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Sample records for jaundice

  1. Jaundice

    MedlinePlus

    Conditions associated with jaundice; Yellow skin and eyes; Skin - yellow; Icterus; Eyes - yellow; Yellow jaundice ... over time. Symptoms of jaundice commonly include: Yellow skin and the white part of the eyes (sclera) -- ...

  2. Pruritus and Jaundice

    PubMed Central

    McPhedran, N. T.; Henderson, R. D.

    1965-01-01

    The records of 147 patients who had pruritus and jaundice (11% of a series of 1262 patients with jaundice) were reviewed in an effort to delineate more clearly the etiology of jaundice associated with pruritus. Fifty-two had obstructive jaundice caused by neoplasm, 51 had obstructive jaundice not caused by neoplasm, 42 had pruritus associated with hepatogenous jaundice, and two had jaundice and pruritus associated with a lymphoma. Pruritus occurred in 17% of all patients with non-neoplastic obstructive jaundice and in 45% of patients with neoplastic obstructive jaundice. Hepatogenous jaundice was the cause of pruritus in almost one-third of the patients in this series-occurring in 20% of patients with infectious hepatitis and in 7% of patients with cirrhosis. This large series confirms the clinical impression that pruritus occurs most often in association with extrahepatic biliary obstruction, and as well re-emphasizes the common association of pruritus with hepatogenous jaundice. PMID:14296007

  3. Jaundice and breastfeeding

    MedlinePlus

    Hyperbilirubinemia - breast milk; Breast milk jaundice; Breastfeeding failure jaundice ... first few days of life. It is called "breastfeeding failure jaundice," "breast-non-feeding jaundice," or even " ...

  4. Fluorescein-related extensive jaundice.

    PubMed

    Kalkan, Asim; Turedi, Suleyman; Aydin, Ibrahim

    2015-03-01

    Fluorescein is a chemical dye frequently used in eye diseases to assess blood flow in the retina, choroid tissue, and iris. Although it has many known adverse effects, it has not previously been reported to lead to jaundice. The purpose of this case report was to emphasize that for patients presenting at the emergency department with jaundice symptoms, it should not be forgotten by emergency physicians that jaundice can develop after fluorescein angiography. Case: A 65-year-old woman presented at the emergency department with extensive jaundice that had developed on her entire body a few hours after fluorescein angiography applied because of vision impairment. The test results for all the diseases considered to cause jaundice were normal,and fluorescein-related jaundice was diagnosed. Conclusion: A detailed anamnesis should be taken when jaundice is seen in patients who have undergone fluorescein angiography, and it should not be forgotten that fluorescein dye is a rare cause of jaundice.

  5. Newborn jaundice

    MedlinePlus

    Jaundice of the newborn; Neonatal hyperbilirubinemia; Bili lights - jaundice; Infant - yellow skin; Newborn - yellow skin ... lasts 1 to 2 days. Sometimes, special blue lights are used on infants whose levels are very ...

  6. Jaundice (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Jaundice is a condition produced when excess amounts of bilirubin circulating in the blood stream dissolve in ... the eyes. With the exception of normal newborn jaundice in the first week of life, all other ...

  7. Jaundice causes

    MedlinePlus

    ... membranes, or eyes. The yellow color comes from bilirubin, a byproduct of old red blood cells. Jaundice ... or pancreas. Jaundice can occur when too much bilirubin builds up in the body. This may happen ...

  8. Jaundice in the newborns.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Satish; Agarwal, Ramesh; Deorari, Ashok K; Paul, Vinod K

    2008-02-01

    Hyperbilirubinemia is the commonest morbidity in the neonatal period and 5-10% of all newborns require intervention for pathological jaundice. Neonates on exclusive breast-feeding have a different pattern and degree of jaundice as compared to artificially fed babies. Latest guidelines from the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) for management of jaundice in a normal term newborn have been included in the protocol. Separate guidelines have been provided for the management of jaundice in sick term babies, preterm and low birth weight babies, for hemolytic jaundice and prolonged hyperbilirubinemia.

  9. Neonatal jaundice and human milk.

    PubMed

    Soldi, Antonella; Tonetto, Paola; Varalda, Alessia; Bertino, Enrico

    2011-10-01

    Breastfeeding is linked both to a greater jaundice frequency and intensity in the first postnatal days ("breastfeeding jaundice") and to visible jaundice persisting beyond the first two weeks of life ("breast milk jaundice"), but the appearance of skin jaundice is not a reason for interrupting breastfeeding which can and should continue without any interruption in most cases. There have been numerous contributions to the literature, which have rescaled the direct role of breast milk, both in early jaundice and in the more severe cases of late jaundice. In fact, the reviewed guidelines for detection and management of hyperbilirubinemia underline, how prevention of badly managed breastfeeding and early support for the couple mother-child are effective prevention measures against severe early-onset jaundice; furthermore, the breastfeeding interruption is no longer recommended as a diagnostic procedure to identify breast milk jaundice because of its low specificity and the risk to disregarding the detection of a potentially dangerous disease.

  10. Jaundice in the newborn.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, R; Aggarwal, R; Deorari, A K; Paul, V K

    2001-10-01

    Hyperbilirubinemia is the commonest morbidity in the neonatal period and 5-10% of all newborns require intervention for pathological jaundice. Neonates on exclusive breast-feeding have a different pattern of physiological jaundice as compared to artificially fed babies. Guidelines from American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) for management of jaundice in a normal term newborn have been included in the protocol. Separate guidelines have been provided for the management of jaundice in sick term babies, preterm and low birth weight babies, for jaundice secondary to hemolysis and for prolonged hyperbilirubinemia. Although hour specific bilirubin charts are available, these have to be validated in Indian infants before they are accepted for widespread use.

  11. Infant jaundice (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Jaundice is a yellow discoloring of the skin, mucous membranes, and eyes, caused by too much bilirubin ( ... hemoglobin made by the liver) in the blood. Jaundice is a condition produced when excess amounts of ...

  12. [Managements for jaundice].

    PubMed

    Furuse, Junji; Toki, Masao; Kitamura, Hiroshi; Hirokawa, Satoshi; Nagashima, Fumio

    2011-04-01

    Jaundice is a yellowish pigmentation of skin and mucous membranes caused by hyperbilirubinemia, which itself has various causes. Jaundice related to malignant tumors is classified as obstructive jaundice. This disease proceeds from biliary tract obstruction and liver failure by progression of intrahepatic tumors, including metastases from other malignancies. Biliary tract cancer, pancreatic head cancer, or lymph nodes metastases from other sites of cancer are mainly responsible for the obstruction of the bile duct. In patients with obstructive jaundice, biliary drainage is often required in order to give treatments such as chemotherapy. In patients with biliary drainage, various complications arise, such as cholangitis due to obstruction ofa biliary stent, and bleeding from the ulcer due to a dislodged stent to the duodenum. It is crucial to manage those complications as oncologic emergencies. Jaundice of liver failure due to hepatic metastases is often observed in patients with gastrointestinal malignancies such as gastric cancer or colorectal cancer. Although chemotherapy is the usual application for those patients, useful anti-cancer agents are limited. It is crucial to diagnose and decide the best treatments as soon as possible for patients with very advanced hepatic metastases.

  13. [Jaundice and pathological liver values].

    PubMed

    Schwarzenbach, Hans-Rudolf

    2013-06-05

    Jaundice corresponds to elevated bilirubin- levels, whereat one has to distinguish between direct and indirect serum-bilirubin. In the present Mini Review causes and differential diagnosis of jaundice are outlined. Ultrasound-diagnostic plays a major role in identifying intrahepatic or extrahepatic jaundice. Attention is given to the differential diagnosis of elevated liver enzymes in presence of jaundice, pointing out the distinction between hepatocellular and cholestatic parameters as well as the differentiation in acute or chronic increase. Moreover, the consequences of liver enzyme elevations including further diagnostic procedures, are highlighted. Finally, possibilities and limitations of modern diagnostic tests for liver fibrosis are briefly overviewed.

  14. Branding to treat jaundice in India.

    PubMed

    John, Selva Inita; Balekuduru, Ainash; Zachariah, Uday; Eapen, C E; Chandy, George

    2009-01-01

    Jaundice is regarded as a mysterious disease rather than a symptom of disease in several parts of India. We describe 8 cases that underwent branding to treat jaundice and subsequently presented to our centre. The causes for jaundice in these patients included a variety of benign and malignant disorders. Our report suggests that despite being literate, strong cultural beliefs lead people to seek potentially harmful procedures like branding to treat jaundice in parts of India.

  15. Neonatal Jaundice Detection System.

    PubMed

    Aydın, Mustafa; Hardalaç, Fırat; Ural, Berkan; Karap, Serhat

    2016-07-01

    Neonatal jaundice is a common condition that occurs in newborn infants in the first week of life. Today, techniques used for detection are required blood samples and other clinical testing with special equipment. The aim of this study is creating a non-invasive system to control and to detect the jaundice periodically and helping doctors for early diagnosis. In this work, first, a patient group which is consisted from jaundiced babies and a control group which is consisted from healthy babies are prepared, then between 24 and 48 h after birth, 40 jaundiced and 40 healthy newborns are chosen. Second, advanced image processing techniques are used on the images which are taken with a standard smartphone and the color calibration card. Segmentation, pixel similarity and white balancing methods are used as image processing techniques and RGB values and pixels' important information are obtained exactly. Third, during feature extraction stage, with using colormap transformations and feature calculation, comparisons are done in RGB plane between color change values and the 8-color calibration card which is specially designed. Finally, in the bilirubin level estimation stage, kNN and SVR machine learning regressions are used on the dataset which are obtained from feature extraction. At the end of the process, when the control group is based on for comparisons, jaundice is succesfully detected for 40 jaundiced infants and the success rate is 85 %. Obtained bilirubin estimation results are consisted with bilirubin results which are obtained from the standard blood test and the compliance rate is 85 %.

  16. Jaundice in the Hippocratic Corpus.

    PubMed

    Papavramidou, Niki; Fee, Elizabeth; Christopoulou-Aletra, Helen

    2007-12-01

    The Hippocratic physicians were among the first who described jaundice (icterus). The Hippocratic Corpus has numerous appearances of the condition, where its etiology, description, prognosis, and treatment are provided. The connection made between the liver and jaundice was remarkable, bearing in mind that the Hippocratic physicians had not performed dissections and that their medical views were based on observation. The Hippocratic doctors described five kinds of jaundice. The etiology was, as in most cases of diseases mentioned in the Hippocratic Corpus, "humoral" imbalance. The diagnosis and prognosis were based on the color of the skin, the urine, the feces, and several other factors, such as the season of the year during which the disease first appeared or the coexisting diseases. The treatment, finally, consisted of herbal medications, baths, diet, and blood-letting, depending on the type of jaundice in question. Finally, an attempt is made to correlate modern diseases with the Hippocratic types of jaundice.

  17. Thyrotoxic crisis presenting with jaundice.

    PubMed

    Wickramasinghe, R D S S; Luke, W A N V; Sebastiampillai, B S; Gunathilake, M P M L; Premaratna, R

    2016-06-23

    Thyrotoxic crisis is a medical emergency requiring early diagnosis and urgent management, which can be challenging due to its diverse clinical presentations. While common presentations include fever, sweating, palpitations, tremors and confusion, presence of jaundice is rare. We report a 35-year-old male who presented with jaundice due to cholestasis along with other features of thyrotoxic crisis due to Graves' disease. He had a good clinical recovery with resolution of cholestasis following treatment for thyrotoxic crisis. Jaundice can be a rare manifestation of thyrotoxic crisis, and should be considered in the differential diagnosis when other clinical features of thyrotoxic crisis are present. However secondary causes of jaundice should be looked into and excluded.

  18. Jaundice in the full-term newborn.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Shannon Munro

    2006-01-01

    Jaundice is a common problem affecting over half of all full-term and most preterm infants. Jaundice describes the yellow orange hue of the skin caused by excessive circulating levels of bilirubin that accumulate in the skin. In most healthy full-term newborns, jaundice is noticed during the first week of life. Shortened hospital stays and inconsistent follow up, especially for first-time breastfeeding mothers, prompted the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) to update management guidelines. Health care providers need to be familiar with the diagnosis and management of jaundice to prevent brain, vision, and hearing damage. Treatment of choice for jaundice remains close observation and frequent feeding followed by phototherapy, and finally exchange transfusion for severe or refractory cases.

  19. [Development of transcutaneous jaundice predictor for the neonates].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Pengzhi; Yuan, Hengxin; Tan, Zhifeng; Zhu, Guoping; Yi, Yongju

    2011-06-01

    Neonatal jaundice is a common neonatal disease. Severe jaundices lead to kernicterus that affects intellectual development of infants or even causes death. Timely and early prediction is vital to the treatment and prevention. This paper presents a jaundice predictor, which uses C8051F020 as the core of single-chip microcomputer (SCM) system with prediction algorithms proven by a large number of clinical trials. The jaundice predictor can reduce the incidence rate of jaundice, alleviate the condition of infants with jaundice, improve the quality of perinatal, with predicting pathologic neonatal jaundice effectively and calling attention to the prophylactic treatment. In addition, compared with the existing transcutaneous jaundice meters, the new predictor has a smaller size, a lighter weight, more user-friendly, and easier to use by hand-holding.

  20. Murine model of long term obstructive jaundice

    PubMed Central

    Aoki, Hiroaki; Aoki, Masayo; Yang, Jing; Katsuta, Eriko; Mukhopadhyay, Partha; Ramanathan, Rajesh; Woelfel, Ingrid A.; Wang, Xuan; Spiegel, Sarah; Zhou, Huiping; Takabe, Kazuaki

    2016-01-01

    Background With the recent emergence of conjugated bile acids as signaling molecules in cancer, a murine model of obstructive jaundice by cholestasis with long-term survival is in need. Here, we investigated the characteristics of 3 murine models of obstructive jaundice. Methods C57BL/6J mice were used for total ligation of the common bile duct (tCL), partial common bile duct ligation (pCL), and ligation of left and median hepatic bile duct with gallbladder removal (LMHL) models. Survival was assessed by Kaplan-Meier method. Fibrotic change was determined by Masson-Trichrome staining and Collagen expression. Results 70% (7/10) of tCL mice died by Day 7, whereas majority 67% (10/15) of pCL mice survived with loss of jaundice. 19% (3/16) of LMHL mice died; however, jaundice continued beyond Day 14, with survival of more than a month. Compensatory enlargement of the right lobe was observed in both pCL and LMHL models. The pCL model demonstrated acute inflammation due to obstructive jaundice 3 days after ligation but jaundice rapidly decreased by Day 7. The LHML group developed portal hypertension as well as severe fibrosis by Day 14 in addition to prolonged jaundice. Conclusion The standard tCL model is too unstable with high mortality for long-term studies. pCL may be an appropriate model for acute inflammation with obstructive jaundice but long term survivors are no longer jaundiced. The LHML model was identified to be the most feasible model to study the effect of long-term obstructive jaundice. PMID:27916350

  1. Assessment of jaundice in the hospitalized patient.

    PubMed

    Kathpalia, Priya; Ahn, Joseph

    2015-02-01

    Jaundice in the hospitalized patient is not an uncommon consultation for the general gastroenterologist. It is essential to explore the underlying cause of jaundice because management is largely aimed at addressing these causes rather than the jaundice itself. Although the diagnostic evaluation for jaundice can be broad, clinical judgment must be used to prioritize between various laboratory tests and imaging studies. Most importantly, clinicians must understand which conditions are emergent and/or require evaluation for liver transplantation. Further studies need to be performed to better understand the outcomes of hospitalized patients who develop jaundice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Murine model of long-term obstructive jaundice.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Hiroaki; Aoki, Masayo; Yang, Jing; Katsuta, Eriko; Mukhopadhyay, Partha; Ramanathan, Rajesh; Woelfel, Ingrid A; Wang, Xuan; Spiegel, Sarah; Zhou, Huiping; Takabe, Kazuaki

    2016-11-01

    With the recent emergence of conjugated bile acids as signaling molecules in cancer, a murine model of obstructive jaundice by cholestasis with long-term survival is in need. Here, we investigated the characteristics of three murine models of obstructive jaundice. C57BL/6J mice were used for total ligation of the common bile duct (tCL), partial common bile duct ligation (pCL), and ligation of left and median hepatic bile duct with gallbladder removal (LMHL) models. Survival was assessed by Kaplan-Meier method. Fibrotic change was determined by Masson-Trichrome staining and Collagen expression. Overall, 70% (7 of 10) of tCL mice died by day 7, whereas majority 67% (10 of 15) of pCL mice survived with loss of jaundice. A total of 19% (3 of 16) of LMHL mice died; however, jaundice continued beyond day 14, with survival of more than a month. Compensatory enlargement of the right lobe was observed in both pCL and LMHL models. The pCL model demonstrated acute inflammation due to obstructive jaundice 3 d after ligation but jaundice rapidly decreased by day 7. The LHML group developed portal hypertension and severe fibrosis by day 14 in addition to prolonged jaundice. The standard tCL model is too unstable with high mortality for long-term studies. pCL may be an appropriate model for acute inflammation with obstructive jaundice, but long-term survivors are no longer jaundiced. The LHML model was identified to be the most feasible model to study the effect of long-term obstructive jaundice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Laser Photoradiation Therapy For Neonatal Jaundice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamza, Mostafa; Hamza, Mohammad

    1987-04-01

    This paper describes our leading experience in the clinical application of laser in the treatment of neonatal jaundice. Currently, the irradiation of jaundiced infants during neonatal life to fluorescent light is the most common treatment of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. The authors have investigated the photodegradation of bilirubin by laser in vitro and in Gunn rats before embarking on its clinical application in the treatment of jaundice in the new born child. This work was done to study the theraputic effect of laser compared to the currently used phototherapy in the treatment of neonatal jaundice. We selected 16 full term neonates with jaundice to be the subject of this study. The neonates of the study were devided into two groups. The first group was treated with continuous phototherapy . The second group recieved photoradiation therapy with gas laser The laser used was a CW argon-ion laser tuned to oscillate at 488.0 nm wavelength. This wavelength selection was based on our previous studies on the effect of laser irradiation of Gunn rats at different wavelengths. Comparison of the results of both methods of treatment will be reported in detail. The advantages and limitations of laser photoradiation therapy for neonatal jaundice will be discussed.

  4. ACR appropriateness criteria jaundice.

    PubMed

    Lalani, Tasneem; Couto, Corey A; Rosen, Max P; Baker, Mark E; Blake, Michael A; Cash, Brooks D; Fidler, Jeff L; Greene, Frederick L; Hindman, Nicole M; Katz, Douglas S; Kaur, Harmeet; Miller, Frank H; Qayyum, Aliya; Small, William C; Sudakoff, Gary S; Yaghmai, Vahid; Yarmish, Gail M; Yee, Judy

    2013-06-01

    A fundamental consideration in the workup of a jaundiced patient is the pretest probability of mechanical obstruction. Ultrasound is the first-line modality to exclude biliary tract obstruction. When mechanical obstruction is present, additional imaging with CT or MRI can clarify etiology, define level of obstruction, stage disease, and guide intervention. When mechanical obstruction is absent, additional imaging can evaluate liver parenchyma for fat and iron deposition and help direct biopsy in cases where underlying parenchymal disease or mass is found. Imaging techniques are reviewed for the following clinical scenarios: (1) the patient with painful jaundice, (2) the patient with painless jaundice, and (3) the patient with a nonmechanical cause for jaundice. The ACR Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed every 2 years by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and review include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer-reviewed journals and the application of a well-established consensus methodology (modified Delphi) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures by the panel. In those instances where evidence is lacking or not definitive, expert opinion may be used to recommend imaging or treatment. Copyright © 2013 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Jaundice

    MedlinePlus

    ... causes your skin and the whites of your eyes to turn yellow. Too much bilirubin causes jaundice. Bilirubin is a yellow chemical in hemoglobin, the substance that carries oxygen in your red blood cells. As red blood cells break down, your body builds new cells to replace them. The old ones are ...

  6. Detecting jaundice by using digital image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro-Ramos, J.; Toxqui-Quitl, C.; Villa Manriquez, F.; Orozco-Guillen, E.; Padilla-Vivanco, A.; Sánchez-Escobar, JJ.

    2014-03-01

    When strong Jaundice is presented, babies or adults should be subject to clinical exam like "serum bilirubin" which can cause traumas in patients. Often jaundice is presented in liver disease such as hepatitis or liver cancer. In order to avoid additional traumas we propose to detect jaundice (icterus) in newborns or adults by using a not pain method. By acquiring digital images in color, in palm, soles and forehead, we analyze RGB attributes and diffuse reflectance spectra as the parameter to characterize patients with either jaundice or not, and we correlate that parameters with the level of bilirubin. By applying support vector machine we distinguish between healthy and sick patients.

  7. Ethnopharmacological Approaches for Therapy of Jaundice: Part I

    PubMed Central

    Tewari, Devesh; Mocan, Andrei; Parvanov, Emil D.; Sah, Archana N.; Nabavi, Seyed M.; Huminiecki, Lukasz; Ma, Zheng Feei; Lee, Yeong Yeh; Horbańczuk, Jarosław O.; Atanasov, Atanas G.

    2017-01-01

    Jaundice is a very common symptom especially in the developing countries. It is associated with several hepatic diseases which are still major causes of death. There are many different approaches to jaundice treatment and the growing number of ethnomedicinal studies shows the plant pharmacology as very promising direction. Many medicinal plants are used for the treatment of jaundice, however a comprehensive review on this subject has not been published. The use of medicinal plants in drug discovery is highly emphasized (based on their traditional and safe uses in different folk medicine systems from ancient times). Many sophisticated analytical techniques are emerging in the pharmaceutical field to validate and discover new biologically active chemical entities derived from plants. Here, we aim to classify and categorize medicinal plants relevant for the treatment of jaundice according to their origin, geographical location, and usage. Our search included various databases like Pubmed, ScienceDirect, Google Scholar. Keywords and phrases used for these searches included: “jaundice,” “hyperbilirubinemia,” “serum glutamate,” “bilirubin,” “Ayurveda.” The first part of the review focuses on the variety of medicinal plant used for the treatment of jaundice (a total of 207 medicinal plants). In the second part, possible mechanisms of action of biologically active secondary metabolites of plants from five families for jaundice treatment are discussed. PMID:28860989

  8. Newborn jaundice - what to ask your doctor

    MedlinePlus

    ... doctor about newborn jaundice Images Infant jaundice References Kaplan M, Wong RJ, Sibley E, Stevenson DK. Neonatal ... constitute endorsements of those other sites. Copyright 1997-2018, A.D.A.M., Inc. Duplication for commercial ...

  9. A case of jaundice of obscure origin.

    PubMed

    Khan, Fahad M; Alcorn, Joseph; Hanson, Joshua

    2014-05-01

    Idiopathic painless jaundice with significant elevations in serum transaminases, occurring in a previously healthy patient, invokes a circumscribed set of possibilities including viral hepatitis, auto-immune hepatitis (AIH) and drug-induced liver injury (DILI). In this described case, common causes of cholestatic jaundice were considered including drug-induced liver injury, viral causes of hepatitis, and auto-immune antibodies. Biliary obstruction was excluded by appropriate imaging studies. Liver biopsy was obtained, though not definitive. After detailed investigation failed to reveal a cause of the jaundice, an empiric trial of steroids was initiated on the possibility that our patient had antibody-negative AIH and not DILI, with an associated grave prognosis. Empiric treatment with prednisone led to rapid resolution of jaundice and to the conclusion that the correct diagnosis was antibody-negative AIH.

  10. A report of three cases of jaundice with thyrotoxicosis.

    PubMed

    Akande, T O; Balogun, W O

    2013-09-01

    Jaundice and hepatic dysfunction have been reported in patients with thyrotoxicosis and could be due to different mechanisms. To describe three cases of jaundice occurring in patients with thyrotoxicosis and to illustrate the importance of early institution of thionamides when indicated. We present the clinical and laboratory features of three patients presenting within a year with thyrotoxicosis and jaundice and whose clinical conditions improved remarkably following treatment with thionamides. In addition, current literature on the subject is reviewed and summarised. The three patients presented with goitre and jaundice. None of the patients had received blood products, undergone scarification markings or experienced any previous episode of jaundice. Thyroid function tests in the three patients were consistent with a diagnosis of thyrotoxicosis. Liver function tests showed elevated bilirubin and transaminases. All patients improved remarkably following treatment with thionamides. It is important to rule out thyrotoxicosis in patients with jaundice of unknown cause and consider early use of thionamides for treatment of the thyrotoxicosis, if confirmed.

  11. Influence of obstructive jaundice on pharmacodynamics of rocuronium.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhen-Meng; Zhang, Peng; Lin, Mi-Jia; Tan, Bo; Qiu, Hai-Bo; Yu, Wei-Feng

    2013-01-01

    Anesthetics are variable in patients with obstructive jaundice. The minimum alveolar concentration awake of desflurane is reduced in patients with obstructive jaundice, while it has no effect on pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of propofol. In this study, we investigated the influence of obstructive jaundice on the pharmacodynamics and blood concentration of rocuronium. Included in this study were 26 control patients and 27 patients with obstructive jaundice. Neuromuscular block of rocuronium was monitored by acceleromyography. Onset time, spontaneous recovery of the height of twitch first (T1) to 25% of the final T1 value (Duration 25%, Dur 25%), recovery index (RI), and spontaneous recovery of train-of-four (TOF) ratios to 70% were measured. The plasma rocuronium concentrations were determined by high performance liquid chromatography using berberine as an internal standard. There was no significant difference in onset time between the two groups. The Dur 25%, the recovery index and the time of recovery of the TOF ratios to 70% were all prolonged in the obstructive jaundice group compared with the control group. The plasma concentration of rocuronium at 60, 90 and 120 min after bolus administration was significantly higher in the obstructive jaundice group. The neuromuscular blockade by rocuronium is prolonged in obstructive jaundice patients, and therefore precautions should be taken in case of postoperative residual neuromuscular block. The possible reason is impedance of rocuronium excretion due to biliary obstruction and increased plasma unbound rocuronium because of free bilirubin competing with it for albumin binding.

  12. Newborn jaundice - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... discharge Images Exchange transfusion - series Infant jaundice References Kaplan M, Wong RJ, Sibley E, Stevenson DK. Neonatal ... constitute endorsements of those other sites. Copyright 1997-2018, A.D.A.M., Inc. Duplication for commercial ...

  13. Influence of Obstructive Jaundice on Pharmacodynamics of Rocuronium

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Mi-Jia; Tan, Bo; Qiu, Hai-Bo; Yu, Wei-Feng

    2013-01-01

    Background Anesthetics are variable in patients with obstructive jaundice. The minimum alveolar concentration awake of desflurane is reduced in patients with obstructive jaundice, while it has no effect on pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of propofol. In this study, we investigated the influence of obstructive jaundice on the pharmacodynamics and blood concentration of rocuronium. Methods Included in this study were 26 control patients and 27 patients with obstructive jaundice. Neuromuscular block of rocuronium was monitored by acceleromyography. Onset time, spontaneous recovery of the height of twitch first (T1) to 25% of the final T1 value (Duration 25%, Dur 25%), recovery index (RI), and spontaneous recovery of train-of-four (TOF) ratios to 70% were measured. The plasma rocuronium concentrations were determined by high performance liquid chromatography using berberine as an internal standard. Results There was no significant difference in onset time between the two groups. The Dur 25%, the recovery index and the time of recovery of the TOF ratios to 70% were all prolonged in the obstructive jaundice group compared with the control group. The plasma concentration of rocuronium at 60, 90 and 120 min after bolus administration was significantly higher in the obstructive jaundice group. Conclusions The neuromuscular blockade by rocuronium is prolonged in obstructive jaundice patients, and therefore precautions should be taken in case of postoperative residual neuromuscular block. The possible reason is impedance of rocuronium excretion due to biliary obstruction and increased plasma unbound rocuronium because of free bilirubin competing with it for albumin binding. PMID:24147111

  14. [A 14-day-old boy with jaundice and apnoea].

    PubMed

    Smerud, Ole-Jørgen Olsøy; Solevåg, Anne Lee; Hansen, Thor Willy Ruud; Grønn, Morten

    2015-12-15

    We describe an infant who was readmitted from home at 14 days of age with jaundice and a history of apnoea and episodes of retrocollis/opisthotonos. He had been only mildly jaundiced on discharge from the maternity clinic at 2 days of age. The total serum bilirubin (TSB) on admission was 542 µmol/L, and the infant was treated intensively with triple phototherapy and exchange transfusion. In contrast to what is recommended in Norwegian national guidelines for management of neonatal jaundice, the parents had apparently neither received oral nor written information about jaundice and its follow-up at the time of discharge from maternity. They therefore contacted their child healthcare centre when they had questions about jaundice, though the national guidelines specifically state that follow-up for neonatal jaundice during the first 2 weeks of life is the responsibility of the birth hospital. Inappropriate advice resulted in delayed referral, and the child has been diagnosed with chronic kernicterus, probably the first such case in Norway since national guidelines were formalised in 2006. Genetic work-up disclosed compound heterozygosity for Crigler-Najjar syndrome type I, to the best of our knowledge the first instance of this disorder ever to have been diagnosed in Norway. The incidence of kernicterus is Norway is much lower than in other industrialised countries. This is most likely due to national guidelines for management of neonatal jaundice, which place the responsibility for management and follow-up of jaundice with the birth hospital during the crucial first 2 weeks of life. This case report reminds us that tragedies may occur when guidelines are disregarded.

  15. Hypocalcemia in jaundiced neonates receiving phototherapy

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Mashal; Malik, Kanwal Altaf; Bai, Rekha

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the frequency of hypocalcemia in term neonates with jaundice receiving phototherapy. Methods: This was a cross sectional study conducted at Neonatal intensive care unit, National Institute of Child Health, Karachi from 1st January 2014 to 30th December 2014. A total of 123 term neonates with jaundice of either gender managed by phototherapy were enrolled in the study. Gestational age was assessed through modified Ballard scoring. Duration of phototherapy was recorded. A sample of 3 ml of blood was sent to the laboratory for serum calcium level before initiating phototherapy and after 24 hours of continued phototherapy. All the data were recorded in the preformed proforma. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 19. P value <0.05 was taken as significant. Results: The mean age of the neonates was 8.35±6.74 days. Mean gestational age at the time of birth was 39.08±1.37 weeks. Mean duration of jaundice was 2.4±1.20 days. Mean duration of phototherapy was 1.74±0.98 days. Serum calcium level before and after 24 hours of initiating phototherapy was 8.73±0.68 mg/dl and 7.47±0.82mg/dl respectively Frequency of hypocalcemia in term jaundiced neonates receiving phototherapy were observed in 22.76% (28/123). Conclusions: The frequency of hypocalcemia is significant in the jaundiced neonates treated with phototherapy. One needs to be vigilant in dealing neonates in this context while serial monitoring for hypocalcemia and its complications should be considered in institutional policy and research priority. PMID:28083043

  16. Role of radical resection in patients with gallbladder carcinoma and jaundice.

    PubMed

    Feng, Fei-ling; Liu, Chen; Li, Bin; Zhang, Bai-he; Jiang, Xiao-qing

    2012-03-01

    Gallbladder carcinoma (GBC) is a commonly-seen malignancy of the biliary tract characterized by difficult early diagnosis, rapid growth, early metastasis, and poor prognosis. Nearly half of GBC patients also have jaundice, which is a mark of the advanced stage of GBC. The role of radical resection in patients of gallbladder carcinoma with jaundice is still a matter of uncertainty, which we attempted to clarify in this study. Totally, 251 GBC patients who received treatment at the Eastern Hepatobiliary Surgery Hospital (EHBH) from December 2002 to January 2010 were recruited into this study. We divided them into group A (jaundice group, n=117) and group B (non-jaundice group, n=134). Clinical records and follow-up data were collected and retrospectively analyzed in both groups. Compared with group A, patients in group B had a longer median survival time ((6.0±0.5) months vs. (15.0±2.6) months, P<0.01). Even in patients with stage III or stage IV GBC, the median survival time in patients without jaundice (n=111), was still longer than that in patients with jaundice (n=116) (P<0.01). The radical resection rate was lower in group A patients than in group B patients with stage III or stage IV GBC; 31.9% vs. 63.1%. However, the median survival time of patients undergoing radical resection did not show a statistical difference between jaundice patients and non-jaundice patients; (12.0±4.3) months vs. (18.0±3.0) months (P>0.05). GBC with jaundice usually implies advanced stage disease and a poor prognosis for the patients. However, our findings indicate that as long as the patient's condition allows, radical resection is still feasible for GBC patients with jaundice, and may achieve a prognosis close to those GBC patients without jaundice.

  17. Therapeutic effects of probiotics on neonatal jaundice

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wenbin; Liu, Huajun; Wang, Taisen; Tang, Xueqing

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the therapeutic effects of probiotics on neonatal jaundice and the safety. Methods: Sixty-eight neonates with jaundice were divided into a control group and a treatment group (n=34) randomly, and treated by blue light phototherapy and that in combination with probiotics. The serum bilirubin levels were detected before and 1, 4, 7 days after treatment. The time when therapy showed effects and jaundice faded, clinical outcomes as well as adverse reactions were recorded. The categorical data were expressed as (±s) and compared by t test. The numerical data were expressed as (case, %) and compared by χ² test. P<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Serum bilirubin levels of the two groups were similar before treatment (P>0.05). The levels significantly decreased 1, 4 and 7 days after treatment (P<0.05), but there was no significant inter-group difference on the post-treatment 1st day (P>0.05). The treatment group underwent more significant decreases on the 4th and 7th days than the control group did (P=0.002, 0.001). In the treatment group, the therapy exerted effects on (1.0±0.5) d and jaundice faded on (3.8±1.7) d, which were (2.6±0.6) d and (5.3±2.1) d respectively in the control group (P=0.001, 0.002). The effective rate of the treatment group significantly exceeded that of the control group (P=0.002). There were no obvious adverse reactions in either group. Conclusions: Probiotics lowered the serum bilirubin levels of neonates with jaundice rapidly, safely and significantly, and accelerated jaundice fading as well. This method is worthy of application in clinical practice. PMID:26649008

  18. Therapeutic effects of probiotics on neonatal jaundice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenbin; Liu, Huajun; Wang, Taisen; Tang, Xueqing

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the therapeutic effects of probiotics on neonatal jaundice and the safety. Sixty-eight neonates with jaundice were divided into a control group and a treatment group (n=34) randomly, and treated by blue light phototherapy and that in combination with probiotics. The serum bilirubin levels were detected before and 1, 4, 7 days after treatment. The time when therapy showed effects and jaundice faded, clinical outcomes as well as adverse reactions were recorded. The categorical data were expressed as (±s) and compared by t test. The numerical data were expressed as (case, %) and compared by χ² test. P<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Serum bilirubin levels of the two groups were similar before treatment (P>0.05). The levels significantly decreased 1, 4 and 7 days after treatment (P<0.05), but there was no significant inter-group difference on the post-treatment 1st day (P>0.05). The treatment group underwent more significant decreases on the 4th and 7th days than the control group did (P=0.002, 0.001). In the treatment group, the therapy exerted effects on (1.0±0.5) d and jaundice faded on (3.8±1.7) d, which were (2.6±0.6) d and (5.3±2.1) d respectively in the control group (P=0.001, 0.002). The effective rate of the treatment group significantly exceeded that of the control group (P=0.002). There were no obvious adverse reactions in either group. Probiotics lowered the serum bilirubin levels of neonates with jaundice rapidly, safely and significantly, and accelerated jaundice fading as well. This method is worthy of application in clinical practice.

  19. Gallbladder Cancer Presenting with Jaundice: Uniformly Fatal or Still Potentially Curable?

    PubMed

    Tran, Thuy B; Norton, Jeffrey A; Ethun, Cecilia G; Pawlik, Timothy M; Buettner, Stefan; Schmidt, Carl; Beal, Eliza W; Hawkins, William G; Fields, Ryan C; Krasnick, Bradley A; Weber, Sharon M; Salem, Ahmed; Martin, Robert C G; Scoggins, Charles R; Shen, Perry; Mogal, Harveshp D; Idrees, Kamran; Isom, Chelsea A; Hatzaras, Ioannis; Shenoy, Rivfka; Maithel, Shishir K; Poultsides, George A

    2017-08-01

    Jaundice as a presenting symptom of gallbladder cancer has traditionally been considered to be a sign of advanced disease, inoperability, and poor outcome. However, recent studies have demonstrated that a small subset of these patients can undergo resection with curative intent. Patients with gallbladder cancer managed surgically from 2000 to 2014 in 10 US academic institutions were stratified based on the presence of jaundice at presentation (defined as bilirubin ≥4 mg/ml or requiring preoperative biliary drainage). Perioperative morbidity, mortality, and overall survival were compared between jaundiced and non-jaundiced patients. Of 400 gallbladder cancer patients with available preoperative data, 108 (27%) presented with jaundice while 292 (73%) did not. The fraction of patients who eventually underwent curative-intent resection was much lower in the presence of jaundice (n = 33, 30%) than not (n = 218, 75%; P < 0.001). Jaundiced patients experienced higher perioperative morbidity (69 vs. 38%; P = 0.002), including a much higher need for reoperation (12 vs. 1%; P = 0.003). However, 90-day mortality (6.5 vs. 3.6%; P = 0.35) was not significantly higher. Overall survival after resection was worse in jaundiced patients (median 14 vs. 32 months; P < 0.001). Further subgroup analysis within the jaundiced patients revealed a more favorable survival after resection in the presence of low CA19-9 < 50 (median 40 vs. 12 months; P = 0.003) and in the absence of lymphovascular invasion (40 vs. 14 months; P = 0.014). Jaundice is a powerful preoperative clinical sign of inoperability and poor outcome among gallbladder cancer patients. However, some of these patients may still achieve long-term survival after resection, especially when preoperative CA19-9 levels are low and no lymphovascular invasion is noted pathologically.

  20. Jaundice associated pruritis: a review of pathophysiology and treatment.

    PubMed

    Bassari, Ramez; Koea, Jonathan B

    2015-02-07

    To review the underlying pathophysiology and currently available treatments for pruritis associated with jaundice. English language literature was reviewed using MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE and clinicaltrials.gov for papers and trails addressing the pathophysiology and potential treatments for pruritis associated with jaundice. Recent advances in the understanding of the peripheral anatomy of itch transmission have defined a histamine stimulated pathway and a cowhage stimulated pathway with sensation conveyed centrally via the contralateral spinothalamic tract. Centrally, cowhage and histamine stimulated neurons terminate widely within the thalamus and sensorimotor cortex. The causative factors for itch in jaundice have not been clarified although endogenous opioids, serotonin, steroid and lysophosphatidic acid all play a role. Current guidelines for the treatment of itching in jaundice recommend initial management with biliary drainage where possible and medical management with ursodeoxycholic acid, followed by cholestyramine, rifampicin, naltrexone and sertraline. Other than biliary drainage no single treatment has proved universally effective. Pruritis associated with jaundice is a common but poorly understood condition for which biliary drainage is the most effective therapy. Pharmacological therapy has advanced but remains variably effective.

  1. Jaundice associated pruritis: A review of pathophysiology and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Bassari, Ramez; Koea, Jonathan B

    2015-01-01

    To review the underlying pathophysiology and currently available treatments for pruritis associated with jaundice. English language literature was reviewed using MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE and clinicaltrials.gov for papers and trails addressing the pathophysiology and potential treatments for pruritis associated with jaundice. Recent advances in the understanding of the peripheral anatomy of itch transmission have defined a histamine stimulated pathway and a cowhage stimulated pathway with sensation conveyed centrally via the contralateral spinothalamic tract. Centrally, cowhage and histamine stimulated neurons terminate widely within the thalamus and sensorimotor cortex. The causative factors for itch in jaundice have not been clarified although endogenous opioids, serotonin, steroid and lysophosphatidic acid all play a role. Current guidelines for the treatment of itching in jaundice recommend initial management with biliary drainage where possible and medical management with ursodeoxycholic acid, followed by cholestyramine, rifampicin, naltrexone and sertraline. Other than biliary drainage no single treatment has proved universally effective. Pruritis associated with jaundice is a common but poorly understood condition for which biliary drainage is the most effective therapy. Pharmacological therapy has advanced but remains variably effective. PMID:25663760

  2. [A co-word analysis of current research on neonatal jaundice].

    PubMed

    Bao, Shan; Yang, Xiao-Yan; Tang, Jun; Wu, Jin-Lin; Mu, De-Zhi

    2014-08-01

    To investigate the research on neonatal jaundice in recent years by co-word analysis and to summarize the hot spots and trend of research in this field in China. The CNKI was searched with "neonate" and "jaundice" as the key words to identify the papers published from January 2009 to July 2013 that were in accordance with strict inclusion and exclusion criteria. To reveal the relationship between different high-frequency key words, Microsoft Office Excel 2013 was used for statistical analysis of key words, and Ucinet 6.0 and Netdraw were used for co-occurrence analysis. A total of 2 054 papers were included, and 44 high-frequency key words were extracted. The current hotspots of research on neonatal jaundice in China were displayed, and the relationship between different high-frequency key words was presented. There has been in-depth research on clinical manifestations and diagnosis of neonatal jaundice in China, but further research is needed to investigate the etiology, mechanism, and treatment of neonatal jaundice.

  3. [The factors affecting the results of mechanical jaundice management].

    PubMed

    Malkov, I S; Shaimardanov, R Sh; Korobkov, V N; Filippov, V A; Khisamiev, I G

    To improve the results of obstructive jaundice management by rational diagnostic and treatment strategies. Outcomes of 820 patients with obstructive jaundice syndrome were analyzed. Diagnostic and tactical mistakes were made at pre-hospital stage in 143 (17.4%) patients and in 105 (12.8%) at hospital stage. Herewith, in 53 (6.5%) cases the errors were observed at all stages. Retrospective analysis of severe postoperative complications and lethal outcomes in patients with obstructive jaundice showed that in 23.8% of cases they were explained by diagnostic and tactical mistakes at various stages of examination and treatment. We developed an algorithm for obstructive jaundice management to reduce the number of diagnostic and tactical errors, a reduction in the frequency of diagnostic and tactical errors. It reduced the number of postoperative complications up to 16.5% and mortality rate to 3.0%.

  4. The “jaundice hotline” for the rapid assessment of patients with jaundice

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Jonathan; Hussaini, Hyder; McGovern, Dermot; Farrow, Richard; Maskell, Giles; Dalton, Harry

    2002-01-01

    Problem Patients with jaundice require rapid diagnosis and treatment, yet such patients are often subject to delay. Design An open referral, rapid access jaundice clinic was established by reorganisation of existing services and without the need for significant extra resources. Background and setting A large general hospital in a largely rural and geographically isolated area. Key measures for improvement Waiting times for referral, consultation, diagnosis, and treatment, length of stay in hospital, and general practitioners' and patients' satisfaction with the service. Strategies for change Referrals were made through a 24 hour telephone answering machine and fax line. Initial assessment of patients was carried out by junior staff as part of their working week. Dedicated ultrasonography appointments were made available. Effects of change Of 107 patients seen in the first year of the service, 62 had biliary obstruction. The mean time between referral and consultation was 2.5 days. Patients who went on to endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography waited 5.7 days on average. The mean length of stay in hospital in the 69 patients who were admitted was 6.1 days, compared with 11.5 days in 1996, as shown by audit data. Nearly all the 36 general practices (95%) and the 30 consecutive patients (97%) that were surveyed rated the service as above average or excellent. Lessons learnt An open referral, rapid access service for patients with jaundice can shorten time to diagnosis and treatment and length of stay in hospital. These improvements can occur through the reorganisation of existing services and with minimal extra cost. PMID:12142314

  5. Does UTI cause prolonged jaundice in otherwise well infants?

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Tanzila; Kisat, Hamudi; Tullus, Kjell

    2015-07-01

    The symptoms of urinary tract infections in infants are very non-specific and have historically included prolonged hyperbilirubinaemia. We studied the results of routine urine samples in 319 infants with prolonged jaundice. Convincing findings of UTI was not found in any of these children even if one of them was treated with antibiotics after four consecutive urine cultures with different bacteria. A urine culture might thus not be an appropriate investigation in a child with prolonged jaundice without any other symptoms of UTI. • The symptoms of UTI in infancy are very non-specific. • Old studies suggest that prolonged hyperbilirubinaemia is one such symptom; more modern studies give more conflicting results. What is New: • Our study could not confirm that children with prolonged jaundice have an increased risk of UTI. • Routine urine testing is thus not needed in otherwise healthy infants with prolonged jaundice.

  6. Objectification of facial color inspection to differentiate obstructive/nonobstructive jaundice in neonates by spectrophotometer.

    PubMed

    Shen, Zhen; Zheng, Shan; Dong, Rui; Chen, Gong

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to study whether color difference in facial color truly exists between neonates with obstructive and nonobstructive jaundice, and whether the color difference could be objectified by spectrophotometer. Twelve biliary atresia patients were enrolled in an obstructive jaundice group and 15 neonates admitted for non-conjugated hyperbilirubinemia in a nonobstructive group. Nine patients with syphilis (n=6) and sacrococcygeal teratoma (n=3) were studied as control. Transcutaneous total bilirubin (TB) and hemoglobin were recorded. Face color was measured by spectrophotometer. Spectral reflection curve and L*a*b* model parameters were studied. Facial color of jaundiced neonates were characteristic in waveform that reflectivity at wavelength of 550nm was significantly decreased compared with control by 16.4±3.4%, while not significantly different between obstructive and nonobstructive jaundice (p=0.124). At 650nm, reflection in nonobstructive jaundice was decreased by 8.4±2.3% (p<0.01), and reflection in obstructive jaundice was (9.6±3.2) % lower compared with nonobstructive jaundice (p<0.01). In L*a*b* model, mean color difference between obstructive and nonobstructive jaundice was 9.60. L* was significantly different: control (71.84±3.75%)>obstructive jaundice (58.09±1.25%)>nonobstructive jaundice (54.25±7.27%). Value b* was higher in jaundiced patients compared to normal control (11.88±2.16, p<0.001), but not significantly different in obstructive and nonobstructive jaundice (20.12±2.17vs18.25±4.58). Value a* was not significantly different between normal control (5.57±2.38) and obstructive jaundice (5.25±1.19), but was lower than nonobstructive jaundice (14.03±3.29, p<0.001). TB was significantly correlated with b* (R=0.526, p=0.014), while hemoglobin was correlated with a* (R=0.791, p<.001) and L* (R=-0.707, p<.001). Obstructive and nonobstructive jaundice could be objectively differentiated through facial color inspection by

  7. The causes of obvious jaundice in South West Wales: perceptions versus reality

    PubMed Central

    Whitehead, M; Hainsworth, I; Kingham, J

    2001-01-01

    AIMS—(1) A prospective analysis of clinically obvious jaundice (bilirubin >120 µmol/l) in South Wales to determine accuracy of diagnosis, referral pattern, treatment, and outcome. (2) To compare British gastroenterologists' and local general practitioners' perceptions of common causes of jaundice with our study findings.
METHODS—Over a seven month period all patients with bilirubin >120 µmol/l (excluding neonates with physiological jaundice) were identified by a biochemistry laboratory serving three general hospitals and the community. Clinical data were recorded prospectively. Sixty nine consultant gastroenterologists and 67 local general practitioners (GPs) were asked to cite the commonest causes of bilirubin >120 µmol/l in their experience.
RESULTS—A total of 121 patients were identified of whom 95 were admitted to hospital because of jaundice, 22 developed jaundice while in hospital, and four remained in the community. Causes of jaundice were: malignancy 42, sepsis/shock 27, cirrhosis 25, gall stones 16, drugs 7, autoimmune hepatitis 2, and viral hepatitis 2. One in five was wrongly diagnosed, often as viral hepatitis. Although 30% were under surgical care only 4% required surgery. Overall mortality was high (31%) and greatest in sepsis/shock (51%). Gastroenterologists and GPs both perceived malignancy and gall stones to be the commonest causes of marked jaundice followed by viral hepatitis and cirrhosis; sepsis/shock was hardly mentioned.
CONCLUSIONS—There are important discrepancies between gastroenterologists' and GPs' perceptions of likely causes of jaundice and the actual causes we have shown. In particular, sepsis/shock is common in hospital practice but is overlooked whereas viral hepatitis is rare but perceived as common and overdiagnosed. Gall stones usually cause mild jaundice with bilirubin levels less than 120 µmol/l. Many patients are referred to surgical services for historical reasons yet rarely require surgery and

  8. Bioinformatics analysis on molecular mechanism of rheum officinale in treatment of jaundice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shan, Si; Tu, Jun; Nie, Peng; Yan, Xiaojun

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To study the molecular mechanism of Rheum officinale in the treatment of Jaundice by building molecular networks and comparing canonical pathways. Methods: Target proteins of Rheum officinale and related genes of Jaundice were searched from Pubchem and Gene databases online respectively. Molecular networks and canonical pathways comparison analyses were performed by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA). Results: The molecular networks of Rheum officinale and Jaundice were complex and multifunctional. The 40 target proteins of Rheum officinale and 33 Homo sapiens genes of Jaundice were found in databases. There were 19 common pathways both related networks. Rheum officinale could regulate endothelial differentiation, Interleukin-1B (IL-1B) and Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) in these pathways. Conclusions: Rheum officinale treat Jaundice by regulating many effective nodes of Apoptotic pathway and cellular immunity related pathways.

  9. The prognostic importance of jaundice in surgical resection with curative intent for gallbladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xin-wei; Yuan, Jian-mao; Chen, Jun-yi; Yang, Jue; Gao, Quan-gen; Yan, Xing-zhou; Zhang, Bao-hua; Feng, Shen; Wu, Meng-chao

    2014-09-03

    Preoperative jaundice is frequent in gallbladder cancer (GBC) and indicates advanced disease. Resection is rarely recommended to treat advanced GBC. An aggressive surgical approach for advanced GBC remains lacking because of the association of this disease with serious postoperative complications and poor prognosis. This study aims to re-assess the prognostic value of jaundice for the morbidity, mortality, and survival of GBC patients who underwent surgical resection with curative intent. GBC patients who underwent surgical resection with curative intent at a single institution between January 2003 and December 2012 were identified from a prospectively maintained database. A total of 192 patients underwent surgical resection with curative intent, of whom 47 had preoperative jaundice and 145 had none. Compared with the non-jaundiced patients, the jaundiced patients had significantly longer operative time (p < 0.001) and more intra-operative bleeding (p = 0.001), frequent combined resections of adjacent organs (23.4% vs. 2.8%, p = 0.001), and postoperative complications (12.4% vs. 34%, p = 0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that preoperative jaundice was the only independent predictor of postoperative complications. The jaundiced patients had lower survival rates than the non-jaundiced patients (p < 0.001). However, lymph node metastasis and gallbladder neck tumors were the only significant risk factors of poor prognosis. Non-curative resection was the only independent predictor of poor prognosis among the jaundiced patients. The survival rates of the jaundiced patients with preoperative biliary drainage (PBD) were similar to those of the jaundiced patients without PBD (p = 0.968). No significant differences in the rate of postoperative intra-abdominal abscesses were found between the jaundiced patients with and without PBD (n = 4, 21.1% vs. n = 5, 17.9%, p = 0.787). Preoperative jaundice indicates poor prognosis and high postoperative morbidity but is not a

  10. The impact of high-resolution ultrasound in the differential diagnosis of non-hemolytic jaundice.

    PubMed

    Rauh, Peter; Neye, Holger; Mönkemüller, Klaus; Malfertheiner, Peter; Rickes, Steffen

    2010-12-01

    Because jaundice is a common reason for hospital admission. A fast and correct differential diagnosis is very important to increase treatment efficacy. The aim of our study was to evaluate the impact of the high-resolution ultrasound in this kind of clinical setting. In a prospective study we included 30 patients and we divided them in patients with extrahepatic jaundice and patients with intrahepatic jaundice. We observed a high accuracy of the high-resolution sonography, with a sensitivity of 95% and a specificity of 100% for extrahepatic jaundice, and a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 95% for intrahepatic jaundice. We conclude that the high-resolution ultrasound should be used in the very beginning of the diagnostic algorithm for the evaluation of patients with unclear jaundice.

  11. [Clinical-diagnostic estimation of carbohydrates metabolism in obturation jaundice].

    PubMed

    Nychytaĭlo, M Iu; Malyk, S V

    2004-07-01

    Complex examination of 175 patients with obturation jaundice was conducted, peculiar attention was spared to the carbohydrates metabolism changes, characterizing hepatic state. It was established, that in obturation jaundice in the liver there are occurring inflammatory changes and disturbances of all kinds of metabolism, including that of carbohydrates, severity of which depends on duration of jaundice, the concurrent diseases presence, they shows lowering of the glucose and glycogen level in the blood, as well as the hepatic glycogen content, that's why they may be applied as a complex of prognostic criterions for the disease course. An early conduction of operative treatment, elimination of the biliary ducts impassability promote the rehabilitation period shortening and the hepatic functional activity normalization.

  12. Clinical features and risk factors of acute hepatitis E with severe jaundice

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Bin; Yu, Hai-Bin; Hui, Wei; He, Jia-Li; Wei, Lin-Lin; Wang, Zheng; Guo, Xin-Hui

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To compares the clinical features of patients infected with hepatitis E virus (HEV) with or without severe jaundice. In addition, the risk factors for HEV infection with severe jaundice were investigated. METHODS: We enrolled 235 patients with HEV into a cross-sectional study using multi-stage sampling to select the study group. Patients with possible acute hepatitis E showing elevated liver enzyme levels were screened for HEV infection using serologic and molecular tools.HEV infection was documented by HEV antibodies and by the detection of HEV-RNA in serum. We used χ2 analysis, Fisher’s exact test, and Student’s t test where appropriate in this study. Significant predictors in the univariate analysis were then included in a forward, stepwise multiple logistic regression model. RESULTS: No significant differences in symptoms, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, or hepatitis B virus surface antigen between the two groups were observed. HEV infected patients with severe jaundice had significantly lower peak serum levels of γ-glutamyl-transpeptidase (GGT) (median: 170.31 U/L vs 237.96 U/L, P = 0.007), significantly lower ALB levels (33.84 g/L vs 36.89 g/L, P = 0.000), significantly lower acetylcholine esterase (CHE) levels (4500.93 U/L vs 5815.28 U/L, P = 0.000) and significantly higher total bile acid (TBA) levels (275.56 μmol/L vs 147.03 μmol/L, P = 0.000) than those without severe jaundice. The median of the lowest point time tended to be lower in patients with severe jaundice (81.64% vs 96.12%, P = 0.000). HEV infected patients with severe jaundice had a significantly higher viral load (median: 134 vs 112, P = 0.025) than those without severe jaundice. HEV infected patients with severe jaundice showed a trend toward longer median hospital stay (38.17 d vs 18.36 d, P = 0.073). Multivariate logistic regression indicated that there were significant differences in age, sex, viral load, GGT, albumin, TBA, CHE

  13. Clinical features and risk factors of acute hepatitis E with severe jaundice.

    PubMed

    Xu, Bin; Yu, Hai-Bin; Hui, Wei; He, Jia-Li; Wei, Lin-Lin; Wang, Zheng; Guo, Xin-Hui

    2012-12-28

    To compares the clinical features of patients infected with hepatitis E virus (HEV) with or without severe jaundice. In addition, the risk factors for HEV infection with severe jaundice were investigated. We enrolled 235 patients with HEV into a cross-sectional study using multi-stage sampling to select the study group. Patients with possible acute hepatitis E showing elevated liver enzyme levels were screened for HEV infection using serologic and molecular tools.HEV infection was documented by HEV antibodies and by the detection of HEV-RNA in serum. We used χ(2) analysis, Fisher's exact test, and Student's t test where appropriate in this study. Significant predictors in the univariate analysis were then included in a forward, stepwise multiple logistic regression model. No significant differences in symptoms, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, or hepatitis B virus surface antigen between the two groups were observed. HEV infected patients with severe jaundice had significantly lower peak serum levels of γ-glutamyl-transpeptidase (GGT) (median: 170.31 U/L vs 237.96 U/L, P = 0.007), significantly lower ALB levels (33.84 g/L vs 36.89 g/L, P = 0.000), significantly lower acetylcholine esterase (CHE) levels (4500.93 U/L vs 5815.28 U/L, P = 0.000) and significantly higher total bile acid (TBA) levels (275.56 μmol/L vs 147.03 μmol/L, P = 0.000) than those without severe jaundice. The median of the lowest point time tended to be lower in patients with severe jaundice (81.64% vs 96.12%, P = 0.000). HEV infected patients with severe jaundice had a significantly higher viral load (median: 134 vs 112, P = 0.025) than those without severe jaundice. HEV infected patients with severe jaundice showed a trend toward longer median hospital stay (38.17 d vs 18.36 d, P = 0.073). Multivariate logistic regression indicated that there were significant differences in age, sex, viral load, GGT, albumin, TBA, CHE, prothrombin index, alcohol

  14. Role of endoscopic biliary drainage in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma with jaundice.

    PubMed

    Woo, Hyun Young; Han, Sung Yong; Heo, Jeong; Kim, Dong Uk; Baek, Dong Hoon; Yoo, So Yong; Kim, Chang Won; Kim, Suk; Song, Geun Am; Cho, Mong; Kang, Dae Hwan

    2017-01-01

    Patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with jaundice have an extremely poor prognosis. Although biliary drainage can resolve obstructive jaundice, signs of obstruction may not be evident. This study evaluated the role of endoscopic biliary drainage in patients with advanced HCC and obstructive jaundice. From 2010 to 2015, 74 patients underwent endoscopic biliary drainage for obstructive jaundice due to advanced HCC. Jaundice resolution was defined as complete response and total bilirubin concentration below 3 mg/dl. The technical success rate in the 74 patients was 92.1% (70/76). Of the 70 patients who underwent successful biliary drainage, 48 (68.6%) and 22 (31.4%) were Child-Pugh classes B and C, respectively, and 10 (14.3%) and 60 (85.7%) were BCLC stages B and C, respectively. Intrahepatic bile duct (IHD) dilatation was observed in 35 patients (50%). After drainage, the complete response rate was 35.7% (25/70). The mean time to resolution was 17.4 ±8.5 days. However, jaundice was re-aggravated in 74.3% (15/25) after a mean 103.5 ±96.4 days. Multivariate analysis showed that the absence of ascites, presence of IHD dilatation, normal range of prothrombin time, and lower MELD score were significantly associated with complete response. The overall survival rate was 15.7% (11/70) and the median survival time is 28 days (95% confidence interval 2.6-563 days). Complete response and HCC treatment after drainage were significantly associated with survival. Effective endoscopic biliary drainage is an important palliative treatment in patients with advanced HCC and obstructive jaundice, especially those with IHD dilatation and preserved liver function, as determined by ascites, prothrombin time, and MELD score.

  15. Prolonged jaundice in newborns is associated with low antioxidant capacity in breast milk.

    PubMed

    Uras, Nurdan; Tonbul, Alpaslan; Karadag, Ahmet; Dogan, Derya G; Erel, Ozcan; Tatli, Mustafa M

    2010-10-01

    In breastfeeding newborns who are otherwise healthy, the mechanism of prolonged jaundice remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate relations between prolonged jaundice and oxidative parameters in breast milk. Full-term, otherwise healthy newborns with jaundice lasting more than 2 weeks were enrolled prospectively in the study. As a control group, newborns in the same age group but without prolonged jaundice were selected. All newborns in the study were exclusively breastfed. In the newborns with prolonged jaundice, investigations of the etiology of the jaundice included complete blood count, peripheral blood smear, blood typing, direct Coombs test, measurement of serum levels of total and direct bilirubin, tests for liver and thyroid function (TSH, free T4, total T4), urine culture and measurement of urine reducing substances, and determination of glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase enzyme levels. Breast milk was collected from the mothers of the newborns in both groups. The antioxidant status of the breast milk was assessed via determination of total antioxidant capacity (TAC). Oxidative stress was also assessed in breast milk by measurement of total oxidation status (TOS) and calculation of the oxidative stress index (OSI). The prolonged jaundice group differed significantly from the control group in terms of mean TAC and OSI (p < 0.001), but not in terms of TOS. In conclusion, in the breast milk of mothers of newborns with prolonged jaundice, oxidative stress was found to be increased, and protective antioxidant capacity was found to be decreased.

  16. Outcomes in Patients with Obstructive Jaundice from Metastatic Colorectal Cancer and Implications for Management

    PubMed Central

    Nichols, Shawnn D.; Albert, Scott; Shirley, Lawrence; Schmidt, Carl; Abdel-Misih, Sherif; El-Dika, Samer; Groce, J. Royce; Wu, Christina; Goldberg, Richard M.; Bekaii-Saab, Tanios; Bloomston, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Patients with metastatic colorectal cancer can develop jaundice from intrahepatic or extrahepatic causes. Currently, there is little data on the underlying causes and overall survival after onset of jaundice. The purpose of this study was to characterize the causes of jaundice and determine outcomes. Methods Six hundred twenty-nine patients treated for metastatic colorectal cancer between 2004 and 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. Those developing jaundice were grouped as having intrahepatic or extrahepatic obstruction. Demographics, clinicopathologic, and outcome data were analyzed. Results Sixty-two patients with metastatic colorectal cancer developed jaundice. Intrahepatic biliary obstruction was most common, occurring in younger patients. Time from metastatic diagnosis to presentation of jaundice was similar between groups, as was the mean number of prior lines of chemotherapy. Biliary decompression was successful 41.7 % of the time and was attempted more commonly for extrahepatic causes. Median overall survival after onset of jaundice was 1.5 months and it was similar between groups, but improved to 9.6 months in patients who were able to receive further chemotherapy. Conclusions Jaundice due to metastatic colorectal cancer is an ominous finding, representing aggressive tumor biology or exhaustion of therapies. Biliary decompression is often difficult and should only be pursued when additional treatment options are available. PMID:25300799

  17. Incidence and Risk Factors for Neonatal Jaundice among Newborns in Southern Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Scrafford, Carolyn G.; Mullany, Luke C.; Katz, Joanne; Khatry, Subarna K.; LeClerq, Steven C.; Darmstadt, Gary L.; Tielsch, James M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To quantify the incidence of and risk factors for neonatal jaundice among infants referred for care from a rural, low-resource, population-based cohort in southern Nepal. Methods Study participants were 18,985 newborn infants born in Sarlahi District in Southern Nepal from May 2003 through January 2006 who participated in a cluster-randomized, placebo-controlled, community-based trial to evaluate the effect of newborn chlorhexidine cleansing on neonatal mortality and morbidity. Jaundice was assessed based on visual assessment of the infant by a study worker and referral for care. Adjusted relative risks (RR) were estimated to identify risk factors for referral for neonatal jaundice using Poisson regression. Results The incidence of referral for neonatal jaundice was 29.3 per 1,000 live births (95% Confidence Interval: 26.9, 31.7). Male sex, high birth weight, breastfeeding patterns, warm air temperature, primiparity, skilled birth attendance, place of delivery, prolonged labor, oil massage, paternal education, and ethnicity were significant risk factors (p-values<0.01). After multi-variable adjustment, sex, birth weight, difficulty feeding, prolonged labor, primiparity, oil massage, ambient air temperature, and ethnicity remained important factors. Among infants with difficulty feeding, exclusive breastfeeding was a risk factor for neonatal jaundice, whereas exclusive breastfeeding was protective among infants with no report of difficulty feeding. Conclusions Several known risk factors for neonatal jaundice in a low-resource setting were confirmed in this study. Unique observed associations of jaundice with ambient air temperature and oil massage may be explained by the opportunity for phototherapy based on the cultural practices of this study population. Future research should investigate the role of an infant’s difficulty in feeding as a potential modifier in the association between exclusive breastfeeding and jaundice. PMID:24112359

  18. [Jaundice and urinary tract infection in neonates: simple coincidence or real consequence?].

    PubMed

    Abourazzak, S; Bouharrou, A; Hida, M

    2013-09-01

    In neonates, jaundice may be one of the initial symptoms related to urinary tract infection (UTI). The routine testing of the urine in jaundiced neonates is controversial. This study aimed to evaluate the related factors of neonatal infants with the initial presentation of hyperbilirubinemia and the final diagnosis of UTI by evaluating data that help diagnose UTI early in apparently healthy newborns with jaundice. We retrospectively investigated the medical records of neonates who had been admitted for management of jaundice (n=26) and compared with neonates with jaundice but without UTI (n=26). There was a significant difference between the two groups in male gender and maternal conditions (prolonged rupture of membranes, maternal UTI). There was also a significant difference between the two groups in their age at the time jaundice started (4 ± 3 days vs 2 ± 1 days) in the UTI and non-UTI groups, respectively (P>0.05). The cases in the UTI group had significantly lower total bilirubin levels (183 ± 71 mg/l) vs (227 ± 40 mg/l) in the non-UTI group, but a higher indirect bilirubin rate than the non-UTI group (P<0.05). Type B blood group was more common in neonates with UTI (P<0.01). In the cases presented herein, none of the jaundiced infants with UTI presented conjugated hyperbilirubinemia. Therefore, urinary tests for UTI should not be absolutely excluded or neglected in neonates in the early stage with unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia. Performing urinary tests to exclude the possibility of coincidental UTI may be necessary for admitted jaundiced infants younger than if they have a high level of indirect bilirubin, especially in male newborns with group B blood and in the presence of maternal urinary infection. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Role of endoscopic biliary drainage in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma with jaundice

    PubMed Central

    Han, Sung Yong; Heo, Jeong; Kim, Dong Uk; Baek, Dong Hoon; Yoo, So Yong; Kim, Chang Won; Kim, Suk; Song, Geun Am; Cho, Mong; Kang, Dae Hwan

    2017-01-01

    Background Patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with jaundice have an extremely poor prognosis. Although biliary drainage can resolve obstructive jaundice, signs of obstruction may not be evident. This study evaluated the role of endoscopic biliary drainage in patients with advanced HCC and obstructive jaundice. Methods From 2010 to 2015, 74 patients underwent endoscopic biliary drainage for obstructive jaundice due to advanced HCC. Jaundice resolution was defined as complete response and total bilirubin concentration below 3 mg/dl. Results The technical success rate in the 74 patients was 92.1% (70/76). Of the 70 patients who underwent successful biliary drainage, 48 (68.6%) and 22 (31.4%) were Child-Pugh classes B and C, respectively, and 10 (14.3%) and 60 (85.7%) were BCLC stages B and C, respectively. Intrahepatic bile duct (IHD) dilatation was observed in 35 patients (50%). After drainage, the complete response rate was 35.7% (25/70). The mean time to resolution was 17.4 ±8.5 days. However, jaundice was re-aggravated in 74.3% (15/25) after a mean 103.5 ±96.4 days. Multivariate analysis showed that the absence of ascites, presence of IHD dilatation, normal range of prothrombin time, and lower MELD score were significantly associated with complete response. The overall survival rate was 15.7% (11/70) and the median survival time is 28 days (95% confidence interval 2.6–563 days). Complete response and HCC treatment after drainage were significantly associated with survival. Conclusion Effective endoscopic biliary drainage is an important palliative treatment in patients with advanced HCC and obstructive jaundice, especially those with IHD dilatation and preserved liver function, as determined by ascites, prothrombin time, and MELD score. PMID:29095941

  20. The Efficacy of Endoscopic Palliation of Obstructive Jaundice in Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Park, Semi; Park, Jeong Youp; Chung, Moon Jae; Chung, Jae Bock; Park, Seung Woo; Han, Kwang-Hyub; Song, Si Young

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Obstructive jaundice in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is uncommon (0.5-13%). Unlike other causes of obstructive jaundice, the role of endoscopic intervention in obstructive jaundice complicated by HCC has not been clearly defined. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical characteristics of obstructive jaundice caused by HCC and predictive factors for successful endoscopic intervention. Materials and Methods From 1999 to 2009, 54 patients with HCC who underwent endoscopic intervention to relieve obstructive jaundice were included. We defined endoscopic intervention as a clinical success when the obstructive jaundice was relieved within 4 weeks. Results Clinical success was achieved in 23 patients (42.6%). Patients in the clinical success group showed better Child-Pugh liver function (C-P grade A or B/C; 17/6 vs. 8/20), lower total bilirubin levels (8.1±5.3 mg/dL vs. 23.1±10.4 mg/dL) prior to the treatment, and no history of alcohol consumption. The only factor predictive of clinical success by multivariate analysis was low total bilirubin level at the time of endoscopic intervention, regardless of history of alcohol consumption [odds ratio 1.223 (95% confidence interval, 1.071-1.396), p=0.003]. The cut-off value of pre-endoscopic treatment total bilirubin level was 12.8 mg/dL for predicting the clinical prognosis. Median survival after endoscopic intervention in the clinical success group was notably longer than that in the clinical failure group (5.6 months vs. 1.5 months, p≤0.001). Conclusion Before endoscopic intervention, liver function, especially total bilirubin level, should be checked to achieve the best clinical outcome. Endoscopic intervention can be helpful to relieve jaundice in well selected patients with HCC. PMID:25048484

  1. FLUCTUATING JAUNDICE IN THE ADENOCARCINOMA OF THE AMPULLA OF VATER: a classic sign or an exception?

    PubMed

    Alves, José Roberto; Amico, Enio Campos; Souza, Dyego Leandro Bezerra de; Oliveira, Patrick Vanttinny Vieira de; Maranhão, Ícaro Godeiro de Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    Some authors consider the fluctuating jaundice as a classic sign of the adenocarcinoma of the ampulla of Vater. Assessing the frequency of fluctuating jaundice in their forms of its depiction in the patients with adenocarcinoma of the ampulla of Vater. Observational and retrospective study, conducted through analyses of medical records from patients subjected to pancreatic cephalic resections between February 2008 and July 2013. The pathological examination of the surgical specimen was positive to adenocarcinoma of the ampulla of Vater. Concepts and differences on clinical and laboratory fluctuating jaundice were standardized. It was subdivided into type A and type B laboratory fluctuating jaundice. Twenty patients were selected. One of them always remained anicteric, 11 patients developed progressive jaundice, 2 of them developed clinical and laboratory fluctuating jaundice, 5 presented only laboratory fluctuating jaundice and one did not present significant variations on total serum bilirubin levels. Among the seven patients with fluctuating jaundice, two were classified as type A, one as type B and four were not classified due to lack information. Finally, progressive jaundice was the prevailing presentation form in these patients (11 cases). This series of cases suggested that clinical fluctuating jaundice is a uncommon signal in adenocarcinoma of the ampulla of Vater.

  2. Jaundice as a prognostic factor in patients undergoing radical treatment for carcinomas of the ampulla of Vater.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jianguo; Zhang, Qian; Li, Peng; Shan, Yi; Zhao, Dongbing; Cai, Jianqiang

    2014-01-01

    Carcinomas of the ampulla of Vater (CAV) is a relatively rare malignant gastrointestinal tumor, and its postoperative prognostic factors have been well studied. However, as its first symptom, the impact of jaundice on the prognosis of CAV is not so clear. This study aims to explore the role of jaundice as a prognostic factor in patients undergoing radical treatment for CAV. The clinical data of 195 patients with CAV who were treated in the Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, from January 1989 to January 2013 were retrospectively analyzed. Among them, 170 patients with pathologically confirmed CAV entered the statistical analysis. Jaundice was defined as a total bilirubin serum concentration of ≥ 3 mg/dl. Result Of these 170 patients, 99 (58.20%) had jaundice at presentation. Jaundice showed significant correlations with tumor differentiation (P = 0.002), lymph node metastasis (P = 0.016), pancreatic invasion (P = 0.000), elevated preoperative CA199 (P = 0.000), depth of invasion (P = 0.000), and tumor stage (P = 0.000). There were more patients with pancreatic invasion in the jaundice group than in the non-jaundice group. Also, lymph node metastasis was more common in the jaundice group (n = 26) than in the non-jaundice group (n = 8). The non-jaundice group had significant better overall 5-year disease-free survival (72.6%) than the jaundice group (41.2%, P = 0.013). Jaundice was not significantly correlated with the postoperative bleeding (P = 0.050). Jaundice in patients with CAV often predicts more advanced stages and poorer prognoses. Pancreatic invasion and lymph node metastasis are more common in CAV patients with jaundice. Jaundice is not a risk factor for postoperative bleeding and preoperative biliary drainage cannot reduce the incidence of postoperative complications.

  3. Resolution pattern of jaundice among children presenting with severe malaria in rural South-West Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Osonuga, O A; Osonuga, A; Osonuga, A A; Osonuga, I O

    2012-07-01

    To compare the pattern of jaundice resolution among children with severe malaria treated with quinine and artemether. Thirty two children who fulfilled the inclusion criteria were recruited for the study from two hospitals with intensive care facilities. They were divided into two groups; 'Q' and 'A', receiving quinine and artemether, respectively. Jaundice was assessed by clinical examination. Sixteen out of 32 children recruited (representing 50%) presented with jaundice on the day of recruitment. The mean age was (7.00°C2.56) years. On day 3, four patients in 'A' and six patients in 'Q' had jaundice. By day 7, no child had jaundice. The study has shown that both drugs resolve jaundice although artemether relatively resolves it faster by the third day.

  4. The natural history of autoimmune hepatitis presenting with jaundice.

    PubMed

    Panayi, Vasilis; Froud, Oliver J; Vine, Louisa; Laurent, Paul; Woolson, Kathy L; Hunter, Jeremy G; Madden, Richard G; Miller, Catherine; Palmer, Jo; Harris, Nicola; Mathew, Joe; Stableforth, Bill; Murray, Iain A; Dalton, Harry R

    2014-06-01

    Forty percent of patients with autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) present with acute jaundice/hepatitis. Such patients, when treated promptly, are thought to have a good prognosis. The objective of this study was to describe the natural history of AIH in patients presenting with jaundice/hepatitis and to determine whether the diagnosis could have been made earlier, before presentation. This study is a retrospective review of 2249 consecutive patients who presented with jaundice to the Jaundice Hotline clinic, Truro, Cornwall, UK, over 15 years (1998-2013) and includes a review of the laboratory data over a 23-year period (1990-2013). Of the 955 patients with hepatocellular jaundice, 47 (5%) had criterion-referenced AIH: 35 female and 12 male, the median age was 65 years (range 15-91 years); the bilirubin concentration was 139 μmol/l (range 23-634 μmol/l) and the alanine transaminase level was 687 IU/l (range 22-2519 IU/l). Among the patients, 23/46 (50%) were cirrhotic on biopsy; 11/47 (23%) died: median time from diagnosis to death, 5 months (range 1-59); median age, 72 years (range 59-91 years). All 8/11 patients who died of liver-related causes were cirrhotic. Weight loss (P=0.04) and presence of cirrhosis (P=0.004) and varices (P=0.015) were more common among those who died. Among patients who died from liver-related causes, 6/8 (75%) died less than 6 months from diagnosis. Cirrhosis at presentation and oesophageal varices were associated with early liver-related deaths (P=0.011, 0.002 respectively). Liver function test results were available in 33/47 (70%) patients before presentation. Among these patients, 16 (49%) had abnormal alanine transaminase levels previously, and eight (50%) were cirrhotic at presentation. AIH presenting as jaundice/hepatitis was mainly observed in older women: 50% of the patients were cirrhotic, and liver-related mortality was high. Some of these deaths were potentially preventable by earlier diagnosis, as the patients had abnormal liver

  5. Enzymatic Removal of Bilirubin from Blood: A Potential Treatment for Neonatal Jaundice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavin, Arthur; Sung, Cynthia; Klibanov, Alexander M.; Langer, Robert

    1985-11-01

    Current treatments for severe jaundice can result in major complications. Neonatal jaundice is caused by excessive accumulation of bilirubin in the blood. A small blood filter containing immobilized bilirubin oxidase was developed to reduce serum bilirubin concentrations. When human or rat blood was passed through the enzyme filter, more than 90 percent of the bilirubin was degraded in a single pass. This procedure may have important applications in the clinical treatment of neonatal jaundice.

