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Sample records for jardim pe utilizando

  1. Mineralogy and geochemistry of the Paleoproterozoic, tin-mineralized Bom Jardim granite of the Velho Guilherme Suite, eastern Amazonian craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamarão, Claudio Nery; Cordovil Pinho, Sabrina Cristina; de Paiva, Antonio Lima; Galarza, Marco Antônio

    2012-10-01

    The Bom Jardim granite is located to the south of São Felix do Xingu town and is intrusive in the intermediate to felsic volcanic rocks of the Uatumã Group. It is formed dominantly of coarse- to medium-grained isotropic monzogranite and syenogranite, both affected by intense late- to post-magmatic alteration. Biotite, generally chloritized, is the main primary mafic phase, with rare amphibole being found in the monzogranite. Hydrothermally altered and greisenized rocks, containing small primary concentrations of cassiterite + wolframite, as well as quartz veins with millimeter- to centimeter-sized crystals of wolframite + pyrite + fluorite occur in pervasively altered cupolas. Presently, alluvial cassiterite and wolframite (±columbite, tantalite) are mined in the Pedra Preta mine, located in the northern part of the pluton. SEM data showed that Sn-W mineralization is dominantly associated with syenogranite and greisenized rocks. EDS Semi-quantitative analysis revealed that the zircon crystals of the Bom Jardim granite are characteristically enriched in Hf, Y, U, and Th and display Zr/Hf ratios decreasing from monzogranite/leucomonzogranite toward syenogranite and greisenized syenogranite rocks, suggesting that magmatic differentiation significantly contributed for this particular feature. The Bom Jardim granite is slightly peraluminous and displays geochemical affinities with A-type granites. The Bom Jardim granite varieties evolved dominantly by fractional crystallization and their REE patterns are similar to those of the tin-specialized granites of the Velho Guilherme suite. It is concluded that the more evolved granites and associated greisenized rocks of the Bom Jardim pluton are tin-specialized granites. The similarities observed between the granites of the Velho Guilherme suite and the Bom Jardim granite allow to include the latter in this important granite suite.

  2. Autoantibodies to phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) recognize a kininogen-PE complex.

    PubMed

    Sugi, T; McIntyre, J A

    1995-10-15

    Demonstration of autoimmune antiphospholipid antibodies (aPA) to negatively charged phospholipids (PL) in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) requires the presence of certain phospholipid-binding plasma proteins, eg, beta 2-glycoprotein I. We found a requirement for plasma against the electrically neutral or zwitterionic phospholipid, phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). Two of these PE-binding plasma proteins were identified as high molecular weight kininogen (HMWK) and low molecular weight kininogen (LMWK). We studied anti-PE antibody (aPE) seropositive plasma from 13 patients with SLE and/or recurrent spontaneous abortions by using partially purified kininogens and kininogen binding proteins from adult bovine serum isolated by carboxymethyl (CM)-papain affinity chromatography. Eleven of 13 sera recognized a kininogen-PE complex and/or a kininogen-binding protein-kininogen-PE complex. Some aPE-positive patient sera were shown to recognize highly purified HMWK and LMWK by ELISA only when the kininogens were presented on a PE substrate. These aPE sera did not recognize PE, HMWK, or LMWK when they were presented independently as the sole antigens on the ELISA plates. Other aPE-positive sera that did not react with PE-bound HMWK or LMWK reacted with the CM-papain column eluate when it was bound to PE, which suggests that these aPE recognize factor XI or prekallikrein, which normally bind to HMWK. The aPE ELISA reactivity of two patient sera were inhibited by preincubation of the CM-papain column eluate in the ELISA plate. These data show that most aPE are not specific for PE but require the presence of certain PL-binding plasma proteins that are kininogens or proteins in complex with kininogens. Our studies indicate that aPE bind to different plasma proteins than those implicated in anionic PL, aPA ELISA reactivity.

  3. The role of UHMW-PE in microporous PE separators

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, L.C.; Harvey, M.K.; Stein, H.L.; Scheunemann, U.

    1997-12-01

    Microporous PE separators have gained large popularity in the lead acid battery industry, particularly in SLI (Starting, Lighting and Ignition) Automotive Applications. The PE (Polyethylene) in battery separator is actually UHMW-PE (Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene). UHMW-PE has a molecular weight more than ten times that of conventional HDPE (High Density Polyethylene). This paper gives an overview of the UHMW-PE`s contributions to the PE battery separator process, assembly, and performance, in comparison to other conventional separators, such as PVC (Polyvinyl Chloride), cellulose, and glass fiber.

  4. The Ultimate PE Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cerny, Eleanor; Wojehowski, Ken

    2005-01-01

    This article features the Ultimate PE Challenge. The idea had been born when the fifth-grade teachers complained that teaching physical geography was boring, and the technology instructor simultaneously noticed a climbing wall in the gym. "Could physical education simulate the geographic characteristics and obstacles of North America?"…

  5. The New P.E.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandertie, Joan; Corner, Amy B.; Corner, Kevin J.

    2012-01-01

    Marana Middle School in Tucson, Ariz., scrapped its traditional P.E. program that emphasized team sports and shifted to a program that focuses on lifetime fitness, student choice in activities, and nutrition and health education. The program also includes student leadership development and informal community service. As a result, Marana students…

  6. The New P.E.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandertie, Joan; Corner, Amy B.; Corner, Kevin J.

    2012-01-01

    Marana Middle School in Tucson, Ariz., scrapped its traditional P.E. program that emphasized team sports and shifted to a program that focuses on lifetime fitness, student choice in activities, and nutrition and health education. The program also includes student leadership development and informal community service. As a result, Marana students…

  7. Determinants of PE Teachers Career Intentions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mäkelä, Kasper; Hirvensalo, Mirja; Whipp, Peter R.

    2015-01-01

    One of the cause's célèbre in the field of education has been teacher attrition; Physical education (PE) is no different. Some PE teachers are leaving the profession because they encounter stress and dissatisfaction in their profession. The purpose of this study is to determine the aspects that keep PE teachers happy and remaining in the…

  8. Determinants of PE Teachers Career Intentions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mäkelä, Kasper; Hirvensalo, Mirja; Whipp, Peter R.

    2015-01-01

    One of the cause's célèbre in the field of education has been teacher attrition; Physical education (PE) is no different. Some PE teachers are leaving the profession because they encounter stress and dissatisfaction in their profession. The purpose of this study is to determine the aspects that keep PE teachers happy and remaining in the…

  9. CAPE for CaPE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, Joni

    1993-01-01

    In an effort to improve short-term forecasting for the Kennedy Space Center region, Holle et al. (1992) investigated the effects of low level wind regimes on the distribution of cloud-to-ground lightning in central Florida. With a study period of 455 days, Holle et al. (1992) found 'southwest flow contributed 66 percent of the total network flashes while also occurring on the most days (142).' Relationships among mesoscale thermodynamic variables and precipitation and/or lightning have been addressed in previous studies in Canada and the Tennessee valley. Zawadzki et al. (1981) found 'soundings, surface pressure, temperature and humidity obtained from a standard observation network were correlated with rain rates given by raingages and radar.' Buechler et al. (1990) found 'a fair relationship between CAPE (convective available potential energy) and daily cloud-to-ground activity' with a correlation coefficient of r = 0.68. The present research will investigate the relationships among rainfall, cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning, CAPE, and low level wind flow using data collected during the CaPE (Convection and Precipitation/Electrification Experiment) field program. The CaPE field program was conducted in east central Florida from July 8, 1991 to August 18, 1991.

  10. No, Really: P.E. Online

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stover, Del

    2005-01-01

    Because some students need to drop some extracurricular activities in order to enroll in a PE class, public schools have developed PE courses that can be fitted into students' tight schedules. These programs are popular because of convenience. Not only can workouts be scheduled as desired, but students can sweat it out almost anywhere: the local…

  11. No, Really: P.E. Online

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stover, Del

    2005-01-01

    Because some students need to drop some extracurricular activities in order to enroll in a PE class, public schools have developed PE courses that can be fitted into students' tight schedules. These programs are popular because of convenience. Not only can workouts be scheduled as desired, but students can sweat it out almost anywhere: the local…

  12. Elementary Students' Construct of PE Teacher Credibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramos, Nilo O.; McCullick, Bryan A.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate elementary students' perceptions of PE teacher credibility. Eight high- and low-skilled students from grades 3 and 5 were selected from a school employing a PE teacher holding a National Board Certification. Data were collected in the school setting utilizing observations, field notes, an open-ended…

  13. Elementary Students' Construct of PE Teacher Credibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramos, Nilo O.; McCullick, Bryan A.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate elementary students' perceptions of PE teacher credibility. Eight high- and low-skilled students from grades 3 and 5 were selected from a school employing a PE teacher holding a National Board Certification. Data were collected in the school setting utilizing observations, field notes, an open-ended…

  14. JROTC as a Substitute for PE: Really?

    PubMed Central

    Lounsbery, Monica A. F.; Holt, Kathryn A.; Monnat, Shannon A.; McKenzie, Thomas L.; Funk, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Even though physical education (PE) is an evidence-based strategy for providing and promoting physical activity, alternative programs such as Junior Reserve Officer Training Corps (JROTC) are commonly substituted for PE in many states. The purpose of this study was to compare student physical activity and lesson contexts during high school PE and JROTC sessions. Method SOFIT (System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time) was used to assess PE and JROTC sessions (N=38 each) in 4 high schools that provided both programs. Data were analyzed using t-tests, negative binomial regression, and logistic regression. Results Students engaged in significantly more moderate to vigorous physical activity during PE than JROTC sessions and they were significantly less sedentary. Significant differences between the two program types were also found among lesson contexts. Conclusions PE and JROTC provide substantially different content and contexts and students in them engage in substantially different amounts of moderate to vigorous physical activity. Students in JROTC, and perhaps other alternative programs, are less likely to accrue health-supporting physical activity and engage in fewer opportunities to be physically fit and motorically skilled. Policies and practices for providing substitutions for PE should be carefully examined. PMID:25141093

  15. School PE through Internet Discussion Forums

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauritsalo, Kirsti; Sääkslahti, Arja; Rasku-Puttonen, Helena

    2015-01-01

    Background: Physical education is a subject that generates strong feelings and emotions, as can be seen in written accounts of PE experiences. It is also important to listen to students' voices in the research context. Nowadays, students can be listened to in a new way--through the Internet. Various discussion forums on the Internet make it…

  16. School PE through Internet Discussion Forums

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauritsalo, Kirsti; Sääkslahti, Arja; Rasku-Puttonen, Helena

    2015-01-01

    Background: Physical education is a subject that generates strong feelings and emotions, as can be seen in written accounts of PE experiences. It is also important to listen to students' voices in the research context. Nowadays, students can be listened to in a new way--through the Internet. Various discussion forums on the Internet make it…

  17. The Gendering of Abilities in Senior PE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hay, Peter J.; Macdonald, Doune

    2010-01-01

    Background: Ability is a foundational concept in education. For example, one's perspective of the nature of ability influences how one conceives of the educability and achievement potential of students. However, ability has generally been under-theorised in physical education (PE), particularly in relation to gender. Moreover, default assumptions…

  18. What Is the PE Password? Incorporating Vocabulary in Your Elementary PE Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robelee, Margaret E.

    2016-01-01

    This article describes a novel program for third through fifth grade called "What is the PE Password?" that teaches vocabulary words and concepts without sacrificing activity time in order to support Common Core learning.

  19. What Is the PE Password? Incorporating Vocabulary in Your Elementary PE Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robelee, Margaret E.

    2016-01-01

    This article describes a novel program for third through fifth grade called "What is the PE Password?" that teaches vocabulary words and concepts without sacrificing activity time in order to support Common Core learning.

  20. Comparison of Mechanical Properties Between PE80 and PE100 Pipe Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yi; Jar, P.-Y. Ben

    2016-10-01

    Mechanical properties, including yield stress, relaxation behavior, moduli (elastic modulus at the strain of 0.5% and strain hardening modulus at strains above 70%), viscous stress, and quasi-static stress, are compared between polyethylene (PE) pipes that are made of PE80 and PE100 resins. The mechanical properties are measured using D-split tensile test on modified notched pipe ring specimens. The comparison includes the influence of strain rate (by the change of crosshead speed) on the yield strength and influence of pre-strain on the relaxation behavior and the modulus values. A two-stage approach is used to characterize the influence of pre-strain on the moduli, to ensure that viscous recovery from the first-stage of the test, to introduce the pre-strain, does not affect the modulus measurement from the second-stage test. The results show that elastic modulus, yield stress, strain hardening modulus, viscous stress, and quasi-static stress for PE100 are higher than those for PE80, but PE80 shows higher resistance to stress relaxation. The results also show that with the increase in the pre-strain level, the elastic modulus drops but the strain hardening modulus remains relatively constant.

  1. BIM LAU-PE: Seedlings in Microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gass, S.; Pennese, R.; Chapuis, D.; Dainesi, P.; Nebuloni, S.; Garcia, M.; Oriol, A.

    2015-09-01

    The effect of gravity on plant roots is an intensive subject of research. Sounding rockets represent a costeffective platform to study this effect under microgravity conditions. As part of the upcoming MASER 13 sounding rocket campaign, two experiments on Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings have been devised: GRAMAT and SPARC. These experiments are aimed at studying (1) the genes that are specifically switched on or off during microgravity, and (2) the position of auxin-transporting proteins during microgravity. To perform these experiments, RUAG Space Switzerland site of Nyon, in collaboration with the Swedish Space Corporation (SSC) and the University of Freiburg, has developed the BIM LAU-PE (Biolology In Microgravity Late Access Unit Plant Experiment). In the following an overview of the BIM LAU-PE design is presented, highlighting specific module design features and verifications performed. A particular emphasis is placed on the parabolic flight experiments, including results of the micro-g injection system validation.

  2. Design procedure prevents PE pipe rupture

    SciTech Connect

    Grigory, S.C.

    1995-12-01

    A rupture prevention design procedure for plastic gas distribution pipe is nearing completion at Southwest Research Institute (SWRI). Given the pipe size, polyethylene (PE) resin, and minimum operating temperature, the maximum safe operating pressure can be determined for which rapid crack propagation (RCP) cannot occur. A computer program, called PFRAC, has been developed for this purpose and uses Charpy energy as the measurement of fracture toughness of PE. Present efforts, however, involve replacing Charpy energy with a dynamic toughness measurement obtained from the Small Scale Steady State (S4) test that is required in ISO 4437. The program is being financed by the Gas Research Institute, Chicago. RCP events in PE pipe have been rare primarily because operating pressures are low and pipe diameters are small in most gas distribution systems. However, controlled RCP experiments in the US and other countries clearly demonstrate that as the gas industry moves toward higher line pressures and larger diameters, the likelihood of an RCP event increases. Recognizing this, ISO includes a requirement for RCP in its ISO 4437 standard for pipe greater than 10 inches in diameter or operating pressures greater than 58 psig. The S4 test may be used on all pipe diameters. A full scale test or the S4 test can be used on pipe greater than 10 inches diameter.

  3. Search for D{sup 0}{yields}pe{sup +} and D{sup 0}{yields}pe{sup -}

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, P.; Lowrey, N.; Mehrabyan, S.; Selen, M.; Wiss, J.; Mitchell, R. E.; Shepherd, M. R.; Besson, D.; Pedlar, T. K.; Cronin-Hennessy, D.; Gao, K. Y.; Hietala, J.; Kubota, Y.; Klein, T.; Poling, R.; Scott, A. W.; Zweber, P.; Dobbs, S.; Metreveli, Z.; Seth, K. K.

    2009-05-01

    We search for simultaneous baryon and lepton number violating decays of the D{sup 0} meson. Specifically, we use 281 pb{sup -1} of data taken on the {psi}(3770) resonance with the CLEO-c detector at the CESR collider to look for decays D{sup 0}{yields}pe{sup +}, D{sup 0}{yields}pe{sup +}, D{sup 0}{yields}pe{sup -}, and D{sup 0}{yields}pe{sup -}. We find no significant signals and set the following branching fraction upper limits: D{sup 0}{yields}pe{sup +}(D{sup 0}{yields}pe{sup +})<1.1x10{sup -5} and D{sup 0}{yields}pe{sup -}(D{sup 0}{yields}pe{sup -})<1.0x10{sup -5}, both at the 90% confidence level.

  4. Non-Specialist Teachers' Confidence to Teach PE: The Nature and Influence of Personal School Experiences in PE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Philip; Bourke, Sid

    2008-01-01

    Background: Over the past 20 years, a number of researchers have expressed concern over the lack of confidence and qualifications of primary school teachers to teach PE. Evidently, the influence of personal school PE experiences may play an important role in the development of teachers' confidence to appropriately teach PE. Most research that has…

  5. The "physiologically effective" correlates: peDk/L and peDk.

    PubMed

    Hill, R M

    1999-03-01

    Introduced here are two predictive parameters, peDk/L and peDk. The prefix pe- (for physiologically effective) indicates that such values are estimates of lens transmissibility (Dk/L) and material permeability (Dk) and have been derived through a reverse application of the Residual Hypoxia model of Smith, relating corneal response (in hypoxic stress units) to lens transmissibility (Dk/L). Here, using independent databases, physiological responses to simple oxygen pathways (one layer, one material) but of unknown Dk value were entered into that model to estimate the Dk/L and (then by calculation) the Dk value of single vision rigid gas permeable (RGP) contact lenses. Also demonstrated was the application of this strategy for estimation of composite (integrated) Dk/L and Dk values of complex (multi-layer, multi-material) oxygen pathways, wherein one or more material Dk values and/or one or more local thickness are unknown.

  6. The characterisation of two different degradable polyethylene (PE) sacks

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, G. . E-mail: gudavis@cytanet.com.cy

    2006-12-15

    The compostability of two different polyethylene (PE) products on the UK market under open-windrow composting conditions is explored within this paper. Chemical analysis of the PE bags has established their constituents in order to examine how the PE bags have an increased degradability depending on additives. Weight loss of the two different PE products within open-windrow composting conditions was recorded in order to establish the percentage weight loss as an indication of the degradability of the two products and their relative suitability for open-windrow composting. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of the PE products over the composting duration established the degradation processes for the PE products within the compost. These analyses concluded that one of the PE product mixes was more degradable than the other. However, neither product completed degraded within the timeframe of 12-14 weeks generally accepted for open-windrow composting in the UK.

  7. From PE Experiences to PE Teaching Practices? Insights from Scottish Primary Teachers' Experiences of PE, Teacher Education, School Entry and Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliot, Dely L.; Atencio, Matthew; Campbell, Theresa; Jess, Mike

    2013-01-01

    Morgan and Hansen suggest that further research is needed to explore how non-specialist primary teachers approach and teach physical education (PE) based on their personal school PE backgrounds, teacher education experiences and ongoing professional development. This paper adopts Lawson's socialisation model, a theoretical framework subsequently…

  8. PE11, a PE/PPE family protein of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is involved in cell wall remodeling and virulence

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Parul; Rao, Rameshwaram Nagender; Reddy, Jala Ram Chandra; Prasad, RBN; Kotturu, Sandeep Kumar; Ghosh, Sudip; Mukhopadhyay, Sangita

    2016-01-01

    The role of the unique proline-glutamic acid (PE)/proline-proline-glutamic acid (PPE) family of proteins in the pathophysiology and virulence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is not clearly understood. One of the PE family proteins, PE11 (LipX or Rv1169c), specific to pathogenic mycobacteria is found to be over-expressed during infection of macrophages and in active TB patients. In this study, we report that M. smegmatis expressing PE11 (Msmeg-PE11) exhibited altered colony morphology and cell wall lipid composition leading to a marked increase in resistance against various environmental stressors and antibiotics. The cell envelope of Msmeg-PE11 also had greater amount of glycolipids and polar lipids. Msmeg-PE11 was found to have better survival rate in infected macrophages. Mice infected with Msmeg-PE11 had higher bacterial load, showed exacerbated organ pathology and mortality. The liver and lung of Msmeg-PE11-infected mice also had higher levels of IL-10, IL-4 and TNF-α cytokines, indicating a potential role of this protein in mycobacterial virulence. PMID:26902658

  9. Improvement of barrier properties of rotomolded PE containers with nanoclay

    SciTech Connect

    Jamshidi, Shadi; Sundararaj, Uttandaraman

    2015-05-22

    Polyethylene (PE) is widely used to make bulk containers in rotational molding process. The challenge in this study is to improve permeation resistance of PE to hydrocarbon solvents and gases. Adding organomodified clay improves the thermal, barrier and mechanical properties of PE. In fact, clay layers create a tortuous path against the permeant, yielding better barrier properties. Due to the non-polar hydrophobic nature of PE and polar hydrophilic structure of clay minerals, the compatibilizer plays a crucial role to enhance the dispersion level of clay in the matrix. In this study High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) and Linear Low Density Polyethylene (LLDPE) layered silicate nanocomposite were melt-compounded with two concentrations of organomodified clay (2 and 4 wt. %). The interaction between nanoclay, compatibilizer and rotomolding grade of PE were examined by using X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and rheology test. Rheology was used to determine the performance of our material at low shear processing condition.

  10. Improvement of barrier properties of rotomolded PE containers with nanoclay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamshidi, Shadi; Sundararaj, Uttandaraman

    2015-05-01

    Polyethylene (PE) is widely used to make bulk containers in rotational molding process. The challenge in this study is to improve permeation resistance of PE to hydrocarbon solvents and gases. Adding organomodified clay improves the thermal, barrier and mechanical properties of PE. In fact, clay layers create a tortuous path against the permeant, yielding better barrier properties. Due to the non-polar hydrophobic nature of PE and polar hydrophilic structure of clay minerals, the compatibilizer plays a crucial role to enhance the dispersion level of clay in the matrix. In this study High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) and Linear Low Density Polyethylene (LLDPE) layered silicate nanocomposite were melt-compounded with two concentrations of organomodified clay (2 and 4 wt. %). The interaction between nanoclay, compatibilizer and rotomolding grade of PE were examined by using X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and rheology test. Rheology was used to determine the performance of our material at low shear processing condition.

  11. A Preliminary Comparison Between TNT and PE4 Landmines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-01

    derived, peak pressure based equivalency ratio of 1.37 previously used in DSTO landmine vehicle vulnerability research. A 4.38 kg PE4 and a 6 kg TNT ...an equivalent weight of TNT , and a toggle to change between a spherical blast and a hemispherical blast. As the landmine was buried in soil, 50 mm...A Preliminary Comparison Between TNT and PE4 Landmines Samuel Weckert and Christopher Anderson Weapons Systems Division

  12. Temporospatial dissociation of Pe subcomponents for perceived and unperceived errors.

    PubMed

    Endrass, Tanja; Klawohn, Julia; Preuss, Julia; Kathmann, Norbert

    2012-01-01

    Previous research on performance monitoring revealed that errors are followed by an initial fronto-central negative deflection (error-related negativity, ERN or Ne) and a subsequent centro-parietal positivity (error positivity, Pe). It has been shown that error awareness mainly influences the Pe, whereas the ERN seems unaffected by conscious awareness of an error. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relation of ERN and Pe to error awareness in a visual size discrimination task in which errors are not elicited by impulsive responding but by perceptual difficulty. Further, we applied a temporospatial principal component analysis (PCA) to examine whether the temporospatial subcomponents of the Pe would differentially relate to error awareness. Event-related potential (ERP) results were in accordance with earlier studies: a significant error awareness effect was found for the Pe, but not for the ERN. Interestingly, a modulation with error perception on correct trials was found: correct responses considered as incorrect had larger correct-related negativity (CRN) and lager Pe amplitudes than correct responses considered as correct. The PCA yielded two relevant spatial factors accounting for the Pe (latency 300 ms). A temporospatial factor characterized by a centro-parietal positivity varied significantly with error awareness. Of the two temporospatial factors corresponding to ERN and CRN, one factor with central topography varied with response correctness and subjective error perception on correct responses. The PCA results indicate that the error awareness effect is specifically related to the centro-parietal subcomponent of the Pe. Since this component has also been shown to be related to the importance of an error, the present variation with error awareness indicates that this component is sensitive to the salience of an error and that salience secondarily may trigger error awareness.

  13. The designing and implementation of PE teaching information resource database based on broadband network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jian

    2017-01-01

    In order to change traditional PE teaching mode and realize the interconnection, interworking and sharing of PE teaching resources, a distance PE teaching platform based on broadband network is designed and PE teaching information resource database is set up. The designing of PE teaching information resource database takes Windows NT 4/2000Server as operating system platform, Microsoft SQL Server 7.0 as RDBMS, and takes NAS technology for data storage and flow technology for video service. The analysis of system designing and implementation shows that the dynamic PE teaching information resource sharing platform based on Web Service can realize loose coupling collaboration, realize dynamic integration and active integration and has good integration, openness and encapsulation. The distance PE teaching platform based on Web Service and the design scheme of PE teaching information resource database can effectively solve and realize the interconnection, interworking and sharing of PE teaching resources and adapt to the informatization development demands of PE teaching.

  14. Amyloid arthropathy revealed by RS3PE syndrome.

    PubMed

    Magy, N; Michel, F; Auge, B; Toussirot, E; Wendling, D

    2000-01-01

    Amyloid arthropathy is a form of primary AL amyloidosis with a monoclonal component in the blood and/or urine, and RS3PE syndrome is acute edematous polysynovitis in subjects older than 60 years. A 74-year-old man was diagnosed with both disorders. He was admitted for benign acute polyarthritis of the hands and feet and reported carpal tunnel symptoms predominating on the right. A synovial biopsy at the right wrist disclosed deposits that stained with Congo red even after potassium permanganate treatment (positive Wright's test). Articular AL amyloidosis was diagnosed. The symptoms resolved under glucocorticoid therapy alone, casting some doubt on their relationship with the amyloidosis. Roentgenograms showed geodes, a feature not present in RS3PE. Whether RS3PE may be among the possible presentations of articular amyloidosis is discussed.

  15. Functional analyses of Populus euphratica brassinosteroid biosynthesis enzyme genes DWF4 (PeDWF4) and CPD (PeCPD) in the regulation of growth and development of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Si, Jianping; Sun, Yan; Wang, L U; Qin, Ying; Wang, Chongying; Wang, Xinyu

    2016-12-01

    DWF4 and CPD are key brassinosteroids (BRs) biosynthesis enzyme genes. To explore the function of Populus euphratica DWF4 (PeDWF4) and CPD (PeCPD), Arabidopsis thaliana transgenic lines (TLs) expressing PeDWF4, PeCPD or PeDWF4 plus PeCPD, namely PeDWF4-TL, PeCPD-TL and PeCP/DW-TL, were characterized. Compared with wild type (WT), the changes of both PeDWF4-TL and PeCPD-TL in plant heights, silique and hypocotyls lengths and seed yields were similar, but in bolting time and stem diameters, they were opposite. PeCP/DW-TL was more in plant heights and the lengths of primary root, silique, and fruit stalk, but less in silique numbers and seed yields than either PeDWF4-TL or PeCPD-TL. PeDWF4 and PeCPD specially expressed in PeDWF4-TL or PeCPDTL, and the transcription level of PeDWF4 was higher than that of PeCPD. In PeCP/DW-TL, their expressions were all relatively reduced. Additionally, the expression of PeDWF4 and PeCPD differentially made the expression levels of AtDWF4, AtCPD, AtBR6OX2, AtFLC, AtTCP1 and AtGA5 change in the TLs. The total BRs contents were PeDWF4-TL greater than PeCP/DW-TL greater than WT greater than PeCPD-TL. These results imply that PeDWF4 is functionally not exactly the same as PeCPD and there may be a synergistic and antagonistic effects in physiology between both of them in the regulation of plant growth and development.

  16. Temperature, pressure critical in PE line pipe use

    SciTech Connect

    Oney, C.L.

    1988-01-01

    Polyethylene (PE) line pipe is used for low-pressure gas (gathering, supply gas, etc.) and water lines and, in some cases for flow lines. API Spec 15LE specifies minimum requirements for qualification of product and quality control by manufacturers of polyethylene pipe. Spec 15LE also provides guidelines for design of polyethylene. Thermoplastic pipe (PE and PVC) is manufactured by melting resin pellets or powder and extruding the melt through dies. Thermoplastic pipe pressure classes are designated by ''standard dimension ratios'' (SDR). The SDR is the average OD divided by the wall thickness (w.t.). Thus 2 3/8-in. OD pipe (nominal 2 in.) with 0.216-in. w.t. is SDR 11. Nominal 3-in. pipe (3 1/2-in. OD) must have a minimum 0.318-in. w.t. to be SDR 11. Table 5.1 in Spec 15LE lists the most commonly used SDRs. Quality control during manufacture required by Spec 15LE for PE pipe includes short-term hydrostatic tests and dimensional checks. Frequency of tests depend on whether the pipe is coiled or cut into lengths. PE pipe sizes of 3 in. and smaller sizes usually are coiled. In addition, annual tests for verification of long-term pressure rating are required by Spec 15LE.

  17. "Cool PE" and Confronting the Negative Stereotypes of Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaudreault, Karen Lux

    2014-01-01

    To change the public's negative perceptions, it may be necessary to change the nature of physical education programming. One way of doing so is by adopting "Cool PE," which refers to physical education that "moves" students, empowers students with choice, and is meaningful to students outside of the gym.

  18. "Cool PE" and Confronting the Negative Stereotypes of Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaudreault, Karen Lux

    2014-01-01

    To change the public's negative perceptions, it may be necessary to change the nature of physical education programming. One way of doing so is by adopting "Cool PE," which refers to physical education that "moves" students, empowers students with choice, and is meaningful to students outside of the gym.

  19. PE: It's Just Me: Physically Active and Healthy Teacher Bodies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wrench, Alison; Garrett, Robyne

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on the significance of embodied understandings to the emerging subjectivities and pedagogical practices of pre-service teachers undertaking a Physical Education (PE) specialisation through a B.Ed. (primary/middle). Data from a research project conducted at an Australian university with seven pre-service teachers will be…

  20. PE: It's Just Me: Physically Active and Healthy Teacher Bodies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wrench, Alison; Garrett, Robyne

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on the significance of embodied understandings to the emerging subjectivities and pedagogical practices of pre-service teachers undertaking a Physical Education (PE) specialisation through a B.Ed. (primary/middle). Data from a research project conducted at an Australian university with seven pre-service teachers will be…

  1. "Race" Talk! Tensions and Contradictions in Sport and PE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hylton, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Background: The universal sport discourses of meritocracy and equality are so engrained that few challenge them. The most cursory interest in sport, Physical Education (PE), and society will reveal that the lived reality is quite different. Racial disparities in the leadership and administration of sport are commonplace worldwide; yet, from…

  2. "Race" Talk! Tensions and Contradictions in Sport and PE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hylton, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Background: The universal sport discourses of meritocracy and equality are so engrained that few challenge them. The most cursory interest in sport, Physical Education (PE), and society will reveal that the lived reality is quite different. Racial disparities in the leadership and administration of sport are commonplace worldwide; yet, from…

  3. Building a Model PE Curriculum: Education Reform in Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, John

    2012-01-01

    The blueprint to build a model physical education (PE) curriculum begins by establishing a sound curricular foundation based on a lesson plan template that incorporates clear and concise program goals, the alignment of lessons to state or national content standards, and the collection, analysis and use of objective assessment data that informs…

  4. DIFFUSE PeV NEUTRINOS FROM GAMMA-RAY BURSTS

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Ruo-Yu; Wang, Xiang-Yu

    2013-04-01

    The IceCube Collaboration recently reported the potential detection of two cascade neutrino events in the energy range 1-10 PeV. We study the possibility that these PeV neutrinos are produced by gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), paying special attention to the contribution by untriggered GRBs that elude detection due to their low photon flux. Based on the luminosity function, rate distribution with redshift and spectral properties of GRBs, we generate, using a Monte Carlo simulation, a GRB sample that reproduces the observed fluence distribution of Fermi/GBM GRBs and an accompanying sample of untriggered GRBs simultaneously. The neutrino flux of every individual GRB is calculated in the standard internal shock scenario, so that the accumulative flux of the whole samples can be obtained. We find that the neutrino flux in PeV energies produced by untriggered GRBs is about two times higher than that produced by the triggered ones. Considering the existing IceCube limit on the neutrino flux of triggered GRBs, we find that the total flux of triggered and untriggered GRBs can reach at most a level of {approx}10{sup -9} GeV cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} sr{sup -1}, which is insufficient to account for the reported two PeV neutrinos. Possible contributions to diffuse neutrinos by low-luminosity GRBs and the earliest population of GRBs are also discussed.

  5. Assessment Quality and Practices in Secondary PE in the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borghouts, Lars B.; Slingerland, Menno; Haerens, Leen

    2017-01-01

    Background: Assessment can have various functions, and is an important impetus for student learning. For assessment to be effective, it should be aligned with curriculum goals and of sufficient quality. Although it has been suggested that assessment quality in physical education (PE) is suboptimal, research into actual assessment practices has…

  6. Passive PE Sampling in Support of In Situ Remediation of Contaminated Sediments: Standard Operating Procedure for PE Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-01

    GCMS Detection Limit ~ 100 pg / 100 mg PE PRCs d10-phenanthrene d10-pyrene d12-chrysene Surrogates d10- anthracene d10-fluoranthene d12-benz(a... anthracene Injection Standards d10-acenaphthene d14-m-terphenyl d12-perylene B. PRCs and surrogate compounds suitable for polychlorinated biphenyl

  7. What Can Veterinary Educators Learn from PE Teachers?

    PubMed

    Hofmeister, Erik H; McCullick, Bryan A

    Veterinary education requires the training of students in cognitive, affective, and psychomotor domains. However, the veterinary education literature tends to focus more on the cognitive domain, with less emphasis on the affective and psychomotor domains. Physical education (PE) teachers have been teaching psychomotor skills to students for decades using a variety of teaching models. Teaching models provide a framework encompassing theory, student and teacher interactions, instructional themes, research support, and valid assessments. This paper reviews some of the models used by PE teachers, including the Direct Instruction Model, the Cooperative Learning Model, the Personalized System for Instruction, and the Peer Teaching Model. We posit that these models might be particularly helpful for novice teachers in veterinary education settings, providing a structure for the teaching and assessment of psychomotor skills.

  8. The new geographic information system in ETVA VI.PE.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xagoraris, Zafiris; Soulis, George

    2016-08-01

    ETVA VI.PE. S.A. is a member of the Piraeus Bank Group of Companies and its activities include designing, developing, exploiting and managing Industrial Areas throughout Greece. Inside ETVA VI.PE.'s thirty-one Industrial Parks there are currently 2,500 manufacturing companies established, with 40,000 employees and € 2.5 billion of invested funds. In each one of the industrial areas ETVA VI.PE guarantees the companies industrial lots of land (sites) with propitious building codes and complete infrastructure networks of water supply, sewerage, paved roads, power supply, communications, cleansing services, etc. The development of Geographical Information System for ETVA VI.PE.'s Industrial Parks started at the beginning of 1992 and consists of three subsystems: Cadastre, that manages the information for the land acquisition of Industrial Areas; Street Layout - Sites, that manages the sites sold to manufacturing companies; Networks, that manages the infrastructure networks (roads, water supply, sewerage etc). The mapping of each Industrial Park is made incorporating state-of-the-art photogrammetric, cartographic and surveying methods and techniques. Passing through the phases of initial design (hybrid GIS) and system upgrade (integrated Gis solution with spatial database), the system is currently operating on a new upgrade (integrated gIS solution with spatial database) that includes redesigning and merging the system's database schemas, along with the creation of central security policies, and the development of a new web GIS application for advanced data entry, highly customisable and standard reports, and dynamic interactive maps. The new GIS bring the company to advanced levels of productivity and introduce the new era for decision making and business management.

  9. SCoPE: an efficient method of Cosmological Parameter Estimation

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Santanu; Souradeep, Tarun E-mail: tarun@iucaa.ernet.in

    2014-07-01

    Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampler is widely used for cosmological parameter estimation from CMB and other data. However, due to the intrinsic serial nature of the MCMC sampler, convergence is often very slow. Here we present a fast and independently written Monte Carlo method for cosmological parameter estimation named as Slick Cosmological Parameter Estimator (SCoPE), that employs delayed rejection to increase the acceptance rate of a chain, and pre-fetching that helps an individual chain to run on parallel CPUs. An inter-chain covariance update is also incorporated to prevent clustering of the chains allowing faster and better mixing of the chains. We use an adaptive method for covariance calculation to calculate and update the covariance automatically as the chains progress. Our analysis shows that the acceptance probability of each step in SCoPE is more than 95% and the convergence of the chains are faster. Using SCoPE, we carry out some cosmological parameter estimations with different cosmological models using WMAP-9 and Planck results. One of the current research interests in cosmology is quantifying the nature of dark energy. We analyze the cosmological parameters from two illustrative commonly used parameterisations of dark energy models. We also asses primordial helium fraction in the universe can be constrained by the present CMB data from WMAP-9 and Planck. The results from our MCMC analysis on the one hand helps us to understand the workability of the SCoPE better, on the other hand it provides a completely independent estimation of cosmological parameters from WMAP-9 and Planck data.

  10. Making the Case for Developing New PE-for-Health Pedagogies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armour, Kathleen; Harris, Jo

    2013-01-01

    This article argues for a new direction in research on health education within physical education (PE). Governments are increasingly looking to schools as a convenient form of public health investment. PE is implicated in health because of its core focus on physical activity, but there is little evidence to suggest that PE improves health…

  11. Attitudes toward and Motivation for PE. Who Collects the Benefits of the Subject?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Säfvenbom, Reidar; Haugen, Tommy; Bulie, Marte

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose: Due to attitudinal and motivational aims in the national curriculum, and to lack of research on adolescents' experiences with physical education (PE) in Norway, the purposes of this study were to (1) attain data on attitudes toward PE and self-determined motivation for PE among a representative sample of adolescents (N =…

  12. Making the Case for Developing New PE-for-Health Pedagogies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armour, Kathleen; Harris, Jo

    2013-01-01

    This article argues for a new direction in research on health education within physical education (PE). Governments are increasingly looking to schools as a convenient form of public health investment. PE is implicated in health because of its core focus on physical activity, but there is little evidence to suggest that PE improves health…

  13. Modulation of the Activity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis LipY by Its PE Domain.

    PubMed

    Garrett, Christopher K; Broadwell, Lindsey J; Hayne, Cassandra K; Neher, Saskia B

    2015-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis harbors over 160 genes encoding PE/PPE proteins, several of which have roles in the pathogen's virulence. A number of PE/PPE proteins are secreted via Type VII secretion systems known as the ESX secretion systems. One PE protein, LipY, has a triglyceride lipase domain in addition to its PE domain. LipY can regulate intracellular triglyceride levels and is also exported to the cell wall by one of the ESX family members, ESX-5. Upon export, LipY's PE domain is removed by proteolytic cleavage. Studies using cells and crude extracts suggest that LipY's PE domain not only directs its secretion by ESX-5, but also functions to inhibit its enzymatic activity. Here, we attempt to further elucidate the role of LipY's PE domain in the regulation of its enzymatic activity. First, we established an improved purification method for several LipY variants using detergent micelles. We then used enzymatic assays to confirm that the PE domain down-regulates LipY activity. The PE domain must be attached to LipY in order to effectively inhibit it. Finally, we determined that full length LipY and the mature lipase lacking the PE domain (LipYΔPE) have similar melting temperatures. Based on our improved purification strategy and activity-based approach, we concluded that LipY's PE domain down-regulates its enzymatic activity but does not impact the thermal stability of the enzyme.

  14. Attitudes toward and Motivation for PE. Who Collects the Benefits of the Subject?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Säfvenbom, Reidar; Haugen, Tommy; Bulie, Marte

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose: Due to attitudinal and motivational aims in the national curriculum, and to lack of research on adolescents' experiences with physical education (PE) in Norway, the purposes of this study were to (1) attain data on attitudes toward PE and self-determined motivation for PE among a representative sample of adolescents (N =…

  15. Targeting the Body and the Mind: Evaluation of a P.E. Curriculum Intervention for Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loukaitou-Sideris, Anastasia

    2015-01-01

    P.E. classes are often the only opportunity for inner-city youth to engage in physical activity, but budget cuts and pressure to perform well on standardized tests has made P.E. an afterthought for many school administrators. This study evaluated the effectiveness of a new P.E. curriculum in five Los Angeles inner-city schools. Interviews were…

  16. Association between state physical education (PE) requirements and PE participation, physical activity, and body mass index change.

    PubMed

    Taber, Daniel R; Chriqui, Jamie F; Perna, Frank M; Powell, Lisa M; Slater, Sandy J; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2013-11-01

    To determine if state physical education (PE) laws are associated with student physical education attendance and physical activity (PA), and whether physical education and competitive food laws, in conjunction, are associated with lower BMI change. State laws regarding physical education time requirements and competitive foods in 2003 and 2006 were classified as strong, weak, or none, based on codified law ratings obtained from the Classification of Laws Associated with School Students. Laws were linked to student data on PE attendance and physical activity (8th grade, Spring 2007) and BMI change (5th-8th grade, 2004-2007), obtained from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (n=5510 students in 40 states). Girls reported 0.31 more days of activity (95% CI: 0.02, 0.61) and were more likely to attend physical education ≥ 3 days/week (74.1% versus 52.1%, difference=22.0, 95% CI: 2.1, 42.0) if they resided in states with strong physical education laws compared to no physical education laws. Weak physical education laws had modest associations with PE and activity, and there was no evidence that weak laws reduce BMI gain regardless of competitive food laws. Strong physical education laws with specific time requirements may increase physical education attendance and activity in girls. There is insufficient evidence that physical education laws reduce student weight gain. © 2013.

  17. Combining polyethylene and polypropylene: Enhanced performance with PE/iPP multiblock polymers.

    PubMed

    Eagan, James M; Xu, Jun; Di Girolamo, Rocco; Thurber, Christopher M; Macosko, Christopher W; LaPointe, Anne M; Bates, Frank S; Coates, Geoffrey W

    2017-02-24

    Polyethylene (PE) and isotactic polypropylene (iPP) constitute nearly two-thirds of the world's plastic. Despite their similar hydrocarbon makeup, the polymers are immiscible with one another. Thus, common grades of PE and iPP do not adhere or blend, creating challenges for recycling these materials. We synthesized PE/iPP multiblock copolymers using an isoselective alkene polymerization initiator. These polymers can weld common grades of commercial PE and iPP together, depending on the molecular weights and architecture of the block copolymers. Interfacial compatibilization of phase-separated PE and iPP with tetrablock copolymers enables morphological control, transforming brittle materials into mechanically tough blends.

  18. Anticoagulant treatment of pulmonary embolism: impact and implications of the EINSTEIN PE study.

    PubMed

    Prandoni, Paolo

    2012-10-01

    Pulmonary embolism (PE), which can develop as a consequence of deep vein thrombosis (DVT), is a serious and potentially fatal venous thromboembolic event. Patients with PE are at increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) recurrence and serious complications such as chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. Anticoagulants, namely heparins and vitamin K antagonists (VKAs), have been the main treatments for PE in patients who are haemodynamically stable. However, use of these agents can be complex and is associated with an increased risk of bleeding (a characteristic that is common to all anticoagulants). Simplified, effective treatment regimens for PE would be very beneficial for patients, physicians and payers. Compared with DVT, PE is a different clinical manifestation of VTE; phase III trials have now started to focus specifically on patients with PE. Trials in patients with PE can provide further information on the optimal management of these patients. Results of the phase III EINSTEIN PE study demonstrated non-inferiority in the efficacy and safety of oral rivaroxaban compared with standard of care (enoxaparin/VKA) for the treatment of patients with acute symptomatic PE (with or without symptomatic DVT). Rates of major bleeding were significantly lower in patients receiving rivaroxaban. This review will discuss the findings of recent trials, particularly the potential impact of single, oral agents for both the initial and long-term treatment of a range of patients with PE, and how these results may influence the clinical management of PE. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  19. RESPECT-ED: Rates of Pulmonary Emboli (PE) and Sub-Segmental PE with Modern Computed Tomographic Pulmonary Angiograms in Emergency Departments: A Multi-Center Observational Study Finds Significant Yield Variation, Uncorrelated with Use or Small PE Rates

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Kevin; Joseph, Anthony; Read, Catherine; Blecher, Gabriel; Furyk, Jeremy; Bharat, Chrianna; Velusamy, Karthik; Munro, Andrew; Baker, Kylie; Kinnear, Frances; Mukherjee, Ahses; Watkins, Gina; Buntine, Paul; Livesay, Georgia

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Overuse of CT Pulmonary Angiograms (CTPA) for diagnosing pulmonary embolism (PE), particularly in Emergency Departments (ED), is considered problematic. Marked variations in positive CTPA rates are reported, with American 4–10% yields driving most concerns. Higher resolution CTPA may increase sub-segmental PE (SSPE) diagnoses, which may be up to 40% false positive. Excessive use and false positives could increase harm vs. benefit. These issues have not been systematically examined outside America. Aims To describe current yield variation and CTPA utilisation in Australasian ED, exploring potential factors correlated with variation. Methods A retrospective multi-centre review of consecutive ED-ordered CTPA using standard radiology reports. ED CTPA report data were inputted onto preformatted data-sheets. The primary outcome was site level yield, analysed both intra-site and against a nominated 15.3% yield. Factors potentially associated with yield were assessed for correlation. Results Fourteen radiology departments (15 ED) provided 7077 CTPA data (94% ≥64-slice CT); PE were reported in 1028 (yield 14.6% (95%CI 13.8–15.4%; range 9.3–25.3%; site variation p <0.0001) with four sites significantly below and one above the 15.3% target. Admissions, CTPA usage, PE diagnosis rates and size of PE were uncorrelated with yield. Large PE (≥lobar) were 55% (CI: 52.1–58.2%) and SSPE 8.8% (CI: 7.1–10.5%) of positive scans. CTPA usage (0.2–1.5% adult attendances) was correlated (p<0.006) with PE diagnosis but not SSPE: large PE proportions. Discussion/ Conclusions We found significant intra-site CTPA yield variation within Australasia. Yield was not clearly correlated with CTPA usage or increased small PE rates. Both SSPE and large PE rates were similar to higher yield historical cohorts. CTPA use was considerably below USA 2.5–3% rates. Higher CTPA utilisation was positively correlated with PE diagnoses, but without evidence of increased proportions

  20. Gamma radiation induced degradation in PE-PP block copolymer

    SciTech Connect

    Ravi, H. R.; Sreepad, H. R.; Ahmed, Khaleel; Govindaiah, T. N.

    2012-06-05

    In the present investigation, effect of gamma irradiation on the PP-PE block copolymer has been studied. The polymer has been subjected to gamma irradiation from 100 to 500 Mrad dosages. Characterization of the polymer using XRD and FTIR was done both before irradiation and after irradiation in each step. Effect of irradiation on the electrical properties of the material has also been studied. FTIR study shows that the sample loses C - C stretching mode of vibration but gains C=C stretching mode of vibration after irradiation. Present investigation clearly indicates that though the electrical conductivity increases in the material, it undergoes degradation and shows brittleness due to irradiation.

  1. Combustion of PMMA, PE, and PS in a ramjet

    SciTech Connect

    van der Geld, C.W.M. ); Korting, P.A.O.G. ); Wijchers, T. )

    1990-03-01

    This paper reports the combustion behavior of polymethylmetharcrylate (PMMA), polyethylene (PE), and polystyrene (PS) with air investigated in a connected pipe test facility; spectroscopy showed the presence of OH, C{sub 2}, and CH and temperatures between 1300 and 3000 K during combustion. Particular attention was focused on regression rate and combustion efficiency and the role of temperature and soot production. The present investigation gives an understanding of the most important phenomena that control (or emanate from) the combustion of a cylindrical solid fuel with a rearward facing step, and this has application for solid fuel ramjets, the safe burning of toxic waste, and hot gas generators. The results are summarized.

  2. "We Should Assess the Students in More Authentic Situations": Swedish PE Teacher Educators' Views of the Meaning of Movement Skills for Future PE Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Backman, Erik; Pearson, Phil

    2016-01-01

    The question of what knowledge a student of Physical Education (PE) needs to develop during PE teacher education (PETE) was recently discussed. One form of knowledge is the movement practices that students must meet during their education. Given the limited time, a delicate matter is whether to prioritize movement knowledge and consider it as…

  3. Caño Martín Peña (Martín Peña Channel, Puerto Rico)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Martín Peña Channel Urban Waters Federal Partnership seeks to make significant contributions to the health and welfare of the eight communities that surround the Martín Peña Channel in San Juan, Puerto Rico.

  4. "We Should Assess the Students in More Authentic Situations": Swedish PE Teacher Educators' Views of the Meaning of Movement Skills for Future PE Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Backman, Erik; Pearson, Phil

    2016-01-01

    The question of what knowledge a student of Physical Education (PE) needs to develop during PE teacher education (PETE) was recently discussed. One form of knowledge is the movement practices that students must meet during their education. Given the limited time, a delicate matter is whether to prioritize movement knowledge and consider it as…

  5. Cosmic ray anisotropies to 5 PeV

    SciTech Connect

    Erlykin, A. D.; Wolfendale, A. W. E-mail: a.w.wolfendale@durham.ac.uk

    2013-04-01

    Several large cosmic ray (CR) detectors have recently provided data on the arrival directions of CR, which taken together with previous data recorded over many decades allow the amplitude and phase of the first harmonic to be derived with reasonable precision and up to higher energies. We find a high degree of consistency amongst the various measurements. The new data indicate that at an energy above ∼ 0.1 PeV a change of the CR anisotropy sets in. The amplitude of the first harmonic, which rises to 3 TeV, then diminishes and begins to rise again. The direction of the phase also changes to the opposite one. A measure of understanding follows from the use of two-dimensional maps of cosmic ray excesses over the mean background. When the energy of cosmic rays approaches the PeV region, the excess of cosmic rays moves from the Galactic Anti-Centre to the opposite direction of the Galactic Centre. The possible role of such potential cosmic ray sources as the supernovae Monogem Ring and Vela, which could help to explain some of the observed results, is discussed.

  6. Copper nanoparticles functionalized PE: Preparation, characterization and magnetic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reznickova, A.; Orendac, M.; Kolska, Z.; Cizmar, E.; Dendisova, M.; Svorcik, V.

    2016-12-01

    We report grafting of copper nanoparticles (CuNP) on plasma activated high density polyethylene (HDPE) via dithiol interlayer pointing out to the structural and magnetic properties of those composites. The as-synthesized Cu nanoparticles have been characterized by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM/TEM) and UV-vis spectroscopy. Properties of pristine PE and their plasma treated counterparts were studied by different experimental techniques: X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV-vis spectroscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), zeta potential, electron spin resonance (ESR) and SQUID magnetometry. From TEM and HRTEM analyses, it is found that the size of high purity Cu nanoparticles is (12.2 ± 5.2) nm. It was determined that in the CuNPs, the copper atoms are arranged mostly in the (111) and (200) planes. Absorption in UV-vis region by these nanoparticles is ranging from 570 to 670 nm. EDS revealed that after 1 h of grafting are Cu nanoparticles homogeneously distributed over the whole surface and after 24 h of grafting Cu nanoparticles tend to aggregate slightly. The combined investigation of magnetic properties using ESR spectrometry and SQUID magnetometry confirmed the presence of copper nanoparticles anchored on PE substrate and indicated ferromagnetic interactions.

  7. New software forecasts service life and integrity of PE piping

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhlman, C.J.; Kanninen, M.F.; Mamoun, M.M.

    1995-04-01

    New software from the Gas Research Institute (GRI) is especially useful to local distribution companies (LDCs) who have older plastic gas pipe installations and are in warmer climates. The new software, LIFESPAN, enables these companies to predict pipe lifetimes and plan for long range replacement programs. LIFESPAN also is useful for assessing the operational benefits by changing scenarios, such as: what will the pipe lifetime be if pressure is increased (or reduced) by 25%? In addition to its ability to forecast the longterm performance of polyethylene (PE) gas pipe materials by using data from short-term, laboratory-based slow crack growth (SCG) tests, LIFESPAN also can evaluate existing piping systems. Also, it can be used to design new systems, select PE gas piping materials in a cost effective manner for specific operating conditions, and improve inspection and maintenance operations. With information from LIFESPAN, pipe replacements, repairs, or rehabilitation can be done in a scheduled manner for effective use of manpower and equipment resources.

  8. TG/FTIR analysis on co-pyrolysis behavior of PE, PVC and PS.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jingli; Chen, Tianju; Luo, Xitao; Han, Dezhi; Wang, Zhiqi; Wu, Jinhu

    2014-03-01

    The pyrolysis and co-pyrolysis behaviors of polyethylene (PE), polystyrene (PS) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) under N2 atmosphere were analyzed by Thermal gravimetric/Fourier transform infrared (TG/FTIR). The volatile products were analyzed to investigate the interaction of the plastic blends during the thermal decomposition process. The TGA results showed that the thermal stability increased followed by PVC, PS and PE. The pyrolysis process of PE was enhanced when mixed with PS. However, PS was postponed when mixed with PVC. As for PE and PVC, mutual block was happened when mixed together. The FTIR results showed that the free radical of the decomposition could combine into a stable compound. When PE mixed with PVC or PS, large amount of unsaturated hydrocarbon groups existed in products while the content of alkynes was decreased. The methyl (-CH3) and methylene (-CH2-) bonds were disappeared while PVC mixed with PE.

  9. Classification of principal connections on W{sup r}PE

    SciTech Connect

    Vondra, Jan

    2008-11-18

    We assume a vector bundle E{yields}M and the principal bundle PE of frames of E. Let K be a general linear connection on E and let {lambda} be a linear connection on M. We classify all connections on W{sup r}PE = P{sup r}Mx{sub M}J{sup r}PE naturally given by K and {lambda}.

  10. Modulation of the Activity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis LipY by Its PE Domain

    PubMed Central

    Garrett, Christopher K.; Broadwell, Lindsey J.; Hayne, Cassandra K.; Neher, Saskia B.

    2015-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis harbors over 160 genes encoding PE/PPE proteins, several of which have roles in the pathogen’s virulence. A number of PE/PPE proteins are secreted via Type VII secretion systems known as the ESX secretion systems. One PE protein, LipY, has a triglyceride lipase domain in addition to its PE domain. LipY can regulate intracellular triglyceride levels and is also exported to the cell wall by one of the ESX family members, ESX-5. Upon export, LipY’s PE domain is removed by proteolytic cleavage. Studies using cells and crude extracts suggest that LipY’s PE domain not only directs its secretion by ESX-5, but also functions to inhibit its enzymatic activity. Here, we attempt to further elucidate the role of LipY’s PE domain in the regulation of its enzymatic activity. First, we established an improved purification method for several LipY variants using detergent micelles. We then used enzymatic assays to confirm that the PE domain down-regulates LipY activity. The PE domain must be attached to LipY in order to effectively inhibit it. Finally, we determined that full length LipY and the mature lipase lacking the PE domain (LipYΔPE) have similar melting temperatures. Based on our improved purification strategy and activity-based approach, we concluded that LipY’s PE domain down-regulates its enzymatic activity but does not impact the thermal stability of the enzyme. PMID:26270534

  11. But I Like PE: Factors Associated With Enjoyment of Physical Education Class in Middle School Girls

    PubMed Central

    Barr-Anderson, Daheia J.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Schmitz, Kathryn H.; Ward, Dianne S.; Conway, Terry L.; Pratt, Charlotte; Baggett, Chris D.; Lytle, Leslie; Pate, Russell R.

    2008-01-01

    The current study examined associations between physical education (PE) class enjoyment and sociodemographic, personal, and perceived school environment factors among early adolescent girls. Participants included 1,511 sixth-grade girls who completed baseline assessments for the Trial of Activity in Adolescent Girls, with 50% indicating they enjoyed PE class a lot. Variables positively associated with PE class enjoyment included physical activity level, perceived benefits of physical activity, self-efficacy for leisure time physical activity, and perceived school climate for girls' physical activity as influenced by teachers, while body mass index was inversely associated with PE class enjoyment. After adjusting for all variables in the model, PE class enjoyment was significantly greater in Blacks than in Whites. In model testing, with mutual adjustment for all variables, self-efficacy was the strongest correlate of PE class enjoyment, followed by perceived benefits, race/ethnicity, and teacher's support for girls' physical activity, as compared to boys, at school. The overall model explained 11% of the variance in PE class enjoyment. Findings suggest that efforts to enhance girls' self-efficacy and perceived benefits and to provide a supportive PE class environment that promotes gender equality can potentially increase PE class enjoyment among young girls. PMID:18431947

  12. But I like PE: factors associated with enjoyment of physical education class in middle school girls.

    PubMed

    Barr-Anderson, Daheia J; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Schmitz, Kathryn H; Ward, Dianne S; Conway, Terry L; Pratt, Charlotte; Baggett, Chris D; Lytle, Leslie; Pate, Russell R

    2008-03-01

    The current study examined associations between physical education (PE) class enjoyment and sociodemographic, personal, and perceived school environment factors among early adolescent girls. Participants included 1,511 sixth-grade girls who completed baseline assessments for the Trial of Activity in Adolescent Girls, with 50% indicating they enjoyed PE class a lot. Variables positively associated with PE class enjoyment included physical activity level, perceived benefits of physical activity, self-efficacy for leisure time physical activity, and perceived school climate for girls' physical activity as influenced by teachers, while body mass index was inversely associated with PE class enjoyment. After adjusting for all variables in the model, PE class enjoyment was significantly greater in Blacks than in Whites. In model testing, with mutual adjustment for all variables, self-efficacy was the strongest correlate of PE class enjoyment, followed by perceived benefits, race/ethnicity, and teachers' support for girls' physical activity, as compared to boys, at school. The overall model explained 11% of the variance in PE class enjoyment. Findings suggest that efforts to enhance girls' self-efficacy and perceived benefits and to provide a supportive PE class environment that promotes gender equality can potentially increase PE class enjoyment among young girls.

  13. ToF-SIMS imaging of PE/PP polymer using multivariate analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyasaka, Toyomitsu; Ikemoto, Takashi; Kohno, Teiichiro

    2008-12-01

    The distribution of polyethylene (PE) and polypropylene (PP) in PE/PP blended-polymer film was determined by applying principal components analysis (PCA) and multivariate curve resolution (MCR) to time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy (ToF-SIMS) imaging, together with preprocessing by pixel binning, normalization, and autoscaling to increase image contrast by reducing topographic and charge-distribution effects. The PE/PP distribution was confirmed by MVA conducted on the image data over static limit. The MCR score with normalized-autoscaling was found to give the PE/PP distribution distinctly.

  14. PE_PGRS30 is required for the full virulence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Iantomasi, Raffaella; Sali, Michela; Cascioferro, Alessandro; Palucci, Ivana; Zumbo, Antonella; Soldini, Silvia; Rocca, Stefano; Greco, Emanuela; Maulucci, Giuseppe; De Spirito, Marco; Fraziano, Maurizio; Fadda, Giovanni; Manganelli, Riccardo; Delogu, Giovanni

    2012-03-01

    The role and function of PE_PGRS proteins of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) remains elusive. In this study for the first time, Mtb isogenic mutants missing selected PE_PGRSs were used to investigate their role in the pathogenesis of tuberculosis (TB). We demonstrate that the MtbΔPE_PGRS30 mutant was impaired in its ability to colonize lung tissue and to cause tissue damage, specifically during the chronic steps of infection. Inactivation of PE_PGRS30 resulted in an attenuated phenotype in murine and human macrophages due to the inability of the Mtb mutant to inhibit phagosome-lysosome fusion. Using a series of functional deletion mutants of PE_PGRS30 to complement MtbΔPE_PGRS30, we show that the unique C-terminal domain of the protein is not required for the full virulence. Interestingly, when Mycobacterium smegmatis recombinant strain expressing PE_PGRS30 was used to infect macrophages or mice in vivo, we observed enhanced cytotoxicity and cell death, and this effect was dependent upon the PGRS domain of the protein.Taken together these results indicate that PE_PGRS30 is necessary for the full virulence of Mtb and sufficient to induce cell death in host cells by the otherwise non-pathogenic species M. smegmatis, clearly demonstrating that PE_PGRS30 is an Mtb virulence factor.

  15. PE_PGRS33 Contributes to Mycobacterium tuberculosis Entry in Macrophages through Interaction with TLR2.

    PubMed

    Palucci, Ivana; Camassa, Serena; Cascioferro, Alessandro; Sali, Michela; Anoosheh, Saber; Zumbo, Antonella; Minerva, Mariachiara; Iantomasi, Raffaella; De Maio, Flavio; Di Sante, Gabriele; Ria, Francesco; Sanguinetti, Maurizio; Palù, Giorgio; Brennan, Michael J; Manganelli, Riccardo; Delogu, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    PE_PGRS represent a large family of proteins typical of pathogenic mycobacteria whose members are characterized by an N-terminal PE domain followed by a large Gly-Ala repeat-rich C-terminal domain. Despite the abundance of PE_PGRS-coding genes in the Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) genome their role and function in the biology and pathogenesis still remains elusive. In this study, we generated and characterized an Mtb H37Rv mutant (MtbΔ33) in which the structural gene of PE_PGRS33, a prototypical member of the protein family, was inactivated. We showed that this mutant entered macrophages with an efficiency up to ten times lower than parental or complemented strains, while its efficiency in infecting pneumocytes remained unaffected. Interestingly, the lack of PE_PGRS33 did not affect the intracellular growth of this mutant in macrophages. Using a series of functional deletion mutants of the PE_PGRS33 gene to complement the MtbΔ33 strain, we demonstrated that the PGRS domain is required to mediate cell entry into macrophages, with the key domain encompassing position 140-260 amino acids of PE_PGRS33. PE_PGRS33-mediated entry into macrophages was abolished in TLR2-deficient mice, as well as following treatment with wortmannin or an antibody against the complement receptor 3 (CR3), indicating that PE_PGRS33-mediated entry of Mtb in macrophages occurs through interaction with TLR2.

  16. Functional conservation of the sex-lethal sex determining promoter, Sxl-Pe, in Drosophila virilis.

    PubMed

    Jinks, Timothy Morgan; Calhoun, Gretchen; Schedl, Paul

    2003-05-01

    The primary sex determination signal in Drosophila melanogaster, the ratio of X chromosomes to autosomes, sets the activity state of the switch gene, Sex-lethal ( Sxl), by regulating the establishment promoter, m-Sxl-Pe. We have identified and characterized the establishment promoter, v-Sxl-Pe, of the distantly related species Drosophila virilis. Like melanogaster, the virilis Sxl-Pe is organized into four sub-domains: the Sxl-Pe mRNA leader and exon E1 of Sxl protein, the core promoter, the sex-specific element and the augmentation element. The core promoter and sex-specific element of v-Sxl-Pe show considerable sequence similarity to m-Sxl-Pe and contain target sites for components of the X/A signaling system. While the augmentation element of v-Sxl-Pe also has sequence motifs that could function as target sites for the X/A signaling system, it shows little similarity to the melanogaster augmentation element. Functional studies reveal that v-Sxl-Pe drives sex-specific expression in D. melanogaster embryos and that the activity of the virilis promoter is controlled by known components of the melanogaster X/A counting system. Although v-Sxl-Pe responds appropriately to the melanogaster sex determination signal, it is less active than Sxl-Pe from melanogaster. Unexpectedly, the reduced activity is due to differences in the activity of the conserved core promoter, while the non-conserved augmentation element functions effectively. These findings suggest that low-affinity target sites for the X/A counting system are critical for the functioning of Sxl-Pe.

  17. PE_PGRS30 of Mycobacterium tuberculosis mediates suppression of proinflammatory immune response in macrophages through its PGRS and PE domains.

    PubMed

    Chatrath, Shweta; Gupta, Vineet Kumar; Dixit, Aparna; Garg, Lalit C

    2016-09-01

    The success of Mycobacterium tuberculosis as a pathogen relies on its ability to survive inside macrophages and evade host immune mechanisms. M. tuberculosis employs multiple strategies to confer resistance against immune system including inhibition of phago-lysosomal fusion, modulation of cytokine responses and granuloma formation. PE_PGRS proteins, uniquely present in pathogenic mycobacteria, are cell surface molecules that are suggested to interact with host cells. PE_PGRS proteins have also been implicated in its pathogenesis. In the present study, immuno-regulatory property of Rv1651c-encoded PE_PGRS30 protein was explored. Infection of PMA-differentiated human THP-1 macrophages with Mycobacterium smegmatis harbouring pVV(1651c) resulted in reduced production of IL-12, TNF-α and IL-6, as compared to infection with M. smegmatis harbouring the control plasmid pVV16. No differential effect was observed on bacterial persistence inside macrophages or on macrophage mortality upon infection with the two recombinant strains. Infection of THP-1 macrophages with recombinant M. smegmatis expressing deletion variants of PE_PGRS30 indicated that anti-inflammatory function of the protein is possessed by its PGRS and PE domains while the C-terminal domain, when expressed alone, displayed antagonistic effect in terms of TNF-α secretion. These results suggest that PE_PGRS30 interferes with macrophage immune functions important for activation of adaptive T-cell responses.

  18. The Swedish Sports Movement and the PE Teacher 1940-2003: From Supporter to Challenger

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olofsson, Eva

    2007-01-01

    The Swedish Sports Confederation (RF) used to be the foremost advocate and defender of physical education (PE) as a subject and the work of PE teachers. This paper deals with the way in which this support manifested itself during 1940-2003 and is based on a discourse analysis of texts from RF. The analysis shows that RF has assigned three…

  19. Impact of ICT and PE on Disaffected Pupils: Interim Report March 2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mostert, Andre; Needham, Richard

    2004-01-01

    Over a three month period in spring 2004, The British Association of Advisers and Lecturers in Physical Education (BAALPE) and New Media (a PLATO Learning Company) researched and evaluated models for harnessing ICT in physical education (PE). The project developed a unique ICT infrastructure for two PE departments to evaluate the impact of ICT on…

  20. Related Critical Psychometric Issues and Their Resolutions during Development of PE Metrics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Connie; Zhu, Weimo; Park, Youngsik; Fisette, Jennifer L.; Graber, Kim C.; Dyson, Ben; Avery, Marybell; Franck, Marian; Placek, Judith H.; Rink, Judy; Raynes, De

    2011-01-01

    In addition to validity and reliability evidence, other psychometric qualities of the PE Metrics assessments needed to be examined. This article describes how those critical psychometric issues were addressed during the PE Metrics assessment bank construction. Specifically, issues included (a) number of items or assessments needed, (b) training…

  1. Whole-School Management Issues Concerning the PE Department: "A Natural Division of Labour?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Gareth Mark; Williams, Dean

    2013-01-01

    Utilising the labour ideas of Adam Smith and Emile Durkheim as a theoretical basis, the main objective of this study was to investigate the perception that Heads of Physical Education (HoPE) face unique management and leadership challenges. Results showed that HoPE believe that they are overburdened with tasks primarily involving the delegation of…

  2. Use of Mobile Testing System PeLe for Developing Language Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Titova, Svetlana

    2015-01-01

    One of the objectives of this paper is to investigate the pedagogical impact of both the mobile testing system PeLe (Norway, HiST) and the enquiry-based learning approach on language skills development in the context of mobile-assisted learning. The research aims to work out a methodological framework of PeLe implementation into the language…

  3. "Really on the Ball": Exploring the Implications of Teachers' PE-CPD Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliot, Dely L.; Campbell, Theresa

    2015-01-01

    Continuing professional development (CPD) is currently high on the Scottish Education agenda. Recent curriculum reform in Scotland, with the introduction of Curriculum for Excellence, places physical education (PE) at the forefront for its role in directly supporting learners' mental, emotional, social and physical well-being. This emphasis on PE,…

  4. Physical Activity during Physical Education Lessons: A Qualitative Investigation of Australian PE Teacher Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennie, Andrew; Langan, Edel

    2015-01-01

    School physical education (PE) experiences play a critical role in adolescents' physical activity (PA) levels. Teachers are crucial to students' initial experiences in PA; however, limited research has explored teachers' perspectives about PA during PE using in-depth qualitative research techniques. We conducted interviews with 25 current…

  5. synthesis of novel four armed PE-PCL grafted superparamagnetic and biocompatible nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Panja, Sudipta; Saha, Biswajit; Ghosh, S K; Chattopadhyay, Santanu

    2013-10-08

    Novel biocompatible polymer immobilized superparamagnetic nanoparticles (MNP) are prepared by grafting four armed pentaerythritol poly(ε-polycaprolactone) (PE-PCL) onto silane modified MNP. The MNPs are synthesized by hydrothermal process and its modification using (3-aminopropyl)trimethoxysilane (TMAS) coating is done by the sol-gel technique. The pentaerythritol (PE) initiated ring-opening polymerization (ROP) is carried out to prepare four armed PE-PCL. The reaction is shown to follow first order kinetics. The structure of PE-PCL is confirmed by NMR spectrum and MALDI-TOF analysis. The in situ grafting of PE-PCL onto modified MNP has been carried out by using 4,4'-methylenediphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) as an intermediate linker. The grafting density as determined by TGA analysis has been found to be significantly higher than previously reported linear PCL grafted MNPs in the literature. This leads to uniform dispersion of grafted MNPs which still is a challenging task in contemporary research. The effective dispersion of MNP into PE-PCL matrix is analyzed by HRTEM. The saturation magnetization of the PE-PCL grafted MNPs is significantly high and this can be tailored further by varying the grafting density. The biocompatibility of polymer grafted nanoparticles is confirmed by MTT assay using HeLa cell line. The superparamagnetic and biocompatible novel PE-PCL grafted MNP so prepared would have manifold potential applications including in therapy and targeted drug delivery.

  6. Related Critical Psychometric Issues and Their Resolutions during Development of PE Metrics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Connie; Zhu, Weimo; Park, Youngsik; Fisette, Jennifer L.; Graber, Kim C.; Dyson, Ben; Avery, Marybell; Franck, Marian; Placek, Judith H.; Rink, Judy; Raynes, De

    2011-01-01

    In addition to validity and reliability evidence, other psychometric qualities of the PE Metrics assessments needed to be examined. This article describes how those critical psychometric issues were addressed during the PE Metrics assessment bank construction. Specifically, issues included (a) number of items or assessments needed, (b) training…

  7. Development and antilisterial activity of PE-based biological preservative films incorporating plantaricin BM-1.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Min; Gao, Xiuzhi; Zhang, Hongxing; Liu, Hui; Jin, Junhua; Yang, Wenge; Xie, Yuanhong

    2017-04-01

    In recent years, bacteriocin, as a natural antimicrobial compound, provides enormous promise to be used in food safety preservation. In this work, the polyethylene(PE)-based biological preservative films incorporating plantaricin BM-1, a typical IIa bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus plantarum BM-1, were developed and characterized. The results showed that PE, low-density PE (LDPE) and high-density PE (HDPE) films soaked in plantaricin BM-1 solution had obvious antimicrobial activities against Listeria monocytogenes. And the volume of plantaricin BM-1 solution absorbed by PE, LDPE and HDPE films continued to increase and reached the maximum during exposure for up to 10, 6 and 16 h, respectively. And the maximum absorption volumes of plantaricin BM-1 solution had no significant difference (P > 0.05) between the PE, LDPE and HDPE films. When soaking in water, the release amount of plantaricin BM-1 from active PE, LDPE and HDPE films reached the maximum potency at 16, 12 and 20 h, respectively. And the maximum release amount of plantaricin BM-1 from PE and LDPE active films was dramatically more than the HDPE active film (P < 0.05). Moreover, the inhibitory effect of active films incorporating plantaricin BM-1 maintained stability for at least 120 days against L. monocytogenes stored at 25°C, which suggest a potential application of the biological preservative films on the control of foodborne pathogen L. monocytogenes. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Impact of ICT and PE on Disaffected Pupils: Interim Report March 2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mostert, Andre; Needham, Richard

    2004-01-01

    Over a three month period in spring 2004, The British Association of Advisers and Lecturers in Physical Education (BAALPE) and New Media (a PLATO Learning Company) researched and evaluated models for harnessing ICT in physical education (PE). The project developed a unique ICT infrastructure for two PE departments to evaluate the impact of ICT on…

  9. 78 FR 13401 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Form 8453-PE

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-27

    ... Internal Revenue Service Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Form 8453-PE AGENCY: Internal Revenue...(c)(2)(A)). Currently, the IRS is soliciting comments concerning Form 8453-PE, U.S. Partnership...., Washington, DC 20224, or through the Internet at Katherine.b.dean@irs.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION:...

