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Sample records for jardim pe utilizando

  1. Mineralogy and geochemistry of the Paleoproterozoic, tin-mineralized Bom Jardim granite of the Velho Guilherme Suite, eastern Amazonian craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamarão, Claudio Nery; Cordovil Pinho, Sabrina Cristina; de Paiva, Antonio Lima; Galarza, Marco Antônio

    2012-10-01

    The Bom Jardim granite is located to the south of São Felix do Xingu town and is intrusive in the intermediate to felsic volcanic rocks of the Uatumã Group. It is formed dominantly of coarse- to medium-grained isotropic monzogranite and syenogranite, both affected by intense late- to post-magmatic alteration. Biotite, generally chloritized, is the main primary mafic phase, with rare amphibole being found in the monzogranite. Hydrothermally altered and greisenized rocks, containing small primary concentrations of cassiterite + wolframite, as well as quartz veins with millimeter- to centimeter-sized crystals of wolframite + pyrite + fluorite occur in pervasively altered cupolas. Presently, alluvial cassiterite and wolframite (±columbite, tantalite) are mined in the Pedra Preta mine, located in the northern part of the pluton. SEM data showed that Sn-W mineralization is dominantly associated with syenogranite and greisenized rocks. EDS Semi-quantitative analysis revealed that the zircon crystals of the Bom Jardim granite are characteristically enriched in Hf, Y, U, and Th and display Zr/Hf ratios decreasing from monzogranite/leucomonzogranite toward syenogranite and greisenized syenogranite rocks, suggesting that magmatic differentiation significantly contributed for this particular feature. The Bom Jardim granite is slightly peraluminous and displays geochemical affinities with A-type granites. The Bom Jardim granite varieties evolved dominantly by fractional crystallization and their REE patterns are similar to those of the tin-specialized granites of the Velho Guilherme suite. It is concluded that the more evolved granites and associated greisenized rocks of the Bom Jardim pluton are tin-specialized granites. The similarities observed between the granites of the Velho Guilherme suite and the Bom Jardim granite allow to include the latter in this important granite suite.

  2. The role of UHMW-PE in microporous PE separators

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, L.C.; Harvey, M.K.; Stein, H.L.; Scheunemann, U.

    1997-12-01

    Microporous PE separators have gained large popularity in the lead acid battery industry, particularly in SLI (Starting, Lighting and Ignition) Automotive Applications. The PE (Polyethylene) in battery separator is actually UHMW-PE (Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene). UHMW-PE has a molecular weight more than ten times that of conventional HDPE (High Density Polyethylene). This paper gives an overview of the UHMW-PE`s contributions to the PE battery separator process, assembly, and performance, in comparison to other conventional separators, such as PVC (Polyvinyl Chloride), cellulose, and glass fiber.

  3. The Ultimate PE Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cerny, Eleanor; Wojehowski, Ken

    2005-01-01

    This article features the Ultimate PE Challenge. The idea had been born when the fifth-grade teachers complained that teaching physical geography was boring, and the technology instructor simultaneously noticed a climbing wall in the gym. "Could physical education simulate the geographic characteristics and obstacles of North America?" This…

  4. The New P.E.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandertie, Joan; Corner, Amy B.; Corner, Kevin J.

    2012-01-01

    Marana Middle School in Tucson, Ariz., scrapped its traditional P.E. program that emphasized team sports and shifted to a program that focuses on lifetime fitness, student choice in activities, and nutrition and health education. The program also includes student leadership development and informal community service. As a result, Marana students…

  5. Determinants of PE Teachers Career Intentions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mäkelä, Kasper; Hirvensalo, Mirja; Whipp, Peter R.

    2015-01-01

    One of the cause's célèbre in the field of education has been teacher attrition; Physical education (PE) is no different. Some PE teachers are leaving the profession because they encounter stress and dissatisfaction in their profession. The purpose of this study is to determine the aspects that keep PE teachers happy and remaining in the…

  6. The modification of the flexibility of radiation crosslinked PE by blending PE with EVA and CPE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hui, Zhang; Jiufu, Xu

    1993-07-01

    Polyethylene (PE) is used as an insulation material for wires and cables because of its excellent electrical properties. Most of the properties of PE are improved greatly after irradiation, but, it was harden and split easily in low temperature. According to ethylene-vinyl acetate polymer (EVA) and chlor-poly-ethylene (CPE) possesing good flexibility. Blending of EVA/PE, CPE/PE systems were performed individually. As the results of experiment, suitable radiation dose and percentage of EVA/PE, CPE/PE systems have been determined to overcome the split of heat-shrinking tube after shrinkage.

  7. Elementary Students' Construct of PE Teacher Credibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramos, Nilo O.; McCullick, Bryan A.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate elementary students' perceptions of PE teacher credibility. Eight high- and low-skilled students from grades 3 and 5 were selected from a school employing a PE teacher holding a National Board Certification. Data were collected in the school setting utilizing observations, field notes, an open-ended…

  8. No, Really: P.E. Online

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stover, Del

    2005-01-01

    Because some students need to drop some extracurricular activities in order to enroll in a PE class, public schools have developed PE courses that can be fitted into students' tight schedules. These programs are popular because of convenience. Not only can workouts be scheduled as desired, but students can sweat it out almost anywhere: the local…

  9. A compact PE memory for vision chips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cong, Shi; Zhe, Chen; Jie, Yang; Nanjian, Wu; Zhihua, Wang

    2014-09-01

    This paper presents a novel compact memory in the processing element (PE) for single-instruction multiple-data (SIMD) vision chips. The PE memory is constructed with 8 × 8 register cells, where one latch in the slave stage is shared by eight latches in the master stage. The memory supports simultaneous read and write on the same address in one clock cycle. Its compact area of 14.33 μm2/bit promises a higher integration level of the processor. A prototype chip with a 64 × 64 PE array is fabricated in a UMC 0.18 μm CMOS technology. Five types of the PE memory cell structure are designed and compared. The testing results demonstrate that the proposed PE memory architecture well satisfies the requirement of the vision chip in high-speed real-time vision applications, such as 1000 fps edge extraction.

  10. JROTC as a Substitute for PE: Really?

    PubMed Central

    Lounsbery, Monica A. F.; Holt, Kathryn A.; Monnat, Shannon A.; McKenzie, Thomas L.; Funk, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Even though physical education (PE) is an evidence-based strategy for providing and promoting physical activity, alternative programs such as Junior Reserve Officer Training Corps (JROTC) are commonly substituted for PE in many states. The purpose of this study was to compare student physical activity and lesson contexts during high school PE and JROTC sessions. Method SOFIT (System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time) was used to assess PE and JROTC sessions (N=38 each) in 4 high schools that provided both programs. Data were analyzed using t-tests, negative binomial regression, and logistic regression. Results Students engaged in significantly more moderate to vigorous physical activity during PE than JROTC sessions and they were significantly less sedentary. Significant differences between the two program types were also found among lesson contexts. Conclusions PE and JROTC provide substantially different content and contexts and students in them engage in substantially different amounts of moderate to vigorous physical activity. Students in JROTC, and perhaps other alternative programs, are less likely to accrue health-supporting physical activity and engage in fewer opportunities to be physically fit and motorically skilled. Policies and practices for providing substitutions for PE should be carefully examined. PMID:25141093

  11. COPD and PE: A clinical dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Moua, Teng; Wood, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Dyspnea in patients with known chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) can be a clinical challenge due to the nonspecific nature of atypical presentations. Typical features of fever, productive cough, and wheezing on presentation support COPD exacerbation, while absence of such findings may warrant further evaluation for underlying etiologies, including pulmonary embolism (PE). It is suspected that one in four patients with atypical COPD exacerbation may have PE as an underlying or concomitant cause of acute dyspnea. This review discusses the clinical presentation of COPD and PE, and presents an overview of the rationale for pursuing work-up for thromboembolic disease in the setting of known obstructive lung diseases. PMID:18686736

  12. Computerised clinical decision support for suspected PE.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, David; Resano, Santiago; Otero, Remedios; Jurkojc, Carolina; Portillo, Ana Karina; Ruiz-Artacho, Pedro; Corres, Jesús; Vicente, Agustina; den Exter, Paul L; Huisman, Menno V; Moores, Lisa; Yusen, Roger D

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to determine the effect of an evidence-based clinical decision support (CDS) algorithm on the use and yield of CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA) and on outcomes of patients evaluated in the emergency department (ED) for suspected PE. The study included 1363 consecutive patients evaluated for suspected PE in an ED during 12 months before and 12 months after initiation of CDS use. Introduction of CDS was associated with decreased CTPA use (55% vs 49%; absolute difference (AD), 6.3%; 95% CI 1.0% to 11.6%; p=0.02). The use of CDS was associated with fewer symptomatic venous thromboembolic events during follow-up in patients with an initial negative diagnostic evaluation for PE (0.7% vs 3.2%; AD 2.5%; 95% CI 0.9% to 4.6%; p<0.01).

  13. School PE through Internet Discussion Forums

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauritsalo, Kirsti; Sääkslahti, Arja; Rasku-Puttonen, Helena

    2015-01-01

    Background: Physical education is a subject that generates strong feelings and emotions, as can be seen in written accounts of PE experiences. It is also important to listen to students' voices in the research context. Nowadays, students can be listened to in a new way--through the Internet. Various discussion forums on the Internet make it…

  14. What Is the PE Password? Incorporating Vocabulary in Your Elementary PE Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robelee, Margaret E.

    2016-01-01

    This article describes a novel program for third through fifth grade called "What is the PE Password?" that teaches vocabulary words and concepts without sacrificing activity time in order to support Common Core learning.

  15. Comparison of Mechanical Properties Between PE80 and PE100 Pipe Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yi; Jar, P.-Y. Ben

    2016-10-01

    Mechanical properties, including yield stress, relaxation behavior, moduli (elastic modulus at the strain of 0.5% and strain hardening modulus at strains above 70%), viscous stress, and quasi-static stress, are compared between polyethylene (PE) pipes that are made of PE80 and PE100 resins. The mechanical properties are measured using D-split tensile test on modified notched pipe ring specimens. The comparison includes the influence of strain rate (by the change of crosshead speed) on the yield strength and influence of pre-strain on the relaxation behavior and the modulus values. A two-stage approach is used to characterize the influence of pre-strain on the moduli, to ensure that viscous recovery from the first-stage of the test, to introduce the pre-strain, does not affect the modulus measurement from the second-stage test. The results show that elastic modulus, yield stress, strain hardening modulus, viscous stress, and quasi-static stress for PE100 are higher than those for PE80, but PE80 shows higher resistance to stress relaxation. The results also show that with the increase in the pre-strain level, the elastic modulus drops but the strain hardening modulus remains relatively constant.

  16. Comparison of Mechanical Properties Between PE80 and PE100 Pipe Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yi; Jar, P.-Y. Ben

    2016-08-01

    Mechanical properties, including yield stress, relaxation behavior, moduli (elastic modulus at the strain of 0.5% and strain hardening modulus at strains above 70%), viscous stress, and quasi-static stress, are compared between polyethylene (PE) pipes that are made of PE80 and PE100 resins. The mechanical properties are measured using D-split tensile test on modified notched pipe ring specimens. The comparison includes the influence of strain rate (by the change of crosshead speed) on the yield strength and influence of pre-strain on the relaxation behavior and the modulus values. A two-stage approach is used to characterize the influence of pre-strain on the moduli, to ensure that viscous recovery from the first-stage of the test, to introduce the pre-strain, does not affect the modulus measurement from the second-stage test. The results show that elastic modulus, yield stress, strain hardening modulus, viscous stress, and quasi-static stress for PE100 are higher than those for PE80, but PE80 shows higher resistance to stress relaxation. The results also show that with the increase in the pre-strain level, the elastic modulus drops but the strain hardening modulus remains relatively constant.

  17. BIM LAU-PE: Seedlings in Microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gass, S.; Pennese, R.; Chapuis, D.; Dainesi, P.; Nebuloni, S.; Garcia, M.; Oriol, A.

    2015-09-01

    The effect of gravity on plant roots is an intensive subject of research. Sounding rockets represent a costeffective platform to study this effect under microgravity conditions. As part of the upcoming MASER 13 sounding rocket campaign, two experiments on Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings have been devised: GRAMAT and SPARC. These experiments are aimed at studying (1) the genes that are specifically switched on or off during microgravity, and (2) the position of auxin-transporting proteins during microgravity. To perform these experiments, RUAG Space Switzerland site of Nyon, in collaboration with the Swedish Space Corporation (SSC) and the University of Freiburg, has developed the BIM LAU-PE (Biolology In Microgravity Late Access Unit Plant Experiment). In the following an overview of the BIM LAU-PE design is presented, highlighting specific module design features and verifications performed. A particular emphasis is placed on the parabolic flight experiments, including results of the micro-g injection system validation.

  18. Search for D{sup 0}{yields}pe{sup +} and D{sup 0}{yields}pe{sup -}

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, P.; Lowrey, N.; Mehrabyan, S.; Selen, M.; Wiss, J.; Mitchell, R. E.; Shepherd, M. R.; Besson, D.; Pedlar, T. K.; Cronin-Hennessy, D.; Gao, K. Y.; Hietala, J.; Kubota, Y.; Klein, T.; Poling, R.; Scott, A. W.; Zweber, P.; Dobbs, S.; Metreveli, Z.; Seth, K. K.

    2009-05-01

    We search for simultaneous baryon and lepton number violating decays of the D{sup 0} meson. Specifically, we use 281 pb{sup -1} of data taken on the {psi}(3770) resonance with the CLEO-c detector at the CESR collider to look for decays D{sup 0}{yields}pe{sup +}, D{sup 0}{yields}pe{sup +}, D{sup 0}{yields}pe{sup -}, and D{sup 0}{yields}pe{sup -}. We find no significant signals and set the following branching fraction upper limits: D{sup 0}{yields}pe{sup +}(D{sup 0}{yields}pe{sup +})<1.1x10{sup -5} and D{sup 0}{yields}pe{sup -}(D{sup 0}{yields}pe{sup -})<1.0x10{sup -5}, both at the 90% confidence level.

  19. The characterisation of two different degradable polyethylene (PE) sacks

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, G. . E-mail: gudavis@cytanet.com.cy

    2006-12-15

    The compostability of two different polyethylene (PE) products on the UK market under open-windrow composting conditions is explored within this paper. Chemical analysis of the PE bags has established their constituents in order to examine how the PE bags have an increased degradability depending on additives. Weight loss of the two different PE products within open-windrow composting conditions was recorded in order to establish the percentage weight loss as an indication of the degradability of the two products and their relative suitability for open-windrow composting. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of the PE products over the composting duration established the degradation processes for the PE products within the compost. These analyses concluded that one of the PE product mixes was more degradable than the other. However, neither product completed degraded within the timeframe of 12-14 weeks generally accepted for open-windrow composting in the UK.

  20. Functional Dissection of the PE Domain Responsible for Translocation of PE_PGRS33 across the Mycobacterial Cell Wall

    PubMed Central

    Cascioferro, Alessandro; Donà, Valentina; Delogu, Giovanni; Palù, Giorgio; Bitter, Wilbert; Manganelli, Riccardo

    2011-01-01

    PE are peculiar exported mycobacterial proteins over-represented in pathogenic mycobacterial species. They are characterized by an N-terminal domain of about 110 amino acids (PE domain) which has been demonstrated to be responsible for their export and localization. In this paper, we characterize the PE domain of PE_PGRS33 (PERv1818c), one of the best characterized PE proteins. We constructed several mutated proteins in which portions of the PE domain were deleted or subjected to defined mutations. These proteins were expressed in different mycobacterial species and their localization was characterized. We confirmed that the PE domain is essential for PE_PGRS33 surface localization, and demonstrated that a PE domain lacking its first 30 amino acids loses its function. However, single amino acid substitutions in two regions extremely well conserved within the N-terminal domain of all PE proteins had some effect on the stability of PE_PGRS33, but not on its localization. Using Mycobacterium marinum we could show that the type VII secretion system ESX-5 is essential for PE_PGRS33 export. Moreover, in M. marinum, but not in Mycobacterium bovis BCG and in Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the PE domain of PE_PGRS33 is processed and secreted into the culture medium when expressed in the absence of the PGRS domain. Finally, using chimeric proteins in which different portions of the PERv1818c domain were fused to the N-terminus of the green fluorescent protein, we could hypothesize that the first 30 amino acids of the PE domain contain a sequence that allows protein translocation. PMID:22110736

  1. From PE Experiences to PE Teaching Practices? Insights from Scottish Primary Teachers' Experiences of PE, Teacher Education, School Entry and Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliot, Dely L.; Atencio, Matthew; Campbell, Theresa; Jess, Mike

    2013-01-01

    Morgan and Hansen suggest that further research is needed to explore how non-specialist primary teachers approach and teach physical education (PE) based on their personal school PE backgrounds, teacher education experiences and ongoing professional development. This paper adopts Lawson's socialisation model, a theoretical framework…

  2. Generalized transduction Of shigella flexneri by converting phage PE5.

    PubMed

    Financsek, I; Kétyi, I

    1976-01-01

    Phage PE5, responsible for the conversion of type V antigen in Shigella flexneri, has the ability to produce generalized transduction. The correlation between phage multiplicity and the number of transductants, the specific inhibitory activity of anti-PE5 serum, and the lack of transduction in PE5 resistant recipients, indicate the role of phage PE5 in generalized transduction. Transduction of the R100-1 factor resulted in a non-transmissible tetracycline resistance segragation. The characteristics of the tetracycline resistance determinant suggest the possibility of integration.

  3. PE11, a PE/PPE family protein of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is involved in cell wall remodeling and virulence

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Parul; Rao, Rameshwaram Nagender; Reddy, Jala Ram Chandra; Prasad, RBN; Kotturu, Sandeep Kumar; Ghosh, Sudip; Mukhopadhyay, Sangita

    2016-01-01

    The role of the unique proline-glutamic acid (PE)/proline-proline-glutamic acid (PPE) family of proteins in the pathophysiology and virulence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is not clearly understood. One of the PE family proteins, PE11 (LipX or Rv1169c), specific to pathogenic mycobacteria is found to be over-expressed during infection of macrophages and in active TB patients. In this study, we report that M. smegmatis expressing PE11 (Msmeg-PE11) exhibited altered colony morphology and cell wall lipid composition leading to a marked increase in resistance against various environmental stressors and antibiotics. The cell envelope of Msmeg-PE11 also had greater amount of glycolipids and polar lipids. Msmeg-PE11 was found to have better survival rate in infected macrophages. Mice infected with Msmeg-PE11 had higher bacterial load, showed exacerbated organ pathology and mortality. The liver and lung of Msmeg-PE11-infected mice also had higher levels of IL-10, IL-4 and TNF-α cytokines, indicating a potential role of this protein in mycobacterial virulence. PMID:26902658

  4. PE11, a PE/PPE family protein of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is involved in cell wall remodeling and virulence.

    PubMed

    Singh, Parul; Rao, Rameshwaram Nagender; Reddy, Jala Ram Chandra; Prasad, R B N; Kotturu, Sandeep Kumar; Ghosh, Sudip; Mukhopadhyay, Sangita

    2016-02-23

    The role of the unique proline-glutamic acid (PE)/proline-proline-glutamic acid (PPE) family of proteins in the pathophysiology and virulence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is not clearly understood. One of the PE family proteins, PE11 (LipX or Rv1169c), specific to pathogenic mycobacteria is found to be over-expressed during infection of macrophages and in active TB patients. In this study, we report that M. smegmatis expressing PE11 (Msmeg-PE11) exhibited altered colony morphology and cell wall lipid composition leading to a marked increase in resistance against various environmental stressors and antibiotics. The cell envelope of Msmeg-PE11 also had greater amount of glycolipids and polar lipids. Msmeg-PE11 was found to have better survival rate in infected macrophages. Mice infected with Msmeg-PE11 had higher bacterial load, showed exacerbated organ pathology and mortality. The liver and lung of Msmeg-PE11-infected mice also had higher levels of IL-10, IL-4 and TNF-α cytokines, indicating a potential role of this protein in mycobacterial virulence.

  5. PE11, a PE/PPE family protein of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is involved in cell wall remodeling and virulence.

    PubMed

    Singh, Parul; Rao, Rameshwaram Nagender; Reddy, Jala Ram Chandra; Prasad, R B N; Kotturu, Sandeep Kumar; Ghosh, Sudip; Mukhopadhyay, Sangita

    2016-01-01

    The role of the unique proline-glutamic acid (PE)/proline-proline-glutamic acid (PPE) family of proteins in the pathophysiology and virulence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is not clearly understood. One of the PE family proteins, PE11 (LipX or Rv1169c), specific to pathogenic mycobacteria is found to be over-expressed during infection of macrophages and in active TB patients. In this study, we report that M. smegmatis expressing PE11 (Msmeg-PE11) exhibited altered colony morphology and cell wall lipid composition leading to a marked increase in resistance against various environmental stressors and antibiotics. The cell envelope of Msmeg-PE11 also had greater amount of glycolipids and polar lipids. Msmeg-PE11 was found to have better survival rate in infected macrophages. Mice infected with Msmeg-PE11 had higher bacterial load, showed exacerbated organ pathology and mortality. The liver and lung of Msmeg-PE11-infected mice also had higher levels of IL-10, IL-4 and TNF-α cytokines, indicating a potential role of this protein in mycobacterial virulence. PMID:26902658

  6. Improvement of barrier properties of rotomolded PE containers with nanoclay

    SciTech Connect

    Jamshidi, Shadi; Sundararaj, Uttandaraman

    2015-05-22

    Polyethylene (PE) is widely used to make bulk containers in rotational molding process. The challenge in this study is to improve permeation resistance of PE to hydrocarbon solvents and gases. Adding organomodified clay improves the thermal, barrier and mechanical properties of PE. In fact, clay layers create a tortuous path against the permeant, yielding better barrier properties. Due to the non-polar hydrophobic nature of PE and polar hydrophilic structure of clay minerals, the compatibilizer plays a crucial role to enhance the dispersion level of clay in the matrix. In this study High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) and Linear Low Density Polyethylene (LLDPE) layered silicate nanocomposite were melt-compounded with two concentrations of organomodified clay (2 and 4 wt. %). The interaction between nanoclay, compatibilizer and rotomolding grade of PE were examined by using X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and rheology test. Rheology was used to determine the performance of our material at low shear processing condition.

  7. Improvement of barrier properties of rotomolded PE containers with nanoclay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamshidi, Shadi; Sundararaj, Uttandaraman

    2015-05-01

    Polyethylene (PE) is widely used to make bulk containers in rotational molding process. The challenge in this study is to improve permeation resistance of PE to hydrocarbon solvents and gases. Adding organomodified clay improves the thermal, barrier and mechanical properties of PE. In fact, clay layers create a tortuous path against the permeant, yielding better barrier properties. Due to the non-polar hydrophobic nature of PE and polar hydrophilic structure of clay minerals, the compatibilizer plays a crucial role to enhance the dispersion level of clay in the matrix. In this study High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) and Linear Low Density Polyethylene (LLDPE) layered silicate nanocomposite were melt-compounded with two concentrations of organomodified clay (2 and 4 wt. %). The interaction between nanoclay, compatibilizer and rotomolding grade of PE were examined by using X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and rheology test. Rheology was used to determine the performance of our material at low shear processing condition.

  8. Temporospatial dissociation of Pe subcomponents for perceived and unperceived errors

    PubMed Central

    Endrass, Tanja; Klawohn, Julia; Preuss, Julia; Kathmann, Norbert

    2012-01-01

    Previous research on performance monitoring revealed that errors are followed by an initial fronto-central negative deflection (error-related negativity, ERN or Ne) and a subsequent centro-parietal positivity (error positivity, Pe). It has been shown that error awareness mainly influences the Pe, whereas the ERN seems unaffected by conscious awareness of an error. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relation of ERN and Pe to error awareness in a visual size discrimination task in which errors are not elicited by impulsive responding but by perceptual difficulty. Further, we applied a temporospatial principal component analysis (PCA) to examine whether the temporospatial subcomponents of the Pe would differentially relate to error awareness. Event-related potential (ERP) results were in accordance with earlier studies: a significant error awareness effect was found for the Pe, but not for the ERN. Interestingly, a modulation with error perception on correct trials was found: correct responses considered as incorrect had larger correct-related negativity (CRN) and lager Pe amplitudes than correct responses considered as correct. The PCA yielded two relevant spatial factors accounting for the Pe (latency 300 ms). A temporospatial factor characterized by a centro-parietal positivity varied significantly with error awareness. Of the two temporospatial factors corresponding to ERN and CRN, one factor with central topography varied with response correctness and subjective error perception on correct responses. The PCA results indicate that the error awareness effect is specifically related to the centro-parietal subcomponent of the Pe. Since this component has also been shown to be related to the importance of an error, the present variation with error awareness indicates that this component is sensitive to the salience of an error and that salience secondarily may trigger error awareness. PMID:22737113

  9. Surface modification of PE film by DBD plasma in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, C.-S.; Wang, K.; Nie, Q.-Y.; Wang, D.-Z.; Guo, S.-H.

    2008-12-01

    In this paper, surface modification of polyethylene (PE) films is studied by dielectric barrier discharge plasma treatment in air. The treated samples were examined by water contact angle measurement, calculation of surface free energy, Fourier transform infrared attenuated total reflection spectroscopy (FTIR-ATR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The water contact angle changes from the original value of 93.2° to the minimum value of 53.3° and surface free energy increases from 27.3 to 51.89 J/m 2 after treatment time of 50 s. Both ATR and XPS show some oxidized species are introduced into the sample surface by the plasma treatment and that the change tendencies of the water contact angle and surface free energy with the treatment time are the same as that of the oxygen concentration on the treated sample surface. Cu films were deposited on the treated and untreated PE surfaces. The peel adhesive strength between the Cu film and the treated sample is 1.5 MPa, whereas the value is only 0.8 MPa between the Cu film and the untreated PE. SEM pictures show that the Cu film deposited on the plasma treated PE surface is smooth and the crystal grain is smaller, contrarily the Cu film on the untreated PE surface is rough and the crystal grain is larger.

  10. Amyloid arthropathy revealed by RS3PE syndrome.

    PubMed

    Magy, N; Michel, F; Auge, B; Toussirot, E; Wendling, D

    2000-01-01

    Amyloid arthropathy is a form of primary AL amyloidosis with a monoclonal component in the blood and/or urine, and RS3PE syndrome is acute edematous polysynovitis in subjects older than 60 years. A 74-year-old man was diagnosed with both disorders. He was admitted for benign acute polyarthritis of the hands and feet and reported carpal tunnel symptoms predominating on the right. A synovial biopsy at the right wrist disclosed deposits that stained with Congo red even after potassium permanganate treatment (positive Wright's test). Articular AL amyloidosis was diagnosed. The symptoms resolved under glucocorticoid therapy alone, casting some doubt on their relationship with the amyloidosis. Roentgenograms showed geodes, a feature not present in RS3PE. Whether RS3PE may be among the possible presentations of articular amyloidosis is discussed.

  11. Au-nanoparticles grafted on plasma treated PE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Švorčík, V.; Chaloupka, A.; Řezanka, P.; Slepička, P.; Kolská, Z.; Kasálková, N.; Hubáček, T.; Siegel, J.

    2010-03-01

    Polyethylene (PE) surface was treated with Ar plasma. Activated surface was grafted from methanol solution of 1,2-ethanedithiol. Then the sample was immersed into freshly prepared colloid solution of Au-nanoparticles. Finally Au layer was sputtered on the samples. Properties of the modified PE were studied using various methods: AFM, EPR, RBS and nanoindentation. It was shown that the plasma treatment results in degradation of polymer chain (AFM) and creation of free radicals by EPR. After grafting with dithiol, the concentration of free radicals declines. The presence of Au and S in the surface layer after the coating with Au-nanoparticles was proved by RBS. Plasma treatment changes PE surface morphology and increases surface roughness, too. Another significant change in surface morphology and roughness was observed after deposition of Au-nanoparticles. Nanoindentation measurements show that the grafting with Au-nanoparticles increases adhesion of subsequently sputtered Au layer.

  12. "Race" Talk! Tensions and Contradictions in Sport and PE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hylton, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Background: The universal sport discourses of meritocracy and equality are so engrained that few challenge them. The most cursory interest in sport, Physical Education (PE), and society will reveal that the lived reality is quite different. Racial disparities in the leadership and administration of sport are commonplace worldwide; yet, from…

  13. Temperature, pressure critical in PE line pipe use

    SciTech Connect

    Oney, C.L.

    1988-01-01

    Polyethylene (PE) line pipe is used for low-pressure gas (gathering, supply gas, etc.) and water lines and, in some cases for flow lines. API Spec 15LE specifies minimum requirements for qualification of product and quality control by manufacturers of polyethylene pipe. Spec 15LE also provides guidelines for design of polyethylene. Thermoplastic pipe (PE and PVC) is manufactured by melting resin pellets or powder and extruding the melt through dies. Thermoplastic pipe pressure classes are designated by ''standard dimension ratios'' (SDR). The SDR is the average OD divided by the wall thickness (w.t.). Thus 2 3/8-in. OD pipe (nominal 2 in.) with 0.216-in. w.t. is SDR 11. Nominal 3-in. pipe (3 1/2-in. OD) must have a minimum 0.318-in. w.t. to be SDR 11. Table 5.1 in Spec 15LE lists the most commonly used SDRs. Quality control during manufacture required by Spec 15LE for PE pipe includes short-term hydrostatic tests and dimensional checks. Frequency of tests depend on whether the pipe is coiled or cut into lengths. PE pipe sizes of 3 in. and smaller sizes usually are coiled. In addition, annual tests for verification of long-term pressure rating are required by Spec 15LE.

  14. "Cool PE" and Confronting the Negative Stereotypes of Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaudreault, Karen Lux

    2014-01-01

    To change the public's negative perceptions, it may be necessary to change the nature of physical education programming. One way of doing so is by adopting "Cool PE," which refers to physical education that "moves" students, empowers students with choice, and is meaningful to students outside of the gym.

  15. Serving PE Teachers' Professional Learning Experiences in Social Circus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Chung

    2010-01-01

    Background: Social circus has long been the folklore in the Chinese culture. Recently, initiatives have been undergoing to introduce it in the school physical education curriculum in Hong Kong. Aims: This article reports a study on 38 PE teachers' professional learning experiences while attending two 2-day workshops respectively concerning…

  16. Building a Model PE Curriculum: Education Reform in Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, John

    2012-01-01

    The blueprint to build a model physical education (PE) curriculum begins by establishing a sound curricular foundation based on a lesson plan template that incorporates clear and concise program goals, the alignment of lessons to state or national content standards, and the collection, analysis and use of objective assessment data that informs…

  17. What Can Veterinary Educators Learn from PE Teachers?

    PubMed

    Hofmeister, Erik H; McCullick, Bryan A

    2016-01-01

    Veterinary education requires the training of students in cognitive, affective, and psychomotor domains. However, the veterinary education literature tends to focus more on the cognitive domain, with less emphasis on the affective and psychomotor domains. Physical education (PE) teachers have been teaching psychomotor skills to students for decades using a variety of teaching models. Teaching models provide a framework encompassing theory, student and teacher interactions, instructional themes, research support, and valid assessments. This paper reviews some of the models used by PE teachers, including the Direct Instruction Model, the Cooperative Learning Model, the Personalized System for Instruction, and the Peer Teaching Model. We posit that these models might be particularly helpful for novice teachers in veterinary education settings, providing a structure for the teaching and assessment of psychomotor skills. PMID:27075278

  18. What Can Veterinary Educators Learn from PE Teachers?

    PubMed

    Hofmeister, Erik H; McCullick, Bryan A

    2016-01-01

    Veterinary education requires the training of students in cognitive, affective, and psychomotor domains. However, the veterinary education literature tends to focus more on the cognitive domain, with less emphasis on the affective and psychomotor domains. Physical education (PE) teachers have been teaching psychomotor skills to students for decades using a variety of teaching models. Teaching models provide a framework encompassing theory, student and teacher interactions, instructional themes, research support, and valid assessments. This paper reviews some of the models used by PE teachers, including the Direct Instruction Model, the Cooperative Learning Model, the Personalized System for Instruction, and the Peer Teaching Model. We posit that these models might be particularly helpful for novice teachers in veterinary education settings, providing a structure for the teaching and assessment of psychomotor skills.

  19. Making the Case for Developing New PE-for-Health Pedagogies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armour, Kathleen; Harris, Jo

    2013-01-01

    This article argues for a new direction in research on health education within physical education (PE). Governments are increasingly looking to schools as a convenient form of public health investment. PE is implicated in health because of its core focus on physical activity, but there is little evidence to suggest that PE improves health…

  20. Attitudes toward and Motivation for PE. Who Collects the Benefits of the Subject?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Säfvenbom, Reidar; Haugen, Tommy; Bulie, Marte

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose: Due to attitudinal and motivational aims in the national curriculum, and to lack of research on adolescents' experiences with physical education (PE) in Norway, the purposes of this study were to (1) attain data on attitudes toward PE and self-determined motivation for PE among a representative sample of adolescents (N =…

  1. Targeting the Body and the Mind: Evaluation of a P.E. Curriculum Intervention for Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loukaitou-Sideris, Anastasia

    2015-01-01

    P.E. classes are often the only opportunity for inner-city youth to engage in physical activity, but budget cuts and pressure to perform well on standardized tests has made P.E. an afterthought for many school administrators. This study evaluated the effectiveness of a new P.E. curriculum in five Los Angeles inner-city schools. Interviews were…

  2. Failure analysis of retrieved PE-UHMW acetabular liners.

    PubMed

    Laska, Anna; Archodoulaki, Vasiliki-Maria; Duscher, Bernadette

    2016-08-01

    Ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (PE-UHMW) acetabular liners have a limited lifespan in a patient's body. There are many factors affecting the performance of the implant and furthermore the properties of the polymeric material are changing after implantation. In this work material changes according to structure and morphology and their implication on mechanical properties are in focus. The physical and mechanical properties of ten crosslinked (xL) PE-UHMW and nine conventional (conv) gamma-sterilized PE-UHMW hip components, used as sliding surface in total hip joint replacement, with different in-vivo times are compared. The evaluation of the retrieved acetabular liners is performed in view of crosslinking and conventional gamma-sterilization but also in terms of the influence of gender concerning alteration in properties. The oxidative degradation in the PE-UHMW is investigated by means of Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). The characterization of the morphology is carried out via differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). A depth profile of the micro-hardness and elastic modulus is taken over the cross-section of the components in order to find the influence of chemical constitution and morphology on the micro-mechanical properties. It could be shown that crosslinking and oxidative degradation influence the degree of crystallinity of the polymer. Oxidation occurs for both types of the material due to in-vivo time. Higher degree of crystallinity can be correlated to higher hardness and indentation modulus. No unequivocal superiority of crosslinked over conventional liners can be observed. The influence of sex concerning alteration of the evaluated properties matters but need to be further investigated. PMID:26849029

  3. The new geographic information system in ETVA VI.PE.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xagoraris, Zafiris; Soulis, George

    2016-08-01

    ETVA VI.PE. S.A. is a member of the Piraeus Bank Group of Companies and its activities include designing, developing, exploiting and managing Industrial Areas throughout Greece. Inside ETVA VI.PE.'s thirty-one Industrial Parks there are currently 2,500 manufacturing companies established, with 40,000 employees and € 2.5 billion of invested funds. In each one of the industrial areas ETVA VI.PE guarantees the companies industrial lots of land (sites) with propitious building codes and complete infrastructure networks of water supply, sewerage, paved roads, power supply, communications, cleansing services, etc. The development of Geographical Information System for ETVA VI.PE.'s Industrial Parks started at the beginning of 1992 and consists of three subsystems: Cadastre, that manages the information for the land acquisition of Industrial Areas; Street Layout - Sites, that manages the sites sold to manufacturing companies; Networks, that manages the infrastructure networks (roads, water supply, sewerage etc). The mapping of each Industrial Park is made incorporating state-of-the-art photogrammetric, cartographic and surveying methods and techniques. Passing through the phases of initial design (hybrid GIS) and system upgrade (integrated Gis solution with spatial database), the system is currently operating on a new upgrade (integrated gIS solution with spatial database) that includes redesigning and merging the system's database schemas, along with the creation of central security policies, and the development of a new web GIS application for advanced data entry, highly customisable and standard reports, and dynamic interactive maps. The new GIS bring the company to advanced levels of productivity and introduce the new era for decision making and business management.

  4. SCoPE: an efficient method of Cosmological Parameter Estimation

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Santanu; Souradeep, Tarun E-mail: tarun@iucaa.ernet.in

    2014-07-01

    Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampler is widely used for cosmological parameter estimation from CMB and other data. However, due to the intrinsic serial nature of the MCMC sampler, convergence is often very slow. Here we present a fast and independently written Monte Carlo method for cosmological parameter estimation named as Slick Cosmological Parameter Estimator (SCoPE), that employs delayed rejection to increase the acceptance rate of a chain, and pre-fetching that helps an individual chain to run on parallel CPUs. An inter-chain covariance update is also incorporated to prevent clustering of the chains allowing faster and better mixing of the chains. We use an adaptive method for covariance calculation to calculate and update the covariance automatically as the chains progress. Our analysis shows that the acceptance probability of each step in SCoPE is more than 95% and the convergence of the chains are faster. Using SCoPE, we carry out some cosmological parameter estimations with different cosmological models using WMAP-9 and Planck results. One of the current research interests in cosmology is quantifying the nature of dark energy. We analyze the cosmological parameters from two illustrative commonly used parameterisations of dark energy models. We also asses primordial helium fraction in the universe can be constrained by the present CMB data from WMAP-9 and Planck. The results from our MCMC analysis on the one hand helps us to understand the workability of the SCoPE better, on the other hand it provides a completely independent estimation of cosmological parameters from WMAP-9 and Planck data.

  5. Failure analysis of retrieved PE-UHMW acetabular liners.

    PubMed

    Laska, Anna; Archodoulaki, Vasiliki-Maria; Duscher, Bernadette

    2016-08-01

    Ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (PE-UHMW) acetabular liners have a limited lifespan in a patient's body. There are many factors affecting the performance of the implant and furthermore the properties of the polymeric material are changing after implantation. In this work material changes according to structure and morphology and their implication on mechanical properties are in focus. The physical and mechanical properties of ten crosslinked (xL) PE-UHMW and nine conventional (conv) gamma-sterilized PE-UHMW hip components, used as sliding surface in total hip joint replacement, with different in-vivo times are compared. The evaluation of the retrieved acetabular liners is performed in view of crosslinking and conventional gamma-sterilization but also in terms of the influence of gender concerning alteration in properties. The oxidative degradation in the PE-UHMW is investigated by means of Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). The characterization of the morphology is carried out via differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). A depth profile of the micro-hardness and elastic modulus is taken over the cross-section of the components in order to find the influence of chemical constitution and morphology on the micro-mechanical properties. It could be shown that crosslinking and oxidative degradation influence the degree of crystallinity of the polymer. Oxidation occurs for both types of the material due to in-vivo time. Higher degree of crystallinity can be correlated to higher hardness and indentation modulus. No unequivocal superiority of crosslinked over conventional liners can be observed. The influence of sex concerning alteration of the evaluated properties matters but need to be further investigated.

  6. Polyelectrolyte (PE) induced interactions between Charged and zwitterionic Colloids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pryamitsyn, Victor; Ganesan, Venkat

    2014-03-01

    A numerical self-consistent field (SCF) theory approach was developed for studying mixture of polyelectrolytes with charged and uncharged nanoparticles. Such an approach was used to analyze within the mean-field limit the polyelectrolyte-mediated effective interactions between the particles. The system considered allows for the local PE and particle charges to be defined by the local concentration of ionizable on groups on the particles and polyelectrolytes, ambient conditions like pH and the local electrostatic potential. Calculation of the free energy of a system of one, two and three particles in the polyelectrolyte solution allowdd us to calculate the particle insertion free energy, two and three body particle-particle interactions as a function of the properties of solution, polymer-particle interactions and the particle size. For the situation involving acidic PE and a base type positively charged particles, the PE mediated particle-particle interaction is purely repulsive for the larger particle-particle distances at low polymer concentrations. At short-particle particle distances and/or higher polyelectrolyte concentrations the particle-particle interaction becomes a depletion-type attraction. For Zwitterionic positively chaged paticles particles we have found a a range

  7. Comparison study of PE epitaxy on carbon nanotubes and graphene oxide and PE/graphene oxide as amphiphilic molecular structure for solvent separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Linghao; Zheng, Xiaoli; Xu, Qun; Chen, Zhimin; Fu, Jianwei

    2012-03-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphene nanosheets, as one-dimensional and two-dimensional carbon-based nanomaterials respectively, have different abilities to induce the polymer crystallization. In this study, hybrid materials, polyethylene (PE) decorating on CNTs and graphene oxide (GO), were prepared by a facile and efficient method using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC CO2) as anti-solvent. And the morphology and crystallization behavior of PE on CNTs and GO were investigated by transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectra, wide angle X-ray diffraction, and differential scanning calorimetry. Although both CNTs and GO could act as nucleating agents to induce PE epitaxial growth, CNTs were decorated by PE lamellar crystals forming nanohybrid "shish-kebab" (NHSK) structure, whereas GO sheets were only decorated with petal-like PE crystals. The varying morphologies of the nanohybrids depend on the PE epitaxy and the interactions between polymer chains and substrates. High surface curvature and the perfect ordered crystal structure of CNTs make PE crystals periodically grow on CNTs. While PE crystals grow and form multiple orientation-lamellae on GO due to the lattice matching and complex interactions between PE chains and GO. In addition, our experimental results show an interesting and evident stratification phenomenon for the PE/GO hybrid material, implying that GO decorated by PE have a screening function for the solvents. We anticipate that this work can widen the area of functionalization of carbon-based nanomaterials with a controlled means by an environmentally benign method, which are important for the functional design in nanodevice applications.

  8. "We Should Assess the Students in More Authentic Situations": Swedish PE Teacher Educators' Views of the Meaning of Movement Skills for Future PE Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Backman, Erik; Pearson, Phil

    2016-01-01

    The question of what knowledge a student of Physical Education (PE) needs to develop during PE teacher education (PETE) was recently discussed. One form of knowledge is the movement practices that students must meet during their education. Given the limited time, a delicate matter is whether to prioritize movement knowledge and consider it as…

  9. Evolution of Smooth Tubercle Bacilli PE and PE_PGRS Genes: Evidence for a Prominent Role of Recombination and Imprint of Positive Selection

    PubMed Central

    Fabre, Michel; Gutierrez, Maria Cristina; Mardassi, Helmi

    2013-01-01

    Background PE and PE_PGRS are two mycobateria-restricted multigene families encoding membrane associated and secreted proteins that have expanded mainly in the pathogenic species, notably the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC). Several lines of evidence attribute to PE and PE_PGRS genes critical roles in mycobacterial pathogenicity. To get more insight into the nature of these genes, we sought to address their evolutionary trajectories in the group of smooth tubercle bacilli (STB), the putative ancestor of the clonal MTBC. Methodology/Principal Findings By focussing on six polymorphic STB PE/PE_PGRS genes, we demonstrate significant incongruence among single gene genealogies and detect strong signals of recombination using various approaches. Coalescent-based estimation of population recombination and mutation rates (ρ and θ, respectively) indicates that the two mechanisms are of roughly equal importance in generating diversity (ρ/θ = 1.457), a finding in a marked contrast to house keeping genes (HKG) whose evolution is chiefly brought about by mutation (ρ/θ = 0.012). In comparison to HKG, we found 15 times higher mean rate of nonsynonymous substitutions, with strong evidence of positive selection acting on PE_PGRS62 (dN/dS = 1.42), a gene that has previously been shown to be essential for mycobacterial survival in macrophages and granulomas. Imprint of positive selection operating on specific amino acid residues or along branches of PE_PGRS62 phylogenetic tree was further demonstrated using maximum likelihood- and covarion-based approaches, respectively. Strikingly, PE_PGR62 proved highly conserved in present-day MTBC strains. Conclusions/Significance Overall the data indicate that, in STB, PE/PE_PGRS genes have undergone a strong diversification process that is speeded up by recombination, with evidence of positive selection. The finding that positive selection involved an essential PE_PGRS gene whose sequence appears to be driven to

  10. Gamma radiation induced degradation in PE-PP block copolymer

    SciTech Connect

    Ravi, H. R.; Sreepad, H. R.; Ahmed, Khaleel; Govindaiah, T. N.

    2012-06-05

    In the present investigation, effect of gamma irradiation on the PP-PE block copolymer has been studied. The polymer has been subjected to gamma irradiation from 100 to 500 Mrad dosages. Characterization of the polymer using XRD and FTIR was done both before irradiation and after irradiation in each step. Effect of irradiation on the electrical properties of the material has also been studied. FTIR study shows that the sample loses C - C stretching mode of vibration but gains C=C stretching mode of vibration after irradiation. Present investigation clearly indicates that though the electrical conductivity increases in the material, it undergoes degradation and shows brittleness due to irradiation.

  11. Combustion of PMMA, PE, and PS in a ramjet

    SciTech Connect

    van der Geld, C.W.M. ); Korting, P.A.O.G. ); Wijchers, T. )

    1990-03-01

    This paper reports the combustion behavior of polymethylmetharcrylate (PMMA), polyethylene (PE), and polystyrene (PS) with air investigated in a connected pipe test facility; spectroscopy showed the presence of OH, C{sub 2}, and CH and temperatures between 1300 and 3000 K during combustion. Particular attention was focused on regression rate and combustion efficiency and the role of temperature and soot production. The present investigation gives an understanding of the most important phenomena that control (or emanate from) the combustion of a cylindrical solid fuel with a rearward facing step, and this has application for solid fuel ramjets, the safe burning of toxic waste, and hot gas generators. The results are summarized.

  12. Local void and slip model used in BODYFIT-2PE

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, B.C.J.; Chien, T.H.; Kim, J.H.; Lellouche, G.S.

    1983-01-01

    A local void and slip model has been proposed for a two-phase flow without the need of fitting any empirical parameters. This model is based on the assumption that all bubbles have reached their terminal rise velocities in the two-phase region. This simple model seems to provide reasonable calculational results when compared with the experimental data and other void and slip models. It provides a means to account for the void and slip of a two-phase flow on a local basis. This is particularly suitable for a fine mesh thermal-hydraulic computer program such as BODYFIT-2PE.

  13. Gamma radiation induced degradation in PE-PP block copolymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravi, H. R.; Sreepad, H. R.; Ahmed, Khaleel; Govindaiah, T. N.

    2012-06-01

    In the present investigation, effect of gamma irradiation on the PP-PE block copolymer has been studied. The polymer has been subjected to gamma irradiation from 100 to 500 Mrad dosages. Characterization of the polymer using XRD and FTIR was done both before irradiation and after irradiation in each step. Effect of irradiation on the electrical properties of the material has also been studied. FTIR study shows that the sample loses C - C stretching mode of vibration but gains C=C stretching mode of vibration after irradiation. Present investigation clearly indicates that though the electrical conductivity increases in the material, it undergoes degradation and shows brittleness due to irradiation.

  14. Cosmic ray anisotropies to 5 PeV

    SciTech Connect

    Erlykin, A. D.; Wolfendale, A. W. E-mail: a.w.wolfendale@durham.ac.uk

    2013-04-01

    Several large cosmic ray (CR) detectors have recently provided data on the arrival directions of CR, which taken together with previous data recorded over many decades allow the amplitude and phase of the first harmonic to be derived with reasonable precision and up to higher energies. We find a high degree of consistency amongst the various measurements. The new data indicate that at an energy above ∼ 0.1 PeV a change of the CR anisotropy sets in. The amplitude of the first harmonic, which rises to 3 TeV, then diminishes and begins to rise again. The direction of the phase also changes to the opposite one. A measure of understanding follows from the use of two-dimensional maps of cosmic ray excesses over the mean background. When the energy of cosmic rays approaches the PeV region, the excess of cosmic rays moves from the Galactic Anti-Centre to the opposite direction of the Galactic Centre. The possible role of such potential cosmic ray sources as the supernovae Monogem Ring and Vela, which could help to explain some of the observed results, is discussed.

  15. New software forecasts service life and integrity of PE piping

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhlman, C.J.; Kanninen, M.F.; Mamoun, M.M.

    1995-04-01

    New software from the Gas Research Institute (GRI) is especially useful to local distribution companies (LDCs) who have older plastic gas pipe installations and are in warmer climates. The new software, LIFESPAN, enables these companies to predict pipe lifetimes and plan for long range replacement programs. LIFESPAN also is useful for assessing the operational benefits by changing scenarios, such as: what will the pipe lifetime be if pressure is increased (or reduced) by 25%? In addition to its ability to forecast the longterm performance of polyethylene (PE) gas pipe materials by using data from short-term, laboratory-based slow crack growth (SCG) tests, LIFESPAN also can evaluate existing piping systems. Also, it can be used to design new systems, select PE gas piping materials in a cost effective manner for specific operating conditions, and improve inspection and maintenance operations. With information from LIFESPAN, pipe replacements, repairs, or rehabilitation can be done in a scheduled manner for effective use of manpower and equipment resources.

  16. TG/FTIR analysis on co-pyrolysis behavior of PE, PVC and PS.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jingli; Chen, Tianju; Luo, Xitao; Han, Dezhi; Wang, Zhiqi; Wu, Jinhu

    2014-03-01

    The pyrolysis and co-pyrolysis behaviors of polyethylene (PE), polystyrene (PS) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) under N2 atmosphere were analyzed by Thermal gravimetric/Fourier transform infrared (TG/FTIR). The volatile products were analyzed to investigate the interaction of the plastic blends during the thermal decomposition process. The TGA results showed that the thermal stability increased followed by PVC, PS and PE. The pyrolysis process of PE was enhanced when mixed with PS. However, PS was postponed when mixed with PVC. As for PE and PVC, mutual block was happened when mixed together. The FTIR results showed that the free radical of the decomposition could combine into a stable compound. When PE mixed with PVC or PS, large amount of unsaturated hydrocarbon groups existed in products while the content of alkynes was decreased. The methyl (-CH3) and methylene (-CH2-) bonds were disappeared while PVC mixed with PE.

  17. Classification of principal connections on W{sup r}PE

    SciTech Connect

    Vondra, Jan

    2008-11-18

    We assume a vector bundle E{yields}M and the principal bundle PE of frames of E. Let K be a general linear connection on E and let {lambda} be a linear connection on M. We classify all connections on W{sup r}PE = P{sup r}Mx{sub M}J{sup r}PE naturally given by K and {lambda}.

  18. PE-induced apoptosis in SMMC-7721 cells: Involvement of Erk and Stat signalling pathways

    PubMed Central

    XUE, LI; LI, MING; CHEN, TENG; SUN, HAIFENG; ZHU, JIE; LI, XIA; WU, FENG; WANG, BIAO; LI, JUPING; CHEN, YANJIONG

    2014-01-01

    Emerging evidence indicates that the redistribution of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) across the bilayer of the plasma membrane is an important molecular marker for apoptosis. However, the effect of PE on apoptosis and the underlying mechanism of PE remain unclear. In the current study, MTT and flow cytometric assays were used to examine the effects of PE on apoptosis in SMMC-7721 cells. The level of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) and the expression of Bax, Bcl-2, caspase-3, phospho-Erk and phospho-Stat1/2 in SMMC-7721 cells that were exposed to PE were also investigated. The results showed that PE inhibited proliferation, caused G0/G1 phase cell cycle arrest and induced apoptosis in SMMC-7721 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Rhodamine 123 staining showed that the treatment of SMMC-7721 cells with different concentrations of PE for 24 h significantly decreased the level of ΔΨm and exerted dose-dependent effects. Using immunofluorescence and western blotting, we found that the expression of Bax was upregulated, whereas that of Bcl-2 was downregulated in PE-induced apoptotic cells. In addition, these events were accompanied by an increase in caspase-3 expression in a dose-dependent manner following PE treatment. PE-induced apoptosis was accompanied by a decrease in Erk phosphorylation and by the activation of Stat1/2 phosphorylation in SMMC-7721 cells. In conclusion, the results suggested that PE-induced apoptosis is involved in upregulating the Bax/Bcl-2 protein ratio and decreasing the ΔΨm. Moreover, the results showed that the Erk and Stat1/2 signalling pathways may be involved in the process of PE-induced apoptosis. PMID:24821075

  19. Modulation of the Activity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis LipY by Its PE Domain

    PubMed Central

    Garrett, Christopher K.; Broadwell, Lindsey J.; Hayne, Cassandra K.; Neher, Saskia B.

    2015-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis harbors over 160 genes encoding PE/PPE proteins, several of which have roles in the pathogen’s virulence. A number of PE/PPE proteins are secreted via Type VII secretion systems known as the ESX secretion systems. One PE protein, LipY, has a triglyceride lipase domain in addition to its PE domain. LipY can regulate intracellular triglyceride levels and is also exported to the cell wall by one of the ESX family members, ESX-5. Upon export, LipY’s PE domain is removed by proteolytic cleavage. Studies using cells and crude extracts suggest that LipY’s PE domain not only directs its secretion by ESX-5, but also functions to inhibit its enzymatic activity. Here, we attempt to further elucidate the role of LipY’s PE domain in the regulation of its enzymatic activity. First, we established an improved purification method for several LipY variants using detergent micelles. We then used enzymatic assays to confirm that the PE domain down-regulates LipY activity. The PE domain must be attached to LipY in order to effectively inhibit it. Finally, we determined that full length LipY and the mature lipase lacking the PE domain (LipYΔPE) have similar melting temperatures. Based on our improved purification strategy and activity-based approach, we concluded that LipY’s PE domain down-regulates its enzymatic activity but does not impact the thermal stability of the enzyme. PMID:26270534

  20. PE_PGRS33 Contributes to Mycobacterium tuberculosis Entry in Macrophages through Interaction with TLR2.

    PubMed

    Palucci, Ivana; Camassa, Serena; Cascioferro, Alessandro; Sali, Michela; Anoosheh, Saber; Zumbo, Antonella; Minerva, Mariachiara; Iantomasi, Raffaella; De Maio, Flavio; Di Sante, Gabriele; Ria, Francesco; Sanguinetti, Maurizio; Palù, Giorgio; Brennan, Michael J; Manganelli, Riccardo; Delogu, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    PE_PGRS represent a large family of proteins typical of pathogenic mycobacteria whose members are characterized by an N-terminal PE domain followed by a large Gly-Ala repeat-rich C-terminal domain. Despite the abundance of PE_PGRS-coding genes in the Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) genome their role and function in the biology and pathogenesis still remains elusive. In this study, we generated and characterized an Mtb H37Rv mutant (MtbΔ33) in which the structural gene of PE_PGRS33, a prototypical member of the protein family, was inactivated. We showed that this mutant entered macrophages with an efficiency up to ten times lower than parental or complemented strains, while its efficiency in infecting pneumocytes remained unaffected. Interestingly, the lack of PE_PGRS33 did not affect the intracellular growth of this mutant in macrophages. Using a series of functional deletion mutants of the PE_PGRS33 gene to complement the MtbΔ33 strain, we demonstrated that the PGRS domain is required to mediate cell entry into macrophages, with the key domain encompassing position 140-260 amino acids of PE_PGRS33. PE_PGRS33-mediated entry into macrophages was abolished in TLR2-deficient mice, as well as following treatment with wortmannin or an antibody against the complement receptor 3 (CR3), indicating that PE_PGRS33-mediated entry of Mtb in macrophages occurs through interaction with TLR2.

  1. PE_PGRS33 Contributes to Mycobacterium tuberculosis Entry in Macrophages through Interaction with TLR2

    PubMed Central

    Palucci, Ivana; Camassa, Serena; Cascioferro, Alessandro; Sali, Michela; Anoosheh, Saber; Zumbo, Antonella; Minerva, Mariachiara; Iantomasi, Raffaella; De Maio, Flavio; Di Sante, Gabriele; Ria, Francesco; Sanguinetti, Maurizio; Palù, Giorgio; Brennan, Michael J.; Manganelli, Riccardo; Delogu, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    PE_PGRS represent a large family of proteins typical of pathogenic mycobacteria whose members are characterized by an N-terminal PE domain followed by a large Gly-Ala repeat-rich C-terminal domain. Despite the abundance of PE_PGRS-coding genes in the Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) genome their role and function in the biology and pathogenesis still remains elusive. In this study, we generated and characterized an Mtb H37Rv mutant (MtbΔ33) in which the structural gene of PE_PGRS33, a prototypical member of the protein family, was inactivated. We showed that this mutant entered macrophages with an efficiency up to ten times lower than parental or complemented strains, while its efficiency in infecting pneumocytes remained unaffected. Interestingly, the lack of PE_PGRS33 did not affect the intracellular growth of this mutant in macrophages. Using a series of functional deletion mutants of the PE_PGRS33 gene to complement the MtbΔ33 strain, we demonstrated that the PGRS domain is required to mediate cell entry into macrophages, with the key domain encompassing position 140–260 amino acids of PE_PGRS33. PE_PGRS33-mediated entry into macrophages was abolished in TLR2-deficient mice, as well as following treatment with wortmannin or an antibody against the complement receptor 3 (CR3), indicating that PE_PGRS33-mediated entry of Mtb in macrophages occurs through interaction with TLR2. PMID:26978522

  2. PeV-scale supersymmetry from new inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Nakayama, Kazunori; Takahashi, Fuminobu E-mail: fumi@tuhep.phys.tohoku.ac.jp

    2012-05-01

    We show that heavy supersymmetric particles around O(100) TeV to O(1) PeV naturally appear in new inflation in which the Higgs boson responsible for the breaking of U(1){sub B−L} plays the role of inflaton. Most important, the supersymmetric breaking scale is bounded above by the inflationary dynamics, in order to suppress the Coleman-Weinberg potential which would otherwise spoil the slow-roll inflation. Our scenario has rich phenomenological and cosmological implications: the Higgs boson mass at around 125 GeV can be easily explained, non-thermal leptogenesis works automatically, the gravitino production from inflaton decay is suppressed, the dark matter is either the lightest neutralino or the QCD axion, and the upper bound on the inflation scale for the modulus stabilization can be marginally satisfied.

  3. Structural Bioinformatics Inspection of neXtProt PE5 Proteins in the Human Proteome.

    PubMed

    Dong, Qiwen; Menon, Rajasree; Omenn, Gilbert S; Zhang, Yang

    2015-09-01

    One goal of the Human Proteome Project is to identify at least one protein product for each of the ∼20,000 human protein-coding genes. As of October 2014, however, there are 3564 genes (18%) that have no or insufficient evidence of protein existence (PE), as curated by neXtProt; these comprise 2647 PE2-4 missing proteins and 616 PE5 dubious protein entries. We conducted a systematic examination of the 616 PE5 protein entries using cutting-edge protein structure and function modeling methods. Compared to a random sample of high-confidence PE1 proteins, the putative PE5 proteins were found to be over-represented in the membrane and cell surface proteins and peptides fold families. Detailed functional analyses show that most PE5 proteins, if expressed, would belong to transporters and receptors localized in the plasma membrane compartment. The results suggest that experimental difficulty in identifying membrane-bound proteins and peptides could have precluded their detection in mass spectrometry and that special enrichment techniques with improved sensitivity for membrane proteins could be important for the characterization of the PE5 "dark matter" of the human proteome. Finally, we identify 66 high scoring PE5 protein entries and find that six of them were reported in recent mass spectrometry databases; an illustrative annotation of these six is provided. This work illustrates a new approach to examine the potential folding and function of the dubious proteins comprising PE5, which we will next apply to the far larger group of missing proteins comprising PE2-4.

  4. PE_PGRS30 of Mycobacterium tuberculosis mediates suppression of proinflammatory immune response in macrophages through its PGRS and PE domains.

    PubMed

    Chatrath, Shweta; Gupta, Vineet Kumar; Dixit, Aparna; Garg, Lalit C

    2016-09-01

    The success of Mycobacterium tuberculosis as a pathogen relies on its ability to survive inside macrophages and evade host immune mechanisms. M. tuberculosis employs multiple strategies to confer resistance against immune system including inhibition of phago-lysosomal fusion, modulation of cytokine responses and granuloma formation. PE_PGRS proteins, uniquely present in pathogenic mycobacteria, are cell surface molecules that are suggested to interact with host cells. PE_PGRS proteins have also been implicated in its pathogenesis. In the present study, immuno-regulatory property of Rv1651c-encoded PE_PGRS30 protein was explored. Infection of PMA-differentiated human THP-1 macrophages with Mycobacterium smegmatis harbouring pVV(1651c) resulted in reduced production of IL-12, TNF-α and IL-6, as compared to infection with M. smegmatis harbouring the control plasmid pVV16. No differential effect was observed on bacterial persistence inside macrophages or on macrophage mortality upon infection with the two recombinant strains. Infection of THP-1 macrophages with recombinant M. smegmatis expressing deletion variants of PE_PGRS30 indicated that anti-inflammatory function of the protein is possessed by its PGRS and PE domains while the C-terminal domain, when expressed alone, displayed antagonistic effect in terms of TNF-α secretion. These results suggest that PE_PGRS30 interferes with macrophage immune functions important for activation of adaptive T-cell responses. PMID:27129781

  5. PE_PGRS30 of Mycobacterium tuberculosis mediates suppression of proinflammatory immune response in macrophages through its PGRS and PE domains.

    PubMed

    Chatrath, Shweta; Gupta, Vineet Kumar; Dixit, Aparna; Garg, Lalit C

    2016-09-01

    The success of Mycobacterium tuberculosis as a pathogen relies on its ability to survive inside macrophages and evade host immune mechanisms. M. tuberculosis employs multiple strategies to confer resistance against immune system including inhibition of phago-lysosomal fusion, modulation of cytokine responses and granuloma formation. PE_PGRS proteins, uniquely present in pathogenic mycobacteria, are cell surface molecules that are suggested to interact with host cells. PE_PGRS proteins have also been implicated in its pathogenesis. In the present study, immuno-regulatory property of Rv1651c-encoded PE_PGRS30 protein was explored. Infection of PMA-differentiated human THP-1 macrophages with Mycobacterium smegmatis harbouring pVV(1651c) resulted in reduced production of IL-12, TNF-α and IL-6, as compared to infection with M. smegmatis harbouring the control plasmid pVV16. No differential effect was observed on bacterial persistence inside macrophages or on macrophage mortality upon infection with the two recombinant strains. Infection of THP-1 macrophages with recombinant M. smegmatis expressing deletion variants of PE_PGRS30 indicated that anti-inflammatory function of the protein is possessed by its PGRS and PE domains while the C-terminal domain, when expressed alone, displayed antagonistic effect in terms of TNF-α secretion. These results suggest that PE_PGRS30 interferes with macrophage immune functions important for activation of adaptive T-cell responses.

  6. Use of Mobile Testing System PeLe for Developing Language Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Titova, Svetlana

    2015-01-01

    One of the objectives of this paper is to investigate the pedagogical impact of both the mobile testing system PeLe (Norway, HiST) and the enquiry-based learning approach on language skills development in the context of mobile-assisted learning. The research aims to work out a methodological framework of PeLe implementation into the language…

  7. The Swedish Sports Movement and the PE Teacher 1940-2003: From Supporter to Challenger

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olofsson, Eva

    2007-01-01

    The Swedish Sports Confederation (RF) used to be the foremost advocate and defender of physical education (PE) as a subject and the work of PE teachers. This paper deals with the way in which this support manifested itself during 1940-2003 and is based on a discourse analysis of texts from RF. The analysis shows that RF has assigned three…

  8. Whole-School Management Issues Concerning the PE Department: "A Natural Division of Labour?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Gareth Mark; Williams, Dean

    2013-01-01

    Utilising the labour ideas of Adam Smith and Emile Durkheim as a theoretical basis, the main objective of this study was to investigate the perception that Heads of Physical Education (HoPE) face unique management and leadership challenges. Results showed that HoPE believe that they are overburdened with tasks primarily involving the delegation of…

  9. Impact of ICT and PE on Disaffected Pupils: Interim Report March 2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mostert, Andre; Needham, Richard

    2004-01-01

    Over a three month period in spring 2004, The British Association of Advisers and Lecturers in Physical Education (BAALPE) and New Media (a PLATO Learning Company) researched and evaluated models for harnessing ICT in physical education (PE). The project developed a unique ICT infrastructure for two PE departments to evaluate the impact of ICT on…

  10. Are the PE-PGRS proteins of Mycobacterium tuberculosis variable surface antigens?

    PubMed

    Banu, Sayera; Honoré, Nadine; Saint-Joanis, Brigitte; Philpott, Dana; Prévost, Marie-Christine; Cole, Stewart T

    2002-04-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv contains 67 PE-PGRS genes, with multiple tandem repetitive sequences, encoding closely related proteins that are exceptionally rich in glycine and alanine. As no functional information was available, 10 of these genes were selected and shown to be expressed in vitro by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Antibodies against five PE-PGRS proteins, raised in mice by DNA vaccination, detected single proteins when the same plasmid constructs used for immunization were expressed in epithelial cells or in reticulocyte extracts, confirming that the PE-PGRS proteins are antigenic. As expected from the conserved repetitive structure, the antibodies cross-reacted with more than one PE-PGRS protein, suggesting that different proteins share common epitopes. PE-PGRS proteins were detected by West-ern blotting in five different mycobacterial species (M. tuberculosis, M. bovis BCG, M. smegmatis, M. marinum and M. gordonae) and 11 clinical isolates of M. tuberculosis. Whole-genome comparisons of M. tuberculosis predicted allelic diversity in the PE-PGRS family, and this was confirmed by immunoblot studies as size variants were detected in clinical strains. Subcellular fractionation studies and immunoelectron microscopy localized many PE-PGRS proteins in the cell wall and cell membrane of M. tuberculosis. The data suggest that some PE-PGRS proteins are variable surface antigens.

  11. Physical Activity during Physical Education Lessons: A Qualitative Investigation of Australian PE Teacher Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennie, Andrew; Langan, Edel

    2015-01-01

    School physical education (PE) experiences play a critical role in adolescents' physical activity (PA) levels. Teachers are crucial to students' initial experiences in PA; however, limited research has explored teachers' perspectives about PA during PE using in-depth qualitative research techniques. We conducted interviews with 25 current…

  12. How Active are Rural Children and Adolescents During PE Class? An Examination of Light Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Matthews-Ewald, Molly R.; Kelley, George A.; Moore, Lucas C.; Gurka, Matthew J.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Few studies have examined non-exercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT) or light physical activity among a group of rural youth, particularly during physical education (PE) class. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the percent of PE class time spent in NEAT is related to school level (elementary versus high school) in a group of rural youth. METHODS Accelerometer data from 357 students (192 elementary, 165 high school) were included in the analysis. Mixed model linear regression was performed to examine the effect of school level on the percent of PE class time spent in NEAT. Covariates included gender, PE teacher, and the duration of the PE class. RESULTS School level was a significant predictor of the percent of PE class time spent in NEAT. Specifically, elementary school students spent more of their PE class time in NEAT than high school students (p< .001). No other significant predictors were identified. CONCLUSIONS The results of this study suggest an association between lower levels of light (NEAT) physical activity among high school versus elementary school students during PE class. PMID:24902465

  13. 23 CFR 661.33 - What percentage of IRRBP funding is available for PE and construction?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What percentage of IRRBP funding is available for PE and construction? 661.33 Section 661.33 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS INDIAN RESERVATION ROAD BRIDGE PROGRAM § 661.33 What percentage of IRRBP funding is available for PE...

  14. The complete genome sequence of PE3-1, a novel E. coli O153 phage.

    PubMed

    Liu, Honghui; Liu, Xinchun; Yi, Xin; Liu, Ruyin; Huang, Jing

    2016-11-01

    A novel virulent phage PE3-1 against E. coli O153 was isolated from an aeration tank in a wastewater treatment plant. Transmission electron microscopy images showed that phage PE3-1 had an icosahedral head and a short tail, which revealed that it was a member of the family Podoviridae of the order Caudovirales. The complete PE3-1 genome consisted of 39,093 bp and was a linear double-stranded DNA with an average GC content of 49.93 %. Phage PE3-1 showed homology to the T7-like phages in 48 open reading frames (ORFs), but it differed from previously reported E .coli phages in morphology and bioinformatics analysis. This indicated that phage PE3-1 is a new member of the genus T7 virus. PMID:27541819

  15. [Cloning and functional analysis of Phyllostachys edulis MYB transcription factor PeMYB2].

    PubMed

    Xiao, Dong-Chang; Zhang, Zhi-Jun; Xu, Ying-Wu; Yang, Li; Zhang, Feng-Xue; Wang, Chao-Li

    2013-10-01

    MYB-type transcription factor is one of the largest families in plants, which plays important roles in accepting stress signals from environment and regulating the expression of stress-tolerant genes. In this paper, using homologous cloning and RACE technology, a MYB-type transcription factor, designated PeMYB2, was cloned from Phyllostachys edulis. The results of bioinformatics showed that PeMYB2 is a typical R2R3-MYB. It contained two tandem repeats in its N-terminus, and a membrane protein DUF3651 in its C-terminus. In addition, phylogenetic analysis indicated that PeMYB2 shared the highest homology with 85.98% to OsMYB18 protein from Oryza sativa spp. Japonica. In addition, a yeast one-hybrid assay showed that PeMYB2 could activate the expression of downstream genes. After PeMYB2 was transformed into Arabidopsis thaliana, seven PeMYB2 transgenic Arabidopsis lines were obtained. Phenotypic analysis of the transgenic and wild-type Arabidopsis showed that over-expression of PeMYB2 caused delayed flower or dwarfism in transgenic Arabidopsis. Under the abiotic stress conditions, such as salt and cold stresses, the over-expression of PeMYB2 in Arabidopsis had higher survival rate than the wild-type Arabidopsis. Expression analysis of saline stress response marker genes in the transgenic and wild-type plants under the salt stress condition showed that PeMYB2 regulated the expression of NXH1, SOS1, RD29A, and COR15A. As the result, PeMYB2 might play an important role in various responses to abiotic stresses in P. edulis.

  16. Phylogeny to function: PE/PPE protein evolution and impact on Mycobacterium tuberculosis pathogenicity.

    PubMed

    Fishbein, S; van Wyk, N; Warren, R M; Sampson, S L

    2015-06-01

    The pe/ppe genes represent one of the most intriguing aspects of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis genome. These genes are especially abundant in pathogenic mycobacteria, with more than 160 members in M. tuberculosis. Despite being discovered over 15 years ago, their function remains unclear, although various lines of evidence implicate selected family members in mycobacterial virulence. In this review, we use PE/PPE phylogeny as a framework within which we examine the diversity and putative functions of these proteins. We report on the evolution and diversity of the respective gene families, as well as the implications thereof for function and host immune recognition. We summarize recent findings on pe/ppe gene regulation, also placing this in the context of PE/PPE phylogeny. We collate data from several large proteomics datasets, providing an overview of PE/PPE localization, and discuss the implications this may have for host responses. Assessment of the current knowledge of PE/PPE diversity suggests that these proteins are not variable antigens as has been so widely speculated; however, they do clearly play important roles in virulence. Viewing the growing body of pe/ppe literature through the lens of phylogeny reveals trends in features and function that may be associated with the evolution of mycobacterial pathogenicity.

  17. Impact of Protein Domains on PE_PGRS30 Polar Localization in Mycobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Minerva, Mariachiara; Anoosheh, Saber; Palucci, Ivana; Iantomasi, Raffaella; Palmieri, Valentina; Camassa, Serena; Sali, Michela; Sanguinetti, Maurizio; Bitter, Wilbert; Manganelli, Riccardo; De Spirito, Marco; Delogu, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    PE_PGRS proteins are unique to the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex and a number of other pathogenic mycobacteria. PE_PGRS30, which is required for the full virulence of M. tuberculosis (Mtb), has three main domains, i.e. an N-terminal PE domain, repetitive PGRS domain and the unique C-terminal domain. To investigate the role of these domains, we expressed a GFP-tagged PE_PGRS30 protein and a series of its functional deletion mutants in different mycobacterial species (Mtb, Mycobacterium bovis BCG and Mycobacterium smegmatis) and analysed protein localization by confocal microscopy. We show that PE_PGRS30 localizes at the mycobacterial cell poles in Mtb and M. bovis BCG but not in M. smegmatis and that the PGRS domain of the protein strongly contributes to protein cellular localization in Mtb. Immunofluorescence studies further showed that the unique C-terminal domain of PE_PGRS30 is not available on the surface, except when the PGRS domain is missing. Immunoblot demonstrated that the PGRS domain is required to maintain the protein strongly associated with the non-soluble cellular fraction. These results suggest that the repetitive GGA-GGN repeats of the PGRS domain contain specific sequences that contribute to protein cellular localization and that polar localization might be a key step in the PE_PGRS30-dependent virulence mechanism. PMID:25390359

  18. Cytocompatibility of Ar + plasma treated and Au nanoparticle-grafted PE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Švorčík, V.; Kasálková, N.; Slepička, P.; Záruba, K.; Král, V.; Bačáková, L.; Pařízek, M.; Lisá, V.; Ruml, T.; Gbelcová, H.; Rimpelová, S.; Macková, A.

    2009-06-01

    Polyethylene (PE) was irradiated with inert Ar plasma, and the chemically active PE surface was grafted with Au nanoparticles. The composition and the structure of the modified PE surface were studied using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS). Changes in the surface wettability were determined from the contact angle measured in a reflection goniometer. The changes in the surface roughness and morphology were followed by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The modified PE samples were seeded with rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) or mouse NIH 3T3 fibroblasts, and their adhesion and proliferation were studied. We found that plasma discharge and Au grafting lead to dramatic changes in the surface morphology and roughness of PE. The Au nanoparticles were found not only on the sample surface, but also in the sample interior up to the depth of about 100 nm. In addition, plasma modification of the PE surface, followed with grafting Au-nanoparticles, significantly increased the attractiveness of the PE surface for the adhesion and growth of VSMC, and particularly for mouse embryonic 3T3 fibroblasts.

  19. Dark matter from PeV physics and the neutrino sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakya, Bibhushan; Roland, Samuel B.; Wells, James D.

    2016-06-01

    It is well known that the neutrino sector can provide a dark matter candidate in the form of a light sterile neutrino. This note discusses a framework that naturally leads to light (keV-GeV) sterile neutrino dark matter produced via the freeze-in mechanism: a modified, low energy seesaw with the right-handed neutrinos charged under a new symmetry broken by a PeV scale vacuum expectation value. This framework can accommodate the recently observed 3.5 keV X-ray line, while a straightforward extension, using the new symmetry and the PeV energy scale, can explain the PeV energy neutrino events at IceCube. Together, these can therefore be taken as hints of the existence of a PeV scale neutrino sector.

  20. Production and crosslinking of multi-layer tubes (PE & metal) by E-beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zyball, Alfred

    2000-03-01

    Irradiation crosslinking of PE-tubes has been used for heating floors for about 25 years. Such tubes are also used today for drinking water supply. A further development has been the coating of such tubes with Ethylene-Vinyl-Alcohol-Copolymers (EVAL), in order to prevent oxygen diffusion into the water through the PE tube. For about 15 years composite tubes made of PE and aluminum have been available. These tubes are crosslinked with electron beams. The energy of the accelerated electrons must be adjusted for the particular tube configuration, so that the inner PE-layer will be crosslinked. This paper will concern itself with the manufacture and the crosslinking of composite tubes.

  1. An analytic approach to 2D electronic PE spectra of molecular systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szöcs, V.

    2011-05-01

    The three-pulse photon echo (3 P- PE) spectra of finite molecular systems and simplified line broadening models is presented. The Fourier picture of a heterodyne detected three-pulse rephasing PE signal in the δ-pulse limit of the external field is derived in analytic form. The method includes contributions of one and two-excitonic states and allows direct calculation of Fourier PE spectrogram from corresponding Hamiltonian. As an illustration, the proposed treatment is applied to simple systems, e.g. 2-site two-level system (TLS) and n-site TLS model of photosynthetic unit. The importance of relation between Fourier picture of 3 P- PE dynamics (corresponding to nonzero population time, T) and coherent inter-state coupling is emphasized.

