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Sample records for java citronella cymbopogon

  1. Vermicomposting of distillation waste of citronella plant (Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt.) employing Eudrilus eugeniae.

    PubMed

    Deka, H; Deka, S; Baruah, C K; Das, J; Hoque, S; Sarma, N S

    2011-07-01

    Laboratory experiment on vermicomposting of distillation waste of java citronella (Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt.) was carried out employing Eudrilus eugeniae, in two seasonal trials, covering summer and winter periods. Two vermicomposting treatments were conducted in earthen pots, one with citronella plant waste only (CW) and the other, a mixture of citronella waste and cowdung in the proportion 5:1 (CW+CD). Vermicomposting of citronella waste resulted reduction in C/N ratio (83.5-87.7%), enhancement of ash content and a number of macro and micronutrients. The FT-IR spectroscopy of the vermicompost revealed the reduction in aliphatic and aromatic compound as well as increase in amide group after the 105 days stabilization process. The vermicompost output was significantly enhanced in CW+CD treatment than CW treatment. Even, nutrient content of the vermicompost was also higher in CW+CD treatment than CW alone indicating the positive role of cowdung in improvement of quantity and quality.

  2. Influence of extraction methodologies on the analysis of five major volatile aromatic compounds of citronella grass (Cymbopogon nardus) and lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) grown in Thailand

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infusions of citronella grass (Cymbopogon nardus) and lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) have been commonly used in folk medicine in Thailand and other Asian countries. This study focuses on a systematic comparison of two extraction methods for major volatile aromatic compounds (VACs) of citronella g...

  3. ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF Cymbopogon nardus (L.) Rendle (CITRONELLA) AGAINST Microsporum canis FROM ANIMALS AND HOME ENVIRONMENT

    PubMed Central

    CAPOCI, Isis Regina Grenier; da CUNHA, Michele Milano; BONFIM-MENDONÇA, Patricia de Souza; GHIRALDI-LOPES, Luciana Dias; BAEZA, Lilian Cristiane; KIOSHIMA, Erika Seki; SVIDZINSKI, Terezinha Inez Estivalet

    2015-01-01

    Dermatophytosis is a common zoonosis in urban centers. Dogs and cats have played an important role as its disseminators. Environmental decontamination is essential for the prevention of its propagation to humans and animals. However, sanitizers or disinfectants with antifungal activity, currently available, have high toxicity. The present study evaluated the in vitro effects of an extract of citronella (Cymbopogon nardus) on 31 Microsporum canis isolates from animals and home environments. Susceptibility tests were performed based on document M38-A2 (2008) of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute with modifications for natural products. Although susceptibility variation was observed between the fungus tested, the concentrations that inhibited the growth of 50 and 90% of the microorganisms were low (19.5 and 78 µg/mL, respectively). Thus, this citronella extract showed potent fungistatic and fungicide activities against M. canis isolated from animals and home environments. Therefore, it could be an alternative for dermatophytosis prophylaxis in the home environment. PMID:27049705

  4. ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF Cymbopogon nardus (L.) Rendle (CITRONELLA) AGAINST Microsporum canis FROM ANIMALS AND HOME ENVIRONMENT.

    PubMed

    Capoci, Isis Regina Grenier; Cunha, Michele Milano da; Bonfim-Mendonça, Patricia de Souza; Ghiraldi-Lopes, Luciana Dias; Baeza, Lilian Cristiane; Kioshima, Erika Seki; Svidzinski, Terezinha Inez Estivalet

    2015-12-01

    Dermatophytosis is a common zoonosis in urban centers. Dogs and cats have played an important role as its disseminators. Environmental decontamination is essential for the prevention of its propagation to humans and animals. However, sanitizers or disinfectants with antifungal activity, currently available, have high toxicity. The present study evaluated the in vitro effects of an extract of citronella (Cymbopogon nardus) on 31 Microsporum canis isolates from animals and home environments. Susceptibility tests were performed based on document M38-A2 (2008) of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute with modifications for natural products. Although susceptibility variation was observed between the fungus tested, the concentrations that inhibited the growth of 50 and 90% of the microorganisms were low (19.5 and 78 µg/mL, respectively). Thus, this citronella extract showed potent fungistatic and fungicide activities against M. canis isolated from animals and home environments. Therefore, it could be an alternative for dermatophytosis prophylaxis in the home environment.

  5. Vermicomposting potentiality of Perionyx excavatus for recycling of waste biomass of Java citronella--an aromatic oil yielding plant.

    PubMed

    Deka, H; Deka, S; Baruah, C K; Das, J; Hoque, S; Sarma, H; Sarma, N S

    2011-12-01

    Laboratory investigation on vermicomposting efficacy of Perionyx excavatus for recycling of distillation waste biomass of java citronella (Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt) was carried out in two seasonal trials i.e. summer and winter periods. The experiment was conducted in earthen pots using a mixture of citronella waste material and cowdung in the proportion of 5:1. A control treatment without earthworms was setup for comparison of the results. The vermicompost had shown 5.8 folds reduction in C/N ratio and 5.6 folds enhancement in ash content. The nutrient contents (N, P, K, Ca and Mg) in the vermicompost had increase in the range of 1.2 - 4.1 fold than the initial level. The FT-IR spectra of the vermicompost confirmed increase in nitrogen rich compounds and decrease in aliphatic/aromatic compounds as compared to the initial level of the biowaste materials. The vermicomposting process is influenced by seasonal variation and summer was more productive than winter.

  6. Solvent-Free Production of Bioflavors by Enzymatic Esterification of Citronella (Cymbopogon winterianus) Essential Oil.

    PubMed

    Paroul, Natália; Grzegozeski, Luana Paula; Chiaradia, Viviane; Treichel, Helen; Cansian, Rogério L; Oliveira, J Vladimir; de Oliveira, Débora

    2012-01-01

    Enzymatic esterification of citronella essential oil towards the production of geranyl and citronellyl esters may present great scientific and technological interest due to the well-known drawbacks of the chemical-catalyzed route. In this context, this work reports the maximization of geranyl and citronellyl esters production by esterification of oleic and propionic acids in a solvent-free system using a commercial immobilized lipase as catalyst. Results of the reactions showed that the strategy adopted for the experimental design proved to be useful in evaluating the effects of the studied variables on the reaction conversion using Novozym 435 as catalyst. The operating conditions that maximized the production of each ester were determined, leading, in a general way, to conversions of about 90% for all systems. New experimental data on enzymatic esterification of crude citronella essential oil for geranyl and citronellyl esters production in solvent-free system are reported in this work.

  7. Influence of extraction methodologies on the analysis of five major volatile aromatic compounds of citronella grass (Cymbopogon nardus) and lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) grown in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Chanthai, Saksit; Prachakoll, Sujitra; Ruangviriyachai, Chalerm; Luthria, Devanand L

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with the systematic comparison of extraction of major volatile aromatic compounds (VACs) of citronella grass and lemongrass by classical microhydrodistillation (MHD), as well as modern accelerated solvent extraction (ASE). Sixteen VACs were identified by GC/MS. GC-flame ionization detection was used for the quantification of five VACs (citronellal, citronellol, geraniol, citral, and eugenol) to compare the extraction efficiency of the two different methods. Linear range, LOD, and LOQ were calculated for the five VACs. Intraday and interday precisions for the analysis of VACs were determined for each sample. The extraction recovery, as calculated by a spiking experiment with known standards of VACs, by ASE and MHD ranged from 64.9 to 91.2% and 74.3 to 95.2%, respectively. The extraction efficiency of the VACs was compared for three solvents of varying polarities (hexane, dichloromethane, and methanol), seven different temperatures (ranging from 40 to 160 degrees C, with a gradual increment of 20 degrees C), five time periods (from 1 to 10 min), and three cycles (1, 2, and 3 repeated extractions). Optimum extraction yields of VACs were obtained when extractions were carried out for 7 min with dichloromethane and two extraction cycles at 120 degrees C. The results showed that the ASE technique is more efficient than MHD, as it results in improved yields and significant reduction in extraction time with automated extraction capabilities.

  8. Photosynthetic Rates of Citronella and Lemongrass 1

    PubMed Central

    Herath, H. M. Walter; Ormrod, Douglas P.

    1979-01-01

    Ten selections of citronella (Cymbopogon nardus [L.] Rendle) were grown at 32/27, 27/21, or 15/10 C day/night temperatures, and plants from three populations of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus [D.C.] Stapf from Japan or Sri Lanka and Cymbopogon flexuosus [D.C.] Stapf from India) were grown at 8- or 15-hour photoperiods. Net photosynthetic rates of mature leaves were measured in a controlled environment at 25 C and 260 microeinsteins per meter2 per second. Rates declined with increasing leaf age, and from the tip to the base of the leaf blade. Rates for citronella leaves grown at 15/10 C were extremely low for all selections. Highest rates of net photosynthesis were recorded for four selections grown at 27/21 C and for two selections grown at 32/27 C. Lemongrass grown at 8-hour photoperiod had higher photosynthetic rates than that grown at 15-hour photoperiod. PMID:16660737

  9. Photosynthetic rates of citronella and lemongrass.

    PubMed

    Herath, H M; Ormrod, D P

    1979-02-01

    Ten selections of citronella (Cymbopogon nardus [L.] Rendle) were grown at 32/27, 27/21, or 15/10 C day/night temperatures, and plants from three populations of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus [D.C.] Stapf from Japan or Sri Lanka and Cymbopogon flexuosus [D.C.] Stapf from India) were grown at 8- or 15-hour photoperiods. Net photosynthetic rates of mature leaves were measured in a controlled environment at 25 C and 260 microeinsteins per meter(2) per second. Rates declined with increasing leaf age, and from the tip to the base of the leaf blade. Rates for citronella leaves grown at 15/10 C were extremely low for all selections. Highest rates of net photosynthesis were recorded for four selections grown at 27/21 C and for two selections grown at 32/27 C. Lemongrass grown at 8-hour photoperiod had higher photosynthetic rates than that grown at 15-hour photoperiod.

  10. Carbon dioxide compensation values in citronella and lemongrass.

    PubMed

    Herath, H M; Ormrod, D P

    1977-04-01

    Carbon dioxide compensation values of mature leaves from 10 selections of citronella (Cymbopogon nardus [L.] Rendle) grown at 32/27 or 27/21 C day/night temperatures and three strains of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus [D.C.] Stapf. and Cymbopogon flexuosus [D.C.] Stapf.) grown at 8- or 15-hour photoperiods were measured in a controlled environment at 25 C. All leaves had low compensation values but citronella varied from 1.3 to 9.7 mul/liter and lemongrass from 0.7 to 3.5 mul/liter. Lower growing temperature generally resulted in lower compensation values for citronella but there was no consistent photoperiod effect on lemongrass.