  10. 75 FR 5868 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Form 8453-PE

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-04

    ... Internal Revenue Service Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Form 8453-PE AGENCY: Internal Revenue...(c)(2)(A)). Currently, the IRS is soliciting comments concerning Form 8453-PE, U.S. Partnership...., Washington, DC 20224, or through the Internet at Dawn.E.Bidne@irs.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title:...

  11. 75 FR 28325 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Form 8879-PE

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-20

    ... Internal Revenue Service Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Form 8879-PE AGENCY: Internal Revenue...(c)(2)(A)). Currently, the IRS is soliciting comments concerning Form 8879-PE, IRS e-file Signature..., DC 20224, or through the Internet at Joel.P.Goldberger@irs.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION:...

  12. Pedagogies for Inclusion of Junior Primary Students with Disabilities in PE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Overton, Hannah; Wrench, Alison; Garrett, Robyne

    2017-01-01

    Background: Laws and legislation have prompted movement from special education towards inclusive education, whereby students with disabilities are included in mainstream physical education (PE) classes. It is widely acknowledged that including students with disabilities in PE presents significant challenges in relation to meeting the diverse needs…

  13. Physical Activity during Physical Education Lessons: A Qualitative Investigation of Australian PE Teacher Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennie, Andrew; Langan, Edel

    2015-01-01

    School physical education (PE) experiences play a critical role in adolescents' physical activity (PA) levels. Teachers are crucial to students' initial experiences in PA; however, limited research has explored teachers' perspectives about PA during PE using in-depth qualitative research techniques. We conducted interviews with 25 current…

  14. Whole-School Management Issues Concerning the PE Department: "A Natural Division of Labour?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Gareth Mark; Williams, Dean

    2013-01-01

    Utilising the labour ideas of Adam Smith and Emile Durkheim as a theoretical basis, the main objective of this study was to investigate the perception that Heads of Physical Education (HoPE) face unique management and leadership challenges. Results showed that HoPE believe that they are overburdened with tasks primarily involving the delegation of…

  15. Swedish PE Teachers' Understandings of Legitimate Movement in a Criterion-Referenced Grading System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svennberg, Lena

    2017-01-01

    Background: Physical Education (PE) has been associated with a multi-activity model in which movement is related to sport discourses and sport techniques. However, as in many international contexts, the Swedish national PE syllabus calls for a wider and more inclusive concept of movement. Complex movement adapted to different settings is valued,…

  16. The Swedish Sports Movement and the PE Teacher 1940-2003: From Supporter to Challenger

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olofsson, Eva

    2007-01-01

    The Swedish Sports Confederation (RF) used to be the foremost advocate and defender of physical education (PE) as a subject and the work of PE teachers. This paper deals with the way in which this support manifested itself during 1940-2003 and is based on a discourse analysis of texts from RF. The analysis shows that RF has assigned three…

  17. Passive PE Sampling in Support of In Situ Remediation of Contaminated Sediments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-01

    water, detergent), Nitrile gloves, aluminum foil, plastic sheeting, rope, paper towels , garbage bags, bubble wrap, Ziplock bags, and ice. • Non...sample bottles, ice for samples, and paper towels , while PE sampling equipment would include a roll of sink rope, the assembled PE samplers, and the

  18. "Really on the Ball": Exploring the Implications of Teachers' PE-CPD Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliot, Dely L.; Campbell, Theresa

    2015-01-01

    Continuing professional development (CPD) is currently high on the Scottish Education agenda. Recent curriculum reform in Scotland, with the introduction of Curriculum for Excellence, places physical education (PE) at the forefront for its role in directly supporting learners' mental, emotional, social and physical well-being. This emphasis on PE,…

  19. Scintigraphic Evidence for Overdiagnosis of Small PE on CT Pulmonary Angiography.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yang

    2017-03-01

    A 68-year-old man with recent history of a fall presented with dyspnea on exertion, and underwent computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA) for possible pulmonary embolism (PE). The CTPA was first read by the radiology resident as nondiagnostic for segmental PE. Subsequent planar perfusion (Q) images were normal; meanwhile, the attending radiologist revised the CTPA results as subsegmental PE in the left upper lobe. Further Q-SPECT images were obtained and fused with CTPA for clarification, which showed normal perfusion in the region of PE. The patient was monitored without anticoagulation treatment and remained uneventful for 12 months. This case illustrates that CTPA can lead to overdiagnosis and overtreatment of nonocclusive subsegmental PE.

  20. Guidelines for installing PE gas pipes using HDD

    SciTech Connect

    Popelar, C.H.; Kuhlman, C.J.

    1997-06-01

    Horizontal directional drilling (HDD) represents an alternative to the traditional trench cut and cover method, and offers substantial savings for installing polyethylene (PE) pipes in heavily developed urban areas, beneath obstacles such as roads, railways, rivers, etc., and under environmentally sensitive areas where trenching might otherwise be prohibited. This method is ideally suited for soft subsoils such as clay and compacted sand. Subgrade soils consisting of large grain materials (e.g., gravel and cobble), rock, and buried debris make it more difficult to use HDD and may contribute to damage of the pipe and drilling equipment. HDD may represent a cost-effective alternative to pipe splitting and bursting, as well as slip lining, modified slip lining, and soft lining renewal techniques. The installation of a pipe using HDD is typically a two-stage process. First, a small-diameter pilot hole is directionally drilled from an entrance pit to an exit pit along a predetermined path. The thrust and pull-back capabilities of the drilling rig, amount of available drill rod, drill path contour, mud mix and other factors typically limit the distance between pits to about 500 feet. The pilot hole is then enlarged by reaming prior to pulling-in the pipe. This operation usually consists of backreaming from the exit pit to the entrance pit while at the same time pulling the pipe into the enlarged hole.

  1. Low energy probes of PeV scale sfermions

    SciTech Connect

    Altmannshofer, Wolfgang; Harnik, Roni; Zupan, Jure

    2013-11-27

    We derive bounds on squark and slepton masses in mini-split supersymmetry scenario using low energy experiments. In this setup gauginos are at the TeV scale, while sfermions are heavier by a loop factor. We cover the most sensitive low energy probes including electric dipole moments (EDMs), meson oscillations and charged lepton flavor violation (LFV) transitions. A leading log resummation of the large logs of gluino to sfermion mass ratio is performed. A sensitivity to PeV squark masses is obtained at present from kaon mixing measurements. A number of observables, including neutron EDMs, mu->e transitions and charmed meson mixing, will start probing sfermion masses in the 100 TeV-1000 TeV range with the projected improvements in the experimental sensitivities. We also discuss the implications of our results for a variety of models that address the flavor hierarchy of quarks and leptons. We find that EDM searches will be a robust probe of models in which fermion masses are generated radiatively, while LFV searches remain sensitive to simple-texture based flavor models.

  2. PE-11, a peptide derived from chromogranin B, in the rat eye.

    PubMed

    Lorenz, Katrin; Troger, Josef; Gramlich, Oliver; Grus, Franz; Hattmannstorfer, Rosa; Fischer-Colbrie, Reiner; Joachim, Stephanie; Schmid, Eduard; Teuchner, Barbara; Haas, Gertrud; Bechrakis, Nikolaos

    2011-06-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the presence and distribution of PE-11, a peptide derived from chromogranin B, in the rat eye. For this purpose, newborn rats were injected with a single dosage of 50mg/kg capsaicin subcutaneously under the neck fold and after three months, particular eye tissues were dissected and the concentration of PE-11-like immunoreactivity was determined by radioimmunoassay. Furthermore, PE-11-like immunoreactivities were characterized in an extract of the rat eye by reversed phase HPLC. Then, the distribution pattern of PE-11 was investigated in the rat eye and rat trigeminal ganglion by immunofluorescence. As a result, PE-11 was present in each tissue of the rat eye and capsaicin pretreatment led to a 88.05% (±7.07) and a 64.26% (±14.17) decrease of the levels of PE-11 in the cornea and choroid/sclera, respectively, and to a complete loss in the iris/ciliary body complex. Approximately 70% of immunoreactivities detected by the PE-11 antiserum have been found to represent authentic PE-11. Sparse nerve fibers were visualized in the corneal and uveal stroma, surrounding blood vessels at the limbus, ciliary body and choroid and in association with the dilator and sphincter muscle. Furthermore, immunoreactivity was present in the corneal endothelium. In the retina and optic nerve, glia was labeled. In the rat trigeminal ganglion, PE-11-immunoreactivity was visualized in small and medium sized ganglion cells with a diameter of up to 30μm. In conclusion, there is unequivocal evidence that PE-11 is a constituent of capsaicin-sensitive sensory neurons innervating the rat eye and the distribution pattern is typically peptidergic in the peripheral innervation but in the retina completely atypical for neuropeptides and unique.

  3. [Cloning and functional analysis of Phyllostachys edulis MYB transcription factor PeMYB2].

    PubMed

    Xiao, Dong-Chang; Zhang, Zhi-Jun; Xu, Ying-Wu; Yang, Li; Zhang, Feng-Xue; Wang, Chao-Li

    2013-10-01

    MYB-type transcription factor is one of the largest families in plants, which plays important roles in accepting stress signals from environment and regulating the expression of stress-tolerant genes. In this paper, using homologous cloning and RACE technology, a MYB-type transcription factor, designated PeMYB2, was cloned from Phyllostachys edulis. The results of bioinformatics showed that PeMYB2 is a typical R2R3-MYB. It contained two tandem repeats in its N-terminus, and a membrane protein DUF3651 in its C-terminus. In addition, phylogenetic analysis indicated that PeMYB2 shared the highest homology with 85.98% to OsMYB18 protein from Oryza sativa spp. Japonica. In addition, a yeast one-hybrid assay showed that PeMYB2 could activate the expression of downstream genes. After PeMYB2 was transformed into Arabidopsis thaliana, seven PeMYB2 transgenic Arabidopsis lines were obtained. Phenotypic analysis of the transgenic and wild-type Arabidopsis showed that over-expression of PeMYB2 caused delayed flower or dwarfism in transgenic Arabidopsis. Under the abiotic stress conditions, such as salt and cold stresses, the over-expression of PeMYB2 in Arabidopsis had higher survival rate than the wild-type Arabidopsis. Expression analysis of saline stress response marker genes in the transgenic and wild-type plants under the salt stress condition showed that PeMYB2 regulated the expression of NXH1, SOS1, RD29A, and COR15A. As the result, PeMYB2 might play an important role in various responses to abiotic stresses in P. edulis.

  4. The PGRS domain is responsible for translocation of PE_PGRS30 to cell poles while the PE and the C-terminal domains localize it to the cell wall.

    PubMed

    Chatrath, Shweta; Gupta, Vineet Kumar; Garg, Lalit C

    2014-03-18

    PE_PGRS proteins localize in the mycobacterial cell wall and the cell wall localization of PE_PGRS33 has been shown to be attributed to its PE domain. In this study, we expressed deletion mutants of PE_PGRS30 in Mycobacterium smegmatis to characterize the role of its domains in protein localization. It was revealed that, apart from the PE domain, the C-terminal domain present in few PE_PGRS proteins carries individual cell wall localization signals. Proteinase K sensitivity assay showed that PE_PGRS30 is exposed on the mycobacterial surface through its PGRS domain. PGRS domain was also shown to be responsible for polar localization of PE_PGRS30.

  5. Phylogeny to function: PE/PPE protein evolution and impact on Mycobacterium tuberculosis pathogenicity.

    PubMed

    Fishbein, S; van Wyk, N; Warren, R M; Sampson, S L

    2015-06-01

    The pe/ppe genes represent one of the most intriguing aspects of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis genome. These genes are especially abundant in pathogenic mycobacteria, with more than 160 members in M. tuberculosis. Despite being discovered over 15 years ago, their function remains unclear, although various lines of evidence implicate selected family members in mycobacterial virulence. In this review, we use PE/PPE phylogeny as a framework within which we examine the diversity and putative functions of these proteins. We report on the evolution and diversity of the respective gene families, as well as the implications thereof for function and host immune recognition. We summarize recent findings on pe/ppe gene regulation, also placing this in the context of PE/PPE phylogeny. We collate data from several large proteomics datasets, providing an overview of PE/PPE localization, and discuss the implications this may have for host responses. Assessment of the current knowledge of PE/PPE diversity suggests that these proteins are not variable antigens as has been so widely speculated; however, they do clearly play important roles in virulence. Viewing the growing body of pe/ppe literature through the lens of phylogeny reveals trends in features and function that may be associated with the evolution of mycobacterial pathogenicity. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Impact of protein domains on PE_PGRS30 polar localization in Mycobacteria.

    PubMed

    De Maio, Flavio; Maulucci, Giuseppe; Minerva, Mariachiara; Anoosheh, Saber; Palucci, Ivana; Iantomasi, Raffaella; Palmieri, Valentina; Camassa, Serena; Sali, Michela; Sanguinetti, Maurizio; Bitter, Wilbert; Manganelli, Riccardo; De Spirito, Marco; Delogu, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    PE_PGRS proteins are unique to the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex and a number of other pathogenic mycobacteria. PE_PGRS30, which is required for the full virulence of M. tuberculosis (Mtb), has three main domains, i.e. an N-terminal PE domain, repetitive PGRS domain and the unique C-terminal domain. To investigate the role of these domains, we expressed a GFP-tagged PE_PGRS30 protein and a series of its functional deletion mutants in different mycobacterial species (Mtb, Mycobacterium bovis BCG and Mycobacterium smegmatis) and analysed protein localization by confocal microscopy. We show that PE_PGRS30 localizes at the mycobacterial cell poles in Mtb and M. bovis BCG but not in M. smegmatis and that the PGRS domain of the protein strongly contributes to protein cellular localization in Mtb. Immunofluorescence studies further showed that the unique C-terminal domain of PE_PGRS30 is not available on the surface, except when the PGRS domain is missing. Immunoblot demonstrated that the PGRS domain is required to maintain the protein strongly associated with the non-soluble cellular fraction. These results suggest that the repetitive GGA-GGN repeats of the PGRS domain contain specific sequences that contribute to protein cellular localization and that polar localization might be a key step in the PE_PGRS30-dependent virulence mechanism.

  7. Folding and stability studies on C-PE and its natural N-terminal truncant.

    PubMed

    Anwer, Khalid; Parmar, Asha; Rahman, Safikur; Kaushal, Avani; Madamwar, Datta; Islam, Asimul; Hassan, Md Imtaiyaz; Ahmad, Faizan

    2014-03-01

    The conformational and functional state of biliproteins can be determined by optical properties of the covalently linked chromophores. α-Subunit of most of the phycoerythrin contains 164 residues. Recently determined crystal structure of the naturally truncated form of α-subunit of cyanobacterial phycoerythrin (Tr-αC-PE) lacks 31 N-terminal residues present in its full length form (FL-αC-PE). This provides an opportunity to investigate the structure-function relationship between these two natural forms. We measured guanidinium chloride (GdmCl)-induced denaturation curves of FL-αC-PE and Tr-αC-PE proteins, followed by observing changes in absorbance at 565nm, fluorescence at 350 and 573nm, and circular dichroism at 222nm. The denaturation curve of each protein was analyzed for ΔGD(∘), the value of Gibbs free energy change on denaturation (ΔGD) in the absence of GdmCl. The main conclusions of the this study are: (i) GdmCl-induced denaturation (native state↔denatured state) of FL-αC-PE and Tr-αC-PE is reversible and follows a two-state mechanism, (ii) FL-αC-PE is 1.4kcalmol(-1) more stable than Tr-αC-PE, (iii) truncation of 31-residue long fragment that contains two α-helices, does not alter the 3-D structure of the remaining protein polypeptide chain, protein-chromophore interaction, and (iv) amino acid sequence of Tr-αC-PE determines the functional structure of the phycoerythrin.

  8. Dark matter from PeV physics and the neutrino sector

    SciTech Connect

    Shakya, Bibhushan Roland, Samuel B.; Wells, James D.

    2016-06-21

    It is well known that the neutrino sector can provide a dark matter candidate in the form of a light sterile neutrino. This note discusses a framework that naturally leads to light (keV-GeV) sterile neutrino dark matter produced via the freeze-in mechanism: a modified, low energy seesaw with the right-handed neutrinos charged under a new symmetry broken by a PeV scale vacuum expectation value. This framework can accommodate the recently observed 3.5 keV X-ray line, while a straightforward extension, using the new symmetry and the PeV energy scale, can explain the PeV energy neutrino events at IceCube. Together, these can therefore be taken as hints of the existence of a PeV scale neutrino sector.

  9. Conversion of post-industrial PET-PE scraps into compatibilized plastic blends for new applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartoli, Flavia; Bruni, Cosimo; Coltelli, Maria-Beatrice; Castelvetro, Valter; Ciardelli, Francesco

    2012-07-01

    Poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) / poly(ethylene) (PE) granules coming from a post-industrial packaging stream were directed to new applications. The collected material was first characterized through selective extractions followed by infrared analysis. After the characterization work the presence of poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate) (EVA) copolymer was evidenced. Moreover the degree of yellowing was shown to increase by increasing the PE content in the granules batch. The blending of PET/PE with a stabilizer allowed to control its thermal stability, moreover the addition of compatibilizers resulted in the possibility of modulating both rheological and mechanical properties. Hence the use of stabilizers and compatibilizers allowed to upgrade postindustrial PET/PE based materials for the use in different industrial applications

  10. Characteristics of the National Adolescent School-based Health Survey - PeNSE, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Max Moura de; Campos, Maryane Oliveira; Andreazzi, Marco Antonio Ratzsch de; Malta, Deborah Carvalho

    2017-01-01

    The National Adolescent School-based Health Survey (PeNSE) is a survey conducted with students from public and private schools, performed in a partnership between the Ministry of Health and the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics, with support of the Ministry of Education. PeNSE is part of the Brazilian Surveillance of Risk and Protective Factors for Chronic Diseases. Three editions were held, with triennial periodicity (2009, 2012 and 2015), which included samples composed of 9th grade students. In 2015, a sample of 13 to 17 years old students was added, making PeNSE comparable to international surveys. Throughout the three editions, the sample has increased, in size and scope, and the questionnaire has changed. In addition to the risk and protective factors for chronic diseases, the survey covers other topics, such as sexual behavior and violence. PeNSE provides essential information to support public policies aimed at Brazilian adolescents.

  11. Molecular cloning and characterization of the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene from Penicillium expansum PE-12.

    PubMed

    Zhang, T; Qi, Z; Yu, Q S; Tang, K X

    2013-07-15

    Penicillium expansum produces large amounts of lipase, which is widely used in laundry detergent and leather industry. We isolated the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene (PeGPD) from P. expansum PE-12 through reverse transcriptase PCR and 5'-3' rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE-PCR). The gene is 1266 bp long, including an ORF of 1014 bp, encoding a polypeptide chain of 337 amino acids. A phylogenetic tree based on GPD proteins showed that P. expansum is close to Aspergillus species, but comparatively distant from P. marneffei. Southern blot results revealed a single copy of PeGPD, and expression analysis gave evidence of high expression levels. PeGPD genes have potential for genetic engineering of P. expansum for industrial lipase production.

  12. Production and crosslinking of multi-layer tubes (PE & metal) by E-beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zyball, Alfred

    2000-03-01

    Irradiation crosslinking of PE-tubes has been used for heating floors for about 25 years. Such tubes are also used today for drinking water supply. A further development has been the coating of such tubes with Ethylene-Vinyl-Alcohol-Copolymers (EVAL), in order to prevent oxygen diffusion into the water through the PE tube. For about 15 years composite tubes made of PE and aluminum have been available. These tubes are crosslinked with electron beams. The energy of the accelerated electrons must be adjusted for the particular tube configuration, so that the inner PE-layer will be crosslinked. This paper will concern itself with the manufacture and the crosslinking of composite tubes.

  13. Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT) / Pulmonary Embolism (PE) - Blood Clot Forming in a Vein

    MedlinePlus

    ... Clots Videos Quiz My Story Links to Other Websites Facts Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Deep Vein Thrombosis and Pulmonary Embolism (DVT/PE) are ...

  14. Detecting and discriminating PE and PP polymers for plastics recycling using NIR imaging spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Biasio, Martin; Arnold, Thomas; McGunnigle, Gerald; Leitner, Raimund; Balthasar, Dirk; Rehrmann, Volker

    2010-05-01

    There are commercially available industrial systems for identifying and separating polymers, for instance PE from PP. However, there is a demand for analyzers that can separate within polymer classes: e.g. PE-LD from PE-HD or different polypropylenes characterised by different melting points. First, the feasibility of a reliable spectral identification was tested by extracting different PE and PP samples from an industrial recycling process, and acquiring diffuse reflectance NIR spectra using an FTIR spectrometer. The resulting spectra were then subjected to a chemometrics analysis. We successfully identified characteristic spectral features; these are determined by the chemical bonds of the material, and can be correlated to the melting points of the materials. These features were then adapted for use on a NIR hyper-spectral (HS) system, making it possible to distinguish not only different polymers, but also different types of one polymer in real-time.

  15. Comparison of BIASI and Columbia CHF correlations using BODYFIT-2PE

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, B.C.J.; Chien, T.H.; Sha, W.T.; Kim, J.H.

    1984-01-01

    This paper compares the BIASI critical heat flux (CHF) correlation with the Columbia CHF correlation by using both the homogeneous equilibrium two-phase model with algebraic slip and the drift flux model in BODYFIT-2PE. All calculations were compared with the GE 3 x 3 CHF experiment. This comparison serves as a qualification process for the CHF correlations in the framework of BODYFIT-2PE.

  16. Recombinant chimeric vaccine composed of PRRSV antigens and truncated Pseudomonas exotoxin A (PE-K13).

    PubMed

    Yang, Hsin-Ping; Wang, Tsan-Chih; Wang, Shiou-Jen; Chen, Shih-Ping; Wu, Eva; Lai, Shao-Qun; Chang, Hsueh-Wei; Liao, Chao-Wei

    2013-10-01

    A Pseudomonas exotoxin (PE-KDEL)-based chimeric subunit vaccine system was recently developed using a reverse vaccinology technique. In this study, the plasmids containing PE-PRRS chimeric subunits were constructed that composed of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) antigen moieties, a ligand moiety and a Pseudomonas exotoxin A deleted domain III (PE (ΔIII)), and a carboxyl terminal moiety that includes a polypeptide with amino acid sequence KDEL (K3). The PE-PRRS combination vaccine can effectively induce not only PRRSV-specific INF-γ cellular immunity but also a slow-reacting and complement-requiring type serum neutralizing antibody in pigs. In a specific pathogen free (SPF) pig challenge model, body temperature (colonic temperature), occurrence of PRRSV viremia, nasal excretions, gross and histopathological appearances of pneumonia, and serum antibody activity (IFA and SN) titers significantly differed between the immunized group and the control group. The survey showed that a 0.3mg/dose PE-PRRS vaccine formula conferred protection against PRRSV. A field trial of PE-PRRS vaccine was performed to study the immune response of pregnant sows after vaccination in a PRRSV persist farm. The RT-PCR analysis of viremia and serological titers showed that the PE-PRRS vaccine not only increased sow reproductive performance and evoked its immune response to PRRS viremia, it also activated maternal immune protections to prevent piglets from inflicting viremia. In conclusion, we developed a novel and effective PRRS cytotoxic T-cells (CTLs)-based vaccine containing Pseudomonas exotoxin (PE-KDEL) carrier in combination with PRRSV conserved epitopes against PRRS virus.

  17. PE-Swab Direct STR Amplification of Forensic Touch DNA Samples.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jason Y

    2015-05-01

    The PE-Swab direct STR amplification workflow was developed to process low-level "touch DNA" samples. In this workflow, a forensic sample is first collected on a 4-mm PE-Swab (a novel sample collection device); two 2-mm punches containing collected samples are then generated from the PE-Swab and directly amplified for STR typing. Compared to the conventional STR workflow, which involves DNA extraction, purification, and elution volume reduction, the PE-Swab direct STR amplification workflow does not require sample preparation and takes <60 sec before a touch sample is ready for STR amplification. Because there is no DNA loss due to sample preparation, the PE-Swab workflow is more sensitive than the conventional STR workflow. The average peak height per sample obtained by the PE-swab workflow is 3 times higher than that from the conventional workflow with both low-level single source and two-contributor mixture samples tested in this study.

  18. Optimization of esterification of oleic acid and trimethylolpropane (TMP) and pentaerythritol (PE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmud, Hamizah Ammarah; Salimon, Jumat

    2014-09-01

    Vegetable oil (VO) is the most potential alternative to replace mineral oil for lubricant due to better lubricating properties and great physicochemical properties. Chemical modification has to be done to overcome low temperature performance and low oxidation instability due to the presence of β-hydrogen atoms of glycerol molecule. The optimization of esterification of oleic acid and polyhydric alcohol with sulfuric acid catalyst was carried out to find the optimum conditions with the highest yield. Reeaction variables such as; molar ratio, temperature, duration and catalyst concentration. Two types of polyhydric alcohol have been used; TMP and PE. The optimum results showed oleic acid successfully converted 91.2% ester TMP and 92.7% ester PE at duration: 5 hours (Ester TMP), 6 hours (Ester PE); temperature: 150°C (ester TMP), 180°C (Ester PE); catalyst concentration: 1.5% (w/w); and mol ratio: 3.9:1 (ester TMP), 4.9:1 (ester PE). From the data obtained, mole ratio showed most influenced factors to the increasing yields of ester conversions.. The TMP/PE ester was confirmed using gas chromatography (GC-FID), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR).

  19. Optimization of esterification of oleic acid and trimethylolpropane (TMP) and pentaerythritol (PE)

    SciTech Connect

    Mahmud, Hamizah Ammarah; Salimon, Jumat

    2014-09-03

    Vegetable oil (VO) is the most potential alternative to replace mineral oil for lubricant due to better lubricating properties and great physicochemical properties. Chemical modification has to be done to overcome low temperature performance and low oxidation instability due to the presence of β-hydrogen atoms of glycerol molecule. The optimization of esterification of oleic acid and polyhydric alcohol with sulfuric acid catalyst was carried out to find the optimum conditions with the highest yield. Reeaction variables such as; molar ratio, temperature, duration and catalyst concentration. Two types of polyhydric alcohol have been used; TMP and PE. The optimum results showed oleic acid successfully converted 91.2% ester TMP and 92.7% ester PE at duration: 5 hours (Ester TMP), 6 hours (Ester PE); temperature: 150°C (ester TMP), 180°C (Ester PE); catalyst concentration: 1.5% (w/w); and mol ratio: 3.9:1 (ester TMP), 4.9:1 (ester PE). From the data obtained, mole ratio showed most influenced factors to the increasing yields of ester conversions.. The TMP/PE ester was confirmed using gas chromatography (GC-FID), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR)

  20. Brief review on PE method application to propagation channel modeling in sea environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirkova, Irina

    2012-03-01

    This work provides an introduction to one of the most widely used advanced methods for wave propagation modeling, the Parabolic Equation (PE) method, with emphasis on its application to tropospheric radio propagation in coastal and maritime regions. The assumptions of the derivation, the advantages and drawbacks of the PE, the numerical methods for solving it, and the boundary and initial conditions for its application to the tropospheric propagation problem are briefly discussed. More details are given for the split-step Fourier-transform (SSF) solution of the PE. The environmental input to the PE, the methods for tropospheric refractivity profiling, their accuracy, limitations, and the average refractivity modeling are also summarized. The reported results illustrate the application of finite element (FE) based and SSF-based solutions of the PE for one of the most difficult to treat propagation mechanisms, yet of great significance for the performance of radars and communications links working in coastal and maritime zones — the tropospheric ducting mechanism. Recent achievements, some unresolved issues and ongoing developments related to further improvements of the PE method application to the propagation channel modeling in sea environment are highlighted.

  1. [Clinical probability of PE: should we use a clinical prediction rule?].

    PubMed

    Le Gal, G; Righini, M; Perrier, A

    2008-12-01

    The determination of the clinical pretest probability using clinical prediction models is an important step in the assessment of patients with suspected pulmonary embolism (PE). It helps establish which test or sequence of tests can effectively corroborate or safely rule out PE. For example, it has been demonstrated that it is safe to withhold anticoagulant therapy in patients with negative d-dimer results and low pretest probability at initial presentation. Clinical probability will also increase the diagnostic yield of ventilation perfusion lung scan. Compared with clinical gestalt, clinical prediction rules provide a standardized and more reproducible estimate of a patient's probability of having a PE. Clinical prediction models combine aspects of the history and physical examination to categorize a patient's probability of having a disease. The models classify patients as having a low, moderate, or high likelihood of having PE. Clinical prediction models have been validated and are well established for the diagnosis of PE in symptomatic patients. They allow all physicians, whatever their expertise, to reliably determine the clinical pretest probability of PE, and thus safely manage their patients using diagnostic and therapeutic algorithms.

  2. Rater reliability and concurrent validity of the Keyboard Personal Computer Style instrument (K-PeCS).

    PubMed

    Baker, Nancy A; Cook, James R; Redfern, Mark S

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the inter-rater and intra-rater reliability, and the concurrent validity of an observational instrument, the Keyboard Personal Computer Style instrument (K-PeCS), which assesses stereotypical postures and movements associated with computer keyboard use. Three trained raters independently rated the video clips of 45 computer keyboard users to ascertain inter-rater reliability, and then re-rated a sub-sample of 15 video clips to ascertain intra-rater reliability. Concurrent validity was assessed by comparing the ratings obtained using the K-PeCS to scores developed from a 3D motion analysis system. The overall K-PeCS had excellent reliability [inter-rater: intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC)=.90; intra-rater: ICC=.92]. Most individual items on the K-PeCS had from good to excellent reliability, although six items fell below ICC=.75. Those K-PeCS items that were assessed for concurrent validity compared favorably to the motion analysis data for all but two items. These results suggest that most items on the K-PeCS can be used to reliably document computer keyboarding style.

  3. Towards Engineering Novel PE-Based Immunotoxins by Targeting Them to the Nucleus.

    PubMed

    Borowiec, Marta; Gorzkiewicz, Michal; Grzesik, Joanna; Walczak-Drzewiecka, Aurelia; Salkowska, Anna; Rodakowska, Ewelina; Steczkiewicz, Kamil; Rychlewski, Leszek; Dastych, Jaroslaw; Ginalski, Krzysztof

    2016-11-10

    Exotoxin A (PE) from Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a bacterial ADP-ribosyltransferase, which can permanently inhibit translation in the attacked cells. Consequently, this toxin is frequently used in immunotoxins for targeted cancer therapies. In this study, we propose a novel modification to PE by incorporating the NLS sequence at its C-terminus, to make it a selective agent against fast-proliferating cancer cells, as a nucleus-accumulated toxin should be separated from its natural substrate (eEF2) in slowly dividing cells. Here, we report the cytotoxic activity and selected biochemical properties of newly designed PE mutein using two cellular models: A549 and HepG2. We also present a newly developed protocol for efficient purification of recombinant PE and its muteins with very high purity and activity. We found that furin cleavage is not critical for the activity of PE in the analyzed cell lines. Surprisingly, we observed increased toxicity of the toxin accumulated in the nucleus. This might be explained by unexpected nuclease activity of PE and its potential ability to cleave chromosomal DNA, which seems to be a putative alternative intoxication mechanism. Further experimental investigations should address this newly detected activity to identify catalytic residues and elucidate the molecular mechanism responsible for this action.

  4. Towards Engineering Novel PE-Based Immunotoxins by Targeting Them to the Nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Borowiec, Marta; Gorzkiewicz, Michal; Grzesik, Joanna; Walczak-Drzewiecka, Aurelia; Salkowska, Anna; Rodakowska, Ewelina; Steczkiewicz, Kamil; Rychlewski, Leszek; Dastych, Jaroslaw; Ginalski, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    Exotoxin A (PE) from Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a bacterial ADP-ribosyltransferase, which can permanently inhibit translation in the attacked cells. Consequently, this toxin is frequently used in immunotoxins for targeted cancer therapies. In this study, we propose a novel modification to PE by incorporating the NLS sequence at its C-terminus, to make it a selective agent against fast-proliferating cancer cells, as a nucleus-accumulated toxin should be separated from its natural substrate (eEF2) in slowly dividing cells. Here, we report the cytotoxic activity and selected biochemical properties of newly designed PE mutein using two cellular models: A549 and HepG2. We also present a newly developed protocol for efficient purification of recombinant PE and its muteins with very high purity and activity. We found that furin cleavage is not critical for the activity of PE in the analyzed cell lines. Surprisingly, we observed increased toxicity of the toxin accumulated in the nucleus. This might be explained by unexpected nuclease activity of PE and its potential ability to cleave chromosomal DNA, which seems to be a putative alternative intoxication mechanism. Further experimental investigations should address this newly detected activity to identify catalytic residues and elucidate the molecular mechanism responsible for this action. PMID:27834892

  5. Fabry-Pérot interferometer utilized for displacement measurement in a large measuring range.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yung-Cheng; Shyu, Lih-Horng; Chang, Chung-Ping

    2010-09-01

    The optical configuration of a Fabry-Pérot interferometer is uncomplicated. This has already been applied in different measurement systems. For the displacement measurement with the Fabry-Pérot interferometer, the result is significantly influenced by the tilt angles of the measurement mirror in the interferometer. Hence, only for the rather small measuring range, the Fabry-Pérot interferometer is available. The goal of this investigation is to enhance the measuring range of Fabry-Pérot interferometer by compensating the tilt angles. To verify the measuring characteristic of the self-developed Fabry-Pérot interferometer, some comparison measurements with a reference standard have been performed. The maximum deviation of comparison experiments is less than 0.3 μm in the traveling range of 30 mm. The experimental results show that the Fabry-Pérot interferometer is highly stable, insensitive to environment effects, and can meet the measuring requirement of the submicrometer order.

  6. Swelling, ion uptake and biodegradation studies of PE film modified through radiation induced graft copolymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Inderjeet; Gupta, Nitika; Kumari, Vandna

    2011-09-01

    An attempt to develop biodegradable polyethylene film grafting of mixture of hydrophilic monomers methacrylic acid (MAAc) and acrylamide (AAm) onto PE film has been carried out by preirradiation method using benzoyl peroxide as the radical initiator. Since ether linkages are susceptible to easy cleavage during degradation process, PE film was irradiated before the grafting reactions by γ-rays to introduce peroxidic linkages (PE-OO-PE) that offer sites for grafting. The effect of irradiation dose, monomer concentration, initiator concentration, temperature, time and amount of water on the grafting percent was determined. Maximum percentage of grafting of binary mixture (MAAc+AAm), (1792%) was obtained at a total concentration of binary monomer mixture=204.6×10 -2 mol/L ([MAAc]=176.5×10 -2 mol/L, [AAm]=28.1×10 -2 mol/L), [BPO]=8.3×10 -2 mol/L at 100 °C in 70 min. The grafted PE film was characterized by the Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) and Scanning Electron Microscopic (SEM) methods. Some selective properties of grafted films such as swelling studies, ion uptake and biodegradation studies have been investigated. The grafted films show good swelling in water, ion uptake studies shows promising results for desalination of brackish water and the soil burial test shows that PE film grafted with binary monomer mixture degrades up to 47% within 50 days.

  7. Confinement effect on liquid and ion transport in nanochannels coated with environmental-stimuli-responsive polyelectrolyte(PE) brushes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Guang; Das, Siddhartha

    2016-11-01

    We study the confinement effect in the electrokinetic transport in polyelectrolyte(PE)-brush-grafted nanochannels. Starting with thermodynamically self-consistent description, i.e., accounting for the elastic, excluded volume and electrostatic effects of the PE brush and the effects of the induced electric double layer, we first probe the equilibrium brush height. We show that this height is dictated by PE size, grafting density, concentration of electrolyte solution and the extent of confinement. Shrinking-swelling behavior of PE brush with various configurations are compared: 1) short sparse end-charged PE brush swells as the salt concentration increases, while long dense end-charged PE brush shrinks; 2) PE brush with constant volume charge along the backbone always shrinks with the increase of the salt concentration. This shrinking-swelling behavior as well as the monomer distribution of PE interplay with the PE-induced drag force to dictate the overall electroosmotic and ionic current transport in such PE-brush-grafted nanochannels. We exhibit that among other factors, height of the nanochannels can be tuned to regulate this transport. We anticipate that our study will shed new light on structure of nano confined PE brushes with implications in ionic current rectifier design.

  8. Integrative Properties of the Pe1 Neuron, a Unique Mushroom Body Output Neuron

    PubMed Central

    Rybak, Jürgen; Menzel, Randolf

    1998-01-01

    A mushroom body extrinsic neuron, the Pe1 neuron, connects the peduncle of the mushroom body (MB) with two areas of the protocerebrum in the honeybee brain, the lateral protocerebral lobe (LPL) and the ring neuropil around the α-lobe. Each side of the bee brain contains only one Pe1 neuron. Using a combination of intracellular recording and neuroanatomical techniques we analyzed its properties of integrative processing of the different sensory modalities. The Pe1 neuron responds to visual, mechanosensory, and olfactory stimuli. The responses are broadly tuned, consisting of a sustained increase of spike frequency to the onset and offset of light flashes, to horizontal and vertical movements of extended objects, to mechanical stimuli applied to the antennae or mouth parts, and to all olfactory stimuli tested (29 chemicals). These multisensory properties are reflected in its dendritic organization. Serial reconstructions of intracellularly stained Pe1 neurons using confocal microscopy reveal that the Pe1 neuron arborizes throughout all layers of MB peduncle with finger-like, vertically oriented dendrites. The peduncle of the MB is formed by the axons of Kenyon cells, whose dendritic inputs are organized in modality-specific subcompartments of the calyx region. The peduncular arborization indicates that the Pe1 neuron receives input from Kenyon cells of all calycal subcompartments. Because the Pe1 neuron changes its odor responses transiently as a consequence of olfactory learning, we hypothesize that the multimodal response properties might have a role in memory consolidation and help to establish contextual references in the long-term trace. PMID:10454378

  9. Induction of cell death after localization to the host cell mitochondria by the Mycobacterium tuberculosis PE_PGRS33 protein.

    PubMed

    Cadieux, Nathalie; Parra, Marcela; Cohen, Hannah; Maric, Dragan; Morris, Sheldon L; Brennan, Michael J

    2011-03-01

    PE_PGRS33 is the most studied member of the unique PE family of mycobacterial proteins. These proteins are composed of a PE domain (Pro-Glu motif), a linker region and a PGRS domain (polymorphic GC-rich-repetitive sequence). Previous studies have shown that PE_PGRS33 is surface-exposed, constitutively expressed during growth and infection, involved in creating antigenic diversity, and able to induce death in transfected or infected eukaryotic cells. In this study, we showed that PE_PGRS33 co-localizes to the mitochondria of transfected cells, a phenomenon dependent on the linker region and the PGRS domain, but not the PE domain. Using different genetic fusions and chimeras, we also demonstrated a direct correlation between localization to the host mitochondria and the induction of cell death. Finally, although all constructs localizing to the mitochondria did induce apoptosis, only the wild-type PE_PGRS33 with its own PE domain also induced primary necrosis, indicating a potentially important role for the PE domain. Considering the importance of primary necrosis in Mycobacterium tuberculosis dissemination during natural infection, the PE_PGRS33 protein may play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of tuberculosis.

  10. In vitro and in vivo studies of antitumor effects of the recombinant immunotoxin MSH-PE38KDEL on melanoma.

    PubMed

    Hui, Q; Ma, J; Song, J; Liu, Z; Ren, H; Jiang, W; Wang, Y; Xu, Y; Guo, D; Zhang, X; Lu, S

    2014-01-01

    MSH-PE38KDEL is a chimeric molecule composed of MSH, and fused to a truncated mutant form of Pseudomonas exotoxin (PE38KDEL). Our study aims to evaluate the specific cytotoxicity of recombinant immunotoxin MSH-PE38KDEL on melanoma cells A875 and B16 in vitro, as well as its inhibition of metastatic melanoma in vivo. MSH-PE38KDEL was expressed in Escherichia coli, and greater than 90% purity was obtained. The purified MSH-PE38KDEL was found to be selectively cytotoxic to MSH receptor-positive melanoma cells in vitro. The specific cytotoxicity of recombinant MSH-PE38KDEL to A875 and B16 was over 85% by cell viability assay; however, MSH-PE38KDEL had no cytotoxicity to the human 2BS cells. The anti-tumor activity of MSH-PE38KDEL was evaluated in mice with induced melanoma through intra-tumor or intravenous administration. The results showed that 90% melanoma growths were inhibited, and 40% of the tumors were disappeared completely. Histopathology results showed MSH-PE38KDEL can effectively inhibit intrahepatic metastasis. In conclusion, MSH-PE38KDEL had cytotoxic effects on MSH receptor-positive melanoma cells, and causes significant tumor growth inhibition. These results support a possible new approach for the treatment of melanoma.

  11. Comparative analysis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis pe and ppe genes reveals high sequence variation and an apparent absence of selective constraints.

    PubMed

    McEvoy, Christopher R E; Cloete, Ruben; Müller, Borna; Schürch, Anita C; van Helden, Paul D; Gagneux, Sebastien; Warren, Robin M; Gey van Pittius, Nicolaas C

    2012-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) genomes contain 2 large gene families termed pe and ppe. The function of pe/ppe proteins remains enigmatic but studies suggest that they are secreted or cell surface associated and are involved in bacterial virulence. Previous studies have also shown that some pe/ppe genes are polymorphic, a finding that suggests involvement in antigenic variation. Using comparative sequence analysis of 18 publicly available MTBC whole genome sequences, we have performed alignments of 33 pe (excluding pe_pgrs) and 66 ppe genes in order to detect the frequency and nature of genetic variation. This work has been supplemented by whole gene sequencing of 14 pe/ppe (including 5 pe_pgrs) genes in a cohort of 40 diverse and well defined clinical isolates covering all the main lineages of the M. tuberculosis phylogenetic tree. We show that nsSNP's in pe (excluding pgrs) and ppe genes are 3.0 and 3.3 times higher than in non-pe/ppe genes respectively and that numerous other mutation types are also present at a high frequency. It has previously been shown that non-pe/ppe M. tuberculosis genes display a remarkably low level of purifying selection. Here, we also show that compared to these genes those of the pe/ppe families show a further reduction of selection pressure that suggests neutral evolution. This is inconsistent with the positive selection pressure of "classical" antigenic variation. Finally, by analyzing such a large number of genes we were able to detect large differences in mutation type and frequency between both individual genes and gene sub-families. The high variation rates and absence of selective constraints provides valuable insights into potential pe/ppe function. Since pe/ppe proteins are highly antigenic and have been studied as potential vaccine components these results should also prove informative for aspects of M. tuberculosis vaccine design.

  12. Evaluation of PE_PGRS33 as a potential surface target for humoral responses against Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Minerva, Mariachiara; De Maio, Flavio; Camassa, Serena; Battah, Basem; Ivana, Palucci; Manganelli, Riccardo; Sanguinetti, Maurizio; Sali, Michela; Delogu, Giovanni

    2017-11-30

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) PE_PGRS33 is a surface-exposed protein that was shown to interact with Toll-like receptor 2 on host macrophages to induce inflammatory signals and promote entry in macrophages. In this study, we investigated PE_PGRS33 as a potential target of a humoral response aimed at hampering key processes in tuberculosis pathogenesis. PE_PGRS33 protein was successfully expressed and purified under native condition in Escherichia coli. The purified protein retained its native functional and biological properties, showing the ability to elicit proinflammatory signals in murine and human macrophages. Interestingly, a polyclonal antiserum raised against native PE_PGRS33 showed no cross-reactions with other mycobacterial proteins. The anti-PE_PGRS33 serum was also able to inhibit Mtb entry into macrophages, but it did not reduce entry of the MtbΔpe_pgrs33 strain. Addition of native recombinant PE_PGRS33 to the MtbΔpe_pgrs33 strain during infection restored the Mtb wild-type entry phenotype in macrophage. Moreover, the anti-PE_PGRS33 serum was able to neutralize the proinflammatory activity of PE_PGRS33 in vitro. Furthermore, mice immunized with native recombinant PE_PGRS33, but not with a DNA vaccine expressing PE_PGRS33, were able to restrict M. smegmatis in vivo. These results highlight the potential use of PE_PGRS33 as a target of a neutralizing humoral response against tuberculosis. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Adsorption of urease on PE-MCM-41 and its catalytic effect on hydrolysis of urea.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Kazi-Zakir; Monreal, Carlos M; Sayari, Abdelhamid

    2008-03-15

    Pore-expanded MCM-41 (PE-MCM-41) silica exhibits a unique combination of high specific surface area (ca. 1000 m(2)/g), pore size (up to 25 nm) and pore volume (up to 3.5 cm(3)/g). As such, this material is highly suitable for the adsorption of large biomolecules. The current study focused primarily on the application of PE-MCM-41 material as suitable host for urease (nickel-based large metalloenzyme) in controlled hydrolysis of urea. Urease adsorbed on PE-MCM-41, regular MCM-41 and silica gel (SGA) were used as catalysts for urea hydrolysis reaction. Adsorption studies of urease on these materials from aqueous solution at pH 7.2 revealed that the adsorption capacity of PE-MCM-41 (102 mg/g) is significantly higher than that of MCM-41 (56 mg/g) and SGA (21 mg/g). The equilibrium adsorption data were well fitted using the Langmuir-Freundlich model. Furthermore, the kinetic study revealed that the uptake of urease follow the pseudo-first order kinetics. The in vitro urea hydrolysis reaction on pristine urease and different urease-loaded catalysts showed that the rate of hydrolysis reaction is significantly slower on U/PE-MCM-41 compared to that of bulk urease and urease on MCM-41 and SGA. This technique could be an alternative means to the use of urease inhibitors to control the ammonia release from urea fertilizer.

  14. PE and PS Lipids Synergistically Enhance Membrane Poration by a Peptide with Anticancer Properties

    PubMed Central

    Leite, Natália Bueno; Aufderhorst-Roberts, Anders; Palma, Mario Sergio; Connell, Simon D.; Neto, João Ruggiero; Beales, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    Polybia-MP1 (MP1) is a bioactive host-defense peptide with known anticancer properties. Its activity is attributed to excess serine (phosphatidylserine (PS)) on the outer leaflet of cancer cells. Recently, higher quantities of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) were also found at these cells’ surface. We investigate the interaction of MP1 with model membranes in the presence and absence of POPS (PS) and DOPE (PE) to understand the role of lipid composition in MP1’s anticancer characteristics. Indeed we find that PS lipids significantly enhance the bound concentration of peptide on the membrane by a factor of 7–8. However, through a combination of membrane permeability assays and imaging techniques we find that PE significantly increases the susceptibility of the membrane to disruption by these peptides and causes an order-of-magnitude increase in membrane permeability by facilitating the formation of larger transmembrane pores. Significantly, atomic-force microscopy imaging reveals differences in the pore formation mechanism with and without the presence of PE. Therefore, PS and PE lipids synergistically combine to enhance membrane poration by MP1, implying that the combined enrichment of both these lipids in the outer leaflet of cancer cells is highly significant for MP1’s anticancer action. These mechanistic insights could aid development of novel chemotherapeutics that target pathological changes in the lipid composition of cancerous cells. PMID:26331251

  15. Chimeric cytotoxin IL2-PE40 delays and mitigates adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats.

    PubMed Central

    Case, J P; Lorberboum-Galski, H; Lafyatis, R; FitzGerald, D; Wilder, R L; Pastan, I

    1989-01-01

    Adjuvant arthritis in rats is a T-cell dependent "autoimmune" disease with close similarities to several forms of human arthritis. Injection of mycobacterial adjuvant leads to T-cell activation and proliferation, processes in which the de novo expression of the interleukin 2 (IL-2) receptor plays a pivotal role. The subsequent massive mononuclear cell infiltration of the joints ultimately results in complete joint destruction. Because activation of the helper/inducer subset of T lymphocytes is critical to the establishment of disease, we reasoned that IL2-PE40, a cytotoxic IL-2-Pseudomonas exotoxin fusion protein that targets the membrane-penetration and ADP-ribosylation domains of the toxin to cells bearing the IL-2 receptor, would be an effective and specific therapy. Adjuvant-injected rats were randomized to treatment with IL2-PE40, phosphate-buffered saline, or either of two control proteins related to IL2-PE40 but lacking either the receptor-binding moiety or an enzymatically active toxin domain and previously demonstrated to lack cytotoxicity in vitro. Intraperitoneal IL2-PE40 given before the establishment of overt clinical disease proved an effective and specific modifier of adjuvant arthritis by clinical, histological, and radiographic criteria. Our data suggest that IL2-PE40 may be effective in those diseases in which activated T-cells play an important role. Images PMID:2492102

  16. IceCube PeV cascade events initiated by electron-antineutrinos at Glashow resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barger, Vernon; Learned, John; Pakvasa, Sandip

    2013-02-01

    We propose an interpretation of the two neutrino initiated cascade events with PeV energies observed by IceCube: Ultrahigh energy cosmic ray protons (or Fe nuclei) scatter on cosmic microwave background photons through the Delta-resonance (the Berezinsky-Zatsepin process) yielding charged pions and neutrons. The neutron decays give electron-antineutrinos which undergo neutrino oscillations to populate all antineutrino flavors, but the electron-antineutrino flux remains dominant. At 6.3 PeV electron-antineutrino energy their annihilation on electrons in the IceCube detector is enhanced by the Glashow resonance (the W-boson) whose decays can give the PeV showers observed in the IceCube detector. The two observed showers with ˜1PeV energies would need to be from W leptonic decays to electrons and taus. An order of magnitude higher event rate of showers at 6.3 PeV is predicted from W to hadron decays. This interpretation can be tested in the near term. It has significant physics implications on the origin of the highest energy cosmic rays, since neutrino events and cosmic ray events likely share a common origin.

  17. Suppression of autophagy and antigen presentation by Mycobacterium tuberculosis PE_PGRS47.

    PubMed

    Saini, Neeraj K; Baena, Andres; Ng, Tony W; Venkataswamy, Manjunatha M; Kennedy, Steven C; Kunnath-Velayudhan, Shajo; Carreño, Leandro J; Xu, Jiayong; Chan, John; Larsen, Michelle H; Jacobs, William R; Porcelli, Steven A

    2016-08-15

    Suppression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II antigen presentation is believed to be among the major mechanisms used by Mycobacterium tuberculosis to escape protective host immune responses. Through a genome-wide screen for the genetic loci of M. tuberculosis that inhibit MHC class II-restricted antigen presentation by mycobacteria-infected dendritic cells, we identified the PE_PGRS47 protein as one of the responsible factors. Targeted disruption of the PE_PGRS47 (Rv2741) gene led to attenuated growth of M. tuberculosis in vitro and in vivo, and a PE_PGRS47 mutant showed enhanced MHC class II-restricted antigen presentation during in vivo infection of mice. Analysis of the effects of deletion or over-expression of PE_PGRS47 implicated this protein in the inhibition of autophagy in infected host phagocytes. Our findings identify PE_PGRS47 as a functionally relevant, non-redundant bacterial factor in the modulation of innate and adaptive immunity by M. tuberculosis, suggesting strategies for improving antigen presentation and the generation of protective immunity during vaccination or infection.

  18. PE and PS Lipids Synergistically Enhance Membrane Poration by a Peptide with Anticancer Properties.

    PubMed

    Leite, Natália Bueno; Aufderhorst-Roberts, Anders; Palma, Mario Sergio; Connell, Simon D; Ruggiero Neto, João; Beales, Paul A

    2015-09-01

    Polybia-MP1 (MP1) is a bioactive host-defense peptide with known anticancer properties. Its activity is attributed to excess serine (phosphatidylserine (PS)) on the outer leaflet of cancer cells. Recently, higher quantities of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) were also found at these cells' surface. We investigate the interaction of MP1 with model membranes in the presence and absence of POPS (PS) and DOPE (PE) to understand the role of lipid composition in MP1's anticancer characteristics. Indeed we find that PS lipids significantly enhance the bound concentration of peptide on the membrane by a factor of 7-8. However, through a combination of membrane permeability assays and imaging techniques we find that PE significantly increases the susceptibility of the membrane to disruption by these peptides and causes an order-of-magnitude increase in membrane permeability by facilitating the formation of larger transmembrane pores. Significantly, atomic-force microscopy imaging reveals differences in the pore formation mechanism with and without the presence of PE. Therefore, PS and PE lipids synergistically combine to enhance membrane poration by MP1, implying that the combined enrichment of both these lipids in the outer leaflet of cancer cells is highly significant for MP1's anticancer action. These mechanistic insights could aid development of novel chemotherapeutics that target pathological changes in the lipid composition of cancerous cells.

  19. Roles of PE_PGRS family in Mycobacterium tuberculosis pathogenesis and novel measures against tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Tian, Chen; Jian-Ping, Xie

    2010-12-01

    Tuberculosis remains a serious threat to global public health. As one of the most successful pathogens, Mycobacterium tuberculosis is an adept in evasion the host immune response. M. tuberculosis PE_PGRS family has been widely proposed as molecular mantra to deflect host immunity. The feature of this family is the conserved N-terminal and variable C-terminal. PE_PGRS proteins, with functions largely unknown, are only found among mycobacteria and located in the mycobacterial cell wall and cell membrane. Most PE_PGRS proteins have antigenicity. Polymorphic PGRS domain might play a role in neutralize immune response. Several members of PE_PGRS family have been heterologously expressed for further function characterization. PE_PGRS gene expressing stage-specifically, especially during M. tuberculosis persistence, is promising intervention target to prevent reactivation. The origin, physiological role and spatiotemporal regulation feature of this family remain elusive. The understanding of these questions will shed light on the pathogenesis of M. tuberculosis and facilitate the discovery of new effective antibacterial intervention. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Relations among Basic Psychological Needs, PE-Motivation and Fundamental Movement Skills in 9-12-Year-Old Boys and Girls in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Aart, I.; Hartman, E.; Elferink-Gemser, M.; Mombarg, R.; Visscher, C.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Many children aged 9-12 appear to have low levels of fundamental movement skills (FMS). Physical education (PE) is important because PE-teachers can teach children a variety of FMS and can influence PE-motivation. However, declined levels of PE-motivation are reported in the final grades of elementary school. Therefore, more insight in…

  1. Relations among Basic Psychological Needs, PE-Motivation and Fundamental Movement Skills in 9-12-Year-Old Boys and Girls in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Aart, I.; Hartman, E.; Elferink-Gemser, M.; Mombarg, R.; Visscher, C.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Many children aged 9-12 appear to have low levels of fundamental movement skills (FMS). Physical education (PE) is important because PE-teachers can teach children a variety of FMS and can influence PE-motivation. However, declined levels of PE-motivation are reported in the final grades of elementary school. Therefore, more insight in…

  2. VelProbePE: An automated spreadsheet program for interpreting point velocity probe breakthrough curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schillig, P. C.

    2012-02-01

    Groundwater velocity is an important parameter for determining the fate and transport of contaminants. Recently developed point velocity probes (PVPs) were designed to provide centimeter-scale measurements of the direction and magnitude of groundwater velocity based on the injection and electrical detection of a small, saline tracer. The code reported here for velocity probe parameter estimation (VelProbePE) was designed using Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) in Microsoft Excel for processing and interpreting tracer breakthrough curves specifically for PVP applications. VelProbePE contains multiple, autoinitializing user forms that guide the user through the data-processing steps. The program allows for the rapid processing and editing of up to 16 detector signals in a single workbook. VelProbePE uses simplex optimization to calculate the intermediate parameters required for the estimation of velocity magnitude and direction.

  3. A nuclear-directed human pancreatic ribonuclease (PE5) targets the metabolic phenotype of cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Vert, Anna; Castro, Jessica; Ribó, Marc; Benito, Antoni; Vilanova, Maria

    2016-04-05

    Ribonucleases represent a new class of antitumor RNA-damaging drugs. However, many wild-type members of the vertebrate secreted ribonuclease family are not cytotoxic because they are not able to evade the cytosolic ribonuclease inhibitor. We previously engineered the human pancreatic ribonuclease to direct it to the cell nucleus where the inhibitor is not present. The best characterized variant is PE5 that kills cancer cells through apoptosis mediated by the p21(WAF1/CIP1) induction and the inactivation of JNK. Here, we have used microarray-derived transcriptional profiling to identify PE5 regulated genes on the NCI/ADR-RES ovarian cancer cell line. RT-qPCR analyses have confirmed the expression microarray findings. The results show that PE5 cause pleiotropic effects. Among them, it is remarkable the down-regulation of multiple genes that code for enzymes involved in deregulated metabolic pathways in cancer cells.

  4. Surface modification by γ-ray-induced grafting of PDMAEMA/PEGMEMA onto PE films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titaux, G. A.; Contreras-García, A.; Bucio, E.

    2009-07-01

    Radiation grafting of poly[2-(dimethylamino) ethyl methacrylate] (PDMAEMA) and poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (PEGMEMA) onto polyethylene (PE) films was synthesized using gamma radiation from a 60Co source. PE was modified by the PDMAEMA and PEGMEMA by pre-irradiation and one-step method. Grafting as a function of the pre-irradiation dose between 50 and 200 kGy, dose rate of 9 kGy h -1, and monomer concentration 50% of PDMAEMA/PEGMEMA (1/1) in toluene. The characterization of the graft copolymer obtained was carried out by FTIR-ATR, TGA, and DSC. Stimuli-responsive behavior and critical pH point were studied by swelling in water, pH and thermo-responsive films of PE-g-(DMAEMA/PEGMEMA) presented a lower critical solution temperature (LCST) of 55 °C and critical pH point around 8.5.

  5. PE-1, a novel ETS oncogene family member, localizes to chromosome 1q21-q23

    SciTech Connect

    Klemsz, M.; Hromas, R.; Bruno, E.; Hoffman, R. ); Raskind, W. )

    1994-03-15

    The v-ets oncogene family shares a conserved peptide motif called the ETS domain that mediates sequence-specific DNA binding. This motif is unique among transcription factor families. Using partially degenerate oligonucleotides from conserved regions of the ETS domain and the polymerase chain reaction, the authors isolated a new member of v-ets family designated PE-1 from HL60 cells. PE-1 was expressed as an approximately 7.5-kb transcript in most cell lines tested. In the hairy cell leukemia line Eskol, there was an additional 1.8-kb transcript observed. PE-1 was the most common ETS domain gene found in CD34[sup +]HLA-DR[sup [minus

  6. Emission factors of unintentional HCB and PeCBz and their correlation with PCDD/PCDF.

    PubMed

    Gong, Wenwen; Fiedler, Heidelore; Liu, Xiaotu; Wang, Bin; Yu, Gang

    2017-11-01

    Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and pentachlorobenzene (PeCBz) have been listed as unintentional POPs in the annex of the Stockholm Convention and thus, attracted attention by government and researchers. Since the intentional production and use has ceased in most countries, the unintentional releases to the environment have increased. This study gathered 206 and 78 emission factors (EFs) of unintentional HCB and PeCBz from scientific publications and governmental reports, respectively. Most of the EFs referred to the release vector "air" (EFAir) and to a less extent to "product" (EFProduct). EFs were proposed for different source categories/classes used in the Toolkit according to the technologies that released the HCB or PeCBz. Overall, lowest and highest EFAir for HCB were found in the metallurgical industry range from 1 μg/t in well controlled plants (coke, iron and steel) up to 40,000 μg/t (secondary zinc). EFs for PeCBz were in similar order of magnitude. Due to lack of data, EFs to water, land or residue cannot be proposed. Using linear regression and statistical analysis such as Pearson correlation, we found strongest correlation of EFAir between HCB and PeCBz (R(2) = 0.79, P < 0.01) and weaker, but still significant, correlations for EFAir between PCDD/PCDFTEQ and HCB (R(2) = 0.56; P < 0.01) or PeCBz (R(2) = 0.31 P < 0.01) for various thermal processes. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Synthesis of isotopically labeled versions of L-MTP-PE (mifamurtide) and MDP.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuexian; Plesescu, Mihaela; Prakash, Shimoga R

    2013-01-01

    L-MTP-PE (1), an immunomodulator and its metabolite MDP (4) were synthesized from labeled l-alanine and its protected derivative, respectively. The key intermediate product for the labeled L-MTP-PE synthesis, [(13) C3 ,D4 ]-alanyl-cephalin (2A), was synthesized from [(13) C3 ,D4 ]-l-alanine (3A) in three steps. The key intermediate product for labeled MDP synthesis, amine 11, was prepared from [(13) C3 ,(15) N]-Boc-l-alanine (5A) in two steps.

  8. Fabrication and properties of HDPE/CF/CaCO3/PE-g-MAH quaternary composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X.-L.; Ming, H.; Yin, H.

    2015-07-01

    In this research, carbon fiber (CF) was taken as reinforcing filler, nano calcium carbonate (CaCO3) was taken as toughener, maleic anhydride grafted polyethylene (PE-g-MAH) was taken as compatibilizer for high density polyethylene (HDPE) modification. Through orthogonal test, the influence of different amount of ingredient CF, CaCO3 and PE-g-MAH on the mechanical properties of the HDPE composites was researched. The optimal composition of the quaternary composites with the good toughness and high strength was obtained.

  9. 2PE-STED microscopy with a single Ti:sapphire laser for reduced illumination.

    PubMed

    Li, Qifeng; Wang, Yang; Chen, Da; Wu, Sherry S H

    2014-01-01

    We reported a new effective approach to carry out two-photon excitation stimulated emission depletion (2PE-STED) microscopy using a single Ti:sapphire laser system. With an acoustic-optic Bragg cell, the modulated-CW 2PE STED microscope had the benefits of both CW and pulse approaches: lower input power, simple optical scheme and no complicated synchronization. Additionally, it also took advantages of fluorescence yield increasing. The sub-diffraction-limit resolution was demonstrated using ATTO 425-tagged clathrin-coated vesicles.

  10. Impact of pe_pgrs33 Gene Polymorphisms on Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection and Pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Camassa, Serena; Palucci, Ivana; Iantomasi, Raffaella; Cubeddu, Tiziana; Minerva, Mariachiara; De Maio, Flavio; Jouny, Samuel; Petruccioli, Elisa; Goletti, Delia; Ria, Francesco; Sali, Michela; Sanguinetti, Maurizio; Manganelli, Riccardo; Rocca, Stefano; Brodin, Priscille; Delogu, Giovanni

    2017-01-01

    PE_PGRS33 is a surface-exposed protein of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) which exerts its role in macrophages entry and immunomodulation. In this study, we aimed to investigate the polymorphisms in the pe_pgrs33 gene of Mtb clinical isolates and evaluate their impact on protein functions. We sequenced pe_pgrs33 in a collection of 135 clinical strains, genotyped by 15-loci MIRU-VNTR and spoligotyping and belonging to the Mtb complex (MTBC). Overall, an association between pe_pgrs33 alleles and MTBC genotypes was observed and a dN/dS ratio of 0.64 was obtained, suggesting that a purifying selective pressure is acting on pe_pgrs33 against deleterious SNPs. Among a total of 19 pe_pgrs33 alleles identified in this study, 5 were cloned and used to complement the pe_pgrs33 knock-out mutant strain of Mtb H37Rv (MtbΔ33) to assess the functional impact of the respective polymorphisms in in vitro infections of primary macrophages. In human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) infection, large in-frame and frameshift mutations were unable to restore the phenotype of Mtb H37Rv, impairing the cell entry capacity of Mtb, but neither its intracellular replication rate nor its immunomodulatory properties. In vivo studies performed in the murine model of tuberculosis (TB) demonstrated that the MtbΔ33 mutant strain was not impaired in the ability to infect and replicate in the lung tissue compared to the parental strain. Interestingly, MtbΔ33 showed an enhanced virulence during the chronic steps of infection compared to Mtb H37Rv. Similarly, the complementation of MtbΔ33 with a frameshift allele also resulted in a Mtb strain capable of causing a surprisingly enhanced tissue damage in murine lungs, during the chronic steps of infection. Together, these results further support the role of PE_PGRS33 in the pathogenesis and virulence of Mtb.

  11. Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE): awareness and prophylaxis practices reported by patients with cancer.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Anita; Fullam, Lisa; Brownstein, Alan P; Maynard, Gregory A; Ansell, Jack; Varga, Elizabeth A; Friedman, Richard J; Rickles, Frederick R

    2015-01-01

    Patients with cancer are at increased risk for venous thromboembolism (VTE). An online survey to measure PE/DVT terminology awareness and understanding of VTE risks revealed 24% and 15% of the 500 cancer patients surveyed had heard of term DVT/PE; 19% and 17% could name signs/ symptoms of DVT/PE; 3% recognized cancer treatments as risk factors for DVT/PE. Only 25% of the patients received prevention education from providers; <50% received VTE prophylaxis. Cancer patient awareness of VTE terminology and cancer and/or its treatment as risk for VTE is low. More effective patient/physician dialogue about VTE risk and thromboprophylaxis is needed.

  12. Not Your Father's PE: Obesity, Exercise, and the Role of Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cawley, John; Meyerhoefer, Chad; Newhouse, David

    2006-01-01

    American children are gaining weight at an alarming rate. Since the 1960s, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the percentage of American six- to eleven-year-olds who fall into the CDC's highest weight classification for children has almost quadrupled. Requiring more physical education (PE) seems like a logical…

  13. The Disciplinary and Pleasurable Spaces of Boys' PE--The Art of Distributions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerdin, Göran

    2016-01-01

    In taking heed of the so-called "spatial turn" in social theory this paper explores how the spatial intersects with boys' performances of gender and (dis)pleasures in school physical education (PE). In particular, the paper aims to contribute to our understanding of how the organisation and implementation of physical and social spaces in…

  14. Representing Valued Bodies in PE: A Visual Inquiry with British Asian Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Joanne; Azzarito, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Background: Status or value in sport and physical education (PE) contexts is often associated with performances of highly proficient sporting bodies, which produce hierarchies of privileged and marginalised gendered and racialised positions. This may be communicated through text and images shared within school, physical cultures and media that…

  15. 23 CFR 661.33 - What percentage of IRRBP funding is available for PE and construction?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What percentage of IRRBP funding is available for PE and construction? 661.33 Section 661.33 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS INDIAN RESERVATION ROAD BRIDGE PROGRAM § 661.33 What percentage of IRRBP...

  16. 23 CFR 661.33 - What percentage of IRRBP funding is available for PE and construction?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What percentage of IRRBP funding is available for PE and construction? 661.33 Section 661.33 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS INDIAN RESERVATION ROAD BRIDGE PROGRAM § 661.33 What percentage of IRRBP...

  17. 23 CFR 661.33 - What percentage of IRRBP funding is available for PE and construction?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What percentage of IRRBP funding is available for PE and construction? 661.33 Section 661.33 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS INDIAN RESERVATION ROAD BRIDGE PROGRAM § 661.33 What percentage of IRRBP...

  18. A moso bamboo WRKY gene PeWRKY83 confers salinity tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis plants.

    PubMed

    Wu, Min; Liu, Huanlong; Han, Guomin; Cai, Ronghao; Pan, Feng; Xiang, Yan

    2017-09-15

    The WRKY family are transcription factors, involved in plant development, and response to biotic and abiotic stresses. Moso bamboo is an important bamboo that has high ecological, economic and cultural value and is widely distributed in the south of China. In this study, we performed a genome-wide identification of WRKY members in moso bamboo and identified 89 members. By comparative analysis in six grass genomes, we found the WRKY gene family may have experienced or be experiencing purifying selection. Based on relative expression levels among WRKY IIc members under three abiotic stresses, PeWRKY83 functioned as a transcription factor and was selected for detailed analysis. The transgenic Arabidopsis of PeWRKY83 showed superior physiological properties compared with the WT under salt stress. Overexpression plants were less sensitive to ABA at both germination and postgermination stages and accumulated more endogenous ABA under salt stress conditions. Further studies demonstrated that overexpression of PeWRKY83 could regulate the expression of some ABA biosynthesis genes (AtAAO3, AtNCED2, AtNCED3), signaling genes (AtABI1, AtPP2CA) and responsive genes (AtRD29A, AtRD29B, AtABF1) under salt stress. Together, these results suggested that PeWRKY83 functions as a novel WRKY-related TF which plays a positive role in salt tolerance by regulating stress-induced ABA synthesis.

  19. Not Your Father's PE: Obesity, Exercise, and the Role of Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cawley, John; Meyerhoefer, Chad; Newhouse, David

    2006-01-01

    American children are gaining weight at an alarming rate. Since the 1960s, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the percentage of American six- to eleven-year-olds who fall into the CDC's highest weight classification for children has almost quadrupled. Requiring more physical education (PE) seems like a logical…

  20. Meet EPA Scientist Carolina Peñalva-Arana, Ph.D.

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA scientist Carolina Peñalva-Arana, Ph.D., researches how to use molecular data to determine the health of an ecosystem. She and her colleagues are observing these tiny changes in ecosystem health to predict when an ecosystem is impaired earlier

  1. PeV Neutrinos Observed by IceCube from Cores of Active Galactic Nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecker, Floyd W.

    2013-01-01

    I show that the high energy neutrino flux predicted to arise from active galactic nuclei cores can explain the PeV neutrinos detected by IceCube without conflicting with the constraints from the observed extragalactic cosmic-ray and gamma-ray backgrounds.

  2. Addressing Educational Reform: Exploring PE Metrics as a System to Measure Student Achievement in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hushman, Glenn; Hushman, Carolyn; Carbonneau, Kira

    2015-01-01

    The current educational reform movement in the United States is focused on measuring the effectiveness of teachers. One component of teacher effectiveness is student achievement. The effectiveness of using PE Metrics as a measure of student achievement in a physical activity setting with a low socioeconomic, culturally diverse population was…

  3. But I like PE: Factors Associated with Enjoyment of Physical Education Class in Middle School Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barr-Anderson, Daheia J.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Schmitz, Kathryn H.; Ward, Dianne S.; Conway, Terry L.; Pratt, Charlotte; Baggett, Chris D.; Lytle, Leslie; Pate, Russell R.

    2008-01-01

    The current study examined associations between physical education (PE) class enjoyment and sociodemographic, personal, and perceived school environment factors among early adolescent girls. Participants included 1,511 sixth-grade girls who completed baseline assessments for the Trial of Activity in Adolescent Girls, with 50% indicating they…

  4. 23 CFR 661.33 - What percentage of IRRBP funding is available for PE and construction?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... construction? 661.33 Section 661.33 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS INDIAN RESERVATION ROAD BRIDGE PROGRAM § 661.33 What percentage of IRRBP funding is available for PE and construction? Up to 15 percent of the funding made available in any fiscal...