  2. Conversion of post-industrial PET-PE scraps into compatibilized plastic blends for new applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartoli, Flavia; Bruni, Cosimo; Coltelli, Maria-Beatrice; Castelvetro, Valter; Ciardelli, Francesco

    2012-07-01

    Poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) / poly(ethylene) (PE) granules coming from a post-industrial packaging stream were directed to new applications. The collected material was first characterized through selective extractions followed by infrared analysis. After the characterization work the presence of poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate) (EVA) copolymer was evidenced. Moreover the degree of yellowing was shown to increase by increasing the PE content in the granules batch. The blending of PET/PE with a stabilizer allowed to control its thermal stability, moreover the addition of compatibilizers resulted in the possibility of modulating both rheological and mechanical properties. Hence the use of stabilizers and compatibilizers allowed to upgrade postindustrial PET/PE based materials for the use in different industrial applications

  3. Detecting and discriminating PE and PP polymers for plastics recycling using NIR imaging spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Biasio, Martin; Arnold, Thomas; McGunnigle, Gerald; Leitner, Raimund; Balthasar, Dirk; Rehrmann, Volker

    2010-05-01

    There are commercially available industrial systems for identifying and separating polymers, for instance PE from PP. However, there is a demand for analyzers that can separate within polymer classes: e.g. PE-LD from PE-HD or different polypropylenes characterised by different melting points. First, the feasibility of a reliable spectral identification was tested by extracting different PE and PP samples from an industrial recycling process, and acquiring diffuse reflectance NIR spectra using an FTIR spectrometer. The resulting spectra were then subjected to a chemometrics analysis. We successfully identified characteristic spectral features; these are determined by the chemical bonds of the material, and can be correlated to the melting points of the materials. These features were then adapted for use on a NIR hyper-spectral (HS) system, making it possible to distinguish not only different polymers, but also different types of one polymer in real-time.

  4. Ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMW-PE) and its application in microporous separators for lead/acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, L. C.; Harvey, M. K.; Ng, J. C.; Scheunemann, U.

    The polyethylene (PE) used in separators for automotive lead/acid batteries is actually UHMW-PE (ultra high molecular weight polyethylene). Microporous PE separators were commercialized in the early 1970s. Since then, they have gained in popularity in the lead/acid battery industry, particularly in SLI (starting, lighting and ignition) automotive applications. This paper provides an introductory overview of the UHMW-PE polymer and its contributions to the PE battery separator manufacturing process, battery assembly and battery performance, in comparison with other conventional separators such as polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and glass fibre.

  5. Comparison of BIASI and Columbia CHF correlations using BODYFIT-2PE

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, B.C.J.; Chien, T.H.; Sha, W.T.; Kim, J.H.

    1984-01-01

    This paper compares the BIASI critical heat flux (CHF) correlation with the Columbia CHF correlation by using both the homogeneous equilibrium two-phase model with algebraic slip and the drift flux model in BODYFIT-2PE. All calculations were compared with the GE 3 x 3 CHF experiment. This comparison serves as a qualification process for the CHF correlations in the framework of BODYFIT-2PE.

  6. Risk Factors for DVT/PE in Patients with Stroke and Intracranial Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Stecker, Mark; Michel, Kathleen; Antaky, Karin; Cherian, Sarah; Koyfmann, Feliks

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolus (PE) are serious problems for patients admitted to the hospital with stroke, subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and transient ischemic attack (TIA). The purpose of this paper is to further understand the factors that place certain patients at increased risk of DVT/PE. Methods: At a 600 bed hospital, a retrospective analysis of data from 2613 patients admitted with a diagnosis of stroke, SAH, ICH or TIA in the time range 1/2008 through 3/2012 was carried out. The data was taken from the hospital’s Get with the Guidelines database and included 28 variables. These included initial NIH stroke scale, length of stay, heart failure, ambulatory by day 2 after admission, altered mental status,and renal failure among others. Multiple analyses were carried out to determine whether there were univariable or multivariable effects of any of the factors on the risk for DVT/PE. Results: The risk of DVT/PE was highest in patients with SAH and ICH and smallest with TIA. Multivariable analyses were performed and revealed only altered level of consciousness or heart failure as significant risks for DVT/PE. With the limited available data, administration of subcutaneous heparin or other chemoprophylaxis did not reduce the risk of DVT/PE. Conclusion: Although many of the variables used to describe the stroke patient are correlated, in multivariable analyses only heart failure and altered level of consciousness were important risk factors for DVT/PE. The risk of DVT/PE was 7 fold greater in patients in patients with both of these risk factors. PMID:24847389

  7. Pre-eclampsia (PE) and Chorionicity in Women with Twin Gestations

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Anupama; Singh, Arati; Surapaneni, Tarakeswari; Nirmalan, Praveen Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Background: Pre-Eclampsia (PE) affects 6-31% of pregnant women with multiple gestations. There are conflicting reports on the association of PE with Chorionicity and zygosity; however, there is a lack of information on this potential association in a population of pregnant Asian Indian women. Aim: To determine as to whether chorionicity and zygosity were associated with PE in a population of Asian Indian women with twin gestations. Settings and Design: A retrospective observational study was done at a single tertiary care centre in Southern India. Material and Methods: The study included pregnant women with twin gestations, who was delivered at the study institute in 2012. Hypertension in pregnancy was categorized, based on the criteria of the International Society for the Study of Hypertension in Pregnancy. Chorionicity was determined by using ultrasonography and zygosity was determined, based on clinical criteria. Point estimates and the 95% Confidence Intervals (CI) around point estimates of PE and associations of chorionicity and zygosity with PE were determined by using bivariate analysis, logistic regression models and area under Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC) curves. Results: This study included 208 women with twin gestations. The incidence of PE in dichorionic twin gestations was 13.17% (n=22, 95% CI: 8.66, 18.96), it was 4.87% (n=2, 95% CI: 0.83, 15.19) in monochorionic twin gestations, it was 16.36% (n=9, 95% CI: 8.29, 27.91) in dizygous twin gestations and it was 4.88% (n=2, 95% CI: 0.83, 15.19) in monozygous twin gestations. Neither chorionicity (adjusted OR: 2.59, 95% CI: 0.55, 12.19) nor zygosity (adjusted OR 2.72, 95% CI: 0.49, 15.13) were associated with PE In a multivariate logistic regression model. Conclusion: Although it was not statistically significant, the clinical incidence of PE was higher in dichorionic and dizygous twin gestations. PMID:24596736

  8. [Clinical probability of PE: should we use a clinical prediction rule?].

    PubMed

    Le Gal, G; Righini, M; Perrier, A

    2008-12-01

    The determination of the clinical pretest probability using clinical prediction models is an important step in the assessment of patients with suspected pulmonary embolism (PE). It helps establish which test or sequence of tests can effectively corroborate or safely rule out PE. For example, it has been demonstrated that it is safe to withhold anticoagulant therapy in patients with negative d-dimer results and low pretest probability at initial presentation. Clinical probability will also increase the diagnostic yield of ventilation perfusion lung scan. Compared with clinical gestalt, clinical prediction rules provide a standardized and more reproducible estimate of a patient's probability of having a PE. Clinical prediction models combine aspects of the history and physical examination to categorize a patient's probability of having a disease. The models classify patients as having a low, moderate, or high likelihood of having PE. Clinical prediction models have been validated and are well established for the diagnosis of PE in symptomatic patients. They allow all physicians, whatever their expertise, to reliably determine the clinical pretest probability of PE, and thus safely manage their patients using diagnostic and therapeutic algorithms. PMID:19084205

  9. PE-Swab Direct STR Amplification of Forensic Touch DNA Samples.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jason Y

    2015-05-01

    The PE-Swab direct STR amplification workflow was developed to process low-level "touch DNA" samples. In this workflow, a forensic sample is first collected on a 4-mm PE-Swab (a novel sample collection device); two 2-mm punches containing collected samples are then generated from the PE-Swab and directly amplified for STR typing. Compared to the conventional STR workflow, which involves DNA extraction, purification, and elution volume reduction, the PE-Swab direct STR amplification workflow does not require sample preparation and takes <60 sec before a touch sample is ready for STR amplification. Because there is no DNA loss due to sample preparation, the PE-Swab workflow is more sensitive than the conventional STR workflow. The average peak height per sample obtained by the PE-swab workflow is 3 times higher than that from the conventional workflow with both low-level single source and two-contributor mixture samples tested in this study.

  10. Optimization of esterification of oleic acid and trimethylolpropane (TMP) and pentaerythritol (PE)

    SciTech Connect

    Mahmud, Hamizah Ammarah; Salimon, Jumat

    2014-09-03

    Vegetable oil (VO) is the most potential alternative to replace mineral oil for lubricant due to better lubricating properties and great physicochemical properties. Chemical modification has to be done to overcome low temperature performance and low oxidation instability due to the presence of β-hydrogen atoms of glycerol molecule. The optimization of esterification of oleic acid and polyhydric alcohol with sulfuric acid catalyst was carried out to find the optimum conditions with the highest yield. Reeaction variables such as; molar ratio, temperature, duration and catalyst concentration. Two types of polyhydric alcohol have been used; TMP and PE. The optimum results showed oleic acid successfully converted 91.2% ester TMP and 92.7% ester PE at duration: 5 hours (Ester TMP), 6 hours (Ester PE); temperature: 150°C (ester TMP), 180°C (Ester PE); catalyst concentration: 1.5% (w/w); and mol ratio: 3.9:1 (ester TMP), 4.9:1 (ester PE). From the data obtained, mole ratio showed most influenced factors to the increasing yields of ester conversions.. The TMP/PE ester was confirmed using gas chromatography (GC-FID), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR)

  11. Optimization of esterification of oleic acid and trimethylolpropane (TMP) and pentaerythritol (PE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmud, Hamizah Ammarah; Salimon, Jumat

    2014-09-01

    Vegetable oil (VO) is the most potential alternative to replace mineral oil for lubricant due to better lubricating properties and great physicochemical properties. Chemical modification has to be done to overcome low temperature performance and low oxidation instability due to the presence of β-hydrogen atoms of glycerol molecule. The optimization of esterification of oleic acid and polyhydric alcohol with sulfuric acid catalyst was carried out to find the optimum conditions with the highest yield. Reeaction variables such as; molar ratio, temperature, duration and catalyst concentration. Two types of polyhydric alcohol have been used; TMP and PE. The optimum results showed oleic acid successfully converted 91.2% ester TMP and 92.7% ester PE at duration: 5 hours (Ester TMP), 6 hours (Ester PE); temperature: 150°C (ester TMP), 180°C (Ester PE); catalyst concentration: 1.5% (w/w); and mol ratio: 3.9:1 (ester TMP), 4.9:1 (ester PE). From the data obtained, mole ratio showed most influenced factors to the increasing yields of ester conversions.. The TMP/PE ester was confirmed using gas chromatography (GC-FID), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR).

  12. Fabry-Pérot interferometer utilized for displacement measurement in a large measuring range.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yung-Cheng; Shyu, Lih-Horng; Chang, Chung-Ping

    2010-09-01

    The optical configuration of a Fabry-Pérot interferometer is uncomplicated. This has already been applied in different measurement systems. For the displacement measurement with the Fabry-Pérot interferometer, the result is significantly influenced by the tilt angles of the measurement mirror in the interferometer. Hence, only for the rather small measuring range, the Fabry-Pérot interferometer is available. The goal of this investigation is to enhance the measuring range of Fabry-Pérot interferometer by compensating the tilt angles. To verify the measuring characteristic of the self-developed Fabry-Pérot interferometer, some comparison measurements with a reference standard have been performed. The maximum deviation of comparison experiments is less than 0.3 μm in the traveling range of 30 mm. The experimental results show that the Fabry-Pérot interferometer is highly stable, insensitive to environment effects, and can meet the measuring requirement of the submicrometer order.

  13. Brief review on PE method application to propagation channel modeling in sea environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirkova, Irina

    2012-03-01

    This work provides an introduction to one of the most widely used advanced methods for wave propagation modeling, the Parabolic Equation (PE) method, with emphasis on its application to tropospheric radio propagation in coastal and maritime regions. The assumptions of the derivation, the advantages and drawbacks of the PE, the numerical methods for solving it, and the boundary and initial conditions for its application to the tropospheric propagation problem are briefly discussed. More details are given for the split-step Fourier-transform (SSF) solution of the PE. The environmental input to the PE, the methods for tropospheric refractivity profiling, their accuracy, limitations, and the average refractivity modeling are also summarized. The reported results illustrate the application of finite element (FE) based and SSF-based solutions of the PE for one of the most difficult to treat propagation mechanisms, yet of great significance for the performance of radars and communications links working in coastal and maritime zones — the tropospheric ducting mechanism. Recent achievements, some unresolved issues and ongoing developments related to further improvements of the PE method application to the propagation channel modeling in sea environment are highlighted.

  14. Swelling, ion uptake and biodegradation studies of PE film modified through radiation induced graft copolymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Inderjeet; Gupta, Nitika; Kumari, Vandna

    2011-09-01

    An attempt to develop biodegradable polyethylene film grafting of mixture of hydrophilic monomers methacrylic acid (MAAc) and acrylamide (AAm) onto PE film has been carried out by preirradiation method using benzoyl peroxide as the radical initiator. Since ether linkages are susceptible to easy cleavage during degradation process, PE film was irradiated before the grafting reactions by γ-rays to introduce peroxidic linkages (PE-OO-PE) that offer sites for grafting. The effect of irradiation dose, monomer concentration, initiator concentration, temperature, time and amount of water on the grafting percent was determined. Maximum percentage of grafting of binary mixture (MAAc+AAm), (1792%) was obtained at a total concentration of binary monomer mixture=204.6×10 -2 mol/L ([MAAc]=176.5×10 -2 mol/L, [AAm]=28.1×10 -2 mol/L), [BPO]=8.3×10 -2 mol/L at 100 °C in 70 min. The grafted PE film was characterized by the Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) and Scanning Electron Microscopic (SEM) methods. Some selective properties of grafted films such as swelling studies, ion uptake and biodegradation studies have been investigated. The grafted films show good swelling in water, ion uptake studies shows promising results for desalination of brackish water and the soil burial test shows that PE film grafted with binary monomer mixture degrades up to 47% within 50 days.

  15. Monte-Carlo Analysis of the Composition Dependence of the Flory-Huggins Interaction Parameter in PE-dPE Blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, Travis; Edwards, Brian; Khomami, Bamin

    2012-02-01

    Experimental SANS research displays a significant concentration dependence of the Flory-Huggins (χ) interaction parameter in isotopic polymer blends. At the extremes of the deuterated polymer concentration (φD< 0.2, φD > 0.8), χ is shown to exhibit a greater than fourfold increase over its value at φD = 0.5. However, despite numerous attempts to theoretically describe the nature of this phenomenon, consensus is still lacking regarding the mechanisms at work in this system. This study uses free-space, spatially discretized Monte Carlo simulations to investigate the χ composition dependence of PE-dPE blends. Initial simulations are run on simple Lennard-Jones fluids to display the capability of the simulation method to track local concentration and energy across the discretized space as well as to investigate the concentration dependence of the radial distribution function, g(r), and structure factor, S(k). After which, MC simulations are performed on the PE-dPE system with varying φD. Both local and average system energies are tracked in addition to g(r) and S(k). The Flory-Huggins interaction parameter is then calculated using the Random Phase Approximation.

  16. Global Gridded Emission Inventories of Pentabrominated Diphenyl Ether (PeBDE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yi-Fan; Tian, Chongguo; Yang, Meng; Jia, Hongliang; Ma, Jianmin; Li, Dacheng

    2010-05-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are flame retardants widely used in many everyday products such as cars, furniture, textiles, and other electronic equipment. The commercial PBDEs have three major technical mixtures: penta-(PeBDE), octa-(OBDE) and decabromodiphenyl ethers (DeBDE). PeBDE is a mixture of several BDE congeners, such as BDE-47, -99, and -100, and has been included as a new member of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) under the 2009 Stockholm Convention. In order to produce gridded emission inventories of PeBDE on a global scale, information of production, consumption, emission, and physiochemical properties of PeBDE have been searched for published papers, government reports, and internet publications. A methodology to estimate the emissions of PeBDE has been developed and global gridded emission inventories of 2 major congener in PeBDE mixture, BDE-47 and -99, on a 1 degree by 1degree latitude/longitude resolution for 2005 have been compiled. Using these emission inventories as input data, the Canadian Model for Environmental Transport of Organochlorine Pesticides (CanMETOP) model was used to simulate the transport of these chemicals and their concentrations in air were calculated for the year of 2005. The modeled air concentration of BDE-47 and -99 were compared with the monitoring air concentrations of these two congeners in the same year obtained from renowned international/national monitoring programs, such as Global Atmospheric Passive Sampling (GAPS), the Integrated Atmospheric Deposition Network (IADN), and the Chinese POPs Soil and Air Monitoring Program (SAMP), and significant correlations between the modeled results and the monitoring data were found, indicating the high quality of the produced emission inventories of BDE-47 and -99. Keywords: Pentabrominated Diphenyl Ether (PeBDE), Emission Inventories, Global, Model

  17. Conserved Immune Recognition Hierarchy of Mycobacterial PE/PPE Proteins during Infection in Natural Hosts

    PubMed Central

    Vordermeier, H. Martin; Hewinson, R. Glyn; Wilkinson, Robert J.; Wilkinson, Katalin A.; Gideon, Hannah P.; Young, Douglas B.; Sampson, Samantha L.

    2012-01-01

    The Mycobacterium tuberculosis genome contains two large gene families encoding proteins of unknown function, characterized by conserved N-terminal proline and glutamate (PE and PPE) motifs. The presence of a large number of PE/PPE proteins with repetitive domains and evidence of strain variation has given rise to the suggestion that these proteins may play a role in immune evasion via antigenic variation, while emerging data suggests that some family members may play important roles in mycobacterial pathogenesis. In this study, we examined cellular immune responses to a panel of 36 PE/PPE proteins during human and bovine infection. We observed a distinct hierarchy of immune recognition, reflected both in the repertoire of PE/PPE peptide recognition in individual cows and humans and in the magnitude of IFN-γ responses elicited by stimulation of sensitized host cells. The pattern of immunodominance was strikingly similar between cattle that had been experimentally infected with Mycobacterium bovis and humans naturally infected with clinical isolates of M. tuberculosis. The same pattern was maintained as disease progressed throughout a four-month course of infection in cattle, and between humans with latent as well as active tuberculosis. Detailed analysis of PE/PPE responses at the peptide level suggests that antigenic cross-reactivity amongst related family members is a major determinant in the observed differences in immune hierarchy. Taken together, these results demonstrate that a subset of PE/PPE proteins are major targets of the cellular immune response to tuberculosis, and are recognized at multiple stages of infection and in different disease states. Thus this work identifies a number of novel antigens that could find application in vaccine development, and provides new insights into PE/PPE biology. PMID:22870206

  18. Strong Antibody Responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis PE-PGRS62 Protein Are Associated with Latent and Active Tuberculosis▿

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Kah Wee; Soh, Shu E; Seah, Geok Teng

    2009-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis has a unique family of PE-PGRS proteins with conserved N-terminal domains (PE) containing site-specific proline-glutamine residues and polymorphic GC-rich repetitive sequences (PGRS). Tuberculosis (TB) patients produce antibodies against some such proteins, but it is not clear whether these responses correlate with disease. Clinical groups with different mycobacterium exposure were studied for their seroreactivity to PE-PGRS17 and PE-PGRS62 proteins and their respective PE domains. There were minimal antibody responses against both PE domains and full-length PE-PGRS17, even in patients with active TB. However, patients with active and latent TB showed significantly higher PE-PGRS62-specific immunoglobulin G antibody responses than treated TB patients and mycobacterium-reactive TB contacts without latent infection. Latently infected persons had high anti-PE-PGRS62 responses but low responses to the 38-kDa antigen commonly used for TB serology, while treated TB cases showed the opposite response. Thus, patterns of seroreactivity to PE-PGRS62 correlate with clinical status and are associated with latent TB infection. PMID:19487480

  19. Comparative Analysis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis pe and ppe Genes Reveals High Sequence Variation and an Apparent Absence of Selective Constraints

    PubMed Central

    McEvoy, Christopher R. E.; Cloete, Ruben; Müller, Borna; Schürch, Anita C.; van Helden, Paul D.; Gagneux, Sebastien; Warren, Robin M.; Gey van Pittius, Nicolaas C.

    2012-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) genomes contain 2 large gene families termed pe and ppe. The function of pe/ppe proteins remains enigmatic but studies suggest that they are secreted or cell surface associated and are involved in bacterial virulence. Previous studies have also shown that some pe/ppe genes are polymorphic, a finding that suggests involvement in antigenic variation. Using comparative sequence analysis of 18 publicly available MTBC whole genome sequences, we have performed alignments of 33 pe (excluding pe_pgrs) and 66 ppe genes in order to detect the frequency and nature of genetic variation. This work has been supplemented by whole gene sequencing of 14 pe/ppe (including 5 pe_pgrs) genes in a cohort of 40 diverse and well defined clinical isolates covering all the main lineages of the M. tuberculosis phylogenetic tree. We show that nsSNP's in pe (excluding pgrs) and ppe genes are 3.0 and 3.3 times higher than in non-pe/ppe genes respectively and that numerous other mutation types are also present at a high frequency. It has previously been shown that non-pe/ppe M. tuberculosis genes display a remarkably low level of purifying selection. Here, we also show that compared to these genes those of the pe/ppe families show a further reduction of selection pressure that suggests neutral evolution. This is inconsistent with the positive selection pressure of “classical” antigenic variation. Finally, by analyzing such a large number of genes we were able to detect large differences in mutation type and frequency between both individual genes and gene sub-families. The high variation rates and absence of selective constraints provides valuable insights into potential pe/ppe function. Since pe/ppe proteins are highly antigenic and have been studied as potential vaccine components these results should also prove informative for aspects of M. tuberculosis vaccine design. PMID:22496726

  20. Suppression of autophagy and antigen presentation by Mycobacterium tuberculosis PE_PGRS47.

    PubMed

    Saini, Neeraj K; Baena, Andres; Ng, Tony W; Venkataswamy, Manjunatha M; Kennedy, Steven C; Kunnath-Velayudhan, Shajo; Carreño, Leandro J; Xu, Jiayong; Chan, John; Larsen, Michelle H; Jacobs, William R; Porcelli, Steven A

    2016-08-15

    Suppression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II antigen presentation is believed to be among the major mechanisms used by Mycobacterium tuberculosis to escape protective host immune responses. Through a genome-wide screen for the genetic loci of M. tuberculosis that inhibit MHC class II-restricted antigen presentation by mycobacteria-infected dendritic cells, we identified the PE_PGRS47 protein as one of the responsible factors. Targeted disruption of the PE_PGRS47 (Rv2741) gene led to attenuated growth of M. tuberculosis in vitro and in vivo, and a PE_PGRS47 mutant showed enhanced MHC class II-restricted antigen presentation during in vivo infection of mice. Analysis of the effects of deletion or over-expression of PE_PGRS47 implicated this protein in the inhibition of autophagy in infected host phagocytes. Our findings identify PE_PGRS47 as a functionally relevant, non-redundant bacterial factor in the modulation of innate and adaptive immunity by M. tuberculosis, suggesting strategies for improving antigen presentation and the generation of protective immunity during vaccination or infection.

  1. Home Assessment of Person-Environment Interaction (HoPE): content validation process.

    PubMed

    Rousseau, Jacqueline; Potvin, Louise; Dutil, Élisabeth; Falta, Patricia

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the content validation, including a pilot test, of the Home Assessment of the Person-Environment Interaction (HoPE). The HoPE fills a gap for evaluating issues related to home adaptation. Using qualitative methods, a two-phase study was conducted: an expert consultation and a pilot test. The expert consultation was conducted via focus groups with occupational therapists (n = 20), and individual interviews with adults who had undergone home adaptation (n = 5). The pilot test was undertaken using a multiple case study design of four adults awaiting home adaptation. Data were audio-recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using NUD.IST software. In phase 1, experts agreed with the content of HoPE and suggested minor changes. In phase 2, HoPE enabled occupational therapists to identify handicap-creating situations. After both phases, the final version of HoPE is more comprehensive than other current tools and addresses the complex experiences of clients with whom occupational therapists work which suggests a new approach for practice regarding home adaptation. PMID:24102587

  2. Suppression of autophagy and antigen presentation by Mycobacterium tuberculosis PE_PGRS47.

    PubMed

    Saini, Neeraj K; Baena, Andres; Ng, Tony W; Venkataswamy, Manjunatha M; Kennedy, Steven C; Kunnath-Velayudhan, Shajo; Carreño, Leandro J; Xu, Jiayong; Chan, John; Larsen, Michelle H; Jacobs, William R; Porcelli, Steven A

    2016-01-01

    Suppression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II antigen presentation is believed to be among the major mechanisms used by Mycobacterium tuberculosis to escape protective host immune responses. Through a genome-wide screen for the genetic loci of M. tuberculosis that inhibit MHC class II-restricted antigen presentation by mycobacteria-infected dendritic cells, we identified the PE_PGRS47 protein as one of the responsible factors. Targeted disruption of the PE_PGRS47 (Rv2741) gene led to attenuated growth of M. tuberculosis in vitro and in vivo, and a PE_PGRS47 mutant showed enhanced MHC class II-restricted antigen presentation during in vivo infection of mice. Analysis of the effects of deletion or over-expression of PE_PGRS47 implicated this protein in the inhibition of autophagy in infected host phagocytes. Our findings identify PE_PGRS47 as a functionally relevant, non-redundant bacterial factor in the modulation of innate and adaptive immunity by M. tuberculosis, suggesting strategies for improving antigen presentation and the generation of protective immunity during vaccination or infection. PMID:27562263

  3. Adsorption of urease on PE-MCM-41 and its catalytic effect on hydrolysis of urea.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Kazi-Zakir; Monreal, Carlos M; Sayari, Abdelhamid

    2008-03-15

    Pore-expanded MCM-41 (PE-MCM-41) silica exhibits a unique combination of high specific surface area (ca. 1000 m(2)/g), pore size (up to 25 nm) and pore volume (up to 3.5 cm(3)/g). As such, this material is highly suitable for the adsorption of large biomolecules. The current study focused primarily on the application of PE-MCM-41 material as suitable host for urease (nickel-based large metalloenzyme) in controlled hydrolysis of urea. Urease adsorbed on PE-MCM-41, regular MCM-41 and silica gel (SGA) were used as catalysts for urea hydrolysis reaction. Adsorption studies of urease on these materials from aqueous solution at pH 7.2 revealed that the adsorption capacity of PE-MCM-41 (102 mg/g) is significantly higher than that of MCM-41 (56 mg/g) and SGA (21 mg/g). The equilibrium adsorption data were well fitted using the Langmuir-Freundlich model. Furthermore, the kinetic study revealed that the uptake of urease follow the pseudo-first order kinetics. The in vitro urea hydrolysis reaction on pristine urease and different urease-loaded catalysts showed that the rate of hydrolysis reaction is significantly slower on U/PE-MCM-41 compared to that of bulk urease and urease on MCM-41 and SGA. This technique could be an alternative means to the use of urease inhibitors to control the ammonia release from urea fertilizer. PMID:17961995

  4. Adsorption of urease on PE-MCM-41 and its catalytic effect on hydrolysis of urea.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Kazi-Zakir; Monreal, Carlos M; Sayari, Abdelhamid

    2008-03-15

    Pore-expanded MCM-41 (PE-MCM-41) silica exhibits a unique combination of high specific surface area (ca. 1000 m(2)/g), pore size (up to 25 nm) and pore volume (up to 3.5 cm(3)/g). As such, this material is highly suitable for the adsorption of large biomolecules. The current study focused primarily on the application of PE-MCM-41 material as suitable host for urease (nickel-based large metalloenzyme) in controlled hydrolysis of urea. Urease adsorbed on PE-MCM-41, regular MCM-41 and silica gel (SGA) were used as catalysts for urea hydrolysis reaction. Adsorption studies of urease on these materials from aqueous solution at pH 7.2 revealed that the adsorption capacity of PE-MCM-41 (102 mg/g) is significantly higher than that of MCM-41 (56 mg/g) and SGA (21 mg/g). The equilibrium adsorption data were well fitted using the Langmuir-Freundlich model. Furthermore, the kinetic study revealed that the uptake of urease follow the pseudo-first order kinetics. The in vitro urea hydrolysis reaction on pristine urease and different urease-loaded catalysts showed that the rate of hydrolysis reaction is significantly slower on U/PE-MCM-41 compared to that of bulk urease and urease on MCM-41 and SGA. This technique could be an alternative means to the use of urease inhibitors to control the ammonia release from urea fertilizer.

  5. PE and PS Lipids Synergistically Enhance Membrane Poration by a Peptide with Anticancer Properties.

    PubMed

    Leite, Natália Bueno; Aufderhorst-Roberts, Anders; Palma, Mario Sergio; Connell, Simon D; Ruggiero Neto, João; Beales, Paul A

    2015-09-01

    Polybia-MP1 (MP1) is a bioactive host-defense peptide with known anticancer properties. Its activity is attributed to excess serine (phosphatidylserine (PS)) on the outer leaflet of cancer cells. Recently, higher quantities of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) were also found at these cells' surface. We investigate the interaction of MP1 with model membranes in the presence and absence of POPS (PS) and DOPE (PE) to understand the role of lipid composition in MP1's anticancer characteristics. Indeed we find that PS lipids significantly enhance the bound concentration of peptide on the membrane by a factor of 7-8. However, through a combination of membrane permeability assays and imaging techniques we find that PE significantly increases the susceptibility of the membrane to disruption by these peptides and causes an order-of-magnitude increase in membrane permeability by facilitating the formation of larger transmembrane pores. Significantly, atomic-force microscopy imaging reveals differences in the pore formation mechanism with and without the presence of PE. Therefore, PS and PE lipids synergistically combine to enhance membrane poration by MP1, implying that the combined enrichment of both these lipids in the outer leaflet of cancer cells is highly significant for MP1's anticancer action. These mechanistic insights could aid development of novel chemotherapeutics that target pathological changes in the lipid composition of cancerous cells.

  6. PE and PS Lipids Synergistically Enhance Membrane Poration by a Peptide with Anticancer Properties

    PubMed Central

    Leite, Natália Bueno; Aufderhorst-Roberts, Anders; Palma, Mario Sergio; Connell, Simon D.; Neto, João Ruggiero; Beales, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    Polybia-MP1 (MP1) is a bioactive host-defense peptide with known anticancer properties. Its activity is attributed to excess serine (phosphatidylserine (PS)) on the outer leaflet of cancer cells. Recently, higher quantities of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) were also found at these cells’ surface. We investigate the interaction of MP1 with model membranes in the presence and absence of POPS (PS) and DOPE (PE) to understand the role of lipid composition in MP1’s anticancer characteristics. Indeed we find that PS lipids significantly enhance the bound concentration of peptide on the membrane by a factor of 7–8. However, through a combination of membrane permeability assays and imaging techniques we find that PE significantly increases the susceptibility of the membrane to disruption by these peptides and causes an order-of-magnitude increase in membrane permeability by facilitating the formation of larger transmembrane pores. Significantly, atomic-force microscopy imaging reveals differences in the pore formation mechanism with and without the presence of PE. Therefore, PS and PE lipids synergistically combine to enhance membrane poration by MP1, implying that the combined enrichment of both these lipids in the outer leaflet of cancer cells is highly significant for MP1’s anticancer action. These mechanistic insights could aid development of novel chemotherapeutics that target pathological changes in the lipid composition of cancerous cells. PMID:26331251

  7. A nuclear-directed human pancreatic ribonuclease (PE5) targets the metabolic phenotype of cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Vert, Anna; Castro, Jessica; Ribó, Marc; Benito, Antoni; Vilanova, Maria

    2016-04-01

    Ribonucleases represent a new class of antitumor RNA-damaging drugs. However, many wild-type members of the vertebrate secreted ribonuclease family are not cytotoxic because they are not able to evade the cytosolic ribonuclease inhibitor. We previously engineered the human pancreatic ribonuclease to direct it to the cell nucleus where the inhibitor is not present. The best characterized variant is PE5 that kills cancer cells through apoptosis mediated by the p21(WAF1/CIP1) induction and the inactivation of JNK. Here, we have used microarray-derived transcriptional profiling to identify PE5 regulated genes on the NCI/ADR-RES ovarian cancer cell line. RT-qPCR analyses have confirmed the expression microarray findings. The results show that PE5 cause pleiotropic effects. Among them, it is remarkable the down-regulation of multiple genes that code for enzymes involved in deregulated metabolic pathways in cancer cells.

  8. A nuclear-directed human pancreatic ribonuclease (PE5) targets the metabolic phenotype of cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Vert, Anna; Castro, Jessica; Ribó, Marc; Benito, Antoni; Vilanova, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Ribonucleases represent a new class of antitumor RNA-damaging drugs. However, many wild-type members of the vertebrate secreted ribonuclease family are not cytotoxic because they are not able to evade the cytosolic ribonuclease inhibitor. We previously engineered the human pancreatic ribonuclease to direct it to the cell nucleus where the inhibitor is not present. The best characterized variant is PE5 that kills cancer cells through apoptosis mediated by the p21WAF1/CIP1 induction and the inactivation of JNK. Here, we have used microarray-derived transcriptional profiling to identify PE5 regulated genes on the NCI/ADR-RES ovarian cancer cell line. RT-qPCR analyses have confirmed the expression microarray findings. The results show that PE5 cause pleiotropic effects. Among them, it is remarkable the down-regulation of multiple genes that code for enzymes involved in deregulated metabolic pathways in cancer cells. PMID:26918450

  9. Aggregation behaviour of PE-PEP copolymers and the winterization of diesel fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monkenbusch, M.; Schneiders, D.; Richter, D.; Willner, L.; Leube, W.; Fetters, L. J.; Huang, J. S.; Lin, M.

    2000-03-01

    Results from multicontrast SANS investigations of aggregates that form on cooling a solution of polyethylene(PE)-polyethylenepropylene(PEP) block copolymer in decane are reported. The PE-cores form extended crystalline platelets covered by a “brush” of PEP-“hairs” on both sides. Added wax (paraffin) is taken up by these aggregates. Decane may be considered as a model for diesel fuel and the waxes as contaminants in diesel fuel that crystallize at low temperatures and clog the filters of engines. It is explained why compounds of the PE-PEP family efficiently reduce the minimum temperature down to which these fuels may be used by directing the wax precipitation/nucleation into aggregates that are small enough to pass the filters.

  10. Dual roles of Atg8−PE deconjugation by Atg4 in autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Zhong-Qiu; Ni, Tao; Hong, Bing; Wang, Hai-Yan; Jiang, Fen-Jun; Zou, Shenshen; Chen, Yong; Zheng, Xi-Long; Klionsky, Daniel J.; Liang, Yongheng; Xie, Zhiping

    2012-01-01

    Modification of target molecules by ubiquitin or ubiquitin-like (Ubl) proteins is generally reversible. Little is known, however, about the physiological function of the reverse reaction, deconjugation. Atg8 is a unique Ubl protein whose conjugation target is the lipid phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). Atg8 functions in the formation of double-membrane autophagosomes, a central step in the well-conserved intracellular degradation pathway of macroautophagy (hereafter autophagy). Here we show that the deconjugation of Atg8−PE by the cysteine protease Atg4 plays dual roles in the formation of autophagosomes. During the early stage of autophagosome formation, deconjugation releases Atg8 from non-autophagosomal membranes to maintain a proper supply of Atg8. At a later stage, the release of Atg8 from intermediate autophagosomal membranes facilitates the maturation of these structures into fusion-capable autophagosomes. These results provide new insights into the functions of Atg8−PE and its deconjugation. PMID:22652539

  11. Surface modification by γ-ray-induced grafting of PDMAEMA/PEGMEMA onto PE films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titaux, G. A.; Contreras-García, A.; Bucio, E.

    2009-07-01

    Radiation grafting of poly[2-(dimethylamino) ethyl methacrylate] (PDMAEMA) and poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (PEGMEMA) onto polyethylene (PE) films was synthesized using gamma radiation from a 60Co source. PE was modified by the PDMAEMA and PEGMEMA by pre-irradiation and one-step method. Grafting as a function of the pre-irradiation dose between 50 and 200 kGy, dose rate of 9 kGy h -1, and monomer concentration 50% of PDMAEMA/PEGMEMA (1/1) in toluene. The characterization of the graft copolymer obtained was carried out by FTIR-ATR, TGA, and DSC. Stimuli-responsive behavior and critical pH point were studied by swelling in water, pH and thermo-responsive films of PE-g-(DMAEMA/PEGMEMA) presented a lower critical solution temperature (LCST) of 55 °C and critical pH point around 8.5.

  12. Fate of ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMW-PE) wear debris in patients with hip implants.

    PubMed

    Witkiewicz, H; Vidovszky, T; Turner, R T; Rock, M G; Morrey, B F; Bolander, M E

    1993-01-01

    The process of ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMW-PE) breakdown, started at the articular surface of the cup, continues in small fragments after generation. An assiduous interaction between the UHMW-PE particles and the host cells leads to oxidative changes of the UHMW-PE and to size reduction of the particles simultaneous with transporting them toward, and finally by, lymphatic or blood vessels. The particles are mobilized by means of enzymatic, extracellular matrix-degrading activity of cells that have phagocytosed them or adhered to them. Together, these characteristics indicate an attempt by the natural cellular immunity system to eliminate the implant wear debris. Macrophages are the main effector cells acting as scavengers; however, excessive amount of the wear debris evokes phagocytic activity of cells other than macrophages as well. PMID:11539273

  13. Fabrication and properties of HDPE/CF/CaCO3/PE-g-MAH quaternary composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X.-L.; Ming, H.; Yin, H.

    2015-07-01

    In this research, carbon fiber (CF) was taken as reinforcing filler, nano calcium carbonate (CaCO3) was taken as toughener, maleic anhydride grafted polyethylene (PE-g-MAH) was taken as compatibilizer for high density polyethylene (HDPE) modification. Through orthogonal test, the influence of different amount of ingredient CF, CaCO3 and PE-g-MAH on the mechanical properties of the HDPE composites was researched. The optimal composition of the quaternary composites with the good toughness and high strength was obtained.

  14. Addressing Educational Reform: Exploring PE Metrics as a System to Measure Student Achievement in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hushman, Glenn; Hushman, Carolyn; Carbonneau, Kira

    2015-01-01

    The current educational reform movement in the United States is focused on measuring the effectiveness of teachers. One component of teacher effectiveness is student achievement. The effectiveness of using PE Metrics as a measure of student achievement in a physical activity setting with a low socioeconomic, culturally diverse population was…

  15. "Really on the Ball": Exploring the Implications of Teachers' PE-CPD Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliot, Dely L.; Campbell, Theresa

    2015-01-01

    Continuing professional development (CPD) is currently high on the Scottish Education agenda. Recent curriculum reform in Scotland, with the introduction of Curriculum for Excellence, places physical education (PE) at the forefront for its role in directly supporting learners' mental, emotional, social and physical well-being. This emphasis…

  16. The Disciplinary and Pleasurable Spaces of Boys' PE--The Art of Distributions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerdin, Göran

    2016-01-01

    In taking heed of the so-called "spatial turn" in social theory this paper explores how the spatial intersects with boys' performances of gender and (dis)pleasures in school physical education (PE). In particular, the paper aims to contribute to our understanding of how the organisation and implementation of physical and social spaces in…

  17. Development of PE Metrics Elementary Assessments for National Physical Education Standard 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyson, Ben; Placek, Judith H.; Graber, Kim C.; Fisette, Jennifer L.; Rink, Judy; Zhu, Weimo; Avery, Marybell; Franck, Marian; Fox, Connie; Raynes, De; Park, Youngsik

    2011-01-01

    This article describes how assessments in PE Metrics were developed following six steps: (a) determining test blueprint, (b) writing assessment tasks and scoring rubrics, (c) establishing content validity, (d) piloting assessments, (e) conducting item analysis, and (f) modifying the assessments based on analysis and expert opinion. A task force,…

  18. PeV Neutrinos Observed by IceCube from Cores of Active Galactic Nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecker, Floyd W.

    2013-01-01

    I show that the high energy neutrino flux predicted to arise from active galactic nuclei cores can explain the PeV neutrinos detected by IceCube without conflicting with the constraints from the observed extragalactic cosmic-ray and gamma-ray backgrounds.

  19. PE on YouTube--Investigating Participation in Physical Education Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quennerstedt, Mikael

    2013-01-01

    Background: In this article, students' diverse ways of participating in physical education (PE) practice shown in clips on YouTube were investigated. YouTube is the largest user-generated video-sharing website on the Internet, where different video content is presented. The clips on YouTube, as used in this paper, can be seen as a user-generated…

  20. Representing Valued Bodies in PE: A Visual Inquiry with British Asian Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Joanne; Azzarito, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Background: Status or value in sport and physical education (PE) contexts is often associated with performances of highly proficient sporting bodies, which produce hierarchies of privileged and marginalised gendered and racialised positions. This may be communicated through text and images shared within school, physical cultures and media that…

  1. PE: It's Just Me: Physically Active and Healthy Teacher Bodies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wrench, Alison; Garrett, Robyne

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on the significance of embodied understandings to the emerging subjectivities and pedagogical practices of pre-service teachers undertaking a Physical Education (PE) specialisation through a B.Ed. (primary/middle). Data from a research project conducted at an Australian university with seven pre-service teachers will be…

  2. Not Your Father's PE: Obesity, Exercise, and the Role of Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cawley, John; Meyerhoefer, Chad; Newhouse, David

    2006-01-01

    American children are gaining weight at an alarming rate. Since the 1960s, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the percentage of American six- to eleven-year-olds who fall into the CDC's highest weight classification for children has almost quadrupled. Requiring more physical education (PE) seems like a logical…

  3. 23 CFR 661.33 - What percentage of IRRBP funding is available for PE and construction?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... construction? 661.33 Section 661.33 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS INDIAN RESERVATION ROAD BRIDGE PROGRAM § 661.33 What percentage of IRRBP funding is available for PE and construction? Up to 15 percent of the funding made available in any...

  4. 23 CFR 661.33 - What percentage of IRRBP funding is available for PE and construction?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... construction? 661.33 Section 661.33 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS INDIAN RESERVATION ROAD BRIDGE PROGRAM § 661.33 What percentage of IRRBP funding is available for PE and construction? Up to 15 percent of the funding made available in any...

  5. A role for Atg8–PE deconjugation in autophagosome biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Usha; Yen, Wei-Lien; Mari, Muriel; Cao, Yang; Xie, Zhiping; Baba, Misuzu; Reggiori, Fulvio; Klionsky, Daniel J.

    2012-01-01

    Formation of the autophagosome is likely the most complex step of macroautophagy, and indeed it is the morphological and functional hallmark of this process; accordingly, it is critical to understand the corresponding molecular mechanism. Atg8 is the only known autophagy-related (Atg) protein required for autophagosome formation that remains associated with the completed sequestering vesicle. Approximately one-fourth of all of the characterized Atg proteins that participate in autophagosome biogenesis affect Atg8, regulating its conjugation to phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), localization to the phagophore assembly site and/or subsequent deconjugation. An unanswered question in the field regards the physiological role of the deconjugation of Atg8–PE. Using an Atg8 mutant that bypasses the initial Atg4-dependent processing, we demonstrate that Atg8 deconjugation is an important step required to facilitate multiple events during macroautophagy. The inability to deconjugate Atg8–PE results in the mislocalization of this protein to the vacuolar membrane. We also show that the deconjugation of Atg8–PE is required for efficient autophagosome biogenesis, the assembly of Atg9-containing tubulovesicular clusters into phagophores/autophagosomes, and for the disassembly of PAS-associated Atg components. PMID:22622160

  6. The phosphatidylethanolamine derivative diDCP-LA-PE mimics intracellular insulin signaling.

    PubMed

    Nishizaki, Tomoyuki; Gotoh, Akinobu; Shimizu, Tadashi; Tanaka, Akito

    2016-06-02

    Insulin facilitates glucose uptake into cells by translocating the glucose transporter GLUT4 towards the cell surface through a pathway along an insulin receptor (IR)/IR substrate 1 (IRS-1)/phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K)/3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK1)/Akt axis. The newly synthesized phosphatidylethanolamine derivative 1,2-O-bis-[8-{2-(2-pentyl-cyclopropylmethyl)-cyclopropyl}-octanoyl]-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylethanolamine (diDCP-LA-PE) has the potential to inhibit protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) and to directly activate PKCζ, an atypical isozyme, and PKCε, a novel isozyme. PTP1B inhibition enhanced insulin signaling cascades downstream IR/IRS-1 by preventing tyrosine dephosphorylation. PKCζ and PKCε directly activated Akt2 by phosphorylating at Thr309 and Ser474, respectively. diDCP-LA-PE increased cell surface localization of GLUT4 and stimulated glucose uptake into differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes, still with knocking-down IR or in the absence of insulin. Moreover, diDCP-LA-PE effectively reduced serum glucose levels in type 1 diabetes (DM) model mice. diDCP-LA-PE, thus, may enable type 1 DM therapy without insulin injection.

  7. The phosphatidylethanolamine derivative diDCP-LA-PE mimics intracellular insulin signaling

    PubMed Central

    Nishizaki, Tomoyuki; Gotoh, Akinobu; Shimizu, Tadashi; Tanaka, Akito

    2016-01-01

    Insulin facilitates glucose uptake into cells by translocating the glucose transporter GLUT4 towards the cell surface through a pathway along an insulin receptor (IR)/IR substrate 1 (IRS-1)/phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K)/3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK1)/Akt axis. The newly synthesized phosphatidylethanolamine derivative 1,2-O-bis-[8-{2-(2-pentyl-cyclopropylmethyl)-cyclopropyl}-octanoyl]-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylethanolamine (diDCP-LA-PE) has the potential to inhibit protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) and to directly activate PKCζ, an atypical isozyme, and PKCε, a novel isozyme. PTP1B inhibition enhanced insulin signaling cascades downstream IR/IRS-1 by preventing tyrosine dephosphorylation. PKCζ and PKCε directly activated Akt2 by phosphorylating at Thr309 and Ser474, respectively. diDCP-LA-PE increased cell surface localization of GLUT4 and stimulated glucose uptake into differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes, still with knocking-down IR or in the absence of insulin. Moreover, diDCP-LA-PE effectively reduced serum glucose levels in type 1 diabetes (DM) model mice. diDCP-LA-PE, thus, may enable type 1 DM therapy without insulin injection. PMID:27251941

  8. But I like PE: Factors Associated with Enjoyment of Physical Education Class in Middle School Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barr-Anderson, Daheia J.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Schmitz, Kathryn H.; Ward, Dianne S.; Conway, Terry L.; Pratt, Charlotte; Baggett, Chris D.; Lytle, Leslie; Pate, Russell R.

    2008-01-01

    The current study examined associations between physical education (PE) class enjoyment and sociodemographic, personal, and perceived school environment factors among early adolescent girls. Participants included 1,511 sixth-grade girls who completed baseline assessments for the Trial of Activity in Adolescent Girls, with 50% indicating they…

  9. 23 CFR 661.41 - After a bridge project has been completed (either PE or construction) what happens with the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false After a bridge project has been completed (either PE or... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS INDIAN RESERVATION ROAD BRIDGE PROGRAM § 661.41 After a bridge project has been completed (either PE or construction) what happens...

  10. 23 CFR 661.41 - After a bridge project has been completed (either PE or construction) what happens with the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false After a bridge project has been completed (either PE or... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS INDIAN RESERVATION ROAD BRIDGE PROGRAM § 661.41 After a bridge project has been completed (either PE or construction) what happens...

  11. Detection of a multi-PeV neutrino-induced muon event from the Northern sky with IceCube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoenen, Sebastian; Raedel, Leif

    2015-07-01

    We observed a muon event with an energy of multiple PeV originating from a neutrino interaction in the vicinity of the IceCube detector. IceCube is a cubic-kilometer neutrino detector installed in the ice at the geographic South Pole mostly sensitive to neutrinos in the TeV-PeV energy range.

  12. "Governmentality" in the Origins of European Female PE and Sport: The Spanish Case Study (1883-1936)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Raul Sanchez; Herraiz, Antonio Rivero

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is twofold: (1) to contribute to the analysis of the origins of modern European female PE and sports from a power perspective, inspired by Foucault's work; and (2) to present a detailed analysis of female PE and sport in Spain (1883-1936) as a specific European case study. It is argued that these physical activities…

  13. "A Clear and Obvious "Ability" to "Perform Physical Activity"": Revisiting Physical Education Teachers' Perceptions of Talent in PE and Sport

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croston, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    Background: This paper examines physical education (PE) teachers' perceptions of talent in PE and sport within the context of English policy, where the process of identifying talent has been formalised and supported through specific resources (YST 2009). English policy has merged educational and sporting targets, which has resulted in a shift in…

  14. Swedish Primary-School Teachers' Attitudes to Inclusion--The Case of PE and Pupils with Physical Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jerlinder, Kajsa; Danermark, Berth; Gill, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Teachers play a decisive role in making inclusive education a reality. The particular case of inclusion in physical education (PE) poses a specific challenge to teaching practice. How PE teachers view inclusion may provide special insights into teachers' general attitudes toward inclusion and inclusive practices in the general school curriculum.…

  15. Game Changers: New Concepts of PE and Sports Programs Are Making It More Fun for Everyone to Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCollum, Sean

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author reports an up-and-coming generation of teachers and coaches who are dedicated to inclusive PE practices. They are passionate about helping all kids discover the physical, social, and emotional benefits--as well as pleasures--of physical activity. The benefits of inclusive PE practices are too great to forfeit, says Lynn…

  16. (Re)Telling Lived Experiences in Different Tales: A Potential Pathway in Working towards an Inclusive PE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg Svendby, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    Existing research reveals that there are large discrepancies between the rhetoric of inclusive practice and what actually takes place in physical education (PE) lessons. PE appears to be a conservative subject, where little has changed over the years, despite increased diversity in schools and new modes of movement in society at large. In this…

  17. 23 CFR 661.41 - After a bridge project has been completed (either PE or construction) what happens with the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... PROGRAM § 661.41 After a bridge project has been completed (either PE or construction) what happens with... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false After a bridge project has been completed (either PE or construction) what happens with the excess or surplus funding? 661.41 Section 661.41 Highways FEDERAL...

  18. 23 CFR 661.41 - After a bridge project has been completed (either PE or construction) what happens with the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... PROGRAM § 661.41 After a bridge project has been completed (either PE or construction) what happens with... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false After a bridge project has been completed (either PE or construction) what happens with the excess or surplus funding? 661.41 Section 661.41 Highways FEDERAL...

  19. 23 CFR 661.41 - After a bridge project has been completed (either PE or construction) what happens with the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... PROGRAM § 661.41 After a bridge project has been completed (either PE or construction) what happens with... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false After a bridge project has been completed (either PE or construction) what happens with the excess or surplus funding? 661.41 Section 661.41 Highways FEDERAL...

  20. P-E Fit as Moderator of the Accountability--Employee Reactions Relationships: Convergent Results across Two Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanivich, Stephen E.; Brees, Jeremy R.; Hochwarter, Wayne A.; Ferris, Gerald R.

    2010-01-01

    The current two-sample investigation, which incorporated Conservation of Resources (COR) and Person-Environment (P-E) fit theories, investigated the interaction effects of felt accountability x P-E fit on the work outcomes of job satisfaction, organizational commitment, depressed mood, and work intensity. Consistent with the conceptual…

  1. Overexpression of PeHA1 enhances hydrogen peroxide signaling in salt-stressed Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Meijuan; Wang, Yang; Sun, Jian; Ding, Mingquan; Deng, Shurong; Hou, Peichen; Ma, Xujun; Zhang, Yuhong; Wang, Feifei; Sa, Gang; Tan, Yeqing; Lang, Tao; Li, Jinke; Shen, Xin; Chen, Shaoliang

    2013-10-01

    The plant plasma membrane (PM) H(+)-ATPase plays a crucial role in controlling K(+)/Na(+) homeostasis under salt stress. Our previous microarray analysis indicated that Populus euphratica retained a higher abundance of PM H(+)-ATPase transcript versus a salt-sensitive poplar. To clarify the roles of the PM H(+)-ATPase in salt sensing and adaptation, we isolated the PM H(+)-ATPase gene PeHA1 from P. euphratica and introduced it into Arabidopsis thaliana. Compared to wild-type, PeHA1-transgenic Arabidopsis had a greater germination rate, root length, and biomass under NaCl stress (50-150 mM). Ectopic expression of PeHA1 remarkably enhanced the capacity to control the homeostasis of ions and reactive oxygen species in salinized Arabidopsis. Flux data from salinized roots showed that transgenic plants exhibited a more pronounced Na(+)/H(+) antiport and less reduction of K(+) influx versus wild-type. Enhanced PM ATP hydrolytic activity, proton pumping, and Na(+)/H(+) antiport in PeHA1-transgenic plants, were consistent to those observed in vivo, i.e., H(+) extrusion, external acidification, and Na(+) efflux. Activities of the antioxidant enzymes ascorbate peroxidase and catalase were typically higher in transgenic seedlings irrespective of salt concentration. In transgenic Arabidopsis roots, H2O2 production was higher under control conditions and increased more rapidly than wild-type when plants were subjected to NaCl treatment. Interestingly, transgenic plants were unable to control K(+)/Na(+) homeostasis when salt-induced H2O2 production was inhibited by diphenylene iodonium, an inhibitor of NADPH oxidase. These observations suggest that PeHA1 accelerates salt tolerance partially through rapid H2O2 production upon salt treatment, which triggers adjustments in K(+)/Na(+) homeostasis and antioxidant defense in Arabidopsis. PMID:23872741

  2. αs-Casein-PE6400 mixtures: surface properties, miscibility and self-assembly.

    PubMed

    Kessler, Anne; Menéndez-Aguirre, Orquidéa; Hinrichs, Jörg; Stubenrauch, Cosima; Weiss, Jochen

    2014-06-01

    Surface properties, miscibility and self-assembly of mixtures of a food-grade αs-casein and the triblock copolymer PE6400 (PEO13-PPO30-PEO13) were examined. The properties at the surface were determined by surface pressure measurements for a 1:1 molar mixture. Comparison of the measured with the calculated isotherms show attractive interactions at surface pressures above 9mN/m. The miscibility gaps of solutions containing 0.004-0.2mmol/l αs-casein and 0.02-0.1mol/l polymer were examined. It was found that a one-phase region exists at distinct mixing ratios and temperatures. Comparison of the cloud points of mixtures of αs-casein and PE6400 with pure αs-casein showed that the presence of the triblock copolymer enhanced the solubility of the protein. The ζ-potential of the αs-casein solution decreased by addition of PE6400 to zero. Our results thus suggest that αs-casein and PE6400 are miscible. The results of the cloud point and ζ-potential measurements were explained by formation of a mixed aggregate where the PPO chains are anchored inside the hydrophobic part of the αs-casein while the PEO chains cover the charged hydrophilic part of the αs-casein thereby leading to an increase of the cloud point and a decrease in ζ-potential. This is in agreement with the attractive interactions between αs-casein and PE6400 as observed via surface pressure measurements at the surface.

  3. αs-Casein-PE6400 mixtures: surface properties, miscibility and self-assembly.

    PubMed

    Kessler, Anne; Menéndez-Aguirre, Orquidéa; Hinrichs, Jörg; Stubenrauch, Cosima; Weiss, Jochen

    2014-06-01

    Surface properties, miscibility and self-assembly of mixtures of a food-grade αs-casein and the triblock copolymer PE6400 (PEO13-PPO30-PEO13) were examined. The properties at the surface were determined by surface pressure measurements for a 1:1 molar mixture. Comparison of the measured with the calculated isotherms show attractive interactions at surface pressures above 9mN/m. The miscibility gaps of solutions containing 0.004-0.2mmol/l αs-casein and 0.02-0.1mol/l polymer were examined. It was found that a one-phase region exists at distinct mixing ratios and temperatures. Comparison of the cloud points of mixtures of αs-casein and PE6400 with pure αs-casein showed that the presence of the triblock copolymer enhanced the solubility of the protein. The ζ-potential of the αs-casein solution decreased by addition of PE6400 to zero. Our results thus suggest that αs-casein and PE6400 are miscible. The results of the cloud point and ζ-potential measurements were explained by formation of a mixed aggregate where the PPO chains are anchored inside the hydrophobic part of the αs-casein while the PEO chains cover the charged hydrophilic part of the αs-casein thereby leading to an increase of the cloud point and a decrease in ζ-potential. This is in agreement with the attractive interactions between αs-casein and PE6400 as observed via surface pressure measurements at the surface. PMID:24727118

  4. Genomic Comparison of PE and PPE Genes in the Mycobacterium avium Complex▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Mackenzie, Nick; Alexander, David C.; Turenne, Christine Y.; Behr, Marcel A.; De Buck, Jeroen M.

    2009-01-01

    The Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) comprises genomically similar but phenotypically divergent bacteria that inhabit diverse environments and that cause disease in different hosts. In this study, a whole-genome approach was used to examine the polymorphic PE (Pro-Glu) and PPE (Pro-Pro-Glu) gene families, implicated in immunostimulation and virulence. The four major groups of MAC organisms were examined, including the newly sequenced type strains of M. intracellulare and M. avium subsp. avium, plus M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis and M. avium subsp. hominissuis, for the purpose of finding genetic differences that could be exploited to design diagnostic tests specific to these groups and that could help explain their divergence in pathogenesis and host specificity. Unique and missing PPE genes were found in all MAC members except M. avium subsp. avium. Only M. intracellulare had a unique PE gene. Apart from this, most PE and PPE sequences were conserved, with average nucleotide sequence identities of 99.1 and 98.1%, respectively, among the M. avium subspecies, but only 82.9 and 79.7% identities with the PE and PPE sequences of M. intracellulare, respectively. A detailed analysis of the amino acid sequences was performed between M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis and M. avium subsp. hominissuis. Most differences were detected in the PPE proteins, with amino acid substitutions and frame shifts leading to unique amino acid sequences. In conclusion, several unique PPE proteins were identified in MAC organisms next to numerous polymorphisms in both the PE and PPE gene families. These substantial differences could help explain the divergence in phenotypes within the MAC and could lead to diagnostic tests with better discriminatory abilities. PMID:19144814

  5. Sequence Diversity in the pe_pgrs Genes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Is Independent of Human T Cell Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Copin, Richard; Coscollá, Mireia; Seiffert, Salome N.; Bothamley, Graham; Sutherland, Jayne; Mbayo, Georgetta; Gagneux, Sebastien; Ernst, Joel D.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The Mycobacterium tuberculosis genome includes the large family of pe_pgrs genes, whose functions are unknown. Because of precedents in other pathogens in which gene families showing high sequence variation are involved in antigenic variation, a similar role has been proposed for the pe_pgrs genes. However, the impact of immune selection on pe_pgrs genes has not been examined. Here, we sequenced 27 pe_pgrs genes in 94 clinical strains from five phylogenetic lineages of the M. tuberculosis complex (MTBC). We found that pe_pgrs genes were overall more diverse than the remainder of the MTBC genome, but individual members of the family varied widely in their nucleotide diversity and insertion/deletion (indel) content: some were more, and others were much less, diverse than the genome average. Individual pe_pgrs genes also differed in the ratio of nonsynonymous to synonymous mutations, suggesting that different selection pressures act on individual pe_pgrs genes. Using bioinformatic methods, we tested whether sequence diversity in pe_pgrs genes might be selected by human T cell recognition, the major mechanism of adaptive immunity to MTBC. We found that the large majority of predicted human T cell epitopes were confined to the conserved PE domain and experimentally confirmed the antigenicity of this domain in tuberculosis patients. In contrast, despite being genetically diverse, the PGRS domains harbored few predicted T cell epitopes. These results indicate that human T cell recognition is not a significant force driving sequence diversity in pe_pgrs genes, which is consistent with the previously reported conservation of human T cell epitopes in the MTBC. PMID:24425732

  6. Preliminary experiments to estimate the PE.MA.M (PElagic MArine Mesocosm) offshore behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albani, Marta; Piermattei, Viviana; Stefanì, Chiara; Marcelli, Marco

    2016-04-01

    The phytoplankton community is controlled not only by local environmental conditions but also by physical processes occurring on different temporal and spatial scales. Hydrodynamic local conditions play an important role in marine ecosystems. Several studies have shown that hydrodynamic conditions can influence the phytoplankton settling velocity, vertical and horizontal distribution and formation of cyanobacterial blooms. Mesocosms are useful structures to simulate marine environment at mesoscale resolution; allowing to closely approximate biotic or abiotic parameters of interest directly in nature. In this work an innovative structure named PE.MA.M (PElagic MArine Mesocosm) is presented and tested. Laboratory experiments have been conducted in order to observe seasonal variations of biomass behaviour in two different hydrodynamic conditions: outside as well as whithin the PE.MA.M. We have evaluated whether it is possible to isolate a natural system from external water mass hydrodynamic exchanges and to assume that phytoplankton cells' transition is limited at the net and sea interface. Preliminary experiments test the isolating capacity of the net, to determine the currents' attenuation rate and to estimate the possible PE.MA.M. offshore behaviour. In the first investigation, we monitored the diffusion of phytoplankton cells. The PE.MA.M. exterior and interior were simulated using a plexiglass tank divided into two half-tanks (Aout-Bin) by a septum consisting of a net like a PE.MA.M. The tank was filled up with 10 L of water and only the half-tank Aout was filled up with 10 ml of phytoplankton culture (Clorella sp.). We monitored the chlorophyll concentrations for 24 hours. The two tanks had similar concentrations after 4 hours (2.70322 mg/m³ Aout and 2.37245 mg/m3 Bin) and this constant relationship was maintened until the end of the test. In the second investigation we used clod cards to measure water motions.We conducted two experiments within tank, the first

  7. EFFECTS OF TRITIUM EXPOSURE ON UHMW-PE, PTFE, AND VESPEL

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, E; Kirk Shanahan, K

    2006-05-31

    Samples of three polymers, Ultra-High Molecular Weight Polyethylene (UHMW-PE), polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE, also known as Teflon{reg_sign}), and Vespel{reg_sign} polyimide were exposed to 1 atmosphere of tritium gas at ambient temperature for varying times up to 2.3 years in closed containers. Sample mass and size measurements (to calculate density), spectra-colorimetry, dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) were employed to characterize the effects of tritium exposure on these samples. Changes of the tritium exposure gas itself were characterized at the end of exposure by measuring total pressure and by mass spectroscopic analysis of the gas composition. None of the polymers exhibited significant changes of density. The color of initially white UHMW-PE and PTFE dramatically darkened to the eye and the color also significantly changed as measured by colorimetry. The bulk of UHMW-PE darkened just like the external surfaces, however the fracture surface of PTFE appeared white compared to the PTFE external surfaces. The white interior could have been formed while the sample was breaking or could reflect the extra tritium dose at the surface directly from the gas. The dynamic mechanical response of UHMW-PE was typical of radiation effects on polymers- an initial stiffening (increased storage modulus) and reduction of viscous behavior after three months exposure, followed by lowering of the storage modulus after one year exposure and longer. The storage modulus of PTFE increased through about nine months tritium exposure, then the samples became too weak to handle or test using DMA. Characterization of Vespel{reg_sign} using DMA was problematic--sample-to-sample variations were significant and no systematic change with tritium exposure could be discerned. Isotopic exchange and incorporation of tritium into UHMW-PE (exchanging for protium) and into PTFE (exchanging for fluorine) was observed by FT-IR using an attenuated

  8. Expression of the phycoerythrin gene of Gracilaria lemaneiformis (Rhodophyta) in E. coli and evaluation of the bioactivity of recombinant PE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Ruobing; Sui, Zhenghong; Zhang, Xuecheng; Zhang, Shuang; Qin, Song

    2007-10-01

    Phycoerythrin (PE) is one of the most important proteins involved in light capturing during photosynthesis in red algae. Its potential biological activities had gained wide concerns. In the present study, tumor cytotoxic and hydroxyl radical assay were preformed to detect the bioactivity of recombinant PE. Recombinant plasmids pGEX-PE and pBGL were transformed into E. coli BL21 to make two recombinant strains BEX (pGEX-PE) and BGL (pBGL). PE expressing in BEX (pGEX-PE) was validated by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting analysis. SDS-PAGE analysis indicated that the PE-GST fusion protein was mostly inclusion bodies. Specific expression of PE was confirmed by Western blotting analysis. The recombinant E. coli BEX (pGEX-PE) cells were collected and sonicated. The supernatants were reserved for the tumor cytotoxic experiments. The result of tumor cytotoxic assay indicated that the supernatants containing PE had the activity of inhibiting the growth of Hela cells and with the increase of protein concentration, the inhibiting rate increased from 37.31% to 63.26%, which showed significant difference from the control. Hydroxyl radical scavenging effect was tested with supernatants of BEX (pGEX-PE) and BGL (pBGL) cell lysates treated with sonication and heating. For the sonication samples, the scavenging rates of the supernatants of BEX (pGEX-PE) and BGL (pBGL) cell lysates were significantly higher than the negative control BL21(pGEX-4T) ( P<0.02), and the scavenging rates increased slowly following the increase of the protein content. For the heating samples, except for the 0.2 mg mL-1 BGL (pBGL) products, the scavenging effects of the supernatants of BEX (pGEX-PE) and BGL (pBGL) cell lysates were stronger than that of negative control BL21(pGEX-4T). However, the effect intensity was not positively correlated with the increase of the protein concentration. Though a partially decreased hydroxyl radical scavenging activity was led by heating, the biological activity was still

  9. Mechanical, Rheological and Thermal Properties of Polyethylene (PE)/Clay Nanocomposite for Rotomolded Containers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamshidi, Shadi

    Polyethylene (PE) is widely used to make bulk containers via rotational molding process. Adding 2 wt % and 4 wt % organo-modified clay improved the thermal, barrier and mechanical properties of PE. Clay layers create a tortuous path against the permeant, yielding better barrier properties. Due to the non-polar hydrophobic nature of PE and polar hydrophilic structure of clay minerals, a compatibilizer (PE-g-Maleic Anhydride) was required to enhance the dispersion level of clay in the matrix. In this study High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) and Linear Low Density Polyethylene (LLDPE) layered silicate nanocomposites were melt-compounded with two concentrations of organo-modified clay (2 and 4 weight %). The interaction between nanoclay, compatibilizer and rotomolding grade of PE were examined using X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), mechanical and rheological tests. The XRD results revealed an enhanced basal spacing of layered silicates within both LLDPE nanocomposites at low nanoclay loadings, in agreement with the TEM observations; TEM images showed a uniformly dispersed layered silicates. Through thermal and rheological characterization techniques, the results illustrated that the thermal resistance, elastic and viscous modulus of nanocomposites improved significantly with incorporation of layered silicates. Analyzing all the data showed enhanced properties of LLDPE nanocomposites, which can be attributed to a strong interfacial interaction between the compatibilizer with LLDPE backbone and LLDPE matrices compared with HDPE matrices. The influence of in-house organo-modification of layered silicates on the properties of nanocomposites was compared to that of nanocomposites prepared with commercially available nanoclay (Cloisite 20A). LLDPE nanocomposites prepared by the in-house organo-modified clay showed better mechanical properties, elastic and viscous modulus due to good dispersion of layered silicates as determined by the XRD

  10. Functional dissection of protein domains involved in the immunomodulatory properties of PE_PGRS33 of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Zumbo, Antonella; Palucci, Ivana; Cascioferro, Alessandro; Sali, Michela; Ventura, Marcello; D'Alfonso, Pamela; Iantomasi, Raffaella; Di Sante, Gabriele; Ria, Francesco; Sanguinetti, Maurizio; Fadda, Giovanni; Manganelli, Riccardo; Delogu, Giovanni

    2013-12-01

    PE_PGRSs are a large family of proteins identified in Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex and in few other pathogenic mycobacteria. The PE domain of PE_PGRS33 mediates localization of the protein on the mycobacterial cell surface, where the PGRS domain is available to interact with host components. In this study, PE_PGRS33 and its functional deletion mutants were expressed in M. smegmatis, and in vitro and in vivo assays were used to dissect the protein domains involved in the immunomodulatory properties of the protein. We demonstrate that PE_PGRS33-mediated secretion of TNF-α by macrophages occurs by extracellular interaction with TLR2. Our results also show that while the PGRS domain of the protein is required for triggering TNF-α secretion, mutation in the PE domain affects the pro-inflammatory properties of the protein. These results indicate that PE_PGRS33 is a protein with immunomodulatory activity and that protein stability and localization on the mycobacterial surface can affect these properties.

  11. The PGRS Domain from PE_PGRS33 of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is Target of Humoral Immune Response in Mice and Humans.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Ingrid; Parada, Cristina; Acosta-Gío, Enrique; Espitia, Clara

    2014-01-01

    The PE_PGRS33 protein is a member of the PE family, which encompasses the PE and the PE_PGRS subfamilies. Among PE_PGRS's, this protein is one of the most studied antigens and its immunomodulatory properties are influence by both PE and PGRS domains. However, the contribution of these domains to the host immune recognition of the PE_PGRS33 protein and their potential role in latent tuberculosis infection in humans is still unknown. In this study, the immunogenic properties of the complete PE_PGRS33 protein and each domain separately were evaluated in BALB/c mice and latent tuberculosis infected (LTBI) humans. In mice, PE_PGRS33 and its domains induced similar antibody production and secretion of IFN-γ. PE_PGRS33 and the PE domain stimulated higher CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell proliferation compared to the PGRS domain. This demonstrated that the principal difference in the immune recognition of the domains is the higher activation of T-cell subpopulations involved in the control of tuberculosis. In humans, the secretion of IFN-γ in response to PE_PGRS33 was detected in both LTBI and in non-infected vaccinated individuals. The same was observed for antibody response, which targets epitopes located in the PGRS domain but not in the PE domain. These observations suggest that T and B cell responses to PE_PGRS33 are induced by BCG vaccination and can be maintained for many years in non-infected individuals. This also indicates that the IFN-γ response detected might not be associated with latent tuberculosis infection. These results contribute to the elucidation of the role of the PE_PGRS33 protein and its PE and PGRS domains in the immune response against Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

  12. The PGRS Domain from PE_PGRS33 of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is Target of Humoral Immune Response in Mice and Humans

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Ingrid; Parada, Cristina; Acosta-Gío, Enrique; Espitia, Clara

    2014-01-01

    The PE_PGRS33 protein is a member of the PE family, which encompasses the PE and the PE_PGRS subfamilies. Among PE_PGRS’s, this protein is one of the most studied antigens and its immunomodulatory properties are influence by both PE and PGRS domains. However, the contribution of these domains to the host immune recognition of the PE_PGRS33 protein and their potential role in latent tuberculosis infection in humans is still unknown. In this study, the immunogenic properties of the complete PE_PGRS33 protein and each domain separately were evaluated in BALB/c mice and latent tuberculosis infected (LTBI) humans. In mice, PE_PGRS33 and its domains induced similar antibody production and secretion of IFN-γ. PE_PGRS33 and the PE domain stimulated higher CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell proliferation compared to the PGRS domain. This demonstrated that the principal difference in the immune recognition of the domains is the higher activation of T-cell subpopulations involved in the control of tuberculosis. In humans, the secretion of IFN-γ in response to PE_PGRS33 was detected in both LTBI and in non-infected vaccinated individuals. The same was observed for antibody response, which targets epitopes located in the PGRS domain but not in the PE domain. These observations suggest that T and B cell responses to PE_PGRS33 are induced by BCG vaccination and can be maintained for many years in non-infected individuals. This also indicates that the IFN-γ response detected might not be associated with latent tuberculosis infection. These results contribute to the elucidation of the role of the PE_PGRS33 protein and its PE and PGRS domains in the immune response against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. PMID:24904584

  13. The PE_PGRS Proteins of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Are Ca(2+) Binding Mediators of Host-Pathogen Interaction.

    PubMed

    Yeruva, Veena C; Kulkarni, Apoorva; Khandelwal, Radhika; Sharma, Yogendra; Raghunand, Tirumalai R

    2016-08-23

    The phenomenal success of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) as a pathogen is primarily based on its ability to modulate host immune responses. The genome of M.tb encodes multiple immunomodulatory proteins, including several members of the multigenic PE_PPE family of which the PE_PGRS proteins are a subset. Curiously, 56 of the 61 PE_PGRS proteins contain multiple copies of the glycine-rich sequence motif GGXGXD/NXUX, a nonapeptide sequence predicted to bind Ca(2+), but the functional significance of these motifs remains a mystery. Here we provide evidence via isothermal titration calorimetry, (45)Ca blotting, fluorescence, and circular dichroism spectroscopy that Ca(2+) binds to the PE_PGRS proteins, PE_PGRS33 (Rv1818c) (10 motifs) and PE_PGRS61 (Rv3653) (one motif). Ca(2+) was observed not to bind to PE_PGRS8 (Rv0742), which lacks nonapeptide motifs. Using recombinant Mycobacterium smegmatis strains expressing Rv1818c and Rv3653 and the THP-1 macrophage model of infection, we show that the two proteins mediate Ca(2+)-dependent upregulation of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10, events critical to the pathogenesis of M.tb. Both Rv1818c and Rv3653 interact with TLR2 in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner, providing a novel mechanistic basis for their immunomodulatory effects. Mutations in the nonapeptide motif of Rv3653 led to compromised Ca(2+) binding, validating the functional criticality of this motif. This study demonstrates for the first time not only their Ca(2+) binding properties but also an essential role for Ca(2+) in the functioning of the M.tb PE_PGRS proteins, opening up the possibility of developing novel anti-tuberculosis therapeutics that inhibit Ca(2+)-PE_PGRS binding. PMID:27483162

  14. The Multifunctional PE_PGRS11 Protein from Mycobacterium tuberculosis Plays a Role in Regulating Resistance to Oxidative Stress*

    PubMed Central

    Chaturvedi, Rashmi; Bansal, Kushagra; Narayana, Yeddula; Kapoor, Nisha; Sukumar, Namineni; Togarsimalemath, Shambhuprasad Kotresh; Chandra, Nagasuma; Mishra, Saurabh; Ajitkumar, Parthasarathi; Joshi, Beenu; Katoch, Vishwa Mohan; Patil, Shripad A.; Balaji, Kithiganahalli N.

    2010-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis utilizes unique strategies to survive amid the hostile environment of infected host cells. Infection-specific expression of a unique mycobacterial cell surface antigen that could modulate key signaling cascades can act as a key survival strategy in curtailing host effector responses like oxidative stress. We demonstrate here that hypothetical PE_PGRS11 ORF encodes a functional phosphoglycerate mutase. The transcriptional analysis revealed that PE_PGRS11 is a hypoxia-responsive gene, and enforced expression of PE_PGRS11 by recombinant adenovirus or Mycobacterium smegmatis imparted resistance to alveolar epithelial cells against oxidative stress. PE_PGRS11-induced resistance to oxidative stress necessitated the modulation of genetic signatures like induced expression of Bcl2 or COX-2. This modulation of specific antiapoptotic molecular signatures involved recognition of PE_PGRS11 by TLR2 and subsequent activation of the PI3K-ERK1/2-NF-κB signaling axis. Furthermore, PE_PGRS11 markedly diminished H2O2-induced p38 MAPK activation. Interestingly, PE_PGRS11 protein was exposed at the mycobacterial cell surface and was involved in survival of mycobacteria under oxidative stress. Furthermore, PE_PGRS11 displayed differential B cell responses during tuberculosis infection. Taken together, our investigation identified PE_PGRS11 as an in vivo expressed immunodominant antigen that plays a crucial role in modulating cellular life span restrictions imposed during oxidative stress by triggering TLR2-dependent expression of COX-2 and Bcl2. These observations clearly provide a mechanistic basis for the rescue of pathogenic Mycobacterium-infected lung epithelial cells from oxidative stress. PMID:20558725

  15. The Mycobacterium tuberculosis PE Proteins Rv0285 and Rv1386 Modulate Innate Immunity and Mediate Bacillary Survival in Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Tiwari, Bhavana Mishra; Kannan, Nisha; Vemu, Lakshmi; Raghunand, Tirumalai R.