  11. 27 CFR 21.105 - Citronella oil, natural.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Citronella oil, natural. 21.105 Section 21.105 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU....105 Citronella oil, natural. (a) Java type: (1) Alcohol content (as Geraniol). Not less than...

  12. 27 CFR 21.105 - Citronella oil, natural.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Citronella oil, natural. 21.105 Section 21.105 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU....105 Citronella oil, natural. (a) Java type: (1) Alcohol content (as Geraniol). Not less than...

  13. Formulas of components of citronella oil against mosquitoes (Aedes aegypti).

    PubMed

    Hsu, Wey-Shin; Yen, Jui-Hung; Wang, Yei-Shung

    2013-01-01

    The mosquito Aedes aegypti is an epidemic vector of several diseases such as dengue fever and yellow fever. Several pesticides are used to control the mosquito population. Because of their frequent use, some mosquitoes have developed resistance. In this study, we used the Y-tube olfactometer to test essential oils of Cymbopogon species and screened specific formulas of components as repellents against Ae. aegypti. At 400 μL, the extracted oil of citronella grass (Cymbopogon nardus) and myrcene produced a low-active response by inhibiting mosquito host-seeking activity. Citronella grass, lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus), citral and myrcene also produced a low-treatment response to repellents, for more potential to affect host-seeking behavior. Furthermore, the mixture of citral, myrcene, and citronellal oil (C:M:Ci = 6:4:1) greatly affected and inhibited host-seeking behavior (76% active response; 26% treatment response with 40 μL; 42.5%, 18% with 400 μL; and 19%, 23% with 1000 μL). As compared with the result for N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET; 44%, 22% with 400 μL), adjusting the composition formulas of citronella oil had a synergistic effect, for more effective repellent against Ae. aegypti.

  14. Acaricidal properties of the formulations based on essential oils from Cymbopogon winterianus and Syzygium aromaticum plants.

    PubMed

    de Mello, Valéria; Prata, Márcia Cristina de Azevedo; da Silva, Márcio Roberto; Daemon, Erik; da Silva, Luciane Santos; Guimarães, Flávia del Gaudio; de Mendonça, Alessandra Esther; Folly, Evelize; Vilela, Fernanda Maria Pinto; do Amaral, Lilian Henriques; Cabral, Lucio Mendes; do Amaral, Maria da Penha Henriques

    2014-12-01

    The cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, has caused serious harm to livestock raising in Brazil, considering the costs of controlling it, loss of revenue due to smaller production of milk and meat, and damage to leather, in addition to transmitting diseases. The use of medicinal plants is considered an alternative to the recurring resistance to chemicals. Due to the need for efficient alternatives with less environmental impact, this study aimed to develop contact formulations with essential oils from the Java citronella (Cymbopogon winterianus) and clove (Syzygium aromaticum) plants and to assess in vitro the effects in different stages of the tick cycle. In the present study, concentrations from 0.5-15.0% of the essential oils incorporated in the formulations were used. The ticks from different geographical areas were treated with those formulations, and their effects on the production levels of eggs, on the larvae hatching, and their efficiency on ticks were assessed. The obtained results were compared with other commercial acaricidal products. After the 20th day of treatment, the formulations with citronella essential oil had 2.09-55.51% efficiency, depending on the concentration of the oil incorporated. The efficiency of the treatment with formulations containing clove essential oil was higher, from 92.47-100%. The results showed the acaricidal effects of the formulations tested when compared to commercial chemical products. In vivo studies should be performed in order to assess the efficiency of those formulations in the fields, aiming to use these products as an alternative for controlling cattle ticks.

  15. Effects of inhaled citronella oil and related compounds on rat body weight and brown adipose tissue sympathetic nerve.

    PubMed

    Batubara, Irmanida; Suparto, Irma H; Sa'diah, Siti; Matsuoka, Ryunosuke; Mitsunaga, Tohru

    2015-03-12

    Citronella oil is one of the most famous Indonesian essential oils, having a distinctive aroma. As with other essential oils, it is crucial to explore the effects of inhalation of this oil. Therefore, the aim of this research was to elucidate the effects of inhalation of citronella oil and its components isolated from Cymbopogon nardus L. (Poaceae), Indonesian local name: "Sereh Wangi" on the body weight, blood lipid profile, and liver function of rats, as well as on the sympathetic nerve activity and temperature of brown adipose tissue. Sprague-Dawley male adult rats fed with high fat diet (HFD) were made to inhale citronella oil, R-(+)-citronellal, and β-citronellol for five weeks, and the observations were compared to those of HFD rats that were not subjected to inhalation treatment. The results showed that inhalation of β-citronellol decreased feed consumption. As a consequence, the percentage of weight gain decreased compared with that in control group and the blood cholesterol level in the β-citronellol group was significantly lowered. Concentration of liver function enzymes were not significantly different among the groups. In conclusion, inhalation of citronella oil, specifically β-citronellol, decreased body weight by decreasing appetite, without any marked changes in liver enzyme concentrations.

  16. Effects of Inhaled Citronella Oil and Related Compounds on Rat Body Weight and Brown Adipose Tissue Sympathetic Nerve

    PubMed Central

    Batubara, Irmanida; Suparto, Irma H.; Sa’diah, Siti; Matsuoka, Ryunosuke; Mitsunaga, Tohru

    2015-01-01

    Citronella oil is one of the most famous Indonesian essential oils, having a distinctive aroma. As with other essential oils, it is crucial to explore the effects of inhalation of this oil. Therefore, the aim of this research was to elucidate the effects of inhalation of citronella oil and its components isolated from Cymbopogon nardus L. (Poaceae), Indonesian local name: “Sereh Wangi” on the body weight, blood lipid profile, and liver function of rats, as well as on the sympathetic nerve activity and temperature of brown adipose tissue. Sprague-Dawley male adult rats fed with high fat diet (HFD) were made to inhale citronella oil, R-(+)-citronellal, and β-citronellol for five weeks, and the observations were compared to those of HFD rats that were not subjected to inhalation treatment. The results showed that inhalation of β-citronellol decreased feed consumption. As a consequence, the percentage of weight gain decreased compared with that in control group and the blood cholesterol level in the β-citronellol group was significantly lowered. Concentration of liver function enzymes were not significantly different among the groups. In conclusion, inhalation of citronella oil, specifically β-citronellol, decreased body weight by decreasing appetite, without any marked changes in liver enzyme concentrations. PMID:25774603

  17. Genome wide transcriptome profiling reveals differential gene expression in secondary metabolite pathway of Cymbopogon winterianus

    PubMed Central

    Devi, Kamalakshi; Mishra, Surajit K.; Sahu, Jagajjit; Panda, Debashis; Modi, Mahendra K.; Sen, Priyabrata

    2016-01-01

    Advances in transcriptome sequencing provide fast, cost-effective and reliable approach to generate large expression datasets especially suitable for non-model species to identify putative genes, key pathway and regulatory mechanism. Citronella (Cymbopogon winterianus) is an aromatic medicinal grass used for anti-tumoral, antibacterial, anti-fungal, antiviral, detoxifying and natural insect repellent properties. Despite of having number of utilities, the genes involved in terpenes biosynthetic pathway is not yet clearly elucidated. The present study is a pioneering attempt to generate an exhaustive molecular information of secondary metabolite pathway and to increase genomic resources in Citronella. Using high-throughput RNA-Seq technology, root and leaf transcriptome was analysed at an unprecedented depth (11.7 Gb). Targeted searches identified majority of the genes associated with metabolic pathway and other natural product pathway viz. antibiotics synthesis along with many novel genes. Terpenoid biosynthesis genes comparative expression results were validated for 15 unigenes by RT-PCR and qRT-PCR. Thus the coverage of these transcriptome is comprehensive enough to discover all known genes of major metabolic pathways. This transcriptome dataset can serve as important public information for gene expression, genomics and function genomics studies in Citronella and shall act as a benchmark for future improvement of the crop. PMID:26877149

  18. Genome wide transcriptome profiling reveals differential gene expression in secondary metabolite pathway of Cymbopogon winterianus.

    PubMed

    Devi, Kamalakshi; Mishra, Surajit K; Sahu, Jagajjit; Panda, Debashis; Modi, Mahendra K; Sen, Priyabrata

    2016-02-15

    Advances in transcriptome sequencing provide fast, cost-effective and reliable approach to generate large expression datasets especially suitable for non-model species to identify putative genes, key pathway and regulatory mechanism. Citronella (Cymbopogon winterianus) is an aromatic medicinal grass used for anti-tumoral, antibacterial, anti-fungal, antiviral, detoxifying and natural insect repellent properties. Despite of having number of utilities, the genes involved in terpenes biosynthetic pathway is not yet clearly elucidated. The present study is a pioneering attempt to generate an exhaustive molecular information of secondary metabolite pathway and to increase genomic resources in Citronella. Using high-throughput RNA-Seq technology, root and leaf transcriptome was analysed at an unprecedented depth (11.7 Gb). Targeted searches identified majority of the genes associated with metabolic pathway and other natural product pathway viz. antibiotics synthesis along with many novel genes. Terpenoid biosynthesis genes comparative expression results were validated for 15 unigenes by RT-PCR and qRT-PCR. Thus the coverage of these transcriptome is comprehensive enough to discover all known genes of major metabolic pathways. This transcriptome dataset can serve as important public information for gene expression, genomics and function genomics studies in Citronella and shall act as a benchmark for future improvement of the crop.

  19. Microencapsulated citronella oil for mosquito repellent finishing of cotton textiles.

    PubMed

    Specos, M M Miró; García, J J; Tornesello, J; Marino, P; Vecchia, M Della; Tesoriero, M V Defain; Hermida, L G

    2010-10-01

    Microcapsules containing citronella essential oil were prepared by complex coacervation and applied to cotton textiles in order to study the repellent efficacy of the obtained fabrics. Citronella released from treated textiles was indirectly monitored by the extractable content of its main components. Repellent activity was assessed by exposure of a human hand and arm covered with the treated textiles to Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Fabrics treated with microencapsulated citronella presented a higher and longer lasting protection from insects compared to fabrics sprayed with an ethanol solution of the essential oil, assuring a repellent effect higher than 90% for three weeks. Complex coacervation is a simple, low cost, scalable and reproducible method of obtaining encapsulated essential oils for textile application. Repellent textiles were achieved by padding cotton fabrics with microcapsules slurries using a conventional pad-dry method. This methodology requires no additional investment for textile finishing industries, which is a desirable factor in developing countries.

