worsens, the treatment of such disease with a single chemical entity may not be logical or technically feasible. Combination formulas may hold the potential to become the therapeutics of choice in the future due to the synergistic effect and dynamic adjustment achieved by the multiple ingredients that will restore the balance of an imbalanced or diseased human body.

  6. Herbal hepatotoxicity and WHO global introspection method.

    PubMed

    Teschke, Rolf; Eickhoff, Axel; Wolff, Albrecht; Frenzel, Christian; Schulze, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    Herbal hepatotoxicity is a rare but highly disputed disease because numerous confounding variables may complicate accurate causality assessment. Case evaluation is even more difficult when the WHO global introspection method (WHO method) is applied as diagnostic algorithm. This method lacks liver specificity, hepatotoxicity validation, and quantitative items, basic qualifications required for a sound evaluation of hepatotoxicity cases. Consequently, there are no data available for reliability, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value. Its scope is also limited by the fact that it cannot discriminate between a positive and a negative causality attribution, thereby stimulating case overdiagnosing and overreporting. The WHO method ignores uncertainties regarding daily dose, temporal association, start, duration, and end of herbal use, time to onset of the adverse reaction, and course of liver values after herb discontinuation. Insufficiently considered or ignored are comedications, preexisting liver diseases, alternative explanations upon clinical assessment, and exclusion of infections by hepatitis A-C, cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), herpes simplex virus (HSV), and varicella zoster virus (VZV). We clearly prefer as alternative the scale of CIOMS (Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences) which is structured, quantitative, liver specific, and validated for hepatotoxicity. In conclusion, causality of herbal hepatotoxicity is best assessed by the liver specific CIOMS scale validated for hepatotoxicity rather than the obsolete WHO method that is liver unspecific and not validated for hepatotoxicity. CIOMS based assessments will ensure the correct diagnosis and exclude alternative diagnosis that may require other specific therapies.

  7. Brain oxidative stress as basic target of antioxidant traditional oriental medicines.

    PubMed

    Konishi, Tetsuya

    2009-04-01

    Prevention and amelioration of Mibyou (sub-healthy condition) is the critical target for disease prevention including age-related diseases and cancer although the Mibyou condition is not yet pathologically defined. Since the oxidative stress is an underlying basic etiology associated with many diseases and aging, the psychologically induced oxidative stress, especially in the brain was supposed as one of the pathology of Mibyou. Several traditional herbal prescriptions applied for the brain disorder were found effective to prevent cerebral oxidative stress induced by ischemia/reperfusion and also under psychological distress produced by whiskers cut in mice. Shengmai San comprising three herbs, Panax ginseng, Ophiopogon japonicus and Schisandra chinensis is a traditional herbal medicine formula having a long history of using as a remedy and clinical prescription to treat coronal heart diseases. Multifunctional aspect of traditional herbal prescription was discussed in terms of preventing oxidative injury in the brain using Shengmai San as a typical prescription.

  8. Traditional and complementary therapies in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Manyam, B V; Sánchez-Ramos, J R

    1999-01-01

    Parkinson's disease has existed in different parts of the world since ancient times. The first clear description is found in the ancient Indian medical system of Ayurveda under the name Kampavata. Traditional therapies in the form of herbal preparations containing anticholinergics, levodopa, and monoamine oxidase inhibitors were used in the treatment of PD in India, China, and the Amazon basin. Scientific reevaluation of these therapies may be valuable, as shown in the case of Mucuna pruriens and Banisteria caapi. Complementary therapies such as massage therapy, biofeedback, and acupuncture may have beneficial effects for patients and deserve further study.