    2012-01-01

    The unique PE/PPE multigene family of proteins occupies almost 10% of the coding sequence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb), the causative agent of human tuberculosis. Although some members of this family have been shown to be involved in pathways essential to M.tb pathogenesis, their precise physiological functions remain largely undefined. Here, we investigate the roles of the conserved members of the ‘PE only’ subfamily Rv0285 (PE5) and Rv1386 (PE15) in mediating host-pathogen interactions. Recombinant Mycobacterium smegmatis strains expressing PE5 and PE15 showed enhanced survival vs controls in J774.1 and THP-1 macrophages - this increase in viable counts was correlated with a reduction in transcript levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase. An up-regulation of anti- and down-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokine levels was also observed in infected macrophages implying an immuno-modulatory function for these proteins. Induction of IL-10 production upon infection of THP-1 macrophages was associated with increased phosphorylation of the MAP Kinases p38 and ERK1/2, which was abolished in the presence of the pharmacological inhibitors SB203580 and PD98059. The PE5-PPE4 and PE15-PPE20 gene pairs were observed to be co-operonic in M.tb, hinting at an additional level of complexity in the functioning of these proteins. We conclude that M.tb exploits the PE proteins to evade the host immune response by altering the Th1 and Th2 type balance thereby favouring in vivo bacillary survival. PMID:23284742

  16. The PE_PGRS Proteins of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Are Ca(2+) Binding Mediators of Host-Pathogen Interaction.

    PubMed

    Yeruva, Veena C; Kulkarni, Apoorva; Khandelwal, Radhika; Sharma, Yogendra; Raghunand, Tirumalai R

    2016-08-23

    The phenomenal success of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) as a pathogen is primarily based on its ability to modulate host immune responses. The genome of M.tb encodes multiple immunomodulatory proteins, including several members of the multigenic PE_PPE family of which the PE_PGRS proteins are a subset. Curiously, 56 of the 61 PE_PGRS proteins contain multiple copies of the glycine-rich sequence motif GGXGXD/NXUX, a nonapeptide sequence predicted to bind Ca(2+), but the functional significance of these motifs remains a mystery. Here we provide evidence via isothermal titration calorimetry, (45)Ca blotting, fluorescence, and circular dichroism spectroscopy that Ca(2+) binds to the PE_PGRS proteins, PE_PGRS33 (Rv1818c) (10 motifs) and PE_PGRS61 (Rv3653) (one motif). Ca(2+) was observed not to bind to PE_PGRS8 (Rv0742), which lacks nonapeptide motifs. Using recombinant Mycobacterium smegmatis strains expressing Rv1818c and Rv3653 and the THP-1 macrophage model of infection, we show that the two proteins mediate Ca(2+)-dependent upregulation of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10, events critical to the pathogenesis of M.tb. Both Rv1818c and Rv3653 interact with TLR2 in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner, providing a novel mechanistic basis for their immunomodulatory effects. Mutations in the nonapeptide motif of Rv3653 led to compromised Ca(2+) binding, validating the functional criticality of this motif. This study demonstrates for the first time not only their Ca(2+) binding properties but also an essential role for Ca(2+) in the functioning of the M.tb PE_PGRS proteins, opening up the possibility of developing novel anti-tuberculosis therapeutics that inhibit Ca(2+)-PE_PGRS binding.

  17. Sitting and watching the others being active: the experienced difficulties in PE when having a disability.

    PubMed

    Bredahl, Anne-Mette

    2013-01-01

    The experience of participation in physical activity was explored in a qualitative study with twenty Norwegian adults with physical and visual disabilities. The interviews showed that more than 75% of negative experiences reported in this study originated from physical education (PE), suggesting that this was a particularly challenging arena. The negative experiences were centered in these common themes: experiences of not being included, experiences of failing, and experiences of not being listened to. The interviews were analyzed applying an existential-phenomenological approach. The participants with relatively minor degrees of disability and with the least visible disabilities were the ones who most often reported negative experiences regarding PE. This suggests the experiences were not generated solely by the actual physical or sensory limitations, but equally by how well the participants' challenges were understood by their teachers and to what degree adaptations were implemented. PMID:23283025

  18. OBSERVATIONAL SEARCH FOR PeV-EeV TAU NEUTRINO FROM GRB081203A

    SciTech Connect

    Aita, Y.; Aoki, T.; Asaoka, Y.; Chonan, T.; Jobashi, M.; Masuda, M.; Morimoto, Y.; Noda, K.; Sasaki, M.; Asoh, J.; Ishikawa, N.; Ogawa, S.; Learned, J. G.; Matsuno, S.; Olsen, S.; Binder, P.-M.; Hamilton, J.; Sugiyama, N.; Watanabe, Y. E-mail: sasakim@icrr.u-tokyo.ac.jp

    2011-07-20

    We report the first observational search for tau neutrinos ({nu}{sub {tau}}) from gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) using one of the Ashra light collectors. The Earth-skimming {nu}{sub {tau}} technique of imaging Cherenkov {tau} showers was applied as a detection method. We set stringent upper limits on the {nu}{sub {tau}} fluence in PeV-EeV region for 3780 s (between 2.83 and 1.78 hr before) and another 3780 s (between 21.2 and 22.2 hr after) surrounding GRB081203A triggered by the Swift satellite. This first search for PeV-EeV {nu}{sub {tau}} complements other experiments in energy range and methodology, and suggests the prologue of 'multi-particle astronomy' with a precise determination of time and location.

  19. Metabolic engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae ethanol strains PE-2 and CAT-1 for efficient lignocellulosic fermentation.

    PubMed

    Romaní, Aloia; Pereira, Filipa; Johansson, Björn; Domingues, Lucília

    2015-03-01

    In this work, Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains PE-2 and CAT-1, commonly used in the Brazilian fuel ethanol industry, were engineered for xylose fermentation, where the first fermented xylose faster than the latter, but also produced considerable amounts of xylitol. An engineered PE-2 strain (MEC1121) efficiently consumed xylose in presence of inhibitors both in synthetic and corn-cob hydrolysates. Interestingly, the S. cerevisiae MEC1121 consumed xylose and glucose simultaneously, while a CEN.PK based strain consumed glucose and xylose sequentially. Deletion of the aldose reductase GRE3 lowered xylitol production to undetectable levels and increased xylose consumption rate which led to higher final ethanol concentrations. Fermentation of corn-cob hydrolysate using this strain, MEC1133, resulted in an ethanol yield of 0.47 g/g of total sugars which is 92% of the theoretical yield.

  20. Testing the Dark Matter Scenario for PeV Neutrinos Observed in IceCube.

    PubMed

    Murase, Kohta; Laha, Ranjan; Ando, Shin'ichiro; Ahlers, Markus

    2015-08-14

    Late time decay of very heavy dark matter is considered as one of the possible explanations for diffuse PeV neutrinos observed in IceCube. We consider implications of multimessenger constraints, and show that proposed models are marginally consistent with the diffuse γ-ray background data. Critical tests are possible by a detailed analysis and identification of the sub-TeV isotropic diffuse γ-ray data observed by Fermi and future observations of sub-PeV γ rays by observatories like HAWC or Tibet AS+MD. In addition, with several-year observations by next-generation telescopes such as IceCube-Gen2, muon neutrino searches for nearby dark matter halos such as the Virgo cluster should allow us to rule out or support the dark matter models, independently of γ-ray and anisotropy tests. PMID:26317706

  1. Probable nonexistence of a 3Pe metastable excited state of the positronium negative ion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, Allen P., Jr.

    1981-12-01

    The H- ion is known to have a metastable 2p2 3Pe triplet excited state. To see if an analog of this state is present in the positronium negative ion Ps- the Coulomb binding energy Eb of the lowest-energy even-parity L=1 configuration of two identical-charge -e fermions of mass m1 plus one spinless particle of mass m2 and charge +e is calculated. We find a value of Eb below the n=2 level of the neutral atom for 0<=m2M<=0.17 and 0.90Pe state exists for Ps-, where m2M=13.

  2. [Aquatic insects and water quality in Peñas Blancas watershed and reservoir].

    PubMed

    Mora, Meyer Guevara

    2011-06-01

    The aquatic insects have been used to evaluate water quality of aquatic environments. The population of aquatic insects and the water quality of the area were characterized according to the natural and human alterations present in the study site. During the monthly-survey, pH, DO, temperature, water level, DBO, PO4 and NO3 were measured. Biological indexes (abundance, species richness and the BMWP-CR) were used to evaluate the water quality. No relation between environmental and aquatic insects was detected. Temporal and spatial differences attributed to the flow events (temporal) and the presence of Peñas Blancas reservoir (spatial). In the future, the investigations in Peñas Blancas watershed need to be focused on determining the real influence of the flows, sediment release and the possible water quality degradation because of agriculture activities.

  3. PeV neutrinos from intergalactic interactions of cosmic rays emitted by active galactic nuclei.

    PubMed

    Kalashev, Oleg E; Kusenko, Alexander; Essey, Warren

    2013-07-26

    The observed very high energy spectra of distant blazars are well described by secondary gamma rays produced in line-of-sight interactions of cosmic rays with background photons. In the absence of the cosmic-ray contribution, one would not expect to observe very hard spectra from distant sources, but the cosmic ray interactions generate very high energy gamma rays relatively close to the observer, and they are not attenuated significantly. The same interactions of cosmic rays are expected to produce a flux of neutrinos with energies peaked around 1 PeV. We show that the diffuse isotropic neutrino background from many distant sources can be consistent with the neutrino events recently detected by the IceCube experiment. We also find that the flux from any individual nearby source is insufficient to account for these events. The narrow spectrum around 1 PeV implies that some active galactic nuclei can accelerate protons to EeV energies.

  4. Testing the Dark Matter Scenario for PeV Neutrinos Observed in IceCube.

    PubMed

    Murase, Kohta; Laha, Ranjan; Ando, Shin'ichiro; Ahlers, Markus

    2015-08-14

    Late time decay of very heavy dark matter is considered as one of the possible explanations for diffuse PeV neutrinos observed in IceCube. We consider implications of multimessenger constraints, and show that proposed models are marginally consistent with the diffuse γ-ray background data. Critical tests are possible by a detailed analysis and identification of the sub-TeV isotropic diffuse γ-ray data observed by Fermi and future observations of sub-PeV γ rays by observatories like HAWC or Tibet AS+MD. In addition, with several-year observations by next-generation telescopes such as IceCube-Gen2, muon neutrino searches for nearby dark matter halos such as the Virgo cluster should allow us to rule out or support the dark matter models, independently of γ-ray and anisotropy tests.

  5. Atmospheric-Pressure Non-thermal Plasma-JET effects on PS and PE surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arrieta, J.; Asenjo, J.; Vargas, I.; Solis, Y.

    2015-03-01

    The Atmospheric-Pressure Non-Thermal Plasma (APNTP) has become a topic of a great interest for a wide spectrum of applications in different industry branches, including the surface of treatment processes. In this work we evaluate the effect of an argon APNTP exposure to determine changes suffered by a polystyrene (PS) and polyethylene (PE) polymer surface through RAMAN spectroscopy and SEM. It was determined that the hydrophilic change in energetic terms, i.e. surface activation in the PS and PE polymers is addition of oxygen by surface activation when the samples with jet plasma are exposed with the inert argon gas. It was possible to characterize the hydrophilic shift based on the change in intensity of the spectra.

  6. Hard Coat Layers by PE-CVD Process for the Top Surface of Touch Panel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okunishi, T.; Sato, N.; Yazawa, K.

    2013-06-01

    In order to protect surface from damages, the high pencil hardness and the high abrasion resistance are required for the hard coat layers on polyethylene telephthalate (PET) films for the application of touch panel surface. We have already found that the UV-curing-hard-coat-polymer (UHP) coated PET films show the poor abrasion resistance, while they have the high pencil hardness. It reveals that the abrasion resistance of hard coat layers of the UHP is not simply dependent on the pencil hardness. In this work, we have studied to improve the abrasion resistance of SiOC films as hard coat layers, which were formed by PE-CVD process on UHP coated PET. The abrasion resistance was evaluated by Taber abrasion test. PE-CVD hard coat layers which formed on UHP coater PET films have showed the better abrasion resistance and have the possibility of substitution to the thin glass sheets for touch panel application.

  7. Intraocular Ossification in the GSP/pe Chicken With Imperfect Albinism.

    PubMed

    Shibuya, K; Kinoshita, K; Mizutani, M; Oshima, A; Yamashita, R; Matsuda, Y

    2015-07-01

    The eyes of 2 male and 2 female GSP/pe chickens, the imperfect albino strain, were investigated at 52 weeks of age. Aged chickens of the GSP/pe colony became blind with bilateral ocular enlargement and opaque lenses. Affected eyes (bilateral in 2 males and unilateral in 2 females) were hard and difficult to section; histologic specimens were processed after decalcification. A large portion of the posterior chamber was occupied by cancellous bone containing fibrous and cartilaginous foci. Osseous tissues developed adjacent to the choroid, and no retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) was detected between osseous tissues and the choroid. Small segments of degenerate neuronal retina were scattered in the osseous tissue. The irises and ciliary bodies were deformed by osseous tissue, and the lenses had severe cataracts. These observations suggest that the intraocular osseous tissue may be derived from RPE in the hereditary incomplete-albino strain of chickens.

  8. Radiation effects of UHMW-PE fibre on gel fraction and mechanical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yanning; Wang, Mouhua; Tang, Zhongfeng; Wu, Guozhong

    2011-02-01

    The effect of gamma ray irradiation on ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMW-PE) fibre was investigated for the change of gel fraction, mechanical properties, and morphology of crystallites. In the case of irradiation in air, the oxidation was limited to the fibre surface where the gel fraction decreased by chain scission, and the depth of the oxidation area from the surface was estimated to be 2 μm. Tensile tests showed similar stress-strain curves for irradiation in vacuum or in air, but the elongation at break decreased more obviously for irradiation in air. The oxidation products, such as carboxylic acids, were detected by FTIR measurement. However, the DSC and XRD analyses indicated little change of crystallinity on irradiation in vacuum or in air. The oxidation was limited to a thin surface area on irradiation in air due to a low migration rate of the radicals trapped in the crystallite in the UHMW-PE fibre.

  9. Synthesis of Few-Layer Graphene Using DC PE-CVD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jeong Hyuk; Castro, Edward Joseph D.; Hwang, Yong Gyoo; Lee, Choong Hun

    2011-12-01

    Few layer graphene (FLG) had been successfully grown on polycrystalline Ni films or foils on a large scale using DC Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (DC PE-CVD) as a result of the Raman spectra drawn out of the sample. The size of graphene films is dependent on the area of the Ni film as well as the DC PE-CVD chamber size. Synthesis time has an effect on the quality of graphene produced. However, further analysis and experiments must be pursued to further identify the optimum settings and conditions of producing better quality graphene. Applied plasma voltage on the other hand, had an influence on the minimization of defects in the graphene grown. It has also presented a method of producing a free standing PMMA/graphene membrane on a FeCl3(aq) solution which could then be transferred to a desired substrate.

  10. Intraocular Ossification in the GSP/pe Chicken With Imperfect Albinism.

    PubMed

    Shibuya, K; Kinoshita, K; Mizutani, M; Oshima, A; Yamashita, R; Matsuda, Y

    2015-07-01

    The eyes of 2 male and 2 female GSP/pe chickens, the imperfect albino strain, were investigated at 52 weeks of age. Aged chickens of the GSP/pe colony became blind with bilateral ocular enlargement and opaque lenses. Affected eyes (bilateral in 2 males and unilateral in 2 females) were hard and difficult to section; histologic specimens were processed after decalcification. A large portion of the posterior chamber was occupied by cancellous bone containing fibrous and cartilaginous foci. Osseous tissues developed adjacent to the choroid, and no retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) was detected between osseous tissues and the choroid. Small segments of degenerate neuronal retina were scattered in the osseous tissue. The irises and ciliary bodies were deformed by osseous tissue, and the lenses had severe cataracts. These observations suggest that the intraocular osseous tissue may be derived from RPE in the hereditary incomplete-albino strain of chickens. PMID:25421422

  11. CHF prediction of GE 3 x 3 rod bundle based on BODYFIT-2PE. [BWR

    SciTech Connect

    Chien, T.H.; Chen, B.C.J.; Sha, W.T.; Kim, J.H.

    1983-01-01

    A General Electric 3 x 3 rod bundle critical heat flux (CHF) experiment was analyzed by using BODYFIT-2PE. (Boundary-fitted coordinates-2 phase partially elliptic). BODYFIT-2PE is a three-dimensional, steady-state/transient, single-phase rod-bundle thermal-hydraulic computer program based on the technique of boudnary-fitted coordinate system. In this coordinate system, all the physical boundaries are made to be coincident with the coordinate lines so that the boundary conditions, such as constant heat fluxes and zero velocities, can be accurately represented without interpolation. However, the transformed coordinate system is not unique for a given geometric configuration. The more orthogonal the coordinates are, the faster the rates of calculational convergence. The generation of the transformed coordinates is based on the solution of a set of second-order partial differential equations, subject to a set of geometric boundary conditions. A simple Laplacian is used in the present study.

  12. Biological network analysis with CentiScaPe: centralities and experimental dataset integration.

    PubMed

    Scardoni, Giovanni; Tosadori, Gabriele; Faizan, Mohammed; Spoto, Fausto; Fabbri, Franco; Laudanna, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    The growing dimension and complexity of the available experimental data generating biological networks have increased the need for tools that help in categorizing nodes by their topological relevance. Here we present CentiScaPe, a Cytoscape app specifically designed to calculate centrality indexes used for the identification of the most important nodes in a network. CentiScaPe is a comprehensive suite of algorithms dedicated to network nodes centrality analysis, computing several centralities for undirected, directed and weighted networks. The results of the topological analysis can be integrated with data set from lab experiments, like expression or phosphorylation levels for each protein represented in the network. Our app opens new perspectives in the analysis of biological networks, since the integration of topological analysis with lab experimental data enhance the predictive power of the bioinformatics analysis.

  13. Heavy right-handed neutrino dark matter and PeV neutrinos at IceCube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhupal Dev, P. S.; Kazanas, D.; Mohapatra, R. N.; Teplitz, V. L.; Zhang, Yongchao

    2016-08-01

    We discuss a simple non-supersymmetric model based on the electroweak gauge group SU(2)L × SU(2)' × U(1)B–L where the lightest of the right-handed neutrinos, which are part of the leptonic doublet of SU(2)', play the role of a long-lived unstable dark matter with mass in the multi-PeV range. We use a resonant s-channel annihilation to obtain the correct thermal relic density and relax the unitarity bound on dark matter mass. In this model, there exists a 3-body dark matter decay mode producing tau leptons and neutrinos, which could be the source for the PeV cascade events observed in the IceCube experiment. The model can be tested with more precise flavor information of the highest-energy neutrino events in future data.

  14. Metabolic engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae ethanol strains PE-2 and CAT-1 for efficient lignocellulosic fermentation.

    PubMed

    Romaní, Aloia; Pereira, Filipa; Johansson, Björn; Domingues, Lucília

    2015-03-01

    In this work, Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains PE-2 and CAT-1, commonly used in the Brazilian fuel ethanol industry, were engineered for xylose fermentation, where the first fermented xylose faster than the latter, but also produced considerable amounts of xylitol. An engineered PE-2 strain (MEC1121) efficiently consumed xylose in presence of inhibitors both in synthetic and corn-cob hydrolysates. Interestingly, the S. cerevisiae MEC1121 consumed xylose and glucose simultaneously, while a CEN.PK based strain consumed glucose and xylose sequentially. Deletion of the aldose reductase GRE3 lowered xylitol production to undetectable levels and increased xylose consumption rate which led to higher final ethanol concentrations. Fermentation of corn-cob hydrolysate using this strain, MEC1133, resulted in an ethanol yield of 0.47 g/g of total sugars which is 92% of the theoretical yield. PMID:25536512

  15. Water cycle research associated with the CaPE hydrometeorology project (CHymP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duchon, Claude E.

    1993-01-01

    One outgrowth of the Convection and Precipitation/Electrification (CaPE) experiment that took place in central Florida during July and August 1991 was the creation of the CaPE Hydrometeorology Project (CHymP). The principal goal of this project is to investigate the daily water cycle of the CaPE experimental area by analyzing the numerous land and atmosphere in situ and remotely sensed data sets that were generated during the 40-days of observations. The water cycle comprises the atmospheric branch. In turn, the atmospheric branch comprises precipitation leaving the base of the atmospheric volume under study, evaporation and transpiration entering the base, the net horizontal fluxes of water vapor and cloud water through the volume and the conversion of water vapor to cloud water and vice-versa. The sum of these components results in a time rate of change in the water and liquid water (or ice) content of the atmospheric volume. The components of the land branch are precipitation input to and evaporation and transpiration output from the surface, net horizontal fluxes of surface and subsurface water, the sum of which results in a time rate of change in surface and subsurface water mass. The objective of CHymP is to estimate these components in order to determine the daily water budget for a selected area within the CaPE domain. This work began in earnest in the summer of 1992 and continues. Even estimating all the budget components for one day is a complex and time consuming task. The discussions below provides a short summary of the rainfall quality assessment procedures followed by a plan for estimating the horizontal moisture flux.

  16. Wind Transport of Radionuclide- Bearing Dust, Peña Blanca, Chihuahua, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velarde, R.; Goodell, P. C.; Gill, T. E.; Arimoto, R.

    2007-05-01

    This investigation evaluates radionuclide fractionation during wind erosion of high-grade uranium ore storage piles at Peña Blanca (50km north of Chihuahua City), Chihuahua, Mexico. The aridity of the local environment promotes dust resuspension by high winds. Although active operations ceased in 1983, the Peña Blanca mining district is one of Mexico`s most important uranium ore reserves. The study site contains piles of high grade ore, left loose on the surface, and separated by the specific deposits from which they were derived (Margaritas, Nopal I, and Puerto I). Similar locations do not exist in the United States, since uranium mining sites in the USA have been reclaimed. The Peña Blanca site serves as an analog for the Yucca Mountain project. Dust deposition is collected at Peña Blanca with BSNE sediment catchers (Fryrear, 1986) and marble dust traps (Reheis, 1999). These devices capture windblown sediment; subsequently, the sample data will help quantify potentially radioactive short term field sediment loss from the repository surface and determine sediment flux. Aerosols and surface materials will be analyzed and radioactivity levels established utilizing techniques such as gamma spectroscopy. As a result, we will be able to estimate how much radionuclide contaminated dust is being transported or attached geochemically to fine grain soils or minerals (e.g., clays or iron oxides). The high-grade uranium-bearing material is at secular equilibrium, thus the entire decay series is present. Of resulting interest is not only the aeolian transport of uranium, but also of the other daughter products. These studies will improve our understanding of geochemical cycling of radionuclides with respect to sources, transport, and deposition. The results may also have important implications for the geosciences and homeland security, and potential applications to public health. Funding for this project is provided in part via a NSF grant to Arimoto.

  17. Method for PE Pipes Fusion Jointing Based on TRIZ Contradictions Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jianguang; Tan, Runhua; Gao, Jinyong; Wei, Zihui

    The core of the TRIZ theories is the contradiction detection and solution. TRIZ provided various methods for the contradiction solution, but all that is not systematized. Combined with the technique system conception, this paper summarizes an integration solution method for contradiction solution based on the TRIZ contradiction theory. According to the method, a flowchart of integration solution method for contradiction is given. As a casestudy, method of fusion jointing PE pipe is analysised.

  18. EFFECTS OF TRITIUM ON UHMW-PE, PTFE, AND VESPEL POLYIMIDE

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, E; Kirk Shanahan, K

    2006-11-01

    Samples of ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMW-PE), polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), and the polyimide Vespel{reg_sign} were exposed to tritium gas in closed containers initially at 101 kPa (1 atmosphere) pressure and ambient temperature for various times up to 2.3 years. Tritium exposure effects on the samples were characterized by dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) and radiolysis products were characterized by measuring the total final pressure and composition in the exposure containers at the end of exposure period.

  19. Single-wavelength two-photon excitation–stimulated emission depletion (SW2PE-STED) superresolution imaging

    PubMed Central

    Bianchini, Paolo; Harke, Benjamin; Galiani, Silvia; Vicidomini, Giuseppe; Diaspro, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    We developed a new class of two-photon excitation–stimulated emission depletion (2PE-STED) optical microscope. In this work, we show the opportunity to perform superresolved fluorescence imaging, exciting and stimulating the emission of a fluorophore by means of a single wavelength. We show that a widely used red-emitting fluorophore, ATTO647N, can be two-photon excited at a wavelength allowing both 2PE and STED using the very same laser source. This fact opens the possibility to perform 2PE microscopy at four to five times STED-improved resolution, while exploiting the intrinsic advantages of nonlinear excitation. PMID:22493221

  20. Prediction of Certain Well-Characterized Domains of Known Functions within the PE and PPE Proteins of Mycobacteria.

    PubMed

    Sultana, Rafiya; Tanneeru, Karunakar; Kumar, Ashwin B R; Guruprasad, Lalitha

    2016-01-01

    The PE and PPE protein family are unique to mycobacteria. Though the complete genome sequences for over 500 M. tuberculosis strains and mycobacterial species are available, few PE and PPE proteins have been structurally and functionally characterized. We have therefore used bioinformatics tools to characterize the structure and function of these proteins. We selected representative members of the PE and PPE protein family by phylogeny analysis and using structure-based sequence annotation identified ten well-characterized protein domains of known function. Some of these domains were observed to be common to all mycobacterial species and some were species specific.

  1. Prediction of Certain Well-Characterized Domains of Known Functions within the PE and PPE Proteins of Mycobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Sultana, Rafiya; Tanneeru, Karunakar; Kumar, Ashwin B. R.; Guruprasad, Lalitha

    2016-01-01

    The PE and PPE protein family are unique to mycobacteria. Though the complete genome sequences for over 500 M. tuberculosis strains and mycobacterial species are available, few PE and PPE proteins have been structurally and functionally characterized. We have therefore used bioinformatics tools to characterize the structure and function of these proteins. We selected representative members of the PE and PPE protein family by phylogeny analysis and using structure-based sequence annotation identified ten well-characterized protein domains of known function. Some of these domains were observed to be common to all mycobacterial species and some were species specific. PMID:26891364

  2. Five-year summary of COMLEX-USA level 2-PE examinee performance and survey data.

    PubMed

    Langenau, Erik E; Dyer, Caitlin; Roberts, William L; Wilson, Crystal; Gimpel, John

    2010-03-01

    The authors present data on examination format and examinee demographics, performance, and survey results for the Comprehensive Osteopathic Medical Licensing Examination-USA Level 2-Performance Evaluation (COMLEX-USA Level 2-PE) from the first five testing cycles (2004-2005 to 2008-2009). First-time examinees in the 2004-2005 testing cycle had a pass rate of 96.1%, compared with a pass rate of 94.7% for first-time examinees in the 2008-2009 testing cycle. Pass rates were fairly consistent across all testing cycles. Based on postexamination survey results from all testing cycles, the majority of examinees reported that the cases in COMLEX-USA Level 2-PE represented appropriate challenges for fourth-year osteopathic medical students. The majority of examinees also reported that comprehensive standardized patient-based examinations and exercises were administered through their colleges of osteopathic medicine. In addition, survey results indicated overall satisfaction among examinees with the administration of COMLEX-USA Level 2-PE.

  3. Testing the Equivalence Principle and Lorentz Invariance with PeV Neutrinos from Blazar Flares.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zi-Yi; Liu, Ruo-Yu; Wang, Xiang-Yu

    2016-04-15

    It was recently proposed that a giant flare of the blazar PKS B1424-418 at redshift z=1.522 is in association with a PeV-energy neutrino event detected by IceCube. Based on this association we here suggest that the flight time difference between the PeV neutrino and gamma-ray photons from blazar flares can be used to constrain the violations of equivalence principle and the Lorentz invariance for neutrinos. From the calculated Shapiro delay due to clusters or superclusters in the nearby universe, we find that violation of the equivalence principle for neutrinos and photons is constrained to an accuracy of at least 10^{-5}, which is 2 orders of magnitude tighter than the constraint placed by MeV neutrinos from supernova 1987A. Lorentz invariance violation (LIV) arises in various quantum-gravity theories, which predicts an energy-dependent velocity of propagation in vacuum for particles. We find that the association of the PeV neutrino with the gamma-ray outburst set limits on the energy scale of possible LIV to >0.01E_{pl} for linear LIV models and >6×10^{-8}E_{pl} for quadratic order LIV models, where E_{pl} is the Planck energy scale. These are the most stringent constraints on neutrino LIV for subluminal neutrinos. PMID:27127950

  4. IceCube PeV neutrinos and leptophilic dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chianese, Marco

    2016-05-01

    We analyze the scenario where the IceCube high energy neutrino events are explained in terms of an extraterrestrial flux due to two different components: a contribution coming from know astrophysical sources for energies up to few hundreds TeV and a top-down contribution originated by the decay of heavy dark matter particles with a mass of few PeV. Contrary to previous approaches, we consider a leptophilic three-body decay that dominates at PeV energies due to the absence of quarks in the final state. We find that the theoretical predictions of such a scenario are in a slightly better agreement with the IceCube data if the astrophysical component has a cut-off at about 100 TeV. This interpretation of IceCube data can be easily tested in the near future since the decaying dark matter scenario predicts a sharp cut-off at PeV energy scale and the observation of an anisotropy towards Galactic Center of our Galaxy in contrast with the isotropic astrophysical flux.

  5. PeV neutrinos from the propagation of ultra-high energy cosmic rays

    SciTech Connect

    Roulet, Esteban; Mollerach, Silvia; Sigl, Guenter; Vliet, Arjen van E-mail: guenter.sigl@desy.de E-mail: mollerach@cab.cnea.gov.ar

    2013-01-01

    We discuss the possibility that the PeV neutrinos recently observed by IceCube are produced by the interactions of extragalactic cosmic rays during their propagation through the radiation backgrounds. We show that the fluxes resulting from the decays of neutrons produced in the interactions of cosmic ray protons with the CMB background are suppressed (E{sub ν}{sup 2}dΦ{sub ν}/dE < 10{sup −10} GeV/cm{sup 2} s sr), with those resulting from the decays of pions produced in the interactions with the UV/optical/IR backgrounds being the dominant ones at PeV energies. The anti-neutrino fluxes produced by the decay of neutrons resulting from the photodisintegration of heavy nuclei with CMB photons are also shown to be quite suppressed (E{sub ν}{sup 2}dΦ{sub ν}/dE < 10{sup −11} GeV/cm{sup 2} s sr), while those produced by photo-pion processes with UV/optical/IR backgrounds may be larger, although they are not expected to be above those achievable in the pure proton case. Scenarios with mixed composition and low cutoff rigidities can lead to PeV neutrino fluxes enhanced with respect to those in the pure Fe scenarios. We also discuss the possible impact of the Glashow resonance for the detection of these scenarios, showing that it plays a moderate role.

  6. Understanding the two-photon absorption spectrum of PE2 platinum acetylide complex.

    PubMed

    Vivas, Marcelo G; De Boni, Leonardo; Cooper, Thomas M; Mendonca, Cleber R

    2014-07-31

    Herein, we report on the two-absorption cross-section spectrum of trans-Pt(PBu3)2 (C≡C-C6H4-C≡C-C6H5)2 (PE2) platinum acetylide complex employing the femtosecond wavelength-tunable Z-scan technique. The PE2 complex can be visualized as two branches containing two phenylacetylene units, each one linked by a platinum center, completely transparent in the visible region. Because of this structure, large delocalization of π-electrons allied to the strong intramolecular interaction between the branches is expected. The 2PA absorption spectrum was measured using the femtosecond wavelength-tunable Z-scan technique with low repetition rate (1 kHz), in order to obtain the 2PA spectrum without excited-state contributions. Our results reveal that PE2 in dichloromethane solution presents two 2PA allowed bands located at 570 and 710 nm, with cross section of about 320 and 45 GM, respectively. The first one is related to the strong intramolecular interaction between the molecule's branches due to the presence of platinum atom, while the second one is associated with the breaking of symmetry of the chromophore in solution due, most probably to a large twisting angle of the ligand's phenyl rings relative to the Pt core.

  7. Testing the Equivalence Principle and Lorentz Invariance with PeV Neutrinos from Blazar Flares.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zi-Yi; Liu, Ruo-Yu; Wang, Xiang-Yu

    2016-04-15

    It was recently proposed that a giant flare of the blazar PKS B1424-418 at redshift z=1.522 is in association with a PeV-energy neutrino event detected by IceCube. Based on this association we here suggest that the flight time difference between the PeV neutrino and gamma-ray photons from blazar flares can be used to constrain the violations of equivalence principle and the Lorentz invariance for neutrinos. From the calculated Shapiro delay due to clusters or superclusters in the nearby universe, we find that violation of the equivalence principle for neutrinos and photons is constrained to an accuracy of at least 10^{-5}, which is 2 orders of magnitude tighter than the constraint placed by MeV neutrinos from supernova 1987A. Lorentz invariance violation (LIV) arises in various quantum-gravity theories, which predicts an energy-dependent velocity of propagation in vacuum for particles. We find that the association of the PeV neutrino with the gamma-ray outburst set limits on the energy scale of possible LIV to >0.01E_{pl} for linear LIV models and >6×10^{-8}E_{pl} for quadratic order LIV models, where E_{pl} is the Planck energy scale. These are the most stringent constraints on neutrino LIV for subluminal neutrinos.

  8. Testing the Equivalence Principle and Lorentz Invariance with PeV Neutrinos from Blazar Flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zi-Yi; Liu, Ruo-Yu; Wang, Xiang-Yu

    2016-04-01

    It was recently proposed that a giant flare of the blazar PKS B1424-418 at redshift z =1.522 is in association with a PeV-energy neutrino event detected by IceCube. Based on this association we here suggest that the flight time difference between the PeV neutrino and gamma-ray photons from blazar flares can be used to constrain the violations of equivalence principle and the Lorentz invariance for neutrinos. From the calculated Shapiro delay due to clusters or superclusters in the nearby universe, we find that violation of the equivalence principle for neutrinos and photons is constrained to an accuracy of at least 1 0-5, which is 2 orders of magnitude tighter than the constraint placed by MeV neutrinos from supernova 1987A. Lorentz invariance violation (LIV) arises in various quantum-gravity theories, which predicts an energy-dependent velocity of propagation in vacuum for particles. We find that the association of the PeV neutrino with the gamma-ray outburst set limits on the energy scale of possible LIV to >0.01 Ep l for linear LIV models and >6 ×10-8Ep l for quadratic order LIV models, where Ep l is the Planck energy scale. These are the most stringent constraints on neutrino LIV for subluminal neutrinos.

  9. Estimate from Gulmarg of PeV photon flux from Cygnus X-3 and its relevance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhat, C. L.; Sapru, M. L.; Razdan, H.

    1986-07-01

    Atmospheric pulses recorded at Gulmarg, India between January 1976 and December 1977 using wide-angle photomultipliers indicate a phase-dependent component exhibiting the Cygnus X-3 modulation period of 4.8 hr, and an amplitude, determined by the number of excess events in the phase peak relative to the total phase-independent events, of 1.8 + or - 0.4 percent (corresponding to a detected average flux of 1.6 + or - 0.4 gamma/sq cm per s above 0.5 PeV). The possibility of a long-term reduction in the luminosity of the PeV source by a factor of about 1.5/yr is also suggested by Haverah Park phase histograms of Cygnus X-3 obtained between January 1979 and December 1984, and by Plateau Rosa data from the December 1981 to March 1985 period. After accounting for losses in the PeV photon beam due to gamma-gamma interactions with the 2.7 K microwave background, the ultrahigh energy photon fluxes in the 10 to the 11th to 10 to the 12th eV region are found to be much lower than those of Cygnus X-3.

  10. Possible Domain Formation In PE/PC Bilayers Containing High Cholesterol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hein, Matthew; Hussain, Fazle; Huang, Juyang

    2015-03-01

    Cholesterol is a significant component of animal cell membranes, and its presence has the effects of not only adding rigidity to the lipid bilayer, but also leading to the formation of lipid domains. Two other lipids of interest are phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), which constitutes about 45 percent of the phospholipids found in human nervous tissues, and phosphatidylcholine (PC), which is found in every cell of the human body. The maximum solubility of cholesterol is the highest mole fraction of cholesterol that the lipid bilayer can retain, at which point cholesterol begins to precipitate out to form cholesterol monohydrate crystals. We have measured the maximum solubility of cholesterol in mixtures of 16:0-18:1PE and 16:0-18:1PC using a new light scattering technique, which utilizes the anisotropic nature of light scattering by cholesterol crystals. This new method is highly accurate and reproducible. Our results show that the maximum solubility of cholesterol increases linearly as a function of the molar ratio POPC/(POPE+POPC), which suggests possible domain formation in mixtures of PE and PC containing maximum amount of cholesterol.

  11. Mycobacterial PE/PPE Proteins at the Host-Pathogen Interface

    PubMed Central

    Sampson, Samantha L.

    2011-01-01

    The mycobacterial PE/PPE proteins have attracted much interest since their formal identification just over a decade ago. It has been widely speculated that these proteins may play a role in evasion of host immune responses, possibly via antigenic variation. Although a cohesive understanding of their function(s) has yet to be established, emerging data increasingly supports a role for the PE/PPE proteins at multiple levels of the infectious process. This paper will delineate salient features of the families revealed by comparative genomics, bioinformatic analyses and genome-wide screening approaches and will summarise existing knowledge of subcellular localization, secretion pathways, and protein structure. These characteristics will be considered in light of findings on innate and adaptive host responses to PE/PPE proteins, and we will review the increasing body of data on B and T cell recognition of these proteins. Finally, we will consider how current knowledge and future explorations may contribute to a more comprehensive understanding of these intriguing proteins and their involvement in host pathogen interactions. Ultimately this information could underpin future intervention strategies, for example, in the area of new and improved diagnostic tools and vaccine candidates. PMID:21318182

  12. ESR study of free radicals in UHMW-PE fiber irradiated by gamma rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yanning; Wang, Mouhua; Tang, Zhongfeng; Wu, Guozhong

    2010-04-01

    ESR spectra of the trapped radicals in an ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMW-PE) fiber irradiated by gamma rays showed well-resolved hyperfine splitting at room temperature since the c-axis of the crystallites is aligned with the fiber direction and the radicals are trapped in crystallites. The alkyl radical (-CH 2- •CH-CH 2-) was the major product after irradiation in vacuum and in air at room temperature. Some of the alkyl radicals converted to allyl radicals (-CH 2- •CH-CH=CH-) and polyenyl radicals (-CH 2- •CH-(CH=CH) n-CH 2-) during storage in vacuum. Upon storage in air atmosphere, the alkyl radicals decayed by reaction with oxygen. Of particular interest is the very slow decay rate of the alkyl radical trapped in UHMW-PE fiber, the half-life is 26 days in vacuum, and 13 days in air at room temperature, which is about 1/30 and 1/100 of that reported for high density polyethylene (HDPE), respectively. The extremely long lifetime of the alkyl radical is supposed to be caused by the large size of crystallites in UHMW-PE fiber. The rate of radical decay was accelerated by annealing at elevated temperature.

  13. Nano-cage-mediated refolding of insulin by PEG-PE micelle.

    PubMed

    Fang, Xiaocui; Yang, Tao; Wang, Luoyang; Yu, Jibing; Wei, Xiuli; Zhou, Yinjian; Wang, Chen; Liang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Insulin aggregation has pronounced pharmaceutical implications and biological importance. Deposition of insulin aggregates is associated with type II diabetes and instability of pharmaceutical formulations. We present in this study the renaturation effect of PEG-PE micelle on dithiothreitol (DTT)-denatured insulin revealed by techniques including turbidity assay, circular dichroism (CD), thioflavinT (ThT) binding assay, bis-ANS binding assay, agarose gel electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF MS. The obtained results show that PEG-PE micelle having a hydrophilic nano-cage-like structure in which with a negative charge layer, can capture DTT-induced insulin A and B chains, and block their hydrophobic interaction, thereby preventing aggregation. The reduced insulin A and B chain in the nano-cage are capable of recognizing each other and form the native insulin with yields of ∼30% as measured by hypoglycemic activity analysis in mice. The observed insulin refolding assisted by PEG-PE micelle may be applicable to other proteins.

  14. Interfacial characterization of Pluronic PE9400 at biocompatible (air-water and limonene-water) interfaces.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Mosqueda, Luis M; Maldonado-Valderrama, Julia; Ramírez, Pablo; Cabrerizo-Vílchez, Miguel A; Muñoz, José

    2013-11-01

    In this work, we provide an accurate characterization of non-ionic triblock copolymer Pluronic PE9400 at the air-water and limonene-water interfaces, comprising a systematic analysis of surface tension isotherms, dynamic curves, dilatational rheology and desorption profiles. The surface pressure isotherms display two different slopes of the Π-c plot suggesting the existence of two adsorption regimes for PE9400 at both interfaces. Application of a theoretical model, which assumes the coexistence of different adsorbed states characterized by their molar areas, allows quantification of the conformational changes occurring at the adsorbed layer, indentifying differences between the conformations adopted at the air-water and the limonene-water interface. The presence of two maxima in the dilatational modulus vs. interfacial pressure importantly corroborates this conformational change from a 2D flat conformation to 3D brush one. Moreover, the dilatational response provides mechanical diferences between the interfacial layers formed at the two interfaces analyzed. Dynamic surface pressure data were transformed into a dimensionless form and fitted to another model which considers the influence of the reorganization process on the adsorption dynamics. Finally, the desorption profiles reveal that Pluronic PE9400 is irreversibly adsorbed at both interfaces regardless of the interfacial conformation and nature of the interface. The systematic characterization presented in this work provides important new findings on the interfacial properties of pluronics which can be applied in the rational development of new products, such as biocompatible limonene-based emulsions and/or microemulsions.

  15. Theory of 2 omega(sub pe) radiation induced by the bow shock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoon, Peter H.; Wu, C. S.; Vinas, A. F.-; Reiner, M. J.; Fainberg, J.; Stone, R. G.

    1994-01-01

    A new radiation emission mechanism is proposed to explain electomagnetic radiation observed at twice the electron plasma frequency, 2 omega(sub pe), in the upstream region of the Earth's bow shock. This radiation had its origin at the electron foreshock boundary where energetic electron beams and intense narrow-band Langmiur waves are observed. The proposed emission mechanism results from the interaction of the electron beam and Langmuir waves that are backscattered off thermal ions. This interaction is described by a nonlinear dispersion equation which incorporates an effect owing to electron trajectory modulation by the backscattered Langmuir waves. Subsequent analysis of the dispersion equation reveals two important consequences. First, a long-wavelength electrostatic quasi-mode with frequency at 2 omega(sub pe) is excited, and second, the quasi-mode and the electomagnetic mode are nonlinearly coupled. The implication is that, when the excited 2 omega(sub pe) quasi-mode propagates in an inhomgeneous medium with slightly decreasing density, the quasi-mode can be converted directly into an electromagnetic mode. Hense the electomagnetic radiation at twice the plasma frequency is generated. Numerical solutions of the dispersion equation with the choice of parameters that describe physical characteristics of the electron foreshock are presented, which illustrates the viability of the new mechanism.

  16. Sjogren's syndrome presenting as remitting seronegative symmetric synovitis with pitting edema (RS3PE).

    PubMed

    Choi, Young Mi; Sheen, Dong Hyuk; Lee, Yun Jong; Lee, Eun Bong; Song, Yeong Wook

    2003-08-01

    Remitting seronegative symmetric synovitis with pitting edema (RS3PE) syndrome is characterized by symmetrical and acute synovitis, pitting edema, the absence of rheumatoid factor, increased acute phase reactants, lack of bony erosions on radiography, and benign and short clinical course. Half of all patients with Sjogren's syndrome experience arthritis during the disease course. We here describe the first case of Sjogren's syndrome presenting as RS3PE. She had swelling in knees, ankles, and wrists. After then the swelling spread to her lower legs, feet, face, and both hands. She was admitted to another hospital and was suspected of lupus or rheumatoid arthritis. Three months later, she had dry mouth and had lower lip biopsy. She was admitted to this hospital due to development of swelling in face and lower legs for 3 days. On physical examination, she had pitting edema in both hands and feet dorsum. Laboratory test showed elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, positivity of rheumatoid factor, anti-nuclear antibody, and anti-Ro antibody. There was no erosion in the hands radiography. Schirmer's test and lip biopsy was compatible with Sjogren's syndrome. She was diagnosed RS3PE and Sjogren's syndrome. She was begun with prednisolone and her symptoms improved gradually.

  17. Energy flow in the cryptophyte PE545 antenna is directed by bilin pigment conformation.

    PubMed

    Curutchet, Carles; Novoderezhkin, Vladimir I; Kongsted, Jacob; Muñoz-Losa, Aurora; van Grondelle, Rienk; Scholes, Gregory D; Mennucci, Benedetta

    2013-04-25

    Structure-based calculations are combined with quantitative modeling of spectra and energy transfer dynamics to detemine the energy transfer scheme of the PE545 principal light-harvesting antenna of the cryptomonad Rhodomonas CS24. We use a recently developed quantum-mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) method that allows us to account for pigment-protein interactions at atomic detail in site energies, transition dipole moments, and electronic couplings. In addition, conformational flexibility of the pigment-protein complex is accounted for through molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. We find that conformational disorder largely smoothes the large energetic differences predicted from the crystal structure between the pseudosymmetric pairs PEB50/61C-PEB50/61D and PEB82C-PEB82D. Moreover, we find that, in contrast to chlorophyll-based photosynthetic complexes, pigment composition and conformation play a major role in defining the energy ladder in the PE545 complex, rather than specific pigment-protein interactions. This is explained by the remarkable conformational flexibility of the eight bilin pigments in PE545, characterized by a quasi-linear arrangement of four pyrrole units. The MD-QM/MM site energies allow us to reproduce the main features of the spectra, and minor adjustments of the energies of the three red-most pigments DBV19A, DBV19B, and PEB82D allow us to model the spectra of PE545 with a similar quality compared to our original model (model E from Novoderezhkin et al. Biophys. J.2010, 99, 344), which was extracted from the spectral and kinetic fit. Moreover, the fit of the transient absorption kinetics is even better in the new structure-based model. The largest difference between our previous and present results is that the MD-QM/MM calculations predict a much smaller gap between the PEB50/61C and PEB50/61D sites, in better accord with chemical intuition. We conclude that the current adjusted MD-QM/MM energies are more reliable in order to explore the

  18. Surface Expression of MPT64 as a Fusion with the PE Domain of PE_PGRS33 Enhances Mycobacterium bovis BCG Protective Activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Mice▿

    PubMed Central

    Sali, Michela; Di Sante, Gabriele; Cascioferro, Alessandro; Zumbo, Antonella; Nicolò, Chiara; Donà, Valentina; Rocca, Stefano; Procoli, Annabella; Morandi, Matteo; Ria, Francesco; Palù, Giorgio; Fadda, Giovanni; Manganelli, Riccardo; Delogu, Giovanni

    2010-01-01

    To improve the current vaccine against tuberculosis, a recombinant strain of Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (rBCG) expressing a Mycobacterium tuberculosis vaccine candidate antigen (MPT64) in strong association with the mycobacterial cell wall was developed. To deliver the candidate antigen on the surface, we fused the mpt64 gene to the sequence encoding the PE domain of the PE_PGRS33 protein of M. tuberculosis (to create strain HPE-ΔMPT64-BCG), which we have previously shown to transport proteins to the bacterial surface. In a series of protection experiments in the mouse model of tuberculosis, we showed that (i) immunization of mice with HPE-ΔMPT64-BCG provides levels of protection significantly higher than those afforded by the parental BCG strain, as assessed by bacterial colonization in lungs and spleens and by lung involvement (at both 28 and 70 days postchallenge), (ii) rBCG strains expressing MPT64 provide better protection than the parental BCG strain only when this antigen is surface expressed, and (iii) the HPE-ΔMPT64-BCG-induced MPT64-specific T cell repertoire when characterized by β chain variable region-β chain joining region (BV-BJ) spectratyping indicates that protection is correlated with the ability to recruit gamma interferon (IFN-γ)-secreting T cells carrying the BV8.3-BJ1.5 (172 bp) shared rearrangement. These results demonstrate that HPE-ΔMPT64-BCG is one of the most effective new vaccines tested so far in the mouse model of tuberculosis and underscore the impact of antigen cellular localization on the induction of the specific immune response induced by rBCG. PMID:20921146

  19. ESTIMATING PERSON-CENTERED TREATMENT (PeT) EFFECTS USING INSTRUMENTAL VARIABLES: AN APPLICATION TO EVALUATING PROSTATE CANCER TREATMENTS

    PubMed Central

    BASU, ANIRBAN

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY This paper builds on the methods of local instrumental variables developed by Heckman and Vytlacil (1999, 2001, 2005) to estimate person-centered treatment (PeT) effects that are conditioned on the person’s observed characteristics and averaged over the potential conditional distribution of unobserved characteristics that lead them to their observed treatment choices. PeT effects are more individualized than conditional treatment effects from a randomized setting with the same observed characteristics. PeT effects can be easily aggregated to construct any of the mean treatment effect parameters and, more importantly, are well suited to comprehend individual-level treatment effect heterogeneity. The paper presents the theory behind PeT effects, and applies it to study the variation in individual-level comparative effects of prostate cancer treatments on overall survival and costs. PMID:25620844

  20. The furin protease cleavage recognition sequence of Sindbis virus PE2 can mediate virion attachment to cell surface heparan sulfate.

    PubMed

    Klimstra, W B; Heidner, H W; Johnston, R E

    1999-08-01

    Cell culture-adapted Sindbis virus strains attach to heparan sulfate (HS) receptors during infection of cultured cells (W. B. Klimstra, K. D. Ryman, and R. E. Johnston, J. Virol. 72:7357-7366, 1998). At least three E2 glycoprotein mutations (E2 Arg 1, E2 Lys 70, and E2 Arg 114) can independently confer HS attachment in the background of the consensus sequence Sindbis virus (TR339). In the studies reported here, we have investigated the mechanism by which the E2 Arg 1 mutation confers HS-dependent binding. Substitution of Arg for Ser at E2 1 resulted in a significant reduction in the efficiency of PE2 cleavage, yielding virus particles containing a mixture of PE2 and mature E2. Presence of PE2 was associated with an increase in HS-dependent attachment to cells and efficient attachment to heparin-agarose beads, presumably because the furin recognition site for PE2 cleavage also represents a candidate HS binding sequence. A comparison of mutants with partially or completely inhibited PE2 cleavage demonstrated that efficiency of cell binding was correlated with the amount of PE2 in virus particles. Viruses rendered cleavage defective due to deletions of portions or all of the furin cleavage sequence attached very poorly to cells, indicating that an intact furin cleavage sequence was specifically required for PE2-mediated attachment to cells. In contrast, a virus containing a partial deletion was capable of efficient binding to heparin-agarose beads, suggesting different requirements for heparin bead and cell surface HS binding. Furthermore, virus produced in C6/36 mosquito cells, which cleave PE2 more efficiently than BHK cells, exhibited a reduction in cell attachment efficiency correlated with reduced content of PE2 in particles. Taken together, these results strongly argue that the XBXBBX (B, basic; X, hydrophobic) furin protease recognition sequence of PE2 can mediate the binding of PE2-containing Sindbis viruses to HS. This sequence is very similar to an XBBXBX

  1. PE-Cy5.5 conjugates bind to the cells expressing mouse DEC205/CD205

    PubMed Central

    Park, Chae Gyu; Rodriguez, Anthony; Steinman, Ralph M.

    2012-01-01

    DEC205/CD205, an endocytic receptor of C-type multilectin, is expressed highly in dendritic cells (DCs). DEC205 was shown to efficiently deliver vaccine antigens in surrogate ligands to the antigen processing and presentation machinery of DCs, which resulted in the development of DC-targeted vaccines employing anti-DC monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). During our studies to characterize a variety of anti-DC mAbs including anti-DEC205 by flow cytometric analysis, we discovered that a secondary anti-immunoglobulin antibody conjugated with PE-Cy5.5 bound strongly to the cells expressing mouse DEC205 (mDEC205) without incubation of a primary anti-mDEC205 mAb. In the present study we demonstrate that various antibodies and streptavidin conjugated with PE-Cy5.5 bind to the mDEC205-expressing cells including CHO, KIT6, and HEK293 cells. The interaction between the PE-Cy5.5 conjugates and the cells expressing mDEC205 appears distinctive, since none of PE-Cy5.5 conjugates bind to the cells that express human DEC205 on surface. Besides, only PE-Cy5.5 conjugates bind strongly to mDEC205-expressing cells; PerCP-Cy5.5, APC-Cy5.5, and Cy5.5 conjugates bind weakly; PE, PE-Cy5, Cy5, FITC, or Alexa488 conjugates do not bind. Therefore the use of PE-Cy5.5 conjugates, widely utilized in multicolor flow cytometry, requires precaution against nonspecific binding to mDEC205-positive cells. PMID:22841832

  2. Autophagy Competes for a Common Phosphatidylethanolamine Pool with Major Cellular PE-Consuming Pathways in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Wilson-Zbinden, Caroline; dos Santos, Aline Xavier da Silveira; Stoffel-Studer, Ingrid; van der Vaart, Aniek; Hofmann, Kay; Reggiori, Fulvio; Riezman, Howard; Kraft, Claudine; Peter, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Autophagy is a highly regulated pathway that selectively degrades cellular constituents such as protein aggregates and excessive or damaged organelles. This transport route is characterized by engulfment of the targeted cargo by autophagosomes. The formation of these double-membrane vesicles requires the covalent conjugation of the ubiquitin-like protein Atg8 to phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). However, the origin of PE and the regulation of lipid flux required for autophagy remain poorly understood. Using a genetic screen, we found that the temperature-sensitive growth and intracellular membrane organization defects of mcd4-174 and mcd4-P301L mutants are suppressed by deletion of essential autophagy genes such as ATG1 or ATG7. MCD4 encodes an ethanolamine phosphate transferase that uses PE as a precursor for an essential step in the synthesis of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor used to link a subset of plasma membrane proteins to lipid bilayers. Similar to the deletion of CHO2, a gene encoding the enzyme converting PE to phosphatidylcholine (PC), deletion of ATG7 was able to restore lipidation and plasma membrane localization of the GPI-anchored protein Gas1 and normal organization of intracellular membranes. Conversely, overexpression of Cho2 was lethal in mcd4-174 cells grown at restrictive temperature. Quantitative lipid analysis revealed that PE levels are substantially reduced in the mcd4-174 mutant but can be restored by deletion of ATG7 or CHO2. Taken together, these data suggest that autophagy competes for a common PE pool with major cellular PE-consuming pathways such as the GPI anchor and PC synthesis, highlighting the possible interplay between these pathways and the existence of signals that may coordinate PE flux. PMID:25519895

  3. Inhibitory effect of Paeonia lactiflora Pallas extract (PE) on poly (I:C)-induced immune response of epidermal keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Choi, Mi-Ra; Choi, Dae-Kyoung; Sohn, Kyung-Cheol; Lim, Seul Ki; Kim, Dong-Il; Lee, Young Ho; Im, Myung; Lee, Young; Seo, Young-Joon; Kim, Chang Deok; Lee, Jeung-Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Epidermal keratinocytes provide protective role against external stimuli by barrier formation. In addition, kertinocytes exerts their role as the defense cells via activation of innate immunity. Disturbance of keratinocyte functions is related with skin disorders. Psoriasis is a common skin disease related with inflammatory reaction in epidermal cells. We attempted to find therapeutics for psoriasis, and found that Paeonia lactiflora Pallas extract (PE) has an inhibitory potential on poly (I:C)-induced inflammation of keratinocytes. PE significantly inhibited poly (I:C)-induced expression of crucial psoriatic cytokines, such as IL-6, IL-8, CCL20 and TNF-α, via down-regulation of NF-κB signaling pathway in human keratinocytes. In addition, PE significantly inhibited poly (I:C)-induced inflammasome activation, in terms of IL-1β and caspase-1 secretion. Finally, PE markedly inhibited poly (I:C)-increased NLRP3, an important component of inflammasome. These results indicate that PE has an inhibitory effect on poly (I:C)-induced inflammatory reaction of keratinocytes, suggesting that PE can be developed for the treatment of psoriasis.

  4. Low Pressure DC Glow Discharge Air Plasma Surface Treatment of Polyethylene (PE) Film for Improvement of Adhesive Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnasamy Navaneetha, Pandiyaraj; Vengatasamy, Selvarajan; Rajendrasing, R. Deshmukh; Paramasivam, Yoganand; Suresh, Balasubramanian; Sundaram, Maruthamuthu

    2013-01-01

    The present work deals with the change in surface properties of polyethylene (PE) film using DC low pressure glow discharge air plasma and makes it useful for technical applications. The change in hydrophilicity of the modified PE film surface was investigated by measuring contact angle and surface energy as a function of exposure time. Changes in the morphological and chemical composition of PE films were analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The improvement in adhesion was studied by measuring T-peel and lap-shear strength. The results show that the wettability and surface energy of the PE film has been improved due to the introduction of oxygen-containing polar groups and an increase in surface roughness. The XPS result clearly shows the increase in concentration of oxygen content and the formation of polar groups on the polymer surface. The AFM observation on PE film shows that the roughness of the surface increased due to plasma treatment. The above morphological and chemical changes enhanced the adhesive properties of the PE film surfaces, which was confirmed by T-peel and lap-shear tests.

  5. Inhibitory effect of Paeonia lactiflora Pallas extract (PE) on poly (I:C)-induced immune response of epidermal keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Mi-Ra; Choi, Dae-Kyoung; Sohn, Kyung-Cheol; Lim, Seul Ki; Kim, Dong-Il; Lee, Young Ho; Im, Myung; Lee, Young; Seo, Young-Joon; Kim, Chang Deok; Lee, Jeung-Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Epidermal keratinocytes provide protective role against external stimuli by barrier formation. In addition, kertinocytes exerts their role as the defense cells via activation of innate immunity. Disturbance of keratinocyte functions is related with skin disorders. Psoriasis is a common skin disease related with inflammatory reaction in epidermal cells. We attempted to find therapeutics for psoriasis, and found that Paeonia lactiflora Pallas extract (PE) has an inhibitory potential on poly (I:C)-induced inflammation of keratinocytes. PE significantly inhibited poly (I:C)-induced expression of crucial psoriatic cytokines, such as IL-6, IL-8, CCL20 and TNF-α, via down-regulation of NF-κB signaling pathway in human keratinocytes. In addition, PE significantly inhibited poly (I:C)-induced inflammasome activation, in terms of IL-1β and caspase-1 secretion. Finally, PE markedly inhibited poly (I:C)-increased NLRP3, an important component of inflammasome. These results indicate that PE has an inhibitory effect on poly (I:C)-induced inflammatory reaction of keratinocytes, suggesting that PE can be developed for the treatment of psoriasis. PMID:26191223

  6. Inhibitory effect of Paeonia lactiflora Pallas extract (PE) on poly (I:C)-induced immune response of epidermal keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Choi, Mi-Ra; Choi, Dae-Kyoung; Sohn, Kyung-Cheol; Lim, Seul Ki; Kim, Dong-Il; Lee, Young Ho; Im, Myung; Lee, Young; Seo, Young-Joon; Kim, Chang Deok; Lee, Jeung-Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Epidermal keratinocytes provide protective role against external stimuli by barrier formation. In addition, kertinocytes exerts their role as the defense cells via activation of innate immunity. Disturbance of keratinocyte functions is related with skin disorders. Psoriasis is a common skin disease related with inflammatory reaction in epidermal cells. We attempted to find therapeutics for psoriasis, and found that Paeonia lactiflora Pallas extract (PE) has an inhibitory potential on poly (I:C)-induced inflammation of keratinocytes. PE significantly inhibited poly (I:C)-induced expression of crucial psoriatic cytokines, such as IL-6, IL-8, CCL20 and TNF-α, via down-regulation of NF-κB signaling pathway in human keratinocytes. In addition, PE significantly inhibited poly (I:C)-induced inflammasome activation, in terms of IL-1β and caspase-1 secretion. Finally, PE markedly inhibited poly (I:C)-increased NLRP3, an important component of inflammasome. These results indicate that PE has an inhibitory effect on poly (I:C)-induced inflammatory reaction of keratinocytes, suggesting that PE can be developed for the treatment of psoriasis. PMID:26191223

  7. Long-term soil moisture variability from a new P-E water budget method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, N.; Yoon, J.; Mariotti, A.; Swenson, S. C.

    2006-05-01

    Basin-scale soil moisture is traditionally estimated using either land-surface model forced by observed meteorological variables or atmospheric moisture convergence from atmospheric analysis and observed runoff. Interannual variability from such methods suffer from major uncertainties due to the sensitivity to small imperfections in the land-surface model or the atmospheric analysis. Here we introduce a novel P-E method in estimating basin-scale soil moisture, or more precisely apparent land water storage (AWS). The key input variables are observed precipitation and runoff, and reconstructed evaporation. We show the results for the tropics using the example of the Amazon basin. The seasonal cycle of diagnosed soil moisture over the Amazon is about 200mm, compares favorably with satellite estimate from the GRACE mission, thus lending confidence both in this method and the usefulness of space gravity based large-scale soil moisture estimate. This is about twice as large as estimates from several traditional methods, suggesting that current models tend to under estimate the soil moisture variability. One of the advantage of the P-E method is to retrive long-term variability of the basin-scale soil moisture (including interannual and decadal time scales), which can provide valuable information to understand climate variability and to predict future climate condition. However, validation on reconstructed evaporation is very difficult due to lack of observation. The interannual variability in AWS in the Amazon basin is about 150mm, also consistent with GRACE data, but much larger than model results. We also apply this P-E method to the midlatitude Mississippi basin and discuss the impact of major 20th century droughts such as the dust bowl period on the long-term soil moisture variability. The results suggest the existence of soil moisture memories on decadal time scales, significantly longer than typically assumed seasonal timescales.

  8. Girls' Activity Levels and Lesson Contexts in Middle School PE: TAAG Baseline

    PubMed Central

    McKENZIE, THOMAS L.; CATELLIER, DIANE J.; CONWAY, TERRY; LYTLE, LESLIE A.; GRIESER, MIRA; WEBBER, LARRY A.; PRATT, CHARLOTTE A.; ELDER, JOHN P.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To assess girls' physical activity (PA) in middle school physical education (PE) as it relates to field site, lesson context and location, teacher gender, and class composition. Methods We observed girls' PA levels, lesson contexts, and activity promotion by teachers in 431 lessons in 36 schools from six field sites participating in the Trial of Activity for Adolescent Girls. Interobserver reliabilities exceeded 90% for all three categories. Data were analyzed using mixed-model ANOVA with controls for clustering effects by field site and school. Results Mean lesson length was 37.3 (± 9.4) min. Time (13.9 ± 7.0 min) and proportion of lessons (37.9 ± 18.5%) spent in moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA), and time (4.8 ± 4.2 min) and proportion of lessons (13.1 ± 11.7%) in vigorous PA (VPA) differed by field site (P < 0.004). Lesson time for instructional contexts differed by field site, with overall proportions as follows: game play (27.3%), management (26.1%), fitness activities (19.7%), skill drills (12.1%), knowledge (10.6%), and free play (4.4%). Coed classes were 7.9 min longer than girls-only classes (P = 0.03). Although 27 s shorter, outdoor lessons were more intense (MVPA% = 45.7 vs 33.7% of lesson, P < 0.001) and provided 4.0 more MVPA minutes (P < 0.001). MVPA, VPA, and lesson contexts did not differ by teacher gender. There was little direct promotion of PA by teachers during lessons. Conclusions Substantial variation in the conduct of PE exists. Proportion of lesson time girls spent accruing MVPA (i.e., 37.9%) fell short of the Healthy People 2010 objective of 50%. Numerous possibilities exist for improving girls' PA in PE. PMID:16826019

  9. Evaluating a moving target: Using Practical Participatory Evaluation (P-PE) in hospital settings

    PubMed Central

    Wharton, Tracy; Alexander, Neil

    2014-01-01

    This article describes lessons learned about implementing evaluations in hospital settings. In order to overcome the methodological dilemmas inherent in this environment, we used a practical participatory evaluation strategy to engage as many stakeholders as possible in the process of evaluating a clinical demonstration project. Demonstration projects, in this context, push the envelope about what is known about effectiveness in novel settings, and turnover of staff and patient populations can present challenges to gathering optimal data. By using P-PE, we built capacity in the environment while expanding possibilities for data collection. Suggestions are made based on our experience. PMID:24860251

  10. Electron attachment rate constant measurement by photoemission electron attachment ion mobility spectrometry (PE-EA-IMS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Desheng; Niu, Wenqi; Liu, Sheng; Shen, Chengyin; Huang, Chaoqun; Wang, Hongmei; Jiang, Haihe; Chu, Yannan

    2012-12-01

    Photoemission electron attachment ion mobility spectrometry (PE-EA-IMS), with a source of photoelectrons induced by vacuum ultraviolet radiation on a metal surface, has been developed to study electron attachment reaction at atmospheric pressure using nitrogen as the buffer gas. Based on the negative ion mobility spectra, the rate constants for electron attachment to tetrachloromethane and chloroform were measured at ambient temperature as a function of the average electron energy in the range from 0.29 to 0.96 eV. The experimental results are in good agreement with the data reported in the literature.

  11. Effects of 108 Days Tritium Exposure on UHMW-PE, PTFE, and Vespel(R)

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, E.A.

    2003-01-07

    Samples of three polymers, Ultra-High Molecular Weight Polyethylene (UHMW-PE), polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), also known as Teflon(R), and Vespel(R) polyimide were exposed to 1 atmosphere of tritium gas at ambient temperature for 108 days. Sample mass and size measurements to calculate density, spectra-colorimetry, dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) were employed to characterize the effects of this exposure on these samples. This technical report is the first report from this research program.

  12. Molecular Cloning and Functional Analysis of UV RESISTANCE LOCUS 8 (PeUVR8) from Populus euphratica

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Ke; Wang, Lina; Li, Yuan-Yuan; Wu, Rongling

    2015-01-01

    Ultraviolet-B (UV-B; 280–315 nm) light, which is an integral part of the solar radiation reaching the surface of the Earth, induces a broad range of physiological responses in plants. The UV RESISTANCE LOCUS 8 (UVR8) protein is the first and only light photoreceptor characterized to date that is specific for UV-B light and it regulates various aspects of plant growth and development in response to UV-B light. Despite its involvement in the control of important plant traits, most studies on UV-B photoreceptors have focused on Arabidopsis and no data on UVR8 function are available for forest trees. In this study, we isolated a homologue of the UV receptor UVR8 of Arabidopsis, PeUVR8, from Populus euphratica (Euphrates poplar) and analyzed its structure and function in detail. The deduced PeUVR8 amino acid sequence contained nine well-conserved regulator of chromosome condensation 1 (RCC1) repeats and the region 27 amino acids from the C terminus (C27) that interact with COP1 (CONSTITUTIVELY PHOTOMORPHOGENIC1). Secondary and tertiary structure analysis showed that PeUVR8 shares high similarity with the AtUVR8 protein from Arabidopsis thaliana. Using heterologous expression in Arabidopsis, we showed that PeUVR8 overexpression rescued the uvr8 mutant phenotype. In addition, PeUVR8 overexpression in wild-type background seedlings grown under UV-B light inhibited hypocotyl elongation and enhanced anthocyanin accumulation. Furthermore, we examined the interaction between PeUVR8 and AtCOP1 using a bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) assay. Our data provide evidence that PeUVR8 plays important roles in the control of photomorphogenesis in planta. PMID:26171608

  13. Molecular Cloning and Functional Analysis of UV RESISTANCE LOCUS 8 (PeUVR8) from Populus euphratica.

    PubMed

    Mao, Ke; Wang, Lina; Li, Yuan-Yuan; Wu, Rongling

    2015-01-01

    Ultraviolet-B (UV-B; 280-315 nm) light, which is an integral part of the solar radiation reaching the surface of the Earth, induces a broad range of physiological responses in plants. The UV RESISTANCE LOCUS 8 (UVR8) protein is the first and only light photoreceptor characterized to date that is specific for UV-B light and it regulates various aspects of plant growth and development in response to UV-B light. Despite its involvement in the control of important plant traits, most studies on UV-B photoreceptors have focused on Arabidopsis and no data on UVR8 function are available for forest trees. In this study, we isolated a homologue of the UV receptor UVR8 of Arabidopsis, PeUVR8, from Populus euphratica (Euphrates poplar) and analyzed its structure and function in detail. The deduced PeUVR8 amino acid sequence contained nine well-conserved regulator of chromosome condensation 1 (RCC1) repeats and the region 27 amino acids from the C terminus (C27) that interact with COP1 (CONSTITUTIVELY PHOTOMORPHOGENIC1). Secondary and tertiary structure analysis showed that PeUVR8 shares high similarity with the AtUVR8 protein from Arabidopsis thaliana. Using heterologous expression in Arabidopsis, we showed that PeUVR8 overexpression rescued the uvr8 mutant phenotype. In addition, PeUVR8 overexpression in wild-type background seedlings grown under UV-B light inhibited hypocotyl elongation and enhanced anthocyanin accumulation. Furthermore, we examined the interaction between PeUVR8 and AtCOP1 using a bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) assay. Our data provide evidence that PeUVR8 plays important roles in the control of photomorphogenesis in planta.

  14. The Co-Operonic PE25/PPE41 Protein Complex of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Elicits Increased Humoral and Cell Mediated Immune Response

    PubMed Central

    Tundup, Smanla; Pathak, Niteen; Ramanadham, M.; Mukhopadhyay, Sangita; Murthy, K. J. R.; Ehtesham, Nasreen Z.; Hasnain, Seyed E.

    2008-01-01

    Background Many of the PE/PPE proteins are either surface localized or secreted outside and are thought to be a source of antigenic variation in the host. The exact role of these proteins are still elusive. We previously reported that the PPE41 protein induces high B cell response in TB patients. The PE/PPE genes are not randomly distributed in the genome but are organized as operons and the operon containing PE25 and PPE41 genes co-transcribe and their products interact with each other. Methodology/Principal Finding We now describe the antigenic properties of the PE25, PPE41 and PE25/PPE41 protein complex coded by a single operon. The PPE41 and PE25/PPE41 protein complex induces significant (p<0.0001) B cell response in sera derived from TB patients and in mouse model as compared to the PE25 protein. Further, mice immunized with the PE25/PPE41 complex and PPE41 proteins showed significant (p<0.00001) proliferation of splenocyte as compared to the mice immunized with the PE25 protein and saline. Flow cytometric analysis showed 15–22% enhancement of CD8+ and CD4+ T cell populations when immunized with the PPE41 or PE25/PPE41 complex as compared to a marginal increase (8–10%) in the mice immunized with the PE25 protein. The PPE41 and PE25/PPE41 complex can also induce higher levels of IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-2 cytokines. Conclusion While this study documents the differential immunological response to the complex of PE and PPE vis-à-vis the individual proteins, it also highlights their potential as a candidate vaccine against tuberculosis. PMID:18974870

  15. Quantitative ultrasound images generated by a PE-CMOS sensor array: scatter modeling and image restoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chu-Chuan; Lo, Shih-Chung Ben; Freedman, Matthew T.; Lasser, Marvin E.; Lasser, Bob; Kula, John; Wang, Yue Joseph

    2007-03-01

    In the projection geometry, the detected ultrasound energy through a soft-tissue is mainly attributed to the attenuated primary intensity and the scatter intensity. In order to extract ultrasound image of attenuated primary beam out of the detected raw data, the scatter component must be carefully quantified for restoring the original image. In this study, we have designed a set of apparatus to modeling the ultrasound scattering in soft-tissue. The employed ultrasound imaging device was a C-Scan (projection) prototype using a 4th generation PE-CMOS sensor array (model I400, by Imperium Inc., Silver Spring, MD) as the detector. Right after the plane wave ultrasound transmitting through a soft-tissue mimicking material (Zerdine, by CIRS Inc., Norfolk, VA), a ring aperture is used to collimate the signal before reaching the acoustic lens and the PE-CMOS sensor. Three sets of collimated ring images were acquired and analyzed to obtain the scattering components as a function of the off-center distance. Several pathological specimens and breast phantoms consisting of simulated breast tissue with masses, cysts and microcalcifications were imaged by the same C-Scan imaging prototype. The restoration of these ultrasound images were performed by using a standard deconvolution computation. Our study indicated that the resultant images show shaper edges and detailed features as compared to their unprocessed counterparts.

  16. Projection-reflection ultrasound images using PE-CMOS sensor: a preliminary bone fracture study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo, Shih-Chung B.; Liu, Chu-Chuan; Freedman, Matthew T.; Mun, Seong-Ki; Kula, John; Lasser, Marvin E.; Lasser, Bob; Wang, Yue Joseph

    2008-03-01

    In this study, we investigated the characteristics of the ultrasound reflective image obtained by a CMOS sensor array coated with piezoelectric material (PE-CMOS). The laboratory projection-reflection ultrasound prototype consists of five major components: an unfocused ultrasound transducer, an acoustic beam splitter, an acoustic compound lens, a PE-CMOS ultrasound sensing array (Model I400, Imperium Inc. Silver Spring, MD), and a readout circuit system. The prototype can image strong reflective materials such as bone and metal. We found this projection-reflection ultrasound prototype is able to reveal hairline bone fractures with and without intact skin and tissue. When compared, the image generated from a conventional B-scan ultrasound on the same bone fracture is less observable. When it is observable with the B-scan system, the fracture or crack on the surface only show one single spot of echo due to its scan geometry. The corresponding image produced from the projection-reflection ultrasound system shows a bright blooming strip on the image clearly indicating the fracture on the surface of the solid material. Speckles of the bone structure are also observed in the new ultrasound prototype. A theoretical analysis is provided to link the signals as well as speckles detected in both systems.

  17. PeV neutrinos from intergalactic interactions of cosmic rays emitted by active galactic nuclei.

    PubMed

    Kalashev, Oleg E; Kusenko, Alexander; Essey, Warren

    2013-07-26

    The observed very high energy spectra of distant blazars are well described by secondary gamma rays produced in line-of-sight interactions of cosmic rays with background photons. In the absence of the cosmic-ray contribution, one would not expect to observe very hard spectra from distant sources, but the cosmic ray interactions generate very high energy gamma rays relatively close to the observer, and they are not attenuated significantly. The same interactions of cosmic rays are expected to produce a flux of neutrinos with energies peaked around 1 PeV. We show that the diffuse isotropic neutrino background from many distant sources can be consistent with the neutrino events recently detected by the IceCube experiment. We also find that the flux from any individual nearby source is insufficient to account for these events. The narrow spectrum around 1 PeV implies that some active galactic nuclei can accelerate protons to EeV energies. PMID:23931348

  18. Kinetic modeling of the oxidative degradation of additive free PE in bleach disinfected water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikdam, Aïcha; Colin, Xavier; Billon, Noëlle; Minard, Gaëlle

    2016-05-01

    The chemical interactions between PE and bleach were studied at 60°C in immersion in bleach solutions kept at a free chlorine concentration of 100 ppm and a pH of 5 or 7.2. It was found that the polymer undergoes a severe oxidation from the earliest weeks of exposure, in a superficial layer whose thickness (of about 50-70 µm) is almost independent of the pH value, although the superficial oxidation rate is faster in acidic than in neutral medium. Oxidation leads to the formation and accumulation of a large variety of carbonyl products (mostly ketones and carboxylic acids) and, after a few weeks, to a decrease in the average molar mass due to the large predominance of chain scissions over crosslinking. A scenario was elaborated for explaining such unexpected results. According to this scenario, the non-ionic molecules (Cl2 and ClOH) formed from the disinfectant in the water phase, would migrate deeply into PE and dissociate into highly reactive radicals (Cl• and HO•) in order to initiate a radical chain oxidation. A kinetic model was derived from this scenario for predicting the general trends of the oxidation kinetics and its dependence on environmental factors such as temperature, free chlorine concentration and pH. The validity of this model was successfully checked by comparing the numerical simulations with experimental data.