  5. 23 CFR 661.33 - What percentage of IRRBP funding is available for PE and construction?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... construction? 661.33 Section 661.33 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS INDIAN RESERVATION ROAD BRIDGE PROGRAM § 661.33 What percentage of IRRBP funding is available for PE and construction? Up to 15 percent of the funding made available in any fiscal...

  6. Development of PE Metrics Elementary Assessments for National Physical Education Standard 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyson, Ben; Placek, Judith H.; Graber, Kim C.; Fisette, Jennifer L.; Rink, Judy; Zhu, Weimo; Avery, Marybell; Franck, Marian; Fox, Connie; Raynes, De; Park, Youngsik

    2011-01-01

    This article describes how assessments in PE Metrics were developed following six steps: (a) determining test blueprint, (b) writing assessment tasks and scoring rubrics, (c) establishing content validity, (d) piloting assessments, (e) conducting item analysis, and (f) modifying the assessments based on analysis and expert opinion. A task force,…

  7. Application of Innovative P&E Method at Technical Universities in Slovakia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nemec, Miroslav; Krišták, Luboš; Hockicko, Peter; Danihelová, Zuzana; Velmovská, Klára

    2017-01-01

    The paper deals with innovative teaching methods at universities. The result of this effort is the interactive P&E method, whose main idea is the interactive work with students while solving problem tasks. The main aim of the given method is to change the students' position, by means of experiment analyses and qualitative tasks, from a passive…

  8. Addressing Educational Reform: Exploring PE Metrics as a System to Measure Student Achievement in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hushman, Glenn; Hushman, Carolyn; Carbonneau, Kira

    2015-01-01

    The current educational reform movement in the United States is focused on measuring the effectiveness of teachers. One component of teacher effectiveness is student achievement. The effectiveness of using PE Metrics as a measure of student achievement in a physical activity setting with a low socioeconomic, culturally diverse population was…

  9. Bourdieu and the Social Space of the PE Class: Reproduction of Doxa through Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Lisa

    2004-01-01

    This paper considers the social space of one physical education (PE) class in the middle years of schooling. I endeavour to tease out the dialectic between the discursive spaces available to the students positioned within this space and the construction and negotiation of student subjectivities. Using the conceptual tools of field, habitus,…

  10. Representing Valued Bodies in PE: A Visual Inquiry with British Asian Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Joanne; Azzarito, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Background: Status or value in sport and physical education (PE) contexts is often associated with performances of highly proficient sporting bodies, which produce hierarchies of privileged and marginalised gendered and racialised positions. This may be communicated through text and images shared within school, physical cultures and media that…

  11. Initial Validation of the Physical Education Marginalization and Isolation Survey (PE-MAIS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaudreault, Karen Lux; Richards, K. Andrew R.; Mays Woods, Amelia

    2017-01-01

    Qualitative research conducted through occupational socialization theory has documented that physical educators feel marginalized and isolated in schools. We sought to propose and provide initial evidence of validity and reliability for the Physical Education Marginalization and Isolation Survey (PE-MAIS). Physical educators (n = 420) completed an…

  12. Transmission and reflective ultrasound images using PE-CMOS sensor array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo, Shih-Chung B.; Liu, Chu Chuan; Freedman, Matthew T.; Kula, John; Lasser, Bob; Lasser, Marvin E.; Wang, Yue

    2005-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the imaging capability of a CMOS (PE-CMOS) ultrasound sensing array coated with piezoelectric material. There are three main components in the laboratory setup: (1) a transducer operated at 3.5MHz-7MHz frequency generating unfocused ultrasound plane waves, (2) an acoustic compound lens that collects the energy and focuses ultrasound signals onto the detector array, and (3) a PE-CMOS ultrasound sensing array (Model I400, Imperium Inc. Silver Spring, MD) that receives the ultrasound and converts the energy to analog voltage followed by a digital conversion. The PE-CMOS array consists of 128×128 pixel elements with 85μm per pixel. The major improvement of the new ultrasound sensor array has been in its dynamic range. We found that the current PE-CMOS ultrasound sensor (Model I400) possesses a dynamic range up to 70dB. The system can generate ultrasound attenuation images of soft tissues which are similar to digital images obtained from an x-ray projection system. In the paper, we also show that the prototype system can image bone fractures using reflective geometry.

  13. PE on YouTube--Investigating Participation in Physical Education Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quennerstedt, Mikael

    2013-01-01

    Background: In this article, students' diverse ways of participating in physical education (PE) practice shown in clips on YouTube were investigated. YouTube is the largest user-generated video-sharing website on the Internet, where different video content is presented. The clips on YouTube, as used in this paper, can be seen as a user-generated…

  14. Independent adsorption of monovalent cations and cationic polymers at PE/PG lipid membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khomich, Daria A.; Nesterenko, Alexey M.; Kostritskii, Andrei Yu; Kondinskaia, Diana A.; Ermakov, Yuri A.; Gurtovenko, Andrey A.

    2017-01-01

    Synthetic cationic polymers constitute a wide class of polymeric biocides. Commonly their antimicrobial effect is associated to their interaction with bacterial membranes. In the present study we analyze the interaction of various cationic polymers with model bacterial membranes comprised of a mixture of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and phosphatidylglycerol (PG). We describe a polymer-membrane interaction as a process of modification of the surface charge. It is well known that small monovalent inorganic cations (Na+, K+) cannot overcharge the surface of a bilayer containing anionic lipids. In contrast, polycations are able to overcharge anionic membranes and demonstrate a very large input to the electric field distribution at the membrane-water interface. We aimed here to study the electrostatic effects associated with the interaction of polycations of different types with a model lipid membrane whose composition closely resembles that of bacterial membranes (PE:PG = 1:4). Four different cationic polymers (polyvinylamine, polyallylamine, poly-L-lysine and polyethylenimine) were adsorbed at a model PE/PG bilayer in MD simulations. Adsorption of sodium cations was inspected separately for PE/PG bilayers of different composition and cation’s binding parameters were determined. From computational experiments and consequent theoretical analysis we concluded that sodium adsorption at anionic binding sites does not depend on the presence of polycations. Therefore, we hypothesize that antimicrobial activity of the studied cationic polymers should depend on the ionic composition of the medium.

  15. 77 FR 43873 - P.E. Partners III, LLC, et al.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-26

    ..., sections 30(a), (b), (e), and (h) of the Act and the Rules and Regulations and rule 38a-1 under the Act...) and (j) and 30(a), (b), (e) and (h) of the Act and the Rules and ] Regulations, and rule 38a-1 under... COMMISSION P.E. Partners III, LLC, et al.; Notice of Application July 20, 2012. AGENCY: Securities and...

  16. The Disciplinary and Pleasurable Spaces of Boys' PE--The Art of Distributions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerdin, Göran

    2016-01-01

    In taking heed of the so-called "spatial turn" in social theory this paper explores how the spatial intersects with boys' performances of gender and (dis)pleasures in school physical education (PE). In particular, the paper aims to contribute to our understanding of how the organisation and implementation of physical and social spaces in…

  17. Preparation Strategies of Osteopathic Medical Students for the COMLEX-USA Level 2-PE.

    PubMed

    Sandella, Jeanne M; Peters, Alex; Smith, Larissa L; Gimpel, John R

    2016-04-01

    Since 2002, osteopathic medical schools have made curricular changes to further enhance the clinical skills of their students, to prepare them for residency training, and to pass the Comprehensive Osteopathic Medical Licensing Examination-USA Level 2-Performance Evaluation (COMLEX-USA Level 2-PE). To report how students at osteopathic medical schools prepare for the COMLEX-USA Level 2-PE, and to investigate the effect of these techniques on examination performance. A standardized survey was given to students before the beginning of their examination to assess the preparation of osteopathic medical students for the COMLEX-USA Level 2-PE, such as coursework, orientation materials, and standardized patient (SP) encounters. Surveys that were completed by first-time test takers during the 2013-2014 and 2014-2015 test cycles were included in this study. Of 9120 surveys administered, 8733 were completed, achieving a response rate of 95.8%. Of those 8733 respondents, 8706 students (99.7%) reported having SP encounters during the first and second year of medical school, and 7379 (84%) reported having at least 1 SP encounter in years 3 and 4. Of 8733 students, 6079 (70%) reported receiving feedback from an osteopathic physician on their SP encounters, and 6049 (69%) and 6253 (72%) reported having viewed the COMLEX-USA Level 2-PE orientation video online and having read the examination's orientation guide, respectively. The largest difference in preparation between students who passed the COMLEX-USA Level 2-PE and students who did not was a prerequisite SP examination at their school, with 5574 students (68.9%) who passed reporting having participated compared with 364 students (56.5%) who failed. None of the differences in clinical skills training and test preparation was associated with statistically significant differences in pass or fail status. Osteopathic medical students use a variety of methods to enhance their clinical skills in preparation for the COMLEX-USA Level 2

  18. Feeling the Texture of Vacuum---Laser Acceleration toward PeV---

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tajima, T.; Kando, M.; Teshima, M.

    2011-03-01

    We contemplate if there is a way to reach energies that allow us to probe the tiniest structures in the physical world in a laboratory. Identified are the method of laser acceleration to meet this challenge and a set of ballpark parameters for laser, plasma, and accelerator technologies that are defined for accelerated electron energies reaching as high as PeV. These parameters are carved out from the theoretical laws that govern the physics of laser acceleration, theoretically suggested and experimentally explored over a wide range in recent years. We extrapolate this knowledge toward PeV energies (over 1000 stages of TeV). In the density regime on the order of 10^{17} cm^{-3}, it is possible to consider the application of the existing NIF (or LMJ) or its extended lasers to their appropriate retrofitting for this purpose. Such energies by themselves may allow us to begin to feel and study the physics of the `texture of vacuum'. This is an example of fundamental physics exploration without the need of luminosity paradigm and even the production of a single particle at PeV per shot amounts to useful physics at such an extreme energy that far surpasses the contemporary energy horizon in the laboratory. By converting accelerated electrons with extreme energies to like-energy gamma photons, and let them propagate through vacuum over a sufficient distance, these extremely high energy (and therefore short wavelength) photons experience smallest vacuum structures and fluctuations. We introduce an ultrashort detection method of PeV energy γ's with sub-fs sensitivity by the novel combination of the Schwinger-like vacuum emission of e^-e^+ by the PeV γ and the carrier-envelope phase (CEP) laser streaking technique with the attosecond phase accuracy. This compilation of the ability to reach PeV and to measure the fs time resolution of PeV γ photons can provide valuable data if and how gamma photons still obey the premise of relativity or the vacuum texture begins to alter

  19. Overexpression of PeHA1 enhances hydrogen peroxide signaling in salt-stressed Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Meijuan; Wang, Yang; Sun, Jian; Ding, Mingquan; Deng, Shurong; Hou, Peichen; Ma, Xujun; Zhang, Yuhong; Wang, Feifei; Sa, Gang; Tan, Yeqing; Lang, Tao; Li, Jinke; Shen, Xin; Chen, Shaoliang

    2013-10-01

    The plant plasma membrane (PM) H(+)-ATPase plays a crucial role in controlling K(+)/Na(+) homeostasis under salt stress. Our previous microarray analysis indicated that Populus euphratica retained a higher abundance of PM H(+)-ATPase transcript versus a salt-sensitive poplar. To clarify the roles of the PM H(+)-ATPase in salt sensing and adaptation, we isolated the PM H(+)-ATPase gene PeHA1 from P. euphratica and introduced it into Arabidopsis thaliana. Compared to wild-type, PeHA1-transgenic Arabidopsis had a greater germination rate, root length, and biomass under NaCl stress (50-150 mM). Ectopic expression of PeHA1 remarkably enhanced the capacity to control the homeostasis of ions and reactive oxygen species in salinized Arabidopsis. Flux data from salinized roots showed that transgenic plants exhibited a more pronounced Na(+)/H(+) antiport and less reduction of K(+) influx versus wild-type. Enhanced PM ATP hydrolytic activity, proton pumping, and Na(+)/H(+) antiport in PeHA1-transgenic plants, were consistent to those observed in vivo, i.e., H(+) extrusion, external acidification, and Na(+) efflux. Activities of the antioxidant enzymes ascorbate peroxidase and catalase were typically higher in transgenic seedlings irrespective of salt concentration. In transgenic Arabidopsis roots, H2O2 production was higher under control conditions and increased more rapidly than wild-type when plants were subjected to NaCl treatment. Interestingly, transgenic plants were unable to control K(+)/Na(+) homeostasis when salt-induced H2O2 production was inhibited by diphenylene iodonium, an inhibitor of NADPH oxidase. These observations suggest that PeHA1 accelerates salt tolerance partially through rapid H2O2 production upon salt treatment, which triggers adjustments in K(+)/Na(+) homeostasis and antioxidant defense in Arabidopsis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Anti-melanoma activity of the 9.2.27PE immunotoxin in dacarbazine resistant cells.

    PubMed

    Risberg, Karianne; Fodstad, Oystein; Andersson, Yvonne

    2010-04-01

    We have earlier shown that the 9.2.27 Pseudomonas Exotoxin A (PE) immunotoxin (IT) efficiently kills melanoma cells through inhibition of protein synthesis followed by some morphologic and biochemical features of apoptosis, a different cell killing mechanism than the one caused by Dacarbazine (DTIC), a chemotherapeutic drug used to treat malignant melanoma. To examine whether induced DTIC resistance also is a determining factor for the effectiveness of 9.2.27PE IT, we developed a DTIC resistant subline, FEMX-200DR, from the DTIC sensitive cell line FEMX. The cell variants were treated with 9.2.27PE, an IT binding to the high molecular weight-melanoma associated antigen (HMW-MAA) expressed on most malignant melanoma cells. The IT was equally effective in killing the FEMX-200DR and the FEMX cells, and the cell death was primarily caused by inhibition of protein synthesis. The DNA repair enzyme and apoptotic marker PARP, a substrate of caspase-3, was inactivated, although we observed only a minor activation of caspase-3 and caspase-8, intracellular proteases involved in apoptosis. In addition to being DTIC resistant, the FEMX-200DR cells were also more resistant to apoptosis than the parent cells as a 3 times higher concentration of the apoptotic inducer Staurosporine was needed to obtain IC50. Furthermore, in early passage malignant melanoma cell lines established from lymph node metastases, the 9.2.27PE caused a time-dependent and dose-dependent decrease in cell viability independent of their DTIC sensitivity. These findings show that the 9.2.27PE IT efficiently can cause cell death in malignant melanoma cells independent of their level of resistance to apoptosis and DTIC.

  1. αs-Casein-PE6400 mixtures: surface properties, miscibility and self-assembly.

    PubMed

    Kessler, Anne; Menéndez-Aguirre, Orquidéa; Hinrichs, Jörg; Stubenrauch, Cosima; Weiss, Jochen

    2014-06-01

    Surface properties, miscibility and self-assembly of mixtures of a food-grade αs-casein and the triblock copolymer PE6400 (PEO13-PPO30-PEO13) were examined. The properties at the surface were determined by surface pressure measurements for a 1:1 molar mixture. Comparison of the measured with the calculated isotherms show attractive interactions at surface pressures above 9mN/m. The miscibility gaps of solutions containing 0.004-0.2mmol/l αs-casein and 0.02-0.1mol/l polymer were examined. It was found that a one-phase region exists at distinct mixing ratios and temperatures. Comparison of the cloud points of mixtures of αs-casein and PE6400 with pure αs-casein showed that the presence of the triblock copolymer enhanced the solubility of the protein. The ζ-potential of the αs-casein solution decreased by addition of PE6400 to zero. Our results thus suggest that αs-casein and PE6400 are miscible. The results of the cloud point and ζ-potential measurements were explained by formation of a mixed aggregate where the PPO chains are anchored inside the hydrophobic part of the αs-casein while the PEO chains cover the charged hydrophilic part of the αs-casein thereby leading to an increase of the cloud point and a decrease in ζ-potential. This is in agreement with the attractive interactions between αs-casein and PE6400 as observed via surface pressure measurements at the surface.

  2. Physical Education Students' Ownership, Empowerment, and Satisfaction With PE and Physical Activity.

    PubMed

    Moore, E Whitney G; Fry, Mary D

    2017-10-02

    Individuals experiencing a highly caring, task-involving, and low ego-involving exercise climate have reported greater ownership in exercise class and empowerment to exercise in general. This study examined the relationship between ownership and empowerment in exercise, with 2 context-specific outcomes, satisfaction with physical education (PE) and physical activity, respectively. Given the mission of PE to foster individuals' lifelong physical activity habit, the perceptions of high school students were collected for this study. Ownership in exercise was hypothesized to be significantly, positively correlated with students reporting satisfaction in PE more than their satisfaction in physical activity, whereas empowerment in exercise was hypothesized to be more strongly, positively correlated with students' physical activity satisfaction. A second purpose of this study was to test the measurement quality of the updated Empowerment in Exercise Scale (EES; now 13 items). High school students (N = 502, 43% female) in a Midwestern U.S. school district completed a survey. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the internal measurement structure of the EES (λ = .62-.91; McDonald's omega = .89) across student gender (strong invariance). Additionally, the structural equation modeling analysis revealed only 1 parameter moderated by the students' gender (latent mean of ownership). The hypotheses were supported, such that ownership in exercise was more strongly correlated with PE satisfaction (r = .87) and empowerment in exercise had a stronger correlation with physical activity satisfaction (r = .92). These results support the beneficial effect a satisfying experience in PE can have on students' satisfaction with physical activity outside of school.

  3. Claustral afferents of superior parietal areas PEc and PE in the macaque.

    PubMed

    Gamberini, Michela; Passarelli, Lauretta; Bakola, Sophia; Impieri, Daniele; Fattori, Patrizia; Rosa, Marcello G P; Galletti, Claudio

    2017-04-15

    The exposed surface of the primate superior parietal cortex includes two cytoarchitectonically defined areas, the PEc and PE. In the present study we describe the distribution of neurons projecting from the claustrum to these areas. Retrograde neuronal tracers were injected by direct visualization of regions of interest, and the location of injection sites was reconstructed relative to cytoarchitectural borders. For comparison, the patterns of claustral label that resulted from injections involving neighboring cytoarchitectonic areas were analyzed. We found that the claustral territories sending projections to areas PE and PEc partially overlapped zones previously shown to form projections to the posterior parietal, somatosensory, visual, and motor cortex. The projection zones to the PE and PEc overlapped extensively, and consisted of multiple patches separated by label-free zones. Most of the labeled neurons were located in the posterior-ventral part of the claustrum. Area PE received additional inputs from a posterior-dorsal part of the claustrum, which has been previously reported to project to the somatosensory cortex, while the PEc receives additional input from an anterior-ventral region of the claustrum, which has been reported to project to the visual association cortex. These observations reflect the known functional properties of the PE and PEc, with the former containing neurons that are predominantly involved in somatosensory processing, and the latter including both somatosensory and visual neurons. The present results suggest that the claustrum projections may help coordinate the activity of an extensive neural circuit involved in sensory and motor processing for movement execution. J. Comp. Neurol. 525:1475-1488, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. (Re)Telling Lived Experiences in Different Tales: A Potential Pathway in Working towards an Inclusive PE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg Svendby, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    Existing research reveals that there are large discrepancies between the rhetoric of inclusive practice and what actually takes place in physical education (PE) lessons. PE appears to be a conservative subject, where little has changed over the years, despite increased diversity in schools and new modes of movement in society at large. In this…

  5. 23 CFR 661.41 - After a bridge project has been completed (either PE or construction) what happens with the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS INDIAN RESERVATION ROAD BRIDGE PROGRAM § 661.41 After a bridge project has been completed (either PE or construction) what happens with... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false After a bridge project has been completed (either PE or...

  6. 23 CFR 661.41 - After a bridge project has been completed (either PE or construction) what happens with the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS INDIAN RESERVATION ROAD BRIDGE PROGRAM § 661.41 After a bridge project has been completed (either PE or construction) what happens with... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false After a bridge project has been completed (either PE or...

  7. 23 CFR 661.41 - After a bridge project has been completed (either PE or construction) what happens with the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS INDIAN RESERVATION ROAD BRIDGE PROGRAM § 661.41 After a bridge project has been completed (either PE or construction) what happens with... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false After a bridge project has been completed (either PE or...

  8. Detection of a multi-PeV neutrino-induced muon event from the Northern sky with IceCube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoenen, Sebastian; Raedel, Leif

    2015-07-01

    We observed a muon event with an energy of multiple PeV originating from a neutrino interaction in the vicinity of the IceCube detector. IceCube is a cubic-kilometer neutrino detector installed in the ice at the geographic South Pole mostly sensitive to neutrinos in the TeV-PeV energy range.

  9. P-E Fit as Moderator of the Accountability--Employee Reactions Relationships: Convergent Results across Two Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanivich, Stephen E.; Brees, Jeremy R.; Hochwarter, Wayne A.; Ferris, Gerald R.

    2010-01-01

    The current two-sample investigation, which incorporated Conservation of Resources (COR) and Person-Environment (P-E) fit theories, investigated the interaction effects of felt accountability x P-E fit on the work outcomes of job satisfaction, organizational commitment, depressed mood, and work intensity. Consistent with the conceptual…

  10. 23 CFR 661.41 - After a bridge project has been completed (either PE or construction) what happens with the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false After a bridge project has been completed (either PE or... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS INDIAN RESERVATION ROAD BRIDGE PROGRAM § 661.41 After a bridge project has been completed (either PE or construction) what happens with...

  11. 23 CFR 661.41 - After a bridge project has been completed (either PE or construction) what happens with the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false After a bridge project has been completed (either PE or... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS INDIAN RESERVATION ROAD BRIDGE PROGRAM § 661.41 After a bridge project has been completed (either PE or construction) what happens with...

  12. Learning-related plasticity in PE1 and other mushroom body-extrinsic neurons in the honeybee brain.

    PubMed

    Okada, Ryuichi; Rybak, Jürgen; Manz, Gisela; Menzel, Randolf

    2007-10-24

    Extracellular recording were performed from mushroom body-extrinsic neurons while the animal was exposed to differential conditioning to two odors, the forward-paired conditioned stimulus (CS+; the odor that will be or has been paired with sucrose reward) and the unpaired CS- (the odor that will be or has been specifically unpaired with sucrose reward). A single neuron, the pedunculus-extrinsic neuron number 1 (PE1), was identified on the basis of its firing pattern, and other neurons were grouped together as non-PE1 neurons. PE1 reduces its response to CS+ and does not change its response to CS- after learning. Most non-PE1 neurons do not change their responses during learning, but some decrease, and one neuron increases its response to CS+. PE1 receives inhibitory synaptic inputs, and neuroanatomical studies indicate closely attached GABA-immune reactive profiles originating at least partially from neurons of the protocerebral-calycal tract (PCT). Thus, either the associative reduction of odor responses originates within the PE1 via a long-term depression (LTD)-like mechanism, or PE1 receives stronger inhibition for the learned odor from the PCT neurons or from Kenyon cells. In any event, as the decreased firing of PE1 correlates with the increased probability of behavioral responses, our data suggest that the mushroom bodies exert general inhibition over sensory-motor connections, which relaxes selectively for learned stimuli.

  13. (Re)Telling Lived Experiences in Different Tales: A Potential Pathway in Working towards an Inclusive PE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg Svendby, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    Existing research reveals that there are large discrepancies between the rhetoric of inclusive practice and what actually takes place in physical education (PE) lessons. PE appears to be a conservative subject, where little has changed over the years, despite increased diversity in schools and new modes of movement in society at large. In this…

  14. Game Changers: New Concepts of PE and Sports Programs Are Making It More Fun for Everyone to Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCollum, Sean

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author reports an up-and-coming generation of teachers and coaches who are dedicated to inclusive PE practices. They are passionate about helping all kids discover the physical, social, and emotional benefits--as well as pleasures--of physical activity. The benefits of inclusive PE practices are too great to forfeit, says Lynn…

  15. "A Clear and Obvious "Ability" to "Perform Physical Activity"": Revisiting Physical Education Teachers' Perceptions of Talent in PE and Sport

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croston, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    Background: This paper examines physical education (PE) teachers' perceptions of talent in PE and sport within the context of English policy, where the process of identifying talent has been formalised and supported through specific resources (YST 2009). English policy has merged educational and sporting targets, which has resulted in a shift in…

  16. "Governmentality" in the Origins of European Female PE and Sport: The Spanish Case Study (1883-1936)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Raul Sanchez; Herraiz, Antonio Rivero

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is twofold: (1) to contribute to the analysis of the origins of modern European female PE and sports from a power perspective, inspired by Foucault's work; and (2) to present a detailed analysis of female PE and sport in Spain (1883-1936) as a specific European case study. It is argued that these physical activities could…

  17. Swedish Primary-School Teachers' Attitudes to Inclusion--The Case of PE and Pupils with Physical Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jerlinder, Kajsa; Danermark, Berth; Gill, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Teachers play a decisive role in making inclusive education a reality. The particular case of inclusion in physical education (PE) poses a specific challenge to teaching practice. How PE teachers view inclusion may provide special insights into teachers' general attitudes toward inclusion and inclusive practices in the general school curriculum.…

  18. 78 FR 56690 - PE Hydro Generation, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission PE Hydro Generation, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate...-referenced proceeding, of PE Hydro Generation, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  19. "A Clear and Obvious "Ability" to "Perform Physical Activity"": Revisiting Physical Education Teachers' Perceptions of Talent in PE and Sport

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croston, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    Background: This paper examines physical education (PE) teachers' perceptions of talent in PE and sport within the context of English policy, where the process of identifying talent has been formalised and supported through specific resources (YST 2009). English policy has merged educational and sporting targets, which has resulted in a shift in…

  20. The MOC31PE immunotoxin reduces cell migration and induces gene expression and cell death in ovarian cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The standard treatment of ovarian cancer with chemotherapy often leads to drug resistance and relapse of the disease, and the need for development of novel therapy alternatives is obvious. The MOC31PE immunotoxin binds to the cell surface antigen EpCAM, which is expressed by the majority of epithelial cancers including ovarian carcinomas, and we studied the cytotoxic effects of MOC31PE in ovarian cancer cells. Methods Investigation of the effects of MOC31PE treatment on protein synthesis, cell viability, proliferation and gene expression of the ovarian cancer cell lines B76 and HOC7. Results MOC31PE treatment for 24 h caused a dose-dependent reduction of protein synthesis with ID50 values of less than 10 ng/ml, followed by reduced cell viability. In a gene expression array monitoring the expression of 84 key genes in cancer pathways, 13 of the genes were differentially expressed by MOC31PE treatment in comparison to untreated cells. By combining MOC31PE and the immune suppressor cyclosporin A (CsA) the MOC31PE effect on protein synthesis inhibition and cell viability increased tenfold. Cell migration was also reduced, both in the individual MOC31PE and CsA treatment, but even more when combining MOC31PE and CsA. In tumor metastasis PCR arrays, 23 of 84 genes were differentially expressed comparing CsA versus MOC31PE + CsA treatment. Increased expression of the tumor suppressor KISS1 and the nuclear receptor NR4A3 was observed, and the differential candidate gene expression was confirmed in complementary qPCR analyses. For NR4A3 this was not accompanied by increased protein expression. However, a subcellular fractionation assay revealed increased mitochondrial NR4A3 in MOC31PE treated cells, suggesting a role for this protein in MOC31PE-induced apoptotic cell death. Conclusion The present study demonstrates that MOC31PE may become a new targeted therapy for ovarian cancer and that the MOC31PE anti-cancer effect is potentiated by CsA. PMID:24528603

  1. Preliminary experiments to estimate the PE.MA.M (PElagic MArine Mesocosm) offshore behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albani, Marta; Piermattei, Viviana; Stefanì, Chiara; Marcelli, Marco

    2016-04-01

    The phytoplankton community is controlled not only by local environmental conditions but also by physical processes occurring on different temporal and spatial scales. Hydrodynamic local conditions play an important role in marine ecosystems. Several studies have shown that hydrodynamic conditions can influence the phytoplankton settling velocity, vertical and horizontal distribution and formation of cyanobacterial blooms. Mesocosms are useful structures to simulate marine environment at mesoscale resolution; allowing to closely approximate biotic or abiotic parameters of interest directly in nature. In this work an innovative structure named PE.MA.M (PElagic MArine Mesocosm) is presented and tested. Laboratory experiments have been conducted in order to observe seasonal variations of biomass behaviour in two different hydrodynamic conditions: outside as well as whithin the PE.MA.M. We have evaluated whether it is possible to isolate a natural system from external water mass hydrodynamic exchanges and to assume that phytoplankton cells' transition is limited at the net and sea interface. Preliminary experiments test the isolating capacity of the net, to determine the currents' attenuation rate and to estimate the possible PE.MA.M. offshore behaviour. In the first investigation, we monitored the diffusion of phytoplankton cells. The PE.MA.M. exterior and interior were simulated using a plexiglass tank divided into two half-tanks (Aout-Bin) by a septum consisting of a net like a PE.MA.M. The tank was filled up with 10 L of water and only the half-tank Aout was filled up with 10 ml of phytoplankton culture (Clorella sp.). We monitored the chlorophyll concentrations for 24 hours. The two tanks had similar concentrations after 4 hours (2.70322 mg/m³ Aout and 2.37245 mg/m3 Bin) and this constant relationship was maintened until the end of the test. In the second investigation we used clod cards to measure water motions.We conducted two experiments within tank, the first

  2. EFFECTS OF TRITIUM EXPOSURE ON UHMW-PE, PTFE, AND VESPEL

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, E; Kirk Shanahan, K

    2006-05-31

    Samples of three polymers, Ultra-High Molecular Weight Polyethylene (UHMW-PE), polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE, also known as Teflon{reg_sign}), and Vespel{reg_sign} polyimide were exposed to 1 atmosphere of tritium gas at ambient temperature for varying times up to 2.3 years in closed containers. Sample mass and size measurements (to calculate density), spectra-colorimetry, dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) were employed to characterize the effects of tritium exposure on these samples. Changes of the tritium exposure gas itself were characterized at the end of exposure by measuring total pressure and by mass spectroscopic analysis of the gas composition. None of the polymers exhibited significant changes of density. The color of initially white UHMW-PE and PTFE dramatically darkened to the eye and the color also significantly changed as measured by colorimetry. The bulk of UHMW-PE darkened just like the external surfaces, however the fracture surface of PTFE appeared white compared to the PTFE external surfaces. The white interior could have been formed while the sample was breaking or could reflect the extra tritium dose at the surface directly from the gas. The dynamic mechanical response of UHMW-PE was typical of radiation effects on polymers- an initial stiffening (increased storage modulus) and reduction of viscous behavior after three months exposure, followed by lowering of the storage modulus after one year exposure and longer. The storage modulus of PTFE increased through about nine months tritium exposure, then the samples became too weak to handle or test using DMA. Characterization of Vespel{reg_sign} using DMA was problematic--sample-to-sample variations were significant and no systematic change with tritium exposure could be discerned. Isotopic exchange and incorporation of tritium into UHMW-PE (exchanging for protium) and into PTFE (exchanging for fluorine) was observed by FT-IR using an attenuated

  3. PeTTSy: a computational tool for perturbation analysis of complex systems biology models.

    PubMed

    Domijan, Mirela; Brown, Paul E; Shulgin, Boris V; Rand, David A

    2016-03-10

    Over the last decade sensitivity analysis techniques have been shown to be very useful to analyse complex and high dimensional Systems Biology models. However, many of the currently available toolboxes have either used parameter sampling, been focused on a restricted set of model observables of interest, studied optimisation of a objective function, or have not dealt with multiple simultaneous model parameter changes where the changes can be permanent or temporary. Here we introduce our new, freely downloadable toolbox, PeTTSy (Perturbation Theory Toolbox for Systems). PeTTSy is a package for MATLAB which implements a wide array of techniques for the perturbation theory and sensitivity analysis of large and complex ordinary differential equation (ODE) based models. PeTTSy is a comprehensive modelling framework that introduces a number of new approaches and that fully addresses analysis of oscillatory systems. It examines sensitivity analysis of the models to perturbations of parameters, where the perturbation timing, strength, length and overall shape can be controlled by the user. This can be done in a system-global setting, namely, the user can determine how many parameters to perturb, by how much and for how long. PeTTSy also offers the user the ability to explore the effect of the parameter perturbations on many different types of outputs: period, phase (timing of peak) and model solutions. PeTTSy can be employed on a wide range of mathematical models including free-running and forced oscillators and signalling systems. To enable experimental optimisation using the Fisher Information Matrix it efficiently allows one to combine multiple variants of a model (i.e. a model with multiple experimental conditions) in order to determine the value of new experiments. It is especially useful in the analysis of large and complex models involving many variables and parameters. PeTTSy is a comprehensive tool for analysing large and complex models of regulatory and

  4. Expression of the phycoerythrin gene of Gracilaria lemaneiformis (Rhodophyta) in E. coli and evaluation of the bioactivity of recombinant PE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Ruobing; Sui, Zhenghong; Zhang, Xuecheng; Zhang, Shuang; Qin, Song

    2007-10-01

    Phycoerythrin (PE) is one of the most important proteins involved in light capturing during photosynthesis in red algae. Its potential biological activities had gained wide concerns. In the present study, tumor cytotoxic and hydroxyl radical assay were preformed to detect the bioactivity of recombinant PE. Recombinant plasmids pGEX-PE and pBGL were transformed into E. coli BL21 to make two recombinant strains BEX (pGEX-PE) and BGL (pBGL). PE expressing in BEX (pGEX-PE) was validated by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting analysis. SDS-PAGE analysis indicated that the PE-GST fusion protein was mostly inclusion bodies. Specific expression of PE was confirmed by Western blotting analysis. The recombinant E. coli BEX (pGEX-PE) cells were collected and sonicated. The supernatants were reserved for the tumor cytotoxic experiments. The result of tumor cytotoxic assay indicated that the supernatants containing PE had the activity of inhibiting the growth of Hela cells and with the increase of protein concentration, the inhibiting rate increased from 37.31% to 63.26%, which showed significant difference from the control. Hydroxyl radical scavenging effect was tested with supernatants of BEX (pGEX-PE) and BGL (pBGL) cell lysates treated with sonication and heating. For the sonication samples, the scavenging rates of the supernatants of BEX (pGEX-PE) and BGL (pBGL) cell lysates were significantly higher than the negative control BL21(pGEX-4T) ( P<0.02), and the scavenging rates increased slowly following the increase of the protein content. For the heating samples, except for the 0.2 mg mL-1 BGL (pBGL) products, the scavenging effects of the supernatants of BEX (pGEX-PE) and BGL (pBGL) cell lysates were stronger than that of negative control BL21(pGEX-4T). However, the effect intensity was not positively correlated with the increase of the protein concentration. Though a partially decreased hydroxyl radical scavenging activity was led by heating, the biological activity was still

  5. Heavy right-handed neutrino dark matter and PeV neutrinos at IceCube

    SciTech Connect

    Dev, P.S. Bhupal; Kazanas, D.; Mohapatra, R.N.; Teplitz, V.L.; Zhang, Yongchao

    2016-08-17

    We discuss a simple non-supersymmetric model based on the electroweak gauge group SU(2){sub L}×SU(2){sup ′}×U(1){sub B−L} where the lightest of the right-handed neutrinos, which are part of the leptonic doublet of SU(2){sup ′}, play the role of a long-lived unstable dark matter with mass in the multi-PeV range. We use a resonant s-channel annihilation to obtain the correct thermal relic density and relax the unitarity bound on dark matter mass. In this model, there exists a 3-body dark matter decay mode producing tau leptons and neutrinos, which could be the source for the PeV cascade events observed in the IceCube experiment. The model can be tested with more precise flavor information of the highest-energy neutrino events in future data.

  6. Atmospheric-Pressure Non-thermal Plasma-JET effects on PS and PE surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arrieta, J.; Asenjo, J.; Vargas, I.; Solis, Y.

    2015-03-01

    The Atmospheric-Pressure Non-Thermal Plasma (APNTP) has become a topic of a great interest for a wide spectrum of applications in different industry branches, including the surface of treatment processes. In this work we evaluate the effect of an argon APNTP exposure to determine changes suffered by a polystyrene (PS) and polyethylene (PE) polymer surface through RAMAN spectroscopy and SEM. It was determined that the hydrophilic change in energetic terms, i.e. surface activation in the PS and PE polymers is addition of oxygen by surface activation when the samples with jet plasma are exposed with the inert argon gas. It was possible to characterize the hydrophilic shift based on the change in intensity of the spectra.

  7. PeV neutrinos from intergalactic interactions of cosmic rays emitted by active galactic nuclei.

    PubMed

    Kalashev, Oleg E; Kusenko, Alexander; Essey, Warren

    2013-07-26

    The observed very high energy spectra of distant blazars are well described by secondary gamma rays produced in line-of-sight interactions of cosmic rays with background photons. In the absence of the cosmic-ray contribution, one would not expect to observe very hard spectra from distant sources, but the cosmic ray interactions generate very high energy gamma rays relatively close to the observer, and they are not attenuated significantly. The same interactions of cosmic rays are expected to produce a flux of neutrinos with energies peaked around 1 PeV. We show that the diffuse isotropic neutrino background from many distant sources can be consistent with the neutrino events recently detected by the IceCube experiment. We also find that the flux from any individual nearby source is insufficient to account for these events. The narrow spectrum around 1 PeV implies that some active galactic nuclei can accelerate protons to EeV energies.

  8. Testing the Dark Matter Scenario for PeV Neutrinos Observed in IceCube.

    PubMed

    Murase, Kohta; Laha, Ranjan; Ando, Shin'ichiro; Ahlers, Markus

    2015-08-14

    Late time decay of very heavy dark matter is considered as one of the possible explanations for diffuse PeV neutrinos observed in IceCube. We consider implications of multimessenger constraints, and show that proposed models are marginally consistent with the diffuse γ-ray background data. Critical tests are possible by a detailed analysis and identification of the sub-TeV isotropic diffuse γ-ray data observed by Fermi and future observations of sub-PeV γ rays by observatories like HAWC or Tibet AS+MD. In addition, with several-year observations by next-generation telescopes such as IceCube-Gen2, muon neutrino searches for nearby dark matter halos such as the Virgo cluster should allow us to rule out or support the dark matter models, independently of γ-ray and anisotropy tests.

  9. Metabolic engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae ethanol strains PE-2 and CAT-1 for efficient lignocellulosic fermentation.

    PubMed

    Romaní, Aloia; Pereira, Filipa; Johansson, Björn; Domingues, Lucília

    2015-03-01

    In this work, Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains PE-2 and CAT-1, commonly used in the Brazilian fuel ethanol industry, were engineered for xylose fermentation, where the first fermented xylose faster than the latter, but also produced considerable amounts of xylitol. An engineered PE-2 strain (MEC1121) efficiently consumed xylose in presence of inhibitors both in synthetic and corn-cob hydrolysates. Interestingly, the S. cerevisiae MEC1121 consumed xylose and glucose simultaneously, while a CEN.PK based strain consumed glucose and xylose sequentially. Deletion of the aldose reductase GRE3 lowered xylitol production to undetectable levels and increased xylose consumption rate which led to higher final ethanol concentrations. Fermentation of corn-cob hydrolysate using this strain, MEC1133, resulted in an ethanol yield of 0.47 g/g of total sugars which is 92% of the theoretical yield. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Mechanical characterisation of the TorPeDO: a low frequency gravitational force sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McManus, D. J.; Forsyth, P. W. F.; Yap, M. J.; Ward, R. L.; Shaddock, D. A.; McClelland, D. E.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.

    2017-07-01

    Newtonian noise is likely to be a future challenge at low frequencies for Advanced LIGO and other second generation gravitational wave detectors. We present the TorPeDO system: a dual torsion pendulum sensor designed to measure local gravitational forces to high precision. Gravitational forces induce a differential rotation between the two torsion beams, which is measured with an optical read-out. Both torsion pendulums have a common suspension point, tunable centre of mass, and resonant frequency. This produces a high level of mechanical common mode noise cancellation. We report on a controls prototype of the TorPeDO system, presenting the frequency response and tuning range of both pendulums. A noise budget and mechanical cross-coupling model for this system are also presented. We demonstrate frequency tuning of the two torsion pendulums to a difference of 4.3 μHz.

  11. TANAMI blazars in the IceCube PeV-neutrino fields

    DOE PAGES

    Krauß, F.

    2014-06-01

    The IceCube Collaboration has announced the discovery of a neutrino flux in excess of the atmospheric background. Owing to the steeply falling atmospheric background spectrum, events at PeV energies most likely have an extraterrestrial origin. We present the multiwavelength properties of the six radio-brightest blazars that are positionally coincident with these events using contemporaneous data of the TANAMI blazar sample, including high-resolution images and spectral energy distributions. Assuming the X-ray to γ-ray emission originates in the photoproduction of pions by accelerated protons, the integrated predicted neutrino luminosity of these sources is high enough to explain the two detected PeV events.

  12. Intraocular Ossification in the GSP/pe Chicken With Imperfect Albinism.

    PubMed

    Shibuya, K; Kinoshita, K; Mizutani, M; Oshima, A; Yamashita, R; Matsuda, Y

    2015-07-01

    The eyes of 2 male and 2 female GSP/pe chickens, the imperfect albino strain, were investigated at 52 weeks of age. Aged chickens of the GSP/pe colony became blind with bilateral ocular enlargement and opaque lenses. Affected eyes (bilateral in 2 males and unilateral in 2 females) were hard and difficult to section; histologic specimens were processed after decalcification. A large portion of the posterior chamber was occupied by cancellous bone containing fibrous and cartilaginous foci. Osseous tissues developed adjacent to the choroid, and no retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) was detected between osseous tissues and the choroid. Small segments of degenerate neuronal retina were scattered in the osseous tissue. The irises and ciliary bodies were deformed by osseous tissue, and the lenses had severe cataracts. These observations suggest that the intraocular osseous tissue may be derived from RPE in the hereditary incomplete-albino strain of chickens. © The Author(s) 2014.

  13. Perceived Research Burden Assessment (PeRBA): Instrument Development and Psychometric Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Lingler, Jennifer H; Schmidt, Karen; Gentry, Amanda; Hu, Lu; Terhorst, Lauren

    2014-01-01

    Protecting human participants requires consideration and minimization of the burdens imposed by research. Effective conceptualizations of research burden should include appraisals of indirect burdens depending on research duration, intensity, and invasiveness. Introducing the concept of perceived research burden, we developed, tested, and validated a psychometric instrument for measuring burden, using vignettes of research studies presented to research volunteers and family members. We found high internal consistency of the Perceived Research Burden Assessment (PeRBA), across research scenarios (Cronbach’s alpha .87 – .96). We demonstrated convergent validity by correlating research burden with likelihood for enrolling in a research study. Because perceived research burden was largely unrelated to perceived social support, we interpreted PeRBA as demonstrating discriminant validity. PMID:26125079

  14. [Aquatic insects and water quality in Peñas Blancas watershed and reservoir].

    PubMed

    Mora, Meyer Guevara

    2011-06-01

    The aquatic insects have been used to evaluate water quality of aquatic environments. The population of aquatic insects and the water quality of the area were characterized according to the natural and human alterations present in the study site. During the monthly-survey, pH, DO, temperature, water level, DBO, PO4 and NO3 were measured. Biological indexes (abundance, species richness and the BMWP-CR) were used to evaluate the water quality. No relation between environmental and aquatic insects was detected. Temporal and spatial differences attributed to the flow events (temporal) and the presence of Peñas Blancas reservoir (spatial). In the future, the investigations in Peñas Blancas watershed need to be focused on determining the real influence of the flows, sediment release and the possible water quality degradation because of agriculture activities.

  15. Structure of a PE-PPE-EspG complex from Mycobacterium tuberculosis reveals molecular specificity of ESX protein secretion

    DOE PAGES

    Ekiert, Damian C.; Cox, Jeffery S.

    2014-10-01

    Nearly 10% of the coding capacity of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis genome is devoted to two highly expanded and enigmatic protein families called PE and PPE, some of which are important virulence/immunogenicity factors and are secreted during infection via a unique alternative secretory system termed "type VII." How PE-PPE proteins function during infection and how they are translocated to the bacterial surface through the five distinct type VII secretion systems [ESAT-6 secretion system (ESX)] of M. tuberculosis is poorly understood. Here in this paper, we report the crystal structure of a PE-PPE heterodimer bound to ESX secretion-associated protein G (EspG), whichmore » adopts a novel fold. This PE-PPE-EspG complex, along with structures of two additional EspGs, suggests that EspG acts as an adaptor that recognizes specific PE-PPE protein complexes via extensive interactions with PPE domains, and delivers them to ESX machinery for secretion. Surprisingly, secretion of most PE-PPE proteins in M. tuberculosis is likely mediated by EspG from the ESX-5 system, underscoring the importance of ESX-5 in mycobacterial pathogenesis. Furthermore, our results indicate that PE-PPE domains function as cis-acting targeting sequences that are read out by EspGs, revealing the molecular specificity for secretion through distinct ESX pathways.« less

  16. Functional characterization of PeIF5B as eIF5B homologue from Pisum sativum.

    PubMed

    Rasheedi, Sheeba; Suragani, Madhuri; Raviprasad, Podili; Ghosh, Sudip; Suragani, Rajasekhar N V S; Ramaiah, Kolluru V A; Ehtesham, Nasreen Z

    2015-11-01

    We earlier reported 'PeIF5B' as a novel factor from Pisum sativum that has sequence similarity to eIF5B (S. Rasheedi, S. Ghosh, M. Suragani et al., P. sativum contains a factor with strong homology to eIF5B, Gene 399 (2007) 144-151). The main aim of the present study was to perform functional characterization of PeIF5B as an eIF5B homologue from plant system. PeIF5B shows binding to Met - tRNA(f)(Met), hydrolyses GTP and interacts with ribosomes. In vivo growth complementation analysis shows that PeIF5B partially complements its yeast homologue. Interestingly, PeIF5B mainly localizes in the nucleus as confirmed by nuclear localization signal (NLS) prediction, confocal imaging and immunoblots of cellular fractions. Similar to the yeast eIF5B but unlike the human orthologue, PeIF5B is an intron-less gene. This study highlights PeIF5B's role as a functional eIF5B homologue possibly participating in nuclear translation in plant system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  17. Structure of a PE-PPE-EspG complex from Mycobacterium tuberculosis reveals molecular specificity of ESX protein secretion.

    PubMed

    Ekiert, Damian C; Cox, Jeffery S

    2014-10-14

    Nearly 10% of the coding capacity of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis genome is devoted to two highly expanded and enigmatic protein families called PE and PPE, some of which are important virulence/immunogenicity factors and are secreted during infection via a unique alternative secretory system termed "type VII." How PE-PPE proteins function during infection and how they are translocated to the bacterial surface through the five distinct type VII secretion systems [ESAT-6 secretion system (ESX)] of M. tuberculosis is poorly understood. Here, we report the crystal structure of a PE-PPE heterodimer bound to ESX secretion-associated protein G (EspG), which adopts a novel fold. This PE-PPE-EspG complex, along with structures of two additional EspGs, suggests that EspG acts as an adaptor that recognizes specific PE-PPE protein complexes via extensive interactions with PPE domains, and delivers them to ESX machinery for secretion. Surprisingly, secretion of most PE-PPE proteins in M. tuberculosis is likely mediated by EspG from the ESX-5 system, underscoring the importance of ESX-5 in mycobacterial pathogenesis. Moreover, our results indicate that PE-PPE domains function as cis-acting targeting sequences that are read out by EspGs, revealing the molecular specificity for secretion through distinct ESX pathways.

  18. Cortical connectivity suggests a role in limb coordination for macaque area PE of the superior parietal cortex.

    PubMed

    Bakola, Sophia; Passarelli, Lauretta; Gamberini, Michela; Fattori, Patrizia; Galletti, Claudio

    2013-04-10

    In macaques, superior parietal lobule area 5 has been described as occupying an extensive region, which includes the caudal half of the postcentral convexity as well as the medial bank of the intraparietal sulcus. Modern neuroanatomical methods have allowed the identification of various areas within this region. In the present study, we investigated the corticocortical afferent projections of one of these subdivisions, area PE. Our results demonstrate that PE, defined as a single architectonic area that contains a topographic map of the body, forms specific connections with somatic and motor fields. Thus, PE receives major afferents from parietal areas, mainly area 2, PEc, several areas in the medial bank of the intraparietal sulcus, opercular areas PGop/PFop, and the retroinsular area, frontal afferents from the primary motor cortex, the supplementary motor area, and the caudal subdivision of dorsal premotor cortex, as well as afferents from cingulate areas PEci, 23, and 24. The presence and relative strength of these connections depend on the location of injection sites, so that lateral PE receives preferential input from anterior sectors of the medial bank of intraparietal sulcus and from the ventral premotor cortex, whereas medial PE forms denser connections with area PEc and motor fields. In contrast with other posterior parietal areas, there are no projections to PE from occipital or prefrontal cortices. Overall, the sensory and motor afferents to PE are consistent with functions in goal-directed movement but also hint at a wider variety of motor coordination roles.

  19. Functional dissection of protein domains involved in the immunomodulatory properties of PE_PGRS33 of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Zumbo, Antonella; Palucci, Ivana; Cascioferro, Alessandro; Sali, Michela; Ventura, Marcello; D'Alfonso, Pamela; Iantomasi, Raffaella; Di Sante, Gabriele; Ria, Francesco; Sanguinetti, Maurizio; Fadda, Giovanni; Manganelli, Riccardo; Delogu, Giovanni

    2013-12-01

    PE_PGRSs are a large family of proteins identified in Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex and in few other pathogenic mycobacteria. The PE domain of PE_PGRS33 mediates localization of the protein on the mycobacterial cell surface, where the PGRS domain is available to interact with host components. In this study, PE_PGRS33 and its functional deletion mutants were expressed in M. smegmatis, and in vitro and in vivo assays were used to dissect the protein domains involved in the immunomodulatory properties of the protein. We demonstrate that PE_PGRS33-mediated secretion of TNF-α by macrophages occurs by extracellular interaction with TLR2. Our results also show that while the PGRS domain of the protein is required for triggering TNF-α secretion, mutation in the PE domain affects the pro-inflammatory properties of the protein. These results indicate that PE_PGRS33 is a protein with immunomodulatory activity and that protein stability and localization on the mycobacterial surface can affect these properties.

  20. Imunomodulative effect of liposomized muramyltripeptide phosphatidylethanolamine (L-MTP-PE) on mice with alveolar echinococcosis and treated with albendazole.

    PubMed

    Dvoroznáková, Emília; Porubcová, Jarmila; Snábel, Viliam; Fedorocko, Peter

    2008-09-01

    The effect of liposomized muramyltripeptide phosphatidylethanolamine (L-MTP-PE) administered separately or with anthelmintic albendazole (ABZ) on cellular immunity of mice with alveolar echinococcosis was studied. The proliferative activity of splenic T and B lymphocytes was the most stimulated after combined L-MTP-PE + ABZ therapy [from weeks 8 to 14 post-infection (p.i.)] that also induced a long-term development of protective Th1 response (the highest serum concentration of IFN-gamma from weeks 8 to 18 p.i.). On the contrary, Th2 response (cytokine IL-5) in infected mice treated with L-MTP-PE was inhibited since week 8 p.i., but a significant long-term decrease in IL-5 concentration was found after combined L-MTP-PE+ABZ therapy until the end of the experiment (until week 26 p.i.). L-MTP-PE stimulated the production of superoxide anion (O2-) by peritoneal macrophages from weeks 8 to 12 p.i., but the highest O2- production was accordingly recorded after therapy L-MTP-PE+ABZ from weeks 8 to 18 p.i. Stimulation of cellular immunity of mice with alveolar echinococcis with L-MTP-PE and an interaction with ABZ's anti-parasitic effect resulted in the greatest and long-term reduction of growth of Echinococcus multilocularis cysts in the host from week 10 p.i. until the end of the experiment.

  1. The "PE coach" smartphone application: an innovative approach to improving implementation, fidelity, and homework adherence during prolonged exposure.

    PubMed

    Reger, Greg M; Hoffman, Julia; Riggs, David; Rothbaum, Barbara O; Ruzek, Josef; Holloway, Kevin M; Kuhn, Eric

    2013-08-01

    Prolonged exposure (PE) is an empirically supported treatment that is being disseminated broadly to providers in the Department of Veterans Affairs and Department of Defense. Innovative methods are needed to support the implementation, dissemination, and patient and provider adherence to PE. The PE Coach is a smartphone application (app) designed to mitigate barriers to PE implementation. PE Coach is installed on the patient's phone and includes a range of capabilities for use during the PE session and after each session to support the treatment. Functions include the ability to audio record treatment sessions onto the patient's device, to construct the in vivo hierarchy on the device, to record completed homework exercises, to review homework adherence, and to track symptom severity over time. The app also allows sessions and homework to be scheduled directly in the app, populating the device calendar with patient reminder notifications. In the final session, a visual display of symptom improvement and habituation to items on the in vivo hierarchy is presented. These capabilities may significantly improve convenience, provider implementation and adherence, and patient compliance with treatment. Future research is needed to test whether PE Coach is useful and effective. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  2. Method for PE Pipes Fusion Jointing Based on TRIZ Contradictions Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jianguang; Tan, Runhua; Gao, Jinyong; Wei, Zihui

    The core of the TRIZ theories is the contradiction detection and solution. TRIZ provided various methods for the contradiction solution, but all that is not systematized. Combined with the technique system conception, this paper summarizes an integration solution method for contradiction solution based on the TRIZ contradiction theory. According to the method, a flowchart of integration solution method for contradiction is given. As a casestudy, method of fusion jointing PE pipe is analysised.

  3. Pilot study of a culturally adapted psychoeducation (CaPE) intervention for bipolar disorder in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Husain, Muhammad Ishrat; Chaudhry, Imran B; Rahman, Raza R; Hamirani, Munir M; Mehmood, Nasir; Haddad, Peter M; Hodsoll, John; Young, Allan H; Naeem, Farooq; Husain, Nusrat

    2017-12-01

    Despite the use of maintenance medication, recurrence rates in bipolar affective disorder (BPAD) are high. To date, there are no clinical trials that have investigated the use of psychological interventions in bipolar disorder in Pakistan. The purpose of the study was to assess the feasibility and acceptability of a culturally adapted bipolar psychoeducation programme (CaPE) in Pakistan. Thirty-four euthymic bipolar I and II outpatients were randomized to either 12 weekly sessions of individual psychoeducation plus Treatment As Usual (Intervention) or Treatment As Usual (TAU) (Control). Outcomes were assessed using the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), EuroQoL (EQ-5D), Bipolar Knowledge and Attitudes and Questionnaire (BKAQ), and a self-reported measure of medication adherence (Morisky Medication Adherence Scale-4 items, MMAS-4). Effect sizes were derived from baseline adjusted standardized regression coefficients. Retention in the study was good, 80% of patients in the TAU follow-up assessment and 100% of patients in the CaPE group attended all 12 sessions. Patient satisfaction was higher in the CaPE group relative to control (ES = 1.41). Further, there were large effect sizes shown for CaPE versus TAU for medication adherence (MMAS-4: ES = 0.81), knowledge and attitudes towards bipolar (BKAQ: ES = 0.68), mania (YMRS: ES = 1.18), depression (BDI: ES = 1.17) and quality of life measures (EQ-5D: ES ⇒ 0.88). Culturally adapted psychoeducation intervention is acceptable and feasible, and can be effective in improving mood symptoms and knowledge and attitudes to BPAD when compared with TAU. Larger scale studies are needed to confirm our findings. Clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT02210390.

  4. Wind Transport of Radionuclide- Bearing Dust, Peña Blanca, Chihuahua, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velarde, R.; Goodell, P. C.; Gill, T. E.; Arimoto, R.

    2007-05-01

    This investigation evaluates radionuclide fractionation during wind erosion of high-grade uranium ore storage piles at Peña Blanca (50km north of Chihuahua City), Chihuahua, Mexico. The aridity of the local environment promotes dust resuspension by high winds. Although active operations ceased in 1983, the Peña Blanca mining district is one of Mexico`s most important uranium ore reserves. The study site contains piles of high grade ore, left loose on the surface, and separated by the specific deposits from which they were derived (Margaritas, Nopal I, and Puerto I). Similar locations do not exist in the United States, since uranium mining sites in the USA have been reclaimed. The Peña Blanca site serves as an analog for the Yucca Mountain project. Dust deposition is collected at Peña Blanca with BSNE sediment catchers (Fryrear, 1986) and marble dust traps (Reheis, 1999). These devices capture windblown sediment; subsequently, the sample data will help quantify potentially radioactive short term field sediment loss from the repository surface and determine sediment flux. Aerosols and surface materials will be analyzed and radioactivity levels established utilizing techniques such as gamma spectroscopy. As a result, we will be able to estimate how much radionuclide contaminated dust is being transported or attached geochemically to fine grain soils or minerals (e.g., clays or iron oxides). The high-grade uranium-bearing material is at secular equilibrium, thus the entire decay series is present. Of resulting interest is not only the aeolian transport of uranium, but also of the other daughter products. These studies will improve our understanding of geochemical cycling of radionuclides with respect to sources, transport, and deposition. The results may also have important implications for the geosciences and homeland security, and potential applications to public health. Funding for this project is provided in part via a NSF grant to Arimoto.

  5. Water cycle research associated with the CaPE hydrometeorology project (CHymP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duchon, Claude E.

    1993-01-01

    One outgrowth of the Convection and Precipitation/Electrification (CaPE) experiment that took place in central Florida during July and August 1991 was the creation of the CaPE Hydrometeorology Project (CHymP). The principal goal of this project is to investigate the daily water cycle of the CaPE experimental area by analyzing the numerous land and atmosphere in situ and remotely sensed data sets that were generated during the 40-days of observations. The water cycle comprises the atmospheric branch. In turn, the atmospheric branch comprises precipitation leaving the base of the atmospheric volume under study, evaporation and transpiration entering the base, the net horizontal fluxes of water vapor and cloud water through the volume and the conversion of water vapor to cloud water and vice-versa. The sum of these components results in a time rate of change in the water and liquid water (or ice) content of the atmospheric volume. The components of the land branch are precipitation input to and evaporation and transpiration output from the surface, net horizontal fluxes of surface and subsurface water, the sum of which results in a time rate of change in surface and subsurface water mass. The objective of CHymP is to estimate these components in order to determine the daily water budget for a selected area within the CaPE domain. This work began in earnest in the summer of 1992 and continues. Even estimating all the budget components for one day is a complex and time consuming task. The discussions below provides a short summary of the rainfall quality assessment procedures followed by a plan for estimating the horizontal moisture flux.

  6. EFFECTS OF TRITIUM ON UHMW-PE, PTFE, AND VESPEL POLYIMIDE

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, E; Kirk Shanahan, K

    2006-11-01

    Samples of ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMW-PE), polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), and the polyimide Vespel{reg_sign} were exposed to tritium gas in closed containers initially at 101 kPa (1 atmosphere) pressure and ambient temperature for various times up to 2.3 years. Tritium exposure effects on the samples were characterized by dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) and radiolysis products were characterized by measuring the total final pressure and composition in the exposure containers at the end of exposure period.

  7. Phase I trial of EpCAM-targeting immunotoxin MOC31PE, alone and in combination with cyclosporin

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, Y; Engebraaten, O; Juell, S; Aamdal, S; Brunsvig, P; Fodstad, Ø; Dueland, S

    2015-01-01

    Background: A phase I trial was performed to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), safety, pharmacokinetics and immunogenicity of the anti-EpCAM immunotoxin (IT) MOC31PE in cancer patients. An important part of the study was to investigate whether the addition of Sandimmune (cyclosporin, CsA) suppressed the development of anti-IT antibodies. Methods: Patients with EpCAM-positive metastatic disease were eligible for treatment with intravenous MOC31PE using a modified Fibonacci dose escalation sequence. Maximum tolerated dose was first established without, then with intravenously administered CsA. Results: Sixty-three patients were treated with MOC31PE in doses ranging from 0.5 to 8 μg kg−1. Maximum tolerated dose was 8 μg kg−1 for MOC31PE alone, and 6.5 μg kg−1 when combined with CsA. The dose-limiting adverse event was reversible liver toxicity. No radiological complete or partial responses were observed, whereas stable disease was seen in 36% of the patients receiving MOC31PE only. The pharmacokinetic profile of MOC31PE was characterised by linear kinetics and with a half-life of ∼3 h. The addition of CsA delayed the generation of anti-IT antibodies. Conclusions: Intravenous infusion of MOC31PE can safely be administered to cancer patients. Immune suppression with CsA delays the development of anti-MOC31PE antibodies. The antitumour effect of MOC31PE warrants further evaluation in EpCAM-positive metastatic disease. PMID:26554649

  8. The PE_PGRS Proteins of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Are Ca(2+) Binding Mediators of Host-Pathogen Interaction.

    PubMed

    Yeruva, Veena C; Kulkarni, Apoorva; Khandelwal, Radhika; Sharma, Yogendra; Raghunand, Tirumalai R

    2016-08-23

    The phenomenal success of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) as a pathogen is primarily based on its ability to modulate host immune responses. The genome of M.tb encodes multiple immunomodulatory proteins, including several members of the multigenic PE_PPE family of which the PE_PGRS proteins are a subset. Curiously, 56 of the 61 PE_PGRS proteins contain multiple copies of the glycine-rich sequence motif GGXGXD/NXUX, a nonapeptide sequence predicted to bind Ca(2+), but the functional significance of these motifs remains a mystery. Here we provide evidence via isothermal titration calorimetry, (45)Ca blotting, fluorescence, and circular dichroism spectroscopy that Ca(2+) binds to the PE_PGRS proteins, PE_PGRS33 (Rv1818c) (10 motifs) and PE_PGRS61 (Rv3653) (one motif). Ca(2+) was observed not to bind to PE_PGRS8 (Rv0742), which lacks nonapeptide motifs. Using recombinant Mycobacterium smegmatis strains expressing Rv1818c and Rv3653 and the THP-1 macrophage model of infection, we show that the two proteins mediate Ca(2+)-dependent upregulation of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10, events critical to the pathogenesis of M.tb. Both Rv1818c and Rv3653 interact with TLR2 in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner, providing a novel mechanistic basis for their immunomodulatory effects. Mutations in the nonapeptide motif of Rv3653 led to compromised Ca(2+) binding, validating the functional criticality of this motif. This study demonstrates for the first time not only their Ca(2+) binding properties but also an essential role for Ca(2+) in the functioning of the M.tb PE_PGRS proteins, opening up the possibility of developing novel anti-tuberculosis therapeutics that inhibit Ca(2+)-PE_PGRS binding.

  9. Final report of the Peña Blanca natural analogue project

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, Schön S.; Goldstein, Steven Joel; Abdel-Fattah, Amr I.; Amato, Ronald S.; Anthony, Elizabeth; Cook, Paul; Dobson, Patrick F.; Fayek, Mostafa; French, Diana; Garza, Rodrigo de; Ghezzehei, Teamrat; Goodell, Philip C.; Harder, Steven H.; Ku, Teh-Lung; Luo, Shangde; Murrell, Michael Tildon; Norman, Deborah E.; Nunn, Andrew J.; Oliver, Ronald; Pekar-Carpenter, Katrina; Rearick, Michael Sean; Ren, Minghua; Reyes-Cortes, Ignacio; Pineda, Jose Alfredo; Saulnier, George; Tarimala, Sowmitri; Walton, John

    2016-10-04

    The Peña Blanca region, 50 km north of Chihuahua City, Chihuahua, México, was a target of uranium exploration and mining by the Mexican government. After mining ceased in 1981, researchers became interested in this region as a study area for subsurface uranium migration with relevance to geologic disposal of nuclear waste. Many studies related to this concept were conducted at the Nopal I mine site located on a cuesta (hill) of the Sierra Peña Blanca. This site has geologic, tectonic, hydrologic, and geochemical similarities to Yucca Mountain, Nevada, a formerly proposed site for a high-level nuclear-waste repository in the unsaturated zone. The U.S. Department of Energy (U.S. DOE), Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM), sponsored studies at Nopal I in the 1990s and supported the drilling of three research wells – PB1, PB2, and PB3 – at the site in 2003. Beginning in 2004, the Peña Blanca Natural Analogue Project was undertaken by U.S. DOE, OCRWM to develop a three-dimensional conceptual model of the transport of uranium and its radiogenic daughter products at the Nopal I site.

  10. Theory of 2 omega(sub pe) radiation induced by the bow shock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoon, Peter H.; Wu, C. S.; Vinas, A. F.-; Reiner, M. J.; Fainberg, J.; Stone, R. G.

    1994-01-01

    A new radiation emission mechanism is proposed to explain electomagnetic radiation observed at twice the electron plasma frequency, 2 omega(sub pe), in the upstream region of the Earth's bow shock. This radiation had its origin at the electron foreshock boundary where energetic electron beams and intense narrow-band Langmiur waves are observed. The proposed emission mechanism results from the interaction of the electron beam and Langmuir waves that are backscattered off thermal ions. This interaction is described by a nonlinear dispersion equation which incorporates an effect owing to electron trajectory modulation by the backscattered Langmuir waves. Subsequent analysis of the dispersion equation reveals two important consequences. First, a long-wavelength electrostatic quasi-mode with frequency at 2 omega(sub pe) is excited, and second, the quasi-mode and the electomagnetic mode are nonlinearly coupled. The implication is that, when the excited 2 omega(sub pe) quasi-mode propagates in an inhomgeneous medium with slightly decreasing density, the quasi-mode can be converted directly into an electromagnetic mode. Hense the electomagnetic radiation at twice the plasma frequency is generated. Numerical solutions of the dispersion equation with the choice of parameters that describe physical characteristics of the electron foreshock are presented, which illustrates the viability of the new mechanism.

  11. Constraints on cosmic ray and PeV neutrino production in blazars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, B. Theodore; Li, Zhuo

    2017-03-01

    IceCube has detected a cumulative flux of PeV neutrinos, which origin is unknown. Blazars, active galactic nuclei with relativistic jets pointing to us, are long and widely expected to be one of the strong candidates of high energy neutrino sources. The neutrino production depends strongly on the cosmic ray power of blazar jets, which is largely unknown. The recent null results in stacking searches of neutrinos for several blazar samples by IceCube put upper limits on the neutrino fluxes from these blazars. Here we compute the cosmic ray power and PeV neutrino flux of Fermi-LAT blazars, and find that the upper limits for known blazar sources give stringent constraint on the cosmic ray loading factor of blazar jets (i.e., the ratio of the cosmic ray to bolometric radiation luminosity of blazar jets), ξcr lesssim (2–10)ζ‑1 (with ζ lesssim 1 the remained fraction of cosmic ray energy when propagate into the blazar broad line region) for flat cosmic ray spectrum, and that the cumulative PeV neutrino flux contributed by all-sky blazars is a fraction lesssim (10–50)% of the IceCube detected flux.

  12. Sagittarius A* as an origin of the Galactic PeV cosmic rays?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, Yutaka; Murase, Kohta; Kimura, Shigeo S.

    2017-04-01

    Supernova remnants (SNRs) have commonly been considered as a source of the observed PeV cosmic rays (CRs) or a Galactic PeV particle accelerator ("Pevatron"). In this work, we study Sagittarius A* (Sgr A*), which is the low-luminosity active galactic nucleus of the Milky Way Galaxy, as another possible canditate of the Pevatron, because it sometimes became very active in the past. We assume that a large number of PeV CRs were injected by Sgr A* at the outburst about 107 yr ago when the Fermi bubbles were created. We constrain the diffusion coefficient for the CRs in the Galactic halo on the condition that the CRs have arrived on the Earth by now, while a fairly large fraction of them have escaped from the halo. Based on a diffusion-halo model, we solve a diffusion equation for the CRs and compare the results with the CR spectrum on the Earth. The observed small anisotropy of the arrival directions of CRs may be explained if the diffusion coefficient in the Galactic disk is smaller than that in the halo. Our model predicts that a boron-to-carbon ratio should be energy-independent around the knee, where the CRs from Sgr A* become dominant. It is unlikely that the spectrum of the CRs accelerated at the outburst is represented by a power-law similar to the one for those responsible for the gamma-ray emission from the central molecular zone (CMZ) around the Galactic center.

  13. Testing the Equivalence Principle and Lorentz Invariance with PeV Neutrinos from Blazar Flares.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zi-Yi; Liu, Ruo-Yu; Wang, Xiang-Yu

    2016-04-15

    It was recently proposed that a giant flare of the blazar PKS B1424-418 at redshift z=1.522 is in association with a PeV-energy neutrino event detected by IceCube. Based on this association we here suggest that the flight time difference between the PeV neutrino and gamma-ray photons from blazar flares can be used to constrain the violations of equivalence principle and the Lorentz invariance for neutrinos. From the calculated Shapiro delay due to clusters or superclusters in the nearby universe, we find that violation of the equivalence principle for neutrinos and photons is constrained to an accuracy of at least 10^{-5}, which is 2 orders of magnitude tighter than the constraint placed by MeV neutrinos from supernova 1987A. Lorentz invariance violation (LIV) arises in various quantum-gravity theories, which predicts an energy-dependent velocity of propagation in vacuum for particles. We find that the association of the PeV neutrino with the gamma-ray outburst set limits on the energy scale of possible LIV to >0.01E_{pl} for linear LIV models and >6×10^{-8}E_{pl} for quadratic order LIV models, where E_{pl} is the Planck energy scale. These are the most stringent constraints on neutrino LIV for subluminal neutrinos.

  14. Industrial PE-2 strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae: from alcoholic fermentation to the production of recombinant proteins.

    PubMed

    Soares-Costa, Andrea; Nakayama, Darlan Gonçalves; Andrade, Letícia de Freitas; Catelli, Lucas Ferioli; Bassi, Ana Paula Guarnieri; Ceccato-Antonini, Sandra Regina; Henrique-Silva, Flavio

    2014-01-25

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the most important microorganism used in the ethanol fermentation process. The PE-2 strain of this yeast is widely used to produce alcohol in Brazil due to its high fermentation capacity. The aim of the present study was to develop an expression system for recombinant proteins using the industrial PE-2 strain of S. cerevisiae during the alcoholic fermentation process. The protein chosen as a model for this system was CaneCPI-1, a cysteine peptidase inhibitor. A plasmid containing the CaneCPI-1 gene was constructed and yeast cells were transformed with the pYADE4_CaneCPI-1 construct. To evaluate the effect on fermentation ability, the transformed strain was used in the fermentation process with cell recycling. During the nine-hour fermentative cycles the transformed strain did not have its viability and fermentation ability affected. In the last cycle, when the fermentation lasted longer, the protein was expressed probably at the expense of ethanol once the sugars were exhausted. The recombinant protein was expressed in yeast cells, purified and submitted to assays of activity that demonstrated its functionality. Thus, the industrial PE-2 strain of S. cerevisiae can be used as a viable system for protein expression and to produce alcohol simultaneously. The findings of the present study demonstrate the possibility of producing recombinant proteins with biotechnological applications during the ethanol fermentation process.