  6. Feto-Maternal Outcome of Jaundice in Pregnancy in a Tertiary Care Hospital.

    PubMed

    Parveen, T; Begum, F; Akhter, N

    2015-07-01

    Acute viral hepatitis is the most common cause of jaundice in pregnancy. Amongst hepatitis E bears a deadly combination with pregnancy, leading to loss of very young lives. There is almost no data available in this aspect documenting prevalence, profile and effect of jaundice on outcome of pregnancy in Bangladesh. This observational study was done to determine and analyze the frequency, cause and outcome of jaundice in pregnancy among the admitted patients in the feto-maternal medicine wing of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University, for a 2 years period from August 2009 to July 2011. Management was done in collaboration with the hepatologists, hematologists and intensive care unit specialist. Outcome was noted in terms of the mode of delivery, maternal complications, need of blood transfusion and fresh frozen plasma and maternal end result. Fetal outcome was assessed by birth weight, Apgar score, neonatal admission, and perinatal mortality. Prevalence of jaundice was found 2.5% among all high risk and 1.3% among all obstetric admissions. Hepatitis E was the commonest cause and responsible for 80.4% cases of jaundice and next was cholestatic jaundice. Almost half of the patients (43.4%) faced complications like post partum haemorrhage (15.3%), hepatic encephalopathy (10.8%), ante partum hemorrhage (6.5%). Preterm delivery was noted in 71.1% cases. Out of 46 patients with jaundice four (4) mothers died due to hepatic encephalopathy in hepatitis E group. Regarding perinatal outcome 55.8% were of low birth weight, 35.3% had low Apgar score and perinatal mortality was 6.4%.

  7. The impact of the maternal experience with a jaundiced newborn on the breastfeeding relationship.

    PubMed

    Willis, Sharla K; Hannon, Patricia R; Scrimshaw, Susan C

    2002-05-01

    To examine the process by which mothers' experiences with neonatal jaundice affect breastfeeding. We used ethnographic interviews with grounded theory methodology. Audiotaped data were transcribed and analyzed for themes using ATLAS/ti qualitative data analysis software (Scientific Software Development, Berlin, Germany). We studied a total of 47 Spanish- and English-speaking breastfeeding mothers of otherwise healthy infants diagnosed with neonatal jaundice. Our outcomes were the qualitative descriptions of maternal experiences with neonatal jaundice. Interactions with medical professionals emerged as the most important factor mediating the impact of neonatal jaundice on breastfeeding. Breastfeeding orders and the level of encouragement from medical professionals toward breastfeeding had the strongest effect on feeding decisions. Maternal reaction to and understanding of information from their physicians also played an important role. Guilt was common, as many mothers felt they had caused the jaundice by breastfeeding. By providing accurate information and encouragement to breastfeed, medical professionals have great impact on whether a mother continues breastfeeding after her experience with neonatal jaundice. Health care providers must be aware of how mothers receive and interpret information related to jaundice to minimize maternal reactions, such as guilt, that have a negative impact on breastfeeding.

  8. Jaundice increases the rate of complications and one-year mortality in patients with hypoxic hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Jäger, Bernhard; Drolz, Andreas; Michl, Barbara; Schellongowski, Peter; Bojic, Andja; Nikfardjam, Miriam; Zauner, Christian; Heinz, Gottfried; Trauner, Michael; Fuhrmann, Valentin

    2012-12-01

    Hypoxic hepatitis (HH) is the most frequent cause of acute liver injury in critically ill patients. No clinical data exist about new onset of jaundice in patients with HH. This study aimed to evaluate the incidence and clinical effect of jaundice in critically ill patients with HH. Two hundred and six consecutive patients with HH were screened for the development of jaundice during the course of HH. Individuals with preexisting jaundice or liver cirrhosis at the time of admission (n = 31) were excluded from analysis. Jaundice was diagnosed in patients with plasma total bilirubin levels >3 mg/dL. One-year-survival, infections, and cardiopulmonary, gastrointestinal (GI), renal, and hepatic complications were prospectively documented. New onset of jaundice occurred in 63 of 175 patients with HH (36%). In patients who survived the acute event of HH, median duration of jaundice was 6 days (interquartile range, 3-8). Patients who developed jaundice (group 1) needed vasopressor treatment (P < 0.05), renal replacement therapy (P < 0.05), and mechanical ventilation (P < 0.05) more often and had a higher maximal administered dose of norepinephrine (P < 0.05), compared to patients without jaundice (group 2). One-year survival rate was significantly lower in group 1, compared to group 2 (8% versus 25%, respectively; P < 0.05). Occurrence of jaundice was associated with an increased frequency of complications during follow-up (54% in group 1 versus 35% in group 2; P < 0.05). In particular, infections as well as renal and GI complications occurred more frequently in group 1 during follow-up. Jaundice is a common finding during the course of HH. It leads to an increased rate of complications and worse outcome in patients with HH. Copyright © 2012 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  9. [Application of Bayes Probability Model in Differentiation of Yin and Yang Jaundice Syndromes in Neonates].

    PubMed

    Mu, Chun-sun; Zhang, Ping; Kong, Chun-yan; Li, Yang-ning

    2015-09-01

    To study the application of Bayes probability model in differentiating yin and yang jaundice syndromes in neonates. Totally 107 jaundice neonates who admitted to hospital within 10 days after birth were assigned to two groups according to syndrome differentiation, 68 in the yang jaundice syndrome group and 39 in the yin jaundice syndrome group. Data collected for neonates were factors related to jaundice before, during and after birth. Blood routines, liver and renal functions, and myocardial enzymes were tested on the admission day or the next day. Logistic regression model and Bayes discriminating analysis were used to screen factors important for yin and yang jaundice syndrome differentiation. Finally, Bayes probability model for yin and yang jaundice syndromes was established and assessed. Factors important for yin and yang jaundice syndrome differentiation screened by Logistic regression model and Bayes discriminating analysis included mothers' age, mother with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), gestational age, asphyxia, or ABO hemolytic diseases, red blood cell distribution width (RDW-SD), platelet-large cell ratio (P-LCR), serum direct bilirubin (DBIL), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), cholinesterase (CHE). Bayes discriminating analysis was performed by SPSS to obtain Bayes discriminant function coefficient. Bayes discriminant function was established according to discriminant function coefficients. Yang jaundice syndrome: y1= -21. 701 +2. 589 x mother's age + 1. 037 x GDM-17. 175 x asphyxia + 13. 876 x gestational age + 6. 303 x ABO hemolytic disease + 2.116 x RDW-SD + 0. 831 x DBIL + 0. 012 x ALP + 1. 697 x LCR + 0. 001 x CHE; Yin jaundice syndrome: y2= -33. 511 + 2.991 x mother's age + 3.960 x GDM-12. 877 x asphyxia + 11. 848 x gestational age + 1. 820 x ABO hemolytic disease +2. 231 x RDW-SD +0. 999 x DBIL +0. 023 x ALP +1. 916 x LCR +0. 002 x CHE. Bayes discriminant function was hypothesis tested and got Wilks' λ =0. 393 (P =0. 000). So Bayes

  10. Resolution pattern of jaundice among children presenting with severe malaria in rural South-West Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Osonuga, OA; Osonuga, A; Osonuga, AA; Osonuga, IO

    2012-01-01

    Objective To compare the pattern of jaundice resolution among children with severe malaria treated with quinine and artemether. Methods Thirty two children who fulfilled the inclusion criteria were recruited for the study from two hospitals with intensive care facilities. They were divided into two groups; ‘Q’ and ‘A’, receiving quinine and artemether, respectively. Jaundice was assessed by clinical examination. Results Sixteen out of 32 children recruited (representing 50%) presented with jaundice on the day of recruitment. The mean age was (7.00°C2.56) years. On day 3, four patients in ‘A’ and six patients in ‘Q’ had jaundice. By day 7, no child had jaundice. Conclusion The study has shown that both drugs resolve jaundice although artemether relatively resolves it faster by the third day. PMID:23569969

  11. Two cases of Kawasaki disease presented with acute febrile jaundice.

    PubMed

    Kaman, Ayşe; Aydın-Teke, Türkan; Gayretli-Aydın, Zeynep Gökçe; Öz, Fatma Nur; Metin-Akcan, Özge; Eriş, Deniz; Tanır, Gönül

    2017-01-01

    Kawasaki disease is an acute, systemic vasculitis of unknown etiology. Although gastrointestinal involvement does not belong to the classic diagnostic criteria; diarrhea, abdominal pain, hepatic dysfunction, hydrops of gallbladder, and acute febrile cholestatic jaundice are reported in patients with Kawasaki disease. We describe here two cases presented with fever, and acute jaundice as initial features of Kawasaki disease.

  12. An unusual case of hyperthyroidism associated with jaundice and hypercalcaemia.

    PubMed

    Klangjareonchai, Theerawut

    2012-05-08

    A 51-year-old woman with rheumatoid arthritis presented with a 3 month history of painless jaundice and significant weight loss and constipation. Laboratory values were consistent with hyperthyroidism, cholestatic jaundice and parathyroid hormone-independent hypercalcaemia. Three months after beginning of methimazole, euthyroidism was achieved and serum adjusted calcium, total and direct bilirubin levels were normal.

  13. Evaluation of Jaundice in Adults.

    PubMed

    Fargo, Matthew V; Grogan, Scott P; Saguil, Aaron

    2017-02-01

    Jaundice in adults can be an indicator of significant underlying disease. It is caused by elevated serum bilirubin levels in the unconjugated or conjugated form. The evaluation of jaundice relies on the history and physical examination. The initial laboratory evaluation should include fractionated bilirubin, a complete blood count, alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, ?-glutamyltransferase, prothrombin time and/or international normalized ratio, albumin, and protein. Imaging with ultrasonography or computed tomography can differentiate between extrahepatic obstructive and intrahepatic parenchymal disorders. Ultrasonography is the least invasive and least expensive imaging method. A more extensive evaluation may include additional cancer screening, biliary imaging, autoimmune antibody assays, and liver biopsy. Unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia occurs with increased bilirubin production caused by red blood cell destruction, such as hemolytic disorders, and disorders of impaired bilirubin conjugation, such as Gilbert syndrome. Conjugated hyperbilirubinemia occurs in disorders of hepatocellular damage, such as viral and alcoholic hepatitis, and cholestatic disorders, such as choledocholithiasis and neoplastic obstruction of the biliary tree.

  14. Influence of a Phototherapy Unit on Detection of Neonatal Jaundice and Hyperbilirubinemia

    PubMed Central

    Jolly, Donald T.

    1984-01-01

    The introduction of a phototherapy unit in a rural community hospital resulted in a significant increase in the detection of neonatal jaundice and hyperbilirubinemia in otherwise healthy term infants. Jaundiced newborns who were either missed or ignored in the past were now identified and monitored. Both the number of breast-fed infants and the number of primiparous women delivered increased significantly after the unit was obtained. However, these factors alone did not account for the marked increase in the detection rate of jaundice and hyperbilirubinemia. A sub-population of 94 infants was selected to evaluate the clinical assessment of jaundice in the term infant. The accuracy rate for clinical assessment was 70%; 13.8% of newborns with serum bilirubins above 10 mg/dl (170 umol/L) were not identified clinically. PMID:21279119

  15. Newborn jaundice and kernicterus--health and societal perspectives.

    PubMed

    Bhutani, Vinod K; Johnson, Lois H

    2003-05-01

    Kernicterus, a preventable injury to the brain from severe neonatal jaundice, has re-emerged in the United States as a public and societal health concern. Kernicterus, in its usually recognized form, causes devastating disabilities, including athetoid cerebral palsy and speech and hearing impairment. This condition not only ranks amongst the highest cost per new case (per CDCs Financial Burden of Disability study, 1992), but also results in profound and uncompromising grief for the family and loss to siblings of healthy, talkative playmates. And for the child with kernicterus (usually remarkably intelligent, but trapped in an uncontrollable body), grief and frustration are enormous. In 2001 national healthcare organizations, including Centers for Disease Control (CDC), the Joint Commission for the Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations (JACHO) and the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) issued alerts to all accredited hospitals and public health professionals in the United States that all healthy infants are at potential risk of kernicterus if their newborn jaundice is unmonitored and inadequately treated. The re-emergence of kernicterus in the United States is the result of interacting phenomena including (a) Early hospital discharge (before extent of jaundice is known and signs of impending brain damage have appeared); (b) Lack of adequate concern for the risks of severe jaundice in healthy term and near newborns; (c) An increase in breast feeding; (d) Medical care cost constraints; (e) Paucity of educational materials to enable parents to participate in safeguarding their newborns; and (f) Limitations within in healthcare systems to monitor the outpatient progression of jaundice. A multidisciplinary approach that encompasses both healthcare and societal needs should be evaluated at a national level for practical and easy to implement strategies. An approach that is based on principles of evidence-based medicine, patient-safety and family centeredness is

  16. Knowledge Level and Determinants of Neonatal Jaundice: A Cross-Sectional Study in the Effutu Municipality of Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Kontor, Kate Adomakowaah; Bentsil, Joseph-Josiah; Anderson, Maxwell; Nsiah, Paul

    2018-01-01

    Background Neonatal jaundice (NNJ) is a major cause of hospital admission during the neonatal period and is associated with significant mortality. This case-control study with cross-sectional design sought to identify the possible factors associated with neonatal jaundice and assess maternal knowledge level of this condition. Methods One hundred and fifty (150) neonates comprising 100 with clinically evident jaundice and 50 without jaundice were conveniently recruited from the Trauma and Specialist Hospital in the Effutu Municipality. Blood samples were collected for the determination of serum bilirubin, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), status and blood group (ABO and Rhesus). Well-structured questionnaire was used to collect maternal and neonate sociodemographic and clinical history. Results Majority (54%) of neonates developed jaundice within 1–3 days after birth with 10% having it at birth. Duration of labour and neonatal birth weight were associated with neonatal jaundice (P < 0.05). G6PD abnormality was found in 11 (12%) of the neonates with jaundice and ABO incompatibility was present in 18%. Neonates delivered by mothers with formal occupation and those who had prolonged duration of labour were significantly more likely to have neonatal jaundice (OR = 4.174, P = 0.003; OR = 2.389, P = 0.025, resp.). Neonates with low birth weight were also more likely to develop neonatal jaundice (OR = 2.347, P = 0.044). Only 17.3% of mothers had heard of neonatal jaundice. School was the major source of information on neonatal jaundice (34.6%). Majority of participants (mothers) did not know that NNJ can cause damage to other organs in the body (90%). Conclusion Low neonatal birth weight and prolonged duration of labour are associated with neonatal jaundice. Mothers had inadequate knowledge of neonatal jaundice and its causes. PMID:29686715

  17. Protective effects of intravenous anesthetics on kidney tissue in obstructive jaundice

    PubMed Central

    Hatipoglu, Sinan; Yildiz, Huseyin; Bulbuloglu, Ertan; Coskuner, Ismail; Kurutas, Ergul Belge; Hatipoglu, Filiz; Ciralik, Harun; Berhuni, Mehmet Sait

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the protective effects on kidney tissue of frequently used intravenous anesthetics (ketamine, propofol, thiopental, and fentanyl) in rats with obstructive jaundice. METHODS: There is an increased incidence of postoperative acute renal failure in patients with obstructive jaundice. Thirty-two Wistar-albino rats were randomly divided into four equal groups. Laparatomy was performed on each animal in the four groups and common bile ducts were ligated and severed on day 0. After 7 d, laparotomy was again performed using ketamine, propofol, thiopental, or fentanyl anesthesia whose antioxidative properties are well known in oxidative stress in a rat liver model of obstructive jaundice. After 2 h, the rats were sacrificed. Renal tissue specimens were analyzed for catalase, superoxide dismutase and malondialdehyde enzymes activities. All values are expressed as the mean ± SD. P values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. RESULTS: All animals survived without complications until the end of the study. Enlargement in the bile duct and obstructive jaundice were observed in all rats. Catalase was found to be significantly lower in the fentanyl group than in the ketamine (P = 0.039), propofol (P = 0.012), and thiopental (P = 0.001) groups. Superoxide dismutase activities were similar in all groups (P > 0.05). Malondialdehyde was found to be significantly lower in the ketamine group than in the propofol (P = 0.028), thiopental (P = 0.002) and fentanyl (P = 0.005) groups. Malondialdehyde was also lower in the fentanyl group than in the thiopental group (P = 0.001). The results showed that obstructive jaundice sensitizes renal tissue to damage under the different anesthetics. CONCLUSION: Among the agents tested, ketamine and propofol generated the least amount of oxidative stres on renal tissues in this rat model of obstructive jaundice created by common bile duct ligation. The importance of free radical injury in renal tissue in obstructive

  18. Ethnomedicine for neonatal jaundice: A cross-sectional survey in Qom, Iran.

    PubMed

    Heydari, Mojtaba; Heydari, Hosein; Saadati, Alireza; Gharehbeglou, Mohammad; Tafaroji, Javad; Akbari, Abolfazl

    2016-12-04

    Traditional Medicine (TM) is popularly used for neonatal jaundice in Iran. to provides evidence for characteristics of traditional medicine use in the treatment of neonatal jaundice in Qom, Iran. Field surveys were carried out during July 2015 - August 2015 in Qom through structured questionnaire in Persian from 212 parents of children with neonatal jaundice. All plant species recorded for the treatment of neonatal jaundice were sampled. Samples were identified by a botanist and obtained a voucher specimens number and deposited in the Shiraz School of Pharmacy Herbarium. The information such as scientific name, family, local name, parts used and preparation method were provided. The Use Value (UV), Frequency of Citation (FC), Relative Frequency of Citation (RFC) and Relative Family Importance Value (FIV) are also calculated. In total, 165 (78%) of participants reported the use of traditional methods for their neonates. The use of herbal remedies was the most popular form of these traditional interventions. A total of 8 plant species belonging to 7 families were identified. Cotoneaster nummularioides Pojark. Cichorium intybus L. Alhagi maurorum Medik. Descurainia sophia (L.) Webb ex Prantl were most frequent herbs used by neonates and their feeding mother to treat jaundice. Manna was the most popular plant part and distillation and soaking were most frequent preparation methods in these patients. The use of TM in these patients is associated with their previous experience on TM use and their view on its potential risk. This study provided information on the prevalence, associated factors and characteristics of traditional medicine use along with ethnomedicinal knowledge from Qom in Iran on neonatal jaundice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The study on clinical value of the detection about serum and Unconjugated Bilirubin in diagnosis of neonatal jaundice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guangzhou; Wang, Jiefei; Huang, Nannan; Yu, Fengqin

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the clinical value of the detection about serum and unconjugated bilirubin (UCB) in neonatal jaundice was studied to found an effective and rapid method for diagnose of neonatal jaundice. ALB (Serum Albumin), total serum bilirubin (TSB) and UCB were detected by ELISA method among the 100 cases with neonatal jaundice selected for the study. The values of ALB, UCB and TSB in moderate jaundice patients were (42.83±3.87) g/L, (287.35±44.38) μm/L, (304.16±43.40) μm/L, respectively; as for the severe jaundice patients, the values were (38.41±4.82) g/L, (354.38±48.75) μm/L, (375.20±47.51) μm/L. The results showed significant differences with the p< 0.05 between moderate and severe jaundice patients. The level of ALB, UCB, TSB in hemolytic jaundice, obstructive jaundice and jaundice caused by other infections also had significant differences, and the difference was statistically significant (p<0.05). The detection of ALB and UCB provides a useful method for the diagnosis and assessment of neonatal jaundice.

  20. Survey of management of neonatal haemolytic jaundice in Australasia.

    PubMed

    Malhotra, Atul; Carse, Elizabeth

    2010-05-01

    Haemolytic jaundice is an important entity in neonatal clinical practice. Because of the decrease in rhesus isoimmunisation since the advent of anti-D immunoglobulin and improved antenatal management strategies, its management in the neonatal period has become less intensive and exchange transfusions rarely performed. We planned to review the practice of Australasian perinatal units in light of recent advances and recommendations. An electronic survey was sent to the directors of all 25 tertiary-level perinatal units across Australasia. The questionnaire comprised 20 questions dealing with the management of haemolytic jaundice. Twenty out of the 25 neonatal units responded. Most were aware of the recent American Academy of Pediatrics guidelines, but only eight (40%) based their practice on it. Fifty per cent of neonatal units had written protocols to manage such infants, but almost all had written guidelines for performing exchange transfusions. Seven (35%) units started prophylactic phototherapy; however, the criteria used for early exchange were variable, most related to cord haemoglobin or rate of rise of bilirubin. Few units used high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin in haemolytic jaundice. Average exchange rates (based on the last 2 years) were 3.5/year (0-10). Variable practice was noted across the Australasian units. Written protocols form the backbone of management of jaundice in such babies. The use of intravenous immunoglobulin is minimal, and the information available on its use needs to be critically appraised.

  1. Hyperthyroidism and Jaundice

    PubMed Central

    Bal, CS; Chawla, Madhavi

    2010-01-01

    Development of hyperbilirubinemia, concurrent or subsequent to hyperthyroidism, can be due to thyrotoxicosis per se, or due to drug treatment of hyperthyroidism. Other rare conditions: autoimmune thyroid disease, or causes unrelated to hyperthyroidism like viral hepatitis, alcohol abuse, sepsis, cholangitis, or as a side effect of certain medications. In this article, we review these causes of co-existent hyperthyroidism and jaundice. We also highlight the changes to be expected while interpreting thyroid function tests vis-a-vis liver function tests in this subgroup of patients. PMID:21713219

  2. Probiotics Supplementation Therapy for Pathological Neonatal Jaundice: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhe; Zhang, Lingli; Zeng, Linan; Yang, Xiaoyan; Jiang, Lucan; Gui, Ge; Zhang, Zuojie

    2017-01-01

    Background: Neonatal jaundice is a relatively prevalent disease and affects approximately 2.4-15% newborns. Probiotics supplementation therapy could assist to improve the recovery of neonatal jaundice, through enhancing immunity mainly by regulating bacterial colonies. However, there is limited evidence regarding the effect of probiotics on bilirubin level in neonates. Therefore, this study aims at systematically evaluating the efficacy and safety of probiotics supplement therapy for pathological neonatal jaundice. Methods: Databases including PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Wan Fang Database (Wan Fang), Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (CBM), VIP Database for Chinese Technical Periodicals (VIP) were searched and the deadline is December 2016. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of probiotics supplementation for pathological neonatal jaundice in publications were extracted by two reviewers. The cochrane tool was applied to assessing the risk of bias of the trials. The extracted information of RCTs should include efficacy rate, serum total bilirubin level, time of jaundice fading, duration of phototherapy, duration of hospitalization, adverse reactions. The main outcomes of the trials were analyzed by Review Manager 5.3 software. The relative risks (RR) or mean difference (MD) with a 95% confidence interval (CI) was used to measure the effect. Results: 13 RCTs involving 1067 neonatal with jaundice were included in the meta-analysis. Probiotics supplementation treatment showed efficacy [RR: 1.19, 95% CI (1.12, 1.26), P < 0.00001] in neonatal jaundice. It not only decreased the total serum bilirubin level after 3day [MD: -18.05, 95% CI (-25.51, -10.58), P < 0.00001], 5day [MD: -23.49, 95% CI (-32.80, -14.18), P < 0.00001], 7day [MD: -33.01, 95% CI (-37.31, -28.70), P < 0.00001] treatment, but also decreased time of jaundice fading [MD: -1.91, 95% CI (-2.06, -1.75), P < 0.00001], as well as the duration of

  3. Spontaneous remission of obstructive jaundice in rats: Selection of experimental models

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Yunfu; Yue, Jie; Gong, Xiaoguang; Han, Xiaoyu; Wu, Hongfei; Deng, Jie; Li, Yejuan

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence and causes of spontaneous remission of obstructive jaundice in rats. Healthy male and female Wistar rats (180–220 g) were randomly assigned to receive common bile duct ligation (CBDL) and transection (group A), CBDL only (group B), or CBD dissection without ligation or transection (control group C; n=36 in each group). There was a difference in eye and skin jaundice prevalence between groups A and B from 14 days after surgery. The level of total bilirubin (TB) did not continue to increase in group A and began to decrease in the majority of rats in group B (P<0.05 vs. group B). At day 21 after surgery, the TB level returned to normal in group B and no significant difference was observed compared with group C. At day 21 after surgery, significant dilatation of bile ducts above the ligature was observed in group A following cholangiography with 38% meglumine diatrizoate and this contrast agent did not spread to other sites. Slight dilatation of the proximal bile ducts was observed in group B and the contrast agent entered the intestinal lumen through the omental ducts adhering to the porta hepatis. After 14 days of surgery, there were 36 rats in group A and B, and 17 rats exhibited spontaneous regression of jaundice. Overall, 47.2% (17/36) of rats experienced spontaneous remission of obstructive jaundice, 82.4% (14/17) of which underwent ligation only. The spontaneous remission of jaundice may have been caused by shunting through very small bile ducts or omental ducts adhering to the porta hepatis. If a model of biliary obstruction is to be established in future research, a model of CBDL and transection is preferable. In this case, jaundice reduction surgery should be performed 14 days after establishment of the model. PMID:29904412

  4. Intense jaundice in an adolescent. An unusual presentation of infectious mononucleosis.

    PubMed

    Chambers, C V; Irwin, C E

    1986-05-01

    Hemolytic anemia is an infrequent complication of infectious mononucleosis. The hemolysis may result from the temporary production of antibodies directed against one or more red-cell antigens. This report describes an adolescent female with infectious mononucleosis who presented for evaluation of jaundice. In this patient the jaundice resulted from a combination of hemolysis and mild hepatitis.

  5. [Neonatal hyperbilirubinemia and molecular mechanisms of jaundice].

    PubMed

    Jirsa, M; Sticová, E

    2013-07-01

    The introductory summarises the classical path of heme degradation and classification of jaundice. Subsequently, a description of neonatal types of jaundice is given, known as Crigler Najjar, Gilberts, DubinJohnson and Rotor syndromes, emphasising the explanation of the molecular mechanisms of these metabolic disorders. Special attention is given to a recently discovered molecular mechanism of the Rotor syndrome. The mechanism is based on the inability of the liver to retrospectively uptake the conjugated bilirubin fraction primarily excreted into the blood, not bile. A reduced ability of the liver to uptake the conjugated bilirubin contributes to the development of hyperbilirubinemia in common disorders of the liver and bile ducts and to the toxicity of xenobiotics and drugs using transport proteins for conjugated bilirubin.

  6. [Diagnosis of congenital endocrinological disease in newborns with prolonged jaundice and hypoglycaemia].

    PubMed

    Braslavsky, D; Keselman, A; Chiesa, A; Bergadá, I

    2012-03-01

    The association of prolonged neonatal jaundice and hypoglycaemia may be secondary to an endocrinological disease. Pituitary insufficiency and primary adrenal insufficiency are the most likely endocrine diseases that need to be ruled out. We retrospectively analysed the clinical and laboratory characteristics of thirteen patients referred to the Hospital de Niños Ricardo Gutiérrez between years 2003 and 2008 due to prolonged neonatal jaundice and hypoglycaemia secondary to pituitary insufficiency in twelve patients, and in one secondary to primary adrenal insufficiency. All patients had a history of neonatal hypoglycaemia. Ten patients had conjugated hyperbilirubinaemia and six also had elevated transaminases. Combined pituitary hormone deficiency was observed in the twelve hypopituitarism patients. Hormonal replacement normalised liver function and resolved the prolonged jaundice in all the patients. None of them underwent liver biopsy. Hypoglycaemia also remitted after hormonal therapy. Prolonged or cholestatic jaundice associated with neonatal hypoglycaemia is highly likely to be due to pituitary hormone deficiency or primary adrenal insufficiency. Early diagnosis and treatment of these children reverts the prolonged jaundice and prevents morbidity and mortality due to recurrent hypoglycaemia and hormone deficiencies. Copyright © 2011 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  7. [MORPHOLOGICAL CHANGES OF THE LIVER IN OBTURATION JAUNDICE, CAUSED BY CHOLEDOCHOLITHIASIS, DEPENDING ON ITS DURATION].

    PubMed

    Sipliviy, V A; Yevtushenko, D V; Naumova, O V; Andreyeshchev, S A; Yevtushenko, A V

    2016-02-01

    Abstract The results of surgical treatment of 184 patients for obturation jaundice, caused by choledocholithiasis, were analyzed. Morphological changes of the liver were studied in 20 patients. There were three groups of patients delineated, depending on the obturation jaundice duration: up to 7 days, from 8 to 14 days, more than 15 days, and also a group of patients after the bile outflow restoration. The obturation jaundice occurrence in choledocholithiasis is accompanied by significant morphological changes in the liver, severity of which is enhancing while the obturation jaundice persistence increasing. While persistence of obturation jaundice through 8 days and more the connective tissue volume is enhancing, a relative volume of hepatocytes is reducing and a stromal-parenchymatous index is increasing. The bile outflow restoration secures significant reduction of intensity of alterative and inflammatory changes in hepatic parenchyma, as well as activation of reparative processes in the tissue. In cholangitis, caused by P. aeruginosa and E. coli, according to morphological investigations data, in the liver a diffuse purulent cholangitis on background of chronic changes in accordance to duration of the obturation jaundice persists.

  8. Previously undiagnosed hereditary spherocytosis in a patient with jaundice and pyelonephritis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Tateno, Yuki; Suzuki, Ryoji; Kitamura, Yukihiro

    2016-12-01

    Hereditary spherocytosis is autosomal dominant inherited extravascular hemolytic disorder and is the commonest cause of inherited hemolysis in northern Europe and the United States. The classical clinical features of hereditary spherocytosis are anemia, jaundice, and splenomegaly. However, all of these classical features are not always revealed in the case of mild hemolysis or when hemolysis is well compensated. Patients with hereditary spherocytosis may remain undiagnosed for years if their hemolysis is mild. A 42-year-old Asian woman presented to our clinic with a sudden onset of high fever with shaking chills and jaundice, suggesting septicemia; however, following detailed investigation, the patient was diagnosed with pyelonephritis and accelerated hemolysis of hereditary spherocytosis due to infection. It is important to note that transient anemia or jaundice can sometimes be the only initial presenting symptoms in cases of undiagnosed latent hereditary spherocytosis. This case also highlights the fact that physicians should consider concomitant hemolytic disease in patients in whom jaundice and infections that rarely cause jaundice coexist.

  9. [The ultrasonic diagnosis of jaundice. 199 cases (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Weill, F; Marmier, A; Paronneau, P; Zeltner, F; Charton, M N

    1978-11-25

    Thank to a thorough ultrasonographic analysis of biliary tree ("shotgun sign"), liver and pancreas, a positive diagnosis of obstruction was carried out in 92% of cases. The success rate in diagnosis of level of obstruction was also 92%. Aetiologic diagnosis was successful in 61% of cases only (almost 100% in jaundices of pancreatic origine). No false positive diagnosis of obstruction was made in non-obstructive jaundice. This enabled to carry out instrumental cholangiography (i.e. "skinny" needle percutaneous cholangiography, and ERC) only in case of clinical, biological and sonographic discrepancies, or in hilar obstructions.

  10. The prevalence of neonatal jaundice and risk factors in healthy term neonates at National District Hospital in Bloemfontein

    PubMed Central

    2018-01-01

    Background Neonatal jaundice affects one in two infants globally. The jaundice is the result of an accumulation of bilirubin as foetal haemoglobin is metabolised by the immature liver. High serum levels of bilirubin result in lethargy, poor feeding and kernicterus of the infant. Aim The main aim of this article was to determine the prevalence of neonatal jaundice and secondly to explore its risk factors in healthy term neonates. Setting Maternity ward, National District Hospital, Bloemfontein, South Africa. Methods In this cross-sectional study, mothers and infants were conveniently sampled after delivery and before discharge. The mothers were interviewed and their case records were reviewed for risk factors for neonatal jaundice and the clinical appearance and bilirubin levels of the infants were measured with a non-invasive transcutaneous bilirubin meter. Results A total of 96 mother-infant pairs were included in the study. The prevalence of neonatal jaundice was 55.2%; however, only 10% of black babies who were diagnosed with jaundice appeared clinically jaundiced. Normal vaginal delivery was the only risk factor associated with neonatal jaundice. Black race and maternal smoking were not protective against neonatal jaundice as in some other studies. Conclusion More than half (55.2%) of healthy term neonates developed neonatal jaundice. As it is difficult to clinically diagnose neonatal jaundice in darker pigmented babies, it is recommended that the bilirubin level of all babies should be checked with a non-invasive bilirubin meter before discharge from hospital or maternity unit as well as during the first clinic visit on day 3 after birth.

  11. Probiotics Supplementation Therapy for Pathological Neonatal Jaundice: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhe; Zhang, Lingli; Zeng, Linan; Yang, Xiaoyan; Jiang, Lucan; Gui, Ge; Zhang, Zuojie

    2017-01-01

    Background: Neonatal jaundice is a relatively prevalent disease and affects approximately 2.4–15% newborns. Probiotics supplementation therapy could assist to improve the recovery of neonatal jaundice, through enhancing immunity mainly by regulating bacterial colonies. However, there is limited evidence regarding the effect of probiotics on bilirubin level in neonates. Therefore, this study aims at systematically evaluating the efficacy and safety of probiotics supplement therapy for pathological neonatal jaundice. Methods: Databases including PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Wan Fang Database (Wan Fang), Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (CBM), VIP Database for Chinese Technical Periodicals (VIP) were searched and the deadline is December 2016. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of probiotics supplementation for pathological neonatal jaundice in publications were extracted by two reviewers. The cochrane tool was applied to assessing the risk of bias of the trials. The extracted information of RCTs should include efficacy rate, serum total bilirubin level, time of jaundice fading, duration of phototherapy, duration of hospitalization, adverse reactions. The main outcomes of the trials were analyzed by Review Manager 5.3 software. The relative risks (RR) or mean difference (MD) with a 95% confidence interval (CI) was used to measure the effect. Results: 13 RCTs involving 1067 neonatal with jaundice were included in the meta-analysis. Probiotics supplementation treatment showed efficacy [RR: 1.19, 95% CI (1.12, 1.26), P < 0.00001] in neonatal jaundice. It not only decreased the total serum bilirubin level after 3day [MD: −18.05, 95% CI (−25.51, −10.58), P < 0.00001], 5day [MD: -23.49, 95% CI (−32.80, −14.18), P < 0.00001], 7day [MD: −33.01, 95% CI (−37.31, −28.70), P < 0.00001] treatment, but also decreased time of jaundice fading [MD: −1.91, 95% CI (−2.06, −1.75), P < 0.00001], as well as

  12. Hepatectomy for Hepatocellular Carcinoma with Bile Duct Tumor Thrombus, Including Cases with Obstructive Jaundice.

    PubMed

    Orimo, Tatsuya; Kamiyama, Toshiya; Yokoo, Hideki; Wakayama, Kenji; Shimada, Shingo; Tsuruga, Yosuke; Kamachi, Hirofumi; Taketomi, Akinobu

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the short- and long-term outcomes of hepatectomy for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with bile duct tumor thrombus (BDTT), including cases with obstructive jaundice. The study reviewed 42 HCC patients with BDTT, including six patients who needed preoperative biliary drainage due to obstructive jaundice, and 732 HCC patients without BDTT. The authors analyzed the impact of BDTT on the surgical outcomes and assessed the outcomes of hepatectomy for patients presenting with obstructive jaundice. The HCC patients with BDTT, almost all with stage 3 or 4 disease, had increased alpha-fetoprotein expression, larger tumors, and more portal vein invasion status. The survival of the HCC patients with BDTT was significantly inferior to that of the patients without BDTT (p = 0.0003). Survival did not differ significantly between the HCC patients with BDTT and those without BDTT when the two groups were matched by stage (p = 0.3366). The HCC patients with BDTT who presented with obstructive jaundice demonstrated outcomes similar to those for the HCC patients with BDTT who did not present with obstructive jaundice in terms of the overall survival rate (p = 0.5469). The perioperative outcomes for the HCC patients with BDTT did not depend on the presence or absence of preoperative jaundice. No patients in either BDTT group demonstrated 90-day mortality in this study. Hepatectomy should be considered for HCC patients with BDTT, even for patients with obstructive jaundice, because the surgical outcomes equivalent to those for HCC without BDTT can be achieved.

  13. The effect of recombinant growth hormone on intestinal anastomotic wound healing in rats with obstructive jaundice.

    PubMed

    Cağlikülekçi, Mehmet; Ozçay, Necdet; Oruğ, Taner; Aydoğ, Gülden; Renda, Nurten; Atalay, Fuat

    2002-03-01

    Several clinical and experimental studies have shown that obstructive jaundice delays wound healing. Growth hormone may prevent delayed wound healing, since it has effects on the release of mediators in jaundice, as well as increasing the protein synthesis. Forty male Wistar rats were allocated to four groups: Group I (n=10): intestinal anastomosis to normal small bowel, Group II (n=10): intestinal anastomosis to normal small bowel followed by growth hormone therapy (2mg/kg/day, subcutaneously), Group III (n=10): intestinal anastomosis to obstructive jaundice rat's small bowel, Group IV (n=10): intestinal anastomosis to obstructive jaundice rat's small bowel followed by growth hormone therapy at the same dosage The animals were observed for seven days then killed. Intraabdominal adhesions, anastomotic complications and anastomotic bursting pressures were recorded and tissue samples from the anastomotic site were obtained to measure hydroxyproline levels and for histopathologic examination. Growth hormone had a beneficial effect on the healing of intestinal anastomosis in both jaundiced and non-jaundiced rats. This was demonstrated by clinical and mechanical parameters such as a significant increase in anastomotic bursting pressure, hydroxyproline content and histopathological scores. Growth hormone reverses the adverse effects of obstructive jaundice on small bowel anastomotic healing. It can be hypothesized that this effect is due to augmentation of insulin-like growth factors, protection of hepatocytes, enhancement of intestinal epithelization, and reversal of the resultant malnutritional state caused by growth hormone in obstructive jaundice.

  14. A neonate with intestinal volvulus without malrotation exhibiting early jaundice with a suspected fetal onset.

    PubMed

    Hara, Kaori; Kinoshita, Mari; Kin, Takane; Arimitsu, Takeshi; Matsuzaki, Yohei; Ikeda, Kazushige; Tomita, Hiroshi; Fujino, Akihiro; Kuroda, Tatsuo

    2015-01-01

    Intestinal volvulus without malrotation is a rare disease that causes volvulus of the small intestine despite normal intestinal rotation and fixation. We encountered a neonate with this disease who developed early jaundice and was suspected to have a fetal onset. This patient was characterized by early jaundice complicating intestinal volvulus without malrotation and is considered to have exhibited reduced fetal movement and early jaundice as a result of volvulus, necrosis, and hemorrhage of the small intestine in the fetal period. If abdominal distention accompanied by early jaundice is noted in a neonate, intestinal volvulus without malrotation and associated intraabdominal hemorrhage should be suspected and promptly treated.

  15. Preparation for discharge, maternal satisfaction, and newborn readmission for jaundice: comparing postpartum models of care.

    PubMed

    Goulet, Lise; Fall, Aïssatou; D'Amour, Danielle; Pineault, Raynald

    2007-06-01

    Physiological jaundice generally appears between the third and fifth days of life. The danger of hyperbilirubinemia is therefore a major challenge when postpartum hospital stays are short, and part of the responsibility for screening for signs of jaundice is assumed by the mother. The objective of this study was to identify the model of postnatal continuity of care most likely to prepare mothers for discharge, to reduce newborn readmission for jaundice, and to enhance maternal satisfaction. An epidemiological study was conducted in regions operating under 3 different models of postnatal continuity of care. Eligible mothers were those who had spent less than 60 hours in hospital after an uncomplicated vaginal delivery. Of this group, 70.8 percent participated in telephone interviews conducted 1 month after their deliveries (n=1,096). Newborns who had presented with signs of jaundice were identified through statements from their mothers. Of the participating newborns, 45.5 percent presented with signs of jaundice, and 3.2 percent were readmitted for jaundice during the first week of life. The follow-up procedures used in regions operating under a community-based model most closely followed the recommendations of health authorities and featured a high level of mothers' satisfaction. In the region operating under a mixed hospital model, mothers reported signs of jaundice significantly more often, and postdischarge services received by mothers were less effective at allaying their fears compared with other models. Phototherapy was offered in the home only in the region operating under a mixed ambulatory model, and no readmissions for jaundice were recorded in this region. An effective coordination between community-based perinatal services and hospital-linked home phototherapy in the form of an integrated network appears to be an essential condition for improved monitoring of newborns' health since it fosters a follow-up that is focused not only on jaundice but also on

  16. Effects of Different Palliative Jaundice Reducing Methods on Immunologic Functions in Patients with Advanced Malignant Obstructive Jaundice.

    PubMed

    Tang, Kun; Sui, Lu-Lu; Xu, Gang; Zhang, Tong; Liu, Qiang; Liu, Xiao-Fang

    2017-08-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of three treatment methods on the immunological function of patients with advanced malignant obstructive jaundice (MOJ). Patients with advanced MOJ were randomly divided into three groups according to biliary drainage methods. Detection of levels of multi-indices were investigated in different time periods. After drainage, the levels of complement 3 (C3) and complement 4 (C4) were increased. Forteen days post-operation, the levels of immunoglobulin G (IgG), immunoglobulin A (IgA) and immunoglobulin M (IgM) in the group undergoing palliative surgery decreased significantly compared to those in both percutaneous transhepatic cholangio drainage (PTCD) and endoscopic retrograde biliary drainage (ERBD) groups. The level of serum endotoxin in the group undergoing palliative surgery decreased gradually. Palliative surgery for reducing jaundice is superior to PTCD and ERBD in improving immune function of patients with MOJ. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  17. Parental infant jaundice colour card design successfully validated by comparing it with total serum bilirubin.

    PubMed

    Xue, Guo-Chang; Ren, Ming-Xing; Shen, Lin-Na; Zhang, Li-Wen

    2016-12-01

    We designed a jaundice colour card that could be used by the parents of neonates and validated it by comparing it with total serum bilirubin levels. There were 106 term Chinese neonates in the study. The majority weighed between 2500 g and 3499 g (63%) and had a gestational age of 37-40 weeks (77%). The jaundice colour card and photometric determination were used to screen for neonatal jaundice and compared with serum bilirubin. The bilirubin levels were measured by mothers using the jaundice colour card, and 67% of the measurements were taken at 11-20 days (range 3-30). The measurements at the infant's forehead, cheek and sternum showed strong correlations with total serum bilirubin. The mean differences between the total serum bilirubin and the jaundice colour card measurements from the forehead, cheek and sternum were 1.9 mg/dL, 0.3 mg/dL and 1.5 mg/dL, respectively. When total serum bilirubin >13 mg/dL was used as the cut-off point, the areas under the receiver operating characteristics curves were 0.934 for the forehead, 0.985 for the cheek and 0.966 for the sternum. We established the validity of the jaundice colour card as a parental measurement tool for jaundice in Chinese neonates, and the cheek was the best measurement site. ©2016 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes activity in Plasmodium vivax malaria patients evolving with cholestatic jaundice

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Plasmodium vivax infection has been considered a benign and self-limiting disease, however, recent studies highlight the association between vivax malaria and life-threatening manifestations. Increase in reactive oxygen species has already been described in vivax malaria, as a result of the increased metabolic rate triggered by the multiplying parasite, and large quantities of toxic redox-active byproducts generated. The present study aimed to study the oxidative stress responses in patients infected with P. vivax, who developed jaundice (hyperbilirubinaemia) in the course of the disease, a common clinical complication related to this species. Methods An evaluation of the lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes profile was performed in 28 healthy individuals and compared with P. vivax infected patients with jaundice, i.e., bilirubin < 51.3 μmol/L (8 patients) or without jaundice (34 patients), on day 1 (D1) and day 14 (D14) after anti-malarial therapy. Results Hyperbilirubinaemia was more frequent among women and patients experiencing their first malarial infection, and lower haemoglobin and higher lactate dehydrogenase levels were observed in this group. Malondialdehyde levels and activity of celuroplasmin and glutathione reductase were increased in the plasma from patients with P. vivax with jaundice compared to the control group on D1. However, the activity of thioredoxin reductase was decreased. The enzymes glutathione reductase, thioredoxin reductase, thiols and malondialdehyde also differed between jaundiced versus non-jaundiced patients. On D14 jaundice and parasitaemia had resolved and oxidative stress biomarkers were very similar to the control group. Conclusion Cholestatic hyperbilirubinaemia in vivax malaria cannot be totally disassociated from malaria-related haemolysis. However, significant increase of lipid peroxidation markers and changes in antioxidant enzymes in patients with P. vivax-related jaundice was observed. These results

  19. Endosonography for suspected obstructive jaundice with no definite pathology on ultrasonography.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chien-Hua; Yang, Chi-Chieh; Yeh, Yung-Hsiang; Yang, Tsang; Chung, Tieh-Chi

    2015-09-01

    Ultrasonography (US) cannot demonstrate all the etiologies of biliary tract dilatation in patients with jaundice. Thus, we evaluated the etiologic yield of endosonography (EUS) for suspected obstructive jaundice when no definite pathology was found on US. Additionally, we sought to identify the predictors of the most common etiologies. We performed a retrospective review of 123 consecutive patients who had undergone EUS for suspected obstructive jaundice when no definite pathology was identified on US. The most common diagnoses included no pathological obstruction (n = 43), pancreatobiliary malignancy (n = 41), and choledocholithiasis (n = 28). Pancreatobiliary malignancy was associated with common bile duct (CBD) dilatation, and fever and elevated alanine aminotransferase were predictors of choledocholithiasis (p < 0.05). The accuracy of EUS was 95.9% (118/123) for overall cause of suspected obstructive jaundice, 100% (40/40) for no pathological finding, 100% (23/23) for ampullary cancer, 100% (13/13) for pancreatic cancer, 75% (3/4) for CBD cancer, and 92.9% (26/28) for choledocholithiasis, respectively. Besides the two patients with focal chronic pancreatitis misdiagnosed as with pancreatic cancer, EUS missed the lesions in one CBD cancer patient and two patients with choledocholithiasis. The overall accuracy of EUS in ascertaining pancreatobiliary malignancy and choledocholithiasis was comparable (97.6%, 40/41 vs. 92.9%, 26/28; p > 0.05). Marked CBD dilatation (≥12 mm) should remind us of the high risk of malignancy, and the presence of CBD dilatation and fever is suggestive of choledocholithiasis. Negative EUS findings cannot assure any pathological obstruction in patients with clinically suspected obstructive jaundice. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Visuocortical Function in Infants With a History of Neonatal Jaundice

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Chuan; Norcia, Anthony M.; Madan, Ashima; Good, William V.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. High concentrations of unconjugated bilirubin are neurotoxic and cause brain damage in newborn infants. However, the exact level of bilirubin that may be neurotoxic in a given infant is unknown. The aim of this study was to use a quantitative measure of neural activity, the swept parameter visual evoked potential (sVEP) to determine the relationship between neonatal bilirubin levels and visual responsivity several months later. Methods. We compared sVEP response functions over a wide range of contrast, spatial frequency, and Vernier offset sizes in 16 full-term infants with high bilirubin levels (>10 mg/dL) and 18 age-matched infants with no visible neonatal jaundice, all enrolled at 14 to 22 weeks of age. The group means of sVEP thresholds and suprathreshold response amplitudes were compared. The correlation between individual sVEP thresholds and bilirubin levels in jaundiced infants was studied. Results. Infants who had a history of neonatal jaundice showed lower response amplitudes (P < 0.05) and worse or immeasurable sVEP thresholds compared with control infants for all three measures (P < 0.05). Swept parameter visual evoked potential thresholds for Vernier offset were correlated with bilirubin level (P < 0.05), but spatial acuity and contrast sensitivity measures in the infants with neonatal jaundice were not (P > 0.05). Conclusions. These results indicate that elevated neonatal bilirubin levels affect measures of visual function in infancy up to at least 14 to 22 weeks of postnatal age. PMID:25183760

  1. Prognostic value of jaundice in patients with gallbladder cancer by the AFC-GBC-2009 study group.

    PubMed

    Regimbeau, J M; Fuks, D; Bachellier, P; Le Treut, Y P; Pruvot, F R; Navarro, F; Chiche, L; Farges, O

    2011-06-01

    Jaundice is frequent in patients with gallbladder cancer (GBC) and indicates advanced disease and, according to some teams, precludes routine operative exploration. The present study was designed to re-assess the prognostic value of jaundice in patients with GBC. Patients with GBC operated from 1998 to 2008 were included in a retrospective multicenter study (AFC). The main outcome measured was the prognostic value of jaundice in patients with GBC focusing on morbidity, mortality and survival. A total of 110 of 429 patients with GBC presented with jaundice, with a median age of 66 years (range: 31-88). The resectability rate was 45% (n=50) and the postoperative mortality and morbidity rates were 16% and 62%, respectively; 71% had R0 resection and 46% had lymph node involvement. Overall 1- and 3-year survivals of the 110 jaundiced patients were 41% and 15%, respectively. For the 50 resected patients, 1- and 3-year survivals were 48% and 19%, respectively (real 5-year survivors n=4) which were significantly higher than that of the 60 non-resected patients (31%, 0%, p=0.001). Among the resected jaundiced patients, T-stage, N and M status were found to have a significant impact on survival. R0 resection did not increase the overall survival in all resected patients, but R0 increased median survival in the subgroup of N0 patients (20 months versus 6 months, p=0.01). This series confirms that jaundice is a poor prognostic factor. However, the presence of jaundice does not preclude resection, especially in highly selected patients (N0). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Identification of bile survivin and carbohydrate antigen 199 in distinguishing cholangiocarcinoma from benign obstructive jaundice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanfeng; Sun, Jingxian; Zhang, Qiangbo; Jin, Bin; Zhu, Min; Zhang, Zongli

    2017-01-01

    To investigate whether bile survivin and carbohydrate antigen 199 (CA199) can be helpful in distinguishing cholangiocarcinoma (malignant obstructive jaundice) from benign obstructive jaundice. Receiver operating characteristic curve was used to evaluate the feasibility of bile survivin and CA199 in differentiating cholangiocarcinoma from benign obstructive jaundice. The area under the curve for survivin and CA199 in bile and serum were 0.780 (p < 0.001), 0.6 (p = 0.084), 0.746 (p < 0.001) and 0.542 (p = 0.464), respectively. Combination of bile survivin and CA199 could improve the diagnostic capability. Bile survivin and CA199 are significantly increased in patients with cholangiocarcinoma and may be useful biomarkers in differentiating distinguishing cholangiocarcinoma from benign obstructive jaundice.

  3. Jaundice as a Rare Indication for Aortic Aneurysm Repair.

    PubMed

    Rieß, Henrik C; Tsilimparis, Nikolaos; Behrendt, Christian A; Wipper, Sabine; Debus, Eike S; Larena-Avellaneda, Axel

    2015-10-01

    Compression of adjacent anatomic structures by an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) can result in a variety of symptoms. We describe the case of an 88-year-old Caucasian woman with jaundice, elevated laboratory parameters for extrahepatic and intrahepatic cholestasis, and concomitant juxtarenal AAA compressing the liver hilum. Following exclusion of other common causes for cholestasis, the patient was considered to have a symptomatic AAA. Open abdominal aortic surgery revealed a contained rupture and was repaired. Obstructive jaundice secondary to a compromising AAA is a rare condition and to the best of our knowledge has not been reported to date. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Jaundice in primary care: a cohort study of adults aged >45 years using electronic medical records.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Anna; Stapley, Sally; Hamilton, William

    2012-08-01

    Jaundice is a rare but important symptom of malignant and benign conditions. When patients present in primary care, understanding the relative likelihood of different disease processes can help GPs to investigate and refer patients appropriately. To identify and quantify the various causes of jaundice in adults presenting in primary care. Historical cohort study using electronic primary care records. UK General Practice Research Database. Participants (186 814 men and women) aged >45 years with clinical events recorded in primary care records between 1 January 2005 and 31 December 2007. Data were searched for episodes of jaundice and explanatory diagnoses identified within the subsequent 12 months. If no diagnosis was found, the patient's preceding medical record was searched for relevant chronic diseases. From the full cohort, 277 patients had at least one record of jaundice between 1 January 2005 and 31 December 2006. Ninety-two (33%) were found to have bile duct stones; 74 (27%) had an explanatory cancer [pancreatic cancer 34 (12%), cholangiocarcinoma 13 (5%) and other diagnosed primary malignancy 27 (10%)]. Liver disease attributed to excess alcohol explained 26 (9%) and other diagnoses were identified in 24 (9%). Sixty-one (22%) had no diagnosis related to jaundice recorded. Although the most common cause of jaundice is bile duct stones, cancers are present in over a quarter of patients with jaundice in this study, demonstrating the importance of urgent investigation into the underlying cause.

  5. Glucagon-like peptide-2 protects impaired intestinal mucosal barriers in obstructive jaundice rats.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jun; Dong, Jia-Tian; Li, Xiao-Jing; Gu, Ye; Cheng, Zhi-Jian; Cai, Yuan-Kun

    2015-01-14

    To observe the protective effect of glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) on the intestinal barrier of rats with obstructive jaundice and determine the possible mechanisms of action involved in the protective effect. Thirty-six Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into a sham operation group, an obstructive jaundice group, and a GLP-2 group; each group consisted of 12 rats. The GLP-2 group was treated with GLP-2 after the day of surgery, whereas the other two groups were treated with the same concentration of normal saline. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), total bilirubin, and endotoxin levels were recorded at 1, 3, 7, 10 and 14 d. Furthermore, on the 14(th) day, body weight, the wet weight of the small intestine, pathological changes of the small intestine and the immunoglobulin A (IgA) expressed by plasma cells located in the small intestinal lamina propria were recorded for each group. In the rat model, jaundice was obvious, and the rats' activity decreased 4-6 d post bile duct ligation. Compared with the sham operation group, the obstructive jaundice group displayed increased yellow staining of abdominal visceral serosa, decreased small intestine wet weight, thinning of the intestinal muscle layer and villi, villous atrophy, uneven height, fusion, partial villous epithelial cell shedding, substantial inflammatory cell infiltration and significantly reduced IgA expression. However, no significant gross changes were noted between the GLP-2 and sham groups. With time, the levels of ALT, endotoxin and bilirubin in the GLP-2 group were significantly increased compared with the sham group (P < 0.01). The increasing levels of the aforementioned markers were more significant in the obstructive jaundice group than in the GLP-2 group (P < 0.01). GLP-2 reduces intestinal mucosal injuries in obstructive jaundice rats, which might be attributed to increased intestinal IgA and reduced bilirubin and endotoxin.

  6. Jaundice: an important, poorly recognized risk factor for diminished survival in patients with adenocarcinoma of the head of the pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Strasberg, Steven M; Gao, Feng; Sanford, Dominic; Linehan, David C; Hawkins, William G; Fields, Ryan; Carpenter, Danielle H; Brunt, Elizabeth M; Phillips, Carolyn

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Jaundice impairs cellular immunity, an important defence against the dissemination of cancer. Jaundice is a common mode of presentation in pancreatic head adenocarcinoma. The purpose of this study was to determine whether there is an association between preoperative jaundice and survival in patients who have undergone resection of such tumours. Methods: Thirty possible survival risk factors were evaluated in a database of over 400 resected patients. Univariate analysis was used to determine odds ratio for death. All factors for which a P-value of <0.30 was obtained were entered into a multivariate analysis using the Cox model with backward selection. Results: Preoperative jaundice, age, positive node status, poor differentiation and lymphatic invasion were significant indicators of poor outcome in multivariate analysis. Absence of jaundice was a highly favourable prognostic factor. Interaction emerged between jaundice and nodal status. The benefit conferred by the absence of jaundice was restricted to patients in whom negative node status was present. Five-year overall survival in this group was 66%. Jaundiced patients who underwent preoperative stenting had a survival advantage. Conclusions: Preoperative jaundice is a negative risk factor in adenocarcinoma of the pancreas. Additional studies are required to determine the exact mechanism for this effect. PMID:23600768

  7. Approach to Clinical Syndrome of Jaundice and Encephalopathy in Tropics

    PubMed Central

    Anand, Anil C.; Garg, Hitendra K.

    2015-01-01

    A large number of patients present with jaundice and encephalopathy in tropical country like India and acute liver failure is the usual cause. Clinical presentation like ALF is also a complication of many tropical infections, and these conditions may mimic ALF but may have subtle differences from ALF. Moreover, what hepatologists see as acute liver failure in tropics is different from what is commonly described in Western Textbooks. Paracetamol overdose, which is possibly the commonest cause of ALF in UK and USA, is hardly ever seen in India. Most common etiology here is viral hepatitis (hepatitis E > hepatitis B> hepatitis A). Apart from ALF, one may also come across subacute hepatic failure (SAHF) as well as acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) due to viral hepatitis. Interestingly, a host of other conditions can mimic ALF because clinical presentation in these conditions can be dominated by jaundice and encephalopathy. Malarial hepatopathy is possibly the best-known condition out of these and is not an uncommon manifestation of severe malaria. A similar presentation can also be seen in other common infections in tropics such as dengue fever, typhoid fever, leptospirosis, scrub typhus, amoebic liver abscesses, tuberculosis and other bacterial and fungal infections with or without human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) related disease. In many of these conditions, liver failure may not be underlying pathophysiology. Some pregnancy related liver diseases could also present with jaundice and encephalopathy. This review summarizes the commonly seen presentations in tropical country like India, where jaundice and encephalopathy dominate the clinical picture. PMID:26041951

  8. Transcutaneous measurement of hyperbilirubinaemia: comparison of the Minolta jaundice meter and the Ingram icterometer.

    PubMed

    Bilgen, H; Ince, Z; Ozek, E; Bekiroglu, N; Ors, R

    1998-12-01

    The effectiveness of two different non-invasive transcutaneous bilirubin measurement devices was compared with serum bilirubin levels in 96 healthy newborns. Transcutaneous measurements were obtained with the Minolta Air Shields jaundice meter and the Ingram icterometer and serum bilirubin levels were determined by a direct spectrophotometric method (Bilitron 444). A linear correlation existed between serum bilirubin values and the readings on both the Minolta jaundice meter (r = 0.83) and the Ingram icterometer (r = 0.78). The Kappa coefficient was 0.66. the sensitivity, specificity and positive and negative predictive values were 100%, 56%, 33% and 100% for the Minolta jaundice meter and 100%, 48%, 29% and 100% for the Ingram icterometer, respectively. The high sensitivity and negative predictive value of both devices render them suitable for screening neonatal hyperbilirubinaemia. However, because of its low cost, the Ingram icterometer is preferable to the more complex and expensive Minolta jaundice meter, especially in countries with a high birth rate, such as Turkey.

  9. Mortality-related Factors in Patients with Malignant Obstructive Jaundice.

    PubMed

    Kurniawan, Juferdy; Hasan, Irsan; Gani, Rino Alvani; Simadibrata, Marcellus

    2016-10-01

    to obtain survival rate and mortality-related factors of malignant obstructive jaundice patients. all medical records of obstructive jaundice inpatient at Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital, Jakarta from January 2010 to December 2013 were reviewed retrospectively. The following factors were analyzed in terms of mortality: age, gender, sepsis, hypoalbumin, serum bilirubin level, serum CA 19-9 level, billiary drainage, non-ampulla Vateri carcinoma, and comorbid factors. total 181 out of 402 patients were enrolled in this study with male proportion was 58.6%, and patients aged 50 years or above was 57.5%. Multivariate analysis showed that only sepsis, unsuccessful or no prior biliary drainage and Charlson comorbid score ≥4 were independent predictors of mortality. Patients with significant prognostic factors had median survival 14 days compared with overall median survival 26 days. Score ≥2 identified as the highest prognostic score threshold with sensitivity 68%, specificity 75%, and AUC on ROC curve 0.769. sepsis, unsuccessful or no prior bilirary drainage, and Charlson comorbid score ≥4 are factors significantly associated with shortened survival in malignant obstructive jaundice patients. Prognostic score  ≥2 was determined to classify patients into high risk mortality group. Mortality of patients with those significant prognostic factors can be predicted in 76.9%.

  10. Point-of-care device to diagnose and monitor neonatal jaundice in low-resource settings

    PubMed Central

    Keahey, Pelham A.; Simeral, Mathieu L.; Schroder, Kristofer J.; Bond, Meaghan M.; Mtenthaonnga, Prince J.; Miros, Robert H.; Dube, Queen

    2017-01-01

    Newborns are at increased risk of jaundice, a condition in which excess bilirubin accumulates in blood. Left untreated, jaundice can lead to neurological impairment and death. Jaundice resulting from unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia is easily treated with exposure to blue light, and phototherapy systems have been developed for low-resource settings; however, there are no appropriate solutions to diagnose and monitor jaundice in these settings. To address this need we present BiliSpec, a low-cost reader and disposable lateral flow card designed to measure the concentration of total bilirubin from several drops of blood at the point of care. We evaluated the performance of BiliSpec, using blood from normal volunteers spiked with varying amounts of bilirubin; results measured using BiliSpec correlated well with a reference laboratory bilirubinometer (r = 0.996). We then performed a pilot clinical study using BiliSpec to measure total bilirubin in neonates at risk for jaundice at Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital in Blantyre, Malawi. Concentrations measured using BiliSpec correlated well with those measured using a laboratory reference standard in 94 patient samples ranging from 1.1 mg/dL to 23.0 mg/dL in concentration (r = 0.973). The mean difference between bilirubin levels measured with BiliSpec and the reference standard was 0.3 mg/dL (95% CI: −1.7–2.2 mg/dL). PMID:29203650

  11. [Jaundice after Herbage Walking Tour of a 44 Year Old Man].

    PubMed

    Sawatzki, Mikael; Haller, Christoph; Henz, Samuel

    2015-06-03

    We report about a 44-year old patient with severe acute hepatitis E after herbage walking-to ur. Transmission occurred with ingestion of contaminated herbs. Symptoms were jaundice, dark urine, rheumatic pains and distinctive fatigue. We could document a benign self-limiting course under regular clinical controls. Hepatitis Eisa worldwide common cause for acute hepatitis with jaundice. In Switzerland contamination of this autochthonic infection is aquired by consumption of pork and venison (seroprevalence up to 22%). Infection can be without symptoms but also can result in acute liver failure. Extrahepatic symptoms are not uncommon.

  12. One in Five Maternal Deaths in Bangladesh Associated with Acute Jaundice: Results from a National Maternal Mortality Survey

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Rupal; Nahar, Quamrun; Gurley, Emily S.

    2016-01-01

    We estimated the proportion of maternal deaths in Bangladesh associated with acute onset of jaundice. We used verbal autopsy data from a nationally representative maternal mortality survey to calculate the proportion of maternal deaths associated with jaundice and compared it to previously published estimates. Of all maternal deaths between 2008 and 2010, 23% were associated with jaundice, compared with 19% from 1998 to 2001. Approximately one of five maternal deaths was preceded by jaundice, unchanged in 10 years. Our findings highlight the need to better understand the etiology of these maternal deaths in Bangladesh. PMID:26755563

  13. One in Five Maternal Deaths in Bangladesh Associated with Acute Jaundice: Results from a National Maternal Mortality Survey.

    PubMed

    Shah, Rupal; Nahar, Quamrun; Gurley, Emily S

    2016-03-01

    We estimated the proportion of maternal deaths in Bangladesh associated with acute onset of jaundice. We used verbal autopsy data from a nationally representative maternal mortality survey to calculate the proportion of maternal deaths associated with jaundice and compared it to previously published estimates. Of all maternal deaths between 2008 and 2010, 23% were associated with jaundice, compared with 19% from 1998 to 2001. Approximately one of five maternal deaths was preceded by jaundice, unchanged in 10 years. Our findings highlight the need to better understand the etiology of these maternal deaths in Bangladesh. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  14. Glucagon-like peptide-2 protects impaired intestinal mucosal barriers in obstructive jaundice rats

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jun; Dong, Jia-Tian; Li, Xiao-Jing; Gu, Ye; Cheng, Zhi-Jian; Cai, Yuan-Kun

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To observe the protective effect of glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) on the intestinal barrier of rats with obstructive jaundice and determine the possible mechanisms of action involved in the protective effect. METHODS: Thirty-six Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into a sham operation group, an obstructive jaundice group, and a GLP-2 group; each group consisted of 12 rats. The GLP-2 group was treated with GLP-2 after the day of surgery, whereas the other two groups were treated with the same concentration of normal saline. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), total bilirubin, and endotoxin levels were recorded at 1, 3, 7, 10 and 14 d. Furthermore, on the 14th day, body weight, the wet weight of the small intestine, pathological changes of the small intestine and the immunoglobulin A (IgA) expressed by plasma cells located in the small intestinal lamina propria were recorded for each group. RESULTS: In the rat model, jaundice was obvious, and the rats’ activity decreased 4-6 d post bile duct ligation. Compared with the sham operation group, the obstructive jaundice group displayed increased yellow staining of abdominal visceral serosa, decreased small intestine wet weight, thinning of the intestinal muscle layer and villi, villous atrophy, uneven height, fusion, partial villous epithelial cell shedding, substantial inflammatory cell infiltration and significantly reduced IgA expression. However, no significant gross changes were noted between the GLP-2 and sham groups. With time, the levels of ALT, endotoxin and bilirubin in the GLP-2 group were significantly increased compared with the sham group (P < 0.01). The increasing levels of the aforementioned markers were more significant in the obstructive jaundice group than in the GLP-2 group (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: GLP-2 reduces intestinal mucosal injuries in obstructive jaundice rats, which might be attributed to increased intestinal IgA and reduced bilirubin and endotoxin. PMID:25593463

  15. Role of biliary tract cytology in the evaluation of extrahepatic cholestatic jaundice

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Mamta; Pai, Radha R.; Dileep, Devi; Gopal, Sandeep; Shenoy, Suresh

    2013-01-01

    Background: Endoscopic evaluation is critical in assessing the cause of obstructive jaundice. Cytological techniques including bile aspiration and biliary brushings have become the initial diagnostic modality. Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the role of endoscopic biliary tract cytology as a diagnostic tool in the evaluation of extrahepatic cholestatic jaundice. Materials and Methods: A total of 56 biliary tract specimens including 34 bile aspirations and 22 biliary brushings from 41 consecutive patients who had presented with obstructive jaundice and underwent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) were assessed by cytological examination. The smears prepared were analyzed for standard cytological features. Results: Cytologic diagnosis was adenocarcinoma in 13 (31.7%) cases, atypical in 2 (4.9%), reactive in 3 (7.3%) and benign changes in 19 (46.3%) cases. 4 (9.8%) cases were non-diagnostic. Serum bilirubin was significantly elevated in the malignant group. Biliary stricture was the most common finding on ERCP (68.3%). On cytological examination, presence of solitary, intact atypical cells, enlarged nuclei, irregular nuclear membrane, coarse chromatin and nucleoli were important cytologic criteria for differentiating malignant from benign biliary specimens. Conclusions: Regular use of bile cytology and brushings during ERCP evaluation of extrahepatic cholestatic jaundice is invaluable in obtaining a morphologic diagnosis. A systematic approach, use of strict cytomorphologic criteria and inclusion of significant atypia as malignant diagnosis may improve the sensitivity. PMID:24130407

  16. [Etiologies of non-hemolytic jaundice in infants: a retrospective analysis of 3113 cases].

    PubMed

    Peng, Xiaorong; Xu, Hongmei

    2015-06-01

    To investigate the causes of non-hemolytic jaundice among infants in Chongqing, China from the period of 1982 to 2011 and to determine whether the etiologies have changed over the past 30 years. The medical records of 3 113 infants,aged 1 month to 1 year,admitted to our hospital with non-hemolytic jaundice were collected and stratified according to decade-long time periods: group A (1982-1991), n=537; group B (1992-2001), n=786; group C (2002-2011), n=1 790. Data on sex, age, etiology and bilirubin level were retrospectively assessed using the chi-square test. In the three groups, boys consistently accounted for the majority of cases (group A:74.3%, group B:66.7%, group C:62.6%). In group A, 52% of the patients were 1-2 months of age; the peak age of patients in both group B and C was 2-3 months (group B:67.8%, group C:61.0%). Group A showed the highest level of patients with mildly elevated total bilirubin level (80.3%); however, moderately elevated total bilirubin level was most frequent in group B (53.4%) and group C (49.7%). The main etiologic diagnoses of the patients in group A were cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection (31.7%), sepsis (18.2%), hepatitis B virus (HBV) (1.3%), and biliary tract anomalies (1.3%); 46.6% of the cases had unclear cause. The main etiologic diagnoses of the cases in group B were CMV infection (36.0%), sepsis (21.5%), breast milk jaundice (2.0%), and HBV (1.9%); 37.9% of the cases had unclear cause. The main etiologic diagnoses of the cases in group C were CMV infection (42.6%), sepsis (7.5%), breast milk jaundice (17.7%), and biliary tract anomalies (2.46%); 29.1% of the cases had unclear cause. In Chongqing, infective factors, especially CMV, remain the main cause of nonhemolytic jaundice in infants, but bacterial etiologies have declined over the past 30 years.Non-infective factors, such as biliary tract anomalies and inherited metabolic diseases, have trended upwards. Although there has been great progress in the clinical management of

  17. Efficacy of preoperative biliary drainage in malignant obstructive jaundice: a meta-analysis and systematic review.

    PubMed

    Moole, Harsha; Bechtold, Matthew; Puli, Srinivas R

    2016-07-11

    In patients requiring surgical resection for malignant biliary jaundice, it is unclear if preoperative biliary drainage (PBD) would improve mortality and morbidity by restoration of biliary flow prior to operation. This is a meta-analysis to pool the evidence and assess the utility of PBD in patients with malignant obstructive jaundice. The primary outcome is comparing mortality outcomes in patients with malignant obstructive jaundice undergoing direct surgery (DS) versus PBD. The secondary outcomes include major adverse events and length of hospital stay in both the groups. Studies using PBD in patients with malignant obstructive jaundice were included in this study. For the data collection and extraction, articles were searched in MEDLINE, PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials & Database of Systematic Reviews, etc. Pooled proportions were calculated using both Mantel-Haenszel method (fixed effects model) and DerSimonian-Laird method (random effects model). Initial search identified 2230 reference articles, of which 204 were selected and reviewed. Twenty-six studies (N = 3532) for PBD in malignant obstructive jaundice which met the inclusion criteria were included in this analysis. The odds ratio for mortality in PBD group versus DS group was 0.96 (95 % CI = 0.71 to 1.29). Pooled number of major adverse effects was lower in the PBD group at 10.40 (95 % CI = 9.96 to 10.83) compared to 15.56 (95 % CI = 15.06 to 16.05) in the DS group. Subgroup analysis comparing internal PBD to DS group showed lower odds for major adverse events (odds ratio, 0.48 with 95 % CI = 0.32 to 0.74). In patients with malignant biliary jaundice requiring surgery, PBD group had significantly less major adverse effects than DS group. Length of hospital stay and mortality rate were comparable in both the groups.