  19. Interaction of High Flash Point Electrolytes and PE-Based Separators for Li-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Andreas; Kaufmann, Christoph; Müller, Marcus; Hanemann, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    In this study, promising electrolytes for use in Li-ion batteries are studied in terms of interacting and wetting polyethylene (PE) and particle-coated PE separators. The electrolytes are characterized according to their physicochemical properties, where the flow characteristics and the surface tension are of particular interest for electrolyte-separator interactions. The viscosity of the electrolytes is determined to be in a range of η = 4-400 mPa∙s and surface tension is finely graduated in a range of γL = 23.3-38.1 mN∙m(-1). It is verified that the technique of drop shape analysis can only be used in a limited matter to prove the interaction, uptake and penetration of electrolytes by separators. Cell testing of Li|NMC half cells reveals that those cell results cannot be inevitably deduced from physicochemical electrolyte properties as well as contact angle analysis. On the other hand, techniques are more suitable which detect liquid penetration into the interior of the separator. It is expected that the results can help fundamental researchers as well as users of novel electrolytes in current-day Li-ion battery technologies for developing and using novel material combinations. PMID:26343636

  20. Hidden Cosmic-Ray Accelerators as an Origin of TeV-PeV Cosmic Neutrinos.

    PubMed

    Murase, Kohta; Guetta, Dafne; Ahlers, Markus

    2016-02-19

    The latest IceCube data suggest that the all-flavor cosmic neutrino flux may be as large as 10^{-7}  GeV cm^{-2} s^{-1} sr^{-1} around 30 TeV. We show that, if sources of the TeV-PeV neutrinos are transparent to γ rays with respect to two-photon annihilation, strong tensions with the isotropic diffuse γ-ray background measured by Fermi are unavoidable, independently of the production mechanism. We further show that, if the IceCube neutrinos have a photohadronic (pγ) origin, the sources are expected to be opaque to 1-100 GeV γ rays. With these general multimessenger arguments, we find that the latest data suggest a population of cosmic-ray accelerators hidden in GeV-TeV γ rays as a neutrino origin. Searches for x-ray and MeV γ-ray counterparts are encouraged, and TeV-PeV neutrinos themselves will serve as special probes of dense source environments.

  1. Fuel loading of PeBR for a long operation life on the lunar surface

    SciTech Connect

    Schriener, T. M.; El-Genk, M. S.

    2012-07-01

    The Pellet Bed Reactor (PeBR) power system could provide 99.3 kW e to a lunar outpost for 66 full power years and is designed for no single point failures. The core of this fast energy spectrum reactor consists of three sectors that are neutronically and thermally coupled, but hydraulically independent. Each sector has a separate Closed Brayton Cycle (CBC) loop for energy conversion and separate water heat-pipes radiator panels for heat rejection. He-Xe (40 g/mole) binary gas mixture serves as the reactor coolant and CBC working fluid. On the lunar surface, the emplaced PeBR below grade is loaded with spherical fuel pellets (1-cm in dia.). It is launched unfueled and the pellets are launched in separate subcritical canisters, one for each core sector. This paper numerically simulates the transient loading of a core sector with fuel pellets on the Moon. The simulation accounts for the dynamic interaction of the pellets during loading and calculates the axial and radial distributions of the volume porosity in the sector. The pellets pack randomly with a volume porosity of 0.39 - 0.41 throughout most of the sector, except near the walls the local porosity is higher. (authors)

  2. Hidden Cosmic-Ray Accelerators as an Origin of TeV-PeV Cosmic Neutrinos.

    PubMed

    Murase, Kohta; Guetta, Dafne; Ahlers, Markus

    2016-02-19

    The latest IceCube data suggest that the all-flavor cosmic neutrino flux may be as large as 10^{-7}  GeV cm^{-2} s^{-1} sr^{-1} around 30 TeV. We show that, if sources of the TeV-PeV neutrinos are transparent to γ rays with respect to two-photon annihilation, strong tensions with the isotropic diffuse γ-ray background measured by Fermi are unavoidable, independently of the production mechanism. We further show that, if the IceCube neutrinos have a photohadronic (pγ) origin, the sources are expected to be opaque to 1-100 GeV γ rays. With these general multimessenger arguments, we find that the latest data suggest a population of cosmic-ray accelerators hidden in GeV-TeV γ rays as a neutrino origin. Searches for x-ray and MeV γ-ray counterparts are encouraged, and TeV-PeV neutrinos themselves will serve as special probes of dense source environments. PMID:26943524

  3. Heat Tolerance in Curraleiro Pe-Duro, Pantaneiro and Nelore Cattle Using Thermographic Images

    PubMed Central

    Cardoso, Caio Cesar; Lima, Flávia Gontijo; Fioravanti, Maria Clorinda Soares; do Egito, Andrea Alves; Silva, Flávia Cristina de Paula e; Tanure, Candice Bergmann; Peripolli, Vanessa; McManus, Concepta

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare physiological and thermographic responses to heat stress in three breeds of cattle. Fifteen animals of each of the Nelore, Pantaneiro and Curraleiro Pe-Duro breeds, of approximately two years of age, were evaluated. Heart and respiratory rates, rectal and surface temperature of animals as well as soil temperature were recorded at 8:30 and 15:30 on six days. Variance, correlation, principal factors and canonical analyses were carried out. There were significant differences in the rectal temperature, heart and respiratory rate between breeds (p < 0.001). Nelore and Pantaneiro breeds had the highest rectal temperatures and the lowest respiratory rate (p < 0.001). Breed was also significant for surface temperatures (p < 0.05) showing that this factor significantly affected the response of the animal to heat tolerance in different ways. The Curraleiro Pe-Duro breed had the lowest surface temperatures independent of the period evaluated, with fewer animals that suffered with the climatic conditions, so this may be considered the best adapted when heat challenged under the experimental conditions. Thermography data showed a good correlation with the physiological indexes, and body area, neck and rump were the main points. PMID:26840335

  4. Heat Tolerance in Curraleiro Pe-Duro, Pantaneiro and Nelore Cattle Using Thermographic Images.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Caio Cesar; Lima, Flávia Gontijo; Fioravanti, Maria Clorinda Soares; Egito, Andrea Alves do; Silva, Flávia Cristina de Paula E; Tanure, Candice Bergmann; Peripolli, Vanessa; McManus, Concepta

    2016-01-29

    The objective of this study was to compare physiological and thermographic responses to heat stress in three breeds of cattle. Fifteen animals of each of the Nelore, Pantaneiro and Curraleiro Pe-Duro breeds, of approximately two years of age, were evaluated. Heart and respiratory rates, rectal and surface temperature of animals as well as soil temperature were recorded at 8:30 and 15:30 on six days. Variance, correlation, principal factors and canonical analyses were carried out. There were significant differences in the rectal temperature, heart and respiratory rate between breeds (p < 0.001). Nelore and Pantaneiro breeds had the highest rectal temperatures and the lowest respiratory rate (p < 0.001). Breed was also significant for surface temperatures (p < 0.05) showing that this factor significantly affected the response of the animal to heat tolerance in different ways. The Curraleiro Pe-Duro breed had the lowest surface temperatures independent of the period evaluated, with fewer animals that suffered with the climatic conditions, so this may be considered the best adapted when heat challenged under the experimental conditions. Thermography data showed a good correlation with the physiological indexes, and body area, neck and rump were the main points.

  5. PE-CMOS-based C-mode ultrasound: signal acquisition and time gating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo, Shih-Chung B.; Liu, Chu-Chuan; Freedman, Matthew T.; Mun, Seong-Ki; Kula, John; Lasser, Marvin E.; Lasser, Bob; Wang, Yue Joseph

    2009-02-01

    Two types of signal acquisition methods using CMOS sensor array coated with piezoelectric material (PE-CMOS) were studied. The laboratory projection-reflection ultrasound prototypes featuring a PE-CMOS ultrasound sensing array and an acoustic compound lens were employed to image pork bones with fractures in vitro. We found that the projection-reflection ultrasound prototypes are capable of revealing hairline bone fractures with skin in tact. However, the image characteristics generated from these C-scan prototypes are somewhat different because they were equipped with two different senor array models. The signal acquired by the first sensor model is based on an integrated signal (IS) at a given time interval. But the signal acquired by the second sensor model is based on peak signal (PS) with a time gating function controllable by the user. We found that both systems can detect bone fracture as small as 0.5mm shown as a strip of ultrasound signal. However, images obtained from the IS sensor show more speckles with a greater blooming effect on the fractures. On the other hand, images obtained from the PS sensor show less contrast with less speckles. When the beam position is slightly tilted from the normal direction, the blooming effect of the ultrasound image would become dark on the fracture region with both acquisition modes.

  6. Interaction of High Flash Point Electrolytes and PE-Based Separators for Li-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Andreas; Kaufmann, Christoph; Müller, Marcus; Hanemann, Thomas

    2015-08-27

    In this study, promising electrolytes for use in Li-ion batteries are studied in terms of interacting and wetting polyethylene (PE) and particle-coated PE separators. The electrolytes are characterized according to their physicochemical properties, where the flow characteristics and the surface tension are of particular interest for electrolyte-separator interactions. The viscosity of the electrolytes is determined to be in a range of η = 4-400 mPa∙s and surface tension is finely graduated in a range of γL = 23.3-38.1 mN∙m(-1). It is verified that the technique of drop shape analysis can only be used in a limited matter to prove the interaction, uptake and penetration of electrolytes by separators. Cell testing of Li|NMC half cells reveals that those cell results cannot be inevitably deduced from physicochemical electrolyte properties as well as contact angle analysis. On the other hand, techniques are more suitable which detect liquid penetration into the interior of the separator. It is expected that the results can help fundamental researchers as well as users of novel electrolytes in current-day Li-ion battery technologies for developing and using novel material combinations.

  7. COMET-PE as an Alternative to Monte Carlo for Photon and Electron Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayward, Robert M.; Rahnema, Farzad

    2014-06-01

    Monte Carlo methods are a central component of radiotherapy treatment planning, shielding design, detector modeling, and other applications. Long calculation times, however, can limit the usefulness of these purely stochastic methods. The coarse mesh method for photon and electron transport (COMET-PE) provides an attractive alternative. By combining stochastic pre-computation with a deterministic solver, COMET-PE achieves accuracy comparable to Monte Carlo methods in only a fraction of the time. The method's implementation has been extended to 3D, and in this work, it is validated by comparison to DOSXYZnrc using a photon radiotherapy benchmark. The comparison demonstrates excellent agreement; of the voxels that received more than 10% of the maximum dose, over 97.3% pass a 2% / 2mm acceptance test and over 99.7% pass a 3% / 3mm test. Furthermore, the method is over an order of magnitude faster than DOSXYZnrc and is able to take advantage of both distributed-memory and shared-memory parallel architectures for increased performance.

  8. The Lipid domain Phase diagram in a Dipalmitoyl-PC/Docosahaexnoic Acid-PE/Cholesterol System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lor, Chai; Hirst, Linda

    2011-03-01

    Lipid domains in bilayer membrane and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are thought to play an important role in cellular activities. In particular, lipids containing docosahaexnoic acid are an interesting class of PUFAs due to their health benefits. In this project, we perform oxidation measurements of DHA-PE to determine the rate of oxidation in combination with antioxidants. A ternary diagram of DPPC/DHA-PE/cholesterol is mapped out to identify phase separation phenomena using atomic force microscope (AFM). Fluorescence microscopy is also used to image lipid domains in a flat bilayer with fluorescent labels. As expected, we observe the phase, shape, and size of lipid domains changes with varying composition. Moreover, we find that the roughness of the domains changes possibly due to overpacking of cholesterol in domains. This model study provides further understanding of the role of cholesterol in the bilayer membrane leading towards a better understanding of cell membranes. NSF award # DMR 0852791, ``CAREER: Self-Assembly of Polyunsaturated Lipids and Cholesterol In The Cell Membrane.''

  9. Interaction of High Flash Point Electrolytes and PE-Based Separators for Li-Ion Batteries

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Andreas; Kaufmann, Christoph; Müller, Marcus; Hanemann, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    In this study, promising electrolytes for use in Li-ion batteries are studied in terms of interacting and wetting polyethylene (PE) and particle-coated PE separators. The electrolytes are characterized according to their physicochemical properties, where the flow characteristics and the surface tension are of particular interest for electrolyte–separator interactions. The viscosity of the electrolytes is determined to be in a range of η = 4–400 mPa∙s and surface tension is finely graduated in a range of γL = 23.3–38.1 mN∙m−1. It is verified that the technique of drop shape analysis can only be used in a limited matter to prove the interaction, uptake and penetration of electrolytes by separators. Cell testing of Li|NMC half cells reveals that those cell results cannot be inevitably deduced from physicochemical electrolyte properties as well as contact angle analysis. On the other hand, techniques are more suitable which detect liquid penetration into the interior of the separator. It is expected that the results can help fundamental researchers as well as users of novel electrolytes in current-day Li-ion battery technologies for developing and using novel material combinations. PMID:26343636

  10. Coordinated field study for CaPE: Analysis of energy and water budgets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, Steven J.; Duchon, Claude; Kanemasu, Edward T.; Smith, Eric A.; Crosson, William; Laymon, Chip; Luvall, Jeff

    1993-01-01

    The objectives of this hydrologic cycle study are to understand and model (1) surface energy and land-atmosphere water transfer processes, and (2) interactions between convective storms and surface energy fluxes. A surface energy budget measurement campaign was carried out by an interdisciplinary science team during the period July 8 - August 19, 1991 as part of the Convection and Precipitation/Electrification Experiment (CaPE) in the vicinity of Cape Canaveral, FL. Among the research themes associated with CaPE is the remote estimation of rainfall. Thus, in addition to surface radiation and energy budget measurements, surface mesonet, special radiosonde, precipitation, high-resolution satellite (SPOT) data, geosynchronous (GOES) and polar orbiting (DMSP SSM/I, OLS; NOAA AVHRR) satellite data, and high altitude airplane data (AMPR, MAMS, HIS) were collected. Initial quality control of the seven surface flux station data sets has begun. Ancillary data sets are being collected and assembled for analysis. Browsing of GOES and radar data has begun to classify days as disturbed/undisturbed to identify the larger scale forcing of the pre-convective environment, convection storms and precipitation. The science analysis plan has been finalized and tasks assigned to various investigators.

  11. Study of incorporation of silver nanoparticles onto PE-g-PAAc nonwoven fabric by γ-irradiation for water treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phu, Dang Van; Quoc, Le Anh; Duy, Nguyen Ngoc; Hien, Nguyen Quoc

    2013-07-01

    Polyethylene nonwoven (PE) fabric was grafted with acrylic acid (PE-g-PAAc) by the γ-ray pre-irradiation process. The effect of dose and acrylic acid concentration on the grafting degree was investigated. The dose of about 20-30 kGy, acrylic acid concentration of 20-30%, and the reaction time of about 2 h at ˜90 °C were selected as suitable parameters for grafting. The PE-g-PAAc fabric was then impregnated in colloidal silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) solution for incorporating AgNPs. The resultant PE-g-PAAc/AgNPs fabric containing ˜10,000 ppm AgNPs exhibits high antimicrobial activity (η>99%) against Escherichia coli in water. The release of silver into water filtrate determined by ICP-MS was less than 0.1 mg/L. The PE-g-PAAc/AgNPs fabric can be potentially applied for water and/or air treatment as an antimicrobial membrane filter.

  12. Identifying Cognate Binding Pairs among a Large Set of Paralogs: The Case of PE/PPE Proteins of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Riley, Robert; Pellegrini, Matteo; Eisenberg, David

    2008-01-01

    We consider the problem of how to detect cognate pairs of proteins that bind when each belongs to a large family of paralogs. To illustrate the problem, we have undertaken a genomewide analysis of interactions of members of the PE and PPE protein families of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Our computational method uses structural information, operon organization, and protein coevolution to infer the interaction of PE and PPE proteins. Some 289 PE/PPE complexes were predicted out of a possible 5,590 PE/PPE pairs genomewide. Thirty-five of these predicted complexes were also found to have correlated mRNA expression, providing additional evidence for these interactions. We show that our method is applicable to other protein families, by analyzing interactions of the Esx family of proteins. Our resulting set of predictions is a starting point for genomewide experimental interaction screens of the PE and PPE families, and our method may be generally useful for detecting interactions of proteins within families having many paralogs. PMID:18787688

  13. Environmental Characteristics and Student Physical Activity in PE Class: Findings From Two Large Urban Areas of Texas

    PubMed Central

    Skala, Katherine A.; Springer, Andrew E.; Sharma, Shreela V.; Hoelscher, Deanna M.; Kelder, Steven H.

    2011-01-01

    Background Physical education (PE) classes provide opportunities for children to be active. This study examined the associations between specific environmental characteristics (teacher characteristics; class size, duration and location; and lesson context) and elementary school-aged children's moderate-to-vigorous activity (MVPA) during PE. Methods Environmental characteristics and student activity levels were measured in 211 3rd, 4th and 5th grade PE classes in 74 Texas public schools using SOFIT direct observation. Results Students engaged in less than half their PE class time in MVPA (38%), while approximately 25% of class time was spent in classroom management. Percent time in MVPA was significantly higher in outdoor classes compared to indoors (41.4% vs. 36.1%, p=.037). Larger (p=.044) and longer (p=.001) classes were negatively associated with percentage of MVPA and positively correlated with time spent in management (p<.001). Conclusions Findings suggest that children's activity may be influenced by environmental factors such as class size, location, and lesson contexts. These findings hold important policy implications for PE class organization and the need for strategies that maximize children's MVPA. Further research is needed to test the causal association of these factors with student MVPA. PMID:21934165

  14. Functional characterization of the ribosome biogenesis factors PES, BOP1, and WDR12 (PeBoW), and mechanisms of defective cell growth and proliferation caused by PeBoW deficiency in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Chang Sook; Cho, Hui Kyung; Lee, Du-Hwa; Sim, Hee-Jung; Kim, Sang-Gyu; Pai, Hyun-Sook

    2016-09-01

    The nucleolar protein pescadillo (PES) controls biogenesis of the 60S ribosomal subunit through functional interactions with Block of Proliferation 1 (BOP1) and WD Repeat Domain 12 (WDR12) in plants. In this study, we determined protein characteristics and in planta functions of BOP1 and WDR12, and characterized defects in plant cell growth and proliferation caused by a deficiency of PeBoW (PES-BOP1-WDR12) proteins. Dexamethasone-inducible RNAi of BOP1 and WDR12 caused developmental arrest and premature senescence in Arabidopsis, similar to the phenotype of PES RNAi. Both the N-terminal domain and WD40 repeats of BOP1 and WDR12 were critical for specific associations with 60S/80S ribosomes. In response to nucleolar stress or DNA damage, PeBoW proteins moved from the nucleolus to the nucleoplasm. Kinematic analyses of leaf growth revealed that depletion of PeBoW proteins led to dramatically suppressed cell proliferation, cell expansion, and epidermal pavement cell differentiation. A deficiency in PeBoW proteins resulted in reduced cyclin-dependent kinase Type A activity, causing reduced phosphorylation of histone H1 and retinoblastoma-related (RBR) protein. PeBoW silencing caused rapid transcriptional modulation of cell-cycle genes, including reduction of E2Fa and Cyclin D family genes, and induction of several KRP genes, accompanied by down-regulation of auxin-related genes and up-regulation of jasmonic acid-related genes. Taken together, these results suggest that the PeBoW proteins involved in ribosome biogenesis play a critical role in plant cell growth and survival, and their depletion leads to inhibition of cell-cycle progression, possibly modulated by phytohormone signaling. PMID:27440937

  15. Functional characterization of the ribosome biogenesis factors PES, BOP1, and WDR12 (PeBoW), and mechanisms of defective cell growth and proliferation caused by PeBoW deficiency in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Chang Sook; Cho, Hui Kyung; Lee, Du-Hwa; Sim, Hee-Jung; Kim, Sang-Gyu; Pai, Hyun-Sook

    2016-01-01

    The nucleolar protein pescadillo (PES) controls biogenesis of the 60S ribosomal subunit through functional interactions with Block of Proliferation 1 (BOP1) and WD Repeat Domain 12 (WDR12) in plants. In this study, we determined protein characteristics and in planta functions of BOP1 and WDR12, and characterized defects in plant cell growth and proliferation caused by a deficiency of PeBoW (PES-BOP1-WDR12) proteins. Dexamethasone-inducible RNAi of BOP1 and WDR12 caused developmental arrest and premature senescence in Arabidopsis, similar to the phenotype of PES RNAi. Both the N-terminal domain and WD40 repeats of BOP1 and WDR12 were critical for specific associations with 60S/80S ribosomes. In response to nucleolar stress or DNA damage, PeBoW proteins moved from the nucleolus to the nucleoplasm. Kinematic analyses of leaf growth revealed that depletion of PeBoW proteins led to dramatically suppressed cell proliferation, cell expansion, and epidermal pavement cell differentiation. A deficiency in PeBoW proteins resulted in reduced cyclin-dependent kinase Type A activity, causing reduced phosphorylation of histone H1 and retinoblastoma-related (RBR) protein. PeBoW silencing caused rapid transcriptional modulation of cell-cycle genes, including reduction of E2Fa and Cyclin D family genes, and induction of several KRP genes, accompanied by down-regulation of auxin-related genes and up-regulation of jasmonic acid-related genes. Taken together, these results suggest that the PeBoW proteins involved in ribosome biogenesis play a critical role in plant cell growth and survival, and their depletion leads to inhibition of cell-cycle progression, possibly modulated by phytohormone signaling. PMID:27440937

  16. Detection of antibody to Toxocara vitulorum perieneteric fluid antigens (Pe) in the colostrum and serum of buffalo calves and cows by Western blotting.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Fabiano P; Starke-Buzetti, Wilma A

    2005-04-20

    Toxocara vitulorum, a nematode parasite in the small intestine of cattle and water buffaloes, causes high morbidity and mortality of 1-3 months old buffalo calves. This research evaluated the specific perieneteric antigens (Pe) reactivity of anti-T. vitulorum-Pe antibody (Tv-Pe-Ab) in both immune sera and colostrum from buffalo cows immediately post-partum from buffalo cows. The presence of Tv-Pe-Ab in sera of buffalo newborn calves was also examined at 1 day before and after suckling the colostrum as well as in sera from naturally infected calves at the beginning and peak of the maximum infection and then again during the period of rejection and post-rejection of the parasite. Pe antigens were characterized for Tv-Pe-Ab by SDS-PAGE and Western blot (WB). The SDS-PAGE showed that Pe contained nine protein bands (11, 14, 31, 38, 58, 76, 88, 112 and 165 kDa). All Pe bands were recognized by Tv-Pe-Ab in sera and colostrum of buffalo cows. Only the serum antibodies of buffalo calves at 1 day of age after suckling the colostrum and during the beginning of T. vitulorum infection recognized Pe antigen's nine bands. In contrast, serum antibodies from 1-day-old buffalo calves, taken before suckling colostrum, did not react with any protein band. In suckling calves, which reached peak egg output, rejection and post-rejection stages of the infection, serum Tv-Pe-Ab reactivity with lower molecular weight protein bands (11-76 kDa) was lost and only reactivity with the Pe protein bands of higher molecular weight (88, 112 and 165 kDa) remained.

  17. Observation of PeV Gamma Rays from the Monogem Ring with the Tibet Air Shower Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amenomori, M.; Ayabe, S.; Chen, D.; Cui, S. W.; Danzengluobu; Ding, L. K.; Ding, X. H.; Feng, C. F.; Feng, Z. Y.; Gao, X. Y.; Geng, Q. X.; Guo, H. W.; He, H. H.; He, M.; Hibino, K.; Hotta, N.; Hu, Haibing; Hu, H. B.; Huang, J.; Huang, Q.; Jia, H. Y.; Kajino, F.; Kasahara, K.; Katayose, Y.; Kato, C.; Kawata, K.; Labaciren; Le, G. M.; Li, J. Y.; Lu, H.; Lu, S. L.; Meng, X. R.; Mizutani, K.; Mu, J.; Munakata, K.; Nagai, A.; Nanjo, H.; Nishizawa, M.; Ohnishi, M.; Ohta, I.; Onuma, H.; Ouchi, T.; Ozawa, S.; Ren, J. R.; Saito, T.; Saito, T. Y.; Sakata, M.; Sasaki, T.; Shibata, M.; Shiomi, A.; Shirai, T.; Sugimoto, H.; Takita, M.; Tan, Y. H.; Tateyama, N.; Torii, S.; Tsuchiya, H.; Udo, S.; Wang, H.; Wang, X.; Wang, Y. G.; Wu, H. R.; Xue, L.; Yamamoto, Y.; Yan, C. T.; Yang, X. C.; Yasue, S.; Ye, Z. H.; Yu, G. C.; Yuan, A. F.; Yuda, T.; Zhang, H. M.; Zhang, J. L.; Zhang, N. J.; Zhang, X. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Yi; Zhaxisangzhu; Zhou, X. X.; Tibet AsΓ Collaboration

    2005-12-01

    We searched for steady PeV gamma-ray emission from the Monogem ring region with the Tibet air shower array from 1997 February to 2004 October. No evidence for statistically significant gamma-ray signals was found in a region 111° <= R.A. < 114°, 12.5d <= decl. < 15.5d in the Monogem ring where the MAKET-ANI experiment recently claimed a positive detection of PeV high-energy cosmic radiation, although our flux sensitivity is approximately 10 times better than MAKET-ANI's. We set the most stringent integral flux upper limit at a 99% confidence level of 4.0 × 10-12 cm-2 s-1 sr-1 above 1 PeV on diffuse gamma rays extended in the 3° × 3° region.

  18. A Single-Chip Speech Dialogue Module and Its Evaluation on a Personal Robot, PaPeRo-Mini

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Miki; Iwasawa, Toru; Sugiyama, Akihiko; Nishizawa, Toshihiro; Takano, Yosuke

    This paper presents a single-chip speech dialogue module and its evaluation on a personal robot. This module is implemented on an application processor that was developed primarily for mobile phones to provide a compact size, low power-consumption, and low cost. It performs speech recognition with preprocessing functions such as direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation, noise cancellation, beamforming with an array of microphones, and echo cancellation. Text-to-speech (TTS) conversion is also equipped with. Evaluation results obtained on a new personal robot, PaPeRo-mini, which is a scale-down version of PaPeRo, demonstrate an 85% correct rate in DOA estimation, and as much as 54% and 30% higher speech recognition rates in noisy environments and during robot utterances, respectively. These results are shown to be comparable to those obtained by PaPeRo.

  19. PeMADS6, a GLOBOSA/PISTILLATA-like gene in Phalaenopsis equestris involved in petaloid formation, and correlated with flower longevity and ovary development.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Wen-Chieh; Lee, Pei-Fang; Chen, Hong-Ie; Hsiao, Yu-Yun; Wei, Wan-Ju; Pan, Zhao-Jun; Chuang, Ming-Hsiang; Kuoh, Chang-Sheng; Chen, Wen-Huei; Chen, Hong-Hwa

    2005-07-01

    In this study, we isolated and characterized the function of a GLOBOSA/PISTILLATA-like gene, PeMADS6, from a native Phalaenopsis species, P. equestris. Southern blot analysis showed PeMADS6 as a single copy in the Phalaenopsis genome. Results of the determination of temporal and spatial expression showed that PeMADS6 was expressed and thus participated in the development of the sepals, petals, labellum and column in Phalaenopsis. Further confirmation of the expression pattern of PeMADS6 was carried out with in situ hybridization. Repressed expression of PeMADS6 in the orchid ovary was found to be pollination regulated, which suggests that the gene may have an inhibitory effect on the development of the ovary or ovule. In addition, auxin acted as the candidate signal to regulate the repression of PeMADS6 expression in the ovary. Furthermore, the flowers of transgenic Arabidopsis plants ectopically overexpressing PeMADS6 showed the morphology of petaloid sepals, with a 3- to 4-fold increase in flower longevity. Concomitantly, delayed fruit maturation was also observed in the transgenic Arabidopsis, which is consistent with the inhibitory effect of PeMADS6 on the development of the ovary. Thus, as a B-function gene, PeMADS6, not only specifies floral organ identity but has functions in flower longevity and ovary development in orchids. PMID:15890679

  20. Frequent Homologous Recombination Events in Mycobacterium tuberculosis PE/PPE Multigene Families: Potential Role in Antigenic Variability▿ † ‡

    PubMed Central

    Karboul, Anis; Mazza, Alberto; Gey van Pittius, Nicolaas C.; Ho, John L.; Brousseau, Roland; Mardassi, Helmi

    2008-01-01

    The PE and PPE (PE/PPE) multigene families of Mycobacterium tuberculosis are particularly GC-rich and share extensive homologous repetitive sequences. We hypothesized that they may undergo homologous recombination events, a mechanism rarely described in the natural evolution of mycobacteria. To test our hypothesis, we developed a specific oligonucleotide-based microarray targeting nearly all of the PE/PPE genes, aimed at detecting signals for homologous recombination. Such a microarray has never before been reported due to the multiplicity and highly repetitive and homologous nature of these sequences. Application of the microarray to a collection of M. tuberculosis clinical isolates (n = 33) representing prevalent spoligotype strain families in Tunisia allowed successful detection of six deleted genomic regions involving a total of two PE and seven PPE genes. Some of these deleted genes are known to be immunodominant or involved in virulence. The four precisely determined deletions were flanked by 400- to 500-bp stretches of nearly identical sequences lying mainly at the conserved N-terminal region of the PE/PPE genes. These highly homologous sequences thus serve as substrates to mediate both intergenic and intragenic homologous recombination events, indicating an important function in generating strain variation. Importantly, all recombination events yielded a new in-frame fusion chimeric gene. Hence, homologous recombination within and between PE/PPE genes likely increased their antigenic variability, which may have profound implications in pathogenicity and/or host adaptation. The finding of high prevalence (∼45% and ∼58%) for at least two of the genomic deletions suggests that they likely confer advantageous biological attributes. PMID:18820012

  1. Stabilisation of crosslinked ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMW-PE)-acetabular components with alpha-tocopherol.

    PubMed

    Wolf, C; Maninger, J; Lederer, K; Frühwirth-Smounig, H; Gamse, T; Marr, R

    2006-12-01

    A stabilisation of crosslinked ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMW-PE) with alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E) used for endoprostheses can increase its resistance against oxidative degradation remarkably. However, the method used for conventional UHMW-PE of adding alpha-tocopherol to the UHMW-PE powder before processing can not be applied for crosslinked UHMW-PE, since the alpha-tocopherol hinders the crosslinking process, which would be accompanied by a heavy degradation of this vitamin. The alpha-tocopherol has therefore to be added after the crosslinking process. This paper presents two methods for a stabilisation of finished products with alpha-tocopherol. In method 1, UHMW-PE-cubes (20 x 20 x 20 mm3) were stored in pure alpha-tocopherol under inert atmosphere at temperatures from 100 degrees C to 150 degrees C resulting in a high mass fraction of alpha-tocopherol in the edge zones. For further homogenisation, the cubes were stored in inert atmosphere at temperatures from 160 degrees C to 200 degrees C. In method 2, supercritical CO2 was used to incorporate the vitamin into the UHMW-PE. In an autoclave vessel, the cubes were treated with alpha-tocopherol dissolved in supercritical CO2 for several hours at temperatures from 100 degrees C to 170 degrees C. In both cases, the mass fraction of alpha-tocopherol was detected with the help of a FTIR-microscope. Both methods are well suited to stabilise crosslinked UHMW-PE with alpha-tocopherol. A stabilisation of the sensitive edge layer as well as a nearly homogenous distribution with varying alpha-tocopherol content may be realised by varying the process parameters. Using method 2, standard hip cups were stabilized nearly homogeneously with varying mass fraction of alpha-tocopherol. No oxidation of the UHMW-PE could be detected by infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and HPLC studies showed a very low degradation of the alpha-tocopherol for both processes. PMID:17143764

  2. DSTiPE Algorithm for Fuzzy Spatio-Temporal Risk Calculation in Wireless Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Kurt Derr; Milos Manic

    2008-09-01

    Time and location data play a very significant role in a variety of factory automation scenarios, such as automated vehicles and robots, their navigation, tracking, and monitoring, to services of optimization and security. In addition, pervasive wireless capabilities combined with time and location information are enabling new applications in areas such as transportation systems, health care, elder care, military, emergency response, critical infrastructure, and law enforcement. A person/object in proximity to certain areas for specific durations of time may pose a risk hazard either to themselves, others, or the environment. This paper presents a novel fuzzy based spatio-temporal risk calculation DSTiPE method that an object with wireless communications presents to the environment. The presented Matlab based application for fuzzy spatio-temporal risk cluster extraction is verified on a diagonal vehicle movement example.

  3. Radiative transitions involving the (2p2)(3 Pe) metastable autodetaching of H(-)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobs, V. L.; Bhatia, A. K.; Temkin, A.

    1974-01-01

    The absorption coefficient for the free-bound transition H (ls) + e(-)+ h omega yields H(-)(2 sq p,(3)P(e)) is calculated (together with the differential emission rate for the inverse process) using ls - 2s - 2p close coupling continuum wave functions and a Hylleraas bound state wave function. A maximum in the absorption and emission spectra is found to occur at a photon wavelength of 1219.5 A, which is 2 A closer to the Lyman alpha line than predicted by the calculations of Drake, and is in closer agreement with the stellar absorption feature identified by Heap and Stecher. The free-bound absorption process appears to be a significant source of continuous ultraviolet opacity.

  4. A study of the effects of MeV alpha particles in PE and PVDC

    SciTech Connect

    Evelyn, A.L.; Ila, D.; Zimmerman, R.L.; Bhat, K.; Poker, D.B.; Hensley, D.K.

    1997-02-01

    We have mapped and studied the effects of MeV alpha-particle bombardment in polyvinylidene chloride (PVDC) and polyethylene (PE). We used 3.5 and 5.0 MeV alpha-particle incident beams and stacked polymer films to separate the contributing effects of the electronic ({var_epsilon}{sub e}) and nuclear ({var_epsilon}{sub n}) stopping powers. The electrical conductance and change in the chemical structures were measured by direct resistivity measurement, Raman microprobe, RBS and FTIR. The results indicate significant differences in the ({var_epsilon}{sub e}) and ({var_epsilon}{sub n}) effects at higher alpha-particle bombardment fluences. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  5. Consequences of thermo- and photo-oxidation on end-use properties of pure PE

    SciTech Connect

    Tireau, Jonathan; Van Schoors, Laetitia; Benzarti, Karim; Colin, Xavier

    2010-06-02

    Thin films of polyethylene have been exposed to thermal and photochemical accelerated agings at different temperatures and different UV intensities. In both cases, mechanical tests performed on aged samples revealed a severe embrittlement of the PE material. However, a multi-scale analysis showed that i) under thermal oxidative conditions, such embrittlement mainly resulted from a reduction of molecular mobility of the amorphous phase due to annealing phenomena, while ii) it was rather associated to a competition between chain scission and cross-linking processes under photo-oxidative conditions. As regards the oxidation mechanisms, it was found that thermo-oxidation is clearly initiated by a bimolecular decomposition of hydroperoxides, while photo-oxidation seems rather initiated by the photolysis of ketones and hydroperoxides. Over a critical threshold of the hydroperoxide concentration, thermolysis of hydroperoxides seems to predominate and even to control the overall photo-oxidation kinetics.

  6. PeV-scale dark matter as a thermal relic of a decoupled sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berlin, Asher; Hooper, Dan; Krnjaic, Gordan

    2016-09-01

    In this letter, we consider a class of scenarios in which the dark matter is part of a heavy hidden sector that is thermally decoupled from the Standard Model in the early universe. The dark matter freezes-out by annihilating to a lighter, metastable state, whose subsequent abundance can naturally come to dominate the energy density of the universe. When this state decays, it reheats the visible sector and dilutes all relic abundances, thereby allowing the dark matter to be orders of magnitude heavier than the weak scale. For concreteness, we consider a simple realization with a Dirac fermion dark matter candidate coupled to a massive gauge boson that decays to the Standard Model through its kinetic mixing with hypercharge. We identify viable parameter space in which the dark matter can be as heavy as ∼1-100 PeV without being overproduced in the early universe.

  7. Study of Raft Domains in Model Membrane of DPPC/PE/Cholesterol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lor, Chai; Hirst, Linda

    2010-10-01

    Raft domains in bilayer membrane are thought to play an important role in many cell functions such as cell signaling or trans-membrane protein activation. Here we use a model membrane consisting of DPPC/PE/cholesterol to examine the structure of membrane rafts and phase interactions. In particular we are interested in lipids containing the highly polyunsaturated fatty acid DHA. We use both atomic force microscopy (AFM) and fluorescence microscopy to obtain information on the structural properties of raft regions and track cholesterol. As expected, we find phase separation of raft regions between saturated and unsaturated lipids. Moreover, we find that the roughness of the domains change with varying cholesterol concentration possibly due to overpacking. This model study provides further understanding of the role of cholesterol in bilayer membrane leading towards a better knowledge of cell membranes.

  8. Temporal and Climatic Analysis of the Rio Peñasco in New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, F.

    2015-12-01

    Streamflow research usually focuses on perennial streams due to the obvious impact on water budgets and flooding forecasts as well as the readily available data due a higher quantity of gages with longer and more complete data sets. Due to this, most streamflow metrics were derived by analyzing perennial streams and may not accurately characterize streams that have intermittent flow. Even standard metrics used for intermittent streams may not accurately characterize streams that are strongly ephemeral. This study uses statistical methods to analyze the Rio Peñasco near Artesia, NM. Traditional metrics were inadequate in describing the average or variance of this ephemeral stream. This stream has been rerouted or altered numerous times in order to be used for agriculture. In the 1980s, this anthropogenic influence resulted in a drastic decline in discharge rates. ENSO was shown to alter the onset and total volume of non-zero discharge during monsoon months.

  9. Growth of hydrogel nano- and microlayers covalently bounded onto PE surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Rafael; Muniz, Edvani C.; Rubira, Adley F.

    2009-04-01

    Surface modifying strategies were developed to immobilize PAA cross-linked layers (hydrogel layers) with different thicknesses by chemical binding to the surface of polyethylene (PE). Polyethylene films were functionalized by two methods, chromic acid oxidation and maleic anhydride grafting. The reaction of the functional groups placed onto the film surface with ethylenediamine promoted the formation of an amine-functionalized surface. The thickness of the hydrogel layer was correlated with the presence and the release of impregnated ethylenediamine during the immobilization of the PAA chains by thermal esterification. Ethylenediamine acts as a cross-linking agent between different PAA chains. Attenuated total reflectance (ATR) FTIR spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to characterize the chemical composition and the morphologies of the modified film surface.

  10. Investigations on the heating effect of PE-LD induced by high-intensity focused ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Oehm, Lukas; Bach, Sascha; Majschak, Jens-Peter

    2016-08-01

    High-intensity focused ultrasound is widely applied in tissue treatment as well as for heating of solid polymer materials. Previous studies investigating the heating effect in polymer materials utilized sound transmission through water or other fluids at low HIFU power. In this study, the ultrasonic transducer possesses a solid sound conductor made of aluminum and a high HIFU power of above 100W was applied to heat solid PE-LD samples. Temperature measurements were performed by calibrated non-invasive infrared thermal imaging. A strong heating effect with heating above melting temperature and evaporation temperature within less than 1s of irradiation was observed. Furthermore, the acoustic coupling defined by the force applied by the ultrasonic applicator to the polymer material was found to be fundamental to induce the heating effect. This investigation reveals HIFU for new applications in the field of polymer processing.

  11. Consequences of thermo- and photo-oxidation on end-use properties of pure PE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tireau, Jonathan; Van Schoors, Laetitia; Benzarti, Karim; Colin, Xavier

    2010-06-01

    Thin films of polyethylene have been exposed to thermal and photochemical accelerated agings at different temperatures and different UV intensities. In both cases, mechanical tests performed on aged samples revealed a severe embrittlement of the PE material. However, a multi-scale analysis showed that i) under thermal oxidative conditions, such embrittlement mainly resulted from a reduction of molecular mobility of the amorphous phase due to annealing phenomena, while ii) it was rather associated to a competition between chain scission and cross-linking processes under photo-oxidative conditions. As regards the oxidation mechanisms, it was found that thermo-oxidation is clearly initiated by a bimolecular decomposition of hydroperoxides, while photo-oxidation seems rather initiated by the photolysis of ketones and hydroperoxides. Over a critical threshold of the hydroperoxide concentration, thermolysis of hydroperoxides seems to predominate and even to control the overall photo-oxidation kinetics.

  12. Characterization of PE-g-HEMA films prepared by gamma irradiation through nuclear microprobe techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, L. M.; Leal, J. P.; Rodrigues, P. A.; Alves, L. C.; Falcão, A. N.; Gil, M. H.

    2012-09-01

    PE-g-HEMA films with different grafting yields prepared by mutual gamma irradiation method at a 60Co source were characterized with ion beam analytical techniques using a nuclear microprobe. Qualitative analysis showed a random and heterogeneous distribution of contaminant elements, independent of the grafting degree, suggesting the existence of several sources of contamination at different stages of their preparation. Results also suggest that this "phased" contamination occurs simultaneously with mechanisms of agglomeration/entrapment of impurities during the gamma induced copolymerization reaction. Moreover, quantitative data showed that all contaminants found in the copolymeric films are natural contaminants of their reagents of preparation, although at concentrations without toxicological hazard, which points to a low cytotoxic potential.

  13. The peak effect (PE) region of the antiferromagnetic two layer Ising nanographene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Şarlı, Numan; Akbudak, Salih; Ellialtıoğlu, Mehmet Recai

    2014-11-01

    In this work, the magnetic properties of the ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic two layer spin-1/2 Ising nanographene systems are investigated within the effective field theory. We find that the magnetizations and the hysteresis behaviors of the central graphene atoms are similar to those of the edge graphene atoms in the ferromagnetic case. But, they are quite different in the antiferromagnetic case. The antiferromagnetic central graphene atoms exhibit type II superconductivity and they have triple hysteresis loop. The peak effect (PE) region is observed on the hysteresis curves of the antiferromagnetic Ising nanographene system. Therefore, we suggest that there is a strong relationship between the antiferromagnetism and the peak effect. Our results are in agreement with some experimental works in recent literature.

  14. Delocalization-enhanced long-range energy transfer between cryptophyte algae PE545 antenna proteins.

    PubMed

    Hossein-Nejad, Hoda; Curutchet, Carles; Kubica, Aleksander; Scholes, Gregory D

    2011-05-12

    We study the dynamics of interprotein energy transfer in a cluster, consisting of four units of phycoerythrin 545 (PE545) antenna proteins via a hybrid quantum-classical approach. Long-range exciton transport is viewed as a random walk in which the hopping probabilities are determined from a quantum theory. We apply two different formulations of the exciton transport problem to obtain the hopping probabilities, and find that a theory that regards energy transfer as relaxations among the excitonic eigenstates mediated by the vibrational bath, predicts the fastest dynamics. Our results indicate that persistent exciton delocalization is an important implication of the quantum nature of energy transfer on a multiprotein length scale, and that a hybrid quantum-classical approach is a viable starting point in studies of long-range energy transfer in condensed phase biological systems.

  15. Investigations on the heating effect of PE-LD induced by high-intensity focused ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Oehm, Lukas; Bach, Sascha; Majschak, Jens-Peter

    2016-08-01

    High-intensity focused ultrasound is widely applied in tissue treatment as well as for heating of solid polymer materials. Previous studies investigating the heating effect in polymer materials utilized sound transmission through water or other fluids at low HIFU power. In this study, the ultrasonic transducer possesses a solid sound conductor made of aluminum and a high HIFU power of above 100W was applied to heat solid PE-LD samples. Temperature measurements were performed by calibrated non-invasive infrared thermal imaging. A strong heating effect with heating above melting temperature and evaporation temperature within less than 1s of irradiation was observed. Furthermore, the acoustic coupling defined by the force applied by the ultrasonic applicator to the polymer material was found to be fundamental to induce the heating effect. This investigation reveals HIFU for new applications in the field of polymer processing. PMID:27208613

  16. The Risk of Paradoxical Embolism (RoPE) Study: Initial description of the completed database

    PubMed Central

    Thaler, David E.; Angelantonio, Emanuele Di; Di Tullio, Marco R.; Donovan, Jennifer S.; Elkind, Mitchell S. V.; Griffith, John; Homma, Shunichi; Jaigobin, Cheryl; Mas, Jean-Louis; Mattle, Heinrich P.; Michel, Patrik; Mono, Marie-Luise; Nedeltchev, Krassen; Papetti, Federica; Ruthazer, Robin; Serena, Joaquín; Weimar, Christian; Kent, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Detecting a benefit from closure of patent foramen ovale (PFO) in patients with cryptogenic stroke (CS) is hampered by low rates of stroke recurrence and uncertainty about the causal role of PFO in the index event. A method to predict PFO-attributable recurrence risk is needed. However, individual databases generally have too few stroke recurrences to support risk modeling. Prior studies of this population have been limited by low statistical power for examining factors related to recurrence. Aims To develop a database to support modeling of PFO-attributable recurrence risk by combining extant data sets. Methods We identified investigators with extant databases including subjects with CS investigated for PFO; determined the availability and characteristics of data in each database; collaboratively specified the variables to be included in the Risk of Paradoxical Embolism (RoPE) database; harmonized the variables across databases, and collected new primary data when necessary and feasible. Results The RoPE database has individual clinical, radiologic, and echocardiographic data from 12 component databases including subjects with CS both with (n=1925) and without (n=1749) PFO. In the PFO subjects, a total of 381 outcomes (stroke, TIA, death) occurred (median follow-up = 2.2yrs). While there were substantial variations in data collection between studies, there was sufficient overlap to define a common set of variables suitable for risk modeling. Conclusion While individual studies are inadequate for modeling PFO-attributable recurrence risk, collaboration between investigators has yielded a database with sufficient power to identify those patients at highest risk for a PFO-related stroke recurrence who may have the greatest potential benefit from PFO closure. PMID:22883936

  17. Rim15p-mediated regulation of sucrose utilization during molasses fermentation using Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain PE-2.

    PubMed

    Inai, Tomomi; Watanabe, Daisuke; Zhou, Yan; Fukada, Rie; Akao, Takeshi; Shima, Jun; Takagi, Hiroshi; Shimoi, Hitoshi

    2013-11-01

    Inherited loss-of-function mutations in the Rim15p-mediated stress-response pathway contribute to the high fermentation rate of sake yeast strains. In the present study, we found that disruption of the RIM15 gene in ethanol-producing Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain PE-2 accelerated molasses fermentation through enhanced sucrose utilization following glucose starvation.

  18. Evaluating a Moving Target: Lessons Learned from Using Practical Participatory Evaluation (P-PE) in Hospital Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wharton, Tracy; Alexander, Neil

    2013-01-01

    This article describes lessons learned about implementing evaluations in hospital settings. In order to overcome the methodological dilemmas inherent in this environment, we used a practical participatory evaluation (P-PE) strategy to engage as many stakeholders as possible in the process of evaluating a clinical demonstration project.…

  19. Pre-Service Teachers in PE Involved in an Organizational Critical Incident: Emotions, Appraisal and Coping Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandercleyen, François; Boudreau, Pierre; Carlier, Ghislain; Delens, Cécile

    2014-01-01

    Background: Emotions play a major role in the learning of pre-service teachers. However, there is a lack of in-depth research on emotion in the context of physical education (PE), especially during the practicum. Lazarus's model and its concepts of appraisal and coping is a salient theoretical framework for understanding the emotional…

  20. "Permission to Speak": A Postcolonial View on Racialized Bodies and PE in the Current Context of Globalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azzarito, Laura

    2016-01-01

    The current neoliberal context of schools presents difficult challenges in addressing persistent issues of social inequalities. In this article, first, I argue that because of today's market-driven education, the rise of fitness testing in school physical education (PE) can be seriously detrimental to young people in general and to ethnic-minority…

  1. Accumulation and toxicity of antibody-targeted doxorubicin-loaded PEG-PE micelles in ovarian cancer cell spheroid model.

    PubMed

    Perche, Federico; Patel, Niravkumar R; Torchilin, Vladimir P

    2012-11-28

    We describe the evaluation of doxorubicin-loaded PEG-PE micelles targeting using an ovarian cancer cell spheroid model. Most ovarian cancer patients present at an advanced clinical stage and develop resistance to standard of care platinum/taxane therapy. Doxorubicin is also approved for ovarian cancer but had limited benefits in refractory patients. In this study, we used drug-resistant spheroid cultures of ovarian carcinoma to evaluate the uptake and cytotoxicity of an antibody-targeted doxorubicin formulation. Doxorubicin was encapsulated in polyethylene glycol-phosphatidyl ethanolamine (PEG-PE) conjugated micelles. The doxorubicin-loaded PEG-PE micelles (MDOX) were further decorated with a cancer cell-specific monoclonal 2C5 antibody to obtain doxorubicin-loaded immunomicelles (2C5-MDOX). Targeting and resulting toxicity of doxorubicin-loaded PEG-PE micelles were evaluated in three dimensional cancer cell spheroids. Superior accumulation of 2C5-MDOX compared to free doxorubicin or untargeted MDOX in spheroids was evidenced both by flow cytometry, fluorescence and confocal microscopy. Interestingly, even higher toxicity was measured by lactate dehydrogenase release and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling of targeted doxorubicin micelles in Bcl-2 overexpressing adriamycin-resistant spheroids. Overall, these results support use of spheroids to evaluate tumor targeted drug delivery. PMID:22974689

  2. Teacher Deliberation within the Context of Singaporean Curricular Change: Pre- and In-Service PE Teachers' Perceptions of Outdoor Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atencio, Matthew; Tan, Yuen Sze Michelle

    2016-01-01

    The study featured in this paper investigates pre- and in-service Physical Education (PE) teachers' diverse views of OE (Outdoor Education) against the backdrop of numerous curricular changes underpinning Singaporean education. We highlight the potential challenges Singaporean schools and teachers may face in implementing the newly formalized OE…

  3. 78 FR 56690 - PE Hydro Generation, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-13

    ...-referenced proceeding, of PE Hydro Generation, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate schedule, noting that such application includes a request for blanket authorization, under 18 CFR Part 34, of future issuances of securities and assumptions of liability. Any person desiring...

  4. Determination of microplastic polyethylene (PE) and polypropylene (PP) in environmental samples using thermal analysis (TGA-DSC).

    PubMed

    Majewsky, Marius; Bitter, Hajo; Eiche, Elisabeth; Horn, Harald

    2016-10-15

    Microplastics are increasingly detected in the environment and the consequences on water resources and ecosystems are not clear to date. The present study provides a cost-effective and straightforward method to determine the mass concentrations of polymer types using thermal analysis. Characteristic endothermic phase transition temperatures were determined for seven plastic polymer types using TGA-DSC. Based on that, extracts from wastewater samples were analyzed. Results showed that among the studied polymers, only PE and PP could be clearly identified, while the phase transition signals of the other polymers largely overlap each other. Subsequently, calibration curves were run for PE and PP for qualitative measurements. 240 and 1540mg/m(3) of solid material (12µm to 1mm) was extracted from two wastewater effluent samples of a municipal WWTP of which 34% (81mg/m(3)) and 17% (257mg/m(3)) could be assigned to PE, while PP was not detected in any of the samples. The presented application of TGA-DSC provides a complementary or alternative method to FT-IR analyses for the determination of PE and PP in environmental samples.

  5. Immobilization of Firefly Luciferase on PVA-co-PE Nanofibers Membrane as Biosensor for Bioluminescent Detection of ATP.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenwen; Zhao, Qinghua; Luo, Mengying; Li, Mufang; Wang, Dong; Wang, Yuedan; Liu, Qiongzhen

    2015-09-16

    The bioluminescent reaction catalyzed by firefly luciferase has become widely established as an outstanding analytical system for assay of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). When in solution, the luciferase is unstable and cannot be reused. The problem can be partially solved by immobilizing the luciferase on solid substrates. The poly(vinyl alcohol-co-ethylene) (PVA-co-PE) nanofibers membrane has abundant active hydroxyl groups on the surface. The PVA-co-PE nanofibers membrane was first activated by cyanuric chloride with triazinyl group. Then the activated PVA-co-PE nanofibers membrane was subsequently reacted with 1,3-propanediamine and biotin. The firefly luciferase was immobilized onto the surface of 1,3-propanediamine- and biotin-functionalized membranes. The surface chemical structure and morphologies of nanofibers membranes were characterized by FTIR-ATR spectra and SEM. The hydrophilicity of membranes was tested by water contact angle measurements. The detection of fluorescence intensity displayed that the firefly-luciferase-immobilized PVA-co-PE nanofibers membranes indicated high catalytic activity and efficiency. Especially, the firefly-luciferase-immobilized nanofiber membrane which was functionalized by biotin can be a promising candidate as biosensor for bioluminescent detection of ATP because of its high detection sensitivity. PMID:26275118

  6. Determination of microplastic polyethylene (PE) and polypropylene (PP) in environmental samples using thermal analysis (TGA-DSC).

    PubMed

    Majewsky, Marius; Bitter, Hajo; Eiche, Elisabeth; Horn, Harald

    2016-10-15

    Microplastics are increasingly detected in the environment and the consequences on water resources and ecosystems are not clear to date. The present study provides a cost-effective and straightforward method to determine the mass concentrations of polymer types using thermal analysis. Characteristic endothermic phase transition temperatures were determined for seven plastic polymer types using TGA-DSC. Based on that, extracts from wastewater samples were analyzed. Results showed that among the studied polymers, only PE and PP could be clearly identified, while the phase transition signals of the other polymers largely overlap each other. Subsequently, calibration curves were run for PE and PP for qualitative measurements. 240 and 1540mg/m(3) of solid material (12µm to 1mm) was extracted from two wastewater effluent samples of a municipal WWTP of which 34% (81mg/m(3)) and 17% (257mg/m(3)) could be assigned to PE, while PP was not detected in any of the samples. The presented application of TGA-DSC provides a complementary or alternative method to FT-IR analyses for the determination of PE and PP in environmental samples. PMID:27333470

  7. Immobilization of Firefly Luciferase on PVA-co-PE Nanofibers Membrane as Biosensor for Bioluminescent Detection of ATP.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenwen; Zhao, Qinghua; Luo, Mengying; Li, Mufang; Wang, Dong; Wang, Yuedan; Liu, Qiongzhen

    2015-09-16

    The bioluminescent reaction catalyzed by firefly luciferase has become widely established as an outstanding analytical system for assay of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). When in solution, the luciferase is unstable and cannot be reused. The problem can be partially solved by immobilizing the luciferase on solid substrates. The poly(vinyl alcohol-co-ethylene) (PVA-co-PE) nanofibers membrane has abundant active hydroxyl groups on the surface. The PVA-co-PE nanofibers membrane was first activated by cyanuric chloride with triazinyl group. Then the activated PVA-co-PE nanofibers membrane was subsequently reacted with 1,3-propanediamine and biotin. The firefly luciferase was immobilized onto the surface of 1,3-propanediamine- and biotin-functionalized membranes. The surface chemical structure and morphologies of nanofibers membranes were characterized by FTIR-ATR spectra and SEM. The hydrophilicity of membranes was tested by water contact angle measurements. The detection of fluorescence intensity displayed that the firefly-luciferase-immobilized PVA-co-PE nanofibers membranes indicated high catalytic activity and efficiency. Especially, the firefly-luciferase-immobilized nanofiber membrane which was functionalized by biotin can be a promising candidate as biosensor for bioluminescent detection of ATP because of its high detection sensitivity.

  8. Accumulation and toxicity of antibody-targeted doxorubicin-loaded PEG-PE micelles in ovarian cancer cell spheroid model

    PubMed Central

    Perche, Federico; Torchilin, Vladimir P.

    2012-01-01

    We describe the evaluation of doxorubicin-loaded PEG-PE micelles targeting using an ovarian cancer cell spheroid model. Most ovarian cancer patients present at an advanced clinical stage and develop resistance to standard of care platinum/taxane therapy. Doxorubicin is also approved for ovarian cancer but had limited benefits in refractory patients. In this study, we used drug-resistant spheroid cultures of ovarian carcinoma to evaluate the uptake and cytotoxicity of an antibody-targeted doxorubicin formulation. Doxorubicin was encapsulated in polyethylene glycol-phosphatidyl ethanolamine (PEG-PE) conjugated micelles. The doxorubicin-loaded PEG-PE micelles (MDOX) were further decorated with a cancer cell-specific monoclonal 2C5 antibody to obtain doxorubicin-loaded immunomicelles (2C5-MDOX). Targeting and resulting toxicity of doxorubicin-loaded PEG-PE micelles were evaluated in three dimensional cancer cell spheroids. Superior accumulation of 2C5-MDOX compared to free doxorubicin or untargeted MDOX in spheroids was evidenced both by flow cytometry, fluorescence and confocal microscopy. Interestingly, even higher toxicity was measured by lactate dehydrogenase release and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling of targeted doxorubicin micelles in Bcl-2 overexpressing adriamycin-resistant spheroids. Overall, these results support use of spheroids to evaluate tumor targeted drug delivery. PMID:22974689

  9. Transferrin-PEG-PE modified dexamethasone conjugated cationic lipid carrier mediated gene delivery system for tumor-targeted transfection

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei; Zhou, Fang; Ge, Linfu; Liu, Ximin; Kong, Fansheng

    2012-01-01

    Background The main barriers to non-viral gene delivery include cellular and nuclear membranes. As such, the aim of this study was to develop a type of vector that can target cells through receptor-mediated pathways and by using nuclear localization signal (NLS) to increase the nuclear uptake of genetic materials. Methods A dexamethasone (Dexa)-conjugated lipid was synthesized as the material of the solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs), and transferrin (Tf) was linked onto polyethylene glycol-phosphatidylethanolamine (PEG-PE) to obtain Tf-PEG-PE ligands for the surface modification of the carriers. The in vitro transfection efficiency of the novel modified vectors was evaluated in human hepatoma carcinoma cell lines, and in vivo effects were observed in an animal model. Results Tf-PEG-PE modified SLNs/enhanced green fluorescence protein plasmid (pEGFP) had a particle size of 222 nm and a gene loading quantity of 90%. Tf-PEG-PE-modified SLNs/pEGFP (Tf-SLNs/pEGFP) displayed remarkably higher transfection efficiency than non-modified SLNs/pEGFP and the vectors not containing Dexa, both in vitro and in vivo. Conclusion It can be concluded that Tf and Dexa could function as an excellent active targeting ligand to improve the cell targeting and nuclear targeting ability of the carriers, and the resulting nanomedicine could be a promising active targeting drug/gene delivery system. PMID:22679364

  10. The Validity and Reliability of Turkish Version of Fair Play Questionnaire in Physical Education (FPQ-PE) and an Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mirzeoglu, Nevzat

    2015-01-01

    The study was primarily carried out with the aim of adaptation of Fair Play in Physical Education Questionnaire (FPQ-PE). In addition, the adapted questionnaire was implemented on Turkish children and youth aged between 11 and 18 and the results were presented. The questionnaire originally adapted by Hassandra et al. for Greek students was adapted…

  11. iPE-MMR: An integrated approach to accurately assign monoisotopic precursor masses to tandem mass spectrometric data

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Hee-Jung; Purvine, Samuel O.; Kim, Hokeun; Petyuk, Vladislav A.; Hyung, Seok-Won; Monroe, Matthew E.; Mun, Dong-Gi; Kim, Kyong-Chul; Park, Jong-Moon; Kim, Su-Jin; Tolic, Nikola; Slysz, Gordon W.; Moore, Ronald J.; Zhao, Rui; Adkins, Joshua N.; Anderson, Gordon A.; Lee, Hookeun; Camp, David G.; Yu, Myeong-Hee; Smith, Richard D.; Lee, Sang-Won

    2010-01-01

    Accurate assignment of monoisotopic precursor masses to tandem mass spectrometric (MS/MS) data is a fundamental and critically important step for successful peptide identifications in mass spectrometry based proteomics. Here we describe an integrated approach that combines three previously reported methods of treating MS/MS data for precursor mass refinement. This combined method, “integrated Post-Experiment Monoisotopic Mass Refinement” (iPE-MMR), integrates steps: 1) generation of refined MS/MS data by DeconMSn; 2) additional refinement of the resultant MS/MS data by a modified version of PE-MMR; 3) elimination of systematic errors of precursor masses using DtaRefinery. iPE-MMR is the first method that utilizes all MS information from multiple MS scans of a precursor ion including multiple charge states, in an MS scan, to determine precursor mass. By combining these methods, iPE-MMR increases sensitivity in peptide identification and provides increased accuracy when applied to complex high-throughput proteomics data. PMID:20863060

  12. Polymorphisms in the PE35 and PPE68 antigens in Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains may affect strain virulence and reflect ongoing immune evasion.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yi; Wei, Jianhao; Liu, Haican; Li, Guilian; Guo, Qian; Qiu, Yan; Zhao, Lili; Li, Machao; Zhao, Xiuqin; Dou, Xiangfeng; Wan, Kanglin

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that the Pro‑Glu/Pro‑Pro‑Glu (PE/PPE) genes in strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis exhibit high sequence variation and may be involved in antigenic variation and immune evasion. Region of Difference 1 (RD1), encoding genes from Rv3871 to Rv3879, was observed to be lost during the original derivation of Bacillus Calmette‑Guérin between 1908 and 1921. It has been previously demonstrated that two PE/PPE proteins, PE35 (Rv3872) and PPE68 (Rv3873), are encoded by RD1 and exhibit immunodominance. To explore the genetic diversity of PE35 and PPE68, and to evaluate the impact of sequence variation on the immune recognition of these proteins, 161 clinical M. tuberculosis strains were selected from China and comparative sequence analysis of PE35 and PPE68 was performed. The results indicated that polymorphisms in PE35 and PPE68 may lead to alterations in the function of these proteins, which may potentially affect strain virulence. In addition, the human T‑cell epitopes of PE35 and PPE68 were highly variable, suggesting that the two antigens may be involved in diversifying selection to evade host immunity. The prevalence of strains with PE35 mutations in the non‑Beijing family was significantly greater compared with the Beijing family, indicating that Beijing strains may be more conservative than non‑Beijing strains in this gene.

  13. Fetal Phthalate Screen: Assessment of Several Phthalate Esters (PE) on Fetal Rodent Testosterone (T) Production and Gene Expressionfollowing In Utero Exposure

    EPA Science Inventory

    PE are a large family of compounds used in a wide array of products from medical tubing to pharmaceuticals to cables. Studies have shown that in utero treatment with PE such as diethyl hexyl phthalate (DEHP) during the critical period of fetal reproductive development produced ma...

  14. DECREASED LEVELS OF FOLATE RECEPTOR-β AND REDUCED NUMBERS OF FETAL MACROPHAGES (HOFBAUER CELLS) IN PLACENTAS FROM PREGNANCIES WITH SEVERE PREECLAMPSIA (PE)*

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Zhonghua; Buhimschi, Irina A.; Buhimschi, Catalin S.; Tadesse, Serkalem; Norwitz, Errol; Niven-Fairchild, Tracy; Huang, Se-Te J; Guller, Seth

    2013-01-01

    Problem Preeclampsia (PE), a pregnancy complication of unknown etiology, is a major cause of maternal and fetal mortality and morbidity. Previous studies have described placental genes which are up-regulated in expression in PE, but few studies have addressed placental gene suppression in this syndrome. Method of Study Gene profiling and quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRTPCR) analyses were used to identify genes down-regulated in placentas from women with severe preterm PE compared to gestational age-matched normotensive controls with spontaneous preterm birth (sPTB). Western blotting and immunohistochemistry were used to evaluate levels and patterns of cell type-specific protein expression in PE and sPTB group placentas. Results Levels of macrophage marker [folate receptor (FR)-β, CD163, and CD68] mRNA and FR-β protein were significantly down-regulated in PE group placentas compared to the sPTB group. Numbers of Hofbauer cells (HBCs, fetal macrophages) and FR-β protein in these cells were reduced in PE group placentas. Conclusion Severe PE is associated with decreased placental expression of FR-β and a reduction in the number of HBCs. Reduced placental macrophage function is likely to play a key role in the pathophysiology of PE. PMID:23480364

  15. Microwave-assisted fibrous decoration of mPE surface utilizing Aloe vera extract for tissue engineering applications

    PubMed Central

    Balaji, Arunpandian; Jaganathan, Saravana Kumar; Supriyanto, Eko; Muhamad, Ida Idayu; Khudzari, Ahmad Zahran Md

    2015-01-01

    Developing multifaceted, biocompatible, artificial implants for tissue engineering is a growing field of research. In recent times, several works have been reported about the utilization of biomolecules in combination with synthetic materials to achieve this process. Accordingly, in this study, the ability of an extract obtained from Aloe vera, a commonly used medicinal plant in influencing the biocompatibility of artificial material, is scrutinized using metallocene polyethylene (mPE). The process of coating dense fibrous Aloe vera extract on the surface of mPE was carried out using microwaves. Then, several physicochemical and blood compatibility characterization experiments were performed to disclose the effects of corresponding surface modification. The Fourier transform infrared spectrum showed characteristic vibrations of several active constituents available in Aloe vera and exhibited peak shifts at far infrared regions due to aloe-based mineral deposition. Meanwhile, the contact angle analysis demonstrated a drastic increase in wettability of coated samples, which confirmed the presence of active components on glazed mPE surface. Moreover, the bio-mimic structure of Aloe vera fibers and the influence of microwaves in enhancing the coating characteristics were also meticulously displayed through scanning electron microscopy micrographs and Hirox 3D images. The existence of nanoscale roughness was interpreted through high-resolution profiles obtained from atomic force microscopy. And the extent of variations in irregularities was delineated by measuring average roughness. Aloe vera-induced enrichment in the hemocompatible properties of mPE was established by carrying out in vitro tests such as activated partial thromboplastin time, prothrombin time, platelet adhesion, and hemolysis assay. In conclusion, the Aloe vera-glazed mPE substrate was inferred to attain desirable properties required for multifaceted biomedical implants. PMID:26425089

  16. Microwave-assisted fibrous decoration of mPE surface utilizing Aloe vera extract for tissue engineering applications.

    PubMed

    Balaji, Arunpandian; Jaganathan, Saravana Kumar; Supriyanto, Eko; Muhamad, Ida Idayu; Khudzari, Ahmad Zahran Md

    2015-01-01

    Developing multifaceted, biocompatible, artificial implants for tissue engineering is a growing field of research. In recent times, several works have been reported about the utilization of biomolecules in combination with synthetic materials to achieve this process. Accordingly, in this study, the ability of an extract obtained from Aloe vera, a commonly used medicinal plant in influencing the biocompatibility of artificial material, is scrutinized using metallocene polyethylene (mPE). The process of coating dense fibrous Aloe vera extract on the surface of mPE was carried out using microwaves. Then, several physicochemical and blood compatibility characterization experiments were performed to disclose the effects of corresponding surface modification. The Fourier transform infrared spectrum showed characteristic vibrations of several active constituents available in Aloe vera and exhibited peak shifts at far infrared regions due to aloe-based mineral deposition. Meanwhile, the contact angle analysis demonstrated a drastic increase in wettability of coated samples, which confirmed the presence of active components on glazed mPE surface. Moreover, the bio-mimic structure of Aloe vera fibers and the influence of microwaves in enhancing the coating characteristics were also meticulously displayed through scanning electron microscopy micrographs and Hirox 3D images. The existence of nanoscale roughness was interpreted through high-resolution profiles obtained from atomic force microscopy. And the extent of variations in irregularities was delineated by measuring average roughness. Aloe vera-induced enrichment in the hemocompatible properties of mPE was established by carrying out in vitro tests such as activated partial thromboplastin time, prothrombin time, platelet adhesion, and hemolysis assay. In conclusion, the Aloe vera-glazed mPE substrate was inferred to attain desirable properties required for multifaceted biomedical implants.

  17. [Cytokine profile of a human bone marrow cell culture under the influence of UHMW-PE wear particles].

    PubMed

    Wilke, A; Bartsch, I; Kratz, M; Jones, D; Endres, S

    2005-10-01

    There is considerable evidence that orthopaedic wear debris plays a crucial role in the pathology of aseptic loosening of joint prostheses. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the influence of ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMW-PE) on the cytokine response in a modified in vitro model. UHMW-PE particles (psi < 7.5 microm) were suspended in soluble collagen type I and subsequently solidified in different concentrations (105,106 and 107 particles per well) on the bottom of the wells. Human bone marrow cells in a concentration of 3 x 106 cells per well were seeded on the collagen-particle substrata and maintained for up to 12 days. The cytokine response (IL-1_, IL-6 and TNF-_) of the cells to the particles were examined by ELISA compared to cells on control collagen surfaces without any particles. Assays for viability using LDH activity were done immediately. Light and scanning microscopic evaluation revealed that the UHMWPE particles, which have built large conglomerates (psi7.5_m), were mainly surrounded by the cells and less phagocytosed. The results of the cytokine release revealed significant differences in interleukin (IL)6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)- _ and IL-1beta. The cell viability was not affected by the UHMW-PE particles. The results demonstrate that the particle induced cytokine response by UHMW-PE is mainly by the release of Interleukin 6 and TNF- _. Moreover the results confirm that the present method is useful to evaluate the in vitro effects of UHMW-PE wear particles with direct particle cell contact. PMID:16300048

  18. CD4+ T Cells Recognizing PE/PPE Antigens Directly or via Cross Reactivity Are Protective against Pulmonary Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection

    PubMed Central

    Sayes, Fadel; Pawlik, Alexandre; Frigui, Wafa; Gröschel, Matthias I.; Crommelynck, Samuel; Fayolle, Catherine; Cia, Felipe; Bancroft, Gregory J.; Bottai, Daria; Leclerc, Claude; Brosch, Roland; Majlessi, Laleh

    2016-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), possesses at least three type VII secretion systems, ESX-1, -3 and -5 that are actively involved in pathogenesis and host-pathogen interaction. We recently showed that an attenuated Mtb vaccine candidate (Mtb Δppe25-pe19), which lacks the characteristic ESX-5-associated pe/ppe genes, but harbors all other components of the ESX-5 system, induces CD4+ T-cell immune responses against non-esx-5-associated PE/PPE protein homologs. These T cells strongly cross-recognize the missing esx-5-associated PE/PPE proteins. Here, we characterized the fine composition of the functional cross-reactive Th1 effector subsets specific to the shared PE/PPE epitopes in mice immunized with the Mtb Δppe25-pe19 vaccine candidate. We provide evidence that the Mtb Δppe25-pe19 strain, despite its significant attenuation, is comparable to the WT Mtb strain with regard to: (i) its antigenic repertoire related to the different ESX systems, (ii) the induced Th1 effector subset composition, (iii) the differentiation status of the Th1 cells induced, and (iv) its particular features at stimulating the innate immune response. Indeed, we found significant contribution of PE/PPE-specific Th1 effector cells in the protective immunity against pulmonary Mtb infection. These results offer detailed insights into the immune mechanisms underlying the remarkable protective efficacy of the live attenuated Mtb Δppe25-pe19 vaccine candidate, as well as the specific potential of PE/PPE proteins as protective immunogens. PMID:27467705

  19. CD4+ T Cells Recognizing PE/PPE Antigens Directly or via Cross Reactivity Are Protective against Pulmonary Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection.

    PubMed

    Sayes, Fadel; Pawlik, Alexandre; Frigui, Wafa; Gröschel, Matthias I; Crommelynck, Samuel; Fayolle, Catherine; Cia, Felipe; Bancroft, Gregory J; Bottai, Daria; Leclerc, Claude; Brosch, Roland; Majlessi, Laleh

    2016-07-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), possesses at least three type VII secretion systems, ESX-1, -3 and -5 that are actively involved in pathogenesis and host-pathogen interaction. We recently showed that an attenuated Mtb vaccine candidate (Mtb Δppe25-pe19), which lacks the characteristic ESX-5-associated pe/ppe genes, but harbors all other components of the ESX-5 system, induces CD4+ T-cell immune responses against non-esx-5-associated PE/PPE protein homologs. These T cells strongly cross-recognize the missing esx-5-associated PE/PPE proteins. Here, we characterized the fine composition of the functional cross-reactive Th1 effector subsets specific to the shared PE/PPE epitopes in mice immunized with the Mtb Δppe25-pe19 vaccine candidate. We provide evidence that the Mtb Δppe25-pe19 strain, despite its significant attenuation, is comparable to the WT Mtb strain with regard to: (i) its antigenic repertoire related to the different ESX systems, (ii) the induced Th1 effector subset composition, (iii) the differentiation status of the Th1 cells induced, and (iv) its particular features at stimulating the innate immune response. Indeed, we found significant contribution of PE/PPE-specific Th1 effector cells in the protective immunity against pulmonary Mtb infection. These results offer detailed insights into the immune mechanisms underlying the remarkable protective efficacy of the live attenuated Mtb Δppe25-pe19 vaccine candidate, as well as the specific potential of PE/PPE proteins as protective immunogens.

  20. CD4+ T Cells Recognizing PE/PPE Antigens Directly or via Cross Reactivity Are Protective against Pulmonary Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection.

    PubMed

    Sayes, Fadel; Pawlik, Alexandre; Frigui, Wafa; Gröschel, Matthias I; Crommelynck, Samuel; Fayolle, Catherine; Cia, Felipe; Bancroft, Gregory J; Bottai, Daria; Leclerc, Claude; Brosch, Roland; Majlessi, Laleh

    2016-07-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), possesses at least three type VII secretion systems, ESX-1, -3 and -5 that are actively involved in pathogenesis and host-pathogen interaction. We recently showed that an attenuated Mtb vaccine candidate (Mtb Δppe25-pe19), which lacks the characteristic ESX-5-associated pe/ppe genes, but harbors all other components of the ESX-5 system, induces CD4+ T-cell immune responses against non-esx-5-associated PE/PPE protein homologs. These T cells strongly cross-recognize the missing esx-5-associated PE/PPE proteins. Here, we characterized the fine composition of the functional cross-reactive Th1 effector subsets specific to the shared PE/PPE epitopes in mice immunized with the Mtb Δppe25-pe19 vaccine candidate. We provide evidence that the Mtb Δppe25-pe19 strain, despite its significant attenuation, is comparable to the WT Mtb strain with regard to: (i) its antigenic repertoire related to the different ESX systems, (ii) the induced Th1 effector subset composition, (iii) the differentiation status of the Th1 cells induced, and (iv) its particular features at stimulating the innate immune response. Indeed, we found significant contribution of PE/PPE-specific Th1 effector cells in the protective immunity against pulmonary Mtb infection. These results offer detailed insights into the immune mechanisms underlying the remarkable protective efficacy of the live attenuated Mtb Δppe25-pe19 vaccine candidate, as well as the specific potential of PE/PPE proteins as protective immunogens. PMID:27467705

  1. Biological, Physical, And Chemical Data From Gulf of Mexico Core PE0305-GC1

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Osterman, Lisa E.; Swarzenski, Peter W.; Hollander, David

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents benthic foraminiferal census data, and magnetic susceptibility, 210Pb , radiocarbon, and geochemical measurements from gravity core PE0305-GC1 (=GC1). Core GC1 was collected from the Louisiana continental shelf as part of an initiative to investigate the geographic and temporal extent of hypoxia, low-oxygen water, in the Gulf of Mexico. Hypoxia (<1.4 ml/l or <2 ppm oxygen concentration) in Gulf of Mexico waters can eventually lead to death of marine species. The development of hypoxia off the Mississippi delta has increased steadily since routine and systematic measurements were begun in 1985 and has been linked to the use of fertilizer in the Mississippi basin. Benthic foraminifers provide a proxy to track the development of hypoxia prior to 1985. Previous work determined that the relative occurrence of three low-oxygen-tolerant species is highest in the hypoxia zone. The cumulative percentage of these three species (% Pseudononion atlanticum + % Epistominella vitrea, + % Buliminella morgani = PEB index of hypoxia) was used to investigate fluctuation in paleohypoxia in four cores, including the upper 60 cm of GC1. In this report, we compile all available data from GC1 as the basis for further publications.