  15. Demystifying the PeV cascades in IceCube: Less (energy) is more (events)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laha, Ranjan; Beacom, John F.; Dasgupta, Basudeb; Horiuchi, Shunsaku; Murase, Kohta

    2013-08-01

    The IceCube neutrino observatory has detected two cascade events with energies near 1 PeV [A. Ishihara Proceedings of Neutrino 2012 Conference, http://neu2012.kek.jp/index.html; M. Aartsen et al. (IceCube Collaboration) Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 021103 (2013)]. Without invoking new physics, we analyze the source of these neutrinos. We show that atmospheric conventional neutrinos and cosmogenic neutrinos (those produced in the propagation of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays) are strongly disfavored. For atmospheric prompt neutrinos or a diffuse background of neutrinos produced in astrophysical objects, the situation is less clear. We show that there is tension with observed data, but that the details depend on the least-known aspects of the IceCube analysis. Very likely, prompt neutrinos are disfavored and astrophysical neutrinos are plausible. We demonstrate that the fastest way to reveal the origin of the observed PeV neutrinos is to search for neutrino cascades in the range below 1 PeV, for which dedicated analyses with high sensitivity have yet to appear, and where many more events could be found.

  16. Understanding the two-photon absorption spectrum of PE2 platinum acetylide complex.

    PubMed

    Vivas, Marcelo G; De Boni, Leonardo; Cooper, Thomas M; Mendonca, Cleber R

    2014-07-31

    Herein, we report on the two-absorption cross-section spectrum of trans-Pt(PBu3)2 (C≡C-C6H4-C≡C-C6H5)2 (PE2) platinum acetylide complex employing the femtosecond wavelength-tunable Z-scan technique. The PE2 complex can be visualized as two branches containing two phenylacetylene units, each one linked by a platinum center, completely transparent in the visible region. Because of this structure, large delocalization of π-electrons allied to the strong intramolecular interaction between the branches is expected. The 2PA absorption spectrum was measured using the femtosecond wavelength-tunable Z-scan technique with low repetition rate (1 kHz), in order to obtain the 2PA spectrum without excited-state contributions. Our results reveal that PE2 in dichloromethane solution presents two 2PA allowed bands located at 570 and 710 nm, with cross section of about 320 and 45 GM, respectively. The first one is related to the strong intramolecular interaction between the molecule's branches due to the presence of platinum atom, while the second one is associated with the breaking of symmetry of the chromophore in solution due, most probably to a large twisting angle of the ligand's phenyl rings relative to the Pt core.

  17. Possible Domain Formation In PE/PC Bilayers Containing High Cholesterol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hein, Matthew; Hussain, Fazle; Huang, Juyang

    2015-03-01

    Cholesterol is a significant component of animal cell membranes, and its presence has the effects of not only adding rigidity to the lipid bilayer, but also leading to the formation of lipid domains. Two other lipids of interest are phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), which constitutes about 45 percent of the phospholipids found in human nervous tissues, and phosphatidylcholine (PC), which is found in every cell of the human body. The maximum solubility of cholesterol is the highest mole fraction of cholesterol that the lipid bilayer can retain, at which point cholesterol begins to precipitate out to form cholesterol monohydrate crystals. We have measured the maximum solubility of cholesterol in mixtures of 16:0-18:1PE and 16:0-18:1PC using a new light scattering technique, which utilizes the anisotropic nature of light scattering by cholesterol crystals. This new method is highly accurate and reproducible. Our results show that the maximum solubility of cholesterol increases linearly as a function of the molar ratio POPC/(POPE+POPC), which suggests possible domain formation in mixtures of PE and PC containing maximum amount of cholesterol.

  18. ESR study of free radicals in UHMW-PE fiber irradiated by gamma rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yanning; Wang, Mouhua; Tang, Zhongfeng; Wu, Guozhong

    2010-04-01

    ESR spectra of the trapped radicals in an ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMW-PE) fiber irradiated by gamma rays showed well-resolved hyperfine splitting at room temperature since the c-axis of the crystallites is aligned with the fiber direction and the radicals are trapped in crystallites. The alkyl radical (-CH 2- •CH-CH 2-) was the major product after irradiation in vacuum and in air at room temperature. Some of the alkyl radicals converted to allyl radicals (-CH 2- •CH-CH=CH-) and polyenyl radicals (-CH 2- •CH-(CH=CH) n-CH 2-) during storage in vacuum. Upon storage in air atmosphere, the alkyl radicals decayed by reaction with oxygen. Of particular interest is the very slow decay rate of the alkyl radical trapped in UHMW-PE fiber, the half-life is 26 days in vacuum, and 13 days in air at room temperature, which is about 1/30 and 1/100 of that reported for high density polyethylene (HDPE), respectively. The extremely long lifetime of the alkyl radical is supposed to be caused by the large size of crystallites in UHMW-PE fiber. The rate of radical decay was accelerated by annealing at elevated temperature.

  19. Interfacial characterization of Pluronic PE9400 at biocompatible (air-water and limonene-water) interfaces.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Mosqueda, Luis M; Maldonado-Valderrama, Julia; Ramírez, Pablo; Cabrerizo-Vílchez, Miguel A; Muñoz, José

    2013-11-01

    In this work, we provide an accurate characterization of non-ionic triblock copolymer Pluronic PE9400 at the air-water and limonene-water interfaces, comprising a systematic analysis of surface tension isotherms, dynamic curves, dilatational rheology and desorption profiles. The surface pressure isotherms display two different slopes of the Π-c plot suggesting the existence of two adsorption regimes for PE9400 at both interfaces. Application of a theoretical model, which assumes the coexistence of different adsorbed states characterized by their molar areas, allows quantification of the conformational changes occurring at the adsorbed layer, indentifying differences between the conformations adopted at the air-water and the limonene-water interface. The presence of two maxima in the dilatational modulus vs. interfacial pressure importantly corroborates this conformational change from a 2D flat conformation to 3D brush one. Moreover, the dilatational response provides mechanical diferences between the interfacial layers formed at the two interfaces analyzed. Dynamic surface pressure data were transformed into a dimensionless form and fitted to another model which considers the influence of the reorganization process on the adsorption dynamics. Finally, the desorption profiles reveal that Pluronic PE9400 is irreversibly adsorbed at both interfaces regardless of the interfacial conformation and nature of the interface. The systematic characterization presented in this work provides important new findings on the interfacial properties of pluronics which can be applied in the rational development of new products, such as biocompatible limonene-based emulsions and/or microemulsions.

  20. Nano-cage-mediated refolding of insulin by PEG-PE micelle.

    PubMed

    Fang, Xiaocui; Yang, Tao; Wang, Luoyang; Yu, Jibing; Wei, Xiuli; Zhou, Yinjian; Wang, Chen; Liang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Insulin aggregation has pronounced pharmaceutical implications and biological importance. Deposition of insulin aggregates is associated with type II diabetes and instability of pharmaceutical formulations. We present in this study the renaturation effect of PEG-PE micelle on dithiothreitol (DTT)-denatured insulin revealed by techniques including turbidity assay, circular dichroism (CD), thioflavinT (ThT) binding assay, bis-ANS binding assay, agarose gel electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF MS. The obtained results show that PEG-PE micelle having a hydrophilic nano-cage-like structure in which with a negative charge layer, can capture DTT-induced insulin A and B chains, and block their hydrophobic interaction, thereby preventing aggregation. The reduced insulin A and B chain in the nano-cage are capable of recognizing each other and form the native insulin with yields of ∼30% as measured by hypoglycemic activity analysis in mice. The observed insulin refolding assisted by PEG-PE micelle may be applicable to other proteins.

  1. Performance of IN-706 and PE-16 cladding in mixed-oxide fuel pins. [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect

    Makenas, B.J.; Lawrence, L.A.; Jensen, B.W.

    1982-05-01

    Iron-nickel base, precipitation-strengthened alloys, IN-706 and PE-16, advanced alloy cladding considered for breeder reactor applications, were irradiated in mixed-oxide fuel pins in the HEDL-P-60 subassembly in EBR-II. Initial selection of candidate advanced alloys was done using only nonfueled materials test results. However, to establish the performance characteristics of the candidate cladding alloys, i.e., dimensional stability and structural integrity under conditions of high neutron flux, elevated temperature, and applied stress, it was necessary to irradiate fuel pins under typical operating conditions. Fuel pins were clad with solution treated IN-706 and PE-16 and irradiated to peak fluences of 6.1 x 10/sup 22/ n/cm/sup 2/ (E > .1 MeV) and 8.8 x 10/sup 22/ n/cm/sup 2/ (E > .1 MeV) respectively. Fabrication and operating parameters for the fuel pins with the advanced cladding alloy candidates are summarized. Irradiation of HEDL-P-60 was interrupted with the breach of a pin with IN-706 cladding at 5.1 at % and the test was terminated with cladding breach in a pin with PE-16 cladding at 7.6 at %.

  2. The PGRS Domain from PE_PGRS33 of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is Target of Humoral Immune Response in Mice and Humans.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Ingrid; Parada, Cristina; Acosta-Gío, Enrique; Espitia, Clara

    2014-01-01

    The PE_PGRS33 protein is a member of the PE family, which encompasses the PE and the PE_PGRS subfamilies. Among PE_PGRS's, this protein is one of the most studied antigens and its immunomodulatory properties are influence by both PE and PGRS domains. However, the contribution of these domains to the host immune recognition of the PE_PGRS33 protein and their potential role in latent tuberculosis infection in humans is still unknown. In this study, the immunogenic properties of the complete PE_PGRS33 protein and each domain separately were evaluated in BALB/c mice and latent tuberculosis infected (LTBI) humans. In mice, PE_PGRS33 and its domains induced similar antibody production and secretion of IFN-γ. PE_PGRS33 and the PE domain stimulated higher CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell proliferation compared to the PGRS domain. This demonstrated that the principal difference in the immune recognition of the domains is the higher activation of T-cell subpopulations involved in the control of tuberculosis. In humans, the secretion of IFN-γ in response to PE_PGRS33 was detected in both LTBI and in non-infected vaccinated individuals. The same was observed for antibody response, which targets epitopes located in the PGRS domain but not in the PE domain. These observations suggest that T and B cell responses to PE_PGRS33 are induced by BCG vaccination and can be maintained for many years in non-infected individuals. This also indicates that the IFN-γ response detected might not be associated with latent tuberculosis infection. These results contribute to the elucidation of the role of the PE_PGRS33 protein and its PE and PGRS domains in the immune response against Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

  3. The PGRS Domain from PE_PGRS33 of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is Target of Humoral Immune Response in Mice and Humans

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Ingrid; Parada, Cristina; Acosta-Gío, Enrique; Espitia, Clara

    2014-01-01

    The PE_PGRS33 protein is a member of the PE family, which encompasses the PE and the PE_PGRS subfamilies. Among PE_PGRS’s, this protein is one of the most studied antigens and its immunomodulatory properties are influence by both PE and PGRS domains. However, the contribution of these domains to the host immune recognition of the PE_PGRS33 protein and their potential role in latent tuberculosis infection in humans is still unknown. In this study, the immunogenic properties of the complete PE_PGRS33 protein and each domain separately were evaluated in BALB/c mice and latent tuberculosis infected (LTBI) humans. In mice, PE_PGRS33 and its domains induced similar antibody production and secretion of IFN-γ. PE_PGRS33 and the PE domain stimulated higher CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell proliferation compared to the PGRS domain. This demonstrated that the principal difference in the immune recognition of the domains is the higher activation of T-cell subpopulations involved in the control of tuberculosis. In humans, the secretion of IFN-γ in response to PE_PGRS33 was detected in both LTBI and in non-infected vaccinated individuals. The same was observed for antibody response, which targets epitopes located in the PGRS domain but not in the PE domain. These observations suggest that T and B cell responses to PE_PGRS33 are induced by BCG vaccination and can be maintained for many years in non-infected individuals. This also indicates that the IFN-γ response detected might not be associated with latent tuberculosis infection. These results contribute to the elucidation of the role of the PE_PGRS33 protein and its PE and PGRS domains in the immune response against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. PMID:24904584

  4. Prediction of Certain Well-Characterized Domains of Known Functions within the PE and PPE Proteins of Mycobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Sultana, Rafiya; Tanneeru, Karunakar; Kumar, Ashwin B. R.; Guruprasad, Lalitha

    2016-01-01

    The PE and PPE protein family are unique to mycobacteria. Though the complete genome sequences for over 500 M. tuberculosis strains and mycobacterial species are available, few PE and PPE proteins have been structurally and functionally characterized. We have therefore used bioinformatics tools to characterize the structure and function of these proteins. We selected representative members of the PE and PPE protein family by phylogeny analysis and using structure-based sequence annotation identified ten well-characterized protein domains of known function. Some of these domains were observed to be common to all mycobacterial species and some were species specific. PMID:26891364

  5. Single-wavelength two-photon excitation–stimulated emission depletion (SW2PE-STED) superresolution imaging

    PubMed Central

    Bianchini, Paolo; Harke, Benjamin; Galiani, Silvia; Vicidomini, Giuseppe; Diaspro, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    We developed a new class of two-photon excitation–stimulated emission depletion (2PE-STED) optical microscope. In this work, we show the opportunity to perform superresolved fluorescence imaging, exciting and stimulating the emission of a fluorophore by means of a single wavelength. We show that a widely used red-emitting fluorophore, ATTO647N, can be two-photon excited at a wavelength allowing both 2PE and STED using the very same laser source. This fact opens the possibility to perform 2PE microscopy at four to five times STED-improved resolution, while exploiting the intrinsic advantages of nonlinear excitation. PMID:22493221

  6. PeRL: a circum-Arctic Permafrost Region Pond and Lake database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muster, Sina; Roth, Kurt; Langer, Moritz; Lange, Stephan; Cresto Aleina, Fabio; Bartsch, Annett; Morgenstern, Anne; Grosse, Guido; Jones, Benjamin; Sannel, A. Britta K.; Sjöberg, Ylva; Günther, Frank; Andresen, Christian; Veremeeva, Alexandra; Lindgren, Prajna R.; Bouchard, Frédéric; Lara, Mark J.; Fortier, Daniel; Charbonneau, Simon; Virtanen, Tarmo A.; Hugelius, Gustaf; Palmtag, Juri; Siewert, Matthias B.; Riley, William J.; Koven, Charles D.; Boike, Julia

    2017-06-01

    Ponds and lakes are abundant in Arctic permafrost lowlands. They play an important role in Arctic wetland ecosystems by regulating carbon, water, and energy fluxes and providing freshwater habitats. However, ponds, i.e., waterbodies with surface areas smaller than 1. 0 × 104 m2, have not been inventoried on global and regional scales. The Permafrost Region Pond and Lake (PeRL) database presents the results of a circum-Arctic effort to map ponds and lakes from modern (2002-2013) high-resolution aerial and satellite imagery with a resolution of 5 m or better. The database also includes historical imagery from 1948 to 1965 with a resolution of 6 m or better. PeRL includes 69 maps covering a wide range of environmental conditions from tundra to boreal regions and from continuous to discontinuous permafrost zones. Waterbody maps are linked to regional permafrost landscape maps which provide information on permafrost extent, ground ice volume, geology, and lithology. This paper describes waterbody classification and accuracy, and presents statistics of waterbody distribution for each site. Maps of permafrost landscapes in Alaska, Canada, and Russia are used to extrapolate waterbody statistics from the site level to regional landscape units. PeRL presents pond and lake estimates for a total area of 1. 4 × 106 km2 across the Arctic, about 17 % of the Arctic lowland ( < 300 m a.s.l.) land surface area. PeRL waterbodies with sizes of 1. 0 × 106 m2 down to 1. 0 × 102 m2 contributed up to 21 % to the total water fraction. Waterbody density ranged from 1. 0 × 10 to 9. 4 × 101 km-2. Ponds are the dominant waterbody type by number in all landscapes representing 45-99 % of the total waterbody number. The implementation of PeRL size distributions in land surface models will greatly improve the investigation and projection of surface inundation and carbon fluxes in permafrost lowlands. Waterbody maps, study area boundaries, and maps of regional permafrost landscapes including

  7. Energy flow in the cryptophyte PE545 antenna is directed by bilin pigment conformation.

    PubMed

    Curutchet, Carles; Novoderezhkin, Vladimir I; Kongsted, Jacob; Muñoz-Losa, Aurora; van Grondelle, Rienk; Scholes, Gregory D; Mennucci, Benedetta

    2013-04-25

    Structure-based calculations are combined with quantitative modeling of spectra and energy transfer dynamics to detemine the energy transfer scheme of the PE545 principal light-harvesting antenna of the cryptomonad Rhodomonas CS24. We use a recently developed quantum-mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) method that allows us to account for pigment-protein interactions at atomic detail in site energies, transition dipole moments, and electronic couplings. In addition, conformational flexibility of the pigment-protein complex is accounted for through molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. We find that conformational disorder largely smoothes the large energetic differences predicted from the crystal structure between the pseudosymmetric pairs PEB50/61C-PEB50/61D and PEB82C-PEB82D. Moreover, we find that, in contrast to chlorophyll-based photosynthetic complexes, pigment composition and conformation play a major role in defining the energy ladder in the PE545 complex, rather than specific pigment-protein interactions. This is explained by the remarkable conformational flexibility of the eight bilin pigments in PE545, characterized by a quasi-linear arrangement of four pyrrole units. The MD-QM/MM site energies allow us to reproduce the main features of the spectra, and minor adjustments of the energies of the three red-most pigments DBV19A, DBV19B, and PEB82D allow us to model the spectra of PE545 with a similar quality compared to our original model (model E from Novoderezhkin et al. Biophys. J.2010, 99, 344), which was extracted from the spectral and kinetic fit. Moreover, the fit of the transient absorption kinetics is even better in the new structure-based model. The largest difference between our previous and present results is that the MD-QM/MM calculations predict a much smaller gap between the PEB50/61C and PEB50/61D sites, in better accord with chemical intuition. We conclude that the current adjusted MD-QM/MM energies are more reliable in order to explore the

  8. PeRL: A circum-Arctic Permafrost Region Pond and Lake database

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muster, Sina; Roth, Kurt; Langer, Moritz; Lange, Stephan; Cresto Aleina, Fabio; Bartsch, Annett; Morgenstern, Anne; Grosse, Guido; Jones, Benjamin; Sannel, A.B.K.; Sjoberg, Ylva; Gunther, Frank; Andresen, Christian; Veremeeva, Alexandra; Lindgren, Prajna R.; Bouchard, Frédéric; Lara, Mark J.; Fortier, Daniel; Charbonneau, Simon; Virtanen, Tarmo A.; Hugelius, Gustaf; Palmtag, J.; Siewert, Matthias B.; Riley, William J.; Koven, Charles; Boike, Julia

    2017-01-01

    Ponds and lakes are abundant in Arctic permafrost lowlands. They play an important role in Arctic wetland ecosystems by regulating carbon, water, and energy fluxes and providing freshwater habitats. However, ponds, i.e., waterbodies with surface areas smaller than 1. 0 × 104 m2, have not been inventoried on global and regional scales. The Permafrost Region Pond and Lake (PeRL) database presents the results of a circum-Arctic effort to map ponds and lakes from modern (2002–2013) high-resolution aerial and satellite imagery with a resolution of 5 m or better. The database also includes historical imagery from 1948 to 1965 with a resolution of 6 m or better. PeRL includes 69 maps covering a wide range of environmental conditions from tundra to boreal regions and from continuous to discontinuous permafrost zones. Waterbody maps are linked to regional permafrost landscape maps which provide information on permafrost extent, ground ice volume, geology, and lithology. This paper describes waterbody classification and accuracy, and presents statistics of waterbody distribution for each site. Maps of permafrost landscapes in Alaska, Canada, and Russia are used to extrapolate waterbody statistics from the site level to regional landscape units. PeRL presents pond and lake estimates for a total area of 1. 4 × 106 km2 across the Arctic, about 17 % of the Arctic lowland ( <  300 m a.s.l.) land surface area. PeRL waterbodies with sizes of 1. 0 × 106 m2 down to 1. 0 × 102 m2 contributed up to 21 % to the total water fraction. Waterbody density ranged from 1. 0 × 10 to 9. 4 × 101 km−2. Ponds are the dominant waterbody type by number in all landscapes representing 45–99 % of the total waterbody number. The implementation of PeRL size distributions in land surface models will greatly improve the investigation and projection of surface inundation and carbon fluxes in permafrost lowlands. Waterbody maps

  9. Unravelling the contribution of the Penicillium expansum PeSte12 transcription factor to virulence during apple fruit infection.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Torres, Paloma; Vilanova, Laura; Ballester, Ana Rosa; López-Pérez, Mario; Teixidó, Neus; Viñas, Inmaculada; Usall, Josep; González-Candelas, Luis; Torres, Rosario

    2018-02-01

    Blue mould disease caused by Penicillium expansum infection is one of the most important diseases of pome fruit accounting for important economic losses. In the present study, the PeSte12 transcription factor gene was identified, and deletant mutants were produced by gene replacement. Knockout mutants showed a significant decrease of virulence during apple fruit infection. Virulence was affected by the maturity stage of the fruit (immature, mature and over-mature), and disease severity was notably reduced when the apples were stored at 0 °C. The ΔPeSte12 mutants resulted defective in asexual reproduction, producing less conidia, but this characteristic did not correlate with differences in microscopic morphology. In addition, the ΔPeSte12 mutants produced higher quantity of hydrogen peroxide than the wild type strain. Gene expression analysis revealed that PeSte12 was induced over time during apple infection compared to axenic growth, particularly from 2 dpi, reinforcing its role in virulence. Analysis of transcriptional abundance of several genes in ΔPeSte12 mutants showed that in most of the evaluated genes, PeSte12 seemed to act as a negative regulator during axenic growth, as most of them exhibited an increasing expression pattern along the time period evaluated. The highest expression values corresponded to detoxification, ATPase activity, protein folding and basic metabolism. Gene expression analysis during apple infection showed that 3 out of 9 analysed genes were up regulated; thus, PeSte12 seemed to exert a positive control to particular type of aldolase. These results demonstrate the PeSte12 transcription factor could play an important role in P. expansum's virulence and asexual reproduction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. PE-Cy5.5 conjugates bind to the cells expressing mouse DEC205/CD205.

    PubMed

    Park, Chae Gyu; Rodriguez, Anthony; Steinman, Ralph M

    2012-10-31

    DEC205/CD205, an endocytic receptor of C-type multilectin, is expressed highly in dendritic cells (DCs). DEC205 was shown to efficiently deliver vaccine antigens in surrogate ligands to the antigen processing and presentation machinery of DCs, which resulted in the development of DC-targeted vaccines employing anti-DC monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). During our studies to characterize a variety of anti-DC mAbs including anti-DEC205 by flow cytometric analysis, we discovered that a secondary anti-immunoglobulin antibody conjugated with PE-Cy5.5 bound strongly to the cells expressing mouse DEC205 (mDEC205) without incubation of a primary anti-mDEC205 mAb. In the present study we demonstrate that various antibodies and streptavidin conjugated with PE-Cy5.5 bind to the mDEC205-expressing cells including CHO, KIT6, and HEK293 cells. The interaction between the PE-Cy5.5 conjugates and the cells expressing mDEC205 appears distinctive, since none of the PE-Cy5.5 conjugates bind to the cells that express human DEC205 on surface. Besides, only PE-Cy5.5 conjugates bind strongly to mDEC205-expressing cells; PerCP-Cy5.5, APC-Cy5.5, and Cy5.5 conjugates bind weakly; PE, PE-Cy5, Cy5, FITC, or Alexa488 conjugates do not bind to mDEC205-expressing cells. Therefore the use of PE-Cy5.5 conjugates, widely utilized in multicolor flow cytometry, requires precaution against nonspecific binding to mDEC205-positive cells.

  11. Autophagy competes for a common phosphatidylethanolamine pool with major cellular PE-consuming pathways in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Wilson-Zbinden, Caroline; dos Santos, Aline Xavier da Silveira; Stoffel-Studer, Ingrid; van der Vaart, Aniek; Hofmann, Kay; Reggiori, Fulvio; Riezman, Howard; Kraft, Claudine; Peter, Matthias

    2015-02-01

    Autophagy is a highly regulated pathway that selectively degrades cellular constituents such as protein aggregates and excessive or damaged organelles. This transport route is characterized by engulfment of the targeted cargo by autophagosomes. The formation of these double-membrane vesicles requires the covalent conjugation of the ubiquitin-like protein Atg8 to phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). However, the origin of PE and the regulation of lipid flux required for autophagy remain poorly understood. Using a genetic screen, we found that the temperature-sensitive growth and intracellular membrane organization defects of mcd4-174 and mcd4-P301L mutants are suppressed by deletion of essential autophagy genes such as ATG1 or ATG7. MCD4 encodes an ethanolamine phosphate transferase that uses PE as a precursor for an essential step in the synthesis of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor used to link a subset of plasma membrane proteins to lipid bilayers. Similar to the deletion of CHO2, a gene encoding the enzyme converting PE to phosphatidylcholine (PC), deletion of ATG7 was able to restore lipidation and plasma membrane localization of the GPI-anchored protein Gas1 and normal organization of intracellular membranes. Conversely, overexpression of Cho2 was lethal in mcd4-174 cells grown at restrictive temperature. Quantitative lipid analysis revealed that PE levels are substantially reduced in the mcd4-174 mutant but can be restored by deletion of ATG7 or CHO2. Taken together, these data suggest that autophagy competes for a common PE pool with major cellular PE-consuming pathways such as the GPI anchor and PC synthesis, highlighting the possible interplay between these pathways and the existence of signals that may coordinate PE flux.

  12. Antibiofouling potential of quercetin compound from marine-derived actinobacterium, Streptomyces fradiae PE7 and its characterization.

    PubMed

    Gopikrishnan, Venugopal; Radhakrishnan, Manikkam; Shanmugasundaram, Thangavel; Pazhanimurugan, Raasaiyah; Balagurunathan, Ramasamy

    2016-07-01

    An attempt has been made to isolate, purify and characterize antifouling compound from Streptomyces fradiae PE7 isolated from Vellar estuarine sediment, Parangipettai, South India. The microbial identification was done at species level based on its phenotypic, cell wall and molecular characteristics. Strain PE7 produced high quantity of antifouling compounds in agar surface fermentation when compared to submerged fermentation. In fermentation optimization, wide range of sugars, amino acids, minerals, pH, temperature and NaCl concentration was found to influence the antifouling compound production from the strain PE7. Antifouling compound PE7-C was purified from the crude extract by preparative TLC, and its activity against biofouling bacteria was confirmed by bioautography. Based on the physico-chemical characteristics, the chemical structure of the antifouling compound PE7-C was identified as quercetin (C15H10O7), a flavonoid class of compound with the molecular weight 302.23 g/mol. The purified quercetin was active against 18 biofouling bacteria with MIC range between 1.6 and 25 μg/ml, algal spore germination and mollusc foot adherence found at 100 μg/ml and 306 ± 19.6 μg ml(-1) respectively. The present study, for the first time, reported quercetin from marine-derived Streptomyces sp. PE7 with antifouling activity. This also leads to the repurposing of quercetin for the development of antifouling agent.

  13. The isopeptidase inhibitor 2cPE triggers proteotoxic stress and ATM activation in chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells

    PubMed Central

    Tomasella, Andrea; Picco, Raffaella; Ciotti, Sonia; Sgorbissa, Andrea; Bianchi, Elisa; Manfredini, Rossella; Benedetti, Fabio; Trimarco, Valentina; Frezzato, Federica; Trentin, Livio; Semenzato, Gianpietro; Delia, Domenico; Brancolini, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Relapse after treatment is a common and unresolved problem for patients suffering of the B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL). Here we investigated the ability of the isopeptidase inhibitor 2cPE to trigger apoptosis in leukemia cells in comparison with bortezomib, another inhibitor of the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS). Both inhibitors trigger apoptosis in CLL B cells and gene expression profiles studies denoted how a substantial part of genes up-regulated by these compounds are elements of adaptive responses, aimed to sustain cell survival. 2cPE treatment elicits the up-regulation of chaperones, proteasomal subunits and elements of the anti-oxidant response. Selective inhibition of these responses augments apoptosis in response to 2cPE treatment. We have also observed that the product of the ataxia telangiectasia mutated gene (ATM) is activated in 2cPE treated cells. Stimulation of ATM signaling is possibly dependent on the alteration of the redox homeostasis. Importantly ATM inhibition, mutations or down-modulation increase cell death in response to 2cPE. Overall this work suggests that 2cPE could offer new opportunities for the treatment of B-CLL. PMID:27259251

  14. Inhibitory effect of Paeonia lactiflora Pallas extract (PE) on poly (I:C)-induced immune response of epidermal keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Choi, Mi-Ra; Choi, Dae-Kyoung; Sohn, Kyung-Cheol; Lim, Seul Ki; Kim, Dong-Il; Lee, Young Ho; Im, Myung; Lee, Young; Seo, Young-Joon; Kim, Chang Deok; Lee, Jeung-Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Epidermal keratinocytes provide protective role against external stimuli by barrier formation. In addition, kertinocytes exerts their role as the defense cells via activation of innate immunity. Disturbance of keratinocyte functions is related with skin disorders. Psoriasis is a common skin disease related with inflammatory reaction in epidermal cells. We attempted to find therapeutics for psoriasis, and found that Paeonia lactiflora Pallas extract (PE) has an inhibitory potential on poly (I:C)-induced inflammation of keratinocytes. PE significantly inhibited poly (I:C)-induced expression of crucial psoriatic cytokines, such as IL-6, IL-8, CCL20 and TNF-α, via down-regulation of NF-κB signaling pathway in human keratinocytes. In addition, PE significantly inhibited poly (I:C)-induced inflammasome activation, in terms of IL-1β and caspase-1 secretion. Finally, PE markedly inhibited poly (I:C)-increased NLRP3, an important component of inflammasome. These results indicate that PE has an inhibitory effect on poly (I:C)-induced inflammatory reaction of keratinocytes, suggesting that PE can be developed for the treatment of psoriasis.

  15. Mycobacterium tuberculosis PE_PGRS18 enhances the intracellular survival of M. smegmatis via altering host macrophage cytokine profiling and attenuating the cell apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wenmin; Deng, Wanyan; Zeng, Jie; Ren, Sai; Ali, Md Kaisar; Gu, Yinzhong; Li, Yangyuling; Xie, Jianping

    2017-04-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis PE/PPE family proteins, named after the presence of conserved PE (Pro-Glu) and PPE (Pro-Pro-Glu) domains at N-terminal, are prevalent in M. tuberculosis genome. The function of most PE/PPE family proteins remains elusive. To characterize the function of PE_PGRS18, the encoding gene was heterologously expressed in M. smegmatis, a nonpathogenic mycobacterium. The recombinant PE_PGRS18 is cell wall associated. M. smegmatis PE_PGRS18 recombinant showed differential response to stresses and altered the production of host cytokines IL-6, IL-1β, IL-12p40 and IL-10, as well as enhanced survival within macrophages largely via attenuating the apoptosis of macrophages. In summary, the study firstly unveiled the role of PE_PGRS18 in physiology and pathogenesis of mycobacterium.

  16. Coupled Physics Environment (CouPE) library - Design, Implementation, and Release

    SciTech Connect

    Mahadevan, Vijay S.

    2014-09-30

    Over several years, high fidelity, validated mono-­physics solvers with proven scalability on peta-­scale architectures have been developed independently. Based on a unified component-­based architecture, these existing codes can be coupled with a unified mesh-­data backplane and a flexible coupling-­strategy-­based driver suite to produce a viable tool for analysts. In this report, we present details on the design decisions and developments on CouPE, an acronym that stands for Coupled Physics Environment that orchestrates a coupled physics solver through the interfaces exposed by MOAB array-­based unstructured mesh, both of which are part of SIGMA (Scalable Interfaces for Geometry and Mesh-­Based Applications) toolkit. The SIGMA toolkit contains libraries that enable scalable geometry and unstructured mesh creation and handling in a memory and computationally efficient implementation. The CouPE version being prepared for a full open-­source release along with updated documentation will contain several useful examples that will enable users to start developing their applications natively using the native MOAB mesh and couple their models to existing physics applications to analyze and solve real world problems of interest. An integrated multi-­physics simulation capability for the design and analysis of current and future nuclear reactor models is also being investigated as part of the NEAMS RPL, to tightly couple neutron transport, thermal-­hydraulics and structural mechanics physics under the SHARP framework. This report summarizes the efforts that have been invested in CouPE to bring together several existing physics applications namely PROTEUS (neutron transport code), Nek5000 (computational fluid-dynamics code) and Diablo (structural mechanics code). The goal of the SHARP framework is to perform fully resolved coupled physics analysis of a reactor on heterogeneous geometry, in order to reduce the overall numerical uncertainty while leveraging

  17. PePPER: a webserver for prediction of prokaryote promoter elements and regulons

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Accurate prediction of DNA motifs that are targets of RNA polymerases, sigma factors and transcription factors (TFs) in prokaryotes is a difficult mission mainly due to as yet undiscovered features in DNA sequences or structures in promoter regions. Improved prediction and comparison algorithms are currently available for identifying transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs) and their accompanying TFs and regulon members. Results We here extend the current databases of TFs, TFBSs and regulons with our knowledge on Lactococcus lactis and developed a webserver for prediction, mining and visualization of prokaryote promoter elements and regulons via a novel concept. This new approach includes an all-in-one method of data mining for TFs, TFBSs, promoters, and regulons for any bacterial genome via a user-friendly webserver. We demonstrate the power of this method by mining WalRK regulons in Lactococci and Streptococci and, vice versa, use L. lactis regulon data (CodY) to mine closely related species. Conclusions The PePPER webserver offers, besides the all-in-one analysis method, a toolbox for mining for regulons, promoters and TFBSs and accommodates a new L. lactis regulon database in addition to already existing regulon data. Identification of putative regulons and full annotation of intergenic regions in any bacterial genome on the basis of existing knowledge on a related organism can now be performed by biologists and it can be done for a wide range of regulons. On the basis of the PePPER output, biologist can design experiments to further verify the existence and extent of the proposed regulons. The PePPER webserver is freely accessible at http://pepper.molgenrug.nl. PMID:22747501

  18. Long-term soil moisture variability from a new P-E water budget method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, N.; Yoon, J.; Mariotti, A.; Swenson, S. C.

    2006-05-01

    Basin-scale soil moisture is traditionally estimated using either land-surface model forced by observed meteorological variables or atmospheric moisture convergence from atmospheric analysis and observed runoff. Interannual variability from such methods suffer from major uncertainties due to the sensitivity to small imperfections in the land-surface model or the atmospheric analysis. Here we introduce a novel P-E method in estimating basin-scale soil moisture, or more precisely apparent land water storage (AWS). The key input variables are observed precipitation and runoff, and reconstructed evaporation. We show the results for the tropics using the example of the Amazon basin. The seasonal cycle of diagnosed soil moisture over the Amazon is about 200mm, compares favorably with satellite estimate from the GRACE mission, thus lending confidence both in this method and the usefulness of space gravity based large-scale soil moisture estimate. This is about twice as large as estimates from several traditional methods, suggesting that current models tend to under estimate the soil moisture variability. One of the advantage of the P-E method is to retrive long-term variability of the basin-scale soil moisture (including interannual and decadal time scales), which can provide valuable information to understand climate variability and to predict future climate condition. However, validation on reconstructed evaporation is very difficult due to lack of observation. The interannual variability in AWS in the Amazon basin is about 150mm, also consistent with GRACE data, but much larger than model results. We also apply this P-E method to the midlatitude Mississippi basin and discuss the impact of major 20th century droughts such as the dust bowl period on the long-term soil moisture variability. The results suggest the existence of soil moisture memories on decadal time scales, significantly longer than typically assumed seasonal timescales.

  19. Evaluating a moving target: Using Practical Participatory Evaluation (P-PE) in hospital settings

    PubMed Central

    Wharton, Tracy; Alexander, Neil

    2014-01-01

    This article describes lessons learned about implementing evaluations in hospital settings. In order to overcome the methodological dilemmas inherent in this environment, we used a practical participatory evaluation strategy to engage as many stakeholders as possible in the process of evaluating a clinical demonstration project. Demonstration projects, in this context, push the envelope about what is known about effectiveness in novel settings, and turnover of staff and patient populations can present challenges to gathering optimal data. By using P-PE, we built capacity in the environment while expanding possibilities for data collection. Suggestions are made based on our experience. PMID:24860251

  20. The Andean orogenic front at Sierra de Las Peñas-Las Higueras, Mendoza, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, Carlos H.; Gardini, Carlos E.; Diederix, Hans; Cortés, José M.

    2000-07-01

    The Sierra de Las Peñas-Las Higueras (Mendoza Province, Argentina, 32°15'S-32°45'S) presents one of the clearest and most continuous exposures of the Quaternary thrust front of the Precordilleran fold-and-thrust belt. It is characterized by an east-verging thrust that breaks the surface and causes Neogene sedimentary rocks to override Quaternary alluvial conglomerates. Monoclinal folds and progressive unconformities are characteristic of deformation in the upper part of the alluvial cover, indicating synchronous development of sedimentation and thrusting during the Quaternary. South of this range, ongoing deformation is by gentle warping of the piedmont alluvial plain, hiding blind thrusts at depth.

  1. Peri-meatal PeIN and urethral SCC: a case report.

    PubMed

    Doiron, P R; du P Menage, H; Freeman, A; Muneer, A; Bunker, C B

    2017-03-10

    A 55-year-old man presented with an asymptomatic lesion adjacent to the urethral meatus of one year's duration (Fig. 1). His medical history was significant for quiescent lung sarcoidosis (treatment never required), asthma and irritable bowel syndrome. His only medication was a budesonide/formoterol inhaler. The plaque had slowly been increasing in size, had not ulcerated or bled and had not impacted sexual or urinary function. Examination did not reveal extension into the urethra. Biopsy revealed undifferentiated penile intraepithelial neoplasia (PeIN) III/carcinoma in situ. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  2. Molecular Cloning and Functional Analysis of UV RESISTANCE LOCUS 8 (PeUVR8) from Populus euphratica

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Ke; Wang, Lina; Li, Yuan-Yuan; Wu, Rongling

    2015-01-01

    Ultraviolet-B (UV-B; 280–315 nm) light, which is an integral part of the solar radiation reaching the surface of the Earth, induces a broad range of physiological responses in plants. The UV RESISTANCE LOCUS 8 (UVR8) protein is the first and only light photoreceptor characterized to date that is specific for UV-B light and it regulates various aspects of plant growth and development in response to UV-B light. Despite its involvement in the control of important plant traits, most studies on UV-B photoreceptors have focused on Arabidopsis and no data on UVR8 function are available for forest trees. In this study, we isolated a homologue of the UV receptor UVR8 of Arabidopsis, PeUVR8, from Populus euphratica (Euphrates poplar) and analyzed its structure and function in detail. The deduced PeUVR8 amino acid sequence contained nine well-conserved regulator of chromosome condensation 1 (RCC1) repeats and the region 27 amino acids from the C terminus (C27) that interact with COP1 (CONSTITUTIVELY PHOTOMORPHOGENIC1). Secondary and tertiary structure analysis showed that PeUVR8 shares high similarity with the AtUVR8 protein from Arabidopsis thaliana. Using heterologous expression in Arabidopsis, we showed that PeUVR8 overexpression rescued the uvr8 mutant phenotype. In addition, PeUVR8 overexpression in wild-type background seedlings grown under UV-B light inhibited hypocotyl elongation and enhanced anthocyanin accumulation. Furthermore, we examined the interaction between PeUVR8 and AtCOP1 using a bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) assay. Our data provide evidence that PeUVR8 plays important roles in the control of photomorphogenesis in planta. PMID:26171608

  3. Delivery of dopamine transporter tracer (PE2I) through blood brain barrier with ultrasound and microbubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serrière, Sophie; Escoffre, Jean-Michel; Bodard, Sylvie; Novell, Anthony; Vergote, Jackie; Vercouillie, Johnny; Thiéry, Jean-Claude; Chalon, Sylvie; Bouakaz, Ayache

    2012-10-01

    The blood-brain barrier plays a major role in controlling the delivery of therapeutic and imaging agents to the brain. The aim of this study was to investigate the use of ultrasound and microbubbles to increase its delivery through the BBB and by determining the optimal experimental conditions that achieve a transient and safe BBB disruption. First, we established the ultrasound conditions that achieved a transient BBB disruption in rats using a non-permeant marker, Evans blue. Hence SonoVue® (450 μL/kg) and Evans blue (100 mg/kg) were intravenously administered. BBB leakage was obtained using ultrasound insonation through the rat skull at 1.6 MPa, PRF 1 Hz, duty cycle 12%, burst 10 ms during 120 sec. BBB disruption was observed in all treated animals (N=4) by histological analysis. The same experimental conditions were applied to enhance brain uptake of PE2I. Biological samples were analyzed using a scintillation counter apparatus. The results showed 50% and 20% increase of 125I-PE2I uptake in the striatum and cerebral cortex, respectively, in the treated rats (N=5) versus control (N=4). Similar enhancements were observed using SonoVue® at half concentration. This innovative method provides a great potential for intracerebral delivery of molecular ligands that could be used for the therapy of brain diseases.

  4. Interaction of High Flash Point Electrolytes and PE-Based Separators for Li-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Andreas; Kaufmann, Christoph; Müller, Marcus; Hanemann, Thomas

    2015-08-27

    In this study, promising electrolytes for use in Li-ion batteries are studied in terms of interacting and wetting polyethylene (PE) and particle-coated PE separators. The electrolytes are characterized according to their physicochemical properties, where the flow characteristics and the surface tension are of particular interest for electrolyte-separator interactions. The viscosity of the electrolytes is determined to be in a range of η = 4-400 mPa∙s and surface tension is finely graduated in a range of γL = 23.3-38.1 mN∙m(-1). It is verified that the technique of drop shape analysis can only be used in a limited matter to prove the interaction, uptake and penetration of electrolytes by separators. Cell testing of Li|NMC half cells reveals that those cell results cannot be inevitably deduced from physicochemical electrolyte properties as well as contact angle analysis. On the other hand, techniques are more suitable which detect liquid penetration into the interior of the separator. It is expected that the results can help fundamental researchers as well as users of novel electrolytes in current-day Li-ion battery technologies for developing and using novel material combinations.

  5. A technique for detection of PeV neutrinos using a phased radio array

    SciTech Connect

    Vieregg, A.G.; Bechtol, K.; Romero-Wolf, A. E-mail: bechtol@kicp.uchicago.edu

    2016-02-01

    The detection of high energy neutrinos (10{sup 15}–10{sup 20} eV) is an important step toward understanding the most energetic cosmic accelerators and would enable tests of fundamental physics at energy scales that cannot easily be achieved on Earth. In this energy range, there are two expected populations of neutrinos: the astrophysical flux observed with IceCube at lower energies (∼1 PeV) and the predicted cosmogenic flux at higher energies (∼10{sup 18} eV) . Radio detector arrays such as RICE, ANITA, ARA, and ARIANNA exploit the Askaryan effect and the radio transparency of glacial ice, which together enable enormous volumes of ice to be monitored with sparse instrumentation. We describe here the design for a phased radio array that would lower the energy threshold of radio techniques to the PeV scale, allowing measurement of the astrophysical flux observed with IceCube over an extended energy range. Meaningful energy overlap with optical Cherenkov telescopes could be used for energy calibration. The phased radio array design would also provide more efficient coverage of the large effective volume required to discover cosmogenic neutrinos.

  6. Hidden Cosmic-Ray Accelerators as an Origin of TeV-PeV Cosmic Neutrinos.

    PubMed

    Murase, Kohta; Guetta, Dafne; Ahlers, Markus

    2016-02-19

    The latest IceCube data suggest that the all-flavor cosmic neutrino flux may be as large as 10^{-7}  GeV cm^{-2} s^{-1} sr^{-1} around 30 TeV. We show that, if sources of the TeV-PeV neutrinos are transparent to γ rays with respect to two-photon annihilation, strong tensions with the isotropic diffuse γ-ray background measured by Fermi are unavoidable, independently of the production mechanism. We further show that, if the IceCube neutrinos have a photohadronic (pγ) origin, the sources are expected to be opaque to 1-100 GeV γ rays. With these general multimessenger arguments, we find that the latest data suggest a population of cosmic-ray accelerators hidden in GeV-TeV γ rays as a neutrino origin. Searches for x-ray and MeV γ-ray counterparts are encouraged, and TeV-PeV neutrinos themselves will serve as special probes of dense source environments.

  7. Quantitative proteomic analysis of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae industrial strains CAT-1 and PE-2.

    PubMed

    Santos, Renata M; Nogueira, Fabio C S; Brasil, Aline A; Carvalho, Paulo C; Leprevost, Felipe V; Domont, Gilberto B; Eleutherio, Elis C A

    2017-01-16

    Brazilian ethanol fermentation process commonly uses baker's yeast as inoculum. In recent years, wild type yeast strains have been widely adopted. The two more successful examples are PE-2 and CAT-1, currently employed in Brazilian distilleries. In the present study, we analyzed how these strains compete for nutrients in the same environment and compared the potential characteristics which affect their performance by applying quantitative proteomics methods. Through the use of isobaric tagging, it was possible to compare protein abundances between both strains during the fermentation process. Our results revealed a better fermentation performance and robustness of CAT-1 strain. The proteomic results demonstrated many possible features that may be linked to the improved fermentation traits of the CAT-1. Proteins involved in response to oxidative stress (Sod1 and Trx1) and trehalose synthesis (Tps3) were more abundant in CAT-1 than in PE-2 after a fermentation batch. Tolerance to oxidative stress and trehalose accumulation were subsequently demonstrated to be enhanced for CAT-1, corroborating the comparative proteomic results. The importance of trehalose and the antioxidant system was confirmed by using mutant stains deleted in Sod1, Trx1 or Tps3. These deletions impaired fermentation performance, strengthening the idea that the abilities of accumulating high levels of trehalose and coping with oxidative stress are crucial for improving fermentation.

  8. Interaction of High Flash Point Electrolytes and PE-Based Separators for Li-Ion Batteries

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Andreas; Kaufmann, Christoph; Müller, Marcus; Hanemann, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    In this study, promising electrolytes for use in Li-ion batteries are studied in terms of interacting and wetting polyethylene (PE) and particle-coated PE separators. The electrolytes are characterized according to their physicochemical properties, where the flow characteristics and the surface tension are of particular interest for electrolyte–separator interactions. The viscosity of the electrolytes is determined to be in a range of η = 4–400 mPa∙s and surface tension is finely graduated in a range of γL = 23.3–38.1 mN∙m−1. It is verified that the technique of drop shape analysis can only be used in a limited matter to prove the interaction, uptake and penetration of electrolytes by separators. Cell testing of Li|NMC half cells reveals that those cell results cannot be inevitably deduced from physicochemical electrolyte properties as well as contact angle analysis. On the other hand, techniques are more suitable which detect liquid penetration into the interior of the separator. It is expected that the results can help fundamental researchers as well as users of novel electrolytes in current-day Li-ion battery technologies for developing and using novel material combinations. PMID:26343636

  9. Heat Tolerance in Curraleiro Pe-Duro, Pantaneiro and Nelore Cattle Using Thermographic Images

    PubMed Central

    Cardoso, Caio Cesar; Lima, Flávia Gontijo; Fioravanti, Maria Clorinda Soares; do Egito, Andrea Alves; Silva, Flávia Cristina de Paula e; Tanure, Candice Bergmann; Peripolli, Vanessa; McManus, Concepta

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare physiological and thermographic responses to heat stress in three breeds of cattle. Fifteen animals of each of the Nelore, Pantaneiro and Curraleiro Pe-Duro breeds, of approximately two years of age, were evaluated. Heart and respiratory rates, rectal and surface temperature of animals as well as soil temperature were recorded at 8:30 and 15:30 on six days. Variance, correlation, principal factors and canonical analyses were carried out. There were significant differences in the rectal temperature, heart and respiratory rate between breeds (p < 0.001). Nelore and Pantaneiro breeds had the highest rectal temperatures and the lowest respiratory rate (p < 0.001). Breed was also significant for surface temperatures (p < 0.05) showing that this factor significantly affected the response of the animal to heat tolerance in different ways. The Curraleiro Pe-Duro breed had the lowest surface temperatures independent of the period evaluated, with fewer animals that suffered with the climatic conditions, so this may be considered the best adapted when heat challenged under the experimental conditions. Thermography data showed a good correlation with the physiological indexes, and body area, neck and rump were the main points. PMID:26840335

  10. Fuel loading of PeBR for a long operation life on the lunar surface

    SciTech Connect

    Schriener, T. M.; El-Genk, M. S.

    2012-07-01

    The Pellet Bed Reactor (PeBR) power system could provide 99.3 kW e to a lunar outpost for 66 full power years and is designed for no single point failures. The core of this fast energy spectrum reactor consists of three sectors that are neutronically and thermally coupled, but hydraulically independent. Each sector has a separate Closed Brayton Cycle (CBC) loop for energy conversion and separate water heat-pipes radiator panels for heat rejection. He-Xe (40 g/mole) binary gas mixture serves as the reactor coolant and CBC working fluid. On the lunar surface, the emplaced PeBR below grade is loaded with spherical fuel pellets (1-cm in dia.). It is launched unfueled and the pellets are launched in separate subcritical canisters, one for each core sector. This paper numerically simulates the transient loading of a core sector with fuel pellets on the Moon. The simulation accounts for the dynamic interaction of the pellets during loading and calculates the axial and radial distributions of the volume porosity in the sector. The pellets pack randomly with a volume porosity of 0.39 - 0.41 throughout most of the sector, except near the walls the local porosity is higher. (authors)

  11. Effect of curcumin and irradiation in PE/CA-PJ15 oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    López-Jornet, Pia; Camacho-Alonso, Fabio; Gómez-Garcia, Francisco

    2011-09-01

    An in vitro study was made to evaluate the effect of curcumin and irradiation upon oral squamous cell carcinoma. Curcumin was administered at doses of 3, 3.75, 4.50 and 5.25 μM in PE/CA-PJ15 oral squamous cell carcinoma cultures irradiated with different doses (1, 2.5 and 5 Gy), followed by evaluation of the effects upon cell viability after 24, 48 and 72 h, based on the MTT colorimetric test. The application of curcumin to the PECA/PJ15 tumor cells during 24, 48 and 72 h of incubation without irradiation exerted an inhibitor effect upon cell viability. The curcumin concentration at which the inhibition of cell viability proved maximum was 5.25 μM, with statistically significant differences for 24 h (p = 0.002), 48 h (p < 0.001) and 72 h of incubation (p < 0.001). In contrast, the combination of curcumin and irradiation exerted a synergic effect-the greatest effects in relation to cell viability being recorded with a curcumin concentration of 3.75 μM and 5 Gy of irradiation, in the studied cell line. Curcumin increases cytotoxic activity in the PE/CA PJ15 cell line, while the combination of curcumin and irradiation exerts a synergic effect.

  12. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of Penicillium expansum PE-12 and its application in molecular breeding.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tian; Qi, Zhen; Wang, Yueyue; Zhang, Fangyuan; Li, Renyong; Yu, Qingsheng; Chen, Xiangbin; Wang, Huojun; Xiong, Xin; Tang, Kexuan

    2013-03-30

    Lipase produced by Penicillium expansum is widely used in laundry detergent and leather industry; however, the absence of an efficient transformation technology sets a major obstacle for further enhancement of its lipase productivity through advanced gene engineering. In this work, Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (ATMT) was investigated for P. expansum PE-12 transformation, using hygromycin phosphotransferase (hph) as a selectable marker gene. As a result, we revealed that the frequency of transformation surpassed 100 transformants/10(5)condida, most of the integrated T-DNA appeared as a single copy at a random position in chromosomal DNA, and all the transformants showed mitotic stability. Facilitated by this newly established method, for the first time, P. expansum PE-12 was genetically engineered to improve the lipase yield, through a homologous expression vector carrying the endogenous lipase gene (PEL) driven by the strong constitutive promoter of the glyceraldehydes-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene (gpdA) from Aspergillus nidulans. The highest expression level of the engineered strain reached up to 1700 U/mL, nearly 2-fold of the original industrial strain (900 U/mL). Our reproducible ATMT system has not only revealed the great potential of homologous expression-directed genetic engineering, which is more efficient and specific compared to traditional mutagenesis, but also provided new possibilities and perspectives for any other practical applications of P. expansum-related genetic engineering in the future.

  13. Kinetic modeling of the oxidative degradation of additive free PE in bleach disinfected water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikdam, Aïcha; Colin, Xavier; Billon, Noëlle; Minard, Gaëlle

    2016-05-01

    The chemical interactions between PE and bleach were studied at 60°C in immersion in bleach solutions kept at a free chlorine concentration of 100 ppm and a pH of 5 or 7.2. It was found that the polymer undergoes a severe oxidation from the earliest weeks of exposure, in a superficial layer whose thickness (of about 50-70 µm) is almost independent of the pH value, although the superficial oxidation rate is faster in acidic than in neutral medium. Oxidation leads to the formation and accumulation of a large variety of carbonyl products (mostly ketones and carboxylic acids) and, after a few weeks, to a decrease in the average molar mass due to the large predominance of chain scissions over crosslinking. A scenario was elaborated for explaining such unexpected results. According to this scenario, the non-ionic molecules (Cl2 and ClOH) formed from the disinfectant in the water phase, would migrate deeply into PE and dissociate into highly reactive radicals (Cl• and HO•) in order to initiate a radical chain oxidation. A kinetic model was derived from this scenario for predicting the general trends of the oxidation kinetics and its dependence on environmental factors such as temperature, free chlorine concentration and pH. The validity of this model was successfully checked by comparing the numerical simulations with experimental data.

  14. PE-CMOS-based C-mode ultrasound: signal acquisition and time gating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo, Shih-Chung B.; Liu, Chu-Chuan; Freedman, Matthew T.; Mun, Seong-Ki; Kula, John; Lasser, Marvin E.; Lasser, Bob; Wang, Yue Joseph

    2009-02-01

    Two types of signal acquisition methods using CMOS sensor array coated with piezoelectric material (PE-CMOS) were studied. The laboratory projection-reflection ultrasound prototypes featuring a PE-CMOS ultrasound sensing array and an acoustic compound lens were employed to image pork bones with fractures in vitro. We found that the projection-reflection ultrasound prototypes are capable of revealing hairline bone fractures with skin in tact. However, the image characteristics generated from these C-scan prototypes are somewhat different because they were equipped with two different senor array models. The signal acquired by the first sensor model is based on an integrated signal (IS) at a given time interval. But the signal acquired by the second sensor model is based on peak signal (PS) with a time gating function controllable by the user. We found that both systems can detect bone fracture as small as 0.5mm shown as a strip of ultrasound signal. However, images obtained from the IS sensor show more speckles with a greater blooming effect on the fractures. On the other hand, images obtained from the PS sensor show less contrast with less speckles. When the beam position is slightly tilted from the normal direction, the blooming effect of the ultrasound image would become dark on the fracture region with both acquisition modes.

  15. Quantitative ultrasound images generated by a PE-CMOS sensor array: scatter modeling and image restoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chu-Chuan; Lo, Shih-Chung Ben; Freedman, Matthew T.; Lasser, Marvin E.; Lasser, Bob; Kula, John; Wang, Yue Joseph

    2007-03-01

    In the projection geometry, the detected ultrasound energy through a soft-tissue is mainly attributed to the attenuated primary intensity and the scatter intensity. In order to extract ultrasound image of attenuated primary beam out of the detected raw data, the scatter component must be carefully quantified for restoring the original image. In this study, we have designed a set of apparatus to modeling the ultrasound scattering in soft-tissue. The employed ultrasound imaging device was a C-Scan (projection) prototype using a 4th generation PE-CMOS sensor array (model I400, by Imperium Inc., Silver Spring, MD) as the detector. Right after the plane wave ultrasound transmitting through a soft-tissue mimicking material (Zerdine, by CIRS Inc., Norfolk, VA), a ring aperture is used to collimate the signal before reaching the acoustic lens and the PE-CMOS sensor. Three sets of collimated ring images were acquired and analyzed to obtain the scattering components as a function of the off-center distance. Several pathological specimens and breast phantoms consisting of simulated breast tissue with masses, cysts and microcalcifications were imaged by the same C-Scan imaging prototype. The restoration of these ultrasound images were performed by using a standard deconvolution computation. Our study indicated that the resultant images show shaper edges and detailed features as compared to their unprocessed counterparts.

  16. Projection-reflection ultrasound images using PE-CMOS sensor: a preliminary bone fracture study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo, Shih-Chung B.; Liu, Chu-Chuan; Freedman, Matthew T.; Mun, Seong-Ki; Kula, John; Lasser, Marvin E.; Lasser, Bob; Wang, Yue Joseph

    2008-03-01

    In this study, we investigated the characteristics of the ultrasound reflective image obtained by a CMOS sensor array coated with piezoelectric material (PE-CMOS). The laboratory projection-reflection ultrasound prototype consists of five major components: an unfocused ultrasound transducer, an acoustic beam splitter, an acoustic compound lens, a PE-CMOS ultrasound sensing array (Model I400, Imperium Inc. Silver Spring, MD), and a readout circuit system. The prototype can image strong reflective materials such as bone and metal. We found this projection-reflection ultrasound prototype is able to reveal hairline bone fractures with and without intact skin and tissue. When compared, the image generated from a conventional B-scan ultrasound on the same bone fracture is less observable. When it is observable with the B-scan system, the fracture or crack on the surface only show one single spot of echo due to its scan geometry. The corresponding image produced from the projection-reflection ultrasound system shows a bright blooming strip on the image clearly indicating the fracture on the surface of the solid material. Speckles of the bone structure are also observed in the new ultrasound prototype. A theoretical analysis is provided to link the signals as well as speckles detected in both systems.

  17. Coordinated field study for CaPE: Analysis of energy and water budgets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, Steven J.; Duchon, Claude; Kanemasu, Edward T.; Smith, Eric A.; Crosson, William; Laymon, Chip; Luvall, Jeff

    1993-01-01

    The objectives of this hydrologic cycle study are to understand and model (1) surface energy and land-atmosphere water transfer processes, and (2) interactions between convective storms and surface energy fluxes. A surface energy budget measurement campaign was carried out by an interdisciplinary science team during the period July 8 - August 19, 1991 as part of the Convection and Precipitation/Electrification Experiment (CaPE) in the vicinity of Cape Canaveral, FL. Among the research themes associated with CaPE is the remote estimation of rainfall. Thus, in addition to surface radiation and energy budget measurements, surface mesonet, special radiosonde, precipitation, high-resolution satellite (SPOT) data, geosynchronous (GOES) and polar orbiting (DMSP SSM/I, OLS; NOAA AVHRR) satellite data, and high altitude airplane data (AMPR, MAMS, HIS) were collected. Initial quality control of the seven surface flux station data sets has begun. Ancillary data sets are being collected and assembled for analysis. Browsing of GOES and radar data has begun to classify days as disturbed/undisturbed to identify the larger scale forcing of the pre-convective environment, convection storms and precipitation. The science analysis plan has been finalized and tasks assigned to various investigators.

  18. The Lipid domain Phase diagram in a Dipalmitoyl-PC/Docosahaexnoic Acid-PE/Cholesterol System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lor, Chai; Hirst, Linda

    2011-03-01

    Lipid domains in bilayer membrane and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are thought to play an important role in cellular activities. In particular, lipids containing docosahaexnoic acid are an interesting class of PUFAs due to their health benefits. In this project, we perform oxidation measurements of DHA-PE to determine the rate of oxidation in combination with antioxidants. A ternary diagram of DPPC/DHA-PE/cholesterol is mapped out to identify phase separation phenomena using atomic force microscope (AFM). Fluorescence microscopy is also used to image lipid domains in a flat bilayer with fluorescent labels. As expected, we observe the phase, shape, and size of lipid domains changes with varying composition. Moreover, we find that the roughness of the domains changes possibly due to overpacking of cholesterol in domains. This model study provides further understanding of the role of cholesterol in the bilayer membrane leading towards a better understanding of cell membranes. NSF award # DMR 0852791, ``CAREER: Self-Assembly of Polyunsaturated Lipids and Cholesterol In The Cell Membrane.''

  19. Reynolds stress scaling in pipe flow turbulence—first results from CICLoPE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Örlü, R.; Fiorini, T.; Segalini, A.; Bellani, G.; Talamelli, A.; Alfredsson, P. H.

    2017-03-01

    This paper reports the first turbulence measurements performed in the Long Pipe Facility at the Center for International Cooperation in Long Pipe Experiments (CICLoPE). In particular, the Reynolds stress components obtained from a number of straight and boundary-layer-type single-wire and X-wire probes up to a friction Reynolds number of 3.8×104 are reported. In agreement with turbulent boundary-layer experiments as well as with results from the Superpipe, the present measurements show a clear logarithmic region in the streamwise variance profile, with a Townsend-Perry constant of A2≈1.26. The wall-normal variance profile exhibits a Reynolds-number-independent plateau, while the spanwise component was found to obey a logarithmic scaling over a much wider wall-normal distance than the other two components, with a slope that is nearly half of that of the Townsend-Perry constant, i.e. A2,w≈A2/2. The present results therefore provide strong support for the scaling of the Reynolds stress tensor based on the attached-eddy hypothesis. Intriguingly, the wall-normal and spanwise components exhibit higher amplitudes than in previous studies, and therefore call for follow-up studies in CICLoPE, as well as other large-scale facilities.

  20. A technique for detection of PeV neutrinos using a phased radio array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieregg, A. G.; Bechtol, K.; Romero-Wolf, A.

    2016-02-01

    The detection of high energy neutrinos (1015-1020 eV) is an important step toward understanding the most energetic cosmic accelerators and would enable tests of fundamental physics at energy scales that cannot easily be achieved on Earth. In this energy range, there are two expected populations of neutrinos: the astrophysical flux observed with IceCube at lower energies (~1 PeV) and the predicted cosmogenic flux at higher energies (~1018 eV) . Radio detector arrays such as RICE, ANITA, ARA, and ARIANNA exploit the Askaryan effect and the radio transparency of glacial ice, which together enable enormous volumes of ice to be monitored with sparse instrumentation. We describe here the design for a phased radio array that would lower the energy threshold of radio techniques to the PeV scale, allowing measurement of the astrophysical flux observed with IceCube over an extended energy range. Meaningful energy overlap with optical Cherenkov telescopes could be used for energy calibration. The phased radio array design would also provide more efficient coverage of the large effective volume required to discover cosmogenic neutrinos.

  1. The Enigmatic PE/PPE Multigene Family of Mycobacteria and Tuberculosis Vaccination.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Michael J

    2017-06-01

    The genome of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the bacterium responsible for the disease tuberculosis, contains an unusual family of abundant antigens (PE/PPEs). To date, certain members of this multigene family occur only in mycobacteria that cause disease. It is possible that the numerous proteins encoded by these mycobacterial genes dictate the immune pathogenesis of this bacterial pathogen. There is also evidence that some of these antigens are present at the cell surface and that they affect the pathology and immunology of the organism in many ways. Also, they elicit both antibodies and T cells, they may be involved in antigenic variation, and they may be good candidates for vaccines and drugs. However, since they are plentiful and extremely homologous, these PE/PPEs are very challenging to study, and it is difficult to be certain what role(s) they have in the pathogenesis of tuberculosis. Consequently, how to develop treatments like vaccines using these antigens as candidates is complex. Copyright © 2017 Brennan.

  2. Successful treatment of human chronic lymphocytic leukemia xenografts with combination biological agents auristatin PE and bryostatin 1.

    PubMed

    Mohammad, R M; Varterasian, M L; Almatchy, V P; Hannoudi, G N; Pettit, G R; Al-Katib, A

    1998-05-01

    We tested the activity of dolastatin 10 (a natural product derived from the shell-less marine mollusk, Dolabella auricularia, a sea hare) and its structural modification, auristatin PE, alone and in combination with bryostatin 1 (a protein kinase C activator derived from the marine bryozoan Bugula neritina) on a human B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia cell line (WSU-CLL) and in a severe combined immune deficient (SCID) mouse xenograft model bearing this cell line. WSU-CLL cells were cultured in RPMI 1640 at a concentration of 2 x 10(5)/ml using a 24-well plate. Agents were added to triplicate wells, and cell count, viability, mitosis, and apoptosis were assessed after 24 h of incubation at 37 degrees C. Results showed that dolastatin 10 had no apparent inhibition of cell growth at concentrations less than 500 pg/ml. Auristatin PE, on the other hand, showed significant growth inhibition at concentrations as low as 50 pg/ml. Auristatin PE-treated cultures, at this concentration, exhibited 27 and 4.5% mitosis and apoptosis, respectively. Dolastatin 10, at the same concentration, did not exert any effect and was comparable with that of control cultures. In the WSU-CLL-SCID mouse xenograft model, the efficacy of these agents alone and in combination with bryostatin 1 was evaluated. Tumor growth inhibition (T/C), tumor growth delay (T-C), and log10 kill for dolastatin 10, auristatin PE, and bryostatin 1 were 14%, 25 days, and 1.98; 2%, 25 days, and 1.98; 19%, 13 days, and 1.03, respectively. Auristatin-PE produced cure in three of five mice, whereas dolastatin 10 showed activity but no cures. When given in combination, auristatin PE + bryostatin 1-treated animals were all free of tumors (five of five) for 150 days and were considered cured. Dolastatin 10 + bryostatin 1-treated animals produced cure in only two of five mice. We conclude that: (a) auristatin-PE is more effective in this model than dolastatin 10; (b) auristatin PE can be administered at a concentration 10

  3. Environmental characteristics and student physical activity in PE class: findings from two large urban areas of Texas.

    PubMed

    Skala, Katherine A; Springer, Andrew E; Sharma, Shreela V; Hoelscher, Deanna M; Kelder, Steven H

    2012-05-01

    Physical education (PE) classes provide opportunities for children to be active. This study examined the associations between specific environmental characteristics (teacher characteristics; class size, duration and location; and lesson context) and elementary school-aged children's moderate-to-vigorous activity (MVPA) during PE. Environmental characteristics and student activity levels were measured in 211 third-, fourth-, and fifth-grade PE classes in 74 Texas public schools using SOFIT direct observation. Students engaged in less than half their PE class time in MVPA (38%), while approximately 25% of class time was spent in classroom management. Percent time in MVPA was significantly higher in outdoor classes compared with indoors (41.4% vs. 36.1%, P = .037). Larger (P = .044) and longer (P = .001) classes were negatively associated with percentage of MVPA and positively correlated with time spent in management (P < .001). Findings suggest that children's activity may be influenced by environmental factors such as class size, location, and lesson contexts. These findings hold important policy implications for PE class organization and the need for strategies that maximize children's MVPA. Further research is needed to test the causal association of these factors with student MVPA.

  4. Functional characterization of the ribosome biogenesis factors PES, BOP1, and WDR12 (PeBoW), and mechanisms of defective cell growth and proliferation caused by PeBoW deficiency in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Chang Sook; Cho, Hui Kyung; Lee, Du-Hwa; Sim, Hee-Jung; Kim, Sang-Gyu; Pai, Hyun-Sook

    2016-09-01

    The nucleolar protein pescadillo (PES) controls biogenesis of the 60S ribosomal subunit through functional interactions with Block of Proliferation 1 (BOP1) and WD Repeat Domain 12 (WDR12) in plants. In this study, we determined protein characteristics and in planta functions of BOP1 and WDR12, and characterized defects in plant cell growth and proliferation caused by a deficiency of PeBoW (PES-BOP1-WDR12) proteins. Dexamethasone-inducible RNAi of BOP1 and WDR12 caused developmental arrest and premature senescence in Arabidopsis, similar to the phenotype of PES RNAi. Both the N-terminal domain and WD40 repeats of BOP1 and WDR12 were critical for specific associations with 60S/80S ribosomes. In response to nucleolar stress or DNA damage, PeBoW proteins moved from the nucleolus to the nucleoplasm. Kinematic analyses of leaf growth revealed that depletion of PeBoW proteins led to dramatically suppressed cell proliferation, cell expansion, and epidermal pavement cell differentiation. A deficiency in PeBoW proteins resulted in reduced cyclin-dependent kinase Type A activity, causing reduced phosphorylation of histone H1 and retinoblastoma-related (RBR) protein. PeBoW silencing caused rapid transcriptional modulation of cell-cycle genes, including reduction of E2Fa and Cyclin D family genes, and induction of several KRP genes, accompanied by down-regulation of auxin-related genes and up-regulation of jasmonic acid-related genes. Taken together, these results suggest that the PeBoW proteins involved in ribosome biogenesis play a critical role in plant cell growth and survival, and their depletion leads to inhibition of cell-cycle progression, possibly modulated by phytohormone signaling. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  5. Functional characterization of the ribosome biogenesis factors PES, BOP1, and WDR12 (PeBoW), and mechanisms of defective cell growth and proliferation caused by PeBoW deficiency in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Chang Sook; Cho, Hui Kyung; Lee, Du-Hwa; Sim, Hee-Jung; Kim, Sang-Gyu; Pai, Hyun-Sook

    2016-01-01

    The nucleolar protein pescadillo (PES) controls biogenesis of the 60S ribosomal subunit through functional interactions with Block of Proliferation 1 (BOP1) and WD Repeat Domain 12 (WDR12) in plants. In this study, we determined protein characteristics and in planta functions of BOP1 and WDR12, and characterized defects in plant cell growth and proliferation caused by a deficiency of PeBoW (PES-BOP1-WDR12) proteins. Dexamethasone-inducible RNAi of BOP1 and WDR12 caused developmental arrest and premature senescence in Arabidopsis, similar to the phenotype of PES RNAi. Both the N-terminal domain and WD40 repeats of BOP1 and WDR12 were critical for specific associations with 60S/80S ribosomes. In response to nucleolar stress or DNA damage, PeBoW proteins moved from the nucleolus to the nucleoplasm. Kinematic analyses of leaf growth revealed that depletion of PeBoW proteins led to dramatically suppressed cell proliferation, cell expansion, and epidermal pavement cell differentiation. A deficiency in PeBoW proteins resulted in reduced cyclin-dependent kinase Type A activity, causing reduced phosphorylation of histone H1 and retinoblastoma-related (RBR) protein. PeBoW silencing caused rapid transcriptional modulation of cell-cycle genes, including reduction of E2Fa and Cyclin D family genes, and induction of several KRP genes, accompanied by down-regulation of auxin-related genes and up-regulation of jasmonic acid-related genes. Taken together, these results suggest that the PeBoW proteins involved in ribosome biogenesis play a critical role in plant cell growth and survival, and their depletion leads to inhibition of cell-cycle progression, possibly modulated by phytohormone signaling. PMID:27440937

  6. A Single-Chip Speech Dialogue Module and Its Evaluation on a Personal Robot, PaPeRo-Mini

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Miki; Iwasawa, Toru; Sugiyama, Akihiko; Nishizawa, Toshihiro; Takano, Yosuke

    This paper presents a single-chip speech dialogue module and its evaluation on a personal robot. This module is implemented on an application processor that was developed primarily for mobile phones to provide a compact size, low power-consumption, and low cost. It performs speech recognition with preprocessing functions such as direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation, noise cancellation, beamforming with an array of microphones, and echo cancellation. Text-to-speech (TTS) conversion is also equipped with. Evaluation results obtained on a new personal robot, PaPeRo-mini, which is a scale-down version of PaPeRo, demonstrate an 85% correct rate in DOA estimation, and as much as 54% and 30% higher speech recognition rates in noisy environments and during robot utterances, respectively. These results are shown to be comparable to those obtained by PaPeRo.