  20. Novel insights into structure–function mechanism and tissue-specific expression profiling of full-length dxr gene from Cymbopogon winterianus

    PubMed Central

    Devi, Kamalakshi; Dehury, Budheswar; Phukon, Munmi; Modi, Mahendra Kumar; Sen, Priyabrata

    2015-01-01

    The 1-deoxy-d-xylulose-5-phosphate reductoisomerase (DXR; EC1.1.1.267), an NADPH-dependent reductase, plays a pivotal role in the methylerythritol 4-phosphate pathway (MEP), in the conversion of 1-deoxy-d-xylulose-5-phosphate (DXP) into MEP. The sheath and leaf of citronella (Cymbopogon winterianus) accumulates large amount of terpenes and sesquiterpenes with proven medicinal value and economic uses. Thus, sequencing of full length dxr gene and its characterization seems to be a valuable resource in metabolic engineering to alter the flux of isoprenoid active ingredients in plants. In this study, full length DXR from citronella was characterized through in silico and tissue-specific expression studies to explain its structure–function mechanism, mode of cofactor recognition and differential expression. The modelled DXR has a three-domain architecture and its active site comprised of a cofactor (NADPH) binding pocket and the substrate-binding pocket. Molecular dynamics simulation studies indicated that DXR model retained most of its secondary structure during 10 ns simulation in aqueous solution. The modelled DXR superimposes well with its closest structural homolog but subtle variations in the charge distribution over the cofactor recognition site were noticed. Molecular docking study revealed critical residues aiding tight anchoring NADPH within the active pocket of DXR. Tissue-specific differential expression analysis using semi-quantitative RT-PCR and qRT-PCR in various tissues of citronella plant revealed distinct differential expression of DXR. To our knowledge, this is the first ever report on DXR from the important medicinal plant citronella and further characterization of this gene will open up better avenues for metabolic engineering of secondary metabolite pathway genes from medicinal plants in the near future. PMID:25941629

  1. Welterweight Java

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Östlund, Johan; Wrigstad, Tobias

    This paper presents Welterweight Java (WJ), a new minimal core Java calculus intended to be a suitable starting point for investigations in the semantics of Java-like programs. To this end, WJ adds a few extra pounds to Featherweight Java. WJ is imperative and stateful, which is a frequent extension of Featherweight Java. To account for the importance of concurrency, WJ models Java's thread-based concurrency and lock-based synchronisation. The design of WJ is distilled from recent work on concurrent Java-like systems. We believe that the calculus is a good starting point for extensions. We illustrate the potential of the calculus by showing two extensions. The first is a version of WJ extended with deep ownership. This serves two purposes - it is a minimal formalisation of ownership, interesting in its own right, and shows how easily WJ can be extended. The second is a simple non-null types system.

  2. Anthelmintic activity of Cymbopogon martinii, Cymbopogon schoenanthus and Mentha piperita essential oils evaluated in four different in vitro tests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anthelmintic resistance is a worldwide concern in small ruminant industry and new plant derived compounds are being studied for their potential use against gastrointestinal nematodes. Mentha piperita, Cymbopogon martinii and Cymbopogon schoenanthus essential oils were evaluated against developmenta...

  3. Java XMGR

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. George L. Mesina; Steven P. Miller

    2004-08-01

    The XMGR5 graphing package [1] for drawing RELAP5 [2] plots is being re-written in Java [3]. Java is a robust programming language that is available at no cost for most computer platforms from Sun Microsystems, Inc. XMGR5 is an extension of an XY plotting tool called ACE/gr extended to plot data from several US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) applications. It is also the most popular graphing package worldwide for making RELAP5 plots. In Section 1, a short review of XMGR5 is given, followed by a brief overview of Java. In Section 2, shortcomings of both tkXMGR [4] and XMGR5 are discussed and the value of converting to Java is given. Details of the conversion to Java are given in Section 3. The progress to date, some conclusions and future work are given in Section 4. Some screen shots of the Java version are shown.

  4. Effect of peppermint and citronella essential oils on properties of fish skin gelatin edible films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanwong, S.; Threepopnatkul, P.

    2015-07-01

    Fish skin gelatin films incorporated with peppermint and citronella essential oils at difference concentrations (10, 20 and 30% w/w) were prepared by solution casting. Addition of peppermint oil contributed to a significant decrease of tensile strength and Young's modulus, while the percent elongation at break showed an obvious increase except at 30% w/w. On the other hand, addition of citronella oils promoted a great increase of tensile strength and young's modulus, but an intense decrease of the percent elongation at break. At the predetermined content, the film incorporated with citronella oils outperformed the one with peppermint oils in term of water vapor transmission and solubility in water. Thermal properties of gelatin films with citronella oils exhibited an enhancement in heat stability, while the one with peppermint oils showed slight decrease in heat stability. The additions with both of essential oils exhibited excellent antibacterial properties against both Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli.

  5. Essential oil biosynthesis and regulation in the genus Cymbopogon.

    PubMed

    Ganjewala, Deepak; Luthra, Rajesh

    2010-01-01

    Essential oils distilled from Cymbopogon species are of immense commercial value as flavors and fragrances in the perfumery, cosmetics, soaps, and detergents and in pharmaceutical industries. Two major constituents of the essential oil, geraniol and citral, due to their specific rose and lemon like aromas are widely used as flavors, fragrances and cosmetics. Citral is also used for the synthesis of vitamin A and ionones (for example, beta-ionone, methyl ionone). Moreover, Cymbopogon essential oils and constituents possess many useful biological activities including cytotoxic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant. Despite the immense commercial and biological significance of the Cymbopogon essential oils, little is known about their biosynthesis and regulatory mechanisms. So far it is known that essential oils are biosynthesized via the classical acetate-MVA route and existence of a newly discovered MEP pathway in Cymbopogon remains as a topic for investigation. The aim of the present review is to discuss the biosynthesis and regulation of essential oils in the genus Cymbopogon with given emphasis to two elite members, lemongrass (C. flexuosus Nees ex Steud) and palmarosa (C. martinii Roxb.). This article highlights the work done so far towards understanding of essential oil biosynthesis and regulation in the genus Cymbopogon. Also, based on our experiences with Cymbopogon species, we would like to propose C. flexuosus as a model system for the study of essential oil metabolism beyond the much studied plant family Lamiaceae.

  6. Comparison of Repellency Effect of Mosquito Repellents for DEET, Citronella, and Fennel Oil

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Jong Kwang; Kim, Kang-Chang; Cho, Yeondong; Gwon, Yong-Dae; Cho, Han Sam; Heo, Yoonki; Park, Kihoon; Lee, Yang-Won; Kim, Mijeong; Oh, Yu-Kyoung; Kim, Young Bong

    2015-01-01

    To confirm that Korean Food and Drug Administration (KFDA) guidelines are applicable to test the efficacy of mosquito repellents, these guidelines were used to test the efficacy and complete protection times (CPTs) of three representative mosquito repellents: N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET), citronella, and fennel oil. The repellency of citronella oil decreased over time, from 97.9% at 0 h to 71.4% at 1 h and 57.7% at 2 h, as did the repellency of fennel oil, from 88.6% at 0 h to 61.2% at 1 h and 47.4% at 2 h. In contrast, the repellency of DEET remained over 90% for 6 h. The CPT of DEET (360 min) was much longer than the CPTs of citronella (10.5 min) and fennel oil (8.4 min). These results did not differ significantly from previous findings, and hence confirm that the KFDA guidelines are applicable for testing the efficacy of mosquito repellents. PMID:26527362

  7. Cymbopogon species; ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry and the pharmacological importance.

    PubMed

    Avoseh, Opeyemi; Oyedeji, Opeoluwa; Rungqu, Pamela; Nkeh-Chungag, Benedicta; Oyedeji, Adebola

    2015-04-23

    Cymbopogon genus is a member of the family of Gramineae which are herbs known worldwide for their high essential oil content. They are widely distributed across all continents where they are used for various purposes. The commercial and medicinal uses of the various species of Cymbopogon are well documented. Ethnopharmacology evidence shows that they possess a wide array of properties that justifies their use for pest control, in cosmetics and as anti-inflammation agents. These plants may also hold promise as potent anti-tumor and chemopreventive drugs. The chemo-types from this genus have been used as biomarkers for their identification and classification. Pharmacological applications of Cymbopogon citratus are well exploited, though studies show that other species may also useful pharmaceutically. Hence this literature review intends to discuss these species and explore their potential economic importance.

  8. Ethanol and high-value terpene co-production from lignocellulosic biomass of Cymbopogon flexuosus and Cymbopogon martinii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cymbopogon flexuosus and C. martinii are perennial grasses grown to produce essential oils for the fragrance industry. The objectives of this study were (1) to evaluate biomass and oil yields as a function of nitrogen and sulfur fertilization, and (2) to characterize their utility for lignocellulosi...

  9. Model Checking JAVA Programs Using Java Pathfinder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Havelund, Klaus; Pressburger, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes a translator called JAVA PATHFINDER from JAVA to PROMELA, the "programming language" of the SPIN model checker. The purpose is to establish a framework for verification and debugging of JAVA programs based on model checking. This work should be seen in a broader attempt to make formal methods applicable "in the loop" of programming within NASA's areas such as space, aviation, and robotics. Our main goal is to create automated formal methods such that programmers themselves can apply these in their daily work (in the loop) without the need for specialists to manually reformulate a program into a different notation in order to analyze the program. This work is a continuation of an effort to formally verify, using SPIN, a multi-threaded operating system programmed in Lisp for the Deep-Space 1 spacecraft, and of previous work in applying existing model checkers and theorem provers to real applications.

  10. Java Concurrency Guidelines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-01

    Compliant Solution (java.util.concurrent.atomic.AtomicBoolean) 10 2.1.4 Compliant Solution (synchronized) 11 2.1.5 Exceptions 12 2.1.6 Risk ...Compliant Solution (Synchronization) 14 2.2.3 Compliant Solution (volatile) 14 2.2.4 Compliant Solution (java.util.concurrent Utilities) 15 2.2.5 Risk

  11. Determination of antioxidant capacity and a-amylase inhibitory activity of the essential oils from citronella grass and lemongrass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of the present study was to determine the antioxidant capacity of and in vitro a-amylase inhibitory activity of the essential oils extracted from citronella grass and lemongrass. The chemical composition of the extracted essential oils was determined by GC-MS. The antioxidant capacity ...

  12. Biochemical Activities of Iranian Cymbopogon olivieri (Boiss) Bor. Essential Oil

    PubMed Central

    Mahboubi, M.; Kazempour, N.