  18. Burden of severe neonatal jaundice: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Slusher, Tina M; Zamora, Tara G; Appiah, Duke; Stanke, Judith U; Strand, Mark A; Lee, Burton W; Richardson, Shane B; Keating, Elizabeth M; Siddappa, Ashajoythi M

    2017-01-01

    Context To assess the global burden of late and/or poor management of severe neonatal jaundice (SNJ), a common problem worldwide, which may result in death or irreversible brain damage with disabilities in survivors. Population-based data establishing the global burden of SNJ has not been previously reported. Objective Determine the burden of SNJ in all WHO regions, as defined by clinical jaundice associated with clinical outcomes including acute bilirubin encephalopathy/kernicterus and/or exchange transfusion (ET) and/or jaundice-related death. Data sources PubMed, Scopus and other health databases were searched, without language restrictions, from 1990 to 2017 for studies reporting the incidence of SNJ. Study selection/data extraction Stratification was performed for WHO regions and results were pooled using random effects model and meta-regression. Results Of 416 articles including at least one marker of SNJ, only 21 reported estimates from population-based studies, with 76% (16/21) of them conducted in high-income countries. The African region has the highest incidence of SNJ per 10 000 live births at 667.8 (95% CI 603.4 to 738.5), followed by Southeast Asian, Eastern Mediterranean, Western Pacific, Americas and European regions at 251.3 (132.0 to 473.2), 165.7 (114.6 to 238.9), 9.4 (0.1 to 755.9), 4.4 (1.8 to 10.5) and 3.7 (1.7 to 8.0), respectively. The incidence of ET per 10 000 live births was significantly higher for Africa and Southeast Asian regions at 186.5 (153.2 to 226.8) and 107.1 (102.0 to 112.5) and lower in Eastern Mediterranean (17.8 (5.7 to 54.9)), Americas (0.38 (0.21 to 0.67)), European (0.35 (0.20 to 0.60)) and Western Pacific regions (0.19 (0.12 to 0.31). Only 2 studies provided estimates of clear jaundice-related deaths in infants with significant jaundice [UK (2.8%) and India (30.8%). Conclusions Limited but compelling evidence demonstrates that SNJ is associated with a significant health burden especially in low-income and middle

  19. Pre-operative biliary drainage for obstructive jaundice

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Yuan; Gurusamy, Kurinchi Selvan; Wang, Qin; Davidson, Brian R; Lin, He; Xie, Xiaodong; Wang, Chaohua

    2014-01-01

    Background Patients with obstructive jaundice have various pathophysiological changes that affect the liver, kidney, heart, and the immune system. There is considerable controversy as to whether temporary relief of biliary obstruction prior to major definitive surgery (pre-operative biliary drainage) is of any benefit to the patient. Objectives To assess the benefits and harms of pre-operative biliary drainage versus no pre-operative biliary drainage (direct surgery) in patients with obstructive jaundice (irrespective of a benign or malignant cause). Search methods We searched the Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group Controlled Trials Register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Clinical Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Science Citation Index Expanded until February 2012. Selection criteria We included all randomised clinical trials comparing biliary drainage followed by surgery versus direct surgery, performed for obstructive jaundice, irrespective of the sample size, language, and publication status. Data collection and analysis Two authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and extracted data. We calculated the risk ratio (RR), rate ratio (RaR), or mean difference (MD) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) based on the available patient analyses. We assessed the risk of bias (systematic overestimation of benefit or systematic underestimation of harm) with components of the Cochrane risk of bias tool. We assessed the risk of play of chance (random errors) with trial sequential analysis. Main results We included six trials with 520 patients comparing pre-operative biliary drainage (265 patients) versus no pre-operative biliary drainage (255 patients). Four trials used percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage and two trials used endoscopic sphincterotomy and stenting as the method of pre-operative biliary drainage. The risk of bias was high in all trials. The proportion of patients with malignant obstruction varied between 60

  20. Auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder in late preterm and term infants with severe jaundice.

    PubMed

    Saluja, Satish; Agarwal, Asha; Kler, Neelam; Amin, Sanjiv

    2010-11-01

    To evaluate if severe jaundice is associated with acute auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder in otherwise healthy late preterm and term neonates. In a prospective observational study, all neonates who were admitted with severe jaundice at which exchange transfusion may be indicated as per American Academy of Pediatrics guidelines had comprehensive auditory evaluation performed before discharge to home. Neonates with infection, perinatal asphyxia, chromosomal disorders, cranio-facial malformations, or family history of childhood hearing loss were excluded. Comprehensive auditory evaluations (tympanometry, oto-acoustic emission tests, and auditory brainstem evoked responses) were performed by an audiologist unaware of the severity of jaundice. Total serum bilirubin and serum albumin were measured at the institutional chemistry laboratory using the Diazo and Bromocresol purple method, respectively. A total of 13 neonates with total serum bilirubin concentration at which exchange transfusion is indicated as per American Academy of Pediatrics were admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit over 3 month period. Six out of 13 neonates (46%) had audiological findings of acute auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder. There was no significant difference in gestational age, birth weight, hemolysis, serum albumin concentration, peak total serum bilirubin concentrations, and peak bilirubin:albumin molar ratio between six neonates who developed acute auditory neuropathy and seven neonates who had normal audiological findings. Only two out of six infants with auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder had clinical signs and symptoms of acute bilirubin encephalopathy. Our findings strongly suggest that auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder is a common manifestation of acute bilirubin-induced neurotoxicity in late preterm and term infants with severe jaundice. Our findings also suggest that comprehensive auditory evaluations should be routinely performed in neonates with severe

  1. Ethno-Medicinal Plants Used to Cure Jaundice by Traditional Healers of Mashhad, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Amiri, Mohammad Sadegh; Joharchi, Mohammad Reza; TaghavizadehYazdi, Mohammad Ehsan

    2014-01-01

    Jaundice is the commonest ailments affecting the citizens of both developed and poor Asians countries including Iran. An ethnobotanical survey of plants used by the traditional healers for the treatment of jaundice was conducted in the Mashhad city, Northeastern Iran. A total of 37 plants belonging to 32 genera and 26 families have been documented for their therapeutic use against jaundice. The plant families which contained the most commonly used species for their effects are: Fabaceae (5 species), Polygonaceae (4 sp.), Asteraceae (3 sp.), Plantaginaceae (2 sp.) and Salicaceae (2 sp.). The plants were arranged with correct nomenclature along with their common name, family, the part used and their medicinal value. The use of decoction is the most preferred method of herbal preparation. In all cases, the treatment involved oral administration of the extracts 2 to 3 times daily from a week to month till the problem disappears. Cichorium intybus, Salix alba, Cotoneaster nummularius, Descurainia sophia, Malva sylvestris, Berberis integrrima, Rumex acetosella, Phyllanthus emblica and Alhagi maurorum were repeatedly mentioned by the traditional healers as the most widely used for the treatment of jaundice in the study area. The study indicates that the local inhabitants rely on medicinal plants for treatment. This paper suggested that further clinical experimentation is needed to scientifically evaluate these widely used herbal remedies for possible bioactive effects. PMID:24734067

  2. Ethno-medicinal plants used to cure jaundice by traditional healers of mashhad, iran.

    PubMed

    Amiri, Mohammad Sadegh; Joharchi, Mohammad Reza; Taghavizadehyazdi, Mohammad Ehsan

    2014-01-01

    Jaundice is the commonest ailments affecting the citizens of both developed and poor Asians countries including Iran. An ethnobotanical survey of plants used by the traditional healers for the treatment of jaundice was conducted in the Mashhad city, Northeastern Iran. A total of 37 plants belonging to 32 genera and 26 families have been documented for their therapeutic use against jaundice. The plant families which contained the most commonly used species for their effects are: Fabaceae (5 species), Polygonaceae (4 sp.), Asteraceae (3 sp.), Plantaginaceae (2 sp.) and Salicaceae (2 sp.). The plants were arranged with correct nomenclature along with their common name, family, the part used and their medicinal value. The use of decoction is the most preferred method of herbal preparation. In all cases, the treatment involved oral administration of the extracts 2 to 3 times daily from a week to month till the problem disappears. Cichorium intybus, Salix alba, Cotoneaster nummularius, Descurainia sophia, Malva sylvestris, Berberis integrrima, Rumex acetosella, Phyllanthus emblica and Alhagi maurorum were repeatedly mentioned by the traditional healers as the most widely used for the treatment of jaundice in the study area. The study indicates that the local inhabitants rely on medicinal plants for treatment. This paper suggested that further clinical experimentation is needed to scientifically evaluate these widely used herbal remedies for possible bioactive effects.

  3. The Effect of Traditional Remedies (Camel's Thorn, Flixweed and Sugar Water) on Idiopathic Neonatal Jaundice

    PubMed Central

    Boskabadi, Hassan; Maamouri, Gholamali; Mafinejad, Shahin

    2011-01-01

    Objective Jaundice is the most common reason of newborn's admission to neonatal ward. Many Iranian families give traditional remedies like sugar water, camel's thorn and flixweed extracts to breast-fed babies for reducing jaundice. This study investigated the effect of traditional remedies on idiopathic neonatal jaundice. Methods This prospective study has been performed on 336 babies with idiopathic jaundice in a four year period (2005-2009) at Ghaem hospital, Mashhad, Iran. The babies were divided into two groups. In case group (n=234) breast-fed babies received no remedy and in control group (n=102), traditional remedies were given additional to breast milk and the results recorded and compared. Findings In the present study significant differences were observed between the two groups in age of admission (6.8±3.2 vs 9.2±3.7 day, P<0.001), serum bilirubin values (17.8 vs 21.3 mg/dl, P<0.001) and percent of weight loss (P<0.01). There were no significant differences between the two groups in birth weight, sex, gestational age and duration of hospitalization, age at jaundice remission, hematocrit value and maternal factors (age, gestational order, pregnancy and labor problems)(P>0.05). Conclusion Traditional remedies (camel's thorn, flixweed and sugar water) cause more weight loss and delayed reexamination of newborns leading to increased hyperbilirubinemia. These remedies may raise pseudo confidence in parents, which postpones reexamination and follow up of the newborns. PMID:23056809

  4. Association Between Early Idiopathic Neonatal Jaundice and Urinary Tract Infections

    PubMed Central

    Özcan, Murat; Sarici, S Ümit; Yurdugül, Yüksel; Akpinar, Melis; Altun, Demet; Özcan, Begüm; Serdar, Muhittin A; Sarici, Dilek

    2017-01-01

    Background and purpose: Etiologic role, incidence, demographic, and response-to-treatment characteristics of urinary tract infection (UTI) among neonates, its relationship with significant neonatal hyperbilirubinemia, and abnormalities of the urinary system were studied in a prospective investigation in early (≤10 days) idiopathic neonatal jaundice in which all other etiologic factors of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia were ruled out. Patients and methods: Urine samples for microscopic and bacteriologic examination were obtained with bladder catheterization from 155 newborns with early neonatal jaundice. Newborns with a negative urine culture and with a positive urine culture were defined as group I and group II, respectively, and the 2 groups were compared with each other. Results: The incidence of UTI in whole of the study group was 16.7%. Serum total and direct bilirubin levels were statistically significantly higher in group II when compared with group I (P = .005 and P = .001, respectively). Decrease in serum total bilirubin level at the 24th hour of phototherapy was statistically significantly higher in group I compared with group II (P = .022). Conclusions: Urinary tract infection should be investigated in the etiologic evaluation of newborns with significant hyperbilirubinemia. The possibility of UTI should be considered in jaundiced newborns who do not respond to phototherapy well or have a prolonged duration of phototherapy treatment. PMID:28469520

  5. Intelligent diagnosis of jaundice with dynamic uncertain causality graph model.

    PubMed

    Hao, Shao-Rui; Geng, Shi-Chao; Fan, Lin-Xiao; Chen, Jia-Jia; Zhang, Qin; Li, Lan-Juan

    2017-05-01

    Jaundice is a common and complex clinical symptom potentially occurring in hepatology, general surgery, pediatrics, infectious diseases, gynecology, and obstetrics, and it is fairly difficult to distinguish the cause of jaundice in clinical practice, especially for general practitioners in less developed regions. With collaboration between physicians and artificial intelligence engineers, a comprehensive knowledge base relevant to jaundice was created based on demographic information, symptoms, physical signs, laboratory tests, imaging diagnosis, medical histories, and risk factors. Then a diagnostic modeling and reasoning system using the dynamic uncertain causality graph was proposed. A modularized modeling scheme was presented to reduce the complexity of model construction, providing multiple perspectives and arbitrary granularity for disease causality representations. A "chaining" inference algorithm and weighted logic operation mechanism were employed to guarantee the exactness and efficiency of diagnostic reasoning under situations of incomplete and uncertain information. Moreover, the causal interactions among diseases and symptoms intuitively demonstrated the reasoning process in a graphical manner. Verification was performed using 203 randomly pooled clinical cases, and the accuracy was 99.01% and 84.73%, respectively, with or without laboratory tests in the model. The solutions were more explicable and convincing than common methods such as Bayesian Networks, further increasing the objectivity of clinical decision-making. The promising results indicated that our model could be potentially used in intelligent diagnosis and help decrease public health expenditure.

  6. Intelligent diagnosis of jaundice with dynamic uncertain causality graph model*

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Shao-rui; Geng, Shi-chao; Fan, Lin-xiao; Chen, Jia-jia; Zhang, Qin; Li, Lan-juan

    2017-01-01

    Jaundice is a common and complex clinical symptom potentially occurring in hepatology, general surgery, pediatrics, infectious diseases, gynecology, and obstetrics, and it is fairly difficult to distinguish the cause of jaundice in clinical practice, especially for general practitioners in less developed regions. With collaboration between physicians and artificial intelligence engineers, a comprehensive knowledge base relevant to jaundice was created based on demographic information, symptoms, physical signs, laboratory tests, imaging diagnosis, medical histories, and risk factors. Then a diagnostic modeling and reasoning system using the dynamic uncertain causality graph was proposed. A modularized modeling scheme was presented to reduce the complexity of model construction, providing multiple perspectives and arbitrary granularity for disease causality representations. A “chaining” inference algorithm and weighted logic operation mechanism were employed to guarantee the exactness and efficiency of diagnostic reasoning under situations of incomplete and uncertain information. Moreover, the causal interactions among diseases and symptoms intuitively demonstrated the reasoning process in a graphical manner. Verification was performed using 203 randomly pooled clinical cases, and the accuracy was 99.01% and 84.73%, respectively, with or without laboratory tests in the model. The solutions were more explicable and convincing than common methods such as Bayesian Networks, further increasing the objectivity of clinical decision-making. The promising results indicated that our model could be potentially used in intelligent diagnosis and help decrease public health expenditure. PMID:28471111

  7. Pancreatobiliary fistula associated with intraductal papillary mucinous carcinoma accompanying obstructive jaundice: A case report.

    PubMed

    Komo, Toshiaki; Oishi, Koichi; Kohashi, Toshihiko; Hihara, Jun; Kanou, Mikihiro; Nakashima, Akira; Kaneko, Mayumi; Mukaida, Hidenori; Hirabayashi, Naoki

    2018-06-04

    Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) occasionally involve formation of fistulas with other adjacent organs. Pancreatobiliary fistulas associated with IPMNs are rare, but affected patients often develop obstructive jaundice and cholangitis. A 79-year-old man was referred to our hospital for evaluation of abnormal biliary enzymes. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography demonstrated multiple cystic lesions with septa in the pancreatic head and fistulas between the cystic lesions and common bile duct. The clinical diagnosis was pancreatobiliary fistula associated with a mixed-type IPMN and accompanying obstructive jaundice. The patient underwent subtotal stomach-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy. The resected specimen showed fistulas between the cystic lesions and common bile duct. Histopathological examination showed that the main and branch ducts of the pancreatic head were dilated and filled with mucus. The epithelia of the pancreatic ducts revealed papillary proliferation and an invasive adenocarcinoma arising from an intraductal neoplasm. Immunohistochemistry examination showed CDX2- and MUC2-positive reactions. The final diagnosis was an intraductal papillary mucinous carcinoma of the intestinal-type. The patient remained disease-free for 9 months postoperatively. The causes of death in patients who have pancreatobiliary fistulas associated with IPMNs without resection are cholangitis or hepatic insufficiency. Nonoperative treatment is limited for cases with obstructive jaundice. It is necessary to prevent obstructive jaundice and cholangitis due to a large quantity of mucinous material. Surgical resection should be considered, if possible, in patients with pancreatobiliary fistulas associated with IPMNs. A better prognosis is expected with prevention of obstructive jaundice or cholangitis. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. [How to assess clinical practice guidelines with AGREE II: The example of neonatal jaundice].

    PubMed

    Renesme, L; Bedu, A; Tourneux, P; Truffert, P

    2016-03-01

    Neonatal jaundice is a very frequent condition that occurs in approximately 50-70% of term or near-term (>35 GA) babies in the 1st week of life. In some cases, a high bilirubin blood level can lead to kernicterus. There is no consensus for the management of neonatal jaundice and few countries have published national clinical practice guidelines for the management of neonatal jaundice. The aim of this study was to assess the quality of these guidelines. We conducted a systematic review of the literature for national clinical practice guidelines for the management of neonatal jaundice in term or near-term babies. Four independent reviewers assessed the quality of each guideline using the AGREE II evaluation. For each of the clinical practice guidelines, the management modalities were analyzed (screening, treatment, follow-up, etc.). Seven national clinical practice guidelines were found (South Africa, USA AAP, UK NICE, Canada, Norway, Switzerland, and Israel). The AGREE II score showed widespread variation regarding the quality of these national guidelines. There was no major difference between the guidelines concerning the clinical management of these babies. The NICE guideline is the most valuable guideline regarding the AGREE II score. NICE showed that, despite a strong and rigorous methodology, there is no evidenced-based recommended code of practice (RCP). Comparing RCPs, we found no major differences. The NICE guideline showed the best quality. The AGREE II instrument should be used as a framework when developing clinical practice guidelines to improve the quality of the future guideline. In France, a national guideline is needed for a more standardized management of neonatal jaundice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Identification of the traditional methods of newborn mothers regarding jaundice in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Diler; Karaca Ciftci, Esra; Karatas, Hulya

    2014-02-01

    To detect traditional methods applied for the treatment of newborn jaundice by mothers in Turkey. Traditional methods are generally used in our society. Instead of using medical services, people often use already-known traditional methods to treat the disease. In such cases, the prognosis of the disease generally becomes worse, the treatment period longer and healthcare costs higher, and more medicine is used. A cross-sectional descriptive study. The participants of this study were 229 mothers with newborn babies aged 0-28 days in one university hospital and one public children's hospital in Sanliurfa. The study was conducted between March and May 2012. In this research, the Beliefs and Traditional Methods of Mothers for Jaundice Questionnaire, which was formed by searching the relevant literature, is used as a data collection tool. The data are evaluated by percentage distributions. Mothers apply conventional practices in cases of health problems such as jaundice, and application of these methods is important to mothers. Moreover, mothers reported applying hazardous conventional methods in cases of neonatal jaundice, such as cutting the area between the baby's eyebrows with a blade, cutting the back of the ear and the body and burning the body, which are not applied in different cultures. Education regarding the effects of conventional methods being applied in families should be provided, and the results of this study should serve to guide further studies in assessing the effects of such education. This approach can support beneficial practices involving individual care and prevent the negative health effects of hazardous practices. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. CT vs. MRCP in choledocholithiasis jaundice.

    PubMed

    Petrescu, I; Bratu, A M; Petrescu, S; Popa, B V; Cristian, D; Burcos, T

    2015-01-01

    Obstructive jaundice can raise problems to diagnostic imaging. The radiologist must choose the most appropriate examination that delivers the most important diagnostic information because the differences between a lithiasic obstruction and a tumoral one are vital. This information helps the surgeon speed up the process of decision-making, because the treatment may be very different in relation to the nature of the obstruction. This study tries to demonstrate the diagnostic accuracy of computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) in detecting the obstacle in the common bile duct (CBD) and the possibility of establishing the lithiasic nature of the obstruction. A retrospective analysis was analyzed during an interval of 18 months that included jaundice patients admitted in the General Surgery Department of "Coltea" Clinical Hospital. They were examined by CT scanning and by MRCP, being suspected of choledocholithiasis. 63 patients were included in the study, 34 females and 29 males. 33 CT scans and 30 MRCP exams were performed. CT scan is useful in detecting residual or iterative choledocholithiasis in patients after cholecystectomy, contrast enhanced CT (CECT), being able to differentiate between lithiasic and non-lithiasic obstruction. MRCP delivers important anatomic details of the biliary tree; it is superior to CT in diagnosing the hepatocholedochal lithiasis; MRCP tends to replace endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP)--the diagnostic "gold standard" reducing the number of unnecessary invasive diagnostic procedures.

  11. Obstructive jaundice caused by pancreaticoduodenal artery aneurysms associated with celiac axis stenosis: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Yin, Tiansheng; Wan, Zhili; Chen, Hongwei; Mao, Xixian; Yi, Yayang; Li, Dewei

    2015-07-01

    Pancreaticoduodenal artery aneurysm (PDA) is quite rare, which accounts for only approximate 2% of all visceral aneurysms. Besides, PDA is usually related to celiac axis stenosis (CAS) and prone to rupture. Advanced imaging examination can facilitate the disclosure of such peripancreatic masses, but most of them were seldom diagnosed until they rupture because of the nonspecific symptoms. Secondary to PDA, obstructive jaundice is however an extremely rare manifestation. A case of an 84-year-old man is reported here, who suffered from severe jaundice caused by a ruptured PDA associated with CAS. In addition, this review collects and organizes PDAs with jaundice by applying a MEDLINE search and discusses the pathogenesis and therapeutic options of these aneurysms leading to external compression over the bile duct. Consequently, the formation of PDA with obstructive jaundice is based on the specific anatomy of pancreaticoduodenal arcades. When there is a retroperitoneal mass around the head of the pancreas associated with unexpected jaundice, PDA should be considered, for which early aggressive therapy is required. The case report and literature review suggest that PDA associated with obstructive jaundice may be treated successfully by single transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) without auxiliary biliary drainage, whether it ruptures or not. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Paraneoplastic jaundice and prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Ana Claudia; Alvarenga, Maria Joana; Santos, Jose Carlos; Silva, Alberto Mello

    2017-04-22

    Cholestasis has numerous causes. We present the case of a 78-year-old man with a common diagnosis in this age group and gender but with an unusual presentation. There are only 11 articles published of patients with jaundice due to a paraneoplastic syndrome associated with prostate cancer. Interleukin 6 and other proinflammatory cytokines appear to contribute to the pathophysiology of this syndrome. Our patient remains symptom free 4 months after treatment initiation. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  13. Trans-Cutaneous Bilirubinometery versus Serum Bilirubin in Neonatal Jaundice.

    PubMed

    Mahram, Manoochehr; Oveisi, Sonia; Jaberi, Najmeh

    2015-12-01

    Hyperbilirubinemia is a common problem in neonates and causes serious complications. Thus, serial measurements of bilirubin should be done. This assessment is done through two methods of laboratory measurement in serum sample and transcutaneous bilirubinometer. This descriptive study compared transcutaneous bilirubin assessment and laboratory serum bilirubin. Bilirubin level was assessed among 256 neonates admitted to the Qods Children's Hospital in Qazvin- Iran, because of neonatal indirect jaundice, through two methods of transcutaneous bilirubinometery from two sites of forehead and sternum and laboratory measurement of bilirubin in serum. The cases were non-hemolytic icteric term neonates weighing 2500 gram or more and had not received phototherapy or other treatments. Neonates with hemolytic forms of jaundice, sepsis and suspicious to metabolic disorders were excluded. Assessments by means of KJ-8000 transcutaneous bilirubinometer from two sites of forehead and sternum and through laboratory measurement of serum bilirubin were registered and analyzed. The results of the current study showed that there was a correlation of 0.82 between serum bilirubin and transcutaneous forehead bilirubin assessment and for the used device sensitivity of 0.844; specificity of 0.842, Youden Index of 0.709 and Shortest of 0.042 for a cut-off of 12.4 in bilirubin of participants. Furthermore, Likelihood Ratio positive and negative (LR) were 5.665 and 0.164, respectively and diagnostic Odds Ratio (LR+/LR-) was 34.56. Transcutaneous bilirubinometery can be considered as a reliable tool to assess bilirubin for the screening of neonatal jaundice in term neonates.

  14. Fever, jaundice and acute renal failure.

    PubMed

    O'Toole, Sam M; Pathak, Neha; Toms, Graham C; Gelding, Susan V; Sivaprakasam, Venkat

    2015-02-01

    Leptospirosis is an uncommon infectious disease that has protean clinical manifestations ranging from an innocuous 'flu-like' illness to potentially life-threatening multi-organ failure. Here we describe a case of Weil's disease that presented on the acute medical take with fever, jaundice and acute renal failure. We highlight the importance of careful history taking at the time of admission and how understanding the epidemiology and pathophysiology of leptospirosis enables a definitive diagnosis to be reached. © 2015 Royal College of Physicians.

  15. What Do Expectant Mothers Know about Neonatal Jaundice?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogunfowora, Olusoga B.; Adefuye, Peter O.; Fetuga, Musili B.

    2006-01-01

    Neonatal jaundice (NNJ) is a common disorder worldwide and many affected babies become brain-damaged due to delay in seeking medical consultation. In order to assess the awareness and knowledge of expectant mothers about NNJ, women who registered for antenatal care at a tertiary health facility in the South-western part of Nigeria were…

  16. Jaundice and life-threatening hemobilia: an uncommon presentation of choledochal cyst.

    PubMed

    Koh, Peng Soon; Yoong, Boon Koon; Vijayananthan, Anushya; Nawawi, Ouzreiah; Mahadeva, Sanjiv

    2013-08-01

    Hemobilia with jaundice as a result of cholestasis and bleeding from choledochal cyst is uncommon. Ascertaining the diagnosis is often challenging and delayed diagnosis can lead to significant consequences due to hemodynamic instability, particularly in elderly patients. Although surgery remains the definitive treatment modality, interventional radiology for hemostasis has been increasingly recognized as an option. In this manuscript, we described two Malaysian cases of jaundice and hemobilia associated with choledochal cysts and the challenges related with clinical diagnosis and management. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Digestive Diseases © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd and Chinese Medical Association Shanghai Branch, Chinese Society of Gastroenterology, Renji Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine.

  17. Prevalence of UTI among Iranian infants with prolonged jaundice, and its main causes: A systematic review and meta-analysis study.

    PubMed

    Tola, H H; Ranjbaran, M; Omani-Samani, R; Sadeghi, M

    2018-04-01

    An extremely variable and high prevalence of urinary tract infection (UTI) in infants with prolonged jaundice has been reported in Iran. However, there is no research from the area that has attempted to estimate pooled prevalence of UTI from considerably diverse evidence. Therefore, this systematic review and meta-analysis study aimed to estimate the prevalence of UTI in infants with prolonged jaundice who were admitted into clinics or hospitals in Iran. A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted of published articles on UTI prevalence in infants with prolonged jaundice in Iran. Electronic databases were searched, including Web of Sciences, PubMed/Medline, Scopus, Iranian Scientific Information Database (SID) and Iranmedex, for both English and Persian language articles published between January, 2000 and March, 2017. All possible combinations of the following keywords were used: jaundice, icterus, hyperbilirubinemia during infancy, infection and neonatal. Nine studies that reported prevalence of UTI in infants with prolonged jaundice were included. The overall prevalence of UTI was estimated using random-effects meta-analysis models. A total of 1750 infants were pooled to estimate the overall prevalence of UTI in infants with prolonged jaundice. The prevalence reported by the studies included in this literature review was extremely variable and ranged 0.6-53.9%. The overall prevalence was 11% (95% Confidence Interval (CI): 5.0-18.0), and Escherichia coli was found to be the main cause of UTI. The overall prevalence of UTI was 11%, and E. coli was the main cause of UTI in infants with prolonged jaundice. Screening of UTI should be considered for infants with prolonged jaundice. Copyright © 2018 Journal of Pediatric Urology Company. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Diagnostics of jaundice from the change of the transmission coefficient of the human body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guminetskiy, S. G.; Kirsh, N. L.; Lomanets, V. S.; Lazurka, I. I.; Yakobets, I. I.

    2004-06-01

    The paper deals with the absorption spectra of bilirubin solutions, patient blood plasma with jaundice manifestations with a different degree of disease and whole blood. Using as an analysis base the dependencies of blood plasma absorption spectra on bilirubin concentration in this blood there has been proposed the method of disease diagnostics with jaundice manifestations, and there has been realized the corresponding portable laboratory device, the functioning of which is based on registering the radiation propagated through the ear lobule.

  19. Diagnostic laparoscopy-assisted cholangiography in infants with prolonged jaundice.

    PubMed

    Okazaki, Tadaharu; Miyano, Go; Yamataka, Atsuyuki; Kobayashi, Hiroyuki; Koga, Hiroyuki; Lane, Geoffrey J; Miyano, Takeshi

    2006-02-01

    Cholangiography is often crucial for establishing the definitive cause of neonatal jaundice. We present our protocol for using laparoscopy-assisted cholangiography in infants with prolonged jaundice and discuss its benefits. Firstly, a 5 mm supra-umbilical trocar is introduced to create a port for a 0 degrees laparoscope. A 5 mm trocar is then inserted through a right subcostal incision to allow the liver and gallbladder to be visualized. If the gallbladder is of good size, the fundus is exteriorized through the right subcostal trocar site and a catheter is inserted into the gallbladder for cholangiography. If the gallbladder is atretic, the fundus is not exteriorized and a laparotomy is performed for open intraoperative cholangiography because the lumen of an atretic gallbladder is usually not fully patent and cholangiography through its exteriorized fundus often fails. We reviewed 18 jaundiced infants thought to have biliary atresia (BA) who had laparoscopy-assisted cholangiography. At laparoscopy, four patients had good sized gallbladders and minimal to mild liver fibrosis. They underwent cholangiography via the exteriorized fundus, and BA in two cases and biliary hypoplasia in two cases were identified. The remaining 14 had atretic gallbladders and varying degrees of liver fibrosis. Cholangiography via the exteriorized fundus was performed in one patient, but failed and converted to open cholangiography. Open intraoperative cholangiography identified BA in all 14 cases. All BA cases progressed to Kasai portoenterostomy directly after diagnosis. Laparoscopy is used to determine the type of cholangiography to be performed based on the appearance of the gallbladder and this simple, accurate, and safe protocol allows the anatomical structure of the biliary tree to be obtained accurately with minimal surgical intervention.

  20. Hepatitis E as a cause of acute jaundice syndrome in northern Uganda, 2010-2012.

    PubMed

    Gerbi, Gemechu B; Williams, Roxanne; Bakamutumaho, Barnabas; Liu, Stephen; Downing, Robert; Drobeniuc, Jan; Kamili, Saleem; Xu, Fujie; Holmberg, Scott D; Teshale, Eyasu H

    2015-02-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a common cause of acute viral hepatitis in developing countries; however, its contribution to acute jaundice syndrome is not well-described. A large outbreak of hepatitis E occurred in northern Uganda from 2007 to 2009. In response to this outbreak, acute jaundice syndrome surveillance was established in 10 district healthcare facilities to determine the proportion of cases attributable to hepatitis E. Of 347 acute jaundice syndrome cases reported, the majority (42%) had hepatitis E followed by hepatitis B (14%), malaria (10%), hepatitis C (5%), and other/unknown (29%). Of hepatitis E cases, 72% occurred in Kaboong district, and 68% of these cases occurred between May and August of 2011. Residence in Kaabong district was independently associated with hepatitis E (adjusted odds ratio = 13; 95% confidence interval = 7-24). The findings from this surveillance show that an outbreak and sporadic transmission of hepatitis E occur in northern Uganda. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  1. Castleman disease presenting as obstructive jaundice.

    PubMed

    Al-Salamah, Saleh M; Khan, Iftikhar A; Khalid, Kamran; Al-Shakweer, Wafaa A

    2005-01-01

    A 48-year-old Saudi male was admitted with features of obstructive jaundice. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography showed stricture in distal common bile duct CBD. Computed tomography scan revealed lymphadenopathy along CBD and in porta hepatis. Cholangiocarcinoma, lymphoma or metastatic deposits were suspected but no definite preoperative diagnosis could be established. Laparotomy disclosed lymph node enlargement in porta hepatis and along the CBD and lesser curvature of the stomach. Triple bypass procedure was performed to relieve the obstruction. Pathological examination of the lymph nodes showed Castleman disease of hyaline vascular type.

  2. Serological evidence of hepatitis E virus infection in pigs and jaundice among pig handlers in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Haider, N; Khan, M S U; Hossain, M B; Sazzad, H M S; Rahman, M Z; Ahmed, F; Zeidner, N S

    2017-11-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is the most common cause of viral hepatitis in humans. Pigs may act as a reservoir of HEV, and pig handlers were frequently identified with a higher prevalence of antibodies to HEV. The objectives of this study were to identify evidence of HEV infection in pigs and compare the history of jaundice between pig handlers and people not exposed to pigs and pork. Blood and faecal samples were collected from 100 pigs derived from three slaughterhouses in the Gazipur district of Bangladesh from January to June, 2011. We also interviewed 200 pig handlers and 250 non-exposed people who did not eat pork or handled pigs in the past 2 years. We tested the pig sera for HEV-specific antibodies using a competitive ELISA and pig faecal samples for HEV RNA using real-time RT-PCR. Of 100 pig sera, 82% (n = 82) had detectable antibody against HEV. Of the 200 pig handlers, 28% (56/200) demonstrated jaundice within the past 2 years, whereas only 17% (43/250) of controls had a history of jaundice (p < .05). Compared to non-exposed people, those who slaughtered pigs (31% versus 15%, p < .001), reared pigs (37% versus 20%, p < .001), butchered pigs (35% versus 19%, p < .001) or involved in pork transportation (28% versus 13%, p < .001) were more likely to be affected with jaundice in the preceding 2 years. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, exposure to pigs (odds ratio [OR]: 2.2, 95% CI: 1.2-3.9) and age (OR: 0.97, 95% CI: 0.95-0.99) was significantly associated with jaundice in the past 2 years. Pigs in Bangladesh demonstrated evidence of HEV infection, and a history of jaundice was significantly more frequent in pig handlers. Identifying and genotyping HEV in pigs and pig handlers may provide further evidence of the pig's role in zoonotic HEV transmission in Bangladesh. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. Is Neonatal Jaundice Associated with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Tristram; Wang, Hongyue

    2014-01-01

    Using guidelines of the Meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology Group, we systematically reviewed the literature on neonatal jaundice (unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia) and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in term and preterm infants. Thirteen studies were included in a meta-analysis. Most used retrospective matched case–control designs. There was significant heterogeneity (Q = 31, p = 0.002) and no evidence of publication bias (p = 0.12). Overall, jaundice, assessed by total serum bilirubin (TSB), was associated with ASD (OR, 1.43, 95% CI 1.22–1.67, random effect model). This association was not found in preterms (OR 0.7, 95% CI 0.38–1.02) but deserves further investigation since other measures of bilirubin such as unbound unconjugated bilirubin may be better predictors of neurotoxicity than TSB in preterms. PMID:22009628

  4. Is neonatal jaundice associated with Autism Spectrum Disorders: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Amin, Sanjiv B; Smith, Tristram; Wang, Hongyue

    2011-11-01

    Using guidelines of the Meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology Group, we systematically reviewed the literature on neonatal jaundice (unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia) and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in term and preterm infants. Thirteen studies were included in a meta-analysis. Most used retrospective matched case-control designs. There was significant heterogeneity (Q = 31, p = 0.002) and no evidence of publication bias (p = 0.12). Overall, jaundice, assessed by total serum bilirubin (TSB), was associated with ASD (OR, 1.43, 95% CI 1.22-1.67, random effect model). This association was not found in preterms (OR 0.7, 95% CI 0.38-1.02) but deserves further investigation since other measures of bilirubin such as unbound unconjugated bilirubin may be better predictors of neurotoxicity than TSB in preterms.

  5. Jaundice in infants and children: causes, diagnosis and management.

    PubMed

    Chee, Y Y; Chung, P H; Wong, R M; Wong, K K

    2018-05-21

    Jaundice is caused by an accumulation of bilirubin in the blood. The presentation in infants and children can be indicative of a wide range of conditions, with some self-limiting and others potentially life-threatening. This article aims to provide a concise review of the common medical and surgical causes in children and discuss their diagnosis and management.

  6. Plasmodium falciparum-induced severe malaria with acute kidney injury and jaundice: a case report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baswin, A.; Siregar, M. L.; Jamil, K. F.

    2018-03-01

    P. falciparum-induced severe malaria with life-threatening complications like acute kidney injury (AKI), jaundice, cerebral malaria, severe anemia, acidosis, and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). A 31-year-old soldier man who works in Aceh Singkil, Indonesia which is an endemic malaria area presented with a paroxysm of fever, shaking chills and sweats over four days, headache, arthralgia, abdominal pain, pale, jaundice, and oliguria. Urinalysis showed hemoglobinuria. Blood examination showed hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, and hyperbilirubinemia. Falciparum malaria was then confirmed by peripheral blood smear, antimalarial medications were initiated, and hemodialysis was performed for eight times. The patient’s condition and laboratory results were quickly normalized. We report a case of P. falciparum-induced severe malaria with AKI and jaundice. The present case suggests that P. falciparum may induce severe malaria with life-threatening complications, early diagnosis and treatment is important to improve the quality of life of patients. Physicians must be alert for correct diagnosis and proper management of imported tropical malaria when patients have travel history in endemic areas.

  7. [Long-Term Multidisciplinary Therapy for Multiple Liver Metastases from Colorectal Cancer with Biliary Drainage for Occlusive Jaundice--A Case Report].

    PubMed

    Okamura, Shu; Mikami, Koji; Murata, Kohei; Nushijima, Yoichirou; Okada, Kazuyuki; Yanagisawa, Tetsu; Fukuchi, Nariaki; Ebisui, Chikara; Yokouchi, Hideoki; Kinuta, Masakatsu

    2015-11-01

    Here, we report the case of a 43-year-old man who was diagnosed with sigmoid colon cancer with synchronous multiple liver metastases following resection of a primary lesion. Subsequent mFOLFOX+BV therapy elicited a marked response in the liver metastases, which led to the patient undergoing hepatic (S7) radiofrequency ablation (RFA), hepatic resection (lateral segmentectomy and partial [S5] resection), and cholecystectomy. Six months later, transluminal RFA was repeated because liver (S7) metastasis recurred, and 8 courses of XELOX plus BV therapy were administered. As obstructive jaundice due to recurrence of the liver metastases developed after a 6 months hiatus in chemotherapy, we endoscopically inserted a biliary stent. Despite reducing IRIS plus BV therapy, obstructive jaundice developed again, and 3 intrahepatic biliary stents were inserted with percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage. To date, the patient has been alive for 4 years since the initial resection of the primary lesion after undergoing consecutive systemic chemotherapy with different regimens. Some studies have shown that in cases of obstructive jaundice caused by advanced gastrointestinal cancer, longer survival could be expected by reducing the severity of jaundice, suggesting that resuming chemotherapy as well as improving the severity of jaundice could contribute to better outcomes. The patient in the present case was successfully treated twice with biliary drainage for occlusive jaundice and chemotherapy, suggesting that a combination of multidisciplinary therapy and adequate local therapy such as biliary drainage could be important for the treatment of metastatic liver cancer.

  8. Prevalence of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in jaundiced Egyptian neonates.

    PubMed

    M Abo El Fotoh, Wafaa Moustafa; Rizk, Mohammed Soliman

    2016-12-01

    The enzyme, Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), deficiency leads to impaired production of reduced glutathione and predisposes the red cells to be damaged by oxidative metabolites, causing hemolysis. Deficient neonates may manifest clinically as hyperbilirubinemia or even kernicterus. This study was carried out to detect erythrocyte G6PD deficiency in neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. To determine the frequency and effect of G6PD deficiency, this study was conducted on 202 neonates with indirect hyperbilirubinemia. All term and preterm babies up to 13 day of age admitted with clinically evident jaundice were taken for the study. G6PD activity is measured by the UV-Kinetic Method using cellular enzyme determination reagents by spectrophotometry according to manufacturer's instructions. A total of 202 babies were enrolled in this study. Male babies outnumbered the female (71.3% versus 28.7%). Mean age of the study newborns was 3.75 ± 2.5 days. Eighteen neonates (8.9%) had G6PD deficiency, all are males. One case had combined G6PD deficiency and RH incompatibility. Mean serum total bilirubin was 17.2 ± 4.4 in G6PD deficient cases. There was significant positive correlation between the time of appearance of jaundice in days and G6PD levels in G6PD deficient cases. Neonatal hyperbilirubinemia is associated with various clinical comorbidities. G6PD deficiency is found to one important cause of neonatal jaundice developing on day 2 onwards.

  9. Hepatitis E as a Cause of Acute Jaundice Syndrome in Northern Uganda, 2010–2012

    PubMed Central

    Gerbi, Gemechu B.; Williams, Roxanne; Bakamutumaho, Barnabas; Liu, Stephen; Downing, Robert; Drobeniuc, Jan; Kamili, Saleem; Xu, Fujie; Holmberg, Scott D.; Teshale, Eyasu H.

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a common cause of acute viral hepatitis in developing countries; however, its contribution to acute jaundice syndrome is not well-described. A large outbreak of hepatitis E occurred in northern Uganda from 2007 to 2009. In response to this outbreak, acute jaundice syndrome surveillance was established in 10 district healthcare facilities to determine the proportion of cases attributable to hepatitis E. Of 347 acute jaundice syndrome cases reported, the majority (42%) had hepatitis E followed by hepatitis B (14%), malaria (10%), hepatitis C (5%), and other/unknown (29%). Of hepatitis E cases, 72% occurred in Kaboong district, and 68% of these cases occurred between May and August of 2011. Residence in Kaabong district was independently associated with hepatitis E (adjusted odds ratio = 13; 95% confidence interval = 7–24). The findings from this surveillance show that an outbreak and sporadic transmission of hepatitis E occur in northern Uganda. PMID:25448237

  10. A polymorphism near IL28B is associated with spontaneous clearance of acute hepatitis C virus and jaundice.

    PubMed

    Tillmann, Hans L; Thompson, Alex J; Patel, Keyur; Wiese, Manfred; Tenckhoff, Hannelore; Nischalke, Hans D; Lokhnygina, Yuliya; Kullig, Ulrike; Göbel, Uwe; Capka, Emanuela; Wiegand, Johannes; Schiefke, Ingolf; Güthoff, Wolfgang; Grüngreiff, Kurt; König, Ingrid; Spengler, Ulrich; McCarthy, Jeanette; Shianna, Kevin V; Goldstein, David B; McHutchison, John G; Timm, Jörg; Nattermann, Jacob

    2010-11-01

    A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) upstream of the IL28B gene has been associated with response of patients with chronic hepatitis C to therapy with pegylated interferon and ribavirin and also with spontaneous clearance of acute hepatitis C in a heterogeneous population. We analyzed the association between IL28B and the clinical presentation of acute hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in a homogeneous population. We analyzed the SNP rs12979860 in 190 women from the German anti-D cohort (infected with HCV genotype 1b via contaminated rhesus prophylaxis) and its association with spontaneous clearance. Clinical data were available in 136 women with acute infection who were also evaluated for IL28B genotype. Based on results of a TaqMan polymerase chain reaction assay, the rs12979860 SNP genotypes studied were C/C, C/T, or T/T. Spontaneous clearance was more common in patients with the C/C genotype (43/67; 64%) compared with C/T (22/90; 24%) or T/T (2/33; 6%) (P < .001). Jaundice during acute infection was more common among patients with C/C genotype (32.7%) than non-C/C patients (with C/T or T/T) (16.1%; P = .032). In C/C patients, jaundice during acute infection was not associated with an increased chance of spontaneous clearance (56.3%) compared with those without jaundice (60.6%). In contrast, in non-C/C patients, jaundice was associated with a higher likelihood of spontaneous clearance (42.9%) compared with those without jaundice (13.7%). The SNP rs12979860 upstream of IL28B is associated with spontaneous clearance of HCV. Women with the C/T or T/T genotype who did not develop jaundice had a lower chance of spontaneous clearance of HCV infection. Copyright © 2010 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Early sepsis, obstructive jaundice and right-sided diaphragmatic hernia in the newborn.

    PubMed

    García-Muñoz, F; Santana, C; Reyes, D; Wiehoff, A; López-Pinto, J M; García-Alix, A

    2001-01-01

    A male newborn was admitted to our Unit because of early sepsis and shock. He required antimicrobial therapy and mechanical ventilation and initially did well, although he exhibited jaundice and cholestasis. During the second week he deteriorated, with radiological opacification of the right hemithorax and pleural effusion, and did poorly in spite of antibiotical therapy and drainage of the effusion. In the third week, the X-ray suggested some bowel loops in the right hemithorax. A right-sided diaphragmatic hernia was confirmed by a CT-scan, and surgery was performed with good outcome. The association of delayed-onset right-sided CDH following early sepsis and obstructive jaundice has not been published before, and illustrates a scarcely known form of presentation of this condition.

  12. Palliative percutaneous transhepatic drainage for inoperable obstructive jaundice.

    PubMed Central

    Baxter-Smith, D. C.; Temple, J. G.; Howarth, F.

    1982-01-01

    A technique of percutaneous transhepatic drainage under local anaesthesia is described for the relief of intractable pruritus in patients with obstructive jaundice due to inoperable carcinoma. After standard percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography a polyethylene catheter is introduced into one of the large dilated bile ducts and left in situ, thereby establishing external retrograde biliary drainage. The technique has been used successfully in 6 cases with reduction in serum bilirubin levels and relief of pruritus. PMID:6182832

  13. Immunohistochemical localization of calcium-binding proteins in the brainstem vestibular nuclei of the jaundiced Gunn rat.

    PubMed

    Shaia, Wayne T; Shapiro, Steven M; Heller, Andrew J; Galiani, David L; Sismanis, Aristides; Spencer, Robert F

    2002-11-01

    Vestibular gaze and postural abnormalities are major sequelae of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. The sites and cellular effects of bilirubin toxicity in the brainstem vestibular pathway are not easily detected. Since altered intracellular calcium homeostasis may play a role in neuronal cell death, we hypothesized that altered expression of calcium-binding proteins may occur in brainstem vestibular nuclei of the classic animal model of bilirubin neurotoxicity. The expression of the calcium-binding proteins calbindin-D28k and parvalbumin in the brainstem vestibular pathways and cerebellum of homozygous recessive jaundiced (jj) Gunn rats was examined by light microscopy and immunohistochemistry at 18 days postnatally and compared to the findings obtained from age-matched non-jaundiced heterozygous (Nj) littermate controls. Jaundiced animals exhibited decreased parvalbumin immunoreactivity specifically in synaptic inputs to superior, medial, and inferior vestibular nuclei, and to oculomotor and trochlear nuclei, whereas the neurons retained their normal immunoreactivity. Jaundiced animals also demonstrated a decrease in calbindin expression in the lateral vestibular nuclei and a paucity of calbindin-immunoreactive synaptic endings on the somata of Deiters' neurons. The involved regions are related to the control of the vestibulo-ocular and vestibulospinal reflexes. Decreased expression of calcium-binding proteins in brainstem vestibular neurons may relate to the vestibulo-ocular and vestibulospinal dysfunction seen with clinical kernicterus, and may provide a sensitive new way to assess bilirubin toxicity in the vestibular system.

  14. Identification of pathogens for differential diagnosis of fever with jaundice in the Central African Republic: a retrospective assessment, 2008-2010.

    PubMed

    Gadia, Christelle Luce Bobossi; Manirakiza, Alexandre; Tekpa, Gaspard; Konamna, Xavier; Vickos, Ulrich; Nakoune, Emmanuel

    2017-11-29

    Febrile jaundice results clinically in generalized yellow coloration of the teguments and mucous membranes due to excess plasma bilirubin, accompanied by fever. Two types are found: conjugated and unconjugated bilirubin jaundice. Jaundice is a sign in several diseases due to viruses (viral hepatitis and arbovirus), parasites (malaria) and bacteria (leptospirosis). In the Central African Republic (CAR), only yellow fever is included on the list of diseases for surveillance. The aim of this study was to identify the other pathogens that can cause febrile jaundice, for better management of patients. Between 2008 and 2010, 198 sera negative for yellow fever IgM were randomly selected from 2177 samples collected during yellow fever surveillance. Laboratory analyses targeted four groups of pathogens: hepatitis B, C, delta and E viruses; dengue, chikungunya, Zika, Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever, West Nile and Rift Valley arboviruses; malaria parasites; and bacteria (leptospirosis). Overall, 30.9% sera were positive for hepatitis B, 20.2% for hepatitis E, 12.3% for hepatitis C and 8.2% for malaria. The majority of positive sera (40.4%) were from people aged 16-30 years. Co-infection with at least two of these pathogens was also found. These findings suggest that a systematic investigation should be undertaken of infectious agents that cause febrile jaundice in the CAR.

  15. The infective causes of hepatitis and jaundice amongst hospitalised patients in Vientiane, Laos

    PubMed Central

    Syhavong, Bounkong; Rasachack, Bouachanh; Smythe, Lee; Rolain, Jean-Marc; Roque-Afonso, Anne-Marie; Jenjaroen, Kemajittra; Soukkhaserm, Vimone; Phongmany, Simmaly; Phetsouvanh, Rattanaphone; Soukkhaserm, Sune; Thammavong, Te; Mayxay, Mayfong; Blacksell, Stuart D.; Barnes, Eleanor; Parola, Philippe; Dussaix, Elisabeth; Raoult, Didier; Humphreys, Isla; Klenerman, Paul; White, Nicholas J.; Newton, Paul N.

    2010-01-01

    Summary There is little information on the diverse infectious causes of jaundice and hepatitis in the Asiatic tropics. Serology (hepatitis A, B, C and E, leptospirosis, dengue, rickettsia), antigen tests (dengue), PCR assays (hepatitis A, C and E) and blood cultures (septicaemia) were performed on samples from 392 patients admitted with jaundice or raised transaminases (≥ × 3) to Mahosot Hospital, Vientiane, Laos over 3 years. Conservative definitions suggested diagnoses of dengue (8.4%), rickettsioses (7.3%), leptospirosis (6.8%), hepatitis B (4.9%), hepatitis C (4.9%), community-acquired septicaemia (3.3%) and hepatitis E (1.6%). Although anti-hepatitis A virus (HAV) IgM antibody results suggested that 35.8% of patients had acute HAV infections, anti-HAV IgG antibody avidity and HAV PCR suggested that 82% had polyclonal activation and not acute HAV infections. Scrub typhus, murine typhus or leptospirosis were present in 12.8% of patients and were associated with meningism and relatively low AST and ALT elevation. These patients would be expected to respond to empirical doxycycline therapy which, in the absence of virological diagnosis and treatment, may be an appropriate cost-effective intervention in Lao patients with jaundice/hepatitis. PMID:20378138

  16. Preoperative biliary drainage for periampullary tumors causing obstructive jaundice; DRainage vs. (direct) OPeration (DROP-trial).

    PubMed

    van der Gaag, Niels A; de Castro, Steve M M; Rauws, Erik A J; Bruno, Marco J; van Eijck, Casper H J; Kuipers, Ernst J; Gerritsen, Josephus J G M; Rutten, Jan-Paul; Greve, Jan Willem; Hesselink, Erik J; Klinkenbijl, Jean H G; Rinkes, Inne H M Borel; Boerma, Djamila; Bonsing, Bert A; van Laarhoven, Cees J; Kubben, Frank J G M; van der Harst, Erwin; Sosef, Meindert N; Bosscha, Koop; de Hingh, Ignace H J T; Th de Wit, Laurens; van Delden, Otto M; Busch, Olivier R C; van Gulik, Thomas M; Bossuyt, Patrick M M; Gouma, Dirk J

    2007-03-12

    Surgery in patients with obstructive jaundice caused by a periampullary (pancreas, papilla, distal bile duct) tumor is associated with a higher risk of postoperative complications than in non-jaundiced patients. Preoperative biliary drainage was introduced in an attempt to improve the general condition and thus reduce postoperative morbidity and mortality. Early studies showed a reduction in morbidity. However, more recently the focus has shifted towards the negative effects of drainage, such as an increase of infectious complications. Whether biliary drainage should always be performed in jaundiced patients remains controversial. The randomized controlled multicenter DROP-trial (DRainage vs. Operation) was conceived to compare the outcome of a 'preoperative biliary drainage strategy' (standard strategy) with that of an 'early-surgery' strategy, with respect to the incidence of severe complications (primary-outcome measure), hospital stay, number of invasive diagnostic tests, costs, and quality of life. Patients with obstructive jaundice due to a periampullary tumor, eligible for exploration after staging with CT scan, and scheduled to undergo a "curative" resection, will be randomized to either "early surgical treatment" (within one week) or "preoperative biliary drainage" (for 4 weeks) and subsequent surgical treatment (standard treatment). Primary outcome measure is the percentage of severe complications up to 90 days after surgery. The sample size calculation is based on the equivalence design for the primary outcome measure. If equivalence is found, the comparison of the secondary outcomes will be essential in selecting the preferred strategy. Based on a 40% complication rate for early surgical treatment and 48% for preoperative drainage, equivalence is taken to be demonstrated if the percentage of severe complications with early surgical treatment is not more than 10% higher compared to standard treatment: preoperative biliary drainage. Accounting for a 10

  17. Development of a System Model for Non-Invasive Quantification of Bilirubin in Jaundice Patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alla, Suresh K.

    Neonatal jaundice is a medical condition which occurs in newborns as a result of an imbalance between the production and elimination of bilirubin. Excess bilirubin in the blood stream diffuses into the surrounding tissue leading to a yellowing of the skin. An optical system integrated with a signal processing system is used as a platform to noninvasively quantify bilirubin concentration through the measurement of diffuse skin reflectance. Initial studies have lead to the generation of a clinical analytical model for neonatal jaundice which generates spectral reflectance data for jaundiced skin with varying levels of bilirubin concentration in the tissue. The spectral database built using the clinical analytical model is then used as a test database to validate the signal processing system in real time. This evaluation forms the basis for understanding the translation of this research to human trials. The clinical analytical model and signal processing system have been successful validated on three spectral databases. First spectral database is constructed using a porcine model as a surrogate for neonatal skin tissue. Samples of pig skin were soaked in bilirubin solutions of varying concentrations to simulate jaundice skin conditions. The resulting skins samples were analyzed with our skin reflectance systems producing bilirubin concentration values that show a high correlation (R2 = 0.94) to concentration of the bilirubin solution that each porcine tissue sample is soaked in. The second spectral database is the spectral measurements collected on human volunteers to quantify the different chromophores and other physical properties of the tissue such a Hematocrit, Hemoglobin etc. The third spectral database is the spectral data collected at different time periods from the moment a bruise is induced.

  18. Applying data mining techniques to improve diagnosis in neonatal jaundice.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Duarte; Oliveira, Abílio; Freitas, Alberto

    2012-12-07

    Hyperbilirubinemia is emerging as an increasingly common problem in newborns due to a decreasing hospital length of stay after birth. Jaundice is the most common disease of the newborn and although being benign in most cases it can lead to severe neurological consequences if poorly evaluated. In different areas of medicine, data mining has contributed to improve the results obtained with other methodologies.Hence, the aim of this study was to improve the diagnosis of neonatal jaundice with the application of data mining techniques. This study followed the different phases of the Cross Industry Standard Process for Data Mining model as its methodology.This observational study was performed at the Obstetrics Department of a central hospital (Centro Hospitalar Tâmega e Sousa--EPE), from February to March of 2011. A total of 227 healthy newborn infants with 35 or more weeks of gestation were enrolled in the study. Over 70 variables were collected and analyzed. Also, transcutaneous bilirubin levels were measured from birth to hospital discharge with maximum time intervals of 8 hours between measurements, using a noninvasive bilirubinometer.Different attribute subsets were used to train and test classification models using algorithms included in Weka data mining software, such as decision trees (J48) and neural networks (multilayer perceptron). The accuracy results were compared with the traditional methods for prediction of hyperbilirubinemia. The application of different classification algorithms to the collected data allowed predicting subsequent hyperbilirubinemia with high accuracy. In particular, at 24 hours of life of newborns, the accuracy for the prediction of hyperbilirubinemia was 89%. The best results were obtained using the following algorithms: naive Bayes, multilayer perceptron and simple logistic. The findings of our study sustain that, new approaches, such as data mining, may support medical decision, contributing to improve diagnosis in neonatal

  19. Is Neonatal Jaundice Associated with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amin, Sanjiv B.; Smith, Tristram; Wang, Hongyue

    2011-01-01

    Using guidelines of the Meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology Group, we systematically reviewed the literature on neonatal jaundice (unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia) and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in term and preterm infants. Thirteen studies were included in a meta-analysis. Most used retrospective matched case-control…

  20. An HIV-positive Case of Obstructive Jaundice Caused by Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome of Tuberculous Lymphadenitis Successfully Treated with Corticosteroids.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Naoaki; Sato, Ryota; Nagai, Hideaki; Matsui, Hirotoshi; Yamane, Akira; Kawashima, Masahiro; Suzuki, Junko; Tashimo, Hiroyuki; Ohshima, Nobuharu; Masuda, Kimihiko; Tamura, Atsuhisa; Akagawa, Shinobu; Hebisawa, Akira; Ohta, Ken

    2017-10-01

    A 60-year-old man was admitted to our hospital because of a persistent fever with enlargement of multiple lymph nodes in the mediastinum and around the pancreatic head. He was diagnosed with tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus infection. We started antiretroviral therapy three weeks after the initiation of anti-tuberculous therapy. Two weeks later, jaundice appeared with dilatation of the biliary tract due to further enlargement of the lymph nodes, which seemed to be immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). The administration of corticosteroids resolved the obstructive jaundice without surgical treatment or endoscopic drainage. Obstructive jaundice caused by IRIS should first be treated with corticosteroids before invasive treatment.

  1. Destruction of the hepatocyte junction by intercellular invasion of Leptospira causes jaundice in a hamster model of Weil's disease.

    PubMed

    Miyahara, Satoshi; Saito, Mitsumasa; Kanemaru, Takaaki; Villanueva, Sharon Y A M; Gloriani, Nina G; Yoshida, Shin-ichi

    2014-08-01

    Weil's disease, the most severe form of leptospirosis, is characterized by jaundice, haemorrhage and renal failure. The mechanisms of jaundice caused by pathogenic Leptospira remain unclear. We therefore aimed to elucidate the mechanisms by integrating histopathological changes with serum biochemical abnormalities during the development of jaundice in a hamster model of Weil's disease. In this work, we obtained three-dimensional images of infected hamster livers using scanning electron microscope together with freeze-cracking and cross-cutting methods for sample preparation. The images displayed the corkscrew-shaped bacteria, which infiltrated the Disse's space, migrated between hepatocytes, detached the intercellular junctions and disrupted the bile canaliculi. Destruction of bile canaliculi coincided with the elevation of conjugated bilirubin, aspartate transaminase and alkaline phosphatase levels in serum, whereas serum alanine transaminase and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase levels increased slightly, but not significantly. We also found in ex vivo experiments that pathogenic, but not non-pathogenic leptospires, tend to adhere to the perijunctional region of hepatocyte couplets isolated from hamsters and initiate invasion of the intercellular junction within 1 h after co-incubation. Our results suggest that pathogenic leptospires invade the intercellular junctions of host hepatocytes, and this invasion contributes in the disruption of the junction. Subsequently, bile leaks from bile canaliculi and jaundice occurs immediately. Our findings revealed not only a novel pathogenicity of leptospires, but also a novel mechanism of jaundice induced by bacterial infection. © 2014 The Authors. International Journal of Experimental Pathology © 2014 International Journal of Experimental Pathology.

  2. Destruction of the hepatocyte junction by intercellular invasion of Leptospira causes jaundice in a hamster model of Weil's disease

    PubMed Central

    Miyahara, Satoshi; Saito, Mitsumasa; Kanemaru, Takaaki; Villanueva, Sharon Y A M; Gloriani, Nina G; Yoshida, Shin-ichi

    2014-01-01

    Weil's disease, the most severe form of leptospirosis, is characterized by jaundice, haemorrhage and renal failure. The mechanisms of jaundice caused by pathogenic Leptospira remain unclear. We therefore aimed to elucidate the mechanisms by integrating histopathological changes with serum biochemical abnormalities during the development of jaundice in a hamster model of Weil's disease. In this work, we obtained three-dimensional images of infected hamster livers using scanning electron microscope together with freeze-cracking and cross-cutting methods for sample preparation. The images displayed the corkscrew-shaped bacteria, which infiltrated the Disse's space, migrated between hepatocytes, detached the intercellular junctions and disrupted the bile canaliculi. Destruction of bile canaliculi coincided with the elevation of conjugated bilirubin, aspartate transaminase and alkaline phosphatase levels in serum, whereas serum alanine transaminase and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase levels increased slightly, but not significantly. We also found in ex vivo experiments that pathogenic, but not non-pathogenic leptospires, tend to adhere to the perijunctional region of hepatocyte couplets isolated from hamsters and initiate invasion of the intercellular junction within 1 h after co-incubation. Our results suggest that pathogenic leptospires invade the intercellular junctions of host hepatocytes, and this invasion contributes in the disruption of the junction. Subsequently, bile leaks from bile canaliculi and jaundice occurs immediately. Our findings revealed not only a novel pathogenicity of leptospires, but also a novel mechanism of jaundice induced by bacterial infection. PMID:24945433

  3. Effect of obstructive jaundice on hepatic hemodynamics: use of Sonazoid-enhanced ultrasonography in a prospective study of the blood flow balance between the hepatic portal vein and hepatic artery.

    PubMed

    Wakui, Noritaka; Takeda, Yuki; Nishinakagawa, Shuta; Ueki, Nobuo; Otsuka, Takafumi; Oba, Nobuyuki; Hashimoto, Hiroshi; Kamiyama, Naohisa; Sumino, Yasukiyo; Kojima, Tatsuya

    2015-10-01

    To prospectively clarify the effects of obstructive jaundice (OJ) on hepatic hemodynamics using contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (US). Subjects comprised 14 patients admitted to our hospital for OJ between April 2013 and March 2014. Contrast-enhanced US was performed using the LOGIQ E9 ultrasound device during the jaundice phase, before biliary drainage, and again after improvement of jaundice. After injecting the Sonazoid contrast agent, contrast dynamics were recorded in the right kidney and liver segments 5 or 6. Prototype software was used to calculate mean arrival time (AT) of the contrast agent in the liver parenchyma. Statistical analysis was performed to compare the mean AT in the jaundice and improved jaundice phases. We were unable to follow up three of the 14 patients after biliary drainage; thus, we included 11 patients for further analysis. The mean AT of the contrast agent was 2.0 ± 1.8 and 6.1 ± 2.3 s in the jaundice and improved jaundice phases, respectively, showing significantly shorter AT in the jaundice phase (p = 0.0033). Our findings indicate that OJ may influence the blood flow balance between the hepatic portal vein and hepatic artery.

  4. Isolation of an agent causing bilirubinemia and jaundice in raccoons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kilham, L.; Herman, C.M.

    1954-01-01

    An infectious agent, which appears to be a virus (RJV) has been isolated from the liver of a wild raccoon which has led to a highly fatal type of disease characterized by conjunctivitis and an elevated serum bilirubin frequently accompanied by jaundice on inoculation of raccoons. Ferrets also appear to be susceptible to infections with this agent.

  5. The effect of ursodeoxycholic acid in liver functional restoration of patients with obstructive jaundice after endoscopic treatment: a prospective, randomized, and controlled study.

    PubMed

    Fekaj, Enver; Gjata, Arben; Maxhuni, Mehmet

    2013-09-22

    In patients with obstructive jaundice, multi-organ dysfunction may develop. This trial is a prospective, open-label, randomized, and controlled study with the objective to evaluate the effect of ursodeoxycholic acid in liver functional restoration in patients with obstructive jaundice after endoscopic treatment. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of ursodeoxycholic acid in liver functional restoration of patients with obstructive jaundice after endoscopic treatment. The hypothesis of this trial is that patients with obstructive jaundice, in which will be administered UDCA, in the early phase after endoscopic intervention will have better and faster functional restoration of the liver than patients in the control group.Patients with obstructive jaundice, randomly, will be divided into two groups: (A) test group in which will be administered ursodeoxycholic acid twenty-four hours after endoscopic procedure and will last fourteen days, and (B) control group.Serum-testing will include determination of bilirubin, alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, gama-glutamil transpeptidase, alkaline phosphatase, albumin, and cholesterol levels. These parameters will be determined one day prior endoscopic procedure, and on the third, fifth, seventh, tenth, twelfth and fourteenth days after endoscopic intervention. This trial is a prospective, open-label, randomized, and controlled study to asses the effect of ursodeoxycholic acid in liver functional restoration of patients with obstructive jaundice in the early phase after endoscopic treatment.

  6. 18F-FDG PET/CT in differentiating malignant from benign origins of obstructive jaundice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shao-Bo; Wu, Hu-Bing; Wang, Quan-Shi; Zhou, Wen-Lan; Tian, Ying; Ji, Yun-Hai; Lv, Liang

    2015-10-01

    The various origins of obstructive jaundice make the diagnosis of the disease difficult. This study was undertaken to evaluate the role of 18F-FDG PET/CT in differentiating malignant from benign origins of obstructive jaundice and to quantify the added value of 18F-FDG PET/CT over conventional imaging (enhanced CT and/or MRI). Eighty-five patients with obstructive jaundice who underwent 18F-FDG PET/CT within 2 weeks after enhanced CT and/or MRI were reviewed retrospectively. All 18F-FDG PET/CT images were independently evaluated by 2 nuclear medicine physicians who were unaware of other imaging data; differences were resolved by consensus of the physicians. All conventional imaging interpretations, according to the medical records, were reviewed by 2 radiologists to determine the potential value. Final diagnoses were based on histological or surgical findings. Sixty-six patients were diagnosed with malignancies, and 19 patients with benign lesions. The maximum standardized uptake values for malignant and benign lesions causing biliary obstruction were 8.2+/-4.4 and 4.0+/-5.0, respectively (P<0.05). The sensitivity, specificity, and overall accuracy for differentiating malignant from benign origins with 18F-FDG PET/CT were 86.4% (57/66), 73.7% (14/19), and 83.5% (71/85), respectively. 18F-FDG PET/CT in conjunction with conventional imaging changed the sensitivity, specificity, and overall accuracy of conventional imaging alone from 75.8% (50/66) to 95.5% (63/66) (P<0.05), 68.4% (13/19) to 57.9% (11/19) (P>0.05), and 74.1% (63/85) to 87.1% (74/85) (P<0.05), respectively. 18F-FDG PET/CT is of great value in differentiating malignant from benign origins of obstructive jaundice and is a useful adjuvant to conventional imaging. 18F-FDG PET/CT should be recommended for further etiological clarification.

  7. Transcutaneous bilirubinometry reduces the need for blood sampling in neonates with visible jaundice.

    PubMed

    Mishra, S; Chawla, D; Agarwal, R; Deorari, A K; Paul, V K; Bhutani, V K

    2009-12-01

    We determined usefulness of transcutaneous bilirubinometry to decrease the need for blood sampling to assay serum total bilirubin (STB) in the management of jaundiced healthy Indian neonates. Newborns, > or =35 weeks' gestation, with clinical evidence of jaundice were enrolled in an institutional approved randomized clinical trial. The severity of hyperbilirubinaemia was determined by two non-invasive methods: i) protocol-based visual assessment of bilirubin (VaB) and ii) transcutaneous bilirubin (TcB) determination (BiliCheck). By a random allocation, either method was used to decide the need for blood sampling, which was defined to be present if assessed STB by allocated method exceeded 80% of hour-specific threshold values for phototherapy (2004 AAP Guidelines). A total of 617 neonates were randomized to either TcB (n = 314) or VaB (n = 303) groups with comparable gestation, birth weight and postnatal age. Need for blood sampling to assay STB was 34% lower (95% CI: 10% to 51%) in the TcB group compared with VaB group (17.5% vs 26.4% assessments; risk difference: -8.9%, 95% CI: -2.4% to -15.4%; p = 0.008). Routine use of transcutaneous bilirubinometry compared with systematic visual assessment of bilirubin significantly reduced the need for blood sampling to assay STB in jaundiced term and late-preterm neonates. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00653874).

  8. Piscine reovirus, but not Jaundice Syndrome, was transmissible to Chinook Salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Walbaum), Sockeye Salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka (Walbaum), and Atlantic Salmon, Salmo salar L.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garver, Kyle A.; Marty, Gary D.; Cockburn, Sarah N.; Richard, Jon; Hawley, Laura M.; Müller, Anita; Thompson, Rachel L.; Purcell, Maureen K.; Saksida, Sonja M.

    2015-01-01

    A Jaundice Syndrome occurs sporadically among sea-pen-farmed Chinook Salmon in British Columbia, the westernmost province of Canada. Affected salmon are easily identified by a distinctive yellow discolouration of the abdominal and periorbital regions. Through traditional diagnostics, no bacterial or viral agents were cultured from tissues of jaundiced Chinook Salmon; however, piscine reovirus (PRV) was identified via RT-rPCR in all 10 affected fish sampled. By histopathology, Jaundice Syndrome is an acute to peracute systemic disease, and the time from first clinical signs to death is likely <48 h; renal tubular epithelial cell necrosis is the most consistent lesion. In an infectivity trial, Chinook Salmon, Sockeye Salmon and Atlantic Salmon, intraperitoneally inoculated with a PRV-positive organ homogenate from jaundiced Chinook Salmon, developed no gross or microscopic evidence of jaundice despite persistence of PRV for the 5-month holding period. The results from this study demonstrate that the Jaundice Syndrome was not transmissible by injection of material from infected fish and that PRV was not the sole aetiological factor for the condition. Additionally, these findings showed the Pacific coast strain of PRV, while transmissible, was of low pathogenicity for Atlantic Salmon, Chinook Salmon and Sockeye Salmon.

  9. Hyperactivity in the Gunn rat model of neonatal jaundice: age-related attenuation and emergence of gait deficits

    PubMed Central

    Stanford, John A.; Shuler, Jeffrey M.; Fowler, Stephen C.; Stanford, Kimberly G.; Ma, Delin; Bittel, Douglas C.; Le Pichon, Jean-Baptiste; Shapiro, Steven M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Neonatal jaundice resulting from elevated unconjugated bilirubin (UCB) occurs in 60–80% of newborn infants. Although mild jaundice is generally considered harmless, little is known about its long-term consequences. Recent studies have linked mild bilirubin-induced neurological dysfunction (BIND) with a range of neurological syndromes, including attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder. The goal of this study was to measure BIND across the lifespan in the Gunn rat model of BIND. Methods Using a sensitive force plate actometer, we measured locomotor activity and gait in jaundiced (jj) Gunn rats versus their non-jaundiced (Nj) littermates. Data were analyzed for young adult (3–4 months), early middle-aged (9–10 months), and late middle-aged (17–20 months) male rats. Results jj rats exhibited lower body weights at all ages and a hyperactivity that resolved at 17–20 months of age. Increased propulsive force and gait velocity accompanied hyperactivity during locomotor bouts at 9–10 months in jj rats. Stride length did not differ between the two groups at this age. Hyperactivity normalized and gait deficits, including decreased stride length, propulsive force, and gait velocity, emerged in the 17–20-month-old jj rats. Conclusions These results demonstrate that, in aging, hyperactivity decreases with the onset of gait deficits in the Gunn rat model of BIND. PMID:25518009

  10. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency: an unusual cause of acute jaundice after paracetamol overdose.

    PubMed

    Phillpotts, Simon; Tash, Elliot; Sen, Sambit

    2014-11-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is the commonest human enzyme defect causing haemolytic anaemia after exposure to specific triggers. Paracetamol-induced haemolysis in G6PD deficiency is a rare complication and mostly reported in children. We report the first case (to the best of our knowledge) of acute jaundice without overt clinical features of a haemolytic crisis, in an otherwise healthy adult female following paracetamol overdose, due to previously undiagnosed G6PD deficiency. It is important that clinicians consider this condition when a patient presents following a paracetamol overdose with significant and disproportionate jaundice, without transaminitis or coagulopathy. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Prevalence of significant weight loss and hypernatremia in breast feeding jaundice infants readmitted to Phramongkutklao Hospital within 1 month of age.

    PubMed

    Suksumek, Nithipun; Pirunnet, Tanin; Chamnanvanakij, Sangkae; Saengaroon, Preyapan

    2010-11-01

    Neonatal jaundice, especially breast feeding jaundice is the most common cause of neonatal re-admission within the first month of life. Good maternal support and closed follow-up of newborn infants can promote successful breast feeding without causing any complications. To determine the rate of significant weight loss and hypernatremia in infants with breast feeding jaundice readmitted to Phramongkutklao Hospital within 1 month of age. Cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted in infants of gestational age > or = 35 weeks and birth weight > or = 2,000 grams who had breast feeding jaundice readmitted between January, 1st and December 31st, 2008. Maternal and neonatal history, laboratory result, complications and treatment were reviewed. Rates of significant weight loss and hypernatremia were calculated. The associations between weight loss and factors, serum sodium, serum bilirubin and weight loss were analyzed using Chi-square and Mann-Whitney U test. There were 30 infants in the study. 12 (40%) were male. The median gestational age and birth weight were 37 (35-40) weeks and 2,945 (2,100-3,810) grams, respectively. Three infants had significant weight loss more than 10% of birth weights. No infant had hyperbilirubinemia. Severity of weight loss was associated with weight loss at the time before discharge from hospital. Weight loss was not associated with gestational age, sex, parity, cesarean section, exclusive breast feeding, serum sodium level, and serum bilirubin level. Complications of dehydration such as hypernatremia was not observed in infants with breast feeding jaundice in this study. Maternal education, serial weight measurements and awareness of breast-feeding jaundice problems are helpful strategies to promote successful breast feeding.

  12. Jaundice in a pregnant woman.

    PubMed

    Ibrahimi, Sophiane; Mroué, Abbas Ali; Francois, Erik; Jagodzinski, Robert

    2017-01-01

    A 34-year-old woman in the 22nd week of gestation presented with generalized pruritis and weight loss since the first trimester of pregnancy. Physical examination revealed cutaneous scratch lesions, jaundice, and hepatomegaly. Blood tests revealed cholestasis with elevated direct bilirubinemia. Auto-antibody and viral hepatitis tests were negative. Liver ultrasound was normal. The initial diagnosis was cholestasis of pregnancy. However despite treatment with ursodeoxycholic acid, the patient did not improve. Delivery was by cesarean section at the 26th week of pregnancy for obstetrical reasons. A new liver ultrasound showed a heterogeneous nodular mass. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) of the liver showed an 11-cm mass centered on the hilum, dilated intrahepatic bile ducts, involvement of the hepatic veins, and hilar adenopathy. A liver biopsy revealed fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma (FHC). © Acta Gastro-Enterologica Belgica.

  13. The treatment of jaundice with medicinal plants in indigenous communities of the Sub-Himalayan region of Uttarakhand, India.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Jyotsana; Gairola, Sumeet; Gaur, R D; Painuli, R M

    2012-08-30

    Inspite of tremendous advances made in allopathic medical practices, herbs still play an important role in the management of various liver diseases. A large number of plants and formulations have been claimed to have hepatoprotective activity. Jaundice is a symptom, indicative of the malfunctioning of the liver. This paper provides ethnomedicinal information on the plants used to treat jaundice by three important indigenous communities, i.e., nomadic Gujjars, Tharu and Bhoxa of Sub-Himalayan region, Uttarakhand, India. To record herbal preparations used by the studied indigenous communities in treatment of jaundice and discuss hepatoprotective properties of the recorded plants. The traditional knowledge of the studied indigenous communities on herbal preparations used for treating jaundice was collected through structured questionnaire and personal interviews. The interviews were conducted with 91 traditional healers (29 Bhoxa, 35 Tharu and 27 nomadic Gujjars) in Sub-Himalayan region of Uttarakhand, India. More than 250 research papers reporting ethnomedicinal information on the hepatoprotective plants used by various communities from different parts of India were extensively reviewed. A total of 40 medicinal plants belonging to 31 families and 38 genera were recorded to be used by the studied communities in 45 formulations as a remedy of jaundice. Bhoxa, nomadic Gujjars and Tharu communities used 15, 23 and 9 plants, respectively. To our knowledge eight plants reported in the present survey viz., Amaranthus spinosus L., Cissampelos pareira L., Ehretia laevis Roxb., Holarrhena pubescens Wall., Ocimum americanum L., Physalis divaricata D. Don, Solanum incanum L. and Trichosanthes cucumerina L. have not been reported earlier as remedy of jaundice in India. Literature review revealed that a total of 214 (belonging to 181 genus and 78 families), 19 (belonging to 18 genus and 12 families) and 14 (belonging to 14 genus and 11 families) plant species are used as internal

  14. [The 455th case: swollen leg, jaundice and mental disturbance].

    PubMed

    Dong, R; Weng, L; Guo, T; Zhu, T N; Zhao, J L; Wu, Q J; Zeng, X F

    2017-04-01

    A 17-year-old young man with a history of swollen leg and intermittent jaundice was presented to Peking Union Medical College Hospital with acute fever and mental disturbance. He developed deep venous thrombosis, acute myocardial infarction and plantar skin necrosis during the past four years, and was presented with an acute episode of fever, thrombocytopenia, acute kidney injury, acute myocardial infarction, mental disturbance, and obstructive jaundice. Laboratory tests showed schistocytes on peripheral blood smear.High titer of antiphospholipid antibodies was detected.Strikingly, the activity of a disintegrin and metalloprotease with a thrombospondin type 1 motif, member 13 (ADAMTS13)was significantly decreased without the production of inhibitors. Images indicated stenosis of the common bile duct, common hepatic duct, and cystic duct, which caused dilation of bile ducts and the gall bladder. Corticosteroids and anticoagulation therapy were effective at first, but the disease relapsedonce the corticosteroids tapered down. Plasma exchange was administrated for 17 times, which was effective temporarily during this episode. Methylprednisolone pulse therapy, intravenous immunoglobulin, rituximab, anticoagulation therapy, and bile drainage, were all tried but still could not control the disease. The patient's family agreed to withdraw treatment after he developed septic shock.