  7. Development and investigation of recombinant immunotoxin protein 4D5scFv-mCherry-PE(40).

    PubMed

    Shilova, O N; Souslova, E A; Pilunov, A M; Deyev, S M; Petrov, R V

    2016-11-01

    Development of agents for theranostics implies combining the targeting module, the effector module, and the detection module within the same complex or recombinant protein. We have constructed, isolated, and characterized the 4D5scFv-mCherry-PE(40) protein, which exhibits fluorescent properties and specifically binds to cancer cells expressing the HER2 receptor and reduces their viability. The ability of the obtained targeted antitumor agent 4D5scFv-mCherry-PE(40) to selectively stain the HER2-positive cells and its highly selective cytotoxicity against these cells make the obtained targeted recombinant protein 4D5scFv-mCherry-PE(40) a promising theranostic agent for the diagnostics and therapy of HER2-positive human tumors.

  8. Regulation of the expression of a putative ethylene receptor, PeERS2, during the development of passion fruit (Passiflora edulis).

    PubMed

    Mita, Satoru; Kawamura, Syoichiro; Asai, Tatsuo

    2002-02-01

    We isolated a full-length cDNA (PeERS2) that encoded the homologue in passion fruit of ERS1 of Arabidopsis and examined its expression during development of passion fruit. PeERS2 was 2357 bp long and included a single open reading frame that encoded a putative protein of 634 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 70.8 kDa. Expression of PeERS2 mRNA in arils of passion fruit was enhanced during ripening and after treatment with ethylene, but its level remained very low in seeds over the course of ripening. Accumulation of PeERS2 mRNA in arils was markedly reduced in fruits treated with 2,5-norbornadiene (NBD), but simultaneous application of ethylene abolished the inhibitory effects of NBD, suggesting that the continuous action of ethylene might promote ripening, with a concomitant increase in the abundance of PeERS2 mRNA. Levels of transcripts of the PeERS1 and PeERS2, which encode similar but not identical receptors for ethylene, increased during senescence of flowers and expression of PeERS2 mRNA was also enhanced during formation of the separation layer. The levels of transcripts of PeETR1 (the gene for yet another ethylene receptor) and PeERS1 were, respectively, higher than those of PeERS2 in sepals and ovaries. The transcripts of all three genes for ethylene receptors were barely detectable in anthers. These results suggest that the expression of the three genes for ethylene receptors is differentially regulated and that expression of the gene for PeERS2 is regulated not only by ethylene itself but also by developmental factors. Expression of each of the three individual genes for ethylene receptors might be controlled by different molecular mechanisms in the various tissues.

  9. Neutron β -decay as the origin of IceCube's PeV (anti)neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anchordoqui, Luis A.

    2015-01-01

    Motivated by the indications of a possible deficit of muon tracks in the first three-year equivalent data set of IceCube we investigate the possibility that the astrophysical (anti)neutrino flux (in the PeV energy range) could originate from β -decay of relativistic neutrons. We show that to accommodate IceCube observations it is necessary that only about 1% to 10% of the emitted cosmic rays in the energy decade 108.5≲ECR/GeV ≲109.5 , yielding antineutrinos on Earth (1 05.5≲Eν ¯/GeV ≲1 06.5 ), are observed. Such a strong suppression can be explained assuming magnetic shielding of the secondary protons which diffuse in extragalactic magnetic fields of strength 10 ≲B /nG ≲100 and coherence length ≲Mpc .

  10. Consequences of thermo- and photo-oxidation on end-use properties of pure PE

    SciTech Connect

    Tireau, Jonathan; Van Schoors, Laetitia; Benzarti, Karim; Colin, Xavier

    2010-06-02

    Thin films of polyethylene have been exposed to thermal and photochemical accelerated agings at different temperatures and different UV intensities. In both cases, mechanical tests performed on aged samples revealed a severe embrittlement of the PE material. However, a multi-scale analysis showed that i) under thermal oxidative conditions, such embrittlement mainly resulted from a reduction of molecular mobility of the amorphous phase due to annealing phenomena, while ii) it was rather associated to a competition between chain scission and cross-linking processes under photo-oxidative conditions. As regards the oxidation mechanisms, it was found that thermo-oxidation is clearly initiated by a bimolecular decomposition of hydroperoxides, while photo-oxidation seems rather initiated by the photolysis of ketones and hydroperoxides. Over a critical threshold of the hydroperoxide concentration, thermolysis of hydroperoxides seems to predominate and even to control the overall photo-oxidation kinetics.

  11. PeV-scale dark matter as a thermal relic of a decoupled sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berlin, Asher; Hooper, Dan; Krnjaic, Gordan

    2016-09-01

    In this letter, we consider a class of scenarios in which the dark matter is part of a heavy hidden sector that is thermally decoupled from the Standard Model in the early universe. The dark matter freezes-out by annihilating to a lighter, metastable state, whose subsequent abundance can naturally come to dominate the energy density of the universe. When this state decays, it reheats the visible sector and dilutes all relic abundances, thereby allowing the dark matter to be orders of magnitude heavier than the weak scale. For concreteness, we consider a simple realization with a Dirac fermion dark matter candidate coupled to a massive gauge boson that decays to the Standard Model through its kinetic mixing with hypercharge. We identify viable parameter space in which the dark matter can be as heavy as ∼1-100 PeV without being overproduced in the early universe.

  12. Study of Raft Domains in Model Membrane of DPPC/PE/Cholesterol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lor, Chai; Hirst, Linda

    2010-10-01

    Raft domains in bilayer membrane are thought to play an important role in many cell functions such as cell signaling or trans-membrane protein activation. Here we use a model membrane consisting of DPPC/PE/cholesterol to examine the structure of membrane rafts and phase interactions. In particular we are interested in lipids containing the highly polyunsaturated fatty acid DHA. We use both atomic force microscopy (AFM) and fluorescence microscopy to obtain information on the structural properties of raft regions and track cholesterol. As expected, we find phase separation of raft regions between saturated and unsaturated lipids. Moreover, we find that the roughness of the domains change with varying cholesterol concentration possibly due to overpacking. This model study provides further understanding of the role of cholesterol in bilayer membrane leading towards a better knowledge of cell membranes.

  13. Ultrahard spectra of PeV neutrinos from supernovae in compact star clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bykov, A. M.; Ellison, D. C.; Gladilin, P. E.; Osipov, S. M.

    2015-10-01

    Starburst regions with multiple powerful winds of young massive stars and supernova remnants are favourable sites for high-energy cosmic ray (CR) acceleration. A supernova (SN) shock colliding with a fast wind from a compact cluster of young stars allows the acceleration of protons to energies well above the standard limits of diffusive shock acceleration in an isolated SN. The proton spectrum in such a wind-SN pevatron accelerator is hard with a large flux in the high-energy end of the spectrum producing copious gamma-rays and neutrinos in inelastic nuclear collisions. We argue that SN shocks in the Westerlund 1 cluster in the Milky Way may accelerate protons to ≳40 PeV. Once accelerated, these CRs will diffuse into surrounding dense clouds and produce neutrinos with fluxes sufficient to explain a fraction of the events detected by IceCube from the inner Galaxy.

  14. PeV-scale dark matter as a thermal relic of a decoupled sector

    DOE PAGES

    Berlin, Asher; Hooper, Dan; Krnjaic, Gordan

    2016-06-21

    We consider a class of scenarios in which the dark matter is part of a heavy hidden sector that is thermally decoupled from the Standard Model in the early universe. The dark matter freezes-out by annihilating to a lighter, metastable state, whose subsequent abundance can naturally come to dominate the energy density of the universe. Moreover, when this state decays, it reheats the visible sector and dilutes all relic abundances, thereby allowing the dark matter to be orders of magnitude heavier than the weak scale. For concreteness, we consider a simple realization with a Dirac fermion dark matter candidate coupledmore » to a massive gauge boson that decays to the Standard Model through its kinetic mixing with hypercharge. Finally, we identify viable parameter space in which the dark matter can be as heavy as ~1-100 PeV without being overproduced in the early universe.« less

  15. Low-cycle fatigue behavior of NIMONIC PE16 at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, V.; Sundararaman, M.; Chen, W.; Wahi, R. P.

    1991-02-01

    The fatigue behavior of NIMONIC PE16 has been investigated at room temperature as a function of γ' particle size (from 10 to 30 nm) and total strain amplitude (0.44 to 2.60 pct). All specimens initially harden and then soften on further deformation. The degrees of hardening and softening show a marked variation with γ' particle size and strain amplitude. Cyclic stress-strain and Coffin-Manson plots show a bilinear behavior with a change of slope at Δɛp/2, the plastic strain amplitude, of about 0.3 pct. These results are interpreted in terms of microstructural observations, namely, the number of slip systems activated and mutual interaction of dislocations on these systems, as well as their interaction with γ' particles.

  16. Radiative transitions involving the (2p2)(3 Pe) metastable autodetaching of H(-)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobs, V. L.; Bhatia, A. K.; Temkin, A.

    1974-01-01

    The absorption coefficient for the free-bound transition H (ls) + e(-)+ h omega yields H(-)(2 sq p,(3)P(e)) is calculated (together with the differential emission rate for the inverse process) using ls - 2s - 2p close coupling continuum wave functions and a Hylleraas bound state wave function. A maximum in the absorption and emission spectra is found to occur at a photon wavelength of 1219.5 A, which is 2 A closer to the Lyman alpha line than predicted by the calculations of Drake, and is in closer agreement with the stellar absorption feature identified by Heap and Stecher. The free-bound absorption process appears to be a significant source of continuous ultraviolet opacity.

  17. A search for small-scale anisotropy of PeV cosmic rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zotov, M. Yu.; Kulikov, G. V.

    2012-11-01

    Recent results of Milagro, Tibet, ARGO-YBJ, and IceCube experiments on the small-scale anisotropy of Galactic cosmic rays (CRs) with energies from units up to a few hundred TeV arise a question on a possible nature of the observed phenomenon, as well as on the anisotropy of CRs at higher energies. An analysis of a small-scale anisotropy of CRs with energies at around PeV registered with the EAS MSU array presented in the article, reveals a number of regions with an excessive flux. A typical size of the regions varies from 3° up to 12°. We study correlation of these regions with positions of potential astrophysical sources of CRs and discuss a possible origin of the observed anisotropy.

  18. Temporal and Climatic Analysis of the Rio Peñasco in New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, F.

    2015-12-01

    Streamflow research usually focuses on perennial streams due to the obvious impact on water budgets and flooding forecasts as well as the readily available data due a higher quantity of gages with longer and more complete data sets. Due to this, most streamflow metrics were derived by analyzing perennial streams and may not accurately characterize streams that have intermittent flow. Even standard metrics used for intermittent streams may not accurately characterize streams that are strongly ephemeral. This study uses statistical methods to analyze the Rio Peñasco near Artesia, NM. Traditional metrics were inadequate in describing the average or variance of this ephemeral stream. This stream has been rerouted or altered numerous times in order to be used for agriculture. In the 1980s, this anthropogenic influence resulted in a drastic decline in discharge rates. ENSO was shown to alter the onset and total volume of non-zero discharge during monsoon months.

  19. DSTiPE Algorithm for Fuzzy Spatio-Temporal Risk Calculation in Wireless Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Kurt Derr; Milos Manic

    2008-09-01

    Time and location data play a very significant role in a variety of factory automation scenarios, such as automated vehicles and robots, their navigation, tracking, and monitoring, to services of optimization and security. In addition, pervasive wireless capabilities combined with time and location information are enabling new applications in areas such as transportation systems, health care, elder care, military, emergency response, critical infrastructure, and law enforcement. A person/object in proximity to certain areas for specific durations of time may pose a risk hazard either to themselves, others, or the environment. This paper presents a novel fuzzy based spatio-temporal risk calculation DSTiPE method that an object with wireless communications presents to the environment. The presented Matlab based application for fuzzy spatio-temporal risk cluster extraction is verified on a diagonal vehicle movement example.

  20. Estimation of Daily Area-Average Rainfall during the CaPE Experiment in Central Florida.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duchon, Claude E.; Renkevens, Thomas M.; Crosson, William L.

    1995-12-01

    The principal component of the water cycle over land areas is precipitation. Knowledge of the accuracy of areal precipitation estimates, therefore, is imperative. The manifold observations of hydrometeorological quantities in the Convection and Precipitation/Electrification Experiment (CaPE) that took place in central Florida during the summer of 1991 have provided an opportunity to examine the various water fluxes. This paper deals with only one of them, the daily area-average rainfall as derived from rain gauges. The theory for spatial sampling errors for random gauge design is extended to include rain gauge bias and random errors. The requirement for randomly located gauges turns out to be quite well met with the approximately 100 gauges available each day over the 17 300-km2 CaPE study area. Rain gauge bias, due mainly to wind effects, is estimated to be 6% based on a previous study and random measurement error is calculated from seven pairs of collocated gauges. For the category of daily area-average rainfall less than 1 mm, the standard error was found to be 0.27 mm or a 53% variation with respect to the category mean. For the highest rainfall category, 11 15 mm, the standard error was 1.49 mm or 11%. For this application, the standard error is essentially a consequence of the limited number of gauges. Given that the rain gauges are randomly distributed and arithmetic averaging is used to estimate the daily area-average rainfall, application of the appropriate standard error provides a useful measure of the best accuracy achievable in assessing the daily water budget of this area.

  1. The Contribution of Fermi-2LAC Blazars to Diffuse TeV-PeV Neutrino Flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aartsen, M. G.; Abraham, K.; Ackermann, M.; Adams, J.; Aguilar, J. A.; Ahlers, M.; Ahrens, M.; Altmann, D.; Andeen, K.; Anderson, T.; Ansseau, I.; Anton, G.; Archinger, M.; Arguelles, C.; Arlen, T. C.; Auffenberg, J.; Axani, S.; Bai, X.; Barwick, S. W.; Baum, V.; Bay, R.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker Tjus, J.; Becker, K.-H.; BenZvi, S.; Berghaus, P.; Berley, D.; Bernardini, E.; Bernhard, A.; Besson, D. Z.; Binder, G.; Bindig, D.; Bissok, M.; Blaufuss, E.; Blot, S.; Boersma, D. J.; Bohm, C.; Börner, M.; Bos, F.; Bose, D.; Böser, S.; Botner, O.; Braun, J.; Brayeur, L.; Bretz, H.-P.; Burgman, A.; Casey, J.; Casier, M.; Cheung, E.; Chirkin, D.; Christov, A.; Clark, K.; Classen, L.; Coenders, S.; Collin, G. H.; Conrad, J. M.; Cowen, D. F.; Cruz Silva, A. H.; Daughhetee, J.; Davis, J. C.; Day, M.; de André, J. P. A. M.; De Clercq, C.; del Pino Rosendo, E.; Dembinski, H.; De Ridder, S.; Desiati, P.; de Vries, K. D.; de Wasseige, G.; de With, M.; DeYoung, T.; Díaz-Vélez, J. C.; di Lorenzo, V.; Dujmovic, H.; Dumm, J. P.; Dunkman, M.; Eberhardt, B.; Ehrhardt, T.; Eichmann, B.; Euler, S.; Evenson, P. A.; Fahey, S.; Fazely, A. R.; Feintzeig, J.; Felde, J.; Filimonov, K.; Finley, C.; Flis, S.; Fösig, C.-C.; Franckowiak, A.; Fuchs, T.; Gaisser, T. K.; Gaior, R.; Gallagher, J.; Gerhardt, L.; Ghorbani, K.; Giang, W.; Gladstone, L.; Glagla, M.; Glüsenkamp, T.; Goldschmidt, A.; Golup, G.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Góra, D.; Grant, D.; Griffith, Z.; Haack, C.; Haj Ismail, A.; Hallgren, A.; Halzen, F.; Hansen, E.; Hansmann, B.; Hansmann, T.; Hanson, K.; Hebecker, D.; Heereman, D.; Helbing, K.; Hellauer, R.; Hickford, S.; Hignight, J.; Hill, G. C.; Hoffman, K. D.; Hoffmann, R.; Holzapfel, K.; Homeier, A.; Hoshina, K.; Huang, F.; Huber, M.; Huelsnitz, W.; Hultqvist, K.; In, S.; Ishihara, A.; Jacobi, E.; Japaridze, G. S.; Jeong, M.; Jero, K.; Jones, B. J. P.; Jurkovic, M.; Kappes, A.; Karg, T.; Karle, A.; Katz, U.; Kauer, M.; Keivani, A.; Kelley, J. L.; Kemp, J.; Kheirandish, A.; Kim, M.; Kintscher, T.; Kiryluk, J.; Kittler, T.; Klein, S. R.; Kohnen, G.; Koirala, R.; Kolanoski, H.; Konietz, R.; Köpke, L.; Kopper, C.; Kopper, S.; Koskinen, D. J.; Kowalski, M.; Krings, K.; Kroll, M.; Krückl, G.; Krüger, C.; Kunnen, J.; Kunwar, S.; Kurahashi, N.; Kuwabara, T.; Labare, M.; Lanfranchi, J. L.; Larson, M. J.; Lennarz, D.; Lesiak-Bzdak, M.; Leuermann, M.; Leuner, J.; Lu, L.; Lünemann, J.; Madsen, J.; Maggi, G.; Mahn, K. B. M.; Mancina, S.; Mandelartz, M.; Maruyama, R.; Mase, K.; Maunu, R.; McNally, F.; Meagher, K.; Medici, M.; Meier, M.; Meli, A.; Menne, T.; Merino, G.; Meures, T.; Miarecki, S.; Middell, E.; Mohrmann, L.; Montaruli, T.; Moulai, M.; Nahnhauer, R.; Naumann, U.; Neer, G.; Niederhausen, H.; Nowicki, S. C.; Nygren, D. R.; Obertacke Pollmann, A.; Olivas, A.; Omairat, A.; O'Murchadha, A.; Palczewski, T.; Pandya, H.; Pankova, D. V.; Penek, Ö.; Pepper, J. A.; Pérez de los Heros, C.; Pfendner, C.; Pieloth, D.; Pinat, E.; Posselt, J.; Price, P. B.; Przybylski, G. T.; Quinnan, M.; Raab, C.; Rädel, L.; Rameez, M.; Rawlins, K.; Reimann, R.; Relich, M.; Resconi, E.; Rhode, W.; Richman, M.; Riedel, B.; Robertson, S.; Rongen, M.; Rott, C.; Ruhe, T.; Ryckbosch, D.; Rysewyk, D.; Sabbatini, L.; Sanchez Herrera, S. E.; Sandrock, A.; Sandroos, J.; Sarkar, S.; Satalecka, K.; Schimp, M.; Schlunder, P.; Schmidt, T.; Schoenen, S.; Schöneberg, S.; Schönwald, A.; Schumacher, L.; Seckel, D.; Seunarine, S.; Soldin, D.; Song, M.; Spiczak, G. M.; Spiering, C.; Stahlberg, M.; Stamatikos, M.; Stanev, T.; Stasik, A.; Steuer, A.; Stezelberger, T.; Stokstad, R. G.; Stößl, A.; Ström, R.; Strotjohann, N. L.; Sullivan, G. W.; Sutherland, M.; Taavola, H.; Taboada, I.; Tatar, J.; Ter-Antonyan, S.; Terliuk, A.; Tešić, G.; Tilav, S.; Toale, P. A.; Tobin, M. N.; Toscano, S.; Tosi, D.; Tselengidou, M.; Turcati, A.; Unger, E.; Usner, M.; Vallecorsa, S.; Vandenbroucke, J.; van Eijndhoven, N.; Vanheule, S.; van Rossem, M.; van Santen, J.; Veenkamp, J.; Vehring, M.; Voge, M.; Vraeghe, M.; Walck, C.; Wallace, A.; Wallraff, M.; Wandkowsky, N.; Weaver, Ch.; Wendt, C.; Westerhoff, S.; Whelan, B. J.; Wickmann, S.; Wiebe, K.; Wiebusch, C. H.; Wille, L.; Williams, D. R.; Wills, L.; Wissing, H.; Wolf, M.; Wood, T. R.; Woolsey, E.; Woschnagg, K.; Xu, D. L.; Xu, X. W.; Xu, Y.; Yanez, J. P.; Yodh, G.; Yoshida, S.; Zoll, M.; IceCube Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The recent discovery of a diffuse cosmic neutrino flux extending up to PeV energies raises the question of which astrophysical sources generate this signal. Blazars are one class of extragalactic sources which may produce such high-energy neutrinos. We present a likelihood analysis searching for cumulative neutrino emission from blazars in the 2nd Fermi-LAT AGN catalog (2LAC) using IceCube neutrino data set 2009-12, which was optimized for the detection of individual sources. In contrast to those in previous searches with IceCube, the populations investigated contain up to hundreds of sources, the largest one being the entire blazar sample in the 2LAC catalog. No significant excess is observed, and upper limits for the cumulative flux from these populations are obtained. These constrain the maximum contribution of 2LAC blazars to the observed astrophysical neutrino flux to 27% or less between around 10 TeV and 2 PeV, assuming the equipartition of flavors on Earth and a single power-law spectrum with a spectral index of -2.5. We can still exclude the fact that 2LAC blazars (and their subpopulations) emit more than 50% of the observed neutrinos up to a spectral index as hard as -2.2 in the same energy range. Our result takes into account the fact that the neutrino source count distribution is unknown, and it does not assume strict proportionality of the neutrino flux to the measured 2LAC γ-ray signal for each source. Additionally, we constrain recent models for neutrino emission by blazars.

  2. PeTMbase: A Database of Plant Endogenous Target Mimics (eTMs)

    PubMed Central

    Karakülah, Gökhan; Yücebilgili Kurtoğlu, Kuaybe

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNA) are small endogenous RNA molecules, which regulate target gene expression at post-transcriptional level. Besides, miRNA activity can be controlled by a newly discovered regulatory mechanism called endogenous target mimicry (eTM). In target mimicry, eTMs bind to the corresponding miRNAs to block the binding of specific transcript leading to increase mRNA expression. Thus, miRNA-eTM-target-mRNA regulation modules involving a wide range of biological processes; an increasing need for a comprehensive eTM database arose. Except miRSponge with limited number of Arabidopsis eTM data no available database and/or repository was developed and released for plant eTMs yet. Here, we present an online plant eTM database, called PeTMbase (http://petmbase.org), with a highly efficient search tool. To establish the repository a number of identified eTMs was obtained utilizing from high-throughput RNA-sequencing data of 11 plant species. Each transcriptome libraries is first mapped to corresponding plant genome, then long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) transcripts are characterized. Furthermore, additional lncRNAs retrieved from GREENC and PNRD were incorporated into the lncRNA catalog. Then, utilizing the lncRNA and miRNA sources a total of 2,728 eTMs were successfully predicted. Our regularly updated database, PeTMbase, provides high quality information regarding miRNA:eTM modules and will aid functional genomics studies particularly, on miRNA regulatory networks. PMID:27936097

  3. Body image and extreme attitudes toward weight in Brazilian schoolchildren (PeNSE 2012).

    PubMed

    Claro, Rafael Moreira; Santos, Maria Aline Siqueira; Oliveira-Campos, Maryane

    2014-01-01

    Adolescence is a period characterized by changes such as accelerated physical growth and sexual development. Besides having to deal with these changes, adolescents are faced with beauty standards and extreme valorization of physical appearance. This article aims to describe body image and the practice of extreme attitudes regarding weight in Brazilian students. Data from the National Survey of School Health (PeNSE) 2012 were used in this study. PeNSE 2012 has a representative sample of students in the 9th grade of elementary school in public and private schools across the country. A self-administered questionnaire on body image, practice of extreme measures in relation to weight and sociodemographic data was used. Body image and the practice of extreme attitudes were described for the total sample and according to gender. Poisson regression analyzes were used to identify differences in the practices of extreme attitudes between the different types of body image. More than 38% of the adolescents did not consider their body image as normal. Over 15% of the students referred to carry out extreme weight control practices, combining practices to loose and gain weight. Adolescents who considered themselves fat presented frequency of extreme practices for weight loss 92% higher than that shown by individuals who considered themselves normal. Similarly, adolescents who considered themselves thin presented frequency of extreme attitudes to gain weight (9.7%) higher than that shown by students who considered themselves normal (5.6%). The high frequency of extreme weight control practices among Brazilian adolescents is alarming and should be subject of measures in health and education fields.

  4. Remitting seronegative symmetrical synovitis with pitting edema (RS3PE) syndrome induced by nivolumab.

    PubMed

    Gauci, Marie-Léa; Baroudjian, Barouyr; Laly, Pauline; Madelaine, Isabelle; Da Meda, Laetitia; Vercellino, Laetitia; Bagot, Martine; Lioté, Frédéric; Pages, Cécile; Lebbé, Céleste

    2017-10-01

    A new articular syndrome described as immunrelated side effect of immunotherapy: PD-1 inhibitors have revolutionized the treatment of advanced melanoma but are responsible for immune-related toxicity. We report a case of remitting seronegative symetrical synovitis with pitting edema (RS3PE) syndrome induced by nivolumab. A 80 year-old man with stage IV BRAF-wild type and NRAS exon 2-mutated melanoma was treated first line by nivolumab 3mg/kg every 2 weeks. At week 4, before the 3rd infusion, he presented with inflammatory arthralgia, synovitis of proximal interphalangeal, wrist and ankle joints, and edema of both hands and forearms. Laboratory tests showed inflammatory syndrome (CRP = 8.4mg/dL), negative rheumatoid factor, and anti-CCP antibodies. Radiographs did not show any joint erosion but joint ultrasound displayed intra-articular effusion and tenosynovitis. PET/CT performed 6 and 3 months before treatment for melanoma work-up showed an isolated hypermetabolism of the shoulder girdle. The diagnosis of RS3PE was retained. A systemic corticosteroid treatment (0.5mg/kg/d) was initiated; nivolumab was hold during 4 weeks leading to remission of clinical symptoms within 10 days, CRP level normalization and without relapse when nivolumab was resumed. Corticosteroids were progressively tapered and stopped after 9 months. After 5 months, anti-PD1 was definitively stopped because of disease progression. With this atypical case, clinicians should remain alert on a whole range of autoimmune diseases susceptible to be induced. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Neutron electric dipole moment and probe of PeV scale physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aboubrahim, Amin; Ibrahim, Tarek; Nath, Pran

    2015-05-01

    The experimental limit on the neutron electric dipole moment is used as a possible probe of new physics beyond the standard model. Within the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM), we use the current experimental limit on the neutron EDM and possible future improvement as a probe of high-scale supersymmetry (SUSY). Quantitative analyses show that scalar masses as large as a PeV and larger could be probed in an improved experiment far above the scales accessible at future colliders. We also discuss the neutron EDM as a probe of new physics models beyond MSSM. Specifically, we consider an MSSM extension with a particle content including a vectorlike multiplet. Such an extension brings in new sources of charge conjugation and parity (C P ) violation beyond those in the MSSM. These C P phases contribute to the EDM of the quarks and to the neutron EDM. These contributions are analyzed in this work where we include the supersymmetric loop diagrams involving the neutralinos, charginos, and the gluino, squark and mirror squark exchange diagrams at the one-loop level. We also take into account the contributions from the W , Z , quark and mirror quark exchanges arising from the mixings of the vectorlike generation with the three generations. It is shown that the experimental limit on the neutron EDM can be used to probe such new physics models. In the future, one expects the neutron EDM to improve an order of magnitude or more allowing one to extend the probe of high-scale SUSY and of new physics models. For the MSSM, the probe of high scales could go up to and beyond PeV scale masses.

  6. Establishment of a Cell Line From Conjunctival Squamous Cell Carcinoma: PeCa-UkHb-01.

    PubMed

    Thomasen, Henning; Müller, Bettina; Poetsch, Micaela; Steuhl, Klaus-Peter; Meller, Daniel

    2015-07-01

    Until now, no epithelial cell line from conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), to our knowledge, has existed; therefore, the establishment of a model cell line would be a useful tool for further studies. In particular, the phenotypic and molecular characterization in comparison to other SCC cells is of high interest because this would enable the development of new treatment options for clinical application in ophthalmic oncology. Epithelial cells were isolated from a bulbar conjunctiva SCC obtained from a 74-year-old male, harvested by stepwise trypsinization and named PeCa-UkHb-01. Cell doubling and the number of passages were determined. Short tandem repeats (STR) and karyotype analyses were performed. Semiquantitative real-time PCR and immunocytochemical fluorescence staining were carried out to detect tumor and epithelial cell markers. The cells had an epithelial and conjunctival phenotype. They grew above passage number 50 in a doubling time at approximately 34.5 hours. Short tandem repeat analyses confirmed the cell origin, although loss of heterozygosity occurred. Karyotype analyses revealed a heterogeneous composition of the cell culture and the karyogram itself showed aberrations and changes in the chromosome numbers. Real-time PCR and immunocytochemical fluorescence staining revealed the expression of the stem cell markers such as ABCG2, p63, OCT4, c-MYC, and SOX2 as well as the conjunctival cytokeratin K19. PeCa-UkHb-01 cells fulfill the criteria of a cell line. They display characteristics of ocular carcinoma cells and therefore the presented cell line might serve for further basic research in ophthalmic oncology.

  7. PeTMbase: A Database of Plant Endogenous Target Mimics (eTMs).

    PubMed

    Karakülah, Gökhan; Yücebilgili Kurtoğlu, Kuaybe; Unver, Turgay

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNA) are small endogenous RNA molecules, which regulate target gene expression at post-transcriptional level. Besides, miRNA activity can be controlled by a newly discovered regulatory mechanism called endogenous target mimicry (eTM). In target mimicry, eTMs bind to the corresponding miRNAs to block the binding of specific transcript leading to increase mRNA expression. Thus, miRNA-eTM-target-mRNA regulation modules involving a wide range of biological processes; an increasing need for a comprehensive eTM database arose. Except miRSponge with limited number of Arabidopsis eTM data no available database and/or repository was developed and released for plant eTMs yet. Here, we present an online plant eTM database, called PeTMbase (http://petmbase.org), with a highly efficient search tool. To establish the repository a number of identified eTMs was obtained utilizing from high-throughput RNA-sequencing data of 11 plant species. Each transcriptome libraries is first mapped to corresponding plant genome, then long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) transcripts are characterized. Furthermore, additional lncRNAs retrieved from GREENC and PNRD were incorporated into the lncRNA catalog. Then, utilizing the lncRNA and miRNA sources a total of 2,728 eTMs were successfully predicted. Our regularly updated database, PeTMbase, provides high quality information regarding miRNA:eTM modules and will aid functional genomics studies particularly, on miRNA regulatory networks.

  8. Reynolds stress scaling in pipe flow turbulence-first results from CICLoPE.

    PubMed

    Örlü, R; Fiorini, T; Segalini, A; Bellani, G; Talamelli, A; Alfredsson, P H

    2017-03-13

    This paper reports the first turbulence measurements performed in the Long Pipe Facility at the Center for International Cooperation in Long Pipe Experiments (CICLoPE). In particular, the Reynolds stress components obtained from a number of straight and boundary-layer-type single-wire and X-wire probes up to a friction Reynolds number of 3.8×10(4) are reported. In agreement with turbulent boundary-layer experiments as well as with results from the Superpipe, the present measurements show a clear logarithmic region in the streamwise variance profile, with a Townsend-Perry constant of A2≈1.26. The wall-normal variance profile exhibits a Reynolds-number-independent plateau, while the spanwise component was found to obey a logarithmic scaling over a much wider wall-normal distance than the other two components, with a slope that is nearly half of that of the Townsend-Perry constant, i.e. A2,w≈A2/2. The present results therefore provide strong support for the scaling of the Reynolds stress tensor based on the attached-eddy hypothesis. Intriguingly, the wall-normal and spanwise components exhibit higher amplitudes than in previous studies, and therefore call for follow-up studies in CICLoPE, as well as other large-scale facilities.This article is part of the themed issue 'Toward the development of high-fidelity models of wall turbulence at large Reynolds number'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  9. Interobserver agreement between radiologists and radiology residents and emergency physicians in the detection of PE using CTPA.

    PubMed

    Hochhegger, Bruno; Alves, Giordano R T; Chaves, Marcus; Moreira, Ana Luiza; Kist, Renato; Watte, Guilherme; Moreira, José S; Irion, Klaus L; Marchiori, Edson

    2014-01-01

    To assess interobserver agreement between thoracic radiologists, radiology residents, and emergency physicians in diagnosing pulmonary embolism (PE). Emergency physicians, radiology residents, and thoracic radiologists evaluated 123 computed tomography pulmonary angiography images. Interobserver agreement was analysed using kappa statistics. Very good agreements were observed between thoracic radiologists and radiology residents (0.81 and 0.82). Fair and moderate agreements (0.39 and 0.42) were demonstrated between emergency physicians and thoracic radiologists. Important differences in interobserver agreement were found, with emergency physicians tending to overdiagnose PE. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Transport mechanisms through PE-CVD coatings: influence of temperature, coating properties and defects on permeation of water vapour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirchheim, Dennis; Jaritz, Montgomery; Mitschker, Felix; Gebhard, Maximilian; Brochhagen, Markus; Hopmann, Christian; Böke, Marc; Devi, Anjana; Awakowicz, Peter; Dahlmann, Rainer

    2017-03-01

    Gas transport mechanisms through plastics are usually described by the temperature-dependent Arrhenius-model and compositions of several plastic layers are represented by the CLT. When it comes to thin films such as plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PE-CVD) or plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PE-ALD) coatings on substrates of polymeric material, a universal model is lacking. While existing models describe diffusion through defects, these models presume that permeation does not occur by other means of transport mechanisms. This paper correlates the existing transport models with data from water vapour transmission experiments.

  11. Strong immunogenicity and cross-reactivity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis ESX-5 type VII secretion: encoded PE-PPE proteins predicts vaccine potential.

    PubMed

    Sayes, Fadel; Sun, Lin; Di Luca, Mariagrazia; Simeone, Roxane; Degaiffier, Nathalie; Fiette, Laurence; Esin, Semih; Brosch, Roland; Bottai, Daria; Leclerc, Claude; Majlessi, Laleh

    2012-04-19

    The genome of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) encodes five type VII secretion systems, ESX-1 to ESX-5, most of which are associated with genes encoding PE/PPE proteins, named after their N-terminal Pro-Glu (PE) or Pro-Pro-Glu (PPE) motifs. Here, we describe the strong T cell immunogenicity of the ESX-5-encoded PE/PPE proteins, which share a large panel of cross-reactive CD4(+) epitopes with substantial numbers of their ESX-5-nonassociated PE/PPE homologs. The immunogenicity of these numerous PE/PPE proteins is dependent on their export by a functional EccD(5), the predicted transmembrane channel of the ESX-5 secretion apparatus. The Mtb Δppe25-pe19 mutant deleted for all ESX-5-associated pe and ppe genes, although highly attenuated in immunocompetent mice, remains able to induce immunity against the ESX-5-associated PE/PPE virulence factors, via cross-reactivity with their numerous homologs, and against the ESX-1 virulence factors ESAT-6/CFP-10. The Δppe25-pe19 strain is strongly protective against Mtb infection in mice and represents a potential antituberculosis vaccine candidate.

  12. PeMADS6, a GLOBOSA/PISTILLATA-like gene in Phalaenopsis equestris involved in petaloid formation, and correlated with flower longevity and ovary development.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Wen-Chieh; Lee, Pei-Fang; Chen, Hong-Ie; Hsiao, Yu-Yun; Wei, Wan-Ju; Pan, Zhao-Jun; Chuang, Ming-Hsiang; Kuoh, Chang-Sheng; Chen, Wen-Huei; Chen, Hong-Hwa

    2005-07-01

    In this study, we isolated and characterized the function of a GLOBOSA/PISTILLATA-like gene, PeMADS6, from a native Phalaenopsis species, P. equestris. Southern blot analysis showed PeMADS6 as a single copy in the Phalaenopsis genome. Results of the determination of temporal and spatial expression showed that PeMADS6 was expressed and thus participated in the development of the sepals, petals, labellum and column in Phalaenopsis. Further confirmation of the expression pattern of PeMADS6 was carried out with in situ hybridization. Repressed expression of PeMADS6 in the orchid ovary was found to be pollination regulated, which suggests that the gene may have an inhibitory effect on the development of the ovary or ovule. In addition, auxin acted as the candidate signal to regulate the repression of PeMADS6 expression in the ovary. Furthermore, the flowers of transgenic Arabidopsis plants ectopically overexpressing PeMADS6 showed the morphology of petaloid sepals, with a 3- to 4-fold increase in flower longevity. Concomitantly, delayed fruit maturation was also observed in the transgenic Arabidopsis, which is consistent with the inhibitory effect of PeMADS6 on the development of the ovary. Thus, as a B-function gene, PeMADS6, not only specifies floral organ identity but has functions in flower longevity and ovary development in orchids.

  13. Affective influences in person-environment fit theory: exploring the role of affect as both cause and outcome of P-E fit.

    PubMed

    Yu, Kang Yang Trevor

    2009-09-01

    Person-environment (P-E) fit theory is a general framework that has been used extensively to understand thinking and behavior in organizations. However, recent research has highlighted several important issues that compromise understanding of the P-E fit construct. First, it is widely assumed that affect is only an outcome of P-E fit. Second, understanding of the antecedents to P-E fit is severely limited. Third, the non correspondence between objective and subjective fit components has typically not been accounted for. In a bid to address these issues, the author presents an expanded model of P-E fit and argues for and explicates a more important role for work-based affect (i.e., moods, emotions, and affective attitudes that are experienced at work) in P-E fit theory. Two competing perspectives (affective consistency and hedonistic) are proposed to account for why work-based affect can be a cause of P-E fit. This expanded model of P-E fit improves understanding of how P-E fit is actually experienced and managed as a result of individuals' affective experiences at work.

  14. Identification of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis protein PE-PGRS62 as a novel effector that functions to block phagosome maturation and inhibit iNOS expression.

    PubMed

    Thi, Emily P; Hong, Chris Joon Ho; Sanghera, Gaganjit; Reiner, Neil E

    2013-05-01

    Using a genetic screen in yeast we found that Mycobacterium tuberculosis PE-PGRS62 was capable of disrupting yeast vacuolar protein sorting, suggesting effects on endosomal trafficking. To study the impact of PE-PGRS62 on macrophage function, we infected murine macrophages with Mycobacterium smegmatis expressing PE-PGRS62. Infected cells displayed phagosome maturation arrest. Phagosomes acquired Rab5, but displayed a significant defect in Rab7 and LAMP-1 acquisition. Macrophages infected with M. smegmatis expressing PE-PGRS62 also expressed two- to threefold less iNOS protein when compared with cells infected with wild-type bacteria. Consistent with this, cells infected with a Mycobacterium marinum transposon mutant for the PE-PGRS62 orthologue showed greater iNOS protein expression when compared to cells infected with wild-type organisms. Complementation restored the ability of the mutant to inhibit iNOS expression. No differences in iNOS transcript levels were observed, suggesting that PE-PGRS62 effects on iNOS expression occurred post-transcriptionally. Marked differences in colony morphology were also seen in M. smegmatis expressing PE-PGRS62 and in the M. marinum transposon mutant, suggesting that PE-PGRS62 may affect cell wall composition. These findings suggest that PE-PGRS62 supports virulence via inhibition of phagosome maturation and iNOS expression, and these phenotypes may be linked to effects on bacterial cell wall composition.

  15. Accumulation and toxicity of antibody-targeted doxorubicin-loaded PEG-PE micelles in ovarian cancer cell spheroid model

    PubMed Central

    Perche, Federico; Torchilin, Vladimir P.

    2012-01-01

    We describe the evaluation of doxorubicin-loaded PEG-PE micelles targeting using an ovarian cancer cell spheroid model. Most ovarian cancer patients present at an advanced clinical stage and develop resistance to standard of care platinum/taxane therapy. Doxorubicin is also approved for ovarian cancer but had limited benefits in refractory patients. In this study, we used drug-resistant spheroid cultures of ovarian carcinoma to evaluate the uptake and cytotoxicity of an antibody-targeted doxorubicin formulation. Doxorubicin was encapsulated in polyethylene glycol-phosphatidyl ethanolamine (PEG-PE) conjugated micelles. The doxorubicin-loaded PEG-PE micelles (MDOX) were further decorated with a cancer cell-specific monoclonal 2C5 antibody to obtain doxorubicin-loaded immunomicelles (2C5-MDOX). Targeting and resulting toxicity of doxorubicin-loaded PEG-PE micelles were evaluated in three dimensional cancer cell spheroids. Superior accumulation of 2C5-MDOX compared to free doxorubicin or untargeted MDOX in spheroids was evidenced both by flow cytometry, fluorescence and confocal microscopy. Interestingly, even higher toxicity was measured by lactate dehydrogenase release and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling of targeted doxorubicin micelles in Bcl-2 overexpressing adriamycin-resistant spheroids. Overall, these results support use of spheroids to evaluate tumor targeted drug delivery. PMID:22974689

  16. "Permission to Speak": A Postcolonial View on Racialized Bodies and PE in the Current Context of Globalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azzarito, Laura

    2016-01-01

    The current neoliberal context of schools presents difficult challenges in addressing persistent issues of social inequalities. In this article, first, I argue that because of today's market-driven education, the rise of fitness testing in school physical education (PE) can be seriously detrimental to young people in general and to ethnic-minority…

  17. The Validity and Reliability of Turkish Version of Fair Play Questionnaire in Physical Education (FPQ-PE) and an Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mirzeoglu, Nevzat

    2015-01-01

    The study was primarily carried out with the aim of adaptation of Fair Play in Physical Education Questionnaire (FPQ-PE). In addition, the adapted questionnaire was implemented on Turkish children and youth aged between 11 and 18 and the results were presented. The questionnaire originally adapted by Hassandra et al. for Greek students was adapted…

  18. Evaluating a Moving Target: Lessons Learned from Using Practical Participatory Evaluation (P-PE) in Hospital Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wharton, Tracy; Alexander, Neil

    2013-01-01

    This article describes lessons learned about implementing evaluations in hospital settings. In order to overcome the methodological dilemmas inherent in this environment, we used a practical participatory evaluation (P-PE) strategy to engage as many stakeholders as possible in the process of evaluating a clinical demonstration project.…

  19. The Language of Performativity? A Content Analysis Concerning Differing Constructions of Leadership for Secondary School PE Departments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Gareth

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to analyse how teachers and government may differ in their views regarding the qualities required to be an effective middle manager with responsibility for Physical Education (PE). Lines of inquiry were based upon the practices associated with a performative work culture and how this has affected teacher language. There…

  20. Immobilization of Firefly Luciferase on PVA-co-PE Nanofibers Membrane as Biosensor for Bioluminescent Detection of ATP.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenwen; Zhao, Qinghua; Luo, Mengying; Li, Mufang; Wang, Dong; Wang, Yuedan; Liu, Qiongzhen

    2015-09-16

    The bioluminescent reaction catalyzed by firefly luciferase has become widely established as an outstanding analytical system for assay of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). When in solution, the luciferase is unstable and cannot be reused. The problem can be partially solved by immobilizing the luciferase on solid substrates. The poly(vinyl alcohol-co-ethylene) (PVA-co-PE) nanofibers membrane has abundant active hydroxyl groups on the surface. The PVA-co-PE nanofibers membrane was first activated by cyanuric chloride with triazinyl group. Then the activated PVA-co-PE nanofibers membrane was subsequently reacted with 1,3-propanediamine and biotin. The firefly luciferase was immobilized onto the surface of 1,3-propanediamine- and biotin-functionalized membranes. The surface chemical structure and morphologies of nanofibers membranes were characterized by FTIR-ATR spectra and SEM. The hydrophilicity of membranes was tested by water contact angle measurements. The detection of fluorescence intensity displayed that the firefly-luciferase-immobilized PVA-co-PE nanofibers membranes indicated high catalytic activity and efficiency. Especially, the firefly-luciferase-immobilized nanofiber membrane which was functionalized by biotin can be a promising candidate as biosensor for bioluminescent detection of ATP because of its high detection sensitivity.

  1. Rim15p-mediated regulation of sucrose utilization during molasses fermentation using Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain PE-2.

    PubMed

    Inai, Tomomi; Watanabe, Daisuke; Zhou, Yan; Fukada, Rie; Akao, Takeshi; Shima, Jun; Takagi, Hiroshi; Shimoi, Hitoshi

    2013-11-01

    Inherited loss-of-function mutations in the Rim15p-mediated stress-response pathway contribute to the high fermentation rate of sake yeast strains. In the present study, we found that disruption of the RIM15 gene in ethanol-producing Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain PE-2 accelerated molasses fermentation through enhanced sucrose utilization following glucose starvation.

  2. Pre-Service Teachers in PE Involved in an Organizational Critical Incident: Emotions, Appraisal and Coping Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandercleyen, François; Boudreau, Pierre; Carlier, Ghislain; Delens, Cécile

    2014-01-01

    Background: Emotions play a major role in the learning of pre-service teachers. However, there is a lack of in-depth research on emotion in the context of physical education (PE), especially during the practicum. Lazarus's model and its concepts of appraisal and coping is a salient theoretical framework for understanding the emotional process.…

  3. Evaluating a Moving Target: Lessons Learned from Using Practical Participatory Evaluation (P-PE) in Hospital Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wharton, Tracy; Alexander, Neil

    2013-01-01

    This article describes lessons learned about implementing evaluations in hospital settings. In order to overcome the methodological dilemmas inherent in this environment, we used a practical participatory evaluation (P-PE) strategy to engage as many stakeholders as possible in the process of evaluating a clinical demonstration project.…

  4. Determination of microplastic polyethylene (PE) and polypropylene (PP) in environmental samples using thermal analysis (TGA-DSC).

    PubMed

    Majewsky, Marius; Bitter, Hajo; Eiche, Elisabeth; Horn, Harald

    2016-10-15

    Microplastics are increasingly detected in the environment and the consequences on water resources and ecosystems are not clear to date. The present study provides a cost-effective and straightforward method to determine the mass concentrations of polymer types using thermal analysis. Characteristic endothermic phase transition temperatures were determined for seven plastic polymer types using TGA-DSC. Based on that, extracts from wastewater samples were analyzed. Results showed that among the studied polymers, only PE and PP could be clearly identified, while the phase transition signals of the other polymers largely overlap each other. Subsequently, calibration curves were run for PE and PP for qualitative measurements. 240 and 1540mg/m(3) of solid material (12µm to 1mm) was extracted from two wastewater effluent samples of a municipal WWTP of which 34% (81mg/m(3)) and 17% (257mg/m(3)) could be assigned to PE, while PP was not detected in any of the samples. The presented application of TGA-DSC provides a complementary or alternative method to FT-IR analyses for the determination of PE and PP in environmental samples.

  5. Development of a Questionnaire for Self-Evaluation of Teacher Effectiveness in Physical Education (SETEQ-PE)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyrgiridis, Pavlos; Derri, Vassiliki; Emmanouilidou, Kyriaki; Chlapoutaki, Elizabeth; Kioumourtzoglou, Efthymis

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to develop a reliable and valid questionnaire for the self-evaluation of teacher effectiveness in physical education (SETEQ-PE). Initially, 90 items, based on the findings of the international bibliography on teacher effectiveness and effective teaching, were formed and then categorized in 11 thematic units…

  6. Transferrin-PEG-PE modified dexamethasone conjugated cationic lipid carrier mediated gene delivery system for tumor-targeted transfection

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei; Zhou, Fang; Ge, Linfu; Liu, Ximin; Kong, Fansheng

    2012-01-01

    Background The main barriers to non-viral gene delivery include cellular and nuclear membranes. As such, the aim of this study was to develop a type of vector that can target cells through receptor-mediated pathways and by using nuclear localization signal (NLS) to increase the nuclear uptake of genetic materials. Methods A dexamethasone (Dexa)-conjugated lipid was synthesized as the material of the solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs), and transferrin (Tf) was linked onto polyethylene glycol-phosphatidylethanolamine (PEG-PE) to obtain Tf-PEG-PE ligands for the surface modification of the carriers. The in vitro transfection efficiency of the novel modified vectors was evaluated in human hepatoma carcinoma cell lines, and in vivo effects were observed in an animal model. Results Tf-PEG-PE modified SLNs/enhanced green fluorescence protein plasmid (pEGFP) had a particle size of 222 nm and a gene loading quantity of 90%. Tf-PEG-PE-modified SLNs/pEGFP (Tf-SLNs/pEGFP) displayed remarkably higher transfection efficiency than non-modified SLNs/pEGFP and the vectors not containing Dexa, both in vitro and in vivo. Conclusion It can be concluded that Tf and Dexa could function as an excellent active targeting ligand to improve the cell targeting and nuclear targeting ability of the carriers, and the resulting nanomedicine could be a promising active targeting drug/gene delivery system. PMID:22679364

  7. Pre-Service Teachers in PE Involved in an Organizational Critical Incident: Emotions, Appraisal and Coping Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandercleyen, François; Boudreau, Pierre; Carlier, Ghislain; Delens, Cécile

    2014-01-01

    Background: Emotions play a major role in the learning of pre-service teachers. However, there is a lack of in-depth research on emotion in the context of physical education (PE), especially during the practicum. Lazarus's model and its concepts of appraisal and coping is a salient theoretical framework for understanding the emotional process.…

  8. iPE-MMR: An integrated approach to accurately assign monoisotopic precursor masses to tandem mass spectrometric data

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Hee-Jung; Purvine, Samuel O.; Kim, Hokeun; Petyuk, Vladislav A.; Hyung, Seok-Won; Monroe, Matthew E.; Mun, Dong-Gi; Kim, Kyong-Chul; Park, Jong-Moon; Kim, Su-Jin; Tolic, Nikola; Slysz, Gordon W.; Moore, Ronald J.; Zhao, Rui; Adkins, Joshua N.; Anderson, Gordon A.; Lee, Hookeun; Camp, David G.; Yu, Myeong-Hee; Smith, Richard D.; Lee, Sang-Won

    2010-01-01

    Accurate assignment of monoisotopic precursor masses to tandem mass spectrometric (MS/MS) data is a fundamental and critically important step for successful peptide identifications in mass spectrometry based proteomics. Here we describe an integrated approach that combines three previously reported methods of treating MS/MS data for precursor mass refinement. This combined method, “integrated Post-Experiment Monoisotopic Mass Refinement” (iPE-MMR), integrates steps: 1) generation of refined MS/MS data by DeconMSn; 2) additional refinement of the resultant MS/MS data by a modified version of PE-MMR; 3) elimination of systematic errors of precursor masses using DtaRefinery. iPE-MMR is the first method that utilizes all MS information from multiple MS scans of a precursor ion including multiple charge states, in an MS scan, to determine precursor mass. By combining these methods, iPE-MMR increases sensitivity in peptide identification and provides increased accuracy when applied to complex high-throughput proteomics data. PMID:20863060

  9. Development of a Questionnaire for Self-Evaluation of Teacher Effectiveness in Physical Education (SETEQ-PE)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyrgiridis, Pavlos; Derri, Vassiliki; Emmanouilidou, Kyriaki; Chlapoutaki, Elizabeth; Kioumourtzoglou, Efthymis

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to develop a reliable and valid questionnaire for the self-evaluation of teacher effectiveness in physical education (SETEQ-PE). Initially, 90 items, based on the findings of the international bibliography on teacher effectiveness and effective teaching, were formed and then categorized in 11 thematic units…

  10. "Permission to Speak": A Postcolonial View on Racialized Bodies and PE in the Current Context of Globalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azzarito, Laura

    2016-01-01

    The current neoliberal context of schools presents difficult challenges in addressing persistent issues of social inequalities. In this article, first, I argue that because of today's market-driven education, the rise of fitness testing in school physical education (PE) can be seriously detrimental to young people in general and to ethnic-minority…

  11. Amyloid-β Peptide Aβ3pE-42 Induces Lipid Peroxidation, Membrane Permeabilization, and Calcium Influx in Neurons.

    PubMed

    Gunn, Adam P; Wong, Bruce X; Johanssen, Timothy; Griffith, James C; Masters, Colin L; Bush, Ashley I; Barnham, Kevin J; Duce, James A; Cherny, Robert A

    2016-03-18

    Pyroglutamate-modified amyloid-β (pE-Aβ) is a highly neurotoxic amyloid-β (Aβ) isoform and is enriched in the brains of individuals with Alzheimer disease compared with healthy aged controls. Pyroglutamate formation increases the rate of Aβ oligomerization and alters the interactions of Aβ with Cu(2+) and lipids; however, a link between these properties and the toxicity of pE-Aβ peptides has not been established. We report here that Aβ3pE-42 has an enhanced capacity to cause lipid peroxidation in primary cortical mouse neurons compared with the full-length isoform (Aβ(1-42)). In contrast, Aβ(1-42) caused a significant elevation in cytosolic reactive oxygen species, whereas Aβ3pE-42 did not. We also report that Aβ3pE-42 preferentially associates with neuronal membranes and triggers Ca(2+) influx that can be partially blocked by the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonist MK-801. Aβ3pE-42 further caused a loss of plasma membrane integrity and remained bound to neurons at significantly higher levels than Aβ(1-42) over extended incubations. Pyroglutamate formation was additionally found to increase the relative efficiency of Aβ-dityrosine oligomer formation mediated by copper-redox cycling.

  12. Microwave-assisted fibrous decoration of mPE surface utilizing Aloe vera extract for tissue engineering applications.

    PubMed

    Balaji, Arunpandian; Jaganathan, Saravana Kumar; Supriyanto, Eko; Muhamad, Ida Idayu; Khudzari, Ahmad Zahran Md

    2015-01-01

    Developing multifaceted, biocompatible, artificial implants for tissue engineering is a growing field of research. In recent times, several works have been reported about the utilization of biomolecules in combination with synthetic materials to achieve this process. Accordingly, in this study, the ability of an extract obtained from Aloe vera, a commonly used medicinal plant in influencing the biocompatibility of artificial material, is scrutinized using metallocene polyethylene (mPE). The process of coating dense fibrous Aloe vera extract on the surface of mPE was carried out using microwaves. Then, several physicochemical and blood compatibility characterization experiments were performed to disclose the effects of corresponding surface modification. The Fourier transform infrared spectrum showed characteristic vibrations of several active constituents available in Aloe vera and exhibited peak shifts at far infrared regions due to aloe-based mineral deposition. Meanwhile, the contact angle analysis demonstrated a drastic increase in wettability of coated samples, which confirmed the presence of active components on glazed mPE surface. Moreover, the bio-mimic structure of Aloe vera fibers and the influence of microwaves in enhancing the coating characteristics were also meticulously displayed through scanning electron microscopy micrographs and Hirox 3D images. The existence of nanoscale roughness was interpreted through high-resolution profiles obtained from atomic force microscopy. And the extent of variations in irregularities was delineated by measuring average roughness. Aloe vera-induced enrichment in the hemocompatible properties of mPE was established by carrying out in vitro tests such as activated partial thromboplastin time, prothrombin time, platelet adhesion, and hemolysis assay. In conclusion, the Aloe vera-glazed mPE substrate was inferred to attain desirable properties required for multifaceted biomedical implants.

  13. Recyclability of PET/WPI/PE Multilayer Films by Removal of Whey Protein Isolate-Based Coatings with Enzymatic Detergents.

    PubMed

    Cinelli, Patrizia; Schmid, Markus; Bugnicourt, Elodie; Coltelli, Maria Beatrice; Lazzeri, Andrea

    2016-06-14

    Multilayer plastic films provide a range of properties, which cannot be obtained from monolayer films but, at present, their recyclability is an open issue and should be improved. Research to date has shown the possibility of using whey protein as a layer material with the property of acting as an excellent barrier against oxygen and moisture, replacing petrochemical non-recyclable materials. The innovative approach of the present research was to achieve the recyclability of the substrate films by separating them, with a simple process compatible with industrial procedures, in order to promote recycling processes leading to obtain high value products that will beneficially impact the packaging and food industries. Hence, polyethyleneterephthalate (PET)/polyethylene (PE) multi-layer film was prepared based on PET coated with a whey protein layer, and then the previous structure was laminated with PE. Whey proteins, constituting the coating, can be degraded by enzymes so that the coating films can be washed off from the plastic substrate layer. Enzyme types, dosage, time, and temperature optima, which are compatible with procedures adopted in industrial waste recycling, were determined for a highly-efficient process. The washing of samples based on PET/whey and PET/whey/PE were efficient when performed with enzymatic detergent containing protease enzymes, as an alternative to conventional detergents used in recycling facilities. Different types of enzymatic detergents tested presented positive results in removing the protein layer from the PET substrate and from the PET/whey/PE multilayer films at room temperature. These results attested to the possibility of organizing the pre-treatment of the whey-based multilayer film by washing with different available commercial enzymatic detergents in order to separate PET and PE, thus allowing a better recycling of the two different polymers. Mechanical properties of the plastic substrate, such as stress at yield, stress and

  14. Microwave-assisted fibrous decoration of mPE surface utilizing Aloe vera extract for tissue engineering applications

    PubMed Central

    Balaji, Arunpandian; Jaganathan, Saravana Kumar; Supriyanto, Eko; Muhamad, Ida Idayu; Khudzari, Ahmad Zahran Md

    2015-01-01

    Developing multifaceted, biocompatible, artificial implants for tissue engineering is a growing field of research. In recent times, several works have been reported about the utilization of biomolecules in combination with synthetic materials to achieve this process. Accordingly, in this study, the ability of an extract obtained from Aloe vera, a commonly used medicinal plant in influencing the biocompatibility of artificial material, is scrutinized using metallocene polyethylene (mPE). The process of coating dense fibrous Aloe vera extract on the surface of mPE was carried out using microwaves. Then, several physicochemical and blood compatibility characterization experiments were performed to disclose the effects of corresponding surface modification. The Fourier transform infrared spectrum showed characteristic vibrations of several active constituents available in Aloe vera and exhibited peak shifts at far infrared regions due to aloe-based mineral deposition. Meanwhile, the contact angle analysis demonstrated a drastic increase in wettability of coated samples, which confirmed the presence of active components on glazed mPE surface. Moreover, the bio-mimic structure of Aloe vera fibers and the influence of microwaves in enhancing the coating characteristics were also meticulously displayed through scanning electron microscopy micrographs and Hirox 3D images. The existence of nanoscale roughness was interpreted through high-resolution profiles obtained from atomic force microscopy. And the extent of variations in irregularities was delineated by measuring average roughness. Aloe vera-induced enrichment in the hemocompatible properties of mPE was established by carrying out in vitro tests such as activated partial thromboplastin time, prothrombin time, platelet adhesion, and hemolysis assay. In conclusion, the Aloe vera-glazed mPE substrate was inferred to attain desirable properties required for multifaceted biomedical implants. PMID:26425089

  15. Composite Conserved Promoter–Terminator Motifs (PeSLs) that Mediate Modular Shuffling in the Diverse T4-Like Myoviruses

    PubMed Central

    Comeau, André M.; Arbiol, Christine; Krisch, Henry M.

    2014-01-01

    The diverse T4-like phages (Tquatrovirinae) infect a wide array of gram-negative bacterial hosts. The genome architecture of these phages is generally well conserved, most of the phylogenetically variable genes being grouped together in a series hyperplastic regions (HPRs) that are interspersed among large blocks of conserved core genes. Recent evidence from a pair of closely related T4-like phages has suggested that small, composite terminator/promoter sequences (promoterearly stem loop [PeSLs]) were implicated in mediating the high levels of genetic plasticity by indels occurring within the HPRs. Here, we present the genome sequence analysis of two T4-like phages, PST (168 kb, 272 open reading frames [ORFs]) and nt-1 (248 kb, 405 ORFs). These two phages were chosen for comparative sequence analysis because, although they are closely related to phages that have been previously sequenced (T4 and KVP40, respectively), they have different host ranges. In each case, one member of the pair infects a bacterial strain that is a human pathogen, whereas the other phage’s host is a nonpathogen. Despite belonging to phylogenetically distant branches of the T4-likes, these pairs of phage have diverged from each other in part by a mechanism apparently involving PeSL-mediated recombination. This analysis confirms a role of PeSL sequences in the generation of genomic diversity by serving as a point of genetic exchange between otherwise unrelated sequences within the HPRs. Finally, the palette of divergent genes swapped by PeSL-mediated homologous recombination is discussed in the context of the PeSLs’ potentially important role in facilitating phage adaption to new hosts and environments. PMID:24951563

  16. Controllable Biotinylated Poly(Ethylene-co-Glycidyl Methacrylate) (PE-co-GMA) Nanofibers to Bind Streptavidin-Horseradish Peroxidase (HRP) for Potential Biosensor Applications

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Poly(ethylene-co-glycidyl methacrylate) (PE-co-GMA) nanofibers with abundant active epoxy groups on surfaces were fabricated through a novel manufacturing process. The prepared PE-co-GMA nanofibers with different average diameters ranging from 100 to 400 nm were aminated by reacting the epoxy groups...

  17. Fetal Phthalate Screen: Assessment of Several Phthalate Esters (PE) on Fetal Rodent Testosterone (T) Production and Gene Expressionfollowing In Utero Exposure

    EPA Science Inventory

    PE are a large family of compounds used in a wide array of products from medical tubing to pharmaceuticals to cables. Studies have shown that in utero treatment with PE such as diethyl hexyl phthalate (DEHP) during the critical period of fetal reproductive development produced ma...

  18. Fetal Phthalate Screen: Assessment of Several Phthalate Esters (PE) on Fetal Rodent Testosterone (T) Production and Gene Expressionfollowing In Utero Exposure

    EPA Science Inventory

    PE are a large family of compounds used in a wide array of products from medical tubing to pharmaceuticals to cables. Studies have shown that in utero treatment with PE such as diethyl hexyl phthalate (DEHP) during the critical period of fetal reproductive development produced ma...

  19. Polymorphisms in the PE35 and PPE68 antigens in Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains may affect strain virulence and reflect ongoing immune evasion.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yi; Wei, Jianhao; Liu, Haican; Li, Guilian; Guo, Qian; Qiu, Yan; Zhao, Lili; Li, Machao; Zhao, Xiuqin; Dou, Xiangfeng; Wan, Kanglin

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that the Pro‑Glu/Pro‑Pro‑Glu (PE/PPE) genes in strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis exhibit high sequence variation and may be involved in antigenic variation and immune evasion. Region of Difference 1 (RD1), encoding genes from Rv3871 to Rv3879, was observed to be lost during the original derivation of Bacillus Calmette‑Guérin between 1908 and 1921. It has been previously demonstrated that two PE/PPE proteins, PE35 (Rv3872) and PPE68 (Rv3873), are encoded by RD1 and exhibit immunodominance. To explore the genetic diversity of PE35 and PPE68, and to evaluate the impact of sequence variation on the immune recognition of these proteins, 161 clinical M. tuberculosis strains were selected from China and comparative sequence analysis of PE35 and PPE68 was performed. The results indicated that polymorphisms in PE35 and PPE68 may lead to alterations in the function of these proteins, which may potentially affect strain virulence. In addition, the human T‑cell epitopes of PE35 and PPE68 were highly variable, suggesting that the two antigens may be involved in diversifying selection to evade host immunity. The prevalence of strains with PE35 mutations in the non‑Beijing family was significantly greater compared with the Beijing family, indicating that Beijing strains may be more conservative than non‑Beijing strains in this gene.

  20. Expression and purification of a gene encoding a 9.7 kDa PE protein of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Sekar, S Chandra; Goswami, P P; Deb, R

    2016-12-01

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map) contains PE family antigens which are Proline and glutamic acid rich and may play important role as T-cell antigens. In the present study, the Map 1507 ORF encoding 9.7 kDa PE protein was amplified by polymerase chain reaction and cloned into E. coli vector pQE30 UA. The recombinant plasmid designated as pQ PE was transformed into E. coli M15 cells and induced with IPTG revealed the high level expression of 11.9 kDa His-fusion protein as estimated by migration in 15 % sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Recombinant PE protein was purified by Ni-NTA agarose chromatography. Polyclonal antibodies raised against purified recombinant PE protein reacted with expressed PE protein as well as with Map sonicate. The recombinant PE protein was also recognized by serum from goat with clinical paratuberculosis. The protein elicited significant delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) skin reaction in mice sensitized with Map. The results indicated that the recombinant PE protein of Map was associated with T-cell response.

  1. The Rv1651c-encoded PE-PGRS30 protein expressed in Mycobacterium smegmatis exhibits polar localization and modulates its growth profile.

    PubMed

    Chatrath, Shweta; Gupta, Vineet Kumar; Dixit, Aparna; Garg, Lalit C

    2011-09-01

    Sequencing analysis of the complete genome of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) H37Rv resulted in the identification of a novel multigene, the PE family of genes. The genes of the largest PE_PGRS subfamily of the PE family are mainly restricted to pathogenic mycobacteria, and their exact role in the biology of Mtb is not clearly understood. Based on their sequence homology, PE_PGRS proteins were initially thought to serve common functions. However, studies on individual proteins reveal that the individual proteins of this subfamily could be performing several unrelated tasks. In the present study, we investigated the function of PE_PGRS30 by expressing it in Mycobacterium smegmatis. PE_PGRS30 expression in M. smegmatis resulted in phenotypic changes with altered colony morphology and growth profile. The recombinant PE_PGRS30 showed polar localization and was found to be associated with the cell wall of M. smegmatis. Thus, the present study suggests that the prolonged lag phase of growth caused by the PE_PGRS30 may, in part, contribute to the latency of Mtb.

  2. Interleukin 2 (IL2) PE40 is cytotoxic to cells displaying either the p55 or p70 subunit of the IL2 receptor.

    PubMed

    Lorberboum-Galski, H; Kozak, R W; Waldmann, T A; Bailon, P; FitzGerald, D J; Pastan, I

    1988-12-15

    IL2-PE40 is a chimeric protein composed of human interleukin 2 (IL2) genetically fused to the amino terminus of a modified form of pseudomonas exotoxin (PE). Internalization of IL2 via the individual p55 and p70 subunits of the IL2 receptor was studied using IL2-PE40 on several mouse and human cell lines expressing either the p55, the p70, or both IL2 receptor subunits. Internalization was assessed by measuring inhibition of protein synthesis caused by the toxin moiety of IL2-PE40. The results demonstrate that IL2 internalization is mediated by either the p55 receptor subunit or by the p70 subunit but is much more efficient when high affinity receptors composed of both subunits are present. IL2-PE40 is a powerful reagent for studying IL2 receptor interactions and for analyzing pathways of the immune response and its regulation.

  3. Anticancer Effect of Ferulago Mughlea Peşmen (Apiaceae) on Cancer Cell Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Filiz, Bakar; Songül, Karakay; Bostanlık, Delimustafaoğlu; Gül, Fatma; Ceyda Sibel, Kılıç

    2016-01-01

    Ferulago W. Koch. (Apiaceae) genus is represented by approximately 50 taxa throughout the world. Ferulago species are known as “Çakşır” or “Çağşır” in Turkey and mostly known for their aphrodisiac effects. However recent reports emphasize the activity of various Ferulago species against cancer, as well. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of lyophilized extract of F. mughlea Peşmen, a species endemic for Turkey, on cancer cell proliferation. For this purpose human prostate (PC-3) and colorectal (SW-480) carcinoma cells were used to evaluate the antiproliferative effects of Ferulago W. Koch and the measurements were performed via MTT test. Lyophilized extracts obtained from aerial parts and the roots exhibited potent inhibitor effects on cell proliferation. Aerial part of the plant inhibited the proliferation of SW-480 cell at 48th hour with a 0.119 mg/mL IC50 value. PMID:27980585

  4. The origin of the p.E180 growth hormone receptor gene mutation.

    PubMed

    Ostrer, Harry

    2016-06-01

    Laron syndrome, an autosomal recessive condition of extreme short stature, is caused by the absence or dysfunction of the growth hormone receptor. A recurrent mutation in the GHR gene, p.E180, did not alter the encoded amino acid, but activated a cryptic splice acceptor resulting in a receptor protein with an 8-amino acid deletion in the extracellular domain. This mutation has been observed among Sephardic Jews and among individuals in Ecuador, Brazil and Chile, most notably in a large genetic isolate in Loja, Ecuador. A common origin has been postulated based on a shared genetic background of markers flanking this mutation, suggesting that the Lojanos (and others) may have Sephardic (Converso) Jewish ancestry. Analysis of the population structure of Lojanos based on genome-wide analysis demonstrated European, Sephardic Jewish and Native American ancestry in this group. X-autosomal comparison and monoallelic Y chromosomal and mitochondrial genetic analysis demonstrated gender-biased admixture between Native American women and European and Sephardic Jewish men. These findings are compatible with the co-occurrence of the Inquisition and the colonization of the Americas, including Converso Jews escaping the Inquisition in the Iberian Peninsula. Although not found among Lojanos, Converso Jews also brought founder mutations to contemporary Hispanic and Latino populations in the BRCA1 (c.68_69delAG) and BLM (c.2207_2212delATCTGAinsTAGATTC) genes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. An early modern human from the Peştera cu Oase, Romania.

    PubMed

    Trinkaus, Erik; Moldovan, Oana; Milota, Stefan; Bîlgăr, Adrian; Sarcina, Laurenţiu; Athreya, Sheela; Bailey, Shara E; Rodrigo, Ricardo; Mircea, Gherase; Higham, Thomas; Ramsey, Christopher Bronk; van der Plicht, Johannes

    2003-09-30

    The 2002 discovery of a robust modern human mandible in the Peştera cu Oase, southwestern Romania, provides evidence of early modern humans in the lower Danubian Corridor. Directly accelerator mass spectrometry radiocarbon (14C)-dated to 34,000-36,000 14C years B.P., the Oase 1 mandible is the oldest definite early modern human specimen in Europe and provides perspectives on the emergence and evolution of early modern humans in the northwestern Old World. The moderately long Oase 1 mandible exhibits a prominent tuber symphyseos and overall proportions that place it close to earlier Upper Paleolithic European specimens. Its symmetrical mandibular incisure, medially placed condyle, small superior medial pterygoid tubercle, mesial mental foramen, and narrow corpus place it closer to early modern humans among Late Pleistocene humans. However, its cross-sectional symphyseal orientation is intermediate between late archaic and early modern humans, the ramus is exceptionally wide, and the molars become progressively larger distally with exceptionally large third molars. The molar crowns lack derived Neandertal features but are otherwise morphologically undiagnostic. However, it has unilateral mandibular foramen lingular bridging, an apparently derived Neandertal feature. It therefore presents a mosaic of archaic, early modern human and possibly Neandertal morphological features, emphasizing both the complex population dynamics of modern human dispersal into Europe and the subsequent morphological evolution of European early modern humans.

  6. A simplified approach for the lifetime prediction of PE in nuclear environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khelidj, N.; Colin, X.; Audouin, L.; Verdu, J.

    2005-07-01

    A simplified method is proposed to estimate the lifetime of thin samples of unstabilised and unfilled polyethylene (PE) exposed at low dose rates at room temperature in air. The point of departure is the observation that the "ceiling lifetime" is the lifetime due to thermal oxidation. Pure thermal oxidation predominates at very low dose rates (typically for D bar < 1. 6 ×10-7 Gy s-1) and is characterised by very long lifetimes (typically of the order of 20 years at ambient temperature). Pure radio-oxidation predominates at high dose rates (typically for D bar > 5 ×10-1 Gy s-1) and is characterised by a letal dose independent of dose rate, i.e. a lifetime proportional to the reciprocal dose rate: tF ≈ 1. 6 ×105D bar - 1 . At intermediary dose rates (typically for 1. 6 ×10-7 < D bar < 5 ×10-1 Gy s-1), a radiothermal oxidation proceeds. From a kinetic investigation, it is found that, in this latter domain, lifetime can be also estimated by a simple power law: tF ≈ 2. 3 ×105D bar - 1 / 2 .