    2012-01-01

    Cymbopogon olivieri essential oil from aerial parts was analyzed by gas chromotography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and led to the identification of 38 compounds. Piperitone (72.8%), 4-carene (11.8%) and β-himachalene (7.6%) were found as the major components of the oil. The antimicrobial activity was achieved using disc-diffusion and microbroth dilution assays and microbicidal kinetics of oil was screened against different microorganisms. The possible antioxidant activity of oil was evaluated by diphenylpicrylhydrazyl free-radical scavenging system. The oil had excellent antimicrobial activity against Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Streptococcus pneumoniae. The oil exhibited inhibitory effect against Bacillus subtilis and fungi. Dvalues of oil were 12.5, 10 and 2.4 min for Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans, respectively. The IC50 value of Cymbopogon olivieri oil was 35 mg/ml and its antioxidant activity was lower than that of butylated hydroxytoluene. Cymbopogon olivieri oil possesses compounds with antimicrobial properties that can be used as antimicrobial agents. PMID:23626392

  13. Biochemical Activities of Iranian Cymbopogon olivieri (Boiss) Bor. Essential Oil.

    PubMed

    Mahboubi, M; Kazempour, N

    2012-07-01

    Cymbopogon olivieri essential oil from aerial parts was analyzed by gas chromotography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and led to the identification of 38 compounds. Piperitone (72.8%), 4-carene (11.8%) and β-himachalene (7.6%) were found as the major components of the oil. The antimicrobial activity was achieved using disc-diffusion and microbroth dilution assays and microbicidal kinetics of oil was screened against different microorganisms. The possible antioxidant activity of oil was evaluated by diphenylpicrylhydrazyl free-radical scavenging system. The oil had excellent antimicrobial activity against Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Streptococcus pneumoniae. The oil exhibited inhibitory effect against Bacillus subtilis and fungi. Dvalues of oil were 12.5, 10 and 2.4 min for Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans, respectively. The IC50 value of Cymbopogon olivieri oil was 35 mg/ml and its antioxidant activity was lower than that of butylated hydroxytoluene. Cymbopogon olivieri oil possesses compounds with antimicrobial properties that can be used as antimicrobial agents.

  14. Anthelmintic activity of Cymbopogon martinii, Cymbopogon schoenanthus and Mentha piperita essential oils evaluated in four different in vitro tests.

    PubMed

    Katiki, L M; Chagas, A C S; Bizzo, H R; Ferreira, J F S; Amarante, A F T

    2011-12-29

    Anthelmintic resistance is a worldwide concern in small ruminant industry and new plant-derived compounds are being studied for their potential use against gastrointestinal nematodes. Mentha piperita, Cymbopogon martinii and Cymbopogon schoenanthus essential oils were evaluated against developmental stages of trichostrongylids from sheep naturally infected (95% Haemonchus contortus and 5% Trichostrogylus spp.) through the egg hatch assay (EHA), larval development assay (LDA), larval feeding inhibition assay (LFIA), and the larval exsheathment assay (LEA). The major constituent of the essential oils, quantified by gas chromatography for M. piperita oil was menthol (42.5%), while for C. martinii and C. schoenanthus the main component was geraniol (81.4% and 62.5%, respectively). In all in vitro tests C. schoenanthus essential oil had the best activity against ovine trichostrongylids followed by C. martini, while M. piperita presented the least activity. Cymbopogon schoenanthus essential oil had LC(50) value of 0.045 mg/ml in EHA, 0.063 mg/ml in LDA, 0.009 mg/ml in LFIA, and 24.66 mg/ml in LEA. The anthelmintic activity of essential oils followed the same pattern in all in vitro tests, suggesting C. schoenanthus essential oil could be an interesting candidate for nematode control, although in vivo studies are necessary to validate the anthelmintic properties of this oil.

  15. Java Programming Language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaykhian, Gholam Ali

    2007-01-01

    The Java seminar covers the fundamentals of Java programming language. No prior programming experience is required for participation in the seminar. The first part of the seminar covers introductory concepts in Java programming including data types (integer, character, ..), operators, functions and constants, casts, input, output, control flow, scope, conditional statements, and arrays. Furthermore, introduction to Object-Oriented programming in Java, relationships between classes, using packages, constructors, private data and methods, final instance fields, static fields and methods, and overloading are explained. The second part of the seminar covers extending classes, inheritance hierarchies, polymorphism, dynamic binding, abstract classes, protected access. The seminar conclude by introducing interfaces, properties of interfaces, interfaces and abstract classes, interfaces and cailbacks, basics of event handling, user interface components with swing, applet basics, converting applications to applets, the applet HTML tags and attributes, exceptions and debugging.

  16. Java for flight software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benowitz, E. G.; Niessner, A. F.

    2003-01-01

    We have successfully demonstrated a portion of the spacecraft attitude control and fault protection, running on a standard Java platform, and are currently in the process of taking advantage of the features provided by the RTSJ.

  17. Evaluation of toxicity of essential oils palmarosa, citronella, lemongrass and vetiver in human lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Sonali; Jothiramajayam, Manivannan; Ghosh, Manosij; Mukherjee, Anita

    2014-06-01

    The present investigation was undertaken to study the cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of the essential oils (palmarosa, citronella, lemongrass and vetiver) and monoterpenoids (citral and geraniol) in human lymphocytes. Trypan blue dye exclusion and MTT test was used to evaluate cytotoxicity. The genotoxicity studies were carried out by comet and DNA diffusion assays. Apoptosis was confirmed by Annexin/PI double staining. In addition, generation of reactive oxygen species was evaluated by DCFH-DA staining using flow cytometry. The results demonstrated that the four essential oils and citral induced cytotoxicity and genotoxicity at higher concentrations. The essential oils were found to induce oxidative stress evidenced by the generation of reactive oxygen species. With the exception of geraniol, induction of apoptosis was confirmed at higher concentrations of the test substances. Based on the results, the four essential oils are considered safe for human consumption at low concentrations.

  18. JAVA PathFinder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehhtz, Peter

    2005-01-01

    JPF is an explicit state software model checker for Java bytecode. Today, JPF is a swiss army knife for all sort of runtime based verification purposes. This basically means JPF is a Java virtual machine that executes your program not just once (like a normal VM), but theoretically in all possible ways, checking for property violations like deadlocks or unhandled exceptions along all potential execution paths. If it finds an error, JPF reports the whole execution that leads to it. Unlike a normal debugger, JPF keeps track of every step how it got to the defect.

  19. Bronchodilator, vasodilator and spasmolytic activities of Cymbopogon martinii.

    PubMed

    Janbaz, K H; Qayyum, A; Saqib, F; Imran, I; Zia-Ul-Haq, M; de Feo, V

    2014-12-01

    Cymbopogon martinii (Cm.Cr) is traditionally used in south Asian communities for the management of multiple ailments including gastrointestinal, respiratory and vascular disorders and the present study was undertaken to validate these folkloric uses. The application of a methanol extract of the plant (Cm.Cr) to isolated rabbit jejunum preparation exhibited relaxation through decrease in magnitude and frequency of spontaneous contractions. The Cm.Cr also exerted relaxant effect on high K(+) (80 mM) induced contractions in isolated rabbit jejunum preparations. The Cm.Cr and its dichloromethane (Cm.Dcm) and aqueous (Cm.Aq) fractions also caused concentration-dependent relaxation in spontaneous and K(+) (80 mM) induced contractions which are comparables to effects produced by verapamil. Cm.Cr caused shifting of the Ca(2+)-curves toward right, suggesting the presence of a Ca(2+) channel blocking activity. Subsequently, Cm.Cr, Cm.Dcm and Cm.Aq caused relaxation of CCh (1 μM) and K(+) (80 mM) induced contractions in isolated rabbit tracheal preparations, suggesting that the observed relaxant effect can be mediated through antimuscarinic and/or Ca(2+) channel blocking activities. Cm.Cr tested against phenylephrine (PE; 1 μM) and K(+) (80 mM) induced contractions exhibited partial relaxation of isolated rabbit aortic preparations. The above-mentioned studies provided a scientific basis for the folkloric use of Cymbopogon martini in the management of multiple ailments in traditional systems of medicines.

  20. Neurobehavioral effect of essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus in mice.

    PubMed

    Blanco, M M; Costa, C A R A; Freire, A O; Santos, J G; Costa, M

    2009-03-01

    Tea obtained from leaves of Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf is used for its anxiolytic, hypnotic and anticonvulsant properties in Brazilian folk medicine. Essential oil (EO) from fresh leaves was obtained by hydrodistillation and orally administered to Swiss male mice 30 min before experimental procedures. EO at 0.5 or 1.0 g/kg was evaluated for sedative/hypnotic activity through pentobarbital sleeping time, anxiolytic activity by elevated plus maze and light/dark box procedures and anticonvulsant activity through seizures induced by pentylenetetrazole and maximal electroshock. EO was effective in increasing the sleeping time, the percentage of entries and time spent in the open arms of the elevated plus maze as well as the time spent in the light compartment of light/dark box. In addition, EO delayed clonic seizures induced by pentylenetetrazole and blocked tonic extensions induced by maximal electroshock, indicating the elevation of the seizure threshold and/or blockage of seizures spread. These effects were observed in the absence of motor impairment evaluated on the rotarod and open field test. Our results are in accord with the ethnopharmacological use of Cymbopogon citratus, and after complementary toxicological studies it can support investigations assessing their use as anxiolytic, sedative or anticonvulsive agent.

  1. Benefits of Java

    MedlinePlus

    ... Training and Recovery Exercise Topics Fueling Your Workout Benefits of Physical Activity Exercise Nutrition Top Articles Man running - Protein and the Athlete - How Much Do You Need? Protein and the Athlete — How Much Do You Need? stop watch - Timing Your Pre- and Post-Workout ... of Java Published September 29, 2014 Print Email ...

  2. Java Metadata Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Buttler, D J

    2008-03-06

    The Java Metadata Facility is introduced by Java Specification Request (JSR) 175 [1], and incorporated into the Java language specification [2] in version 1.5 of the language. The specification allows annotations on Java program elements: classes, interfaces, methods, and fields. Annotations give programmers a uniform way to add metadata to program elements that can be used by code checkers, code generators, or other compile-time or runtime components. Annotations are defined by annotation types. These are defined the same way as interfaces, but with the symbol {at} preceding the interface keyword. There are additional restrictions on defining annotation types: (1) They cannot be generic; (2) They cannot extend other annotation types or interfaces; (3) Methods cannot have any parameters; (4) Methods cannot have type parameters; (5) Methods cannot throw exceptions; and (6) The return type of methods of an annotation type must be a primitive, a String, a Class, an annotation type, or an array, where the type of the array is restricted to one of the four allowed types. See [2] for additional restrictions and syntax. The methods of an annotation type define the elements that may be used to parameterize the annotation in code. Annotation types may have default values for any of its elements. For example, an annotation that specifies a defect report could initialize an element defining the defect outcome submitted. Annotations may also have zero elements. This could be used to indicate serializability for a class (as opposed to the current Serializability interface).

  3. Java Tool Retirement

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    Date(s):  Wednesday, May 14, 2014 Time:  08:00 am EDT Event Impact:  The ASDC Java Order Tool was officially retired on Wednesday, May 14, 2014.  The HTML Order Tool and additional options are available...