  15. Piscine reovirus, but not Jaundice Syndrome, was transmissible to Chinook Salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Walbaum), Sockeye Salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka (Walbaum), and Atlantic Salmon, Salmo salar L.

    PubMed

    Garver, K A; Marty, G D; Cockburn, S N; Richard, J; Hawley, L M; Müller, A; Thompson, R L; Purcell, M K; Saksida, S

    2016-02-01

    A Jaundice Syndrome occurs sporadically among sea-pen-farmed Chinook Salmon in British Columbia, the westernmost province of Canada. Affected salmon are easily identified by a distinctive yellow discolouration of the abdominal and periorbital regions. Through traditional diagnostics, no bacterial or viral agents were cultured from tissues of jaundiced Chinook Salmon; however, piscine reovirus (PRV) was identified via RT-rPCR in all 10 affected fish sampled. By histopathology, Jaundice Syndrome is an acute to peracute systemic disease, and the time from first clinical signs to death is likely <48 h; renal tubular epithelial cell necrosis is the most consistent lesion. In an infectivity trial, Chinook Salmon, Sockeye Salmon and Atlantic Salmon, intraperitoneally inoculated with a PRV-positive organ homogenate from jaundiced Chinook Salmon, developed no gross or microscopic evidence of jaundice despite persistence of PRV for the 5-month holding period. The results from this study demonstrate that the Jaundice Syndrome was not transmissible by injection of material from infected fish and that PRV was not the sole aetiological factor for the condition. Additionally, these findings showed the Pacific coast strain of PRV, while transmissible, was of low pathogenicity for Atlantic Salmon, Chinook Salmon and Sockeye Salmon. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. The Turkish Neonatal Jaundice Online Registry: A national root cause analysis

    PubMed Central

    Erdeve, Omer; Olukman, Ozgur; Ulubas, Dilek; Buyukkale, Gokhan; Narter, Fatma; Tunc, Gaffari; Atasay, Begum; Gultekin, Nazli Dilay; Arsan, Saadet; Koc, Esin

    2018-01-01

    Background Neonatal jaundice (NNJ) is common, but few root cause analyses based on national quality registries have been performed. An online registry was established to estimate the incidence of NNJ in Turkey and to facilitate a root cause analysis of NNJ and its complications. Methods A multicenter prospective study was conducted on otherwise healthy newborns born at ≥35 weeks of gestation and hospitalized for only NNJ in 50 collaborator neonatal intensive care units across Turkey over a 1-year period. Patients were analyzed for their demographic and clinical characteristics, treatment options, and complications. Results Of the 5,620 patients enrolled, 361 (6.4%) had a bilirubin level ≥25 mg/dL on admission and 13 (0.23%) developed acute bilirubin encephalopathy. The leading cause of hospital admission was hemolytic jaundice, followed by dehydration related to a lack of proper feeding. Although all infants received phototherapy, 302 infants (5.4%) received intravenous immunoglobulin in addition to phototherapy and 132 (2.3%) required exchange transfusion. The infants who received exchange transfusion were more likely to experience hemolytic causes (60.6% vs. 28.1%) and a longer duration of phototherapy (58.5 ± 31.7 vs. 29.4 ± 18.8 h) compared to infants who were not transfused (p < 0.001). The incidence of short-term complications among discharged patients during follow-up was 8.5%; rehospitalization was the most frequent (58%), followed by jaundice for more than 2 weeks (39%), neurological abnormality (0.35%), and hearing loss (0.2%). Conclusions Severe NNJ and bilirubin encephalopathy are still problems in Turkey. Means of identifying at-risk newborns before discharge during routine postnatal care, such as bilirubin monitoring, blood group analysis, and lactation consultations, would reduce the frequency of short- and long-term complications of severe NNJ. PMID:29474382

  17. [High incidence of jaundice in young calves in Southern Germany].

    PubMed

    Metzner, M; Wieland, M; Rademacher, G; Weber, B K; Hafner-Marx, A; Langenmayer, M C; Ammer, H; Klee, W

    2012-10-17

    Between September, 2010, and August, 2011, a series of cases of jaundice of unknown origin in young calves was detected in a number of farms in Southern Germany. This paper describes the syndrome on the basis of 57 cases, and the approach taken to discover the cause. The clinical course of the disease is described in 19 patients. Using a case definition (calves aged 1-3 weeks, total serum bilirubin > 20 µmol/l and/or serum glutamate dehydrogenase [GLDH] activity >50U/l and/or autopsy findings with striking liver pathology [jaundice, liver dystrophy, cirrhosis]), 36 farms were included in an epidemiological survey. In a feeding trial, two batches of a dietary supplement feed, previously used in diseased calves on farms, were fed at the dosage recommendations of the manufacturer to four clinically healthy calves over 5days. Four other calves served as controls. The calves were clinically monitored daily, and blood samples were investigated using clinical chemistry and haematology. Clinical examination revealed behavioural alterations (weakness, tonic-clonic seizures and bawling just before death), recumbency, jaundice and discolouration of faeces. In less severe cases without clinical signs, there was an increase in serum bilirubin concentration and/or GLDH activity. In the epidemiological survey of affected farms, the feeding of a diet supplement feed was registered in 54 of 57 cases. The feeding of two batches of that diet supplement feed to four clinically healthy calves resulted in a significant (p<0.05) increase in bilirubin and lactate concentrations, as well as the GLDH activity in serum, but without serious impairment of the general condition, whereas in control calves, no comparable changes were observed. The results of the epidemiological survey and the feeding trial suggest a causal involvement of a dietary supplement feed. The toxic principle is unknown. Knowledge of the clinical picture and the probable feed-related context is important to detect this

  18. Spectral matching technology for light-emitting diode-based jaundice photodynamic therapy device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, Ru-ting; Guo, Zhen-ning; Lin, Jie-ben

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this paper is to obtain the spectrum of light-emitting diode (LED)-based jaundice photodynamic therapy device (JPTD), the bilirubin absorption spectrum in vivo was regarded as target spectrum. According to the spectral constructing theory, a simple genetic algorithm as the spectral matching algorithm was first proposed in this study. The optimal combination ratios of LEDs were obtained, and the required LEDs number was then calculated. Meanwhile, the algorithm was compared with the existing spectral matching algorithms. The results show that this algorithm runs faster with higher efficiency, the switching time consumed is 2.06 s, and the fitting spectrum is very similar to the target spectrum with 98.15% matching degree. Thus, blue LED-based JPTD can replace traditional blue fluorescent tube, the spectral matching technology that has been put forward can be applied to the light source spectral matching for jaundice photodynamic therapy and other medical phototherapy.

  19. The lowering of bilirubin levels in patients with neonatal jaundice using massage therapy: A randomized, double-blind clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Eghbalian, Fatemeh; Rafienezhad, Haneyeh; Farmal, Javad

    2017-11-01

    Due to the effects of massage on various laboratory parameters (including those related to jaundice) in infants and the expansion of existing studies to achieve effective and safe therapy in the treatment of neonatal jaundice, this study aimed to investigate the effect of massage on bilirubin levels in cases of neonatal jaundice. In this study, 134 patients were randomly assigned to either an intervention group (massage combined with phototherapy, n=67) or a control group (phototherapy only, n=67). In both groups, serum total bilirubin level and frequency of daily bowel movements were measured and compared during each of the first four days of treatment. Baseline levels of bilirubin were similar between the two groups (P>0.05). During the measurements obtained post-intervention, significant differences surfaces between the two groups in bilirubin levels and frequency of daily bowel movements (P<0.05 for both). No significant relationship was observed during days 1 and 2 of massage therapy between daily frequency of bowel movements and serum bilirubin level (P>0.05); this relationship became significant during the third and fourth days (P<0.05). Massage therapy combined with phototherapy is an effective method for reducing serum total bilirubin in infants with neonatal jaundice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Ethnopharmacological Approaches for Therapy of Jaundice: Part II. Highly Used Plant Species from Acanthaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Asteraceae, Combretaceae, and Fabaceae Families.

    PubMed

    Tewari, Devesh; Mocan, Andrei; Parvanov, Emil D; Sah, Archana N; Nabavi, Seyed M; Huminiecki, Lukasz; Ma, Zheng Feei; Lee, Yeong Yeh; Horbańczuk, Jarosław O; Atanasov, Atanas G

    2017-01-01

    In many developing countries, jaundice is the common symptom of hepatic diseases which are a major cause of mortality. The use of natural product-based therapies is very popular for such hepatic disorders. A great number of medicinal plants have been utilized for this purpose and some facilitated the discovery of active compounds which helped the development of new synthetic drugs against jaundice. However, more epidemiological studies and clinical trials are required for the practical implementation of the plant pharmacotherapy of jaundice. The focus of this second part of our review is on several of the most prominent plants used against jaundice identified in the analysis performed in the first part of the review viz. Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Nees, Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn., Terminalia chebula Retz., Glycyrrhiza glabra L. and some species of genus Phyllanthus . Furthermore, we discuss their physiological effects, biologically active ingredients, and the potential mechanisms of action. Some of the most important active ingredients were silybin (also recommended by German commission), phyllanthin and andrographolide, whose action leads to bilirubin reduction and normalization of the levels of relevant serum enzymes indicative for the pathophysiological status of the liver.

  1. Ethnopharmacological Approaches for Therapy of Jaundice: Part II. Highly Used Plant Species from Acanthaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Asteraceae, Combretaceae, and Fabaceae Families

    PubMed Central

    Tewari, Devesh; Mocan, Andrei; Parvanov, Emil D.; Sah, Archana N.; Nabavi, Seyed M.; Huminiecki, Lukasz; Ma, Zheng Feei; Lee, Yeong Yeh; Horbańczuk, Jarosław O.; Atanasov, Atanas G.

    2017-01-01

    In many developing countries, jaundice is the common symptom of hepatic diseases which are a major cause of mortality. The use of natural product-based therapies is very popular for such hepatic disorders. A great number of medicinal plants have been utilized for this purpose and some facilitated the discovery of active compounds which helped the development of new synthetic drugs against jaundice. However, more epidemiological studies and clinical trials are required for the practical implementation of the plant pharmacotherapy of jaundice. The focus of this second part of our review is on several of the most prominent plants used against jaundice identified in the analysis performed in the first part of the review viz. Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Nees, Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn., Terminalia chebula Retz., Glycyrrhiza glabra L. and some species of genus Phyllanthus. Furthermore, we discuss their physiological effects, biologically active ingredients, and the potential mechanisms of action. Some of the most important active ingredients were silybin (also recommended by German commission), phyllanthin and andrographolide, whose action leads to bilirubin reduction and normalization of the levels of relevant serum enzymes indicative for the pathophysiological status of the liver. PMID:28848436

  2. Gemfibrozil in late preterm and term neonates with moderate jaundice: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Jaikrishan; Kumar, Praveen; Narang, Anil

    2009-12-01

    To determine, if oral Gemfibrozil is effective in decreasing the duration of phototherapy by at least 24 hours in neonates >34 weeks gestation with non-hemolytic jaundice, as compared to placebo. Double blind placebo controlled randomized controlled trial. Tertiary care neonatal unit in north India. Ninety seven neonates >34 weeks gestation with non-hemolytic jaundice within first 7 days of life requiring phototherapy. Two doses of Gemfibrozil (60 mg/kg/dose) or placebo, 12 hours apart. Babies were treated with single surface special blue light phototherapy. Serum total bilirubin (STB) was measured 8 hourly. Phototherapy was stopped if two consecutive STB values were below phototherapy zone. Duration of phototherapy. The median (IQR) duration of phototherapy was 40 (30, 60) hours in Gemfibrozil and 36 (19, 55) hours in the placebo group (P=0.13). The peak STB levels were 16.8 +/- 2.7 mg/dL and 16.3 +/- 2.3 mg/dL in Gemfibrozil and placebo groups, respectively. No side effect of the drug or placebo was noticed. Two doses of gemfibrozil (60 mg/kg/dose) given 12 hours apart were not able to reduce the duration of phototherapy, or peak bilirubin level in babies > 34 weeks gestation with non-hemolytic jaundice in the first week of life. Gemfibrozil was not associated with any side effects.

  3. Novel diode-based laser system for combined transcutaneous monitoring and computer-controlled intermittent treatment of jaundiced neonates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamza, Mostafa; El-Ahl, Mohammad H. S.; Hamza, Ahmad M.

    2001-06-01

    The high efficacy of laser phototherapy combined with transcutaneous monitoring of serum bilirubin provides optimum safety for jaundiced infants from the risk of bilirubin encephalopathy. In this paper the authors introduce the design and operating principles of a new laser system that can provide simultaneous monitoring and treatment of several jaundiced babies at one time. The new system incorporates diode-based laser sources oscillating at selected wavelengths to achieve both transcutaneous differential absorption measurements of bilirubin concentration in addition to the computer controlled intermittent laser therapy through a network of optical fibers. The detailed description and operating characteristics of this system are presented.

  4. Hepatobiliary transporter expression and post-operative jaundice in patients undergoing partial hepatectomy.

    PubMed

    Bernhardt, Gerwin A; Zollner, Gernot; Cerwenka, Herwig; Kornprat, Peter; Fickert, Peter; Bacher, Heinz; Werkgartner, Georg; Müller, Gabriele; Zatloukal, Kurt; Mischinger, Hans-Jörg; Trauner, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Post-operative hyperbilirubinaemia in patients undergoing liver resections is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Apart from different known factors responsible for the development of post-operative jaundice, little is known about the role of hepatobiliary transport systems in the pathogenesis of post-operative jaundice in humans after liver resection. Two liver tissue samples were taken from 14 patients undergoing liver resection before and after Pringle manoeuvre. Patients were retrospectively divided into two groups according to post-operative bilirubin serum levels. The two groups were analysed comparing the results of hepatobiliary transporter [Na-taurocholate cotransporter (NTCP); multidrug resistance gene/phospholipid export pump(MDR3); bile salt export pump (BSEP); canalicular bile salt export pump (MRP2)], heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) expression as well as the results of routinely taken post-operative liver chemistry tests. Patients with low post-operative bilirubin had lower levels of NTCP, MDR3 and BSEP mRNA compared to those with high bilirubin after Pringle manoeuvre. HSP70 levels were significantly higher after ischaemia-reperfusion (IR) injury in both groups resulting in 4.5-fold median increase. Baseline median mRNA expression of all four transporters prior to Pringle manoeuvre tended to be lower in the low bilirubin group whereas expression of HSP70 was higher in the low bilirubin group compared to the high bilirubin group. Higher mRNA levels of HSP70 in the low bilirubin group could indicate a possible protective effect of high HSP70 levels against IR injury. Although the exact role of hepatobiliary transport systems in the development of post-operative hyper bilirubinemia is not yet completely understood, this study provides new insights into the molecular aspects of post-operative jaundice after liver surgery. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  5. Estimating the Burden of Maternal and Neonatal Deaths Associated With Jaundice in Bangladesh: Possible Role of Hepatitis E Infection

    PubMed Central

    Halder, Amal K.; Streatfield, Peter K.; Sazzad, Hossain M.S.; Nurul Huda, Tarique M.; Hossain, M. Jahangir; Luby, Stephen P.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We estimated the population-based incidence of maternal and neonatal mortality associated with hepatitis E virus (HEV) in Bangladesh. Methods. We analyzed verbal autopsy data from 4 population-based studies in Bangladesh to calculate the maternal and neonatal mortality ratios associated with jaundice during pregnancy. We then reviewed the published literature to estimate the proportion of maternal deaths associated with liver disease during pregnancy that were the result of HEV in hospitals. Results. We found that 19% to 25% of all maternal deaths and 7% to 13% of all neonatal deaths in Bangladesh were associated with jaundice in pregnant women. In the published literature, 58% of deaths in pregnant women with acute liver disease in hospitals were associated with HEV. Conclusions. Jaundice is frequently associated with maternal and neonatal deaths in Bangladesh, and the published literature suggests that HEV may cause many of these deaths. HEV is preventable, and studies to estimate the burden of HEV in endemic countries are urgently needed. PMID:23078501

  6. A New Surgical Procedure "Dumbbell-Form Resection" for Selected Hilar Cholangiocarcinomas With Severe Jaundice: Comparison With Hemihepatectomy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuguang; Tian, Feng; Zhao, Xin; Li, Dajiang; He, Yu; Li, Zhihua; Chen, Jian

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study is to evaluate the therapeutic effect of a new surgical procedure, dumbbell-form resection (DFR), for hilar cholangiocarcinoma (HCCA) with severe jaundice. In DFR, liver segments I, IVb, and partial V above the right hepatic pedicle are resected.Hemihepatectomy is recognized as the preferred procedure; however, its application is limited in HCCAs with severe jaundice.Thirty-eight HCCA patients with severe jaundice receiving DFR and 70 receiving hemihepatectomy from January 2008 to January 2013 were included. Perioperative parameters, operation-related morbidity and mortality, and post-operative survival were analyzed.A total of 21.1% patients (8/38) in the DFR group received percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD), which was significantly <81.4% (57/70) in the hemihepatectomy group. The TBIL was higher in the DFR group at operation (243.7 vs 125.6 μmol/L, respectively). The remnant liver volume was significantly higher after DFR. The operation-related morbidity was significantly lower after DFR than after hemihepatectomy (26.3% vs 48.6%, respectively). None of the patients died during the perioperative period after DFR, whereas 3 died after hemihepatectomy. There was no difference in margin status, histological grade, lymph-node involvement, and distant metastasis between the 2 groups. The 1-, 3-, and 5-year survival rates after DFR (68.4%, 32.1%, and 21.4%, respectively) showed no significant difference with those after hemihepatectomy (62.7%, 34.6%, and 23.3%, respectively). Kaplan-Meier analysis indicated that overall survival and recurrence after DFR demonstrated no significant difference compared with hemihepatectomy.DFR appears to be feasible for selected HCCA patients with severe jaundice. However, its indications should be restricted.

  7. Development and optimization of a noncontact optical device for online monitoring of jaundice in human subjects.

    PubMed

    Polley, Nabarun; Saha, Srimoyee; Singh, Soumendra; Adhikari, Aniruddha; Das, Sukhen; Choudhury, Bhaskar Roy; Pal, Samir Kumar

    2015-06-01

    Jaundice is one of the notable markers of liver malfunction in our body, revealing a significant rise in the concentration of an endogenous yellow pigment bilirubin. We have described a method for measuring the optical spectrum of our conjunctiva and derived pigment concentration by using diffused reflection measurement. The method uses no prior model and is expected to work across the races (skin color) encompassing a wide range of age groups. An optical fiber-based setup capable of measuring the conjunctival absorption spectrum from 400 to 800 nm is used to monitor the level of bilirubin and is calibrated with the value measured from blood serum of the same human subject. We have also developed software in the LabVIEW platform for use in online monitoring of bilirubin levels in human subjects by nonexperts. The results demonstrate that relative absorption at 460 and 600 nm has a distinct correlation with that of the bilirubin concentration measured from blood serum. Statistical analysis revealed that our proposed method is in agreement with the conventional biochemical method. The innovative noncontact, low-cost technique is expected to have importance in monitoring jaundice in developing/underdeveloped countries, where the inexpensive diagnosis of jaundice with minimally trained manpower is obligatory.

  8. Development and optimization of a noncontact optical device for online monitoring of jaundice in human subjects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polley, Nabarun; Saha, Srimoyee; Singh, Soumendra; Adhikari, Aniruddha; Das, Sukhen; Choudhury, Bhaskar Roy; Pal, Samir Kumar

    2015-06-01

    Jaundice is one of the notable markers of liver malfunction in our body, revealing a significant rise in the concentration of an endogenous yellow pigment bilirubin. We have described a method for measuring the optical spectrum of our conjunctiva and derived pigment concentration by using diffused reflection measurement. The method uses no prior model and is expected to work across the races (skin color) encompassing a wide range of age groups. An optical fiber-based setup capable of measuring the conjunctival absorption spectrum from 400 to 800 nm is used to monitor the level of bilirubin and is calibrated with the value measured from blood serum of the same human subject. We have also developed software in the LabVIEW platform for use in online monitoring of bilirubin levels in human subjects by nonexperts. The results demonstrate that relative absorption at 460 and 600 nm has a distinct correlation with that of the bilirubin concentration measured from blood serum. Statistical analysis revealed that our proposed method is in agreement with the conventional biochemical method. The innovative noncontact, low-cost technique is expected to have importance in monitoring jaundice in developing/underdeveloped countries, where the inexpensive diagnosis of jaundice with minimally trained manpower is obligatory.

  9. Application of blue laser diodes and LEDs in phototherapy for neonatal jaundice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamza, Mostafa; Sayed El-Ahl, Mohammad H.; Hamza, Ahmad M.; Hamza, Aya M.; Hamza, Yahya M.

    2003-10-01

    The authors introduce the design of a compact phototherapy unit capable of fulfilling the recommendations of the clinical use of lasers and LEDs in phototherapy for the treatment of neonatal jaundice. The system keeps the duration of phototherapy to the minimum required for efficient treatment. Our leading clinical experience as well as the wavelength selection rules will be presented.

  10. Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt for severe jaundice in patients with acute Budd-Chiari syndrome.

    PubMed

    He, Fu-Liang; Wang, Lei; Zhao, Hong-Wei; Fan, Zhen-Hua; Zhao, Meng-Fei; Dai, Shan; Yue, Zhen-Dong; Liu, Fu-Quan

    2015-02-28

    To evaluate the feasibility of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) for severe jaundice secondary to acute Budd-Chiari syndrome (BCS). From February 2009 to March 2013, 37 patients with severe jaundice secondary to acute BCS were treated. Sixteen patients without hepatic venule, hepatic veins (HV) obstruction underwent percutaneous angioplasty of the inferior vena cava (IVC) and/or HVs. Twenty-one patients with HV occlusion underwent TIPS. Serum bilirubin, liver function, demographic data and operative data of the two groups of patients were analyzed. Twenty-one patients underwent TIPS and the technical success rate was 100%, with no technical complications. Sixteen patients underwent recanalization of the IVC and/or HVs and the technical success rate was 100%. The mean procedure time for TIPS was 84.0±12.11 min and angioplasty was 44.11±5.12 min (P<0.01). The mean portosystemic pressure in the TIPS group decreased significantly from 40.50±4.32 to 16.05±3.50 mmHg (P<0.01). The mean portosystemic pressure gradient decreased significantly from 33.60±2.62 to 7.30±2.21 mmHg (P<0.01). At 8 wk after the procedures, in the TIPS group, total bilirubin (TBIL) decreased significantly from 266.24±122.03 before surgery to 40.11±3.52 μmol/L (P<0.01) and direct bilirubin (DBIL) decreased significantly from 194.22±69.82 μmol/L to 29.82±3.10 μmol/L (P<0.01). In the angioplasty group, bilirubin returned to the normal range, with TBIL decreased significantly from 258.22±72.71 μmol/L to 13.33±3.54 μmol/L (P<0.01) and DBIL from 175.08±39.27 to 4.03±1.74 μmol/L (P<0.01). Liver function improved faster than TBIL. After 2 wk, in the TIPS group, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) decreased significantly from 50.33±40.61 U/L to 28.67±7.02 U/L (P<0.01) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) from 49.46±34.33 U/L to 26.89±8.68 U/L (P<0.01). In the angioplasty group, ALT decreased significantly from 51.56±27.90 to 14.22±2.59 μmol/L (P<0.01) and AST from 60

  11. Transjugular Insertion of Bare-Metal Biliary Stent for the Treatment of Distal Malignant Obstructive Jaundice Complicated by Coagulopathy

    SciTech Connect

    Tsauo Jiaywei, E-mail: 80732059@qq.com; Li Xiao, E-mail: simonlixiao@gmail.com; Li Hongcui, E-mail: lihongcui520@126.com

    This study was designed to investigate retrospectively the feasibility of transjugular insertion of biliary stent (TIBS) for the treatment of distal malignant obstructive jaundice complicated by coagulopathy. Between April 2005 and May 2010, six patients with distal malignant obstructive jaundice associated with coagulopathy that was unable to be corrected underwent TIBS at our institution for the palliation of jaundice. Patients' medical record and imaging results were reviewed to obtain information about demographics, procedure details, complications, and clinical outcomes. The intrahepatic biliary tract was successfully accessed in all six patients via transjugular approach. The procedure was technically successfully in five ofmore » six patients, with a bare-metal stent implanted after traversing the biliary strictures. One procedure failed, because the guidewire could not traverse the biliary occlusion. One week after TIBS, the mean serum bilirubin in the five successful cases had decreased from 313 {mu}mol/L (range 203.4-369.3) to 146.2 {mu}mol/L (range 95.8-223.3) and had further decreased to 103.6 {mu}mol/L (range 29.5-240.9) at 1 month after the procedure. No bleeding, sepsis, or other major complications were observed after the procedure. The mean survival of these five patients was 4.5 months (range 1.9-5.8). On imaging follow-up, there was no evidence of stent stenosis or migration, with 100 % primary patency. When the risks of hemorrhage from percutaneous transhepatic cholangiodrainage are high, TIBS may be an effective alternative for the treatment of distal malignant obstructive jaundice.« less

  12. Comparison of infection between internal-external and external percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage in treating patients with malignant obstructive jaundice.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chuan; Huang, Xin-En; Wang, Shu-Xiang; Lv, Peng-Hua; Sun, Ling; Wang, Fu-An

    2015-01-01

    Percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) is a form of palliative care for patients with malignant obstructive jaundice. We here compared the infection incidence between internal-external and external drainage for patients with malignant obstructive jaundice. Patients with malignant obstructive jaundice without infection before surgery receiving internal-external or external drainage from January 2008 to July 2014 were recruited. According to percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTC), if the guide wire could pass through the occlusion and enter the duodenum, we recommended internal-external drainage, and external drainage biliary drainage was set up if the occlusion was not crossed. All patients with infection after procedure received a cultivation of blood and a bile bacteriological test. Among 110 patients with malignant obstructive jaundice, 22 (52.4%) were diagnosed with infection after the procedure in the internal-external drainage group, whereas 19 (27.9%) patients were so affected in the external drainage group, the difference being significant (p<0.05). In 8 patients (36.3%) in the internal-external group infection was controlled, as compared to 12 (63.1%) in the external group (p<0.05). The mortality rate for patients with infection not controlled in internal-external group in one month was 42.8%, while this rate in external group was 28.6% (p<0.05). External drainage is a good choice, which could significantly reduce the chance of biliary infection caused by bacteria, and decrease the mortality rate at one month and improve the long-term prognosis.

  13. Maternal satisfaction with a novel filtered-sunlight phototherapy for newborn jaundice in Southwest Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In many resource-limited settings, the availability of effective phototherapy for jaundiced infants is frequently hampered by lack of, or inadequate resources to acquire and maintain conventional electric-powered phototherapy devices. This study set out to ascertain maternal experience and satisfaction with a novel treatment of infants with significant hyperbilirubinemia using filtered sunlight phototherapy (FSPT) in a tropical setting with irregular access to effective conventional phototherapy. Methods A cross-sectional satisfaction survey was conducted among mothers of jaundiced infants treated with FSPT in an inner-city maternity hospital in Lagos, Nigeria from November 2013 to March 2014. Mothers’ experience during treatment was elicited with a pretested questionnaire consisting of closed and open-ended items. Satisfaction was rated on a five-point Likert scale. Correlates of overall maternal satisfaction were explored with descriptive and inferential non-parametric statistics. Results A total of 191 mothers were surveyed, 77 (40%) of whom had no prior knowledge of neonatal jaundice. Maternal satisfaction was highest for quality of nursing care received (mean: 4.72 ± 0.55, median: 5[IQR: 5–5]) and lowest for physical state of the test environment (mean: 3.85 ± 0.74, median: 4[IQR: 3–4]). The overall rating (mean: 4.17 ± 0.58, median: 4[IQR: 4–5]) and the observed effect of FSPT on the babies (mean: 4.34 ± 0.58, 4[IQR: 4–5]) were quite satisfactory. FSPT experience was significantly correlated with the adequacy of information received (p < 0.0005), test environment (p = 0.002) and the observed effect of FSPT on the child (p < 0.0005). Almost all mothers (98.4%) indicated willingness to use FSPT in future or recommend it to others, although some (30 or 15.7%) disliked the idea of exposing newborns to sunlight. Conclusions Mothers of jaundiced newborns in this population are likely to be satisfied with FSPT

  14. Bile acid receptor TGR5 overexpression is associated with decreased intestinal mucosal injury and epithelial cell proliferation in obstructive jaundice.

    PubMed

    Ji, Chen-Guang; Xie, Xiao-Li; Yin, Jie; Qi, Wei; Chen, Lei; Bai, Yun; Wang, Na; Zhao, Dong-Qiang; Jiang, Xiao-Yu; Jiang, Hui-Qing

    2017-04-01

    Bile acids stimulate intestinal epithelial proliferation in vitro. We sought to investigate the role of the bile acid receptor TGR5 in the protection of intestinal epithelial proliferation in obstructive jaundice. Intestinal tissues and serum samples were obtained from patients with malignant obstructive jaundice and from bile duct ligation (BDL) rats. Intestinal permeability and morphological changes in the intestinal mucosa were observed. The functions of TGR5 in cell proliferation in intestinal epithelial injury were determined by overexpression or knockdown studies in Caco-2 and FHs 74 Int cells pretreated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Internal biliary drainage was superior to external biliary drainage in recovering intestinal permeability and mucosal histology in patients with obstructive jaundice. In BDL rats, feeding of chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) decreased intestinal mucosa injury. The levels of PCNA, a marker of proliferation, increased in response to CDCA feeding and were paralleled by elevated TGR5 expression. CDCA upregulated TGR5 expression and promoted proliferation in Caco-2 and FHs 74 Int cells pretreated with LPS. Overexpression of TGR5 resulted in increased PCNA, cell viability, EdU incorporation, and the proportion of cells in S phase, whereas knockdown of TGR5 had the opposite effect. Our data indicate that bile acids promote intestinal epithelial cell proliferation and decrease mucosal injury by upregulating TGR5 expression in obstructive jaundice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Cholangiohydatidosis: an Infrequent Cause of Obstructive Jaundice and Acute Cholangitis.

    PubMed

    Manterola, Carlos; Otzen, Tamara

    One of the evolutionary complications of hepatic echinococcosis (HE) is cholangiohydatidosis, a rare cause of obstructive jaundice and cholangitis. The aim of this study was to describe the results of surgical treatment on a group of patients with cholangiohydatidosis and secondary cholangitis in terms of post-operative morbidity (POM). Case series of patients operated on for cholangiohydatidosis and cholangitis in the Department at Surgery of the Universidad de La Frontera and the Clínica Mayor in Temuco, Chile between 2004 and 2014. The minimum follow-up time was six months. The principal outcome variable was the development of POM. Other variables of interest were age, sex, cyst diameter, hematocrit, leukocytes, total bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase and transaminases, type of surgery, existence of concomitant evolutionary complications in the cyst, length of hospital stay, need for surgical re-intervention and mortality. Descriptive statistics were calculated. A total of 20 patients were studied characterized by a median age of 53 years, 50.0% female and 20.0% having two or more cysts with a mean diameter of 13.3 ± 6.3 cm. A median hospital stay of six days and follow-up of 34 months was recorded. POM was 30.0%, re-intervention rate was 10.0% and mortality rate was 5.0%. Cholangiohydatidosis is a rare cause of obstructive jaundice and cholangitis associated with significant rates of POM and mortality.

  16. Randomised clinical trial: enteral nutrition does not improve the long-term outcome of alcoholic cirrhotic patients with jaundice.

    PubMed

    Dupont, B; Dao, T; Joubert, C; Dupont-Lucas, C; Gloro, R; Nguyen-Khac, E; Beaujard, E; Mathurin, P; Vastel, E; Musikas, M; Ollivier, I; Piquet, M-A

    2012-05-01

    Malnutrition and jaundice are independent prognostic factors in cirrhosis. To assess the impact of enteral nutrition on the survival of alcoholic cirrhotic patients with jaundice but without acute alcoholic hepatitis. The study was a multicentre prospective randomised controlled trial comparing effects of enteral nutrition vs. a symptomatic support in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis and jaundice (bilirubin ≥51 µmol/L) but without severe acute alcoholic hepatitis. A total of 99 patients were randomised to receive either the conventional symptomatic treatment (55 patients) or the symptomatic support associated with 35 kcal/Kg/day of enteral nutrition during 4 weeks followed by an oral nutritional support during 2 months (44 patients). Randomisation was stratified on nutritional status. One-year survival curves were compared using the Kaplan-Meier method and Logrank test. Populations in both arms were similar. One-year survival was similar in the overall population (27/44 patients (61.4%) in the enteral nutrition arm vs. 36/55 (65.5%) in the control arm; Logrank P = 0.60) and in the subgroup suffering from malnutrition [18/29 patients (62.1%) in the enteral nutrition arm vs. 20/32 (62.5%) in the control arm; Logrank P = 0.99]. There was no statistical difference for bilirubin, prothrombin rate, Child-Pugh score, albumin or nutritional assessment. Complications during treatment (bleeding, encephalopathy, infection) occurred in 23% of patients in the enteral nutrition group (10/44) vs. 16% (9/55) of the control patients (P = 0.59). Enteral nutrition does not improve the survival and hepatic or nutritional parameters of cirrhotic patients with jaundice. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Unbound Bilirubin and Auditory Neuropathy Spectrum Disorder in Late Preterm and Term Infants with Severe Jaundice

    PubMed Central

    Amin, Sanjiv B; Wang, Hongyue; Laroia, Nirupama; Orlando, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate if unbound bilirubin is a better predictor of auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder (ANSD) than total serum bilirubin (TSB) or the bilirubin albumin molar ratio (BAMR) in late preterm and term neonates with severe jaundice (TSB ≥ 20 mg/dL or TSB that met exchange transfusion criteria). Study design Infants ≥ 34 weeks gestational age with severe jaundice during the first two weeks of life were eligible for the prospective observational study. A comprehensive auditory evaluation was performed within 72 hours of peak TSB. ANSD was defined as absent or abnormal auditory brainstem evoked response waveform morphology at 80 decibel click intensity in the presence of normal outer hair cell function. TSB, serum albumin, and unbound bilirubin were measured using the colorimetric, bromocresol green, and modified peroxidase method, respectively. Results Five of 44 infants developed ANSD. By logistic regression, peak unbound bilirubin but not peak TSB or peak BAMR was associated with ANSD (odds ratio 4.6, 95% CI: 1.6-13.5, p = 0.002). On comparing receiver operating characteristic curves, the area under the curve (AUC) for unbound bilirubin (0.92) was significantly greater (p = 0.04) compared with the AUC for TSB (0.50) or BAMR (0.62). Conclusions Unbound bilirubin is a more sensitive and specific predictor of ANSD than TSB or BAMR in late preterm and term infants with severe jaundice. PMID:26952116

  18. Clinicopathological correlates in HIV seropositive tuberculosis cases presenting with jaundice after initiating antiretroviral therapy with a structured review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Barr, David A; Ramdial, Pravistadevi K

    2012-10-14

    The development of jaundice after initiation of HAART in HIV-TB co-infected patients is a challenging presentation in resource constrained settings, and is often attributed to drug induced liver injury (DILI).Some investigators have described hepatic tuberculosis Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome (TB-IRIS) as a cause of liver disease in patients initiating HAART, which could also cause jaundice. We report the clinical and histopathological features of five HIV-TB co-infected patients presenting with a syndrome of jaundice, tender hepatomegaly, bile canalicular enzyme rise and return of constitutional symptoms within 8 weeks of initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for advanced HIV infection at a rural clinic in KwaZulu Natal, South Africa.All five patients had been diagnosed with tuberculosis infection prior to HAART initiation and were on antituberculous medication at time of developing jaundice. There was evidence of multiple aetiologies of liver injury in all patients. However, based on clinical course and pathological findings, predominant hepatic injury was thought to be drug induced in one case and hepatic tuberculosis associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (TB-IRIS) in the other four.In these later 4 patients, liver biopsy findings included necrotising and non-necrotising granulomatous inflammation in the lobules and portal tracts. The granulomas demonstrated - in addition to epithelioid histiocytes and Langhans giant cells - neutrophils, plasma cells and large numbers of lymphocytes, which are not features of a conventional untreated tuberculous response. In this high TB prevalent, low resource setting, TB-IRIS may be an important cause of jaundice post-HAART initiation. Clinicopathological correlation is essential for optimal diagnosis. Further multi-organ based histopathological studies in the context of immune reconstitution would be useful to clinicians in low resource settings dealing with this challenging

  19. Clinicopathological correlates in HIV seropositive tuberculosis cases presenting with jaundice after initiating antiretroviral therapy with a structured review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The development of jaundice after initiation of HAART in HIV-TB co-infected patients is a challenging presentation in resource constrained settings, and is often attributed to drug induced liver injury (DILI).Some investigators have described hepatic tuberculosis Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome (TB-IRIS) as a cause of liver disease in patients initiating HAART, which could also cause jaundice. Case presentations We report the clinical and histopathological features of five HIV-TB co-infected patients presenting with a syndrome of jaundice, tender hepatomegaly, bile canalicular enzyme rise and return of constitutional symptoms within 8 weeks of initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for advanced HIV infection at a rural clinic in KwaZulu Natal, South Africa. All five patients had been diagnosed with tuberculosis infection prior to HAART initiation and were on antituberculous medication at time of developing jaundice. There was evidence of multiple aetiologies of liver injury in all patients. However, based on clinical course and pathological findings, predominant hepatic injury was thought to be drug induced in one case and hepatic tuberculosis associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (TB-IRIS) in the other four. In these later 4 patients, liver biopsy findings included necrotising and non-necrotising granulomatous inflammation in the lobules and portal tracts. The granulomas demonstrated – in addition to epithelioid histiocytes and Langhans giant cells – neutrophils, plasma cells and large numbers of lymphocytes, which are not features of a conventional untreated tuberculous response. Conclusion In this high TB prevalent, low resource setting, TB-IRIS may be an important cause of jaundice post-HAART initiation. Clinicopathological correlation is essential for optimal diagnosis. Further multi-organ based histopathological studies in the context of immune reconstitution would be useful to clinicians in low

  20. Hyperemesis gravidarum presenting as jaundice and transient hyperthyroidism complicated with acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Weng, Meng Tzu; Wei, Shu Chen; Wong, Jau Min; Chang, Tien Chun

    2005-03-01

    Hyperemesis gravidarum is an extreme form of nausea and vomiting during pregnancy. Its presenting symptoms include vomiting, disturbed nutrition, electrolyte imbalance, ketosis, extreme weight loss, renal and/or liver damage. It is rare for a hyperemesis gravidarum patient to present with jaundice, hyperthyroidism and idiopathic acute pancreatitis during the same hospitalization period. Here, we report such a case. A 25-year-old pregnant woman without underlying liver or thyroid disease was admitted due to jaundice noted for 2 days at 8 weeks of gestational age. Hyperthyroidism symptoms of tachycardia and finger tremor also bothered her. After treatment with parenteral fluid and antithyroid agents, her clinical condition improved. However, an episode of idiopathic pancreatitis occurred after nausea and vomiting subsided. Bowel rest with parenteral fluid and nutrition supplement was given and the increased pancreatic enzyme level gradually subsided. Follow-up liver and thyroid function were normal after gestational age of 26 weeks. She delivered a healthy female baby without low birth body weight at gestational age of 39 weeks. Rapid diagnosis and supportive care are important for the hyperemesis gravidarum patient with the complication of acute pancreatitis.

  1. Jaundice and bilirubinemia as manifestations of canine distemper in raccoons and ferrets

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kilham, L.; Habermann, R.T.; Herman, C.M.

    1956-01-01

    1) Two strains of distemper virus have been isolated from wild raccoons and one strain from ferrets. 2) All strains isolated have induced bilirubinemia in raccoons and ferrets. Many raccoons with bilirubinemia also had jaundice. 3) Identification of these strains as members of the canine distemper virus complex has been by clinical and pathological findings consistent with this diagnosis as well as by cross-immunity tests.

  2. [Establishment and validation of a neonatal pig model of hemolytic jaundice].

    PubMed

    Li, Yong-Fu; Ma, Yue-Lan; Nie, Ling; Chen, Shuan; Jin, Mei-Fang; Wang, San-Lan

    2016-05-01

    To establish a neonatal pig model of hemolytic jaundice. Twelve seven-day-old purebred Yorkshire pigs were randomly divided into an experimental group and a control group (n=6 each). Immunization of New Zealand white rabbits was used to prepare rabbit anti-porcine red blood cell antibodies, and rabbit anti-porcine red blood cell serum was separated. The neonatal pigs in the experimental group were given an intravenous injection of rabbit anti-porcine red blood cell serum (5 mL), and those in the control group were given an intravenous injection of normal saline (5 mL). Venous blood samples were collected every 6 hours for routine blood test and liver function evaluation. The experimental group had a significantly higher serum bilirubin level than the control group at 18 hours after the injection of rabbit anti-porcine red blood cell serum (64±30 μmol/L vs 20±4 μmol/L; P<0.05). In the experimental group, the serum bilirubin level reached the peak at 48 hours (275±31 μmol/L), and decreased significantly at 96 hours after the injection (95±17 μmol/L), but all significantly higher than that in the control group (P<0.05). At 18 hours after the injection, the experimental group had a significantly lower red blood cell (RBC) count than the control group [(4.58±0.32)×10(12)/L vs (5.09±0.44)×10(12)/L; P<0.05]; at 24 hours, the experimental group showed further reductions in RBC count and hemoglobin level and had significantly lower RBC count and hemoglobin level than the control group [RBC: (4.21±0.24)×10(12)/L vs (5.11±0.39)×10(12)/L, P<0.05; hemoglobin: 87±3 g vs 97±6 g, P<0.05]. The differences in RBC count and hemoglobin level between the two groups were largest at 36-48 hours. The neonatal pig model of hemolytic jaundice simulates the pathological process of human hemolytic jaundice well and provides good biological and material bases for further investigation of neonatal hemolysis.

  3. Weight loss and severe jaundice in a patient with hyperthyroidism.

    PubMed

    Breidert, M; Offensperger, S; Blum, H E; Fischer, R

    2011-09-01

    Thyrotoxicosis may significantly alter hepatic function and is associated with autoimmune disorders of the liver. We report the case of a thyrotoxic patient with Graves' disease and histologically established cholestatic hepatitis. Medical treatment of hyperthyroidism normalized liver function tests. In patients with elevated liver function parameters and jaundice of unknown origin, thyroid function should generally be tested. Moreover, medical treatment of hyperthyroidism with thyrostatics may cause severe hepatitis whereas untreated hyperthyroid patients are at risk of developing chronic liver failure. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Resolution of parenteral nutrition-associated jaundice on changing from a soybean oil emulsion to a complex mixed-lipid emulsion.

    PubMed

    Muhammed, Rafeeq; Bremner, Ronald; Protheroe, Sue; Johnson, Tracey; Holden, Chris; Murphy, M Stephen

    2012-06-01

    Resolution of parenteral nutrition (PN)-associated jaundice has been reported in children given a reduced dose of intravenous fat using a fish oil-derived lipid emulsion. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect on PN-associated jaundice of changing from a soybean oil-derived lipid to a mixed lipid emulsion derived from soybean, coconut, olive, and fish oils without reducing the total amount of lipid given. Retrospective cohort comparison examining serum bilirubin during 6 months in children with PN-associated jaundice who changed to SMOFlipid (n=8) or remained on Intralipid (n=9). At entry, both groups received most of their energy as PN (SMOFlipid 81.5%, range 65.5-100 vs Intralipid 92.2%, range 60.3-100; P=0.37). After 6 months, both tolerated increased enteral feeding but still received large proportions of their energy as PN (SMOFlipid 68.4%, range 36.6-100 vs Intralipid 50%, range 37.6-76; P=0.15). The median bilirubin at the outset was 143 μmol/L (range 71-275) in the SMOFlipid group and 91 μmol/L (range 78-176) in the Intralipid group. After 6 months, 5 of 8 children in the SMOFlipid and 2 of 9 children in the Intralipid group had total resolution of jaundice. The median bilirubin fell by 99 μmol/L in the SMOFlipid group but increased by 79 μmol/L in the Intralipid group (P=0.02). SMOFlipid may have important protective properties for the liver and may constitute a significant advance in PN formulation. Randomised trials are needed to study the efficacy of SMOFlipid in preventing PN liver disease.

  5. Comparison of conventional phototherapy and phototherapy along with Kangaroo mother care on cutaneous bilirubin of neonates with physiological jaundice.

    PubMed

    Goudarzvand, Laleh; Dabirian, Akram; Nourian, Manijeh; Jafarimanesh, Hadi; Ranjbaran, Mehdi

    2017-11-27

    One of the adjuvant and desirable therapies is skin contact between mother and baby or Kangaroo mother care (KMC) that is a cheap, accessible, relaxing, noninvasive and easy method. This study aimed to compare the effect of conventional phototherapy method and phototherapy along with KMC on cutaneous bilirubin in neonates with physiological jaundice. In this randomized clinical trial, all infants with physiological jaundice who referred for phototherapy to Mofid Hospital of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran were selected by convenience sampling based on inclusion criteria and were randomly assigned into two groups of conventional phototherapy (n = 35) and phototherapy along with KMC (n = 35). The results showed that there was a significant difference in the average volume of skin bilirubin before treatment with cutaneous bilirubin every 24 h after treatment (p < .001). This significant difference was present in both intervention and control groups. Although the average volume of skin bilirubin every 24 h after treatment was lower in the intervention group than the control group, this difference was not statistically significant (p = .236). Mean duration of hospitalization of infants in the intervention group was significantly lower than the control group (2.09 versus 3.03 d, p < .001). Although KMC along with phototherapy has a favorable effect on the reduction of cutaneous bilirubin in neonates with physiological jaundice, there are not significant differences in routine care. This may need to do KMC for a longer time (more than 1 h) which must be surveyed in the future studies. KMC was effective in reduction of the duration of hospitalization in jaundiced infants.

  6. Unbound Bilirubin and Auditory Neuropathy Spectrum Disorder in Late Preterm and Term Infants with Severe Jaundice.

    PubMed

    Amin, Sanjiv B; Wang, Hongyue; Laroia, Nirupama; Orlando, Mark

    2016-06-01

    This study evaluates whether unbound bilirubin is a better predictor of auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder (ANSD) than total serum bilirubin (TSB) or the bilirubin:albumin molar ratio (BAMR) in late preterm and term neonates with severe jaundice (TSB ≥20 mg/dL or TSB that met exchange transfusion criteria). Infants ≥34 weeks' gestation with severe jaundice during the first 2 weeks of life were eligible for the prospective observational study. A comprehensive auditory evaluation was performed within 72 hours of peak TSB. ANSD was defined as absent or abnormal auditory brainstem evoked response waveform morphology at 80-decibel click intensity in the presence of normal outer hair cell function. TSB, serum albumin, and unbound bilirubin were measured using the colorimetric, bromocresol green, and modified peroxidase method, respectively. Five of 44 infants developed ANSD. By logistic regression, peak unbound bilirubin but not peak TSB or peak BAMR was associated with ANSD (OR, 4.6; 95% CI, 1.6-13.5; P = .002). On comparing receiver operating characteristic curves, the area under the curve for unbound bilirubin (0.92) was significantly greater (P = .04) compared with the area under the curve for TSB (0.50) or BAMR (0.62). Unbound bilirubin is a more sensitive and specific predictor of ANSD than TSB or BAMR in late preterm and term infants with severe jaundice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Propolis reduces bacterial translocation and intestinal villus atrophy in experimental obstructive jaundice

    PubMed Central

    Sabuncuoglu, Mehmet Zafer; Kismet, Kemal; Kilicoglu, Sibel Serin; Kilicoglu, Bulent; Erel, Serap; Muratoglu, Sabahattin; Sunay, Asli Elif; Erdemli, Esra; Akkus, Mehmet Ali

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of propolis on bacterial translocation and ultrastructure of intestinal morphology in experimental obstructive jaundice. METHODS: Thirty Wistar-Albino male rats were randomly divided into three groups, each including 10 animals: groupI, sham-operated; group II, ligation and division of the common bile duct (BDL); group III, BDL followed by oral supplementation of propolis 100 mg/kg per day. Liver, blood, spleen, mesenteric lymph nodes, and ileal samples were taken for microbiological, light and transmission electron microscopic examination on postoperative 7th d after sacrification. RESULTS: The mean number of villi per centimeter and mean mucosal height of the propolis group were significantly different in the BDL group (P = 0.001 and 0.012, respectively). The electron microscopic changes were also different between these groups. Sham and BDL + propolis groups had similar incidence of bacterial translocation (BT). The BDL group had significantly higher rates of BT as compared with sham and BDL + propolis groups. BT was predominantly detected in MLNs and the most commonly isolated bacteria was Escherichia coli. CONCLUSION: Propolis showed a significant protective effect on ileal mucosa and reduced bacterial translocation in the experimental obstructive jaundice model. Further studies should be carried out to explain the mechanisms of these effects. PMID:17876893

  8. Effect of honey on bacterial translocation and intestinal morphology in obstructive jaundice

    PubMed Central

    Gencay, Cem; Kilicoglu, Sibel Serin; Kismet, Kemal; Kilicoglu, Bulent; Erel, Serap; Muratoglu, Sabahattin; Sunay, Asli Elif; Erdemli, Esra; Akkus, Mehmet Ali

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the effects of honey on bacterial translocation and intestinal villus histopathology in experimental obstructive jaundice. METHODS: Thirty Wistar-Albino rats were randomly divided into three groups each including 10 animals: group I, sham-operated; group II, ligation and section of the common bile duct (BDL); group III, bile duct ligation followed by oral supplementation of honey (BDL + honey) 10 g/kg per day. Liver, blood, spleen, mesenteric lymph nodes, and ileal samples were taken for microbiological, light and transmission electrone microscopic examination. RESULTS: Although the number of villi per centimeter and the height of the mucosa were higher in sham group, there was no statistically significant difference between sham and BDL + honey groups (P > 0.05). On the other hand, there was a statistically significant difference between BDL group and other groups (P < 0.05). The electron microscopic changes were also different between these groups. Sham and honey groups had similar incidence of bacterial translocation (P > 0.05). BDL group had significantly higher rates of bacterial translocation as compared with sham and honey groups. Bacterial translocation was predominantly detected in mesenteric lymph nodes. CONCLUSION: Supplementation of honey in presence of obstructive jaundice ameliorates bacterial translocation and improves ileal morphology. PMID:18528939

  9. Blue-green diode-pumped solid state laser system for transcutaneous bilirubinometry in neonatal jaundice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamza, Mostafa; El-Ahl, Mohammad H. S.; Hamza, Ahmad M.

    2001-01-01

    The authors introduce the design of a blue-green diode- pumped solid-state laser system for transcutaneous measurement of serum bilirubin level in jaundiced new born infant. The system follows the principles of optical bilirubinometry. The choice of wavelengths provides correction for the presence of hemoglobin. The new design is more compact and less expensive.

  10. Management of malignant obstructive jaundice at The Middlesex Hospital.

    PubMed

    Leung, J W; Emery, R; Cotton, P B; Russell, R C; Vallon, A G; Mason, R R

    1983-10-01

    A total of 180 patients with malignant obstructive jaundice have been treated by 5 different methods: surgical resection; surgical by-pass; percutaneous prosthesis; endoscopic prosthesis; and endoscopic sphincterotomy (for papillary tumours). The spectrum of patients is unusual, because many elderly and ill patients were referred for nonoperative management. Operative by-pass, percutaneous and endoscopic prostheses gave similar overall results, with a mean survival of about 6 months. Patients with tumours of the papilla of Vater treated by endoscopy or surgery fared well; 11 of 18 were alive at follow-up. Median survival after resection of other tumours was 17 months. These results underline the need for randomized clinical trials, which are now in progress.

  11. Extra-hepatic hepatocellular carcinoma presenting as obstructive jaundice.

    PubMed

    Batsis, J A; Halfdanarson, T R; Pitot, H

    2006-10-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma is a neoplasm with a uniformly poor prognosis. Risk factors for its development include chronic hepatitis B or C infection, haemochromatosis and alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency, but individuals with any type of chronic liver disease are predisposed. The incidence is significantly higher in Asia and Africa although it has been noted to be increasing in the United States. We present a patient with notable atypical clinical features for hepatocellular carcinoma. The patient had neither predisposing risk factors nor a primary liver lesion causing obstructive jaundice. After multiple tissue specimens were obtained, the final pathological diagnosis was established. Hepatocellular carcinoma generally requires a surgical cure, but patients who are icteric often portend poorer prognoses. For those at high risk, screening may be indicated to identify early curative treatment.

  12. Sonic hedgehog (SHH) and glioblastoma-2 (Gli-2) expressions are associated with poor jaundice-free survival in biliary atresia.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hae Yoen; Jing, Jin; Lee, Kyoung Bun; Jang, Ja-June

    2015-03-01

    Biliary atresia (BA) causes biliary obstruction in neonates. Although the Kasai operation can successfully treat certain BA cases, many patients exhibit recurrent jaundice and secondary biliary cirrhosis requiring liver transplantation. Consequently, studies of the prognostic factors of the Kasai operation are needed. Accordingly, sonic hedgehog (SHH) pathway expression at the extrahepatic bile duct (EHBD), an important bile duct repair mechanism, will be investigated via immunohistochemistry in patients with BA to examine the association with post-Kasai operation prognosis. Fifty-seven EHBD specimens were obtained during Kasai operations from 1992 to 2009. The SHH, patched (PTCH), and glioblastoma-2 (Gli-2) immunohistochemical staining results were analyzed quantitatively. Overall, 57.9% of patients had bile flow normalization after the Kasai operation; 43.1% did not. High preoperative serum total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, and aspartate aminotransferase levels were associated with sustained jaundice post-Kasai operation, as was an age ≥65days at the time of surgery (all p<0.05). High Gli-2 and SHH expression rates were significantly associated with early post-Kasai operation jaundice relapse. Strong Gli-2 and SHH expression in the EHBD might be a poor prognostic factor in Kasai operation-treated patients with BA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Congenital jaundice in bovine aborted foetuses: an emerging syndrome in southern Belgium.

    PubMed

    Delooz, L; Mori, M; Petitjean, T; Evrard, J; Czaplicki, G; Saegerman, C

    2015-04-01

    Southern Belgium faces an unusual recent increase of icteric bovine aborted foetuses. In the necropsy room, the majority of foetuses presented jaundice and splenomegaly. Despite a wide range of analyses, no definitive cause of abortion has yet been established but some analysis results support the leptospirosis hypothesis. This first description of cases will help veterinary practitioners to recognize more cases and to conduct those to the laboratory for future investigations. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Vitamin B12 deficiency: unusual cause of jaundice in an adolescent.

    PubMed

    Katakam, Phalguna Kousika; Hegde, Asha P; Venkataramaiahyappa, Manju

    2018-01-12

    Vitamin B 12 deficiency in vegans is a known cause of megaloblastic anaemia. We report an adolescent girl who presented with jaundice and weight loss for 6 months secondary to vitamin B 12 deficiency, leading to megaloblastic anaemia. Replacement with vitamin B 12 reversed her symptoms, resulting in weight gain, and normalised her haemoglobin, red blood cell morphology, bilirubin levels and serum vitamin B 12 levels. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  15. A late unusual complication after an open cholecystectomy: Amputation neuroma of the CBD causing obstructive jaundice.

    PubMed

    Sleiman, Youssef A; Hassoun, Ziad A; Nasser, Haydar A; Abs, Leila; Allouch, Mustafa

    2017-01-01

    Cholecystectomy is one of the most frequently done procedures in general surgery. There are few reports of amputation neuromas following this procedure. This presentation describes a case of obstructive jaundice due to amputation neuroma in a patient with a history of cholecystectomy. We report about a 53 y o lady who presented with obstructive jaundice, 8 years following open cholecystectomy. Paraclinical investigations were in favor of cholangicarcinoma, however the final pathology revealed an amputation neuroma of the CBD. Amputation neuromas are rarely seen in the era of laparoscopic cholecystectomy. They are benign reparative lesions of the CBD following surgery or manipulation of the extra hepatic biliary tree. It is very difficult to diagnose them pre-operatively. Surgical resection is the first choice of treatment. Traumatic neuromas should always be among the differential diagnosis, when assessing a CBD mass in patients with a previous history of open cholecystectomy or surgery to the gastrointestinal tract. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Clinical Study on Using 125I Seeds Articles Combined with Biliary Stent Implantation in the Treatment of Malignant Obstructive Jaundice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tao; Liu, Sheng; Zheng, Yan-Bo; Song, Xue-Peng; Sun, Bo-Lin; Jiang, Wen-Jin; Wang, Li-Gang

    2017-08-01

    Aim: To study the feasibility and curative effect of 125 I seeds articles combined with biliary stent implantation in the treatment of malignant obstructive jaundice. Patients and Methods: Fifty patients with malignant obstructive jaundice were included. Twenty-four were treated by biliary stent implantation combined with intraluminal brachytherapy by 125 I seeds articles as the experimental group, while the remaining 26 were treated by biliary stent implantation only as the control group. The goal of this study was to evaluate total bilirubin, direct bilirubin and tumor markers (cancer antigen (CA)-199, CA-242 and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)), as well as biliary stent patency status and survival time before and after surgery. Results: Jaundice improved greatly in both groups. The decreases of CA-199 and CA-242 had statistical significance (p=0.003 and p=0.004) in the experimental group. The ratio of biliary stent patency was 83.3% (20/24) in the experimental group and 57.7% (15/26) in the control group (p=0.048). The biliary stent patency time in the experimental group was 1~15.5 (mean=9.84) months. The biliary stent patency time in the control group was 0.8~9 (mean=5.57) months, which was statistically significant (p=0.018). The median survival time was 10.2 months in the experimental group, while 5.4 months in control group (p<0.05). Conclusion: 125 I seeds articles combined with biliary stent implantation significantly prolongs biliary stent patency time and survival time for patients with malignant obstructive jaundice possibly by inhibiting the proliferation of vascular endothelial cells and the growth of tumor. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  17. Causes of prolonged jaundice in infancy: 3-year experience in a tertiary paediatric centre.

    PubMed

    Andre, Margaret; Day, Andrew S

    2016-01-29

    Although prolonged jaundice (PJ) commonly occurs in infancy, there is not yet agreement as to the appropriate extent of investigations, particularly in otherwise well children. Significant pathologies may present with PJ in this age group and need to be considered. The aim of this retrospective study was to ascertain the causes of PJ in infants referred to a single tertiary paediatric centre. Infants referred with PJ over a 3-year period were identified. Clinical documentation, electronic notes and results of investigations performed prior to and after referral were reviewed. One hundred and sixty-seven infants with PJ were seen. Fifty-eight percent were over 28 days of age. Four patients had conjugated hyperbilirubinaemia. Eighteen percent of patients were found to have a specific medical diagnosis causing or contributing to PJ, almost half of whom had normal clinical examination. The single most common pathological cause for PJ was hypothyroidism found in six patients. This study demonstrates that normal clinical examination and exclusion of conjugated hyperbilirubinaemia are insufficient to exclude pathological causes of PJ. Overall, these children were referred late. Guidelines, in conjunction with education initiatives, are required to optimise the management of prolonged jaundice in infancy.

  18. [Application of (125)I seeds combined with biliary stent implantation in the treatment of malignant obstructive jaundice].

    PubMed

    Wang, T; Liu, S; Zheng, Y B; Song, X P; Jiang, W J; Sun, B L; Wang, L G

    2016-03-23

    To study the feasibility and therapeutic effect of the application of (125)I seeds combined with biliary stent implantation on the treatment of malignant obstructive jaundice. Fifty patients with malignant obstructive jaundice treated from September 2010 to February 2013 in Yantai Yuhuangding Hospital were included in this study. Among them, 24 patients received biliary stent implantation combined with (125)I seeds intraluminal brachytherapy as experimental group, and 26 were treated by biliary stent implantation as control group.The total bilirubin, direct bilirubin and tumor markers (CA-199, CA-242, CEA) before and after surgery, the biliary stent patency status was assessed, and the survival time was evaluated. The 24 patients in experimental group were implanted with 30 (125)I seeds successfully in a total of 450 seeds. Jaundice was improved greatly in both groups. The CA-199 and CA-242 after treatment in the experimental group were significantly decreased than that before treatment (P=0.003 and P=0.004). CEA was also decreased, but showed no statistical significance (P>0.05). There were no significant improvement comparing the CA-199, CA-242 and CEA before and 2 months after surgery in the control group (P>0.05). The rate of biliary stent patency was 83.3% (20/24) in the experimental group and 57.7% (15/26) in the control group (P=0.048). The mean biliary stent patency time in the experimental group was 9.84 months (range 1-15.5 months). The mean biliary stent patency time in the control group was 5.57 months (range 0.8-9 months). There was a significant difference between the two groups (P=0.018). The median survival time was 10.2 months in the experimental group and 5.4 months in the control group (P<0.05). (125)I seeds combined with biliary stent implantation can inhibit the proliferation of vascular endothelial cells and the growth of tumor effectively, and can prolong the biliary stent patency time and the survival time obviously for patients with

  19. Impact of perioperative symbiotic therapy on infectious morbidity after Hpb Surgery in jaundiced patients: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Russolillo, N; Ferrero, A; Vigano', L; Langella, S; Briozzo, A; Ferlini, M; Migliardi, M; Capussotti, L

    2014-09-01

    This study aimed at evaluating whether the administration of symbiotic therapy in jaundiced patients could reduce their postoperative infectious complications. The study was conducted between November 2008 and February 2011. Jaundiced patients scheduled for elective extrahepatic bile duct resection without liver cirrhosis, intestinal malabsorption or intolerance to symbiotic therapy were randomly assigned to receive [Group A] or not [Group B] symbiotics perioperatively. The primary endpoint was the infectious morbidity rate. Forty patients were included in the analysis (20 in each group). The patients in Group B presented a higher overall morbidity (70 vs 50%) and infectious morbidity rate (50 vs 25%), but the differences were not significant. Eleven patients in Group A (Group ndA) and 13 in Group B (Group ndB) did not receive preoperative biliary drainage. The results of the two groups were comparable. Infectious complications were higher in Group B [5 (34%) vs 0, p = 0.030], while the prevalence of natural killer (NK) cells was higher in Group ndA the day before surgery (17% ± 5.1 vs 10% ± 5.3, p < 0.01) and on post-operative day (POD) 7 (13.1% ± 4.1 vs 7.7% ± 3.4, p < 0.01). The rates of lymph node colonization were similar. The symbiotic therapy failed to reduce the rate of infectious morbidity in jaundiced patients. Further studies investigating the place of symbiotic in no-drainage patients are required.

  20. Immunizations, neonatal jaundice, and animal-induced injuries.

    PubMed

    Morris, Shaine A; Bernstein, Henry H

    2004-08-01

    Published studies during the past year about three topics important to the pediatric clinician-- immunizations, neonatal jaundice, and animal-induced injuries-are concisely reviewed. Recent updates regarding vaccines including the questionable link with autism, implementation of universal influenza vaccination for young children, the efficacy of pneumococcal vaccine against invasive disease, and new information on pertussis, varicella, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, measles, and rotavirus vaccination are discussed. No association between measles/mumps/rubella vaccine or thimerosal-containing pertussis vaccine and autism is evident. Universal influenza vaccination for children 6 to 23 months of age will be recommended for the 2004-2005 flu season, and this implementation should reduce significant school absenteeism as well as complications seen last year including encephalopathy, seizures, respiratory failure, and pneumonia. Pneumococcal vaccine significantly reduces rates of invasive pneumococcal vaccine in healthy and HIV-infected children, although it does not appear to greatly affect otitis media rates. A reduction in post-vaccine febrile seizures appears to be present since the introduction of acellular pertussis vaccine. Multiple outbreaks in varicella have been reported since the introduction of the varicella vaccine, and a booster vaccination may be necessary in the future. Methods for detecting and preventing severe neonatal hyperbilirubinemia are reviewed, as well as anticipated recommendations from the American Academy of Pediatrics for the detection and management of hyperbilirubinemia. High bilirubin levels in preterm infants may result in hearing dysfunction and developmental impairment. The American Academy of Pediatrics has recommended a higher level of monitoring for newborn jaundice and treatment of hyperbilirubinemia in an effort to prevent kernicterus and sequelae from elevated bilirubin levels, including post-discharge follow-up appointment by day 3

  1. Early profound jaundice following blunt hepatic trauma: resolution after lobectomy--case report.

    PubMed

    Visner, S L; Helling, T S; Watkins, M

    1994-04-01

    The patient presented herein was seen and evaluated following a motor vehicle crash. Although hemodynamically stable, he was found to have a liver injury and orthopedic trauma. Following admission he developed rapidly deepening jaundice. Radiographic studies demonstrated biliary pooling in the left lobe without antegrade obstruction. After a left hepatic lobectomy steady improvement in his hyperbilirubinemia was seen. Despite our inability to identify a communication anatomically in the resected specimen, one explanation considered was a traumatic fistulization between a biliary radical and an hepatic vein.

  2. Severe jaundice due to intrahepatic cholestasis after initiating anticoagulation with rivaroxaban.

    PubMed

    Aslan, Abdullah N; Sari, Cenk; Baştuğ, Serdal; Sari, Sevil Ö; Akçay, Murat; Durmaz, Tahir; Bozkurt, Engin

    2016-03-01

    Rivaroxaban, a highly selective direct factor Xa inhibitor, is a new oral anticoagulant approved by the US Food and Drug Administration in November 2011 for stroke prophylaxis in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. Because of its efficacy and once-a-day dosing, it is commonly preferred in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation and intolerance to warfarin in clinical practice. However, it can result in some adverse effects such as bleeding, rashes and liver injury. Here, we described a very rare adverse reaction of rivaroxaban, jaundice due to intrahepatic cholestasis, appeared in a 71-year-old male patient after taking rivaroxaban.

  3. Drainage alone or combined with anti-tumor therapy for treatment of obstructive jaundice caused by recurrence and metastasis after primary tumor resection.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chuan; Huang, Xin-En; Wang, Shu-Xiang; Lv, Peng-Hua; Sun, Ling; Wang, Fu-An; Wang, Li-Fu

    2014-01-01

    To compare drainage alone or combined with anti-tumor therapy for treatment of obstructive jaundice caused by recurrence and metastasis after primary tumor resection. We collect 42 patients with obstructive jaundice caused by recurrence and metastasis after tumor resection from January 2008 - August 2012, for which percutaneous transhepatic catheter drainage (pTCD)/ percutaneous transhepatic biliary stenting (pTBS) were performed. In 25 patients drainage was combined with anti-tumor treatment, antineoplastic therapy including intra/postprodure local treatment and postoperative systemic chemotherapy, the other 17 undergoing drainage only. We assessed the two kinds of treatment with regard to patient prognosis. Both treatments demonstrated good effects in reducing bilirubin levels in the short term and promoting liver function. The time to reobstruction was 125 days in the combined group and 89 days in the drainage only group; the mean survival times were 185 and 128 days, the differences being significant. Interventional drainage in the treatment of the obstructive jaundice caused by recurrence and metastasis after tumor resection can decrease bilirubin level quickly in a short term and promote the liver function recovery. Combined treatment prolongs the survival time and period before reobstruction as compared to drainage only.

  4. Changes in extrathymic T cells in the liver and intestinal intraepithelium in mice with obstructive jaundice.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Kimihiko; Ajiki, Tetsuo; Watanabe, Hisami; Abo, Toru; Takeyama, Yoshifumi; Onoyama, Hirohiko; Kuroda, Yoshikazu

    2004-03-01

    Recently, T cells were classified into two categories: intrathymic T cells (ITCs; thymus-derived T cells) and extrathymic T cells (ETCs). ETC, localized in the liver and intestinal intraepithelium (IE), play an important immunologic role in the suppressed condition of T-cell development in the thymus. Given the fact that complications of surgery in patients with obstructive jaundice are often related to immunosuppression in the gut-liver circulation, we attempted to investigate the changes in the proportion of ETCs in mice with obstructive jaundice. Three mice models were prepared ( n = 10 per group): sham group with simple laparotomy; ligation group with common bile duct ligation; deoxycholic acid (DCA) group with an oral intake of DCA as a model of the presence of bile salts in the gut lumen. In each model, total mononuclear cells (MNCs), ITCs in the thymus, and ETCs in the liver and IE were counted using monoclonal antibodies in conjunction with a two-color immunofluorescence test by flow cytometry. In the ligation group the number of MNCs was reduced in the thymus and IE, and only those in the IE recovered after oral intake of DCA. A decrease of ITCs in the thymus and the increase in ETCs in the liver and IE occurred simultaneously during the early phase of biliary obstruction. At day 7 after biliary obstruction, ETCs in the livers of the DCA and ligation groups decreased to nearly the level in the sham group. However, on day 7 the ETCs in the IE remained significantly higher in the DCA group than in the ligation group. These results suggested that ETCs can act in place of ITCs at an early phase of obstructive jaundice, and the presence of bile in the gut lumen may be associated with the consumption of ETCs in the IE, a reaction that may bring about improved immunoreactivity.

  5. Chryseomonas luteola from Bile Culture in an Adult Male with Severe Jaundice.

    PubMed

    De, Anuradha S; Salunke, Parul P; Parikh, Harshal R; Baveja, Sujata M

    2010-01-01

    A 60-year-old male was admitted in this hospital with severe jaundice, who had open cholecystectomy done 2 months ago. ERCP was performed and bile was sent for culture. It grew Chryseomonas luteola in pure culture. He underwent hepaticojejunostomy after 1 month. Total bilirubin improved gradually. His condition was stable on discharge. Prompt diagnosis of non-fermenters is required, as some of them are resistant to multiple antibiotics. Clinicians have to be made aware of the pathogenic role of C. luteola and its resistance to ampicillin and cephalosporins.

  6. Analysis of different ways of drainage for obstructive jaundice caused by hilar cholangiocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chuan; Lv, Peng-Hua; Huang, Xin-En; Wang, Shu-Xiang; Sun, Ling; Wang, Fu-An

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the prognosis of different ways of drainage for patients with obstructive jaundice caused by hilar cholangiocarcinoma. During the period of January 2006- March 2012, percutaneous transhepatic catheter drainage (PTCD)/ percutaneous transhepatic biliary stenting (PTBS) were performed for 89 patients. According to percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTC), external drainage was selected if the region of obstruction could not be passed by guide wire or a metallic stent was inserted if it could. External drainage was the first choice if infection was diagnosed before the procedure, and a metallic stent was inserted in one week after the infection was under control. Selection by new infections, the degree of bilirubin decrease, the change of ALT, the time of recurrence of obstruction, and the survival time of patients as the parameters was conducted to evaluate the methods of different interventional treatments regarding prognosis of patients with hilar obstruction caused by hilar cholangiocarcinoma. PTCD was conducted in 6 patients and PTBS in 7 (p<0.05). Reduction of bilirubin levels and ALT levels was obvious after the procedures (p<0.05). The average survival time with PTCD was 161 days and with PTBS was 243 days (p<0.05). With both drainage procedures for obstructive jaundice caused by hilar cholangiocarcinoma improvement in liver function was obvious. PTBS was found to be better than PTCD for prolonging the patient survival.

  7. Clinical Interpretation of Elevated CA 19-9 Levels in Obstructive Jaundice Following Benign and Malignant Pancreatobiliary Disease.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min Seong; Jeon, Tae Joo; Park, Ji Young; Choi, Jeongmin; Shin, Won Chang; Park, Seong Eun; Seo, Ji Young; Kim, Young Moon

    2017-08-25

    Elevated carbohydrate antigen (CA) 19-9 level may be unable to differentiate between benign and malignant pancreatobiliary disease with obstructive jaundice. The study aims to determine the clinical interpretation and the diagnostic value of CA 19-9 level in pancreatobiliary diseases with coexistent obstructive jaundice. We retrospectively reviewed the data of 981 patients who underwent biliary drainage due to obstructive jaundice following pancreatobiliary disease at Sanggye Paik Hospital for 5 years. 114 patients with serial follow-up data for CA 19-9 level were included in this study (80 patients with malignancy and 34 patients with benign diseases). We compared the levels of CA 19-9 levels and the biochemical value before and after biliary drainage. The rate of CA 19-9 elevation (>37 U/mL) was significantly different between the benign group and the malignant group (59% vs. 90%, p=0.001). Despite the decrease in serum bilirubin after biliary drainage, CA 19-9 levels remained elevated in 12% of patients in the benign group and in 63% of patients in the malignant group (p<0.001). Finally, 12% of patients in the benign group turned out to have malignant disease. A receiver operating characteristic analysis provided a cut-off value of 38 U/mL for differentiating benign disease from malignant disease after biliary drainage (area under curve, 0.787; 95% confidence interval, 0.703 to 0.871; sensitivity, 62%; specificity, 88%). This study suggested that we should consider the possibility of malignant causes if the CA 19-9 levels remain high or are more than 38 U/mL after resolution of biliary obstruction.

  8. Colorful story of phototherapy for neonatal jaundice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agati, Giovanni; Fusi, Franco; Pratesi, Riccardo; Pratesi, Simone; Donzelli, Gian Paolo

    1996-12-01

    Colors have always attracted our fantasy and imagination. Medicine, like many other human activities, did not escape their attraction, sometimes with fatal consequences. The scientific literature, magazines, etc. are full of reports on the beneficial, miraculous effects of colors. Even nowadays, where photobiology and photomedicine have been put on very firm bases, chromopaths are still at work. The evolution of light therapy from chromotherapy to photomedicine is presented in brief, with the aim of contributing to the action against the unscientific behavior of researchers and clinicians who support biological and/or clinical results without serious and well documented work. Colors have played an important role in the phototherapy of neonatal jaundice. It is an interesting example of how even a rigorous scientific search for the optimal color has progressed in part by change, due to the lack of an action spectrum, too hurried extrapolations of animal results to man, unsuspected dynamical behavior of bilirubin molecules, etc. The story of its evolution up to present knowledge is reported in this paper.