  9. Herbal medicines for children: an illusion of safety?

    PubMed

    Tomassoni, A J; Simone, K

    2001-04-01

    Herbal medicaments are in common use. In general, the judicious use of carefully selected and prepared herbal medications seems to cause few adverse effects and may be beneficial. However, toxic effects of these products have been reported with increasing frequency. Infants and children may be even more susceptible to some of the adverse effects and toxicity of these products because of differences in physiology, immature metabolic enzyme systems, and dose per body weight. Although information promoting the use of herbal medicine is widespread, true evidence-based information about the efficacy and safety of herbal medications is limited. Although the most conservative approach is to recommend against use of herbal medicine until such evidence is available, some patients are not receptive to this approach. A reasonable approach for health care providers may be to follow such use closely, assist in herbal therapeutic decisions, and monitor for adverse effects and interactions. This manuscript discusses general concepts about herbal medicines, public health implications, and a framework for mechanisms of adverse effects from the use of botanicals. Adverse effects and toxicity of selected herbal products, including Chinese herbal medicines, are presented. The authors propose a risk reduction approach in which physicians actively seek information about the use of complementary or alternative medicine while taking medical histories.

  10. Detraditionalisation: Japanese Students in the USA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ueno, Junko

    2001-01-01

    Focuses on the identity formation of Japanese students temporarily living in the United States. The students were enrolled in Japanese Saturday school and in American public schools. Student interviews reveal a mixture of Japanese and American characteristics. Suggests Japanese students do not reject either culture--Japanese or American--but that…

  11. [Traditional immunosuppression--Lei Gong Teng in modern medicine].

    PubMed

    Caspi, Opher; Polak, Arik

    2013-07-01

    Although the origin of many common modern medicines that are routinely being used nowadays in healthcare is in medicinal plants and fungi, herbal medicine as a standalone profession is no longer included in the curricula of most Western medical schools. The medicinal plant Lei Gong Teng [also known as Thunder God Vine, Tripterygium Wilfordii Hook f., that is core to traditional Chinese herbal medicine, was praised for its possible anti-inflammatory properties in ancient traditional scripts that date back thousands of years. Yet, modern interest in its proven immune-modulatory properties serves as a vivid example to the bridge that is being built, gradually but constantly, between the tradition of healing arts and the world of modern therapeutics. In this review we summarize the main findings from an increasing number of clinical and laboratory studies published in top peer-reviewed medical journals that verify the traditional indications for which Lei Gong Teng was used medicinally. Based on these findings, and the risk-benefit profile of the plant's debarked root, we conclude that Lei Gong Teng and its active metabolites should be included in the Israeli herbal pharmacopeia.

  12. [Case of atopic dermatitis in infant treated with Chinese herbal medicines and nsaids ointment, which induced weight loss, electrolyte disturbance and hypoproteinemia].

    PubMed

    Yasutomi, Motoko; Okazaki, Shintaro; Kawakita, Akiko; Hayashi, Hisako; Murai, Hiroki; Mayumi, Mitsufumi; Wada, Taizo; Ohshima, Yusei

    2013-07-01

    We report here a 4-month-old girl with atopic dermatitis accompanied by weight loss, electrolyte disturbance, hypoproteinemia and hypogammaglobulinemia. She has suffered from eczema since one-month of age. Although she was treated with Chinese herbal medicines, including Syosaikotokakikyosekko, Tokishigyakukagoshuyushokyoto and Jumihaidokuto and ibuprofen ointment since three-month of age, she was referred to our hospital due to deteriorated eczema, severe diarrhea and failure to thrive. Laboratory examination revealed hyponatremia, hyperpotassemia, hypoproteinemia, hypogammaglobulinemia and elevated levels of serum IL-18, TARC and fecal EDN. Drug-induced lymphocyte stimulation tests were positive for the prescribed Chinese herbal medicines. Discontinuation of these medicines and application of steroid ointments improved loose bowels and skin lesions as well as laboratory data. It is suggested that the application of inadequate ointment and Chinese herbal medicines exaggerated inflammation in the skin and the intestinal mucosa leading to electrolyte disturbance, hypoproteinemia and hypogammaglobulinemia. Chinese herbal medicines are depicted as an additional therapy in Japanese guideline for atopic dermatitis, whereas their indication to infants with atopic dermatitis should be carefully assessed.