  4. Java for flight software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benowitz, E.; Niessner, A.

    2003-01-01

    This work involves developing representative mission-critical spacecraft software using the Real-Time Specification for Java (RTSJ). This work currently leverages actual flight software used in the design of actual flight software in the NASA's Deep Space 1 (DSI), which flew in 1998.

  5. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of Cymbopogon citratus and Cymbopogon giganteus essential oils alone and in combination.

    PubMed

    Bassolé, I H N; Lamien-Meda, A; Bayala, B; Obame, L C; Ilboudo, A J; Franz, C; Novak, J; Nebié, R C; Dicko, M H

    2011-09-15

    As part of ongoing research on the chemical composition and the antimicrobial properties of Burkinabe plants essential oils alone and in combination, essential oils (EOs) from leaves of Cymbopogon citratus and Cymbopogon giganteus from Burkina Faso were analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. Five constituents, which accounted for 96.3% of the oil, were identified in the EO of C. citratus. Geranial (48.1%), neral (34.6%) and myrcene (11.0%) were the major constituents. For C. giganteus a total of eight compounds were identified which represented 86.0% of the oils extracted. The dominant compounds were limonene (42%) and a set of monoterpene alcohols: trans-p-mentha-1(7),8-dien-2-ol (14.2%), cis-p-mentha-1(7),8-dien-2-ol (12%), trans-p-mentha-2,8-dien-1-ol (5.6%) and cis-p-mentha-2,8-dien-1-ol (5.2%). The EOs were tested against nine bacteria by using disc diffusion and microdilution methods. C. giganteus EO showed antimicrobial effects against all microorganisms tested whereas C. citratus EO failed to inhibit Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The antimicrobial activity of combinations of the two EOs was quantified by the checkerboard method. Combinations of the two EOs exerted synergistic, additive and indifferent antimicrobial effects. Results of the present investigation provide evidence that the combinations of plant EOs could be assessed for synergistic activity in order to reduce their minimum effective dose.

  6. A Java commodity grid kit.

    SciTech Connect

    von Laszewski, G.; Foster, I.; Gawor, J.; Lane, P.; Mathematics and Computer Science

    2001-07-01

    In this paper we report on the features of the Java Commodity Grid Kit. The Java CoG Kit provides middleware for accessing Grid functionality from the Java framework. Java CoG Kit middleware is general enough to design a variety of advanced Grid applications with quite different user requirements. Access to the Grid is established via Globus protocols, allowing the Java CoG Kit to communicate also with the C Globus reference implementation. Thus, the Java CoG Kit provides Grid developers with the ability to utilize the Grid, as well as numerous additional libraries and frameworks developed by the Java community to enable network, Internet, enterprise, and peer-to peer computing. A variety of projects have successfully used the client libraries of the Java CoG Kit to access Grids driven by the C Globus software. In this paper we also report on the efforts to develop server side Java CoG Kit components. As part of this research we have implemented a prototype pure Java resource management system that enables one to run Globus jobs on platforms on which a Java virtual machine is supported, including Windows NT machines.

  7. Volatile constituents of the fruit and roots of Cymbopogon olivieri.

    PubMed

    Asgarpanah, Jinous; Bahrani, Setareh; Bina, Elham

    2015-02-01

    The essential oil contents of the fruit and roots of Cymbopogon olivieri growing wild in south of Iran were found to be 0.7% and 0.4% (v/w), respectively based on the fresh weight. The oils were analyzed by GC and GC-MS. Forty and twenty six constituents, representing 93.1% and 93.4% of the oils were identified, respectively. The major components of the C. olivieri fruit oil were identified as piperitone (44.1%), α-terpinene (13.7%), neral (6.3%), elemol (5.6%) and β-eudesmol (5.3%), while the main components of that of roots were characterized as piperitone (20.6%), α-muurolol (9.5%), β-eudesmol (8.5%), selina-6-en-4-ol (7.9%), 5-epi-7-epi-α-eudesmol (6.8%) and elemol (5.8%).

  8. [A new lanostane-type triterpenoid from Cymbopogon citratus].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Meng-Meng; Sun, Li-Li; Li, Cheng; Gao, Wan; Yang, Jian-Bo; Wang, Ai-Guo; Su, Ya-Lun; Ji, Teng-Fei

    2014-05-01

    To study the chemical constituents of Cymbopogon citratus, isolation and purification of constituents were carried out on silica gel, Sephadex LH-20 and prepatative HPLC. The structures of the compounds were identified by physicchemical properties and spectral data analysis. Eight compounds were isolated and identified as 3beta-methoxy lanosta-9(11)-en-27-ol (1), 3beta-hydroxylanosta-9 (11)-en (2), (24S) -3beta-methoxylanosta-9(11), 25-dien-24-ol (3), 8-hydroxyl-neo-menthol (4), (2E)-3,7-dimethyl-2,7-octadiene-1, 6-diol (5), (+)-citronellol (6), 7-hydroxymenthol (7) and ethyl nonadecanoate(8). Compounds 1 is a new one. Compounds 2-3 are obtained from C. citratus for the first time.

  9. LC determination of citral in Cymbopogon citratus volatile oil.

    PubMed

    Rauber, Cristiane da S; Guterres, Sílvia S; Schapoval, Elfrides E S

    2005-03-09

    It was the aim of this study to develop and validate a HPLC method for the quantitative determination of citral in Cymbopogon citratus volatile oil. The HPLC assay was performed using a Spherisorb CN column (250 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 microm), a n-hexane:ethanol (85:15) mobile phase and an UV detector (set at 233 nm). The following parameters were evaluated: linearity, precision, accuracy, specificity, quantification and detection limits. The method showed linearity in the range of 10.0-30.0 microg ml(-1). Precision and accuracy were determined at the concentration of 20 microg ml(-1). The concentration of citral in C. citratus volatile oil obtained with this assay was 75%. The HPLC method developed in this study showed an excellent performance (linearity, precision, accuracy and specificity) and can be applied to assay citral in volatile oil.

  10. Java Vertexing Tools

    SciTech Connect

    Strube, Jan; Graf, Norman; /SLAC

    2006-03-03

    This document describes the implementation of the topological vertex finding algorithm ZVTOP within the org.lcsim reconstruction and analysis framework. At the present date, Java vertexing tools allow users to perform topological vertexing on tracks that have been obtained from a Fast MC simulation. An implementation that will be able to handle fully reconstructed events is being designed from the ground up for longevity and maintainability.

  11. A Novel Approach for Development and Characterization of Effective Mosquito Repellent Cream Formulation Containing Citronella Oil

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Narayan Prasad; Rai, Vineet Kumar; Mishra, Nidhi; Sinha, Priyam; Bawankule, Dnyaneshwar Umrao; Pal, Anirban; Tripathi, Arun Kumar; Chanotiya, Chandan Singh

    2014-01-01

    Citronella essential oil (CEO) has been reported as an excellent mosquito repellent; however, mild irritancy and rapid volatility limit its topical application. It was aimed to develop a nonirritant, stable, and consistent cream of CEO with improved residence time on skin using an industrial approach. Phase inversion temperature technique was employed to prepare the cream. It was optimized and characterized based on sensorial evaluation, emulsification, and consistency in terms of softness, greasiness, stickiness, and pH. The optimum batch (B5) was evaluated for viscosity (90249.67 ± 139.95 cP), texture profile with respect to firmness (38.67 ± 0.88 g), spreadability (70.33 ± 0.88 mJ), and extrudability (639.67 ± 8.09 ± 0.1 mJ) using texture analyzer along with two most popular marketed products selected as reference standard. Subsequently, B5 was found to be stable for more than 90 days and showed enhanced duration of mosquito repellency as compared to CEO. HS-GC ensured the intactness of CEO in B5. Investigated primary irritation index (PII 0.45) positioned B5 into the category of irritation barely perceptible. The pronounced texture profile and stability of B5 with extended residence time and less PII revealed its potential application in industry and offered a promising alternative to the marketed products of synthetic origin. PMID:25379509

  12. Implementation of NAS Parallel Benchmarks in Java

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frumkin, Michael; Schultz, Matthew; Jin, Hao-Qiang; Yan, Jerry

    2000-01-01

    A number of features make Java an attractive but a debatable choice for High Performance Computing (HPC). In order to gauge the applicability of Java to the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) we have implemented NAS Parallel Benchmarks in Java. The performance and scalability of the benchmarks point out the areas where improvement in Java compiler technology and in Java thread implementation would move Java closer to Fortran in the competition for CFD applications.

  13. A report on identification of sequence polymorphism in barcode region of six commercially important Cymbopogon species.

    PubMed

    Bishoyi, Ashok Kumar; Kavane, Aarti; Sharma, Anjali; Geetha, K A

    2017-02-01

    CYMBOPOGON: is an important member of grass family Poaceae, cultivated for essential oils which have greater medicinal and industrial value. Taxonomic identification of Cymbopogon species is determined mainly by morphological markers, odour of essential oils and concentration of bioactive compounds present in the oil matrices which are highly influenced by environment. Authenticated molecular marker based taxonomical identification is also lacking in the genus; hence effort was made to evaluate potential DNA barcode loci in six commercially important Cymbopogon species for their individual discrimination and authentication at the species level. Four widely used DNA barcoding regions viz., ITS 1 & ITS 2 spacers, matK, psbA-trnH and rbcL were taken for the study. Gene sequences of the same or related genera of the concerned loci were mined from NCBI domain and primers were designed and validated for barcode loci amplification. Out of the four loci studied, sequences from matK and ITS spacer loci revealed 0.46% and 5.64% nucleotide sequence diversity, respectively whereas the other two loci i.e., psbA-trnH and rbcL showed 100% sequence homology. The newly developed primers can be used for barcode loci amplification in the genus Cymbopogon. The identified Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms from the studied sequences may be used as barcodes for the six Cymbopogon species. The information generated can also be utilized for barcode development of the genus by including more number of Cymbopgon species in future.

  14. Varietal Discrimination and Genetic Variability Analysis of Cymbopogon Using RAPD and ISSR Markers Analysis.

    PubMed

    Bishoyi, Ashok Kumar; Sharma, Anjali; Kavane, Aarti; Geetha, K A

    2016-06-01

    Cymbopogon is an important genus of family Poaceae, cultivated mainly for its essential oils which possess high medicinal and economical value. Several cultivars of Cymbopogon species are available for commercial cultivation in India and identification of these cultivars was conceded by means of morphological markers and essential oil constitution. Since these parameters are highly influenced by environmental factors, in most of the cases, it is difficult to identify Cymbopogon cultivars. In the present study, Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and Inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers were employed to discriminate nine leading varieties of Cymbopogon since prior genomic information is lacking or very little in the genus. Ninety RAPD and 70 ISSR primers were used which generated 63 and 69 % polymorphic amplicons, respectively. Similarity in the pattern of UPGMA-derived dendrogram of RAPD and ISSR analysis revealed the reliability of the markers chosen for the study. Varietal/cultivar-specific markers generated from the study could be utilised for varietal/cultivar authentication, thus monitoring the quality of the essential oil production in Cymbopogon. These markers can also be utilised for the IPR protection of the cultivars. Moreover, the study provides molecular marker tool kit in both random and simple sequence repeats for diverse molecular research in the same or related genera.