  2. First observation of PeV-energy neutrinos with IceCube.

    PubMed

    Aartsen, M G; Abbasi, R; Abdou, Y; Ackermann, M; Adams, J; Aguilar, J A; Ahlers, M; Altmann, D; Auffenberg, J; Bai, X; Baker, M; Barwick, S W; Baum, V; Bay, R; Beatty, J J; Bechet, S; Becker Tjus, J; Becker, K-H; Bell, M; Benabderrahmane, M L; BenZvi, S; Berdermann, J; Berghaus, P; Berley, D; Bernardini, E; Bernhard, A; Bertrand, D; Besson, D Z; Binder, G; Bindig, D; Bissok, M; Blaufuss, E; Blumenthal, J; Boersma, D J; Bohaichuk, S; Bohm, C; Bose, D; Böser, S; Botner, O; Brayeur, L; Bretz, H-P; Brown, A M; Bruijn, R; Brunner, J; Carson, M; Casey, J; Casier, M; Chirkin, D; Christov, A; Christy, B; Clark, K; Clevermann, F; Coenders, S; Cohen, S; Cowen, D F; Cruz Silva, A H; Danninger, M; Daughhetee, J; Davis, J C; De Clercq, C; De Ridder, S; Desiati, P; de With, M; DeYoung, T; Díaz-Vélez, J C; Dunkman, M; Eagan, R; Eberhardt, B; Eisch, J; Ellsworth, R W; Euler, S; Evenson, P A; Fadiran, O; Fazely, A R; Fedynitch, A; Feintzeig, J; Feusels, T; Filimonov, K; Finley, C; Fischer-Wasels, T; Flis, S; Franckowiak, A; Franke, R; Frantzen, K; Fuchs, T; Gaisser, T K; Gallagher, J; Gerhardt, L; Gladstone, L; Glüsenkamp, T; Goldschmidt, A; Golup, G; Gonzalez, J G; Goodman, J A; Góra, D; Grant, D; Groß, A; Gurtner, M; Ha, C; Haj Ismail, A; Hallen, P; Hallgren, A; Halzen, F; Hanson, K; Heereman, D; Heinen, D; Helbing, K; Hellauer, R; Hickford, S; Hill, G C; Hoffman, K D; Hoffmann, R; Homeier, A; Hoshina, K; Huelsnitz, W; Hulth, P O; Hultqvist, K; Hussain, S; Ishihara, A; Jacobi, E; Jacobsen, J; Jagielski, K; Japaridze, G S; Jero, K; Jlelati, O; Kaminsky, B; Kappes, A; Karg, T; Karle, A; Kelley, J L; Kiryluk, J; Kislat, F; Kläs, J; Klein, S R; Köhne, J-H; Kohnen, G; Kolanoski, H; Köpke, L; Kopper, C; Kopper, S; Koskinen, D J; Kowalski, M; Krasberg, M; Krings, K; Kroll, G; Kunnen, J; Kurahashi, N; Kuwabara, T; Labare, M; Landsman, H; Larson, M J; Lesiak-Bzdak, M; Leuermann, M; Leute, J; Lünemann, J; Madsen, J; Maruyama, R; Mase, K; Matis, H S; McNally, F; Meagher, K; Merck, M; Mészáros, P; Meures, T; Miarecki, S; Middell, E; Milke, N; Miller, J; Mohrmann, L; Montaruli, T; Morse, R; Nahnhauer, R; Naumann, U; Niederhausen, H; Nowicki, S C; Nygren, D R; Obertacke, A; Odrowski, S; Olivas, A; Olivo, M; O'Murchadha, A; Paul, L; Pepper, J A; Pérez de los Heros, C; Pfendner, C; Pieloth, D; Pinat, E; Pirk, N; Posselt, J; Price, P B; Przybylski, G T; Rädel, L; Rameez, M; Rawlins, K; Redl, P; Reimann, R; Resconi, E; Rhode, W; Ribordy, M; Richman, M; Riedel, B; Rodrigues, J P; Rott, C; Ruhe, T; Ruzybayev, B; Ryckbosch, D; Saba, S M; Salameh, T; Sander, H-G; Santander, M; Sarkar, S; Schatto, K; Scheel, M; Scheriau, F; Schmidt, T; Schmitz, M; Schoenen, S; Schöneberg, S; Schönwald, A; Schukraft, A; Schulte, L; Schulz, O; Seckel, D; Sestayo, Y; Seunarine, S; Sheremata, C; Smith, M W E; Soiron, M; Soldin, D; Spiczak, G M; Spiering, C; Stamatikos, M; Stanev, T; Stasik, A; Stezelberger, T; Stokstad, R G; Stößl, A; Strahler, E A; Ström, R; Sullivan, G W; Taavola, H; Taboada, I; Tamburro, A; Ter-Antonyan, S; Tešić, G; Tilav, S; Toale, P A; Toscano, S; Usner, M; van der Drift, D; van Eijndhoven, N; Van Overloop, A; van Santen, J; Vehring, M; Voge, M; Vraeghe, M; Walck, C; Waldenmaier, T; Wallraff, M; Wasserman, R; Weaver, Ch; Wellons, M; Wendt, C; Westerhoff, S; Whitehorn, N; Wiebe, K; Wiebusch, C H; Williams, D R; Wissing, H; Wolf, M; Wood, T R; Woschnagg, K; Xu, C; Xu, D L; Xu, X W; Yanez, J P; Yodh, G; Yoshida, S; Zarzhitsky, P; Ziemann, J; Zierke, S; Zilles, A; Zoll, M

    2013-07-12

    We report on the observation of two neutrino-induced events which have an estimated deposited energy in the IceCube detector of 1.04±0.16 and 1.14±0.17 PeV, respectively, the highest neutrino energies observed so far. These events are consistent with fully contained particle showers induced by neutral-current ν(e,μ,τ) (ν(e,μ,τ)) or charged-current ν(e) (ν(e)) interactions within the IceCube detector. The events were discovered in a search for ultrahigh energy neutrinos using data corresponding to 615.9 days effective live time. The expected number of atmospheric background is 0.082±0.004(stat)(-0.057)(+0.041)(syst). The probability of observing two or more candidate events under the atmospheric background-only hypothesis is 2.9×10(-3) (2.8σ) taking into account the uncertainty on the expected number of background events. These two events could be a first indication of an astrophysical neutrino flux; the moderate significance, however, does not permit a definitive conclusion at this time. PMID:23889381

  3. STRUCTURED JETS IN BL LAC OBJECTS: EFFICIENT PeV NEUTRINO FACTORIES?

    SciTech Connect

    Tavecchio, Fabrizio; Ghisellini, Gabriele; Guetta, Dafne

    2014-09-20

    The origin of high-energy neutrinos (0.1–1 PeV range) detected by IceCube remains a mystery. In this work, we explore the possibility that efficient neutrino production can occur in structured jets of BL Lac objects, characterized by a fast inner spine surrounded by a slower layer. This scenario has been widely discussed in the framework of the high-energy emission models for BL Lac objects and radio galaxies. One of the relevant consequences of a velocity structure is the enhancement of the inverse Compton emission caused by the radiative coupling of the two zones. We show that a similar boosting could occur for the neutrino output of the spine through the photo-meson reaction of high-energy protons scattering off the amplified soft target photon field of the layer. Assuming the local density and the cosmological evolution of γ-ray BL Lac object derived from Fermi Large Area Telescope data, we calculate the expected diffuse neutrino intensity, which can match the IceCube data for a reasonable choice of parameters.

  4. Paleopathology and osteobiography of the people of Peñuelas, Chile's semiarid north.

    PubMed

    Rosado, Maria Araya; Vernacchio-Wilson, Jessica

    2006-12-01

    The Museo de La Serena, IV Region, Chile has collections of skeletal remains representing the agricultural Diaguita people of 500 years ago excavated in the 1980s from the sites Peñuelas 21 and 24, Chile's semiarid north. Their excellent preservation has permitted an osteobiographical and radiographic analysis to better understand the patterns of the disease. This research continues the osteological analyses begun in 1989 by Rosado that seek to understand the impact the transition to and adoption of farming had on the health of prehistoric populations. Because of the significance of paleopathology in the understanding of cultural and biological adaptations, it has also become necessary to assess the preservation status and design a conservation protocol to protect and document the remains. The objectives of this communication are to: establish demographic patterns of the skeletal samples and identify and diagnose skeletal paleopathologies via photography and radiographs. Intentional cranial alteration, limb and cranial fractures, dental wear, and dental abscesses and caries are among the interesting paleopathologies so far documented. Intentional cranial alteration is very common and is manifested as tabular erect in both males and females. The high frequency of carious lesions indicates a diet that emphasized carbohydrates. Skeletal radiographs are available for several of the individuals in the sample and this has afforded a more detailed description of the paleopathologies originally documented via photography.

  5. NICHE: Using Cherenkov radiation to extend Telescope Array to sub-PeV energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergman, Douglas; Krizmanic, John; Tsunesada, Yoshiki; Abu-Zayyad, Tareq; Belz, John; Thomson, Gordon

    2016-03-01

    The Non-Imaging CHErenkov (NICHE) Array will measure the flux and nuclear composition evolution of cosmic rays (CRs) from below 1 PeV to 1 EeV. NICHE will be co-sited with the Telescope Array (TA) Low Energy (TALE) extension, and will observe events simultaneously with the TALE telescopes acting in imaging-Cherenkov mode. This will be the first hybrid-Cherenkov (simultaneous imaging and non-imaging Cherenkov) measurements of CRs in the Knee region of the CR energy spectrum. NICHE uses easily deployable detectors to measure the amplitude and time-spread of the air-shower Cherenkov signal to achieve an event-by-event measurement of Xmax and energy, each with excellent resolution. First generation detectors are under construction and will form an initial prototype array (j-NICHE) that will be deployed in Summer 2016. In this talk, the NICHE design, array performance, prototype development, and status will be discussed as well as NICHE's ability to measure the cosmic ray nuclear composition as a function of energy.

  6. PE-CMOS based C-scan ultrasound for foreign object detection in soft tissue.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chu-Chuan; Lo, Shih-Chung Ben; Freedman, Matthew T; Lasser, Marvin E; Kula, John; Sarcone, Anita; Wang, Yue

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a C-scan ultrasound prototype and three imaging modalities for the detection of foreign objects inserted in porcine soft tissue. The object materials include bamboo, plastics, glass and aluminum alloys. The images of foreign objects were acquired using the C-scan ultrasound, a portable B-scan ultrasound, film-based radiography, and computerized radiography. The C-scan ultrasound consists of a plane wave transducer, a compound acoustic lens system, and a newly developed ultrasound sensor array based on the complementary metal-oxide semiconductor coated with piezoelectric material (PE-CMOS). The contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of the images were analyzed to quantitatively evaluate the detectability using different imaging modalities. The experimental results indicate that the C-scan prototype has better CNR values in 4 out of 7 objects than other modalities. Specifically, the C-scan prototype provides more detail information of the soft tissues without the speckle artifacts that are commonly seen with conventional B-scan ultrasound, and has the same orientation as the standard radiographs but without ionizing radiation.

  7. Pinpointing the knee of cosmic rays with diffuse PeV γ-rays and neutrinos

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Y. Q.; Hu, H. B.; Yuan, Q.; Tian, Z.; Gao, X. J.

    2014-11-01

    The origin of the knee in the cosmic ray spectrum remains to be an unsolved fundamental problem. There are various kinds of models that predict different break positions and the compositions of the knee. In this work, we suggest the use of diffuse γ-rays and neutrinos as probes to test these models. Based on several typical types of composition models, the diffuse γ-ray and neutrino spectra are calculated and show distinctive cutoff behaviors at energies from tens of TeV to multi-PeV. The expected flux will be observable by the newly upgraded Tibet-ASγ+MD (muon detector) experiment as well as more sensitive future projects, such as LHAASO and HiSCORE. By comparing the neutrino spectrum with the recent observations by the IceCube experiment, we find that the diffuse neutrinos from interactions between the cosmic rays and the interstellar medium may not be responsible to the majority of the IceCube events. Future measurements of the neutrinos may be able to identify the Galactic diffuse component and shed further light on the problem of the knee of cosmic rays.

  8. Precipitation, deformation and fracture behaviour of a thermomechanically processed nimonic PE 16 superalloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, K. Bhanusankara; Seetharaman, V.; Mannan, S. L.; Rodriguez, P.

    1981-11-01

    Nimonic alloy PE 16 was subjected to a specific thermomechanical processing designed to improve its post-irradiation ductility. The precipitation behaviour of the carbides and the γ'[Ni 3(Al, Ti)] phase at each stage of the thermomechanical treatment was studied with the help of optical and transmission electron microscopy. At the end of this processing, the alloy contained a uniform dispersion of fine and equiaxed TiC particles throughout the matrix, with a relatively small number of M 23C 6 particles precipitated mainly along the grain boundaries. In addition, a uniform dispersion of spherical γ' particles with a duplex size distribution was obtained. Tensile properties of the thermomechanically processed alloy, evaluated at different temperatures, showed a gradual decrease in the strength properties up to 773 K followed by a rapid decline above this temperature. In addition, a ductility trough was noticed at 773 K. An attempt has been made in this paper to correlate the mechanical properties of the alloy with the microstructural features and with the deformation and fracture behaviour observed at different temperatures.

  9. An ultra-low-voltage rectifier for PE energy harvesting applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jingmin, Wang; Zheng, Yang; Zhangming, Zhu; Yintang, Yang

    2016-02-01

    An ultra low voltage rectifier with high power conversion efficiency (PCE) for PE energy harvesting applications is presented in this paper. This is achieved by utilizing the DTMOS which the body terminal is connected to the gate terminal in a diode connected transistor. This implementation facilitates the rectifier with dynamic control over the threshold voltage. Moreover, we use input powered to take the place of output powered to reduce the power loss and thereby increasing the power conversion efficiency. Based on standard SMIC 0.18 μm CMOS technology, the simulation results show that the voltage conversion efficiency and the power conversion efficiency can reach up to 90.5% and 95.5% respectively, when the input voltage equals to 0.2 V @ 100 Hz with load resistance 50 kω. Input voltages with frequencies in the range of 10 Hz-1 kHz can be rectified. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61234002, 61322405, 61306044, 61376033) and the National High-Tech Program of China (No. 2013AA014103).

  10. Comparison between in vitro and in vivo UHMW-PE degradation.

    PubMed

    Carotenuto, G; Di Palo, M; Marino, G; Ambrosio, L; Nicolais, L

    1997-01-01

    There is an increasing interest in orthopedics for clinical problems associated with wear and failure of ultra-high-molecular-weight (UHMW) polyethylene devices. Wear not only affects the implant performance but, more importantly, produces the release of particulate debris in the surrounding tissues and fluids. The debris in turn cause a deleterious biological response that can include an inflammatory reaction with subsequent loosening of the implant components. Surface wear is certainly promoted from the oxidation process that can occur during the prosthesis life. However, the oxidation mechanism involved during the implantation period has not been described yet for the UHMW-polyethylene devices. Here, the comparison of FT-IR spectra of a retrieved acetabular cup (9 years in a human body) and thin UHMW-PE films treated respectively with: H2O2, KO2/THF, and Fe[II]/H2O2 solutions indicates the effect of the high reactive hydroxyl radicals as the most important cause of in vivo polymer degradation. PMID:9151195

  11. A scanning force microscopy study on the drawing of solution crystallized UHMW-PE

    SciTech Connect

    MoEller, M.; Sheiko, S.; Kunz, M.

    1993-12-31

    Drawing of solution crystallized UHMW-PE has been monitored by scanning force microscopy (SFM). The work is focused on the transformation of lamellae to fibrilla crystals within the necking region ({lambda} = 1-10). SFM allows threedimensional visualization of the polymer surface in the range of Angstrom up to micrometers. No special treatment like staining an coating is necessary, and the experiments can be performed under ambient conditions. Thus, it was possible to reveal details of the structural transformation which could not be observed before. In order to recognize and eliminate artifacts, the probing tips were calibrated by means of a newly developed gauge and the results are compared with complimentary SEM and TEM (replica) studies. Two stages of the deformation could be distinguished: (i) sliding of the lamellae followed by (ii) transformation to 20-40 nm wide fibrils. These nanofibrils are already formed during the necking process and their diameter remains unchanged upon further drawing up to {lambda} = 70. The nanofibrils are identified as the basic building unit of the fibrillar structure. Their role regarding the improvement in strength upon drawing to large {lambda}-values will be discussed.

  12. An overview to understand the role of PE_PGRS family proteins in Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37 Rv and their potential as new drug targets.

    PubMed

    Meena, Laxman S

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis has long been the scourge of humanity, claiming millions of lives. The family of PE_PGRS gene has been attributed to the Mycobacterium tuberculosis pathogenesis over the past few decades. The gene of PE_PGRS family proteins are most often clustered in a region of the genome often as overlapping genes and role in cell surface markers, adhesion and invasion of defense cells of the host (macrophage and dendritic cells). The proline-glutamic acid (PE) domain is responsible for the cellular localization of these proteins on bacterial cells. This gene family shows immense genetic variability in terms of multiple insertion-deletions and single-nucleotide polymorphisms as seen in PE_PGRS9, PE_PGRS17, PE_PGRS18, and PE_PGRS33. In spite of variability, there are indications of shared epitopes in these proteins. Few of these gene sequences that have been studied from evolutionary perspective show indication of positive selection and also landmarks of recent evolutionary events. Many of these proteins show calcium-binding motifs and consequently seen to be responsible in inhibition of phagolysosome formation via a calmodulin-kinase-dependent pathway. A number of PE_PGRS genes were tested for its expression with different growth conditions in vitro and in vivo, among which the contrast in expressivity was seen vividly in PE_PGRS16 (upregulated) and PE_PGRS26 (downregulated) in bacteria persisting in macrophages. Similarly, PE_PGRS33 has been indicated in macrophagial necrosis by a tumor necrosis factor-α-induced pathway. These PE_PGRS family genes may be an interesting subject for research and development. Their fibronectin-binding and calcium-binding property may be strongly implicated in immunopathogenesis of virulent M. tuberculosis strain. In this review, an attempt has been made to evaluate and present data for better understanding of in vivo pathogen functions, for understanding the physiological significance of PE_PGRS gene family, and their potential as

  13. An Update of the International Society of Sexual Medicine's Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Premature Ejaculation (PE)

    PubMed Central

    Althof, Stanley E; McMahon, Chris G; Waldinger, Marcel D; Serefoglu, Ege Can; Shindel, Alan W; Adaikan, P Ganesan; Becher, Edgardo; Dean, John; Giuliano, Francois; Hellstrom, Wayne JG; Giraldi, Annamaria; Glina, Sidney; Incrocci, Luca; Jannini, Emmanuele; McCabe, Marita; Parish, Sharon; Rowland, David; Segraves, R Taylor; Sharlip, Ira; Torres, Luiz Otavio

    2014-01-01

    Introduction In 2009, the International Society for Sexual Medicine (ISSM) convened a select panel of experts to develop an evidence-based set of guidelines for patients suffering from lifelong premature ejaculation (PE). That document reviewed definitions, etiology, impact on the patient and partner, assessment, and pharmacological, psychological, and combined treatments. It concluded by recognizing the continually evolving nature of clinical research and recommended a subsequent guideline review and revision every fourth year. Consistent with that recommendation, the ISSM organized a second multidisciplinary panel of experts in April 2013, which met for 2 days in Bangalore, India. This manuscript updates the previous guidelines and reports on the recommendations of the panel of experts. Aim The aim of this study was to develop clearly worded, practical, evidenced-based recommendations for the diagnosis and treatment of PE for family practice clinicians as well as sexual medicine experts. Method A comprehensive literature review was performed. Results This article contains the report of the second ISSM PE Guidelines Committee. It offers a new unified definition of PE and updates the previous treatment recommendations. Brief assessment procedures are delineated, and validated diagnostic and treatment questionnaires are reviewed. Finally, the best practices treatment recommendations are presented to guide clinicians, both familiar and unfamiliar with PE, in facilitating treatment of their patients. Conclusion Development of guidelines is an evolutionary process that continually reviews data and incorporates the best new research. We expect that ongoing research will lead to a more complete understanding of the pathophysiology as well as new efficacious and safe treatments for this sexual dysfunction. We again recommend that these guidelines be reevaluated and updated by the ISSM in 4 years. Althof SE, McMahon CG, Waldinger MD, Serefoglu EC, Shindel AW, Adaikan PG

  14. Analysis and comparison of the internal promoter, pE, of the ilvGMEDA operons from Escherichia coli K-12 and Salmonella typhimurium.

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, J M; Lawther, R P

    1986-01-01

    It was previously determined that the distal portion of the ilvGMEDA operon was expressed despite the insertion of transposons into ilvG and ilvE. This observation suggested the existence of internal promoters upstream of ilvE (pE) and ilvD (pD). The internal promoter pE, responsible for part of ilvEDA expression, has been analyzed both in vivo and in vitro. Our results indicate that: pE exists in both E. coli K-12 and S. typhimurium; pE is located in the distal end of the ilvM coding sequence; the pE sequence is highly conserved in the two bacteria; the amino acid sequence of the ilvM gene product is 93% homologous between the two bacteria; transcription from pE can be demonstrated both in vivo and in vitro; the efficiency of pE is essentially equivalent in the two bacteria. Images PMID:3008097

  15. Automated detection of pulmonary embolism (PE) in computed tomographic pulmonary angiographic (CTPA) images: multiscale hierachical expectation-maximization segmentation of vessels and PEs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Chuan; Chan, Heang-Ping; Hadjiiski, Lubomir M.; Chughtai, Aamer; Patel, Smita; Cascade, Philip N.; Sahiner, Berkman; Wei, Jun; Ge, Jun; Kazerooni, Ella A.

    2007-03-01

    CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA) has been reported to be an effective means for clinical diagnosis of pulmonary embolism (PE). We are developing a computer-aided detection (CAD) system to assist radiologist in PE detection in CTPA images. 3D multiscale filters in combination with a newly designed response function derived from the eigenvalues of Hessian matrices is used to enhance vascular structures including the vessel bifurcations and suppress non-vessel structures such as the lymphoid tissues surrounding the vessels. A hierarchical EM estimation is then used to segment the vessels by extracting the high response voxels at each scale. The segmented vessels are pre-screened for suspicious PE areas using a second adaptive multiscale EM estimation. A rule-based false positive (FP) reduction method was designed to identify the true PEs based on the features of PE and vessels. 43 CTPA scans were used as an independent test set to evaluate the performance of PE detection. Experienced chest radiologists identified the PE locations which were used as "gold standard". 435 PEs were identified in the artery branches, of which 172 and 263 were subsegmental and proximal to the subsegmental, respectively. The computer-detected volume was considered true positive (TP) when it overlapped with 10% or more of the gold standard PE volume. Our preliminary test results show that, at an average of 33 and 24 FPs/case, the sensitivities of our PE detection method were 81% and 78%, respectively, for proximal PEs, and 79% and 73%, respectively, for subsegmental PEs. The study demonstrates the feasibility that the automated method can identify PE accurately on CTPA images. Further study is underway to improve the sensitivity and reduce the FPs.

  16. Crystal structure of a putative aspartic proteinase domain of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis cell surface antigen PE_PGRS16☆

    PubMed Central

    Barathy, Deivanayaga V.; Suguna, Kaza

    2013-01-01

    We report the crystal structure of the first prokaryotic aspartic proteinase-like domain identified in the genome of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. A search in the genomes of Mycobacterium species showed that the C-terminal domains of some of the PE family proteins contain two classic DT/SG motifs of aspartic proteinases with a low overall sequence similarity to HIV proteinase. The three-dimensional structure of one of them, Rv0977 (PE_PGRS16) of M. tuberculosis revealed the characteristic pepsin-fold and catalytic site architecture. However, the active site was completely blocked by the N-terminal His-tag. Surprisingly, the enzyme was found to be inactive even after the removal of the N-terminal His-tag. A comparison of the structure with pepsins showed significant differences in the critical substrate binding residues and in the flap tyrosine conformation that could contribute to the lack of proteolytic activity of Rv0977. PMID:23923105

  17. NOAA People Empowered Products (PeEP): Combining social media with scientific models to provide eye-witness confirmed products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Codrescu, S.; Green, J. C.; Redmon, R. J.; Denig, W. F.; Kihn, E. A.

    2012-12-01

    NOAA products and alerts rely on combinations of models and data to provide the public with information regarding space and terrestrial weather hazards. This operational paradigm, while effective, neglects an abundant free source of measurements: millions of eyewitnesses viewing weather events. Here we present a prototype product that combines user reports with scientific model output and discuss the possibilities for creating a generic PeEP framework for use in a wide range of applications. We demonstrate the capabilities of a proto-PeEP that combines the OVATION prime auroral model running at the NOAA National Geophysical Data Center with Twitter reports of observable aurora. The combined product displays the model aurora in real time on Google Earth with markers showing the location and text of tweets from people actually observing the aurora. We discuss how the application can be extended and incorporated to other space weather products such as ionospheric induced GPS errors and radiation related satellite anomalies.

  18. A PE_PGRS33 protein of Mycobacterium tuberculosis: an ideal target for future tuberculosis vaccine design.

    PubMed

    Gastelum-Aviña, Paola; Velazquez, Carlos; Espitia, Clara; Lares-Villa, Fernando; Garibay-Escobar, Adriana

    2015-05-01

    It is known that cellular immune response is relevant to fight against tuberculosis (TB); hence, identification of mycobacterial antigens that induce a protective immune cellular response is of great interest, especially for the development of effective TB vaccines. Genomic data have an impact on the identification of potential antigens as new vaccine targets. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge about the advances in new TB vaccine designs as well as the features reported for the pro-glu_polymorphic GC-rich sequence (PE_PGRS33) protein, considering this molecule as a prototype of the PE_PGRS family to better understand the biological function of this protein family that could be considered an ideal target for future vaccine design.

  19. The Drosophila Myc gene, diminutive, is a positive regulator of the Sex-lethal establishment promoter, Sxl-Pe

    PubMed Central

    Kappes, Gretchen; Deshpande, Girish; Mulvey, Brett B.; Horabin, Jamila I.; Schedl, Paul

    2011-01-01

    The binary switch gene Sex-lethal (Sxl) controls sexual identity in Drosophila. When activated, Sxl imposes female identity, whereas male identity ensues by default when the gene is off. The decision to activate Sxl is controlled by an X chromosome counting system that regulates the Sxl establishment promoter, Sxl-Pe. The counting system depends upon the twofold difference in the gene dose of a series of X-linked transcription factors or numerators. Because of this difference in dose, early female embryos express twice the amount of these transcription factors, and the cumulative action of these transcription factors turns on Sxl-Pe. Here we show that the Drosophila Myc gene diminutive is an X-linked numerator. PMID:21220321

  20. Gamma-ray astronomy with muons: Sensitivity of IceCube to PeVatrons in the Southern sky

    SciTech Connect

    Halzen, Francis; O'Murchadha, Aongus; Kappes, Alexander

    2009-10-15

    Northern hemisphere TeV gamma-ray observatories such as Milagro and Tibet AS{gamma} have demonstrated the importance of all-sky instruments by discovering previously unidentified sources that may be the PeVatrons producing cosmic rays up to the knee in the cosmic ray spectrum. We evaluate the potential of IceCube to identify similar sources in the southern sky by detailing an analytic approach to determine fluxes of muons from TeV gamma-ray showers. We apply this approach to known gamma-ray sources such as supernova remnants. We find that, similar to Milagro, detection is possible in 10 years for pointlike PeVatrons with fluxes stronger than several 10{sup -11} particles TeV{sup -1} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}.

  1. Molecular cloning and characterization of Vigna mungo processing enzyme 1 (VmPE-1), an asparaginyl endopeptidase possibly involved in post-translational processing of a vacuolar cysteine endopeptidase (SH-EP).

    PubMed

    Okamoto, T; Minamikawa, T

    1999-01-01

    Asparaginyl endopeptidase is a cysteine endopeptidase that has strict substrate specificity toward the carboxy side of asparagine residues. Vigna mungo processing enzyme 1, termed VmPE-1, occurs in the cotyledons of germinated seeds of V. mungo, and is possibly involved in the post-translational processing of a vacuolar cysteine endopeptidase, designated SH-EP, which degrades seed storage protein. VmPE-1 also showed a substrate specificity to asparagine residues, and its enzymatic activity was inhibited by NEM but not E-64. In addition, purified VmPE-1 had a potential to process the recombinant SH-EP precursor to its intermediate in vitro. cDNA clones for VmPE-1 and its homologue, named VmPE-1A, were identified and sequenced, and their expressions in the cotyledons of V. mungo seedlings and other organs were investigated. VmPE-1 mRNA and SH-EP mRNA were expressed in germinated seeds at the same stage of germination although the enzymatic activity of VmPE-1 rose prior to that of SH-EP. The level of VmPE-1A mRNA continued increasing as germination proceeded. In roots, stems and leaves of fully grown plants, and in hypocotyls, VmPE-1 and VmPE-1A were little expressed. We discuss possible functions of VmPE-1 and VmPE-1A in the cotyledons of germinated seeds.

  2. PeSV-Fisher: Identification of Somatic and Non-Somatic Structural Variants Using Next Generation Sequencing Data

    PubMed Central

    Rabionet, Raquel; Tubio, Jose M. C.; Martínez-Fundichely, Alexander; Cáceres, Mario; Gut, Marta; Ossowski, Stephan; Estivill, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing technologies expedited research to develop efficient computational tools for the identification of structural variants (SVs) and their use to study human diseases. As deeper data is obtained, the existence of higher complexity SVs in some genomes becomes more evident, but the detection and definition of most of these complex rearrangements is still in its infancy. The full characterization of SVs is a key aspect for discovering their biological implications. Here we present a pipeline (PeSV-Fisher) for the detection of deletions, gains, intra- and inter-chromosomal translocations, and inversions, at very reasonable computational costs. We further provide comprehensive information on co-localization of SVs in the genome, a crucial aspect for studying their biological consequences. The algorithm uses a combination of methods based on paired-reads and read-depth strategies. PeSV-Fisher has been designed with the aim to facilitate identification of somatic variation, and, as such, it is capable of analysing two or more samples simultaneously, producing a list of non-shared variants between samples. We tested PeSV-Fisher on available sequencing data, and compared its behaviour to that of frequently deployed tools (BreakDancer and VariationHunter). We have also tested this algorithm on our own sequencing data, obtained from a tumour and a normal blood sample of a patient with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia, on which we have also validated the results by targeted re-sequencing of different kinds of predictions. This allowed us to determine confidence parameters that influence the reliability of breakpoint predictions. Availability PeSV-Fisher is available at http://gd.crg.eu/tools. PMID:23704902

  3. Biocompatible and colloidally stabilized mPEG-PE/calcium phosphate hybrid nanoparticles loaded with siRNAs targeting tumors

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Pei; Zhang, Xiangyu; Wang, Hongzhi; Zhang, Qinghong

    2016-01-01

    Calcium phosphate nanoparticles are safe and effective delivery vehicles for small interfering RNA (siRNA), as a result of their excellent biocompatibility. In this work, mPEG-PE (polyethylene glycol-L-α-phosphatidylethanolamine) was synthesized and used to prepare nanoparticles composed of mPEG-PE and calcium phosphate for siRNA delivery. Calcium phosphate and mPEG-PE formed the stable hybrid nanoparticles through self-assembly resulting from electrostatic interaction in water. The average size of the hybrid nanoparticles was approximately 53.2 nm with a negative charge of approximately −16.7 mV, which was confirmed by dynamic light scattering (DLS) measurements. The nanoparticles exhibited excellent stability in serum and could protect siRNA from ribonuclease (RNase) degradation. The cellular internalization of siRNA-loaded nanoparticles was evaluated in SMMC-7721 cells using a laser scanning confocal microscope (CLSM) and flow cytometry. The hybrid nanoparticles could efficiently deliver siRNA to cells compared with free siRNA. Moreover, the in vivo distribution of Cy5-siRNA-loaded hybrid nanoparticles was observed after being injected into tumor-bearing nude mice. The nanoparticles concentrated in the tumor regions through an enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect based on the fluorescence intensities of tissue distribution. A safety evaluation of the nanoparticles was performed both in vitro and in vivo demonstrating that the hybrid nanoparticle delivery system had almost no toxicity. These results indicated that the mPEG-PE/CaP hybrid nanoparticles could be a stable, safe and promising siRNA nanocarrier for anticancer therapy. PMID:26625203

  4. Optimization of Landscape Phage Fusion Protein-Modified Polymeric PEG-PE Micelles for Improved Breast Cancer Cell Targeting

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tao; Petrenko, Valery A.; Torchilin, Vladimir P.

    2015-01-01

    Amphiphilic landscape phage fusion proteins with high affinity and selectivity towards breast cancer MCF-7 (Michigan Cancer Foundation-7) cells self-assemble with polymeric PEG-PE conjugates to form mixed micelles (phage-micelles) capable of cancer cell-targeted delivery of poorly-soluble drugs. While the PEG corona provides the stability and longevity to the micelles, its presence is a potential steric difficulties for the interaction of phage fusion protein with cell surface targets. We attempted to address this problem by controlling the length of the PEG block and the phage fusion protein quantity, selecting the optimal ones to produce a reasonable retention of the targeting affinity and selectivity of the MCF-7-specific phage fusion protein. Three PEG-PE conjugates with different PEG lengths were used to construct phage- and plain-micelles, followed by FACS analysis of the effect of the PEG length on their binding affinity and selectivity towards target MCF-7 cells using either a MCF-7 cell monoculture or a cell co-culture model composed of target cancer MCF-7 cells and non-target, non-cancer C166 cells expressing GFP (Green Fluorescent Protein). Both, the length of PEG and quantity of phage fusion protein had a profound impact on the targetability of the phage-micelles. Phage-micelles prepared with PEG2k-PE achieved a desirable binding affinity and selectivity. Incorporation of a minimal concentration of phage protein, up to 0.5%, produced maximal targeting efficiency towards MCF-7 cells. Overall, phage-micelles with PEG2k-PE and 0.5% of phage protein represent the optimal formulation for targeting towards breast cancer cells. PMID:26451274

  5. Biocompatible and colloidally stabilized mPEG-PE/calcium phosphate hybrid nanoparticles loaded with siRNAs targeting tumors.

    PubMed

    Gao, Pei; Zhang, Xiangyu; Wang, Hongzhi; Zhang, Qinghong; Li, He; Li, Yaogang; Duan, Yourong

    2016-01-19

    Calcium phosphate nanoparticles are safe and effective delivery vehicles for small interfering RNA (siRNA), as a result of their excellent biocompatibility. In this work, mPEG-PE (polyethylene glycol-L-α-phosphatidylethanolamine) was synthesized and used to prepare nanoparticles composed of mPEG-PE and calcium phosphate for siRNA delivery. Calcium phosphate and mPEG-PE formed the stable hybrid nanoparticles through self-assembly resulting from electrostatic interaction in water. The average size of the hybrid nanoparticles was approximately 53.2 nm with a negative charge of approximately -16.7 mV, which was confirmed by dynamic light scattering (DLS) measurements. The nanoparticles exhibited excellent stability in serum and could protect siRNA from ribonuclease (RNase) degradation. The cellular internalization of siRNA-loaded nanoparticles was evaluated in SMMC-7721 cells using a laser scanning confocal microscope (CLSM) and flow cytometry. The hybrid nanoparticles could efficiently deliver siRNA to cells compared with free siRNA. Moreover, the in vivo distribution of Cy5-siRNA-loaded hybrid nanoparticles was observed after being injected into tumor-bearing nude mice. The nanoparticles concentrated in the tumor regions through an enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect based on the fluorescence intensities of tissue distribution. A safety evaluation of the nanoparticles was performed both in vitro and in vivo demonstrating that the hybrid nanoparticle delivery system had almost no toxicity. These results indicated that the mPEG-PE/CaP hybrid nanoparticles could be a stable, safe and promising siRNA nanocarrier for anticancer therapy.

  6. Complete Genome Sequence of a Novel Recombinant GII.Pe_GII.17 Norovirus Strain from Hong Kong in 2015

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Martin C. W.; Hung, Tin-Nok; Kwok, Kirsty

    2015-01-01

    The complete genome sequence of a novel recombinant GII.Pe_GII.17 norovirus strain, tentatively named GII.17 Hong Kong 2015, was determined. RNA-dependent RNA polymerase has 95.6% and 98.4% and viral protein 1 has 90.6% and 95.9% identity at the nucleotide and amino acid levels, respectively, to the closest sequences in GenBank. PMID:26564051

  7. Complete Genome Sequence of a Novel Recombinant GII.Pe_GII.17 Norovirus Strain from Hong Kong in 2015.

    PubMed

    Chan, Martin C W; Hung, Tin-Nok; Kwok, Kirsty; Chan, Paul K S

    2015-11-12

    The complete genome sequence of a novel recombinant GII.Pe_GII.17 norovirus strain, tentatively named GII.17 Hong Kong 2015, was determined. RNA-dependent RNA polymerase has 95.6% and 98.4% and viral protein 1 has 90.6% and 95.9% identity at the nucleotide and amino acid levels, respectively, to the closest sequences in GenBank.

  8. Sequence-specific 1H, 13C and 15N assignments of the phosphoesterase (PE) domain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa DNA ligase D (LigD)

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Kaushik; Natarajan, Aswin; Nair, Pravin A.; Shuman, Stewart; Ghose, Ranajeet

    2014-01-01

    DNA ligase D (LigD), consisting of polymerase, ligase and phosphoesterase domains, is the essential catalyst of the bacterial non-homologous end-joining pathway of DNA double-strand break repair. The phosphoesterase (PE) module performs manganese-dependent 3’-phosphomonoesterase and 3’-ribonucleoside resection reactions that heal broken ends in preparation for sealing. LigD PE exemplifies a structurally and mechanistically unique class of DNA end-processing enzymes. Here, we present the resonance assignments of the PE domain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa LigD comprising the N-terminal 177 residues. PMID:21213076

  9. "Permission to Speak": A Postcolonial View on Racialized Bodies and PE in the Current Context of Globalization.

    PubMed

    Azzarito, Laura

    2016-06-01

    The current neoliberal context of schools presents difficult challenges in addressing persistent issues of social inequalities. In this article, first, I argue that because of today's market-driven education, the rise of fitness testing in school physical education (PE) can be seriously detrimental to young people in general and to ethnic-minority young people's embodied identity in particular. Second, I explain how the racialization process circulated by the body-at-risk discourse, sustained by the media, and reproduced by high-stakes testing in PE forces ethnic-minority young people to construct their identities through White eyes, which alienates them from a consciousness of their own identity. Third, I explore the possible uses and pitfalls of Spivak's theoretical notion of "strategic essentialism" to put forward strategies to build a positive image of the "other" while attempting to avoid the erasure of difference. Fourth, I conclude the article by suggesting how Spivak's notion of strategic essentialism can be useful in rethinking current PE fitness practices. PMID:27100120

  10. Three-body Effects for the p(pe^-, ν_e)d Reaction in Nuclear Astrophysics.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yeong E.; Zubarev, Alexander L.

    1996-05-01

    We have investigated three-body effect for p(pe^-, ν_e)d reaction in nuclear astrophysics. Solutions of three-body equation for the initial pep state show that two-proton dynamics does not depend on the electron degrees of freedom and hence the conventional adiabatic approximation is valid for energy sector (E_ep/E_pp) > 10-3 where E_ep and E_pp are the relative kinetic energies between e and p, and between p and p, respectively. For the energy sector (E_ep/E_pp) ≈ 10-3, an exact solution of the three-body equation is required. For the energy sector (E_ep/E_pp) < 10-3, it is shown that a Gamow-factor cancellation (GFC) can occur between two protons. Our estimate of the GFC effect indicates that the previous conventional estimate of the pep solar neutrino flux may be an underestimate at least by a factor of two. Implications of our results for the solar neutrino problem are described. At lower temperatures, the GFC effect becomes more significant, and p(pe^-, ν_e)d may dominate over p(p,e^+ ν_e)d. The enhancement of the reaction rate for p(pe^-, νe )d at lower temperatures due to the GFC effect may offer possible explanations for some of long-standing anomalies in astrophysical and geophysical problems.

  11. "Permission to Speak": A Postcolonial View on Racialized Bodies and PE in the Current Context of Globalization.

    PubMed

    Azzarito, Laura

    2016-06-01

    The current neoliberal context of schools presents difficult challenges in addressing persistent issues of social inequalities. In this article, first, I argue that because of today's market-driven education, the rise of fitness testing in school physical education (PE) can be seriously detrimental to young people in general and to ethnic-minority young people's embodied identity in particular. Second, I explain how the racialization process circulated by the body-at-risk discourse, sustained by the media, and reproduced by high-stakes testing in PE forces ethnic-minority young people to construct their identities through White eyes, which alienates them from a consciousness of their own identity. Third, I explore the possible uses and pitfalls of Spivak's theoretical notion of "strategic essentialism" to put forward strategies to build a positive image of the "other" while attempting to avoid the erasure of difference. Fourth, I conclude the article by suggesting how Spivak's notion of strategic essentialism can be useful in rethinking current PE fitness practices.

  12. Internal Consistency of Event-Related Potentials Associated with Cognitive Control: N2/P3 and ERN/Pe

    PubMed Central

    Rietdijk, Wim J. R.; Franken, Ingmar H. A.; Thurik, A. Roy

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies in psychophysiology show an increased attention for examining the reliability of Event-Related Potentials (ERPs), which are measures of cognitive control (e.g., Go/No-Go tasks). An important index of reliability is the internal consistency (e.g., Cronbach's alpha) of a measure. In this study, we examine the internal consistency of the N2 and P3 in a Go/No-Go task. Furthermore, we attempt to replicate the previously found internal consistency of the Error-Related Negativity (ERN) and Positive-Error (Pe) in an Eriksen Flanker task. Healthy participants performed a Go/No-Go task and an Eriksen Flanker task, whereby the amplitudes of the correct No-Go N2/P3, and error trials for ERN/Pe were the variables of interest. This study provides evidence that the N2 and P3 in a Go/No-Go task are internally consistent after 20 and 14 trials are included in the average, respectively. Moreover, the ERN and Pe become internally consistent after approximately 8 trials are included in the average. In addition guidelines and suggestions for future research are discussed. PMID:25033272

  13. Structural Analysis using SHALiPE to Reveal RNA G-Quadruplex Formation in Human Precursor MicroRNA.

    PubMed

    Kwok, Chun Kit; Sahakyan, Aleksandr B; Balasubramanian, Shankar

    2016-07-25

    RNA G-quadruplex (rG4) structures are of fundamental importance to biology. A novel approach is introduced to detect and structurally map rG4s at single-nucleotide resolution in RNAs. The approach, denoted SHALiPE, couples selective 2'-hydroxyl acylation with lithium ion-based primer extension, and identifies characteristic structural fingerprints for rG4 mapping. We apply SHALiPE to interrogate the human precursor microRNA 149, and reveal the formation of an rG4 structure in this non-coding RNA. Additional analyses support the SHALiPE results and uncover that this rG4 has a parallel topology, is thermally stable, and is conserved in mammals. An in vitro Dicer assay shows that this rG4 inhibits Dicer processing, supporting the potential role of rG4 structures in microRNA maturation and post-transcriptional regulation of mRNAs. PMID:27355429

  14. Peştera cu Oase 2 and the cranial morphology of early modern Europeans

    PubMed Central

    Rougier, Hélène; Milota, Ştefan; Rodrigo, Ricardo; Gherase, Mircea; Sarcinǎ, Laurenţiu; Moldovan, Oana; Zilhão, João; Constantin, Silviu; Franciscus, Robert G.; Zollikofer, Christoph P. E.; Ponce de León, Marcia; Trinkaus, Erik

    2007-01-01

    Between 2003 and 2005, the Peştera cu Oase, Romania yielded a largely complete early modern human cranium, Oase 2, scattered on the surface of a Late Pleistocene hydraulically displaced bone bed containing principally the remains of Ursus spelaeus. Multiple lines of evidence indicate an age of ≈40.5 thousand calendar years before the present (≈35 ka 14C B.P.). Morphological comparison of the adolescent Oase 2 cranium to relevant Late Pleistocene human samples documents a suite of derived modern human and/or non-Neandertal features, including absence of a supraorbital torus, subrectangular orbits, prominent canine fossae, narrow nasal aperture, level nasal floor, angled and anteriorly oriented zygomatic bones, a high neurocranium with prominent parietal bosses and marked sagittal parietal curvature, superiorly positioned temporal zygomatic root, vertical auditory porous, laterally bulbous mastoid processes, superiorly positioned posterior semicircular canal, absence of a nuchal torus and a suprainiac fossa, and a small occipital bun. However, these features are associated with an exceptionally flat frontal arc, a moderately large juxtamastoid eminence, extremely large molars that become progressively larger distally, complex occlusal morphology of the upper third molar, and relatively anteriorly positioned zygomatic arches. Moreover, the featureless occipital region and small mastoid process are at variance with the large facial skeleton and dentition. This unusual mosaic in Oase 2, some of which is paralleled in the Oase 1 mandible, indicates both complex population dynamics as modern humans dispersed into Europe and significant ongoing human evolution once modern humans were established within Europe. PMID:17227863

  15. Electron electric dipole moment as a sensitive probe of PeV scale physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, Tarek; Itani, Ahmad; Nath, Pran

    2014-09-01

    We give a quantitative analysis of the electric dipole moments as a probe of high scale physics. We focus on the electric dipole moment of the electron since the limit on it is the most stringent. Further, theoretical computations of it are free of QCD uncertainties. The analysis presented here first explores the probe of high scales via electron electric dipole moment (EDM) within minimal supersymmetric standard model where the contributions to the EDM arise from the chargino and the neutralino exchanges in loops. Here it is shown that the electron EDM can probe mass scales from tens of TeV into the PeV range. The analysis is then extended to include a vectorlike generation which can mix with the three ordinary generations. Here new CP phases arise and it is shown that the electron EDM now has not only a supersymmetric (SUSY) contribution from the exchange of charginos and neutralinos but also a nonsupersymmetric contribution from the exchange of W and Z bosons. It is further shown that the interference of the supersymmetric and the nonsupersymmetric contribution leads to the remarkable phenomenon where the electron EDM as a function of the slepton mass first falls and become vanishingly small and then rises again as the slepton mass increases. This phenomenon arises as a consequence of cancellation between the SUSY and the non-SUSY contribution at low scales while at high scales the SUSY contribution dies out and the EDM is controlled by the non-SUSY contribution alone. The high mass scales that can be probed by the EDM are far in excess of what accelerators will be able to probe. The sensitivity of the EDM to CP phases both in the SUSY and the non-SUSY sectors are also discussed.

  16. The RoPE Score and Right-to-Left Shunt Severity by Transcranial Doppler in the CODICIA Study

    PubMed Central

    Wessler, Benjamin S.; Kent, David M.; Thaler, David E.; Ruthazer, Robin; Lutz, Jennifer S.; Serena, Joaquín

    2015-01-01

    Background For patients with cryptogenic stroke (CS) and patent foramen ovale (PFO), it is unknown whether the magnitude of right-to-left shunt (RLSh) measured by contrast transcranial Doppler (c-TCD) is correlated with the likelihood an identified PFO is related to CS as determined by the Risk of Paradoxical Embolism (RoPE) score. Additionally, for patients with CS, it is unknown whether PFO assessment by c-TCD is more sensitive for identifying RLSh compared with transesophageal echocardiography (TEE). Our aim was to determine the significance of RLSh grade by c-TCD in patients with PFO and CS. Methods We evaluated patients with CS who had RLSh quantified by c-TCD in The Multicenter Study into RLSh in Cryptogenic Stroke (CODICIA) to determine whether there is an association between c-TCD shunt grade and the RoPE Score. For patients who underwent c-TCD and TEE, we determined whether there is agreement in identifying and grading RLSh between these two modalities. Results The RoPE score predicted the presence versus the absence of RLSh documented by contrast transcranial Doppler (c-statistic = 0.66). For patients with documented RLSh by c-TCD, shunt severity was correlated with increasing RoPE score (rank correlation (r) = 0.15, p = 0.01). Among 293 patients who had both c-TCD and TEE performed, c-TCD was more sensitive (98.7%) for detecting RLSh. Of the 97 patients with no PFO identified on TEE, 28 (29%) had a large amount of RLSh seen on c-TCD. Conclusions For patients with CS, severity of RLSh by c-TCD is positively correlated with the RoPE score, indicating this technique for shunt grading identifies patients more likely to have pathogenic rather than incidental PFOs. C-TCD is also more sensitive in detecting RLSh than TEE. These findings suggest an important role for c-TCD in the evaluation of PFO in the setting of CS. PMID:26184495

  17. Subchronic Exposure to TCDD, PeCDF, PCB126, and PCB153: Effect on Hepatic Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Vezina, Chad M.; Walker, Nigel J.; Olson, James R.

    2004-01-01

    We employed DNA microarray to identify unique hepatic gene expression patterns associated with subchronic exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and other halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (HAHs). Female Harlan Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed for 13 weeks to toxicologically equivalent doses of four different HAHs based on the toxic equivalency factor of each chemical: TCDD (100 ng/kg/day), 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran (PeCDF; 200 ng/kg/day), 3,3′,4,4′,5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB126; 1,000 ng/kg/day), or 2,2′,4,4′,5,5′-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB153; 1,000 μg/kg/day). Global gene expression profiles for each exposure, which account for 8,799 gene probe sets contained on Affymetrix RGU34A GeneChips, were compared by principal components analysis. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) ligands TCDD, PeCDF, and PCB126 produced very similar global gene expression profiles that were unique from the nonAhR ligand PCB153, underscoring the extensive impact of AhR activation and/or the resulting hepatic injury on global gene expression in female rat liver. Many genes were co-expressed during the 13-week TCDD, PeCDF, or PCB126 exposures, including classical AhR-regulated genes and some genes not previously characterized as being AhR regulated, such as carcinoembryonic-cell adhesion molecule 4 (C-CAM4) and adenylate cyclase-associated protein 2 (CAP2). Real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction confirmed the increased expression of these genes in TCDD-, PeCDF-, and PCB126-exposed rats as well as the up- or down-regulation of several other novel dioxin-responsive genes. In summary, DNA microarray successfully identified dioxin-responsive genes expressed after exposure to AhR ligands (TCDD, PeCDF, PCB126) but not after exposure to the non-AhR ligand PCB153. Together, these findings may help to elucidate some of the fundamental features of dioxin toxicity and may further clarify the biologic role of the AhR signaling pathway. PMID:15598615

  18. Simultaneous synthesis of nanodiamonds and graphene via plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (MW PE-CVD) on copper.

    PubMed

    Gottlieb, Steven; Wöhrl, Nicolas; Schulz, Stephan; Buck, Volker

    2016-01-01

    The simultaneous growth of both nanodiamonds and graphene on copper samples is described for the first time. A PE-CVD process is used to synthesize graphene layers and nanodiamond clusters from a hydrogen/methane gas mixture as it is typically done successfully in thermal CVD processes for graphene synthesis. However, the standard thermal CVD process is not without problems since the deposition of graphene is affected by the evaporation of a notable amount of copper caused by the slow temperature increase typical for thermal CVD resulting in a long process time. In sharp contrast, the synthesis of graphene by PE-CVD can circumvent this problem by substantially shortening the process time at holding out the prospect of a lower substrate temperature. The reduced thermal load and the possibility to industrially scale-up the PE-CVD process makes it a very attractive alternative to the thermal CVD process with respect to the graphene production in the future. Nanodiamonds are synthesized in PE-CVD reactors for a long time because these processes offer a high degree of control over the film's nanostructure and simultaneously providing a significant high deposition rate. To model the co-deposition process, the three relevant macroscopic parameters (pressure, gas mixture and microwave power) are correlated with three relevant process properties (plasma ball size, substrate temperature and C2/Hα-ratio) and the influence on the quality of the deposited carbon allotropes is investigated. For the evaluation of the graphene as well as the nanodiamond quality, Raman spectroscopy used whereas the plasma properties are measured by optical methods. It is found that the diamond nucleation can be influenced by the C2/Hα-ratio in the plasma, while the graphene quality remains mostly unchanged by this parameter. Moreover it is derived from the experimental data that the direct plasma contact with the copper surface is beneficial for the nucleation of the diamond while the growth and

  19. Simultaneous synthesis of nanodiamonds and graphene via plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (MW PE-CVD) on copper.

    PubMed

    Gottlieb, Steven; Wöhrl, Nicolas; Schulz, Stephan; Buck, Volker

    2016-01-01

    The simultaneous growth of both nanodiamonds and graphene on copper samples is described for the first time. A PE-CVD process is used to synthesize graphene layers and nanodiamond clusters from a hydrogen/methane gas mixture as it is typically done successfully in thermal CVD processes for graphene synthesis. However, the standard thermal CVD process is not without problems since the deposition of graphene is affected by the evaporation of a notable amount of copper caused by the slow temperature increase typical for thermal CVD resulting in a long process time. In sharp contrast, the synthesis of graphene by PE-CVD can circumvent this problem by substantially shortening the process time at holding out the prospect of a lower substrate temperature. The reduced thermal load and the possibility to industrially scale-up the PE-CVD process makes it a very attractive alternative to the thermal CVD process with respect to the graphene production in the future. Nanodiamonds are synthesized in PE-CVD reactors for a long time because these processes offer a high degree of control over the film's nanostructure and simultaneously providing a significant high deposition rate. To model the co-deposition process, the three relevant macroscopic parameters (pressure, gas mixture and microwave power) are correlated with three relevant process properties (plasma ball size, substrate temperature and C2/Hα-ratio) and the influence on the quality of the deposited carbon allotropes is investigated. For the evaluation of the graphene as well as the nanodiamond quality, Raman spectroscopy used whereas the plasma properties are measured by optical methods. It is found that the diamond nucleation can be influenced by the C2/Hα-ratio in the plasma, while the graphene quality remains mostly unchanged by this parameter. Moreover it is derived from the experimental data that the direct plasma contact with the copper surface is beneficial for the nucleation of the diamond while the growth and

  20. Immunoregulatory functions and expression patterns of PE/PPE family members: Roles in pathogenicity and impact on anti-tuberculosis vaccine and drug design.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Asma; Das, Arghya; Mukhopadhyay, Sangita

    2015-06-01

    The Mycobacterium tuberculosis genome was sequenced more than 15 years ago. It revealed a lot of interesting information, one of which was that 10% of the total coding capacity of the M. tuberculosis genome is dedicated to the PE/PPE family. There is a gradual expansion of these proteins from nonpathogenic to pathogenic mycobacteria, and there is increasing evidence that PE/PPE proteins play important roles in mycobacterial pathogenesis. In this review, we discuss PE/PPE proteins, their close functional association with the ESX clusters, their immunomodulatory functions, and their important roles in mycobacterial virulence. In addition, we have attempted to review and compile information available in the literature detailing the expression patterns of PE/PPE family members in different mycobacterial species and also during infection. Our attempt has been to provide a succinct overview of this interesting family.

  1. Mycobacterium tuberculosis PE_PGRS17 Promotes the Death of Host Cell and Cytokines Secretion via Erk Kinase Accompanying with Enhanced Survival of Recombinant Mycobacterium smegmatis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Tian; Zhao, Quanju; Li, Wu

    2013-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains a serious threat to global public health, largely due to the successful manipulation of the host immunity by its etiological agent Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The PE_PGRS protein family of M. tuberculosis might be a contributing factor. To investigate the roles of PE_PGRS17, the gene of PE_PGRS 17 was expressed in nonpathogenic fast growing Mycobacterium smegmatis. We found that the recombinant strain survives better than the control in macrophage cultures, accompanied by more host cell death and a marked higher secretion of tumor necrosis factor-alpha by a recombinant strain compared with control. Blocking the action of Erk kinase by an inhibitor can abolish the above effects. In brief, our data showed that PE_PGRS 17 might facilitate pathogen survival and disserve the host cell via remodeling the macrophages immune niche largely consisting of inflammatory cytokines. This furnishes a novel insight into the immune role of this mycobacterium unique gene family. PMID:23663047

  2. Home treatment of patients with low-risk pulmonary embolism with the oral factor Xa inhibitor rivaroxaban. Rationale and design of the HoT-PE Trial.

    PubMed

    Barco, Stefano; Lankeit, Mareike; Binder, Harald; Schellong, Sebastian; Christ, Michael; Beyer-Westendorf, Jan; Duerschmied, Daniel; Bauersachs, Rupert; Empen, Klaus; Held, Matthias; Schwaiblmair, Martin; Fonseca, Cândida; Jiménez, David; Becattini, Cecilia; Quitzau, Kurt; Konstantinides, Stavros

    2016-07-01

    Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a potentially life-threatening acute cardiovascular syndrome. However, more than 95 % of patients are haemodynamically stable at presentation, and among them are patients at truly low risk who may qualify for immediate or early discharge. The Home Treatment of Pulmonary Embolism (HoT-PE) study is a prospective international multicentre single-arm phase 4 management (cohort) trial aiming to determine whether home treatment of acute low-risk PE with the oral factor Xa inhibitor rivaroxaban is feasible, effective, and safe. Patients with confirmed PE, who have no right ventricular dysfunction or free floating thrombi in the right atrium or ventricle, are eligible if they meet none of the exclusion criteria indicating haemodynamic instability, serious comorbidity or any condition mandating hospitalisation, or a familial/social environment unable to support home treatment. The first dose of rivaroxaban is given in hospital, and patients are discharged within 48 hours of presentation. Rivaroxaban is taken for at least three months. The primary outcome is symptomatic recurrent venous thromboembolism or PE-related death within three months of enrolment. Secondary outcomes include quality of life and patient satisfaction, and health care resource utilisation compared to existing data on standard-duration hospital treatment. HoT-PE is planned to analyse 1,050 enrolled patients, providing 80 % power to reject the null hypothesis that the recurrence rate of venous thromboembolism is >3 % with α≤0.05. If the hypothesis of HoT-PE is confirmed, early discharge and out-of-hospital treatment may become an attractive, potentially cost-saving option for a significant proportion of patients with acute PE. PMID:27010343

  3. Home treatment of patients with low-risk pulmonary embolism with the oral factor Xa inhibitor rivaroxaban. Rationale and design of the HoT-PE Trial.

    PubMed

    Barco, Stefano; Lankeit, Mareike; Binder, Harald; Schellong, Sebastian; Christ, Michael; Beyer-Westendorf, Jan; Duerschmied, Daniel; Bauersachs, Rupert; Empen, Klaus; Held, Matthias; Schwaiblmair, Martin; Fonseca, Cândida; Jiménez, David; Becattini, Cecilia; Quitzau, Kurt; Konstantinides, Stavros

    2016-07-01

    Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a potentially life-threatening acute cardiovascular syndrome. However, more than 95 % of patients are haemodynamically stable at presentation, and among them are patients at truly low risk who may qualify for immediate or early discharge. The Home Treatment of Pulmonary Embolism (HoT-PE) study is a prospective international multicentre single-arm phase 4 management (cohort) trial aiming to determine whether home treatment of acute low-risk PE with the oral factor Xa inhibitor rivaroxaban is feasible, effective, and safe. Patients with confirmed PE, who have no right ventricular dysfunction or free floating thrombi in the right atrium or ventricle, are eligible if they meet none of the exclusion criteria indicating haemodynamic instability, serious comorbidity or any condition mandating hospitalisation, or a familial/social environment unable to support home treatment. The first dose of rivaroxaban is given in hospital, and patients are discharged within 48 hours of presentation. Rivaroxaban is taken for at least three months. The primary outcome is symptomatic recurrent venous thromboembolism or PE-related death within three months of enrolment. Secondary outcomes include quality of life and patient satisfaction, and health care resource utilisation compared to existing data on standard-duration hospital treatment. HoT-PE is planned to analyse 1,050 enrolled patients, providing 80 % power to reject the null hypothesis that the recurrence rate of venous thromboembolism is >3 % with α≤0.05. If the hypothesis of HoT-PE is confirmed, early discharge and out-of-hospital treatment may become an attractive, potentially cost-saving option for a significant proportion of patients with acute PE.

  4. Functional analysis of the Na+,K+/H+ antiporter PeNHX3 from the tree halophyte Populus euphratica in yeast by model-guided mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liguang; Feng, Xueying; Zhao, Hong; Wang, Lidong; An, Lizhe; Qiu, Quan-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Na+,K+/H+ antiporters are H+-coupled cotransporters that are crucial for cellular homeostasis. Populus euphratica, a well-known tree halophyte, contains six Na+/H+ antiporter genes (PeNHX1-6) that have been shown to function in salt tolerance. However, the catalytic mechanisms governing their ion transport remain largely unknown. Using the crystal structure of the Na+/H+ antiporter from the Escherichia coli (EcNhaA) as a template, we built the three-dimensional structure of PeNHX3 from P. euphratica. The PeNHX3 model displays the typical TM4-TM11 assembly that is critical for ion binding and translocation. The PeNHX3 structure follows the 'positive-inside' rule and exhibits a typical physicochemical property of the transporter proteins. Four conserved residues, including Tyr149, Asn187, Asp188, and Arg356, are indentified in the TM4-TM11 assembly region of PeNHX3. Mutagenesis analysis showed that these reserved residues were essential for the function of PeNHX3: Asn187 and Asp188 (forming a ND motif) controlled ion binding and translocation, and Tyr149 and Arg356 compensated helix dipoles in the TM4-TM11 assembly. PeNHX3 mediated Na+, K+ and Li+ transport in a yeast growth assay. Domain-switch analysis shows that TM11 is crucial to Li+ transport. The novel features of PeNHX3 in ion binding and translocation are discussed. PMID:25093858

  5. Functional Analysis of the Na+,K+/H+ Antiporter PeNHX3 from the Tree Halophyte Populus euphratica in Yeast by Model-Guided Mutagenesis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Liguang; Feng, Xueying; Zhao, Hong; Wang, Lidong; An, Lizhe; Qiu, Quan-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Na+,K+/H+ antiporters are H+-coupled cotransporters that are crucial for cellular homeostasis. Populus euphratica, a well-known tree halophyte, contains six Na+/H+ antiporter genes (PeNHX1-6) that have been shown to function in salt tolerance. However, the catalytic mechanisms governing their ion transport remain largely unknown. Using the crystal structure of the Na+/H+ antiporter from the Escherichia coli (EcNhaA) as a template, we built the three-dimensional structure of PeNHX3 from P. euphratica. The PeNHX3 model displays the typical TM4-TM11 assembly that is critical for ion binding and translocation. The PeNHX3 structure follows the ‘positive-inside’ rule and exhibits a typical physicochemical property of the transporter proteins. Four conserved residues, including Tyr149, Asn187, Asp188, and Arg356, are indentified in the TM4-TM11 assembly region of PeNHX3. Mutagenesis analysis showed that these reserved residues were essential for the function of PeNHX3: Asn187 and Asp188 (forming a ND motif) controlled ion binding and translocation, and Tyr149 and Arg356 compensated helix dipoles in the TM4-TM11 assembly. PeNHX3 mediated Na+, K+ and Li+ transport in a yeast growth assay. Domain-switch analysis shows that TM11 is crucial to Li+ transport. The novel features of PeNHX3 in ion binding and translocation are discussed. PMID:25093858

  6. Avian papillomaviruses: the parrot Psittacus erithacus papillomavirus (PePV) genome has a unique organization of the early protein region and is phylogenetically related to the chaffinch papillomavirus

    PubMed Central

    Tachezy, Ruth; Rector, Annabel; Havelkova, Marta; Wollants, Elke; Fiten, Pierre; Opdenakker, Ghislain; Jenson, A Bennett; Sundberg, John P; Van Ranst, Marc

    2002-01-01

    Background An avian papillomavirus genome has been cloned from a cutaneous exophytic papilloma from an African grey parrot (Psittacus erithacus). The nucleotide sequence, genome organization, and phylogenetic position of the Psittacus erithacus papillomavirus (PePV) were determined. This PePV sequence represents the first complete avian papillomavirus genome defined. Results The PePV genome (7304 basepairs) differs from other papillomaviruses, in that it has a unique organization of the early protein region lacking classical E6 and E7 open reading frames. Phylogenetic comparison of the PePV sequence with partial E1 and L1 sequences of the chaffinch (Fringilla coelebs) papillomavirus (FPV) reveals that these two avian papillomaviruses form a monophyletic cluster with a common branch that originates near the unresolved center of the papillomavirus evolutionary tree. Conclusions The PePV genome has a unique layout of the early protein region which represents a novel prototypic genomic organization for avian papillomaviruses. The close relationship between PePV and FPV, and between their Psittaciformes and Passeriformes hosts, supports the hypothesis that papillomaviruses have co-evolved and speciated together with their host species throughout evolution. PMID:12110158

  7. Treatment of Pulmonary Embolism With Rivaroxaban: Outcomes by Simplified Pulmonary Embolism Severity Index Score from a Post Hoc Analysis of the EINSTEIN PE Study

    PubMed Central

    Fermann, Gregory J; Erkens, Petra M G; Prins, Martin H; Wells, Philip S; Pap, Ákos F; Lensing, Anthonie W A; Kline, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The objective was to assess adverse outcomes in relation to the simplified Pulmonary Embolism Severity Index (PESI) score in patients treated with rivaroxaban or standard therapy in the phase III EINSTEIN PE study and to evaluate the utility of the simplified PESI score to identify low-risk pulmonary embolism (PE) patients. Methods A post hoc analysis of EINSTEIN PE data was performed to assess the efficacy and safety of rivaroxaban in patients with a range of simplified PESI scores. Recurrent venous thromboembolism, fatal PE, all-cause mortality, and major bleeding were stratified by simplified PESI scores of 0, 1, or ≥2 and according to treatment period at 7, 14, 30, and 90 days and at the end of the full intended treatment period. Results Simplified PESI scores could be calculated in 4,831 of the 4,832 randomized patients; of those, 53.6, 36.7, and 9.7% had PESI scores of 0, 1, and ≥2, respectively. Among patients with simplified PESI scores of 0 or 1, fatal PE, all-cause mortality, and other adverse outcomes were uncommon within the first 7, 14, and 30 days. Patients with simplified PESI scores of ≥2 had more frequent adverse outcomes. Major bleeding was lower in the rivaroxaban group, particularly in those with simplified PESI scores of 1 or ≥2. Conclusions The findings support using risk stratification with the simplified PESI score to identify low-risk patients with PE. PMID:25716463

  8. Miguel Sánchez Peña (1925-2009) organizer of the space activities in Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de León, Pablo; Sánchez Peña, Miguel Alejandro

    2011-11-01

    One of the most important and active pioneers of the space activities in Argentina was Miguel Sánchez Peña, an aeronautical engineer and an officer of the Argentine Air Force. Sánchez Peña was the organizer of Argentina's governmental space program in the 1970s and part of the 80s, and contributed immeasurably to the Nation's sounding rocket program. Born in Mendoza, Argentina in 1925, Sánchez Peña attended the Military Aviation School (Escuela de Aviación Militar) in Córdoba, and later the Air Force Engineering School. Graduated as an engineer in 1959 he was sent to the University of Michigan in the United States to complete his graduate studies earning a Masters of Science degree in Aerospace Engineering. There he had the opportunity to study with several future NASA astronauts such as Theodore Freeman, Edward White and James McDivitt. After his return to Argentina in 1961 he was put in charge of the Space Development Group (Grupo de Desarrollos Espaciales) of the Air Force in Córdoba. While with the Air Force he managed the development of a family of various sounding rockets for high altitude research. Sánchez Peña was also in charge of the first Argentine rockets launched from Antarctica in 1965, as well as the first tests on an Argentine-fabricated rocket (Orión) from Wallops Island in the United States, in 1966. The Orion was the first operational sounding rocket constructed in South America. In the middle of the 1970s Miguel Sánchez Peña was named president of the CNIE (National Space Research Commission). Starting with just a modest one-desk office at the Argentine Air Force headquarters, in only a few years he turned CNIE into a multi-center organization with several hundred employees, three operational launch centers across the country and a family of research rockets open to the international scientific community. He was also actively representing Argentina in many IAF congresses, and was a member of the International Academy of

  9. In-situ deposition of YBCO high-Tc superconducting thin films by MOCVD and PE-MOCVD

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhao, J.; Noh, D. W.; Chern, C.; Li, Y. Q.; Norris, P. E.; Kear, B.; Gallois, B.

    1991-01-01

    Metal-Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition (MOCVD) offers the advantages of a high degree of compositional control, adaptability for large scale production, and the potential for low temperature fabrication. The capability of operating at high oxygen partial pressure is particularly suitable for in situ formation of high temperature superconducting (HTSC) films. Yttrium barium copper oxide (YBCO) thin films having a sharp zero-resistance transition with T(sub c) greater than 90 K and J(sub c) of approximately 10(exp 4) A on YSZ have been prepared, in situ, at a substrate temperature of about 800 C. Moreover, the ability to form oxide films at low temperature is very desirable for device applications of HTSC materials. Such a process would permit the deposition of high quality HTSC films with a smooth surface on a variety of substrates. Highly c-axis oriented, dense, scratch resistant, superconducting YBCO thin films with mirror-like surfaces have been prepared, in situ, at a reduced substrate temperature as low as 570 C by a remote microwave-plasma enhanced metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (PE-MOCVD) process. Nitrous oxide was used as a reactant gas to generate active oxidizing species. This process, for the first time, allows the formation of YBCO thin films with the orthorhombic superconducting phase in the as-deposited state. The as-deposited films grown by PE-MOCVD show attainment of zero resistance at 72 K with a transition width of about 5 K. MOCVD was carried out in a commercial production scale reactor with the capability of uniform deposition over 100 sq cm per growth run. Preliminary results indicate that PE-MOCVD is a very attractive thin film deposition process for superconducting device technology.

  10. In Situ deposition of YBCO high-T(sub c) superconducting thin films by MOCVD and PE-MOCVD

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhao, J.; Noh, D. W.; Chern, C.; Li, Y. Q.; Norris, P.; Gallois, B.; Kear, B.

    1990-01-01

    Metalorganic Chemical Vapor Deposition (MOCVD) offers the advantages of a high degree of compositional control, adaptability for large scale production, and the potential for low temperature fabrication. The capability of operating at high oxygen partial pressure is particularly suitable for in situ formation of high temperature superconducting (HTSC) films. Yttrium barium copper oxide (YBCO) thin films having a sharp zero-resistance transition with T( sub c) greater than 90 K and Jc approx. 10 to the 4th power A on YSZ have been prepared, in situ, at a substrate temperature of about 800 C. Moreover, the ability to form oxide films at low temperature is very desirable for device applications of HTSC materials. Such a process would permit the deposition of high quality HTSC films with a smooth surface on a variety of substrates. Highly c-axis oriented, dense, scratch resistant, superconducting YBCO thin films with mirror-like surfaces have been prepared, in situ, at a reduced substrate temperature as low as 570 C by a remote microwave-plasma enhanced metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (PE-MOCVD) process. Nitrous oxide was used as a reactant gas to generate active oxidizing species. This process, for the first time, allows the formation of YBCO thin films with the orthorhombic superconducting phase in the as-deposited state. The as-deposited films grown by PE-MOCVD show attainment of zero resistance at 72 K with a transition width of about 5 K. MOCVD was carried out in a commercial production scale reactor with the capability of uniform deposition over 100 sq cm per growth run. Preliminary results indicate that PE-MOCVD is a very attractive thin film deposition process for superconducting device technology.

  11. Could a multi-PeV neutrino event have as origin the internal shocks inside the GRB progenitor star?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraija, N.

    2016-03-01

    The IceCube Collaboration initially reported the detection of 37 extraterrestrial neutrinos in the TeV-PeV energy range. The reconstructed neutrino events were obtained during three consecutive years of data taking, from 2010 to 2013. Although these events have been discussed to have an extragalactic origin, they have not been correlated to any known source. Recently, the IceCube Collaboration reported a neutrino-induced muon event with energy of 2.6 ± 0.3 PeV which corresponds to the highest event ever detected. Neither the reconstructed direction of this event (J2000.0), detected on June 11 2014 at R.A. = 110 ° . 34, Dec. = 11 ° . 48 matches with any familiar source. Long gamma-ray bursts (lGRBs) are usually associated with the core collapse of massive stars leading relativistic-collimated jets inside stars with high-energy neutrino production. These neutrinos have been linked to the 37 events previously detected by IceCube experiment. In this work, we explore the conditions and values of parameters so that the highest neutrino recently detected could be generated by proton-photon and proton-hadron interactions at internal shocks inside lGRB progenitor star and then detected in IceCube experiment. Considering that internal shocks take place in a relativistic collimated jet, whose (half) opening angle is θ0 ∼ 0.1, we found that lGRBs with total luminosity L ≲1048 erg/s and internal shocks on the surface of progenitors such as Wolf-Rayet (WR) and blue super giant (BSG) stars favor this multi-PeV neutrino production, although this neutrino could be associated with L ∼1050.5 (∼1050) erg/s provided that the internal shocks occur at ∼109 (∼1010.2) cm for a WR (BSG).

  12. Long-circulating PEG-PE micelles co-loaded with paclitaxel and elacridar (GG918) overcome multidrug resistance.

    PubMed

    Sarisozen, Can; Vural, Imran; Levchenko, Tatyana; Hincal, A Atilla; Torchilin, Vladimir P

    2012-11-01

    Overexpression of drug efflux pump P-gp is one of the major reasons to cause multidrug resistance (MDR). To overcome P-gp mediated MDR, modulators, so called P-gp inhibitors, can be used to block efflux pump activity. Elacridar is one of the most potent P-gp inhibitors, which can cause irreversible and total P-gp blockage. Elacridar, among with other P-gp inhibitors, can be used in combination with anticancer drugs to enhance the effectiveness of chemotherapy against resistant tumor cells. On the other hand, P-gp is presented in normal tissues, thus non-selective blockage of P-gp can cause undesired side effects. Therefore, it is important to deliver P-gp inhibitor only to the tumor cells (along with anticancer drug) and limit its distribution in the body. In this study, we have developed PEG-PE-based long-circulating ca. 15 nm micelles co-loaded with elacridar and paclitaxel, and investigated their ability to overcome paclitaxel resistance in two cancer cell lines. Vitamin E, a common solubility enhancer for PEG-PE micelles, was found to have a negative effect on both particle size and encapsulation efficiencies. The human MDR1 gene-transfected and thus paclitaxel-resistant MDCKII-MDR1 P-gp overexpressing cells were used for cytotoxicity evaluation. Even though PEG-PE based micelles itself have a potential to enhance the cytotoxicity of paclitaxel, elacridar/paclitaxel-co-loaded micelles demonstrated the highest cytotoxicity compared to both free and micellar paclitaxel. The obtained results suggest that co-loading of paclitaxel and elacridar into micellar drug carriers results in promising preparations capable of overcoming paclitaxel resistance. PMID:23030458

  13. Electrostatic Properties of PE and PTFE Subjected to Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Treatment; Correlation of Experimental Results with Atomistic Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trigwell, Steve; Boucher, Derrick; Calle, Carlos

    2006-01-01

    The use of an atmospheric pressure glow discharge (APGD) plasma was used at KSC to increase the hydrophilicity of spaceport materials to enhance their surface charge dissipation and prevent possible ESD in spaceport operations. Significant decreases in charge decay times were observed after tribocharging the materials using the standard KSC tribocharging test. The polarity and amount of charge transferred was dependent upon the effective work function differences between the respective materials. In this study, polyethylene (PE) and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) were exposed to a He+O2 APGD. The pre and post treatment surface chemistry was analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and contact angle measurements. Semi-empirical and ab initio calculations were performed to correlate the experimental results with some plausible molecular and electronic structure features of the oxidation process. For the PE, significant surface oxidation was observed, as indicated by XPS showing C-O, C=O, and O-C=O bonding, and a decrease in the surface contact angle from 98.9 deg to 61.2 deg. For the PTFE, no C-O bonding appeared and the surface contact angle increased indicating the APGD only succeeded in cleaning the PTFE surface without affecting the surface structure. The calculations using the PM3 and DFT methods were performed on single and multiple oligomers to simulate a wide variety of oxidation scenarios. Calculated work function results suggest that regardless of oxidation mechanism, e.g. -OH, =0 or a combination thereof, the experimentally observed levels of surface oxidation are unlikely to lead to a significant change in the electronic structure of PE and that its increased hydrophilic properties are the primary reason for the observed changes in its electrostatic behavior. The calculations for PTFE argue strongly against significant oxidation of that material, as confirmed by the XPS results.