  9. Robotic surgery twice performed in the treatment of hilar cholangiocarcinoma with deep jaundice: delayed right hemihepatectomy following the right-hepatic vascular control.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhenyu; Liu, Quanda; Chen, Junzhou; Duan, Weihong; Dong, Maosheng; Mu, Peiyuan; Cheng, Di; Che, Honglei; Zhang, Tao; Xu, Xiaoya; Zhou, Ningxin

    2014-10-01

    To explore and find a new method to treat hilar cholangiocarcinoma with deep jaundice assisted by Da Vinci robot. A hilar cholangiocarcinoma patient of type Bismuch-Corlette IIIa was found with deep jaundice (total bilirubin: 635 µmol/L). On the first admission, we performed Da Vinci robotic surgery including drainage of left hepatic duct, dissection of right hepatic vessels (right portal vein and right hepatic artery), and placement of right-hepatic vascular control device. Three weeks later on the second admission when the jaundice disappeared we occluded right-hepatic vascular discontinuously for 6 days and then sustained later. On the third admission after 3 weeks of right-hepatic vascular control, the right hemihepatectomy was performed by Da Vinci robot for the second time. The future liver remnant after the right-hepatic vascular control increased from 35% to 47%. The volume of left lobe increased by 368 mL. When the total bilirubin and liver function were all normal, right hemihepatectomy was performed by Da Vinci robot 10 weeks after the first operation. The removal of atrophic right hepatic lobe with tumor in bile duct was found with no pathologic cancer remaining in the margin. The patient was followed up at our outpatient clinic every 3 months and no tumor recurrence occurs by now (1 y). Under the Da Vinci robotic surgical system, a programmed treatment can be achieved: first, the hepatic vessels were controlled gradually together with biliary drainage, which results in liver's partial atrophy and compensatory hypertrophy in the other part. Then a radical hepatectomy could be achieved. Such programmed hepatectomy provides a new treatment for patients of hilar cholangiocarcinoma with deep jaundice who have the possibility of radical heptolobectomy.

  10. RED CELL GLUCOSE-6-PHOSPHATE DEHYDROGENASE DEFICIENCY--A NEWLY RECOGNIZED CAUSE OF NEONATAL JAUNDICE AND KERNICTERUS IN CANADA.

    PubMed

    NAIMAN, J L; KOSOY, M H

    1964-12-12

    Seven male newborns of Chinese, Greek and Italian origin presented with severe hemolytic jaundice due to red cell glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD) deficiency. In five, the hemolysis was precipitated by inhalation of mothball vapours in the home. Kernicterus was evident upon admission in six infants and was fatal in four of these.G-6-PD deficiency should be suspected as a cause of jaundice in all full-term male infants of these ethnic groups. The diagnosis can be confirmed in any hospital by the methemoglobin reduction test. In areas similar to Toronto, Canada, where these high-risk ethnic groups prevail, the following measures are recommended: (1) detection of G-6-PD deficient newborns by screening cord bloods of all infants of these ethnic groups; (2) protection of affected infants from potentially hemolytic agents such as naphthalene, certain vitamin K preparations, and sulfonamides; and (3) observation of serum bilirubin levels to assess the need for exchange transfusion for hyperbilirubinemia.

  11. Red Cell Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency—A Newly Recognized Cause of Neonatal Jaundice and Kernicterus in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Naiman, J. Lawrence; Kosoy, Martin H.

    1964-01-01

    Seven male newborns of Chinese, Greek and Italian origin presented with severe hemolytic jaundice due to red cell glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD) deficiency. In five, the hemolysis was precipitated by inhalation of mothball vapours in the home. Kernicterus was evident upon admission in six infants and was fatal in four of these. G-6-PD deficiency should be suspected as a cause of jaundice in all full-term male infants of these ethnic groups. The diagnosis can be confirmed in any hospital by the methemoglobin reduction test. In areas similar to Toronto, Canada, where these high-risk ethnic groups prevail, the following measures are recommended: (1) detection of G-6-PD deficient newborns by screening cord bloods of all infants of these ethnic groups; (2) protection of affected infants from potentially hemolytic agents such as naphthalene, certain vitamin K preparations, and sulfonamides; and (3) observation of serum bilirubin levels to assess the need for exchange transfusion for hyperbilirubinemia. ImagesFig. 1 PMID:14226101

  12. Treatment of neonatal jaundice with filtered sunlight in Nigerian neonates: study protocol of a non-inferiority, randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Slusher, Tina M; Olusanya, Bolajoko O; Vreman, Hendrik J; Wong, Ronald J; Brearley, Ann M; Vaucher, Yvonne E; Stevenson, David K

    2013-12-28

    Severe neonatal jaundice and its progression to kernicterus is a leading cause of death and disability among newborns in poorly-resourced countries, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. The standard treatment for jaundice using conventional phototherapy (CPT) with electric artificial blue light sources is often hampered by the lack of (functional) CPT devices due either to financial constraints or erratic electrical power. In an attempt to make phototherapy (PT) more readily available for the treatment of pathologic jaundice in underserved tropical regions, we set out to test the hypothesis that filtered sunlight phototherapy (FS-PT), in which potentially harmful ultraviolet and infrared rays are appropriately screened, will be as efficacious as CPT. This prospective, non-blinded randomized controlled non-inferiority trial seeks to enroll infants with elevated total serum/plasma bilirubin (TSB, defined as 3 mg/dl below the level recommended by the American Academy of Pediatrics for high-risk infants requiring PT) who will be randomly and equally assigned to receive FS-PT or CPT for a total of 616 days at an inner-city maternity hospital in Lagos, Nigeria. Two FS-PT canopies with pre-tested films will be used. One canopy with a film that transmits roughly 33% blue light (wavelength range: 400 to 520 nm) will be used during sunny periods of a day. Another canopy with a film that transmits about 79% blue light will be used during overcast periods of the day. The infants will be moved from one canopy to the other as needed during the day with the goal of keeping the blue light irradiance level above 8 μW/cm²/nm. FS-PT will be as efficacious as CPT in reducing the rate of rise in bilirubin levels. Secondary outcome: The number of infants requiring exchange transfusion under FS-PT will not be more than those under CPT. This novel study offers the prospect of an effective treatment for infants at risk of severe neonatal jaundice and avoidable exchange transfusion in

  13. A jaundiced bodybuilder Cholestatic hepatitis as side effect of injectable anabolic-androgenic steroids.

    PubMed

    Boks, Marije N; Tiebosch, Anton T; van der Waaij, Laurens A

    2017-11-01

    The use of anabolic steroids is prevalent in recreational athletes. This case report describes a young amateur bodybuilder who was referred to our outpatient clinic with jaundice and loss of appetite due to cholestatic hepatitis. Additional tests including a liver biopsy made it likely that the hepatitis was caused by the injectable anabolic steroid trenbolone enanthate. Cholestatic hepatitis may not be limited to the use of oral anabolic-androgenic steroids, as is widely assumed. Therefore, and because of other side effects, the recreational use of all forms of anabolic steroids should be discouraged.

  14. Influence of breast-feeding on weight loss, jaundice, and waste elimination in neonates.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chien-Fu; Hsu, Mei-Ching; Shen, Chin-Hua; Wang, Chun-Lung; Chang, Shou-Chin; Wu, Keng-Gu; Wu, Shiao-Chi; Chen, Shu-Jen

    2011-04-01

    The Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative began promoting exclusive breast-feeding in 2001 in Taiwan; however, few studies have investigated its impact. This study evaluated the influence of breast-feeding on Taiwanese neonates with regard to the frequency of jaundice, body weight loss (BWL), and elimination of both urine and stool. The medical records of 313 healthy mother-neonate pairs admitted at our hospital were reviewed retrospectively and divided into three groups: exclusively breast-feeding (n=161), mixed (breast/formula) feeding (n=80), and exclusively formula feeding (n=72). Compared with the exclusively formula feeding group, in the exclusively breast-fed neonates, the average total serum bilirubin level at 3 days after birth (p < 0.001) and the rate of significant hyperbilirubinemia ≥ 15 mg/dL (p<0.05) were significantly higher; the average BWLs at 2 and 3 days after birth (p < 0.001, p < 0.001) and the rate of BWL ≥ 10% (p < 0.05) were significantly higher; the average frequency of stool passage at 2 and 3 days after birth (p < 0.001, p < 0.001) and urination at 1, 2, and 3 days after birth (p < 0.001, p < 0.001, p < 0.001) were significantly less. The factors associated with a mother's choice of infant feeding type include maternal age and delivery method. Breast-feeding during the initial days of life has a significant influence on the degree of jaundice, amount of BWL, and the frequency of stool passage and urination. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. [Self-expandable metallic biliary endoprosthesis in malignant obstructive jaundice].

    PubMed

    Güitrón-Cantú, Alfredo; Adalid-Martínez, Raúl; Gutiérrez-Bermúdez, José A

    2005-01-01

    Implantation of metallic stents for malignant biliary strictures has been recognized to be effective alternatives. To show our experience in metallic stents for palliation of malignant biliary strictures. Seventy three patients (38 males, 35 females, mean age 64.26) with malignant biliary strictures have been treated by implantation of metallic stents. Causes of obstruction were pancreatic carcinoma (23/73, 31.5%), bile duct carcinoma (31/73, 42.5%), carcinoma of ampula of Vater (11/73, 15%) and Klatskin tumor (3/73, 4.1%). Endoscopic procedure was successful in all cases. Neither procedure-related morbidity nor mortality was observed. Life surviving curve was 9 months and showed significant difference (p < 0.0071) in patients with carcinoma of ampula of Vater. Self-expanding metal endoprosthesis is a recognized method of palliation in malignant biliary obstruction. It efficiently relieves jaundice and generally improves comfort and nutritional status during the patient's remaining lifetime. The metallic stents are advantageous in patients surviving 6 months or less.

  16. Effects of Lactobacillus plantarum on gut barrier function in experimental obstructive jaundice

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yu-Kun; Qin, Huan-Long; Zhang, Ming; Shen, Tong-Yi; Chen, Hong-Qi; Ma, Yan-Lei; Chu, Zhao-Xin; Zhang, Peng; Liu, Zhi-Hua

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the mechanisms of Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum) action on gut barrier in preoperative and postoperative experimental obstructive jaundice in rats. METHODS: Forty rats were randomly divided into groups of sham-operation, bile duct ligation (BDL), BDL + L. plantarum, BDL + internal biliary drainage (IBD), and BDL + IBD + L. plantarum. Ten days after L. plantarum administration, blood and ileal samples were collected from the rats for morphological examination, and intestinal barrier function, liver function, intestinal oxidative stress and protein kinase C (PKC) activity measurement. The distribution and expression of the PKC and tight junction (TJ) proteins, such as occludin, zonula occludens-1, claudin-1, claudin-4, junction adhesion molecule-A and F-actin, were examined by confocal laser scanning microscopy, immunohistochemistry, Western blotting, real-time fluorescent quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay. RESULTS: L. plantarum administration substantially restored gut barrier, decreased enterocyte apoptosis, improved intestinal oxidative stress, promoted the activity and expression of protein kinase (BDL vs BDL + L. plantarum, 0.295 ± 0.007 vs 0.349 ± 0.003, P < 0.05; BDL + IBD vs BDL + IBD + L. plantarum, 0.407 ± 0.046 vs 0.465 ± 0.135, P < 0.05), and particularly enhanced the expression and phosphorylation of TJ proteins in the experimental obstructive jaundice (BDL vs BDL + L. plantarum, 0.266 ± 0.118 vs 0.326 ± 0.009, P < 0.05). The protective effect of L. plantarum was more prominent after internal biliary drainage ( BDL + IBD vs BDL + IBD + L. plantarum, 0.415 ± 0.105 vs 0.494 ± 0.145, P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: L. plantarum can decrease intestinal epithelial cell apoptosis, reduce oxidative stress, and prevent TJ disruption in biliary obstruction by activating the PKC pathway. PMID:22912548

  17. Epidemic investigation of the jaundice outbreak in girdharnagar, ahmedabad, gujarat, India, 2008.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Naresh T; Prajapati, Prakash; Trivedi, Atul V; Bhagyalaxmi, A

    2010-04-01

    Since 1976, seven outbreaks of hepatitis E occurred in Ahmedabad. Clusters of jaundice cases were reported on June 19, 2008, by a civic center, Girdharnagar ward, Ahmedabad. THE OBJECTIVES WERE AS FOLLOWS: (1) to identify the etiological agent, source of outbreak, and mode of transmission; (2) to propose a control measure based on the outbreak investigation. We defined a case as an acute illness with (a) a discrete onset of symptoms and (b) jaundice or elevated serum aminotransferase levels, from March to September 2008 in the households of the Girdharnagar ward. We collected data through a door-to-door survey and hospital records. We described the outbreak in terms of time, place, and person. We collected laboratory investigation reports of case patients admitted to the civil hospital. To test our hypothesis we conducted a retrospective cohort study to find out the relative risk for hepatitis. We conducted environment investigation to find out the source of contamination of water supply. A total 233 case patients of hepatitis were identified with the attack rate of 10.9/1000 population. Cases were reported in all the age groups with a higher attack rate in the age group of 20-29 years (18.5/1000). Out of 17 case patients, 16 were positive for the hepatitis E IgM antibody. The attack rate was two times more among those who were exposed to the leaking pipeline than the non-exposed (RR=2.3, 95% CI 1.76, 2.98). Environmental investigation also confirmed the sewage contamination of drinking water in the distribution system. The outbreak was due to hepatitis E virus. We recommended a temporary alternative water supply, repair of the leakages, and water quality surveillance.

  18. Effects of Lactobacillus plantarum on gut barrier function in experimental obstructive jaundice.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yu-Kun; Qin, Huan-Long; Zhang, Ming; Shen, Tong-Yi; Chen, Hong-Qi; Ma, Yan-Lei; Chu, Zhao-Xin; Zhang, Peng; Liu, Zhi-Hua

    2012-08-14

    To investigate the mechanisms of Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum) action on gut barrier in preoperative and postoperative experimental obstructive jaundice in rats. Forty rats were randomly divided into groups of sham-operation, bile duct ligation (BDL), BDL + L. plantarum, BDL + internal biliary drainage (IBD), and BDL + IBD + L. plantarum. Ten days after L. plantarum administration, blood and ileal samples were collected from the rats for morphological examination, and intestinal barrier function, liver function, intestinal oxidative stress and protein kinase C (PKC) activity measurement. The distribution and expression of the PKC and tight junction (TJ) proteins, such as occludin, zonula occludens-1, claudin-1, claudin-4, junction adhesion molecule-A and F-actin, were examined by confocal laser scanning microscopy, immunohistochemistry, Western blotting, real-time fluorescent quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay. L. plantarum administration substantially restored gut barrier, decreased enterocyte apoptosis, improved intestinal oxidative stress, promoted the activity and expression of protein kinase (BDL vs BDL + L. plantarum, 0.295 ± 0.007 vs 0.349 ± 0.003, P < 0.05; BDL + IBD vs BDL + IBD + L. plantarum, 0.407 ± 0.046 vs 0.465 ± 0.135, P < 0.05), and particularly enhanced the expression and phosphorylation of TJ proteins in the experimental obstructive jaundice (BDL vs BDL + L. plantarum, 0.266 ± 0.118 vs 0.326 ± 0.009, P < 0.05). The protective effect of L. plantarum was more prominent after internal biliary drainage ( BDL + IBD vs BDL + IBD + L. plantarum, 0.415 ± 0.105 vs 0.494 ± 0.145, P < 0.05). L. plantarum can decrease intestinal epithelial cell apoptosis, reduce oxidative stress, and prevent TJ disruption in biliary obstruction by activating the PKC pathway.

  19. Adjusting CA19-9 values to predict malignancy in obstructive jaundice: Influence of bilirubin and C-reactive protein

    PubMed Central

    La Greca, Gaetano; Sofia, Maria; Lombardo, Rosario; Latteri, Saverio; Ricotta, Agostino; Puleo, Stefano; Russello, Domenico

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To find a possible relationship between inflammation and CA19-9 tumor marker by analyzing data from patients with benign jaundice (BJ) and malignant jaundice (MJ). METHODS: All patients admitted for obstructive jaundice, in the period 2005-2009, were prospectively enrolled in the study, obtaining a total of 102 patients. On admission, all patients underwent complete standard blood test examinations including C-reactive protein (CRP), bilirubin, CA19-9. Patients were considered eligible for the study when they presented obstructive jaundice confirmed by instrumental examinations and increased serum bilirubin levels (total bilirubin > 2.0 mg/dL). The standard cut-off level for CA19-9 was 32 U/mL, whereas for CRP this was 1.5 mg/L. The CA19-9 level was adjusted by dividing it by the value of serum bilirubin or by the CRP value. The patients were divided into 2 groups, MJ and BJ, and after the adjustment a comparison between the 2 groups of patients was performed. Sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive values were calculated before and after the adjustment. RESULTS: Of the 102 patients, 51 were affected by BJ and 51 by MJ. Pathologic CA19-9 levels were found in 71.7% of the patients. In the group of 51 BJ patients there were 29 (56.9%) males and 22 (43.1%) females with a median age of 66 years (range 24-96 years), whereas in the MJ group there were 24 (47%) males and 27 (53%) females, with a mean age of 70 years (range 30-92 years). Pathologic CA19-9 serum level was found in 82.3% of MJ. CRP levels were pathologic in 66.6% of the patients with BJ and in 49% with MJ. Bilirubin and CA19-9 average levels were significantly higher in MJ compared with BJ (P = 0.000 and P = 0.02), while the CRP level was significantly higher in BJ (P = 0.000). Considering a CA19-9 cut-off level of 32 U/mL, 82.3% in the MJ group and 54.9% in the BJ group were positive for CA19-9 (P = 0.002). A CA19-9 cut-off of 100 U/mL increases the difference between the two groups: 35.3% in

  20. Octreotide inhibits hepatic fibrosis, bile duct proliferation and bacterial translocation in obstructive jaundice.

    PubMed

    Türkçapar, Nuran; Bayar, Sancar; Koyuncu, Ayhan; Ceyhan, Koray

    2003-01-01

    The protective effect of octreotide on bacterial translocation, bile duct epithelial proliferation and hepatic fibrosis was studied in an experimental obstructive jaundice model. Forty-five healthy Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into three groups. Group I (n = 15): Median laparotomy and common bile duct manipulation performed (Sham group). Group II (n = 15): Laparotomy and common bile duct ligation performed. Group III (n = 15): After laparotomy and common bile duct ligation octreotide (Sandostatin, sandoz) was given. Simultaneously group I and II received 3 cc 0.9% NaCl and group III received 20 micrograms/kg/daily octreotide subcutaneously every 8 hours during 9 days. Two days after the procedure all rats were opened under ether anesthesia and sterile conditions. Group I had simple laparotomy but group II and III also had common bile duct ligation by 5/0 prolene. Seven days after the surgery (9th day after treatment) all rats underwent laparotomy and tests for bacterial translocation, liver biochemical tests and histopathologic analysis of liver and small bowel were carried out. In group II cecal population levels of bacteria were significantly higher than group I and group III (p < 0.05). In group II there was also statistically significant bacterial translocation to the mesenteric lymph nodes. Pathological changes were found in terminal ileum samples in group II which seemed to improve in group III. Hepatocyte function was preserved with octreotide treatment which also significantly decreased bile duct proliferation and periportal fibrosis in response to biliary obstruction. This experimental study showed that octreotide is effective in preventing bacterial translocation, bile duct proliferation and hepatic fibrosis in obstructive jaundice.

  1. The Effects of Saccharomyces boulardii on Bacterial Translocation in Rats with Obstructive Jaundice

    PubMed Central

    Geyik, Mehmet Faruk; Aldemir, Mustafa; Hosoglu, Salih; Ayaz, Celal; Satilmis, Selda; Buyukbayram, Huseyin; Kokoglu, Omer Faruk

    2006-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Saccharomyces boulardii treatment on preventing bacterial translocation in an obstructive jaundice animal model. MATERIALS AND METHODS Sixty adult rats were divided into five groups: group 1 – the sham-operated group; group 2 – the common bile duct ligation group; group 3 – the S. boulardii group; group 4 – the ampicillin-sulbaktam group; and group 5 – the S. boulardii plus ampicillin-sulbaktam group. The saline, antibiotics and S. boulardii were given, respectively, for a 7-day period as a single dose per day via temporary orogastric intubation. Seven days following the obstructive jaundice, the animal had laparatomy under sterile conditions. Segments of ileum were removed for histopathological examination. Blood, liver, spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes were taken for microbiological culture. RESULTS Bacterial translocation rates were 0% in the sham-operated group, 83% in group 2, 42% in group 3, 42% in group 4 and 33% in group 5. Bacterial translocation significantly increased in group 2 compared to groups 3, 4 and 5 (P = 0.001). The bacterial counts (CFU/g) of group 2 were significantly higher than those of groups 3, 4 and 5 (P = 0.001). Histopathological examination of ileum specimens revealed a significant decrease in the heights of villi in groups 2–5 compared to the sham-operated group (P = 0.001). The mean villus height in groups 3 and 5 was significantly higher than that of group 4 (P = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS S. boulardii was found to be effective in the successful control of translocation and improvement of intestinal barrier function. PMID:16551414

  2. Cost-effectiveness of preoperative biliary drainage for obstructive jaundice in pancreatic and periampullary cancer

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Stephen; Gurusamy, Kurinchi S.; Sheringham, Jessica; Davidson, Brian R.

    2015-01-01

    Background A recent Cochrane Review found that preoperative biliary drainage (PBD) in patients with resectable pancreatic and periampullary cancer undergoing surgery for obstructive jaundice is associated with similar mortality but increased serious morbidity compared with no PBD. Despite this clinical evidence of its lack of effectiveness, PBD is still in use. We considered the economic implications of PBD versus direct surgery for obstructive jaundice in patients with pancreatic and periampullary cancer. Materials and methods Model-based cost-utility analysis estimating mean costs and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) per patient from the perspective of the UK National Health Service over a 6-month time horizon. A decision tree model was constructed and populated with probabilities, outcomes, and cost data from published sources. One-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were undertaken. Results PBD was more costly than direct surgery (mean cost per patient £10,775 [$15,616] versus £8221 [$11,914]) and produced fewer QALYs (mean QALYs per patient 0.337 versus 0.343). Not performing PBD would result in cost savings of approximately £2500 ($3623) per patient to the National Health Service. PBD had <10% probability of being cost-effective at a maximum willingness to pay for a QALY of £20,000 ($28,986) to £30,000 ($43,478). Conclusions There are significant cost savings to be gained by avoiding routine PBD in patients with resectable pancreatic and periampullary cancer where PBD is still routinely used in this context; this economic evidence should be used to support the clinical argument for a change in practice. PMID:25172090

  3. The protective effects of pomegranate on liver and remote organs caused by experimental obstructive jaundice model.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, E E; Arikanoğlu, Z; Turkoğlu, A; Kiliç, E; Yüksel, H; Gümüş, M

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the protective potential of pomegranate extract on the liver and remote organs in rats with obstructive jaundice. The rats were split into 4 groups. In Group 1 (G1) (sham group) rats, the common bile duct was mobilized without any ligation. Group 2 (G2) received a combination of the sham operation and synchronous treatment with pomegranate. Group 3 (G3) received common bile duct ligation (CBDL). Group 4 (G4) were subjected to CBDL and treatment with pomegranate. After 8 days, we measured total oxidative status (TOS) and antioxidant capacity in the rats' liver tissue and remote organs, and evaluated blood levels of malondialdehyde and total antioxidant capacity (TAC). G3 rats showed significantly raised malondialdehyde level as compared to G1 rats (p < 0.001). Following the pomegranate therapy, a decrease in malondialdehyde was observed (p = 0.015). TAC levels were significantly raised in the G3 rats compared to the G1 rats (p = 0.004). TAC levels dropped after pomegranate therapy (p = 0.011). CBDL caused elevated TOS levels in the liver and remote organs, with a statistically significant increase in the lung tissue (p = 0.002). TOS levels in the CBDL groups decreased after pomegranate treatment (p < 0.001). This study reveals the marked protective effect of pomegranate on the liver and remote organs in obstructive jaundice.

  4. Guideline for the Evaluation of Cholestatic Jaundice in Infants: Joint Recommendations of the North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition and the European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition.

    PubMed

    Fawaz, Rima; Baumann, Ulrich; Ekong, Udeme; Fischler, Björn; Hadzic, Nedim; Mack, Cara L; McLin, Valérie A; Molleston, Jean P; Neimark, Ezequiel; Ng, Vicky L; Karpen, Saul J

    2017-01-01

    Cholestatic jaundice in infancy affects approximately 1 in every 2500 term infants and is infrequently recognized by primary providers in the setting of physiologic jaundice. Cholestatic jaundice is always pathologic and indicates hepatobiliary dysfunction. Early detection by the primary care physician and timely referrals to the pediatric gastroenterologist/hepatologist are important contributors to optimal treatment and prognosis. The most common causes of cholestatic jaundice in the first months of life are biliary atresia (25%-40%) followed by an expanding list of monogenic disorders (25%), along with many unknown or multifactorial (eg, parenteral nutrition-related) causes, each of which may have time-sensitive and distinct treatment plans. Thus, these guidelines can have an essential role for the evaluation of neonatal cholestasis to optimize care. The recommendations from this clinical practice guideline are based upon review and analysis of published literature and the combined experience of the authors. The committee recommends that any infant noted to be jaundiced after 2 weeks of age be evaluated for cholestasis with measurement of total and direct serum bilirubin, and that an elevated serum direct bilirubin level (direct bilirubin levels >1.0 mg/dL or >17 μmol/L) warrants timely consideration for evaluation and referral to a pediatric gastroenterologist or hepatologist. Of note, current differential diagnostic plans now incorporate consideration of modern broad-based next-generation DNA sequencing technologies in the proper clinical context. These recommendations are a general guideline and are not intended as a substitute for clinical judgment or as a protocol for the care of all infants with cholestasis. Broad implementation of these recommendations is expected to reduce the time to the diagnosis of pediatric liver diseases, including biliary atresia, leading to improved outcomes.

  5. The effects of somatostatin and ursodeoxycholic acid in preventing the ischemic injury of the liver following Pringle maneuver in obstructive jaundice-rat model.

    PubMed

    Pergel, Ahmet; Zengin, Kagan; Cercel, Ali; Aki, Hilal; Kaya, Safiye

    2007-01-01

    In our study, the effects of somatostatin (SS) and ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) on ischemic liver injury were studied in (obstructive) jaundice-rat model. For this purpose, jaundice was produced in the first four groups by binding of their choleducts. We performed just laparotomy to the other four groups of animals. To groups 1 and 5, SS was given 15 mcg/kg/day intraperitoneally, and to groups 2 and 6, UDCA was given 20 mg/kg/day enterally. No drugs were given to any other group. At the end of one week, a procedure with ischemia of the liver for 60 minutes followed by reperfusion for 2 hours, was performed to each rat except for groups 4 and 8. Following this procedure, they were sacrificed. The blood samples were taken to measure SGOT, SGPT, ALP, LDH, total and direct bilirubin levels, while liver biopsies were taken for histopathological evaluation. Under normothermic conditions, following 60-minute liver ischemia period, no irreversible histopathological changes were detected. However, increases in liver necrosis parameters were noted biochemically. SS and UDCA were thought to be effective in preventing the injury by decreasing the liver enzymes levels to a significant degree. The damage of the hepatic ischemic injury was found to be more meaningful and prominent in liver with jaundice. In this study, it was noted that SS and UDCA decrease the effects of cholestatic hepatic injury especially and improve the condition.

  6. New scanner fiber optic delivery system for laser phototherapy in the treatment of neonatal jaundice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamza, Mostafa; Hamza, Mohammad S. E.

    1995-05-01

    The authors have introduced laser phototherapy for the treatment of neonatal jaundice. Clinical trials have demonstrated its high efficacy compared to the conventionally used fluorescent phototherapy. In this paper a new modification to laser irradiation in phototherapy can be achieved by scanning the laser output beam in the selected wavelength of irradiation (488 nm) through a fiberoptic bundle which irradiate the skin of the baby. Scanning of the laser beam provides intermittent irradiation at high frequency, which can provide the same therapeutic efficacy with almost half the power of laser irradiation.

  7. An unusual case of prolonged post-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography jaundice.

    PubMed

    Tziatzios, Georgios; Gkolfakis, Paraskevas; Papanikolaou, Ioannis S; Dimitriadis, George; Triantafyllou, Konstantinos

    2016-04-01

    Despite the effectiveness of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) for the treatment of choledocholithiasis, various complications have been described. We herein report the first case of prolonged post-ERCP jaundice due to toxicity of the contrast agent Iobitridol (®XENETIX, Guerbet, Roissy CdG Cedex, France) in a patient who underwent ERCP with sphincterectomy and common bile duct stone removal. While clinical improvement and normalization of aminotransferases and cholestatic enzymes after the procedure, an unexplained increase of direct bilirubin was noticed. A second ERCP was performed one week later, excluding possible remaining choledocholithiasis. Nevertheless, serum direct bilirubin increased further up to 15 mg/dL. Other potential causes of direct hyperbilirubinemia were ruled out and patient's liver biopsy was compatible with drug-induced liver toxicity. Additionally, the cause-result time connection between the use of Iobitridol and bilirubin increase indicated the possibility of a toxic effect related to the repeated use of the particular contrast agent. Iobitridol, a contrast agent, can induce prolonged direct hyperbilirubinemia.

  8. Gastrointestinal bleeding and obstructive jaundice: Think of hepatic artery aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Vultaggio, Fabrice; Morère, Pierre-Henri; Constantin, Christophe; Christodoulou, Michel; Roulin, Didier

    2016-06-27

    Hemobilia is an uncommon and potential life-threatening condition mainly due to hepato-biliary tree traumatic or iatrogenic injuries. Spontaneously ruptured aneurysm of the hepatic artery is seldom described. We report the case of an 89-year-old woman presenting with abdominal pain, jaundice and gastrointestinal bleeding, whose ultrasound and computed tomography revealed a non-traumatic, spontaneous aneurysm of the right hepatic artery. The oeso-gastro-duodenoscopy and colonoscopy did not reveal any bleeding at the ampulla of Vater, nor anywhere else. Selective angiography confirmed the diagnosis of hepatic artery aneurysm and revealed a full hepatic artery originating from the superior mesenteric artery. The patient was successfully treated by selective embolization of microcoils. We discuss the etiologies of hemobilia and its treatment with selective embolization, which remains favored over surgical treatment. Although aneurysm of the hepatic artery is rare, especially without trauma, a high index of suspicion is needed in order to ensure appropriate treatment.

  9. Gastrointestinal bleeding and obstructive jaundice: Think of hepatic artery aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Vultaggio, Fabrice; Morère, Pierre-Henri; Constantin, Christophe; Christodoulou, Michel; Roulin, Didier

    2016-01-01

    Hemobilia is an uncommon and potential life-threatening condition mainly due to hepato-biliary tree traumatic or iatrogenic injuries. Spontaneously ruptured aneurysm of the hepatic artery is seldom described. We report the case of an 89-year-old woman presenting with abdominal pain, jaundice and gastrointestinal bleeding, whose ultrasound and computed tomography revealed a non-traumatic, spontaneous aneurysm of the right hepatic artery. The oeso-gastro-duodenoscopy and colonoscopy did not reveal any bleeding at the ampulla of Vater, nor anywhere else. Selective angiography confirmed the diagnosis of hepatic artery aneurysm and revealed a full hepatic artery originating from the superior mesenteric artery. The patient was successfully treated by selective embolization of microcoils. We discuss the etiologies of hemobilia and its treatment with selective embolization, which remains favored over surgical treatment. Although aneurysm of the hepatic artery is rare, especially without trauma, a high index of suspicion is needed in order to ensure appropriate treatment. PMID:27358680

  10. A Meta-Analysis of the Effect of Preoperative Biliary Stenting on Patients With Obstructive Jaundice

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Chengyi; Yan, Guirong; Li, Zhiming; Tzeng, Chi-Meng

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The goal of this study was to systematically review the effects of biliary stenting on postoperative morbidity and mortality of patients with obstructive jaundice. PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, and other relevant databases were searched by computer and manually for published and unpublished studies on the impact of preoperative biliary drainage on patients with obstructive jaundice from 2000 to the present day. Two investigators independently selected the studies according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, extracted the data, and assessed the quality of the selected studies. Meta-analysis was performed to compare postoperative morbidity and mortality of patients between the drainage and nondrainage groups. Compared with the nondrainage group, the overall mortality, overall morbidity, infectious morbidity, incidence of wound infection, intra-abdominal abscess, pancreatic fistulas, bile leak, and delayed gastric emptying in the drainage group were not significantly different. Compared with the nondrainage group, the drainage group had a drainage time of <4 weeks with an increased overall morbidity by 7% to 23%; however, the overall morbidity of the drainage group with a drainage time >4 weeks was not significantly different. Compared with the nondrainage group, the overall mortality of the drainage group using metal stents and plastic stents as internal drainage devices was reduced by 0.5% to 6%, whereas that of the drainage group using plastic stent devices was not significantly different. In summary, preoperative drainage should be applied selectively. The drainage time should be >4 weeks, and metal stents should be used for internal drainage. PMID:25474436

  11. Severe jaundice due to coexistence of Dubin-Johnson syndrome and hereditary spherocytosis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Korkmaz, Uğur; Duman, Ali Erkan; Oğütmen Koç, Deniz; Gürbüz, Yeşim; Dındar, Gökhan; Ensaroğlu, Fatih; Sener, Selçuk Yusuf; Sentürk, Omer; Hülagü, Sadettin

    2011-08-01

    Dubin-Johnson syndrome is a chronic, benign, intermittent jaundice, mostly of conjugated hyperbilirubinemia. The level of bilirubin is not expected to be more than 20 mg/dl in this syndrome. In this article, we report a patient who was evaluated for hyperbilirubinemia and liver function test abnormalities and diagnosed with Dubin-Johnson syndrome coexisting with hereditary spherocytosis. We suggest that other diseases should be investigated if patients with Dubin-Johnson syndrome present with severe hyperbilirubinemia. Dubin-Johnson syndrome accompanied by hemolytic diseases might also have high coproporphyrin levels (as in Rotor's syndrome) than expected in pure Dubin-Johnson syndrome.

  12. Painless Jaundice Caused by Clonorchis sinensis Infection: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Hao, Yuhua; Bao, Wanguo; Jin, Meishan; Li, Yuxiang; Wang, Feng

    2016-06-01

    A man with only yellowing of the skin and eye sclera was diagnosed with clonorchiasis, which rarely manifested jaundice as the initial symptom. However, because of a lack of evidence for a diagnostic gold standard, the time until definitive diagnosis was more than a week. The diagnostic process relied on inquiring about the patient's history, including the place of residence, dietary habits, and symptoms, as well as on serological findings, an imaging examination, and pathological findings. MRCP and CT results showed mild dilatation of intrahepatic ducts and increased periductal echogenicity. The eggs were ultimately found in stool by water sedimentation method after the negative report through direct smear. DNA sequencing of PCR production of the eggs demonstrated 98-100% homology with ITS2 of Clonorchis sinensis. After anti-parasite medical treatment, the patient's symptoms were gradually relieved. Throughout the diagnostic procedure, besides routine examinations, the sedimentation method or concentration method could be used as a sensitive way for both light and heavy C. sinensis infection in the definite diagnosis.

  13. Of guinea pigs and men--an unusual case of jaundice.

    PubMed

    Pischke, S; Ehmer, U; Schedel, I; Gratz, W F; Wedemeyer, H; Ziesing, S; Bange, F C; Burchard, G D; Manns, M P; Bahr, M J; Strassburg, C P

    2010-01-01

    A 21-year-old male presented at the emergency room with jaundice, itching, dry cough, malaise and weight loss of 10 kg during the preceding four weeks. Eighteen months earlier, the patient had suffered an automobile accident leading to polytrauma. Serological markers for viral or other causes of hepatitis were absent. For suspected secondary sclerosing cholangitis, ultrasound and ERCP were performed but failed to reveal pathological findings. A liver biopsy showed cholestatic liver disease without signs of portal field-associated hepatitis. Hepato-biliary scintigraphy demonstrated hepatocellular dysfunction. The patient finally mentioned his guinea pig farm with around 50 animals, 20 of which had recently died for unknown reasons. The patient and three of his guinea pigs were subsequently tested for serological evidence of leptospirosis. IgG and IgM antibodies reacting with Leptospira interrogans were detected in the patient's serum, and all 3 guinea pigs were serologically positive for serovar Bratislava. Bacterial culture was not successful, and also PCR tests remained negative. The clinical symptoms quickly resolved after the initiation of antibiotic therapy with amoxicillin.

  14. Conical intersection in a bilirubin model A possible pathway for phototherapy of neonatal jaundice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zietz, Burkhard; Blomgren, Fredrik

    2006-03-01

    Phototherapy of neonatal jaundice involves Z- E-isomerisation around an exocyclic double bond in bilirubin. Our results of a CASSCF study on dipyrrinone, a bilirubin model, show a conical intersection between the ground and first excited singlet states associated with the Z- E-isomerisation. The conical intersection, located ca. 50 kJ/mol below the Franck-Condon-point, together with the S 1 minimum, ca. 50 kJ/mol below the conical intersection, are able to explain the available time-resolved spectroscopic data (the very short lifetime of the initially excited state and transient 'dark state' intermediate) as well as bilirubin's very low fluorescence quantum yield and the medium-efficient photoisomerisation reaction.

  15. New laser sources for clinical treatment and diagnostics of neonatal jaundice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamza, Mostafa; El-Ahl, Mohammad H. S.; Hamza, Ahmad M.

    2001-06-01

    An elevated serum bilirubin concentration in the newborn infant presents a therapeutic as well as a diagnostic problem to the physician. It has long been recognized that high levels of bilirubin cause irreversible brain damage and even death. The authors introduce the use of semiconductor diode lasers and diode-pumped solid-state lasers that can be used for solving such diagnostic and therapeutic problems. These new laser sources can improve the ergonomics of using laser, enhance performance capabilities and reduce the cost of employing laser energy to pump bilirubin out of an infant's body. The choice of laser wavelengths follows the principles of bilirubinometry and phototherapy of neonatal jaundice. The wide spread use of these new laser sources for clinical monitoring and treatment of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia will be made possible as each incremental or quantum jump cost reduction is achieved. Our leading clinical experience as well as the selection rules of laser wavelengths will be presented.

  16. Newborn Jaundice Technologies: Unbound Bilirubin and Bilirubin Binding Capacity In Neonates

    PubMed Central

    Amin, Sanjiv B.; Lamola, Angelo A.

    2011-01-01

    Neonatal jaundice (hyperbilirubinemia), extremely common in neonates, can be associated with neurotoxicity. A safe level of bilirubin has not been defined in either premature or term infants. Emerging evidence suggest that the level of unbound (or “free”) bilirubin has a better sensitivity and specificity than total serum bilirubin for bilirubin-induced neurotoxicity. Although recent studies suggest the usefulness of free bilirubin measurements in managing high-risk neonates including premature infants, there currently exists no widely available method to assay the serum free bilirubin concentration. To keep pace with the growing demand, in addition to reevaluation of old methods, several promising new methods are being developed for sensitive, accurate, and rapid measurement of free bilirubin and bilirubin binding capacity. These innovative methods need to be validated before adopting for clinical use. We provide an overview of some promising methods for free bilirubin and binding capacity measurements with the goal to enhance research in this area of active interest and apparent need. PMID:21641486

  17. Total oxidant/antioxidant status in jaundiced newborns before and after phototherapy.

    PubMed

    Aycicek, Ali; Erel, Ozcan

    2007-01-01

    To assess the effect of phototherapy on serum oxidant and antioxidant status in hyperbilirubinemic full-term newborns. Thirty-four full-term infants from 3 to 10 days of age exposed to phototherapy were studied. The serum antioxidant status was assessed by measuring the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and individual antioxidant components: vitamin C, uric acid, albumin, thiol contents and total bilirubin. The oxidant status was assessed by determining the total oxidant status (TOS), oxidative stress index (OSI) and individual oxidant components: malondialdehyde (MDA), and lipid hydroperoxide levels. Vitamin C, uric acid, total bilirubin and MDA concentration were significantly lower, whereas serum TOS, lipid hydroperoxide and OSI levels were significantly higher after phototherapy (p < 0.05). There were significant positive correlations between serum total bilirubin and MDA (r = 0.434, p = 0.001). Although the MDA level was reduced after phototherapy, phototherapy has a negative impact on numerous parts of the oxidant/antioxidant defense system in jaundiced full-term newborns, exposing them to potential oxidative stress.

  18. Current Status of Percutaneous Transhepatic Biliary Drainage in Palliation of Malignant Obstructive Jaundice: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Chandrashekhara, SH; Gamanagatti, S; Singh, Anuradha; Bhatnagar, Sushma

    2016-01-01

    Malignancies leading to obstructive jaundice present too late to perform surgery with a curative intent. Due to inexorably progressing hyperbilirubinemia with its consequent deleterious effects, drainage needs to established even in advanced cases. Percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) are widely used palliative procedures each with its own merits and lacunae. With the current state-of-the-art PTBD technique consequent upon procedural and hardware improvement, it is equaling ERCP regarding technical success and complications. In addition, there is a reduction in immediate procedure-related mortality with proven survival benefit. Nonetheless, it is the only imminent lifesaving procedure in cholangitis and sepsis. PMID:27803558

  19. Breast Milk Jaundice: Effect of 3α 20β-pregnanediol on Bilirubin Conjugation by Human Liver

    PubMed Central

    Adlard, B. P. F.; Lathe, G. H.

    1970-01-01

    The effect of 3α,20β-pregnanediol and other steroids on bilirubin conjugation was examined using liver tissue from human and four other species. Neither 3α,20β-pregnanediol nor 3α,20β-pregnanediol inhibited conjugation by human liver slices or by solubilized human liver microsomes. 3α,20β-pregnanediol is unlikely to be the inhibitor causing breast milk jaundice. Oestriol inhibited conjugation by human liver slices. A comparison of species indicated that the response of the human liver slice system to steroids resembles that of the rabbit and guinea-pig rather than the rat or mouse. PMID:4246186

  20. Granular Cell Tumor of the Common Hepatic Duct as an Unusual Cause of Jaundice in a Hepatitis C Patient.

    PubMed

    Chopade, Tripti R; Smith, Colin L; Maley, Warren R; Siddiqui, Ali A; Sass, David A

    2016-01-01

    A 33-year-old woman with a history of intravenous cocaine abuse presented with fatigue, nausea, and jaundice. Serologic testing revealed a positive hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibody and HCV RNA. Ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging/magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography showed a partially obstructing lesion in the common hepatic duct, which was confirmed by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. Surgical excision revealed a granular cell tumor of the common hepatic duct, with immunohistochemical staining of tumor cells positive for S-100.

  1. [Comparison of the therapeutic effects of PTBD and PTBS in treatment of malignant obstructive jaundice].

    PubMed

    Bai, Ai-Guo; Zheng, Chuan-Sheng; Zhou, Guo-Feng; Liang, Hui-Min; Feng, Gan-Sheng

    2010-06-01

    To summarize and compare the short-term and long-term clinical efficacy of percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) and percutaneous transhepatic biliary stent (PTBS) in the treatment of malignant obstructive jaundice. 210 cases of malignant obstructive jaundice underwent interventional therapy, of which 161 cases of drainage catheters placement and 49 cases of metallic stent implantation. Follow-up information was obtained through telephone review or check-up records. The technical success rate of technique was 100%. At 3 - 5 days after treatment, the serum total bilirubin in 15 metallic stent-treated patients was decreased by (178.04 +/- 42.32) micromol/L, and direct bilirubin by (83.97 +/- 23.63) micromol/L. Compared with those of 28 cases treated with drainage catheters: (95.67 +/- 34.28) micromol/L and (49.84 +/- 28.21) micromol/L, there were statistically significant differences between the two groups (P = 0.017 and P = 0.035). At 6 - 9 days after treatment, the serum total bilirubin in 28 cases of metallic stent group was decreased by (188.22 +/- 79.90) micromol/L, and that in 126 cases of drainage catheter group decreased by (141.39 +/- 65.32) micromol/L. The difference was statistically significant (P = 0.014). But the decline value of direct bilirubin had no significant difference. The median patency period and the median survival time of the drainage catheter group were 60 and 148 days, respectively, those of metallic stent group were 197 days and 245 days. There were statistically significant differences between the two groups (P < 0.05). The results of this study indicate that the short-term and long-term efficacies of metallic stent implantation are better than those of catheter drainage technique.

  2. Significant Hyperbilirubinemia and Acute Hepatocellular Jaundice in a Pediatric Patient Receiving Deferasirox: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Elizabeth A; Miller, Christopher D; Wojnowicz, Sarabeth; Seabury, Robert

    2018-01-01

    Despite a boxed warning, postmarketing reports of deferasirox-associated hepatic injury in patients with chronic transfusions are not well described. Hepatic impairment, including failure, has been reported to occur more frequently in patients older than 55 years and in those with significant comorbidities, including liver cirrhosis and multiorgan failure. In this case report, we describe significant hyperbilirubinemia and acute hepatocellular jaundice related to deferasirox in a 7-year-old female being treated for iron overload secondary to chronic transfusions. This report outlines a unique case without preexisting risk factors in which other causes of liver injury are excluded as defined by the Roussel Uclaf Causality Assessment Method, which indicates a probable score of deferasirox causing the injury.

  3. Significant Hyperbilirubinemia and Acute Hepatocellular Jaundice in a Pediatric Patient Receiving Deferasirox: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Christopher D.; Wojnowicz, Sarabeth; Seabury, Robert

    2018-01-01

    Despite a boxed warning, postmarketing reports of deferasirox-associated hepatic injury in patients with chronic transfusions are not well described. Hepatic impairment, including failure, has been reported to occur more frequently in patients older than 55 years and in those with significant comorbidities, including liver cirrhosis and multiorgan failure. In this case report, we describe significant hyperbilirubinemia and acute hepatocellular jaundice related to deferasirox in a 7-year-old female being treated for iron overload secondary to chronic transfusions. This report outlines a unique case without preexisting risk factors in which other causes of liver injury are excluded as defined by the Roussel Uclaf Causality Assessment Method, which indicates a probable score of deferasirox causing the injury. PMID:29491755

  4. Obstructive Jaundice as an Uncommon Manifestation of Metastatic Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Budimir, Ivan; Sabol Pusic, Mateja; Nikolic, Marko; Dorosulic, Zdravko; Ljubicic, Neven; Stajduhar, Emil; Mise, Ivana; Vazdar, Ljubica; Sarcevic, Bozena

    2015-02-01

    Invasive ductal carcinoma is the most common type of breast cancer and accounts for about 70-85% of all invasive breast carcinomas. It primarily metastasizes to the bone, lungs, regional lymph nodes, liver and brain. Most of breast cancer recurrence occurs within the first 5 years of diagnosis, particularly for ER negative disease. Gastrointestinal tract involvement is very rare and is detected in only 10% of all the cases, and it usually derives from lobular breast cancer rather than the much more common cell type of ductal breast cancer. Early diagnosis is very important because it enables prompt and adequate choice of treatment and improves patient's long-term prognosis. In this report we describe an unusual case of obstructive jaundice caused by metastases from invasive ductal breast cancer to the lymph nodes of the hepatoduodenal ligament with extramural compression of the distal common bile duct and tumor invasion to the lumen of the duct. Our goal is to emphasize possible diagnostic pitfalls and increase the clinical awareness and the importance of intensive follow-up in patients with breast cancer, even years after the initial diagnosis.

  5. Fate of Neural Progenitor Cells Transplanted into Jaundiced and Nonjaundiced Rat Brains

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Fu-Chen; Riordan, Sean M.; Winter, Michelle; Gan, Li; Smith, Peter G.; Vivian, Jay L.; Shapiro, Steven M.; Stanford, John A.

    2017-01-01

    High levels of bilirubin in infants can cause kernicterus, which includes basal ganglia damage and dystonia. Stem cell transplantation may be an effective treatment for this disease. In this study, we transplanted human neural progenitor cells differentiated toward propriospinal interneurons into the striatum of 20-day-old spontaneously jaundiced (jj) Gunn rats and nonjaundiced (Nj) littermates. Using immunohistochemical methods, we found that grafted cells survived and grew fibers in jj and Nj brains 3 weeks after transplantation. Grafted cells had a higher survival rate in jj than in Nj brains, suggesting that slightly elevated bilirubin may protect graft survival due to its antioxidative and immunosuppressive effects. Despite their survival, only a small portion of grafted neurons expressed GAD-6 or ChAT, which mark GABAergic and cholinergic neurons, respectively, and are the cells that we are attempting to replace in kernicterus. Thus, NPCs containing large populations of GABAergic and cholinergic neurons should be used for further study in this field. PMID:28155818

  6. Phototherapy with blue and green mixed-light is as effective against unconjugated jaundice as blue light and reduces oxidative stress in the Gunn rat model.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Yumiko; Morimoto, Yukihiro; Uchiike, Takao; Kamamoto, Tomoyuki; Hayashi, Tamaki; Arai, Ikuyo; Nishikubo, Toshiya; Takahashi, Yukihiro

    2015-07-01

    Phototherapy using blue light-emitting diodes (LED) is effective against neonatal jaundice. However, green light phototherapy also reduces unconjugated jaundice. We aimed to determine whether mixed blue and green light can relieve jaundice with minimal oxidative stress as effectively as either blue or green light alone in a rat model. Gunn rats were exposed to phototherapy with blue (420-520 nm), filtered blue (FB; 440-520 nm without<440-nm wavelengths, FB50 (half the irradiance of filtered blue), mixed (filtered 50% blue and 50% green), and green (490-590 nm) LED irradiation for 24h. The effects of phototherapy are expressed as ratios of serum total (TB) and unbound (UB) bilirubin before and after exposure to each LED. Urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) was measured by HPLC before and after exposure to each LED to determine photo-oxidative stress. Values < 1.00 indicate effective phototherapy. The ratios of TB and UB were decreased to 0.85, 0.89, 1.07, 0.90, and 1.04, and 0.85, 0.94, 0.93, 0.89, and 1.09 after exposure to blue, filtered blue, FB50, and filtered blue mixed with green LED, respectively. In contrast, urinary 8-OHdG increased to 2.03, 1.25, 0.96, 1.36, 1.31, and 1.23 after exposure to blue, filtered blue, FB50, mixed, green LED, and control, indicating side-effects (> 1.00), respectively. Blue plus green phototherapy is as effective as blue phototherapy and it attenuates irradiation-induced oxidative stress. Combined blue and green spectra might be effective against neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Liver elasticity measurement before and after biliary drainage in patients with obstructive jaundice: a prospective cohort studya prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Kubo, Kimitoshi; Kawakami, Hiroshi; Kuwatani, Masaki; Nishida, Mutsumi; Kawakubo, Kazumichi; Kawahata, Shuhei; Taya, Yoko; Kubota, Yoshimasa; Amano, Toraji; Shirato, Hiroki; Sakamoto, Naoya

    2016-07-08

    Obstructive jaundice has been reported to influence liver elasticity, independent of liver fibrosis. The aim of our prospective study was to evaluate the changes in liver elasticity, before and after biliary drainage, in patients with obstructive jaundice, and to evaluate the correlation between elasticity measures and serum markers of liver fibrosis. This is a prospective cohort study of 20 patients with obstructive jaundice. Liver elasticity was assessed by Transient Elastography (TE) and Virtual Touch™ Quantification (VTQ). Serum total bilirubin (T-Bil) level was measured before biliary drainage (Day 0), with measures repeated at 2 days (Day 2) and 7 days (Day 7) after biliary drainage. Serum levels of the following markers of liver fibrosis were also obtained on Day 0 and Day 7: hyaluronic acid (HA), procollagen-III-peptide (P-III-P). T-Bil, TE, and VTQ for the left (VTQ-L) and right (VTQ-R) lobes of the liver were all elevated before biliary drainage, with respective levels, measured at Day 0, of 11.9 ± 1.5 mg/dl, 12.1 ± 0.9 kPa, 2.23 ± 0.10 m/s, and 1.85 ± 0.10 m/s. All values decreased on Day 7 after drainage: T-Bil, 4.7 ± 1.0 mg/dl (P < 0.001); TE, 7.6 ± 0.6 kPa (P < 0.001); VTQ-L, 1.53 ± 0.08 m/s (P < 0.001); and VTQ-R, 1.30 ± 0.05 m/s (P < 0.001). Similar changes were observed in serum markers of liver fibrosis. Liver elasticity measures correlated with serum levels of T-Bil, P-III-P, and HA (r = 0.35-0.67, P < 0.001). This study confirmed decreases in liver elasticity, measured by TE and VTQ, after biliary drainage. Measures of liver elasticity correlated to levels of T-Bil and serum markers of liver fibrosis. (UMIN ID: UMIN00001284313). University Hospital Medical Information Network (UMIN) Clinical Trials Registry (UMIN ID: UMIN00001284313 ); Registration date: 2014-01-14.

  8. Effect of Obstructive Jaundice and Nitric Oxide on the Profiles of Intestinal Bacterial Flora in Wild and iNOS−/− Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Ji-Young; F. Sato, Eisuke; Nishikawa, Tomoko; Hiramoto, Keiichi; Inoue, Masayasu

    2009-01-01

    We previously reported that the plasma level of endotoxin and colonic expression of IgA in the mouse increased with obstructive jaundice induced by bile duct ligation (BDL). To elucidate the mechanism of the BDL-induced increase, we analyzed the effect of BDL on intestinal flora in wild type and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS)-deficient mice (iNOS−/−) using the terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis (T-RFLP) and 16S rDNA clone libraries. The amounts of bacterial DNA detected in fecal samples from both animal groups pretreated with antibiotics were extremely low as compared with untreated groups. We found that the profiles of enteric bacteria changed markedly after BDL. The bacterial composition is significantly different between not only wild type and iNOS−/− mice but also those before and after BDL, respectively. Among enteric bacteria examined, Lactobacillus murinus was found to increase markedly after BDL in rectum of both animal groups. However, Escherichia coli markedly increased after BDL in the iNOS−/− mice. These findings suggest that profiles of enteric flora change markedly in animals during obstructive jaundice by some mechanism that is affected by bile constituents and iNOS-derived NO. PMID:19308270

  9. [A case of groove pancreatitis (segmental form) presented with obstructive jaundice associated with pancreatobiliary maljunction].

    PubMed

    Hiramatsu, Kiyoshi; Ito, Takaaki; Kaburagi, Daisuke; Arai, Riki; Maruyama, Hideki; Naganuma, Atsushi; Kato, Kenji

    2008-09-01

    A 52-year-old-man was admitted to our hospital for obstructive jaundice. Percutaneous transhepatic cholangio drainage (PTCD) and endscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) were performed, and pointed out stenosis of lower common bile duct (CBD) and pancreatobiliary maljunction. Brushing cytology of this lesion was negative for malignancy. CT and MRI revealed chronic inflammatory change in groove lesion with no mass formation suggesting tumor. So we diagnosed groove pancreatitis (segmental form) associated with pancreatobiliary maljunction, and operation (resection of the bile duct and biliary reconstruction by Roux-en-Y) was done. Resected specimen was revealed stenosis of the bile duct formed by fibrous tissue with no malignancy compatible to groove pancreatitis pathologically. This is first reported case of groove pancreatits associated with pancreatobiliary maljunction.

  10. Gene replacement therapy for genetic hepatocellular jaundice.

    PubMed

    van Dijk, Remco; Beuers, Ulrich; Bosma, Piter J

    2015-06-01

    Jaundice results from the systemic accumulation of bilirubin, the final product of the catabolism of haem. Inherited liver disorders of bilirubin metabolism and transport can result in reduced hepatic uptake, conjugation or biliary secretion of bilirubin. In patients with Rotor syndrome, bilirubin (re)uptake is impaired due to the deficiency of two basolateral/sinusoidal hepatocellular membrane proteins, organic anion-transporting polypeptide 1B1 (OATP1B1) and OATP1B3. Dubin-Johnson syndrome is caused by a defect in the ATP-dependent canalicular transporter, multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2), which mediates the export of conjugated bilirubin into bile. Both disorders are benign and not progressive and are characterised by elevated serum levels of mainly conjugated bilirubin. Uridine diphospho-glucuronosyl transferase 1A1 (UGT1A1) is responsible for the glucuronidation of bilirubin; deficiency of this enzyme results in unconjugated hyperbilirubinaemia. Gilbert syndrome is the mild and benign form of inherited unconjugated hyperbilirubinaemia and is mostly caused by reduced promoter activity of the UGT1A1 gene. Crigler-Najjar syndrome is the severe inherited form of unconjugated hyperbilirubinaemia due to mutations in the UGT1A1 gene, which can cause kernicterus early in life and can be even lethal when left untreated. Due to major disadvantages of the current standard treatments for Crigler-Najjar syndrome, phototherapy and liver transplantation, new effective therapeutic strategies are under development. Here, we review the clinical features, pathophysiology and genetic background of these inherited disorders of bilirubin metabolism and transport. We also discuss the upcoming treatment option of viral gene therapy for genetic disorders such as Crigler-Najjar syndrome and the possible immunological consequences of this therapy.

  11. Laser Transcutaneous Bilirubin Meter: A New Device For Bilirubin Monitoring In Neonatal Jaundice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamza, Mostafa; Hamza, Mohammad

    1988-06-01

    Neonates with jaundice require monitoring of serum bilirubin which should be repeated at frequent intervals. However, taking blood samples from neonates is not always an easy job, plus being an invasive and traumatising procedure with the additional risk of blood loss. In this paper the authors present the theory and design of a new noninvasive device for transcutaneous bilirubinometry, using a differential absorption laser system. The new technique depends upon illuminating the skin of the neonate with radiation from a two wave-length oscillation laser. The choice of the wavelengths follows the principles of optical bilirubinometry. For obtaining more accurate measurements, different pairs of two wave-lengths are incorporated in the design. The presence of hemoglobin is corrected for by appropriate selection of the laser wavelengths. The new design was tested for accuracy and precision using an argon ion laser. Correlation study between serum bilirubin determination by laser transcutaneous bilirubinometry and by American optical bilirubinometer was highly significant.

  12. Prolonged hepatitis and jaundice: a rare complication of paediatric Epstein-Barr virus infection.

    PubMed

    Tan, Zhen Han; Phua, Kong Boo; Ong, Christina; Kader, Ajmal

    2015-07-01

    We herein report the case of a 14-year-old girl with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infectious mononucleosis who developed prolonged hepatitis and jaundice. At presentation, she had tender hepatomegaly with a markedly deranged liver function test. Abdominal ultrasonography showed hepatomegaly and a thickened gallbladder wall. During the subsequent 11 weeks, her transaminases showed two further peaks, which corresponded with clinical deterioration. Her highest alanine transaminase level was 1,795 µ/L and total bilirubin level was 154 µmol/L. She recovered fully with conservative management. EBV-related liver involvement is typically mild and self-limiting. We believe that tender hepatomegaly and gallbladder thickening may be important predictors of significant liver involvement. Although multiple transaminase peaks may occur, we do not consider this an indication for antiviral or immunosuppressive therapy. In the absence of strong evidence supporting the use of any specific therapy, we recommend a conservative approach for an immunocompetent patient.

  13. Expression of the alpha and beta subunits of Ca2+/calmodulin kinase II in the cerebellum of jaundiced Gunn rats during development: a quantitative light microscopic analysis.

    PubMed

    Conlee, J W; Shapiro, S M; Churn, S B

    2000-04-01

    The homozygous (jj) jaundiced Gunn rat model for hyperbilirubinemia displays pronounced cerebellar hypoplasia. To examine the cellular mechanisms involved in bilirubin toxicity, this study focused on the effect of hyperbilirubinemia on calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaM kinase II). CaM kinase II is a neuronally enriched enzyme which performs several important functions. Immunohistochemical analysis of alternating serial sections were performed using monoclonal antibodies for the alpha and beta subunits of CaM kinase II. Measurements were made of the total numbers of stained cells in each of the deep cerebellar nuclei and of Purkinje and granule cell densities in cerebellar lobules II, VI, and IX. The beta subunit was present in Purkinje cells and deep cerebellar nuclei of both groups at all ages, but only granule cells which had migrated through the Purkinje cell layer showed staining for beta subunit; external granule cells were completely negative. Many Purkinje cells had degenerated in the older animals, and the percent of granule cells stained for beta subunit was significantly reduced. The alpha subunit was found exclusively in Purkinje cells, although its appearance was delayed in the jaundiced animals. Sulfadimethoxine was administered to some jj rats 24 h or 15 days prior to sacrifice to increase brain bilirubin concentration. Results showed that bilirubin exposure modulated both alpha and beta CaM kinase II subunit expression in selective neuronal populations, but sulfadimethoxine had no acute effect on enzyme immunoreactivity. Thus, developmental expression of the alpha and beta subunits of CaM kinase II was affected by chronic bilirubin exposure during early postnatal development of jaundiced Gunn rats.

  14. Method for Estimating Bilirubin Isomerization Efficiency in Phototherapy to Treat Neonatal Jaundice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisenko, S. A.; Kugeiko, M. M.

    2014-11-01

    We propose a method for quantitative assessment of the efficacy of phototherapy to treat neonatal jaundice using the diffuse reflectance spectrum for the newborn's skin, based on the analytical dependence of the measured spectrum on the structural and morphological parameters of the skin, affecting the optical conditions in the medium, and an algorithm for rapid calculation of the bilirubin photoisomerization rate in the skin tissues as a function of the structural and morphological parameters of the skin and the wavelength of the exciting radiation. From the results of a numerical simulation of the process of radiation transport in the skin, we assess the stability of our method to variations in the scattering properties of the skin and the concentrations of its optically active chromophores (melanin, oxyhemoglobin, deoxyhemoglobin). We show that in order to achieve the maximum efficacy of phototherapy, we should use light from the range 484-496 nm. In this case, the intensity of the exciting radiation should be selected individually for each newborn according to the bilirubin photoisomerization rate characteristic for it.

  15. A curious case of cholestasis: oral terbinafine associated with cholestatic jaundice and subsequent erythema nodosum

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Kartik; Gill, Anna; Shafei, Rachelle; Wright, Janine L

    2014-01-01

    Terbinafine is a commonly prescribed antifungal agent used in the treatment oftrichophytic onychomycosis and chronic cutaneous mycosis that are resistant to other treatments. This case report highlights a rarely documented but important adverse hepatic reaction that was caused by the use of oral terbinafine. A woman in her thirties presented with a 3-week history of jaundice, malaise, itching, nausea, decreased appetite, weight loss, dark orange urine and intermittent non-radiating epigastric pain. She had recently finished a 3-week course of oral terbinafine for a fungal nail infection. Liver biopsy findings were consistent with chronic active hepatitis secondary to a drug reaction. A few days after initial presentation, the patient developed erythema nodosum. Delayed development of erythema nodosum secondary to terbinafine could not be excluded. PMID:25480138

  16. A curious case of cholestasis: oral terbinafine associated with cholestatic jaundice and subsequent erythema nodosum.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Kartik; Gill, Anna; Shafei, Rachelle; Wright, Janine L

    2014-12-05

    Terbinafine is a commonly prescribed antifungal agent used in the treatment of trichophytic onychomycosis and chronic cutaneous mycosis that are resistant to other treatments. This case report highlights a rarely documented but important adverse hepatic reaction that was caused by the use of oral terbinafine. A woman in her thirties presented with a 3-week history of jaundice, malaise, itching, nausea, decreased appetite, weight loss, dark orange urine and intermittent non-radiating epigastric pain. She had recently finished a 3-week course of oral terbinafine for a fungal nail infection. Liver biopsy findings were consistent with chronic active hepatitis secondary to a drug reaction. A few days after initial presentation, the patient developed erythema nodosum. Delayed development of erythema nodosum secondary to terbinafine could not be excluded. 2014 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  17. [Case report: a recurrent gastric cancer in the terminal stage, associated with obstructive jaundice which responded significantly to oral administration of TS-1].

    PubMed

    Tasaka, K; Tomofuzi, Y; Sugihara, Z; Fukuda, H

    2001-10-01

    TS-1, a novel oral formation of 5-fluorouracil that consists of 1M tegafur (5-FU), 0.4M CDHP and 1M Oxo, is reported to achieve a higher response rate of 49% in patients with advanced gastric cancer in a late phase II study. We report a case of recurrent gastric cancer that responded significantly to the short-term administration of TS-1. A 73-year-old man, who had undergone a curative distal gastrectomy with D2 lymphadenectomy 2 years earlier, had presented with obstructive jaundice resulting from cancerous lymphadenopathy. PTCD was performed for drainage, but cholestasis disappeared completely through the two courses of oral administration of TS-1. The serum level of transaminase and bilirubin remained within normal limits, even with PTCD unequipped, until the patient died of the original disease. The adverse effects observed with the drug were anemia (grade 1) and skin pigmentation (grade 2), both of which improved soon after discontinuing the medication. In conclusion, TS-1 may be well-tolerable and effective in some cases of terminal-stage and/or recurrent gastric cancer, especially those associated with obstructive jaundice arising from the cancerous lymphadenopathy, in that patient QOL can be maintained to a much greater extent.

  18. The congenic normal R/APfd and jaundiced R/APfd-j/j rat strains: a new animal model of hereditary non-haemolytic unconjugated hyperbilirubinaemia due to defective bilirubin conjugation.

    PubMed

    Leyten, R; Vroemen, J P; Blanckaert, N; Heirwegh, K P

    1986-10-01

    In this paper the production of the R/APfd-j/j strain which is congenic with the R/APfd strain is reported. The R/APfd-j/j completely lacks hepatic bilirubin UDP-glucuronyltransferase activity, as do our GUNNXR/Pfd-j/j rat strain and various other stocks of GUNN rats (j/j) described in the literature. Our recombinant inbred strain GUNNXR/Pfd-j/j was produced from non-inbred GUNN (j/j) rats. This GUNNXR/Pfd-j/j rat was used as a donor of the jaundice gene j, the R/APfd rat serving as the recipient. After eight backcross-intercross cycles (16 generations) the R/APfd-j/j strain was obtained which is congenic with the R/APfd strain. Congenicity was demonstrated by various techniques including transplantation of skin tissue, strain-specific tumour cells and hepatocytes, the mixed lymphocyte reaction, and comparison of biochemical markers. The potential of the novel inbred strain of jaundiced rat, R/APfd-j/j, and the corresponding control strain R/APfd for biochemical and clinical studies of bilirubin metabolism are briefly discussed.

  19. [Long-term treatment results and quality of life of the patients, operated on the reason of chronic pancreatitis, complicated by the obstructive jaundice].

    PubMed

    Gagua, A K; Zagaĭnov, V E; Evtikhova, E Iu

    2013-01-01

    Methods of surgical treatment of the patients, operated on the reason of chronic pancreatitis, complicated by the obstructive jaundice, were comparatively analyzed. 25 patients received pancreatoduodenal resection, 19 patients had the Bern variant of Beger operation. The quality of life was assessed with the use of MOS-SF-36. The duodenum preserving resection of the head of the pancreas showed better long-term results then pancreatoduodenal resection. Those patients, who received biliodigestive anastomosis as the basic operation, showed no good results at all.

  20. Reversible surgical model of biliary inflammation and obstructive jaundice in mice.

    PubMed

    Kirkland, Jacob G; Godfrey, Cody B; Garrett, Ryan; Kakar, Sanjay; Yeh, Benjamin M; Corvera, Carlos U

    2010-12-01

    Common bile duct (CBD) ligation is used in animal models to induce biliary inflammation, fibrosis, and cholestatic liver injury, but results in a high early postoperative mortality rate, probably from traumatic pancreatitis. We modified the CBD ligation model in mice by placing a small metal clip across the lower end of the CBD. To reverse biliary obstruction, a suture was incorporated within the clip during its placement. The suture and clip were removed on postoperative d 5 or 10 for biliary decompression. After 5 d of biliary obstruction, the gallbladder showed an 8-fold increase in wall thickness and a 17-fold increase in tissue myeloperoxidase activity. Markedly elevated serum levels of alkaline phosphatase and bilirubin indicated injury to the biliary epithelium and hepatocytes. Early postoperative (d 0-2) survival was 100% and later (d 3-5) survival was 85% (n=54 mice). We successfully reversed biliary obstruction in 20 mice (37%). Overall survival after reversal was 70%. In surviving mice, biliary decompression was complete, inflammation was reduced, and jaundice resolved. Histologic features confirmed reduced epithelial damage, edema, and neutrophil infiltration. Our technique minimized postoperative death, maintained an effective inflammatory response, and was easily reversible without requiring repeat laparotomy. This reversible model can be used to further define molecular mechanisms of biliary inflammation, fibrosis, and liver injury in genetically altered mice. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Severe Hemolytic Jaundice in a Neonate with a Novel COL4A1 Mutation.

    PubMed

    Tomotaki, Seiichi; Mizumoto, Hiroshi; Hamabata, Takayuki; Kumakura, Akira; Shiota, Mitsutaka; Arai, Hiroshi; Haginoya, Kazuhiro; Hata, Daisuke

    2016-12-01

    We report our experience with a preterm infant with severe hemolytic jaundice who required exchange transfusion just after birth. The patient was negative for alloimmune hemolysis as a result of maternal-fetal blood type incompatibility, and tests for inherited defects in erythrocyte metabolism, membrane function, and hemoglobin synthesis were normal. We also performed a bone marrow examination, but could not identify the cause of hemolysis. The patient had several other complications, including porencephaly, epilepsy, elevated serum levels of creatine kinase, and persistent microscopic hematuria. Later, we detected a genetic mutation in COL4A1, which was recently found to be associated with hemolytic anemia. We therefore believe that all of the patient's clinical features, including hemolytic anemia, were due to the mutation in COL4A1. Genetic testing for COL4A1 mutations is recommended in neonates who exhibit hemolytic disease of unknown etiology, especially when other complications compatible with COL4A1-related disorders are present. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. [A 22-year-old mother with severe pruritus and increasing jaundice two weeks after starting hormonal contraception].

    PubMed

    Guth, C; Beuers, U; Beckh, K

    2016-09-01

    Intermittent cholestatic liver disease may indicate an inherited deficiency of bile salt transport proteins. Episodes of cholestasis may start during pregnancy or during use of oral contraceptives or other medication. We describe the case of a 22-year-old mother with increasing jaundice and severe pruritus two weeks after starting hormonal contraception. A few months before she was suffering from intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP). Liver biopsy showed bland cholestasis with canalicular bile plugs. Treatment with ursodeoxycholic acid was not effective. Finally, rifampicin induced a complete remission of the cholestasis. Genetic testing showed a heterozygous mutation in the ABCB11 gene encoding the bile salt export pump (BSEP). Rifampicin activates nuclear receptors and may induce alternative pathways for the excretion of bile salts in patients with ABCB11 deficiency. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. HDR-192Ir intraluminal brachytherapy in treatment of malignant obstructive jaundice

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yi; Wang, Xiao-Lin; Yan, Zhi-Ping; Cheng, Jie-Min; Wang, Jian-Hua; Gong, Gao-Quan; Qian, Sheng; Luo, Jian-Jun; Liu, Qing-Xin

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To determine the feasibility and safety of intraluminal brachytherapy in treatment of malignant obstructive jaundice (MOJ) and to evaluate the clinical effect of intraluminal brachytherapy on stent patency and patient survival. METHODS: Thirty-four patients with MOJ were included in this study. Having biliary stent placed, all patients were classified into intraluminal brachytherapy group (group A, n = 14) and control group (group B, n = 20) according to their own choice. Intraluminal brachytherapy regimen included: HDR-192Ir was used in the therapy, fractional doses of 4-7 Gy were given every 3-6 d for 3-4 times, and standard points were established at 0.5-1.0 cm. Some patients of both groups received transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) after stent placement. RESULTS: In group A, the success rate of intraluminal brachytherapy was 98.0%, RTOG grade 1 acute radiation morbidity occurred in 3 patients, RTOG/EORTC grade 1 late radiation morbidity occurred in 1 patient. Mean stent patency of group A (12.6 mo) was significantly longer than that of group B (8.3 mo) (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in the mean survival (9.4 mo vs 6.0 mo) between the two groups. CONCLUSION: HDR-192Ir intraluminal brachytherapy is a safe palliative therapy in treating MOJ, and it may prolong stent patency and has the potentiality of extending survival of patients with MOJ. PMID:15526374

  4. Screening for G6PD Deficiency Among Neonates with Neonatal Jaundice Admitted to Tertiary Care Center: A Need in Disguise.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Kishwer; Sohaila, Arjumand; Tikmani, Shiyam Sunder; Khan, Iqtidar Ahmed; Zafar, Anila

    2015-08-01

    This study was conducted to determine the association of Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (G-6-PD) deficiency among neonates admitted with jaundice at the neonatal intensive care unit, well baby nursery and neonatal step down nursery of the Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan, from January to June 2010. A total of 205 neonates following the selection criteria were included. All selected neonates have their venous blood drawn, saved in EDTA bottle and sent to laboratory of The Aga Khan University Hospital (AKUH). The laboratory results of whether G-6-PD deficiency was present or not was recorded in the proforma. G-6-PD was deficient in 19 neonates (9.3%). All neonates were male.

  5. [Bile duct cysts; an unusual cause of jaundice in paediatrics. Presentation of a case series].

    PubMed

    López Ruiz, Rocío; Aguilera Alonso, David; Muñoz Aguilar, Gemma; Fonseca Martín, Rosa

    2016-01-01

    Cysts of the bile duct or choledochal cysts are rare diseases in our area. The aetiology is unknown, with the most accepted hypothesis being a pancreatobiliary maljunction anomaly. To analyse the clinical data, diagnosis and treatment of a number of patients with choledochal cyst, as well as presenting an update on this condition. A retrospective descriptive study was performed on paediatric patients diagnosed with choledochal cyst in the last 20 years in a tertiary hospital. A total of 4 choledochal cyst cases in childhood, predominantly female, are pre- sented. The most frequent reason for consultation was vomiting, and presenting with jaundice and choluria in all cases. Patients with choledochal cyst were classified as type I in 3 cases, and one case of type IVa. In all cases surgical treatment was performed; any patient had complications to date. Cysts of the bile ducts have a low prevalence. The treatment of choice is surgical, requiring close monitoring due to the risk of cholangiocarcinoma. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. The ultrastructural research of liver in experimental obstructive jaundice and effect of honey.

    PubMed

    Kilicoglu, Bulent; Gencay, Cem; Kismet, Kemal; Serin Kilicoglu, Sibel; Erguder, Imge; Erel, Serap; Sunay, Asli Elif; Erdemli, Esra; Durak, Ilker; Akkus, Mehmet Ali

    2008-02-01

    To examine the effects of honey on oxidative stress and apoptosis in experimental obstructive jaundice model. Thirty rats were divided into 3 groups: group I, sham-operated; group II, ligation and division of the common bile duct (BDL); group III, BDL followed by oral supplementation of honey 10 g/kg/d. Liver samples were examined under light microscope and transmission electron microscope. Hepatocyte apoptosis was quantitated using the terminal deoxy-nucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay. Plasma and blood malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutation activities were measured for determining the oxidative stress. The liver levels of MDA and GSH were significantly different between the honey and BDL groups (P = .006 and .001, respectively). However, there was no significant difference between the plasma MDA and GSH levels of these groups (P > .05). In group III, significant reductions in the size of enlarged hepatocytes and the edema were demonstrated. The dilatation of the bile canaliculi dramatically turned to original dimention. By TUNEL assay, it was shown that administration of honey decreased the number of apoptotic cells. In the present study, we found that honey diminished the negative effects of BDL on the hepatic ultrastructure. We conclude that this effect might be due to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities.