  15. Gas chromatographic mass analysis and further pharmacological actions of Cymbopogon proximus essential oil.

    PubMed

    Al-Taweel, A M; Fawzy, G A; Perveen, S; El Tahir, K E H

    2013-09-01

    The present study reports Gas chromatographic mass analysis (GC-MS) as well as important biological activities of Cymbopogon proximus essential oil. The chemical composition of the essential oil of Cymbopogon proximus was investigated by GC-MS. Furthermore, the effects of Cymbopogon proximus essential oil on the cardiac parasympathetic ganglia in rats, the intra-tracheal pressure in guinea-pigs and on carrageenan-induced inflammation in the rats paw, were studied. The GC-MS study led to the identification of 22 components with Piperitone representing (73.81%), Elemol (9.32%), alpha-Eudesmol (5.21%) and alpha-Terpineol (3.01%) of the oils composition. The percentage protective effect of the oil on the vagus-induced bradycardia in rats was 90.1±3.1%, which represents a significant protection. As for the effect of Cymbopogon oil on bronchoconstrictors-induced increase in intra-tracheal pressure in guinea-pigs, the oil antagonized the actions of 5-HT and histamine by 80±3.7 and 93±8.3%, respectively. Pharmacological investigations using Cymbopogon oil revealed its inherent ability to possess a bronchodilator activity mediated via blockade of both histamine and serotonin receptors. It possessed a significant ganglionic blocking action and a limited anti-inflammatory activity that seemed to involve blockade of histamine and serotonin receptors in the rats' paws.

  16. Cymbopogon citratus Protects against the Renal Injury Induced by Toxic Doses of Aminoglycosides in Rabbits.

    PubMed

    Ullah, N; Khan, M A; Khan, T; Ahmad, W

    2013-03-01

    Renal injury is the most common side-effect of aminoglycosides. These antimicrobial drugs are particularly effective against Gram-negative microorganisms. The present study was conducted to investigate the renal protective activity of Cymbopogon citratus in gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity. Male rabbits were divided into four groups (n=6) including group 1 (0.9% saline treated), group 2 (80 mg/kg/day gentamicin-treated), group 3 (200 mg/kg/day Cymbopogon citratus treated) and group 4 (80 mg/kg/day gentamicin and 200 mg/kg/day Cymbopogon citratus treated). Biochemical kidney functioning parameters, urinary enzymes and histopathological examination were performed. The results of the present study showed that simultaneous administration of Cymbopogon citrates and gentamicin significantly protected alteration in body weight, blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, creatinine clearance, serum uric acid, serum electrolytes, urinary volume, urinary protein, urinary lactate dehydrogenase and urinary alkaline phosphatase induced by gentamicin. Histological examination of the kidney also suggested the same. It is concluded from the current study that co-administration of Cymbopogon citratus with gentamicin for 3 weeks successfully prevented renal damage associated with aminoglycosides.

  17. The effect of surfactant on headspace single drop microextraction for the determination of some volatile aroma compounds in citronella grass and lemongrass leaves by gas chromatography

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A rapid method for the determination of some volatile aromatic compounds (VACs), including citronellal, citronellol, neral, geranial, geraniol, and eugenol in citronella grass and lemongrass leaves, was developed using surfactant as a surface tension modifier while performing headspace single drop m...

  18. The Aladin Java Applet Experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernique, P.; Bonnarel, F.

    The applet feature has certainly been the reason of the success of the Java language fast development: with a simple mouse-click it became possible to download remote executables and to run them via standard browsers such as Netscape or IExplorer. However, three years after its first release, many Java developments are in fact standalone applications which require an installation of the JVM (Java virtual machine) rather than applets. In which conditions is the applet feature a really applicable concept? This paper presents the CDS (Centre de Données astronomiques de Strasbourg) experience of Java applets through the development of Aladin Java. We present the limitations that we encountered, and how to overcome them: support of all browser versions, insuring sufficient performances, dealing with the access restrictions to local disks and in particular keeping the code small enough to be easily downloaded.

  19. Scientific basis for the therapeutic use of Cymbopogon citratus, stapf (Lemon grass).

    PubMed

    Shah, Gagan; Shri, Richa; Panchal, Vivek; Sharma, Narender; Singh, Bharpur; Mann, A S

    2011-01-01

    Cymbopogon citratus, Stapf (Lemon grass) is a widely used herb in tropical countries, especially in Southeast Asia. The essential oil of the plant is used in aromatherapy. The compounds identified in Cymbopogon citratus are mainly terpenes, alcohols, ketones, aldehyde and esters. Some of the reported phytoconstituents are essential oils that contain Citral α, Citral β, Nerol Geraniol, Citronellal, Terpinolene, Geranyl acetate, Myrecene and Terpinol Methylheptenone. The plant also contains reported phytoconstituents such as flavonoids and phenolic compounds, which consist of luteolin, isoorientin 2'-O-rhamnoside, quercetin, kaempferol and apiginin. Studies indicate that Cymbopogon citratus possesses various pharmacological activities such as anti-amoebic, antibacterial, antidiarrheal, antifilarial, antifungal and anti-inflammatory properties. Various other effects like antimalarial, antimutagenicity, antimycobacterial, antioxidants, hypoglycemic and neurobehaviorial have also been studied. These results are very encouraging and indicate that this herb should be studied more extensively to confirm these results and reveal other potential therapeutic effects.

  20. Comparative anticonvulsant activities of the essential oils (EOs) from Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt and Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf. in mice.

    PubMed

    Silva, Monalisa Ribeiro; Ximenes, Rafael Matos; da Costa, José Galberto Martins; Leal, L Kalyne A M; de Lopes, Amanda A; Viana, Glauce Socorro de Barros

    2010-05-01

    The fresh leaves of Cymbopogon citratus are a good source of an essential oil (EO) rich in citral, and its tea is largely used in the Brazilian folk medicine as a sedative. A similar source of EO is Cymbopogon winterianus, rich in citronellal. The literature presents more studies on the EO of C. citratus and their isolated bioactive components, but only a few are found on the EO of C. winterianus. The objective of the present study was then to study, in a comparative way, the effects of both EOs on three models of convulsions (pentylenetetrazol, pilocarpine, and strychnine) and on the barbiturate-induced sleeping time on male Swiss mice. The animals (20-30 g) were acutely treated with 50, 100, and 200 mg kg(-1), intraperitoneally, of each EO, and 30 min later, the test was initiated. The observed parameters were: latency to the first convulsion and latency to death in seconds. Furthermore, the in vitro effects of the EOs were also studied on myeloperoxidase (MPO; a biomarker for inflammation) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH; an index of cytotoxicity) releases from human neutrophils. The EOs radical-scavenging activities were also evaluated by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. The results showed that both EOs were more active on the pentylenetetrazol-induced convulsion model, and C. citratus was even more efficient in increasing latency to the first convulsion and latency to death. Both parameters were potentiated in the presence of a lower dose of diazepam (reference drug) when associated to a lower dose of each EO (25 mg kg(-1)). Besides, their anticonvulsant effects were blocked by flumazenil, a known benzodiazepine antagonist. This effect was somewhat lower on the pilocarpine-induced convulsion, and better effects were seen only with the EOs' higher doses (200 mg kg(-1)). A similar result was observed on the strychnine-induced convulsion model. Both EOs potentiated the barbiturate-induced sleeping time. However, C. citratus was more efficient

  1. Anthelmintic activity of Cymbopogon citratus against Haemonchus contortus.

    PubMed

    Macedo, Iara Tersia Freitas; Oliveira, Lorena Mayana Beserra de; Ribeiro, Wesley Lyeverton Correia; Santos, Jessica Maria Leite dos; Silva, Kaline das Chagas; Araújo Filho, José Vilemar de; Camurça-Vasconcelos, Ana Lourdes Fernandes; Bevilaqua, Claudia Maria Leal

    2015-01-01

    Parasitic nematodes are of major economic importance in livestock. An alternative for the control of parasites is phytotherapy. This study evaluated the efficacy of Cymbopogon citratus decoction (CcD), C. citratus essential oil (CcEo) and citral against Haemonchus contortus using in vitro egg hatch test (EHT) and larval development test (LDT) and an in vivo test using a Meriones unguiculatus (gerbil) model. The effect of 800 mg/kg CcEo was evaluated in gerbils that had been artificially infected with 5,000 third-stage H. contortus larvae. The effective concentrations required to inhibit 50% (EC50) of egg hatching were 0.46, 0.14 and 0.13 mg/mL for CcD, CcEo and citral, respectively. The EC50 values in the LDT were 5.04, 1.92 and 1.37 mg/mL for CcD, CcEo and citral, respectively. H. contortus population in the group treated with C. citratus essential oil was reduced by 38.5% (P< 0.05) in comparison to the control group. These results suggest that it may be possible to use C. citratus essential oil to control of H. contortus parasite of small ruminant.

  2. JavaTech, an Introduction to Scientific and Technical Computing with Java

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindsey, Clark S.; Tolliver, Johnny S.; Lindblad, Thomas

    2010-06-01

    Preface; Acknowledgements; Part I. Introduction to Java: 1. Introduction; 2. Language basics; 3. Classes and objects in Java; 4. More about objects in Java; 5. Organizing Java files and other practicalities; 6. Java graphics; 7. Graphical user interfaces; 8. Threads; 9. Java input/output; 10. Java utilities; 11. Image handling and processing; 12. More techniques and tips; Part II. Java and the Network: 13. Java networking basics; 14. A Java web server; 15. Client/server with sockets; 16. Distributed computing; 17. Distributed computing - the client; 18. Java remote method invocation (RMI); 19. CORBA; 20. Distributed computing - putting it all together; 21. Introduction to web services and XML; Part III. Out of the Sandbox: 22. The Java native interface (JNI); 23. Accessing the platform; 24. Embedded Java; Appendices; Index.