  13. Herbal medicine use in pregnancy: results of a multinational study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The use of complementary and alternative medicines (CAM) is growing in the general population. Herbal medicines are used in all countries of the world and are included in the top CAM therapies used. Methods A multinational study on how women treat disease and pregnancy-related health ailments was conducted between October 2011 and February 2012 in Europe, North and South America and Australia. In this study, the primary aim was to determine the prevalence of herbal medicine use in pregnancy and factors related to such use across participating countries and regions. The secondary aim was to investigate who recommended the use of herbal medication in pregnancy. Results There were 9,459 women from 23 countries participating in the study. Of these, 28.9% reported the use of herbal medicines in pregnancy. Most herbal medicines were used for pregnancy-related health ailments such as cold and nausea. Ginger, cranberry, valerian and raspberry were the most commonly used herbs in pregnancy. The highest reported rate of herbal use medicines was in Russia (69%). Women from Eastern Europe (51.8%) and Australia (43.8%) were twice as likely to use an herbal medicine versus other regions. Women using herbal medicines were characteristically having their first child, non-smokers, using folic acid and consuming some alcohol in pregnancy. Also, women who were currently students and women with an education other than a high school degree were more likely to use herbal medicines than other women. Although 1 out of 5 women stated that a physician had recommended the herbal use, most women used herbal medicine in pregnancy on their own initiative. Conclusions In this multinational study herbal medicine use in pregnancy was high although there were distinct differences in the herbs and users of herbal medicines across regions. Most commonly the women self-medicated with herbal medicine to treat pregnancy-related health ailments. More knowledge regarding the efficacy and safety

  14. Could EU herbal monographs contribute to Malta's treatment armamentarium?

    PubMed

    Micallef, B; Attard, E; Serracino-Inglott, A; Borg, J J

    2015-03-15

    Ten years have passed since Directive 2004/24/EC regulating herbal medicinal products across the EU were published. The directive created the Committee on Herbal Medicinal Products within the European Medicines Agency whose remit includes the creation and publishing of official EU monographs on herbal medicinal products. These monographs include the official uses of the products and their evidence for efficacy and safety. To this effect, we are interested in analysing the potential impact herbal product EU monographs could have on the therapeutic treatment options available for prescribers in Malta. Therefore our aim was two-fold. First, to rationalise the spread of indications of the herbal substances listed in the community herbal monograph inventory and subsequently determine if these herbal substances could potentially contribute to the treatment options available in our local scenario (Malta). 128 EU monographs were analysed resulting in a total of 230 indications which subsequently codified into 42 unique ATC codes. The Malta Medicines List contains 1456 unique ATC codes. Comparative analysis of the Malta Medicines List revealed that the 21 therapeutic areas had 4 or less pharmaceutically used substances (5th level ATC codes) registered and therefore in our opinion are areas with limited therapeutic choice. The following 4 therapeutic areas, A05 bile and liver therapy, A13 tonics, A15 appetite stimulants and D03 preparations for treatment of wounds and ulcers, could potentially benefit from the registration of herbal medicinal products according to the EU herbal monographs. If such registration is effected the aforementioned areas would no longer be considered limited because more than 4 therapeutic choices would be available to prescribers. This study is the first study across the EU to analyse the potential impact of published EU herbal monographs on therapeutic coverage in an EU member state and confirms the notion that herbal products could potentially