  7. Spectral matching research for light-emitting diode-based neonatal jaundice therapeutic device light source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, Ruting; Guo, Zhenning; Lin, Jieben

    2015-09-01

    To decrease the risk of bilirubin encephalopathy and minimize the need for exchange transfusions, we report a novel design for light source of light-emitting diode (LED)-based neonatal jaundice therapeutic device (NJTD). The bilirubin absorption spectrum in vivo was regarded as target. Based on spectral constructing theory, we used commercially available LEDs with different peak wavelengths and full width at half maximum as matching light sources. Simple genetic algorithm was first proposed as the spectral matching method. The required LEDs number at each peak wavelength was calculated, and then, the commercial light source sample model of the device was fabricated to confirm the spectral matching technology. In addition, the corresponding spectrum was measured and the effect was analyzed finally. The results showed that fitted spectrum was very similar to the target spectrum with 98.86 % matching degree, and the actual device model has a spectrum close to the target with 96.02 % matching degree. With higher fitting degree and efficiency, this matching algorithm is very suitable for light source matching technology of LED-based spectral distribution, and bilirubin absorption spectrum in vivo will be auspicious candidate for the target spectrum of new LED-based NJTD light source.

  8. Characterization of an Optical Device with an Array of Blue Light Emitting Diodes LEDS for Treatment of Neonatal Jaundice.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sebbe, Priscilla Fróes; Villaverde, Antonio G. J. Balbin; Nicolau, Renata Amadei; Barbosa, Ana Maria; Veissid, Nelson

    2008-04-01

    Phototherapy is a treatment that consists in irradiating a patient with light of high intensity, which promotes beneficial photochemical transformations in the irradiated area. The phototherapy for neonates is applied to break down the bilirubin, an organic pigment that is a sub product of the erythrocytes degradation, and to increase its excretion by the organism. Neonates should be irradiated with light of wavelength that the bilirubin can absorb, and with spectral irradiances between 4 and 16 μW/cm2/nm. The efficiency of the treatment depends on the irradiance and the area of the body that is irradiated. A convenient source of light for treatment of neonatal jaundice is the blue Light Emitter Diode (LED), emitting in the range of 400 to 500 nm, with power of the order of 10-150 mW. Some of the advantages for using LEDS are: low cost, operating long lifetime (over 100,000 hours), narrow emission linewith, low voltage power supply requirement and low heating. The aim of this work was to build and characterize a device for phototherapy treatment of neonatal jaundice. This consists of a blanket with 88 blue LEDs (emission peak at 472 nm), arranged in an 8×11 matrix, all connected in parallel and powered by a 5V-2A power supply. The device was characterized by using a spectroradiometer USB2000 (Ocean Optics Inc, USA), with a sensitivity range of 339-1019 nm. For determination of light spatial uniformity was used a calibrated photovoltaic sensor for measuring light intensity and mapping of the light intensity spatial distribution. Results indicate that our device shows a uniform spatial distribution for distances from the blanket larger than 10 cm, with a maximum of irradiance at such a distance. This device presenting a large and uniform area of irradiation, efficient wavelength emission and high irradiance seems to be promising for neonates' phototherapy treatment.

  9. The use of the head louse as a remedy for jaundice in Spanish folk medicine: an overview

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In Spain, head lice are considered a therapeutic resource for the treatment of jaundice. All folk remedies based on the ingestion of these insects meet in the present document, previously dispersed among a large number of references. Methods An overview of the Spanish literature has been carried out. The most important databases have been consulted. All related works have been examined. Results Although the method of preparation is diverse and the dose varies, the primary recommendation is a transference ritual consisting of taking nine live lice for nine days on an empty stomach without the patient’s knowledge. This traditional knowledge survives in Spanish society, and constitutes an example of the interrelation between Spanish and Latin American folk medicines. Conclusions The survival of this therapy in the worldview of certain rural communities suggests the need to take into account the beliefs, ideas and behaviour patterns of popular culture in relation to health and disease. PMID:23876126

  10. [Phytobezoar in the common hepatic duct - rare cause of obstructive jaundice following pancreatoduodenectomy: case report and review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Garlipp, B; Schulz, H-U; Böttcher, S; Lemke, A; Meyer, F; Lippert, H

    2012-11-01

    Obstruction of bile flow following pancreatoduodenectomy can be caused by stenosis of the hepaticojejunostomy created at the time of surgery, obstruction of the bile-draining jejunal loop, stones or, very rarely, ingested foreign bodies in the common hepatic duct. In analogy with endoscopic sphincterotomy or the once popular side-to-side-choledochduodenostomy, the creation of a hepaticojejunostomy eliminates the barrier of the sphincter Oddi, enabling intestinal content such as ingested foreign bodies or food fibers to migrate into the bile duct. We report on the case of a patient developing biliary tract obstruction due to fibrous material in the common hepatic duct 15 years after pancreatoduodenectomy. In addition, an overview of the literature on the rare phenomenon of foreign body-associated obstructive jaundice is given. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Urine Metabolomics Analysis for Biomarker Discovery and Detection of Jaundice Syndrome in Patients With Liver Disease*

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xijun; Zhang, Aihua; Han, Ying; Wang, Ping; Sun, Hui; Song, Gaochen; Dong, Tianwei; Yuan, Ye; Yuan, Xiaoxia; Zhang, Miao; Xie, Ning; Zhang, He; Dong, Hui; Dong, Wei

    2012-01-01

    Metabolomics is a powerful new technology that allows for the assessment of global metabolic profiles in easily accessible biofluids and biomarker discovery in order to distinguish between diseased and nondiseased status information. Deciphering the molecular networks that distinguish diseases may lead to the identification of critical biomarkers for disease aggressiveness. However, current diagnostic methods cannot predict typical Jaundice syndrome (JS) in patients with liver disease and little is known about the global metabolomic alterations that characterize JS progression. Emerging metabolomics provides a powerful platform for discovering novel biomarkers and biochemical pathways to improve diagnostic, prognostication, and therapy. Therefore, the aim of this study is to find the potential biomarkers from JS disease by using a nontarget metabolomics method, and test their usefulness in human JS diagnosis. Multivariate data analysis methods were utilized to identify the potential biomarkers. Interestingly, 44 marker metabolites contributing to the complete separation of JS from matched healthy controls were identified. Metabolic pathways (Impact-value≥0.10) including alanine, aspartate, and glutamate metabolism and synthesis and degradation of ketone bodies were found to be disturbed in JS patients. This study demonstrates the possibilities of metabolomics as a diagnostic tool in diseases and provides new insight into pathophysiologic mechanisms. PMID:22505723

  12. Fine-needle aspiration findings of a rare hematopoietic neoplasm presenting as obstructive jaundice.

    PubMed

    Tracht, Jessica; Ahmed, Ali M; Rosenblum Donath, Frida

    2017-12-01

    A 51-year-old female who presented with obstructive jaundice was found to have masses in the pancreatic head and tail as well as suspicious liver and periaortic masses on imaging. Aspiration cytology of the pancreatic tail mass showed abundant large single cells with vacuolated eosinophilic cytoplasm, marked nuclear pleomorphism, large bizarre irregular nuclei, binucleation, and prominent nucleoli. Numerous cells also showed intracytoplasmic black to brown pigmentation. A cell block was obtained and extensive immunohistochemical staining was performed. S-100, HMB-45, Sox10, pancytokeratin, CK7, RCC antigen, synaptophysin, HepPar 1, inhibin, CD45, CD21, and CD123 were negative, making melanoma, epithelial malignancies, lymphoma, follicular dendritic and plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasms less likely. CD4 and CD56 showed partial positivity, and CD68, CD163, and CD14 were positive, supporting the diagnosis of histiocytic sarcoma. Surgical specimens and immunohistochemistry confirmed the cytologic findings. Histiocytic sarcoma is a rare aggressive malignancy of histiocytic origin with most cases presenting in adults in extranodal sites, most commonly the intestinal tract. Few cases are reported in the literature, presenting diagnostic challenges for cytopathologists when seen on fine-needle aspiration. We present the first reported case of histiocytic sarcoma presenting as a pancreatic mass, diagnosed by endoscopic ultrasound guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA). This entity is rarely described on cytology and arose in a location in which EUS-FNA is the diagnostic modality of choice. This case study highlights that cytopathologists should be aware of histiocytic sarcoma occurring in extranodal locations accessible by EUS-FNA and be familiar with the cytomorphologic appearance. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Clonal structure in Ichthyobacterium seriolicida, the causative agent of bacterial haemolytic jaundice in yellowtail, Seriola quinqueradiata, inferred from molecular epidemiological analysis.

    PubMed

    Matsuyama, T; Fukuda, Y; Sakai, T; Tanimoto, N; Nakanishi, M; Nakamura, Y; Takano, T; Nakayasu, C

    2017-08-01

    Bacterial haemolytic jaundice caused by Ichthyobacterium seriolicida has been responsible for mortality in farmed yellowtail, Seriola quinqueradiata, in western Japan since the 1980s. In this study, polymorphic analysis of I. seriolicida was performed using three molecular methods: amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis, multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA). Twenty-eight isolates were analysed using AFLP, while 31 isolates were examined by MLST and MLVA. No polymorphisms were identified by AFLP analysis using EcoRI and MseI, or by MLST of internal fragments of eight housekeeping genes. However, MLVA revealed variation in repeat numbers of three elements, allowing separation of the isolates into 16 sequence types. The unweighted pair group method using arithmetic averages cluster analysis of the MLVA data identified four major clusters, and all isolates belonged to clonal complexes. It is likely that I. seriolicida populations share a common ancestor, which may be a recently introduced strain. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Primary health workers' knowledge and practices relating to neonatal jaundice in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Orimadegun, Adebola E; Ojebiyi, Adeola O

    2017-01-30

    Over half of births and newborn care occur in primary healthcare facilities in Nigeria, but information on activities of personnel working there is scarce. To assess the knowledge and practices relating to neonatal jaundice (NNJ) among community health workers (CHWs) and community birth attendants (CBAs) in Nigeria. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of all 227 CHWs and 193 registered CBAs in Ibadan, Nigeria. Knowledge and practices regarding NNJ were measured using a pretested questionnaire. Knowledge and practices were assessed on a 33-point scale and a 13-point scale, respectively. Scores ≤  17 and ≤  9 was regarded as poor knowledge and as wrong practice, respectively. Many (64.5%) of the respondents could not correctly describe examination for NNJ (CHWs: 49.4%; CBAs: 50.6%). Of the 200 (47.6%) who treated NNJ 3 months prior to the study, 62.5% (CHWs: 66.9% and CBAs: 53.7%) treated NNJ with orthodox drugs. Drugs prescribed included: antibiotics (93.3%), antimalarials (5.3%), multivitamins (28.0%), paracetamol (6.2%) and phenobarbitone (7.1%). Significantly more CHWs than CBAs practiced exposure to sunlight (33.1% versus 16.4%) and administration of glucose water (28.6% versus 14.9%), while 58.0% of all respondents referred cases to secondary health facilities. Overall, 80.2% had poor knowledge (CHWs: 78.9%; CBAs: 81.9%) and 46.4% engaged in wrong practices (CHWs: 57.3%; CBAs: 33.7%). CHWs were more likely to indulge in wrong practices than CBAs (OR = 2.22, 95% CI = 1.03, 4.79). Primary Health Workers in Ibadan had poor knowledge and engaged in wrong practices about NNJ. The needs to organise regular training programmes were emphasised.

  15. Aggressive natural killer-cell leukemia with jaundice and spontaneous splenic rupture: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Gao, Li-min; Liu, Wei-ping; Yang, Qun-pei; Li, Hui-fang; Chen, Jun-jie; Tang, Yuan; Zou, Yan; Liao, Dian-Ying; Liu, Yan-mei; Zhao, Sha

    2013-03-11

    Aggressive natural killer cell leukemia/lymphoma (ANKL) is a rare aggressive form of NK-cell neoplasm. We report an uncommon case of 36-year-old male who showed jaundice and spontaneous splenic rupture. The diagnosis was established by the biopsy of liver and spleen. The monomorphous medium-size neoplastic cells infiltrated into portal areas and sinus of liver as well as the cords and sinus of the spleen. Necrosis, mitotic figures and significant apoptosis could be seen easily. These neoplastic cells demonstrated a typical immunophenotype of CD3ε+, CD56+, CD16+, Granzyme B+, TIA-1+. T-cell receptor γ (TCR-γ) gene rearrangement analysis showed germline configuration and the result of in situ hybridization for Epstein-Barr virus-encoded RNA (EBER-ISH) was positive. The patient has undergone an aggressive clinical course and died of multi-organ function failure 14 days later after admission. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of ANKL with spontaneous splenic rupture, and we should pay more attention to recognize it. The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/2048154883890867.

  16. Influence of skin colour on diagnostic accuracy of the jaundice meter JM 103 in newborns.

    PubMed

    Samiee-Zafarghandy, S; Feberova, J; Williams, K; Yasseen, A S; Perkins, S L; Lemyre, B

    2014-11-01

    To assess the diagnostic accuracy of the JM 103 as a screening tool for neonatal jaundice and explore differential effects based on skin colour. We prospectively compared the transcutaneous bilirubin (TcB) and serum bilirubin (TSB) measurements of newborns over a 3 month-period. Skin colour was assigned via reference colour swatches. Diagnostic measures of the TcB/TSB comparison were made and clinically relevant TcB cut-off values were determined for each skin colour group. 451 infants (51 light, 326 medium and 74 dark skin colour) were recruited. The association between TcB and TSB was high for all skin colours (rs>0.9). The Bland-Altman analysis showed an absolute mean difference between the two measures of 13.3±26.4 µmol/L with broad limits of agreement (-39.4-66.0 µmol/L), with TcB underestimating TSB in light and medium skin colours and overestimating in dark skin colour. Diagnostic measures were also consistently high across skin colours, with no clinically significant differences observed. The JM 103 is a useful screening tool to identify infants in need of serum bilirubin, regardless of skin colour. The effect of skin colour on the accuracy of this device at high levels of serum bilirubin could not be assessed fully due to small numbers in the light and dark groups. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  17. Cost-effectiveness analysis of a system-based approach for managing neonatal jaundice and preventing kernicterus in Ontario.

    PubMed

    Xie, Bin; da Silva, Orlando; Zaric, Greg

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the incremental cost-effectiveness of a system-based approach for the management of neonatal jaundice and the prevention of kernicterus in term and late-preterm (≥35 weeks) infants, compared with the traditional practice based on visual inspection and selected bilirubin testing. Two hypothetical cohorts of 150,000 term and late-preterm neonates were used to compare the costs and outcomes associated with the use of a system-based or traditional practice approach. Data for the evaluation were obtained from the case costing centre at a large teaching hospital in Ontario, supplemented by data from the literature. The per child cost for the system-based approach cohort was $176, compared with $173 in the traditional practice cohort. The higher cost associated with the system-based cohort reflects increased costs for predischarge screening and treatment and increased postdischarge follow-up visits. These costs are partially offset by reduced costs from fewer emergency room visits, hospital readmissions and kernicterus cases. Compared with the traditional approach, the cost to prevent one kernicterus case using the system-based approach was $570,496, the cost per life year gained was $26,279, and the cost per quality-adjusted life year gained was $65,698. The cost to prevent one kernicterus case using the system-based approach is much lower than previously reported in the literature.

  18. Cost-effectiveness analysis of a system-based approach for managing neonatal jaundice and preventing kernicterus in Ontario

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Bin; da Silva, Orlando; Zaric, Greg

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the incremental cost-effectiveness of a system-based approach for the management of neonatal jaundice and the prevention of kernicterus in term and late-preterm (≥35 weeks) infants, compared with the traditional practice based on visual inspection and selected bilirubin testing. STUDY DESIGN: Two hypothetical cohorts of 150,000 term and late-preterm neonates were used to compare the costs and outcomes associated with the use of a system-based or traditional practice approach. Data for the evaluation were obtained from the case costing centre at a large teaching hospital in Ontario, supplemented by data from the literature. RESULTS: The per child cost for the system-based approach cohort was $176, compared with $173 in the traditional practice cohort. The higher cost associated with the system-based cohort reflects increased costs for predischarge screening and treatment and increased postdischarge follow-up visits. These costs are partially offset by reduced costs from fewer emergency room visits, hospital readmissions and kernicterus cases. Compared with the traditional approach, the cost to prevent one kernicterus case using the system-based approach was $570,496, the cost per life year gained was $26,279, and the cost per quality-adjusted life year gained was $65,698. CONCLUSION: The cost to prevent one kernicterus case using the system-based approach is much lower than previously reported in the literature. PMID:23277747

  19. A rare case of methimazole-induced cholestatic jaundice in an elderly man of Asian ethnicity with hyperthyroidism: A case report.

    PubMed

    Ji, Hongjian; Yue, Feng; Song, Jianxiang; Zhou, Xiaohua

    2017-12-01

    Methimazole is an antithyroid drug that is widely used for the treatment of hyperthyroidism. As an inhibitor of the enzyme thyroperoxidase, methimazole is generally well-tolerated. However, there have been increasing reports of methimazole-induced liver damage, although this effect of methimazole has been limited by the absence of objective diagnosis of the liver condition or the inappropriate use of the Naranjo scale. We present the case of an elderly man with hyperthyroidism, gastritis, and epilepsy who developed liver damage after administration of multiple drugs. Considering the low sensitivity of the Naranjo scale in detecting rare reactions associated with liver damage, we used the Roussel-Uclaf Causality Assessment Method scale, with a finding of cholestatic jaundice hepatitis induced by methimazole. The patient's liver enzyme levels improved after discontinuation of methimazole. Our case underlines the possible hepatoxicity associated with the use of methimazole. A review of the literature confirmed a selective hepatoxicity risk in individuals of Asian ethnicity, which has not been identified in Caucasian or Black populations. Physicians should be aware of the risk of hepatoxicity when prescribing oral methimazole to patients of Asian ethnicity.

  20. In vitro and in vivo Efficacy of New Blue Light Emitting Diode Phototherapy Compared to Conventional Halogen Quartz Phototherapy for Neonatal Jaundice

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Yun Sil; Hwang, Jong Hee; Kwon, Hyuk Nam; Choi, Chang Won; Ko, Sun Young; Park, Won Soon; Shin, Son Moon

    2005-01-01

    High intensity light emitting diodes (LEDs) are being studied as possible light sources for the phototherapy of neonatal jaundice, as they can emit high intensity light of narrow wavelength band in the blue region of the visible light spectrum corresponding to the spectrum of maximal bilirubin absorption. We developed a prototype blue gallium nitride LED phototherapy unit with high intensity, and compared its efficacy to commercially used halogen quartz phototherapy device by measuring both in vitro and in vivo bilirubin photodegradation. The prototype device with two focused arrays, each with 500 blue LEDs, generated greater irradiance than the conventional device tested. The LED device showed a significantly higher efficacy of bilirubin photodegradation than the conventional phototherapy in both in vitro experiment using microhematocrit tubes (44±7% vs. 35±2%) and in vivo experiment using Gunn rats (30±9% vs. 16±8%). We conclude that high intensity blue LED device was much more effective than conventional phototherapy of both in vitro and in vivo bilirubin photodegradation. Further studies will be necessary to prove its clinical efficacy. PMID:15716604

  1. Clinical system model for monitoring the physiological status of jaundice by extracting bilirubin components from skin diffuse reflectance spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Alla S.; Clark, Joseph; Beyette, Fred R., Jr.

    2009-02-01

    Neonatal jaundice is a medical condition which occurs in newborns as a result of an imbalance between the production and elimination of bilirubin. The excess bilirubin in the blood stream diffuses into the surrounding tissue leading to a yellowing of the skin. As the bilirubin levels rise in the blood stream, there is a continuous exchange between the extra vascular bilirubin and bilirubin in the blood stream. Exposure to phototherapy alters the concentration of bilirubin in the vascular and extra vascular regions by causing bilirubin in the skin layers to be broken down. Thus, the relative concentration of extra vascular bilirubin is reduced leading to a diffusion of bilirubin out of the vascular region. Diffuse reflectance spectra from human skin contains physiological and structural information of the skin and nearby tissue. A diffuse reflectance spectrum must be captured before and after blanching in order to isolate the intravascular and extra vascular bilirubin. A new mathematical model is proposed with extra vascular bilirubin concentration taken into consideration along with other optical parameters in defining the diffuse reflectance spectrum from human skin. A nonlinear optimization algorithm has been adopted to extract the optical properties (including bilirubin concentration) from the skin reflectance spectrum. The new system model and nonlinear algorithm have been combined to enable extraction of Bilirubin concentrations within an average error of 10%.

  2. Hyperbilirubinemia and management of breastfeeding.

    PubMed

    Soldi, A; Tonetto, P; Chiale, F; Varalda, A; Peila, C; Sabatino, G; Occhi, L; Giuliani, F; Perathoner, C; Prandi, G

    2012-01-01

    Hyperbilirubinemia and jaundice are natural, physiological phenomena which are only to be expected in the neonatal period, within certain limits. The highest percentage of jaundice in breastfed newborns should be evaluated in connection with inadequate management of breastfeeding rather than a direct effect of breast milk. Breastfeeding is also linked to visible jaundice persisting beyond the first two weeks of life (“breast milk jaundice”), but the appearance of skin jaundice is not a reason for interrupting breastfeeding which can and should continue without any interruption in most cases. There have been numerous contributions to the literature which have rescaled the direct role of breast milk both in early jaundice and in the more severe cases of late jaundice. The reviewed guidelines for detection and management of hyperbilirubinemia underline how prevention of badly managed breastfeeding and early support for the couple mother-child are effective prevention measures against severe early-onset jaundice; furthermore, the breastfeeding interruption is no longer recommended as a diagnostic procedure to identify breast milk jaundice because of its low specificity and the risk to disregarding the detection of a potentially dangerous disease.

  3. A Comparative Analysis of Nasogastric and Intravenous Fluid Resuscitation in Patients with Malignant Obstructive Jaundice Prior to Endoscopic Biliary Drainage

    PubMed Central

    Baghel, Kavita; Raj, Saloni; Awasthi, Induja; Gupta, Vishal; Chandra, Abhijit; Srivastava, Rajeshwar Nath

    2013-01-01

    Background: An alternative to intravenous is nasogastric fluid administration through normal functioning gut. Though not common, this practice has significance in mass causalities and elective situations. Aim: The study was designed to compare nasogastric and intravenous fluid resuscitation in malignant obstructive jaundice (OJ) and their effect on endotoxemia. Materials and Methods: Sixty patients with malignant OJ undergoing endoscopic biliary drainage were randomized into two groups. A total of 4 l of fluid (Ringer's lactate) was administered to Group A through nasogastric tube and to Group B through intravenous route for 48 h. Vital parameters, serum bilirubin, serum creatinine, creatinine clearance rate, electrolytes, and endotoxemia were monitored. Results: Significant improvement in blood pressure (Group A, P = 0.014; Group B, P = 0.020) and significant decrease in serum bilirubin level (Group A, P = 0.001; Group B, P > 0.0001) was observed in both groups after resuscitation. Significantly decreased (P = 0.036) post hydration endotoxin level was observed in Group A as compared to Group B. Febrile events were significantly higher (P = 0.023) in Group B as compared to Group A (6 vs 0). Electrolyte abnormalities were found more in Group B, however statistically insignificant. Conclusion: In OJ patient undergoing biliary drainage, preoperative fluid resuscitation through nasogastric tube may be helpful in reducing postoperative septic complications and endotoxemia. PMID:24251269

  4. Ginsenoside Rg1 prevents cerebral and cerebellar injury induced by obstructive jaundice in rats via inducing expression of TIPE-2.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Tingting; Zu, Guo; Zhou, Lu; Che, Ningwei; Guo, Jing; Liang, Zhanhua

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze the effect of Ginsenoside Rg1 (Rg1) on cerebral and cerebellar injury in experimental obstructive jaundice (OJ). OJ was done by ligature and section of extrahepatic biliary duct. Rg1 was injected intraperitoneally (10 mg kg(-1)d(-1) or 20 mg kg(-1) d(-1)). Comparison of serum total bile salts (TBA), total bilirubin (TBil), direct bilirubin (DBil), TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β among groups. Malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were determined, also apoptosis and mRNA and protein levels of TIPE2 (TNF-α-inducible protein 8-like 2) were tested in cerebrum and cerebellum. Our results showed that Rg1 reduced MDA and apoptosis in cerebrum and cerebellum induced by OJ, also GSH and antioxidant enzyme activity were raised obviously in rats treated with Rg1. Moreover, decreased mRNA and protein levels of TIPE2 in OJ rats and Rg1 could improve the decreased mRNA and protein levels of TIPE2 in OJ rats. In conclusion, Rg1 decreased oxidative stress and apoptosis, also recovered the antioxidant status and mRNA and protein levels of TIPE2 in the cerebrum and cerebellum of OJ rats. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Superoxide and nitric oxide production by Kupffer cells in rats with obstructive jaundice: effect of internal and external drainage.

    PubMed

    Li, Wen; Chan, Angus C W; Lau, James Y W; Lee, Danny W H; Ng, Enders K W; Sung, Joseph J Y; Chung, S C Sydney

    2004-02-01

    The role of Kupffer cells in obstructive jaundice (OJ) has not been fully understood. The aims of the present study were to measure superoxide and nitric oxide (NO) production by Kupffer cells in experimental OJ in rats and to investigate the response to internal and external biliary drainage. Eighty male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to four groups: sham operation, OJ, and internal and external biliary drainage. Kupffer cells were isolated on day 7 in the sham operation and OJ group, and on day 7 after drainage procedures. Cells were cultured with or without lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Superoxide production was quantified in cultured Kupffer cells at 2 h and 48 h, respectively, after cell isolation using the superoxide dismutase inhibitable ferricytochrome c reduction method. Nitrite production in cell culture supernatants was measured 48 h later using Greiss reagents. Without LPS stimulation, Kupffer cells produced comparable superoxide and nitrite in each group (P > 0.05). With LPS stimulation, Kupffer cells in the OJ group produced significantly higher superoxide anions than the other groups (P = 0.006). Nitrite production was significantly increased in the OJ group and external biliary drainage group compared to rats in the sham operation and internal drainage groups (P < 0.01). Kupffer cells from rats with OJ produce great amounts of endotoxin-mediated oxidants. Both internal and external biliary drainage can decrease the elevated superoxide production. Internal drainage is superior to external drainage for reversing the distortional capacity of NO production by Kupffer cells.

  6. Modulation of gut barrier function in patients with obstructive jaundice using probiotic LP299v.

    PubMed

    Jones, Claire; Badger, Stephen A; Regan, Mark; Clements, Barry W; Diamond, Tom; Parks, Rowan W; Taylor, Mark A

    2013-12-01

    This study aimed to determine the effect of LP229v on intestinal permeability and tumour necrosis factor (TNF) p55 receptor concentrations in patients with obstructive jaundice undergoing biliary drainage. Patients undergoing biliary drainage were recruited and randomized into three groups to receive Lactobacillus plantarum 299v (LP299v), inactivated LP299v (placebo) or water. These were administered daily at noon until 7 days after biliary drainage. Intestinal permeability was measured using the lactulose/mannitol (L/M) dual sugar absorption test on admission, the day before biliary drainage and on days 1 and 7 after biliary drainage. Blood and urine were collected to determine the L/M ratio and the TNF p55 receptor levels at each time point. A total of 25 patients were recruited; 12 had choledocholithiasis and nine had a periampullary tumour. Open surgical biliary drainage was performed in nine patients, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography in 12 and percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography in two. Five patients received LP299v, five received placebo and seven, water. The median L/M ratio was 0.035 (0.018-0.065) at baseline. No difference existed between the groups on admission, before drainage and on day 7 after drainage (P=0.59, 0.175 and 0.61, respectively). The L/M ratio was lower in the LP299v group on day 1 after drainage [0.01 (0.01) vs. 0.18 (0.03-0.3) and 0.11 (0.07-0.14); P=0.37]. Although the TNF p55 receptor levels were lower on day 1 after drainage in the LP299v group (15.3 vs. 30.9 vs. 82.7 ng/ml; P=0.43), the concentration at the four time points was similar (P=0.24, 0.96, 0.43 and 0.68). Pretreatment with probiotic LP299v improves intestinal permeability after biliary drainage and attenuates the inflammatory response. However, a larger multicentre trial is required to determine the effect on clinical outcome.

  7. Perceptions, practices, and traditional beliefs related to neonatal jaundice among Egyptian mothers: A cross-sectional descriptive study.

    PubMed

    Moawad, Eman Mohamed Ibraheim; Abdallah, Enas Abdallah Ali; Ali, Yahia Zakaria Abdelalim

    2016-09-01

    Neonatal jaundice (NNJ) is one of the most common neonatal disorders worldwide. It is still a main cause of avoidable brain damage, physical and mental impairment, and probable death in newborns.We aimed to assess perceptions, practices, and traditional beliefs among Egyptian mothers toward NNJ that may contribute to delayed presentation and inappropriate management of hyperbilirubinemia.This descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted from January to May 2015. We interviewed 400 Egyptian mothers who gave birth in <1 month before the study using a structured questionnaire. Participants were recruited from outpatients of Cairo University Teaching Hospital.This study revealed unexpected moderate knowledge and attitude scores of Egyptian mothers in most domains with a mean of 6.6 and 20.6, respectively, although the majority of them were illiterate or had low educational attainment. In terms of knowledge, 52.3% of participants had adequate knowledge about NNJ in the aspects of awareness, risk factors, management, and complications. Almost all participants exhibited moderate (89.8%) and high levels (10%) of positive attitudes toward NNJ. Maternal sociodemographic factors influenced knowledge level, attitudes, and behaviors related to NNJ in Egypt. Working mothers and those residing in urban areas were significantly more knowledgeable (P = 0.023 and 0.021, respectively), and attained higher attitude scores (P < 0.001 and P < 0.001, respectively) than housewives and rural ones. Moreover, significantly higher attitude scores (P < 0.001) were attained by those who had completed their university [22.3 (SD = 3.1)] or postgraduate education [22.2 (SD = 3.6)].The majority of Egyptian mothers have a satisfactory level of knowledge and attitudes related to NNJ. However, cultural beliefs and traditional infant care practices still have an impact on mothers regardless of their educational level.

  8. SU-E-T-315: Planning and Verification of CT-Based HDR Intraluminal Brachytherapy Treatment for Malignant Obstructive Jaundice.

    PubMed

    Svoboda, A; Lo, Y; Sheu, R; Dumane, V; Rosenzweig, K

    2012-06-01

    To present our experience using CT to plan and verify intraluminal HDR treatment for a patient with obstructive jaundice. Due to the obstruction's proximity to the small bowel, along with small bowel adhesions from past surgical history, it was imperative to verify source position relative to the bowel before each treatment. Treatment was administered to a total dose of 2000cGy in 5 fractions via a 6F intraluminal catheter inserted into the patient's 14F percutaneous drainage catheter. Graduations on the intraluminal catheter were used to measure the exact length of catheter inserted in to the patient's drainage tube allowing reproducibility. Dummy seeds inserted during CT were identified by iteratively aligning the planning system's 3D reconstruction axis to the catheter at multiple points as it snaked through the liver. Taking in to account the known offset between actual dwell positions and dummy source positions, we determined what dwell positions to activate for planning. CT verification was performed prior to each treatment to insure that the drainage catheter had not moved and that the distance from treatment site to small bowel was adequate. Dummy seeds and anatomical landmarks were identified on the scout image and correlated to the CT. Verification CTs showed remarkable consistency in the day-to-day drainage catheter position. The physician was able to easily identify the small bowel of concern on the CT and determine if a safe distance existed for treatment. The method outlined in this work provides a safe means by which to treat bile duct obstructions using HDR when critical structures are nearby. We were prepared to make real-time adjustments to our treatment plan to account for significant variation, but found it unnecessary to do so in this particular case. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  9. Hyperbilirubinemia in Neonates: Types, Causes, Clinical Examinations, Preventive Measures and Treatments: A Narrative Review Article

    PubMed Central

    ULLAH, Sana; RAHMAN, Khaista; HEDAYATI, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hyperbilirubinemia, or jaundice, is a life threatening disorder in newborns. It is a multifactorial disorder with many symptoms. Generally, the physiological jaundice is the most prevalent type however in some regions pathological jaundice is also common. This review article focuses on a brief introduction to jaundice, its types and causes, measuring the bilirubin level, clinical approaches towards hyperbilirubinemia, different precautionary measures for the parents of babies suffering from hyperbilirubinemia and different remedial therapeutic measures for its treatment. Methods: The main databases including Scopus, Pubmed, MEDLINE, Google scholar and Science Direct were researched to obtain the original papers related to the newborns’ hyperbilirubinemia. The main terms used to literature search were “newborns’ hyperbilirubinemia”, “newborns’ jaundice”, “Physiological Jaundice” and “Patholigical Jaundice”. The timeframe included the obtained articles was from 1952 to 2015. Results: Neonatal jaundice due to breast milk feeding is also sometimes observed. Hemolytic jaundice occurs because of the incompatibility of blood groups with ABO and Rh factors, when the fetus and mother blood groups are not compatible and the fetus blood crosses the barrier of the umbilical cord before birth causing fetus blood hemolysis owing to severe immune response. Conclusion: Jaundice is easily diagnosable however require quick and on the spot treatment. If not treated properly, it leads to many complications. Currently the treatment options for jaundice include photo therapy, chemotherapy, and vaccinations. PMID:27398328

  10. Bilirubin isomer distribution in jaundiced neonates during phototherapy with LED light centered at 497 nm (turquoise) vs. 459 nm (blue).

    PubMed

    Ebbesen, Finn; Madsen, Poul H; Vandborg, Pernille K; Jakobsen, Lasse H; Trydal, Torleif; Vreman, Hendrik J

    2016-10-01

    Phototherapy using blue light is the treatment of choice worldwide for neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. However, treatment with turquoise light may be a desirable alternative. Therefore, the aim of this randomized, controlled study was to compare the bilirubin isomer distribution in serum of jaundiced neonates after 24 h of therapy with narrow-band (LED) light centered at 497 nm (turquoise) vs. 459 nm (blue), of essentially equal irradiance. Eighty-three neonates (≥33 wk gestational age) with uncomplicated hyperbilirubinemia were included in the study. Forty neonates were exposed to light centered at 497 nm and 43 infants with light centered at 459 nm. Irradiances were 5.2 × 10(15) and 5.1 × 10(15) photons/cm(2)/s, respectively. After 24 h of treatment no significant differences in serum concentrations of total bilirubin isomers and Z,Z-bilirubin were observed between the 2 groups. Interestingly, concentrations of Z,E-bilirubin, and thus also total bilirubin isomers formed during therapy, were highest for infants receiving light centered at 459 nm, while the concentration of E,Z-bilirubin was highest for those receiving light centered at 497 nm. No significant difference was found between concentrations of E,Z-lumirubin. Therapy with LED light centered at 497 nm vs. 459 nm, applied with equal irradiance on the infants, resulted in a different distribution of bilirubin isomers in serum.

  11. Grave's Disease and Primary Biliary Cirrhosis-An Unusual and Challenging Association.

    PubMed

    Shetty, Shiran; Rajasekaran, Senthilkumar; Venkatakrishnan, Leela

    2014-03-01

    Jaundice in Grave's diseases is uncommon, but when it does occur, complication of thyrotoxicosis (heart failure/infection) or intrinsic liver disease should be considered. Grave's disease can cause asymptomatic elevation of liver enzymes, jaundice and rarely acute liver failure. It is associated with other autoimmune diseases like autoimmune hepatitis, or primary biliary cirrhosis. The cause of jaundice in Grave's disease is multifactorial.

  12. Infant Jaundice

    MedlinePlus

    ... information applies to you and to get more information on this subject. Featured ContentSecondary DrowningRead Article >>Secondary DrowningSensory Processing Disorder (SPD)Read Article >>Sensory Processing Disorder (SPD) ...

  13. Newborn Jaundice

    MedlinePlus

    ... Liver Function Tests Clinical Trials Liver Transplant FAQs Medical Terminology Diseases of the Liver Alagille Syndrome Alcohol-Related ... the Liver The Progression of Liver Disease FAQs Medical Terminology HOW YOU CAN HELP Sponsorship Ways to Give ...

  14. Bare-metal stents across the Vater's ampulla is a safe method for patients with lower bile duct obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Xiao-Nan; Lu, Zai-Ming; Wen, Feng; Liang, Hong-Yuan; Guo, Qi-Yong

    2017-01-01

    Abstract This study explored the effect of the implant position of stents across the Vater's ampulla on treatment outcomes in patients with lower bile duct obstruction. In the retrospective study, 41 patients with malignant obstruction of the lower bile duct and obstructive jaundice received percutaneous transhepatic biliary placement of bare-metal stents. Basic demographic data on patients, such as sex, age, and primary diseases, and follow-up data, including postoperative complications and jaundice-free survival, were recorded. The follow-up data on patients with an involved ampulla, patients with an uninvolved ampulla, patients with a stent across the ampulla, and patients with a stent at a site other than the ampulla were compared. Furthermore, prognostic factors for jaundice- free survival were investigated using Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. Among the 41 patients, 38 patients experienced subsiding of jaundice, whereas 3 cases had unsuccessful stent patency. Whether or not the ampulla was involved did not influence the incidence rates of postoperative complications and the jaundice-free survival time. Notably, when stents were placed across the ampulla, the jaundice-free survival time was significantly longer than when stents were placed at sites other than across the ampulla (P < .05). Furthermore, placement of the stent across the ampulla or at other sites was an independent prognostic factor (hazard ratio = 0.154, 95% confidence interval 0.042–0.560, P = .005) for jaundice-free survival of patients. The current study revealed that the implant position of a stent across the ampulla resulted in maintenance of stent patency and prolongation of the jaundice-free survival time. PMID:29137005

  15. [Cholestatic icterus due to oral contraceptives].

    PubMed

    Pestel, M; Lambert, C; Jeanmougin, M

    1973-03-01

    A case report of cholestatic jaundice in a 25 year old woman, who had had jaundice at age 4 years, and had taken Stediril (a combined oral contraceptive) for 1 month, implicates either the pill or a possibly hereditary hyperlipidemia. The jaundice developed in 2 weeks with vomiting, epigastric pain, anorexia, then discolored urine and feces, and intense pruritus. On hospitalization the patient had moderate bilirubinemia (56 mg/1), low alkaline phosphatase (13 U.K.) and slightly high serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (270 U.W.). There were elevated serum cholesterol (3 gm/1), triglycerides (2.05 gm/1), total lipids (10.6 gm/1), and a definitely increased pre-beta lipoprotein, suggesting hyperlipidemia type IV (Frederickson classification). Liver biopsy showed fibrosis of the portal spaces lymphocytic infiltration, canalicular and intrahepatocytic thrombi. On laparoscopy the liver had a regular lower border, normal volume color and surface. Albumin, prothrombin and flocculation tests were normal. The patient's jaundice lasted about 1 month, then liver function slowly improved, although pruritus remained intense. Probably this jaundice was due to oral contraceptives, in a patient predisposed either by jaundice in childhood or endogenous hyperlipidemia.

  16. Grave's Disease and Primary Biliary Cirrhosis—An Unusual and Challenging Association

    PubMed Central

    Shetty, Shiran; Rajasekaran, Senthilkumar; Venkatakrishnan, Leela

    2013-01-01

    Jaundice in Grave's diseases is uncommon, but when it does occur, complication of thyrotoxicosis (heart failure/infection) or intrinsic liver disease should be considered. Grave's disease can cause asymptomatic elevation of liver enzymes, jaundice and rarely acute liver failure. It is associated with other autoimmune diseases like autoimmune hepatitis, or primary biliary cirrhosis. The cause of jaundice in Grave's disease is multifactorial. PMID:25755537

  17. Enhancing neonatal wellness with home visitation.

    PubMed

    Parker, Carlo; Warmuskerken, Geene; Sinclair, Lorna

    2015-01-01

    We planned and implemented an evidence-based program to screen for jaundice and to try to increase the proportion of women breastfeeding for 6 months. The program involved home visitation by a registered nurse to provide education on and support of breastfeeding, and to perform physical assessment of both mothers and newborns, including screening for neonatal jaundice. Quantitative data showed increased breastfeeding rates at 6 months. In addition, readmission rates for jaundice were higher when compared to regional benchmarks. However, the average length of stay for treatment of jaundice was shorter than regional benchmarks. Qualitative data indicated that the program was effective at achieving its goals and was valued by participants. © 2015 AWHONN.

  18. Outcome of Neonatal Hyperbilirubinemia in a Tertiary Care Hospital in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Rasul, Choudhury Habibur; Hasan, Md Abul; Yasmin, Farhana

    2010-01-01

    Background: Kernicterus occurs in infants around the world. This study examined the outcomes of various treatments for neonatal hyperbilirubinemia (NH) used in the Khulna Medical College Hospital in Bangladesh. Methods: All of the jaundiced newborns in the neonatal ward between 2005 and 2008 were included in the study. Total serum bilirubin and fractional levels were measured in all cases, regardless of the degree of jaundice. NH was classified as mild, moderate or severe depending on the bilirubin level; mild NH was treated with a sunbath, moderate NH was treated with phototherapy, and severe NH was treated with exchange transfusion. Results: Of 1981 neonates, 426 (22%) were diagnosed with NH. Physiological jaundice (26.7%) was most common, followed by the jaundice of prematurity (20.9%). Haemolytic jaundice was primarily caused by ABO incompatibility (11.3%) and Rh incompatibility (5.4%). Exchange transfusion (ET) was performed in 22 patients; four (18.2%) died as a result of hazards that could have been avoided with skilled monitoring. Twelve (2.8%) individuals with jaundice died. Kernicterus developed in nine (2.1%) children, four of whom survived with neurological sequelae. Conclusion: ABO incompatibility is twice as common as Rh incompatibility. The majority of kernicterus patients died in the acute phase. PMID:22135536

  19. Hepatitis B antigen and viral hepatitis type B in India*

    PubMed Central

    John, T. Jacob; Carman, Robert H.; Hill, Peter G.

    1974-01-01

    Surveys were conducted to determine the occurrence of overt hepatitis manifested by jaundice in groups of hospital patients who had survived their initial illness. Of those who had been given blood that had not been screened for the presence of hepatitis B antigen (HB Ag) 9.4% reported that they had had jaundice during the 6 months following transfusion. During a similar period jaundice was reported by only 1.1% of those who had received blood found to be negative for HB Ag by the cross-over electrophoresis test. This difference is highly significant. Jaundice was reported by 25.5% of recipients of HB Ag-positive blood. Of a control population of hospitalized but non-transfused patients 2.2% reported jaundice within 6 months of hospitalization. The risk of overt hepatitis from HB Ag in transfused blood is high in southern India and is similar to that in temperate countries where the occurrence of antigen carriers, and presumably of immune status, are lower than in the tropics. PMID:4549611

  20. Association of Autism Spectrum Disorders With Neonatal Hyperbilirubinemia

    PubMed Central

    Nylund, Cade M.; Gorman, Gregory H.; Hisle-Gorman, Elizabeth; Erdie-Lalena, Christine R.; Kuehn, Devon

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a common neurodevelopmental disorder of unknown etiology. Studies suggest a link between autism and neonatal jaundice. A 1:3 matched case–control study was conducted with children enrolled in the Military Health System born between October 2002 and September 2009. Diagnostic and procedure codes were used for identifying ASD and hyperbilirubinemia. Two definitions for hyperbilirubinemia were evaluated: an inpatient admission with a diagnosis of jaundice and treatment with phototherapy. A total of 2917 children with ASD and 8751 matched controls were included in the study. After adjustment, there remained an association between ASD in children and an admission with a diagnosis of jaundice (odds ratio = 1.18; 95% confidence interval = 1.06-1.31; P = .001) and phototherapy treatment (odds ratio = 1.33; 95% confidence interval = 1.04-1.69; P = .008). Children who develop ASD are more likely to have an admission with a diagnosis of jaundice in the neonatal period and more likely to require treatment for this jaundice. PMID:27335973

  1. Transient familial hyperbilirubinemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Babies with this disorder are born with severe jaundice . Causes Transient familial hyperbilirubinemia is an inherited disorder. ... death. Symptoms The newborn may have: Yellow skin (jaundice) Yellow eyes (icterus) Lethargy If untreated, seizures and ...

  2. Pyruvate kinase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... mucous membranes, or white part of the eyes ( jaundice ) Neurologic condition, called kernicterus , that affects the brain ... cases. In newborns with a dangerous level of jaundice, the provider may recommend an exchange transfusion . This ...

  3. Liver Panel

    MedlinePlus

    ... may be present before symptoms such as jaundice , dark urine, light-colored stools, itching ( pruritus ), nausea, fatigue, ... or pain Jaundice (yellowing of eyes or skin) Dark urine, light-colored stool Itching ( pruritus ) Diarrhea Usually ...

  4. Ductal plate malformation in patients with biliary atresia.

    PubMed

    Vuković, Jurica; Grizelj, Ruža; Bojanić, Katarina; Corić, Marijana; Luetić, Tomislav; Batinica, Stipe; Kujundžić-Tiljak, Mirjana; Schroeder, Darrell R; Sprung, Juraj

    2012-12-01

    The presence of ductal plate malformation (DPM+) on liver histology in children with biliary atresia (BA) is a marker of early intrauterine disease onset and an indication of an unfavorable prognosis. We studied the prognostic value of DPM in infants with BA after hepatoportoenterostomy (HPE). We reviewed 28 BA patients who underwent HPE in a single medical center. We examined the time of jaundice onset after delivery (conjugated hyperbilirubinemia): early onset (fetal phenotype with no jaundice-free interval) vs. late onset (perinatal phenotype with jaundice-free interval) and the presence or absence of DPM (DPM+ or DPM-) histopathology. Primary outcome was jaundice clearance at 3 months after HPE and survival with native liver (SNL). Eight children had fetal and 20 had perinatal BA (8 DPM+, 12 DPM-). At 3 months after HPE, no patients with fetal BA had achieved jaundice clearance, while jaundice clearance was achieved in five patients with DPM+ perinatal disease and four patients with DPM- perinatal BA (P = 0.03, comparing all three groups; P = 0.36, comparing DPM+ vs. DPM- perinatal patients). Median SNL was 8.6 months for fetal BA patients, 148.2 months for DPM+ perinatal BA patients, and 93.2 months for DPM- perinatal BA patients (log-rank test, P < 0.001, comparing all three groups; P = 0.59, comparing DPM+ vs. DPM- perinatal patients). After adjusting for BA type, age older than 2 months at HPE was associated with worse SNL [P = 0.03; hazard ratio = 4.0 (95 % CI, 1.1-14.2)]. Early onset of jaundice, regardless of DPM histology, was the most ominous sign of poor outcome in infants with BA after HPE.

  5. [Hepatitis: a longstanding companion in human history].

    PubMed

    Craxi, Lucia

    2012-03-01

    Hepatitis has gone along with human history since its origins, due to its prompt identifiability linked to jaundice as a symptom. Written evidence of outbreaks of epidemic jaundice can be tracked back a few millenniums before Christ. Unavoidable confusion arises due to the overlap of different sources possibly linked to different aetiologies, identified over time as epidemic jaundice (HAV or HEV hepatitis?) and serum hepatitis (HBV or HCV hepatitis?). The journey that brought to recognize viruses as the main cause of jaundice was long and started midway during the last century, when the infectious hypothesis, which had taken place step by step, was finally confirmed by epidemiological investigations of an outbreak occurring in the US army in 1942, after a yellow fever immunization campaign. Further research identified two clinically different types of hepatitis, called for the first time hepatitis A and hepatitis B.

  6. Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography and intraductal radiofrequency ablation combined with biliary stent placement for malignant biliary obstruction.

    PubMed

    Li, Teng-Fei; Huang, Guo-Hao; Li, Zhen; Hao, Chang-Fu; Ren, Jian-Zhuang; Duan, Xu-Hua; Zhang, Kai; Chen, Chen; Han, Xin-Wei; Jiao, De-Chao; Zhang, Meng-Fan; Wang, Yan-Li

    2015-05-01

    To determine the safety and feasibility of percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTC) and intraductal radiofrequency (RF) ablation combined with biliary stent placement for malignant biliary obstruction. Data from patients with unresectable malignant biliary obstruction who underwent PTC, intraductal RF ablation, and biliary stent placement (n = 12) or PTC and biliary stent placement only (control group; n = 14) were reviewed. Postoperative complications, jaundice remission, and stent patency were assessed. All procedures were successful. No severe complications (eg, biliary bleeding, perforation) occurred. Two experimental group patients developed cholangitis, which resolved with conservative treatment. The 1-week jaundice remission and 3-month stent patency rates were similar in both groups, but the 6-month stent patency rate was higher in the experimental group (P < .05). In the experimental group, one death occurred as a result of gastrointestinal hemorrhage (unrelated to stent placement) by 3 months, and there were two cases of recurrent jaundice by 6 months. The latter two patients underwent repeat PTC, ablation, and stent placement. In the control group, one death occurred as a result of hepatic failure caused by progressive jaundice at 3 months, and another death resulted from disseminated intravascular coagulation caused by jaundice recurrence at 138 days after stent placement. In addition, seven patients developed jaundice recurrence (50-151 d after stent placement). PTC and repeat stent placement were performed in these patients. Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography and intraductal RF ablation combined with biliary stent placement for malignant biliary obstruction is safe and feasible and effectively prolongs stent patency time. Copyright © 2015 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Worsening cholestasis and possible cefuroxime-induced liver injury following "successful" therapeutic endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography for a distal common bile duct stone: a case report.

    PubMed

    Niriella, Madunil Anuk; Kumarasena, Ravindu Sujeewa; Dassanayake, Anuradha Supun; Pathirana, Aloka; de Silva Hewavisenthi, Janaki; de Silva, Hithanadura Janaka

    2016-12-21

    Cefuroxime very rarely causes drug-induced liver injury. We present a case of a patient with paradoxical worsening of jaundice caused by cefuroxime-induced cholestasis following therapeutic endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography for a distal common bile duct stone. A 51-year-old, previously healthy Sri Lankan man presented to our hospital with obstructive jaundice caused by a distal common bile duct stone. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography with stone extraction, common bile duct clearance, and stenting failed to improve the cholestasis, with paradoxical worsening of his jaundice. A liver biopsy revealed features of drug-induced intrahepatic cholestasis. Although his case was complicated by an episode of cholangitis, the patient made a complete recovery in 4 months with supportive treatment and withdrawal of the offending drug. This case highlights a very rare drug-induced liver injury caused by cefuroxime as well as our approach to treating a patient with paradoxical worsening of jaundice after therapeutic endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography.

  8. Free radical-triggered hepatic injury of experimental obstructive jaundice of rats involves overproduction of proinflammatory cytokines and enhanced activation of nuclear factor kappaB.

    PubMed

    Liu, T Z; Lee, K T; Chern, C L; Cheng, J T; Stern, A; Tsai, L Y

    2001-10-01

    Excessive production of hydroxyl radicals in blood and liver has previously been demonstrated by us in rats with obstructive jaundice induced by common bile duct ligation (CBDL). In this study, we demonstrate overproduction of superoxide radicals in circulating blood of CBDL rats by the lucigenin-amplified chemiluminescence technique. To pinpoint the molecular agents that mediate these processes, we measured circulating proinflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-1beta ( IL-1beta), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in controls and CBDL rats. Concentrations of these cytokines in blood of CBDL rats were markedly elevated when compared to the controls (TNF-alpha: 36.7 +/- 5.0 vs 13.8 +/- 0.5 pg/mL; IL-6: 2,814 +/- 1,740 vs 0 pg/mL; IL-1beta: 11.9 +/- 2.6 vs 0 pg/mL). The overproduction of free radicals triggered by elevated cytokines in CBDL rats was correlated with the activation of NF-kappaB in hepatic tissue. Using the TdT-mediated dUTP nick-end label staining technique, we showed that hepatic tissue sections from CBDL rats had an increase in the apoptotic index (AI). Based on these findings, we propose that the severe hepatic injury in CBDL rats is mediated by a cycle that involves the activation of NF-kappaB by combined action of proinflammatory cytokines and reactive oxygen species (ROS). NF-KB, in turn, initiates the transcription of cytokine genes (eg, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-alpha), which triggers hepatic injury, at least in part, by a free radical-mediated apoptotic mechanism. Elevated ROS may be as a positive-feedback signal that triggers NF-KB reactivation; the severe hepatic injury of CBDL rats may result from perpetuation of this vicious cycle.

  9. Probiotics for the management of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Deshmukh, Janki; Deshmukh, Mangesh; Patole, Sanjay

    2017-08-31

    Neonatal jaundice requiring phototherapy is associated with significant socioeconomic burden including hospital readmission, prolonged hospital stay, and separation of the baby from mother. To assess the efficacy and safety of probiotics in reducing the need for phototherapy and its duration in neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. A systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of probiotic supplementation for prevention or treatment of jaundice in neonates (any gestation or weight) using the Cochrane methodology. Primary outcome was the duration of phototherapy. Secondary outcomes included incidence of jaundice, total serum bilirubin (TSB) level at 24, 48, 72, 96 h, and day 7, duration of hospital stay, and adverse effects (e.g. probiotic sepsis). Results were summarized as per GRADE guidelines. Nine RCTs (prophylactic: six trials, N = 1761; therapeutic: three trials, N = 279) with low to high risk of bias were included. Meta-analysis (random-effects model) showed probiotic supplementation reduced duration of phototherapy [N = 415, mean difference (MD): -11.80 (-17.47, -6.13); p < .0001; level of evidence (LOE): low]. TSB was significantly reduced at 96 h [MD: -1.74 (-2.92, -0.57); p = .004] and 7 d [MD: -1.71 (-2.25, -1.17); p < .00001; LOE: low] after probiotic treatment. Prophylactic probiotics did not reduce the incidence of jaundice significantly [N = 1582, relative risk (RR): 0.56 (0.25, 1.27); p = .16; LOE: low]. There were no probiotic-related adverse effects. Limited low-quality evidence indicates that probiotic supplementation may reduce the duration of phototherapy in neonates with jaundice. Routine use of probiotics to prevent or treat neonatal jaundice cannot be recommended. Large well-designed trials are essential to confirm these findings.

  10. Cholestasis and protein-losing enteropathy secondary to hyperthyroidism in a 6-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Gargouri, Lamia; Charfi, Manel; Maalej, Bayen; Majdoub, Imen; Safi, Faiza; Fourati, Hela; Hentati, Yosr; Daoud, Emna; Mnif, Zeineb; Abid, Mohamed; Mahfoudh, Abdelmajid

    2014-09-01

    Hepatic dysfunctions are not infrequent in patients with hyperthyroidism. These disorders may be related to the effects of the excess thyroid hormone secretion, to the uses of antithyroid drugs, or to the presence of concomitant hepatic diseases. Our aim is to describe the clinical and biochemical features of liver dysfunction related to thyrotoxicosis. We report here a case of a 6-year-old girl who was admitted for jaundice and pruritus as a result of the development of hyperthyroidism due to Graves' disease. On physical examination at admission, she was found to have jaundice and hepatomegaly. Laboratory data show cholestasis and protein-losing enteropathy. Investigations exclude other causes of hepatic disorder. One month after the initiation of antithyroid drug, the patient became euthyroid with improvement in jaundice and pruritus and normalization of hepatic tests and alpha antitrypsine clearance. In conclusion, the diagnosis of hyperthyroidism may be delayed in patients in whom the primary manifestations were pruritus and jaundice. The physician should suspect thyrotoxicosis prior to hepatitis or skin manifestations.

  11. The effect of the pre-pregnancy weight of the mother and the gestational weight gain on the bilirubin level of term newborn.

    PubMed

    Özdek, Suat; Kul, Mustafa; Barış Akcan, Abdullah; Çekmez, Ferhat; Aydemir, Gökhan; Aydınöz, Seçil; Karademir, Ferhan; Süleymanoğlu, Selami

    2016-01-01

    Jaundice is a problem in newborns. There are many maternal and infant-related factors affecting neonatal jaundice. The maternal pre-pregnancy weight, maternal body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain may have an effect on the newborn bilirubin levels. We research the effect of the maternal pre-pregnancy weight and gestational weight gain on the bilirubin levels of the newborn infants in the first 2 weeks prospectively. Term and healthy infants who were born between 38 and 42 weeks in our clinic were included in the study. Maternal pre-pregnancy BMIs were calculated. Babies were divided into three groups according to their mothers' advised amount of gestational weight gain. Total serum bilirubin (TSB) values of the newborns were measured in the 2nd, 5th and 15th postnatal days. In our study, the 5th and 15th day capillary bilirubin level of the babies with mothers who gained more weight than the advised amount during pregnancy were found statistically significant higher compared to the other two groups (p < 0.05). Similarly, the hematocrit level of the babies with mothers who gained more weight than the advised amount were found statistically significant higher compared to the other two groups (p < 0.05). We conclude that the babies with mothers who gained more weight than the advised amount were under risk for newborn jaundice. Therefore, these babies should be monitored more closely for neonatal jaundice and prolonged jaundice.

  12. [Arias icterus--prolonged unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia caused by breast milk].

    PubMed

    Mladenović, Marija; Radlović, Nedeljko; Ristić, Dragana; Leković, Zoran; Radlović, Petar; Pavlović, Momcilo; Gajić, Milan; Puskarević, Marijana; Davidović, Ivana; Djurdjević, Jelena

    2007-01-01

    Breast milk jaundice occurs in 1-2% of healthy breast-fed newborns and young infants. It develops as the result of liver immaturity and the inhibitory effect of mother's milk to the clearance of unconjugated bilirubin. The paper analyzes variations in the level and length of unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia in breast-fed infants. The study was conducted on a sample of 29 young infants (19 male) with breast milk jaundice. All infants were born on time, by natural delivery and without complications. All were on breast-feeding only and developed optimally. None of the infants had either haemolysis or any other disease associated with unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia. All infants had physiological jaundice in the first week after birth, with unconjugated bilirubin level of 166-260 micromol (201.50 +/- 36.37 micromol). In the postneonatal period the highest bilirubin level was recorded in the fifth week of life and was 87-273 micromol (166.82 +/- 45.06 micromol), which then spontaneously, without interruption of breast-feeding, gradually declined. The decrease of the unconjugated fraction of serum bilirubin between the fourth and fifth week was significant, and after that highly significant. The normalization of serum bilirubin occurred in the seventh and thirteenth week (10.41 +/- 1.68 micromol). Negative consequences of hyperbilirubinemia were not noted in any of the infants. Breast milk jaundice presents a harmless and transitory disorder of bilirubin metabolism. It occurs in healthy breast-fed neonates and young infants. Jaundice is most marked in early neonatal period, and then it gradually declines and disappears between the seventh and thirteenth week.

  13. Unexplained hepatitis following halothane.

    PubMed Central

    Walton, B; Simpson, B R; Strunin, L; Doniach, D; Perrin, J; Appleyard, A J

    1976-01-01

    Full clinical and laboratory details of 203 patients with postoperative jaundice were submitted to a panel of hepatologists. All patients whose jaundice may have had an identifiable cause were excluded, which left 76 patients with unexplained hepatitis following halothane anaesthesia (UHFH). Hepatitis in 95% of these cases followed multiple exposure to halothane, with repeated exposure within four weeks in 55% of cases. Twenty-nine patients were obese, 52 were aged 41-70, and 53 were women. Thirteen patients died in acute hepatic failure. Rapid onset of jaundice after anaesthesia, male sex, and obesity in either sex were poor prognostic signs. Of the clinical stigmata of hypersensitivity, only eosinophilia was impressive. The UHFH group had a much greater incidence of liver kidney microsomal (LKM) and thyroid antibodies and autoimmune complement fixation than those patients whose jaundice related to identifiable factors. Thirteen of the 19 patients with LKM antibodies also had thyroid antibodies. In six patients retested two to three years later LKM antibodies had disappeared, although thyroid antibodies persisted. Rapidly repeated exposure to halothane may cause hepatitis, but such a complication is probably rare. Possibly obese women with a tendency to organ-specific autoimmunity may be more at risk. Nevertheless, the comparative risks of rapidly repeated halothane or non-halothane anaesthesia cannot be determined from the present data. If alternative satisfactory agents are available halothane should be avoided in patients with unexplained hepatitis after previous exposure, although in three to five patients with UHFH who were re-exposed to halothane jaundice did not recur. PMID:1268612

  14. Jaundice in Healthy Newborns

    MedlinePlus

    ... happen when breastfeeding babies don't get enough breast milk due to difficulty with breastfeeding or because the ... is not caused by a problem with the breast milk itself, but by the baby not getting enough ...

  15. Maternal Empowerment - An Underutilized Strategy to Prevent Kernicterus?

    PubMed

    Wennberg, Richard P; Watchko, Jon F; Shapiro, Steven M

    2017-01-01

    Kernicterus is a common cause of death and morbidity in many Low- Middle-income Countries (LMICs) and still occurs in affluent nations. In either case, the immediate cause is delayed treatment of severe hyperbilirubinemia. In the West, a provider driven "systems approach" has been widely adopted to identify babies at risk prior to discharge from birthing centers with follow up monitoring based on the serum bilirubin level at time of discharge. The situation is more complicated in regions of the world where kernicterus is endemic, especially in LMICs where Glucose-6-phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency (G6PDd) is common and the system of jaundice management is often fragmented. To examine reasons for errors in jaundice management leading to kernicterus and the potential beneficial role of enlisting more parental participation in management decisions. We searched world literature related to pitfalls in jaundice management including deficiencies in providers' and parents' knowledge and behavior. Perspectives from mothers of children with kernicterus supplemented the literature review. System failures contributing to kernicterus in affluent countries include a lack of follow up planning, bad advice by providers, and a delay in care seeking by parents. In many LMICs, the majority of births occur at home with unskilled attendants. Traditional practices potentiate hemolysis in G6PDd babies. The danger of severe jaundice is frequently underestimated both by parents and care providers, and cultural and economic barriers as well as ineffective therapies delay care seeking. The failure to provide parents information about identifying severe jaundice and knowledge about the risks and treatment of hyperbilirubinemia has contributed to delayed treatment in both affluent and low-middle-income countries. A recent non-randomized clinical trial, supports teaching all parents skills to monitor jaundice, signs of early neurotoxicity, the importance of breast feeding, avoidance of

  16. First Observation Of The Wavelength-Dependent Photoproduction Of The 4E,15Z Configurational Isomer Of Bilirubin Bound To Human Serum Albumin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mc Donagh, Antony F.; Agati, Giovanni; Fusi, Franco; Pratesi, R.

    1987-07-01

    The photochemistry of bilirubin (BR) is of considerable interest because of its importance in the treatment of neonatal jaundice with visible light phototherapy. Patients are irradiated with blue, white or green fluorescent lamps to induce conversion of the unexcretable and toxic bilirubin to more polar, water-soluble and easily excreted photoproducts. The molecular mechanisms responsible for the phototherapeutic action of light on jaundiced babies have not jet been completely elucidated.

  17. Seventeen years of Kasai portoenterostomy for biliary atresia in a single Southeast Asian paediatric centre.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Li Wei; Lee, Chuan Yaw; Krishnaswamy, Gita; Nah, Shireen Anne; Kader, Ajmal; Ong, Christina; Low, Yee; Phua, Kong Boo

    2017-04-01

    Biliary atresia (BA) has preponderance in Asian populations with Kasai portoenterostomy (KP) regarded as the first-line standard of care. Yet reports from Southeast Asia remain scant. This study reviews the demographics, short- and medium-term outcomes for our cohort, and evaluates prognostic factors for outcome. All patients diagnosed with BA between January 1997 and December 2013 were included. Clinical data were obtained from medical records. Jaundice clearance was defined as total bilirubin < 20 µmol/L within 6 months after KP. Two-year and 5-year native liver survival (NLS) were determined. Prognostic factors examined included gender, ethnicity, associated anomalies, age at KP, post-KP cholangitis and clearance of jaundice within 6 months. Of 58 patients studied, 31(53.4%) were male. Median age at time of KP was 53 days (range: 28-127). Ethnic distribution showed 32 (55.2%) Chinese, 16 (27.6%) Malays and 10 (17.2%) others. Twenty-one (36.2%) patients achieved jaundice clearance by 6 months. Two-year NLS rate was 36 out of 50 (72%), while 5-year NLS rate was 16 out of 35 (45.7%). Only clearance of jaundice within 6 months had a significant association with NLS (P = 0.006). All other factors showed no significant impact on outcome. Our short- and medium-term outcomes after KP for BA are comparable with those reported by most international centres. However, prognostic factors such as age at KP, cholangitis episodes and associated anomalies did not show significant correlation; only clearance of jaundice within 6 months was significantly predictive of NLS. © 2016 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  18. Ultrasonography of the biliary tract - up to date. The importance of correlation between imaging methods and patients' signs and symptoms.

    PubMed

    Badea, Radu; Zaro, Răzvan; Tanțău, Marcel; Chiorean, Liliana

    2015-09-01

    Ultrasonography is generally accepted and performed as a first choice imaging technique in patients with jaundice. The method allows the discrimination between cholestatic and mechanical jaundice. The existing procedures are multiple: gray scale, Doppler, i.v. contrast enhancement, elastography, tridimensional ultrasonography, each of these with different contribution to the positive and differential diagnosis regarding the nature of the jaundice. The final diagnosis is a multimodal one and the efficiency is dependent on the level of the available technology, the examiner's experience, the degree and modality of integration of the data within the clinical context, as well as on the portfolio of available imaging procedures. This review shows the main ultrasonographic methods consecrated in the evaluation of the biliary tree. It also underlines the integrated character of the procedures, as well as the necessity to correlate with other imaging methods and the clinical situation.

  19. Human growth hormone induced cholestatic hepatitis in a growth hormone deficient patient with short stature.

    PubMed

    Zahmatkeshan, Mozhghan; Karamizadeh, Zohre; Geramizadeh, Bita; Eshraghian, Ahad

    2014-03-01

    We report a patient with growth hormone deficiency that developed cholestatic hepatitis during treatment with recombinant human growth hormone (HGH). The patient developed jaundice and pruritus during treatment with growth hormone. She did not use any other medications. Her jaundice and pruritus were disappeared and liver enzyme disturbances were normalized after HGH discontinuation. Clinician should be aware of this potential adverse drug reaction and frequent checking of liver enzymes is recommended in patients treating with HGH.

  20. N-gram support vector machines for scalable procedure and diagnosis classification, with applications to clinical free text data from the intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Marafino, Ben J; Davies, Jason M; Bardach, Naomi S; Dean, Mitzi L; Dudley, R Adams

    2014-01-01

    Existing risk adjustment models for intensive care unit (ICU) outcomes rely on manual abstraction of patient-level predictors from medical charts. Developing an automated method for abstracting these data from free text might reduce cost and data collection times. To develop a support vector machine (SVM) classifier capable of identifying a range of procedures and diagnoses in ICU clinical notes for use in risk adjustment. We selected notes from 2001-2008 for 4191 neonatal ICU (NICU) and 2198 adult ICU patients from the MIMIC-II database from the Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center. Using these notes, we developed an implementation of the SVM classifier to identify procedures (mechanical ventilation and phototherapy in NICU notes) and diagnoses (jaundice in NICU and intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) in adult ICU). On the jaundice classification task, we also compared classifier performance using n-gram features to unigrams with application of a negation algorithm (NegEx). Our classifier accurately identified mechanical ventilation (accuracy=0.982, F1=0.954) and phototherapy use (accuracy=0.940, F1=0.912), as well as jaundice (accuracy=0.898, F1=0.884) and ICH diagnoses (accuracy=0.938, F1=0.943). Including bigram features improved performance on the jaundice (accuracy=0.898 vs 0.865) and ICH (0.938 vs 0.927) tasks, and outperformed NegEx-derived unigram features (accuracy=0.898 vs 0.863) on the jaundice task. Overall, a classifier using n-gram support vectors displayed excellent performance characteristics. The classifier generalizes to diverse patient populations, diagnoses, and procedures. SVM-based classifiers can accurately identify procedure status and diagnoses among ICU patients, and including n-gram features improves performance, compared to existing methods. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  1. Is my baby yellow?

    PubMed

    Cohain, Judy Slome

    2006-01-01

    In July 2004, The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) summarized the latest medical research regarding newborn jaundice and updated the current clinical guidelines. The AAP recommends that clinicians 1) promote breastfeeding and not routinely supplement newborns with water; 2) assess the risk of severe hyperbilirubinemia before discharge; 3) provide follow-up visits after discharge to assess jaundice; and 4) when indicated, treat newborns with phototherapy or exchange transfusion to prevent the development of severe hyperbilirubinemia and kernicterus. This article summarizes the new guidelines.

  2. SciTech Connect

    Kanasaki, Shuzo; Furukawa, Akira; Kane, Teruyuki

    Purpose: To evaluate the clinical efficacy of the polyure-thane-covered Nitinol Strecker stent in the treatment of patients with malignant biliary obstruction.Methods: Twenty-three covered stents produced by us were placed in 18 patients with malignant biliary obstruction. Jaundice was caused by cholangiocarcinoma (n=5), pancreatic Cancer (n=6), gallbladder Cancer (n=4), metastatic lymph nodes (n=2), and tumor of the papilla (n=1).Resulrs: The mean patency period of the Stents was 37.5 weeks (5-106 weeks). Recurrent obstructive jaundice occurred in two patients (11%). Adequate biliary drainage over 50 weeks or until death was achieved in 17 of 18 patients (94.4%). Late cholangitis was observed inmore » two patients whose stents bridged the ampulla of Vater. Other late severe complications were not encountered.Conclusion: Although more study is necessary, our results suggest the clinical efficacy of our covered Nitinol Strecker stent in the management of obstructive jaundice caused by malignant diseases.« less

  3. SciTech Connect

    Kanasaki, Shuzo; Furukawa, Akira; Kane, Teruyuki

    Purpose: To evaluate the clinical efficacy of the polyurethane-covered Nitinol Strecker stent in the treatment of patients with malignant biliary obstruction.Methods: Twenty-three covered stents produced by us were placed in 18 patients with malignant biliary obstruction. Jaundice was caused by cholangiocarcinoma (n = 5), pancreatic cancer (n = 6), gallbladder cancer (n = 4), metastatic lymph nodes (n = 2), and tumor of the papilla (n 1).Results: The mean patency period of the stents was 37.5 weeks (5-106 weeks). Recurrent obstructive jaundice occurred in two patients (11%). Adequate biliary drainage over 50 weeks or until death was achieved in 17more » of 18 patients (94.4%). Late cholangitis was observed in two patients whose stents bridged the ampulla of Vater. Other late severe complications were not encountered.Conclusion: Although more study is necessary, our results suggest the clinical efficacy of our covered Nitinol Strecker stent in the management of obstructive jaundice caused by malignant diseases.« less

  4. Red cell 2,3-diphosphoglycerate levels in children with hereditary haemolytic anaemias.

    PubMed

    Haidas, S; Zannos-Mariolea, L; Matsaniotis, N

    1975-12-01

    The role of red cell 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) in increasing the availability of haemoglobin oxygen in neonatal jaundice and hereditary haemolytic anaemias was investigated. Measurements of 2,3-DPG were carried out on 58 normal children and six normal adults, 18 full-term newborns with neonatal jaundice and 57 cases (51 children and six adults) with hereditary haemolytic anaemias. In normal children and adults, with a mean haemoglobin of 12.69 g/dl, mean 2,3-DPG was 14.90 mumol/g Hb. In jaundiced newborns with a mean haemoglobin of 16.04 g/dl mean 2,3-DPG levels were 14.51 mumol/g Hb, i.e. normal. 2,3-DPG levels were increased in patients with beta-thalassaemia major, alpha-thalassaemia, sickle-cell disease, favism, hereditary spherocytosis and in heterozygotes for beta-thalassaemia with increased haemoglobin F. In heterozygotes for beta-thalassaemia with increased haemoglobin A2 only and in sickle cell trait 2,3-DPG levels were normal.

  5. Left hepatectomy combined with hepatic artery resection for hilar cholangiocarcinoma: A retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Peng, Chihan; Li, Chuan; Wen, Tianfu; Yan, Lvnan; Li, Bo

    2016-08-01

    To investigate the efficacy of our technique and policy on left hepatectomy (LH) with hepatic artery resection but without arterial reconstruction (HAR) in selected patients with hilar cholangiocarcinoma. From May 2005 to May 2012, 61 patients with hilar cholangiocarcinoma underwent left hepatectomy. These patients were divided into two groups: the LH with HAR group (n = 26) and the LH alone group (n = 35), based on whether hepatic artery resection was performed. We evaluated the serum total and direct bilirubin on postoperative day 7, length of hospital stay after surgery, postoperative complications, long-term postoperative survival and disease-free survival. The improvement in jaundice after surgery was comparable between the two groups (P = 0.837). There were no significant differences in the rates of postoperative complications or mortality between the LH with HAR group and the LH group (P = 0.654 and no assessment, respectively). The cumulative 1-, 2-, 3- and 5-year survival rates were 61.5%, 49%, 40.8% and 30.6% and 71.4%, 58.7%, 51.3% and 38.5%, respectively, in the LH with HAR group and the LH group (P = 0.383, including perioperative deaths). The cumulative 1-, 2-, 3- and 5-year disease-free survival rates were 61.9%, 41.6%, 29.7% and 14.8% and 58.2%, 50.7%, 44.3% and 23.6% in the LH with HAR group and the LH group, respectively (P = 0.695, including perioperative deaths). The postoperative complication rate was higher in patients with severe jaundice than those with non-severe jaundice, but no significant difference was detected (56.3% (9/16) vs. 46.7% (46.7%), P = 0.804). Similarly, 18.8% (3/16) postoperative mortality was found in patients with severe jaundice, compared to 4.4% (2/45) in those with non-severe jaundice. The difference was not significant (P = 0.139). For the cumulative 1-, 2-, 3- and 5-year survival and cumulative 1-, 2-, 3- and 5-year disease-free survival rates, patients with severe jaundice had poorer outcomes than

  6. Ichthyobacterium seriolicida gen. nov., sp. nov., a member of the phylum 'Bacteroidetes', isolated from yellowtail fish (Seriola quinqueradiata) affected by bacterial haemolytic jaundice, and proposal of a new family, Ichthyobacteriaceae fam. nov.