  14. Amino Acid coated uhmw-pe implants modify macrophage migration in the tissue-implant response - biomed 2011.

    PubMed

    Butler, Kenneth R; Benghuzzi, Hamed; Tucci, Michelle; Puckett, Aaron

    2011-01-01

    Polyethylene materials used in orthopedic applications are biocompatible and non-immunogenic with host tissues. Recent studies in our laboratory have demonstrated the need for further study of these devices in vivo to further elucidate methods to modulate the tissue-implant response. The purpose of this investigation was to determine macrophage behavior after implantation of ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMW-PE) rinsed with saline (control) and coated with poly-L-lysine (PLL), arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD), and arginine-glycine-glutamic acid (RGE) into 16 adult male rats intraperitoneally (I/P). Implants and surrounding tissue were harvested at 90 days post-implantation. The animals were euthanized; and the UHMW-PE implants and the fibrous tissue capsules surrounding them were harvested. Microscopic examination of routinely stained sections (5 microns, Hematoxylin & Eosin) of the fibrous tissue capsules revealed macrophage counts were highest in the saline coated group (9.75±0.86 cells/high power field). Amino acid coated implants resulted in decreased mean macrophage counts per high power field for RGD (3.51±0.45), RGE (2.86±0.06), and PLL (4.2±0.55) compared to saline and the differences were statistically significant (ANOVA, p < 0.05). These findings indicate macrophage behavior at the tissue-implant interface and in surrounding fibrous tissue can be reduced using various amino acid combination coatings. In addition, these results provide evidence that the intensity of the chronic inflammatory reaction to UHMW-PE can be reduced and controlled to some extent. PMID:21525627

  15. New CO2 adsorbent containing aminated poly(glycidyl methacrylate) grafted onto irradiated PE-PP nonwoven sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmoud Nasef, Mohamed; Abbasi, Ali; Ting, T. M.

    2014-10-01

    A new CO2 adsorbent containing triethylamine (TEA) was prepared by radiation induced grafting of glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) onto polyethylene coated polypropylene (PE-PP) non-woven sheet followed by amination reaction. The degree of grafting (DOG%) was controlled by variation of monomer concentration and absorbed dose. The incorporation of aminated poly(GMA) was investigated by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The adsorbent with DOG of 350% and amination yield of 60% exhibited CO2 adsorption capacity of 4.52 mol/kg at ambient temperature and pressure.

  16. Toxicity and disposition of 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran (4PeCDF) in the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta)

    SciTech Connect

    Brewster, D.W.; Elwell, M.R.; Birnbaum, L.S.

    1988-04-01

    The toxicity and disposition of 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran (4PeCDF), a ubiquitous and acutely toxic environmental contaminant, was examined in three adult male Rhesus monkeys administered a single iv dose of 34 micrograms (0.1 mumol)/kg. Within 20 min, 4PeCDF was eliminated from the blood and was distributed to the liver, skin, adipose, and muscle tissues. Excretion occurred primarily via the feces with a minimum whole body half-life approximately 38 days. Within 7-14 days after administration, the packed cell volume and serum triglyceride and bile acid concentrations were significantly increased while serum cholesterol, protein, and albumin concentrations were decreased relative to pretreatment levels. Thyroid hormone levels were also altered with an increase in TSH and a decrease in T3 and T4 concentrations. After 28 days, two monkeys began exhibiting alopecia, hyperkeratinization of the toe and finger nails, facial chloracne-like lesions, and loss of body weight. They subsequently died 40 and 48 days after treatment. Similar symptoms of toxicity were observed in the third animal 58 days after 4PeCDF administration, but this animal appeared to fully recover and was administered 4PeCDF orally and (3H)1,2,3,7,8-pentachloro-dibenzofuran (1PeCDF) dermally 238 days after the initial iv dose. In this animal, approximately 2% of an oral dose of (14C)-4PeCDF was absorbed from the stomach and small intestine in 6 hr and was distributed mainly to the muscle and skin and less than 99% of a dermal dose of 1PeCDF remained at the site of application. Pathological findings in the monkeys that died indicated hyperplastic and metaplastic changes in the gastric mucosa, the Meibomian glands of the eyelid, and the ceruminous glands of the ear. Regression of these lesions was present in the surviving animal.

  17. DEAD-box helicase DDX27 regulates 3′ end formation of ribosomal 47S RNA and stably associates with the PeBoW-complex

    SciTech Connect

    Kellner, Markus; Rohrmoser, Michaela; Forné, Ignasi; Voss, Kirsten; Burger, Kaspar; Mühl, Bastian; Gruber-Eber, Anita; Kremmer, Elisabeth; Imhof, Axel; Eick, Dirk

    2015-05-15

    PeBoW, a trimeric complex consisting of pescadillo (Pes1), block of proliferation (Bop1), and the WD repeat protein 12 (WDR12), is essential for processing and maturation of mammalian 5.8S and 28S ribosomal RNAs. Applying a mass spectrometric analysis, we identified the DEAD-box helicase DDX27 as stably associated factor of the PeBoW-complex. DDX27 interacts with the PeBoW-complex via an evolutionary conserved F×F motif in the N-terminal domain and is recruited to the nucleolus via its basic C-terminal domain. This recruitment is RNA-dependent and occurs independently of the PeBoW-complex. Interestingly, knockdown of DDX27, but not of Pes1, induces the accumulation of an extended form of the primary 47S rRNA. We conclude that DDX27 can interact specifically with the Pes1 and Bop1 but fulfils critical function(s) for proper 3′ end formation of 47S rRNA independently of the PeBoW-complex. - Highlights: • DEAD-box helicase DDX27 is a new constituent of the PeBoW-complex. • The N-terminal F×F motif of DDX27 interacts with the PeBoW components Pes1 and Bop1. • Nucleolar anchoring of DDX27 via its basic C-terminal domain is RNA dependent. • Knockdown of DDX27 induces a specific defect in 3′ end formation of 47S rRNA.

  18. Membrane Morphology Is Actively Transformed by Covalent Binding of the Protein Atg8 to PE-Lipids

    PubMed Central

    Knorr, Roland L.; Nakatogawa, Hitoshi; Ohsumi, Yoshinori; Lipowsky, Reinhard; Baumgart, Tobias; Dimova, Rumiana

    2014-01-01

    Autophagy is a cellular degradation pathway involving the shape transformation of lipid bilayers. During the onset of autophagy, the water-soluble protein Atg8 binds covalently to phosphatdylethanolamines (PEs) in the membrane in an ubiquitin-like reaction coupled to ATP hydrolysis. We reconstituted the Atg8 conjugation system in giant and nm-sized vesicles with a minimal set of enzymes and observed that formation of Atg8-PE on giant vesicles can cause substantial tubulation of membranes even in the absence of Atg12-Atg5-Atg16. Our findings show that ubiquitin-like processes can actively change properties of lipid membranes and that membrane crowding by proteins can be dynamically regulated in cells. Furthermore we provide evidence for curvature sorting of Atg8-PE. Curvature generation and sorting are directly linked to organelle shapes and, thus, to biological function. Our results suggest that a positive feedback exists between the ubiquitin-like reaction and the membrane curvature, which is important for dynamic shape changes of cell membranes, such as those involved in the formation of autophagosomes. PMID:25522362

  19. Direct radiocarbon dates for Vindija G1 and Velika Pećina Late Pleistocene hominid remains

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Fred H.; Trinkaus, Erik; Pettitt, Paul B.; Karavanić, Ivor; Paunović, Maja

    1999-01-01

    New accelerator mass spectrometry radiocarbon dates taken directly on human remains from the Late Pleistocene sites of Vindija and Velika Pećina in the Hrvatsko Zagorje of Croatia are presented. Hominid specimens from both sites have played critical roles in the development of current perspectives on modern human evolutionary emergence in Europe. Dates of ≈28 thousand years (ka) before the present (B.P.) and ≈29 ka B.P. for two specimens from Vindija G1 establish them as the most recent dated Neandertals in the Eurasian range of these archaic humans. The human frontal bone from Velika Pećina, generally considered one of the earliest representatives of modern humans in Europe, dated to ≈5 ka B.P., rendering it no longer pertinent to discussions of modern human origins. Apart from invalidating the only radiometrically based example of temporal overlap between late Neandertal and early modern human fossil remains from within any region of Europe, these dates raise the question of when early modern humans first dispersed into Europe and have implications for the nature and geographic patterning of biological and cultural interactions between these populations and the Neandertals. PMID:10535913

  20. PEG-PE micelles loaded with paclitaxel and surface-modified by a PBR-ligand: synergistic anticancer effect.

    PubMed

    Musacchio, Tiziana; Laquintana, Valentino; Latrofa, Andrea; Trapani, Giuseppe; Torchilin, Vladimir P

    2009-01-01

    Selective ligands to the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBR) may induce apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. An overexpression of PBR in certain cancers allowed us to consider the use of highly selective ligands to PBR for receptor-mediated drug targeting to tumors. With this in mind, we prepared PBR-targeted nanoparticulate drug delivery systems (PEG-PE micelles) loaded with the anticancer drug paclitaxel (PCL) to test possible synergistic anticancer effects. PEG2k-PE-based polymeric micelles with and without PCL were prepared in HBS, pH 7.5, and conjugated with a PBR-ligand (CB86) in 0.45% of DMSO. The cytotoxic effect of such micelles against the LN 18 human glioblastoma cell line was studied in cell culture. The micelles maintained their size and size distribution and remained intact without drug release after the PBR-ligand conjugation. The PCL-loaded PBR-targeted micelles showed a significantly enhanced toxicity against human glioblastoma LN 18 cancer cells in vitro. Thus, PBR-targeted nanopreparations may potentially serve as a new nanomedicine for targeted cancer therapy.

  1. A validation study of the Keyboard Personal Computer Style instrument (K-PeCS) for use with children.

    PubMed

    Green, Dido; Meroz, Anat; Margalit, Adi Edit; Ratzon, Navah Z

    2012-11-01

    This study examines a potential instrument for measurement of typing postures of children. This paper describes inter-rater, test-retest reliability and concurrent validity of the Keyboard Personal Computer Style instrument (K-PeCS), an observational measurement of postures and movements during keyboarding, for use with children. Two trained raters independently rated videos of 24 children (aged 7-10 years). Six children returned one week later for identifying test-retest reliability. Concurrent validity was assessed by comparing ratings obtained using the K-PECS to scores from a 3D motion analysis system. Inter-rater reliability was moderate to high for 12 out of 16 items (Kappa: 0.46 to 1.00; correlation coefficients: 0.77-0.95) and test-retest reliability varied across items (Kappa: 0.25 to 0.67; correlation coefficients: r = 0.20 to r = 0.95). Concurrent validity compared favourably across arm pathlength, wrist extension and ulnar deviation. In light of the limitations of other tools the K-PeCS offers a fairly affordable, reliable and valid instrument to address the gap for measurement of typing styles of children, despite the shortcomings of some items. However further research is required to refine the instrument for use in evaluating typing among children.

  2. The direct detection of boosted dark matter at high energies and PeV events at IceCube

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharya, A.; Gandhi, R.; Gupta, A.

    2015-03-13

    We study the possibility of detecting dark matter directly via a small but energetic component that is allowed within present-day constraints. Drawing closely upon the fact that neutral current neutrino nucleon interactions are indistinguishable from DM-nucleon interactions at low energies, we extend this feature to high energies for a small, non-thermal but highly energetic population of DM particle χ, created via the decay of a significantly more massive and long-lived non-thermal relic Φ, which forms the bulk of DM. If χ interacts with nucleons, its cross-section, like the neutrino-nucleus coherent cross-section, can rise sharply with energy leading to deep inelastic scattering, similar to neutral current neutrino-nucleon interactions at high energies. Thus, its direct detection may be possible via cascades in very large neutrino detectors. As a specific example, we apply this notion to the recently reported three ultra-high energy PeV cascade events clustered around 1 – 2 PeV at IceCube (IC). We discuss the features which may help discriminate this scenario from one in which only astrophysical neutrinos constitute the event sample in detectors like IC.

  3. The direct detection of boosted dark matter at high energies and PeV events at IceCube

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharya, A.; Gandhi, R.; Gupta, A.

    2015-03-13

    We study the possibility of detecting dark matter directly via a small but energetic component that is allowed within present-day constraints. Drawing closely upon the fact that neutral current neutrino nucleon interactions are indistinguishable from DM-nucleon interactions at low energies, we extend this feature to high energies for a small, non-thermal but highly energetic population of DM particle χ, created via the decay of a significantly more massive and long-lived non-thermal relic ϕ, which forms the bulk of DM. If χ interacts with nucleons, its cross-section, like the neutrino-nucleus coherent cross-section, can rise sharply with energy leading to deep inelastic scattering, similar to neutral current neutrino-nucleon interactions at high energies. Thus, its direct detection may be possible via cascades in very large neutrino detectors. As a specific example, we apply this notion to the recently reported three ultra-high energy PeV cascade events clustered around 1−2 PeV at IceCube (IC). We discuss the features which may help discriminate this scenario from one in which only astrophysical neutrinos constitute the event sample in detectors like IC.

  4. The direct detection of boosted dark matter at high energies and PeV events at IceCube

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Bhattacharya, A.; Gandhi, R.; Gupta, A.

    2015-03-13

    We study the possibility of detecting dark matter directly via a small but energetic component that is allowed within present-day constraints. Drawing closely upon the fact that neutral current neutrino nucleon interactions are indistinguishable from DM-nucleon interactions at low energies, we extend this feature to high energies for a small, non-thermal but highly energetic population of DM particle χ, created via the decay of a significantly more massive and long-lived non-thermal relic Φ, which forms the bulk of DM. If χ interacts with nucleons, its cross-section, like the neutrino-nucleus coherent cross-section, can rise sharply with energy leading to deep inelasticmore » scattering, similar to neutral current neutrino-nucleon interactions at high energies. Thus, its direct detection may be possible via cascades in very large neutrino detectors. As a specific example, we apply this notion to the recently reported three ultra-high energy PeV cascade events clustered around 1 – 2 PeV at IceCube (IC). We discuss the features which may help discriminate this scenario from one in which only astrophysical neutrinos constitute the event sample in detectors like IC.« less

  5. Blue 405 nm laser light mediates heart rate – investigations at the acupoint Neiguan (Pe.6) in Chinese adults

    PubMed Central

    Litscher, Gerhard; Xie, Zheng; Wang, Lu; Gaischek, Ingrid

    2009-01-01

    Background: In previous studies, we showed that laser needle acupuncture with red and infrared light has specific effects on bio-signals of the brain and heart. Aims: In this publication we report the effect of blue laser light on heart rate and heart rate variability (HRV) before, during and after acupuncture at the acupoint Neiguan (Pe.6) in Chinese adults. These are the first data published concerning heart rate and HRV, obtained with blue laser acupuncture equipment. Patients and Methods: The investigations were carried out in 13 healthy Chinese volunteers with a mean age of 31.2 ± 7.5 years within a randomized, controlled study. Stimulation was performed with painless blue laser light (wavelength: 405 nm; activation: 10 minutes) bilaterally at Pe.6. In a second session, for control reasons the laser was not activated. Results: Heart rate showed a significant (p=0.008) decrease during blue laser light stimulation. In contrast, no significant changes were found when the laser was deactivated. The evaluation parameter LF/HF ratio (low frequency/high frequency ratio) from the HRV spectral analysis showed a very slight increase during stimulation, however it was not significant. Conclusions: Our main conclusion is that continuous blue laser light stimulation on Neiguan significantly reduces heart rate of Chinese adults. PMID:22666700

  6. PEG-PE micelles loaded with paclitaxel and surface-modified by a PBR-ligand: synergistic anticancer effect

    PubMed Central

    Musacchio, Tiziana; Laquintana, Valentino; Latrofa, Andrea; Trapani, Giuseppe; Torchilin, Vladimir P.

    2009-01-01

    Selective ligands to the Peripheral Benzodiazepine Receptor (PBR) may induce apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. An over-expression of PBR in certain cancers allowed us to consider the use of highly selective ligands to PBR for receptor-mediated drug targeting to tumors. With this in mind, we prepared PBR-targeted nanoparticulate drug delivery systems (PEG-PE micelles) loaded with the anticancer drug paclitaxel (PCL) to test possible synergistic anticancer effects. PEG2k-PE-based polymeric micelles with and without PCL were prepared in HBS, pH 7.5, and conjugated with a PBR-ligand (CB86) in 0.45% of DMSO. The cytotoxic effect of such micelles against the LN 18 human glioblastoma cell line was studied in cell culture. The micelles maintained their size and size distribution and remained intact without drug release after the PBR-ligand conjugation. The PCL-loaded PBR-targeted micelles showed a significantly enhanced toxicity against human glioblastoma LN 18 cancer cells in vitro. Thus, PBR-targeted nanopreparations may potentially serve as a new nanomedicine for targeted cancer therapy. PMID:19718800

  7. Optimal topology and experimental evaluation of PE materials for actively shunted GE polymer matrix fiber composite blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Benjamin B.; Duffy, Kirsten; Kauffman, Jeffrey L.; Kray, Nicholas

    2012-04-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), in collaboration with GE Aviation, has begun the development of a smart adaptive structure system with piezoelectric transducers to improve composite fan blade damping at resonances. Traditional resonant damping approaches may not be realistic for rotating frame applications such as engine blades. The limited space in which the blades reside in the engine makes it impossible to accommodate the circuit size required to implement passive resonant damping. Thus, we have developed a novel digital shunt scheme to replace the conventional electric passive shunt circuits. The digital shunt dissipates strain energy through the load capacitor on a power amplifier. GE designed and fabricated a variety of polymer matrix fiber composite (PMFC) test specimens. We investigated the optimal topology of PE sensors and actuators for each test specimen to discover the best PE transducer location for each target mode. Also a variety of flexible patches, which can conform to the blade surface, have been tested to identify the best performing piezoelectric patch. The active damping control achieved significant performance at target modes. This work has been highlighted by successful spin testing up to 5,000 rpm of subscale GEnx composite blades in GRC's Dynamic Spin Rig.

  8. The efficacy of trivalent cyclic hexapeptides to induce lipid clustering in PG/PE membranes correlates with their antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Finger, Sebastian; Kerth, Andreas; Dathe, Margitta; Blume, Alfred

    2015-11-01

    Various models have been proposed for the sequence of events occurring after binding of specific antimicrobial peptides to lipid membranes. The lipid clustering model arose by the finding that antimicrobial peptides can induce a segregation of certain negatively charged lipids in lipid model membranes. Anionic lipid segregation by cationic peptides is initially an effect of charge interaction where the ratio of peptide and lipid charges is thought to be the decisive parameter in the peptide induced lipid demixing. However, the sequence of events following this initial lipid clustering is more complex and can lead to deactivation of membrane proteins involved in cell division or perturbation of lipid reorganization essential for cell division. In this study we used DSC and ITC techniques to investigate the effect of binding different cyclic hexapeptides with varying antimicrobial efficacy, to phosphatidylglycerol (PG)/phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) lipid membranes and their ability to induce lipid segregation in these mixtures. We found that these cyclic hexapeptides consisting of three charged and three aromatic amino acids showed indeed different abilities to induce lipid demixing depending on their amino acid composition and their sequence. The results clearly showed that the cationic amino acids are essential for electrostatic binding but that the three hydrophobic amino acids in the peptides and their position in the sequence also contribute to binding affinity and to the extent of induction of lipid clustering. The efficacy of these different hexapeptides to induce PG clusters in PG/PE membranes was found to be correlated with their antimicrobial activity.

  9. Cognitive control of conscious error awareness: error awareness and error positivity (Pe) amplitude in moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury (TBI).

    PubMed

    Logan, Dustin M; Hill, Kyle R; Larson, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Poor awareness has been linked to worse recovery and rehabilitation outcomes following moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury (M/S TBI). The error positivity (Pe) component of the event-related potential (ERP) is linked to error awareness and cognitive control. Participants included 37 neurologically healthy controls and 24 individuals with M/S TBI who completed a brief neuropsychological battery and the error awareness task (EAT), a modified Stroop go/no-go task that elicits aware and unaware errors. Analyses compared between-group no-go accuracy (including accuracy between the first and second halves of the task to measure attention and fatigue), error awareness performance, and Pe amplitude by level of awareness. The M/S TBI group decreased in accuracy and maintained error awareness over time; control participants improved both accuracy and error awareness during the course of the task. Pe amplitude was larger for aware than unaware errors for both groups; however, consistent with previous research on the Pe and TBI, there were no significant between-group differences for Pe amplitudes. Findings suggest possible attention difficulties and low improvement of performance over time may influence specific aspects of error awareness in M/S TBI. PMID:26217212

  10. The PE-PPE Domain in Mycobacterium Reveals a Serine α/β Hydrolase Fold and Function: An In-Silico Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sultana, Rafiya; Tanneeru, Karunakar; Guruprasad, Lalitha

    2011-01-01

    The PE and PPE proteins first reported in the genome sequence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain H37Rv are now identified in all mycobacterial species. The PE-PPE domain (Pfam ID: PF08237) is a 225 amino acid residue conserved region located towards the C-terminus of some PE and PPE proteins and hypothetical proteins. Our in-silico sequence analysis revealed that this domain is present in all Mycobacteria, some Rhodococcus and Nocardia farcinica genomes. This domain comprises a pentapeptide sequence motif GxSxG/S at the N-terminus and conserved amino acid residues Ser, Asp and His that constitute a catalytic triad characteristic of lipase, esterase and cutinase activity. The fold prediction and comparative modeling of the 3-D structure of the PE-PPE domain revealed a “serine α/β hydrolase” structure with a central β-sheet flanked by α-helices on either side. The structure comprises a lid insertion with a closed structure conformation and has a solvent inaccessible active site. The oxyanion hole that stabilizes the negative charge on the tetrahedral intermediate has been identified. Our findings add to the growing list of serine hydrolases in mycobacterium, which are essential for the maintenance of their impermeable cell wall and virulence. These results provide the directions for the design of experiments to establish the function of PE and PPE proteins. PMID:21347309

  11. Cognitive control of conscious error awareness: error awareness and error positivity (Pe) amplitude in moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury (TBI)

    PubMed Central

    Logan, Dustin M.; Hill, Kyle R.; Larson, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Poor awareness has been linked to worse recovery and rehabilitation outcomes following moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury (M/S TBI). The error positivity (Pe) component of the event-related potential (ERP) is linked to error awareness and cognitive control. Participants included 37 neurologically healthy controls and 24 individuals with M/S TBI who completed a brief neuropsychological battery and the error awareness task (EAT), a modified Stroop go/no-go task that elicits aware and unaware errors. Analyses compared between-group no-go accuracy (including accuracy between the first and second halves of the task to measure attention and fatigue), error awareness performance, and Pe amplitude by level of awareness. The M/S TBI group decreased in accuracy and maintained error awareness over time; control participants improved both accuracy and error awareness during the course of the task. Pe amplitude was larger for aware than unaware errors for both groups; however, consistent with previous research on the Pe and TBI, there were no significant between-group differences for Pe amplitudes. Findings suggest possible attention difficulties and low improvement of performance over time may influence specific aspects of error awareness in M/S TBI. PMID:26217212

  12. Robustness evaluation of a computer-aided detection system for pulmonary embolism (PE) in CTPA using independent test set from multiple institutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Chuan; Chan, Heang-Ping; Chughtai, Aamer; Kuriakose, Jean W.; Kazerooni, Ella A.; Hadjiiski, Lubomir M.; Wei, Jun; Patel, Smita

    2015-03-01

    We have developed a computer-aided detection (CAD) system for assisting radiologists in detection of pulmonary embolism (PE) in computed tomographic pulmonary angiographic (CTPA) images. The CAD system includes stages of pulmonary vessel segmentation, prescreening of PE candidates and false positive (FP) reduction to identify suspicious PEs. The system was trained with 59 CTPA PE cases collected retrospectively from our patient files (UM set) with IRB approval. Five feature groups containing 139 features that characterized the intensity texture, gradient, intensity homogeneity, shape, and topology of PE candidates were initially extracted. Stepwise feature selection guided by simplex optimization was used to select effective features for FP reduction. A linear discriminant analysis (LDA) classifier was formulated to differentiate true PEs from FPs. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the performance of our CAD system using an independent test set of CTPA cases. The test set consists of 50 PE cases from the PIOPED II data set collected by multiple institutions with access permission. A total of 537 PEs were manually marked by experienced thoracic radiologists as reference standard for the test set. The detection performance was evaluated by freeresponse receiver operating characteristic (FROC) analysis. The FP classifier obtained a test Az value of 0.847 and the FROC analysis indicated that the CAD system achieved an overall sensitivity of 80% at 8.6 FPs/case for the PIOPED test set.

  13. Physical activity among adolescents and barriers to delivering physical education in Cornwall and Lancashire, UK: A qualitative study of heads of PE and heads of schools

    PubMed Central

    Boyle, Spencer Earl; Jones, Georgina L; Walters, Stephen J

    2008-01-01

    Background Recent initiatives have been introduced by the UK government into secondary schools to increase pupils' access to physical activity (PA). Despite this, not enough is known about pupils' levels of physical activity or whether the delivery of these initiatives in schools facilitates or creates a barrier for pupils' PA. The aim of this study was to gain an understanding of adolescents PA levels from the perspective of those responsible for delivering physical education (PE) in schools; heads of PE (HOPE) and heads of school (HS). Methods Seventeen semi-structured qualitative interviews were carried out with a snowball sample of HOPE and HS in schools in the Northwest and Southwest of England. Thematic data analysis using NVIVO was used to identify emergent themes. Results 17 core themes were generated, 12 of which confirmed the findings from similar research. However, five themes relating to 'ethos of performance/elitism', 'lower fitness leads to lower ability', 'undervaluing activities within PE dept' or school as a whole', 'role of the school' and 'PE department doing all it can' offer valuable new insight into the factors which may encourage or prevent PA inside or outside the curriculum. Conclusion Despite many positive perceptions of the delivery of PE in schools, it is evident that barriers still exist within that delivery which discourages physical activity. More research is needed to particularly address the complex issues of elitism and the ethos of PA in schools. PMID:18673562

  14. Cloning and characterization of a novel PE_PGRS60 protein (Rv3652) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37 Rv exhibit fibronectin-binding property.

    PubMed

    Meena, Laxman S; Meena, Jaishree

    2016-07-01

    The binding of pathogenic bacteria to extracellular matrix components enhances adhesion and invasion of host cells. The host receptor proteins such as fibronectin (Fn) targeted to pathogenic ligands that have clinical importance. In the present study, we cloned, expressed, purified, and identified a novel Fn-binding protein from PE_PGRS60 (Rv3652) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37 Rv. The protein product of Rv3652 showed optimum binding efficiency to 10 ng Fn at 0.2 µg purified protein of PE_PGRS60 and 20 ng Fn at 0.2 µg concentrations, respectively. PE_PGRS60 protein (primary sequences) of different pathogenic mycobacterium species retrieved from NCBI exhibited complete homology at the 104 residues on multiple sequence alignment. The primary sequence of protein from H37 Rv was further used to predict cleavage signals. The secondary structure prediction method revealed a number of residues responsible for alpha helices formation and percentage of residues participating in the random coils and extended strands. In addition, online prediction tools such as B- and T-cell epitopes showed the surface probability scale and antigenic propensity scale. The current finding opens new opportunity to mycobacterial survival and pathogenesis research of PE-polymorphic GC-rich repetitive sequences (PE-PGRS) family proteins.

  15. Animal experiments with ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMW-PE) stabilised with alpha-tocopherol used for articulating surfaces in joint endoprostheses.

    PubMed

    Wolf, C; Lederer, K; Bergmeister, H; Losert, U; Böck, P

    2006-12-01

    Numerous investigations proved the impressive suitability of alpha-tocopherol as a stabilizer for ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMW-PE) used for endoprostheses. Regarding the biocompatibility of this new biomaterial, in-vitro celltoxicity tests gave no hint for a cyto- or genotoxic activity. In this study, animal experiments are carried out to further ensure the biocompatibility of this biomaterial. Thin UHMW-PE-films (20 x 6 x 0.23 mm3) were implanted subcutaneously into rats. Morphology and reactivity of surrounding connective tissue against either pure UHMW-PE material or UHMW-PE containing alpha-tocopherol were studied at timed intervals (2 weeks, 3 month, and 6 month after operation) in 3 groups of animals, each group comprising 10 animals. Parallel to these tests, material changes were investigated in these 3 groups of 10 animals at the same intervals after operation with the help of infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Within the implantation time, no noteworthy oxidative degradation could be observed. The amount of lost alpha-tocopherol due to diffusion is low enough to ensure a lifetime stabilisation of the UHMW-PE. The implants were all well tolerated and definitely encapsulated already 2 weeks after operation. Presence or absence of alpha-tocopherol in the implants did not evince morphological differences. Therefore, negative consequences were not manifest in the presence of alpha-tocopherol. PMID:17143766

  16. Taxonomic revision of Phygopoda Thomson, 1864 and Pseudophygopoda Tavakilian & Peñaherrera-Leiva, 2007 (Insecta: Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Cerambycinae).

    PubMed

    Carelli, Allan; Monné, Marcela L

    2015-01-01

    A taxonomic revision based on the study of the external morphology and the terminalia of Phygopoda Thomson, 1864 and Pseudophygopoda Tavakilian & Peñaherrera-Leiva, 2007 is presented. The genera and their species are redescribed. Five synonymies are proposed: Panamapoda Clarke, 2014 and Paraphygopoda Clarke, 2014 = Pseudophygopoda Tavakilian & Peñaherrera-Leiva, 2007; Paraphygopoda viridimicans (Fisher, 1952); Paraphygopoda nappae Clarke, 2014; and Paraphygopoda longipennis (Zajciw, 1963) = Pseudophygopoda albitarsis (Klug, 1825). The genus Phygopoda is composed of five species: Phygopoda fugax Thomson, 1864; Phygopoda fulvitarsis Gounelle, 1911; Phygopoda ingae Peñaherrera-Leiva & Tavakilian, 2004; Phygopoda jacobi Fuchs, 1961; and Phygopoda nigritarsis Gounelle, 1911. Pseudophygopoda is now composed of three species: Pseudophygopoda subvestita (White, 1855), Pseudophygopoda panamensis (Giesbert, 1996) comb. nov., and Pseudophygopoda albitarsis (Klug, 1825) comb. nov. New geographical records are reported for six species. A key to the species of Phygopoda and Pseudophygopoda, photographs, plates of drawings, and maps of the geographical distribution of the species are provided.

  17. [RS3PE syndrome associated with senile Epstein-Barr virus-positive diffuse large B cell lymphoma of a patient with colon cancer].

    PubMed

    Shimoyama, Saori; Kuroda, Hiroyuki; Yoshida, Masahiro; Usami, Makoto; Sakamoto, Hiroki; Yamada, Michiko; Fujii, Shigeyuki; Maeda, Masahiro; Fujita, Miri; Nakano, Tatsumi; Kanari, Yusuke; Iyama, Satoshi; Kato, Junji

    2015-11-01

    A 75-year-old woman consulted her doctor in January 2014 because of pain in the dorsum of the hands, elbows, shoulders, and knees, bilaterally, and was diagnosed as having remitting seronegative symmetrical synovitis with pitting edema (RS3PE) syndrome. Although the joint pain improved with low-dose prednisolone administration, she was referred to our department in April of 2014 because she had become aware of swelling of the right cervical lymph node. Biopsy of the lymph node demonstrated that she had Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) of the elderly, and colonoscopy revealed early colon cancer. Also, both the lymphoma and colon cancer stained positive for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Complete remission was achieved after two courses of R-CHOP, and RS3PE syndrome did not relapse. This case suggested the involvement of VEGF produced by EBV-positive DLBCL in the pathogenesis of RS3PE syndrome.

  18. Penetration of HIV-1 Tat47-57 into PC/PE Bilayers Assessed by MD Simulation and X-ray Scattering.

    PubMed

    Neale, Chris; Huang, Kun; García, Angel E; Tristram-Nagle, Stephanie

    2015-09-22

    The interactions of the basic, cell-penetrating region (Y47GRKKRRQRRR57) of the HIV-1 Tat protein with dioleoylphosphatidylcholine (DOPC) bilayers were previously assessed by comparing experimental X-ray diffuse scattering with atomistic molecular dynamics simulations. Here, we extend this investigation by evaluating the influence of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) lipids. Using experimental bilayer form factors derivedfrom X-ray diffuse scattering data as a guide, our simulations indicate that Tat peptides localize close to the carbonyl-glycerol group in the headgroup region of bilayers composed of either DOPC or DOPC:DOPE (1:1) lipid. Our results also suggest that Tat peptides may more frequently insert into the hydrophobic core of bilayers composed of PC:PE (1:1) lipids than into bilayers composed entirely of PC lipids. PE lipids may facilitate peptide translocation across a lipid bilayer by stabilizing intermediate states in which hydrated peptides span the bilayer.

  19. Preparation and characterization of a PVDF-HFP/PEGDMA-coated PE separator for lithium-ion polymer battery by electron beam irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohn, Joon-Yong; Im, Jong Su; Gwon, Sung-Jin; Choi, Jae-Hak; Shin, Junhwa; Nho, Young-Chang

    2009-07-01

    In this study, polyethylene separators were modified by dip coating of polyethylene (PE) separators in poly(vinylidene fluoride- co-hexafluoropropylene)/poly(ethylene glycol) dimethacrylate (PVDF-HFP/PEGDMA) mixtures at different humidity levels (0-50%), followed by electron beam irradiation. Micro-porous structures of the coating layer were generated by performing dip-coating process at high humidity levels (i.e. phase inversion process) and were found to be affected by the PEGDMA content and humidity level. The thermal shrinkage of the prepared separators significantly decreased with increasing EB absorption dose due to the formation of crosslinked networks of the PVDF-HFP/PEGDMA-coated PE separators. It was also observed that the separators prepared under high humidity condition showed a higher liquid electrolyte uptake and the ionic conductivity than the original PE separators.

  20. Rac1 and ROCK are implicated in the cell surface delivery of GLUT4 under the control of the insulin signal mimetic diDCP-LA-PE.

    PubMed

    Tsuchiya, Ayako; Kanno, Takeshi; Shimizu, Tadashi; Tanaka, Akito; Nishizaki, Tomoyuki

    2015-08-01

    The phosphatidylethanolamine derivative 1,2-O-bis-[8-{2-(2-pentyl-cyclopropylmethyl)-cyclopropyl}-octanoyl]-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylethanolamine (diDCP-LA-PE) promoted GLUT4 translocation to the cell surface in differentiated 3T3-L1-GLUT4myc adipocytes through a pathway along a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK1)/Akt axis, that mimics insulin signaling. Moreover, diDCP-LA-PE-induced GLUT4 translocation was suppressed by inhibitors of the Rho GTPase Rac1 and Rho-associated coiled-coil-containing protein kinase (ROCK) or knocking-down Rac1 and ROCK1. The results of the present study show that Rac1 and ROCK are critical for regulation of GLUT4 trafficking by diDCP-LA-PE as well as insulin.

  1. Penetration of HIV-1 Tat47–57 into PC/PE Bilayers Assessed by MD Simulation and X-ray Scattering

    PubMed Central

    Neale, Chris; Huang, Kun; García, Angel E.; Tristram-Nagle, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    The interactions of the basic, cell-penetrating region (Y47GRKKRRQRRR57) of the HIV-1 Tat protein with dioleoylphosphatidylcholine (DOPC) bilayers were previously assessed by comparing experimental X-ray diffuse scattering with atomistic molecular dynamics simulations. Here, we extend this investigation by evaluating the influence of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) lipids. Using experimental bilayer form factors derivedfrom X-ray diffuse scattering data as a guide, our simulations indicate that Tat peptides localize close to the carbonyl-glycerol group in the headgroup region of bilayers composed of either DOPC or DOPC:DOPE (1:1) lipid. Our results also suggest that Tat peptides may more frequently insert into the hydrophobic core of bilayers composed of PC:PE (1:1) lipids than into bilayers composed entirely of PC lipids. PE lipids may facilitate peptide translocation across a lipid bilayer by stabilizing intermediate states in which hydrated peptides span the bilayer. PMID:26402709

  2. PeV scale right-handed neutrino dark matter in an S4 flavor-symmetric extra U(1) model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daikoku, Yasuhiro; Okada, Hiroshi

    2015-04-01

    Recent observations of high-energy neutrinos in the IceCube experiment suggests the existence of superheavy dark matter beyond the PeV scale. We identify the parent particles of neutrinos as two degenerated right-handed neutrinos, assuming the dark matter is the heaviest right-handed neutrino. The O (Vc b)˜O (10-2) flavor symmetry breaking accounts for the O (10-4) mass degeneracy of right-handed neutrinos, which is a sizable scale to explain the successful resonant leptogenesis at the PeV scale. At the same time, nonthermal production of the heaviest right-handed neutrino gives the right amount of dark matter for TRH˜10 PeV . The footprint of flavor symmetry is left in the degenerated mass spectra of the extra Higgs multiplet and colored Higgs multiplet, which may be testable at the LHC or future colliders.

  3. Mechanical Properties of T650-35/AFR-PE-4 at Elevated Temperatures for Lightweight Aeroshell Designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitley, Karen S.; Collins, TImothy J.

    2006-01-01

    Considerable efforts have been underway to develop multidisciplinary technologies for aeroshell structures that will significantly increase the allowable working temperature for the aeroshell components, and enable the system to operate at higher temperatures while sustaining performance and durability. As part of these efforts, high temperature polymer matrix composites and fabrication technologies are being developed for the primary load bearing structure (heat shield) of the spacecraft. New high-temperature resins and composite material manufacturing techniques are available that have the potential to significantly improve current aeroshell design. In order to qualify a polymer matrix composite (PMC) material as a candidate aeroshell structural material, its performance must be evaluated under realistic environments. Thus, verification testing of lightweight PMC's at aeroshell entry temperatures is needed to ensure that they will perform successfully in high-temperature environments. Towards this end, a test program was developed to characterize the mechanical properties of two candidate material systems, T650-35/AFR-PE-4 and T650-35/RP46. The two candidate high-temperature polyimide resins, AFR-PE-4 and RP46, were developed at the Air Force Research Laboratory and NASA Langley Research Center, respectively. This paper presents experimental methods, strength, and stiffness data of the T650-35/AFR-PE-4 material as a function of elevated temperatures. The properties determined during the research test program herein, included tensile strength, tensile stiffness, Poisson s ratio, compressive strength, compressive stiffness, shear modulus, and shear strength. Unidirectional laminates, a cross-ply laminate and two eight-harness satin (8HS)-weave laminates (4-ply and 10-ply) were tested according to ASTM standard methods at room and elevated temperatures (23, 316, and 343 C). All of the relevant test methods and data reduction schemes are outlined along with

  4. PeBL1, a Novel Protein Elicitor from Brevibacillus laterosporus Strain A60, Activates Defense Responses and Systemic Resistance in Nicotiana benthamiana

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Haoqian; Yang, Xiufen; Guo, Lihua; Zeng, Hongmei

    2015-01-01

    We report the identification, characterization, and gene cloning of a novel protein elicitor (PeBL1) secreted from Brevibacillus laterosporus strain A60. Through a purification process consisting of ion-exchange chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), we isolated a protein that was identified by electrospray ionization quadrupole time of flight tandem mass spectrometry (ESI–Q-TOF–MS-MS). The 351-bp PeBL1 gene produces a 12,833-Da protein with 116 amino acids that contains a 30-residue signal peptide. The PeBL1 protein was expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant protein can induce a typical hypersensitive response (HR) and systemic resistance in Nicotiana benthamiana, like the endogenous protein. PeBL1-treated N. benthamiana exhibited strong resistance to the infection of tobacco mosaic virus-green fluorescent protein (TMV-GFP) and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci compared to control N. benthamiana. In addition, PeBL1 triggered a cascade of events that resulted in defense responses in plants, including reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, extracellular-medium alkalization, phenolic-compound deposition, and expression of several defense-related genes. Real-time quantitative-PCR analysis indicated that the known defense-related genes PR-1, PR-5, PDF1.2, NPR1, and PAL were upregulated to varying degrees by PeBL1. This research not only provides insights into the mechanism by which beneficial bacteria activate plant systemic resistance, but also sheds new light on a novel strategy for biocontrol using strain A60. PMID:25662975

  5. Baculovirus resistance in codling moth is virus isolate-dependent and the consequence of a mutation in viral gene pe38.

    PubMed

    Gebhardt, Manuela M; Eberle, Karolin E; Radtke, Pit; Jehle, Johannes A

    2014-11-01

    The baculovirus Cydia pomonella granulovirus (CpGV) is widely applied as a biocontrol agent of codling moth. After field resistance of codling moth populations had been observed against the commercially used Mexican (M) isolate of CpGV, infection experiments of larvae of the resistant codling moth strain CpRR1 showed that several other naturally occurring CpGV isolates (I12, S, E2, and I07) from different geographic origins are still infectious to resistant CpRR1. Whole-genome sequencing and phylogenetic analyses of these geographic CpGV variants revealed that their genomes share only a single common difference from that of CpGV-M, which is a mutation coding for a repeat of 24 nucleotides within the gene pe38; this mutation results in an additional repeat of eight amino acids that appears to be inserted to PE38 of CpGV-M only. Deletion of pe38 from CpGV-M totally abolished virus infection in codling moth cells and larvae, demonstrating that it is an essential gene. When the CpGV-M deletion mutant was repaired with pe38 from isolate CpGV-S, which originated from the commercial product Virosoft and is infectious for the resistant codling moth strain CpRR1, the repaired CpGV-M mutant was found to be fully infectious for CpRR1. Repair using pe38 from CpGV-M restored infectivity for the virus in sensitive codling moth strains, but not in CpRR1. Therefore, we conclude that CpGV resistance of codling moth is directed to CpGV-M but not to other virus isolates. The viral gene pe38 is not only essential for the infectivity of CpGV but it is also the key factor in overcoming CpGV resistance in codling moth.

  6. The Transcriptional Regulator Rv0485 Modulates the Expression of a pe and ppe Gene Pair and Is Required for Mycobacterium tuberculosis Virulence▿ §

    PubMed Central

    Goldstone, Rachael M.; Goonesekera, Sunali D.; Bloom, Barry R.; Sampson, Samantha L.

    2009-01-01

    The pe and ppe genes are unique to mycobacteria and are widely speculated to play a role in tuberculosis pathogenesis. However, little is known about how expression of these genes is controlled. Elucidating the regulatory control of genes found exclusively in mycobacteria, such as the pe and ppe gene families, may be key to understanding the success of this pathogen. In this study, we used a transposon mutagenesis approach to elucidate pe and ppe regulation. This resulted in the identification of Rv0485, a previously uncharacterized transcriptional regulator. Microarray and quantitative real-time PCR analysis confirmed that disruption of Rv0485 reduced the expression of the pe13 and ppe18 gene pair (Rv1195 and Rv1196), defined the Rv0485 regulon, and emphasized the lack of global regulation of pe and ppe genes. The in vivo phenotype of the Rv0485 transposon mutant strain (Rv0485::Tn) was investigated in the mouse model, where it was demonstrated that the mutation has minimal effect on bacterial organ burden. Despite this, disruption of Rv0485 allowed mice to survive for significantly longer, with substantially reduced lung pathology in comparison with mice infected with wild-type Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Infection of immune-deficient SCID mice with the Rv0485::Tn strain also resulted in extended survival times, suggesting that Rv0485 plays a role in modulation of innate immune responses. This is further supported by the finding that disruption of Rv0485 resulted in reduced secretion of proinflammatory cytokines by infected murine macrophages. In summary, we have demonstrated that disruption of a previously uncharacterized transcriptional regulator, Rv0485, results in reduced expression of pe13 and ppe18 and attenuation of M. tuberculosis virulence. PMID:19651861

  7. Baculovirus resistance in codling moth is virus isolate-dependent and the consequence of a mutation in viral gene pe38

    PubMed Central

    Gebhardt, Manuela M.; Eberle, Karolin E.; Radtke, Pit; Jehle, Johannes A.

    2014-01-01

    The baculovirus Cydia pomonella granulovirus (CpGV) is widely applied as a biocontrol agent of codling moth. After field resistance of codling moth populations had been observed against the commercially used Mexican (M) isolate of CpGV, infection experiments of larvae of the resistant codling moth strain CpRR1 showed that several other naturally occurring CpGV isolates (I12, S, E2, and I07) from different geographic origins are still infectious to resistant CpRR1. Whole-genome sequencing and phylogenetic analyses of these geographic CpGV variants revealed that their genomes share only a single common difference from that of CpGV-M, which is a mutation coding for a repeat of 24 nucleotides within the gene pe38; this mutation results in an additional repeat of eight amino acids that appears to be inserted to PE38 of CpGV-M only. Deletion of pe38 from CpGV-M totally abolished virus infection in codling moth cells and larvae, demonstrating that it is an essential gene. When the CpGV-M deletion mutant was repaired with pe38 from isolate CpGV-S, which originated from the commercial product Virosoft and is infectious for the resistant codling moth strain CpRR1, the repaired CpGV-M mutant was found to be fully infectious for CpRR1. Repair using pe38 from CpGV-M restored infectivity for the virus in sensitive codling moth strains, but not in CpRR1. Therefore, we conclude that CpGV resistance of codling moth is directed to CpGV-M but not to other virus isolates. The viral gene pe38 is not only essential for the infectivity of CpGV but it is also the key factor in overcoming CpGV resistance in codling moth. PMID:25331863

  8. Accelerated ageing experiments with crosslinked and conventional ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMW-PE) stabilised with alpha-tocopherol for total joint arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Wolf, C; Macho, C; Lederer, K

    2006-12-01

    Samples of untreated ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMW-PE), UHMW-PE sterilized with gamma-rays in nitrogen atmosphere (conventional UHMW-PE, widely used for articulating surfaces in endoprostheses) and UHMW-PE, which has been crosslinked by electron beam irradiation and annealed subsequently, were stabilized with alpha-tocopherol and aged in air at 120 degrees C as well as in 10% aqueous hydrogenperoxide with 0.04 mg/ml FeCl3 as catalyst at 50 degrees C. The oxidative degradation was monitored with the help of infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), solubility measurements and size exclusion chromatography (SEC) and were compared to unstabilized samples. When aged in air at 120 degrees C, the crosslinked UHMW-PE showed a slightly slower increase of the carbonyl (CO)-number (according to DIN 53383) in FTIR than conventional UHMW-PE. A stabilisation with 0.4% w/w alpha-tocopherol resulted in an increase of lifetime by a factor of approx. 40 for all samples. Ageing in 10% aqueous H2O2 at 50 degrees C yielded similar results for all three unstabilised samples. The addition of the natural antioxidant alpha-tocopherol led to a prolongation of lifetime by a factor of approx. 2.5. A linear loss of alpha-tocopherol was detected during ageing. An increase of crystallinity as well as lamella thickness during ageing was observed with the help of DSC. The two-phase structure of crosslinked UHMW-PE with two melting endotherms at 114 degrees C and 137 degrees C was replaced very quickly by a single melting point at 130 degrees C. This effect was delayed with the stabilized samples. In the solubility and SEC measurements, a severe molecular degradation and drop of molar mass of all materials could be observed after ageing in H2O2, leading to a complete destruction and, in case of crosslinked UHMW-PE, to a serious damage of the molecular network, respectively. PMID:17143765

  9. A new internet tool to report peritoneal malignancy extent. PeRitOneal MalIgnancy Stage Evaluation (PROMISE) application.

    PubMed

    Villeneuve, L; Thivolet, A; Bakrin, N; Mohamed, F; Isaac, S; Valette, P-J; Glehen, O; Rousset, P

    2016-06-01

    Based on the importance of assessing the true extent of peritoneal disease, PeRitOneal MalIgnancy Stage Evaluation (PROMISE) internet application (www.e-promise.org) has been developed to facilitate tabulation and automatically calculate surgically validated peritoneal cancer index (PCI), and other surgically validated scores as Gilly score, simplified peritoneal cancer index (SPCI), Fagotti and Fagotti-modified scores. This application offers computer-assistance to produce simple, quick but precise and standardized pre, intra and postoperative reports of the extent of peritoneal metastases and may help specialized and non-specialized institutions in their current practice but also facilitate research and multicentre studies on peritoneal surface malignancies. PMID:27067193

  10. TeV-PeV neutrinos from low-power gamma-ray burst jets inside stars.

    PubMed

    Murase, Kohta; Ioka, Kunihito

    2013-09-20

    We study high-energy neutrino production in collimated jets inside progenitors of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and supernovae, considering both collimation and internal shocks. We obtain simple, useful constraints, using the often overlooked point that shock acceleration of particles is ineffective at radiation-mediated shocks. Classical GRBs may be too powerful to produce high-energy neutrinos inside stars, which is consistent with IceCube nondetections. We find that ultralong GRBs avoid such constraints and detecting the TeV signal will support giant progenitors. Predictions for low-power GRB classes including low-luminosity GRBs can be consistent with the astrophysical neutrino background IceCube may detect, with a spectral steepening around PeV. The models can be tested with future GRB monitors. PMID:24093241

  11. Geometric compatibility of IceCube TeV-PeV neutrino excess and its galactic dark matter origin

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Bai, Yang; Lu, Ran; Salvado, Jordi

    2016-01-27

    Here, we perform a geometric analysis for the sky map of the IceCube TeV-PeV neutrino excess and test its compatibility with the sky map of decaying dark matter signals in our galaxy. Furthermore, we have found that a galactic decaying dark matter component in general improve the goodness of the fit of our model, although the pure isotropic hypothesis has a better fit than the pure dark matter one. Finally, we also consider several representative decaying dark matter, which can provide a good t to the observed spectrum at IceCube with a dark matter lifetime of around 12 orders ofmore » magnitude longer than the age of the universe.« less

  12. TeV-PeV neutrinos from low-power gamma-ray burst jets inside stars.

    PubMed

    Murase, Kohta; Ioka, Kunihito

    2013-09-20

    We study high-energy neutrino production in collimated jets inside progenitors of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and supernovae, considering both collimation and internal shocks. We obtain simple, useful constraints, using the often overlooked point that shock acceleration of particles is ineffective at radiation-mediated shocks. Classical GRBs may be too powerful to produce high-energy neutrinos inside stars, which is consistent with IceCube nondetections. We find that ultralong GRBs avoid such constraints and detecting the TeV signal will support giant progenitors. Predictions for low-power GRB classes including low-luminosity GRBs can be consistent with the astrophysical neutrino background IceCube may detect, with a spectral steepening around PeV. The models can be tested with future GRB monitors.

  13. Barrier properties of PE, PP and EVA (nano)composites - The influence of filler type and concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merinska, D.; Kalendova, A.; Tesarikova, A.

    2014-05-01

    Nanocomposite materials with layered clay used as nanofiller and polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP) and copolymer ethylene and vinyl acetate matrix (EVA, the content of VA component 19 wt. %) were prepared by compounding the individual components in Brabender kneader. The MMT Na+ and four types of commercial products such as Nanofil N 5 and N3000, Cloisite 93A and 30B were used as nanofillers. Next to the clays microprecipitated CaHCO3, nanosilica and Halloysite tubes were used. The quantity of all the above-mentioned (nano)fillers was 1, 3 and 5 wt. % in relation to the content of montmorillonite. The aim was to evaluate the influence of (nano)filler type and concentration on nanocomposite barrier properties. The morphology of nanocomposite samples was examined by means of XRD analysis illustrated by transmission electronic microscopy TEM. Furthermore, permeability for O2 and CO2 were observed.

  14. Synthesis of new indole-based bisphosphonates and evaluation of their chelating ability in PE/CA-PJ15 cells.

    PubMed

    Palmerini, Carlo A; Tartacca, Francesco; Mazzoni, Michela; Granieri, Letizia; Goracci, Laura; Scrascia, Angela; Lepri, Susan

    2015-09-18

    Bisphosphonates are the most important class of antiresorptive agents used against osteoclast-mediated bone loss, and, more recently, in oncology. These compounds have high affinity for calcium ions (Ca(2+)) and therefore target bone mineral, where they appear to be internalized selectively by bone-resorbing osteoclasts and inhibit osteoclast function. They are extensively used in healthcare, however they are affected by severe side effects; pharmacological properties of bisphosphonates depend on their molecular structure, which is frequently the cause of poor intestinal adsorption and low distribution. In this work we synthesized six novel bisphosphonate compounds having a variably substituted indole moiety to evaluate their extra- and intracellular calcium chelating ability in PE/CA-PJ15 cells. Preliminary in silico and in vitro ADME studies were also performed and the results suggested that the indole moiety plays an important role in cell permeability and metabolism properties.

  15. A Comprehensive Comparison of the IEFPCM and SS(V)PE Continuum Solvation Methods with the COSMO Approach.

    PubMed

    Klamt, A; Moya, C; Palomar, J

    2015-09-01

    Dielectric continuum models are popular for modeling solvent effects in quantum chemical calculations. The polarizable continuum model (PCM) was originally published exploiting the exact dielectric boundary condition. This is nowadays called DPCM. The conductor-like screening model (COSMO) introduced a simplified and slightly empirical scaled conductor boundary condition, which turned out to reduce the errors resulting from outlying charge. This was implemented in PCM as CPCM. Later, the integral equation formalism (IEFPCM) and the formally identical SS(V)PE model of Chipman introduced a modified dielectric boundary condition combining the dielectric exactness of DPCM with the reduced outlying charge sensitivity of COSMO. In this paper, we demonstrate on two huge data sets of neutral and ionic solutes that no significant difference can be observed between the COSMO and IEFPCM, if the correct scaling factor is chosen for COSMO.

  16. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles deposited on silica by γ-irradiation and preparation of PE/Ag nano compound masterbatches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Thi Kim Lan; Trinh Nguyen, Thuy Ai; Phu Dang, Van; Duy Nguyen, Ngoc; Le, Anh Quoc; Hien Nguyen, Quoc

    2013-12-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) deposited on silica were synthesized by gamma Co-60 irradiation of Ag+ dispersion in silica/ethanol/water mixture (9/80/20:w/v/v). The reduction of Ag+ is occurred by hydrated electron (e-aq) and hydrogen atom (H•) generated during radiolysis of ethanol/water. The conversion doses (Ag+ → Ag0) were determined by UV-Vis spectroscopy. The synthesized AgNPs/silica were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and x-ray diffraction (XRD), which showed the size of AgNPs to be in the range of 5-40 nm for Ag+ concentrations from 5 to 20 mM. Masterbatches of PE/AgNPs/silica compound with silver content from 250 to 1000 mg kg-1 were also prepared. These masterbatches can be suitably used for various applications such as antimicrobial food containers and packing films, etc.

  17. Barrier properties of PE, PP and EVA (nano)composites - The influence of filler type and concentration

    SciTech Connect

    Merinska, D.; Kalendova, A.; Tesarikova, A.

    2014-05-15

    Nanocomposite materials with layered clay used as nanofiller and polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP) and copolymer ethylene and vinyl acetate matrix (EVA, the content of VA component 19 wt. %) were prepared by compounding the individual components in Brabender kneader. The MMT Na+ and four types of commercial products such as Nanofil N 5 and N3000, Cloisite 93A and 30B were used as nanofillers. Next to the clays microprecipitated CaHCO{sub 3}, nanosilica and Halloysite tubes were used. The quantity of all the above-mentioned (nano)fillers was 1, 3 and 5 wt. % in relation to the content of montmorillonite. The aim was to evaluate the influence of (nano)filler type and concentration on nanocomposite barrier properties. The morphology of nanocomposite samples was examined by means of XRD analysis illustrated by transmission electronic microscopy TEM. Furthermore, permeability for O{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} were observed.

  18. Vegetation type conversion in Los Peñasquitos Lagoon, California: an examination of the role of watershed urbanization.

    PubMed

    Greer, Keith; Stow, Douglas

    2003-04-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the role that watershed urbanization has played in changes to the vegetation types within Los Peñasquitos Lagoon, San Diego, California. Aerial photographs taken between 1928 and 1999 were used to examine changes in vegetation types. The aerial photographs were scanned into digital format and incorporated into a geographic information system (GIS). A combination of image classification techniques was used to differentiate the vegetation types. Land use/cover of the Carmel Valley watershed of the Los Peñasquitos Lagoon was mapped for the same dates as the aerial photographs. A temporal geographic analysis was conducted on the conversion of areal extent of lagoon vegetation types compared to areal extent of urban development in the watershed. Soil salinity and dry season (June-September) stream discharge were measured. The results show that approximately 80.3% of the vegetation in the study area has changed types between 1928 and 1999. Increases in the areal extent of urban development within the watershed show a strong positive relationship compared to the areal extent of brackish marsh and riparian vegetation, and a strong negative relationship to the areal extent of salt panne and mudflats. There was no significant relationship between urban development and salt marsh vegetation.Dry season stream discharge has increased by an order of magnitude. The increase in stream discharge supports the hypothesis that increased freshwater has lowered soil salinity, allowing for invasion by glycophytic species. Hydrology and soil salinity appear to be significant factors for maintaining the distribution of the lagoon vegetation types and the biotic communities that rely upon them.

  19. Rice G-protein subunits qPE9-1 and RGB1 play distinct roles in abscisic acid responses and drought adaptation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dong-Ping; Zhou, Yong; Yin, Jian-Feng; Yan, Xue-Jiao; Lin, Sheng; Xu, Wei-Feng; Baluška, František; Wang, Yi-Ping; Xia, Yi-Ji; Liang, Guo-hua; Liang, Jian-Sheng

    2015-10-01

    Heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein (G-protein)-mediated abscisic acid (ABA) and drought-stress responses have been documented in numerous plant species. However, our understanding of the function of rice G-protein subunits in ABA signalling and drought tolerance is limited. In this study, the function of G-protein subunits in ABA response and drought resistance in rice plants was explored. It was found that the transcription level of qPE9-1 (rice Gγ subunit) gradually decreased with increasing ABA concentration and the lack of qPE9-1 showed an enhanced drought tolerance in rice plants. In contrast, mRNA levels of RGB1 (rice Gβ subunit) were significantly upregulated by ABA treatment and the lack of RGB1 led to reduced drought tolerance. Furthermore, the results suggested that qPE9-1 negatively regulates the ABA response by suppressing the expression of key transcription factors involved in ABA and stress responses, while RGB1 positively regulates ABA biosynthesis by upregulating NCED gene expression under both normal and drought stress conditions. Taken together, it is proposed that RGB1 is a positive regulator of the ABA response and drought adaption in rice plants, whereas qPE9-1 is modulated by RGB1 and functions as a negative regulator in the ABA-dependent drought-stress responses.

  20. Rice G-protein subunits qPE9-1 and RGB1 play distinct roles in abscisic acid responses and drought adaptation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dong-Ping; Zhou, Yong; Yin, Jian-Feng; Yan, Xue-Jiao; Lin, Sheng; Xu, Wei-Feng; Baluška, František; Wang, Yi-Ping; Xia, Yi-Ji; Liang, Guo-hua; Liang, Jian-Sheng

    2015-10-01

    Heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein (G-protein)-mediated abscisic acid (ABA) and drought-stress responses have been documented in numerous plant species. However, our understanding of the function of rice G-protein subunits in ABA signalling and drought tolerance is limited. In this study, the function of G-protein subunits in ABA response and drought resistance in rice plants was explored. It was found that the transcription level of qPE9-1 (rice Gγ subunit) gradually decreased with increasing ABA concentration and the lack of qPE9-1 showed an enhanced drought tolerance in rice plants. In contrast, mRNA levels of RGB1 (rice Gβ subunit) were significantly upregulated by ABA treatment and the lack of RGB1 led to reduced drought tolerance. Furthermore, the results suggested that qPE9-1 negatively regulates the ABA response by suppressing the expression of key transcription factors involved in ABA and stress responses, while RGB1 positively regulates ABA biosynthesis by upregulating NCED gene expression under both normal and drought stress conditions. Taken together, it is proposed that RGB1 is a positive regulator of the ABA response and drought adaption in rice plants, whereas qPE9-1 is modulated by RGB1 and functions as a negative regulator in the ABA-dependent drought-stress responses. PMID:26175353

  1. The Influences on Teaching Perspectives of Australian Physical Education Teacher Education Students: The First-Year Influences on Teaching Perspectives Exploratory (FIT-PE) Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyndman, Brendon P.; Pill, Shane

    2016-01-01

    There has been a paucity of literature investigating the teaching beliefs and intentions of Australian physical education teacher education (PETE) students that enter teacher training. The First-year Influences on Teaching Perspectives Exploratory (FIT-PE) study explores the teaching perspectives of first year PETE students; including teaching…

  2. "It's Too Crowded": A Qualitative Study of the Physical Environment Factors That Adolescent Girls Perceive to Be Important and Influential on Their PE Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niven, Ailsa; Henretty, Joan; Fawkner, Samantha

    2014-01-01

    Many adolescent girls do not achieve a health-enhancing level of physical activity. This study aimed to identify the school physical environment factors that adolescent girls perceive to be important and influential regarding their physical education (PE) behaviour. Adolescent girls (n = 38; aged 13-16) participated in eight moderated focus…

  3. AN OVERVIEW OF THE UNCERTAINTY ANALYSIS, SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS, AND PARAMETER ESTIMATION (UA/SA/PE) API AND HOW TO IMPLEMENT IT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Application Programming Interface (API) for Uncertainty Analysis, Sensitivity Analysis, and
    Parameter Estimation (UA/SA/PE API) (also known as Calibration, Optimization and Sensitivity and Uncertainty (CUSO)) was developed in a joint effort between several members of both ...

  4. Liposomes Loaded with Paclitaxel and Modified with Novel Triphenylphosphonium-PEG-PE Conjugate Possess Low Toxicity, Target Mitochondria and Demonstrate Enhanced Antitumor Effects In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Biswas, Swati; Dodwadkar, Namita S.; Deshpande, Pranali P.; Torchilin, Vladimir P.

    2012-01-01

    Previously, stearyl triphenylphosphonium (STPP)-modified liposomes (STPP-L) were reported to target mitochondria. To overcome a non-specific cytotoxicity of STPP-L, we synthesized a novel polyethylene glycol- phosphatidylethanolamine (PEG-PE) conjugate with the TPP group attached to the distal end of the PEG block (TPP-PEG-PE). This conjugate was incorporated into the liposomal lipid bilayer, and the modified liposomes were studied for their toxicity, mitochondrial targeting, and efficacy in delivering paclitaxel (PTX) to cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. These TPP-PEG-PE-modified liposomes (TPP-PEG-L), surface grafted with as high as 8 mole % of the conjugate, were less cytotoxic compared to STPP-L or PEGylated STPP-L. At the same time, TPP-PEG-L demonstrated efficient mitochondrial targeting in cancer cells as shown by confocal microscopy in co-localization experiments with stained mitochondria. PTX-loaded TPP-PEG-L demonstrated enhanced PTX-induced cytotoxicity and anti-tumor efficacy in cell culture and mouse experiments compared to PTX-loaded unmodified plain liposomes (PL). Thus, TPP-PEG-PE can serve as a targeting ligand to prepare non-toxic liposomes as mitochondria-targeted drug delivery systems (DDS). PMID:22286008

  5. 23 CFR 661.25 - What does a complete application package for PE consist of and how does the project receive funding?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What does a complete application package for PE consist of and how does the project receive funding? 661.25 Section 661.25 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS INDIAN RESERVATION ROAD BRIDGE PROGRAM § 661.25 What does a...

  6. A simple and rapid method for quantifying 2-phenoxyethanol (2-PE) in Diphtheria, Tetanus and w-Pertussis (DTwP) vaccine.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Bipin; Joseph, Aditi; Sood, Anil

    2008-01-01

    The authors developed a simple and rapid method for quantitation of 2-phenoxyethanol (2-PE) in DTwP vaccine based on reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The method was simple and reproducible. The sensitivity of the assay was confirmed by spiking known amounts of 2-phenoxyethanol to the vaccine sample.

  7. "I Think It's a Good Idea, I Just Don't Know How to Do It": The Struggle for PE Reform in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hickey, Christopher; Jin, Aijing

    2010-01-01

    Among the many changes occurring across Chinese society in the early phase of Y2K is the construction and implementation of a new physical education (PE) curriculum. Not unlike recent changes in Australia, New Zealand and the UK, this process has seen a heightening of the emphasis on health. Presented within a wider framework for making the school…

  8. A rare CYP 21 mutation (p.E431K) induced deactivation of CYP 21A2 and resulted in congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Kawashima, Yuki; Usui, Takeshi; Fujimoto, Masanobu; Miyahara, Naoki; Nishimura, Rei; Hanaki, Keiichi; Kanzaki, Susumu

    2015-01-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency is caused by mutations in the CYP21A2 gene. The residual enzyme activity is strongly associated with the phenotype. We describe a rare case of CAH with a rare CYP21A2 mutation. The patient was a one-year-old Japanese boy. At 16 days old, he was referred to our hospital because of elevated serum 17-OH-progesterone (17-OHP) levels in neonatal screening. The compound heterozygous mutations (IVS2-13 A/C>G, and p.E431K) in CYP21A2 were identified at 2 months old, and we diagnosed non-classical CAH, since he did not have significant physical signs (pigmentation and salt-wasting). However, his body weight decreased, and his serum 17-OHP level (99.5 ng/mL) was elevated at 3 months old. Steroid replacement therapy was started at 3 months old. Our patient's clinical course resembled simple virilizing (SV) CAH, but classification was difficult because the patient showed increased renin activity indicating an aldosterone deficiency, and late onset of symptoms. While the IVS 2-13 A/C>G mutation is common in the classical form of CAH, p.E431K is a rare point mutation. Functional analysis revealed that the residual enzyme activity of p.E431L was 5.08±2.55% for 17-OHP and 4.12±2.37% for progesterone, which is consistent with SV CAH. p.E431 is localized in the L-helix near the heme-binding site. The mutation might interfere with heme binding, leading to deactivation of CYP21A2. This report showed that CYP21A2 p.E431 has an important effect on enzyme activity.

  9. Co-activation Probability Estimation (CoPE): An approach for modeling functional co-activation architecture based on neuroimaging coordinates.

    PubMed

    Chu, Congying; Fan, Lingzhong; Eickhoff, Claudia R; Liu, Yong; Yang, Yong; Eickhoff, Simon B; Jiang, Tianzi

    2015-08-15

    Recent progress in functional neuroimaging has prompted studies of brain activation during various cognitive tasks. Coordinate-based meta-analysis has been utilized to discover the brain regions that are consistently activated across experiments. However, within-experiment co-activation relationships, which can reflect the underlying functional relationships between different brain regions, have not been widely studied. In particular, voxel-wise co-activation, which may be able to provide a detailed configuration of the co-activation network, still needs to be modeled. To estimate the voxel-wise co-activation pattern and deduce the co-activation network, a Co-activation Probability Estimation (CoPE) method was proposed to model within-experiment activations for the purpose of defining the co-activations. A permutation test was adopted as a significance test. Moreover, the co-activations were automatically separated into local and long-range ones, based on distance. The two types of co-activations describe distinct features: the first reflects convergent activations; the second represents co-activations between different brain regions. The validation of CoPE was based on five simulation tests and one real dataset derived from studies of working memory. Both the simulated and the real data demonstrated that CoPE was not only able to find local convergence but also significant long-range co-activation. In particular, CoPE was able to identify a 'core' co-activation network in the working memory dataset. As a data-driven method, the CoPE method can be used to mine underlying co-activation relationships across experiments in future studies.

  10. [Dental pain and associated factors in Brazilian adolescents: the National School-Based Health Survey (PeNSE), Brazil, 2009].

    PubMed

    Freire, Maria do Carmo Matias; Leles, Cláudio Rodrigues; Sardinha, Luciana Monteiro Vasconcelos; Paludetto Junior, Moacir; Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Peres, Marco A

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of dental pain and associated socio-demographic and behavioral factors in Brazilian adolescents, using data from the National School-Based Health Survey (PeNSE), Brazil, 2009. The survey was conducted by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE) and Ministry of Health in students 11 to 17 years of age or older in the 27 State capitals, using a self-administered questionnaire. Analyses included Poisson regression following a hierarchical approach. Prevalence of dental pain in the sample (n = 54,985) in the previous six months was 17.8% (95%CI: 17.5-18.1). Higher prevalence was associated with female gender, age 14 years and over, racial self-identification as black, brown, or indigenous, enrollment in public schools, lower maternal schooling, not living with the mother, history of smoking or drinking, less frequent toothbrushing, and heavy consumption of sweets and soft drinks. Dental pain was thus associated with socio-demographic factors and health-related behaviors.

  11. Silicon-Germanium Films Deposited by Low Frequency PE CVD: Effect of H2 and Ar Dilution

    SciTech Connect

    Kosarev, A; Torres, A; Hernandez, Y; Ambrosio, R; Zuniga, C; Felter, T E; Asomoza, R R; Kudriavtsev, Y; Silva-Gonzalez, R; Gomez-Barojas, E; Ilinski, A; Abramov, A S

    2005-09-22

    We have studied structure and electrical properties of Si{sub 1-Y}Ge{sub Y}:H films deposited by low frequency PE CVD over the entire composition range from Y=0 to Y=1. The deposition rate of the films and their structural and electrical properties were measured for various ratios of the germane/silane feed gases and with and without dilution by Ar and by H{sub 2}. Structure and composition was studied by Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Surface morphology was characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM). We found: (1) The deposition rate increased with Y maximizing at Y=1 without dilution. (2) The relative rate of Ge and Si incorporation is affected by dilution. (3) Hydrogen preferentially bonds to silicon. (4) Hydrogen content decreases for increasing Y. In addition, optical measurements showed that as Y goes for 0 to 1, the Fermi level moves from mid gap to the conduction band edge, i.e. the films become more n-type. No correlation was found between the pre-exponential and the activation energy of conductivity. The behavior of the conductivity {gamma}-factor suggests a local minimum in the density of states at E {approx} 0.33 eV for the films grown with or without H-dilution and E {approx} 0.25 eV for the films with Ar dilution.

  12. Consumption of sugar-rich food products among Brazilian students:National School Health Survey (PeNSE 2012).

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Nathália Luíza; Claro, Rafael Moreira; Lopes, Aline Cristine Souza

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to analyze the consumption of high-sugar foods by Brazilian schoolchildren and to identify associated factors, based on data from the National School Health Survey (PeNSE 2012). Consumption of these foods was classified as: do not consume sweets and soft drinks regularly; consume sweets or soft drinks regularly; and consume sweets and soft drinks regularly. Its association with sociodemographic information, eating habits, and family contexts were investigated via multiple ordinal regressions. Regular consumption of sweets and/or soft drinks was reported by 19.2% and 36.1% of adolescents, respectively, and higher prevalence was associated with female gender, age 14-15 years, higher maternal education, not living with the mother and father, not eating meals with the parents, eating while watching TV, and longer TV time. Nearly one-fifth of adolescents regularly consumed sweets and soft drinks, which was associated with socio-demographic and behavioral factors that should be targeted in order to improve their food consumption. PMID:26872226

  13. A comparison of airborne and ground-based radar observations with rain gages during the CaPE experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Satake, Makoto; Short, David A.; Iguchi, Toshio

    1992-01-01

    The vicinity of KSC, where the primary ground truth site of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) program is located, was the focal point of the Convection and Precipitation/Electrification (CaPE) experiment in Jul. and Aug. 1991. In addition to several specialized radars, local coverage was provided by the C-band (5 cm) radar at Patrick AFB. Point measurements of rain rate were provided by tipping bucket rain gage networks. Besides these ground-based activities, airborne radar measurements with X- and Ka-band nadir-looking radars on board an aircraft were also recorded. A unique combination data set of airborne radar observations with ground-based observations was obtained in the summer convective rain regime of central Florida. We present a comparison of these data intending a preliminary validation. A convective rain event was observed simultaneously by all three instrument types on the evening of 27 Jul. 1991. The high resolution aircraft radar was flown over convective cells with tops exceeding 10 km and observed reflectivities of 40 to 50 dBZ at 4 to 5 km altitude, while the low resolution surface radar observed 35 to 55 dBZ echoes and a rain gage indicated maximum surface rain rates exceeding 100 mm/hr. The height profile of reflectivity measured with the airborne radar show an attenuation of 6.5 dB/km (two way) for X-band, corresponding to a rainfall rate of 95 mm/hr.

  14. Precision Measurement of the p(e, e´p) π⁰ Reaction at Threshold

    SciTech Connect

    Chirapatpimol, K.; Shabestari, M.H.; Lindgren, R. A.; Smith, L. C.; Annand, J. R. M.; Higinbotham, D. W.; Moffit, B.

    2015-05-01

    New results are reported from a measurement of $\\pi^0$ electroproduction near threshold using the p(e, e´p) π⁰ reaction. The experiment was designed to determine precisely the energy dependence of $s-$ and $p-$wave electromagnetic multipoles as a stringent test of the predictions of Chiral Perturbation Theory (ChPT). The data were taken with an electron beam energy of 1192 MeV using a two-spectrometer setup in Hall A at Jefferson Lab. For the first time, complete coverage of the $\\phi^*_{\\pi}$ and $\\theta^*_{\\pi}$ angles in the $p \\pi^0$ center-of-mass was obtained for invariant energies above threshold from 0.5 MeV up to 15 MeV. The 4-momentum transfer $Q^2$ coverage ranges from 0.05 to 0.155 (GeV/c)$^2$ in fine steps. A simple phenomenological analysis of our data shows strong disagreement with $p-$wave predictions from ChPT for $Q^2>0.07$ (GeV/c)$^2$, while the $s-$wave predictions are in reasonable agreement.

  15. Precision Measurement of the p(e, e´p) π⁰ Reaction at Threshold

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Chirapatpimol, K.; Shabestari, M.H.; Lindgren, R. A.; Smith, L. C.; Annand, J. R. M.; Higinbotham, D. W.; Moffit, B.

    2015-05-01

    New results are reported from a measurement ofmore » $$\\pi^0$$ electroproduction near threshold using the p(e, e´p) π⁰ reaction. The experiment was designed to determine precisely the energy dependence of $s-$ and $p-$wave electromagnetic multipoles as a stringent test of the predictions of Chiral Perturbation Theory (ChPT). The data were taken with an electron beam energy of 1192 MeV using a two-spectrometer setup in Hall A at Jefferson Lab. For the first time, complete coverage of the $$\\phi^*_{\\pi}$$ and $$\\theta^*_{\\pi}$$ angles in the $$p \\pi^0$$ center-of-mass was obtained for invariant energies above threshold from 0.5 MeV up to 15 MeV. The 4-momentum transfer $Q^2$ coverage ranges from 0.05 to 0.155 (GeV/c)$^2$ in fine steps. A simple phenomenological analysis of our data shows strong disagreement with $p-$wave predictions from ChPT for $Q^2>0.07$ (GeV/c)$^2$, while the $s-$wave predictions are in reasonable agreement.« less

  16. NOAA People Empowered Products (PeEP): Combining social media with scientific models to provide eye-witness confirmed products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Codrescu, S.; Green, J. C.; Redmon, R. J.; Minor, K.; Denig, W. F.; Kihn, E. A.

    2013-12-01

    NOAA products and alerts rely on combinations of models and data to provide the public with information regarding space and terrestrial weather phenomena and hazards. This operational paradigm, while effective, neglects an abundant free source of measurements: millions of eyewitnesses viewing weather events. We demonstrate the capabilities of a prototype People Empowered Product (PeEP) that combines the OVATION prime auroral model running at the NOAA National Geophysical Data Center with Twitter reports of observable aurora. We introduce an algorithm for scoring Tweets based on keywords to improve the signal to noise of this dynamic data source. We use the location of the aurora derived from this new database of crowd sourced observations to validate the OVATION model for use in auroral forecasting. The combined product displays the model aurora in real time with markers showing the location and text of tweets from people actually observing the aurora. We discuss how the application might be extended to other space weather products such as radiation related satellite anomalies.

  17. Consumption of sugar-rich food products among Brazilian students:National School Health Survey (PeNSE 2012).

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Nathália Luíza; Claro, Rafael Moreira; Lopes, Aline Cristine Souza

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to analyze the consumption of high-sugar foods by Brazilian schoolchildren and to identify associated factors, based on data from the National School Health Survey (PeNSE 2012). Consumption of these foods was classified as: do not consume sweets and soft drinks regularly; consume sweets or soft drinks regularly; and consume sweets and soft drinks regularly. Its association with sociodemographic information, eating habits, and family contexts were investigated via multiple ordinal regressions. Regular consumption of sweets and/or soft drinks was reported by 19.2% and 36.1% of adolescents, respectively, and higher prevalence was associated with female gender, age 14-15 years, higher maternal education, not living with the mother and father, not eating meals with the parents, eating while watching TV, and longer TV time. Nearly one-fifth of adolescents regularly consumed sweets and soft drinks, which was associated with socio-demographic and behavioral factors that should be targeted in order to improve their food consumption.