  7. Pinpointing the knee of cosmic rays with diffuse PeV γ-rays and neutrinos

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Y. Q.; Hu, H. B.; Yuan, Q.; Tian, Z.; Gao, X. J.

    2014-11-01

    The origin of the knee in the cosmic ray spectrum remains to be an unsolved fundamental problem. There are various kinds of models that predict different break positions and the compositions of the knee. In this work, we suggest the use of diffuse γ-rays and neutrinos as probes to test these models. Based on several typical types of composition models, the diffuse γ-ray and neutrino spectra are calculated and show distinctive cutoff behaviors at energies from tens of TeV to multi-PeV. The expected flux will be observable by the newly upgraded Tibet-ASγ+MD (muon detector) experiment as well as more sensitive future projects, such as LHAASO and HiSCORE. By comparing the neutrino spectrum with the recent observations by the IceCube experiment, we find that the diffuse neutrinos from interactions between the cosmic rays and the interstellar medium may not be responsible to the majority of the IceCube events. Future measurements of the neutrinos may be able to identify the Galactic diffuse component and shed further light on the problem of the knee of cosmic rays.

  8. First observation of PeV-energy neutrinos with IceCube.

    PubMed

    Aartsen, M G; Abbasi, R; Abdou, Y; Ackermann, M; Adams, J; Aguilar, J A; Ahlers, M; Altmann, D; Auffenberg, J; Bai, X; Baker, M; Barwick, S W; Baum, V; Bay, R; Beatty, J J; Bechet, S; Becker Tjus, J; Becker, K-H; Bell, M; Benabderrahmane, M L; BenZvi, S; Berdermann, J; Berghaus, P; Berley, D; Bernardini, E; Bernhard, A; Bertrand, D; Besson, D Z; Binder, G; Bindig, D; Bissok, M; Blaufuss, E; Blumenthal, J; Boersma, D J; Bohaichuk, S; Bohm, C; Bose, D; Böser, S; Botner, O; Brayeur, L; Bretz, H-P; Brown, A M; Bruijn, R; Brunner, J; Carson, M; Casey, J; Casier, M; Chirkin, D; Christov, A; Christy, B; Clark, K; Clevermann, F; Coenders, S; Cohen, S; Cowen, D F; Cruz Silva, A H; Danninger, M; Daughhetee, J; Davis, J C; De Clercq, C; De Ridder, S; Desiati, P; de With, M; DeYoung, T; Díaz-Vélez, J C; Dunkman, M; Eagan, R; Eberhardt, B; Eisch, J; Ellsworth, R W; Euler, S; Evenson, P A; Fadiran, O; Fazely, A R; Fedynitch, A; Feintzeig, J; Feusels, T; Filimonov, K; Finley, C; Fischer-Wasels, T; Flis, S; Franckowiak, A; Franke, R; Frantzen, K; Fuchs, T; Gaisser, T K; Gallagher, J; Gerhardt, L; Gladstone, L; Glüsenkamp, T; Goldschmidt, A; Golup, G; Gonzalez, J G; Goodman, J A; Góra, D; Grant, D; Groß, A; Gurtner, M; Ha, C; Haj Ismail, A; Hallen, P; Hallgren, A; Halzen, F; Hanson, K; Heereman, D; Heinen, D; Helbing, K; Hellauer, R; Hickford, S; Hill, G C; Hoffman, K D; Hoffmann, R; Homeier, A; Hoshina, K; Huelsnitz, W; Hulth, P O; Hultqvist, K; Hussain, S; Ishihara, A; Jacobi, E; Jacobsen, J; Jagielski, K; Japaridze, G S; Jero, K; Jlelati, O; Kaminsky, B; Kappes, A; Karg, T; Karle, A; Kelley, J L; Kiryluk, J; Kislat, F; Kläs, J; Klein, S R; Köhne, J-H; Kohnen, G; Kolanoski, H; Köpke, L; Kopper, C; Kopper, S; Koskinen, D J; Kowalski, M; Krasberg, M; Krings, K; Kroll, G; Kunnen, J; Kurahashi, N; Kuwabara, T; Labare, M; Landsman, H; Larson, M J; Lesiak-Bzdak, M; Leuermann, M; Leute, J; Lünemann, J; Madsen, J; Maruyama, R; Mase, K; Matis, H S; McNally, F; Meagher, K; Merck, M; Mészáros, P; Meures, T; Miarecki, S; Middell, E; Milke, N; Miller, J; Mohrmann, L; Montaruli, T; Morse, R; Nahnhauer, R; Naumann, U; Niederhausen, H; Nowicki, S C; Nygren, D R; Obertacke, A; Odrowski, S; Olivas, A; Olivo, M; O'Murchadha, A; Paul, L; Pepper, J A; Pérez de los Heros, C; Pfendner, C; Pieloth, D; Pinat, E; Pirk, N; Posselt, J; Price, P B; Przybylski, G T; Rädel, L; Rameez, M; Rawlins, K; Redl, P; Reimann, R; Resconi, E; Rhode, W; Ribordy, M; Richman, M; Riedel, B; Rodrigues, J P; Rott, C; Ruhe, T; Ruzybayev, B; Ryckbosch, D; Saba, S M; Salameh, T; Sander, H-G; Santander, M; Sarkar, S; Schatto, K; Scheel, M; Scheriau, F; Schmidt, T; Schmitz, M; Schoenen, S; Schöneberg, S; Schönwald, A; Schukraft, A; Schulte, L; Schulz, O; Seckel, D; Sestayo, Y; Seunarine, S; Sheremata, C; Smith, M W E; Soiron, M; Soldin, D; Spiczak, G M; Spiering, C; Stamatikos, M; Stanev, T; Stasik, A; Stezelberger, T; Stokstad, R G; Stößl, A; Strahler, E A; Ström, R; Sullivan, G W; Taavola, H; Taboada, I; Tamburro, A; Ter-Antonyan, S; Tešić, G; Tilav, S; Toale, P A; Toscano, S; Usner, M; van der Drift, D; van Eijndhoven, N; Van Overloop, A; van Santen, J; Vehring, M; Voge, M; Vraeghe, M; Walck, C; Waldenmaier, T; Wallraff, M; Wasserman, R; Weaver, Ch; Wellons, M; Wendt, C; Westerhoff, S; Whitehorn, N; Wiebe, K; Wiebusch, C H; Williams, D R; Wissing, H; Wolf, M; Wood, T R; Woschnagg, K; Xu, C; Xu, D L; Xu, X W; Yanez, J P; Yodh, G; Yoshida, S; Zarzhitsky, P; Ziemann, J; Zierke, S; Zilles, A; Zoll, M

    2013-07-12

    We report on the observation of two neutrino-induced events which have an estimated deposited energy in the IceCube detector of 1.04±0.16 and 1.14±0.17 PeV, respectively, the highest neutrino energies observed so far. These events are consistent with fully contained particle showers induced by neutral-current ν(e,μ,τ) (ν(e,μ,τ)) or charged-current ν(e) (ν(e)) interactions within the IceCube detector. The events were discovered in a search for ultrahigh energy neutrinos using data corresponding to 615.9 days effective live time. The expected number of atmospheric background is 0.082±0.004(stat)(-0.057)(+0.041)(syst). The probability of observing two or more candidate events under the atmospheric background-only hypothesis is 2.9×10(-3) (2.8σ) taking into account the uncertainty on the expected number of background events. These two events could be a first indication of an astrophysical neutrino flux; the moderate significance, however, does not permit a definitive conclusion at this time.

  9. Usability Evaluation of Web-Based Collaboration Support Systems: The Case of CoPe_it!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karousos, Nikos; Papaloukas, Spyros; Kostaras, Nektarios; Xenos, Michalis; Tzagarakis, Manolis; Karacapilidis, Nikos

    Usability is considered as a very significant factor towards the wide acceptance of software applications. Although the usability evaluation can take place in different forms, the entire evaluation procedure usually follows predefined ways according to a classification of the common characteristics of software applications. However, contemporary Web 2.0 applications, which aim at both social network development and collaboration support, reveal the need for modifying the settings of the evaluation procedure. This is due to some unique characteristics of these applications, such as the support of both synchronous and asynchronous collaboration, the use of common spaces for working and information exchanging, and the advanced notification and awareness services. This paper explores these applications' particularities with respect to the way the whole usability evaluation procedure is affected and proposes a composite evaluation technique based on the development of appropriate heuristics that is suitable for such cases. The aforementioned issues are elaborated through the case of CoPe_it!, a Web 2.0 tool that facilitates and enhances argumentative collaboration.

  10. Early modern humans from the Peştera Muierii, Baia de Fier, Romania

    PubMed Central

    Soficaru, Andrei; Doboş, Adrian; Trinkaus, Erik

    2006-01-01

    The early modern human remains from the Peştera Muierii, Romania have been directly dated to ≈30,000 radiocarbon years before present (≈30 ka 14C BP) (≈35 ka cal BP) (“calendrical” age; based on CalPal 2005) and augment a small sample of securely dated, European, pre-28 ka 14C BP (≈32.5 ka cal BP) modern human remains. The Muierii fossils exhibit a suite of derived modern human features, including reduced maxillae with pronounced canine fossae, a narrow nasal aperture, small superciliary arches, an arched parietal curve, zygomatic arch above the auditory porous, laterally bulbous mastoid processes, narrow mandibular corpus, reduced anterior dentition, ventral-to-bisulcate scapular axillary border, and planoconcave tibial and fibular diaphyseal surfaces. However, these traits co-occur with contextually archaic and/or Neandertal features, including a moderately low frontal arc, a large occipital bun, a high coronoid process and asymmetrical mandibular notch, a more medial mandibular notch crest to condylar position, and a narrow scapular glenoid fossa. As with other European early modern humans, the mosaic of modern human and archaic/Neandertal features, relative to their potential Middle Paleolithic ancestral populations, indicates considerable Neandertal/modern human admixture. Moreover, the narrow scapular glenoid fossa suggests habitual movements at variance with the associated projectile technology. The reproductive and scapulohumeral functional inferences emphasize the subtle natures of behavioral contrasts between Neandertals and these early modern Europeans. PMID:17085588

  11. Paleopathology and osteobiography of the people of Peñuelas, Chile's semiarid north.

    PubMed

    Rosado, Maria Araya; Vernacchio-Wilson, Jessica

    2006-12-05

    The Museo de La Serena, IV Region, Chile has collections of skeletal remains representing the agricultural Diaguita people of 500 years ago excavated in the 1980s from the sites Peñuelas 21 and 24, Chile's semiarid north. Their excellent preservation has permitted an osteobiographical and radiographic analysis to better understand the patterns of the disease. This research continues the osteological analyses begun in 1989 by Rosado that seek to understand the impact the transition to and adoption of farming had on the health of prehistoric populations. Because of the significance of paleopathology in the understanding of cultural and biological adaptations, it has also become necessary to assess the preservation status and design a conservation protocol to protect and document the remains. The objectives of this communication are to: establish demographic patterns of the skeletal samples and identify and diagnose skeletal paleopathologies via photography and radiographs. Intentional cranial alteration, limb and cranial fractures, dental wear, and dental abscesses and caries are among the interesting paleopathologies so far documented. Intentional cranial alteration is very common and is manifested as tabular erect in both males and females. The high frequency of carious lesions indicates a diet that emphasized carbohydrates. Skeletal radiographs are available for several of the individuals in the sample and this has afforded a more detailed description of the paleopathologies originally documented via photography.

  12. STRUCTURED JETS IN BL LAC OBJECTS: EFFICIENT PeV NEUTRINO FACTORIES?

    SciTech Connect

    Tavecchio, Fabrizio; Ghisellini, Gabriele; Guetta, Dafne

    2014-09-20

    The origin of high-energy neutrinos (0.1–1 PeV range) detected by IceCube remains a mystery. In this work, we explore the possibility that efficient neutrino production can occur in structured jets of BL Lac objects, characterized by a fast inner spine surrounded by a slower layer. This scenario has been widely discussed in the framework of the high-energy emission models for BL Lac objects and radio galaxies. One of the relevant consequences of a velocity structure is the enhancement of the inverse Compton emission caused by the radiative coupling of the two zones. We show that a similar boosting could occur for the neutrino output of the spine through the photo-meson reaction of high-energy protons scattering off the amplified soft target photon field of the layer. Assuming the local density and the cosmological evolution of γ-ray BL Lac object derived from Fermi Large Area Telescope data, we calculate the expected diffuse neutrino intensity, which can match the IceCube data for a reasonable choice of parameters.

  13. Biological, Physical, And Chemical Data From Gulf of Mexico Core PE0305-GC1

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Osterman, Lisa E.; Swarzenski, Peter W.; Hollander, David

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents benthic foraminiferal census data, and magnetic susceptibility, 210Pb , radiocarbon, and geochemical measurements from gravity core PE0305-GC1 (=GC1). Core GC1 was collected from the Louisiana continental shelf as part of an initiative to investigate the geographic and temporal extent of hypoxia, low-oxygen water, in the Gulf of Mexico. Hypoxia (<1.4 ml/l or <2 ppm oxygen concentration) in Gulf of Mexico waters can eventually lead to death of marine species. The development of hypoxia off the Mississippi delta has increased steadily since routine and systematic measurements were begun in 1985 and has been linked to the use of fertilizer in the Mississippi basin. Benthic foraminifers provide a proxy to track the development of hypoxia prior to 1985. Previous work determined that the relative occurrence of three low-oxygen-tolerant species is highest in the hypoxia zone. The cumulative percentage of these three species (% Pseudononion atlanticum + % Epistominella vitrea, + % Buliminella morgani = PEB index of hypoxia) was used to investigate fluctuation in paleohypoxia in four cores, including the upper 60 cm of GC1. In this report, we compile all available data from GC1 as the basis for further publications.

  14. [RS3PE syndrome: An update on its treatment using the presentation of a case].

    PubMed

    Amodeo, M C; Poyato, M; Rodríguez, M

    2015-01-01

    The present study was undertaken in order to try to clarify certain aspects of RS3PE syndrome, for which there is no unanimity of opinion in the current literature. An attempt will be made to clarify the best and most suitable drug for treatment, and the dosage duration. In order to do this, a literature search was performed, and a review is presented of the 108 cases collected. In 95% cases glucocorticoids were the most used, with prednisone in being used in 68.5% of cases. Although there is no unanimity criteria regarding the dosage and duration, 73.8% cases were treated with a prednisone dose from 15 to 20 mg/day (median 18.2 mg/day, SD 8.9). Two-thirds (66.1%) of cases were treated for 3 to 6 months (median 5.3 months, SD 3.8). A case is presented that serves as a common thread of these observations. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. [Prevalence of anterior open bite and overjet preschoolers in the city of Recife (PE, Brazil)].

    PubMed

    Granville-Garcia, Ana Flávia; Ferreira, Jainara Maria Soares; Menezes, Valdenice Aparecida de

    2010-10-01

    The objective of this work was to verify the prevalence of malocclusions (anterior open bite, overjet) and its association with age, gender and type of school with a sample of 2,651 preschool children in the city of Recife, PE, Brazil. The children were seated in school chairs in the room of the day care/school for the clinical exam, children aging two years or less were assisted in the system knee-knee, through natural and artificial illumination. The dental protrusion was verified when the overjet was larger than 3 mm through periodontal probe in millimeters. The presence of anterior open bite was detected when there was no contact with the anterior teeth and the posterior ones stayed in occlusion. t was also registered in clinical record a combination of the two malocclusions types, in other words, open bite and of dental protrusion. The data were analyzed at Qui-square and the association among the events was the odds ratio. The prevalence of protrusion was 66.1% and previous open bite 19.8%. There was association among this malocclusions, age and type of school, however there was not significant statistical association between malocclusion and gender. It was concluded that the prevalence of malocclusion in preschoolers was high and it was associated to the age and school type.

  16. NICHE: Using Cherenkov radiation to extend Telescope Array to sub-PeV energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergman, Douglas; Krizmanic, John; Tsunesada, Yoshiki; Abu-Zayyad, Tareq; Belz, John; Thomson, Gordon

    2016-03-01

    The Non-Imaging CHErenkov (NICHE) Array will measure the flux and nuclear composition evolution of cosmic rays (CRs) from below 1 PeV to 1 EeV. NICHE will be co-sited with the Telescope Array (TA) Low Energy (TALE) extension, and will observe events simultaneously with the TALE telescopes acting in imaging-Cherenkov mode. This will be the first hybrid-Cherenkov (simultaneous imaging and non-imaging Cherenkov) measurements of CRs in the Knee region of the CR energy spectrum. NICHE uses easily deployable detectors to measure the amplitude and time-spread of the air-shower Cherenkov signal to achieve an event-by-event measurement of Xmax and energy, each with excellent resolution. First generation detectors are under construction and will form an initial prototype array (j-NICHE) that will be deployed in Summer 2016. In this talk, the NICHE design, array performance, prototype development, and status will be discussed as well as NICHE's ability to measure the cosmic ray nuclear composition as a function of energy.

  17. PE-CMOS based C-scan ultrasound for foreign object detection in soft tissue.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chu-Chuan; Lo, Shih-Chung Ben; Freedman, Matthew T; Lasser, Marvin E; Kula, John; Sarcone, Anita; Wang, Yue

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a C-scan ultrasound prototype and three imaging modalities for the detection of foreign objects inserted in porcine soft tissue. The object materials include bamboo, plastics, glass and aluminum alloys. The images of foreign objects were acquired using the C-scan ultrasound, a portable B-scan ultrasound, film-based radiography, and computerized radiography. The C-scan ultrasound consists of a plane wave transducer, a compound acoustic lens system, and a newly developed ultrasound sensor array based on the complementary metal-oxide semiconductor coated with piezoelectric material (PE-CMOS). The contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of the images were analyzed to quantitatively evaluate the detectability using different imaging modalities. The experimental results indicate that the C-scan prototype has better CNR values in 4 out of 7 objects than other modalities. Specifically, the C-scan prototype provides more detail information of the soft tissues without the speckle artifacts that are commonly seen with conventional B-scan ultrasound, and has the same orientation as the standard radiographs but without ionizing radiation.

  18. An ultra-low-voltage rectifier for PE energy harvesting applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jingmin, Wang; Zheng, Yang; Zhangming, Zhu; Yintang, Yang

    2016-02-01

    An ultra low voltage rectifier with high power conversion efficiency (PCE) for PE energy harvesting applications is presented in this paper. This is achieved by utilizing the DTMOS which the body terminal is connected to the gate terminal in a diode connected transistor. This implementation facilitates the rectifier with dynamic control over the threshold voltage. Moreover, we use input powered to take the place of output powered to reduce the power loss and thereby increasing the power conversion efficiency. Based on standard SMIC 0.18 μm CMOS technology, the simulation results show that the voltage conversion efficiency and the power conversion efficiency can reach up to 90.5% and 95.5% respectively, when the input voltage equals to 0.2 V @ 100 Hz with load resistance 50 kω. Input voltages with frequencies in the range of 10 Hz-1 kHz can be rectified. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61234002, 61322405, 61306044, 61376033) and the National High-Tech Program of China (No. 2013AA014103).

  19. First Observation of PeV-Energy Neutrinos with IceCube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aartsen, M. G.; Abbasi, R.; Abdou, Y.; Ackermann, M.; Adams, J.; Aguilar, J. A.; Ahlers, M.; Altmann, D.; Auffenberg, J.; Bai, X.; Baker, M.; Barwick, S. W.; Baum, V.; Bay, R.; Beatty, J. J.; Bechet, S.; Becker Tjus, J.; Becker, K.-H.; Bell, M.; Benabderrahmane, M. L.; BenZvi, S.; Berdermann, J.; Berghaus, P.; Berley, D.; Bernardini, E.; Bernhard, A.; Bertrand, D.; Besson, D. Z.; Binder, G.; Bindig, D.; Bissok, M.; Blaufuss, E.; Blumenthal, J.; Boersma, D. J.; Bohaichuk, S.; Bohm, C.; Bose, D.; Böser, S.; Botner, O.; Brayeur, L.; Bretz, H.-P.; Brown, A. M.; Bruijn, R.; Brunner, J.; Carson, M.; Casey, J.; Casier, M.; Chirkin, D.; Christov, A.; Christy, B.; Clark, K.; Clevermann, F.; Coenders, S.; Cohen, S.; Cowen, D. F.; Cruz Silva, A. H.; Danninger, M.; Daughhetee, J.; Davis, J. C.; De Clercq, C.; De Ridder, S.; Desiati, P.; de With, M.; DeYoung, T.; Díaz-Vélez, J. C.; Dunkman, M.; Eagan, R.; Eberhardt, B.; Eisch, J.; Ellsworth, R. W.; Euler, S.; Evenson, P. A.; Fadiran, O.; Fazely, A. R.; Fedynitch, A.; Feintzeig, J.; Feusels, T.; Filimonov, K.; Finley, C.; Fischer-Wasels, T.; Flis, S.; Franckowiak, A.; Franke, R.; Frantzen, K.; Fuchs, T.; Gaisser, T. K.; Gallagher, J.; Gerhardt, L.; Gladstone, L.; Glüsenkamp, T.; Goldschmidt, A.; Golup, G.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Goodman, J. A.; Góra, D.; Grant, D.; Groß, A.; Gurtner, M.; Ha, C.; Haj Ismail, A.; Hallen, P.; Hallgren, A.; Halzen, F.; Hanson, K.; Heereman, D.; Heinen, D.; Helbing, K.; Hellauer, R.; Hickford, S.; Hill, G. C.; Hoffman, K. D.; Hoffmann, R.; Homeier, A.; Hoshina, K.; Huelsnitz, W.; Hulth, P. O.; Hultqvist, K.; Hussain, S.; Ishihara, A.; Jacobi, E.; Jacobsen, J.; Jagielski, K.; Japaridze, G. S.; Jero, K.; Jlelati, O.; Kaminsky, B.; Kappes, A.; Karg, T.; Karle, A.; Kelley, J. L.; Kiryluk, J.; Kislat, F.; Kläs, J.; Klein, S. R.; Köhne, J.-H.; Kohnen, G.; Kolanoski, H.; Köpke, L.; Kopper, C.; Kopper, S.; Koskinen, D. J.; Kowalski, M.; Krasberg, M.; Krings, K.; Kroll, G.; Kunnen, J.; Kurahashi, N.; Kuwabara, T.; Labare, M.; Landsman, H.; Larson, M. J.; Lesiak-Bzdak, M.; Leuermann, M.; Leute, J.; Lünemann, J.; Madsen, J.; Maruyama, R.; Mase, K.; Matis, H. S.; McNally, F.; Meagher, K.; Merck, M.; Mészáros, P.; Meures, T.; Miarecki, S.; Middell, E.; Milke, N.; Miller, J.; Mohrmann, L.; Montaruli, T.; Morse, R.; Nahnhauer, R.; Naumann, U.; Niederhausen, H.; Nowicki, S. C.; Nygren, D. R.; Obertacke, A.; Odrowski, S.; Olivas, A.; Olivo, M.; O'Murchadha, A.; Paul, L.; Pepper, J. A.; Pérez de los Heros, C.; Pfendner, C.; Pieloth, D.; Pinat, E.; Pirk, N.; Posselt, J.; Price, P. B.; Przybylski, G. T.; Rädel, L.; Rameez, M.; Rawlins, K.; Redl, P.; Reimann, R.; Resconi, E.; Rhode, W.; Ribordy, M.; Richman, M.; Riedel, B.; Rodrigues, J. P.; Rott, C.; Ruhe, T.; Ruzybayev, B.; Ryckbosch, D.; Saba, S. M.; Salameh, T.; Sander, H.-G.; Santander, M.; Sarkar, S.; Schatto, K.; Scheel, M.; Scheriau, F.; Schmidt, T.; Schmitz, M.; Schoenen, S.; Schöneberg, S.; Schönwald, A.; Schukraft, A.; Schulte, L.; Schulz, O.; Seckel, D.; Sestayo, Y.; Seunarine, S.; Sheremata, C.; Smith, M. W. E.; Soiron, M.; Soldin, D.; Spiczak, G. M.; Spiering, C.; Stamatikos, M.; Stanev, T.; Stasik, A.; Stezelberger, T.; Stokstad, R. G.; Stößl, A.; Strahler, E. A.; Ström, R.; Sullivan, G. W.; Taavola, H.; Taboada, I.; Tamburro, A.; Ter-Antonyan, S.; Tešić, G.; Tilav, S.; Toale, P. A.; Toscano, S.; Usner, M.; van der Drift, D.; van Eijndhoven, N.; Van Overloop, A.; van Santen, J.; Vehring, M.; Voge, M.; Vraeghe, M.; Walck, C.; Waldenmaier, T.; Wallraff, M.; Wasserman, R.; Weaver, Ch.; Wellons, M.; Wendt, C.; Westerhoff, S.; Whitehorn, N.; Wiebe, K.; Wiebusch, C. H.; Williams, D. R.; Wissing, H.; Wolf, M.; Wood, T. R.; Woschnagg, K.; Xu, C.; Xu, D. L.; Xu, X. W.; Yanez, J. P.; Yodh, G.; Yoshida, S.; Zarzhitsky, P.; Ziemann, J.; Zierke, S.; Zilles, A.; Zoll, M.

    2013-07-01

    We report on the observation of two neutrino-induced events which have an estimated deposited energy in the IceCube detector of 1.04±0.16 and 1.14±0.17PeV, respectively, the highest neutrino energies observed so far. These events are consistent with fully contained particle showers induced by neutral-current νe,μ,τ (ν¯e,μ,τ) or charged-current νe (ν¯e) interactions within the IceCube detector. The events were discovered in a search for ultrahigh energy neutrinos using data corresponding to 615.9 days effective live time. The expected number of atmospheric background is 0.082±0.004(stat)-0.057+0.041(syst). The probability of observing two or more candidate events under the atmospheric background-only hypothesis is 2.9×10-3 (2.8σ) taking into account the uncertainty on the expected number of background events. These two events could be a first indication of an astrophysical neutrino flux; the moderate significance, however, does not permit a definitive conclusion at this time.

  20. Strangelets and the TeV-PeV cosmic-ray anisotropies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotera, Kumiko; Perez-Garcia, M. Angeles; Silk, Joseph

    2013-10-01

    Several experiments (e.g., Milagro and IceCube) have reported the presence in the sky of regions with significant excess in the arrival direction distributions of Galactic cosmic rays in the TeV-to-PeV energy range. Here we study the possibility that these hotspots are a manifestation of the peculiar nature of these cosmic rays, and of the presence of molecular clouds near the sources. We propose that stable quark matter lumps or so-called strangelets can be emitted in the course of the transition of a neutron star to a more compact astrophysical object. A fraction of these massive particles would lose their charge by spallation or electron capture in molecular clouds located in the immediate neighborhood of their source, and propagate rectilinearly without decaying further, hence inducing anisotropies of the order of the cloud size. With reasonable astrophysical assumptions regarding the neutron star transition rate, strangelet injection and neutralization rates, we can reproduce successfully the observed hotspot characteristics and their distribution in the sky.

  1. Reconstruction of gas distribution pipelines in MOZG in Poland using PE and PA pipes

    SciTech Connect

    Borowicz, W.; Podziemski, T.; Kramek, E.

    1996-12-31

    MOZG--Warsaw Regional Gas Distribution Company was established in 1856. Now it is one of six gas distribution companies in Poland. Due to steadily increasing safety demands, some of the pipelines will need reconstruction. The majority of the substandard piping is located in urban areas. The company wanted to gain experiences in applying reconstruction technologies using two different plastic materials polyethylene and polyamide. They also wanted to assess the technical and economic practicalities of performing relining processes. A PE project--large diameter polyethylene relining (450 mm) conducted in Warsaw in 1994/95 and PA projects--relining using polyamide pipes, projects conducted in Radom and in Warsaw during 1993 and 1994 are the most interesting and representative for this kind of works. Thanks to the experience obtained whilst carrying out these projects, reconstruction of old gas pipelines has become routine. Now they often use polyethylene relining of smaller diameters and they continue both construction and reconstruction of gas network using PA pipes. This paper presents the accumulated knowledge showing the advantages and disadvantages of applied methods. It describes project design and implementation with details and reports on the necessary preparation work, on site job organization and the most common problems arising during the construction works.

  2. Permeable Reactive Treatment (PeRT) Wall for Rads and Metals. Innovative Technology Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    2000-09-01

    Organic and inorganic contamination of groundwater is widespread at Department of Energy (DOE), Department of Defense (DOD), other federal, and industrial sites. Contamination at a majority of these sites is present in shallow, unconfined aquifers, which may impact human health and the environment. Although there are many treatment methods, for organic contamination, relatively few technologies are effective in treating inorganic contamination, such as metals and radionuclide, in situ. Because metals are commonly adsorbed to clays and organic matter in an aquifer, groundwater pump and treat technology can be expensive and ineffective. Desorption of these metals into the aquifer is a long-term issue, difficult to address. A permeable reactive treatment (PeRT) wall, also referred to as a permeable reactive barrier, is a zone of reactive material that is placed in a contaminated aquifer so that the concentrations of dissolved inorganic contaminants are reduced as the groundwater passes through the material. The reactive material can be emplaced directly in the path of groundwater flow via trenching or injection or as a reactive liner in a landfill. This document contains information on the above-mentioned technology, including description, applicability, cost, and performance data.

  3. CD4+ T Cells Recognizing PE/PPE Antigens Directly or via Cross Reactivity Are Protective against Pulmonary Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection

    PubMed Central

    Sayes, Fadel; Pawlik, Alexandre; Frigui, Wafa; Gröschel, Matthias I.; Crommelynck, Samuel; Fayolle, Catherine; Cia, Felipe; Bancroft, Gregory J.; Bottai, Daria; Leclerc, Claude; Brosch, Roland; Majlessi, Laleh

    2016-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), possesses at least three type VII secretion systems, ESX-1, -3 and -5 that are actively involved in pathogenesis and host-pathogen interaction. We recently showed that an attenuated Mtb vaccine candidate (Mtb Δppe25-pe19), which lacks the characteristic ESX-5-associated pe/ppe genes, but harbors all other components of the ESX-5 system, induces CD4+ T-cell immune responses against non-esx-5-associated PE/PPE protein homologs. These T cells strongly cross-recognize the missing esx-5-associated PE/PPE proteins. Here, we characterized the fine composition of the functional cross-reactive Th1 effector subsets specific to the shared PE/PPE epitopes in mice immunized with the Mtb Δppe25-pe19 vaccine candidate. We provide evidence that the Mtb Δppe25-pe19 strain, despite its significant attenuation, is comparable to the WT Mtb strain with regard to: (i) its antigenic repertoire related to the different ESX systems, (ii) the induced Th1 effector subset composition, (iii) the differentiation status of the Th1 cells induced, and (iv) its particular features at stimulating the innate immune response. Indeed, we found significant contribution of PE/PPE-specific Th1 effector cells in the protective immunity against pulmonary Mtb infection. These results offer detailed insights into the immune mechanisms underlying the remarkable protective efficacy of the live attenuated Mtb Δppe25-pe19 vaccine candidate, as well as the specific potential of PE/PPE proteins as protective immunogens. PMID:27467705

  4. DNA polymorphism of Mycobacterium tuberculosis PE_PGRS33 gene among clinical isolates of pediatric TB patients and its associations with clinical presentation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Huang, Yanfeng; Zhang, Aihua; Zhu, Chaomin; Yang, Zhenhua; Xu, Hongmei

    2011-07-01

    In vitro and in animal studies have suggested an important role for the Mycobacterium tuberculosis PE_PGRS33 protein in the pathogenesis of TB. A significant level of PE_PGRS33 gene DNA polymorphism among clinical isolates from adult tuberculosis (TB) patients and its association with clinical and epidemiological phenotypes of the disease has been found. To better understand the role of PE_PGRS33 protein in the pathogenesis pediatric TB, we investigated DNA polymorphism of the PE_PGRS33 gene among 101 of pediatric TB patients' isolates and assessed the relationship between the PE_PGRS33 sequence variation and clinical characteristics of TB. Twelve different PE_PGRS33 sequence variations representing 12 different alleles were observed among the 101 M. tuberculosis clinical isolates investigated. Of these 101 isolates, 62(59.41%) had PE_PGRS33 alleles that would result in a change in the amino acid sequence of the PE_PGRS33 protein. The degree of DNA polymorphism within individual M. tuberculosis isolates from pediatric TB patients was remarkably lower than that previously found in M. tuberculosis isolates from adults TB patients. The frequency distribution of isolates having PE_PGRS33 gene sequence variations was similar between Beijing and non-Beijing families of the pathogen. Patients having TB meningitis and negative PPD skin test results appeared to be more likely to be infected by isolates having a mutant type of the PE_PGRS33 gene than patients who had no TB meningitis (OR 2.54, 95% CI [1.11-5.84]) and patients who had positive PPD-skin test results (OR 4.26, 95% CI [1.14-12.86]), respectively. This study provides new insight into the molecular pathogenesis of pediatric TB.

  5. CD4+ T Cells Recognizing PE/PPE Antigens Directly or via Cross Reactivity Are Protective against Pulmonary Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection.

    PubMed

    Sayes, Fadel; Pawlik, Alexandre; Frigui, Wafa; Gröschel, Matthias I; Crommelynck, Samuel; Fayolle, Catherine; Cia, Felipe; Bancroft, Gregory J; Bottai, Daria; Leclerc, Claude; Brosch, Roland; Majlessi, Laleh

    2016-07-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), possesses at least three type VII secretion systems, ESX-1, -3 and -5 that are actively involved in pathogenesis and host-pathogen interaction. We recently showed that an attenuated Mtb vaccine candidate (Mtb Δppe25-pe19), which lacks the characteristic ESX-5-associated pe/ppe genes, but harbors all other components of the ESX-5 system, induces CD4+ T-cell immune responses against non-esx-5-associated PE/PPE protein homologs. These T cells strongly cross-recognize the missing esx-5-associated PE/PPE proteins. Here, we characterized the fine composition of the functional cross-reactive Th1 effector subsets specific to the shared PE/PPE epitopes in mice immunized with the Mtb Δppe25-pe19 vaccine candidate. We provide evidence that the Mtb Δppe25-pe19 strain, despite its significant attenuation, is comparable to the WT Mtb strain with regard to: (i) its antigenic repertoire related to the different ESX systems, (ii) the induced Th1 effector subset composition, (iii) the differentiation status of the Th1 cells induced, and (iv) its particular features at stimulating the innate immune response. Indeed, we found significant contribution of PE/PPE-specific Th1 effector cells in the protective immunity against pulmonary Mtb infection. These results offer detailed insights into the immune mechanisms underlying the remarkable protective efficacy of the live attenuated Mtb Δppe25-pe19 vaccine candidate, as well as the specific potential of PE/PPE proteins as protective immunogens.

  6. An Update of the International Society of Sexual Medicine's Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Premature Ejaculation (PE)

    PubMed Central

    Althof, Stanley E; McMahon, Chris G; Waldinger, Marcel D; Serefoglu, Ege Can; Shindel, Alan W; Adaikan, P Ganesan; Becher, Edgardo; Dean, John; Giuliano, Francois; Hellstrom, Wayne JG; Giraldi, Annamaria; Glina, Sidney; Incrocci, Luca; Jannini, Emmanuele; McCabe, Marita; Parish, Sharon; Rowland, David; Segraves, R Taylor; Sharlip, Ira; Torres, Luiz Otavio

    2014-01-01

    Introduction In 2009, the International Society for Sexual Medicine (ISSM) convened a select panel of experts to develop an evidence-based set of guidelines for patients suffering from lifelong premature ejaculation (PE). That document reviewed definitions, etiology, impact on the patient and partner, assessment, and pharmacological, psychological, and combined treatments. It concluded by recognizing the continually evolving nature of clinical research and recommended a subsequent guideline review and revision every fourth year. Consistent with that recommendation, the ISSM organized a second multidisciplinary panel of experts in April 2013, which met for 2 days in Bangalore, India. This manuscript updates the previous guidelines and reports on the recommendations of the panel of experts. Aim The aim of this study was to develop clearly worded, practical, evidenced-based recommendations for the diagnosis and treatment of PE for family practice clinicians as well as sexual medicine experts. Method A comprehensive literature review was performed. Results This article contains the report of the second ISSM PE Guidelines Committee. It offers a new unified definition of PE and updates the previous treatment recommendations. Brief assessment procedures are delineated, and validated diagnostic and treatment questionnaires are reviewed. Finally, the best practices treatment recommendations are presented to guide clinicians, both familiar and unfamiliar with PE, in facilitating treatment of their patients. Conclusion Development of guidelines is an evolutionary process that continually reviews data and incorporates the best new research. We expect that ongoing research will lead to a more complete understanding of the pathophysiology as well as new efficacious and safe treatments for this sexual dysfunction. We again recommend that these guidelines be reevaluated and updated by the ISSM in 4 years. Althof SE, McMahon CG, Waldinger MD, Serefoglu EC, Shindel AW, Adaikan PG

  7. An overview to understand the role of PE_PGRS family proteins in Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37 Rv and their potential as new drug targets.

    PubMed

    Meena, Laxman S

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis has long been the scourge of humanity, claiming millions of lives. The family of PE_PGRS gene has been attributed to the Mycobacterium tuberculosis pathogenesis over the past few decades. The gene of PE_PGRS family proteins are most often clustered in a region of the genome often as overlapping genes and role in cell surface markers, adhesion and invasion of defense cells of the host (macrophage and dendritic cells). The proline-glutamic acid (PE) domain is responsible for the cellular localization of these proteins on bacterial cells. This gene family shows immense genetic variability in terms of multiple insertion-deletions and single-nucleotide polymorphisms as seen in PE_PGRS9, PE_PGRS17, PE_PGRS18, and PE_PGRS33. In spite of variability, there are indications of shared epitopes in these proteins. Few of these gene sequences that have been studied from evolutionary perspective show indication of positive selection and also landmarks of recent evolutionary events. Many of these proteins show calcium-binding motifs and consequently seen to be responsible in inhibition of phagolysosome formation via a calmodulin-kinase-dependent pathway. A number of PE_PGRS genes were tested for its expression with different growth conditions in vitro and in vivo, among which the contrast in expressivity was seen vividly in PE_PGRS16 (upregulated) and PE_PGRS26 (downregulated) in bacteria persisting in macrophages. Similarly, PE_PGRS33 has been indicated in macrophagial necrosis by a tumor necrosis factor-α-induced pathway. These PE_PGRS family genes may be an interesting subject for research and development. Their fibronectin-binding and calcium-binding property may be strongly implicated in immunopathogenesis of virulent M. tuberculosis strain. In this review, an attempt has been made to evaluate and present data for better understanding of in vivo pathogen functions, for understanding the physiological significance of PE_PGRS gene family, and their potential as

  8. The Peñalosa Principle of Transportation Democracy: Lessons from Bogotá on the Morality of Urban Mobility.

    PubMed

    Epting, Shane

    2016-12-01

    The mayor of Bogotá, Enrique Peñalosa strives to deliver transit services that promote social equity through bicycle lanes, improved sidewalks, and a world-famous Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) system, "TransMilenio." Through examining the principles that guide his planning, we can flesh out a starting point for socially just transit systems. While such measures can alleviate several harms that transit systems cause, they rest on an incomplete foundation due to their top-down nature. To amend this situation, the author argues for a restorative justice approach to transportation democracy, using examples from Peñalosa's mayoral tenure. In turn, lessons from Bogotá's transportation history reveal how to develop transit systems that strongly favor justice.

  9. Gamma-ray astronomy with muons: Sensitivity of IceCube to PeVatrons in the Southern sky

    SciTech Connect

    Halzen, Francis; O'Murchadha, Aongus; Kappes, Alexander

    2009-10-15

    Northern hemisphere TeV gamma-ray observatories such as Milagro and Tibet AS{gamma} have demonstrated the importance of all-sky instruments by discovering previously unidentified sources that may be the PeVatrons producing cosmic rays up to the knee in the cosmic ray spectrum. We evaluate the potential of IceCube to identify similar sources in the southern sky by detailing an analytic approach to determine fluxes of muons from TeV gamma-ray showers. We apply this approach to known gamma-ray sources such as supernova remnants. We find that, similar to Milagro, detection is possible in 10 years for pointlike PeVatrons with fluxes stronger than several 10{sup -11} particles TeV{sup -1} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}.

  10. Tien Shan experimental results on the inelastic proton-air cross section at 0.5 - 5 PeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nesterova, N.

    2013-02-01

    The analysis of experimental data from the Tien Shan complex array on extensive air showers originated from 0.5-5 PeV primary cosmic rays is presented. Conclusions are made on the rise of the inelastic proton-air cross section with energy on the base of comparisons with different interaction models. The analysis showed that the rise conforms to (7-9) % per one order of energy from 0.2 TeV (accelerator experiments with fixed targets) to 5 PeV (cosmic rays). These data correspond better to the new QGSJET-II-04 version of the interaction model based on the recent LHC results. This model predicts the slower rise of the cross-section than previous versions of QGSJET-II models.

  11. RS3PE Syndrome with Iliopsoas Bursitis Distinguished from an Iliopsoas Abscess Using a CT-guided Puncture.

    PubMed

    Fukui, Shoichi; Iwamoto, Naoki; Tsuji, Sosuke; Umeda, Masataka; Nishino, Ayako; Nakashima, Yoshikazu; Suzuki, Takahisa; Horai, Yoshiro; Koga, Tomohiro; Kawashiri, Shin-ya; Ichinose, Kunihiro; Hirai, Yasuko; Tamai, Mami; Nakamura, Hideki; Origuchi, Tomoki; Kawakami, Atsushi

    2015-01-01

    A 55-year-old man was diagnosed with remitting seronegative symmetrical synovitis with pitting edema (RS3PE) syndrome. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography for cancer screening showed a mass with low-density centers with an enhanced rim in the left iliopsoas muscle. We suspected an iliopsoas abscess and performed computed-tomography-guided puncture of the mass. Both Gram staining and the culture of the fluid were negative. We diagnosed the patient with RS3PE syndrome with iliopsoas bursitis and administered low-dose corticosteroids without antibiotics. The symptoms, including left hip pain, quickly disappeared following treatment. Clinicians should be aware that iliopsoas bursitis may resemble an iliopsoas abscess. As a result, it is important to make an accurate differential diagnosis.

  12. Evaluation of the clinical efficacy of the PeTrack motion tracking system for respiratory gating in cardiac PET imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manwell, Spencer; Chamberland, Marc J. P.; Klein, Ran; Xu, Tong; deKemp, Robert

    2017-03-01

    Respiratory gating is a common technique used to compensate for patient breathing motion and decrease the prevalence of image artifacts that can impact diagnoses. In this study a new data-driven respiratory gating method (PeTrack) was compared with a conventional optical tracking system. The performance of respiratory gating of the two systems was evaluated by comparing the number of respiratory triggers, patient breathing intervals and gross heart motion as measured in the respiratory-gated image reconstructions of rubidium-82 cardiac PET scans in test and control groups consisting of 15 and 8 scans, respectively. We found evidence suggesting that PeTrack is a robust patient motion tracking system that can be used to retrospectively assess patient motion in the event of failure of the conventional optical tracking system.

  13. NOAA People Empowered Products (PeEP): Combining social media with scientific models to provide eye-witness confirmed products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Codrescu, S.; Green, J. C.; Redmon, R. J.; Denig, W. F.; Kihn, E. A.

    2012-12-01

    NOAA products and alerts rely on combinations of models and data to provide the public with information regarding space and terrestrial weather hazards. This operational paradigm, while effective, neglects an abundant free source of measurements: millions of eyewitnesses viewing weather events. Here we present a prototype product that combines user reports with scientific model output and discuss the possibilities for creating a generic PeEP framework for use in a wide range of applications. We demonstrate the capabilities of a proto-PeEP that combines the OVATION prime auroral model running at the NOAA National Geophysical Data Center with Twitter reports of observable aurora. The combined product displays the model aurora in real time on Google Earth with markers showing the location and text of tweets from people actually observing the aurora. We discuss how the application can be extended and incorporated to other space weather products such as ionospheric induced GPS errors and radiation related satellite anomalies.

  14. Remitting seronegative symmetrical synovitis with pitting edema (RS3PE); a rare association with phyllodes tumour of breast.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, R N; Phaujdar, Sibaji; Banerjee, Siwalik; Siddhanta, Sattik; De, Dibyendu; Bhattachary, Kuntal; Pal, Hare Krishna

    2012-04-01

    Remitting seronegative symmetrical synovitis with pitting edema (RS3PE) is a rare entity mainly found in elderly males. It is characterized by pitting edema mainly of dorsum of both hands giving a "boxing glove hand" appearance; rarely involving feet also, acute in onset, negative rheumatoid factor and a good response to low dose corticosteroid therapy. Clinically it almost resembles a case of polymyalgia rheumatica, late onset rheumatoid arthritis or other seronegative spondyloarthropathy.Though there are multiple underlying factors causing this rare entity but it has very close associations with many malignancies.So far its association with solid tumours and hematological malignancies has been reported. Phyllodes tumour of breast shows wide spectrum of activity from a benign condition to a locally aggressive and sometimes metastatic tumour.One fourth of the cases recur after definitive treatment.Our case represent an unusual association with recurrent phyllodes tumour of breast with RS3PE.

  15. Sexual behavior among Brazilian adolescents, National Adolescent School-based Health Survey (PeNSE 2012).

    PubMed

    Oliveira-Campos, Maryane; Nunes, Marília Lavocart; Madeira, Fátima de Carvalho; Santos, Maria Goreth; Bregmann, Silvia Reise; Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Giatti, Luana; Barreto, Sandhi Maria

    2014-01-01

    This study describes the sexual behavior among students who participated in the National Adolescent School-based Health Survey (PeNSE) 2012 and investigates whether social inequalities, the use of psychoactive substances and the dissemination of information on sexual and reproductive health in school are associated with differences in behavior. The response variable was the sexual behavior described in three categories (never had sexual intercourse, had protected sexual intercourse, had unprotected sexual intercourse). The explanatory variables were grouped into socio- demographic characteristics, substance use and information on sexual and reproductive health in school. Variables associated with the conduct and unprotected sex were identified through multinomial logistic regression, using "never had sexual intercourse" as a reference. Over nearly a quarter of the adolescents have had sexual intercourse in life, being more frequent among boys. About 25% did not use a condom in the last intercourse. Low maternal education and work increased the chance of risky sexual behavior. Any chance of protected and unprotected sex increased with the number of psychoactive substances used. Among those who don't receive guidance on the prevention of pregnancy in school, the chance to have sexual intercourse increased, with the largest magnitude for unprotected sex (OR = 1.41 and OR = 1.87 ). The information on preventing pregnancy and STD/AIDS need to be disseminated before the 9th grade. Social inequalities negatively affect risky sexual behavior. Substance use is strongly associated with unprotected sex. Information on the prevention of pregnancy and STD/AIDS need to be disseminated early.

  16. Peştera cu Oase 2 and the cranial morphology of early modern Europeans

    PubMed Central

    Rougier, Hélène; Milota, Ştefan; Rodrigo, Ricardo; Gherase, Mircea; Sarcinǎ, Laurenţiu; Moldovan, Oana; Zilhão, João; Constantin, Silviu; Franciscus, Robert G.; Zollikofer, Christoph P. E.; Ponce de León, Marcia; Trinkaus, Erik

    2007-01-01

    Between 2003 and 2005, the Peştera cu Oase, Romania yielded a largely complete early modern human cranium, Oase 2, scattered on the surface of a Late Pleistocene hydraulically displaced bone bed containing principally the remains of Ursus spelaeus. Multiple lines of evidence indicate an age of ≈40.5 thousand calendar years before the present (≈35 ka 14C B.P.). Morphological comparison of the adolescent Oase 2 cranium to relevant Late Pleistocene human samples documents a suite of derived modern human and/or non-Neandertal features, including absence of a supraorbital torus, subrectangular orbits, prominent canine fossae, narrow nasal aperture, level nasal floor, angled and anteriorly oriented zygomatic bones, a high neurocranium with prominent parietal bosses and marked sagittal parietal curvature, superiorly positioned temporal zygomatic root, vertical auditory porous, laterally bulbous mastoid processes, superiorly positioned posterior semicircular canal, absence of a nuchal torus and a suprainiac fossa, and a small occipital bun. However, these features are associated with an exceptionally flat frontal arc, a moderately large juxtamastoid eminence, extremely large molars that become progressively larger distally, complex occlusal morphology of the upper third molar, and relatively anteriorly positioned zygomatic arches. Moreover, the featureless occipital region and small mastoid process are at variance with the large facial skeleton and dentition. This unusual mosaic in Oase 2, some of which is paralleled in the Oase 1 mandible, indicates both complex population dynamics as modern humans dispersed into Europe and significant ongoing human evolution once modern humans were established within Europe. PMID:17227863

  17. Electron electric dipole moment as a sensitive probe of PeV scale physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, Tarek; Itani, Ahmad; Nath, Pran

    2014-09-01

    We give a quantitative analysis of the electric dipole moments as a probe of high scale physics. We focus on the electric dipole moment of the electron since the limit on it is the most stringent. Further, theoretical computations of it are free of QCD uncertainties. The analysis presented here first explores the probe of high scales via electron electric dipole moment (EDM) within minimal supersymmetric standard model where the contributions to the EDM arise from the chargino and the neutralino exchanges in loops. Here it is shown that the electron EDM can probe mass scales from tens of TeV into the PeV range. The analysis is then extended to include a vectorlike generation which can mix with the three ordinary generations. Here new CP phases arise and it is shown that the electron EDM now has not only a supersymmetric (SUSY) contribution from the exchange of charginos and neutralinos but also a nonsupersymmetric contribution from the exchange of W and Z bosons. It is further shown that the interference of the supersymmetric and the nonsupersymmetric contribution leads to the remarkable phenomenon where the electron EDM as a function of the slepton mass first falls and become vanishingly small and then rises again as the slepton mass increases. This phenomenon arises as a consequence of cancellation between the SUSY and the non-SUSY contribution at low scales while at high scales the SUSY contribution dies out and the EDM is controlled by the non-SUSY contribution alone. The high mass scales that can be probed by the EDM are far in excess of what accelerators will be able to probe. The sensitivity of the EDM to CP phases both in the SUSY and the non-SUSY sectors are also discussed.

  18. Photoelectronic-Digital Radiology (PE-DI-R) At The University Of Arizona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nudelman, S.; Capp, M. P.; Fisher, H. D.; Ouimette, D.; Ovitt, T. W.; Roehrig, H.

    1982-01-01

    System designs for PE-DI-R are being evaluated relative to the optimum configuration to meet the needs of diagnostic radiology at the University of Arizona. It is clear that the system can be examined in terms of sub-systems broadly delineated as image acquisition, processing, display and archival storage. Its architecture is influenced by the diverse imaging requirements of different radiological exams; the extent of processing desired in terms of complexity and speed; the degree of sophistication for displays serving a reading room as compared to clinics, conference rooms and offices; and the instrumentation available for archival storage. Issues have risen pertaining to system architecture, particularly in questioning the advantages of systems stressing a strong computer center versus a distribution of "stand alone" systems utilizing microprocessors. These appear to be resolvable at least in part on the basis of hospital size. The hospital carrying out in excess of 200,000 procedures per year has different requirements than those of a hospital performing only 10,000 exams/year, The University of Arizona Health Sciences Center is a 300 bed hospital which performs 67,000 radiological procedures per year. Its size and activity suggest a mix of computer and microprocessors will be needed to carry out its multiplicity of tasks, We anticipate completing the design and essentially install most components of the system over the next four years. Features of the system that have evolved to date and deemed most pertinent to the interests of the participants will be discussed at the symposium.

  19. Photoelectronic-Digital Radiology (PE-DL-R) At The University Of Arizona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nudelman, S.; Capp, M. P.; Fisher, H. D.; Ouimette, D.; Ovitt, T. W.; Roehrig, H.

    1982-01-01

    System designs for PE-DI-R are being evaluated relative to the optimum configuration to meet the needs of diagnostic radiology at the University of Arizona. It is clear that the system can be examined in terms of sub-systems broadly delineated as image acquisition, processing, display and archival storage. Its architecture is influenced by the diverse imaging requirements of different radiological exams; the extent of processing desired in terms of complexity and speed; the degree of sophistication for displays serving a reading room as compared to clinics, conference rooms and offices; and the instrumentation available for archival storage. Issues have risen pertaining to system architecture, particularly in questioning the advantages of systems stressing a strong computer center versus a distribution of "stand alone" systems utilizing microprocessors. These appear to be resolvable at least in part on the basis of hospital size. The hospital carrying out in excess of 200,000 procedures per year has different requirements than those of a hospital performing only 10,000 exams/year, The University of Arizona Health Sciences Center is a 300 bed hospital which performs 67,000 radiological procedures per year. Its size and activity suggest a mix of computer and microprocessors will be needed to carry out its multiplicity of tasks, We anticipate completing the design and essentially install most components of the system over the next four years. Features of the system that have evolved to date and deemed most pertinent to the interests of the participants will be discussed at the symposium.

  20. Structure of a PE-PPE-EspG complex from Mycobacterium tuberculosis reveals molecular specificity of ESX protein secretion

    SciTech Connect

    Ekiert, Damian C.; Cox, Jeffery S.

    2014-10-01

    Nearly 10% of the coding capacity of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis genome is devoted to two highly expanded and enigmatic protein families called PE and PPE, some of which are important virulence/immunogenicity factors and are secreted during infection via a unique alternative secretory system termed "type VII." How PE-PPE proteins function during infection and how they are translocated to the bacterial surface through the five distinct type VII secretion systems [ESAT-6 secretion system (ESX)] of M. tuberculosis is poorly understood. Here in this paper, we report the crystal structure of a PE-PPE heterodimer bound to ESX secretion-associated protein G (EspG), which adopts a novel fold. This PE-PPE-EspG complex, along with structures of two additional EspGs, suggests that EspG acts as an adaptor that recognizes specific PE-PPE protein complexes via extensive interactions with PPE domains, and delivers them to ESX machinery for secretion. Surprisingly, secretion of most PE-PPE proteins in M. tuberculosis is likely mediated by EspG from the ESX-5 system, underscoring the importance of ESX-5 in mycobacterial pathogenesis. Furthermore, our results indicate that PE-PPE domains function as cis-acting targeting sequences that are read out by EspGs, revealing the molecular specificity for secretion through distinct ESX pathways.

  1. Ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) induction by TCDD, PeCDF and PCB 126 in bobwhite quail hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Jones, Stephanie P; Farmahin, Reza; Kennedy, Sean W

    2014-07-01

    World Health Organization (WHO) toxic equivalency factors are used to calculate toxic equivalent (TEQ) concentrations of complex mixtures of dioxin-like compounds (DLCs), such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), for mammals, fish and birds. The TEQ concept assumes that all species of a taxa respond with similar sensitivity to individual DLCs, but several reports do not support this assumption for birds. Our laboratory is conducting research to attempt to uncover the fundamental mechanism(s) underlying the reasons why avian species differ in sensitivity to DLCs. The present study determined concentration-dependent effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran (PeCDF) and 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126) on ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity in primary cultures of northern bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) hepatocytes. Bobwhite quail were studied because (1) this species is used in the laboratory for toxicity testing and (2) the amino acids at all locations within the ligand binding domain (LBD) of aryl hydrocarbon receptor 1 (AHR1) in bobwhite quail and ring necked pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) are identical. Because earlier work indicated the importance of the identity of amino acids at key sites within the AHR1 LBD, we hypothesized that bobwhite quail and ring necked pheasant hepatocytes should have similar sensitivity to EROD induction by DLCs. ECthreshold-based relative sensitivity of the bobwhite quail compared to chicken for TCDD, PeCDF and PCB 126 was 0.11, 0.17 and 0.02, respectively. The rank order of potency was PeCDF > TCDD > PCB 126. The results confirm that bobwhite quail and ring-necked pheasant hepatocytes have similar sensitivity to EROD induction by TCDD, PeCDF and PCB 126.

  2. Muramyl tripeptide-phosphatidyl ethanolamine encapsulated in liposomes (L-MTP-PE) in the treatment of osteosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Meyers, Paul A; Chou, Alexander J

    2014-01-01

    Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) has been used for decades as an immune stimulant to treat cancer. Early work by Fidler and Kleinerman identified muramyl dipeptide (MDP) as a critical component of the BCG cell wall which retained most of the immunostimulatory properties of the native BCG. Addition of a peptide to MDP resulted in muramyl tripeptide (MTP) which allowed incorporation into liposomal membranes. The resulting pharmaceutical, liposomal muramyl tripeptide phosphatidyl ethanolamine (L-MTP-PE or mifamurtide) showed activity in preclinical models of human cancers. Phase I studies documented the safety of the compound for human administration. These trials did not reach a maximally tolerated dose (MTD), and the dose chosen for phase II trials was a biologically optimized dose, not an MTD. Phase II studies showed decreased risk of further recurrence in patients who received mifamurtide after surgical ablation of metastatic osteosarcoma. A phase III prospective randomized trial demonstrated a statistically significant reduction in the risk of death from osteosarcoma when MTP was added to systemic chemotherapy for the treatment of localized osteosarcoma. The same trial allowed treatment of patients who presented with initially metastatic disease. While the overall and event-free survival was improved in patients with metastatic osteosarcoma who received L-MTP-PE, the sample size was small and the improvement did not achieve conventional statistical significance. From 2008 to 2012, patients with metastatic and recurrent osteosarcoma were given L-MTP-PE in an expanded access trial, and the results suggest a decreased risk of subsequent recurrence and death with the inclusion of L-MTP-PE in the treatment strategy for these high-risk patients.

  3. Biocompatible and colloidally stabilized mPEG-PE/calcium phosphate hybrid nanoparticles loaded with siRNAs targeting tumors

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Pei; Zhang, Xiangyu; Wang, Hongzhi; Zhang, Qinghong

    2016-01-01

    Calcium phosphate nanoparticles are safe and effective delivery vehicles for small interfering RNA (siRNA), as a result of their excellent biocompatibility. In this work, mPEG-PE (polyethylene glycol-L-α-phosphatidylethanolamine) was synthesized and used to prepare nanoparticles composed of mPEG-PE and calcium phosphate for siRNA delivery. Calcium phosphate and mPEG-PE formed the stable hybrid nanoparticles through self-assembly resulting from electrostatic interaction in water. The average size of the hybrid nanoparticles was approximately 53.2 nm with a negative charge of approximately −16.7 mV, which was confirmed by dynamic light scattering (DLS) measurements. The nanoparticles exhibited excellent stability in serum and could protect siRNA from ribonuclease (RNase) degradation. The cellular internalization of siRNA-loaded nanoparticles was evaluated in SMMC-7721 cells using a laser scanning confocal microscope (CLSM) and flow cytometry. The hybrid nanoparticles could efficiently deliver siRNA to cells compared with free siRNA. Moreover, the in vivo distribution of Cy5-siRNA-loaded hybrid nanoparticles was observed after being injected into tumor-bearing nude mice. The nanoparticles concentrated in the tumor regions through an enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect based on the fluorescence intensities of tissue distribution. A safety evaluation of the nanoparticles was performed both in vitro and in vivo demonstrating that the hybrid nanoparticle delivery system had almost no toxicity. These results indicated that the mPEG-PE/CaP hybrid nanoparticles could be a stable, safe and promising siRNA nanocarrier for anticancer therapy. PMID:26625203

  4. Biocompatible and colloidally stabilized mPEG-PE/calcium phosphate hybrid nanoparticles loaded with siRNAs targeting tumors.

    PubMed

    Gao, Pei; Zhang, Xiangyu; Wang, Hongzhi; Zhang, Qinghong; Li, He; Li, Yaogang; Duan, Yourong

    2016-01-19

    Calcium phosphate nanoparticles are safe and effective delivery vehicles for small interfering RNA (siRNA), as a result of their excellent biocompatibility. In this work, mPEG-PE (polyethylene glycol-L-α-phosphatidylethanolamine) was synthesized and used to prepare nanoparticles composed of mPEG-PE and calcium phosphate for siRNA delivery. Calcium phosphate and mPEG-PE formed the stable hybrid nanoparticles through self-assembly resulting from electrostatic interaction in water. The average size of the hybrid nanoparticles was approximately 53.2 nm with a negative charge of approximately -16.7 mV, which was confirmed by dynamic light scattering (DLS) measurements. The nanoparticles exhibited excellent stability in serum and could protect siRNA from ribonuclease (RNase) degradation. The cellular internalization of siRNA-loaded nanoparticles was evaluated in SMMC-7721 cells using a laser scanning confocal microscope (CLSM) and flow cytometry. The hybrid nanoparticles could efficiently deliver siRNA to cells compared with free siRNA. Moreover, the in vivo distribution of Cy5-siRNA-loaded hybrid nanoparticles was observed after being injected into tumor-bearing nude mice. The nanoparticles concentrated in the tumor regions through an enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect based on the fluorescence intensities of tissue distribution. A safety evaluation of the nanoparticles was performed both in vitro and in vivo demonstrating that the hybrid nanoparticle delivery system had almost no toxicity. These results indicated that the mPEG-PE/CaP hybrid nanoparticles could be a stable, safe and promising siRNA nanocarrier for anticancer therapy.

  5. Optimization of Landscape Phage Fusion Protein-Modified Polymeric PEG-PE Micelles for Improved Breast Cancer Cell Targeting

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tao; Petrenko, Valery A.; Torchilin, Vladimir P.

    2015-01-01

    Amphiphilic landscape phage fusion proteins with high affinity and selectivity towards breast cancer MCF-7 (Michigan Cancer Foundation-7) cells self-assemble with polymeric PEG-PE conjugates to form mixed micelles (phage-micelles) capable of cancer cell-targeted delivery of poorly-soluble drugs. While the PEG corona provides the stability and longevity to the micelles, its presence is a potential steric difficulties for the interaction of phage fusion protein with cell surface targets. We attempted to address this problem by controlling the length of the PEG block and the phage fusion protein quantity, selecting the optimal ones to produce a reasonable retention of the targeting affinity and selectivity of the MCF-7-specific phage fusion protein. Three PEG-PE conjugates with different PEG lengths were used to construct phage- and plain-micelles, followed by FACS analysis of the effect of the PEG length on their binding affinity and selectivity towards target MCF-7 cells using either a MCF-7 cell monoculture or a cell co-culture model composed of target cancer MCF-7 cells and non-target, non-cancer C166 cells expressing GFP (Green Fluorescent Protein). Both, the length of PEG and quantity of phage fusion protein had a profound impact on the targetability of the phage-micelles. Phage-micelles prepared with PEG2k-PE achieved a desirable binding affinity and selectivity. Incorporation of a minimal concentration of phage protein, up to 0.5%, produced maximal targeting efficiency towards MCF-7 cells. Overall, phage-micelles with PEG2k-PE and 0.5% of phage protein represent the optimal formulation for targeting towards breast cancer cells. PMID:26451274

  6. Reconstruction of the Interface of Oxidatively Functionalized Polyethylene (PE-CO2H) and Derivatives on Heating. Revision.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-03-01

    interfacial free energy. A slower process--probably driven simply by the entropy of dilution of the concentrated interfacial functionality into the polymer...itself reconstruct the interface: If reaction 4’tn the annydride had Drought the hydroxyl moiety up into the "qterpnase, then upon hydrolysis the...study the reconstruction of PE[dansyl] during heating: the fluorescence emission maximum and the quenching of fluorescence upon protonation of its

  7. Focal Dermal Hypoplasia with a De novo Mutation p.E300* of PORCN Gene in a Male Infant

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Swathi Sunil; Shenoy, Rathika D; Salian, Smrithi; Girisha, Katta M

    2016-01-01

    Focal dermal hypoplasia is a rare disorder inherited in an X-linked dominant pattern and is usually antenatally lethal in males. We report a surviving male with postzygotic de novo mutation p.E300* in exon 10 of PORCN gene with mosaicism, earlier reported in a female of Thai origin. This is the first report of this mutation from the Indian subcontinent. PMID:27904205

  8. Autioionizing states in the photionization of the 3s(2)3p(4) (3)Pe ground state of sulfur

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tayal, S. S.

    1988-01-01

    The partial and total photoionization cross sections for the S(3s/2/3p/4/ /3/Pe) ground state are calculated in both the dipole length and velocity forms. The prominent features in the cross sections are the autoionization Rydberg series converging to S+(3s/2/p/3/ /2/D/0/, /2/P/0/) excited-state thresholds. The results are pertinent to the study of sulfur in the plasma of Jupiter's satellite Io.

  9. Frequency of specific osteopathic manipulative treatment modalities used by candidates while taking COMLEX-USA Level 2-PE.

    PubMed

    Langenau, Erik E; Dowling, Dennis J; Dyer, Caitlin; Roberts, William L

    2012-08-01

    As one of the key measures of clinical skills assessment, the Comprehensive Osteopathic Medical Licensing Examination-USA Level 2-Performance Evaluation (COMLEX-USA Level 2-PE) is used to rate candidates' performance of osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT). To evaluate the frequency of specific OMT modalities used by COMLEX-USA Level 2-PE candidates and to report frequent use on the basis of clinical presentation. With enhanced scoring procedures in place, OMT physician-examiners identified and documented specific OMT techniques that were performed by candidates at the 28 colleges of osteopathic medicine and branch campuses that had eligible students at that time. A frequency analysis for OMT techniques, according to clinical content axis, was applied to all candidates (N=4757) for the 2010-2011 testing cycle. Students used a wide range of specific OMT techniques. Candidates performed 24,202 instances of specific OMT techniques, including 10,471 myofascial/soft tissue (43.3%), 3942 muscle energy (16.3%), 1676 sinus drainage (6.9%), 1476 inhibition (6.1%), 1221 fascial release (5.0%), 1171 rib raising (4.8%), 918 lymphatic (3.8%), and 866 counterstrain (3.6%). A few students (<0.01%) used high-velocity, low-amplitude (HVLA), a technique that is prohibited from use on the COMLEX-USA Level 2-PE because of the potential hazard of repeatedly treating a standardized patient with thrust technique to the same segment in a given day. Additional techniques included functional, facilitated positional release, balanced ligamentous tension, and visceral. Use of techniques also varied according to the clinical presentation of the standardized patient (ie, cardiovascular, respiratory, neuromusculoskeletal, gastrointestinal, or other) and chronicity (ie, acute or chronic). Findings contributed to a better understanding of the types of OMT techniques being used by candidates taking COMLEX-USA Level 2-PE. Frequency of use of specific OMT modalities varied according to clinical

  10. A profilometry-based dentifrice abrasion Method for V8 brushing machines. Part I: Introduction to RDA-PE.

    PubMed

    White, Donald J; Schneiderman, Eva; Colón, Ellen; St John, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the development and standardization of a profilometry-based method for assessment of dentifrice abrasivity called Radioactive Dentin Abrasivity - Profilometry Equivalent (RDA-PE). Human dentine substrates are mounted in acrylic blocks of precise standardized dimensions, permitting mounting and brushing in V8 brushing machines. Dentin blocks are masked to create an area of "contact brushing." Brushing is carried out in V8 brushing machines and dentifrices are tested as slurries. An abrasive standard is prepared by diluting the ISO 11609 abrasivity reference calcium pyrophosphate abrasive into carboxymethyl cellulose/glycerin, just as in the RDA method. Following brushing, masked areas are removed and profilometric analysis is carried out on treated specimens. Assessments of average abrasion depth (contact or optical profilometry) are made. Inclusion of standard calcium pyrophosphate abrasive permits a direct RDA equivalent assessment of abrasion, which is characterized with profilometry as Depth test/Depth control x 100. Within the test, the maximum abrasivity standard of 250 can be created in situ simply by including a treatment group of standard abrasive with 2.5x number of brushing strokes. RDA-PE is enabled in large part by the availability of easy-to-use and well-standardized modern profilometers, but its use in V8 brushing machines is enabled by the unique specific conditions described herein. RDA-PE permits the evaluation of dentifrice abrasivity to dentin without the requirement of irradiated teeth and infrastructure for handling them. In direct comparisons, the RDA-PE method provides dentifrice abrasivity assessments comparable to the gold industry standard RDA technique.

  11. Interferon Gamma Release Assay in response to PE35/PPE68 proteins: a promising diagnostic method for diagnosis of latent tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Mahmoudi, Shima; Pourakbari, Babak; Mamishi, Setareh

    2017-03-01

    Tuberculosis control relies on the identification and preventive treatment of people who are latently infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). PE/PPE proteins have been reported to elicit CD4 and/or CD8 responses either in the form of whole recombinant proteins or as individual peptides. Very few of the PE and PPE proteins have been previously tested for responses in patients with TB and healthy donors. This is the first study to evaluate the Interferon Gamma Release Assay (IGRA) after stimulation with PE35 and PPE68. The antigen-specific levels of IFN-γ following stimulation with QuantiFERON-TB gold in-tube (QFT-G-IT) antigens, and PE35 and PPE68 recombinant proteins were evaluated in 79 children and 102 adults, respectively. Using QFT-G-IT kit, latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) was detected in 26 children (33%) and 41 adults (40%); IGRA following stimulation with PE35 and PPE68 recombinant proteins, was positive, respectively, in 36 (46%) and 32 (40.5%) children, respectively. In addition, 53 adults (52%) had positive results following stimulation with these two proteins. The sensitivity and specificity of IGRA following stimulation with recombinant PE35 in children were 76% and 80%, and following stimulation with recombinant PPE68 in this group, it was 73% and 75%, respectively. Meanwhile, there is no gold standard test for LTBI. Our designed tests using PE35 and PPE68 PE/PPE proteins, two PE/PPE proteins not present in BCG vaccins, which elicit CD4 and/or CD8 responses, might be helpful for rapid diagnosis of TB and improve the detection of LTBI. However, further validation studies to determine the advantage of IGRAs using these proteins, alone or combined, are highly recommended.

  12. Automated detection of pulmonary embolism (PE) in computed tomographic pulmonary angiographic (CTPA) images: multiscale hierachical expectation-maximization segmentation of vessels and PEs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Chuan; Chan, Heang-Ping; Hadjiiski, Lubomir M.; Chughtai, Aamer; Patel, Smita; Cascade, Philip N.; Sahiner, Berkman; Wei, Jun; Ge, Jun; Kazerooni, Ella A.

    2007-03-01

    CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA) has been reported to be an effective means for clinical diagnosis of pulmonary embolism (PE). We are developing a computer-aided detection (CAD) system to assist radiologist in PE detection in CTPA images. 3D multiscale filters in combination with a newly designed response function derived from the eigenvalues of Hessian matrices is used to enhance vascular structures including the vessel bifurcations and suppress non-vessel structures such as the lymphoid tissues surrounding the vessels. A hierarchical EM estimation is then used to segment the vessels by extracting the high response voxels at each scale. The segmented vessels are pre-screened for suspicious PE areas using a second adaptive multiscale EM estimation. A rule-based false positive (FP) reduction method was designed to identify the true PEs based on the features of PE and vessels. 43 CTPA scans were used as an independent test set to evaluate the performance of PE detection. Experienced chest radiologists identified the PE locations which were used as "gold standard". 435 PEs were identified in the artery branches, of which 172 and 263 were subsegmental and proximal to the subsegmental, respectively. The computer-detected volume was considered true positive (TP) when it overlapped with 10% or more of the gold standard PE volume. Our preliminary test results show that, at an average of 33 and 24 FPs/case, the sensitivities of our PE detection method were 81% and 78%, respectively, for proximal PEs, and 79% and 73%, respectively, for subsegmental PEs. The study demonstrates the feasibility that the automated method can identify PE accurately on CTPA images. Further study is underway to improve the sensitivity and reduce the FPs.