    PubMed

    Takano, Tomokazu; Matsuyama, Tomomasa; Sakai, Takamitsu; Nakamura, Yoji; Kamaishi, Takashi; Nakayasu, Chihaya; Kondo, Hidehiro; Hirono, Ikuo; Fukuda, Yutaka; Sorimachi, Minoru; Iida, Takaji

    2016-02-01

    A novel Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped (0.3 × 4-6 μm), non-flagellated, aerobic strain with gliding motility, designated JBKA-6T, was isolated in 1991 from a yellowtail fish, Seriola quinqueradiata, showing symptoms of bacterial haemolytic jaundice. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that strain JBKA-6T was related most closely to members of the family Flavobacteriaceae in the phylum 'Bacteroidetes'. Furthermore, based on gyrB gene sequence analysis, JBKA-6T was classified into a single clade within the order Flavobacteriales, which was distinct from the known clades of the families Flavobacteriaceae, Blattabacteriaceae and Cryomorphaceae. The predominant isoprenoid quinone was identified as MK-6 (97.9 %), and the major cellular fatty acids (>10 %) were C14 : 0 and iso-C15 : 0. The main polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, three unidentified phospholipids, two unidentified aminophospholipids and two unidentified polar lipids. The DNA G+C content of JBKA-6T, as derived from its whole genome, was 33.4 mol%. The distinct phylogenetic position and phenotypic traits of strain JBKA-6T distinguish it from all other described species of the phylum 'Bacteroidetes', and therefore it was concluded that strain JBKA-6T represents a new member of the phylum 'Bacteroidetes', and the name Ichthyobacterium seriolicida gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Ichthyobacterium seriolicida is JBKA-6T ( = ATCC BAA-2465T = JCM 18228T). We also propose that Icthyobacterium gen. nov. is the type genus of a novel family, Ichthyobacteriaceae fam. nov.

  7. Facts about Jaundice and Kernicterus

    MedlinePlus

    ... in a baby’s blood. It can cause athetoid cerebral palsy and hearing loss. Kernicterus also causes problems with ... or a lactation coach for help. Related Links Cerebral Palsy Hearing Loss in Children Intellectual Disabilities [PDF - 289K] ...

  8. Values: Jaundiced Perversions/Lucid Alternatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nissman, Albert

    The American educational system must emphasize values education and the role of the teacher in instilling proper values. Within the context of this paper, values are the intrinsic regard people have for other people, ideas, attitudes, or modes of behavior. Values rest on a philosophical base and require the intellectual choice of the beholder.…

  9. Initial study of sediment antagonism and characteristics of silver nanoparticle-coated biliary stents in an experimental animal model.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yigeng; Xia, Mingfeng; Zhang, Shuai; Fu, Zhen; Wen, Qingbin; Liu, Feng; Xu, Zongzhen; Li, Tao; Tian, Hu

    2016-01-01

    Plastic biliary stents used to relieve obstructive jaundice are frequently blocked by sediment, resulting in loss of drainage. We prepared stents coated with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and compared their ability to resist sedimentation with Teflon stents in a beagle model of obstructive jaundice. AgNP-coated Teflon biliary stents were prepared by chemical oxidation-reduction and evaluated in an obstructive jaundice model that was produced by ligation of common bile duct (CBD); animals were randomized to two equal groups for placement of AgNP-coated or Teflon control stents. Liver function and inflammatory index were found to be similar in the two groups, and the obstruction was relieved. Stents were removed 21 days after insertion and observed by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The AgNP coating was analyzed by energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDXA), and the composition of sediment was assayed by Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Electron microscopy revealed a black, closely adherent AgNP stent coating, with thicknesses of 1.5-6 µm. Sediment thickness and density were greater on Teflon than on AgNP-coated stents. EDXA confirmed the stability and integrity of the AgNP coating before and after in vivo animal experimentation. FTIR spectroscopy identified stent sediment components including bilirubin, cholesterol, bile acid, protein, calcium, and other substances. AgNP-coated biliary stents resisted sediment accumulation in this canine model of obstructive jaundice caused by ligation of the CBD.

  10. Initial study of sediment antagonism and characteristics of silver nanoparticle-coated biliary stents in an experimental animal model

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Yigeng; Xia, Mingfeng; Zhang, Shuai; Fu, Zhen; Wen, Qingbin; Liu, Feng; Xu, Zongzhen; Li, Tao; Tian, Hu

    2016-01-01

    Objective Plastic biliary stents used to relieve obstructive jaundice are frequently blocked by sediment, resulting in loss of drainage. We prepared stents coated with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and compared their ability to resist sedimentation with Teflon stents in a beagle model of obstructive jaundice. Methods AgNP-coated Teflon biliary stents were prepared by chemical oxidation–reduction and evaluated in an obstructive jaundice model that was produced by ligation of common bile duct (CBD); animals were randomized to two equal groups for placement of AgNP-coated or Teflon control stents. Liver function and inflammatory index were found to be similar in the two groups, and the obstruction was relieved. Stents were removed 21 days after insertion and observed by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The AgNP coating was analyzed by energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDXA), and the composition of sediment was assayed by Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Results Electron microscopy revealed a black, closely adherent AgNP stent coating, with thicknesses of 1.5–6 µm. Sediment thickness and density were greater on Teflon than on AgNP-coated stents. EDXA confirmed the stability and integrity of the AgNP coating before and after in vivo animal experimentation. FTIR spectroscopy identified stent sediment components including bilirubin, cholesterol, bile acid, protein, calcium, and other substances. Conclusion AgNP-coated biliary stents resisted sediment accumulation in this canine model of obstructive jaundice caused by ligation of the CBD. PMID:27217749

  11. Cholestasis secondary to hyperthyroidism made worse by methimazole.

    PubMed

    Majeed, Mohammed; Babu, Ambika

    2006-07-01

    A 28-year-old man presented with weight loss, jaundice, and pruritus. This was diagnosed to be secondary to Graves disease and the patient was prescribed methimazole. He returned 2 weeks later with worsening of his jaundice. Further investigation, including liver biopsy, indicated that there was superimposed methimazole-induced cholestasis. Discontinuation of methimazole and treatment of hyperthyroidism with lithium followed by radioactive iodine therapy resulted in resolution of his symptoms. This case highlights the fact that worsening cholestasis after therapy for Graves disease should raise the possibility of thionamide-induced exaggeration of liver cholestasis.

  12. Validation of aspartate aminotransferase to platelet ratio for diagnosis of liver fibrosis and prediction of postoperative prognosis in infants with biliary atresia.

    PubMed

    Yang, Li-Yuan; Fu, Jie; Peng, Xiao-Fang; Pang, Shu-Yin; Gao, Kan-Kan; Chen, Zheng-Rong; He, Li-Juan; Wen, Zhe; Wang, Hui; Li, Le; Wang, Feng-Hua; Yu, Jia-Kang; Xu, Yi; Gong, Si-Tang; Xia, Hui-Min; Liu, Hai-Ying

    2015-05-21

    To validate the value of aspartate aminotransferase to platelet ratio index (APRI) in assessment of liver fibrosis and prediction of postoperative prognosis of biliary atresia (BA) infants from Mainland China. Medical records of 153 BA infants who were hospitalized from January 2010 to June 2013 were reviewed. The efficacy of APRI for diagnosis of liver fibrosis was assessed using the receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve compared to the pathological Metavir fibrosis score of the liver wedge specimens of 91 BA infants. The prognostic value of preoperative APRI for jaundice persistence, liver injury, and occurrence of cholangitis within 6 mo after KP was studied based on the follow-up data of 48 BA infants. APRI was significantly correlated with Metavir scores (rs = 0.433; P < 0.05). The mean APRI value was 0.76 in no/mild fibrosis group (Metavir score F0-F1), 1.29 in significant fibrosis group (F2-F3), and 2.51 in cirrhosis group (F4) (P < 0.001). The area under the ROC curve (AUC) of APRI for diagnosing significant fibrosis and cirrhosis was 0.75 (P < 0.001) and 0.81 (P = 0.001), respectively. The APRI cut-off of 0.95 was 60.6% sensitive and 76.0% specific for significant fibrosis diagnosis, and a threshold of 1.66 was 70.6% sensitive and 82.7% specific for cirrhosis. The preoperative APRI in infants who maintained jaundice around 6 mo after KP was higher than that in those who did not (1.86 ± 2.13 vs 0.87 ± 0.48, P < 0.05). The AUC of APRI for prediction of postoperative jaundice occurrence was 0.67. A cut-off value of 0.60 showed a sensitivity of 66.7% and a specificity of 83.3% for the prediction of jaundice persistence. Preoperative APRI had no significant association with later liver injury or occurrence of cholangitis. Our study demonstrated that APRI could diagnose significant liver fibrosis, especially cirrhosis in BA infants, and the elevated preoperative APRI predicts jaundice persistence after KP.

  13. Intraductal ultrasonographic anatomy of biliary varices in patients with portal hypertension.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Tadayuki; Irisawa, Atsushi; Shibukawa, Goro; Hikichi, Takuto; Obara, Katsutoshi; Ohira, Hiromasa

    2015-01-01

    The term, portal biliopathy, denotes various biliary abnormalities, such as stenosis and/or dilatation of the bile duct, in patients with portal hypertension. These vascular abnormalities sometimes bring on an obstructive jaundice, but they are not clear which vessels participated in obstructive jaundice. The aim of present study was clear the bile ductal changes in patients with portal hypertension in hopes of establishing a therapeutic strategy for obstructive jaundice caused by biliary varices. Three hundred and thirty-seven patients who underwent intraductal ultrasound (IDUS) during endoscopic retrograde cholangiography for biliary abnormalities were enrolled. Portal biliopathy was analyzed using IDUS. Biliary varices were identified in 11 (2.7%) patients. IDUS revealed biliary varices as multiple, hypoechoic features surrounding the bile duct wall. These varices could be categorized into one of two groups according to their location in the sectional image of bile duct: epicholedochal and paracholedochal. Epicholedochal varices were identified in all patients, but paracholedochal varices were observed only in patients with extrahepatic portal obstruction. IDUS was useful to characterize the anatomy of portal biliopathy in detail.

  14. Effect of biliary drainage on inducible nitric oxide synthase, CD14 and TGR5 expression in obstructive jaundice rats

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zi-Kai; Xiao, Jian-Guo; Huang, Xue-Fei; Gong, Yi-Chun; Li, Wen

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of biliary drainage on inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), CD14 and TGR5 expression in rats with obstructive jaundice (OJ). METHODS: Male adult Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to four groups: OJ, sham operation (SH), internal biliary drainage (ID) and external biliary drainage (ED). Rat models were successfully established by two operations and succumbed for extraction of Kupffer cells (KCs) and liver tissue collection on the 8th and 15th day. KCs were isolated by in situ hepatic perfusion and digested with collagen IV, density gradient centrifuged by percoll reagent and purified by cell culture attachment. The isolated KCs were cultured with the endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) with and without the addition of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA). The expression of iNOS, CD14 and bile acid receptor-TGR5 protein in rat liver tissues was determined by immunohistochemistry. The expression of iNOS and CD14 messenger RNA (mRNA) on the isolated KCs was detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and the TGR5 mRNA level in KCs was measured by real-time quantitative PCR. RESULTS: The iNOS protein was markedly expressed in the liver of OJ rats, but rare expressed in SH rats. After relief of OJ, the iNOS expression was decidedly suppressed in the ID group (ID vs OJ, P < 0.01), but obviously increased in rats of ED (ED vs OJ, P = 0.004). When interfered only with LPS, the expression of iNOS mRNA by KCs was increased in the OJ group compared with the SH group (P = 0.004). After relief of biliary obstruction, the iNOS mRNA expression showed slight changes in the ED group (ED vs OJ, P = 0.71), but dropped in the ID group (ID vs OJ, P = 0.001). Compared with the simple intervention with LPS, the expressions of iNOS mRNA were significantly inhibited in all four groups after interfered with both LPS and UDCA (P < 0.01, respectively). After bile duct ligation, the CD14 protein expression in rat liver was significantly

  15. Can red cell distribution width help to discriminate benign from malignant biliary obstruction? A retrospective single center analysis.

    PubMed

    Beyazit, Yavuz; Kekilli, Murat; Ibis, Mehmet; Kurt, Mevlut; Sayilir, Abdurrahim; Onal, Ibrahim Koral; Purnak, Tugrul; Oztas, Erkin; Tas, Adnan; Yesil, Yusuf; Arhan, Mehmet

    2012-01-01

    Differentiation of benign obstructive jaundice from malignant obstructive jaundice still remains difficult, despite improvements in diagnostic modalities. The aim of this study is to evaluate the usefulness of red cell distribution width (RDW) in differentiating benign and malignant causes of obstructive jaundice. One hundred and ninety four consecutive patients (101 malignant, 93 benign) with a history of obstructive jaundice were reviewed in the period between January 2008 and August 2009. Definition of biliary strictures was suggested by cholangiographic features and supported by brush cytology, fine needle aspiration (FNA) and the presence of mass or metastases by imaging and/or clinical followup. Patients were divided into two groups, benign and malignant, based on the discharge diagnosis. The receiver operating characteristic analysis showed that a RDW of 14.8% was the best cut-off value for predicting a malignant biliary stricture with a sensitivity of 72% and a specificity of 69% (AUC=0.755, 95% CI=0.649-0.810). RDW was increased (>14.8%) in 31.6% of benign cases and 68.4% of malignancies. Depressed RDW levels (<14.8%) were found in 72.9% of benign cases and 27.1% of malignancies, which was statistically significant (p<0.001). Our results show that RDW is useful in the differentiation of benign from malignant causes of biliary obstruction when using an optimized cut-off value. In patients in whom biliary obstruction is suspected, an elevated RDW value may be a reliable additional predictor for differentiating the underlying etiology of biliary obstruction.

  16. Updated Etiology and Significance of Elevated Bilirubin During Pregnancy: Changes Parallel Shift in Demographics and Vaccination Status.

    PubMed

    Duraiswamy, Sangeethapriya; Sheffield, Jeanne S; Mcintire, Donald; Leveno, Kenneth; Mayo, Marlyn J

    2017-02-01

    The most common cause of jaundice during pregnancy in the United States (US) is still attributed to viral hepatitis, despite the dramatic drop in incidence of viral hepatitis in the US. We hypothesized that viral hepatitis is no longer a frequent etiology of jaundice among the pregnant population in the US and sought to identify the contemporary causes of elevated bilirubin during pregnancy as well as to quantify the associated risk to the mother and fetus. Clinical data from all pregnant women who delivered an infant between 2005 and 2011 at a single hospital in Dallas, Texas, were ascertained using prospectively collected computerized databases. Women with elevated total bilirubin (>1.2 mg/dl) were analyzed to determine the cause of hyperbilirubinemia and maternal and fetal outcomes. Out of a total of 80,857 consecutive deliveries, there were 397 (0.5 %) pregnancies with hyperbilirubinemia. The most common etiology was gallstones (98/397 = 25 %), followed by preeclampsia/eclampsia/HELLP (94/397 = 24 %) and intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (53/397 = 13 %). Adverse infant outcomes, including stillbirths, fetal malformations, neonatal deaths, and small for gestational age births, were more common in the women with hyperbilirubinemia during pregnancy, but there were no maternal deaths. Acute viral hepatitis is no longer a common cause of jaundice in pregnant women in the US. In the current era, gallstones and preeclampsia-related disorders are the most common causes of jaundice in pregnant women. Disorders that cause elevated maternal bilirubin during pregnancy are associated with increased risk for the fetus.

  17. New Laser System For Combined Monitoring And Treatment Of Neonatal Hyperbilirubinemia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamza, Mostafa; Hamza, Mohammad

    1989-09-01

    Laser photoradiation therapy for neonatal hyperbilirubinemia is a breakthrough in the management of neonatal jaundice. In this paper the authors present a new laser system that provides combined monitoring and therapy for neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. The new system incorporates tunable laser sources that can be operated at selected wavelengths to achieve both transcutaneous differential absorption measurements of bilirubin concentration in addition to laser photoradiation therapy. The new laser system can allow the treating physician to avoid over or under treatment of jaundiced neonates by the control of serum bilirubin from a critically high level to a reasonably safe level.

  18. Plastic Biliary Stent Occlusion: Factors Involved and Possible Preventive Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Donelli, Gianfranco; Guaglianone, Emilio; Di Rosa, Roberta; Fiocca, Fausto; Basoli, Antonio

    2007-01-01

    Endoscopic biliary stenting is today the most common palliative treatment for patients suffering from obstructive jaundice associated with malignant hepatobiliary tumors or benign strictures. However, recurrent jaundice, with or without cholangitis, is a major complication of a biliary endoprosthesis insertion. Thus, stent removal and replacement with a new one frequently occurs as a consequence of device blockage caused by microbial biofilm growth and biliary sludge accumulation in the lumen. Factors and mechanisms involved in plastic stent clogging arising from epidemiological, clinical and experimental data, as well as the possible strategies to prevent biliary stent failure, will be reviewed and discussed. PMID:17456835

  19. [Icterus of the newborn caused by indirect bilirubin--recent progress].

    PubMed

    Hervei, Sarolta

    2004-06-13

    Recently a big shift has taken place in the judgment and treatment of jaundice in newborn, caused by increased unconjugated bilirubin level. New techniques evolved for assessing the prognosis of developing jaundice. An important major discovery is the antioxidant effect of bilirubin. We have a broader range of knowledge concerning the mechanism of bilirubin toxicity and for judging the chance of developing kernicterus. The prevention techniques do not stop at prohibiting anti-D immunisation but go on to preventing hydrops foetalis, the life-threatening form of haemolytic disease. There are data about the complications of phototherapy and EPO treatment for prolonged anaemia.

  20. Isolated early onset anemia after rh isoimmunization: a unique presentation in 3 neonates.

    PubMed

    Louis, Deepak; Oberoi, Sapna; Sundaram, Venkataseshan; Trehan, Amita

    2010-08-01

    Rh isoimmunization manifesting as isolated early onset neonatal anemia has not been reported. We describe the presentation of 3 infants who manifested with isolated early severe anemia. All the infants presented early (3 to 7 d of age) with severe pallor. None had clinically significant jaundice. Evidence for hemolysis was present in all and their direct antiglobulin test was positive. To reduce the hemolysis, immunoglobulin was administered after which their hemoglobin improved. This report highlights the possibility of early onset anemia without significant jaundice as the sole manifestation of Rh isoimmunization and the possible beneficial role of immunoglobulin in them.

  1. Gilbert syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Icterus intermittens juvenilis; Low-grade chronic hyperbilirubinemia; Familial non-hemolytic-non-obstructive jaundice; Constitutional liver dysfunction; Unconjugated benign bilirubinemia; Gilbert disease

  2. Validation of aspartate aminotransferase to platelet ratio for diagnosis of liver fibrosis and prediction of postoperative prognosis in infants with biliary atresia

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Li-Yuan; Fu, Jie; Peng, Xiao-Fang; Pang, Shu-Yin; Gao, Kan-Kan; Chen, Zheng-Rong; He, Li-Juan; Wen, Zhe; Wang, Hui; Li, Le; Wang, Feng-Hua; Yu, Jia-Kang; Xu, Yi; Gong, Si-Tang; Xia, Hui-Min; Liu, Hai-Ying

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To validate the value of aspartate aminotransferase to platelet ratio index (APRI) in assessment of liver fibrosis and prediction of postoperative prognosis of biliary atresia (BA) infants from Mainland China. METHODS: Medical records of 153 BA infants who were hospitalized from January 2010 to June 2013 were reviewed. The efficacy of APRI for diagnosis of liver fibrosis was assessed using the receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve compared to the pathological Metavir fibrosis score of the liver wedge specimens of 91 BA infants. The prognostic value of preoperative APRI for jaundice persistence, liver injury, and occurrence of cholangitis within 6 mo after KP was studied based on the follow-up data of 48 BA infants. RESULTS: APRI was significantly correlated with Metavir scores (rs = 0.433; P < 0.05). The mean APRI value was 0.76 in no/mild fibrosis group (Metavir score F0-F1), 1.29 in significant fibrosis group (F2-F3), and 2.51 in cirrhosis group (F4) (P < 0.001). The area under the ROC curve (AUC) of APRI for diagnosing significant fibrosis and cirrhosis was 0.75 (P < 0.001) and 0.81 (P = 0.001), respectively. The APRI cut-off of 0.95 was 60.6% sensitive and 76.0% specific for significant fibrosis diagnosis, and a threshold of 1.66 was 70.6% sensitive and 82.7% specific for cirrhosis. The preoperative APRI in infants who maintained jaundice around 6 mo after KP was higher than that in those who did not (1.86 ± 2.13 vs 0.87 ± 0.48, P < 0.05). The AUC of APRI for prediction of postoperative jaundice occurrence was 0.67. A cut-off value of 0.60 showed a sensitivity of 66.7% and a specificity of 83.3% for the prediction of jaundice persistence. Preoperative APRI had no significant association with later liver injury or occurrence of cholangitis. CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrated that APRI could diagnose significant liver fibrosis, especially cirrhosis in BA infants, and the elevated preoperative APRI predicts jaundice persistence after KP. PMID

  3. Clonorchis sinensis ova in bile juice cytology from a patient with severe hyperbilirubinemia and portal vein thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Fujiya, Keiichi; Ganno, Hideaki; Ando, Masayuki; Chong, Ja-Mun

    2016-03-01

    Infection with the trematode Clonorchis sinensis is the most common human fluke infection in East Asian populations. Although this infection is associated with obstructive jaundice or choledocholithiasis, portal vein thrombosis has not been reported. Here, we report the first case of a 60-year-old man who had both C. sinensis infection and portal vein thrombosis with severe hyperbilirubinemia (75.4 mg/dl). He initially presented with abdominal pain and jaundice. Computed tomography revealed gallstones, common bile duct calculus, and thrombus in the left main branch of the portal vein. A nasobiliary tube was inserted under endoscopic retrograde cholangiography. Cytology of the bile juice revealed many C. sinensis eggs. The abdominal pain and jaundice improved following choledocholithotomy and combination treatment with a chemotherapeutic agent and anti-coagulant. This case suggests that inflammation around the portal vein as a result of C. sinensis infection has the potential to evoke portal vein thrombosis. Such cases should be treated with both a chemotherapeutic agent and anti-coagulant therapy. In conclusion, the possibility of infection with C. sinensis should be considered in patients presenting with hyperbilirubinemia and portal vein thrombosis, particularly in East Asian populations. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Human fascioliasis by Fasciola hepatica: the first case report in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Sah, Ranjit; Khadka, Shusila; Khadka, Mohan; Gurubacharya, Dipesh; Sherchand, Jeevan Bahadur; Parajuli, Keshab; Shah, Niranjan Prasad; Kattel, Hari Prasad; Pokharel, Bharat Mani; Rijal, Basista

    2017-09-05

    Fascioliasis is a zoonotic disease caused by Fasciola species. Patient may be asymptomatic or presents with jaundice and biliary colic or right hypochondriac pain due to bile duct obstruction with gastrointestinal symptoms. We report a case of human fascioliasis in a 45 years old female presented to Tribhuvan University Teaching Hospital (TUTH), Kathmandu, Nepal on August, 2015 with fever, right hypochondriac pain, jaundice and occasional vomiting with anorexia for 4 months whose alkaline phosphatase was elevated and peripheral blood smear revealed eosinophilia. The patient also gives the history of consumption of water-cress. Endoscopic Retrograde Cholagiopancretography (ERCP) showed the presence of a flat worm resembling Fasciola hepatica and stool routine examination revealed ova of F. hepatica. The patient was treated with nitazoxanide by which she got improved. Repeat stool examination 2 weeks after treatment revealed no ova of F. hepatica. Patient with fascioliasis can be simply diagnosed with stool routine microscopy and treated with nitazoxanide. So patient with right hypochondriac pain, sign and symptoms of obstructive jaundice, eosinophilia and history of water-cress consumption should be suspected for fascioliasis and investigated and treated accordingly.

  5. The Australia (hepatitis-associated) antigen amongst heroin addicts attending a London addiction clinic.

    PubMed

    Carrella, M; Hunter, J; Williams, R; Taylor, P E; Zuckerman, A J

    1971-12-01

    Thirty-three of 72 heroin addicts attending a recognized clinic for drug addition had a history of jaundice, but in only five was the serum positive for hepatitis-associated antigen (HAA) when examined by immunodiffusion, immunoelectro-osmophoresis and complement fixation. Two of these were repeatedly positive over an 8-12 month follow-up period and liver biopsy showed chronic persistent hepatitis. A third later developed acute hepatitis. A study of the injection habits suggested that the present low incidence of HAA and the decrease in number of cases with jaundice was probably related to the provision of free disposable syringes by the clinic since it was opened in 1968.

  6. Functional discrepancy between two liver lobes after hemilobe biliary drainage in patients with jaundice and bile duct cancer: an appraisal using (99m)Tc-GSA SPECT/CT fusion imaging.

    PubMed

    Sumiyoshi, Tatsuaki; Shima, Yasuo; Okabayashi, Takehiro; Noda, Yoshihiro; Hata, Yasuhiro; Murata, Yoriko; Kozuki, Akihito; Tokumaru, Teppei; Nakamura, Toshio; Uka, Kiminori

    2014-11-01

    To determine the functional discrepancy between the two liver lobes using technetium 99m ((99m)Tc) diethylenetriamine-pentaacetic acid-galactosyl human serum albumin ( GSA diethylenetriamine-pentaacetic acid-galactosyl human serum albumin ) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/computed tomography (CT) fusion imaging following preoperative biliary drainage and portal vein embolization ( PVE portal vein embolization ) in patients with jaundice who have bile duct cancer ( BDC bile duct cancer ). This retrospective study was approved by the institutional review board, with waiver of informed consent. Preoperative (99m)Tc- GSA diethylenetriamine-pentaacetic acid-galactosyl human serum albumin SPECT/CT fusion images from 32 patients with extrahepatic BDC bile duct cancer were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were classified into four groups according to the extent of biliary drainage and presence of a preoperative right PVE portal vein embolization : right lobe drainage group (right drainage), bilateral lobe drainage group (bilateral drainage), left lobe drainage group (left drainage), and left lobe drainage with right PVE portal vein embolization group (left drainage with right PVE portal vein embolization ). Percentage volume and percentage function were measured in each lobe using fusion imaging. The ratio between percentage function and percentage volume (the function-to-volume ratio) was calculated for each lobe, and the results were compared among the four groups. Statistical analysis was performed with Wilcoxon signed-rank tests and Mann-Whitney U tests. The median values for the function-to-volume ratio in the right drainage, bilateral drainage, left drainage, and left drainage with right PVE portal vein embolization group were 1.12, 1.05, 1.02, and 0.81 in the right lobe; and 0.51, 0.88, 0.96, and 1.17 in the left lobe. Significant differences in the function-to-volume ratio were observed among the four groups (right drainage vs bilateral

  7. Prolonged Cholestatic Jaundice Associated With Flurbiprofen.

    PubMed

    Dogan, Serkan; Celikbilek, Mehmet; Demirkan, Kutay; Yilmaz, Semih; Deniz, Kemal; Gursoy, Sebnem; Yucesoy, Mehmet

    2014-08-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are widely consumed drugs throughout the world for pain relief. Although the adverse effects of NSAIDs to the liver are well known, flurbiprofen-induced liver cholestasis is extremely rare. Herein, we present a patient with prolonged icterus that is associated with the use of flurbiprofen without causing ductopenia. © The Author(s) 2013.

  8. Multicenter study of endoscopic preoperative biliary drainage for malignant distal biliary obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Sasahira, Naoki; Hamada, Tsuyoshi; Togawa, Osamu; Yamamoto, Ryuichi; Iwai, Tomohisa; Tamada, Kiichi; Kawaguchi, Yoshiaki; Shimura, Kenji; Koike, Takero; Yoshida, Yu; Sugimori, Kazuya; Ryozawa, Shomei; Kakimoto, Toshiharu; Nishikawa, Ko; Kitamura, Katsuya; Imamura, Tsunao; Mizuide, Masafumi; Toda, Nobuo; Maetani, Iruru; Sakai, Yuji; Itoi, Takao; Nagahama, Masatsugu; Nakai, Yousuke; Isayama, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To determine the optimal method of endoscopic preoperative biliary drainage for malignant distal biliary obstruction. METHODS: Multicenter retrospective study was conducted in patients who underwent plastic stent (PS) or nasobiliary catheter (NBC) placement for resectable malignant distal biliary obstruction followed by surgery between January 2010 and March 2012. Procedure-related adverse events, stent/catheter dysfunction (occlusion or migration of PS/NBC, development of cholangitis, or other conditions that required repeat endoscopic biliary intervention), and jaundice resolution (bilirubin level < 3.0 mg/dL) were evaluated. Cumulative incidence of jaundice resolution and dysfunction of PS/NBC were estimated using competing risk analysis. Patient characteristics and preoperative biliary drainage were also evaluated for association with the time to jaundice resolution and PS/NBC dysfunction using competing risk regression analysis. RESULTS: In total, 419 patients were included in the study (PS, 253 and NBC, 166). Primary cancers included pancreatic cancer in 194 patients (46%), bile duct cancer in 172 (41%), gallbladder cancer in three (1%), and ampullary cancer in 50 (12%). The median serum total bilirubin was 7.8 mg/dL and 324 patients (77%) had ≥ 3.0 mg/dL. During the median time to surgery of 29 d [interquartile range (IQR), 30-39 d]. PS/NBC dysfunction rate was 35% for PS and 18% for NBC [Subdistribution hazard ratio (SHR) = 4.76; 95%CI: 2.44-10.0, P < 0.001]; the pig-tailed tip was a risk factor for PS dysfunction. Jaundice resolution was achieved in 85% of patients and did not depend on the drainage method (PS or NBC). CONCLUSION: PS has insufficient patency for preoperative biliary drainage. Given the drawbacks of external drainage via NBC, an alternative method of internal drainage should be explored. PMID:27076764

  9. Diagnosis of liver involvement in early syphilis. A critical review.

    PubMed

    Veeravahu, M

    1985-01-01

    The diagnosis of liver involvement in early syphilis has always posed problems because of its rarity and the difficulty of excluding coincidental liver disease caused by a multitude of pathogens. Case reports deal predominantly with jaundiced homosexual men in whom syphilis is discovered later, and the prospective studies of patients with early syphilis disclose only mild biochemical abnormalities in liver function test results. There is no single characteristic feature attributable to early syphilitic hepatitis. Even liver histologic findings are variable. At least in those patients who have jaundice, there is a likelihood of coincidental viral hepatitis. Therefore, the evidence to implicate Treponema pallidum as a liver pathogen in early syphilis is not convincing.

  10. A Rare Case of Periampullary Tumor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-10-13

    portion of the duodenum. They commonly present with abdominal pain, gastrointestinal bleeding, or rarely with obstructive jaundice. This is a case of an asymptomatic periampullary gangliocytic paraganglioma.

  11. 76 FR 3143 - Determination That ALBAMYCIN (Novobiocin Sodium) Capsule, 250 Milligrams, Was Withdrawn From Sale...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-19

    ... Safety or Effectiveness AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and... adverse reactions include relatively common skin reactions, jaundice, hepatic failure, and blood...

  12. Role of extrahepatic UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A1: Advances in understanding breast milk-induced neonatal hyperbilirubinemia

    SciTech Connect

    Fujiwara, Ryoichi, E-mail: fujiwarar@pharm.kitasato-u.ac.jp; Maruo, Yoshihiro; Chen, Shujuan

    Newborns commonly develop physiological hyperbilirubinemia (also known as jaundice). With increased bilirubin levels being observed in breast-fed infants, breast-feeding has been recognized as a contributing factor for the development of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. Bilirubin undergoes selective metabolism by UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A1 and becomes a water soluble glucuronide. Although several factors such as gestational age, dehydration and weight loss, and increased enterohepatic circulation have been associated with breast milk-induced jaundice (BMJ), deficiency in UGT1A1 expression is a known cause of BMJ. It is currently believed that unconjugated bilirubin is metabolized mainly in the liver. However, recent findings support the concept that extrahepaticmore » tissues, such as small intestine and skin, contribute to bilirubin glucuronidation during the neonatal period. We will review the recent advances made towards understanding biological and molecular events impacting BMJ, especially regarding the role of extrahepatic UGT1A1 expression. - Highlights: • Breast-feeding can be a factor for the development of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. • UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A1 is the sole bilirubin-metabolizing enzyme. • Extrahepatic UGT1A1 plays an important role in bilirubin metabolism. • We discuss the potential mechanism of breast milk-induced neonatal jaundice.« less

  13. Comparison of covered and uncovered self-expandable stents in the treatment of malignant biliary obstruction.

    PubMed

    Flores Carmona, Diana Yamel; Alonso Lárraga, Juan Octavio; Hernández Guerrero, Angélica; Ramírez Solís, Mauro Eduardo

    2016-05-01

    Drainage with metallic stents is the treatment of choice in malignant obstructive jaundice. Technical and clinical success with metallic stents is obtained in over 90% and 80% of cases, respectively. There are self-expandable metallic stents designed to increase permeability. The aim of this study was to describe the results obtained with totally covered self-expandable and uncovered self-expandable metallic stents in the palliative treatment of malignant biliary obstruction. Sixty eight patients with malignant obstructive jaundice secondary to pancreatobiliary or metastatic disease not amenable to surgery were retrospectively included. Two groups were created: group A (covered self-expandable metallic stents) (n = 22) and group B (uncovered self-expandable metallic stents) (n = 46). Serum total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase and gamma glutamyl transferase levels decreased in both groups and no statistically significant difference was detected (p = 0.800, p = 0.190, p = 0.743, p = 0.521). Migration was greater with covered stents but it was not statistically significant either (p = 0.101). Obstruction was greater in the group with uncovered stents but it was not statistically significant either (p = 0.476). There are no differences when using covered self-expandable stents or uncovered self-expandable stents in terms of technical and clinical success or complications in the palliative treatment of malignant obstructive jaundice.

  14. Alcohol, Diet and Drug Use Preceding Alcoholic Hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Parker, Richard; Neuberger, James M

    2018-05-31

    Alcoholic hepatitis (AH) is a severe manifestation of alcohol-related liver disease characterised by jaundice and liver failure. It is not known what might trigger an episode of AH. We interviewed patients to investigate changes in behaviour before the onset of AH. Structured interviews were performed with patients with AH to examine their alcohol use, diet, drug use and smoking habit. Clinical and laboratory results were noted. Patients were followed up for 12 months after interview. Data from 39 patients was analysed. No single behavioural change occurred before the onset of jaundice, although reductions in alcohol and/or dietary intake were common. Reduction in alcohol use was seen to occur approximately 14 days before the onset of jaundice. Increased alcohol intake was not common. Clinical and laboratory data varied between types of behaviour changes, although these were not statistically significant. No changes in drug use or tobacco were reported before AH. Those who had not reduced alcohol intake or had increased their drinking had better survival. No single type of behaviour change is associated with AH. Contrary to previous assertions, increased alcohol intake was not common; in fact, participants were much more likely to have reduced their alcohol intake. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. [A case of gastric metastasis and carcinomatous peritonitis of breast cancer with improved QOL by stent implantation and gemcitabine].

    PubMed

    Mukaibashi, Tomoe; Kojima, Izumi; Yamanaka, Ayumi; Nishiyama, Sachiko; Yamanaka, Takashi; Nakayama, Hirotaka; Matsuura, Hitoshi; Matsuzu, Kenichi; Inaba, Masaaki; Yoshida, Akira; Shimizu, Satoru

    2013-08-01

    A 73-year-old woman had undergone mastectomy for left breast cancer. One year later, bone metastasis was detected. After 7 years, the patient experienced epigastric discomfort, and gastrointestinal endoscopy showed stenosis of the pylorus and enlarged gastric folds. Stomach cancer was suspected at first, but gastric metastasis of breast cancer was diagnosed on the basis of endoscopic reexamination and computed tomography(CT)images. The patient could not drink water, and therefore, gastrointestinal stenting was performed, which facilitated ingestion to some extent. However, at the same time, an elevated serum carcinoembryonic antigen(CEA)level and jaundice were observed. Therefore, biliary tract stenosis due to carcinomatous peritonitis was diagnosed. We attempted to treat the jaundice with endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography( ERCP)or percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography(PTCD), but the treatment was not successful, and an increase in ascites was noted. Accordingly, gemcitabine was administered as systemic therapy. As a result, ascites decreased and jaundice improved. Patients with gastric metastasis of breast cancer have poor quality of life(QOL)because of difficulties in ingestion or vomiting, and poor prognoses, because of frequent concurrent carcinomatous peritonitis. We experienced a case of gastric metastasis and carcinomatous peritonitis, and were able to improve the patient's QOL by gastrointestinal stenting and gemcitabine administration.

  16. A valved hepatic portoduodenal intestinal conduit for biliary atresia.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, K; Shirahase, I; Utsunomiya, H; Katayama, T; Uemoto, S; Asonuma, K; Inomata, Y; Ozawa, K

    1991-03-01

    Forty-six consecutive patients with biliary atresia were operated on at our institution during the 11-year period between 1978 and 1989. Their ages at operation ranged from 18 to 153 days (mean, 59 days). After dissecting the porta hepatis structures by Kasai operation, a biliointestinal anastomosis was constructed with a valved hepatic portoduodenal intestinal conduit in all cases. The intestinal valve is an intussuscepted muscular valve. Valvular function was examined radiologically. The upper gastrointestinal series demonstrated no reflux of contrast material into the conduit proximal to the valve and liver scintigraphy demonstrated that radioactive isotope drained readily into the duodenum through the valve. Thirty-nine of the forty-six patients (85%) had bile drainage after initial operation. At present 30 patients (65%) are alive without jaundice, 6 (13%) are alive with jaundice, and 10 (22%) are dead. The 5-year jaundice-free survival rate was 64%. Cholangitis occurred in 9 of 39 patients (23%) who had obtained apparent bile drainage: 5 had tractable cholangitis and 4 had refractory cholangitis. Reoperation restored bile flow in 2 of 8 patients who abruptly ceased to have bile drainage without cholangitis. In conclusion, with a valved hepatic portoduodenal intestinal conduit, the incidence of cholangitis was decreased, its medical control became easier, and the survival rate was improved.

  17. Thyrotoxicosis and Choledocholithiasis Masquerading as Thyroid Storm.

    PubMed

    Horn, Christian L; Short, Patricia A

    2017-01-01

    A 26-year-old female, thirteen months postpartum, presented to the emergency department for four weeks of epigastric abdominal pain, pruritus, new onset jaundice, and 11.3 kgs (25 lbs) unintentional weight loss. On examination, she was afebrile, tachycardic, alert, and oriented and had jaundice with scleral icterus. Labs were significant for undetectable TSH, FT4 that was too high to measure, and elevated total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, and transaminases. Abdominal ultrasound revealed cholelithiasis without biliary ductal dilation. Treatment for presumed thyroid storm was initiated. Further work-up with magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) revealed an obstructing cholelith within the distal common bile duct. With the presence of choledocholithiasis explaining the jaundice and abdominal pain, plus the absence of CNS alterations, the diagnosis of thyroid storm was revised to thyrotoxicosis complicated by choledocholithiasis. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatogram (ERCP) with sphincterotomy was performed to alleviate the biliary obstruction, with prompt symptomatic improvement. Thyroid storm is a rare manifestation of hyperthyroidism with a high rate of morbidity and mortality. The diagnosis of thyroid storm is based on clinical examination, and abnormal thyroid function tests do not correlate with disease severity. Knowledge of the many manifestations of thyroid storm will facilitate a quick and accurate diagnosis and treatment.

  18. 77 FR 40360 - Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-09

    ... jaundice. --Diarrhea (>=3 stools in 24 hours or greater than normal amount). The 2003 SARS situation and... to the nine quarantinable diseases (Pandemic influenza; SARS; Cholera; Plague; Diphtheria; Infectious...

  19. Blood typing

    MedlinePlus

    ... matching; Rh typing; ABO blood typing; Blood group; Anemia - immune hemolytic blood type; ABO blood type; A ... during pregnancy. Careful testing can prevent a severe anemia in the newborn and jaundice .

  20. Role of Saccharomyces boulardii in Reduction of Neonatal Hyperbilirubinemia.

    PubMed

    Suganthi, V; Das, A Gokul

    2016-11-01

    Probiotics are known to reduce the severity of hyperbilirubinemia. This study was done to evaluate the effect of probiotic on neonatal hyperbilirubinemia in term neonates. A total of 181 healthy term neonates after birth were divided into a control group (n=95) and a treatment group (n=86) randomly and treated with placebo and probiotic ( Saccharomyces boulardii ) respectively. A total of two doses were given orally in the first two consecutive days. The serum bilirubin levels were detected on day three of life. Babies were exclusively breastfed, clinical outcome was recorded. Comparison between groups was made by the non-parametric Mann-Whitney test. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was used to assess the quantitative variables. A p-value of <0.05 using a two-tailed test was taken as being of significance for all statistical tests. On day 3, mean total serum bilirubin in control group among patient who has not developed clinical jaundice is 6.5mg% and in the treatment group is 5mg%. In patient with clinical jaundice, it is 13.6mg% in control group and 10.7mg% in the treatment group. The p-value was found to be <0.05 which is statistically significant. No obvious adverse reactions noted in either group. Probiotics lowered the serum bilirubin level of healthy neonate with jaundice safely and significantly without any adverse reaction.

  1. Urinary Tract Infection in Asymptomatic Newborns with Prolonged Unconjugated Hyperbilirubunemia: A Hospital based Observational study from Western Region of Nepal.

    PubMed

    Malla, T; Sathian, B; Karmacharya Malla, K; Adhikari, S

    2016-01-01

    Background Urine culture is usually not a part of work-up for neonatal unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia; hence its prevalence remains unknown. Objective This study was done to determine the incidence of urinary tract infection (UTI) in asymptomatic newborns with prolonged unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia and to evaluate which other laboratory parameters are associated with UTIs. Method A prospective observational study where jaundiced newborns otherwise clinically well, were evaluated for UTI. The study was carried out in neonatal intensive care unit of Manipal Teaching Hospital, Pokhara from June 2012 -April 2013. The babies were divided in two groups group I- late prolonged jaundice and Group II - early physiological jaundice. Serum bilirubin, Septic screening and suprapubic urine sample analysis was performed for all subjects. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 16 and p 7lt; 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Result Of the 85 neonates, 33(38.8%) were females and 52(61.2%) males; 68(80%) were of term gestation and 17(20%) were preterms. The age at onset of jaundice for group I (n=53) was 13.6±4.88 days and for Group II (n= 32) was 5.0± 1.04 days. 11 /85 (12.9%) were diagnosed to have UTI [10 (90.9%) in group I and 1 in group II (9.01%] (p=0.04). UTI was more prevalent in group I [OR 7.20, 95% CI (0.87, 59.27)], more prevalent in male [OR 8.40, 95% CI (0.59, 74.13) and term babies of group I [OR 4.39, 95% CI (0.48, 39.82) when compared to Group II. Among other lab parameters only total WBC count was statistically significant (p=0.03). Escherichia coli was the predominant pathogen (45.45%) isolated. The sensitive antibiotics were aminoglycosides, fluroquinolones, nitrofurantoin and vancomycin and resistant antibiotics were most cephalosporins and penicillins for the isolated organisms. Conclusion The present study highlights significant association between late prolonged unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia and UTI. It is suggested that evaluation for UTI

  2. Scarlet Fever and hepatitis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Gidaris, D; Zafeiriou, D; Mavridis, P; Gombakis, N

    2008-07-01

    Scarlet fever is a streptococcal infection with a good prognosis. Complications are well described. Hepatitis is a rare complication. We describe a 6-year old boy with scarlet fever, jaundice and elevated liver transaminases.

  3. Hepatitis C -- children

    MedlinePlus

    ... right upper abdomen Clay-colored or pale stools Dark urine Tiredness Fever Yellow skin and eyes ( jaundice ) ... to the principles of the Health on the Net Foundation (www.hon.ch). The information provided herein ...

  4. Genetics Home Reference: Dubin-Johnson syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Twitter Home Health Conditions Dubin-Johnson syndrome Dubin-Johnson syndrome Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable ... to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Dubin-Johnson syndrome is a condition characterized by jaundice, which ...

  5. Hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... fever, fatigue, lack of appetite, nausea, jaundice and dark urine.These symptoms can last up to five ... of hepatitis A cases require hospitalization. Swallowing fecal matter, even in microscopic quantities. Infection occurs most often ...

  6. Black Cohosh

    MedlinePlus

    ... symptoms of liver trouble, such as abdominal pain, dark urine, or jaundice, while taking black cohosh should ... hard-of-hearing callers): 1-866-464-3615 Web site: nccih.nih.gov E-mail: info@nccih. ...

  7. Green Tea

    MedlinePlus

    ... symptoms of liver trouble, such as abdominal pain, dark urine, or jaundice. Except for decaffeinated green tea ... hard-of-hearing callers): 1-866-464-3615 Web site: nccih.nih.gov E-mail: info@nccih. ...

  8. Hereditary fructose intolerance

    MedlinePlus

    ... person without this substance eats fructose or sucrose (cane or beet sugar, table sugar), complicated chemical changes ... include: Convulsions Excessive sleepiness Irritability Yellow skin or whites of the eyes (jaundice) Poor feeding as a ...

  9. Endoscopic and interstitial Nd:YAG laser therapy to control duodenal and periampullary carcinoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barr, Hugh; Fowler, Aiden L.

    1996-12-01

    Duodenal and periampullary cancer present with jaundice, bleeding and obstruction. Many patients are unsuitable for radical surgery. Endoscopic palliation of jaundice can be achieved using endoscopic sphincterotomy or stent insertion. However, the problems of bleeding and obstruction can be difficult to manage. Ten patients were treated using superficial Nd:YAG laser ablation and lower power interstitial laser therapy. After initial outpatient endoscopic therapy, treatment was repeated at 4 monthly intervals to prevent recurrent symptoms. Bleeding was controlled in all patients and only one patient developed obstructive symptoms between treatment sessions. This responded to further endoscopic laser therapy. The median survival was 21 months. Laser treated patients were compared with a historical series of 22 patients treated with endoscopic sphincterotomy or stent insertion. The complication rate was less in patients treated with the laser.

  10. Endoscopic and Photodynamic Therapy of Cholangiocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Meier, Benjamin; Caca, Karel

    2016-12-01

    Most patients with cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) have unresectable disease. Endoscopic bile duct drainage is one of the major objectives of palliation of obstructive jaundice. Stent implantation using endoscopic retrograde cholangiography is considered to be the standard technique. Unilateral versus bilateral stenting is associated with different advantages and disadvantages; however, a standard approach is still not defined. As there are various kinds of stents, there is an ongoing discussion on which stent to use in which situation. Palliation of obstructive jaundice can be augmented through the use of photodynamic therapy (PDT). Studies have shown a prolonged survival for the combinations of PDT and different stent applications as well as combinations of PDT and additional systemic chemotherapy. More well-designed studies are needed to better evaluate and standardize endoscopic treatment of unresectable CCA.

  11. Hepatitis C (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Hepatitis C is a virus-caused liver inflammation which may cause jaundice, fever and cirrhosis. Persons who are most at risk for contracting and spreading hepatitis C are those who share needles for injecting drugs ...

  12. Gallbladder Cancer—Health Professional Version

    Cancer.gov

    Cancer that arises in the gallbladder is uncommon. Almost all gallbladder cancers are adenocarcinomas. The most common symptoms caused by gallbladder cancer are jaundice, pain, and fever. Find evidence-based information on gallbladder cancer treatment.

  13. Cirrhosis and Portal Hypertension

    MedlinePlus

    ... Kids and Teens Pregnancy and Childbirth Women Men Seniors Your Health Resources Healthcare Management End-of-Life ... familydoctor.org editorial staff Categories: Family Health, Men, Seniors, WomenTags: adult, alcoholic cirrhosis, elderly, jaundice, liver disease, ...

  14. Scarlet Fever and hepatitis: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Gidaris, D; Zafeiriou, D; Mavridis, P; Gombakis, N

    2008-01-01

    Scarlet fever is a streptococcal infection with a good prognosis. Complications are well described. Hepatitis is a rare complication. We describe a 6-year old boy with scarlet fever, jaundice and elevated liver transaminases. PMID:18923666

  15. Crigler-Najjar syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Najjar); Arias syndrome (type II Crigler-Najjar) Images Liver anatomy References Lidofsky SD. Jaundice. In: Feldman M, Friedman LS, Brandt LJ, eds. Sleisenger and Fordtran's Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease . 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016: ...

  16. [Usefullness of the Kramer's index in the diagnosis of hyperbilirubinemia of the newborn].

    PubMed

    Acosta-Torres, Sara M; Torres-Espina, Marco T; Colina-Araujo, José A; Colina-Chourio, José A

    2012-06-01

    The objective of the present study was to correlate seric values of bilirubin with the Kramer's index in a group of newborns with neonatal jaundice, from three different ethnic groups. This was a prospective, randomized, observational, descriptive-analytical, longitudinal, comparative and controlled study of 50 newborns with neonatal jaundice, without complications. They were divided into three groups: A (Control), n = 25, of Caucasian descent; B, n = 15, of local indigenous descent (Wayúu) and C, n = 10, of Afro-American descent. Each newborn was screened at the start of the study for their Kramer's dermic areas and simultaneously, a venous blood sample from the arm was taken for bilirubin quantification. They were compared through a correlation-regression analysis. Values at the beginning of the study were: serum bilirubin 12.02 +/- 3.41 mg/dL, and 62.8% of neonates were at Kramer's level 3. There were no differences among the ethnic groups studied and the correlation bilirubin/Kramer's index was r= 0.93 (p < 0.005). At the third day, both bilirubin and Kramer's indexes started to decrease. There were no ethnic differences. In conclusion, the Kramer's method offers multiple advantages to evaluate a jaundiced newborn; it is a safe, non-invasive method with no cost. Besides, it is of great help in the prevention of the kernicterus. It is recommended to implement the use of the Kramer method in all the newborns units in our Hospitals, preferably in those lacking transcutaneous bilirubinometers.

  17. MRI-based decision tree model for diagnosis of biliary atresia.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong Hee; Kim, Myung-Joon; Shin, Hyun Joo; Yoon, Haesung; Han, Seok Joo; Koh, Hong; Roh, Yun Ho; Lee, Mi-Jung

    2018-02-23

    To evaluate MRI findings and to generate a decision tree model for diagnosis of biliary atresia (BA) in infants with jaundice. We retrospectively reviewed features of MRI and ultrasonography (US) performed in infants with jaundice between January 2009 and June 2016 under approval of the institutional review board, including the maximum diameter of periportal signal change on MRI (MR triangular cord thickness, MR-TCT) or US (US-TCT), visibility of common bile duct (CBD) and abnormality of gallbladder (GB). Hepatic subcapsular flow was reviewed on Doppler US. We performed conditional inference tree analysis using MRI findings to generate a decision tree model. A total of 208 infants were included, 112 in the BA group and 96 in the non-BA group. Mean age at the time of MRI was 58.7 ± 36.6 days. Visibility of CBD, abnormality of GB and MR-TCT were good discriminators for the diagnosis of BA and the MRI-based decision tree using these findings with MR-TCT cut-off 5.1 mm showed 97.3 % sensitivity, 94.8 % specificity and 96.2 % accuracy. MRI-based decision tree model reliably differentiates BA in infants with jaundice. MRI can be an objective imaging modality for the diagnosis of BA. • MRI-based decision tree model reliably differentiates biliary atresia in neonatal cholestasis. • Common bile duct, gallbladder and periportal signal changes are the discriminators. • MRI has comparable performance to ultrasonography for diagnosis of biliary atresia.

  18. Role of Saccharomyces boulardii in Reduction of Neonatal Hyperbilirubinemia

    PubMed Central

    Suganthi, V.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Probiotics are known to reduce the severity of hyperbilirubinemia. Aim This study was done to evaluate the effect of probiotic on neonatal hyperbilirubinemia in term neonates. Materials and Methods A total of 181 healthy term neonates after birth were divided into a control group (n=95) and a treatment group (n=86) randomly and treated with placebo and probiotic (Saccharomyces boulardii) respectively. A total of two doses were given orally in the first two consecutive days. The serum bilirubin levels were detected on day three of life. Babies were exclusively breastfed, clinical outcome was recorded. Comparison between groups was made by the non-parametric Mann-Whitney test. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was used to assess the quantitative variables. A p-value of <0.05 using a two-tailed test was taken as being of significance for all statistical tests. Results On day 3, mean total serum bilirubin in control group among patient who has not developed clinical jaundice is 6.5mg% and in the treatment group is 5mg%. In patient with clinical jaundice, it is 13.6mg% in control group and 10.7mg% in the treatment group. The p-value was found to be <0.05 which is statistically significant. No obvious adverse reactions noted in either group. Conclusion Probiotics lowered the serum bilirubin level of healthy neonate with jaundice safely and significantly without any adverse reaction. PMID:28050461

  19. Menopausal Symptoms and Complementary Health Practices

    MedlinePlus

    ... symptoms of liver trouble, such as abdominal pain, dark urine, or jaundice, while taking black cohosh should stop using it and consult a health care provider. See NCCIH’s Web site on black cohosh for more information. DHEA ...

  20. Gallbladder Agenesis with Refractory Choledocholithiasis.

    PubMed

    Tjaden, Jamie; Patel, Kevin; Aadam, Aziz

    2015-01-01

    Congenital agenesis of the gallbladder is a rare anomaly which is usually asymptomatic and found incidentally. In some cases, however, patients are symptomatic. Common symptoms include right upper quadrant abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting. Jaundice is present in some symptomatic cases and is due to associated choledocholithiasis (Fiaschetti et al. 2009). In this case, a 63-year-old female presents with jaundice and episodic right upper quadrant abdominal pain with nausea and vomiting. Bilirubin and alkaline phosphatase were found to be markedly elevated. Upper endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) revealed choledocholithiasis, and the patient required multiple endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) sessions before successful extraction of all stones. Subsequent surgical exploration revealed congenital agenesis of the gallbladder. Although this is a rare finding, patients with agenesis of the gallbladder are at increased risk of developing de novo choledocholithiasis which may be challenging to extract.

  1. Highly Sensitive and Selective Sensing of Free Bilirubin Using Metal-Organic Frameworks-Based Energy Transfer Process.

    PubMed

    Du, Yaran; Li, Xiqian; Lv, Xueju; Jia, Qiong

    2017-09-13

    Free bilirubin, a key biomarker for jaundice, was detected with a newly designed fluorescent postsynthetically modified metal organic framework (MOF) (UIO-66-PSM) sensor. UiO-66-PSM was prepared based on the aldimine condensation reaction of UiO-66-NH 2 with 2,3,4-trihydroxybenzaldehyde. The fluorescence of UIO-66-PSM could be effectively quenched by free bilirubin via a fluorescent resonant energy transfer process, thus achieving its recognition of free bilirubin. It was the first attempt to design a MOF-based fluorescent probe for sensing free bilirubin. The probe exhibited fast response time, low detection limit, wide linear range, and high selectivity toward free bilirubin. The sensing system enabled the monitor of free bilirubin in real human serum. Hence, the reported free bilirubin sensing platform has potential applications for clinical diagnosis of jaundice.

  2. [A study of the value of preoperative biliary-tract drainage in the treatment of periampullary tumours: the DROP-trial].

    PubMed

    van der Gaag, N A; Gouma, D J

    2006-03-04

    Surgery in patients with obstructive jaundice caused by a periampullary (pancreas, papilla, distal bile duct) tumour is associated with a higher risk of postoperative complications than in non-jaundiced patients. Preoperative biliary drainage was introduced in an attempt to improve the general condition and thus reduce postoperative morbidity and mortality. More recently, the focus has shifted towards the negative effects of drainage, such as an increase of infectious complications. This has raised doubts as to whether biliary drainage should always be performed in these patients. The project referred to above involves a randomised multicentre trial to compare the outcome of a 'preoperative biliary-drainage strategy' (standard strategy) with that of an 'early-surgery' strategy with respect to the incidence of severe complications (primary-outcome measure), hospital stay, number of invasive diagnostic tests, costs, and quality of life.

  3. Endoscopic and Photodynamic Therapy of Cholangiocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Meier, Benjamin; Caca, Karel

    2016-01-01

    Background Most patients with cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) have unresectable disease. Endoscopic bile duct drainage is one of the major objectives of palliation of obstructive jaundice. Methods/Results Stent implantation using endoscopic retrograde cholangiography is considered to be the standard technique. Unilateral versus bilateral stenting is associated with different advantages and disadvantages; however, a standard approach is still not defined. As there are various kinds of stents, there is an ongoing discussion on which stent to use in which situation. Palliation of obstructive jaundice can be augmented through the use of photodynamic therapy (PDT). Studies have shown a prolonged survival for the combinations of PDT and different stent applications as well as combinations of PDT and additional systemic chemotherapy. Conclusion More well-designed studies are needed to better evaluate and standardize endoscopic treatment of unresectable CCA. PMID:28229075

  4. Bili lights

    MedlinePlus

    Phototherapy for jaundice; Bilirubin - bili lights; Neonatal care - bili lights; Newborn care - bili lights ... Phototherapy involves shining fluorescent light from the bili lights on bare skin. A specific wavelength of light can break down bilirubin into a form that ...

  5. Biliary atresia

    MedlinePlus

    ... weight normally for the first month. After that point, the baby will lose weight and become irritable, and will have worsening jaundice. Other symptoms may include: Dark urine Enlarged spleen Floating stools Foul-smelling stools Pale or clay-colored ...

  6. Molecular and serological in-herd prevalence of Anaplasma marginale infection in Texas cattle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bovine anaplasmosis is an infectious, non-contagious disease caused by the rickettsial pathogen Anaplasma marginale (A. marginale). The organism has a global distribution and infects erythrocytes, resulting in anemia, jaundice, fever, abortions and death. Once infected, animals remain carriers for l...

  7. Sclerosing cholangitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... gallstones in the bile duct) Infections in the liver, gallbladder, and bile ducts Symptoms The first symptoms are usually: Fatigue Itching ... varices (enlarged veins) Biliary cirrhosis (inflammation of the bile ducts) Liver failure Persistent jaundice Some people develop infections of ...

  8. Cytomegalovirus-mononucleosis in a newborn infant.

    PubMed Central

    Umetsu, M; Chiba, Y; Horino, K; Chiba, S; Nakao, T

    1975-01-01

    A 3-week-old infant with haemophilia A developed fever and mononucleosis and was found to have cytomegalovirus, infection, possibly acquired by blood transfusion. At 6 months, while still excreting cytomgalovirus, he developed transient clinical jaundice with a hepatitis-like picture. PMID:172029

  9. Cholestasis caused by panhypopituitarism and acquired cytomegalovirus infection in a 2-month-old male infant: A case report.

    PubMed

    Chan, U; Chan, Wai-Tao; Ting, Wei-Hsin; Ho, Che-Sheng; Liu, Hsi-Che; Lee, Hung-Chang

    2017-04-01

    Septo-optic dysplasia (SOD) is a rare congenital disorder that may cause jaundice in infants. However, it is usually prone to neglect and misdiagnosis in infants with cholestasis because endocrine disorder such as panhypopituitarism is rare in the cause of infantile cholestasis. We report a case of SOD concurrent with acquired cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection, who presented with prolonged jaundice as the first clinical sign. The patient was a 2-month-old male infant who presented with cholestasis, combined with fever and panhypopituitarism. He was diagnosed with SOD and acquired CMV infection. He was treated with hormone replacement therapy and ganciclovir. After correction of the pituitary hormone deficiency and ganciclovir treatment, significant improvements of cholestasis, retinal lesions, and growth rate were seen in our patient. Although an endocrine disorder such as panhypopituitarism is rare in the cause of neonatal or infantile cholestasis, we must keep this reason in mind.

  10. Non-surgical biliary drainage - technique, indications and results.

    PubMed

    Riemann, J F; Lux, G; Rösch, W; Beickert-Sterba, A

    1981-07-01

    Nonsurgical biliary drainage offers a therapeutic alternative in the palliation of malignant obstructive jaundice. Two basic approaches are available. The percutaneous transhepatic method can be employed either for external drainage or for the placement of an internal endoprosthesis. In the case of the transduodenal, transpapillary approach, either a pigtail catheter can be placed, after prior papillotomy, or - with or without the need to split the papillar - a nasobiliary drainage tube can be introduced. Successful drainage was achieved in 67 patients. In the majority of cases, external drainage was performed as a palliative measure in inoperable carcinoma of the biliodigestive system. In addition, however, pre-operative temporary drainage was also carried out to reduce the risks of surgery in patients with severe obstructive jaundice. The complication rate was low. Apart from biliary peritonitis, cholangitis and minor bleeds were observed. The rate of failure for technical reasons was a relatively low 10%.

  11. Partial stent-in-stent placement of biliary metallic stents using a short double-balloon enteroscopy.

    PubMed

    Tsutsumi, Koichiro; Kato, Hironari; Tomoda, Takeshi; Matsumoto, Kazuyuki; Sakakihara, Ichiro; Yamamoto, Naoki; Noma, Yasuhiro; Sonoyama, Takayuki; Okada, Hiroyuki; Yamamoto, Kazuhide

    2012-12-07

    Endoscopic intervention is less invasive than percutaneous or surgical approaches and should be considered the primary drainage procedure in most cases with obstructive jaundice. Recently, therapeutic endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) using double-balloon enteroscopy (DBE) has been shown to be feasible and effective, even in patients with surgically altered anatomies. On the other hand, endoscopic partial stent-in-stent (PSIS) placement of self-expandable metallic stents (SEMSs) for malignant hilar biliary obstruction in conventional ERCP has also been shown to be feasible, safe and effective. We performed PSIS placement of SEMSs for malignant hilar biliary obstruction due to liver metastasis using a short DBE in a patient with Roux-en-Y anastomosis and achieved technical and clinical success. This procedure can result in quick relief from obstructive jaundice in a single session and with short-term hospitalization, even in patients with surgically altered anatomies.

  12. Cholestasis caused by Fasciola gigantica.

    PubMed

    Beştaş, Remzi; Yalçin, Kendal; Çiçek, Muttalip

    2014-01-01

    Fascioliasis is an infectious disease caused by the hepatic trematodes Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica. Here, we report the case of Fasciola gigantica presenting with biliary obstruction and abdominal pain that was diagnosed and treated by endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERCP). A 46-year-old woman presented with right upper quadrant abdominal pain and jaundice. Physical examination revealed icterus and hepatomegaly. Laboratory findings revealed an increase in liver transaminases and bilirubin. Abdominal ultrasonography showed extrahepatic and intrahepatic bile duct dilatation. The patient underwent ERCP. One live Fasciola gigantica was removed from the common bile duct by ERCP. In conclusion, fascioliasis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of obstructive jaundice, especially in endemic regions, and it should be kept in mind that ERCP plays an important role in the diagnosis and treatment of these patients. To our knowledge, this is the second case report of Fasciola gigantica treated by ERCP in Turkey.

  13. Biliary stricture due to neuroma after an innocent blunt abdominal trauma.

    PubMed

    Katsinelos, P; Dimiropoulos, S; Galanis, I; Tsolkas, P; Paroutoglu, G; Arvaniti, M; Katsiba, D; Baltaglannis, S; Pilpilidis, I; Papagiannis, A; Vaslliadis, I

    2002-10-01

    A traumatic neuroma of the biliary tract is rarely associated with biliary obstruction. However, when it arises in the common bile duct (CBD) and is associated with obstructive jaundice, it is difficult to distinguish it from bile duct cancer. We describe a patient who developed obstructive jaundice and itching, due to CBD stricture, 8 years after innocent blunt abdominal trauma. The stricture was resected and hepatico-jejunal anastomosis was performed. Histological examination revealed a traumatic neuroma and a fibrous scar around the common bile duct. Symptoms disappeared following surgical removal of the lesion. Blunt abdominal injury may cause the late onset of a fibrous scar and traumatic neuroma in the common bile duct. To our knowledge, a traumatic neuroma of the biliary tract after blunt abdominal trauma has not been reported previously. We review the clinical picture of this relatively rare problem, along with its diagnosis, pathogenesis and treatment.

  14. [Leptospirosis in children of Libreville: difficult diagnosis, apropos of 1 case].

    PubMed

    Koko, J; Moussavou, A; Orima, C; Seilhan, C; Lemba-Abaka, A; Damas, S

    2001-12-01

    Leptospirosis is a widespread zoonosis, which is diagnosed less frequently in children than might be expected from the level of exposure to hazards, especially in tropical areas. A 15 1/2-year-old Gabonese boy was admitted following five days of fever, headache, myalgia, abdominal pain, diarrhea, intestinal bleeding, jaundice and conjunctival suffusion. Laboratory data showed abnormal liver and renal function tests, and diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum malaria was confirmed by thin blood smear. The patient did not clinically improve despite antimalarial treatment and then leptospirosis was suspected. Serologic tests were performed and leptospirosis was later confirmed. Antibiotic treatment (cefuroxim) was given. The outcome was good, liver and renal tests returned to normal in a few days. In tropical area, leptospirosis should be considered in children who are diagnosed with either an unexplained fever, a pseudo-influenza syndrome, or jaundice with hepatorenal involvement and gastrointestinal bleeding.

  15. Acute bile nephropathy secondary to anabolic steroids.

    PubMed

    Alkhunaizi, Ahmed M; ElTigani, Mohamed A; Rabah, Rola S; Nasr, Samih H

    2016-02-01

    Renal dysfunction in cholestatic liver disease is multifactorial. Acute kidney injury may develop secondary to renal vasoconstriction in the setting of peripheral vasodilation and relative hypovolemia, tubular obstruction by bile casts, and direct tubular toxicity from bile. Anabolic steroids are frequently used by athletes to boost endurance and increase muscle mass. These agents are a recently recognized cause of hepatotoxicity and jaundice and may lead to acute kidney injury. To increase awareness about this growing problem and to characterize the pathology of acute kidney injury in this setting, we report on a young male who developed acute kidney injury in the setting of severe cholestatic jaundice related to ingestion of anabolic steroids used for bodybuilding. Kidney biopsy showed bile casts within distal tubular lumina, filamentous bile inclusions within tubular cells, and signs of acute tubular injury. This report supports the recently re-emerged concept of bile nephropathy cholemic nephrosis.

  16. Association of hepatitis E virus with an outbreak of hepatitis in Pakistan: serologic responses and pattern of virus excretion.

    PubMed

    Ticehurst, J; Popkin, T J; Bryan, J P; Innis, B L; Duncan, J F; Ahmed, A; Iqbal, M; Malik, I; Kapikian, A Z; Legters, L J

    1992-02-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV), a positive-strand RNA agent, has been associated with enterically transmitted non-A, non-B hepatitis in Asia, Africa, and Mexico. To evaluate the role of HEV in an outbreak of hepatitis in Pakistan, we used immune electron microscopy to detect 1) antibody to HEV, for evidence of infection, and 2) virus, to determine the pattern of HEV excretion. Paired sera from 2 patients were assayed for antibody by using reference HEV: one seroconverted, an atypical finding for HEV infections; the other had high levels of anti-HEV in both sera. Virus particles with the size (29 x 31 nm) and morphology of HEV were detected in feces from 10 of 85 patients and serologically identified as HEV by using reference antibodies from an HEV-infected chimpanzee. One of these HEV-containing specimens was collected 9 days before the onset of jaundice; it was among feces from 38 outpatients with nonspecific symptoms and biochemical hepatitis, 12 of whom subsequently developed jaundice. The other 9 feces with HEV were among 36 collected within 7 days of the onset of acute icteric hepatitis; all 11 feces from days 8 to 15 were negative for HEV. Fecal concentrations of HEV appeared to be lower than those of many enteric viruses: only one specimen contained as many as 5 particles per EM grid square. It is concluded that HEV was etiologically associated with the epidemic and was predominantly excreted at very low levels during the first week of jaundice.

  17. Endoscopic ultrasound and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography for obstructing pancreas head masses: combined or separate procedures?

    PubMed

    Aslanian, Harry R; Estrada, Juan D; Rossi, Federico; Dziura, James; Jamidar, Priya A; Siddiqui, Uzma D

    2011-09-01

    Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) are complementary procedures in the evaluation of obstructive jaundice. To determine the feasibility, accuracy, and safety of the combined performance of EUS-guided fine needle aspiration (FNA) and ERCP with biliary stenting in patients with obstructive jaundice. Retrospectively reviewed data from consecutive patients presenting with obstructive jaundice due to a pancreas mass at a tertiary referral hospital between April 2002 and November 2007 who underwent combined (under the same sedation and in the same room) or separate EUS and ERCP. Procedure duration, amount of sedative medication administered, ability to achieve biliary stent placement, and the diagnostic yield of EUS-FNA were evaluated. A total of 47 patients were evaluated: 29 patients underwent combined EUS and ERCP and 18 had separate procedures (median of 5 d between procedures). Stent placement at ERCP was successful in 72% combined procedures versus 88% separate ERCP. EUS-FNA diagnosis of malignancy was positive in 91.6% combined versus 87.5% separate. The only complication was self-limited melena after a combined procedure in 1 patient. The median time for combined procedures was 75 minutes versus 50 minutes for separate EUS and 50 minutes for ERCP. Combined EUS and ERCP can be performed under the same sedation with a median 25 minute greater procedure length and similarly high yields for diagnostic EUS-FNA. A nonsignificant trend toward lower biliary stent placement success rates with combined ERCP procedures merits further study. Benefits of a combined procedure may include expedited patient evaluation and the avoidance of repeated sedation.

  18. [History of viral hepatitis].

    PubMed

    Fonseca, José Carlos Ferraz da

    2010-01-01

    The history of viral hepatitis goes back thousands of years and is a fascinating one. When humans were first infected by such agents, a natural repetitive cycle began, with the capacity to infect billions of humans, thus decimating the population and causing sequelae in thousands of lives. This article reviews the available scientific information on the history of viral hepatitis. All the information was obtained through extensive bibliographic review, including original and review articles and consultations on the internet. There are reports on outbreaks of jaundice epidemics in China 5,000 years ago and in Babylon more than 2,500 years ago. The catastrophic history of great jaundice epidemics and pandemics is well known and generally associated with major wars. In the American Civil War, 40,000 cases occurred among Union troops. In 1885, an outbreak of catarrhal jaundice affected 191 workers at the Bremen shipyard (Germany) after vaccination against smallpox. In 1942, 28,585 soldiers became infected with hepatitis after inoculation with the yellow fever vaccine. The number of cases of hepatitis during the Second World War was estimated to be 16 million. Only in the twentieth century were the main agents causing viral hepatitis identified. The hepatitis B virus was the first to be discovered. In this paper, through reviewing the history of major epidemics caused by hepatitis viruses and the history of discovery of these agents, singular peculiarities were revealed. Examples of this include the accidental or chance discovery of the hepatitis B and D viruses.

  19. Teaching Differential Diagnosis by Computer: A Pathophysiological Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goroll, Allan H.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    An interactive, computer-based teaching exercise in diagnosis that emphasizes pathophysiology in the analysis of clinical data is described. Called the Jaundice Program, its objective is to simplify the pattern recognition problem by relating clinical findings to diagnosis via reference to disease mechanisms. (LBH)

  20. 21 CFR 862.1460 - Leucine aminopeptidase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Systems § 862.1460 Leucine aminopeptidase test system. (a) Identification. A leucine aminopeptidase test system is a device intended to measure the activity of the enzyme leucine amino-peptidase in serum... diseases such as viral hepatitis and obstructive jaundice. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls...

  1. 21 CFR 862.1460 - Leucine aminopeptidase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Systems § 862.1460 Leucine aminopeptidase test system. (a) Identification. A leucine aminopeptidase test system is a device intended to measure the activity of the enzyme leucine amino-peptidase in serum... diseases such as viral hepatitis and obstructive jaundice. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls...

  2. Hydrops fetalis

    MedlinePlus

    ... in skin color (pallor) More severe forms may cause: Breathing problems Bruising or purplish bruise-like spots on the skin Heart failure Severe anemia Severe jaundice Total body swelling Exams and Tests An ultrasound done during pregnancy may show: High levels of amniotic fluid Abnormally ...

  3. Discovery of Antinuclear Antibodies in Pigs Infected with Porcine Circovirus Type 2

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Introduction. Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) causes post-weaning-multisystemic-wasting-syndrome (PMWS), a swine disease first observed in Canada in 1991 (1). It is characterized by general wasting, respiratory disease, jaundice and pallor in young pigs resulting in production losses and variable...

  4. Portal Vein Stenting for Portal Biliopathy with Jaundice

    SciTech Connect

    Hyun, Dongho, E-mail: mesentery@naver.com; Park, Kwang Bo, E-mail: kbjh.park@samsung.com; Lim, Seong Joo

    2016-04-15

    Portal biliopathy refers to obstruction of the bile duct by dilated peri- or para-ductal collateral channels following the main portal vein occlusion from various causes. Surgical shunt operation or endoscopic treatment has been reported. Herein, we report a case of portal biliopathy that was successfully treated by interventional portal vein recanalization.

  5. Neonatal jaundice: a risk factor for infantile autism?

    PubMed

    Maimburg, Rikke Damkjaer; Vaeth, Michael; Schendel, Diana Elizabeth; Bech, Bodil Hammer; Olsen, Jørn; Thorsen, Poul

    2008-11-01

    In a previous study, we found that infants transferred to a neonatal ward after delivery had an almost twofold increased risk of being diagnosed with infantile autism later in childhood in spite of extensive controlling of obstetric risk factors. We therefore decided to investigate other reasons for transfer to a neonatal ward, in particular hyperbilirubinaemia and neurological abnormalities. We conducted a population-based matched case-control study of 473 children with autism and 473 matched controls born from 1990 to 1999 in Denmark. Cases were children reported with a diagnosis of infantile autism in the Danish Psychiatric Central Register. Conditional logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals [CI] and likelihood ratio tests were used to test for effect modification. We found an almost fourfold risk for infantile autism in infants who had hyperbilirubinaemia after birth (OR 3.7 [95% CI 1.3, 10.5]). In stratified analysis, the association appeared limited to term infants (>or=37 weeks gestation). A strong association was also observed between abnormal neurological signs after birth and infantile autism, especially hypertonicity (OR 6.7 [95% CI 1.5, 29.7]). No associations were found between infantile autism and low Apgar scores, acidosis or hypoglycaemia. Our findings suggest that hyperbilirubinaemia and neurological abnormalities in the neonatal period are important factors to consider when studying causes of infantile autism.

  6. The influence of intravenous hydration on hospital length of stay in infants with hyperbilirubinemia.

    PubMed

    Patel, Shilpa J; Bergert, Lora; Klaus, Sybil; Klaus, George; Shea, William; Winkes, Adeline; Mavoori, Hareesh; Yamamoto, Loren

    2008-01-01

    A retrospective chart review compared data on neonates with physiologic jaundice admitted for phototherapy at a children's hospital. Those infants who received intravenous fluids (IVF) had significantly longer lengths of stay, higher initial bilirubin levels, and were more dehydrated than those babies who did not receive IVF.