  15. Herbal medicines for the management of irritable bowel syndrome: A comprehensive review

    PubMed Central

    Rahimi, Roja; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional gut disorder with high prevalence. Because of various factors involved in its pathophysiology and disappointing results from conventional IBS medications, the treatment of IBS is challenging and use of complementary and alternative medicines especially herbal therapies is increasing. In this paper, electronic databases including PubMed, Scopus, and Cochrane library were searched to obtain any in vitro, in vivo or human studies evaluating single or compound herbal preparations in the management of IBS. One in vitro, 3 in vivo and 23 human studies were included and systematically reviewed. The majority of studies are about essential oil of Menta piperita as a single preparation and STW 5 as a compound preparation. Some evaluated herbs such as Curcuma xanthorriza and Fumaria officinalis did not demonstrate any benefits in IBS. However, it seems there are many other herbal preparations such as those proposed in traditional medicine of different countries that could be studied and investigated for their efficacy in management of IBS. PMID:22363129

  16. The influence of herbal medicine on platelet function and coagulation: a narrative review.

    PubMed

    McEwen, Bradley J

    2015-04-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death worldwide. Platelet activation and aggregation play a central role in hemostasis and thrombosis. Herbal medicines have been traditionally used in the management of CVD and can play a role in modifying CVD progression, particularly in platelet function, and have the potential of altering platelet function tests, as well as some coagulation parameters. Herbal medicines, such as feverfew, garlic, ginger, ginseng, motherwort, St John's wort, and willow bark, were found to reduce platelet aggregation. In vitro studies show promise in the reduction of platelet aggregation for Andrographis, feverfew, garlic, ginger, Ginkgo, ginseng, hawthorn, horse chestnut, and turmeric. In addition, cranberry, danshen, dong quai, Ginkgo, ginseng, green tea, and St John's wort were found to have potential interactions with warfarin. Furthermore, St John's wort interacted with clopidogrel and danshen with aspirin. Therefore, repeat testing of platelet function and coagulation studies, particularly for patients on warfarin therapy, may be required after exclusion of herbal medicines that could have possibly affected initial test results.

  17. Indian Herbs and Herbal Drugs Used for the Treatment of Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Modak, Manisha; Dixit, Priyanjali; Londhe, Jayant; Ghaskadbi, Saroj; Paul A. Devasagayam, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Traditional Medicines derived from medicinal plants are used by about 60% of the world’s population. This review focuses on Indian Herbal drugs and plants used in the treatment of diabetes, especially in India. Diabetes is an important human ailment afflicting many from various walks of life in different countries. In India it is proving to be a major health problem, especially in the urban areas. Though there are various approaches to reduce the ill effects of diabetes and its secondary complications, herbal formulations are preferred due to lesser side effects and low cost. A list of medicinal plants with proven antidiabetic and related beneficial effects and of herbal drugs used in treatment of diabetes is compiled. These include, Allium sativum, Eugenia jambolana, Momordica charantia Ocimum sanctum, Phyllanthus amarus, Pterocarpus marsupium, Tinospora cordifolia, Trigonella foenum graecum and Withania somnifera. One of the etiologic factors implicated in the development of diabetes and its complications is the damage induced by free radicals and hence an antidiabetic compound with antioxidant properties would be more beneficial. Therefore information on antioxidant effects of these medicinal plants is also included. PMID:18398493

  18. Screening of herbal components for attenuating amiodarone-induced hepatotoxicity on gel-entrapped rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Deng, Xudong; Shen, Chong; Meng, Qin

    2014-01-01

    Amiodarone (AMD) is a hepatotoxic drug that has been widely used as a class III antiarrhythmic drug. Because, to date, only a few kinds of protectants are able to reduce AMD hepatotoxicity, this article utilized gel-entrapped rat hepatocytes to screen effective protectants from a series of herbal compounds for their effects against AMD-induced toxicity. Herbal compounds, including matrine, silibinin, glycyrrhizic acid, schisandrin B, epigallocatechin gallate and anisodamine, were cotreated with AMD to assess their protective effect, whereas vitamin E, which has been shown to be protective in rats, was selected as a control. It was found that vitamin E, as with its function in rats, provided the best protection in gel-entrapped rat hepatocytes, whereas silibinin, a major component of silymarin, could largely reduce AMD-induced hepatotoxicity, performing a similar function as silymarin in rats. The results illustrated that gel-entrapped hepatocytes may reflect the protective effects of drugs and serve as a reliable model for screening hepatoprotectants. Moreover, matrine, a widely used monomer of the traditional Chinese medicine, Sophora flavescens, for treatment of arrhythmia, was evidenced to show some effective protections against AMD hepatotoxicity. Taken together, gel-entrapped rat hepatocytes may provide a platform for screening effective candidates from the herbal component library.