  18. Test and evaluation of the Philips Model PE 1701 and Lester Model 9865 electric vehicle battery chargers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reese, R. W.; Driggans, R. L.; Keller, A. S.

    1984-04-01

    The Philips Model PE 1701 and the Lester Model 9865 electric vehicle battery chargers were tested. Charger input/output voltage, current, power characteristics, and input waveform distortion were measured and induced electromagnetic interference was evaluated while the chargers recharged a fully discharged lead-acid battery pack. Electrical quantities were measured with precision volt-ampere-watt meters, frequency counters, a digital storage oscilloscope, and a spectrum analyzer. The Philips charger required 12.2 hours to recharge a 144-V battery; it had an energy efficiency of 86.0% and a specific power of 87.4 W/kg. Input current distortion was between 6.9 and 23.0 percent, and electromagnetic interference was observed on AM radio. The Lester charger required 8.2 hours to recharge a 106-V battery; it had an energy efficiency of 83.0% and a specific power of 117.3 W/kg (53.3 W/lb). Current distortion was between 52.7 and 97.4%, and electromagnetic interference was observed on AM radio.

  19. Dietary patterns of Brazilian adolescents: results of the Brazilian National School-Based Health Survey (PeNSE).

    PubMed

    Tavares, Letícia Ferreira; Castro, Inês Rugani Ribeiro de; Levy, Renata Bertazzi; Cardoso, Letícia de Oliveira; Claro, Rafael Moreira

    2014-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to identify dietary patterns in Brazilian adolescents, describe their distributions in Brazil's State capitals and Federal District, and analyze the correlations with the Municipal Human Development Index (HDI-M). The study analyzed a sample of 60,954 ninth-graders from public and private schools who participated in the National School-Based Health Survey (PeNSE) in 2009. Cluster analysis was used to characterize dietary patterns. Three patterns were identified: healthy (27.7%), unhealthy (34.6%), and mixed (37.7%). Adolescents in the country's Southeast, South, and Central West regions showed a higher proportion of the healthy eating pattern. HDI-M showed a positive correlation with the healthy pattern and a negative correlation with the mixed pattern. The identification of different dietary patterns within and between regions and according to HDI-M highlights the need for better knowledge of each local context in terms of both the magnitude of events and the examination of determinants within these different realities.

  20. A comparison of airborne and ground-based radar observations with rain gages during the CaPE experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Satake, Makoto; Short, David A.; Iguchi, Toshio

    1992-01-01

    The vicinity of KSC, where the primary ground truth site of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) program is located, was the focal point of the Convection and Precipitation/Electrification (CaPE) experiment in July and Aug. 1991. In addition to several specialized radars, local coverage was provided by the C-band (5 cm) radar at Patrick AFB. Point measurements of rain rate were provided by tipping bucket rain gage networks. Besides these ground-based activities, airborne radar measurements with X- and Ka-band nadir-looking radars on board an aircraft were also recorded. A unique combination data set of airborne radar observations with ground-based observations was obtained in the summer convective rain regime of central Florida. We present a comparison of these data intending a preliminary validation. A convective rain event was observed simultaneously by all three instrument types on the evening of 27 July 1991. The high resolution aircraft radar was flown over convective cells with tops exceeding 10 km and observed reflectivities of 40 to 50 dBZ at 4 to 5 km altitude, while the low resolution surface radar observed 35 to 55 dBZ echoes and a rain gage indicated maximum surface rain rates exceeding 100 mm/hr. The height profile of reflectivity measured with the airborne radar show an attenuation of 6.5 dB/km (two way) for X-band, corresponding to a rainfall rate of 95 mm/hr.

  1. The role of the amorphous phase in melting of linear UHMW-PE; implications for chain dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rastogi, Sanjay; Lippits, Dirk R.; Höhne, Günther W. H.; Mezari, Brahim; Magusin, Pieter C. M. M.

    2007-05-01

    In ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMW-PE), it is possible to obtain single chain forming single crystals, where chains are adjacently re-entrant. Depending on the heating rate, it is feasible to melt these crystals either by simple consecutive detachment of chain stems from the crystalline substrate or by cluster melting, where several chain stems are involved. The consecutive detachment of chain stems occurs at the melting point predicted from the Gibbs-Thomson equation, whereas the cluster melting at much higher temperatures. Melting by the consecutive detachment of chain stems from the crystal substrate and their diffusion in the melt ultimately result in a new melt state having a heterogeneous distribution of physical entanglements, which invokes differences in local mobility. With combined DSC, rheology and solid-state NMR studies, it is concluded that the disentangled domains present within the entangled matrix possess higher local mobility than the entangled domains, ultimately causing lower elastic modulus. The fraction of the entangled and disentangled domains is maintained at higher temperatures, leading to a thermodynamically non-equilibrium melt state. In contrast, in cluster melting, where several chain stems (initially disentangled) can simultaneously adopt the random coil state, entanglements that are formed are homogeneously distributed in the melt. The paper invokes the influence of the topological differences present in the amorphous phase of the semi-crystalline polymer on the melting kinetics of crystals. The reported findings have implications for the melting behaviour and the resulting melt state of polymers in general.

  2. Novel Anti-Adhesive CMC-PE Hydrogel Significantly Enhanced Morphological and Physiological Recovery after Surgical Decompression in an Animal Model of Entrapment Neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Urano, Hideki; Iwatsuki, Katsuyuki; Yamamoto, Michiro; Ohnisi, Tetsuro; Kurimoto, Shigeru; Endo, Nobuyuki; Hirata, Hitoshi

    2016-01-01

    We developed a novel hydrogel derived from sodium carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) in which phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) was introduced into the carboxyl groups of CMC to prevent perineural adhesions. This hydrogel has previously shown excellent anti-adhesive effects even after aggressive internal neurolysis in a rat model. Here, we confirmed the effects of the hydrogel on morphological and physiological recovery after nerve decompression. We prepared a rat model of chronic sciatic nerve compression using silicone tubing. Morphological and physiological recovery was confirmed at one, two, and three months after nerve decompression by assessing motor conduction velocity (MCV), the wet weight of the tibialis anterior muscle and morphometric evaluations of nerves. Electrophysiology showed significantly quicker recovery in the CMC-PE group than in the control group (24.0 ± 3.1 vs. 21.0± 2.1 m/s (p < 0.05) at one months and MCV continued to be significantly faster thereafter. Wet muscle weight at one month significantly differed between the CMC-PE (BW) and control groups (0.148 ± 0.020 vs. 0.108 ± 0.019%BW). The mean wet muscle weight was constantly higher in the CMC-PE group than in the control group throughout the experimental period. The axon area at one month was twice as large in the CMC-PE group compared with the control group (24.1 ± 17.3 vs. 12.3 ± 9 μm2) due to the higher ratio of axons with a larger diameter. Although the trend continued throughout the experimental period, the difference decreased after two months and was not statistically significant at three months. Although anti-adhesives can reduce adhesion after nerve injury, their effects on morphological and physiological recovery after surgical decompression of chronic entrapment neuropathy have not been investigated in detail. The present study showed that the new anti-adhesive CMC-PE gel can accelerate morphological and physiological recovery of nerves after decompression surgery. PMID:27741280

  3. VIS Fabry-Pérot-Interferometer with (HL)4 PE-Si3N4/PE-SiO2 reflectors on freestanding LP-Si3N4 membranes for surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helke, Christian; Meinig, Marco; Seifert, Mario; Seiler, Jan; Hiller, Karla; Kurth, Steffen; Martin, Jörg; Gessner, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    Profound developments of miniaturized spectrometry systems enable new breakthrough applications such as online monitoring systems for specific molecules by Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS). The spectrometry system is based on SERS active surfaces in-situ generating nanoparticles and miniaturized detectors with tunable Fabry-Pérot- Interferometers (FPI) with very sharp transmission peaks and a FWHM bandwidth below 2 nm. The key part of this online monitoring system is a tunable FPI, which is fabricated with MEMS technology. This contribution presents a 7.5 x 7.5 mm² chip size FPI, consisting of a moveable reflector on a 210 nm thin and up to 5.5 mm in diameter Si3N4 membrane on a silicon carrier, and a fixed reflector on glass. The optical resonator with an aperture of 2 mm diameter is designed for the central wavelength of 570 nm and realized by adhesive SU-8 bonding of the silicon on glass substrate. The moveable Si3N4 membrane is fabricated by combined wet and dry etching of silicon. The dielectric (HL)4 Si3N4/ SiO2 reflector stack with a reflectance of 93 % is deposited by PE-CVD on the LP-CVD-Si3N4 and structured by dry etching on the membrane and the glass. The measured peak transmittance is between 52 % and 74 % with a FWHM bandwidth between 1.3 nm and 2.0 nm. It was shown, that the FPIs are tunable over the spectral range from 555 nm to 585 nm which is relevant for this SERS application with a tuning voltage of 25 V.

  4. Conserved Pro-Glu (PE) and Pro-Pro-Glu (PPE) Protein Domains Target LipY Lipases of Pathogenic Mycobacteria to the Cell Surface via the ESX-5 Pathway*

    PubMed Central

    Daleke, Maria H.; Cascioferro, Alessandro; de Punder, Karin; Ummels, Roy; Abdallah, Abdallah M.; van der Wel, Nicole; Peters, Peter J.; Luirink, Joen; Manganelli, Riccardo; Bitter, Wilbert

    2011-01-01

    The type VII secretion system ESX-5 is a major pathway for export of PE and PPE proteins in pathogenic mycobacteria. These mycobacteria-specific protein families are characterized by conserved N-terminal domains of 100 and 180 amino acids, which contain the proline-glutamic acid (PE) and proline-proline-glutamic acid (PPE) motifs after which they are named. Here we investigated secretion of the triacylglycerol lipase LipY, which in fast-growing mycobacteria contains a signal sequence, but in slow-growing species appears to have replaced the signal peptide with a PE or PPE domain. Selected LipY homologues were expressed in wild-type Mycobacterium marinum and its corresponding ESX-5 mutant, and localization of the proteins was investigated by immunoblotting and electron microscopy. Our study shows that Mycobacterium tuberculosis PE-LipY (LipYtub) and M. marinum PPE-LipY (LipYmar) are both secreted to the bacterial surface in an ESX-5-dependent fashion. After transport, the PE/PPE domains are removed by proteolytic cleavage. In contrast, Mycobacterium gilvum LipY, which has a signal sequence, is not transported to the cell surface. Furthermore, we show that LipYtub and LipYmar require their respective PE and PPE domains for ESX-5-dependent secretion. The role of the PE domain in ESX-5 secretion was confirmed in a whole cell lipase assay, in which wild-type bacteria expressing full-length LipYtub, but not LipYtub lacking its PE domain, were shown to hydrolyze extracellular lipids. In conclusion, both PE and PPE domains contain a signal required for secretion of LipY by the ESX-5 system, and these domains are proteolytically removed upon translocation. PMID:21471225

  5. Mixed PEG-PE/Vitamin E Tumor-Targeted Immunomicelles as Carriers for Poorly Soluble Anti-Cancer Drugs: Improved Drug Solubilization and Enhanced In Vitro Cytotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Sawant, Rupa R.; Sawant, Rishikesh M.; Torchilin, Vladimir P.

    2008-01-01

    Two poorly soluble, potent anticancer drugs, paclitaxel and camptothecin, were successfully solubilized by mixed micelles of polyethylene glycol-phosphatidyl ethanolamine (PEG-PE) and vitamin E. Drug containing micelles were additionally modified with anti-nucleosome monoclonal antibody 2C5 (mAb 2C5), which can specifically bring micelles to tumor cells in vitro. The optimized micelles had an average size of about 13-to-22 nm and the immuno-modification of micelles did not significantly change it. The solubilization of both drugs by the mixed micelles was more efficient than by micelles made of PEG-PE alone. Solubilization of camptothecin in micelles prevented also the hydrolysis of active lactone form of the drug to inactive carboxylate form. Drug loaded mixed micelles and mAb 2C5-immunomicelles demonstrated significantly higher in vitro cytotoxicity than free drug against various cancer cell lines. PMID:18583114

  6. Simultaneous Overexpression of the HhERF2 and PeDREB2a Genes Enhanced Tolerances to Salt and Drought in Transgenic Cotton.

    PubMed

    Li, Jin Bo; Ni Dong, Xue; Lei, Zhi; Liang Li, Yong; Yang Yang, Pei; Tao, Fei; Zhao, Liang; Li, Shi-Gang; Du, Lin Feng; Shao, Ji Rong; Wu, Yan Min

    2016-01-01

    A desert-grown Halimodendron halodendron ethylene-responsive element binding factor gene (HhERF2), which encodes a 245 amino acids protein containing a conserved AP2/EREBP domain, was isolated through the rapid amplification cDNA end (RACE) method. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis indicated that HhERF2 was classified into the B-2 group of ERF subfamily. Semiquantitative RT-PCR showed that HhERF2 was greatly induced by treatments with high-salt, drought and low temperature in H. halodendron seedlings. The expression vector containing HhERF2 and Populus euphratica dehydration- responsive element binding protein (PeDREB2a) genes driven by rd29A promoter was constructed and transferred into cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) by non-tissue culture Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation system. The transformation and expression of HhERF2 and PeDREB2a were identified by PCR and RT-PCR. Analyses of physiological function indicated that transgenic cottons had improved seeds germination, tolerance to drought and highsalt stresses. Agronomic evaluation in the field exhibited that transgenic lines presented a dwarf phenotype and improved further in the yield and characters. These results demonstrated that overexpressed both HhERF2 and PeDREB2a transcription factor genes in cotton induced elevated tolerance to drought and high-salt stresses. PMID:26972971

  7. [RS3PE syndrome associated with senile Epstein-Barr virus-positive diffuse large B cell lymphoma of a patient with colon cancer].

    PubMed

    Shimoyama, Saori; Kuroda, Hiroyuki; Yoshida, Masahiro; Usami, Makoto; Sakamoto, Hiroki; Yamada, Michiko; Fujii, Shigeyuki; Maeda, Masahiro; Fujita, Miri; Nakano, Tatsumi; Kanari, Yusuke; Iyama, Satoshi; Kato, Junji

    2015-11-01

    A 75-year-old woman consulted her doctor in January 2014 because of pain in the dorsum of the hands, elbows, shoulders, and knees, bilaterally, and was diagnosed as having remitting seronegative symmetrical synovitis with pitting edema (RS3PE) syndrome. Although the joint pain improved with low-dose prednisolone administration, she was referred to our department in April of 2014 because she had become aware of swelling of the right cervical lymph node. Biopsy of the lymph node demonstrated that she had Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) of the elderly, and colonoscopy revealed early colon cancer. Also, both the lymphoma and colon cancer stained positive for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Complete remission was achieved after two courses of R-CHOP, and RS3PE syndrome did not relapse. This case suggested the involvement of VEGF produced by EBV-positive DLBCL in the pathogenesis of RS3PE syndrome. PMID:26666720

  8. Estimation and characterization of PCDD/Fs, dl-PCBs, PCNs, HxCBz and PeCBz emissions from magnesium metallurgy facilities in China.

    PubMed

    Nie, Zhiqiang; Zheng, Minghui; Liu, Wenbin; Zhang, Bing; Liu, Guorui; Su, Guijin; Lv, Pu; Xiao, Ke

    2011-12-01

    Magnesium production is considered to be one potential source of unintentional persistent organic pollutants (unintentional POPs). However, studies on the emissions of unintentional POPs from magnesium metallurgy are still lacking. Emissions of unintentional POPs, such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs), polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs), hexachlorobenzene (HxCBz) and pentachlorobenzene (PeCBz) are covered under the Stockholm Convention. In this study, these emissions were investigated through a magnesium smelting process. Stack gas and fly ash samples from a typical magnesium plant in China were collected and analyzed to estimate the emissions of unintentional POPs from magnesium metallurgy. Emissions factors of 412 ng TEQ t(-1) for PCDD/Fs, 18.6 ng TEQ t(-1) for dl-PCBs, 3329 μg t(-1) for PCNs, 820 μg t(-1) for HxCBz, and 1326 μg t(-1) for PeCBz were obtained in 2009. Annual emissions from magnesium metallurgy in China were estimated to be 0.46 g WHO-TEQ for PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs, 1651 g for PCNs, 403 g for HxCBz and 653 g for PeCBz, respectively.

  9. Structural and biological control of the Cenozoic epithermal uranium concentrations from the Sierra Peña Blanca, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angiboust, Samuel; Fayek, Mostafa; Power, Ian M.; Camacho, Alfredo; Calas, Georges; Southam, Gordon

    2012-12-01

    Epithermal uranium deposits of the Sierra Peña Blanca are classic examples of volcanic-hosted deposits and have been used as natural analogs for radionuclide migration in volcanic settings. We present a new genetic model that incorporates both geochemical and tectonic features of these deposits, including one of the few documented cases of a geochemical signature of biogenic reducing conditions favoring uranium mineralization in an epithermal deposit. Four tectono-magmatic faulting events affected the volcanic pile. Uranium occurrences are associated with breccia zones at the intersection of fault systems. Periodic reactivation of these structures associated with Basin and Range and Rio Grande tectonic events resulted in the mobilization of U and other elements by meteoric fluids heated by geothermal activity. Focused along breccia zones, these fluids precipitated under reducing conditions several generations of pyrite and uraninite together with kaolinite. Oxygen isotopic data indicate a low formation temperature of uraninite, 45-55°C for the uraninite from the ore body and ˜20°C for late uraninite hosted by the underlying conglomerate. There is geochemical evidence for biological activity being at the origin of these reducing conditions, as shown by low δ34S values (˜-24.5‰) in pyrites and the presence of low δ13C (˜-24‰) values in microbial patches intimately associated with uraninite. These data show that tectonic activity coupled with microbial activity can play a major role in the formation of epithermal uranium deposits in unusual near-surface environments.

  10. IceVeto: Extended PeV neutrino astronomy in the Southern Hemisphere with IceCube

    SciTech Connect

    Auffenberg, Jan; Collaboration: IceCube Collaboration

    2014-11-18

    IceCube, the world's largest high-energy neutrino observatory, built at the South Pole, recently reported evidence of an astrophysical neutrino flux extending to PeV energies in the Southern Hemisphere. This observation raises the question of how the sensitivity in this energy range could be further increased. In the down-going sector, in IceCube's case the Southern Hemisphere, backgrounds from atmospheric muons and neutrinos pose a challenge to the identification of an astrophysical neutrino flux. The IceCube analysis, that led to the evidence for astrophysical neutrinos, is based on an in-ice veto strategy for background rejection. One possibility available to IceCube is the concept of an extended surface detector, IceVeto, which could allow the rejection of a large fraction of atmospheric backgrounds, primarily for muons from cosmic ray (CR) air showers as well as from neutrinos in the same air showers. Building on the experience of IceTop/IceCube, possibly the most cost-effective and sensitive way to build IceVeto is as an extension of the IceTop detector, with simple photomultiplier based detector modules for CR air shower detection. Initial simulations and estimates indicate that such a veto detector will significantly increase the sensitivity to an astrophysical flux of ν{sub μ} induced muon tracks in the Southern Hemisphere compared to current analyses. Here we present the motivation and capabilities based on initial simulations. Conceptual ideas for a simplified surface array will be discussed briefly.

  11. Understanding Scientists' Involvement in Education--Their Interests, Activities, and Needs: Research Results from the ReSciPE Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiry, H.; Hunter, A.; Laursen, S.; Melton, G.

    2006-12-01

    The involvement of scientists in education has been cited by national leaders as essential for strengthening US science education at the K-12 and higher levels. While many individuals and groups have developed expertise in designing and implementing programs that engage scientists with students or teachers, there is little research evidence that helps us understand what motivates or discourages scientists from such involvement, the benefits and costs to them of participating, and the barriers they face that must be addressed to involve them effectively. The ReSciPE Project (Resources for Scientists in Partnership with Education) has offered a workshop on "Scientific Inquiry in the K-12 Classroom" to over 300 scientists and science educators across the US. These workshops have reached a wide audience of science professionals who undertake activities in science education, whether individual or institution-based work, for work or as a volunteer. The project aims to help these "education-engaged scientists" pursue their education work more effectively, but has also drawn on this group as a research sample for an evaluation-with-research study to investigate scientists' involvement in education. Pre- and post-surveys have enabled us to characterize the demographics of the participants and measure their self-reported knowledge and learning about education, especially inquiry-based science. Follow- up interviews have provided insight into their education activities, motivations, interests, difficulties, and needs. We will report on recent research findings from this study and place them in context of national needs and efforts to engage scientists in education.

  12. Are bone and muscle changes from POWER PE, an 8-month in-school jumping intervention, maintained at three years?

    PubMed

    Weeks, Benjamin K; Beck, Belinda R

    2012-01-01

    Our aim was to determine if the musculoskeletal benefits of a twice-weekly, school-based, jumping regime in healthy adolescent boys and girls were maintained three years later. Subjects of the original POWER PE trial (n = 99) were contacted and asked to undergo retesting three years after cessation of the intervention. All original measures were completed including: sitting height, standing height, weight, calcaneal broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA), whole body, hip and spine bone mineral content (BMC), lean tissue mass, and fat mass. Physical activity was recorded with the bone-specific physical activity questionnaire (BPAQ) and calcium intake was estimated with a calcium-focussed food questionnaire. Maturity was determined by Tanner staging and estimation of the age of peak height velocity (PHV). Twenty-nine adolescents aged 17.3 ± 0.4 years agreed to participate. Three years after the intervention, there were no differences in subject characteristics between control and intervention groups (p>0.05). Three-year change in weight, lean mass, and fat mass were similar between groups (p>0.05). There were no significant group differences in three-year change in BUA or BMC at any site (p>0.05), although the between-group difference in femoral neck BMC at follow-up exceeded the least significant change. While significant group differences were not observed three years after cessation of the intervention, changes in bone parameters occurred in parallel for intervention and control groups such that the original benefits of the intervention observed within the treatment group were sustained. PMID:22720051

  13. Are Bone and Muscle Changes from POWER PE, an 8-month In-school Jumping Intervention, Maintained at Three Years?

    PubMed Central

    Weeks, Benjamin K.; Beck, Belinda R.

    2012-01-01

    Our aim was to determine if the musculoskeletal benefits of a twice-weekly, school-based, jumping regime in healthy adolescent boys and girls were maintained three years later. Subjects of the original POWER PE trial (n = 99) were contacted and asked to undergo retesting three years after cessation of the intervention. All original measures were completed including: sitting height, standing height, weight, calcaneal broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA), whole body, hip and spine bone mineral content (BMC), lean tissue mass, and fat mass. Physical activity was recorded with the bone-specific physical activity questionnaire (BPAQ) and calcium intake was estimated with a calcium-focussed food questionnaire. Maturity was determined by Tanner staging and estimation of the age of peak height velocity (PHV). Twenty-nine adolescents aged 17.3±0.4 years agreed to participate. Three years after the intervention, there were no differences in subject characteristics between control and intervention groups (p>0.05). Three-year change in weight, lean mass, and fat mass were similar between groups (p>0.05). There were no significant group differences in three-year change in BUA or BMC at any site (p>0.05), although the between-group difference in femoral neck BMC at follow-up exceeded the least significant change. While significant group differences were not observed three years after cessation of the intervention, changes in bone parameters occurred in parallel for intervention and control groups such that the original benefits of the intervention observed within the treatment group were sustained. PMID:22720051

  14. What is PE?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coulter, Maura; Ní Chróinín, Déirdre

    2013-01-01

    Physical education is a socially constructed activity that forms one component of a wider physical culture that includes sport and health/physical activity. The terms sport and physical education are often used interchangeably in school contexts, where sport and health continue to shape what is understood by the term physical education. This study…

  15. Aloha Pe: Ka Huliau

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cashman, Kimo

    2013-01-01

    This article recounts the story of a visit to Kelemania, the homeland of the author's grandparents. It relates a series of events that occurred approximately ten years ago and had a profound effect on the author's life. The events described here occurred within a very short period of time and set the author on a life's journey.

  16. The New PE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Digest: Essential Readings Condensed for Quick Review, 2004

    2004-01-01

    In response to growing rates of obesity and health-related problems in children, schools are beginning to shift Physical Education classes from competitive games to lessons on leading healthier lives. This article discusses some creative ways implemented by school administrators to help children get fit and fight what some call an epidemic. The…

  17. PE Shapes Up.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treanor, Laura; Housner, Lynn

    1998-01-01

    A sound physical education program is sensitive to the individual abilities and interests of students. The National Association for Sport and Physical Education (NASPE) offers a checklist to evaluate physical education programs. (MLF)

  18. Rivaroxaban for the treatment of symptomatic deep-vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism in Chinese patients: a subgroup analysis of the EINSTEIN DVT and PE studies

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The worldwide EINSTEIN DVT and EINSTEIN PE studies randomized 8282 patients with acute symptomatic deep-vein thrombosis (DVT) and/or pulmonary embolism (PE) and, for the first time in trials in this setting, included patients in China. This analysis evaluates the results of these studies in this subgroup of patients. Methods A total of 439 Chinese patients who had acute symptomatic DVT (n=211), or PE with or without DVT (n=228), were randomized to receive rivaroxaban (15 mg twice daily for 21 days, followed by 20 mg once daily) or standard therapy of enoxaparin overlapping with and followed by an adjusted-dose vitamin K antagonist, for 3, 6, or 12 months. The primary efficacy outcome was symptomatic recurrent venous thromboembolism. The principal safety outcome was major or non-major clinically relevant bleeding. Results The primary efficacy outcome occurred in seven (3.2%) of the 220 patients in the rivaroxaban group and in seven (3.2%) of the 219 patients in the standard-therapy group (hazard ratio, 1.04; 95% confidence interval 0.36–3.0; p=0.94). The principal safety outcome occurred in 13 (5.9%) patients in the rivaroxaban group and in 20 (9.2%) patients in the standard-therapy group (hazard ratio, 0.63; 95% confidence interval 0.31–1.26; p=0.19). Major bleeding was observed in no patients in the rivaroxaban group and in five (2.3%) patients in the standard-therapy group. In fragile patients (defined as age >75 years, creatinine clearance <50 mL/min, and/or body weight ≤50 kg), the principal safety outcome occurred in four (8.9%) of the 45 patients who received rivaroxaban compared with seven (15.2%) of the 46 patients who received standard therapy. Conclusions In Chinese patients with acute symptomatic DVT and/or PE, rivaroxaban was as efficacious as enoxaparin followed by vitamin K antagonist therapy, with a similar safety profile. The relative efficacy and safety of rivaroxaban compared with enoxaparin/vitamin K antagonist were

  19. A Five-Stage Process for the Development and Validation of a Systematic Observation Instrument: The System for Observing the Teaching of Games in Physical Education (SOTG-PE)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Simon; Fairclough, Stuart

    2012-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to develop and validate a System for Observing the Teaching of Games in Physical Education (SOTG-PE). Primary pilot testing of the SOTG-PE was conducted in a large, selective, all-boys secondary school in the north-west of England. Two hundred and eighty three pupils aged 11-16 volunteered as participants for…

  20. Berthierine and chamosite hydrothermal: genetic guides in the Peña Colorada magnetite-bearing ore deposit, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivas-Sanchez, M. L.; Alva-Valdivia, L. M.; Arenas-Alatorre, J.; Urrutia-Fucugauchi, J.; Ruiz-Sandoval, M.; Ramos-Molina, M. A.

    2006-10-01

    We report the first finding of berthierine and chamosite in Mexico. They occur in the iron-ore deposit of Peña Colorada, Colima. Their genetic characteristics show two different mineralization events associated mainly to the magnetite ore. Berthierine is an Fe-rich and Mg-low 1:1 layer phyllosilicate of hydrothermal sedimentary origin. Its structure is 7 Å, d hkl [10 0] basal spacing and low degree structural ordering. The phyllosilicate has been identified by a lack of 14 Å basal reflection on X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns. These data were supported by High Resolution Transmision Electron Microscopy (HRTEM) images that show thick packets of berthierine in well defined parallel plates. From the analysis of Fast Fourier Transform (FFT), we found around [1 0 0] reflections of berhierine 7.12 Å and corresponding angles of hexagonal crystalline structure. Berthierine has a microcrystalline structure, dark green color, and high refraction index (1.64 to 1.65). Birefringence is low, near 0.007 to null and it is associated to nanoparticles (<15 nm) and microparticles of magnetite (<25 μm), fine grain siderite, and organic matter. Its texture is intergranular-interstratified with colloform banding. The chamosite Mg-rich is of hydrothermal epigenetic origin affected by low-degree metamorphism. It is an Fe-rich 2:1 layer silicate, with basal space of 14 Å, d hkl [0 0 1]. The chamosite occurs as lamellar in sizes ranging from 50 to 150 μm. It has intense green color and refraction index from 1.64 to 1.65. The birefringence is near 0.008, with biaxial (-) orientation and a 2V small. It is associated mainly to sericite, epidote, clay, feldspar, and magnetite. Chamosite is emplaced in open spaces filling and linings. Mössbauer spectra of berthierine and chamosite are similar. They show the typical spectra of paramagnetic substances, with two well defined unfoldings corresponding to the oxidation state of Fe+2 and Fe+3. Chemical composition of both minerals was

  1. Ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase induction by TCDD, PeCDF and TCDF in ring-necked pheasant and Japanese quail hepatocytes: Time-dependent effects on concentration-response curves.

    PubMed

    Hervé, Jessica C; Crump, Doug; Giesy, John P; Zwiernik, Matthew J; Bursian, Steven J; Kennedy, Sean W

    2010-06-01

    Ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity was measured in primary cultures of ring-necked pheasant (Phasianuscolchicus) and Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) embryonic hepatocytes exposed to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran (PeCDF) and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran (TCDF) for 12, 24, 36 and 48 h. In ring-necked pheasant hepatocytes there was a significant time-dependent increase in the EROD-inducing potency of TCDD, PeCDF and TCDF (i.e. decrease of the EC50). In Japanese quail hepatocytes there was no time-dependent change in the EROD-inducing potency of TCDD, PeCDF and TCDF. There was no time-dependent change in the relative potency of PeCDF and TCDF (i.e. compared to the potency of TCDD) in ring-necked pheasant hepatocytes and of PeCDF in Japanese quail hepatocytes. The results indicate that the relative potencies of these compounds at 24h are representative of their relative potencies between 12 and 48 h. However, in Japanese quail hepatocytes, the relative potency of TCDF decreased in a time-dependent manner (up to 3.6-fold difference). These results suggest that the effect of time on the EROD-inducing potency of TCDD, PeCDF and TCDF in ring-necked pheasant and Japanese quail hepatocytes is compound- and species-specific, but experimental conditions could also be involved in the differences observed.

  2. Recalibration of the Palaeocene-Eocene boundary (P-E) using high precision U-Pb and Ar-Ar isotopic dating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chambers, L.; Pringle, M.; Fitton, G.; Larsen, L. M.; Pedersen, A. K.; Parrish, R.

    2003-04-01

    In the current time scales (Cande and Kent, 95; Berggren et al, 95) the P-E Boundary is positioned at 55 Ma based primarily on the age of the -17 ash layer in Denmark. In the absence of a global stratigraphic section and point the boundary is an interval of 1 m.y. from 55.5 to 54.5 Ma that includes all of the different means of calibrating the boundary tie point, including the NP9/NP10 calcareous nannofossil zonal boundary, the planktonic foraminiferal P5/P6a zonal boundary, preliminary ages for the -17 and +19 ash layers (unpub.), the base of the London Clay Formation, and the δ13C spike. Here we present new Ar-Ar ages for the -17 and +19 ash layers in Denmark and combine this study with a calibration of the Ar-Ar with the U-Pb method. As Ar-Ar ages are relative to the known age of a standard or monitor, U-Pb ages on zircons from the same rocks from the British Tertiary Igneous Province provide an absolute age calibration for all of our Ar-Ar ages (including the monitors). An additional complication arises because the time scale is currently being revised (J. Ogg, Pers. Comm.). In the new time scale the P-E boundary will stay at 55 Ma and the K-T boundary will move by 0.5 m.y. to 65.5 Ma. Our results have a direct impact on the positioning of the P-E Boundary relative to the K-T boundary as definitive K-T tektite is used as one of our Ar-Ar standards. Ar-Ar ages and U-Pb ages for the same sample from the BTIP are indistinguishable when the ages used for the Ar-Ar monitor minerals are those recommended in Renne et al (98). This means that the K-T tektite is 65.78 ± 0.03 Ma, the -17 ash is 54.52 ± 0.05Ma, and the +19 ash is 54.04 ± 0.14 Ma. If the P-E boundary is taken to be between the -17 and +19 ash layers, as in DSDP Hole 550 (the ashes bracket the planktonic foraminiferal P5/P6a zonal boundary) then the current position at 55 Ma is too old. We therefore suggest that if the K-T boundary moves to 65.5 Ma, then the P-E boundary should not stay at 55 Ma, but

  3. Assessing the Record of Anoxic/Dysoxic Events in Lower Aptian Cupido/La Peña Formations, Northeastern Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurrasse, F. J.; Barragan-Manzo, R.; Ponton, C.

    2008-05-01

    Lower Aptian series at the la Huasteca Canyon, Nuevo Leon, NE Mexico, include the uppermost part of the Cupido Formation, a shallow-platform facies (TIC > 60%) succeeded by the La Peña Formation (TIC very variable 17 - 92 %). The change indicated a long-term shift in sedimentation characterized by distinct periodic increase in terrigenous, organic matter and abundant occurrence of ammonites. The interbeds of marls, calcareous shales, marly calcilutites and calcirudites of the La Peña facies contain abundant thin-shelled ammonites, and few planktonic foraminifera. The change occurred in the Dufrenoya justinae ammonite Zone, coeval with the Dufrenoya furcata Zone of the standard ammonite biochronostratigraphy of the Mediterranean province for the uppermost Early Aptian (Barragan-Manzo and Mendez-Franco, 2005; Barragan and Maurrasse, 2008). These zones differentiate the upper part of the Lower Aptian, therefore posterior to OAE1a. Nonetheless, while microfacies of the La Peña Fm show also intermittent belemnites, small pelecypods other than rudists, and sea urchins, benthic foraminifera are mostly absent occurring toward younger levels in the Gargasian coincident with highest taxonomic diversity. Benthic foraminifers are conspicuously absent particularly at the levels closest to the transition zone with the infrajacent Cupido facies. Also, despite increase in TOC (up to 2.6 %) in the La Peña facies, ∂13 Corg curve shows little co-variation with increasing OM, which we interpret to represent a regional phenomenon related to super-productivity in the isolated sub-basin of the Mexican platform (Maurrasse et al., 2006). In contrast, typical Cupido Fm microfacies exhibit abundant miliolids (20-30 %), fragments of rudists, echinoids, ostracods (> 30-40%), very few thin ammonite shell debris, and oolites at intermittent levels. Rich benthic foraminifer assemblages are indicative of well-oxygenated bottom conditions. However, there are three horizons about 60 cm

  4. Physiology of the fuel ethanol strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae PE-2 at low pH indicates a context-dependent performance relevant for industrial applications.

    PubMed

    Della-Bianca, Bianca E; de Hulster, Erik; Pronk, Jack T; van Maris, Antonius J A; Gombert, Andreas K

    2014-12-01

    Selected Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains are used in Brazil to produce the hitherto most energetically efficient first-generation fuel ethanol. Although genome and some transcriptome data are available for some of these strains, quantitative physiological data are lacking. This study investigates the physiology of S. cerevisiae strain PE-2, widely used in the Brazilian fuel ethanol industry, in comparison with CEN.PK113-7D, a reference laboratory strain, focusing on tolerance to low pH and acetic acid stress. Both strains were grown in anaerobic bioreactors, operated as batch, chemostat or dynamic continuous cultures. Despite their different backgrounds, biomass and product formation by the two strains were similar under a range of conditions (pH 5 or pH < 3, with or without 105 mM acetic acid added). PE-2 displayed a remarkably higher fitness than CEN.PK113-7D during batch cultivation on complex Yeast extract - Peptone - Dextrose medium at low pH (2.7). Kinetics of viability loss of non-growing cells, incubated at pH 1.5, indicated a superior survival of glucose-depleted PE-2 cells, when compared with either CEN.PK113-7D or a commercial bakers' strain. These results indicate that the sulfuric acid washing step, used in the fuel ethanol industry to decrease bacterial contamination due to non-aseptic operation, might have exerted an important selective pressure on the microbial populations present in such environments.

  5. SU-E-T-108: Development of a Novel Clinical Neutron Dose Monitor for Proton Therapy Based On Twin TLD500 Chips in a Small PE Moderator

    SciTech Connect

    Hentschel, R; Mukherjee, B

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: In proton therapy, it could be desirable to measure out-of-field fast neutron doses at critical locations near and outside the patient body. Methods: The working principle of a novel clinical neutron dose monitor is verified by MCNPX simulation. The device is based on a small PE moderator of just 5.5cm side length for easy handling covered with a thermal neutron suppression layer. In the simulation, a polystyrene phantom is bombarded with a standard proton beam. The secondary thermal neutron flux produced inside the moderator by the impinging fast neutrons from the treatment volume is estimated by pairs of α-Al2O3:C (TLD500) chips which are evaluated offline after the treatment either by TL or OSL methods. The first chip is wrapped with 0.5mm natural Gadolinium foil converting the thermal neutrons to gammas via (n,γ) reaction. The second chip is wrapped with a dummy material. The chip centers have a distance of 2cm from each other. Results: The simulation shows that the difference of gamma doses in the TLD500 chips is correlated to the mean fast neutron dose delivered to the moderator material. Different outer shielding materials have been studied. 0.5mm Cadmium shielding is preferred for cost reasons and convenience. Replacement of PE moderator material by other materials like lead or iron at any place is unfavorable. The spatial orientation of the moderator cube is uncritical. Using variance reduction techniques like splitting/Russian roulette, the TLD500 gamma dose simulation give positive differences up to distances of 0.5m from the treatment volume. Conclusion: Applicability and basic layout of a novel clinical neutron dose monitor are demonstrated. The monitor measures PE neutron doses at locations outside the patient body up to distances of 0.5m from the treatment volume. Tissue neutron doses may be calculated using neutron kerma factors.

  6. Eight months of regular in-school jumping improves indices of bone strength in adolescent boys and Girls: the POWER PE study.

    PubMed

    Weeks, Benjamin K; Young, Cath M; Beck, Belinda R

    2008-07-01

    The POWER PE study was an 8-mo, randomized, controlled, school-based exercise intervention designed to apply known principles of effective bone loading to practical opportunities to improve life-long musculoskeletal outcomes. A total of 99 adolescents (46 boys and 53 girls) with a mean age of 13.8 +/- 0.4 yr (peri- to postpubertal) volunteered to participate. Intervention subjects performed 10 min of jumping activity in place of regular physical education (PE) warm up. Control subjects performed usual PE warm-up activities. Bone mass (DXA and QUS) was assessed at baseline and follow-up along with anthropometry, maturity, muscle power, and estimates of physical activity and dietary calcium. Geometric properties (such as femoral neck [FN] moment of inertia) were calculated from DXA measures. Boys in the intervention group experienced improvements in calcaneal broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) (+5.0%) and fat mass (-10.5%), whereas controls did not (+1.4% and -0.8%, respectively). Girls in the intervention group improved FN BMC (+13.9%) and lumbar spine (LS) BMAD (+5.2%) more than controls (+4.9% and +1.5%, respectively). Between-group comparisons of change showed intervention effects only for whole body (WB) BMC (+10.6% versus +6.3%) for boys. Boys in the intervention group gained more lean tissue mass, trochanter (TR) BMC, LS BMC, and WB BMC and lost more fat mass than girls in the intervention group (p < 0.05). Ten minutes of jumping activity twice a week for 8 mo during adolescence seems to improve bone accrual in a sex-specific manner. Boys increased WB bone mass and BUA, and reduced fat mass, whereas girls improved bone mass at the hip and spine. PMID:18302501

  7. Poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA) grafted polyethylene/polypropylene (PE/PP) nonwoven fabric by γ-initiation: Synthesis, characterization and benefits of RAFT mediation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodama, Yasko; Barsbay, Murat; Güven, Olgun

    2014-12-01

    Polyethylene/polypropylene (PE/PP) nonwoven fabrics were functionalized by γ-initiated RAFT mediated grafting of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA), and the characterization of the grafted samples was carried out using various techniques. FTIR and XPS analysis showed an increase in the oxygenated content till a certain degree of grafting. The results implied a grafting process following the concept of ‘front mechanism’. The initial grafting occurred on the topmost surface layer, and then moved further into the bulk of the polymer matrix. Reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) mediated grafting yielded a better controlled grafting when compared to those obtained in conventional grafting.

  8. Tri-gate InGaAs-OI junctionless FETs with PE-ALD Al2O3 gate dielectric and H2/Ar anneal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djara, Vladimir; Czornomaz, Lukas; Deshpande, Veeresh; Daix, Nicolas; Uccelli, Emanuele; Caimi, Daniele; Sousa, Marilyne; Fompeyrine, Jean

    2016-01-01

    We present a tri-gate In0.53Ga0.47As-on-insulator (InGaAs-OI) junctionless field-effect transistor (JLFET) architecture. The fabricated devices feature a 20-nm-thick n-In0.53Ga0.47As channel doped to 1018/cm3 obtained by metal organic chemical vapor phase deposition and direct wafer bonding along with a 3.5-nm-thick Al2O3 gate dielectric deposited by plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PE-ALD). The PE-ALD Al2O3 presents a bandgap of 7.0 eV, a k-value of 8.1 and a breakdown field of 8-10.5 MV/cm. A post-fabrication H2/Ar anneal applied to the PE-ALD Al2O3/In0.53Ga0.47As-OI gate stack yielded a low density of interface traps (Dit) of 7 × 1011/cm2 eV at Ec - E = -0.1 eV along with lower border trap density values than recently reported PE-ALD bi-layer Al2O3/HfO2 and thermal ALD HfO2 gate stacks deposited on In0.53Ga0.47As. The H2/Ar anneal also improved the subthreshold performance of the tri-gate InGaAs-OI JLFETs. After H2/Ar anneal, the long-channel (10 μm) device featured a threshold voltage (VT) of 0.25 V, a subthreshold swing (SS) of 88 mV/dec and a drain-induced barrier lowering (DIBL) of 65 mV/V, while the short-channel (160 nm) device exhibited a VT of 0.1 V, a SS of 127 mV/dec and a DIBL of 218 mV/V. Overall, the tri-gate InGaAs-OI JLFETs showed the best compromise in terms of VT, SS and DIBL compared to the other III-V JLFET architectures reported to date. However, a 15× increase in access resistance was observed after H2/Ar anneal, significantly degrading the maximum drain current of the tri-gate InGaAs-OI JLFETs.

  9. Germylenes and stannylenes stabilized within N2PE rings (E = Ge or Sn): combined experimental and theoretical study.

    PubMed

    Vrána, Jan; Ketkov, Sergey; Jambor, Roman; Růžička, Aleš; Lyčka, Antonín; Dostál, Libor

    2016-06-21

    The deprotonation of aminophosphanes PhP(NHR)2 (R = t-Bu or Dip; Dip = 2,6-i-Pr2C6H3) and t-BuP(NHDip)2 using n-BuLi gave, depending on the stoichiometry, both the dilithium compounds {[PhP(Nt-Bu)2]Li2}2 (), [PhP(Nt-Bu)(NDip)]Li2·(Et2O) (), [t-BuP(NDip)2]Li2·(Et2O)2 () and [t-BuP(NDip)2]Li2·(tmeda)2 (), and the monolithium compounds [PhP(NHt-Bu)(NR)]Li·(tmeda) (R = t-Bu , Dip ) and [t-BuP(NHDip)(NDip)]Li·(tmeda) (). Treatment of , and with GeCl2·dioxane or SnCl2 in a 1 : 1 stoichiometric ratio gave the corresponding tetrylenes [PhP(Nt-Bu)2]E (E = Ge , Sn ), [PhP(Nt-Bu)(NDip)]Ge () and [t-BuP(NDip)2]E (E = Ge , Sn ). The heteroleptic germylene [Ph(H)P(Nt-Bu)2]GeCl () was obtained by the reaction of the monolithium compound [PhP(NHt-Bu)(Nt-Bu)]Li·(tmeda) () with GeCl2·dioxane in a 1 : 1 stoichiometric ratio, as a result of a spontaneous NH → PH tautomeric shift in the ligand backbone. In contrast, an analogous reaction with SnCl2 produced only stannylene along with the PhP(NHt-Bu)2 starting material, suggesting scrambling of the ligands rather than a NH → PH tautomeric shift. Finally, heating in solution led to P-C bond cleavage and formation of the bis(imino)phosphide [DipNPNDip]Li·(tmeda) (). The reaction of with GeCl2·dioxane, SnCl2 or PbCl2 in a 2 : 1 stoichiometric ratio yielded the unprecedented tetrylenes [DipNPNDip]2E (E = Ge , Sn and Pb ), in which the tetrylene center is incorporated within two N2PE rings. Treatment of the monolithium compound with n-BuLi and K (or KC8) gave [t-BuNPNt-Bu]Li·(tmeda) () and{[t-BuNPNt-Bu]K(tmeda)}2 (), respectively. In contrast to the reaction with , similar reactions of with GeCl2·dioxane and SnCl2 resulted in the known compounds cis-[P(μ-Nt-Bu)2P(t-BuN)2]E (E = Ge, Sn); evidently the t-Bu groups do not provide sufficient steric shielding to protect the bis(imino)phosphide backbone as in the case of . The bonding situation in a set of selected compounds (, ) has been subjected to a theoretical

  10. Germylenes and stannylenes stabilized within N2PE rings (E = Ge or Sn): combined experimental and theoretical study.

    PubMed

    Vrána, Jan; Ketkov, Sergey; Jambor, Roman; Růžička, Aleš; Lyčka, Antonín; Dostál, Libor

    2016-06-21

    The deprotonation of aminophosphanes PhP(NHR)2 (R = t-Bu or Dip; Dip = 2,6-i-Pr2C6H3) and t-BuP(NHDip)2 using n-BuLi gave, depending on the stoichiometry, both the dilithium compounds {[PhP(Nt-Bu)2]Li2}2 (), [PhP(Nt-Bu)(NDip)]Li2·(Et2O) (), [t-BuP(NDip)2]Li2·(Et2O)2 () and [t-BuP(NDip)2]Li2·(tmeda)2 (), and the monolithium compounds [PhP(NHt-Bu)(NR)]Li·(tmeda) (R = t-Bu , Dip ) and [t-BuP(NHDip)(NDip)]Li·(tmeda) (). Treatment of , and with GeCl2·dioxane or SnCl2 in a 1 : 1 stoichiometric ratio gave the corresponding tetrylenes [PhP(Nt-Bu)2]E (E = Ge , Sn ), [PhP(Nt-Bu)(NDip)]Ge () and [t-BuP(NDip)2]E (E = Ge , Sn ). The heteroleptic germylene [Ph(H)P(Nt-Bu)2]GeCl () was obtained by the reaction of the monolithium compound [PhP(NHt-Bu)(Nt-Bu)]Li·(tmeda) () with GeCl2·dioxane in a 1 : 1 stoichiometric ratio, as a result of a spontaneous NH → PH tautomeric shift in the ligand backbone. In contrast, an analogous reaction with SnCl2 produced only stannylene along with the PhP(NHt-Bu)2 starting material, suggesting scrambling of the ligands rather than a NH → PH tautomeric shift. Finally, heating in solution led to P-C bond cleavage and formation of the bis(imino)phosphide [DipNPNDip]Li·(tmeda) (). The reaction of with GeCl2·dioxane, SnCl2 or PbCl2 in a 2 : 1 stoichiometric ratio yielded the unprecedented tetrylenes [DipNPNDip]2E (E = Ge , Sn and Pb ), in which the tetrylene center is incorporated within two N2PE rings. Treatment of the monolithium compound with n-BuLi and K (or KC8) gave [t-BuNPNt-Bu]Li·(tmeda) () and{[t-BuNPNt-Bu]K(tmeda)}2 (), respectively. In contrast to the reaction with , similar reactions of with GeCl2·dioxane and SnCl2 resulted in the known compounds cis-[P(μ-Nt-Bu)2P(t-BuN)2]E (E = Ge, Sn); evidently the t-Bu groups do not provide sufficient steric shielding to protect the bis(imino)phosphide backbone as in the case of . The bonding situation in a set of selected compounds (, ) has been subjected to a theoretical

  11. Paleoenvironmental reconstruction of the early Neolithic to middle Bronze Age Peña Larga rock shelter (Álava, Spain) from the small mammal record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rofes, Juan; Zuluaga, Mari Cruz; Murelaga, Xabier; Fernández-Eraso, Javier; Bailon, Salvador; Iriarte, María José; Ortega, Luis Ángel; Alonso-Olazabal, Ainhoa

    2013-03-01

    The Peña Larga site, a rock shelter on the southern slopes of the Cantabrian cordillera (north Spain), is an archeological deposit covering nearly 4000 years, from the early Neolithic to the middle Bronze Age (Atlantic/Subboreal chronozones). It was used both as a household and as a stable, with a hiatus in the Chalcolithic when it was used as a collective sepulcher. Nearly twenty-eight thousand small vertebrate elements were recovered from its seven stratigraphic units, of which 2553 items were identified to the genus and/or species levels. The assemblage is composed of mammals, birds, reptiles, and amphibians. Of these, small mammals were used for paleoenvironmental reconstruction since they are very sensitive to climatic conditions, the sample sizes are large, and their preservation is good. Their distributions over time, measured in terms of relative abundance, serve as reliable proxies of habitat and climate change. The reconstruction of Peña Larga's past environments based on small mammals roughly coincides with the pollen and the amphibian/reptile records on the local scale, and with that of an ice core from Central Greenland on the global scale. This makes it a valuable tool for comparative purposes both in the regional and continental scales.

  12. Improved model systems for bacterial membranes from differing species: the importance of varying composition in PE/PG/cardiolipin ternary mixtures.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Silvia C; Neves, Cristina S; Eaton, Peter; Gameiro, Paula

    2012-09-01

    Steady-state fluorescence anisotropy and dynamic light scattering (DLS) were used to determine the thermotropic properties of lipid systems that act as models for bacterial membranes of Yersinia kristensenii and Proteus mirabilis. Lipid proportions of PE:PG:CL of 0.60:0.20:0.20 and 0.80:0.15:0.05, were used in order to mimic these two membranes respectively. We observed that the introduction of cardiolipin (CL) as a third lipid component of any PE:PG mixture, changes the system's properties considerably. The results obtained by these two techniques show that the main transition temperatures obtained are undoubtedly CL-dependent. Additionally AFM experiments were performed and these results show that even at small concentration CL produces important changes not only in the membrane thermotropic properties, but also in the bilayer structure. In summary, we were able to compare how low and high CL concentration affect bacterial membrane model system properties which can provide a further explanation for the different antibiotic susceptibilities reported for Y. kristensenii and P. mirabilis.

  13. Grafting of N,N-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate from PE/PP nonwoven fabric via radiation-induced RAFT polymerization and quaternization of the grafts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madrid, Jordan F.; Barsbay, Murat; Abad, Lucille; Güven, Olgun

    2016-07-01

    Radiation induced grafting method is one of the most promising grafting techniques and it works successfully together with the reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization, one of the most prominent controlled free-radical polymerization (CRP) methods. This study reports grafting of N,N-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA) from the surface of polyethylene/polypropylene nonwoven fabric (PE/PP NWF) by the combination of radiation-induced initiation and the RAFT polymerization technique. Effects of monomer concentration, absorbed dose and solvent choice on the grafting yield have been investigated. The grafted NWF's were characterized by ATR-FTIR, XPS, SEM, EDX and thermal analysis methods. The results indicated that surface properties were completely altered after grafting compared to pristine PE/PP even for those with very low degree of PDMAEMA grafting. Free homopolymers in solution have been analyzed by GPC in order to obtain information about the grafts. The PDMAEMA grafts on the fabric surfaces were later quaternized with dimethyl sulfate to yield positively charged surfaces that were tested for antibacterial properties.

  14. Predicting student enrollment and persistence in college STEM fields using an expanded P-E fit framework: a large-scale multilevel study.

    PubMed

    Le, Huy; Robbins, Steven B; Westrick, Paul

    2014-09-01

    Using an expanded person-environment fit (P-E fit) model, we conducted 2 studies to test the combined effects of 2 individual difference factors, ability-demand fit and interest-vocation fit, in predicting college student choice of and persistence in the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields. Analysis results based on data from 207,093 students entering 51 postsecondary institutions supported the hypothesized roles that academic ability and interest fit play in determining STEM field choice and persistence. Ability was found to moderate the effects of interest fit on the behavioral outcomes, thus expanding the P-E fit framework. We also found that gender moderates the effects of these individual difference predictors, such that the effects are weaker for females than for males in predicting STEM choice. For STEM persistence, the opposite effect was found: The relationship between ability and persistence is stronger for females than it is for males. As such, this research contributes to the resurging attention in the roles that individual difference factors play in organizational and educational research and the importance of integrating ability and interest constructs to fully understand college and career choice and persistence behaviors.

  15. Magnetic Susceptibility and Geochemistry Records in the Yax-1 Borehole in the Chicxulub Impact Crater: A paleoclimatic approach in the K/Pg and P/E Boundaries.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marca-Castillo, M.; Perez-Cruz, L. L.; Fucugauchi, J. U.; Buitrón Sánchez, B. E.

    2015-12-01

    Chicxulub impact crater is located in the northwestern sector of Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. It is the best-preserved multi-ring impact crater on Earth. Several studies have been focused in this crater structure due its association with the Cretaceous/Paleogenous boundary events. The aim of this study is document the abrupt climate changes during the K/Pg and P/E boundaries based on the stratigraphy, magnetic properties (magnetic susceptibility) and geochemical (major elements) records in the Yaxcopoil-1 (Yax-1) borehole in the Chicxulub impact crater. The Yax 1 was drilled at 20° 44' 38.45'' N, 89° 43' 6.70'' W. Two intervals from 830 to 750 and between 750 and 700 m depth were selected for this study. Magnetic susceptibility logs and X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) measures were taken every 10 cm using a Bartington magnetic susceptibility meter and a Thermo Scientific Niton XL3tGOLDD XRF analyzer. Results show variations in magnetic susceptibility logs and major elements (Ca, Si, Fe, Ti and Si) content in the K/Pg boundary at ca. 794 m depth. Magnetic susceptibility decrease abruptly, Ca values increase, and the other elements show low values. Geochemical results, manly the Ca-record, suggest that the P/E boundary might have happened around 745 m depth. These values are compared with 13C isotopes and they coincide with the Carbon Isotope Excursion (CIE), suggesting their relationship with the abrupt climate change and with the ocean acidification.

  16. Predicting student enrollment and persistence in college STEM fields using an expanded P-E fit framework: a large-scale multilevel study.

    PubMed

    Le, Huy; Robbins, Steven B; Westrick, Paul

    2014-09-01

    Using an expanded person-environment fit (P-E fit) model, we conducted 2 studies to test the combined effects of 2 individual difference factors, ability-demand fit and interest-vocation fit, in predicting college student choice of and persistence in the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields. Analysis results based on data from 207,093 students entering 51 postsecondary institutions supported the hypothesized roles that academic ability and interest fit play in determining STEM field choice and persistence. Ability was found to moderate the effects of interest fit on the behavioral outcomes, thus expanding the P-E fit framework. We also found that gender moderates the effects of these individual difference predictors, such that the effects are weaker for females than for males in predicting STEM choice. For STEM persistence, the opposite effect was found: The relationship between ability and persistence is stronger for females than it is for males. As such, this research contributes to the resurging attention in the roles that individual difference factors play in organizational and educational research and the importance of integrating ability and interest constructs to fully understand college and career choice and persistence behaviors. PMID:24611525

  17. Screening of biomedical polymer biocompatibility in NMRI-mice peritoneal cavity: a comparison between ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMW-PE) and polyethyleneterephthalate (PET).

    PubMed

    Dahmen, K G; Maurin, N; Richter, H A; Mittermayer, C

    1997-05-01

    The peritoneal resident cell population is influenced by various inflammatory and immunogenic stimuli. The influence of intraperitoneal application of polyethyleneterephthalate (PET) (group A) and ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMW-PE) (group B) powders on peritoneal cell count and macrophage activity was investigated. Powders were tested to mimic wear particles from solid implant devices as these particles often cause chronic granulomatous inflammation. The results were compared with the inflammatory response following an abdominal midline incision (group C) and untreated animals (group D). On days 1, 7, 14 and 30 peritoneal cells were quantified and the number of active macrophages was assessed. Groups A and C mice showed a significant loss of macrophages in the peritoneal lavage at day 1 but this returned to normal values (group D) on day 7. In contrast, group B animals remained at low peritoneal cell counts but showed the highest number of active macrophages. Only in this latter group was adhesion formation and granulomatous clustering of polymer powder observed. Applying the parameters macrophage count and the number of active macrophages it can be concluded that PET elicits a weaker inflammatory reaction than UHMW-PE in mice peritoneal cavity. Thus this animal model may be used as a screening test for biomedical materials, especially their wear products. PMID:15348744

  18. Distributions of Gamma-Ray Bursts and Blazars in the L p-E p-Plane and Possible Implications for their Radiation Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyu, Fen; Liang, En-Wei; Liang, Yun-Feng; Wu, Xue-Feng; Zhang, Jin; Sun, Xiao-Na; Lu, Rui-Jing; Zhang, Bing

    2014-09-01

    We present a spectral analysis for a sample of redshift-known gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) observed with Fermi/GBM. Together with the results derived from our systematical spectral energy distribution modeling with the leptonic models for a Fermi/LAT blazar sample, we compare the distributions of the GRBs and the blazars by plotting the synchrotron peak luminosity (L s) and the corresponding peak photon energy E s of blazars in the L p-E p-plane of GRBs, where L p and E p are the peak luminosity and peak photon energy of the GRB time-integrated νf ν spectrum, respectively. The GRBs are in the high-L p, high-E p corner of the plane and a tight L p-E p relation is found, i.e., L_p\\propto E_p2.13^{+0.54-0.46}. Both flat spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs) and low-synchrotron peaking BL Lac objects (LBLs) are clustered in the low-E p, low-L p corner. Intermediate- and high-synchrotron peaking BL Lac objects (IBLs and HBLs) have E s ~ 2 × 10-3-102 keV and L s ~ 1044-1047 erg s-1, but no dependence of L s on E s is found. We show that the tight Lp -Ep relation of GRBs is potentially explained with the synchrotron radiation of fast-cooling electrons in a highly magnetized ejecta, and the weak anti-correlation of L s-E s for FSRQs and LBLs may be attributed to synchrotron radiation of slow-cooling electrons in a moderately magnetized ejecta. The distributions of IBLs and HBLs in the L p-E p-plane may be interpreted with synchrotron radiation of fast-cooling electrons in a matter-dominated ejecta. These results may present a unified picture for the radiation physics of relativistic jets in GRBs and blazars within the framework of the leptonic synchrotron radiation models.

  19. Polyethylene glycol-phosphatidylethanolamine (PEG-PE)/vitamin E micelles for co-delivery of paclitaxel and curcumin to overcome multi-drug resistance in ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Abouzeid, Abraham H; Patel, Niravkumar R; Torchilin, Vladimir P

    2014-04-10

    The therapeutic potential of mixed micelles, made of PEG-PE and vitamin E co-loaded with curcumin and paclitaxel, was investigated against SK-OV-3 human ovarian adenocarcinoma along with its multi-drug resistant version SK-OV-3-paclitaxel-resistant (TR) cells in vitro and in vivo. The addition of curcumin at various concentrations did not significantly enhance the cytotoxicity of paclitaxel against SK-OV-3 in vitro. However, a clear synergistic effect was observed with the combination treatment against SK-OV-3TR in vitro. In vivo, this combination treatment produced a three-fold tumor inhibition with each of these cell lines. Our results indicate that such co-loaded mixed micelles could have significant clinical advantages for the treatment of resistant ovarian cancer. PMID:24440402

  20. PE Teacher and Classmate Support in Level of Physical Activity: The Role of Sex and BMI Status in Adolescents from Kosovo.

    PubMed

    Bronikowski, Michal; Bronikowska, Malgorzata; Laudańska-Krzemińska, Ida; Kantanista, Adam; Morina, Besnik; Vehapi, Shemsedin

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine the role of physical education (PE) teacher and classmate support in relation to sex and BMI status in adolescents' physical activity (PA) in Kosovo. A Classmate and Teacher Support Scale (with additional questions) was used on a cross-sectional sample of 608 girls and 620 boys aged 15-18, randomly selected from secondary schools of seven major municipalities in Kosovo. PA level was determined with a Physical Activity Screening Measure questionnaire. Descriptive statistics and a three-way ANOVA, along with Tukey's HSD post hoc test, were employed. The findings showed the levels of teacher and classmate support to be important factors in stimulating adolescents' PA. It was found that boys with normal weight, high support from teachers, and medium or high support from classmates were more physically active, compared with girls.

  1. Isotopic evidence for omnivory among European cave bears: Late Pleistocene Ursus spelaeus from the Peştera cu Oase, Romania

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Michael P.; Pacher, Martina; Stiller, Mathias; Quilès, Jérôme; Hofreiter, Michael; Constantin, Silviu; Zilhão, João; Trinkaus, Erik

    2008-01-01

    Previous bone collagen carbon and nitrogen isotopic studies of Late Pleistocene European cave bears (Ursus spelaeus) have shown that these bears frequently had low nitrogen isotope values, similar to those of herbivores and indicating either unusual physiology related to hibernation or a herbivorous diet. Isotopic analysis of animal bone from the Peştera cu Oase (Cave with Bones), Romania, shows that most of its cave bears had higher nitrogen isotope values than the associated herbivores and were, therefore, omnivorous. The Oase bears are securely identified as cave bears by both their morphology and DNA sequences. Although many cave bear populations may have behaved like herbivores, the Oase isotopic data demonstrate that cave bears were capable of altering their diets to become omnivores or even carnivores. These data therefore broaden the dietary profile of U. spelaeus and raise questions about the nature of the carnivore guild in Pleistocene Europe. PMID:18187577

  2. [Sedentary leisure time and food consumption among Brazilian adolescents: the Brazilian National School-Based Adolescent Health Survey (PeNSE), 2009].

    PubMed

    Camelo, Lidyane do Valle; Rodrigues, Jôsi Fernandes de Castro; Giatti, Luana; Barreto, Sandhi Maria

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this paper was to investigate whether sedentary leisure time was associated with increased regular consumption of unhealthy foods, independently of socio-demographic indicators and family context. The analysis included 59,809 students from the Brazilian National School-Based Adolescent Health Survey (PeNSE) in 2009. The response variable was sedentary leisure time, defined as watching more than two hours of TV daily. The target explanatory variables were regular consumption of soft drinks, sweets, cookies, and processed meat. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence limits (95%CI) were obtained by multiple logistic regression. Prevalence of sedentary leisure time was 65%. Regular consumption of unhealthy foods was statistically higher among students reporting sedentary leisure time, before and after adjusting for sex, age, skin color, school administration (public versus private), household assets index, and household composition. The results indicate the need for integrated interventions to promote healthy leisure-time activities and healthy eating habits among young people.

  3. PE Teacher and Classmate Support in Level of Physical Activity: The Role of Sex and BMI Status in Adolescents from Kosovo

    PubMed Central

    Bronikowski, Michal; Bronikowska, Malgorzata; Laudańska-Krzemińska, Ida; Kantanista, Adam; Morina, Besnik; Vehapi, Shemsedin

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine the role of physical education (PE) teacher and classmate support in relation to sex and BMI status in adolescents' physical activity (PA) in Kosovo. A Classmate and Teacher Support Scale (with additional questions) was used on a cross-sectional sample of 608 girls and 620 boys aged 15–18, randomly selected from secondary schools of seven major municipalities in Kosovo. PA level was determined with a Physical Activity Screening Measure questionnaire. Descriptive statistics and a three-way ANOVA, along with Tukey's HSD post hoc test, were employed. The findings showed the levels of teacher and classmate support to be important factors in stimulating adolescents' PA. It was found that boys with normal weight, high support from teachers, and medium or high support from classmates were more physically active, compared with girls. PMID:26380268

  4. Polyethylene Glycol–Phosphatidylethanolamine (PEG–PE)/Vitamin E Micelles for Co-Delivery of Paclitaxel and Curcumin to Overcome Multi-Drug Resistance in Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Abouzeid, Abraham H.; Patel, Niravkumar R.

    2014-01-01

    The therapeutic potential of mixed micelles, made of PEG-PE and vitamin E co-loaded with curcumin and paclitaxel, was investigated against SK-OV-3 human ovarian adenocarcinoma along with its multi-drug resistant version SK-OV-3-paclitaxel-resistant (TR) cells in vitro and in vivo. The addition of curcumin at various concentrations did not significantly enhance the cytotoxicity of paclitaxel against SK-OV-3 in vitro. However, a clear synergistic effect was observed with the combination treatment against SK-OV-3TR in vitro. In vivo, this combination treatment produced a three-fold tumor inhibition with each of these cell lines. Our results indicate that such co-loaded mixed micelles could have significant clinical advantages for the treatment of resistant ovarian cancer. PMID:24440402

  5. Contribution of PRS3, RPB4 and ZWF1 to the resistance of industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae CCUG53310 and PE-2 strains to lignocellulosic hydrolysate-derived inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Joana T; Aguiar, Tatiana Q; Romaní, Aloia; Oliveira, Carla; Domingues, Lucília

    2015-09-01

    PRS3, RPB4 and ZWF1 were previously identified as key genes for yeast tolerance to lignocellulose-derived inhibitors. To better understand their contribution to yeast resistance to the multiple stresses occurring during lignocellulosic hydrolysate fermentations, we overexpressed these genes in two industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains, CCUG53310 and PE-2, and evaluated their impact on the fermentation of Eucalyptus globulus wood and corn cob hydrolysates. PRS3 overexpression improved the fermentation rate (up to 32%) and productivity (up to 48%) in different hydrolysates. ZWF1 and RPB4 overexpression did not improve the fermentation performance, but their increased expression in the presence of acetic acid, furfural and hydroxymethylfurfural was found to contribute to yeast adaptation to these inhibitors. This study expands our understanding about the molecular mechanisms involved in industrial yeast tolerance to the stresses occurring during lignocellulosic bioethanol production and highlights the importance of selecting appropriate strain backgrounds/hydrolysates combinations when addressing further improvement of these processes.

  6. Control of carbon content in amorphous GeTe films deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PE-MOCVD) for phase-change random access memory applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoukar, M.; Szkutnik, P. D.; Jourde, D.; Pelissier, B.; Michallon, P.; Noé, P.; Vallée, C.

    2015-07-01

    Amorphous and smooth GeTe thin films are deposited on 200 mm silicon substrates by plasma enhanced—metal organic chemical vapor deposition (PE-MOCVD) using the commercial organometallic precursors TDMAGe and DIPTe as Ge and Te precursors, respectively. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements show a stoichiometric composition of the deposited GeTe films but with high carbon contamination. Using information collected by Optical Emission Spectroscopy (OES) and XPS, the origin of carbon contamination is determined and the dissociation mechanisms of Ge and Te precursors in H2 + Ar plasma are proposed. As a result, carbon level is properly controlled by varying operating parameters such as plasma radio frequency power, pressure and H2 rate. Finally, GeTe films with carbon level as low as 5 at. % are obtained.

  7. The dependability of electrophysiological measurements of performance monitoring in a clinical sample: A generalizability and decision analysis of the ERN and Pe.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Scott A; Larson, Michael J; Clayson, Peter E

    2015-06-01

    Psychometric studies of the ERN, CRN, Pe, and Pc ERPs are increasing. Coherent integration of these results is difficult with classical test theory because the definition of error depends on the measure of reliability. This study used generalizability theory, which extends the ideas of classical test theory, as a framework for evaluating the influence of psychopathology and number of trials on dependability of measurement. Participants included 34 people meeting criteria for major depression, 29 meeting criteria for an anxiety disorder, and 319 controls. For all ERPs, within-person variance was larger than between-person variance across groups, indicating many trials are needed for adequate dependability (at least 13). Slightly fewer trials were needed to achieve adequate dependability in the control group than the pathology groups. Regions of interest had higher dependability than single sensors.

  8. Isotopic evidence for omnivory among European cave bears: Late Pleistocene Ursus spelaeus from the Peştera cu Oase, Romania.

    PubMed

    Richards, Michael P; Pacher, Martina; Stiller, Mathias; Quilès, Jérôme; Hofreiter, Michael; Constantin, Silviu; Zilhão, João; Trinkaus, Erik

    2008-01-15

    Previous bone collagen carbon and nitrogen isotopic studies of Late Pleistocene European cave bears (Ursus spelaeus) have shown that these bears frequently had low nitrogen isotope values, similar to those of herbivores and indicating either unusual physiology related to hibernation or a herbivorous diet. Isotopic analysis of animal bone from the Peştera cu Oase (Cave with Bones), Romania, shows that most of its cave bears had higher nitrogen isotope values than the associated herbivores and were, therefore, omnivorous. The Oase bears are securely identified as cave bears by both their morphology and DNA sequences. Although many cave bear populations may have behaved like herbivores, the Oase isotopic data demonstrate that cave bears were capable of altering their diets to become omnivores or even carnivores. These data therefore broaden the dietary profile of U. spelaeus and raise questions about the nature of the carnivore guild in Pleistocene Europe.

  9. PE Teacher and Classmate Support in Level of Physical Activity: The Role of Sex and BMI Status in Adolescents from Kosovo.

    PubMed

    Bronikowski, Michal; Bronikowska, Malgorzata; Laudańska-Krzemińska, Ida; Kantanista, Adam; Morina, Besnik; Vehapi, Shemsedin

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine the role of physical education (PE) teacher and classmate support in relation to sex and BMI status in adolescents' physical activity (PA) in Kosovo. A Classmate and Teacher Support Scale (with additional questions) was used on a cross-sectional sample of 608 girls and 620 boys aged 15-18, randomly selected from secondary schools of seven major municipalities in Kosovo. PA level was determined with a Physical Activity Screening Measure questionnaire. Descriptive statistics and a three-way ANOVA, along with Tukey's HSD post hoc test, were employed. The findings showed the levels of teacher and classmate support to be important factors in stimulating adolescents' PA. It was found that boys with normal weight, high support from teachers, and medium or high support from classmates were more physically active, compared with girls. PMID:26380268

  10. Effects of batch to batch variations and test methodology on degree of crystallinity and melting temperature of UHMW-PE as measured by differential scanning calorimetry.

    PubMed

    Pascaud, R S; Evans, W T; McCullagh, P J; FitzPatrick, D

    1996-12-01

    The thermal and structural analysis of a total 22 batches from three medical grade ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMW-PE) resins was determined using the DSC method. Batch to batch variations of approximately 5% were obtained for the melting temperature and the degree of crystallinity. The variations correlated both to the changes caused by gamma-irradiation sterilization and subsequent aging, and to the differences in DSC results obtained from various laboratories on materials believed to exhibit essentially similar clinical performances. Varying the sample weight from 4.4 to 27.1 mg resulted in a significant relative increase of 5% in the degree of crystallinity. The study shows that the standard double melting/recrystallisation procedure for DSC evaluation produces variations in the melting behaviors of approximately the same magnitude as those indicated by batch lot or sterilization/aging. PMID:8953152

  11. PEG-PE-based micelles co-loaded with paclitaxel and cyclosporine A or loaded with paclitaxel and targeted by anticancer antibody overcome drug resistance in cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Sarisozen, Can; Vural, Imran; Levchenko, Tatyana; Hincal, A Atilla; Torchilin, Vladimir P

    2012-05-01

    The over-expression of the P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in cancer cells is one of the main reasons of the acquired Multidrug Resistance (MDR). Combined treatment of MDR cancer cells with P-gp inhibitors and chemotherapeutic agents could result in reversal of resistance in P-gp-expressing cells. In this study, paclitaxel (PTX) was co-encapsulated in actively targeted (anticancer mAb 2C5-modified) polymeric lipid-core PEG-PE-based micelles with Cyclosporine A (CycA), which is one of the most effective first generation P-gp inhibitors. Cell culture studies performed using MDCKII (parental and MDR1) cell lines to investigate the potential MDR reversal effect of the formulations. The average size of both empty and loaded PEG₂₀₀₀-PE/Vitamin E mixed micelles was found between 10 and 25 nm. Zeta potentials of the formulations were found between -7 and -35 mV. The percentage of PTX in the micelles was found higher than 3% for both formulations and cumulative PTX release of about 70% was demonstrated. P-gp inhibition with CycA caused an increase in the cytotoxicity of PTX. Dual-loaded micelles demonstrated significantly higher cytotoxicity in the resistant MDCKII-MDR1 cells than micelles loaded with PTX alone. Micelle modification with mAb 2C5 results in the highest cytotoxicity against resistant cells, with or without P-gp modulator, probably because of better internalization bypassing the P-gp mechanism. Our results suggest that micelles delivering a combination of P-gp modulator and anticancer drug or micelles loaded with only PTX, but targeted with mAb 2C5 represent a promising approach to overcome drug resistance in cancer cells. PMID:22506922

  12. Dopamine Transporter Correlates and Occupancy by Modafinil in Cocaine-Dependent Patients: A Controlled Study With High-Resolution PET and [(11)C]-PE2I.

    PubMed

    Karila, Laurent; Leroy, Claire; Dubol, Manon; Trichard, Christian; Mabondo, Audrey; Marill, Catherine; Dubois, Albertine; Bordas, Nadège; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Reynaud, Michel; Artiges, Eric

    2016-08-01

    Modafinil is a candidate compound for the treatment of cocaine addiction that binds to the dopamine transporter (DAT) in healthy humans, as observed by positron emission tomography (PET). This mechanism, analogous to that of cocaine, might mediate a putative therapeutic effect of modafinil on cocaine dependence, though the binding of modafinil to DAT has never been assessed in cocaine-dependent patients. We aimed at quantifying the DAT availability during a controlled treatment by modafinil, and its clinical and psychometric correlates in cocaine-dependent patients at the onset of abstinence initiation. Twenty-nine cocaine-dependent male patients were enrolled in a 3-month trial for cocaine abstinence. Modafinil was used in a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled design and was administered as follows: 400 mg/day for 26 days, then 300 mg/day for 30 days, and 200 mg/day for 31 days. Participants were examined twice during a 17-day hospitalization for their DAT availability using PET and [(11)C]-PE2I and for assessments of craving, depressive symptoms, working memory, and decision-making. Cocaine abstinence was further assessed during a 10-week outpatient follow-up period. Baseline [(11)C]-PE2I-binding potential covaried with risk taking and craving index in striatal and extrastriatal regions. A 65.6% decrease of binding potential was detected in patients receiving modafinil for 2 weeks, whereas placebo induced no significant change. During hospitalization, an equivalent improvement in clinical outcomes was observed in both treatment groups, and during the outpatient follow-up there were more therapeutic failures in the modafinil-treated group. Therefore, these results do not support the usefulness of modafinil to treat cocaine addiction. PMID:26892922

  13. Health Impact Assessments for Environmental Restoration: The Case of Caño Martín Peña

    PubMed Central

    Sheffield, Perry; Agu, Damiris; Rodríguez, Lyvia; Avilés, Katia

    2014-01-01

    Background Health Impact Assessment (HIA) is a methodology for predicting health impacts of a proposed policy or plan. A proposed environmental restoration and development plan presented an opportunity for an HIA in an environmental justice community surrounding the Martín Peña channel in San Juan, Puerto Rico. The HIA focused on the dredging of the channel, debris removal, road, sewer, and storm water infrastructure improvements, housing demolition, and resident relocation. Objective The HIA sought to determine the potential health impacts of the proposed plan on the community to inform the funding decision by the Puerto Rican legislature. As the first HIA in Puerto Rico, a secondary objective was to build HIA capacity in Puerto Rico. Methods This HIA used a community training, literature reviews, existing local studies, focus groups, interviews, and disease surveillance data to assess baseline health, determine expected impacts, and build capacity. Findings The Martín Peña community is experiencing deteriorating environmental conditions. Flooding and negative environmental exposures, such as mold, limits to physical activity, stress, chemical toxicants, pathogenic bacteria, and pests, are worsening. The higher rates of diseases, such as asthma and diarrhea, in the community compared to elsewhere in Puerto Rico appear to be largely attributable to these factors. Overall, the proposed plan is expected to improve many of these health disparities but the successful implementation depends on continued community acceptance and participation, particularly with the relocation process. Recommendations are for full financing and several mitigation efforts to avoid negative and preserve beneficial health consequences. Conclusions As the first HIA in Puerto Rico, this assessment provided specific recommendations to benefit the health of the community affected by an environmental restoration and development plan and also capacity building for a larger audience in Puerto

  14. Oral rivaroxaban versus standard therapy for the treatment of symptomatic venous thromboembolism: a pooled analysis of the EINSTEIN-DVT and PE randomized studies

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Standard treatment for venous thromboembolism (VTE) consists of a heparin combined with vitamin K antagonists. Direct oral anticoagulants have been investigated for acute and extended treatment of symptomatic VTE; their use could avoid parenteral treatment and/or laboratory monitoring of anticoagulant effects. Methods A prespecified pooled analysis of the EINSTEIN-DVT and EINSTEIN-PE studies compared the efficacy and safety of rivaroxaban (15 mg twice-daily for 21 days, followed by 20 mg once-daily) with standard-therapy (enoxaparin 1.0 mg/kg twice-daily and warfarin or acenocoumarol). Patients were treated for 3, 6, or 12 months and followed for suspected recurrent VTE and bleeding. The prespecified noninferiority margin was 1.75. Results A total of 8282 patients were enrolled; 4151 received rivaroxaban and 4131 received standard-therapy. The primary efficacy outcome occurred in 86 (2.1%) rivaroxaban-treated patients compared with 95 (2.3%) standard-therapy-treated patients (hazard ratio, 0.89; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.66–1.19; pnoninferiority < 0.001). Major bleeding was observed in 40 (1.0%) and 72 (1.7%) patients in the rivaroxaban and standard-therapy groups, respectively (hazard ratio, 0.54; 95% CI, 0.37–0.79; p = 0.002). In key subgroups, including fragile patients, cancer patients, patients presenting with large clots, and those with a history of recurrent VTE, the efficacy and safety of rivaroxaban were similar compared with standard-therapy. Conclusion The single-drug approach with rivaroxaban resulted in similar efficacy to standard-therapy and was associated with a significantly lower rate of major bleeding. Efficacy and safety results were consistent among key patient subgroups. Trial registration EINSTEIN-PE: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00439777; EINSTEIN-DVT: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00440193. PMID:24053656

  15. [Carlos Younger de la Peña (1920-1996). "Urology in Madrid during the second half of the 20th century"].