  13. A Teacher-Focused Intervention to Decrease PE Students' Amotivation by Increasing Need Satisfaction and Decreasing Need Frustration.

    PubMed

    Cheon, Sung Hyeon; Reeve, Johnmarshall; Song, Yong-Gwan

    2016-06-01

    Intervention-induced gains in need satisfaction decrease PE students' amotivation. The present study adopted a dual-process model to test whether an intervention could also decrease need frustration and hence provide a second supplemental source to further decrease students' PE amotivation. Using an experimental, longitudinal research design, 19 experienced PE teachers (9 experimental, 10 control) and their 1,017 students participated in an intervention program to help teachers become both more autonomy supportive and less controlling. Multilevel repeated measures analyses showed that students of teachers in the experimental group reported greater T2, T3, and T4 perceived autonomy support, need satisfaction, and engagement and lesser T2, T3, and T4 perceived teacher control, need frustration, and amotivation than did students of teachers in the control group. Multilevel structural equation modeling analyses confirmed the hypothesized dual-process model in which both intervention-induced increases in need satisfaction and intervention-induced decreases need frustration decreased students' end-of-semester amotivation. We discuss the theoretical and practical implications of this new finding on the dual antecedents of diminished amotivation.

  14. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Co-operonic PE32/PPE65 Proteins Alter Host Immune Responses by Hampering Th1 Response

    PubMed Central

    Khubaib, Mohd; Sheikh, Javaid A.; Pandey, Saurabh; Srikanth, Battu; Bhuwan, Manish; Khan, Nooruddin; Hasnain, Seyed E.; Ehtesham, Nasreen Z.

    2016-01-01

    PE/PPE genes, present in cluster with ESAT-6 like genes, are suspected to have a role in antigenic variation and virulence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Their roles in immune evasion and immune modulation of host are also well documented. We present evidence that PE32/PPE65 present within the RD8 region are co-operonic, co-transcribed, and co-translated, and play role in modulating host immune responses. Experiments with macrophage cell lines revealed that this protein complex suppresses pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α and IL-6 whereas also inducing high expression of anti-inflammatory IL-10. Immunization of mice with these recombinant proteins dampens an effective Th1 response as evident from reduced frequency of IFN-γ and IL-2 producing CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. IgG sub-typing from serum of immunized mice revealed high levels of IgG1 when compared with IgG2a and IgG2b. Further IgG1/IgG2a ratio clearly demonstrated that the protein complex manipulates the host immune response favorable to the pathogen. Our results demonstrate that the co-transcribed and co-translated PE32 and PPE65 antigens are involved specifically in modulating anti-mycobacterial host immune response by hampering Th1 response. PMID:27242739

  15. "Permission to Speak": A Postcolonial View on Racialized Bodies and PE in the Current Context of Globalization.

    PubMed

    Azzarito, Laura

    2016-06-01

    The current neoliberal context of schools presents difficult challenges in addressing persistent issues of social inequalities. In this article, first, I argue that because of today's market-driven education, the rise of fitness testing in school physical education (PE) can be seriously detrimental to young people in general and to ethnic-minority young people's embodied identity in particular. Second, I explain how the racialization process circulated by the body-at-risk discourse, sustained by the media, and reproduced by high-stakes testing in PE forces ethnic-minority young people to construct their identities through White eyes, which alienates them from a consciousness of their own identity. Third, I explore the possible uses and pitfalls of Spivak's theoretical notion of "strategic essentialism" to put forward strategies to build a positive image of the "other" while attempting to avoid the erasure of difference. Fourth, I conclude the article by suggesting how Spivak's notion of strategic essentialism can be useful in rethinking current PE fitness practices.

  16. GLA variation p.E66Q identified as the genetic etiology of Fabry disease using exome sequencing.

    PubMed

    Peng, Hao; Xu, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Lusi; Zhang, Xuehong; Peng, Hexiang; Zheng, Yu; Luo, Sanchuan; Guo, Hui; Xia, Kun; Li, Jiada; Yao, Hongliang; Hu, Zhengmao

    2016-01-10

    Fabry disease (FD) was an X-linked lysosomal storage disorder resulting from a deficiency in glycosphingolipid catabolism caused by mutations in the α-galactosidase A gene GLA. Variant FD patients did not present with classical symptoms during childhood and were undiagnosed or misdiagnosed with other kidney diseases, such as chronic glomerulonephritis (CGN). In this study, we utilized exome sequencing and Sanger sequencing identified the variation p.E66Q of GLA completely co-segregated with the disease phenotype in a Chinese family, which previously been diagnosed as possible CGN. Female patients exhibited preferential X-chromosome inactivation (XCI) of the normal p.E66 allele, as indicated by XCI analysis. By measuring α-Gal A activity, we found that male patients in the pedigree had just little enzymatic activity while female patients had residual enzymatic activity. These patients were diagnosed with renal variant FD in subsequent clinical review. Our results directly implicated the GLA mutation p.E66Q as the genetic etiology of the Chinese renal variant FD pedigree.

  17. Optimal Acquisition Time Window and Simplified Quantification of Dopamine Transporter Availability Using 18F-FE-PE2I in Healthy Controls and Parkinson Disease Patients.

    PubMed

    Sonni, Ida; Fazio, Patrik; Schain, Martin; Halldin, Christer; Svenningsson, Per; Farde, Lars; Varrone, Andrea

    2016-10-01

    (18)F-(E)-N-(3-iodoprop-2-enyl)-2β-carbofluoroethoxy-3β-(4'methylphenyl)nortropane ((18)F-FE-PE2I) is a newly developed dopamine transporter (DAT) PET radioligand. Full quantification methods rely on dynamic acquisition of (18)F-FE-PE2I, but in a clinical setting a simplified protocol is preferable. The aims of this study were to identify the optimal acquisition time window for (18)F-FE-PE2I and to validate the specific binding ratio (SBR) as a simplified quantification method.

  18. Fucosylated pentaerythrityl phosphodiester oligomers (PePOs): automated synthesis of DNA-based glycoclusters and binding to Pseudomonas aeruginosa lectin (PA-IIL).

    PubMed

    Morvan, François; Meyer, Albert; Jochum, Anne; Sabin, Charles; Chevolot, Yann; Imberty, Anne; Praly, Jean-Pierre; Vasseur, Jean-Jacques; Souteyrand, Eliane; Vidal, Sébastien

    2007-01-01

    The synthesis of propargylated pentaerythrityl phosphodiester oligomers (PePOs) was achieved using a DNA synthesizer with a bis-propargylated pentaerythritol-based phosphoramidite. An azido fucose derivative was reacted under "click" chemistry conditions activated by microwaves to construct a series of glycosylated PePOs bearing 4, 6, 8, and 10 L-fucose residues. Binding to the fucose-specific bacterial lectin (PA-IIL) was determined for the fucosylated PePOs through an enzyme-linked lectin amplification competition assay. The IC50 values measured are 10-20 times better than for monovalent l-fucose and denotate for a "macromolecular" effect rather than a "cluster" effect.

  19. Simultaneous synthesis of nanodiamonds and graphene via plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (MW PE-CVD) on copper.

    PubMed

    Gottlieb, Steven; Wöhrl, Nicolas; Schulz, Stephan; Buck, Volker

    2016-01-01

    The simultaneous growth of both nanodiamonds and graphene on copper samples is described for the first time. A PE-CVD process is used to synthesize graphene layers and nanodiamond clusters from a hydrogen/methane gas mixture as it is typically done successfully in thermal CVD processes for graphene synthesis. However, the standard thermal CVD process is not without problems since the deposition of graphene is affected by the evaporation of a notable amount of copper caused by the slow temperature increase typical for thermal CVD resulting in a long process time. In sharp contrast, the synthesis of graphene by PE-CVD can circumvent this problem by substantially shortening the process time at holding out the prospect of a lower substrate temperature. The reduced thermal load and the possibility to industrially scale-up the PE-CVD process makes it a very attractive alternative to the thermal CVD process with respect to the graphene production in the future. Nanodiamonds are synthesized in PE-CVD reactors for a long time because these processes offer a high degree of control over the film's nanostructure and simultaneously providing a significant high deposition rate. To model the co-deposition process, the three relevant macroscopic parameters (pressure, gas mixture and microwave power) are correlated with three relevant process properties (plasma ball size, substrate temperature and C2/Hα-ratio) and the influence on the quality of the deposited carbon allotropes is investigated. For the evaluation of the graphene as well as the nanodiamond quality, Raman spectroscopy used whereas the plasma properties are measured by optical methods. It is found that the diamond nucleation can be influenced by the C2/Hα-ratio in the plasma, while the graphene quality remains mostly unchanged by this parameter. Moreover it is derived from the experimental data that the direct plasma contact with the copper surface is beneficial for the nucleation of the diamond while the growth and

  20. The RoPE Score and Right-to-Left Shunt Severity by Transcranial Doppler in the CODICIA Study

    PubMed Central

    Wessler, Benjamin S.; Kent, David M.; Thaler, David E.; Ruthazer, Robin; Lutz, Jennifer S.; Serena, Joaquín

    2015-01-01

    Background For patients with cryptogenic stroke (CS) and patent foramen ovale (PFO), it is unknown whether the magnitude of right-to-left shunt (RLSh) measured by contrast transcranial Doppler (c-TCD) is correlated with the likelihood an identified PFO is related to CS as determined by the Risk of Paradoxical Embolism (RoPE) score. Additionally, for patients with CS, it is unknown whether PFO assessment by c-TCD is more sensitive for identifying RLSh compared with transesophageal echocardiography (TEE). Our aim was to determine the significance of RLSh grade by c-TCD in patients with PFO and CS. Methods We evaluated patients with CS who had RLSh quantified by c-TCD in The Multicenter Study into RLSh in Cryptogenic Stroke (CODICIA) to determine whether there is an association between c-TCD shunt grade and the RoPE Score. For patients who underwent c-TCD and TEE, we determined whether there is agreement in identifying and grading RLSh between these two modalities. Results The RoPE score predicted the presence versus the absence of RLSh documented by contrast transcranial Doppler (c-statistic = 0.66). For patients with documented RLSh by c-TCD, shunt severity was correlated with increasing RoPE score (rank correlation (r) = 0.15, p = 0.01). Among 293 patients who had both c-TCD and TEE performed, c-TCD was more sensitive (98.7%) for detecting RLSh. Of the 97 patients with no PFO identified on TEE, 28 (29%) had a large amount of RLSh seen on c-TCD. Conclusions For patients with CS, severity of RLSh by c-TCD is positively correlated with the RoPE score, indicating this technique for shunt grading identifies patients more likely to have pathogenic rather than incidental PFOs. C-TCD is also more sensitive in detecting RLSh than TEE. These findings suggest an important role for c-TCD in the evaluation of PFO in the setting of CS. PMID:26184495

  1. PeRL: a circum-Arctic Permafrost Region Pond and Lake database

    DOE PAGES

    Muster, Sina; Roth, Kurt; Langer, Moritz; ...

    2017-06-06

    Ponds and lakes are abundant in Arctic permafrost lowlands. They play an important role in Arctic wetland ecosystems by regulating carbon, water, and energy fluxes and providing freshwater habitats. However, ponds, i.e., waterbodies with surface areas smaller than 1.0 × 104 m2, have not been inventoried on global and regional scales. The Permafrost Region Pond and Lake (PeRL) database presents the results of a circum-Arctic effort to map ponds and lakes from modern (2002–2013) high-resolution aerial and satellite imagery with a resolution of 5 m or better. The database also includes historical imagery from 1948 to 1965 with a resolutionmore » of 6 m or better. PeRL includes 69 maps covering a wide range of environmental conditions from tundra to boreal regions and from continuous to discontinuous permafrost zones. Waterbody maps are linked to regional permafrost landscape maps which provide information on permafrost extent, ground ice volume, geology, and lithology. This paper describes waterbody classification and accuracy, and presents statistics of waterbody distribution for each site. Maps of permafrost landscapes in Alaska, Canada, and Russia are used to extrapolate waterbody statistics from the site level to regional landscape units. PeRL presents pond and lake estimates for a total area of 1.4 × 106 km2 across the Arctic, about 17 % of the Arctic lowland ( < 300 m a.s.l.) land surface area. PeRL waterbodies with sizes of 1.0 ×106 m2 down to 1.0 ×102 m2 contributed up to 21 % to the total water fraction. Waterbody density ranged from 1.0 ×10 to 9.4 × 101 km–2. Ponds are the dominant waterbody type by number in all landscapes representing 45–99 % of the total waterbody number. In conclusion, the implementation of PeRL size distributions in land surface models will greatly improve the investigation and projection of surface inundation and carbon fluxes in permafrost lowlands.« less

  2. Recyclability of PET/WPI/PE Multilayer Films by Removal of Whey Protein Isolate-Based Coatings with Enzymatic Detergents

    PubMed Central

    Cinelli, Patrizia; Schmid, Markus; Bugnicourt, Elodie; Coltelli, Maria Beatrice; Lazzeri, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Multilayer plastic films provide a range of properties, which cannot be obtained from monolayer films but, at present, their recyclability is an open issue and should be improved. Research to date has shown the possibility of using whey protein as a layer material with the property of acting as an excellent barrier against oxygen and moisture, replacing petrochemical non-recyclable materials. The innovative approach of the present research was to achieve the recyclability of the substrate films by separating them, with a simple process compatible with industrial procedures, in order to promote recycling processes leading to obtain high value products that will beneficially impact the packaging and food industries. Hence, polyethyleneterephthalate (PET)/polyethylene (PE) multi-layer film was prepared based on PET coated with a whey protein layer, and then the previous structure was laminated with PE. Whey proteins, constituting the coating, can be degraded by enzymes so that the coating films can be washed off from the plastic substrate layer. Enzyme types, dosage, time, and temperature optima, which are compatible with procedures adopted in industrial waste recycling, were determined for a highly-efficient process. The washing of samples based on PET/whey and PET/whey/PE were efficient when performed with enzymatic detergent containing protease enzymes, as an alternative to conventional detergents used in recycling facilities. Different types of enzymatic detergents tested presented positive results in removing the protein layer from the PET substrate and from the PET/whey/PE multilayer films at room temperature. These results attested to the possibility of organizing the pre-treatment of the whey-based multilayer film by washing with different available commercial enzymatic detergents in order to separate PET and PE, thus allowing a better recycling of the two different polymers. Mechanical properties of the plastic substrate, such as stress at yield, stress and

  3. Immunoregulatory functions and expression patterns of PE/PPE family members: Roles in pathogenicity and impact on anti-tuberculosis vaccine and drug design.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Asma; Das, Arghya; Mukhopadhyay, Sangita

    2015-06-01

    The Mycobacterium tuberculosis genome was sequenced more than 15 years ago. It revealed a lot of interesting information, one of which was that 10% of the total coding capacity of the M. tuberculosis genome is dedicated to the PE/PPE family. There is a gradual expansion of these proteins from nonpathogenic to pathogenic mycobacteria, and there is increasing evidence that PE/PPE proteins play important roles in mycobacterial pathogenesis. In this review, we discuss PE/PPE proteins, their close functional association with the ESX clusters, their immunomodulatory functions, and their important roles in mycobacterial virulence. In addition, we have attempted to review and compile information available in the literature detailing the expression patterns of PE/PPE family members in different mycobacterial species and also during infection. Our attempt has been to provide a succinct overview of this interesting family.

  4. Home treatment of patients with low-risk pulmonary embolism with the oral factor Xa inhibitor rivaroxaban. Rationale and design of the HoT-PE Trial.

    PubMed

    Barco, Stefano; Lankeit, Mareike; Binder, Harald; Schellong, Sebastian; Christ, Michael; Beyer-Westendorf, Jan; Duerschmied, Daniel; Bauersachs, Rupert; Empen, Klaus; Held, Matthias; Schwaiblmair, Martin; Fonseca, Cândida; Jiménez, David; Becattini, Cecilia; Quitzau, Kurt; Konstantinides, Stavros

    2016-07-04

    Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a potentially life-threatening acute cardiovascular syndrome. However, more than 95 % of patients are haemodynamically stable at presentation, and among them are patients at truly low risk who may qualify for immediate or early discharge. The Home Treatment of Pulmonary Embolism (HoT-PE) study is a prospective international multicentre single-arm phase 4 management (cohort) trial aiming to determine whether home treatment of acute low-risk PE with the oral factor Xa inhibitor rivaroxaban is feasible, effective, and safe. Patients with confirmed PE, who have no right ventricular dysfunction or free floating thrombi in the right atrium or ventricle, are eligible if they meet none of the exclusion criteria indicating haemodynamic instability, serious comorbidity or any condition mandating hospitalisation, or a familial/social environment unable to support home treatment. The first dose of rivaroxaban is given in hospital, and patients are discharged within 48 hours of presentation. Rivaroxaban is taken for at least three months. The primary outcome is symptomatic recurrent venous thromboembolism or PE-related death within three months of enrolment. Secondary outcomes include quality of life and patient satisfaction, and health care resource utilisation compared to existing data on standard-duration hospital treatment. HoT-PE is planned to analyse 1,050 enrolled patients, providing 80 % power to reject the null hypothesis that the recurrence rate of venous thromboembolism is >3 % with α≤0.05. If the hypothesis of HoT-PE is confirmed, early discharge and out-of-hospital treatment may become an attractive, potentially cost-saving option for a significant proportion of patients with acute PE.

  5. Multi-component fermionic dark matter and IceCube PeV scale neutrinos in left-right model with gauge unification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borah, Debasish; Dasgupta, Arnab; Dey, Ujjal Kumar; Patra, Sudhanwa; Tomar, Gaurav

    2017-09-01

    We consider a simple extension of the minimal left-right symmetric model (LRSM) in order to explain the PeV neutrino events seen at the IceCube experiment from a heavy decaying dark matter. The dark matter sector is composed of two fermions: one at PeV scale and the other at TeV scale such that the heavier one can decay into the lighter one and two neutrinos. The gauge annihilation cross sections of PeV dark matter are not large enough to generate its relic abundance within the observed limit. We include a pair of real scalar triplets Ω L,R which can bring the thermally overproduced PeV dark matter abundance into the observed range through late time decay and consequent entropy release thereby providing a consistent way to obtain the correct relic abundance without violating the unitarity bound on dark matter mass. Another scalar field, a bitriplet under left-right gauge group is added to assist the heavier dark matter decay. The presence of an approximate global U(1) X symmetry can naturally explain the origin of tiny couplings required for long-lived nature of these decaying particles. We also show, how such an extended LRSM can be incorporated within a non-supersymmetric SO(10) model where the gauge coupling unification at a very high scale naturally accommodate a PeV scale intermediate symmetry, required to explain the PeV events at IceCube.

  6. A flexible transparent Ag-NC@PE film as a cut-and-paste SERS substrate for rapid in situ detection of organic pollutants.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ningning; Meng, Guowen; Huang, Zhulin; Ke, Yan; Zhou, Qitao; Hu, Xiaoye

    2016-10-21

    This report presents a simple and inexpensive fabrication approach to a flexible transparent composite film as a "cut-and-paste" surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate for in situ detection of organic pollutants. First, a self-assembled monolayer of Ag-nanocubes (Ag-NCs) is obtained at the air/water interface. Then, the Ag-NC monolayer is retrieved onto a flexible transparent polyethylene (PE) film to achieve an Ag-NC@PE composite film as a flexible SERS substrate. As the Ag-NCs in the monolayer are closely and uniformly packed on the PE film, the Ag-NC@PE composite film shows high SERS-activity with good signal homogeneity and reproducibility. Furthermore, the flexible transparent Ag-NC@PE composite film is "cut into" small pieces and directly "pasted" onto contaminated fruits for in situ SERS detection, as a result 10 nM thiram, 1 μM 4-polychlorinated biphenyl and 10 nM methyl parathion contaminants on oranges are detected, respectively. Therefore the Ag-NC@PE composite film is an inexpensive and effective SERS substrate for rapid in situ detection of organic pollutants in aqueous solutions, on fruits and other solid objects.

  7. Phagolysosome maturation of macrophages was reduced by PE_PGRS 62 protein expressing in Mycobacterium smegmatis and induced in IFN-γ priming.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ying; Zhou, Xiangmei; Bai, Yu; Yang, Lifeng; Yin, Xiaomin; Wang, Zhigang; Zhao, Deming

    2012-11-09

    Mycobacterium bovis parasitizes host macrophages and has developed strategies to survive within macrophages. Research on mycobacteria-specific PE_PGRS genes indicates that they code for cell surface proteins that may influence virulence. To further elucidate the molecular pathogenesis of tuberculosis and host response to M. bovis, we explored the mechanisms by which PE_PGRS62 protein increase persistence of mycobacterium within host macrophages. We found that the M. smegmatis strain expressing M. bovis PE_PGRS 62 protein reduced phagolysosome maturation in human macrophages, and significantly decreased the mRNA expression of IL-1β in a dose- and time-dependent. We identified that IFN-γ priming of macrophages immediately prior to infection with PE_PGRS62 expressing M. smegmantis, enhanced the maturation of phagolysosomes and induced IL-1β production both that the protein and mRNA levels and further activated the NF-κB pathway. Overall, we demonstrated that PE_PGRS62 protein altered the immune environment of the host cells, which suggested that the pathogenic PE_PGRS62 protein altering the immune mechanism might be involved in the pathogenesis of mycobacterial disease and hence influenced host cell responses to M. bovis infection.

  8. Avian papillomaviruses: the parrot Psittacus erithacus papillomavirus (PePV) genome has a unique organization of the early protein region and is phylogenetically related to the chaffinch papillomavirus

    PubMed Central

    Tachezy, Ruth; Rector, Annabel; Havelkova, Marta; Wollants, Elke; Fiten, Pierre; Opdenakker, Ghislain; Jenson, A Bennett; Sundberg, John P; Van Ranst, Marc

    2002-01-01

    Background An avian papillomavirus genome has been cloned from a cutaneous exophytic papilloma from an African grey parrot (Psittacus erithacus). The nucleotide sequence, genome organization, and phylogenetic position of the Psittacus erithacus papillomavirus (PePV) were determined. This PePV sequence represents the first complete avian papillomavirus genome defined. Results The PePV genome (7304 basepairs) differs from other papillomaviruses, in that it has a unique organization of the early protein region lacking classical E6 and E7 open reading frames. Phylogenetic comparison of the PePV sequence with partial E1 and L1 sequences of the chaffinch (Fringilla coelebs) papillomavirus (FPV) reveals that these two avian papillomaviruses form a monophyletic cluster with a common branch that originates near the unresolved center of the papillomavirus evolutionary tree. Conclusions The PePV genome has a unique layout of the early protein region which represents a novel prototypic genomic organization for avian papillomaviruses. The close relationship between PePV and FPV, and between their Psittaciformes and Passeriformes hosts, supports the hypothesis that papillomaviruses have co-evolved and speciated together with their host species throughout evolution. PMID:12110158

  9. Ets domain transcription factor PE1 suppresses human interstitial collagenase promoter activity by antagonizing protein-DNA interactions at a critical AP1 element.

    PubMed

    Bidder, M; Loewy, A P; Latifi, T; Newberry, E P; Ferguson, G; Willis, D M; Towler, D A

    2000-08-01

    In MC3T3E1 calvarial osteoblasts, fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) signaling elicits multiple transcriptional responses, including upregulation of the interstitial collagenase/matrix metalloproteinase 1 (MMP1) promoter. FGF responsiveness maps to a bipartite Ets/AP1 element at base pairs -123 to -61 in the human MMP1 promoter. Under basal conditions, the MMP1 promoter is repressed in part via protein-DNA interactions at the Ets cognate, and minimally two mechanisms convey MMP1 promoter upregulation by FGF2: (a) transcriptional activation via Fra1/c-Jun containing DNA-protein interactions at the AP1 cognate and (b) derepression of promoter activity regulated by the Ets cognate. To identify osteoblast Ets repressors that potentially participate in gene expression in the osteoblast, we performed reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis of mRNA isolated from MC3T3E1 cells, using degenerative amplimers to the conserved Ets DNA binding domain to survey the Ets genes expressed by these cells. Six distinct Ets mRNAs were identified: Ets2, Fli1, GABPalpha, SAP1, Elk1, and PE1. Of these, only PE1 has extensive homology to the known Ras-regulated Ets transcriptional repressor, ERF. Therefore, we cloned and characterized PE1 cDNA from a mouse brain library and performed functional analysis of this particular Ets family member. A 2 kb transcript was isolated from brain that encodes a approximately 57 kDa protein; the predicted protein contains the known N-terminal Ets domain of PE1 and a novel C-terminal domain with signficant homology to murine ERF. The murine PE1 open reading frame (ORF) is much larger than the previously reported human PE1 ORF. Consistent with this, affinity-purified rabbit anti-mouse PE1 antibody specifically recognizes an approximately 66 kDa protein present only in the nuclear fraction of MC3T3E1 osteoblasts. Recombinant PE1 binds authentic AGGAWG Ets DNA cognates, and transient transfection studies demonstrate that PE1

  10. Miguel Sánchez Peña (1925-2009) organizer of the space activities in Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de León, Pablo; Sánchez Peña, Miguel Alejandro

    2011-11-01

    One of the most important and active pioneers of the space activities in Argentina was Miguel Sánchez Peña, an aeronautical engineer and an officer of the Argentine Air Force. Sánchez Peña was the organizer of Argentina's governmental space program in the 1970s and part of the 80s, and contributed immeasurably to the Nation's sounding rocket program. Born in Mendoza, Argentina in 1925, Sánchez Peña attended the Military Aviation School (Escuela de Aviación Militar) in Córdoba, and later the Air Force Engineering School. Graduated as an engineer in 1959 he was sent to the University of Michigan in the United States to complete his graduate studies earning a Masters of Science degree in Aerospace Engineering. There he had the opportunity to study with several future NASA astronauts such as Theodore Freeman, Edward White and James McDivitt. After his return to Argentina in 1961 he was put in charge of the Space Development Group (Grupo de Desarrollos Espaciales) of the Air Force in Córdoba. While with the Air Force he managed the development of a family of various sounding rockets for high altitude research. Sánchez Peña was also in charge of the first Argentine rockets launched from Antarctica in 1965, as well as the first tests on an Argentine-fabricated rocket (Orión) from Wallops Island in the United States, in 1966. The Orion was the first operational sounding rocket constructed in South America. In the middle of the 1970s Miguel Sánchez Peña was named president of the CNIE (National Space Research Commission). Starting with just a modest one-desk office at the Argentine Air Force headquarters, in only a few years he turned CNIE into a multi-center organization with several hundred employees, three operational launch centers across the country and a family of research rockets open to the international scientific community. He was also actively representing Argentina in many IAF congresses, and was a member of the International Academy of

  11. In Situ deposition of YBCO high-T(sub c) superconducting thin films by MOCVD and PE-MOCVD

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhao, J.; Noh, D. W.; Chern, C.; Li, Y. Q.; Norris, P.; Gallois, B.; Kear, B.

    1990-01-01

    Metalorganic Chemical Vapor Deposition (MOCVD) offers the advantages of a high degree of compositional control, adaptability for large scale production, and the potential for low temperature fabrication. The capability of operating at high oxygen partial pressure is particularly suitable for in situ formation of high temperature superconducting (HTSC) films. Yttrium barium copper oxide (YBCO) thin films having a sharp zero-resistance transition with T( sub c) greater than 90 K and Jc approx. 10 to the 4th power A on YSZ have been prepared, in situ, at a substrate temperature of about 800 C. Moreover, the ability to form oxide films at low temperature is very desirable for device applications of HTSC materials. Such a process would permit the deposition of high quality HTSC films with a smooth surface on a variety of substrates. Highly c-axis oriented, dense, scratch resistant, superconducting YBCO thin films with mirror-like surfaces have been prepared, in situ, at a reduced substrate temperature as low as 570 C by a remote microwave-plasma enhanced metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (PE-MOCVD) process. Nitrous oxide was used as a reactant gas to generate active oxidizing species. This process, for the first time, allows the formation of YBCO thin films with the orthorhombic superconducting phase in the as-deposited state. The as-deposited films grown by PE-MOCVD show attainment of zero resistance at 72 K with a transition width of about 5 K. MOCVD was carried out in a commercial production scale reactor with the capability of uniform deposition over 100 sq cm per growth run. Preliminary results indicate that PE-MOCVD is a very attractive thin film deposition process for superconducting device technology.

  12. In-situ deposition of YBCO high-Tc superconducting thin films by MOCVD and PE-MOCVD

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhao, J.; Noh, D. W.; Chern, C.; Li, Y. Q.; Norris, P. E.; Kear, B.; Gallois, B.

    1991-01-01

    Metal-Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition (MOCVD) offers the advantages of a high degree of compositional control, adaptability for large scale production, and the potential for low temperature fabrication. The capability of operating at high oxygen partial pressure is particularly suitable for in situ formation of high temperature superconducting (HTSC) films. Yttrium barium copper oxide (YBCO) thin films having a sharp zero-resistance transition with T(sub c) greater than 90 K and J(sub c) of approximately 10(exp 4) A on YSZ have been prepared, in situ, at a substrate temperature of about 800 C. Moreover, the ability to form oxide films at low temperature is very desirable for device applications of HTSC materials. Such a process would permit the deposition of high quality HTSC films with a smooth surface on a variety of substrates. Highly c-axis oriented, dense, scratch resistant, superconducting YBCO thin films with mirror-like surfaces have been prepared, in situ, at a reduced substrate temperature as low as 570 C by a remote microwave-plasma enhanced metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (PE-MOCVD) process. Nitrous oxide was used as a reactant gas to generate active oxidizing species. This process, for the first time, allows the formation of YBCO thin films with the orthorhombic superconducting phase in the as-deposited state. The as-deposited films grown by PE-MOCVD show attainment of zero resistance at 72 K with a transition width of about 5 K. MOCVD was carried out in a commercial production scale reactor with the capability of uniform deposition over 100 sq cm per growth run. Preliminary results indicate that PE-MOCVD is a very attractive thin film deposition process for superconducting device technology.

  13. Introducing DIASCoPE: Directly Integrated Acoustic System Combined with Pressure Experiments — Changing the Paradigm from Product to Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitaker, M. L.; Baldwin, K. J.; Huebsch, W. B.; Tercé, N.; Bejina, F.; Bystricky, M.; Chen, H.; Vaughan, M. T.; Weidner, D. J.

    2014-12-01

    Understanding the properties and behaviors of materials and multi-phase aggregates under conditions of high pressure and temperature is vital to unraveling the mysteries that lie beneath the surface of the planet. Advances in in situexperimental techniques using synchrotron radiation at these extreme conditions have helped to provide answers to fundamental questions that were previously unattainable. Synchrotron-based ultrasonic interferometry measurements have proven to be especially important in determining acoustic velocities and thermoelastic properties of materials at high pressures and temperatures. However, due to relatively slow data collection times, it has been difficult to measure the effects of processes as they occur, and instead the measurement is made on the end product of these processes. DIASCoPE is an important step toward addressing this problem.Over the last three years, we have designed and developed an on-board ultrasonic acoustic velocity measurement system that cuts data collection time down by over an order of magnitude. We can now measure P- and S-wave travel times in samples at extreme conditions in less than one second. Moreover, the system has been fully integrated with the multi-anvil apparatus and the EPICS control system at beamline X17B2 of the National Synchrotron Light Source, allowing for greater ease of control andfull automation of experimental data collection. The DIASCoPE has completed the testing and commissioning phase, and the first data collected using this powerful new system will be presented here.DIASCoPE represents a major step forward in acoustic velocity collection time reduction that will finally allow us to begin to witness what effects various processes in the deep Earth may have on the physical properties of materials at extreme conditions as they occur. These new capabilities will allow us to change the focus of study from the product to the process itself and will lead to a greater understanding of the

  14. Agreement between SPECT V/Q scan and CT angiography in patients with high clinical suspicion of PE.

    PubMed

    Mahdavi, Ramyar; Caronia, Jonathan; Fayyaz, Jazeela; Panagopoulos, Georgia; Lessnau, Klaus D; Scharf, Stephen C; Mina, Bushra; Allred, Charles; DiFabrizio, Larry

    2013-11-01

    To track agreement between single positron emission computed tomography (SPECT) V/Q and CT angiography in patients with high clinical suspicion of pulmonary embolism (PE). If significant agreement occurs, a case could be made for more frequent use of chest radiography followed by SPECT V/Q scanning given its lower risk profile. Diagnosis of PE can be difficult. CT pulmonary angiography (CTA) is the preferred initial test, but may be indeterminate, is a significant source of ionizing radiation, and is contraindicated in renal insufficiency. SPECT ventilation/perfusion imaging (V/Q) is therefore preferred in certain patients. Two thousand nine hundred and twenty patients admitted to a tertiary care hospital in New York City were screened and 100 consecutive high-risk patients who required both CTA and V/Q for an initial indeterminate or negative imaging test despite a high pre-test probability were identified. The agreement between these tests was evaluated. There was no significant agreement between CTA and V/Q when positive, negative and indeterminate results were included (K = 0.18, SE = 0.09, p = 0.051). However, in the presence of a positive finding on either test, there was substantial agreement between the two (K = 0.62, SE = 0.27, p = 0.02). In 30 cases in which CTA was indeterminate, V/Q was diagnostic 93 % of the time. In 12 cases in which V/Q was indeterminate, CTA was diagnostic 83 % of the time and negative in 100 % of those cases. In the presence of an indeterminate CTA in patients with high clinical suspicion of PE, SPECT V/Q often provides a diagnosis.

  15. Electrostatic Properties of PE and PTFE Subjected to Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Treatment; Correlation of Experimental Results with Atomistic Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trigwell, Steve; Boucher, Derrick; Calle, Carlos

    2006-01-01

    The use of an atmospheric pressure glow discharge (APGD) plasma was used at KSC to increase the hydrophilicity of spaceport materials to enhance their surface charge dissipation and prevent possible ESD in spaceport operations. Significant decreases in charge decay times were observed after tribocharging the materials using the standard KSC tribocharging test. The polarity and amount of charge transferred was dependent upon the effective work function differences between the respective materials. In this study, polyethylene (PE) and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) were exposed to a He+O2 APGD. The pre and post treatment surface chemistry was analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and contact angle measurements. Semi-empirical and ab initio calculations were performed to correlate the experimental results with some plausible molecular and electronic structure features of the oxidation process. For the PE, significant surface oxidation was observed, as indicated by XPS showing C-O, C=O, and O-C=O bonding, and a decrease in the surface contact angle from 98.9 deg to 61.2 deg. For the PTFE, no C-O bonding appeared and the surface contact angle increased indicating the APGD only succeeded in cleaning the PTFE surface without affecting the surface structure. The calculations using the PM3 and DFT methods were performed on single and multiple oligomers to simulate a wide variety of oxidation scenarios. Calculated work function results suggest that regardless of oxidation mechanism, e.g. -OH, =0 or a combination thereof, the experimentally observed levels of surface oxidation are unlikely to lead to a significant change in the electronic structure of PE and that its increased hydrophilic properties are the primary reason for the observed changes in its electrostatic behavior. The calculations for PTFE argue strongly against significant oxidation of that material, as confirmed by the XPS results.

  16. Could a multi-PeV neutrino event have as origin the internal shocks inside the GRB progenitor star?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraija, N.

    2016-03-01

    The IceCube Collaboration initially reported the detection of 37 extraterrestrial neutrinos in the TeV-PeV energy range. The reconstructed neutrino events were obtained during three consecutive years of data taking, from 2010 to 2013. Although these events have been discussed to have an extragalactic origin, they have not been correlated to any known source. Recently, the IceCube Collaboration reported a neutrino-induced muon event with energy of 2.6 ± 0.3 PeV which corresponds to the highest event ever detected. Neither the reconstructed direction of this event (J2000.0), detected on June 11 2014 at R.A. = 110 ° . 34, Dec. = 11 ° . 48 matches with any familiar source. Long gamma-ray bursts (lGRBs) are usually associated with the core collapse of massive stars leading relativistic-collimated jets inside stars with high-energy neutrino production. These neutrinos have been linked to the 37 events previously detected by IceCube experiment. In this work, we explore the conditions and values of parameters so that the highest neutrino recently detected could be generated by proton-photon and proton-hadron interactions at internal shocks inside lGRB progenitor star and then detected in IceCube experiment. Considering that internal shocks take place in a relativistic collimated jet, whose (half) opening angle is θ0 ∼ 0.1, we found that lGRBs with total luminosity L ≲1048 erg/s and internal shocks on the surface of progenitors such as Wolf-Rayet (WR) and blue super giant (BSG) stars favor this multi-PeV neutrino production, although this neutrino could be associated with L ∼1050.5 (∼1050) erg/s provided that the internal shocks occur at ∼109 (∼1010.2) cm for a WR (BSG).

  17. New CO2 adsorbent containing aminated poly(glycidyl methacrylate) grafted onto irradiated PE-PP nonwoven sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmoud Nasef, Mohamed; Abbasi, Ali; Ting, T. M.

    2014-10-01

    A new CO2 adsorbent containing triethylamine (TEA) was prepared by radiation induced grafting of glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) onto polyethylene coated polypropylene (PE-PP) non-woven sheet followed by amination reaction. The degree of grafting (DOG%) was controlled by variation of monomer concentration and absorbed dose. The incorporation of aminated poly(GMA) was investigated by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The adsorbent with DOG of 350% and amination yield of 60% exhibited CO2 adsorption capacity of 4.52 mol/kg at ambient temperature and pressure.

  18. Toxicity and disposition of 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran (4PeCDF) in the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta)

    SciTech Connect

    Brewster, D.W.; Elwell, M.R.; Birnbaum, L.S.

    1988-04-01

    The toxicity and disposition of 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran (4PeCDF), a ubiquitous and acutely toxic environmental contaminant, was examined in three adult male Rhesus monkeys administered a single iv dose of 34 micrograms (0.1 mumol)/kg. Within 20 min, 4PeCDF was eliminated from the blood and was distributed to the liver, skin, adipose, and muscle tissues. Excretion occurred primarily via the feces with a minimum whole body half-life approximately 38 days. Within 7-14 days after administration, the packed cell volume and serum triglyceride and bile acid concentrations were significantly increased while serum cholesterol, protein, and albumin concentrations were decreased relative to pretreatment levels. Thyroid hormone levels were also altered with an increase in TSH and a decrease in T3 and T4 concentrations. After 28 days, two monkeys began exhibiting alopecia, hyperkeratinization of the toe and finger nails, facial chloracne-like lesions, and loss of body weight. They subsequently died 40 and 48 days after treatment. Similar symptoms of toxicity were observed in the third animal 58 days after 4PeCDF administration, but this animal appeared to fully recover and was administered 4PeCDF orally and (3H)1,2,3,7,8-pentachloro-dibenzofuran (1PeCDF) dermally 238 days after the initial iv dose. In this animal, approximately 2% of an oral dose of (14C)-4PeCDF was absorbed from the stomach and small intestine in 6 hr and was distributed mainly to the muscle and skin and less than 99% of a dermal dose of 1PeCDF remained at the site of application. Pathological findings in the monkeys that died indicated hyperplastic and metaplastic changes in the gastric mucosa, the Meibomian glands of the eyelid, and the ceruminous glands of the ear. Regression of these lesions was present in the surviving animal.

  19. Establishing the values for patient engagement (PE) in health-related quality of life (HRQoL) research: an international, multiple-stakeholder perspective.

    PubMed

    Haywood, Kirstie; Lyddiatt, Anne; Brace-McDonnell, Samantha J; Staniszewska, Sophie; Salek, Sam

    2017-06-01

    Active patient engagement is increasingly viewed as essential to ensuring that patient-driven perspectives are considered throughout the research process. However, guidance for patient engagement (PE) in HRQoL research does not exist, the evidence-base for practice is limited, and we know relatively little about underpinning values that can impact on PE practice. This is the first study to explore the values that should underpin PE in contemporary HRQoL research to help inform future good practice guidance. A modified 'World Café' was hosted as a collaborative activity between patient partners, clinicians and researchers: self-nominated conference delegates participated in group discussions to explore values associated with the conduct and consequences of PE. Values were captured via post-it notes and by nominated note-takers. Data were thematically analysed: emergent themes were coded and agreement checked. Association between emergent themes, values and the Public Involvement Impact Assessment Framework were explored. Eighty participants, including 12 patient partners, participated in the 90-min event. Three core values were defined: (1) building relationships; (2) improving research quality and impact; and (3) developing best practice. Participants valued the importance of building genuine, collaborative and deliberative relationships-underpinned by honesty, respect, co-learning and equity-and the impact of effective PE on research quality and relevance. An explicit statement of values seeks to align all stakeholders on the purpose, practice and credibility of PE activities. An innovative, flexible and transparent research environment was valued as essential to developing a trustworthy evidence-base with which to underpin future guidance for good PE practice.

  20. DEAD-box helicase DDX27 regulates 3′ end formation of ribosomal 47S RNA and stably associates with the PeBoW-complex

    SciTech Connect

    Kellner, Markus; Rohrmoser, Michaela; Forné, Ignasi; Voss, Kirsten; Burger, Kaspar; Mühl, Bastian; Gruber-Eber, Anita; Kremmer, Elisabeth; Imhof, Axel; Eick, Dirk

    2015-05-15

    PeBoW, a trimeric complex consisting of pescadillo (Pes1), block of proliferation (Bop1), and the WD repeat protein 12 (WDR12), is essential for processing and maturation of mammalian 5.8S and 28S ribosomal RNAs. Applying a mass spectrometric analysis, we identified the DEAD-box helicase DDX27 as stably associated factor of the PeBoW-complex. DDX27 interacts with the PeBoW-complex via an evolutionary conserved F×F motif in the N-terminal domain and is recruited to the nucleolus via its basic C-terminal domain. This recruitment is RNA-dependent and occurs independently of the PeBoW-complex. Interestingly, knockdown of DDX27, but not of Pes1, induces the accumulation of an extended form of the primary 47S rRNA. We conclude that DDX27 can interact specifically with the Pes1 and Bop1 but fulfils critical function(s) for proper 3′ end formation of 47S rRNA independently of the PeBoW-complex. - Highlights: • DEAD-box helicase DDX27 is a new constituent of the PeBoW-complex. • The N-terminal F×F motif of DDX27 interacts with the PeBoW components Pes1 and Bop1. • Nucleolar anchoring of DDX27 via its basic C-terminal domain is RNA dependent. • Knockdown of DDX27 induces a specific defect in 3′ end formation of 47S rRNA.

  1. Toxicity and disposition of 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran (4PeCDF) in the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta)

    SciTech Connect

    Brewster, D.W.; Elwell, M.R.; Birnbaum, L.S.

    1988-04-01

    The toxicity and disposition of 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran (4PeCDF), a ubiquitous and acutely toxic environmental contaminant, was examined in three adult male Rhesus monkeys administered a single iv dose of 34 micrograms (0.1 mumol)/kg. Within 20 min, 4PeCDF was eliminated from the blood and was distributed to the liver, skin, adipose, and muscle tissues. Excretion occurred primarily via the feces with a minimum whole body half-life approximately 38 days. Within 7-14 days after administration, the packed cell volume and serum triglyceride and bile acid concentrations were significantly increased while serum cholesterol, protein, and albumin concentrations were decreased relative to pretreatment levels. Thyroid hormone levels were also altered with an increase in TSH and a decrease in T3 and T4 concentrations. After 28 days, two monkeys began exhibiting alopecia, hyperkeratinization of the toe and finger nails, facial chloracne-like lesions, and loss of body weight. They subsequently died 40 and 48 days after treatment. Similar symptoms of toxicity were observed in the third animal 58 days after 4PeCDF administration, but this animal appeared to fully recover and was administered 4PeCDF orally and (3H)1,2,3,7,8-pentachloro-dibenzofuran (1PeCDF) dermally 238 days after the initial iv dose. In this animal, approximately 2% of an oral dose of (14C)-4PeCDF was absorbed from the stomach and small intestine in 6 hr and was distributed mainly to the muscle and skin and less than 99% of a dermal dose of 1PeCDF remained at the site of application. Pathological findings in the monkeys that died indicated hyperplastic and metaplastic changes in the gastric mucosa, the Meibomian glands of the eyelid, and the ceruminous glands of the ear. Regression of these lesions was present in the surviving animal.

  2. Optimal topology and experimental evaluation of PE materials for actively shunted GE polymer matrix fiber composite blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Benjamin B.; Duffy, Kirsten; Kauffman, Jeffrey L.; Kray, Nicholas

    2012-04-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), in collaboration with GE Aviation, has begun the development of a smart adaptive structure system with piezoelectric transducers to improve composite fan blade damping at resonances. Traditional resonant damping approaches may not be realistic for rotating frame applications such as engine blades. The limited space in which the blades reside in the engine makes it impossible to accommodate the circuit size required to implement passive resonant damping. Thus, we have developed a novel digital shunt scheme to replace the conventional electric passive shunt circuits. The digital shunt dissipates strain energy through the load capacitor on a power amplifier. GE designed and fabricated a variety of polymer matrix fiber composite (PMFC) test specimens. We investigated the optimal topology of PE sensors and actuators for each test specimen to discover the best PE transducer location for each target mode. Also a variety of flexible patches, which can conform to the blade surface, have been tested to identify the best performing piezoelectric patch. The active damping control achieved significant performance at target modes. This work has been highlighted by successful spin testing up to 5,000 rpm of subscale GEnx composite blades in GRC's Dynamic Spin Rig.

  3. Adverse effects at adjuvant treatment of liver metastases in rat with RSU-1069 + microspheres, or liposomal MTP-PE.

    PubMed

    Wang, L; Roos, G; Stenram, U

    1995-01-01

    Rats were inoculated via the portal vein with a suspension of tumor cells from a transplantable dimethylhydrazine-induced adenocarcinoma of rat colon. In one set of experiments, the bioreductive drug RSU-1069 was injected once via the portal vein with or without degradable starch microspheres (DSM) 10 mins after tumour cell inoculation. In another set the immunostimulator liposomal-encapsulated muramyl tripeptide phosphatidyl-ethanolamine (MTP-PE) was injected via the portal vein or penile vein 1 day before tumour-cell inoculation and then twice a week. The experiments were finished after 2 to 3 weeks. Tumour take, numbers and volumes were measured. RSU-1069 enhanced tumour growth when combined with DSM. Liposomal MTP-PE also increased tumour growth. A bioreductive drug combined with microspheres, known to suppress the growth of an established tumour, may enhance its growth in the adjuvant setting. An accepted immunostimulator may enhance tumour take. Drugs used for the treatment of tumours must be carefully employed, if applied in an adjuvant setting. The effect on the normal immune system should be further studied.

  4. Lateral Distribution of Air Shower Signals and Initial Energy Spectrum above 1 PeV from IceTop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klepser, S.; Kislat, F.; Kolanoski, H.; Niessen, P.; Van Overloop, A.

    With the present size of the IceTop air shower array it is possible to measure an energy spectrum in the range of 1 PeV to 100 PeV. To do so, a lateral pulse height fit was performed on all analysed showers. Therefore it is crucial to have a realistic parametrisation of the expected lateral distribution and the corresponding fluctuations of the measured tank signals. Since IceTop tanks do not measure particle numbers, but rather portions of deposited energy, the typically used lateral distribution functions like NKG do not apply. Hence, a suitable function was developed in a CORSIKA simulation study. Having two tanks separated by 10m at each detector station, it is furthermore possible to study local pulse height fluctuations directly in data. These are used to develop a parametrisation of the weights needed in the lateral fit procedure. We will present the results of these investigations and preliminary distributions of the resulting shower parameters.

  5. CitySCaPE: Moving beyond indifference in education for pre-registration nurses about learning disability.

    PubMed

    Saunder, Lorna; Knight, Rachael-Anne

    2017-07-25

    People with learning disabilities and Autism continue to suffer from the delivery of ineffective and inadequate care from health services CitySCaPE (City Simulated Community and Practice Environment) is a multi media resource delivering a simulation of situations student nurses may encounter in relation to service users with learning disabilities. The resource is applicable to adult, mental health and children's nursing. It is delivered in a blended approach to students in the first part of their programme as part of their simulated practice. Following the implementation of the resource an evaluation of student experience was undertaken using a mixed methods approach. 146 responses were obtained to a questionnaire containing quantitative and qualitative data. The findings indicate that this is a pedagogy that suits a variety of learning styles, is deemed to be realistic and improves the understanding of nursing students about the care of people with learning disabilities in generic practice areas. It is anticipated that CitySCaPE can be used as a model for delivery of practice based learning in areas that are often challenging to teach and demonstrate using a service user and person centred approach. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The direct detection of boosted dark matter at high energies and PeV events at IceCube

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharya, A.; Gandhi, R.; Gupta, A.

    2015-03-13

    We study the possibility of detecting dark matter directly via a small but energetic component that is allowed within present-day constraints. Drawing closely upon the fact that neutral current neutrino nucleon interactions are indistinguishable from DM-nucleon interactions at low energies, we extend this feature to high energies for a small, non-thermal but highly energetic population of DM particle χ, created via the decay of a significantly more massive and long-lived non-thermal relic ϕ, which forms the bulk of DM. If χ interacts with nucleons, its cross-section, like the neutrino-nucleus coherent cross-section, can rise sharply with energy leading to deep inelastic scattering, similar to neutral current neutrino-nucleon interactions at high energies. Thus, its direct detection may be possible via cascades in very large neutrino detectors. As a specific example, we apply this notion to the recently reported three ultra-high energy PeV cascade events clustered around 1−2 PeV at IceCube (IC). We discuss the features which may help discriminate this scenario from one in which only astrophysical neutrinos constitute the event sample in detectors like IC.

  7. The direct detection of boosted dark matter at high energies and PeV events at IceCube

    DOE PAGES

    Bhattacharya, A.; Gandhi, R.; Gupta, A.

    2015-03-13

    We study the possibility of detecting dark matter directly via a small but energetic component that is allowed within present-day constraints. Drawing closely upon the fact that neutral current neutrino nucleon interactions are indistinguishable from DM-nucleon interactions at low energies, we extend this feature to high energies for a small, non-thermal but highly energetic population of DM particle χ, created via the decay of a significantly more massive and long-lived non-thermal relic Φ, which forms the bulk of DM. If χ interacts with nucleons, its cross-section, like the neutrino-nucleus coherent cross-section, can rise sharply with energy leading to deep inelasticmore » scattering, similar to neutral current neutrino-nucleon interactions at high energies. Thus, its direct detection may be possible via cascades in very large neutrino detectors. As a specific example, we apply this notion to the recently reported three ultra-high energy PeV cascade events clustered around 1 – 2 PeV at IceCube (IC). We discuss the features which may help discriminate this scenario from one in which only astrophysical neutrinos constitute the event sample in detectors like IC.« less

  8. PEG-PE micelles loaded with paclitaxel and surface-modified by a PBR-ligand: synergistic anticancer effect

    PubMed Central

    Musacchio, Tiziana; Laquintana, Valentino; Latrofa, Andrea; Trapani, Giuseppe; Torchilin, Vladimir P.

    2009-01-01

    Selective ligands to the Peripheral Benzodiazepine Receptor (PBR) may induce apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. An over-expression of PBR in certain cancers allowed us to consider the use of highly selective ligands to PBR for receptor-mediated drug targeting to tumors. With this in mind, we prepared PBR-targeted nanoparticulate drug delivery systems (PEG-PE micelles) loaded with the anticancer drug paclitaxel (PCL) to test possible synergistic anticancer effects. PEG2k-PE-based polymeric micelles with and without PCL were prepared in HBS, pH 7.5, and conjugated with a PBR-ligand (CB86) in 0.45% of DMSO. The cytotoxic effect of such micelles against the LN 18 human glioblastoma cell line was studied in cell culture. The micelles maintained their size and size distribution and remained intact without drug release after the PBR-ligand conjugation. The PCL-loaded PBR-targeted micelles showed a significantly enhanced toxicity against human glioblastoma LN 18 cancer cells in vitro. Thus, PBR-targeted nanopreparations may potentially serve as a new nanomedicine for targeted cancer therapy. PMID:19718800

  9. The direct detection of boosted dark matter at high energies and PeV events at IceCube

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharya, A.; Gandhi, R.; Gupta, A.

    2015-03-13

    We study the possibility of detecting dark matter directly via a small but energetic component that is allowed within present-day constraints. Drawing closely upon the fact that neutral current neutrino nucleon interactions are indistinguishable from DM-nucleon interactions at low energies, we extend this feature to high energies for a small, non-thermal but highly energetic population of DM particle χ, created via the decay of a significantly more massive and long-lived non-thermal relic Φ, which forms the bulk of DM. If χ interacts with nucleons, its cross-section, like the neutrino-nucleus coherent cross-section, can rise sharply with energy leading to deep inelastic scattering, similar to neutral current neutrino-nucleon interactions at high energies. Thus, its direct detection may be possible via cascades in very large neutrino detectors. As a specific example, we apply this notion to the recently reported three ultra-high energy PeV cascade events clustered around 1 – 2 PeV at IceCube (IC). We discuss the features which may help discriminate this scenario from one in which only astrophysical neutrinos constitute the event sample in detectors like IC.

  10. Membrane Morphology Is Actively Transformed by Covalent Binding of the Protein Atg8 to PE-Lipids

    PubMed Central

    Knorr, Roland L.; Nakatogawa, Hitoshi; Ohsumi, Yoshinori; Lipowsky, Reinhard; Baumgart, Tobias; Dimova, Rumiana

    2014-01-01

    Autophagy is a cellular degradation pathway involving the shape transformation of lipid bilayers. During the onset of autophagy, the water-soluble protein Atg8 binds covalently to phosphatdylethanolamines (PEs) in the membrane in an ubiquitin-like reaction coupled to ATP hydrolysis. We reconstituted the Atg8 conjugation system in giant and nm-sized vesicles with a minimal set of enzymes and observed that formation of Atg8-PE on giant vesicles can cause substantial tubulation of membranes even in the absence of Atg12-Atg5-Atg16. Our findings show that ubiquitin-like processes can actively change properties of lipid membranes and that membrane crowding by proteins can be dynamically regulated in cells. Furthermore we provide evidence for curvature sorting of Atg8-PE. Curvature generation and sorting are directly linked to organelle shapes and, thus, to biological function. Our results suggest that a positive feedback exists between the ubiquitin-like reaction and the membrane curvature, which is important for dynamic shape changes of cell membranes, such as those involved in the formation of autophagosomes. PMID:25522362

  11. Direct radiocarbon dates for Vindija G1 and Velika Pećina Late Pleistocene hominid remains

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Fred H.; Trinkaus, Erik; Pettitt, Paul B.; Karavanić, Ivor; Paunović, Maja

    1999-01-01

    New accelerator mass spectrometry radiocarbon dates taken directly on human remains from the Late Pleistocene sites of Vindija and Velika Pećina in the Hrvatsko Zagorje of Croatia are presented. Hominid specimens from both sites have played critical roles in the development of current perspectives on modern human evolutionary emergence in Europe. Dates of ≈28 thousand years (ka) before the present (B.P.) and ≈29 ka B.P. for two specimens from Vindija G1 establish them as the most recent dated Neandertals in the Eurasian range of these archaic humans. The human frontal bone from Velika Pećina, generally considered one of the earliest representatives of modern humans in Europe, dated to ≈5 ka B.P., rendering it no longer pertinent to discussions of modern human origins. Apart from invalidating the only radiometrically based example of temporal overlap between late Neandertal and early modern human fossil remains from within any region of Europe, these dates raise the question of when early modern humans first dispersed into Europe and have implications for the nature and geographic patterning of biological and cultural interactions between these populations and the Neandertals. PMID:10535913

  12. The direct detection of boosted dark matter at high energies and PeV events at IceCube

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharya, A.; Gandhi, R.; Gupta, A. E-mail: nubarnu@gmail.com

    2015-03-01

    We study the possibility of detecting dark matter directly via a small but energetic component that is allowed within present-day constraints. Drawing closely upon the fact that neutral current neutrino nucleon interactions are indistinguishable from DM-nucleon interactions at low energies, we extend this feature to high energies for a small, non-thermal but highly energetic population of DM particle χ, created via the decay of a significantly more massive and long-lived non-thermal relic φ, which forms the bulk of DM. If χ interacts with nucleons, its cross-section, like the neutrino-nucleus coherent cross-section, can rise sharply with energy leading to deep inelastic scattering, similar to neutral current neutrino-nucleon interactions at high energies. Thus, its direct detection may be possible via cascades in very large neutrino detectors. As a specific example, we apply this notion to the recently reported three ultra-high energy PeV cascade events clustered around 1−2 PeV at IceCube (IC). We discuss the features which may help discriminate this scenario from one in which only astrophysical neutrinos constitute the event sample in detectors like IC.

  13. A validation study of the Keyboard Personal Computer Style instrument (K-PeCS) for use with children.

    PubMed

    Green, Dido; Meroz, Anat; Margalit, Adi Edit; Ratzon, Navah Z

    2012-11-01

    This study examines a potential instrument for measurement of typing postures of children. This paper describes inter-rater, test-retest reliability and concurrent validity of the Keyboard Personal Computer Style instrument (K-PeCS), an observational measurement of postures and movements during keyboarding, for use with children. Two trained raters independently rated videos of 24 children (aged 7-10 years). Six children returned one week later for identifying test-retest reliability. Concurrent validity was assessed by comparing ratings obtained using the K-PECS to scores from a 3D motion analysis system. Inter-rater reliability was moderate to high for 12 out of 16 items (Kappa: 0.46 to 1.00; correlation coefficients: 0.77-0.95) and test-retest reliability varied across items (Kappa: 0.25 to 0.67; correlation coefficients: r = 0.20 to r = 0.95). Concurrent validity compared favourably across arm pathlength, wrist extension and ulnar deviation. In light of the limitations of other tools the K-PeCS offers a fairly affordable, reliable and valid instrument to address the gap for measurement of typing styles of children, despite the shortcomings of some items. However further research is required to refine the instrument for use in evaluating typing among children.

  14. Amine-functionalized PVA-co-PE nanofibrous membrane as affinity membrane with high adsorption capacity for bilirubin.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenwen; Zhang, Hao; Zhang, Zhifeng; Luo, Mengying; Wang, Yuedan; Liu, Qiongzhen; Chen, Yuanli; Li, Mufang; Wang, Dong

    2017-02-01

    In this study, poly(vinyl alcohol-co-ethylene) (PVA-co-PE) nanofibrous membrane was activated by sodium hydroxide and cyanuric chloride, and then the activated membranes were functionalized by 1,3-propanediamine, hexamethylenediamine and diethylenetriamine to be affinity membranes for bilirubin removal, respectively. The chemical structures and morphologies of membranes were investigated by SEM, FTIR and XPS. And the adsorption ability of different amine-functionalized nanofibrous membranes for bilirubin was characterized. Furthermore, the effects of temperature, initial concentration of bilirubin, NaCl concentration and BSA concentration on the adsorption capacity for bilirubin of diethylenetriamine-functionalized nanofibrous membrane were studied. Results indicated that the adsorption capacity for bilirubin of diethylenetriamine-functionalized nanofibrous membrane could reach 85mg/g membrane when the initial bilirubin concentration was 200mg/L while the adsorption capacity could be increased to 110mg/g membrane if the initial bilirubin concentration was more than 400mg/L. The dynamic adsorption of diethylenetriamine-functionalized nanofibrous membrane showed that the ligands of amine groups on the membrane surface could be used as far as possible by recirculating the plasma with certain flow rates. Therefore, the diethylenetriamine-functionalized PVA-co-PE nanofibrous membrane possessed high adsorption capacity for bilirubin and it can be candidate as affinity membrane for bilirubin removal.

  15. 17β-Estradiol increases persistent Na(+) current and excitability of AVPV/PeN Kiss1 neurons in female mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chunguang; Bosch, Martha A; Qiu, Jian; Rønnekleiv, Oline K; Kelly, Martin J

    2015-04-01

    In vitro slice studies have revealed that there are significant differences in the spontaneous firing activity between anteroventral periventricular/periventricular preoptic nucleus (AVPV/PeN) and arcuate nucleus (ARC) kisspeptin (Kiss1) neurons in females. Although both populations express similar endogenous conductances, we have discovered that AVPV/PeN Kiss1 neurons express a subthreshold, persistent sodium current (INaP) that dramatically alters their firing activity. Based on whole-cell recording of Kiss1-Cre-green fluorescent protein (GFP) neurons, INaP was 4-fold greater in AVPV/PeN vs ARC Kiss1 neurons. An LH surge-producing dose of 17β-estradiol (E2) that increased Kiss1 mRNA expression in the AVPV/PeN, also augmented INaP in AVPV/PeN neurons by 2-fold. Because the activation threshold for INaP was close to the resting membrane potential (RMP) of AVPV/PeN Kiss1 neurons (-54 mV), it rendered them much more excitable and spontaneously active vs ARC Kiss1 neurons (RMP = -66 mV). Single-cell RT-PCR revealed that AVPV/PeN Kiss1 neurons expressed the requisite sodium channel α-subunit transcripts, NaV1.1, NaV1.2, and NaV1.6 and β subunits, β2 and β4. Importantly, NaV1.1α and -β2 transcripts in AVPV/PeN, but not ARC, were up-regulated 2- to 3-fold by a surge-producing dose of E2, similar to the transient calcium current channel subunit Cav3.1. The transient calcium current collaborates with INaP to generate burst firing, and selective blockade of INaP by riluzole significantly attenuated rebound burst firing and spontaneous activity. Therefore, INaP appears to play a prominent role in AVPV/PeN Kiss1 neurons to generate spontaneous, repetitive burst firing, which is required for the high-frequency-stimulated release of kisspeptin for exciting GnRH neurons and potentially generating the GnRH surge.

  16. 17β-Estradiol Increases Persistent Na+ Current and Excitability of AVPV/PeN Kiss1 Neurons in Female Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chunguang; Bosch, Martha A.; Qiu, Jian

    2015-01-01

    In vitro slice studies have revealed that there are significant differences in the spontaneous firing activity between anteroventral periventricular/periventricular preoptic nucleus (AVPV/PeN) and arcuate nucleus (ARC) kisspeptin (Kiss1) neurons in females. Although both populations express similar endogenous conductances, we have discovered that AVPV/PeN Kiss1 neurons express a subthreshold, persistent sodium current (INaP) that dramatically alters their firing activity. Based on whole-cell recording of Kiss1-Cre-green fluorescent protein (GFP) neurons, INaP was 4-fold greater in AVPV/PeN vs ARC Kiss1 neurons. An LH surge-producing dose of 17β-estradiol (E2) that increased Kiss1 mRNA expression in the AVPV/PeN, also augmented INaP in AVPV/PeN neurons by 2-fold. Because the activation threshold for INaP was close to the resting membrane potential (RMP) of AVPV/PeN Kiss1 neurons (−54 mV), it rendered them much more excitable and spontaneously active vs ARC Kiss1 neurons (RMP = −66 mV). Single-cell RT-PCR revealed that AVPV/PeN Kiss1 neurons expressed the requisite sodium channel α-subunit transcripts, NaV1.1, NaV1.2, and NaV1.6 and β subunits, β2 and β4. Importantly, NaV1.1α and -β2 transcripts in AVPV/PeN, but not ARC, were up-regulated 2- to 3-fold by a surge-producing dose of E2, similar to the transient calcium current channel subunit Cav3.1. The transient calcium current collaborates with INaP to generate burst firing, and selective blockade of INaP by riluzole significantly attenuated rebound burst firing and spontaneous activity. Therefore, INaP appears to play a prominent role in AVPV/PeN Kiss1 neurons to generate spontaneous, repetitive burst firing, which is required for the high-frequency-stimulated release of kisspeptin for exciting GnRH neurons and potentially generating the GnRH surge. PMID:25734516

  17. Cognitive control of conscious error awareness: error awareness and error positivity (Pe) amplitude in moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury (TBI)

    PubMed Central

    Logan, Dustin M.; Hill, Kyle R.; Larson, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Poor awareness has been linked to worse recovery and rehabilitation outcomes following moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury (M/S TBI). The error positivity (Pe) component of the event-related potential (ERP) is linked to error awareness and cognitive control. Participants included 37 neurologically healthy controls and 24 individuals with M/S TBI who completed a brief neuropsychological battery and the error awareness task (EAT), a modified Stroop go/no-go task that elicits aware and unaware errors. Analyses compared between-group no-go accuracy (including accuracy between the first and second halves of the task to measure attention and fatigue), error awareness performance, and Pe amplitude by level of awareness. The M/S TBI group decreased in accuracy and maintained error awareness over time; control participants improved both accuracy and error awareness during the course of the task. Pe amplitude was larger for aware than unaware errors for both groups; however, consistent with previous research on the Pe and TBI, there were no significant between-group differences for Pe amplitudes. Findings suggest possible attention difficulties and low improvement of performance over time may influence specific aspects of error awareness in M/S TBI. PMID:26217212

  18. Deletion in a quantitative trait gene qPE9-1 associated with panicle erectness improves plant architecture during rice domestication.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yong; Zhu, Jinyan; Li, Zhengyi; Yi, Chuandeng; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Honggen; Tang, Shuzhu; Gu, Minghong; Liang, Guohua

    2009-09-01

    Rice plant architecture is an important agronomic trait and a major determinant in high productivity. Panicle erectness is the preferred plant architecture in japonica rice, but the molecular mechanism underlying domestication of the erect panicle remains elusive. Here we report the map-based cloning of a major quantitative trait locus, qPE9-1, which plays an integral role in regulation of rice plant architecture including panicle erectness. The R6547 qPE9-1 gene encodes a 426-amino-acid protein, homologous to the keratin-associated protein 5-4 family. The gene is composed of three Von Willebrand factor type C domains, one transmembrane domain, and one 4-disulfide-core domain. Phenotypic comparisons of a set of near-isogenic lines and transgenic lines reveal that the functional allele (qPE9-1) results in drooping panicles, and the loss-of-function mutation (qpe9-1) leads to more erect panicles. In addition, the qPE9-1 locus regulates panicle and grain length, grain weight, and consequently grain yield. We propose that the panicle erectness trait resulted from a natural random loss-of-function mutation for the qPE9-1 gene and has subsequently been the target of artificial selection during japonica rice breeding.

  19. Modulation of interferon-gamma-induced major histocompatibility (MHC) and CD14 antigen changes by lipophilic muramyltripeptide MTP-PE in human monocytes.

    PubMed

    Landmann, R; Wesp, M; Dukor, P

    1988-11-01

    The lipophilic muramylpeptide derivative muramyltripeptide-phosphatidylethanolamine (MTP-PE, 0.05 to 5 micrograms/ml) and human recombinant interferon-gamma (rIFN-gamma, 1 to 100 U/ml) were applied singly or in combination to fresh human mononuclear blood leucocytes in vitro. After 15 to 72 hr incubation, culture- and drug-induced changes in beta 2-microglobulin (MHC class I associated), HLA-DR (MHC class II), and Leu-M3 (CD14) antigen expression were investigated by flow cytometry; changes in monocyte morphology (forward light scatter and side scatter) were assessed by scatter analysis. It was found that (1) rIFN-gamma caused a simultaneous down-regulation of the CD14 antigen and an up-regulation of MHC class I and class II molecules on the surface of cultured monocytes; (2) MTP-PE, which by itself failed to influence the expression of these antigens, synergized with rIFN-gamma in increasing MHC antigens and reducing CD14; (3) at high concentrations rIFN-gamma reduced monocyte viability to a small but significant extent and this effect was further potentiated by MTP-PE; and (4) untreated monocytes in culture showed an apparently MTP-PE-insensitive increase in size, density, and beta 2-microglobulin, HLA-DR, and CD14 antigen expression. The influence of MTP-PE on rIFN-gamma-induced surface marker changes may contribute to its immunoadjuvant activity in vivo.

  20. Cognitive control of conscious error awareness: error awareness and error positivity (Pe) amplitude in moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury (TBI).

    PubMed

    Logan, Dustin M; Hill, Kyle R; Larson, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Poor awareness has been linked to worse recovery and rehabilitation outcomes following moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury (M/S TBI). The error positivity (Pe) component of the event-related potential (ERP) is linked to error awareness and cognitive control. Participants included 37 neurologically healthy controls and 24 individuals with M/S TBI who completed a brief neuropsychological battery and the error awareness task (EAT), a modified Stroop go/no-go task that elicits aware and unaware errors. Analyses compared between-group no-go accuracy (including accuracy between the first and second halves of the task to measure attention and fatigue), error awareness performance, and Pe amplitude by level of awareness. The M/S TBI group decreased in accuracy and maintained error awareness over time; control participants improved both accuracy and error awareness during the course of the task. Pe amplitude was larger for aware than unaware errors for both groups; however, consistent with previous research on the Pe and TBI, there were no significant between-group differences for Pe amplitudes. Findings suggest possible attention difficulties and low improvement of performance over time may influence specific aspects of error awareness in M/S TBI.

  1. Mycobacterium tuberculosis PE25/PPE41 protein complex induces activation and maturation of dendritic cells and drives Th2-biased immune responses.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Bao, Yige; Chen, Xuerong; Burton, Jeremy; Gong, Xueli; Gu, Dongqing; Mi, Youjun; Bao, Lang

    2016-04-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis evades innate host immune responses by parasitizing macrophages and causes significant morbidity and mortality around the world. A mycobacterial antigen that can activate dendritic cells (DCs) and elicit effective host innate immune responses will be vital to the development of an effective TB vaccine. The M. tuberculosis genes PE25/PPE41 encode proteins which have been associated with evasion of the host immune response. We constructed a PE25/PPE41 complex gene via splicing by overlapping extension and expressed it successfully in E. coli. We investigated whether this protein complex could interact with DCs to induce effective host immune responses. The PE25/PPE41 protein complex induced maturation of isolated mouse DCs in vitro, increasing expression of cell surface markers (CD80, CD86 and MHC-II), thereby promoting Th2 polarization via secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-4 and IL-10. In addition, PE25/PPE41 protein complex-activated DCs induced proliferation of mouse CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, and a strong humoral response in immunized mice. The sera of five TB patients were also highly reactive to this antigen. These findings suggest that interaction of the PE25/PPE41 protein complex with DCs may be of great immunological significance.

  2. Cloning and characterization of a novel PE_PGRS60 protein (Rv3652) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37 Rv exhibit fibronectin-binding property.

    PubMed

    Meena, Laxman S; Meena, Jaishree

    2016-07-01

    The binding of pathogenic bacteria to extracellular matrix components enhances adhesion and invasion of host cells. The host receptor proteins such as fibronectin (Fn) targeted to pathogenic ligands that have clinical importance. In the present study, we cloned, expressed, purified, and identified a novel Fn-binding protein from PE_PGRS60 (Rv3652) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37 Rv. The protein product of Rv3652 showed optimum binding efficiency to 10 ng Fn at 0.2 µg purified protein of PE_PGRS60 and 20 ng Fn at 0.2 µg concentrations, respectively. PE_PGRS60 protein (primary sequences) of different pathogenic mycobacterium species retrieved from NCBI exhibited complete homology at the 104 residues on multiple sequence alignment. The primary sequence of protein from H37 Rv was further used to predict cleavage signals. The secondary structure prediction method revealed a number of residues responsible for alpha helices formation and percentage of residues participating in the random coils and extended strands. In addition, online prediction tools such as B- and T-cell epitopes showed the surface probability scale and antigenic propensity scale. The current finding opens new opportunity to mycobacterial survival and pathogenesis research of PE-polymorphic GC-rich repetitive sequences (PE-PGRS) family proteins.