  19. Directory of Japanese researchers available

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The National Center for Science Information System Japanese Scientific and Engineering Database Access Project, sponsored by the National Science Foundation and Japan's NACSIS, has added four new databases to its free service, bringing the total number of available databases to 13.The new Directory of Japanese Researchers covers researchers affiliated with Japanese universities and academic research centers. Each researcher is listed by name, date of birth, organizational affiliation, education and degrees, memberships and awards, areas of specialization, and representative publications. Non-Japanese researchers are also covered.

  20. Where Realities Confront Ideals: The Personal, Professional, Philosophical and Political in the Teaching of Academic English in a Japanese Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toh, Glenn

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, Japanese universities have sought to have a greater number of faculty courses taught in English, where traditionally Japanese has been the medium of instruction. This article begins with an overview of the literature discussing Japan's responses to the spread of English, and philosophies and ideologies influencing the…

  1. Introducing Experimental Design by Evaluating Efficacy of Herbal Remedies (Do Herbal Remedies Really Work?)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Robert A.; Pontiggia, Laura; Waterman, Carrie; Lichtenwalner, Meghan

    2010-01-01

    This paper is based upon experiments developed as part of a Directed Research course designed to provide undergraduate biology students experience in the principles and processes of the scientific method used in biological research. The project involved the evaluation of herbal remedies used in many parts of the world in the treatment of diseases…

  2. Effects of herbal and non-herbal toothpastes on plaque and gingivitis: A clinical comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Tatikonda, Aravind; Debnath, Surangama; Chauhan, Vivek Singh; Chaurasia, Vishwajit Rampratap; Taranath, M; Sharma, Akanksha Manmohan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Presence of plaque may be the culprit for dental caries, gingivitis, periodontal problems, and halitosis. Many mechanical aids are practiced worldwide to remove or control plaque, including tooth brushes, dental floss, mouth rinses, and dentifrices. The objective of this clinical study was to investigate the effectiveness of herbal toothpaste (Dabur Red) in controlling plaque and gingivitis, as compared to conventional (non-herbal) dentifrice (Pepsodent). Materials and Methods: In this study, 30 subjects aged 35–43 years with established gingivitis and at least 20 natural teeth, and having a probing depth <3 mm were investigated. After the washout period, plaque and gingival index (PI and GI, respectively) scores were assessed at days 0 and 30. Differences between groups were compared with Mann–Whitney U test and the mean scores of PI and GI by Wilcoxon test. Statistical difference between the weights of dentifrices tubes on days 0 and 30 was evaluated by Student's t-test. Results: At the end of 30 days of the study, there was statistically significant difference between both the groups for plaque and gingival scores. Conclusion: After 30 days of trial, both test and control groups showed effective reduction of plaque and gingivitis, which was statistically significant. No adverse reactions to dentifrices products were observed during the trial. It was concluded that herbal dentifrice was as effective as non-herbal dentifrices in the control of plaque and gingivitis. PMID:25558453

  3. Alternative Medicine and Herbal Use among University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Susan K.; Blanchard, Anita

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the authors investigated the predictors of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) and herbal supplement use among university students. They investigated demographic factors, trait affectivity, symptom reports, and individuals' worries about modernity as potential contributors to use of CAM and herbals. The authors surveyed 506…

  4. Diagnosis of public programs focused on herbal medicines in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Camargo, Ely Eduardo Saranz; Bandeira, Mary Anne Medeiros; de Oliveira, Anselmo Gomes