    PubMed

    Virseda Rodríguez, Julio Antonio

    2007-10-01

    Carlos Younger de la Peña (1920-1996) was one of the representative urologists of his time, both in urology as a whole and particularly in urology in Madrid, during the 40 years between 1945 to 1985. His professional training was linked to the department of urology in the "La Princesa" Hospital chaired by Dr. Pedro Cifuentes Díaz first and Luis Cifuentes Delatte posteriorly. The important influence of French urology led Carlos Younger to complete his studies in the departments of urology chaired by professors J. Cibert (Lyon), Truc (Montpellier) and Couvelaire (Paris). When he returned from France he completed his doctoral thesis with the title "Experimental study on the ureterosigmoidostomy type Coffey I" directed by Prof. J. Garcia Orcoyen in 1957. His first publications started in 1946 and he ended with almost 100, including communications to various speciality congresses and meetings. Established in his private clinic in the Ferraz Street in Madrid he alternated his professional practice between Social Security patients and the Red Cross Central Hospital. At the end of his life he had collected near to 10.000 patients' clinical records. He was member of various scientific societies (among them the International Society Of Nephrology) and received various awards such as the one from the Pediatric Surgeons Association for his work on "bladder exstrophy "and the one from the Medical Academy of Valladolid for his study "Vascular renal hypertension". In 1961 he performed the second renal transplant in Spain. His professional interest was preferentially focused on uro-oncology, pediatric urology, gynecologic urology, and endoscopic surgery. He left many disciples with the same interests. The professional life of Carlos Younger de la Peña, in the period of time under analysis, is much significant as a reflex of the evolution of urology and urologists over half a century.

  16. Biocompatibility of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMW-PE) stabilized with alpha-tocopherol used for joint endoprostheses assessed in vitro.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Christian; Lederer, Klaus; Pfragner, Roswitha; Schauenstein, Konrad; Ingolic, Elisabeth; Siegl, Veronika

    2007-06-01

    Adding the natural antioxidant alpha-tocopherol to ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMW-PE) can remarkably delay the oxidation of hip cups made thereof. However, alpha-tocopherol is likely to undergo different chemical transformations during manufacturing and sterilization of hip cups than in human metabolism. Therefore, the biocompatibility of the putative transformation products has to be investigated. In-vitro tests with L929 mice fibroblast-cells gave no evidence for cytotoxicity. To further ensure the biocompatibility, in-vitro tests with human cells were carried out in this study. Two different human cell lines, one adherent cell line, HF-SAR, and one suspension culture, GSJO, were tested on UHMW-PE-tablets (diameter: 15 mm; thickness: 2 mm; processed according to standard procedures for artificial hip-cups) with and without alpha-tocopherol with respect to cell viability, proliferation and morphology by means of cell counting, WSt-1 proliferation assay and scanning electron microscopy. Similar proliferation rates were found with both polyethylene samples. Further, we found intact morphology in light and electron microscopy on each substrate. The morphologic characteristics of skin fibroblasts were not changed by any material. Normal adherence and spreading of the fibroblasts was found on controls of glass, as well as on polystyrene and on stabilized and unstabilized polyethylene. The characteristic behaviour as suspension of the GSJO cells remained unchanged. The mitochondrial activity, as studied by WST-1 cell proliferation reagent, was identical on each substrate during the whole observation period of 7 days. PMID:17277986

  17. Fosmid Cre-LoxP Inverse PCR Paired-End (Fosmid CLIP-PE), a Novel Method for Constructing Fosmid Pair-End Library (Seventh Annual Sequencing, Finishing, Analysis in the Future (SFAF) Meeting 2012)

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, Ze

    2012-06-01

    Ze Peng from DOE JGI presents "Fosmid Cre-LoxP Inverse PCR Paired-End (Fosmid CLIP-PE), a Novel Method for Constructing Fosmid Pair-End Library" at the 7th Annual Sequencing, Finishing, Analysis in the Future (SFAF) Meeting held in June, 2012 in Santa Fe, NM.

  18. Fosmid Cre-LoxP Inverse PCR Paired-End (Fosmid CLIP-PE), a Novel Method for Constructing Fosmid Pair-End Library (Seventh Annual Sequencing, Finishing, Analysis in the Future (SFAF) Meeting 2012)

    ScienceCinema

    Peng, Ze [DOE JGI

    2016-07-12

    Ze Peng from DOE JGI presents "Fosmid Cre-LoxP Inverse PCR Paired-End (Fosmid CLIP-PE), a Novel Method for Constructing Fosmid Pair-End Library" at the 7th Annual Sequencing, Finishing, Analysis in the Future (SFAF) Meeting held in June, 2012 in Santa Fe, NM.

  19. One-Year Outcomes in "Real-World" Patients Treated With a Thin-Strut, Platinum-Chromium, Everolimus-Eluting Stent (from the PROMUS Element Plus US Post-Approval Study [PE-Plus PAS]).

    PubMed

    Kandzari, David E; Amjadi, Nima; Caputo, Christopher; Rowe, Steven K; Williams, Jerome; Tamboli, Hoshedar P; Christen, Thomas; Allocco, Dominic J; Dawkins, Keith D

    2016-02-15

    The PROMUS Element Plus US Post-Approval Study (PE-Plus PAS) was a prospective, open-label, multicenter, observational study designed to examine outcomes in everyday clinical practice in patients treated with everolimus-eluting, platinum-chromium PROMUS Element Plus stents at 52 centers in the United States. This is the first report of results from this large study. The primary end point of the PE-Plus PAS was 12-month cardiac death or myocardial infarction in the more restricted population of "PLATINUM-like" patients pooled from the PE-Plus PAS, PE-PROVE (PROMUS Element European post-approval study), and PLATINUM Workhorse/Small Vessel trials. Additional clinical end points were tested in the overall PE-Plus PAS patient population. Of the 2,683 patients enrolled in PE-Plus PAS, 70% were men, mean age was 64 years, 33% had diabetes, and 29% were "PLATINUM-like." Among the PLATINUM-like patients, 12-month cardiac death or myocardial infarction was 1.8% (33 of 1,855) with an upper 1-sided 95% confidence interval of 2.3%, which was significantly less than the prespecified performance goal of 3.2% (pnoninferiority <0.001). In the overall PE-Plus population, 12-month target vessel failure (defined as death, MI, or revascularization related to the target vessel) was 6.7% (170 of 2,554), cardiac death was 1.4% (37 of 2,554), MI was 1.1% (28 of 2,554), and ARC-definite/probable stent thrombosis was 0.7% (19 of 2,554). A prespecified secondary end point of 12-month target vessel failure in diabetic patients demonstrated a rate of 4.2% (14 of 332) with an upper 1-sided 95% confidence interval of 6.03%, which was significantly less than the performance goal of 12.6% (pnoninferiority <0.001). In conclusion, in this large registry of unselected patients, coronary artery revascularization with the PROMUS Element Plus everolimus-eluting stent demonstrates favorable results with low 1-year clinical event rates.

  20. Stratigraphy, Structure, and Geologic and Coastal Hazards in the Peñuelas to Salinas Area, Southern Puerto Rico: A Compendium of Published Literature

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rodríguez-Martínez, Jesús

    2007-01-01

    The Puerto Rico Electrical Power Authority has proposed construction of a pipeline to convey natural gas from the municipio of Pe?uelas to the Aguirre thermoelectric power plant in the municipio of Salinas in southern Puerto Rico. To ensure that the geologic conditions along the possible routes do not represent a threat to the physical integrity of the natural gas pipeline, and thus comply with State and Federal regulations, the Puerto Rico Electrical Power Authority requested the U.S. Geological Survey to provide a synthesis of published literature of the geology of the coastal plain in the Pe?uelas to Salinas area. The study area is located in part of the Southern Coastal Plain of Puerto Rico. In the area that extends from the municipio of Pe?uelas eastward to the Laguna de las Salinas at Ponce, a distance of about 5 miles, the study area is underlain by middle Tertiary carbonate units. Eastward from the Laguna de las Salinas to the pipeline terminus at the Aguirre power plant in Salinas, a distance of about 30 miles, the terrain is underlain by fan-delta deposits of Quaternary age. The carbonate units and the fan-delta deposits are underlain by early Tertiary and older-age volcaniclastics with subordinate sedimentary rocks and lavas. The Great Southern Puerto Rico Fault Zone is the principal geologic structural feature in southern Puerto Rico. At present, the Great Southern Puerto Rico Fault Zone is considered largely quiescent, although it apparently is associated with minor earthquakes. There is no evidence of terrestrial, late Quaternary faulting within the Pe?uelas to Salinas area. Seismic activity in this area mostly originates from extension zones of more distal shallow sources such as Mona Canyon to the northwest and the Anegada Trough northeast of the island of Puerto Rico. The magnitude of completeness of earthquakes in the study area ranges from 2.0 to 2.5. The seismic density for the southern coast including the study area is about 0.128 earthquakes

  1. Plasma-Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (PE-CVD) yields better Hydrolytical Stability of Biocompatible SiOx Thin Films on Implant Alumina Ceramics compared to Rapid Thermal Evaporation Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD).

    PubMed

    Böke, Frederik; Giner, Ignacio; Keller, Adrian; Grundmeier, Guido; Fischer, Horst

    2016-07-20

    Densely sintered aluminum oxide (α-Al2O3) is chemically and biologically inert. To improve the interaction with biomolecules and cells, its surface has to be modified prior to use in biomedical applications. In this study, we compared two deposition techniques for adhesion promoting SiOx films to facilitate the coupling of stable organosilane monolayers on monolithic α-alumina; physical vapor deposition (PVD) by thermal evaporation and plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PE-CVD). We also investigated the influence of etching on the formation of silanol surface groups using hydrogen peroxide and sulfuric acid solutions. The film characteristics, that is, surface morphology and surface chemistry, as well as the film stability and its adhesion properties under accelerated aging conditions were characterized by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES), and tensile strength tests. Differences in surface functionalization were investigated via two model organosilanes as well as the cell-cytotoxicity and viability on murine fibroblasts and human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSC). We found that both SiOx interfaces did not affect the cell viability of both cell types. No significant differences between both films with regard to their interfacial tensile strength were detected, although failure mode analyses revealed a higher interfacial stability of the PE-CVD films compared to the PVD films. Twenty-eight day exposure to simulated body fluid (SBF) at 37 °C revealed a partial delamination of the thermally deposited PVD films whereas the PE-CVD films stayed largely intact. SiOx layers deposited by both PVD and PE-CVD may thus serve as viable adhesion-promoters for subsequent organosilane coupling agent binding to α-alumina. However, PE-CVD appears to be favorable for long-term direct film exposure to aqueous

  2. Plasma-Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (PE-CVD) yields better Hydrolytical Stability of Biocompatible SiOx Thin Films on Implant Alumina Ceramics compared to Rapid Thermal Evaporation Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD).

    PubMed

    Böke, Frederik; Giner, Ignacio; Keller, Adrian; Grundmeier, Guido; Fischer, Horst

    2016-07-20

    Densely sintered aluminum oxide (α-Al2O3) is chemically and biologically inert. To improve the interaction with biomolecules and cells, its surface has to be modified prior to use in biomedical applications. In this study, we compared two deposition techniques for adhesion promoting SiOx films to facilitate the coupling of stable organosilane monolayers on monolithic α-alumina; physical vapor deposition (PVD) by thermal evaporation and plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PE-CVD). We also investigated the influence of etching on the formation of silanol surface groups using hydrogen peroxide and sulfuric acid solutions. The film characteristics, that is, surface morphology and surface chemistry, as well as the film stability and its adhesion properties under accelerated aging conditions were characterized by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES), and tensile strength tests. Differences in surface functionalization were investigated via two model organosilanes as well as the cell-cytotoxicity and viability on murine fibroblasts and human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSC). We found that both SiOx interfaces did not affect the cell viability of both cell types. No significant differences between both films with regard to their interfacial tensile strength were detected, although failure mode analyses revealed a higher interfacial stability of the PE-CVD films compared to the PVD films. Twenty-eight day exposure to simulated body fluid (SBF) at 37 °C revealed a partial delamination of the thermally deposited PVD films whereas the PE-CVD films stayed largely intact. SiOx layers deposited by both PVD and PE-CVD may thus serve as viable adhesion-promoters for subsequent organosilane coupling agent binding to α-alumina. However, PE-CVD appears to be favorable for long-term direct film exposure to aqueous

  3. Characterization of the Sediment Routing System of the Argentine Las Peñas Thrust From ASTER Imagery Interpretation and DEM Terrain Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abrahamson, I. S.; Schmitt, J.

    2009-12-01

    In an arid region north of Mendoza, Argentina active structures of the Precordilleran fold and thrust belt control sedimentation in the proximal Andean foreland basin. Initiation of new thrust faults and along-strike growth of fault-propagation folds drives uplift of hanging-wall source areas. Drainage basin initiation and development in the Las Peñas thrust hanging-wall triggers erosion of sediment, controlling transport and depositional mechanisms in the associated alluvial fan system. Alluvial fans are classified as either sheetflood or debris-flow fans based on the areally dominant process responsible for producing the sediment wedge as recorded in the surface character and morphology of the fans. Traditionally, information about these systems has been directly measured using manual methods such as ground surveying and visible image interpretation. This study implements remote sensing with ASTER spectral data and derived topographic data to characterize both fan surfaces and drainage basins. AST14DMO data include fourteen ASTER Level-1B calibrated nadir looking radiance bands at 15-m (VNIR), 30-m (SWIR) and 90-m (TIR) resolution. AST14DMO also includes the ASTER 30-m Digital Elevation Model (DEM) derived from stereoscopic data from the VNIR sensor. These bands were used in rule-based classification implemented in statistical software. The classification was used for mapping and measuring the patterns and spectral characteristics of fan surfaces. TIR and VNIR explanatory variables in decision trees highlighted differences in fan environmental variables including soil conditions, sediment size, and vegetation (moisture, roughness, and composition) indicative of process and rate of deposition on alluvial fans. Terrain Analysis conducted with the ASTER 30-m DEM focused on morphology of the drainage basin sector of the sediment routing system. Drainage basin characteristics including areal extent, slope, aspect, hypsometric curves, and bedrock geology were

  4. Solid State Fermentation of a Raw Starch Digesting Alkaline Alpha-Amylase from Bacillus licheniformis RT7PE1 and Its Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Tabassum, Romana; Khaliq, Shazia; Rajoka, Muhammad Ibrahim; Agblevor, Foster

    2014-01-01

    The thermodynamic and kinetic properties of solids state raw starch digesting alpha amylase from newly isolated Bacillus licheniformis RT7PE1 strain were studied. The kinetic values Q p , Y p/s , Y p/X , and q p were proved to be best with 15% wheat bran. The molecular weight of purified enzyme was 112 kDa. The apparent K m and V max values for starch were 3.4 mg mL(-1) and 19.5 IU mg(-1) protein, respectively. The optimum temperature and pH for α -amylase were 55°C, 9.8. The half-life of enzyme at 95°C was 17h. The activation and denaturation activation energies were 45.2 and 41.2 kJ mol(-1), respectively. Both enthalpies (ΔH (∗)) and entropies of activation (ΔS (∗)) for denaturation of α -amylase were lower than those reported for other thermostable α -amylases.

  5. Knee of the cosmic hydrogen and helium spectrum below 1 PeV measured by ARGO-YBJ and a Cherenkov telescope of LHAASO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartoli, B.; Bernardini, P.; Bi, X. J.; Cao, Z.; Catalanotti, S.; Chen, S. Z.; Chen, T. L.; Cui, S. W.; Dai, B. Z.; D'Amone, A.; Danzengluobu; De Mitri, I.; D'Ettorre Piazzoli, B.; Di Girolamo, T.; Di Sciascio, G.; Feng, C. F.; Feng, Zhaoyang; Feng, Zhenyong; Guo, Q. B.; Guo, Y. Q.; He, H. H.; Hu, Haibing; Hu, Hongbo; Iacovacci, M.; Iuppa, R.; Jia, H. Y.; Labaciren; Li, H. J.; Liu, C.; Liu, J.; Liu, M. Y.; Lu, H.; Ma, L. L.; Ma, X. H.; Mancarella, G.; Mari, S. M.; Marsella, G.; Mastroianni, S.; Montini, P.; Ning, C. C.; Perrone, L.; Pistilli, P.; Salvini, P.; Santonico, R.; Shen, P. R.; Sheng, X. D.; Shi, F.; Surdo, A.; Tan, Y. H.; Vallania, P.; Vernetto, S.; Vigorito, C.; Wang, H.; Wu, C. Y.; Wu, H. R.; Xue, L.; Yang, Q. Y.; Yang, X. C.; Yao, Z. G.; Yuan, A. F.; Zha, M.; Zhang, H. M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, X. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, J.; Zhaxiciren; Zhaxisangzhu; Zhou, X. X.; Zhu, F. R.; Zhu, Q. Q.; Bai, Y. X.; Chen, M. J.; Feng, S. H.; Gao, B.; Gu, M. H.; Hou, C.; Liu, J.; Liu, J. L.; Wang, X.; Xiao, G.; Zhang, B. K.; Zhang, S. S.; Zhou, B.; Zuo, X.; ARGO-YBJ Collaboration

    2015-11-01

    The measurement of the cosmic ray energy spectrum, in particular for individual species of nuclei, is an important tool to investigate cosmic ray production and propagation mechanisms. The determination of the "knees" in the spectra of different species remains one of the main challenges in cosmic ray physics. In fact, experimental results are still conflicting. In this paper we report a measurement of the mixed proton and helium energy spectrum, obtained with the combined data of the ARGO-YBJ experiment and a wide field of view Cherenkov telescope, a prototype of the future LHAASO experiment. By means of a multiparameter technique, we have selected a high-purity proton plus helium sample. The reconstructed energy resolution is found to be about 25% throughout the investigated energy range from 100 TeV to 3 PeV, with a systematic uncertainty in the absolute energy scale of 9.7%. The found energy spectrum can be fitted with a broken power-law function, with a break at the energy Ek =700 ±230 (stat )±70 (sys ) TeV , where the spectral index changes from -2.56 ±0.05 to -3.24 ±0.36 . The statistical significance of the observed spectral break is 4.2 standard deviations.

  6. Paclitaxel-loaded PEG-PE-based micellar nanopreparations targeted with tumor-specific landscape phage fusion protein enhance apoptosis and efficiently reduce tumors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tao; Yang, Shenghong; Mei, Leslie A; Parmar, Chirag K; Gillespie, James W; Praveen, Kulkarni P; Petrenko, Valery A; Torchilin, Vladimir P

    2014-12-01

    In an effort to improve the therapeutic index of cancer chemotherapy, we developed an advanced nanopreparation based on the combination of landscape phage display to obtain new targeting ligands with micellar nanoparticles for tumor targeting of water-insoluble neoplastic agents. With paclitaxel as a drug, this self-assembled nanopreparation composed of MCF-7-specific phage protein and polyethylene glycol-phosphatidylethanolamine (PEG-PE) micelles showed selective toxicity to target cancer cells rather than nontarget, non cancer cells in vitro. In vivo, the targeted phage micelles triggered a dramatic tumor reduction and extensive necrosis as a result of improved tumor delivery of paclitaxel. The enhanced anticancer effect was also verified by an enhanced apoptosis and reduced tumor cell proliferation following the treatment with the targeted micellar paclitaxel both in vitro and in vivo. The absence of hepatotoxicity and pathologic changes in tissue sections of vital organs, together with maintenance of overall health of mice following the treatment, further support its translational potential as an effective and safe chemotherapy for improved breast cancer treatment. PMID:25239936

  7. Valuing biodiversity attributes and water supply using choice experiments: a case study of La Campana Peñuelas Biosphere Reserve, Chile.

    PubMed

    Cerda, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to assess public economic preferences for biodiversity conservation and water supply and to analyse the factors influencing those preferences. A survey based on the choice experiment method was carried out at Peñuelas National Reserve, Chile, an area that is threatened by both occasional forest fires and the growing housing market. The input of local administrators was used to define environmental attributes of the area related to biodiversity conservation and water supply. Attributes were selected for analysis by the choice experiment. The selected attributes were the following: existence of endemic orchid species, chances of observing animals with scenic attraction, additional protection for an endemic amphibian, and availability of drinkable water in the future. A monetary variable consisting of an increase in the rate for entry to the area was also incorporated to estimate willingness to pay (WTP) for additional protection for the selected attributes. Three hundred four Chilean visitors to the reserve were randomly selected for interviews. Econometric analysis based on the Theory of Utility Maximization shows that visitors are willing to pay to protect the selected attributes. WTP values for the attributes range from CHP $2,600 ($5.4) to $6,600 ($14) per person per visit. The results of this research provide reserve managers information about tradeoffs that could be used to enhance public support and maximise the social benefits of nature conservation management programmes.

  8. [Impact of oral health in the daily life of institutionalized and non institutionalized elder in the city of Recife (PE, Brazil)].

    PubMed

    de Souza, Eliane Helena Alvim; Barbosa, Maria Bernadete Cavalcanti Bené; de Oliveira, Pierre Andrade Pereira; Espíndola, Juliane; Gonçalves, Karla Joselita

    2010-09-01

    The objective of the study is to assess the influence of oral health in the daily routine of both institutionalized and non-institutionalized elders living in the city of Recife-PE, as well as to come to conclusions concerning the relevance level of oral health in both groups. In order to assess the perception of oral health, it was used the Geriatric Oral Health Assessment Index (GOHAI). The GOHAI levels, concerning the perception, were categorized in: low (≤ 50), average (51 to 60) and high (57 to 60). Oral health conditions were represented by the DMFT index (with cavity, lost and repaired teeth). It was observed that the percentage of elderly with a GOHAI not higher than 50 (low perception of oral health) was rather higher in the non-institutionalized group than in the institutionalized (92.2% x 64.9%). The average DMFT and the number of lost teeth were higher in the institutionalized group (96.01% x 87.87%). The perception of oral health was lower for more than half of the examined elderly population, but there being a meaningful difference between the two groups concerning the GOHAI, with lower levels for the non-institutionalized group. The result of the perception of oral health was compatible with the high number of decayed and lost teeth.

  9. 4D (x-y-z-t) imaging of thick biological samples by means of Two-Photon inverted Selective Plane Illumination Microscopy (2PE-iSPIM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavagnino, Zeno; Sancataldo, Giuseppe; D’Amora, Marta; Follert, Philipp; de Pietri Tonelli, Davide; Diaspro, Alberto; Cella Zanacchi, Francesca

    2016-04-01

    In the last decade light sheet fluorescence microscopy techniques, such as selective plane illumination microscopy (SPIM), has become a well established method for developmental biology. However, conventional SPIM architectures hardly permit imaging of certain tissues since the common sample mounting procedure, based on gel embedding, could interfere with the sample morphology. In this work we propose an inverted selective plane microscopy system (iSPIM), based on non-linear excitation, suitable for 3D tissue imaging. First, the iSPIM architecture provides flexibility on the sample mounting, getting rid of the gel-based mounting typical of conventional SPIM, permitting 3D imaging of hippocampal slices from mouse brain. Moreover, all the advantages brought by two photon excitation (2PE) in terms of reduction of scattering effects and contrast improvement are exploited, demonstrating an improved image quality and contrast compared to single photon excitation. The system proposed represents an optimal platform for tissue imaging and it smooths the way to the applicability of light sheet microscopy to a wider range of samples including those that have to be mounted on non-transparent surfaces.

  10. Green hydrophilic modification of PE hollow fiber membranes in a module scale via long-distance and dynamic low-temperature H2O plasma flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Mei-Sheng; Zhao, Zhi-Ping; Wang, Ming-Xing

    2016-11-01

    A green chemistry process, long-distance and dynamic low-temperature (LDDLT) H2O plasma, was developed to modify PE hollow fiber membranes in a module scale using our modified LDDLT plasma setup. The modification degree of LDDLT-H2O plasma was 2 times greater than that of Ar plasma, but the effective treatment distance achieved by LDDLT-Ar plasma was about two times of that obtained by LDDLT-H2O plasma (22 cm). Under the suitable conditions, the effective treatment distance can reach over 54 cm after LDDLT-H2O plasma treatment from the double inlets, closed to some industrial module sizes. The improvement in surface hydrophilicity was because of the introduction of numerous oxygen-containing groups. High concentrations of OH radicals in H2O plasma played a major role in the membrane surface hydroxylation. This directly resulted in a great enhancement in the pure water flux. It increased from about 6 L m-2 h-1 to 45 L m-2 h-1 after treatment. Also, the H2O plasma-treated membrane module exhibited good hydrophilic stability during 285 days storage.

  11. In vitro cytotoxicity of novel pro-apoptotic agent DM-PIT-1 in PEG-PE-based micelles alone and in combination with TRAIL

    PubMed Central

    Skidan, Igor; Miao, Benchun; Thekkedath, Ritesh V; Dholakia, Parita; Degterev, Alexei; Torchilin, Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE Develop and characterize a micellar formulations of N-{[(2-hydroxy-5-nitrophenyl)amino]carbonothioyl}-3,5-dimethylbenzamide (DM-PIT-1) – a new small molecule non-lipid antagonist of phopshotidylinositol-3.4.5-triphopshate and inhibitor of the PI3-kinase pathway. METHODS Micelle-forming PEG2000-PE was used to solubilize DM-PIT-1. To improve the specificity of the micellar DM-PIT-1, cancer-targeting anti-nucleosomal mAb2C5 antibodies as well as Tumor necrosis factor-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand (TRAIL) were attached to the surface of polymeric micelles. RESULTS DM-PIT-1 was effectively incorporated (>70%) into 14–16 nm micelles, which had a negative surface zeta potential of 4–5 mV. Micellar DM-PIT-1 demonstrated high in vitro cytotoxicity against various cancer cells. An improved potency of the dual-activity DM-PIT-1/TRAIL combination nanoparticles in inducing death of TRAIL-resistant cancer cells was shown. Efficacy of the TRAIL therapy was enhanced by combining it with the 2C5 antibody cancer-targeted micellar form of DM-PIT-1. CONCLUSIONS DM-PIT-1 micellar preparations can be used for targeted combination therapy against TRAIL-resistant cancers. PMID:19555308

  12. Paclitaxel-loaded PEG-PE-based micellar nanopreparations targeted with tumor specific landscape phage fusion protein enhance apoptosis and efficiently reduce tumors

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tao; Yang, Shenghong; Mei, Leslie A.; Parmar, Chirag K.; Gillespie, James W.; Praveen, Kulkarni P.; Petrenko, Valery A.; Torchilin, Vladimir P.

    2014-01-01

    In an effort to improve the therapeutic index of cancer chemotherapy, we developed an advanced nanopreparation based on the combination of landscape phage display to obtain new targeting ligands with micellar nanoparticles for tumor targeting of water insoluble neoplastic agents. With paclitaxel as a drug, this self-assembled nanopreparation composed of MCF-7-specific phage protein and polyethylene glycol phosphatidyl ethanolamine (PEG- PE) micelles showed selective toxicity to target cancer cells rather than non-target, non- cancer cells in vitro. In vivo, the targeted phage-micelles triggered a dramatic tumor reduction and extensive necrosis as a result of improved tumor delivery of paclitaxel. The enhanced anticancer effect was also verified by an enhanced apoptosis and reduced tumor cell proliferation following the treatment with the targeted micellar paclitaxel both in vitro and in vivo. The absence of hepatotoxicity and pathological changes in tissue sections of vital organs, together with maintenance of overall health of mice following the treatment, further support its translational potential as an effective and safe chemotherapy for improved breast cancer treatment. PMID:25239936

  13. 4D (x-y-z-t) imaging of thick biological samples by means of Two-Photon inverted Selective Plane Illumination Microscopy (2PE-iSPIM)

    PubMed Central

    Lavagnino, Zeno; Sancataldo, Giuseppe; d’Amora, Marta; Follert, Philipp; De Pietri Tonelli, Davide; Diaspro, Alberto; Cella Zanacchi, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    In the last decade light sheet fluorescence microscopy techniques, such as selective plane illumination microscopy (SPIM), has become a well established method for developmental biology. However, conventional SPIM architectures hardly permit imaging of certain tissues since the common sample mounting procedure, based on gel embedding, could interfere with the sample morphology. In this work we propose an inverted selective plane microscopy system (iSPIM), based on non-linear excitation, suitable for 3D tissue imaging. First, the iSPIM architecture provides flexibility on the sample mounting, getting rid of the gel-based mounting typical of conventional SPIM, permitting 3D imaging of hippocampal slices from mouse brain. Moreover, all the advantages brought by two photon excitation (2PE) in terms of reduction of scattering effects and contrast improvement are exploited, demonstrating an improved image quality and contrast compared to single photon excitation. The system proposed represents an optimal platform for tissue imaging and it smooths the way to the applicability of light sheet microscopy to a wider range of samples including those that have to be mounted on non-transparent surfaces. PMID:27033347

  14. Contribution of PRS3, RPB4 and ZWF1 to the resistance of industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae CCUG53310 and PE-2 strains to lignocellulosic hydrolysate-derived inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Joana T; Aguiar, Tatiana Q; Romaní, Aloia; Oliveira, Carla; Domingues, Lucília

    2015-09-01

    PRS3, RPB4 and ZWF1 were previously identified as key genes for yeast tolerance to lignocellulose-derived inhibitors. To better understand their contribution to yeast resistance to the multiple stresses occurring during lignocellulosic hydrolysate fermentations, we overexpressed these genes in two industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains, CCUG53310 and PE-2, and evaluated their impact on the fermentation of Eucalyptus globulus wood and corn cob hydrolysates. PRS3 overexpression improved the fermentation rate (up to 32%) and productivity (up to 48%) in different hydrolysates. ZWF1 and RPB4 overexpression did not improve the fermentation performance, but their increased expression in the presence of acetic acid, furfural and hydroxymethylfurfural was found to contribute to yeast adaptation to these inhibitors. This study expands our understanding about the molecular mechanisms involved in industrial yeast tolerance to the stresses occurring during lignocellulosic bioethanol production and highlights the importance of selecting appropriate strain backgrounds/hydrolysates combinations when addressing further improvement of these processes. PMID:25974617

  15. Electron beam dynamics and self-cooling up to PeV level due to betatron radiation in plasma-based accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Aihua; Nakajima, Kazuhisa; Liu, Jiansheng; Shen, Baifei; Zhang, Xiaomei; Yu, Yahong; Li, Wentao; Li, Ruxin; Xu, Zhizhan

    2012-08-01

    In plasma-based accelerators, electrons are accelerated by ultrahigh gradient of 1-100GV/m and undergo the focusing force with the same order as the accelerating force. Heated electrons are injected in a plasma wake and exhibit the betatron oscillation that generates synchrotron radiation. Intense betatron radiation from laser-plasma accelerators is attractive x-ray/gamma-ray sources, while it produces radiation loss and significant effects on energy spread and transverse emittance via the radiation reaction force. In this article, electron beam dynamics on transverse emittance and energy spread with considering radiation reaction effects are studied numerically. It is found that the emittance growth and the energy spread damping initially dominate and balance with radiative damping due to the betatron radiation. Afterward the emittance turns to decrease at a constant rate and leads to the equilibrium at a nanometer radian level with growth due to Coulomb scattering at PeV-level energies. A constant radiation loss rate RT=2/3 is found without regard to the electron beam and plasma conditions. Self-cooling of electron beams due to betatron radiation may guarantee TeV-range linear colliders and give hints on astrophysical ultrahigh-energy phenomena.

  16. Wear performance of neat and vitamin E blended highly cross-linked PE under severe conditions: The combined effect of accelerated ageing and third body particles during wear test.

    PubMed

    Affatato, Saverio; De Mattia, Jonathan Salvatore; Bracco, Pierangiola; Pavoni, Eleonora; Taddei, Paola

    2016-12-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the effects of third-body particles on the in vitro wear behaviour of three different sets of polyethylene acetabular cups after prolonged testing in a hip simulator and accelerated ageing. Vitamin E-blended, cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE_VE), cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) and conventional polyethylene (STD_PE) acetabular cups were simulator tested for two million cycles under severe conditions (i.e. by adding third-body particles to the bovine calf serum lubricant). Micro-Fourier Transform Infrared and micro-Raman spectroscopic analyses, differential scanning calorimetry, and crosslink density measurements were used to characterize the samples at a molecular level. The STD_PE cups had twice mass loss than the XLPE_VE components and four times than the XLPE samples; statistically significant differences were found between the mass losses of the three sets of cups. The observed wear trend was justified on the basis of the differences in cross-link density among the samples (XLPE>XLPE_VE>STD_PE). FTIR crystallinity profiles, bulk DSC crystallinity and surface micro-Raman crystallinity seemed to have a similar behaviour upon testing: all of them (as well as the all-trans and ortho-trans contents) revealed the most significant changes in XLPE and XLPE_VE samples. The more severe third-body wear testing conditions determined more noticeable changes in all spectroscopic markers with respect to previous tests. Unexpectedly, traces of bulk oxidation were found in both STD_PE (unirradiated) and XLPE (remelting-stabilized), which were expected to be stable to oxidation; on the contrary, XLPE_VE demonstrated a high oxidative stability in the present, highly demanding conditions.

  17. Fault interaction along the Central Andean thrust front: The Las Peñas thrust, Cerro Salinas thrust and the Montecito Anticline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoenbohm, L. M.; Costa, C. H.; Brooks, B. A.; Bohon, W.; Gardini, C.; Cisneros, H.

    2013-12-01

    The region in west-central Argentina between the thin-skinned Precordillera and the thick-skinned Sierras Pampeanas structural domain is among the most active zones of thrust tectonics in the world. We quantify the rates of deformation on the east-vergent Las Peñas thrust (LPT), and the west-vergent Cerro Salinas thrust (CST). The Montecito anticline (MA) is located at their intersection. We mapped three key locations, collected stratigraphic logs from the MA, dated three ashes using U-Pb in zircon and dated 10 terraces using cosmogenic Be-10 depth profiles. Five terrace levels are present where the Rio Las Peñas crosses the LPT, up to 45 m above the modern river. Cosmogenic dating of the uppermost terrace (T1) yields and age of 123.8 +26.5/-12.3 ka. A reconstruction of this surface using a blind thrust rupture scenario indicates 73 +/- 7 m horizontal shortening and 34 +/- 3 m vertical displacement. Shortening across the structure is therefore 0.59 +0.10/-0.13 mm/yr with a vertical uplift rate of 0.27 +0.05/-0.06 mm/a. Previous work indicates higher rates to the south on the order of 2 mm/yr (Schmidt et al., 2011). Lower terraces give ages of 38.0 +11/-6.2 ka (T2) and 1.5 +5.0/-0.6 ka (T4). Three terrace levels are preserved near the center of the CST. The middle surface (T2) is folded across the axis of the structure and yields an age of 112.5 +33/-14.4 ka. Given 22.9 m surface uplift, this indicates a vertical uplift rate of 0.20 +0.05/-0.06 mm/yr, similar to the rate on the LPT. The upper terrace (T1) yields a younger age (97.1 +29.8/-12.4 ka); the T1 and T2 ages overlap within uncertainty, indicating rapid river incision at the time of their formation. An intercalated ash within the Neogene strata gives an age of 16.2 +/- 0.2. Previous work indicates long-term shortening rates of 0.8 mm/yr (Verges et al., 2007) and that the CST initiated after 8.5 Ma. The lowermost unit exposed in the MA is the Los Pozos Fm., with no indication of syn-depositional deformation

  18. Comparative genomic and proteomic analyses of PE/PPE multigene family of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv and H37Ra reveal novel and interesting differences with implications in virulence

    PubMed Central

    Kohli, Sakshi; Singh, Yadvir; Sharma, Khushbu; Mittal, Aditya; Ehtesham, Nasreen Z.; Hasnain, Seyed E.

    2012-01-01

    Tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, remains a leading infectious disease taking one human life every 15 s globally. The two well-characterized strains H37Rv and H37Ra, derived from the same parental strain M. tuberculosis H37, show dramatically different pathogenic phenotypes. PE/PPE gene family, comprising of 176 open reading frames and present exclusively in genus Mycobacterium, accounts for ∼10% of the M. tuberculosis genome. Our comprehensive in silico analyses of PE/PPE family of H37Ra and virulent H37Rv strains revealed genetic differences between these strains in terms of several single nucleotide variations and InDels and these manifested in changes in physico-chemical properties, phosphorylation sites, and protein: protein interacting domains of the corresponding proteomes. Similar comparisons using the 13 sigma factor genes, 36 members of the mammalian cell entry family, 13 mycobacterial membrane protein large family members and 11 two-component signal transduction systems along with 5 orphaned response regulators and 2 orphaned sensor kinases failed to reveal very significant difference between H37Rv and H37Ra, reinforcing the importance of PE/PPE genes. Many of these changes between H37Rv and H37Ra can be correlated to differences in pathogenesis and virulence of the two strains. PMID:22618876

  19. Large electric polarization in high pressure synthesized orthorhombic manganites RMnO3 (R=Ho,Tm,Yb and Lu) by using the double-wave PE loop measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chai, Y. S.; Oh, Y. S.; Manivannan, N.; Yang, Y. S.; Kim, Kee Hoon; Feng, S. M.; Wang, L. J.; Jin, C. Q.

    2009-03-01

    The magnitude of electric polarization via the conventional pyroelectric current and/or PE loop measurements often is ambiguous due to resistive components of the sample. To avoid this, a new technique called the double-wave method has been recently developed [1], in which only hysteretic PE components can be measured. Using this technique, we have measured the ferroelectric polarization of the orthorhombic RMnO3 (R=Ho, Tm, Yb, and Lu) synthesized under high pressure. Large remnant polarization Pr up to 920 μC/m^2 is observed at 10 K for LuMnO3. Furthermore, the Pr vs. temperature data from the PE loop has shown consistency with that measured through the pyroelectric current measurements, supporting a theoretical prediction of large polarization in the E-type spin structure in this system [2]. We also discuss the influence of thermal histories on the ferroelectric domain dynamics and possible internal bias field effects originating from oxygen vacancies in RMnO3. [1] M. Fukunaga, et al. J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 77, 064706 (2008). [2] I. A. Sergienko, et al. Phys. Rev. Lett., 97, 227204 (2006)

  20. CYP21A2 p.E238 deletion as result of multiple microconversion events: a genetic study on an Italian congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) family.

    PubMed

    Concolino, Paola; Mello, Enrica; Zuppi, Cecilia; Toscano, Vincenzo; Capoluongo, Ettore

    2013-03-01

    More than 90% of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) cases are associated with mutations in the 21-hydroxylase gene (CYP21A2) in the HLA class III area on the short arm of chromosome 6p21.3. The major part of disease-causing mutations in CYP21A2 alleles are CYP21A1P-derived sequence transferred to the active gene by macroconversion or microconversion events. Only around 5% of all disease-causing CYP21A2 alleles harbor rare mutations that do not originate from the pseudogene. A complete list of all reported CYP21A2 mutations can be found in the CYP21A2 database created by the Human Cytochrome P450 (CYP) Allele Nomenclature Committee (http://www.imm.Ki.se/CYPalleles/cyp21.htm). In this report, we describe clinical and genetic findings regarding an Italian woman suffering from a classic salt-wasting form of CAH due to a severe 21-hydroxylase deficiency. A complex genetic family study was performed including a prenatal diagnosis. The patient was found to be heterozygous for p.I172N (exon 4), p.E238del (exon 6), p.M239K (exon 6), and p.F306insT (exon 7) mutations and homozygous for p.I236N (exon 6) and p.V237E (exon 6) mutations. The deletion of glutamic acid 238 is a new mutation not reported before in the literature. CYP21A2 genotyping has become a valuable complement to biochemical CAH investigation. We highlight the contribution of molecular genetic advancements to the clinical management of patients with 21-hydroxylase deficiency.

  1. Modeling non-steady state radioisotope transport in the vadose zone - A case study using uranium isotopes at Peña Blanca, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ku, T. L.; Luo, S.; Goldstein, S. J.; Murrell, M. T.; Chu, W. L.; Dobson, P. F.

    2009-10-01

    Current models using U- and Th-series disequilibria to study radioisotope transport in groundwater systems mostly consider a steady-state situation. These models have limited applicability to the vadose zone (UZ) where the concentration and migratory behavior of radioisotopes in fluid are often transitory. We present here, as a first attempt of its kind, a model simulating the non-steady state, intermittent fluid transport in vadose layers. It provides quantitative constraints on in-situ migration of dissolved and colloidal radioisotopes in terms of retardation factor and rock-water interaction (or water transit) time. For uranium, the simulation predicts that intermittent flushing in the UZ leads to a linear relationship between reciprocal U concentration and 234U/ 238U ratio in percolating waters, with the intercept and slope bearing information on the rates of dissolution and α-recoil of U isotopes, respectively. The general validity of the model appears to be borne out by the measurement of uranium isotopes in UZ waters collected at various times over a period during 1995-2006 from a site in the Peña Blanca mining district, Mexico, where the Nopal I uranium deposit is located. Enhanced 234U/ 238U ratios in vadose-zone waters resulting from lengthened non-flushing time as prescribed by the model provide an interpretative basis for using 234U/ 238U in cave calcites to reconstruct the regional changes in hydrology and climate. We also provide a theoretical account of the model's potential applications using radium isotopes.

  2. Tidal disruption jets of supermassive black holes as hidden sources of cosmic rays: Explaining the IceCube TeV-PeV neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiang-Yu; Liu, Ruo-Yu

    2016-04-01

    Cosmic ray interactions that produce high-energy neutrinos also inevitably generate high-energy gamma rays, which finally contribute to the diffuse high-energy gamma-ray background after they escape the sources. It was recently found that the high flux of neutrinos at ˜30 TeV detected by IceCube lead to a cumulative gamma-ray flux exceeding the Fermi isotropic gamma-ray background at 10-100 GeV, implying that the neutrinos are produced by hidden sources of cosmic rays, where GeV-TeV gamma rays are not transparent. Here we suggest that relativistic jets in tidal disruption events (TDEs) of supermassive black holes are such hidden sources. We consider the jet propagation in an extended, optically thick envelope around the black hole, which results from the ejected material during the disruption. While powerful jets can break free from the envelope, less powerful jets would be choked inside the envelope. The jets accelerate cosmic rays through internal shocks or reverse shocks and further produce neutrinos via interaction with the surrounding dense photons. All three TDE jets discovered so far are not detected by Fermi/LAT, suggesting that GeV-TeV gamma rays are absorbed in these jets. The cumulative neutrino flux from TDE jets can account for the neutrino flux observed by IceCube at PeV energies and may also account for the higher flux at ˜30 TeV if less powerful, choked jets are present in the majority of TDEs.

  3. Limiting Superluminal Electron and Neutrino Velocities Using the 2010 Crab Nebula Flare and the IceCube PeV Neutrino Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecker, Floyd W.

    2014-01-01

    The observation of two PetaelectronVolt (PeV)-scale neutrino events reported by Ice Cube allows one to place constraints on Lorentz invariance violation (LIV) in the neutrino sector. After first arguing that at least one of the PetaelectronVolt IceCube events was of extragalactic origin, I derive an upper limit for the difference between putative superluminal neutrino and electron velocities of less than or equal to approximately 5.6 x 10(exp -19) in units where c = 1, confirming that the observed PetaelectronVolt neutrinos could have reached Earth from extragalactic sources. I further derive a new constraint on the superluminal electron velocity, obtained from the observation of synchrotron radiation from the Crab Nebula flare of September, 2010. The inference that the greater than 1 GigaelectronVolt gamma-rays from synchrotron emission in the flare were produced by electrons of energy up to approx. 5.1 PetaelectronVolt indicates the nonoccurrence of vacuum Cerenkov radiation by these electrons. This implies a new, strong constraint on superluminal electron velocities delta(sub e) less than or equal to approximately 5 x 10(exp -21). It immediately follows that one then obtains an upper limit on the superluminal neutrino velocity alone of delta(sub v) less than or equal to approximately 5.6 x 10(exp -19), many orders of magnitude better than the time-of-flight constraint from the SN1987A neutrino burst. However, if the electrons are subluminal the constraint on the absolute value of delta(sub e) less than or equal to approximately 8 x 10(exp -17), obtained from the Crab Nebula gamma-ray spectrum, places a weaker constraint on superluminal neutrino velocity of delta(sub v) less than or equal to approximately 8 x 10(exp -17).

  4. Treatment of venous thromboembolism with rivaroxaban in relation to body weight. A sub-analysis of the EINSTEIN DVT/PE studies.

    PubMed

    Di Nisio, Marcello; Vedovati, Maria C; Riera-Mestre, Antoni; Prins, Martin H; Mueller, Katharina; Cohen, Alexander T; Wells, Philip S; Beyer-Westendorf, Jan; Prandoni, Paolo; Bounameaux, Henri; Kubitza, Dagmar; Schneider, Jonas; Pisters, Ron; Fedacko, Jan; Fontes-Carvalho, Ricardo; Lensing, Anthonie W A

    2016-09-27

    The pharmacokinetics of oral rivaroxaban are highly predictable and only affected to a limited extent by bodyweight; therefore, dose adjustments for bodyweight are not required. However, this raises concerns among physicians for potential under- or overdosing. This substudy of the randomised EINSTEIN DVT and EINSTEIN PE trials, which compared rivaroxaban with enoxaparin/vitamin K antagonist (VKA) therapy, aimed to determine the incidence of major bleeding in patients with a low bodyweight and recurrent venous thromboembolism (VTE) in patients with a high bodyweight during rivaroxaban or enoxaparin/VKA therapy. More than 8,000 patients with objectively diagnosed deep-vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism were included. Adjusted hazard ratios for recurrent VTE and bleeding were calculated using the Cox proportional hazards model. Analyses were performed for both the first 21 days of treatment and the whole treatment period. For rivaroxaban recipients, there was no association between bodyweight or body mass index (BMI) and risk of recurrent VTE (ptrend=0.87 and 0.62, respectively), major bleeding (ptrend=0.24 and 0.36, respectively) or clinically relevant bleeding (ptrend=0.17 and 0.63, respectively). Major bleeding events were numerically lower in rivaroxaban patients across all bodyweight and BMI categories. Hazard ratios for rivaroxaban vs enoxaparin/VKA were similar in all bodyweight and BMI categories, both during the first 21 days and the whole treatment period. The fixed-dose rivaroxaban regimen is not associated with an increased risk of major bleeding or recurrent VTE in patients with either a low or high bodyweight. A high BMI was not associated with an increased risk of recurrent VTE during anticoagulation.

  5. TeV γ-ray fluxes from the long campaigns on Mrk 421 as constraints on the emission of TeV-PeV neutrinos and UHECRs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraija, N.; Marinelli, A.

    2015-10-01

    Long TeV γ-ray campaigns have been carried out to study the spectrum, variability and duty cycle of the BL Lac object Markarian 421. These campaigns have given some evidence of the presence of protons in the jet: (i) Its spectral energy distribution which shows two main peaks; one at low energies (∼1 keV) and the other at high energies (hundreds of GeV), has been described by using synchrotron proton blazar model. (ii) The study of the variability at GeV γ-rays and X-rays has indicated no significant correlation. (iii) TeV γ-ray detections without activity in X-rays, called "orphan flares" have been observed in this object. Recently, The Telescope Array Collaboration reported the arrival of 72 ultra-high-energy cosmic rays with some of them possibly related to the direction of Markarian 421. The IceCube Collaboration reported the detection of 37 extraterrestrial neutrinos in the TeV-PeV energy range collected during three consecutive years. In particular, no neutrino track events were associated with this source. In this paper, we consider the proton-photon interactions to correlate the TeV γ-ray fluxes reported by long campaigns with the neutrino and ultra-high-energy cosmic ray observations around this blazar. Considering the results reported by The IceCube and Telescope Array Collaborations, we found that only from ∼25% to 70% of TeV fluxes described with a power law function with exponential cutoff can come from the proton-photon interactions.

  6. Sensitivity of Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica), Common pheasant (Phasianus colchicus), and White Leghorn chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) embryos to in ovo exposure to TCDD, PeCDF, and TCDF.

    PubMed

    Cohen-Barnhouse, Andrew M; Zwiernik, Matthew J; Link, Jane E; Fitzgerald, Scott D; Kennedy, Sean W; Hervé, Jessica C; Giesy, John P; Wiseman, Steve; Yang, Yinfei; Jones, Paul D; Wan, Yi; Collins, Brian; Newsted, John L; Kay, Denise; Bursian, Steven J

    2011-01-01

    Egg injection studies were performed to confirm a proposed model of relative sensitivity of birds to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). In this model, species are classified as belonging to one of three categories of sensitivity based on amino acid substitutions in the ligand-binding domain of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor. Embryo lethality and relative potencies of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran (TCDF) and 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran (PeCDF) were compared with TCDD for Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica; least sensitive), Common pheasant (Phasianus colchicus; moderately sensitive), and White Leghorn chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus; most sensitive). Doses ranging from 0.044 to 37 pmol/g egg (0.015-12 ng/g egg) were injected into the air cell of eggs prior to incubation. LD(50) (95% confidence intervals) values, based on rate of hatching for TCDD, PeCDF, and TCDF, were 30 (25-36), 4.9 (2.3-9.2), and 15 (11-24) pmol/g egg for the quail, 3.5 (2.3-6.3), 0.61 (0.28-1.2), and 1.2 (0.62-2.2) pmol/g egg for pheasant, and 0.66 (0.47-0.90), 0.75 (0.64-0.87), and 0.33 (0.23-0.45) pmol/g egg for chicken, respectively. LD(50)-based relative potencies of PeCDF and TCDF were 6.1 and 2.0 for quail, 5.7 and 2.9 for pheasant, and 0.88 and 2.0 for chicken, respectively. TCDD was not the most potent compound among the species tested, with PeCDF and TCDF being more potent than TCDD in the quail and pheasant. TCDF was the most potent in chicken. Species sensitivity was as expected for TCDD and TCDF, whereas for PeCDF, the chicken and pheasant were similar in sensitivity and both were more sensitive than the quail. Results from companion in vitro studies are generally similar to those reported here with a few exceptions.

  7. Development of the Novel PEG-PE-Based Polymer for the Reversible Attachment of Specific Ligands to Liposomes: Synthesis and in vitro Characterization

    PubMed Central

    Biswas, Swati; Dodwadkar, Namita S.; Sawant, Rupa R.; Torchilin, Vladimir P.

    2011-01-01

    Surface grafting of liposomes with the wide variety of ligands including antibodies and other proteins is a promising approach for targeted delivery of therapeutics. In this paper, we describe a simple method of synthesizing a hydrazine-functionalized polyethylene glycol-phosphatidylethanolamine (PEG-PE)-based amphiphilic polymer which can conjugate a variety of ligands via a reversible, pH-cleavable bond. In this method, the targeting ligand is attached to the distal end of the PEG chain, which facilitates its easy access to the targeted site of interaction. The reversible attachment of targeting ligands is useful especially in multifunctional liposomal systems, where after successfully performing the function of targeting to the specific site, the bulky ligands, such as proteins or antibodies, are cleaved off in response to an environmental stimulus to expose some other functionalities such as ligands for intracellular penetration or organelle-specific targeting. To investigate the applicability of the protocol, the model ligands monoclonal antinucleosome antibody 2C5 and antimyosin antibody 2G4, and glycoproteins concanavalin A (Con-A) and avidin were conjugated to the synthesized polymer and incorporated into liposomes. In vitro assays including biochemical, enzyme-linked immunosorbent, fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry were used to confirm three key characteristics of the modified and/or liposome-attached proteins: successful conjugation of the targeting ligands to the polymer, preservation of specific activity of the ligands after the conjugation and liposome attachment, and the facile pH-sensitive ligand detachment. Monoclonal mAb 2C5 and 2G4, immobilized on the liposome surface, retained their binding affinity to corresponding antigens as confirmed by ELISA. The Con A-bearing liposomes showed significantly higher agglutination in the presence of its substrate mannan compared to plain liposomes (PL) and avidin-functionalized liposomes bound

  8. Uranium-rich opal from the Nopal I uranium deposit, Peña Blanca, Mexico: Evidence for the uptake and retardation of radionuclides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schindler, Michael; Fayek, Mostafa; Hawthorne, Frank C.

    2010-01-01

    The Nopal I uranium deposit of the Sierra Peña Blanca, Mexico, has been the focus of numerous studies because of its economic importance and its use as a natural analog for nuclear-waste disposal in volcanic tuff. Secondary uranyl minerals such as uranophane, Ca[(UO 2)(SiO 3OH)] 2(H 2O) 5, and weeksite, (K,Na) 2[(UO 2) 2(Si 5O 13)](H 2O) 3, occur in the vadose zone of the deposit and are overgrown by silica glaze. These glazes consist mainly of opal A, which contains small particles of uraninite, UO 2, and weeksite. Close to a fault between brecciated volcanic rocks and welded tuff, a greenish silica glaze coats the altered breccia. Yellow silica glazes from the center of the breccia pipe and from the high-grade pile coat uranyl-silicates, predominantly uranophane and weeksite. All silica glazes are strongly zoned with respect to U and Ca, and the distribution of these elements indicates curved features and spherical particles inside the coatings. The concentrations of U and Ca correlate in the different zones and both elements inversely correlate with the concentration of Si. Zones within the silica glazes contain U and Ca in a 1:1 ratio with maximum concentrations of 0.08 and 0.15 at.% for the greenish and yellow glazes, respectively, suggesting trapping of either Ca 1U 1-aqueous species or -particles in the colloidal silica. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier-transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR), and oxygen-isotope ratios measured by secondary-ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) indicate higher U 6+/U 4+ ratios, higher proportions of Si-OH groups and lower δ 18O values for the greenish silica glaze than for the yellow silica glaze. These differences in composition reflect increasing brecciation, porosity, and permeability from the center of the breccia pipe (yellow silica glaze) toward the fault (green silica glaze), where the seepage of meteoric water and Eh are higher.

  9. Energy spectrum and chemical composition of cosmic rays between 0.3 and 10 PeV determined from the cherenkov-light and charged-particle distributions in air showers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    HEGRA-Collaboration; Arqueros, F.; Barrio, J. A.; Bernlöhr, K.; Bojahr, H.; Calle, I.; Contreras, J. L.; Cortina, J.; Deckers, T.; Denninghoff, S.; Fonseca, V.; Gebauer, J.; González, J. C.; Haustein, V.; Heinzelmann, G.; Hohl, H.; Horns, D.; Ibarra, A.; Kestel, M.; Kirstein, O.; Kornmayer, H.; Kranich, D.; Krawczynski, H.; Lindner, A.; Lorenz, E.; Magnussen, N.; Meyer, H.; Mirzoyan, R.; Moralejo, A.; Padilla, L.; Petry, D.; Plaga, R.; Prahl, J.; Rauterberg, G.; Rhode, W.; Röhring, A.; Samorski, M.; Schmele, D.; Schröder, F.; Stamm, W.; Wiebel-Sooth, B.; Willmer, M.; Wittek, W.

    2000-07-01

    Measurements of the lateral distribution of Cherenkov photons with the wide-angle atmospheric Cherenkov light detector array AIROBICC and of the charged particle lateral distribution with the scintillator matrix of the HEGRA air-shower detector complex in air showers are reported. They are used in conjunction to determine the energy spectrum and coarse chemical composition of charged cosmic rays in the energy interval from 0.3 PeV to 10 PeV. With the atmospheric shower-front sampling technique these detectors measure the electromagnetic component of an extensive air shower via the lateral density distribution of the shower particles and of the Cherenkov photons. The data are compared with events generated with the CORSIKA program package with the QGSJET hadronic-event generator. Consistency checks performed with primary energy-reconstruction methods based on different shower observables indicate satisfactory agreement between these extensive air shower simulations and the experimental data. This permits to derive results concerning the energy spectrum and composition of charged cosmic rays. The energy spectrum features a so called ``knee'' at an energy of E_knee=3.98+4.66-0.83 (stat) +/- 0.53 (syst) PeV. Power law fits to the differential energy spectrum yield indices of -2.72+0.02-0.03 (stat) +/- 0.07 (syst) below and -3.22+0.47-0.59 (stat) +/- 0.08 (syst) above the knee. The best-fit elongation rate for the whole energy range is determined to 78.3 +/- 1.0 (stat) +/- 6.2 (syst) g/cm2. At the highest energies it seems to decrease slightly. The best-fit fraction of light nuclei decreases from 37 +28-21% (combined statistical and systematic) to 8 +32-8% (combined statistical and systematic) \\ in the energy range discussed here. A detailed study of the systematic errors reveals that a non-changing composition cannot be excluded.

  10. Replication of KCNJ11 (p.E23K) and ABCC8 (p.S1369A) Association in Russian Diabetes Mellitus 2 Type Cohort and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sokolova, Ekaterina Alekseevna; Bondar, Irina Arkadievna; Shabelnikova, Olesya Yurievna; Pyankova, Olga Vladimirovna; Filipenko, Maxim Leonidovich

    2015-01-01

    The genes ABCC8 and KCNJ11 have received intense focus in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) research over the past two decades. It has been hypothesized that the p.E23K (KCNJ11) mutation in the 11p15.1 region may play an important role in the development of T2DM. In 2009, Hamming et al. found that the p.1369A (ABCC8) variant may be a causal factor in the disease; therefore, in this study we performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the association between these single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), including our original data on the Siberian population (1384 T2DM and 414 controls). We found rs5219 and rs757110 were not associated with T2DM in this population, and that there was linkage disequilibrium in Siberians (D’=0.766, r2= 0.5633). In addition, the haplotype rs757110[T]-rs5219[C] (p.23K/p.S1369) was associated with T2DM (OR = 1.52, 95% CI: 1.04-2.24). We included 44 original studies published by June 2014 in a meta-analysis of the p.E23K association with T2DM. The total OR was 1.14 (95% CI: 1.11-1.17) for p.E23K for a total sample size of 137,298. For p.S1369A, a meta-analysis was conducted on a total of 10 studies with a total sample size of 14,136 and pooled OR of 1.14 [95% CI (1.08-1.19); p = 2 x 10-6]. Our calculations identified causal genetic variation within the ABCC8/KCNJ11 region for T2DM with an OR of approximately 1.15 in Caucasians and Asians. Moreover, the OR value was not dependent on the frequency of p.E23K or p.S1369A in the populations. PMID:25955821

  11. High-power, high-repetition-rate mid-infrared generation with PE-SRO based on a fan-out periodically poled MgO-doped lithium niobate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Bo; Ma, Jian-Li; Chen, Ran; Wang, Bao-Hua; Cui, Qian-Jin; Zhang, Ling; Guo, Lin; Hou, Wei; Lin, Xue-Chun; Li, Jin-Min

    2011-03-01

    We present a high-average-power, pulsed mid-infrared pump-enhanced singly-resonant optical parametric oscillator (PE-SRO) using a fan-out periodically poled MgO-doped lithium niobate (MgO:PPLN). The pump laser is a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser with a repetition rate of 10 kHz. When the pump power was 22.0 W, a maximum idler output power of 3.4 W at 3781.4 nm was obtained. The thermal guiding effect caused by signal absorption was observed and the crystal heating power was measured with a new method.

  12. Petrology and mineralogy of the La Peña igneous complex, Mendoza, Argentina: An alkaline occurrence in the Miocene magmatism of the Southern Central Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagano, Diego Sebastián; Galliski, Miguel Ángel; Márquez-Zavalía, María Florencia; Colombo, Fernando

    2016-04-01

    The La Peña alkaline igneous complex (LPC) is located in the Precordillera (32°41‧34″ S - 68°59‧48″ W) of Mendoza province, Argentina, above the southern boundary of the present-day flat-slab segment. It is a 19 km2 and 5 km diameter subcircular massif emplaced during the Miocene (19 Ma) in the Silurian-Devonian Villavicencio Fm. The LPC is composed of several plutonic and subvolcanic intrusions represented by: a cumulate of clinopyroxenite intruded by mafic dikes and pegmatitic gabbroic dikes, isolated bodies of malignite, a central intrusive syenite that develops a wide magmatic breccia in the contact with clinopyroxenite, syenitic and trachytic porphyries, a system of radial and ring dikes of different compositions (trachyte, syenite, phonolite, alkaline lamprophyre, tephrite), and late mafic breccias. The main minerals that form the LPC, ordered according to their abundance, are: pyroxene (diopside, hedenbergite), calcium amphibole (pargasite, ferro-pargasite, potassic-ferro-pargasite, potassic-hastingsite, magnesio-hastingsite, hastingsite, potassic-ferro-ferri-sadanagaite), trioctahedral micas (annite-phlogopite series), plagioclase (bytownite to oligoclase), K-feldspar (sanidine and orthoclase), nepheline, sodalite, apatite group minerals (fluorapatite, hydroxylapatite), andradite, titanite, magnetite, spinel, ilmenite, and several Cu-Fe sulfides. Late hydrothermal minerals are represented by zeolites (scolecite, thomsonite-Ca), epidote, calcite and chlorite. The trace element patterns, coupled with published data on Sr-Nd-Pb isotopes, suggest that the primary magma of the LPC was generated in an initially depleted but later enriched lithospheric mantle formed mainly by a metasomatized spinel lherzolite, and that this magmatism has a subduction-related signature. The trace elements pattern of these alkaline rocks is similar to other Miocene calc-alkaline occurrences from the magmatic arc of the Southern Central Andes. Mineral and whole

  13. Demethylation of oligogalacturonides by FaPE1 in the fruits of the wild strawberry Fragaria vesca triggers metabolic and transcriptional changes associated with defence and development of the fruit.

    PubMed

    Osorio, Sonia; Bombarely, Aureliano; Giavalisco, Patrick; Usadel, Björn; Stephens, Camilla; Aragüez, Irene; Medina-Escobar, Nieves; Botella, Miguel A; Fernie, Alisdair R; Valpuesta, Victoriano

    2011-05-01

    Ectopic expression of the strawberry (Fragaria×ananassa) gene FaPE1 encoding pectin methyl esterase produced in the wild species Fragaria vesca partially demethylated oligogalacturonides (OGAs), which conferred partial resistance of ripe fruits to the fungus Botrytis cinerea. Analyses of metabolic and transcriptional changes in the receptacle of the transgenic fruits revealed channelling of metabolites to aspartate and aromatic amino acids as well as phenolics, flavanones, and sesquiterpenoids, which was in parallel with the increased expression of some genes related to plant defence. The results illustrate the changes associated with resistance to B. cinerea in the transgenic F. vesca. These changes were accompanied by a significant decrease in the auxin content of the receptacle of the ripe fruits of transgenic F. vesca, and enhanced expression of some auxin-repressed genes. The role of these OGAs in fruit development was revealed by the larger size of the ripe fruits in transgenic F. vesca. When taken together these results show that in cultivated F. ananassa FaPE1 participates in the de-esterification of pectins and the generation of partially demethylated OGAs, which might reinforce the plant defence system and play an active role in fruit development.

  14. Comparisons of SiN Passivation Film Deposited by PE-CVD and T-CVD Method for AlGaN/GaN HEMTs on SiC Substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okita, Hideyuki; Marui, Toshiharu; Hoshi, Shinichi; Itoh, Masanori; Toda, Fumihiko; Morino, Yoshiaki; Tamai, Isao; Sano, Yoshiaki; Seki, Shohei

    Current collapse phenomenon is a well known obstacle in the AlGaN/GaN HEMTs. In order to improve the surface stability of HEMTs, we have investigated the SiN passivation film deposited by T-CVD, and we found that it improves both gate leakage current and current collapse phenomenon [1]. Moreover, we compared the T-CVD and PE-CVD passivation films, on high electric field DC and RF characteristics. We found that T-CVD SiN passivation film improves BVds-off by 30% because of the reduction of gate leakage current. It also improved ηd in the output power characteristics by load-pull measurement, which indicates the decrease of the current collapse phenomenon. Also we fabricated a multi-fingered 50W-class AlGaN/GaN HEMT with T-CVD SiN passivation film and achieved 61.2% of high drain efficiency at frequency of 2.14GHz, which was 3.6 points higher than that with PE-CVD SiN passivation film.

  15. Fast-Turnoff Transient Electro-Magnetic (TEM) geophysical survey in the Peña de Hierro ("Berg of Iron") field area of the Mars Analog Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jernsletten, J. A.

    2004-12-01

    This report describes the outcome of a Fast-Turnoff Transient Electro-Magnetic (TEM) geophysical survey carried out in the Peña de Hierro ("Berg of Iron") field area of the Mars Analog Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE), during May and June of 2003. The MARTE Peña de Hierro field area is located between the towns of Rio Tinto and Nerva in the Andalucia region of Spain. It is about one hour drive West of the city of Sevilla, and also about one hour drive North of Huelva. The high concentration of dissolved iron (and smaller amounts of other metals) in the very acidic water in the Rio Tinto area gives the water its characteristic wine red color, and also means that the water is highly conductive, and such an acidic and conductive fluid is highly suited for exploration by electromagnetic methods. This naturally acidic environment is maintained by bacteria in the groundwater and it is these bacteria that are the main focus of the MARTE project overall, and of this supporting geophysical work. It is the goal of this study to be able to map the subsurface extent of the high conductivity (low resistivity) levels, and thus by proxy the subsurface extent of the acidic groundwater and the bacteria populations. In so doing, the viability of using electromagnetic methods for mapping these subsurface metal-rich water bodies is also examined and demonstrated, and the geophysical data will serve to support drilling efforts. The purpose of this field survey was an initial effort to map certain conductive features in the field area, in support of the drilling operations that are central to the MARTE project. These conductive features include the primary target of exploration for MARTE, the very conductive acidic groundwater in the area (which is extremely rich in metals). Other conductive features include the pyretic ore bodies in the area, as well as extensive mine tailings piles.

  16. Seismicity at the northeast edge of the Mexican Volcanic Belt (MVB) and activation of an undocumented fault: the Peñamiller earthquake sequence of 2010-2011, Querétaro, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clemente-Chavez, A.; Figueroa-Soto, A.; Zúñiga, F. R.; Arroyo, M.; Montiel, M.; Chavez, O.

    2013-10-01

    The town of Peñamiller in the state of Querétaro, Mexico, is located at the northeast border of the seismogenic zone known as the Mexican Volcanic Belt (MVB), which transects the central part of Mexico with an east-west orientation. In the vicinity of this town, a sequence of small earthquakes occurred during the end of 2010 and beginning of 2011. Seismicity in the continental regimen of central Mexico is not too frequent; however, it is known that there are precedents of large earthquakes (Mw magnitude greater than 6.0) occurring in this zone. Three large earthquakes have occurred in the past 100 yr: the 19 November 1912 (MS = 7.0), the 3 January 1920 (MS = 6.4), and the 29 June 1935 (MS = 6.9) earthquakes. Prior to the instrumental period, the earthquake of 11 February 1875, which took place near the city of Guadalajara, caused widespread damage. The purpose of this article is to contribute to the available seismic information of this region. This will help advance our understanding of the tectonic situation of the central Mexico MVB region. Twenty-four shallow earthquakes of the Peñamiller seismic sequence of 2011 were recorded by a temporary accelerograph network installed by the Universidad Autónoma de Querétaro (UAQ). The data were analyzed in order to determine the source locations and to estimate the source parameters. The study was carried out through an inversion process and by spectral analysis. The results show that the largest earthquake occurred on 8 February 2011 at 19:53:48.6 UTC, had a moment magnitude Mw = 3.5, and was located at latitude 21.039° and longitude -99.752°, at a depth of 5.6 km. This location is less than 7 km away in a south-east direction from downtown Peñamiller. The focal mechanisms are mostly normal faults with small lateral components. These focal mechanisms are consistent with the extensional regimen of the southern extension of the Basin and Range (BR) province. The source area of the largest event was estimated to

  17. Target-specific cytotoxic effects on HER2-expressing cells by the tripartite fusion toxin ZHER2:2891-ABD-PE38X8, including a targeting affibody molecule and a half-life extension domain.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hao; Seijsing, Johan; Frejd, Fredrik Y; Tolmachev, Vladimir; Gräslund, Torbjörn

    2015-08-01

    Development of cancer treatment regimens including immunotoxins is partly hampered by their immunogenicity. Recently, deimmunized versions of toxins have been described, potentially being better suited for translation to the clinic. In this study, a recombinant tripartite fusion toxin consisting of a deimmunized version of exotoxin A from Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PE38) genetically fused to an affibody molecule specifically interacting with the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), and also an albumin binding domain (ABD) for half-life extension, has been produced and characterized in terms of functionality of the three moieties. Biosensor based assays showed that the fusion toxin was able to interact with human and mouse serum albumin, but not with bovine serum albumin and that it interacted with HER2 (KD=5 nM). Interestingly, a complex of the fusion toxin and human serum albumin also interacted with HER2 but with a somewhat weaker affinity (KD=12 nM). The IC50-values of the fusion toxin ranged from 6 to 300 pM on SKOV-3, SKBR-3 and A549 cells and was lower for cells with higher surface densities of HER2. The fusion toxin was found specific for HER2 as shown by blocking available HER2 receptors with free affibody molecule before subjecting the cells to the toxin. Analysis of contact time showed that 10 min was sufficient to kill 50% of the cells. In conclusion, all three regions of the fusion toxin were found to be functional.

  18. The effect of co-delivery of paclitaxel and curcumin by transferrin-targeted PEG-PE-based mixed micelles on resistant ovarian cancer in 3-D spheroids and in vivo tumors.

    PubMed

    Sarisozen, Can; Abouzeid, Abraham H; Torchilin, Vladimir P

    2014-10-01

    Multicellular 3D cancer cell culture (spheroids) resemble to in vivo tumors in terms of shape, cell morphology, growth kinetics, gene expression and drug response. However, these characteristics cause very limited drug penetration into deeper parts of the spheroids. In this study, we used multi drug resistant (MDR) ovarian cancer cell spheroid and in vivo tumor models to evaluate the co-delivery of paclitaxel (PCL) and a potent NF-κB inhibitor curcumin (CUR). PCL and CUR were co-loaded into the polyethylene glycol-phosphatidyl ethanolamine (PEG-PE) based polymeric micelles modified with transferrin (TF) as the targeting ligand. Cytotoxicity, cellular association and accumulation into the deeper layers were investigated in the spheroids and compared with the monolayer cell culture. Comparing to non-targeted micelles, flow cytometry and confocal imaging proved significantly deeper and higher micelle penetration into the spheroids with TF-targeting. Both in monolayers and in spheroids, PCL cytotoxicity was significantly increased when co-delivered with CUR in non-targeted micelles or as single agent in TF-targeted micelles, whereas TF-modification of co-loaded micelles did not further enhance the cytotoxicity. In vivo tumor inhibition studies showed good correlation with the 3D cell culture experiments, which suggests the current spheroid model can be used as an intermediate model for the evaluation of co-delivery of anticancer compounds in targeted micelles. PMID:25016976

  19. Derivation of the stress-strain behavior of the constituents of bio-inspired layered TiO2/PE-nanocomposites by inverse modeling based on FE-simulations of nanoindentation test.

    PubMed

    Lasko, G; Schäfer, I; Burghard, Z; Bill, J; Schmauder, S; Weber, U; Galler, D

    2013-03-01

    Owing to the apparent simple morphology and peculiar properties, nacre, an iridescent layer, coating of the inner part of mollusk shells, has attracted considerable attention of biologists, material scientists and engineers. The basic structural motif in nacre is the assembly of oriented plate-like aragonite crystals with a 'brick' (CaCO3 crystals) and 'mortar' (macromolecular components like proteins) organization. Many scientific researchers recognize that such structures are associated with the excellent mechanical properties of nacre and biomimetic strategies have been proposed to produce new layered nanocomposites. During the past years, increasing efforts have been devoted towards exploiting nacre's structural design principle in the synthesis of novel nanocomposites. However, the direct transfer of nacre's architecture to an artificial inorganic material has not been achieved yet. In the present contribution we report on laminated architecture, composed of the inorganic oxide (TiO2) and organic polyelectrolyte (PE) layers which fulfill this task. To get a better insight and understanding concerning the mechanical behaviour of bio-inspired layered materials consisting of oxide ceramics and organic layers, the elastic-plastic properties of titanium dioxide and organic polyelectrolyte phase are determined via FE-modelling of the nanoindentation process. With the use of inverse modeling and based on numerical models which are applied on the microscopic scale, the material properties of the constituents are derived. PMID:24010244

  20. Distal myosin heavy chain-7 myopathy due to the novel transition c.5566G>A (p.E1856K) with high interfamilial cardiac variability and putative anticipation.

    PubMed

    Finsterer, Josef; Brandau, Oliver; Stöllberger, Claudia; Wallefeld, William; Laing, Nigel G; Laccone, Franco

    2014-08-01

    Myosin-heavy-chain 7 (MYH7)-myopathy manifests clinically with a distal, scapuloperoneal, limb-girdle (proximal), or axial distribution and may involve the respiratory muscles. Cardiac involvement is frequent, ranging from relaxation impairment to severe dilative cardiomyopathy. Progression and earlier onset of cardiac disease in successive generations with MYH7-myopathy is unreported. In a five-generation family MYH7-myopathy due to the novel c.5566G > A (p.E1856K) mutation manifested with late-onset, distal > proximal myopathy and variable degree of cardiac involvement. The index patient developed distal myopathy since age 49 y and anginal chest pain. Her mother had distal myopathy and impaired myocardial relaxation. The daughter of the index patient had discrete myopathy but left ventricular hypertrabeculation/noncompaction and ventricular arrhythmias requiring an implantable cardioverter defibrillator. The granddaughter of the index patient had infantile dilated cardiomyopathy without overt myopathy. Cardiac involvement may be present in MYH7-myopathy and may be progressive between the generations, ranging from relaxation abnormality to noncompaction, ventricular arrhythmias, and dilated cardiomyopathy.