  3. JavaTech, an Introduction to Scientific and Technical Computing with Java

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindsey, Clark S.; Tolliver, Johnny S.; Lindblad, Thomas

    2005-10-01

    Preface; Acknowledgements; Part I. Introduction to Java: 1. Introduction; 2. Language basics; 3. Classes and objects in Java; 4. More about objects in Java; 5. Organizing Java files and other practicalities; 6. Java graphics; 7. Graphical user interfaces; 8. Threads; 9. Java input/output; 10. Java utilities; 11. Image handling and processing; 12. More techniques and tips; Part II. Java and the Network: 13. Java networking basics; 14. A Java web server; 15. Client/server with sockets; 16. Distributed computing; 17. Distributed computing - the client; 18. Java remote method invocation (RMI); 19. CORBA; 20. Distributed computing - putting it all together; 21. Introduction to web services and XML; Part III. Out of the Sandbox: 22. The Java native interface (JNI); 23. Accessing the platform; 24. Embedded Java; Appendices; Index.

  4. Ethanol and High-Value Terpene Co-Production from Lignocellulosic Biomass of Cymbopogon flexuosus and Cymbopogon martinii.

    PubMed

    Joyce, Blake L; Zheljazkov, Valtcho D; Sykes, Robert; Cantrell, Charles L; Hamilton, Choo; Mann, David G J; Rodriguez, Miguel; Mielenz, Jonathan R; Astatkie, Tess; Stewart, C Neal

    2015-01-01

    Cymbopogon flexuosus, lemongrass, and C. martinii, palmarosa, are perennial grasses grown to produce essential oils for the fragrance industry. The objectives of this study were (1) to evaluate biomass and oil yields as a function of nitrogen and sulfur fertilization, and (2) to characterize their utility for lignocellulosic ethanol compared to Panicum virgatum (switchgrass). Mean biomass yields were 12.83 Mg lemongrass ha-1 and 15.11 Mg palmarosa ha-1 during the second harvest year resulting in theoretical biofuel yields of 2541 and 2569 L ethanol ha-1 respectively compared to reported 1749-3691 L ethanol ha-1 for switchgrass. Pretreated lemongrass yielded 198 mL ethanol (g biomass)-1 and pretreated palmarosa yielded 170 mL ethanol (g biomass)-1. Additionally, lemongrass yielded 85.7 kg essential oil ha-1 and palmarosa yielded 67.0 kg ha-1 with an estimated value of USD $857 and $1005 ha-1. These data suggest that dual-use crops such as lemongrass and palmarosa may increase the economic viability of lignocellulosic biofuels.

  5. Ethanol and High-Value Terpene Co-Production from Lignocellulosic Biomass of Cymbopogon flexuosus and Cymbopogon martinii

    DOE PAGES

    Joyce, Blake L.; Zheljazkov, Valtcho D.; Sykes, Robert; ...

    2015-10-05

    Cymbopogon flexuosus, lemongrass, and C. martinii, palmarosa, are perennial grasses grown to produce essential oils for the fragrance industry. The objectives of this study were (1) to evaluate biomass and oil yields as a function of nitrogen and sulfur fertilization, and (2) to characterize their utility for lignocellulosic ethanol compared to Panicum virgatum (switchgrass). Mean biomass yields were 12.83 Mg lemongrass ha-1 and 15.11 Mg palmarosa ha-1 during the second harvest year resulting in theoretical biofuel yields of 2541 and 2569 L ethanol ha-1 respectively compared to reported 1749–3691 L ethanol ha-1 for switchgrass. Pretreated lemongrass yielded 198 mL ethanolmore » (g biomass) -1 and pretreated palmarosa yielded 170 mL ethanol (g biomass) -1. Additionally, lemongrass yielded 85.7 kg essential oil ha-1 and palmarosa yielded 67.0 kg ha-1 with an estimated value of USD $857 and $1005 ha-1. These data suggest that dual-use crops such as lemongrass and palmarosa may increase the economic viability of lignocellulosic biofuels.« less

  6. Ethanol and High-Value Terpene Co-Production from Lignocellulosic Biomass of Cymbopogon flexuosus and Cymbopogon martinii

    PubMed Central

    Joyce, Blake L.; Zheljazkov, Valtcho D.; Sykes, Robert; Cantrell, Charles L.; Hamilton, Choo; Mann, David G. J.; Rodriguez, Miguel; Mielenz, Jonathan R.; Astatkie, Tess; Stewart, C. Neal

    2015-01-01

    Cymbopogon flexuosus, lemongrass, and C. martinii, palmarosa, are perennial grasses grown to produce essential oils for the fragrance industry. The objectives of this study were (1) to evaluate biomass and oil yields as a function of nitrogen and sulfur fertilization, and (2) to characterize their utility for lignocellulosic ethanol compared to Panicum virgatum (switchgrass). Mean biomass yields were 12.83 Mg lemongrass ha-1 and 15.11 Mg palmarosa ha-1 during the second harvest year resulting in theoretical biofuel yields of 2541 and 2569 L ethanol ha-1 respectively compared to reported 1749–3691 L ethanol ha-1 for switchgrass. Pretreated lemongrass yielded 198 mL ethanol (g biomass)-1 and pretreated palmarosa yielded 170 mL ethanol (g biomass)-1. Additionally, lemongrass yielded 85.7 kg essential oil ha-1 and palmarosa yielded 67.0 kg ha-1 with an estimated value of USD $857 and $1005 ha-1. These data suggest that dual-use crops such as lemongrass and palmarosa may increase the economic viability of lignocellulosic biofuels. PMID:26437026

  7. Ethanol and High-Value Terpene Co-Production from Lignocellulosic Biomass of Cymbopogon flexuosus and Cymbopogon martinii

    SciTech Connect

    Joyce, Blake L.; Zheljazkov, Valtcho D.; Sykes, Robert; Cantrell, Charles L.; Hamilton, Choo; Mann, David G. J.; Rodriguez, Miguel; Mielenz, Jonathan R.; Astatkie, Tess; C. Neal Stewart Jr.

    2015-10-05

    Cymbopogon flexuosus, lemongrass, and C. martinii, palmarosa, are perennial grasses grown to produce essential oils for the fragrance industry. The objectives of this study were (1) to evaluate biomass and oil yields as a function of nitrogen and sulfur fertilization, and (2) to characterize their utility for lignocellulosic ethanol compared to Panicum virgatum (switchgrass). Mean biomass yields were 12.83 Mg lemongrass ha-1 and 15.11 Mg palmarosa ha-1 during the second harvest year resulting in theoretical biofuel yields of 2541 and 2569 L ethanol ha-1 respectively compared to reported 1749–3691 L ethanol ha-1 for switchgrass. Pretreated lemongrass yielded 198 mL ethanol (g biomass) -1 and pretreated palmarosa yielded 170 mL ethanol (g biomass) -1. Additionally, lemongrass yielded 85.7 kg essential oil ha-1 and palmarosa yielded 67.0 kg ha-1 with an estimated value of USD $857 and $1005 ha-1. These data suggest that dual-use crops such as lemongrass and palmarosa may increase the economic viability of lignocellulosic biofuels.

  8. Java PathFinder: A Translator From Java to Promela

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Havelund, Klaus

    1999-01-01

    JAVA PATHFINDER, JPF, is a prototype translator from JAVA to PROMELA, the modeling language of the SPIN model checker. JPF is a product of a major effort by the Automated Software Engineering group at NASA Ames to make model checking technology part of the software process. Experience has shown that severe bugs can be found in final code using this technique, and that automated translation from a programming language to a modeling language like PROMELA can help reducing the effort required.

  9. JavaScript: Data Visualizations

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    D3 is a JavaScript library that, in a manner similar to jQuery library, allows direct inspection and manipulation of the Document Object Model, but is intended for the primary purpose of data visualization.

  10. Model Checker for Java Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Visser, Willem

    2007-01-01

    Java Pathfinder (JPF) is a verification and testing environment for Java that integrates model checking, program analysis, and testing. JPF consists of a custom-made Java Virtual Machine (JVM) that interprets bytecode, combined with a search interface to allow the complete behavior of a Java program to be analyzed, including interleavings of concurrent programs. JPF is implemented in Java, and its architecture is highly modular to support rapid prototyping of new features. JPF is an explicit-state model checker, because it enumerates all visited states and, therefore, suffers from the state-explosion problem inherent in analyzing large programs. It is suited to analyzing programs less than 10kLOC, but has been successfully applied to finding errors in concurrent programs up to 100kLOC. When an error is found, a trace from the initial state to the error is produced to guide the debugging. JPF works at the bytecode level, meaning that all of Java can be model-checked. By default, the software checks for all runtime errors (uncaught exceptions), assertions violations (supports Java s assert), and deadlocks. JPF uses garbage collection and symmetry reductions of the heap during model checking to reduce state-explosion, as well as dynamic partial order reductions to lower the number of interleavings analyzed. JPF is capable of symbolic execution of Java programs, including symbolic execution of complex data such as linked lists and trees. JPF is extensible as it allows for the creation of listeners that can subscribe to events during searches. The creation of dedicated code to be executed in place of regular classes is supported and allows users to easily handle native calls and to improve the efficiency of the analysis.

  11. Going back to Java.

    PubMed

    Critchfield, R

    1985-01-01

    In Indonesia, achievements in food production have helped lower the country's deaths rates and increase life expectancy, making concern about the birthrate all the more critical, particularly in the already crowded Java. Indonesia's rice production in 1985 is expected to reach 26.3 million tons, 58% more than the 1975-79 average. With every country except Malaysia now self-sufficient or surplus in rice, the world market price for rice has dropped markedly. Indonesia's National Logistics Board (BULOG), which aims to establish a floor price for rice, has had to stockpile 3.5 million tons, double its normal reserve and enough for 3 years. Some of it has been kept 2 years already, but it cannot be exported as the quality is low and everybody else also has plenty of rice. Peasants and agriculture experts agree that alternatives to rice pose greater risks in terms of weather and disease. Whatever the government does, rice prices have dropped sharply and are likely to stay down. Fertilizer use can also be expected to decline for the 1st time in years. Indonesia is the scene of a scientific breakthrough, a new hybrid seed corn that grows in the tropics. If seed companies are able to sell seed for half of Indonesia's existing corn acreage, this would be an increase of 1.3 million tons, which would mostly be a surplus to be used for export, processing, or increased human or animal consumption. In revisiting Indonesia, the biggest dissapointment is the failure of family planning to slow the rate of population growth more drastically. 5 years ago, Indonesia's family planning program, started in 1970, appeared a great success. Countrywide, the proportion of women aged 15-44 using contraceptives increased from almost nothing to almost 40% and in Bali topped 60%. Indonesia's overall annual population growth rate had dropped to 1.7%, raising hopes it could be brought down to the 1.2% rate of East Java and Bali by 1985. What has happended instead is that an unexpectedly fast

  12. JAVA Stereo Display Toolkit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edmonds, Karina

    2008-01-01

    This toolkit provides a common interface for displaying graphical user interface (GUI) components in stereo using either specialized stereo display hardware (e.g., liquid crystal shutter or polarized glasses) or anaglyph display (red/blue glasses) on standard workstation displays. An application using this toolkit will work without modification in either environment, allowing stereo software to reach a wider audience without sacrificing high-quality display on dedicated hardware. The toolkit is written in Java for use with the Swing GUI Toolkit and has cross-platform compatibility. It hooks into the graphics system, allowing any standard Swing component to be displayed in stereo. It uses the OpenGL graphics library to control the stereo hardware and to perform the rendering. It also supports anaglyph and special stereo hardware using the same API (application-program interface), and has the ability to simulate color stereo in anaglyph mode by combining the red band of the left image with the green/blue bands of the right image. This is a low-level toolkit that accomplishes simply the display of components (including the JadeDisplay image display component). It does not include higher-level functions such as disparity adjustment, 3D cursor, or overlays all of which can be built using this toolkit.