    2011-07-01

    The present study is aimed to diagnose the current public programs focused on herbal medicines in Brazil by means of in loco visits to 10 programs selected by means of questionnaires sent to 124 municipalities that count on herbal medicine services. The main purpose of the implementation of program programs is related to the development of medicinal herbs. 70% of them are intended for the production of herbal medicines and 50% are aimed to ensure the access of the population to medicinal plants and or herbal medicines. The initiative of the implementation of these programs was related to the managers (60%). The difficulties in this implementation were due to the lack of funding (100%) of the programs. In 60% of the programs, the physicians did not adhere to herbal medicine services due to the lack of knowledge of the subject. Training courses were proposed (80%) to increase the adhesion of prescribers to the system. Some municipalities use information obtained from patients to assess the therapeutic efficiency of medicinal plants and herbal medicines. Of the programs underway, cultivation of medicinal plants was observed in 90% and 78% of them adopt quality control. In most programs, this control is not performed in accordance with the legal requirements. The programs focused on medicinal plants and herbal medicines implemented in Brazil face some chronic problems of infrastructure, management, operational capacity and self-sustainability, which can be directly related to the absence of a national policy on medicinal plants and herbal medicines.

  5. Antiviral Natural Products and Herbal Medicines

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Liang-Tzung; Hsu, Wen-Chan; Lin, Chun-Ching

    2014-01-01

    Viral infections play an important role in human diseases, and recent outbreaks in the advent of globalization and ease of travel have underscored their prevention as a critical issue in safeguarding public health. Despite the progress made in immunization and drug development, many viruses lack preventive vaccines and efficient antiviral therapies, which are often beset by the generation of viral escape mutants. Thus, identifying novel antiviral drugs is of critical importance and natural products are an excellent source for such discoveries. In this mini-review, we summarize the antiviral effects reported for several natural products and herbal medicines. PMID:24872930

  6. DNA Microarrays in Herbal Drug Research

    PubMed Central

    Chavan, Preeti; Joshi, Kalpana; Patwardhan, Bhushan

    2006-01-01

    Natural products are gaining increased applications in drug discovery and development. Being chemically diverse they are able to modulate several targets simultaneously in a complex system. Analysis of gene expression becomes necessary for better understanding of molecular mechanisms. Conventional strategies for expression profiling are optimized for single gene analysis. DNA microarrays serve as suitable high throughput tool for simultaneous analysis of multiple genes. Major practical applicability of DNA microarrays remains in DNA mutation and polymorphism analysis. This review highlights applications of DNA microarrays in pharmacodynamics, pharmacogenomics, toxicogenomics and quality control of herbal drugs and extracts. PMID:17173108

  7. Therapeutic Applications of Herbal Medicines for Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Shu-Yi; Wei, Wen-Chi; Jian, Feng-Yin; Yang, Ning-Sun

    2013-01-01

    Medicinal herbs and their derivative phytocompounds are being increasingly recognized as useful complementary treatments for cancer. A large volume of clinical studies have reported the beneficial effects of herbal medicines on the survival, immune modulation, and quality of life (QOL) of cancer patients, when these herbal medicines are used in combination with conventional therapeutics. Here, we briefly review some examples of clinical studies that investigated the use of herbal medicines for various cancers and the development of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in this emerging research area. In addition, we also report recent studies on the biochemical and cellular mechanisms of herbal medicines in specific tumor microenvironments and the potential application of specific phytochemicals in cell-based cancer vaccine systems. This review should provide useful technological support for evidence-based application of herbal medicines in cancer therapy. PMID:23956768

  8. Therapeutic applications of herbal medicines for cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Yin, Shu-Yi; Wei, Wen-Chi; Jian, Feng-Yin; Yang, Ning-Sun

    2013-01-01

    Medicinal herbs and their derivative phytocompounds are being increasingly recognized as useful complementary treatments for cancer. A large volume of clinical studies have reported the beneficial effects of herbal medicines on