  3. Robustness evaluation of a computer-aided detection system for pulmonary embolism (PE) in CTPA using independent test set from multiple institutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Chuan; Chan, Heang-Ping; Chughtai, Aamer; Kuriakose, Jean W.; Kazerooni, Ella A.; Hadjiiski, Lubomir M.; Wei, Jun; Patel, Smita

    2015-03-01

    We have developed a computer-aided detection (CAD) system for assisting radiologists in detection of pulmonary embolism (PE) in computed tomographic pulmonary angiographic (CTPA) images. The CAD system includes stages of pulmonary vessel segmentation, prescreening of PE candidates and false positive (FP) reduction to identify suspicious PEs. The system was trained with 59 CTPA PE cases collected retrospectively from our patient files (UM set) with IRB approval. Five feature groups containing 139 features that characterized the intensity texture, gradient, intensity homogeneity, shape, and topology of PE candidates were initially extracted. Stepwise feature selection guided by simplex optimization was used to select effective features for FP reduction. A linear discriminant analysis (LDA) classifier was formulated to differentiate true PEs from FPs. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the performance of our CAD system using an independent test set of CTPA cases. The test set consists of 50 PE cases from the PIOPED II data set collected by multiple institutions with access permission. A total of 537 PEs were manually marked by experienced thoracic radiologists as reference standard for the test set. The detection performance was evaluated by freeresponse receiver operating characteristic (FROC) analysis. The FP classifier obtained a test Az value of 0.847 and the FROC analysis indicated that the CAD system achieved an overall sensitivity of 80% at 8.6 FPs/case for the PIOPED test set.

  4. DEAD-box helicase DDX27 regulates 3' end formation of ribosomal 47S RNA and stably associates with the PeBoW-complex.

    PubMed

    Kellner, Markus; Rohrmoser, Michaela; Forné, Ignasi; Voss, Kirsten; Burger, Kaspar; Mühl, Bastian; Gruber-Eber, Anita; Kremmer, Elisabeth; Imhof, Axel; Eick, Dirk

    2015-05-15

    PeBoW, a trimeric complex consisting of pescadillo (Pes1), block of proliferation (Bop1), and the WD repeat protein 12 (WDR12), is essential for processing and maturation of mammalian 5.8S and 28S ribosomal RNAs. Applying a mass spectrometric analysis, we identified the DEAD-box helicase DDX27 as stably associated factor of the PeBoW-complex. DDX27 interacts with the PeBoW-complex via an evolutionary conserved F×F motif in the N-terminal domain and is recruited to the nucleolus via its basic C-terminal domain. This recruitment is RNA-dependent and occurs independently of the PeBoW-complex. Interestingly, knockdown of DDX27, but not of Pes1, induces the accumulation of an extended form of the primary 47S rRNA. We conclude that DDX27 can interact specifically with the Pes1 and Bop1 but fulfils critical function(s) for proper 3' end formation of 47S rRNA independently of the PeBoW-complex.

  5. Mechanical Properties of T650-35/AFR-PE-4 at Elevated Temperatures for Lightweight Aeroshell Designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitley, Karen S.; Collins, TImothy J.

    2006-01-01

    Considerable efforts have been underway to develop multidisciplinary technologies for aeroshell structures that will significantly increase the allowable working temperature for the aeroshell components, and enable the system to operate at higher temperatures while sustaining performance and durability. As part of these efforts, high temperature polymer matrix composites and fabrication technologies are being developed for the primary load bearing structure (heat shield) of the spacecraft. New high-temperature resins and composite material manufacturing techniques are available that have the potential to significantly improve current aeroshell design. In order to qualify a polymer matrix composite (PMC) material as a candidate aeroshell structural material, its performance must be evaluated under realistic environments. Thus, verification testing of lightweight PMC's at aeroshell entry temperatures is needed to ensure that they will perform successfully in high-temperature environments. Towards this end, a test program was developed to characterize the mechanical properties of two candidate material systems, T650-35/AFR-PE-4 and T650-35/RP46. The two candidate high-temperature polyimide resins, AFR-PE-4 and RP46, were developed at the Air Force Research Laboratory and NASA Langley Research Center, respectively. This paper presents experimental methods, strength, and stiffness data of the T650-35/AFR-PE-4 material as a function of elevated temperatures. The properties determined during the research test program herein, included tensile strength, tensile stiffness, Poisson s ratio, compressive strength, compressive stiffness, shear modulus, and shear strength. Unidirectional laminates, a cross-ply laminate and two eight-harness satin (8HS)-weave laminates (4-ply and 10-ply) were tested according to ASTM standard methods at room and elevated temperatures (23, 316, and 343 C). All of the relevant test methods and data reduction schemes are outlined along with

  6. Penetration of HIV-1 Tat47–57 into PC/PE Bilayers Assessed by MD Simulation and X-ray Scattering

    PubMed Central

    Neale, Chris; Huang, Kun; García, Angel E.; Tristram-Nagle, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    The interactions of the basic, cell-penetrating region (Y47GRKKRRQRRR57) of the HIV-1 Tat protein with dioleoylphosphatidylcholine (DOPC) bilayers were previously assessed by comparing experimental X-ray diffuse scattering with atomistic molecular dynamics simulations. Here, we extend this investigation by evaluating the influence of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) lipids. Using experimental bilayer form factors derivedfrom X-ray diffuse scattering data as a guide, our simulations indicate that Tat peptides localize close to the carbonyl-glycerol group in the headgroup region of bilayers composed of either DOPC or DOPC:DOPE (1:1) lipid. Our results also suggest that Tat peptides may more frequently insert into the hydrophobic core of bilayers composed of PC:PE (1:1) lipids than into bilayers composed entirely of PC lipids. PE lipids may facilitate peptide translocation across a lipid bilayer by stabilizing intermediate states in which hydrated peptides span the bilayer. PMID:26402709

  7. What makes young people tick? A qualitative analysis of the beliefs and perceptions of school aged children towards PE and healthy living in "the sickest area of Europe".

    PubMed

    Cowley, Joe G; Kiely, John; Collins, Dave

    2017-07-26

    Scottish children are reported to be among the least active in the world, additionally Scotland has previously been labelled "the sick man of Europe" on account of its poor health record. In response, the Scottish Government has implemented a range of policies with a strong focus on increasing physical activity (PA), Physical Education (PE) and the integration of health and wellbeing (HWB) with the aim of promoting and sustaining PA throughout life. To date, limited qualitative research exploring pupil perspective of PE lessons and HWB exists. To address this deficit, within this study, focus groups were conducted with 39 secondary school pupils (S1-S2). The findings indicated that delivery of traditional PE lessons, prioritising sporting ability, can act as a participation barrier to pupils who consider themselves "non-sporty". Accordingly, a shift towards pedagogical models, rather than simply blocks of sports-related activities should be the priority of educators.

  8. PEG-PE/phosphatidylcholine mixed immunomicelles specifically deliver encapsulated taxol to tumor cells of different origin and promote their efficient killing.

    PubMed

    Gao, Z; Lukyanov, A N; Chakilam, A R; Torchilin, V P

    2003-02-01

    Mixed micelles were prepared from poly(ethyleneglycol)-distearyl phosphoethanolamine (PEG2000-PE) and egg phosphatidylcholine. The micelles were covalently modified with the nucleosome-specific monoclonal antibody 2C5 known to recognize and bind a variety of tumor cells via their surface-bound nucleosomes. Covalent attachment of 2C5 antibody was performed via a micelle-incorporated PEG-PE with the distal terminus of the PEG block activated with p-nitrophenylcarbonyl group (pNP-PEG-PE). Micelle surface-attached 2C5 antibody maintained its specific activity. 2C5-targeted immunomicelles were able to carry more than 3 wt% of taxol. Taxol-loaded immunomicelles specifically recognized tumor cell lines of several types. The cytotoxicity of 2C5-targeted taxol-loaded immunomicelles in a cell culture model was much higher when compared with free taxol or taxol in non-targeted micelles.

  9. Baculovirus resistance in codling moth is virus isolate-dependent and the consequence of a mutation in viral gene pe38

    PubMed Central

    Gebhardt, Manuela M.; Eberle, Karolin E.; Radtke, Pit; Jehle, Johannes A.

    2014-01-01

    The baculovirus Cydia pomonella granulovirus (CpGV) is widely applied as a biocontrol agent of codling moth. After field resistance of codling moth populations had been observed against the commercially used Mexican (M) isolate of CpGV, infection experiments of larvae of the resistant codling moth strain CpRR1 showed that several other naturally occurring CpGV isolates (I12, S, E2, and I07) from different geographic origins are still infectious to resistant CpRR1. Whole-genome sequencing and phylogenetic analyses of these geographic CpGV variants revealed that their genomes share only a single common difference from that of CpGV-M, which is a mutation coding for a repeat of 24 nucleotides within the gene pe38; this mutation results in an additional repeat of eight amino acids that appears to be inserted to PE38 of CpGV-M only. Deletion of pe38 from CpGV-M totally abolished virus infection in codling moth cells and larvae, demonstrating that it is an essential gene. When the CpGV-M deletion mutant was repaired with pe38 from isolate CpGV-S, which originated from the commercial product Virosoft and is infectious for the resistant codling moth strain CpRR1, the repaired CpGV-M mutant was found to be fully infectious for CpRR1. Repair using pe38 from CpGV-M restored infectivity for the virus in sensitive codling moth strains, but not in CpRR1. Therefore, we conclude that CpGV resistance of codling moth is directed to CpGV-M but not to other virus isolates. The viral gene pe38 is not only essential for the infectivity of CpGV but it is also the key factor in overcoming CpGV resistance in codling moth. PMID:25331863

  10. Provenance and tectonic settings of sands from Puerto Peñasco, Desemboque and Bahia Kino beaches, Gulf of California, Sonora, México

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madhavaraju, J.; Tom, Milu; Lee, Yong IL; Balaram, V.; Ramasamy, S.; Carranza-Edwards, A.; Ramachandran, A.

    2016-11-01

    Textural, heavy minerals and geochemical (major, trace and rare earth elements) studies were undertaken on the sands from Puerto Peñasco, Desemboque and Bahia Kino beaches to determine the provenance and tectonic settings. Puerto Peñasco and Bahia Kino sands are coarse grained to fine grained, while Desemboque sands are fine grained. Geochemically, these sands are classified as arkose. The sands are depleted in most of the trace elements relative to upper continental crust (UCC), except for few trace elements (Sr, Rb and Ba), which are slightly enriched. High ΣREE content are observed in the Desemboque sands (94.43 ± 6.9) than in the Puerto Peñasco and Bahia Kino sands (51.58 ± 17.06; 72.38 ± 9.27; respectively). The chemical index of alteration (CIA) values of Puerto Peñasco, Desemboque and Bahia Kino sands (PP: 42 to 50; DE: 48 to 50; BK: 44 to 50: respectively) indicate the low intensity of chemical weathering in the source rocks. The tectonic discriminant-function-based multidimensional diagram shows arc and rift settings for Puerto Peñasco sands whereas rift setting for both Desemboque and Bahia Kino sands. The heavy mineral assemblage, immobile trace elements, REE patterns, elemental ratios such Eu/Eu*, (La/Lu)cn, La/Sc, Th/Sc, La/Co, Th/Co, and Cr/Th, various bivariate and ternary plots indicate the contribution of sediments from felsic composition. This interpretation is supported by the comparison of REE patterns of the Puerto Peñasco, Desemboque and Bahia Kino sands with the potential source rocks exposed nearby the study areas.

  11. PeBL1, a novel protein elicitor from Brevibacillus laterosporus strain A60, activates defense responses and systemic resistance in Nicotiana benthamiana.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haoqian; Yang, Xiufen; Guo, Lihua; Zeng, Hongmei; Qiu, Dewen

    2015-04-01

    We report the identification, characterization, and gene cloning of a novel protein elicitor (PeBL1) secreted from Brevibacillus laterosporus strain A60. Through a purification process consisting of ion-exchange chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), we isolated a protein that was identified by electrospray ionization quadrupole time of flight tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-Q-TOF-MS-MS). The 351-bp PeBL1 gene produces a 12,833-Da protein with 116 amino acids that contains a 30-residue signal peptide. The PeBL1 protein was expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant protein can induce a typical hypersensitive response (HR) and systemic resistance in Nicotiana benthamiana, like the endogenous protein. PeBL1-treated N. benthamiana exhibited strong resistance to the infection of tobacco mosaic virus-green fluorescent protein (TMV-GFP) and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci compared to control N. benthamiana. In addition, PeBL1 triggered a cascade of events that resulted in defense responses in plants, including reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, extracellular-medium alkalization, phenolic-compound deposition, and expression of several defense-related genes. Real-time quantitative-PCR analysis indicated that the known defense-related genes PR-1, PR-5, PDF1.2, NPR1, and PAL were upregulated to varying degrees by PeBL1. This research not only provides insights into the mechanism by which beneficial bacteria activate plant systemic resistance, but also sheds new light on a novel strategy for biocontrol using strain A60.

  12. PeBL1, a Novel Protein Elicitor from Brevibacillus laterosporus Strain A60, Activates Defense Responses and Systemic Resistance in Nicotiana benthamiana

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Haoqian; Yang, Xiufen; Guo, Lihua; Zeng, Hongmei

    2015-01-01

    We report the identification, characterization, and gene cloning of a novel protein elicitor (PeBL1) secreted from Brevibacillus laterosporus strain A60. Through a purification process consisting of ion-exchange chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), we isolated a protein that was identified by electrospray ionization quadrupole time of flight tandem mass spectrometry (ESI–Q-TOF–MS-MS). The 351-bp PeBL1 gene produces a 12,833-Da protein with 116 amino acids that contains a 30-residue signal peptide. The PeBL1 protein was expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant protein can induce a typical hypersensitive response (HR) and systemic resistance in Nicotiana benthamiana, like the endogenous protein. PeBL1-treated N. benthamiana exhibited strong resistance to the infection of tobacco mosaic virus-green fluorescent protein (TMV-GFP) and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci compared to control N. benthamiana. In addition, PeBL1 triggered a cascade of events that resulted in defense responses in plants, including reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, extracellular-medium alkalization, phenolic-compound deposition, and expression of several defense-related genes. Real-time quantitative-PCR analysis indicated that the known defense-related genes PR-1, PR-5, PDF1.2, NPR1, and PAL were upregulated to varying degrees by PeBL1. This research not only provides insights into the mechanism by which beneficial bacteria activate plant systemic resistance, but also sheds new light on a novel strategy for biocontrol using strain A60. PMID:25662975

  13. Evolution and expansion of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis PE and PPE multigene families and their association with the duplication of the ESAT-6 (esx) gene cluster regions

    PubMed Central

    Gey van Pittius, Nicolaas C; Sampson, Samantha L; Lee, Hyeyoung; Kim, Yeun; van Helden, Paul D; Warren, Robin M

    2006-01-01

    Background The PE and PPE multigene families of Mycobacterium tuberculosis comprise about 10% of the coding potential of the genome. The function of the proteins encoded by these large gene families remains unknown, although they have been proposed to be involved in antigenic variation and disease pathogenesis. Interestingly, some members of the PE and PPE families are associated with the ESAT-6 (esx) gene cluster regions, which are regions of immunopathogenic importance, and encode a system dedicated to the secretion of members of the potent T-cell antigen ESAT-6 family. This study investigates the duplication characteristics of the PE and PPE gene families and their association with the ESAT-6 gene clusters, using a combination of phylogenetic analyses, DNA hybridization, and comparative genomics, in order to gain insight into their evolutionary history and distribution in the genus Mycobacterium. Results The results showed that the expansion of the PE and PPE gene families is linked to the duplications of the ESAT-6 gene clusters, and that members situated in and associated with the clusters represent the most ancestral copies of the two gene families. Furthermore, the emergence of the repeat protein PGRS and MPTR subfamilies is a recent evolutionary event, occurring at defined branching points in the evolution of the genus Mycobacterium. These gene subfamilies are thus present in multiple copies only in the members of the M. tuberculosis complex and close relatives. The study provides a complete analysis of all the PE and PPE genes found in the sequenced genomes of members of the genus Mycobacterium such as M. smegmatis, M. avium paratuberculosis, M. leprae, M. ulcerans, and M. tuberculosis. Conclusion This work provides insight into the evolutionary history for the PE and PPE gene families of the mycobacteria, linking the expansion of these families to the duplications of the ESAT-6 (esx) gene cluster regions, and showing that they are composed of subgroups

  14. Baculovirus resistance in codling moth is virus isolate-dependent and the consequence of a mutation in viral gene pe38.

    PubMed

    Gebhardt, Manuela M; Eberle, Karolin E; Radtke, Pit; Jehle, Johannes A

    2014-11-04

    The baculovirus Cydia pomonella granulovirus (CpGV) is widely applied as a biocontrol agent of codling moth. After field resistance of codling moth populations had been observed against the commercially used Mexican (M) isolate of CpGV, infection experiments of larvae of the resistant codling moth strain CpRR1 showed that several other naturally occurring CpGV isolates (I12, S, E2, and I07) from different geographic origins are still infectious to resistant CpRR1. Whole-genome sequencing and phylogenetic analyses of these geographic CpGV variants revealed that their genomes share only a single common difference from that of CpGV-M, which is a mutation coding for a repeat of 24 nucleotides within the gene pe38; this mutation results in an additional repeat of eight amino acids that appears to be inserted to PE38 of CpGV-M only. Deletion of pe38 from CpGV-M totally abolished virus infection in codling moth cells and larvae, demonstrating that it is an essential gene. When the CpGV-M deletion mutant was repaired with pe38 from isolate CpGV-S, which originated from the commercial product Virosoft and is infectious for the resistant codling moth strain CpRR1, the repaired CpGV-M mutant was found to be fully infectious for CpRR1. Repair using pe38 from CpGV-M restored infectivity for the virus in sensitive codling moth strains, but not in CpRR1. Therefore, we conclude that CpGV resistance of codling moth is directed to CpGV-M but not to other virus isolates. The viral gene pe38 is not only essential for the infectivity of CpGV but it is also the key factor in overcoming CpGV resistance in codling moth.

  15. Impact of Electronic Fluctuations and Their Description on the Exciton Dynamics in the Light-Harvesting Complex PE545.

    PubMed

    Aghtar, Mortaza; Kleinekathöfer, Ulrich; Curutchet, Carles; Mennucci, Benedetta

    2017-02-16

    Temperature-dependent fluctuations of both site energies and electronic couplings are known to affect the excitation energy transfer in light-harvesting complexes. Environment effects on such fluctuations as well as possible spatial correlations among them are investigated here in the PE545 complex from cryptophyte algae using ensemble-averaged wave packet dynamics to extract the exciton dynamics. This strategy directly uses the time-dependent fluctuations of the system Hamiltonian, as described by quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics calculations performed along a classical MD trajectory. Neither the fluctuations in the couplings nor spatial correlations including cross-correlations between site energies and couplings are found to be important in the exciton dynamics of the complex. This finding does not change if a polarizable embedding is used instead of its electrostatic counterpart. The impact of variations in spectral densities and screening of excitonic couplings based on the electrostatic and polarizable embeddings are discussed as well.

  16. Cyclic activated sludge technology--recent operating experience with a 90,000 p.e. plant in Germany.

    PubMed

    Demoulin, G; Rüdiger, A; Goronszy, M C

    2001-01-01

    Cyclic activated sludge technology was selected for the Potsdam Wastewater Treatment Plant (90,000 p.e.). The cyclic activated sludge facility comprises four modules integrated into two circular basins. Construction was commenced in February 1998 with seeding of the plant for start up taking place in October 1998. Process performance has been met since Spring 1999 at 80-90% of design load. In order to optimize start-up procedures, respiration rates were used as a guidance for process stabilization and online process optimization during normal operation. Operation for co-current nitrification denitrification provided an ammonia removal of 1.1 mg NH4-N/g MLSS.h (15 degrees C) and a corresponding nitrate respiration rate of 0.85 mg NO3-N/g MLSS.h under aerated conditions. Enhanced biological phosphorus removal generated an effluent mean total phosphorus concentration of 0.38 mg/L without precipitant addition.

  17. TeV-PeV neutrinos from low-power gamma-ray burst jets inside stars.

    PubMed

    Murase, Kohta; Ioka, Kunihito

    2013-09-20

    We study high-energy neutrino production in collimated jets inside progenitors of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and supernovae, considering both collimation and internal shocks. We obtain simple, useful constraints, using the often overlooked point that shock acceleration of particles is ineffective at radiation-mediated shocks. Classical GRBs may be too powerful to produce high-energy neutrinos inside stars, which is consistent with IceCube nondetections. We find that ultralong GRBs avoid such constraints and detecting the TeV signal will support giant progenitors. Predictions for low-power GRB classes including low-luminosity GRBs can be consistent with the astrophysical neutrino background IceCube may detect, with a spectral steepening around PeV. The models can be tested with future GRB monitors.

  18. Barrier properties of PE, PP and EVA (nano)composites - The influence of filler type and concentration

    SciTech Connect

    Merinska, D.; Kalendova, A.; Tesarikova, A.

    2014-05-15

    Nanocomposite materials with layered clay used as nanofiller and polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP) and copolymer ethylene and vinyl acetate matrix (EVA, the content of VA component 19 wt. %) were prepared by compounding the individual components in Brabender kneader. The MMT Na+ and four types of commercial products such as Nanofil N 5 and N3000, Cloisite 93A and 30B were used as nanofillers. Next to the clays microprecipitated CaHCO{sub 3}, nanosilica and Halloysite tubes were used. The quantity of all the above-mentioned (nano)fillers was 1, 3 and 5 wt. % in relation to the content of montmorillonite. The aim was to evaluate the influence of (nano)filler type and concentration on nanocomposite barrier properties. The morphology of nanocomposite samples was examined by means of XRD analysis illustrated by transmission electronic microscopy TEM. Furthermore, permeability for O{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} were observed.

  19. [Socioeconomic status, toothbrushing frequency, and health-related behaviors in adolescents: an analysis using the PeNSE database].

    PubMed

    Vettore, Mario Vianna; Moysés, Samuel Jorge; Sardinha, Luciana Monteiro Vasconcelos; Iser, Betine Pinto Moehlecke

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the association between oral and general health-related behaviors and socioeconomic status, and the relationship between health-related behaviors and toothbrushing among adolescents. The database used here was the National School-Based Health Survey (PeNSE), a cross-sectional population-based study in 2009 with students from 27 Brazilian State capitals. Socio-demographic and health-related behavior data were collected. The survey included 49,189 adolescents (47.5% males), the majority of whom were 14 years of age and enrolled in public schools. The associations between toothbrushing frequency and other health-related behaviors and socioeconomic status varied between boys and girls. Associations were observed between health-related habits and toothbrushing frequency in both sexes, but with variations according to socioeconomic status. Planning health promotion interventions for adolescents should take their individual characteristics and family and social context into account.

  20. Barrier properties of PE, PP and EVA (nano)composites - The influence of filler type and concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merinska, D.; Kalendova, A.; Tesarikova, A.

    2014-05-01

    Nanocomposite materials with layered clay used as nanofiller and polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP) and copolymer ethylene and vinyl acetate matrix (EVA, the content of VA component 19 wt. %) were prepared by compounding the individual components in Brabender kneader. The MMT Na+ and four types of commercial products such as Nanofil N 5 and N3000, Cloisite 93A and 30B were used as nanofillers. Next to the clays microprecipitated CaHCO3, nanosilica and Halloysite tubes were used. The quantity of all the above-mentioned (nano)fillers was 1, 3 and 5 wt. % in relation to the content of montmorillonite. The aim was to evaluate the influence of (nano)filler type and concentration on nanocomposite barrier properties. The morphology of nanocomposite samples was examined by means of XRD analysis illustrated by transmission electronic microscopy TEM. Furthermore, permeability for O2 and CO2 were observed.

  1. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles deposited on silica by γ-irradiation and preparation of PE/Ag nano compound masterbatches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Thi Kim Lan; Trinh Nguyen, Thuy Ai; Phu Dang, Van; Duy Nguyen, Ngoc; Le, Anh Quoc; Hien Nguyen, Quoc

    2013-12-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) deposited on silica were synthesized by gamma Co-60 irradiation of Ag+ dispersion in silica/ethanol/water mixture (9/80/20:w/v/v). The reduction of Ag+ is occurred by hydrated electron (e-aq) and hydrogen atom (H•) generated during radiolysis of ethanol/water. The conversion doses (Ag+ → Ag0) were determined by UV-Vis spectroscopy. The synthesized AgNPs/silica were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and x-ray diffraction (XRD), which showed the size of AgNPs to be in the range of 5-40 nm for Ag+ concentrations from 5 to 20 mM. Masterbatches of PE/AgNPs/silica compound with silver content from 250 to 1000 mg kg-1 were also prepared. These masterbatches can be suitably used for various applications such as antimicrobial food containers and packing films, etc.

  2. Does the GAMMA experiment detect the polar cap component at energies 70-80 PeV?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martirosov, R. M.; Garyaka, A. P.; Ter-Antonyan, S. V.; Erlykin, A. D.; Nikolskaya, N. M.; Gallant, Y. A.; Jones, L. W.; Procureur, J.

    2009-12-01

    The all-particle energy spectrum of the primary cosmic rays at energies 1-200 PeV has been obtained on the basis of the GAMMA experimental data using the event-by-event method of the primary energy evaluation from the measured N, N and shower age (s) parameters. The energy estimation method was developed using the CORSIKA simulation code in the frames of the SIBYLL interaction model taking into account the response of the GAMMA detectors and the reconstruction uncertainties of the EAS parameters. The observed ‘bump’ at ˜7.4ṡ107 GeV can be described by a two-component model of primary cosmic ray origin.

  3. Geometric compatibility of IceCube TeV-PeV neutrino excess and its galactic dark matter origin

    DOE PAGES

    Bai, Yang; Lu, Ran; Salvado, Jordi

    2016-01-27

    Here, we perform a geometric analysis for the sky map of the IceCube TeV-PeV neutrino excess and test its compatibility with the sky map of decaying dark matter signals in our galaxy. Furthermore, we have found that a galactic decaying dark matter component in general improve the goodness of the fit of our model, although the pure isotropic hypothesis has a better fit than the pure dark matter one. Finally, we also consider several representative decaying dark matter, which can provide a good t to the observed spectrum at IceCube with a dark matter lifetime of around 12 orders ofmore » magnitude longer than the age of the universe.« less

  4. Geometric compatibility of IceCube TeV-PeV neutrino excess and its galactic dark matter origin

    SciTech Connect

    Bai, Yang; Lu, Ran; Salvado, Jordi

    2016-01-27

    Here, we perform a geometric analysis for the sky map of the IceCube TeV-PeV neutrino excess and test its compatibility with the sky map of decaying dark matter signals in our galaxy. Furthermore, we have found that a galactic decaying dark matter component in general improve the goodness of the fit of our model, although the pure isotropic hypothesis has a better fit than the pure dark matter one. Finally, we also consider several representative decaying dark matter, which can provide a good t to the observed spectrum at IceCube with a dark matter lifetime of around 12 orders of magnitude longer than the age of the universe.

  5. Norovirus GII.Pe Genotype: Tracking a Foodborne Outbreak on a Cruise Ship Through Molecular Epidemiology, Brazil, 2014.

    PubMed

    Morillo, Simone Guadagnucci; Luchs, Adriana; Cilli, Audrey; Ribeiro, Cibele Daniel; de Cássia Compagnoli Carmona, Rita; do Carmo Sampaio Tavares Timenetsky, Maria

    2016-12-08

    Norovirus (NoV) is recognized as the most common cause of foodborne outbreaks. In 2014, an outbreak of acute gastroenteritis occurred on a cruise ship in Brazil, and NoV became the suspected etiology. Here we present the molecular identification of the NoV strains and the use of sequence analysis to determine modes of virus transmission. Food (cream cheese, tuna salad, grilled fish, orange mousse, and vegetables soup) and clinical samples were analyzed by ELISA, conventional RT-PCR, qRT-PCR, and sequencing. Genogroup GII NoV was identified by ELISA and conventional RT-PCR in fecal samples from 5 of 12 patients tested (41.7%), and in the orange mousse food sample by conventional RT-PCR and qRT-PCR. Two fecal GII NoV samples and the orange mousse GII NoV sample were successfully genotyped as GII.Pe (ORF 1), revealed 98.0-98.8% identities among them, and shared phylogenetically distinct cluster. Establishing the source of a NoV outbreak can be a challenging task. In this report, the molecular analysis of the partial RdRp NoV gene provided a powerful tool for genotyping (GII.Pe) and tracking of outbreak-related samples. In addition, the same fast and simple extraction methods applied to clinical samples could be successfully used for complex food matrices, and have the potential to be introduced in routine laboratories for screening foods for presence of NoV.

  6. Parkinson disease: α-synuclein mutational screening and new clinical insight into the p.E46K mutation.

    PubMed

    Pimentel, Márcia M G; Rodrigues, Fabíola C; Leite, Marco Antônio A; Campos Júnior, Mário; Rosso, Ana Lucia; Nicaretta, Denise H; Pereira, João S; Silva, Delson José; Della Coletta, Marcus V; Vasconcellos, Luiz Felipe R; Abreu, Gabriella M; Dos Santos, Jussara M; Santos-Rebouças, Cíntia B

    2015-06-01

    Amongst Parkinson's disease-causing genetic factors, missense mutations and genomic multiplications in the gene encoding α-synuclein are well established causes of the disease, although genetic data in populations with a high degree of admixture, such as the Brazilian one, are still scarce. In this study, we conducted a molecular screening of α-synuclein point mutations and copy number variation in the largest cohort of Brazilian patients with Parkinson's disease (n = 549) and also in twelve Portuguese and one Bolivian immigrants. Genomic DNA was isolated from peripheral blood leukocytes or saliva, and the mutational screening was performed by quantitative and qualitative real-time PCR. The only alteration identified was the p.E46K mutation in a 60-year-old man, born in Bolivia, with a familial history of autosomal dominant Parkinson's disease. This is the second family ever reported, in which this rare pathogenic mutation is segregating. The same mutation was firstly described ten years ago in a Spanish family with a neurodegenerative syndrome combining parkinsonism, dementia and visual hallucinations. The clinical condition of our proband reveals a less aggressive phenotype than previously described and reinforces that marked phenotypic heterogeneity is common among patients with Parkinson's disease, even among those carriers sharing the same mutation. Our findings add new insight into the preexisting information about α-synuclein p.E46K, improving our understanding about the endophenotypes associated to this mutation and corroborate that missense alterations and multiplications in α-synuclein are uncommon among Brazilian patients with Parkinson's disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. PEG-PE/Clay Composite Carriers for Doxorubicin: Effect of Composite Structure on Release, Cell Interaction and Cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Kohay, Hagay; Sarisozen, Can; Sawant, Rupa; Jhaveri, Aditi; Torchilin, Vladimir P; Mishael, Yael G

    2017-04-08

    A novel drug delivery system for doxorubicin (DOX), based on organic-inorganic composites was developed. DOX was incorporated in micelles (M-DOX) of polyethylene glycol-phosphatidylethanolamine (PEG-PE) which in turn were adsorbed by the clay, montmorillonite (MMT). The nano-structures of the PEG-PE/MMT composites of LOW and HIGH polymer loadings were characterized by XRD, TGA, FTIR, size (DLS) and zeta measurements. These measurements suggest that for the LOW composite a single layer of polymer intercalates in the clay platelets and the polymer only partially covers the external surface, while for the HIGH composite two layers of polymer intercalate and a bilayer may form on the external surface. These nanostructures have a direct effect on formulation stability and on the rate of DOX release. The release rate was reversely correlated with the degree of DOX interaction with the clay and followed the sequence: M-DOX>HIGH formulation>LOW formulation>DOX/MMT. Despite the slower release from the HIGH formulation, its cytotoxicity effect on sensitive cells was as high as the "free" DOX. Surprisingly, the LOW formulation, with the slowest release, demonstrated the highest cytotoxicity in the case of Adriamycin (ADR) resistant cells. Confocal microscopy images and association tests provided an insight into the contribution of formulation-cell interactions vs. the contribution of DOX release rate. Internalization of the formulations was suggested as a mechanism that increases DOX efficiency, particularly in the ADR resistant cell line. The employment of organic-inorganic hybrid materials as drug delivery systems, has not reached its full potential, however, its functionality as an efficient tunable release system was demonstrated.

  8. Distribution pattern of PCBs, HCB and PeCB using passive air and soil sampling in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Roots, Ott; Roose, Antti; Kull, Ain; Holoubek, Ivan; Cupr, Pavel; Klanova, Jana

    2010-03-01

    Passive air sampling survey of the Central and Eastern Europe was initiated in 2006. This paper presents data on toxic organic compounds such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB 28, 52, 101, 118, 153, 138, and 180), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), pentachlorobenzene (PeCB), hexachlorocyclohexane compounds (alpha-HCH, beta-HCH,gamma-HCH, delta-HCH), and dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT) compounds (p,p'DDE, p,p'DDD, p,p'DDT, o,p'DDE, o,p'DDD, and o,p'DDT) determined in ambient air and soil samples collected at Estonian monitoring stations. Ambient air and soil samples were collected in five sites in northern Estonia. Passive air samplers were deployed four times over 4-week periods covering the period April-August 2006. Samples were analyzed using gas chromatography-electron capture detector (HP 5890) supplied with a Quadrex fused silica column 5% Ph for organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). Local ground-boundary wind field was modeled for each monitoring station and sampling period on the basis of observed wind data from the nearest meteorological station with a high quality of time series and compared with upper air (at 850- and 500-hPa level) data from Tallinn-Harku aerological station. Median levels of PCB at Estonian stations varied between 3 and 9 ng/filter, although the maximum in Kohtla-Järve reached as high as 28 ng/filter. Sampling rates about 3.5 m(3)/day were determined by empirical measurements, making approximately 100 m(3) for a 28-day sampling cycle. In general, OCP levels in soil were at the limit of detection, except Tallinn site and Muuga Port affected mainly by local sources. However, the atmospheric PCB concentrations are in agreement with the soil analyses where highest PCB levels were found in the soil sample for Tallinn (12.0 ng/g dry weight). For HCB, the atmospheric distribution was quite uniform, with the background levels sometimes higher than the urban ones. HCB and PeCB concentrations were very low in May and June when meridional airflow from

  9. "It's Too Crowded": A Qualitative Study of the Physical Environment Factors That Adolescent Girls Perceive to Be Important and Influential on Their PE Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niven, Ailsa; Henretty, Joan; Fawkner, Samantha

    2014-01-01

    Many adolescent girls do not achieve a health-enhancing level of physical activity. This study aimed to identify the school physical environment factors that adolescent girls perceive to be important and influential regarding their physical education (PE) behaviour. Adolescent girls (n = 38; aged 13-16) participated in eight moderated focus…

  10. AN OVERVIEW OF THE UNCERTAINTY ANALYSIS, SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS, AND PARAMETER ESTIMATION (UA/SA/PE) API AND HOW TO IMPLEMENT IT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Application Programming Interface (API) for Uncertainty Analysis, Sensitivity Analysis, and
    Parameter Estimation (UA/SA/PE API) (also known as Calibration, Optimization and Sensitivity and Uncertainty (CUSO)) was developed in a joint effort between several members of both ...

  11. "I Think It's a Good Idea, I Just Don't Know How to Do It": The Struggle for PE Reform in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hickey, Christopher; Jin, Aijing

    2010-01-01

    Among the many changes occurring across Chinese society in the early phase of Y2K is the construction and implementation of a new physical education (PE) curriculum. Not unlike recent changes in Australia, New Zealand and the UK, this process has seen a heightening of the emphasis on health. Presented within a wider framework for making the school…

  12. "Reflective Co-Education" or Male-Oriented Physical Education? Teachers' Views about Activities in Co-Educational PE Classes at German Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kastrup, Valerie; Kleindienst-Cachay, Christa

    2016-01-01

    As much as the principle of co-education may appear to make sense in physical education (PE) lessons, trends in its development have emerged over the past years, especially in secondary schools, which were certainly not intended by the pedagogical programme of "reflective co-education", which stands for respect for equality…

  13. AN OVERVIEW OF THE UNCERTAINTY ANALYSIS, SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS, AND PARAMETER ESTIMATION (UA/SA/PE) API AND HOW TO IMPLEMENT IT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Application Programming Interface (API) for Uncertainty Analysis, Sensitivity Analysis, and
    Parameter Estimation (UA/SA/PE API) (also known as Calibration, Optimization and Sensitivity and Uncertainty (CUSO)) was developed in a joint effort between several members of both ...

  14. "Reflective Co-Education" or Male-Oriented Physical Education? Teachers' Views about Activities in Co-Educational PE Classes at German Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kastrup, Valerie; Kleindienst-Cachay, Christa

    2016-01-01

    As much as the principle of co-education may appear to make sense in physical education (PE) lessons, trends in its development have emerged over the past years, especially in secondary schools, which were certainly not intended by the pedagogical programme of "reflective co-education", which stands for respect for equality…

  15. Comparative study of radio pulses from simulated hadron-, electron-, and neutrino-initiated showers in ice in the GeV-PeV range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain, Shahid; McKay, Douglas W.

    2004-11-01

    High energy particle showers produce coherent Cherenkov radio emission in dense, radio-transparent media such as cold ice. Using PYTHIA and GEANT simulation tools, we make a comparative study among electromagnetic (EM) and hadronic showers initiated by single particles and neutrino showers initiated by multiple particles produced at the neutrino-nucleon event vertex. We include all the physics processes and do a complete 3D simulation up to 100TeV for all showers and to 1PeV for electron- and neutrino-induced showers. We calculate the radio pulses for energies between 100GeV and 1PeV and find hadron showers, and consequently neutrino showers, are not as efficient below 1PeV at producing radio pulses as the electromagnetic showers. The agreement improves as energy increases, however, and by a PeV and above the difference disappears. By looking at the 3D structure of the showers in time, we show that the hadronic showers are not as compact as the EM showers and hence the radiation is not as coherent as EM shower emission at the same frequency. We show that the ratio of emitted pulse strength to shower tracklength is a function only of a single, coherence parameter, independent of species and energy of initiating particle.

  16. Comparative study of radio pulses from simulated hadron-, electron-, and neutrino-initiated showers in ice in the GeV-PeV range

    SciTech Connect

    Hussain, Shahid; McKay, Douglas W.

    2004-11-15

    High energy particle showers produce coherent Cherenkov radio emission in dense, radio-transparent media such as cold ice. Using PYTHIA and GEANT simulation tools, we make a comparative study among electromagnetic (EM) and hadronic showers initiated by single particles and neutrino showers initiated by multiple particles produced at the neutrino-nucleon event vertex. We include all the physics processes and do a complete 3D simulation up to 100 TeV for all showers and to 1 PeV for electron- and neutrino-induced showers. We calculate the radio pulses for energies between 100 GeV and 1 PeV and find hadron showers, and consequently neutrino showers, are not as efficient below 1 PeV at producing radio pulses as the electromagnetic showers. The agreement improves as energy increases, however, and by a PeV and above the difference disappears. By looking at the 3D structure of the showers in time, we show that the hadronic showers are not as compact as the EM showers and hence the radiation is not as coherent as EM shower emission at the same frequency. We show that the ratio of emitted pulse strength to shower tracklength is a function only of a single, coherence parameter, independent of species and energy of initiating particle.

  17. Mutations in nsP1 and PE2 are critical determinants of Ross River virus-induced musculoskeletal inflammatory disease in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Jupille, Henri J; Oko, Lauren; Stoermer, Kristina A; Heise, Mark T; Mahalingam, Suresh; Gunn, Bronwyn M; Morrison, Thomas E

    2011-02-05

    The viral determinants of alphavirus-induced rheumatic disease have not been elucidated. We identified an RRV strain (DC5692) which, in contrast to the T48 strain, does not induce musculoskeletal inflammation in a mouse model of RRV disease. Substitution of the RRV T48 strain nonstructural protein 1 (nsP1) coding sequence with that from strain DC5692 generated a virus that was attenuated in vivo despite similar viral loads in tissues. In contrast, substitution of the T48 PE2 coding region with the PE2 coding region from DC5692 resulted in attenuation in vivo and reduced viral loads in tissues. In gain of virulence experiments, substitution of the DC5692 strain nsP1 and PE2 coding regions with those from the T48 strain was sufficient to restore full virulence to the DC5692 strain. These findings indicate that determinants in both nsP1 and PE2 have critical and distinct roles in the pathogenesis of RRV-induced musculoskeletal inflammatory disease in mice.

  18. A unique PE_PGRS protein inhibiting host cell cytosolic defenses and sustaining full virulence of Mycobacterium marinum in multiple hosts.

    PubMed

    Singh, Vipul K; Berry, Laurence; Bernut, Audrey; Singh, Shubhra; Carrère-Kremer, Séverine; Viljoen, Albertus; Alibaud, Laeticia; Majlessi, Laleh; Brosch, Roland; Chaturvedi, Vinita; Geurtsen, Jeroen; Drancourt, Michel; Kremer, Laurent

    2016-11-01

    Despite intense research, PE_PGRS proteins still represent an intriguing aspect of mycobacterial pathogenesis. These cell surface proteins influence virulence in several pathogenic species, but their diverse and exact functions remain unclear. Herein, we focussed on a PE_PGRS member from Mycobacterium marinum, MMAR_0242, characterized by an extended and unique C-terminal domain. We demonstrate that an M. marinum mutant carrying a transposon insertion in MMAR_0242 is highly impaired in its ability to replicate in macrophages and amoebae, because of its inability to inhibit lysosomal fusion. As a consequence, this mutant failed to survive intracellularly as evidenced by a reduced number of cytosolic actin tail-forming bacteria and by quantitative electron microscopy, which mainly localized MMAR_0242::Tn within membrane-defined vacuoles. Functional complementation studies indicated that the C-terminus, but not the N-terminal PE_PGRS domain, is required for intracellular growth/survival. In line with these findings, disruption of MMAR_0242 resulted in a highly attenuated virulence phenotype in zebrafish embryos, characterized by restricted bacterial loads and a failure to produce granulomas. Furthermore, expression of MMAR_0242 in Mycobacterium smegmatis, a non-pathogenic species naturally deficient in PE_PGRS production, resulted in increased survival in amoebae with enhanced cytotoxic cell death and increased survival in infected mice with splenomegaly. Overall, these results indicate that MMAR_0242 is required for full virulence of M. marinum and sufficient to confer pathogenic properties to M. smegmatis.

  19. "It's Too Crowded": A Qualitative Study of the Physical Environment Factors That Adolescent Girls Perceive to Be Important and Influential on Their PE Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niven, Ailsa; Henretty, Joan; Fawkner, Samantha

    2014-01-01

    Many adolescent girls do not achieve a health-enhancing level of physical activity. This study aimed to identify the school physical environment factors that adolescent girls perceive to be important and influential regarding their physical education (PE) behaviour. Adolescent girls (n = 38; aged 13-16) participated in eight moderated focus…

  20. The Influences on Teaching Perspectives of Australian Physical Education Teacher Education Students: The First-Year Influences on Teaching Perspectives Exploratory (FIT-PE) Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyndman, Brendon P.; Pill, Shane

    2016-01-01

    There has been a paucity of literature investigating the teaching beliefs and intentions of Australian physical education teacher education (PETE) students that enter teacher training. The First-year Influences on Teaching Perspectives Exploratory (FIT-PE) study explores the teaching perspectives of first year PETE students; including teaching…

  1. Solubilization of poorly soluble PDT agent, meso-tetraphenylporphin, in plain or immunotargeted PEG-PE micelles results in dramatically improved cancer cell killing in vitro.

    PubMed

    Roby, Aruna; Erdogan, Suna; Torchilin, Vladimir P

    2006-04-01

    Poorly soluble photodynamic therapy (PDT) agent, meso-tetratphenylporphine (TPP), was effectively solubilized using non-targeted and tumor-targeted polymeric micelles prepared of polyethylene glycol/phosphatidyl ethanolamine conjugate (PEG-PE). Encapsulation of TPP into PEG-PE-based micelles and immunomicelles (bearing an anti-cancer monoclonal 2C5 antibody) resulted in significantly improved anticancer effects of the drug at PDT conditions against murine (LLC, B16) and human (MCF-7, BT20) cancer cells in vitro. For this purpose, the cells were incubated for 6 or 18 h with the TPP or TPP-loaded PEG-PE micelles/immunomicelles and then light-irradiated for 30 min. The phototoxic effect depended on the TPP concentration and specific targeting by immunomicelles. An increased level of apoptosis was shown in the PDT-treated cultures. The attachment of the anti-cancer 2C5 antibodies to TPP-loaded micelles provided the maximum level of cell killing at a given time. The results of this study showed that TPP-containing PEG-PE micelles may represent a useful formulation of the photosensitizer for practical PDT.

  2. Treating PTSD in patients with psychosis: a within-group controlled feasibility study examining the efficacy and safety of evidence-based PE and EMDR protocols.

    PubMed

    de Bont, Paul A J M; van Minnen, Agnes; de Jongh, Ad

    2013-12-01

    The present study uses a within-group controlled design to examine the efficacy and safety of two psychological approaches to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in 10 patients with a concurrent psychotic disorder. Patients were randomly assigned either to prolonged exposure (PE; N=5) or eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR; N=5). Before, during, and after treatment, a total of 20 weekly assessments of PTSD symptoms, hallucinations, and delusions were carried out. Twelve weekly assessments of adverse events took place during the treatment phase. PTSD diagnosis, level of social functioning, psychosis-prone thinking, and general psychopathology were assessed pretreatment, posttreatment, and at three-month follow-up. Throughout the treatment, adverse events were monitored at each session. An intention-to-treat analysis of the 10 patients starting treatment showed that the PTSD treatment protocols of PE and EMDR significantly reduced PTSD symptom severity; PE and EMDR were equally effective and safe. Eight of the 10 patients completed the full intervention period. Seven of the 10 patients (70%) no longer met the diagnostic criteria for PTSD at follow-up. No serious adverse events occurred, nor did patients show any worsening of hallucinations, delusions, psychosis proneness, general psychopathology, or social functioning. The results of this feasibility trial suggest that PTSD patients with comorbid psychotic disorders benefit from trauma-focused treatment approaches such as PE and EMDR.

  3. Biochemical characterization of PE_PGRS61 family protein of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv reveals the binding ability to fibronectin

    PubMed Central

    Monu; Meena, Laxman S

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): The periodic binding of protein expressed by Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv with the host cell receptor molecules i.e. fibronectin (Fn) is gaining significance because of its adhesive properties. The genome sequencing of M. tuberculosis H37Rv revealed that the proline-glutamic (PE) proteins contain polymorphic GC-rich repetitive sequences (PGRS) which have clinical importance in pathogenesis events when the host encounters M. tuberculosis H37Rv. The functional parts of PE_PGRS family proteins, have not been extensively studied in tuberculosis biology. Materials and Methods: Fibronectin (10 ng and 20 ng) were used for FnBP assay and its enzymatic activities were observed by using various protein concentrations. Results: Therefore, in the present work, we cloned, expressed, purified and identified a novel PE_PGRS61 (Rv3653) family protein in M. tuberculosis H37Rv. Our experiment, observation suggested that at particular concentrations of 10 ng and 20 ng of Fn exhibits optimum binding to the purified Fibronectin Binding Protein (FnBP), a PE_PGRS61 family protein at 0.20 μg and 0.25 μg concentrations, respectively. Moreover, for better understanding the computational analysis, the B-cell and T-cell epitopes prediction prospect some amino acid propensity scales with hydrophilicity and antigenic variation index at their respective locations. Conclusion: Thus, the current findings provide an opportunity to illuminate the functions of PE_PGRS61 family protein. So, in this point of view, it could be useful to develop a novel therapeutic approach or diagnostic pipeline through targeting these fibronectin binding protein (FnBP) expressing genes. PMID:27872707

  4. A rare CYP 21 mutation (p.E431K) induced deactivation of CYP 21A2 and resulted in congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Kawashima, Yuki; Usui, Takeshi; Fujimoto, Masanobu; Miyahara, Naoki; Nishimura, Rei; Hanaki, Keiichi; Kanzaki, Susumu

    2015-01-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency is caused by mutations in the CYP21A2 gene. The residual enzyme activity is strongly associated with the phenotype. We describe a rare case of CAH with a rare CYP21A2 mutation. The patient was a one-year-old Japanese boy. At 16 days old, he was referred to our hospital because of elevated serum 17-OH-progesterone (17-OHP) levels in neonatal screening. The compound heterozygous mutations (IVS2-13 A/C>G, and p.E431K) in CYP21A2 were identified at 2 months old, and we diagnosed non-classical CAH, since he did not have significant physical signs (pigmentation and salt-wasting). However, his body weight decreased, and his serum 17-OHP level (99.5 ng/mL) was elevated at 3 months old. Steroid replacement therapy was started at 3 months old. Our patient's clinical course resembled simple virilizing (SV) CAH, but classification was difficult because the patient showed increased renin activity indicating an aldosterone deficiency, and late onset of symptoms. While the IVS 2-13 A/C>G mutation is common in the classical form of CAH, p.E431K is a rare point mutation. Functional analysis revealed that the residual enzyme activity of p.E431L was 5.08±2.55% for 17-OHP and 4.12±2.37% for progesterone, which is consistent with SV CAH. p.E431 is localized in the L-helix near the heme-binding site. The mutation might interfere with heme binding, leading to deactivation of CYP21A2. This report showed that CYP21A2 p.E431 has an important effect on enzyme activity.

  5. HOW IS CLASSMATE AND PE TEACHER SUPPORT ASSOCIATED WITH THE LEVEL OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY IN YOUNG ADOLESCENTS FROM KOSOVO? THE ROLE OF GENDER AND AGE.

    PubMed

    Bronikowski, Michal; Laudańska-Krzemińska, Ida; Bronikowska, Małgorzata; Morina, Besnik

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to investigate how were the peer and physical education (PE) teacher variables associated with moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) among Kosovar teenagers (13-15 years of age), and the role of age and gender in these associations. Cross-sectional data was gathered through a study conducted in seven major municipalities of Kosovo. 632 girls (aged 14.3 ± 0.8) and 664 boys (aged 14.2 ± 0.8) were examined using the adjusted Classmate and Teacher Support Scale and the Physical Activity Screening measure. A three-way (support*age*gender) ANOVA was used to compare the individuals' MVPA level with the different levels of support they received, with different age in groups of girls and boys. Boys reported higher levels of MVPA than girls in all age categories. A higher level of MVPA was reported by boys receiving high or medium support from classmates. In case of PE teacher support, high, medium and even low support correlated with high MVPA in all age categories. In girls only 13 year olds reported receiving high levels of both classmate and PE teachers support which correlated with a higher level of MVPA. It appears that engagement in MVPA among young Kosovar adolescents is relatively high in boys, regardless of the level of classmate or PE teacher support, whereas in girls the level of MVPA decreased over their time at school. Support from both classmates and PE teachers turned out to be the most significant factor in 13 years old girls, before they moved from primary to secondary school. This issue requires more detailed insight, considering traditional ethnical and religious barriers to engagement of young female adolescents in physical activity.

  6. Co-activation Probability Estimation (CoPE): An approach for modeling functional co-activation architecture based on neuroimaging coordinates

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Congying; Fan, Lingzhong; Eickhoff, Claudia R.; Liu, Yong; Yang, Yong; Eickhoff, Simon B.; Jiang, Tianzi

    2016-01-01

    Recent progress in functional neuroimaging has prompted studies of brain activation during various cognitive tasks. Coordinate-based meta-analysis has been utilized to discover the brain regions that are consistently activated across experiments. However, within-experiment co-activation relationships, which can reflect the underlying functional relationships between different brain regions, have not been widely studied. In particular, voxel-wise co-activation, which may be able to provide a detailed configuration of the co-activation network, still needs to be modeled. To estimate the voxel-wise co-activation pattern and deduce the co-activation network, a Co-activation Probability Estimation (CoPE) method was proposed to model within-experiment activations for the purpose of defining the co-activations. A permutation test was adopted as a significance test. Moreover, the co-activations were automatically separated into local and long-range ones, based on distance. The two types of co-activations describe distinct features: the first reflects convergent activations; the second represents co-activations between different brain regions. The validation of CoPE was based on five simulation tests and one real dataset derived from studies of working memory. Both the simulated and the real data demonstrated that CoPE was not only able to find local convergence but also significant long-range co-activation. In particular, CoPE was able to identify a ‘core’ co-activation network in the working memory dataset. As a data-driven method, the CoPE method can be used to mine underlying co-activation relationships across experiments in future studies. PMID:26037052

  7. Risk factors for intracranial haemorrhage in patients with pulmonary embolism treated with thrombolytic therapy Development of the PE-CH Score.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Saurav; Weinberg, Ido; Yeh, Robert W; Chakraborty, Anasua; Sardar, Partha; Weinberg, Mitchell D; Kabrhel, Christopher; Barnes, Geoffrey D; Mukherjee, Debabrata; Kumbhani, Dharam; Bashir, Riyaz; Vaidya, Anjali; Smith, Akaya; Fuchs, Barry; Groeneveld, Peter; Giri, Jay

    2017-01-26

    Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality world-wide, and the use of thrombolytic therapy has been associated with favourable clinical outcomes in certain patient subsets. These potential benefits are counterbalanced by the risk of bleeding complications, the most devastating of which is intracranial haemorrhage (ICH). We retrospectively evaluated 9703 patients from the 2003-2012 nationwide in-patient sample database (NIS) who received thrombolytics for PE. All patients with ICH during the PE hospitalisation were identified and a clinical risk score model was developed utilizing demographics and comorbidities. The dataset was divided 1:1 into derivation and validation cohorts. During 2003-2012, 176/9705 (1.8 %) patients with PE experienced ICH after thrombolytic use. Four independent prognostic factors were identified in a backward logistic regression model, and each was assigned a number of points proportional to its regression coefficient: pre-existing Peripheral vascular disease (1 point), age greater than 65 years (Elderly) (1 point), prior Cerebrovascular accident with residual deficit (5 points), and prior myocardial infarction (Heart attack) (1 point). In the derivation cohort, scores of 0, 1, 2 and ≥ 5 points were associated with ICH risks of 1.2 %, 1.9 %, 2.4 % and 17.8 %, respectively. Rates of ICH were similar in the validation cohort. The C-statistic for the risk score was 0.65 (0.61-0.70) in the derivation cohort and 0.66 (0.60-0.72) in the validation cohort. A novel risk score, derived from simple clinical historical elements was developed to predict ICH in PE patients treated with thrombolytics.

  8. Patterns of misrepresentation of clinical findings on patient notes during the COMLEX-USA Level 2-PE.

    PubMed

    Sandella, Jeanne M; Smith, Larissa A; Gallagher, Laurie A; Langenau, Erik E

    2014-01-01

    A health care team depends on the accurate documentation of the patient-physician encounter, be it written or electronic. If documentation is inaccurate or incomplete, patient care may be adversely affected. Previous studies have identified factors that influence documentation errors, such as fatigue, carelessness, and being overworked. More research, however, is needed into the patterns of errors and, by extension, these patterns' potential effect on patient care. Insights about these areas would be valuable to practicing physicians, as well as to medical educators, who could incorporate such insights into the training of medical students. To identify potential patterns of commissive documentation errors on SOAP notes during the Comprehensive Osteopathic Medical Licensing Examination-USA Level 2-Performance Evaluation (COMLEX-USA Level 2-PE); specifically, to calculate the frequency with which specific items are misrepresented in SOAP (subjective, objective, assessment, plan) notes and to explore patterns of misrepresentation in relation to the documentation of history taking and physical examination. Among the 12,510 candidates tested between July 2007 and June 2010, there were 24 candidates who failed the COMLEX-USA Level 2-PE because they misrepresented clinical findings on SOAP notes. These errors of commission (over-documentation) were categorized as errors in either history-taking or physical examination, and then subcategorized and analyzed to determine if meaningful patterns in the documentation of these errors occurred. A total of 662 errors were recorded among the 24 candidates. History-taking items were more often misrepresented (n=378) than physical examination items (n=284). Patient history-a subcategory that included past medical, surgical, medication, allergy, and family histories-was more likely to be misrepresented than other subcategories under history taking (eg, "history of present illness" and "associated symptoms") and many physical

  9. A comparison of airborne and ground-based radar observations with rain gages during the CaPE experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Satake, Makoto; Short, David A.; Iguchi, Toshio

    1992-01-01

    The vicinity of KSC, where the primary ground truth site of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) program is located, was the focal point of the Convection and Precipitation/Electrification (CaPE) experiment in Jul. and Aug. 1991. In addition to several specialized radars, local coverage was provided by the C-band (5 cm) radar at Patrick AFB. Point measurements of rain rate were provided by tipping bucket rain gage networks. Besides these ground-based activities, airborne radar measurements with X- and Ka-band nadir-looking radars on board an aircraft were also recorded. A unique combination data set of airborne radar observations with ground-based observations was obtained in the summer convective rain regime of central Florida. We present a comparison of these data intending a preliminary validation. A convective rain event was observed simultaneously by all three instrument types on the evening of 27 Jul. 1991. The high resolution aircraft radar was flown over convective cells with tops exceeding 10 km and observed reflectivities of 40 to 50 dBZ at 4 to 5 km altitude, while the low resolution surface radar observed 35 to 55 dBZ echoes and a rain gage indicated maximum surface rain rates exceeding 100 mm/hr. The height profile of reflectivity measured with the airborne radar show an attenuation of 6.5 dB/km (two way) for X-band, corresponding to a rainfall rate of 95 mm/hr.

  10. Osteopathic Manipulative Treatment Technique Scores on the COMLEX-USA Level 2-PE: An Analysis of the Skills Assessed.

    PubMed

    Smith, Larissa L; Xu, Wei; Sandella, Jeanne M; Dowling, Dennis J

    2016-06-01

    The National Board of Osteopathic Medical Examiners uses the Osteopathic Manipulative Treatment (OMT) Global Rating Tool to score candidate performance in OMT during standardized patient encounters. To the authors' knowledge, no validity research has been published on the underlying constructs measured by this instrument to date. To evaluate whether the OMT Global Rating Tool measures 1 holistic skill or multiple skill sets. Structural equation models were fit to data from first-time test-takers who took the Comprehensive Osteopathic Medical Licensing Examination-USA Level 2-Performance Evaluation (COMLEX-USA Level 2-PE) between July 7, 2014, and April 30, 2015. Two theoretical models were evaluated: a model that posited a single underlying skill set, and a model that posited 2 related but distinct skill sets. The 1-factor and 2-factor models were fit to data from 4673 third- and fourth-year osteopathic medical students. Fit statistics indicated that the data were best fit by a model representing 2 factors: pre- and post-OMT technique assessment and OMT technique (r=0.47). The OMT Global Rating Tool seems to measure 2 distinct but related skills. Although the results of this study are applicable to broad populations and cannot be used to provide skill-specific subscores, it might be helpful to remediation efforts to target pre- and post-OMT technique assessments and OMT techniques as distinct areas for intervention.

  11. Observations of steady flux of PeV-energy extensive air showers from Cygnus X-3 during 1984-1986

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonwar, S. C.; Gopalakrishnan, N. V.; Rajeev, M. R.; Sreekantan, B. V.

    1988-07-01

    Data taken with a 24-detector extensive-air-shower (EAS) array, operating at Ooty since June, 1984, have been used to search for excess of EASs of energy greater than 250 TeV from the direction of binary X-ray source Cyg X-3. The data show a time-averaged excess in the number of showers from this direction, over the background determined from other regions of the sky having the same declination. The excess is most prominent among older showers having a flatter lateral distribution. A part of this excess shows up significantly in the phase region, 0.6-0.8 in the 4.8-hr periodicity analysis. These observations correspond to an integral flux of (7.16 + or - 3.15) x 10 to the -13th/sq cm sec at energies greater than 250 TeV and of (1.04 + or - 0.44) x 10 to the -13th/sq cm sec at energies greater than 2.5 PeV. The observations confirm, for the first time, results reported by the Kiel group (Samorski and Stamm, 1983) of a directional excess from the direction of Cyg X-3, without requiring the 4.8-hr periodicity analysis as was necessary in many of the other experiments reporting positive signals. This emphasizes the advantage of good angular resolution for such studies.

  12. Consumption of sugar-rich food products among Brazilian students:National School Health Survey (PeNSE 2012).

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Nathália Luíza; Claro, Rafael Moreira; Lopes, Aline Cristine Souza

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to analyze the consumption of high-sugar foods by Brazilian schoolchildren and to identify associated factors, based on data from the National School Health Survey (PeNSE 2012). Consumption of these foods was classified as: do not consume sweets and soft drinks regularly; consume sweets or soft drinks regularly; and consume sweets and soft drinks regularly. Its association with sociodemographic information, eating habits, and family contexts were investigated via multiple ordinal regressions. Regular consumption of sweets and/or soft drinks was reported by 19.2% and 36.1% of adolescents, respectively, and higher prevalence was associated with female gender, age 14-15 years, higher maternal education, not living with the mother and father, not eating meals with the parents, eating while watching TV, and longer TV time. Nearly one-fifth of adolescents regularly consumed sweets and soft drinks, which was associated with socio-demographic and behavioral factors that should be targeted in order to improve their food consumption.

  13. A Critical Comparison of Murine Pathology and Epidemiological Data of TCDD, PCB126, and PeCDF

    PubMed Central

    Yoshizawa, Katsuhiko; Heatherly, Allison; Malarkey, David E.; Walker, Nigel J.; Nyska, Abraham

    2008-01-01

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD, or dioxin) and dioxin-like compounds (DLCs) induce numerous toxicities, including developmental, endocrine, immunological, and multi-organ carcinogenic, in animals and/or humans. Multiple studies completed by the National Toxicology Program (NTP) focused on the effects caused in Harlan Sprague-Dawley rats by specific DLCs, among them the prototypical dioxin, TCDD. Because humans are exposed daily to a combination of DLCs, primarily via ingestion of food, the Toxic Equivalency Factor (TEF) was developed in order to evaluate health hazards caused by these mixtures. Herein we review the pathological effects reported in humans exposed to TCDD; 3,3′,4,4′,5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126); and 2,3,4,7,8,-pentachlorodibenzofuran (PeCDF) and compare them to similar changes seen in NTP murine studies performed with the same compounds. While there were differences in specific pathologies observed, clear consistency in the target organs affected (liver, oral cavity, cardiovascular system, immune system, thyroid, pancreas, and lung) could be seen in both human studies and rodent toxicity and carcinogenicity investigations. PMID:18098033

  14. Silicon-Germanium Films Deposited by Low Frequency PE CVD: Effect of H2 and Ar Dilution

    SciTech Connect

    Kosarev, A; Torres, A; Hernandez, Y; Ambrosio, R; Zuniga, C; Felter, T E; Asomoza, R R; Kudriavtsev, Y; Silva-Gonzalez, R; Gomez-Barojas, E; Ilinski, A; Abramov, A S

    2005-09-22

    We have studied structure and electrical properties of Si{sub 1-Y}Ge{sub Y}:H films deposited by low frequency PE CVD over the entire composition range from Y=0 to Y=1. The deposition rate of the films and their structural and electrical properties were measured for various ratios of the germane/silane feed gases and with and without dilution by Ar and by H{sub 2}. Structure and composition was studied by Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Surface morphology was characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM). We found: (1) The deposition rate increased with Y maximizing at Y=1 without dilution. (2) The relative rate of Ge and Si incorporation is affected by dilution. (3) Hydrogen preferentially bonds to silicon. (4) Hydrogen content decreases for increasing Y. In addition, optical measurements showed that as Y goes for 0 to 1, the Fermi level moves from mid gap to the conduction band edge, i.e. the films become more n-type. No correlation was found between the pre-exponential and the activation energy of conductivity. The behavior of the conductivity {gamma}-factor suggests a local minimum in the density of states at E {approx} 0.33 eV for the films grown with or without H-dilution and E {approx} 0.25 eV for the films with Ar dilution.

  15. Precision Measurement of the p(e, e´p) π⁰ Reaction at Threshold

    SciTech Connect

    Chirapatpimol, K.; Shabestari, M.H.; Lindgren, R. A.; Smith, L. C.; Annand, J. R. M.; Higinbotham, D. W.; Moffit, B.

    2015-05-01

    New results are reported from a measurement of $\\pi^0$ electroproduction near threshold using the p(e, e´p) π⁰ reaction. The experiment was designed to determine precisely the energy dependence of $s-$ and $p-$wave electromagnetic multipoles as a stringent test of the predictions of Chiral Perturbation Theory (ChPT). The data were taken with an electron beam energy of 1192 MeV using a two-spectrometer setup in Hall A at Jefferson Lab. For the first time, complete coverage of the $\\phi^*_{\\pi}$ and $\\theta^*_{\\pi}$ angles in the $p \\pi^0$ center-of-mass was obtained for invariant energies above threshold from 0.5 MeV up to 15 MeV. The 4-momentum transfer $Q^2$ coverage ranges from 0.05 to 0.155 (GeV/c)$^2$ in fine steps. A simple phenomenological analysis of our data shows strong disagreement with $p-$wave predictions from ChPT for $Q^2>0.07$ (GeV/c)$^2$, while the $s-$wave predictions are in reasonable agreement.

  16. [Dental pain and associated factors in Brazilian adolescents: the National School-Based Health Survey (PeNSE), Brazil, 2009].

    PubMed

    Freire, Maria do Carmo Matias; Leles, Cláudio Rodrigues; Sardinha, Luciana Monteiro Vasconcelos; Paludetto Junior, Moacir; Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Peres, Marco A

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of dental pain and associated socio-demographic and behavioral factors in Brazilian adolescents, using data from the National School-Based Health Survey (PeNSE), Brazil, 2009. The survey was conducted by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE) and Ministry of Health in students 11 to 17 years of age or older in the 27 State capitals, using a self-administered questionnaire. Analyses included Poisson regression following a hierarchical approach. Prevalence of dental pain in the sample (n = 54,985) in the previous six months was 17.8% (95%CI: 17.5-18.1). Higher prevalence was associated with female gender, age 14 years and over, racial self-identification as black, brown, or indigenous, enrollment in public schools, lower maternal schooling, not living with the mother, history of smoking or drinking, less frequent toothbrushing, and heavy consumption of sweets and soft drinks. Dental pain was thus associated with socio-demographic factors and health-related behaviors.

  17. Precision Measurement of the p(e, e´p) π⁰ Reaction at Threshold

    DOE PAGES

    Chirapatpimol, K.; Shabestari, M.H.; Lindgren, R. A.; ...

    2015-05-01

    New results are reported from a measurement ofmore » $$\\pi^0$$ electroproduction near threshold using the p(e, e´p) π⁰ reaction. The experiment was designed to determine precisely the energy dependence of $s-$ and $p-$wave electromagnetic multipoles as a stringent test of the predictions of Chiral Perturbation Theory (ChPT). The data were taken with an electron beam energy of 1192 MeV using a two-spectrometer setup in Hall A at Jefferson Lab. For the first time, complete coverage of the $$\\phi^*_{\\pi}$$ and $$\\theta^*_{\\pi}$$ angles in the $$p \\pi^0$$ center-of-mass was obtained for invariant energies above threshold from 0.5 MeV up to 15 MeV. The 4-momentum transfer $Q^2$ coverage ranges from 0.05 to 0.155 (GeV/c)$^2$ in fine steps. A simple phenomenological analysis of our data shows strong disagreement with $p-$wave predictions from ChPT for $Q^2>0.07$ (GeV/c)$^2$, while the $s-$wave predictions are in reasonable agreement.« less

  18. A novel polyester composite nanofiltration membrane formed by interfacial polymerization of pentaerythritol (PE) and trimesoyl chloride (TMC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Jun; Shi, Wenxin; Zhang, Lanhe; Zhang, Ruijun

    2017-09-01

    A novel polyester thin film composite nanofiltration (NF) membrane was prepared by interfacial polymerization of pentaerythritol (PE) and trimesoyl chloride (TMC) on polyethersulfone (PES) supporting membrane. The performance of the polyester composite NF membrane was optimized by regulating the preparation parameters, including reaction time, pH of the aqueous phase solution, pentaerythritol concentration and TMC concentration. A series of characterization, including permeation experiments, attenuated total reflectance-fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), scanning electron microscope (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), zeta potential analyzer and chlorine resistance experiments, were employed to study the properties of the optimized membrane. The results showed that the optimized polyester composite NF membrane exhibited very high rejection of Na2SO4 (98.1%), but the water flux is relatively low (6.1 L/m2 h, 0.5 MPa, 25 °C). The order of salt rejections is Na2SO4 > MgSO4 > MgCl2 > NaCl, which indicated the membrane was negatively charged, just consistent with the membrane zeta potential results. After treating by NaClO solutions with different concentrations (100 ppm, 500 ppm, 1000 ppm, 2000 ppm, 3000 ppm) for 48 h, the results demonstrated that the polyester NF membrane had good chlorine resistance. Additionally, the polyester TFC NF membrane exhibits good long-term stability.

  19. Multiparameter radar and aircraft based studies of microphysical, kinematic, and electrical structure of convective clouds during CaPE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bringi, V. N.

    1994-03-01

    Two storms from the 9 August, 1991 CaPE case were analyzed in-depth focusing on multiparameter radar signature evolution over 60 min. in coordination with 24 aircraft penetrations which provided particle image and electric field data together with vertical air motion, cloud water and other state parameters. A total of five discrete 'cells' were identified in the two storms and their life cycle fully documented. Collaboration with South Dakota School of Mines and University of Alabama at Huntsville has resulted in a full integration of aircraft image and field mill data (from SDSM&T T-28 aircraft) with vertical air motion from dual-Doppler wind synthesis (UAH). The cellular evolution starts with a warm rain phase where updrafts and a very low concentration of large drops dominate the cloud. As the supercooled drops rise in the updraft they freeze and acquire a water-coat possibly by collisions with other liquid drops. The multi-parameter radar signatures clearly identify this mixed-phase zone. The cloud thereafter gets electrified which may intensify to produce lightning depending on cloud vertical growth, and generation of updraft/ downdrafts.

  20. ReSciPE for Scientific Inquiry: Professional Development for Scientists to Support Their Work With Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, L. K.; Laursen, S.; Schott, C.

    2006-12-01

    Funders and institutions are asking scientists to become more involved in communicating the "broader impacts" of their work with the public. Many scientists also wish to contribute to public science literacy and high-quality science education in schools. The ReSciPE Project--Resources for Scientists in Partnership with Education--is providing professional development workshops and other resources to scientists who are involved in education as volunteers or through professional commitments. As of fall 2006, we have presented 16 workshops on "Scientific Inquiry in the K-12 Classroom" to over 350 scientists and science educators at professional meetings, laboratories, and universities from Massachusetts to Hawaii. We will describe the project goals and our model for helping scientists to become more effective in working with students and teachers. Evaluation results from pre- and post-workshop surveys of over 200 workshop participants demonstrate that we are reaching an audience of working scientists as well as science educators and E/PO specialists, that our audience is diverse in gender, ethnicity, and career stage, and that the workshops are effective in broadening participants' ideas of their potential role in education. However, they also have ongoing needs for both knowledge and support. We argue that working with education or other public audiences is an increasingly important professional skill for scientists and offer this project as one experiment in providing appropriate professional development for this work.