  7. A case of acute infectious mononucleosis presenting with very high ferritin

    PubMed Central

    Thoufeeq, Muhammed Hameed; Ali Khan, Shahul Leyakath; Jain, Sanjiv Kumar; Al-Shakerchi, Hasanain; Hussain, Munem

    2007-01-01

    Hepatitis is an important but uncommon manifestation of acute Epstein Barr infection. Infectious mononucleosis is usually a disease of young adults. We report a case of infectious mononucleosis in a 72-year old jaundiced gentleman with ferritin level of 2438 that normalised on clinical improvement. PMID:17278235

  8. Hepatitis Diagnosis Using Facial Color Image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Mingjia; Guo, Zhenhua

    Facial color diagnosis is an important diagnostic method in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). However, due to its qualitative, subjective and experi-ence-based nature, traditional facial color diagnosis has a very limited application in clinical medicine. To circumvent the subjective and qualitative problems of facial color diagnosis of Traditional Chinese Medicine, in this paper, we present a novel computer aided facial color diagnosis method (CAFCDM). The method has three parts: face Image Database, Image Preprocessing Module and Diagnosis Engine. Face Image Database is carried out on a group of 116 patients affected by 2 kinds of liver diseases and 29 healthy volunteers. The quantitative color feature is extracted from facial images by using popular digital image processing techni-ques. Then, KNN classifier is employed to model the relationship between the quantitative color feature and diseases. The results show that the method can properly identify three groups: healthy, severe hepatitis with jaundice and severe hepatitis without jaundice with accuracy higher than 73%.

  9. Chronic Cholangitides: Aetiology, Diagnosis, and Treatment*

    PubMed Central

    Sherlock, Sheila

    1968-01-01

    A number of different chronic diseases affect the intrahepatic bile radicles or cholangioles. They include primary and secondary sclerosing cholangitis, primary biliary cirrhosis, chronic cholestatic drug jaundice, atresia, and carcinoma. Aetiological factors include infection, immunological changes, hormones, and congenital defects. Patients with chronic cholestasis have decreased bile salts in the intestinal contents and suffer from a bile salt deficiency syndrome. Failure to absorb dietary fat is managed by a low-fat diet and by medium-chain trigly-cerides which are absorbed in the absence of intestinal bile salts. Fat-soluble vitamin deficiencies are prevented by parenteral vitamins A, D, and K1. Calcium absorption is defective, and improvement may follow intramuscular vitamin D, medium-chain triglycerides, a low-fat diet, and oral calcium supplements. In partial intestinal bile salt deficiency the anionic bile-salt-chelating resin cholestyramine controls pruritus though steatorrhoea increases. Pruritus associated with total lack of intestinal bile salts is managed by methyl-testosterone or norethandrolone, though the jaundice increases. PMID:4971054

  10. [Antegrade visualization of the billiary duct system by percutaneous transjugular cholangiography (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Huchzermeyer, H; Luska, G; Freuschmidt, J

    1976-01-01

    Percutaneous transjugular cholangiography (PTJC) is a new technique for visualization of the biliary duct system and for diagnosis of obstructive jaundice. First experiences of the authors in 22 patients are described. The advantages and disadvantages of this procedure, which at the present time is used rather rarely, are discussed and compared to various other cholangiographic methods. The endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERC) was used for patients with obstructive jaundice of unknown origine in the first place. If the biliary duct system could not be visualized by ERC (failure of complete obstruction of the common bile duct), the antegrade technique (PTJC) was performed. The peritoneoscopic and the transjugular cholangiography yield about the same percentage of positive results (90%), as far as visualization of the biliary tree is concerned. However in contrast to the peritoneoscopic methods PTJC seems to bear a smaller risk of complications. Some further diagnostic and therapeutical advantages, which might result from the use of PTJC are pointed out.

  11. Cholestasis caused by panhypopituitarism and acquired cytomegalovirus infection in a 2-month-old male infant

    PubMed Central

    Chan, U; Chan, Wai-Tao; Ting, Wei-Hsin; Ho, Che-Sheng; Liu, Hsi-Che; Lee, Hung-Chang

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Septo-optic dysplasia (SOD) is a rare congenital disorder that may cause jaundice in infants. However, it is usually prone to neglect and misdiagnosis in infants with cholestasis because endocrine disorder such as panhypopituitarism is rare in the cause of infantile cholestasis. We report a case of SOD concurrent with acquired cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection, who presented with prolonged jaundice as the first clinical sign. Patient concerns: The patient was a 2-month-old male infant who presented with cholestasis, combined with fever and panhypopituitarism. Diagnoses: He was diagnosed with SOD and acquired CMV infection. Interventions: He was treated with hormone replacement therapy and ganciclovir. Outcomes: After correction of the pituitary hormone deficiency and ganciclovir treatment, significant improvements of cholestasis, retinal lesions, and growth rate were seen in our patient. Lessons: Although an endocrine disorder such as panhypopituitarism is rare in the cause of neonatal or infantile cholestasis, we must keep this reason in mind. PMID:28445302

  12. Chronic biloma after right hepatectomy for stage IV hepatoblastoma managed with roux-en-Y biliary cystenterostomy

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Andrew J.; Rauth, Thomas P.; Lovvorn, Harold N.

    2012-01-01

    We report the complex case of a 12-month-old female with stage IV hepatoblastoma accompanied by thrombosis and cavernous transformation of the portal vein. Following neoadjuvant chemotherapy, she underwent right hepatectomy, which was complicated by iatrogenic injury of her left hepatic duct, and subsequently developed a postoperative biloma and chronic biliocutaneous fistula. Concomitant with multiple percutaneous interventions to manage the biloma nonoperatively while the child completed her adjuvant chemotherapy, she progressed to develop chronic malnutrition, jaundice, and failure to thrive. Once therapy was completed and the child was deemed free of disease she underwent exploratory laparotomy with roux-en-Y biliary cyst-enterostomy for definitive management, resulting in resolution of her biliary fistula, jaundice, and marked improvement in her nutritional status. Roux-en-Y biliary cyst-enterostomy is a unique and efficacious management option in the highly selected patient population with chronic biliary leak refractory to minimally invasive management. PMID:23164033

  13. Antireflux Versus Conventional Plastic Stent in Malignant Biliary Obstruction: A Prospective Randomized Study.

    PubMed

    Vihervaara, Hanna; Grönroos, Juha M; Hurme, Saija; Gullichsen, Risto; Salminen, Paulina

    2017-01-01

    Endoscopic stents are used to relieve obstructive jaundice. The purpose of this prospective randomized study was to compare the patency of antireflux and conventional plastic biliary stent in relieving distal malignant biliary obstruction. All jaundiced patients admitted to hospital with suspected unresectable malignant distal biliary stricture between October 2009 and September 2010 were evaluated for the study. Eligible patients were randomized either to antireflux or conventional plastic stent arms. The primary endpoint was stent patency and the follow-up was continued either until the stent was occluded or until 6 months after the stent placement. At an interim analysis, antireflux stents (ARSs; n = 6) had a significantly shorter median patency of 34 (8-49) days compared with the conventional stent (n = 7) patency of 167 (38-214) days (P = .0003). Based on these results, the study was terminated due to ethical concerns. According to these results, the use of this ARS is not recommended.

  14. Phototherapy of the newborn: a predictive model for the outcome.

    PubMed

    Ossamu Osaku, Nelson; Silverio Lopes, Heitor

    2005-01-01

    Jaundice in one of the most common problems of the newborn. In most cases, jaundice is considered a physiological transient situation, but sometimes it can lead to death or serious injuries for the survivors. For decades, phototherapy has been used as the main method for prevention and treatment of hyperbilirubinaemia of the newborn. This work aims at finding a predictive model for the decrement of blood bilirubin followed conventional phototherapy. Data from 90 patients were collected and used in the multiple regression method. A rigorous statistical analysis was done in order to guarantee a correct and valid model. The obtained model was able to explain 78% of the variation of the dependent variable We found that it is possible to predict the total sugar bilirubin of the patient under phototherapy by knowing its birth weight, bilirubin level at the beginning of treatment, duration of exposition, and irradiance. Besides, it is possible to infer the time necessary for a given decrement of bilirubin, under approximately constant irradiance.

  15. [Diagnosis of carcinoma of Vater's ampulla by duodenoscopy].

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Degollado, J; García Bonilla, C; Aguirre García, J; Peniche Bojórquez, J

    1977-01-01

    Cancer of the ampula of Vater occurs in 10% of cases of jaundice caused by malignant neoplasms. Endoscopy with biopsy and citological study helps to establish the diagnosis in most instances, utilizing a duodeno fibroscope JFB-2. Fourteen patients, ten men and four women, were studied in a five year period in the Service of Endoscopy in the General Hospital of National Medical Center of the Mexican Institute of Social Security. All the patients presented with obstructive jaundice and only in four was papilary carcinoma suspected from the clinical and radiological studies. Direct biopsy was performed in all patients and brush biopsy for citology in 9. In all 14 patients a malignant lesion was observed macroscopically in the ampula of Vater projecting in to the duodenum. In thirteen of fourteen the lesion was diagnosed microscopically as adenocarcinoma and in eight of nine citologically. The utilization of this methodology facilitates the early diagnosis of the lesion in this way improves considerably the prognosis.

  16. [Changing aspects of cirrhotic disease in a hepato-gastroenterology service in Mali].

    PubMed

    Diarra, M; Konaté, A; Soukho, A; Dicko, M; Kallé, A; Doumbia, K; Sow, H; Traoré, H A; Maiga, M Y

    2010-01-01

    The main goal of our study was to evaluate cirrhosis course on one year. The study was prospective and longitudinal from January 2005 to December 2006 in the center of hepatology and gastro-enterology of CHU Gabriel Touré. The patients had one year follow up and examinated every three months. In this study 57 patients were included. Mean age was 41,5 + 15,3 years. Ascite and jaundice were the main clinical signs respectively 70.2% and 54.4%. Ascite or its increase was the most complication in 67.5% of cases (p = 0.002). The global mortality was 82.5% and it was high in the three first months, caused by hepatocellular carcinoma, digestive bleeding and hepatic encephalopathy respectively 33.3%, 27.3% and 15.2%. Abdomen pain, ascite and jaundice have an predictive value for high mortality (p between 3.10-3 et 10-7). Early examination, therapeutic observance and good management of cirrhosis complications could reduce the mortality.

  17. Isolated anaemia as a manifestation of Rh isoimmunisation.

    PubMed

    Roda, Juliana; Mimoso, Gabriela; Benedito, Manuela; Pereira, Dolores Faria

    2012-01-18

    Rh isoimmunisation leads to haemolytic anaemia and hyperbilirubinaemia in the first h of life. Isolated early onset neonatal anaemia has rarely been reported. The authors describe the case of a term infant, born to an 'A' negative, second gravida mother. On the second day of life, pallor was noticed. His haemoglobin (Hb) was 6.8 g/dl, he had reticulocytosis and a positive direct antiglobulin test. However, he did not have a high total serum bilirubin (TSB) (87.2 μmol/l). He was transfused with red blood cells and kept under phototherapy for 3 days. Three weeks later, he received another transfusion for severe anaemia (Hb 6 5 g/dl). During this period, he was never jaundiced and the maximum level of TSB was 122 μmol/l. On follow-up, his Hb stabilised and he had no further problems. This report highlights the possibility of early onset anaemia without jaundice as the sole manifestation of Rh isoimmunisation.

  18. Extrahepatic biliary duct obstruction as a result of involuntary transcavitary implantation of hair in a cat

    PubMed Central

    Linton, Michael; Buffa, Eugene; Simon, Adrian; Ashton, Julie; McGregor, Ross; Foster, Darren J

    2015-01-01

    Case summary A 4-year-old male neutered domestic shorthair cat was referred for investigation of jaundice. The cat had a recent history of a skin laceration repair following trauma. Sequential serum biochemistry demonstrated increasing plasma bilirubin concentrations; abdominal ultrasonography revealed ongoing pancreatitis and apparent extrahepatic obstruction of the common bile duct. Exploratory laparotomy identified constriction of the common bile duct with foreign material (cat hair). The constricting band of hair was removed surgically; cholecystoduodenostomy was performed. Postsurgical quality of life is excellent with chronic treatment of tylosin, omeprazole and ursodeoxycholic acid. Relevance and novel information To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of extrahepatic biliary duct obstruction resulting from the intra-abdominal migration of a foreign body, in this case, hair shafts. The mechanism by which this occurred was likely a combination of physical constriction by the hair shafts and subsequent foreign body reaction surrounding this. This should be included in the differential diagnosis of a cat with jaundice. PMID:28491390

  19. Bilirubin measurements in neonates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, Gregory J.

    2000-04-01

    Infant Jaundice is a physiologic condition of elevated bilirubin in the tissue that affects nearly 60 percent of all term newborns and virtually 100 percent of premature infants. The high production of bilirubin in the newborn circulatory system and the inability of the immature liver to process and eliminate it case the condition. When the bilirubin levels rise, it starts to deposit in the baby's skin and in the brain. The deposits in the brain can cause neurologic impairment and death. The BiliCheck is a handheld, battery-powered device that measures the level of jaundice non-invasively using BioPhotonics at the point of care. The result is displayed on an LCD screen immediately, so physicians can now make treatment decision without waiting for results to return from the lab. The BiliCheck System has been marketed worldwide since April of 1998 and has received FDA clearance for use in the USA on pre-photo therapy infants in March of 1999.

  20. Role of extrahepatic UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A1: Advances in understanding breast milk-induced neonatal hyperbilirubinemia.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Ryoichi; Maruo, Yoshihiro; Chen, Shujuan; Tukey, Robert H

    2015-11-15

    Newborns commonly develop physiological hyperbilirubinemia (also known as jaundice). With increased bilirubin levels being observed in breast-fed infants, breast-feeding has been recognized as a contributing factor for the development of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. Bilirubin undergoes selective metabolism by UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A1 and becomes a water soluble glucuronide. Although several factors such as gestational age, dehydration and weight loss, and increased enterohepatic circulation have been associated with breast milk-induced jaundice (BMJ), deficiency in UGT1A1 expression is a known cause of BMJ. It is currently believed that unconjugated bilirubin is metabolized mainly in the liver. However, recent findings support the concept that extrahepatic tissues, such as small intestine and skin, contribute to bilirubin glucuronidation during the neonatal period. We will review the recent advances made towards understanding biological and molecular events impacting BMJ, especially regarding the role of extrahepatic UGT1A1 expression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Cholestatic hepatitis as a possible new side-effect of oxycodone: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Vincent; Stewart, Maxwell; Boyd, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Oxycodone is a widely-used semisynthetic opioid analgesic that has been used for over eighty years. Oxycodone is known to cause side effects such as nausea, pruritus, dizziness, constipation and somnolence. As far as we are aware cholestatic hepatitis as a result of oxycodone use has not been reported so far in the world literature. Case presentation A 34-year-old male presented with cholestatic jaundice and severe pruritus after receiving oxycodone for analgesia post-T11 vertebrectomy. Extensive laboratory investigations and imaging studies did not reveal any other obvious cause for his jaundice and a liver biopsy confirmed canalicular cholestatis suggestive of drug-induced hepatotoxicity. The patient's symptoms and transaminases normalised on withdrawal of oxycodone confirming that oxycodone was the probable cause of the patient's hepatotoxicity. Conclusion We conclude that cholestatic hepatitis is possibly a rare side effect of oxycodone use. Physicians should be aware of the possibility of this potentially serious picture of drug-induced hepatotoxicity. PMID:18452597

  2. Role of extrahepatic UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A1: advances in understanding breast milk-induced neonatal hyperbilirubinemia

    PubMed Central

    Fujiwara, Ryoichi; Maruo, Yoshihiro; Chen, Shujuan; Tukey, Robert H.

    2015-01-01

    Newborns commonly develop physiological hyperbilirubinemia (also known as jaundice). With increased bilirubin levels being observed in breast-fed infants, breast-feeding has been recognized as a contributing factor for the development of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. Bilirubin undergoes selective metabolism by UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A1 and becomes a water soluble glucuronide. Although several factors such as gestational age, dehydration and weight loss, and increased enterohepatic circulation have been associated with breast milk-induced jaundice (BMJ), deficiency in UGT1A1 expression is a known cause of BMJ. It is currently believed that unconjugated bilirubin is metabolized mainly in the liver. However, recent findings support the concept that extrahepatic tissues, such as small intestine and skin, contribute to bilirubin glucuronidation during the neonatal period. We will review the recent advances made towards understanding biological and molecular events impacting BMJ, especially regarding the role of extrahepatic UGT1A1 expression. PMID:26342858

  3. Root causes for late presentation of severe neonatal hyperbilirubinaemia in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Iskander, I; Gamaleldin, R; Kabbani, M

    2012-08-01

    This study aimed to understand the reasons for late presentation of cases of severe neonatal hyperbilirubinaemia. We administered a questionnaire to parents of 130 infants with severe jaundice admitted to Cairo University Children's Hospital neonatal intensive care unit at age > or = 6 days over an 18-month period. Although 125 infants (96.2%) were delivered in a health care facility, no discharge physical examination was performed in 99/125 cases (79.2%). No parent was given instructions about neonatal jaundice and no follow-up appointments were scheduled. Parents of 109 infants sought medical advice prior to hospital readmission; most babies were assessed clinically, but serum bilirubin was measured in only one-quarter of cases (28/109). Medical advice included placing the infant under a neon lamp at home (87/109 cases), advice to supplement breastfeeding (75/109) and prescribed medications, including vitamins (15/109). Increasing the availability of inexpensive point-of-care diagnostic instruments and phototherapy units in health care facilities are urgently needed.

  4. [Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in Japan].

    PubMed

    Kanno, Hitoshi; Ogura, Hiromi

    2015-07-01

    In the past 10 years, we have diagnosed congenital hemolytic anemia in 294 patients, approximately 33% of whom were found to have glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency. It is becoming more common for Japanese to marry people of other ethnic origins, such that G6PD deficiency is becoming more prevalent in Japan. Japanese G6PD deficiency tends to be diagnosed in the neonatal period due to severe jaundice, while G6PD-deficient patients with foreign ancestors tend to be diagnosed at the onset of an acute hemolytic crisis before the age of six. It is difficult to predict the clinical course of each patient by G6PD activity, reduced glutathione content, or the presence/absence of severe neonatal jaundice. We propose that both neonatal G6PD screening and systematic analyses of G6PD gene mutations may be useful for personalized management of patients with G6PD-deficient hemolytic anemia.

  5. Predictive value of clinical and laboratory features for the main febrile diseases in children living in Tanzania: A prospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    De Santis, Olga; Kilowoko, Mary; Kyungu, Esther; Sangu, Willy; Cherpillod, Pascal; Kaiser, Laurent; Genton, Blaise; D’Acremont, Valérie

    2017-01-01

    Background To construct evidence-based guidelines for management of febrile illness, it is essential to identify clinical predictors for the main causes of fever, either to diagnose the disease when no laboratory test is available or to better target testing when a test is available. The objective was to investigate clinical predictors of several diseases in a cohort of febrile children attending outpatient clinics in Tanzania, whose diagnoses have been established after extensive clinical and laboratory workup. Method From April to December 2008, 1005 consecutive children aged 2 months to 10 years with temperature ≥38°C attending two outpatient clinics in Dar es Salaam were included. Demographic characteristics, symptoms and signs, comorbidities, full blood count and liver enzyme level were investigated by bi- and multi-variate analyses (Chan, et al., 2008). To evaluate accuracy of combined predictors to construct algorithms, classification and regression tree (CART) analyses were also performed. Results 62 variables were studied. Between 4 and 15 significant predictors to rule in (aLR+>1) or rule out (aLR+<1) the disease were found in the multivariate analysis for the 7 more frequent outcomes. For malaria, the strongest predictor was temperature ≥40°C (aLR+8.4, 95%CI 4.7–15), for typhoid abdominal tenderness (5.9,2.5–11), for urinary tract infection (UTI) age ≥3 years (0.20,0–0.50), for radiological pneumonia abnormal chest auscultation (4.3,2.8–6.1), for acute HHV6 infection dehydration (0.18,0–0.75), for bacterial disease (any type) chest indrawing (19,8.2–60) and for viral disease (any type) jaundice (0.28,0.16–0.41). Other clinically relevant and easy to assess predictors were also found: malaria could be ruled in by recent travel, typhoid by jaundice, radiological pneumonia by very fast breathing and UTI by fever duration of ≥4 days. The CART model for malaria included temperature, travel, jaundice and hepatomegaly (sensitivity 80

  6. Interventional Endoscopy Database for Pancreatico-biliary, Gastrointestinal and Esophageal Disorders

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-02-16

    Ampullary Cancer; Duodenal Cancer; Bile Duct Cancer; Bile Duct Disorders; Gallstones; Obstructive Jaundice; Pancreatic Disorders (Noncancerous); Colorectal Cancer; Esophageal Cancer; Barrett's Esophagus; Gastric Malignancies; Pancreatic Cancer; Pediatric Gastroenterology; Cholangiocarcinoma; Pancreatic Pseudocysts; Acute and Chronic Pancreatitis; Recurrent Pancreatitis; Cholangitis; Bile Leak; Biliary Strictures; Pancreatic Divisum; Biliary and Pancreatic Stones; Choledocholithiasis

  7. Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome (Korean Hemorrhagic Fever)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-07-31

    agent of KHF was first discovered in 1976 from Apodemus mice (10) and isolated from KHF patients in 1978 (11). This agent has been propagated in a...abdominal tenderness, hepatomegaly, dark-coloured urine, dysuria 3 1/F 128 Viral Fever, nausea, jaundice, hepatitis scabies , hepatomegaly 4 30/M 1024

  8. 26 CFR 49.5000B-1T - Indoor tanning services (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... psychiatric disorder; (iv) Neonatal jaundice; (v) Wound healing; or (vi) Other medical condition determined by..., such as the cost of the equipment, variety of services offered, actual usage of services by customers... states the cost of the protective eyewear. Because the cost of the protective eyewear is separately...

  9. 26 CFR 49.5000B-1T - Indoor tanning services (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... psychiatric disorder; (iv) Neonatal jaundice; (v) Wound healing; or (vi) Other medical condition determined by..., such as the cost of the equipment, variety of services offered, actual usage of services by customers... states the cost of the protective eyewear. Because the cost of the protective eyewear is separately...

  10. 26 CFR 49.5000B-1T - Indoor tanning services (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... psychiatric disorder; (iv) Neonatal jaundice; (v) Wound healing; or (vi) Other medical condition determined by..., such as the cost of the equipment, variety of services offered, actual usage of services by customers... states the cost of the protective eyewear. Because the cost of the protective eyewear is separately...

  11. 78 FR 11210 - Notice of NIH Consensus Development Conference: Diagnosing Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-15

    ..., which is the inability of the body to adequately process carbohydrates (sugars and starches) into energy... include difficulty breathing at birth, hypoglycemia (low blood sugar), and jaundice. Up to one-half of the..., which involves drinking a sweetened liquid containing 50 grams of sugar (glucose). A blood sample is...

  12. Radiography of the bile ducts: a symposium of the use of new modalities for diagnosis and treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Berk, R.N.; Cooperberg, P.L.; Gold, R.P.

    1982-10-01

    New diagnostic and therapeutic techniques have enabled the radiologist to assume a significant role in the management of jaundice, whereas before he was powerless to make any contribution at all. In this symposium, sonography, percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography, endoscopic retrograde cholangiography, and interventional procedures are analyzed and placed in perspective.

  13. [Right-sided hemihepatectomy in echinococcosis of the liver in pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Blöchle, C; Lloyd, D M; Izbicki, J R; Schröder, S; Brölsch, C E

    1993-07-01

    The treatment of symptomatic echinococcal disease of the liver during pregnancy is a rare, but difficult problem. A 42 year old, pregnant woman with obstructive jaundice and acute cholangitis due to extensive echinococcus cysticus infection of the right hepatic lobe is presented. A formal, right hemihepatectomy was successfully performed.

  14. [Surgical silicone prostheses in the treatment of biliary tract cancers: long prostheses or short prostheses? Results apropos of 500 cases].

    PubMed

    Kron, B

    1992-10-01

    The interest of surgical prostheses in the palliative treatment of biliary tract cancer is well established, on the basis of their good tolerance, the more than 15 year follow up experience and the number of patients operated upon. After exeresis, they allow re-establishment of continuity, either by use of a prosthesis in Y when the right and let ducts can be dissected, or by using two prostheses, a multiperforated long prosthesis reimplanted in the duodenum and a short prosthesis reimplanted in the common bile duct without attaining the sphincter of Oddi. Of the 1000 cases treated, 500 were the object of a statistical analysis, 46 being operated upon by the author, in 60% of cases for biliary tract cancer, either primary or as an extension from the gallbladder. One-third of the patients had advanced lesions and a short survival of less than 3 months. Two-thirds a median survival of 9 months. In 10%, a radical exeresis was performed with survival of more than one year without recurrence of jaundice. Failure of treatment with persistence of jaundice was due to advanced disease for which surgery is unsatisfactory. Essential complications were premature bile leaks (5%) without serious consequences if sufficient drainage was maintained, since it stopped spontaneously, and angiocholitis (6%), the result of territory exclusion or reflux. Recurrence of jaundice was related to extension of the neoplasm to the secondary bile ducts, and to hepatic metastases. Obstruction of the prosthesis before two months was rare (6%) and was preceded by angiocholitis. In the absence of recurrence of the cancer the prosthesis can be replaced surgically without difficulty.

  15. [Classification and choice of surgical procedures for chronic pancreatitis].

    PubMed

    Yang, Yin-Mo; Wan, Yuan-Lian; Zhuang, Yan; Wang, Wei-Min; Yan, Zhong-Yu; Huang, Yan-Ting

    2005-02-01

    To explore the classification, choice of surgical procedures and the clinical outcome of surgical management for chronic pancreatitis. 54 patients with chronic pancreatitis undergoing operation in our hospital from 1983 to 2004 were analyzed retrospectively, who were divided into chronic calcifying pancreatitis and chronic obstructive pancreatitis according to the clinical manifestations. There were 41 men (76%) and 13 women (24%) with a mean age of 54 years. The cause of chronic pancreatitis was alcohol related in 25 cases (46%), cholelithiasis in 21 (39%), and previous episodes of acute pancreatitis in 18 (33%). Clinical manifestations included abdominal pain in 38 cases (70%), obstructive jaundice in 27 cases (50%). There existed a significant difference in some clinical materials between the two groups of chronic calcifying pancreatitis and chronic obstructive pancreatitis, which might mean the different pathologic basis in the two kinds of chronic pancreatitis. A total of 34 patients underwent nine different operations without perioperative deaths. Both the Puestow procedure and the pancreatoduodenectomy was safe and achieved pain relief in a large percentage of patients, which could also improve the exocrine function whereas the endocrine function remained unchanged. Addition of biliary bypass to the Puestow procedure was suitable for the patients with stenosis of common bile duct. Jaundice was the main manifestation in the patients with the inflammatory mass in the head of the pancreas and Whipple's procedure or other resectional procedures should be performed for them. Only drainage of bile duct had a better outcome for the relief of jaundice, but its effect to pancreas need to be further evaluated. The clinicopathologic characteristics of obstructive chronic pancreatitis was more variable and the surgical management should be also different for individuals.

  16. RADIOACTIVE IODINE THERAPY WITHOUT RECENT ANTITHYROID DRUG PRETREATMENT FOR HYPERTHYROIDISM COMPLICATED BY SEVERE HYPERBILIRUBINEMIA DUE TO HEPATIC DYSFUNCTION: EXPERIENCE OF A CHINESE MEDICAL CENTER.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yong; Xing, Jialiu; Qiu, Zewu; Wang, Yong; Zhang, Youren; Fang, Yi; Peng, Xiaobo; Long, Yahong; Deng, Pei

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this work is to report our experience with (131)I therapy without recent antithyroid drug (ATD) pretreatment for refractory severe hyperthyroidism complicated by hyperbilirubinemia due to hepatic dysfunction. Five patients with refractory severe hyperthyroidism were treated with (131)I at 90 to 120 μCi/g-thyroid (total activity, 6.2 to 10.1 mCi). The patients previously had received ATD treatment from 2 months to 12 years and discontinued ATDs from 2 months to 4 years before (131)I treatment due to treatment failure or severe jaundice. Prior to (131)I therapy, the patients were asked to take a low-iodine diet and were treated with bisoprolol fumarate, digoxin, furosemide, S-adenosylmethionine, polyene phosphatidylcholine, and plasma exchange as supportive treatment for related clinical conditions. Four of the patients also received lithium carbonate in conjunction with their (131)I treatment. The patients were followed for 4 to 9 years after (131)I therapy. After (131)I treatment, jaundice disappeared completely within 3 to 4 months in all patients, and liver function tests returned to normal. Concurrent atrial fibrillation and heart failure, leukopenia and thrombocytopenia, or thrombocytopenia and left cardiac enlargement improved remarkably in 3 patients during the follow-up period. Three to 45 months after (131)I treatment, hypothyroidism was noted in the patients and they were treated with L-thyroxine replacement therapy. (131)I therapy without recent ATD pretreatment for refractory severe hyperthyroidism complicated by serious jaundice appears to be safe and effective, with good long-term results. It may be the preferred therapy for such patients and should be used as early as possible.

  17. Atypical Clinical Manifestations of Graves' Disease: An Analysis in Depth

    PubMed Central

    Hegazi, Mohamed Osama; Ahmed, Sherif

    2012-01-01

    Over the past few decades, there has been an increase in the number of reports about newly recognized (atypical or unusual) manifestations of Graves' disease (GD), that are related to various body systems. One of these manifestations is sometimes the main presenting feature of GD. Some of the atypical manifestations are specifically related to GD, while others are also similarly seen in patients with other forms of hyperthyroidism. Lack of knowledge of the association between these findings and GD may lead to delay in diagnosis, misdiagnosis, or unnecessary investigations. The atypical clinical presentations of GD include anemia, vomiting, jaundice, and right heart failure. There is one type of anemia that is not explained by any of the known etiological factors and responds well to hyperthyroidism treatment. This type of anemia resembles anemia of chronic disease and may be termed GD anemia. Other forms of anemia that are associated with GD include pernicious anemia, iron deficiency anemia of celiac disease, and autoimmune hemolytic anemia. Vomiting has been reported as a presenting feature of Graves' disease. Some cases had the typical findings of hyperthyroidism initially masked, and the vomiting did not improve until hyperthyroidism has been detected and treated. Hyperthyroidism may present with jaundice, and on the other hand, deep jaundice may develop with the onset of overt hyperthyroidism in previously compensated chronic liver disease patients. Pulmonary hypertension is reported to be associated with GD and to respond to its treatment. GD-related pulmonary hypertension may be so severe to produce isolated right-sided heart failure that is occasionally found as the presenting manifestation of GD. PMID:22132347

  18. Outbreak of Leptospirosis after Flood, the Philippines, 2009

    PubMed Central

    Amilasan, Al-shere T.; Ujiie, Mugen; Salva, Eumelia; Belo, Maria Cecilia P.; Koizumi, Nobuo; Yoshimatsu, Kumiko; Schmidt, Wolf-Peter; Marte, Shane; Dimaano, Efren M.; Villarama, Jose Benito; Ariyoshi, Koya

    2012-01-01

    After a typhoon in September 2009, an outbreak of leptospirosis occurred in Metro Manila, the Philippines; 471 patients were hospitalized and 51 (10.8%) died. A hospital-based investigation found risk factors associated with fatal infection to be older age, hemoptysis, anuria, jaundice, and delayed treatment with antimicrobial drugs. PMID:22257492

  19. Lights, Windows, Color: Elements of the School Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hathaway, Warren E.

    Recent research indicates there are a great many nonvisual effects of light on people. The control of rickets and the suntan effect are well understood. Less well known effects include synchronization of a number of physiological rhythms and prevention and control of infantile jaundice. Physiological and psychological effects also vary with the…

  20. Portal hypertension associated with sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sunil; Joshi, R; Jain, A P

    2007-01-01

    We report a 12-year-old girl with sickle cell disease who presented with pain in abdomen, fever, joint pain and hematemesis. On examination she had mild jaundice and splenomegaly. Upper GI endoscopy showed esophageal varices. She was treated with variceal band ligation and is well on folic acid supplements and propranolol.

  1. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency: not exclusively in males.

    PubMed

    van den Broek, Leonie; Heylen, Evelien; van den Akker, Machiel

    2016-12-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate (G6PD) deficiency is the most common human enzyme defect, often presenting with neonatal jaundice and/or acute hemolytic anemia, triggered by oxidizing agents. G6PD deficiency is an X-linked, hereditary disease, mainly affecting men, but should also be considered in females with an oxidative hemolysis.

  2. Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Screening in Israel-Arab and Palestinian-Arab Neonates.

    PubMed

    Abu Omar, Rawan; Algur, Nurit; Megged, Orli; Hammerman, Cathy; Kaplan, Michael

    2015-07-01

    To evaluate the frequency of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD) deficiency, the incidence of clinically significant jaundice (any serum total bilirubin value >75th percentile on the hour-specific bilirubin nomogram), and the need for phototherapy in the pooled male Israeli-Arab and Palestinian-Arab population born at the Shaare Zedek Medical Center in Jerusalem, Israel. Quantitative G-6-PD enzyme testing of umbilical cord blood was performed during birth hospitalization. G-6-PD deficiency was defined as any G-6-PD value <7.0 U/gHb. Transcutaneous bilirubin was performed daily during birth hospitalization, with serum total bilirubin testing in those with a transcutaneous bilirubin value >75th percentile. Ten of 286 (3.5%) consecutively delivered male Arab newborns had G-6-PD deficiency. Clinically significant jaundice was higher in the population with G-6-PD deficiency compared with normal controls (relative risk, 3.45; 95% CI, 1.24-9.58). Thirty percent of the newborns with G-6-PD deficiency met American Academy of Pediatrics indications for phototherapy according to the high-risk (middle) curve on the phototherapy graph. The frequency of G-6-PD deficiency in the Arab neonatal population delivering at this medical center meets World Health Organization criteria for neonatal G-6-PD screening (3%-5%). As in other ethnic groups, clinically significant jaundice is more frequent in newborns of this ethnic group with G-6-PD deficiency compared with G-6-PD-normal controls. Neonatal G-6-PD screening for both males and females of this population subgroup, in conjunction with parental education regarding the dangers of the condition and its prophylaxis, has now been incorporated into our institution's routine G-6-PD screening program. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Maternal, Infant Characteristics, Breastfeeding Techniques, and Initiation: Structural Equation Modeling Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Htun, Tha Pyai; Lim, Peng Im; Ho-Lim, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to examine the relationships among maternal and infant characteristics, breastfeeding techniques, and exclusive breastfeeding initiation in different modes of birth using structural equation modeling approaches. Methods We examined a hypothetical model based on integrating concepts of a breastfeeding decision-making model, a breastfeeding initiation model, and a social cognitive theory among 952 mother-infant dyads. The LATCH breastfeeding assessment tool was used to evaluate breastfeeding techniques and two infant feeding categories were used (exclusive and non-exclusive breastfeeding). Results Structural equation models (SEM) showed that multiparity was significantly positively associated with breastfeeding techniques and the jaundice of an infant was significantly negatively related to exclusive breastfeeding initiation. A multigroup analysis in the SEM showed no difference between the caesarean section and vaginal delivery groups estimates of breastfeeding techniques on exclusive breastfeeding initiation. Breastfeeding techniques were significantly positively associated with exclusive breastfeeding initiation in the entire sample and in the vaginal deliveries group. However, breastfeeding techniques were not significantly associated with exclusive breastfeeding initiation in the cesarean section group. Maternal age, maternal race, gestations, birth weight of infant, and postnatal complications had no significant impacts on breastfeeding techniques or exclusive breastfeeding initiation in our study. Overall, the models fitted the data satisfactorily (GFI = 0.979–0.987; AGFI = 0.951–0.962; IFI = 0.958–0.962; CFI = 0.955–0.960, and RMSEA = 0.029–0.034). Conclusions Multiparity and jaundice of an infant were found to affect breastfeeding technique and exclusive breastfeeding initiation respectively. Breastfeeding technique was related to exclusive breastfeeding initiation according to the mode of birth. This

  4. High mortality associated with an outbreak of hepatitis E among displaced persons in Darfur, Sudan.

    PubMed

    Boccia, Delia; Guthmann, Jean-Paul; Klovstad, Hilde; Hamid, Nuha; Tatay, Mercedes; Ciglenecki, Iza; Nizou, Jacques-Yves; Nicand, Elisabeth; Guerin, Philippe Jean

    2006-06-15

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) causes acute onset of jaundice and a high case-fatality ratio in pregnant women. We provide a clinical description of hospitalized case patients and assess the specific impact on pregnant women during a large epidemic of HEV infection in a displaced population in Mornay camp (78,800 inhabitants), western Darfur, Sudan. We reviewed hospital records. A sample of 20 clinical cases underwent laboratory confirmation. These patients were tested for immunoglobulin G (IgG) and immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibody to HEV (serum) and for amplification of the HEV genome (serum and stool). We performed a cross-sectional survey in the community to determine the attack rate and case-fatality ratio in pregnant women. Over 6 months, 253 HEV cases were recorded at the hospital, of which 61 (24.1%) were in pregnant women. A total of 72 cases (39.1% of those for whom clinical records were available) had a diagnosis of hepatic encephalopathy. Of the 45 who died (case-fatality ratio, 17.8%), 19 were pregnant women (specific case-fatality ratio, 31.1%). Acute hepatitis E was confirmed in 95% (19/20) of cases sampled; 18 case-patients were positive for IgG (optical density ratio > or =3), for IgM (optical density ratio >2 ), or for both, whereas 1 was negative for IgG and IgM but positive for HEV RNA in serum. The survey identified 220 jaundiced women among the 1133 pregnant women recorded over 3 months (attack rate, 19.4%). A total of 18 deaths were recorded among these jaundiced pregnant women (specific case-fatality ratio, 8.2%). This large epidemic of HEV infection illustrates the dramatic impact of this disease on pregnant women. Timely interventions and a vaccine are urgently needed to prevent mortality in this special group.

  5. Oxidized Low-Density-Lipoprotein Accumulation is Associated with Liver Fibrosis in Experimental Cholestasis

    PubMed Central

    Karadeniz, Güldeniz; Acikgoz, Serefden; Tekin, Ishak Ozel; Tascýlar, Oge; Gun, Banu Dogan; Cömert, Mustafa

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The aim of the present study was to examine the probable relationship between the accumulation of oxLDL and hepatic fibrogenesis in cholestatic rats. INTRODUCTION There is growing evidence to support the current theories on how oxidative stress that results in lipid peroxidation is involved in the pathogenesis of cholestatic liver injury and fibrogenesis. One of the major and early lipid peroxidation products, OxLDL, is thought to play complex roles in various immuno-inflammatory mechanisms. METHODS A prolonged (21-day) experimental bile duct ligation was performed on Wistar-albino rats. Biochemical analysis of blood, histopathologic evaluation of liver, measurement of the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide-dismutase (SOD) in liver tissue homogenates, and immunofluorescent staining for oxLDL in liver tissue was conducted in bile-duct ligated (n = 8) and sham-operated rats (n = 8). RESULTS Significantly higher levels of MDA and lower concentrations of SOD were detected in jaundiced rats than in the sham-operated rats. Positive oxLDL staining was also observed in liver tissue sections of jaundiced rats. Histopathological examination demonstrated that neither fibrosis nor other indications of hepatocellular injury were found in the sham-operated group, while features of severe hepatocellular injury, particularly fibrosis, were found in jaundiced rats. CONCLUSION Our results support the finding that either oxLDLs are produced as an intermediate agent during exacerbated oxidative stress or they otherwise contribute to the various pathomechanisms underlying the process of liver fibrosis. Whatever the mechanism, it is clear that an association exists between elevated oxLDL levels and hepatocellular injury, particularly with fibrosis. Further studies are needed to evaluate the potential effects of oxLDLs on the progression of secondary biliary cirrhosis. PMID:18719767

  6. Parents' knowledge and behaviour concerning sunning their babies; a cross-sectional, descriptive study.

    PubMed

    Aladag, Nihal; Filiz, Tuncay M; Topsever, Pinar; Gorpelioglu, Suleyman

    2006-10-31

    For centuries, sunlight has been used for therapeutic purposes. Parents still sun their infants to treat neonatal jaundice, nappy rash or mostly to supply vitamin D for bone development as a consequence of health beliefs. In this study we aimed to assess knowledge and behaviour of parents about benefits of sunlight and sun protection. In this study, parents attending to governmental primary healthcare units for their children's routine vaccinations, upon their informed consent, were consecutively enrolled during one month. Data were collected by a semi-structured questionnaire. The mean age of 118 enrolled parents and their babies were 27.9 +/- 6.5 years and 8.3 +/- 5.8 months, respectively. Most of the participants were mothers (93.2%), housewives (81.4%) with an educational level of > or =6 years (71.2%). Sunlight was considered beneficial for bone development (86.4%), diaper rash (5.9%) and neonatal jaundice (12.7%). In case of neonatal jaundice 72.0% of the participants reported that they would consult a physician. Most of the participants (82.2%) were sunning their babies outdoors. Nearly half (49.7%) of them got this information from medical staff. Fifty two percent of the parents were sunning their babies before 10-11 a.m. and/or after 3 p.m. Only 13.6% of parents reported using sunscreen for their babies, and the majority of them were using sun protecting factor > or = 15. One forth of the sunscreen users was using sunscreen according to their physicians' advice. Most of the participants were aware of the benefits of sunlight; especially for bone development. However they were displaying inappropriate behaviour while sunning their babies for health reasons. More education should be given to parents about the danger of sunlight at primary health care units while advising to sun their babies, if any.

  7. Arsine Poisoning in a Slag-Washing Plant

    PubMed Central

    Kipling, M. D.; Fothergill, R.

    1964-01-01

    An investigation was carried out in an aluminium recovery works after the simultaneous occurrence of haemolytic anaemia in two workers in the slag disposal plant. The first worker was admitted to hospital suffering from nausea, backache, and haematuria. Jaundice developed on the next day. His urine contained protein, urobilin, haemoglobin, and methaemoglobin but no red cells. During the course of his illness the haemoglobin was reduced to 6·8 g./100 ml. There was no abnormality of the blood film and red cell fragility was normal. A fellow worker was affected at the same time and was treated at home for the same symptoms. Examination five days later showed a haemoglobin level similar to that of the first worker. He had suffered the same symptoms eight years previously, and at this time another worker had suffered from jaundice at home and a third had been investigated for neurological symptoms. Ten years previously another worker had been admitted to hospital with anaemia, jaundice, and haemoglobinuria. At this works scrap aluminium is melted with sodium chloride and fluorspar as a flux. The slag from the furnace is later broken up and dissolved in a rotating drum by a stream of water. The soluble portion is carried into a lagoon, whilst the 3% aluminium is retained in the drum and discharged weekly. Two men are employed at a time and another six have been employed in the past 10 years. Five parts per million of arsine were found to be present in the atmosphere during slag washing, but higher levels would have occurred on the occasions when slag from the making of an aluminium copper alloy from copper with an arsenic content was similarly treated. The mechanism of arsenic production is discussed and the literature on the role of aluminium reviewed. PMID:14106139

  8. Parents' knowledge and behaviour concerning sunning their babies; a cross-sectional, descriptive study

    PubMed Central

    Aladag, Nihal; Filiz, Tuncay M; Topsever, Pinar; Gorpelioglu, Suleyman

    2006-01-01

    Background For centuries, sunlight has been used for therapeutic purposes. Parents still sun their infants to treat neonatal jaundice, nappy rash or mostly to supply vitamin D for bone development as a consequence of health beliefs. In this study we aimed to assess knowledge and behaviour of parents about benefits of sunlight and sun protection. Methods In this study, parents attending to governmental primary healthcare units for their children's routine vaccinations, upon their informed consent, were consecutively enrolled during one month. Data were collected by a semi-structured questionnaire. Results The mean age of 118 enrolled parents and their babies were 27.9 ± 6.5 years and 8.3 ± 5.8 months, respectively. Most of the participants were mothers (93.2%), housewives (81.4%) with an educational level of ≥6 years (71.2%). Sunlight was considered beneficial for bone development (86.4%), diaper rash (5.9%) and neonatal jaundice (12.7%). In case of neonatal jaundice 72.0% of the participants reported that they would consult a physician. Most of the participants (82.2%) were sunning their babies outdoors. Nearly half (49.7%) of them got this information from medical staff. Fifty two percent of the parents were sunning their babies before 10–11 a.m. and/or after 3 p.m. Only 13.6% of parents reported using sunscreen for their babies, and the majority of them were using sun protecting factor ≥ 15. One forth of the sunscreen users was using sunscreen according to their physicians' advice. Conclusion Most of the participants were aware of the benefits of sunlight; especially for bone development. However they were displaying inappropriate behaviour while sunning their babies for health reasons. More education should be given to parents about the danger of sunlight at primary health care units while advising to sun their babies, if any. PMID:17076884

  9. Relationship of Bilirubin Levels in Infancy to Later Intellectual Development. Interim Report No. 20.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Rosalyn A.; And Others

    The relationship of bilirubin (a red bile pigment that is sometimes found in the urine and occurs in the blood and tissues in jaundice) in infancy to later intellectual development was investigated in 241 infants with moderately elevated and high bilirubin levels. Ss were administered motor, psycholinguistic, and intelligence tests at age 8…

  10. Neonatal hypocalcemia and its relation to vitamin D and calcium supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Elsary, Asmaa Y.; Elgameel, Alkassem A.; Mohammed, Wael S.; Zaki, Osman M.; Taha, Shaimaa A.

    2018-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the prevalence of hypocalcemia in outpatient clinic neonates and its relation to vitamin D and calcium supplementation. Methods: This cross-sectional analytical study was conducted at the University Teaching Hospital from May to October 2016. Data were collected from 100 neonates by interviewing mothers using a structured questionnaire; which included socio-demographic information, maternal and neonatal history; in addition to investigations of serum calcium total and ionized and serum vitamin D level. Results: The prevalence of hypocalcemia was 76%, late hypocalcemia represent 52% of hypocalcemic neonates. The prevalence of hypovitaminosis D was 38%. Hypocalcemia was found more prevalent among neonates with no history of vitamin D supplementation (98.7%), no history of maternal calcium supplementation (57.9%), while they had a history of neonatal jaundice on phototherapy (46.1%) which increased to 53.8% with late hypocalcemia. Conclusion: Neonatal hypocalcemia is widely prevalent in Fayoum governorate with significant association with a history of neonatal jaundice on phototherapy, not receiving maternal calcium or neonatal vitamin D supplementation. PMID:29543302

  11. Effect of sılymarın on oxıdatıve stress and lıver hıstopathology ın experımental obstructıve jaundıce model.

    PubMed

    Onalan, Ali Kemal; Tuncal, Salih; Kilicoglu, Sibel; Celepli, Salih; Durak, Esra; Kilicoglu, Bulent; Devrim, Erdinc; Barlas, Aziz Mutlu; Kismet, Kemal

    2016-12-01

    To investigate the effect of silymarin on oxidative stress and hepatic injury induced by obstructive jaundice in an experimental model. Thirty Wistar-Albino type female rats were divided into 3 groups each including 10 rats. Only laparotomy was performed in group 1. Bile duct ligation was performed in group 2. In group 3, bile duct ligation was performed and orogastic silymarin 300 mg/kg/day dose was given for seven days. At the end of seven days, rats were sacrificed. The blood and liver tissue samples were taken to be examined biochemically and histopathologically. The plasma and liver levels of malondialdehyde were significantly lower in silymarin group than in the bile duct ligated group. Although liver levels of GSH were significantly higher in silymarin group than in the bile duct ligated group, there was no significant difference between the plasma GSH levels of these groups. In silymarin group; the enlargement of hepatocytes, dilatation of canaliculi and the edema were regressed. Silymarin diminished the harmful effects of obstructive jaundice on liver.

  12. Acute kidney injury in symptomatic primary Epstein-Barr virus infectious mononucleosis: Systematic review.

    PubMed

    Moretti, Milena; Lava, Sebastiano A G; Zgraggen, Lorenzo; Simonetti, Giacomo D; Kottanattu, Lisa; Bianchetti, Mario G; Milani, Gregorio P

    2017-06-01

    Textbooks and reviews do not mention the association of symptomatic primary Epstein-Barr virus infectious mononucleosis with acute kidney injury in subjects without immunodeficiency or autoimmunity. Stimulated by our experience with two cases, we performed a review of the literature. The literature documents 38 cases (26 male and 12 female individuals ranging in age from 0.3 to 51, median 18 years) of symptomatic primary Epstein-Barr virus infectious mononucleosis complicated by acute kidney injury: 27 acute interstitial nephritides, 1 jaundice-associated nephropathy, 7 myositides and 3 hemolytic uremic syndromes. Acute kidney injury requiring renal replacement therapy was observed in 18 (47%) cases. Acute kidney injury did not resolve in one patient with acute interstitial nephritis. Two patients died because of systemic complications. The remaining 35 cases fully recovered. In individuals with acute symptomatic Epstein-Barr virus infectious mononucleosis, a relevant kidney injury is rare but the outcome potentially fatal. It results from interstitial nephritis, myositis-associated acute kidney injury, hemolytic uremic syndrome or jaundice-associated nephropathy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The prozone effect exerted by the complement-binding anti-Lea on anti-D.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Sanmukh R; Parekh, Kamlesh H

    2017-01-01

    Prozone phenomenon is seen with very high-titer antibodies in an immune serum. The prozone effect on anti-D by a low-titer anti-Le a was investigated associated with neonatal jaundice. Standard methods were used in investigations. The child was born at full-term developed mild jaundice. With weak direct antiglobulin test+, her indirect serum bilirubin was progressed to 27.5 mg/dL in 48 h. Anti-D and anti-Le a were detected in the mother. Both these antibodies were detected in the child's serum though the eluate from red blood cells (RBCs) contained only anti-D. Mother's anti-D was masked by anti-Le a if the RBCs possessed both the antigens together. Anti-D was revealed only with D-positive RBCs lacking Le a or if the serum was modified by mixing with Le a+ saliva or was heated at 56°C or fortified with citrate solution. An anti-D showed prozone effect exerted by the complement-fixing anti-Le a in the test.

  14. Biliary complications of cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Rajeev M; Shetty, Tilakdas S; Singh, Rajinder; Adhikari, Devbrata R; Patil, Bhushan P; Bhange, Snehal A

    2008-01-01

    Biliary complications occur because of causes such as obscure or variant anatomy, predisposing conditions such as fibrosis or severe inflammation, equipment failure, and surgeon factors. The aim of this study was to review the optimal surgical treatment. Analysis of 81 patients with bile duct injuries treated in a single referral unit over an 8.5-year period was done. Time of detection of biliary injury and its presentation were ascertained as well as the level of injury (Strasburg's). In 8 patients, injury was detected intraoperatively, and 41 were detected in the early postoperative period with bile leak (n = 25) or obstructive jaundice (n = 10). Those diagnosed in the delayed postoperative period (n = 32) presented with recurrent cholangitis (n = 9), obstructive jaundice (n = 16), and a cholestatic enzymatic profile (n = 1). Roux-en-Y hepatico-jejunostomy was the preferred option (n = 64). One patient died because of biliary peritonitis. Improper treatment is associated with disastrous results, but early recognition and correct management can lead to a successful outcome and good prognosis.

  15. Forgotten CBD stent (102 months) with stone-stent complex: A case report.

    PubMed

    Barai, Varsha; Hedawoo, Jagadish; Changole, Sanjay

    2017-01-01

    Choledocholithiasis is presence of stone in Common bile duct (CBD) which can be treated by endoscopy or surgery [1]. Retained foreign bodies like stents forms a nidus for stone formation resulting in pain, fever, jaundice. 60 years female patient admitted in surgery ward with features of cholangitis with computed tomography showing cholangitic abscess with dilated common bile duct and sludge around stent in situ. Stone was found at proximal end of stent during surgery. Stents may remain without complications or may migrate, and rarely form nidus for stone formation. If kept for long time they lead to bacterial proliferation, biofilm formation and precipitation of calcium bilirubinate presenting as fever, pain, jaundice. Stent-stone complex can be treated endoscopically and surgically [6,7]. As stent can cause stone formation, infection and other complications, timely removal of stent should advised. III-effects of stent in-situ should be explained, record should be maintained [8] and patient should be advised regular follow up and stent removal after 6 weeks. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. The molecular basis of jaundice: An old symptom revisited.

    PubMed

    Gazzin, Silvia; Masutti, Flora; Vitek, Libor; Tiribelli, Claudio

    2017-08-01

    Increased serum bilirubin level is a widely used diagnostic marker for hepatic illnesses. Nevertheless, mild elevation of unconjugated serum bilirubin (such as in Gilbert syndrome) has been recently demonstrated to correlate with low risk of chronic inflammatory and/or oxidative stress-mediated diseases. In accord, a low serum bilirubin level has emerged as an important predisposing factor or a biomarker of these pathologic conditions including cardiovascular, tumour, and possibly neurodegenerative diseases. Bilirubin possesses multiple biological actions with interaction in a complex network of enzymatic and signalling pathways. The fact that the liver is the main organ controlling the bioavailability of bilirubin emphasizes the central role of this organ in human health. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Fecundity of the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) in Lake Superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manion, Patrick J.

    1972-01-01

    An infectious agent, which appears to be a virus (RJV) has been isolated from the liver of a wild raccoon which has led to a highly fatal type of disease characterized by conjunctivitis and an elevated serum bilirubin frequently accompanied by jaundice on inoculation of raccoons. Ferrets also appear to be susceptible to infections with this agent.

  18. Leptospirosis acquired by tourists in Venice, Italy.

    PubMed

    Lagi, Filippo; Corti, Giampaolo; Meli, Massimo; Pinto, Antonella; Bartoloni, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    We present the case of two Australian tourists aged 25 and 26  years who, after immersion in a canal in Venice, developed severe leptospirosis. After a 1-week history of fever, headache, myalgia, and vomiting they developed jaundice and renal failure. Complete remission was achieved by antibiotic therapy and hemodialysis. © 2012 International Society of Travel Medicine.

  19. Emergent Readers' Recognition of Irony in "Good Dog, Carl"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milner, Joseph O.; Milner, Margie M.

    2008-01-01

    Jedediah Purdy's (2000) "For common things" laments the ironic mode of thought that characterizes our culture's mindset. He calls for a return to devotion, homage, and allegiance rather than what he sees as a jaundiced detachment that has overcome us. Purdy may be on to something, but Alexandra Day (1985) does not seem to adopt his call to a…

  20. Azithromycin induced hepatocellular toxicity and hepatic encephalopathy in asymptomatic dilated cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Das, Bidyut Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Azithromycin is a widely used macrolide derivative and has generally been considered to be a very safe medication. Though gastrointestinal symptoms and reversible hearing loss are common, potentially serious side effects including angioedema and cholestatic jaundice occurred in less than one percent of patients. We report a case of asymptomatic dilated cardiomyopathy with Azithromycin induced severe hepatocellular toxicity and hepatic encephalopathy. PMID:22144789

  1. Miniature personal UV solar dosimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, R. R.; Macconochie, I. O.; Poole, B. D., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Small light-powered meter measures accumulated radiation in ultraviolet or other selected regions. Practical advantages are device's low cost, small size, accuracy, and adaptability to specific wave-band measurements. Medical applications include detection of skin cancer, vitamin D production, and jaundice. Dosimeter also measures sunlight for solar energy designs, agriculture and meteorology, and monitors stability of materials and environmental and occupational lighting.

  2. [Perioperative management of the pancreaticoduoden-ectomy: fluid administration and nutritional support based on complication prevention and treatment].

    PubMed

    Peng, Jun-sheng; Chen, Shi

    2013-11-01

    Pancreaticoduodenectomy(PD) has been widely accepted as one of the most complicated operation in abdominal surgery. The patients who receive PD operation always have other concurrent conditions, such as jaundice, diabetes, liver dysfunction, and malnutrition. Pancreatic fistula, biliary fistula and gastrointestinal dysfunction are common complications after PD. Proper perioperative management and fluid administration can reduce postoperative complications and the mortality.

  3. Refeeding syndrome in a small-for-dates micro-preemie receiving early parenteral nutrition.

    PubMed

    Mizumoto, Hiroshi; Mikami, Masamitsu; Oda, Hirotsugu; Hata, Daisuke

    2012-10-01

    This report describes a small-for-date extremely low birth weight infant who manifested bradycardic events, respiratory failure, and hemolytic jaundice during her first week of life. These complications were attributed to severe hypophosphatemia and hypokalemia. Inadequate supply and refeeding syndrome triggered by early aggressive parenteral nutrition were responsible for electrolyte abnormalities. © 2012 The Authors. Pediatrics International © 2012 Japan Pediatric Society.

  4. /sup 99m/Tc-IDA hepatobiliary imaging following upper abdominal surgery. [IDA = acetanilide iminodiacetic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenthall, L.; Fonseca, C.; Arzoumanian, A.

    1979-03-01

    Bile flow patterns were studied with serial /sup 99m/Tc-IDA images in 19 patients with cholecysto- and choledochointestinal anastomoses, gastroenteric bypasses, and combinations of the two. Complications such as anastomotic, afferent, and efferent loop obstruction and bile leakage were readily detected even in the presence of jaundice. This noninvasive technique warrants further investigation to determine its indications and weaknesses.

  5. Psychosocial Risk Factors for Upper Respiratory Infection: Personality Predictors of URI (Upper Respiratory Illness) during Basic Training

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-08-05

    boils, (t) encephalitis, (u) hepatitis (jaundice), (v) dysentery, (w) infectious mononucleosis , (x) warts, (y) whooping cough, and (z) bron- chitis...may provide information regarding general susceptibility to infectious disease. A risk profile for upper respiratory infections, therefore, may help...develop methods for predicting and controlling the influence of infectious diseases in general, and upper respiratory infections in particular, in Navy

  6. Psychosocial Risk Factors for Upper Respiratory Infection: Demographic and Health History Predictors of URI (Upper Respiratory Illness) During Basic Training

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-07-05

    jaundice), (v) dysentery, (w) infectious mononucleosis , (x) warts, (y) whooping cough, and (z) bronchitis. Other Diseases: Thirteen items with a "true...substantial, and knowledge about susceptibility to URIs may provide information regarding general susceptibility to infectious disease. A risk profile for...upper respiratory infections, therefore, may help develop methods for predicting and controlling the influence of infectious diseases in general, and

  7. Improved Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma Diagnosis in Jaundiced and Non-Jaundiced Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma Patients through the Combination of Routine Clinical Markers Associated to Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma Pathophysiology.

    PubMed

    Ferri, María José; Saez, Marc; Figueras, Joan; Fort, Esther; Sabat, Miriam; López-Ben, Santiago; de Llorens, Rafael; Aleixandre, Rosa Núria; Peracaula, Rosa

    2016-01-01

    There is still no reliable biomarker for the diagnosis of pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA 19-9) is a tumor marker only recommended for pancreatic adenocarcinoma follow-up. One of the clinical problems lies in distinguishing between this cancer and other benign pancreatic diseases such as chronic pancreatitis. In this study we will assess the value of panels of serum molecules related to pancreatic cancer physiopathology to determine whether alone or in combination could help to discriminate between these two pathologies. CA 19-9, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), C-reactive protein, albumin, insulin growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and IGF binding protein-3 were measured using routine clinical analyzers in a cohort of 47 pancreatic adenocarcinoma, 20 chronic pancreatitis and 15 healthy controls. The combination of CA 19-9, IGF-1 and albumin resulted in a combined area under the curve (AUC) of 0.959 with 93.6% sensitivity and 95% specificity, much higher than CA 19-9 alone. An algorithm was defined to classify the patients as chronic pancreatitis or pancreatic cancer with the above specificity and sensitivity. In an independent validation group of 20 pancreatic adenocarcinoma and 13 chronic pancreatitis patients, the combination of the four molecules classified correctly all pancreatic adenocarcinoma and 12 out of 13 chronic pancreatitis patients. Although this panel of markers should be validated in larger cohorts, the high sensitivity and specificity values and the convenience to measure these parameters in clinical laboratories shows great promise for improving pancreatic adenocarcinoma diagnosis.

  8. Grave's Disease with Severe Hepatic Dysfunction: A Diagnostic and Therapeutic Challenge.

    PubMed

    Bhuyan, Ashok Krishna; Sarma, Dipti; Kaimal Saikia, Uma; Choudhury, Bipul Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Hepatic dysfunction in a patient with thyrotoxicosis may result from hyperthyroidism per se, as a side effect of antithyroid drugs, and causes unrelated to hyperthyroidism which sometimes causes diagnostic and therapeutic difficulties. A young female patient was admitted to our hospital with symptoms of thyrotoxicosis, diffuse goiter and ophthalmopathy along with cholestatic pattern of jaundice, and proximal muscle weakness. She was treated with propylthiouracil with gradual recovery. She was continuing her antithyroid medication with regular follow-up. The patient was readmitted a few months later with worsening thyrotoxicosis, proximal muscle weakness, fever, and a hepatocellular pattern of jaundice with sepsis. Propylthiouracil was stopped and lithium along with steroid coverage was given to control her thyrotoxicosis which was later changed to methimazole. Broad spectrum antibiotic therapy was also started but without any response. During her hospital stay, the patient also developed a flaccid paraplegia resembling Guillain-Barre syndrome. IV steroid was started for the neuropathy but meanwhile the patient succumbed to her illness. So in centers where facility for radioiodine therapy is not readily available, some definite well-tested protocols should be formulated to address such common but complicated clinical situations.

  9. Grave's Disease with Severe Hepatic Dysfunction: A Diagnostic and Therapeutic Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Sarma, Dipti; Kaimal Saikia, Uma; Choudhury, Bipul Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Hepatic dysfunction in a patient with thyrotoxicosis may result from hyperthyroidism per se, as a side effect of antithyroid drugs, and causes unrelated to hyperthyroidism which sometimes causes diagnostic and therapeutic difficulties. A young female patient was admitted to our hospital with symptoms of thyrotoxicosis, diffuse goiter and ophthalmopathy along with cholestatic pattern of jaundice, and proximal muscle weakness. She was treated with propylthiouracil with gradual recovery. She was continuing her antithyroid medication with regular follow-up. The patient was readmitted a few months later with worsening thyrotoxicosis, proximal muscle weakness, fever, and a hepatocellular pattern of jaundice with sepsis. Propylthiouracil was stopped and lithium along with steroid coverage was given to control her thyrotoxicosis which was later changed to methimazole. Broad spectrum antibiotic therapy was also started but without any response. During her hospital stay, the patient also developed a flaccid paraplegia resembling Guillain-Barre syndrome. IV steroid was started for the neuropathy but meanwhile the patient succumbed to her illness. So in centers where facility for radioiodine therapy is not readily available, some definite well-tested protocols should be formulated to address such common but complicated clinical situations. PMID:25317178

  10. Neonatal intrahepatic cholestasis caused by citrin deficiency in two Malaysian siblings: outcome at one year of life.

    PubMed

    Thong, M K; Boey, C C; Sheng, J S; Ushikai, M; Kobayashi, K

    2010-01-01

    We report two Malaysian siblings with neonatal intrahepatic cholestasis caused by citrin deficiency (NICCD). The younger sibling, a six-month-old Chinese girl, presented with prolonged neonatal jaundice, and was investigated for biliary atresia. Urine metabolic screen showed the presence of urinary-reducing sugars, and she was treated with a lactose-free formula. NICCD was suspected based on the clinical history, examination and presence of urinary citrulline. Mutation study of the SLC25A13 gene showed the compound heterozygotes, 851del4 and IVS16ins3kb, which confirmed the diagnosis of NICCD in the patient and her three-year-old female sibling, who also had unexplained neonatal cholestasis. Long-term dietary advice, medical surveillance and genetic counselling were provided to the family. The diagnosis of NICCD should be considered in infants with unexplained prolonged jaundice. DNA-based genetic testing of the SLC25A13 gene may be performed to confirm the diagnosis retrospectively. An awareness of this condition may help in early diagnosis using appropriate metabolic and biochemical investigations, thus avoiding invasive investigations in infants with neonatal cholestasis caused by NICCD.

  11. Diagnostic pitfalls in the assessment of congenital hypopituitarism.

    PubMed

    Cavarzere, Paolo; Biban, Paolo; Gaudino, Rossella; Perlini, Silvia; Sartore, Lorenzo; Chini, Lorenza; Silvagni, Davide; Antoniazzi, Franco

    2014-12-01

    The diagnosis of congenital hypopituitarism is difficult and often delayed because its symptoms are nonspecific. To describe the different clinical presentations of children with congenital hypopituitarism to reduce the time for diagnosis and to begin a precocious and appropriate treatment. We analyzed a cohort of five children with congenital hypopituitarism, describing their clinical, biochemical and radiological characteristics from the birth to diagnosis. As first sign of the disease, all of five patients presented a neonatal hypoglycemia, associated in four cases with jaundice. In all these four cases, the clinicians hypothesized a metabolic disease delaying the diagnosis, which was performed in only two cases within the neonatal period. In the other three cases, the diagnosis was formulated at 2, 5 and 8 years of life because there was severe and precocious growth impairment. It is important to suspect congenital hypopituitarism in the presence of persistent neonatal hypoglycemia associated with jaundice and of a precocious and severe reduction of the growth velocity in childhood. In all these cases, it is necessary to undertake a hypothalamic-pituitary magnetic resonance imaging scan as soon as possible, and to start appropriate treatment.

  12. A green and facile approach for synthesizing imine to develop optical biosensor for wide range detection of bilirubin in human biofluids.

    PubMed

    Ellairaja, Sundaram; Shenbagavalli, Kathiravan; Ponmariappan, Sarkaraisamy; Vasantha, Vairathevar Sivasamy

    2017-05-15

    Bilirubin, a key biomarker for the jaundice and its clinical diagnosis needs a better analytical tool. A novel and simple fluorescent platform based on (2,2'-((1E,1'E)-((6-bromopyridine-2,3-diyl) bis(azanylylidene)) bis(methanylylidene diphenol) (BAMD) was designed. BAMD showed a remarkable fluorescent intensity with a very good quantum yield of 0.85 and lifetime of 870ps. Hence, it was applied for the determination of bilirubin using both colorimetric and fluorimetric techniques in physiological and basic pH. Under optimized experimental conditions, the probe detects bilirubin selectively in the presence of other interfering biomolecules and metal ions. The linear range of detection is 1pM-500µM at pH=7.4 and LOD is 2.8 and 3.3 pM at pH=7.4 and 9.0, respectively, which were reported so far. The probe detects the bilirubin through FRET mechanism. The practical application of the probe was successfully tested in the human blood and urine samples. Based on all above advantages, this simple idea can be applied to design a simple clinical diagnostic tool for jaundice. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. A case of an infant with congenital combined pituitary hormone deficiency and normalized liver histology of infantile cholestasis after hormone replacement therapy.

    PubMed

    Wada, Keisuke; Kobayashi, Hironori; Moriyama, Aisa; Haneda, Yasuhiro; Mushimoto, Yuichi; Hasegawa, Yuki; Onigata, Kazumichi; Kumori, Koji; Ishikawa, Noriyoshi; Maruyama, Riruke; Sogo, Tsuyoshi; Murphy, Lynne; Taketani, Takeshi

    2017-01-01

    Congenital combined pituitary hormone deficiency (CPHD) may present with cholestasis in the neonate or during early infancy. However, its precise mechanism is unknown. A 3-mo-old boy presented with cryptorchidism and hypoplastic scrotum after birth. Neonatal jaundice was noted but temporarily improved with phototherapy. Jaundice recurred at 2 mo of age. Elevated direct bilirubin (D-Bil) and liver dysfunction were found but cholangiography showed no signs of biliary atresia (BA). Liver biopsy findings showed giant cell formation of hepatocytes with hypoplastic bile ducts. Subsequent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the head revealed a hypoplastic pituitary gland with an ectopic posterior lobe, and the patient was diagnosed with congenital CPHD based on decreased secretion of cortisol and GH by the pituitary anterior lobe load test. D-Bil levels promptly improved after hydrocortisone (HDC) replacement. We subsequently began replacement with levothyroxine (L-T 4 ) and GH, and liver histology showed normal interlobular bile ducts at 8 mo old. This is the first case report of proven histological improvement after hormone replacement therapy. This suggested that pituitary-mediated hormones, especially cortisol, might be involved in the development of the bile ducts.

  14. A case of an infant with congenital combined pituitary hormone deficiency and normalized liver histology of infantile cholestasis after hormone replacement therapy

    PubMed Central

    Wada, Keisuke; Kobayashi, Hironori; Moriyama, Aisa; Haneda, Yasuhiro; Mushimoto, Yuichi; Hasegawa, Yuki; Onigata, Kazumichi; Kumori, Koji; Ishikawa, Noriyoshi; Maruyama, Riruke; Sogo, Tsuyoshi; Murphy, Lynne; Taketani, Takeshi

    2017-01-01

    Abstract. Congenital combined pituitary hormone deficiency (CPHD) may present with cholestasis in the neonate or during early infancy. However, its precise mechanism is unknown. A 3-mo-old boy presented with cryptorchidism and hypoplastic scrotum after birth. Neonatal jaundice was noted but temporarily improved with phototherapy. Jaundice recurred at 2 mo of age. Elevated direct bilirubin (D-Bil) and liver dysfunction were found but cholangiography showed no signs of biliary atresia (BA). Liver biopsy findings showed giant cell formation of hepatocytes with hypoplastic bile ducts. Subsequent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the head revealed a hypoplastic pituitary gland with an ectopic posterior lobe, and the patient was diagnosed with congenital CPHD based on decreased secretion of cortisol and GH by the pituitary anterior lobe load test. D-Bil levels promptly improved after hydrocortisone (HDC) replacement. We subsequently began replacement with levothyroxine (L-T4) and GH, and liver histology showed normal interlobular bile ducts at 8 mo old. This is the first case report of proven histological improvement after hormone replacement therapy. This suggested that pituitary-mediated hormones, especially cortisol, might be involved in the development of the bile ducts. PMID:29026274

  15. Measurement of plasma unbound unconjugated bilirubin.

    PubMed

    Ahlfors, C E

    2000-03-15

    A method is described for measuring the unconjugated fraction of the unbound bilirubin concentration in plasma by combining the peroxidase method for determining unbound bilirubin with a diazo method for measuring conjugated and unconjugated bilirubin. The accuracy of the unbound bilirubin determination is improved by decreasing sample dilution, eliminating interference by conjugated bilirubin, monitoring changes in bilirubin concentration using diazo derivatives, and correcting for rate-limiting dissociation of bilirubin from albumin. The unbound unconjugated bilirubin concentration by the combined method in plasma from 20 jaundiced newborns was significantly greater than and poorly correlated with the unbound bilirubin determined by the existing peroxidase method (r = 0.7), possibly due to differences in sample dilution between the methods. The unbound unconjugated bilirubin was an unpredictable fraction of the unbound bilirubin in plasma samples from patients with similar total bilirubin concentrations but varying levels of conjugated bilirubin. A bilirubin-binding competitor was readily detected at a sample dilution typically used for the combined test but not at the dilution used for the existing peroxidase method. The combined method is ideally suited to measuring unbound unconjugated bilirubin in jaundiced human newborns or animal models of kernicterus. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  16. Acute liver damage and ecstasy ingestion.

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, A J; Wendon, J A; Portmann, B; Williams, R

    1996-01-01

    Eight cases of ecstasy related acute liver damage referred to a specialised liver unit are described. Two patients presented after collapse within six hours of ecstasy ingestion with hyperthermia, hypotension, fitting, and subsequently disseminated intravascular coagulation with rhabdomyolysis together with biochemical evidence of severe hepatic damage. One patient recovered and the other with evidence of hyperacute liver failure was transplanted but subsequently died, histological examination showing widespread microvesicular fatty change. Four patients presented with acute liver failure without hyperthermia. All four fulfilled criteria for transplantation, one died before a donor organ became available, and two died within one month post-transplantation of overwhelming sepsis. Histological examination showed submassive lobular collapse. Two patients presented with abdominal pain and jaundice and recovered over a period of three weeks; histological examination showed a lobular hepatitis with cholestasis. Patients developing jaundice or with evidence of hepatic failure particularly encephalopathy and prolongation of the international normalised ratio, or both, whether or not preceded by hyperthermia, should be referred to a specialised liver unit as liver transplantation probably provides the only chance of recovery. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:8675102

  17. Newborn Screening for Biliary Atresia.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kasper S

    2015-12-01

    Biliary atresia is the most common cause of pediatric end-stage liver disease and the leading indication for pediatric liver transplantation. Affected infants exhibit evidence of biliary obstruction within the first few weeks after birth. Early diagnosis and successful surgical drainage of bile are associated with greater survival with the child's native liver. Unfortunately, because noncholestatic jaundice is extremely common in early infancy, it is difficult to identify the rare infant with cholestatic jaundice who has biliary atresia. Hence, the need for timely diagnosis of this disease warrants a discussion of the feasibility of screening for biliary atresia to improve outcomes. Herein, newborn screening for biliary atresia in the United States is assessed by using criteria established by the Discretionary Advisory Committee on Heritable Disorders in Newborns and Children. Published analyses indicate that newborn screening for biliary atresia by using serum bilirubin concentrations or stool color cards is potentially life-saving and cost-effective. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the feasibility, effectiveness, and costs of potential screening strategies for early identification of biliary atresia in the United States. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  18. Acute renal failure: unusual complication of Epstein-Barr virus-induced infectious mononucleosis.

    PubMed

    Lei, P S; Lowichik, A; Allen, W; Mauch, T J

    2000-12-01

    A 17-year-old boy with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis presented with jaundice, confusion, hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, and acute renal failure secondary to titer-confirmed acute Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Renal biopsy specimen revealed interstitial nephritis with an inflammatory infiltrate composed of cytotoxic/suppressor T cells, and interstitial mononuclear cell nuclei expressed EBV encoded RNA-1 (EBER-1) mRNA. Methylprednisolone treatment resulted in rapid improvement.

  19. Electron Microscopy of Intracellular Protozoa.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-08-15

    parxysm due to the increased metabolism during the fever or to hepatic cell damage. In P. knowlesi infection in monkeys, 23 I. I hypoglyceinia has...convoluted and collecting tubules (Winslow et al. , 1975). Blackwater fever is an acute hemolytic condition associated with fever , anemia, jaundice, and...history of irregular chemosuppression or inadequate chemotherapy, especially with quinine. The diagnosis of blackwatcr fever can be made only in patients

  20. Regional lipiodolized chemotherapy for cholangiocarcinoma associated with oral contraceptives.

    PubMed Central

    McAleer, J. J.; Dickey, W.; Clarke, R.; Johnston, G. W.; Callender, M. E.

    1987-01-01

    We describe a case of cholangiocarcinoma in a young woman, who presented with cholestatic jaundice following oral contraceptive ingestion. Following diagnostic laparotomy she received intra-arterial 'lipiodolized' chemotherapy. Intravenous mitozantrone was given for 2 years and she is asymptomatic, with computed tomographic evidence of tumour response, 27 months after diagnosis. We suggest that this form of treatment is of value for cholangiocarcinoma. PMID:2821526