  13. Java Radar Analysis Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaczek, Mariusz P.

    2005-01-01

    Java Radar Analysis Tool (JRAT) is a computer program for analyzing two-dimensional (2D) scatter plots derived from radar returns showing pieces of the disintegrating Space Shuttle Columbia. JRAT can also be applied to similar plots representing radar returns showing aviation accidents, and to scatter plots in general. The 2D scatter plots include overhead map views and side altitude views. The superposition of points in these views makes searching difficult. JRAT enables three-dimensional (3D) viewing: by use of a mouse and keyboard, the user can rotate to any desired viewing angle. The 3D view can include overlaid trajectories and search footprints to enhance situational awareness in searching for pieces. JRAT also enables playback: time-tagged radar-return data can be displayed in time order and an animated 3D model can be moved through the scene to show the locations of the Columbia (or other vehicle) at the times of the corresponding radar events. The combination of overlays and playback enables the user to correlate a radar return with a position of the vehicle to determine whether the return is valid. JRAT can optionally filter single radar returns, enabling the user to selectively hide or highlight a desired radar return.

  14. Java Application Shell: A Framework for Piecing Together Java Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Philip; Powers, Edward I. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This session describes the architecture of Java Application Shell (JAS), a Swing-based framework for developing interactive Java applications. Java Application Shell is being developed by Commerce One, Inc. for NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Code 588. The purpose of JAS is to provide a framework for the development of Java applications, providing features that enable the development process to be more efficient, consistent and flexible. Fundamentally, JAS is based upon an architecture where an application is considered a collection of 'plugins'. In turn, a plug-in is a collection of Swing actions defined using XML and packaged in a jar file. Plug-ins may be local to the host platform or remotely-accessible through HTTP. Local and remote plugins are automatically discovered by JAS upon application startup; plugins may also be loaded dynamically without having to re-start the application. Using Extensible Markup Language (XML) to define actions, as opposed to hardcoding them in application logic, allows easier customization of application-specific operations by separating application logic from presentation. Through XML, a developer defines an action that may appear on any number of menus, toolbars, and buttons. Actions maintain and propagate enable/disable states and specify icons, tool-tips, titles, etc. Furthermore, JAS allows actions to be implemented using various scripting languages through the use of IBM's Bean Scripting Framework. Scripted action implementation is seamless to the end-user. In addition to action implementation, scripts may be used for application and unit-level testing. In the case of application-level testing, JAS has hooks to assist a script in simulating end-user input. JAS also provides property and user preference management, JavaHelp, Undo/Redo, Multi-Document Interface, Single-Document Interface, printing, and logging. Finally, Jini technology has also been included into the framework by means of a Jini services browser and the

  15. Model Checking Real Time Java Using Java PathFinder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindstrom, Gary; Mehlitz, Peter C.; Visser, Willem

    2005-01-01

    The Real Time Specification for Java (RTSJ) is an augmentation of Java for real time applications of various degrees of hardness. The central features of RTSJ are real time threads; user defined schedulers; asynchronous events, handlers, and control transfers; a priority inheritance based default scheduler; non-heap memory areas such as immortal and scoped, and non-heap real time threads whose execution is not impeded by garbage collection. The Robust Software Systems group at NASA Ames Research Center has JAVA PATHFINDER (JPF) under development, a Java model checker. JPF at its core is a state exploring JVM which can examine alternative paths in a Java program (e.g., via backtracking) by trying all nondeterministic choices, including thread scheduling order. This paper describes our implementation of an RTSJ profile (subset) in JPF, including requirements, design decisions, and current implementation status. Two examples are analyzed: jobs on a multiprogramming operating system, and a complex resource contention example involving autonomous vehicles crossing an intersection. The utility of JPF in finding logic and timing errors is illustrated, and the remaining challenges in supporting all of RTSJ are assessed.

  16. Monitoring Java Programs with Java PathExplorer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Havelund, Klaus; Rosu, Grigore; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We present recent work on the development Java PathExplorer (JPAX), a tool for monitoring the execution of Java programs. JPAX can be used during program testing to gain increased information about program executions, and can potentially furthermore be applied during operation to survey safety critical systems. The tool facilitates automated instrumentation of a program's late code which will then omit events to an observer during its execution. The observer checks the events against user provided high level requirement specifications, for example temporal logic formulae, and against lower level error detection procedures, for example concurrency related such as deadlock and data race algorithms. High level requirement specifications together with their underlying logics are defined in the Maude rewriting logic, and then can either be directly checked using the Maude rewriting engine, or be first translated to efficient data structures and then checked in Java.

  17. Evaluation of repellent activities of Cymbopogon essential oils against mosquito vectors of Malaria, Filariasis and Dengue Fever in India.

    PubMed

    Tyagi, B K; Shahi, A K; Kaul, B L

    1998-08-01

    Essential oils of four species and two hybrid varieties of Cymbopogon grasses were evaluated for their repellent properties against the major vector mosquitoes, namely, Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinque-fasciatus and Aedes aegypti, both in laboratory and field. The magnitude of repellency in the Cymbopogon essential oils was found to be of moderate to high order. All grass species protected completely from mosquito bites for 4 hrs, whereas C. nardus provided protection for as much as 8-10 hrs overnight.

  18. JavaGenes Molecular Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lohn, Jason; Smith, David; Frank, Jeremy; Globus, Al; Crawford, James

    2007-01-01

    JavaGenes is a general-purpose, evolutionary software system written in Java. It implements several versions of a genetic algorithm, simulated annealing, stochastic hill climbing, and other search techniques. This software has been used to evolve molecules, atomic force field parameters, digital circuits, Earth Observing Satellite schedules, and antennas. This version differs from version 0.7.28 in that it includes the molecule evolution code and other improvements. Except for the antenna code, JaveGenes is available for NASA Open Source distribution.

  19. JAVA based LCD Reconstruction and Analysis Tools

    SciTech Connect

    Bower, G.

    2004-10-11

    We summarize the current status and future developments of the North American Group's Java-based system for studying physics and detector design issues at a linear collider. The system is built around Java Analysis Studio (JAS) an experiment-independent Java-based utility for data analysis. Although the system is an integrated package running in JAS, many parts of it are also standalone Java utilities.

  20. Features of the Java commodity grid kit.

    SciTech Connect

    von Laszewski, G.; Gawor, J.; Lane, P.; Rehn, N.; Russell, M.; Mathematics and Computer Science

    2002-11-01

    In this paper we report on the features of the Java Commodity Grid Kit (Java CoG Kit). The Java CoG Kit provides middleware for accessing Grid functionality from the Java framework. Java CoG Kit middleware is general enough to design a variety of advanced Grid applications with quite different user requirements. Access to the Grid is established via Globus Toolkit protocols, allowing the Java CoG Kit to also communicate with the services distributed as part of the C Globus Toolkit reference implementation. Thus, the Java CoG Kit provides Grid developers with the ability to utilize the Grid, as well as numerous additional libraries and frameworks developed by the Java community to enable network, Internet, enterprise and peer-to-peer computing. A variety of projects have successfully used the client libraries of the Java CoG Kit to access Grids driven by the C Globus Toolkit software. In this paper we also report on the efforts to develop serverside Java CoG Kit components. As part of this research we have implemented a prototype pure Java resource management system that enables one to run Grid jobs on platforms on which a Java virtual machine is supported, including Windows NT machines.

  1. Java: An Explosion on the Internet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Read, Tim; Hall, Hazel

    Summer 1995 saw the release, with considerable media attention, of draft versions of Sun Microsystems' Java computer programming language and the HotJava browser. Java has been heralded as the latest "killer" technology in the Internet explosion. Sun Microsystems and numerous companies including Microsoft, IBM, and Netscape have agreed…

  2. Encoding Ownership Types in Java

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cameron, Nicholas; Noble, James

    Ownership types systems organise the heap into a hierarchy which can be used to support encapsulation properties, effects, and invariants. Ownership types have many applications including parallelisation, concurrency, memory management, and security. In this paper, we show that several flavours and extensions of ownership types can be entirely encoded using the standard Java type system.

  3. Control of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (penz.) Sacc. In yellow passion fruit using Cymbopogon citratus essential oil

    PubMed Central

    Anaruma, Nina Duarte; Schmidt, Flávio Luís; Duarte, Marta Cristina Teixeira; Figueira, Glyn Mara; Delarmelina, Camila; Benato, liane Aparecida; Sartoratto, Adilson

    2010-01-01

    The use of antibiotics in agriculture is limited when compared to their applications in human and veterinary medicine. On the other hand, the use of antimicrobials in agriculture contributes to the drug resistance of human pathogens and has stimulated the search for new antibiotics from natural products. Essential oils have been shown to exert several biological activities including antibacterial and antifungal actions. The aim of this study was to determine the activity of 28 essential oils from medicinal plants cultivated at CPMA (Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Collection), CPQBA/UNICAMP, against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Penz.) Sacc., the anthracnose agent in yellow passion fruit (Passiflora edulis Sims f. flavicarpa Deg), as well as evaluating their effect in the control of post-harvest decay. The oils were obtained by water-distillation using a Clevenger-type system and their minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) determined by the micro-dilution method. According to the results, 15 of the 28 essential oils presented activity against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, and the following four oils presented MIC values between 0.25 and 0.3 mg/mL: Coriandrum sativum, Cymbopogon citratus, Cymbopogon flexuosus and Lippia alba. The evaluation of Cymbopogon citratus essential oil in the control of post-harvest decay in yellow passion fruit showed that the disease index of the samples treated with the essential oil did not differ (P ≤ 0.05) from that of the samples treated with fungicide. The present study shows the potential of Cymbopogon citratus essential oil in the control of the anthracnose agent in yellow passion fruit. PMID:24031465

  4. Control of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (penz.) Sacc. In yellow passion fruit using Cymbopogon citratus essential oil.

    PubMed

    Anaruma, Nina Duarte; Schmidt, Flávio Luís; Duarte, Marta Cristina Teixeira; Figueira, Glyn Mara; Delarmelina, Camila; Benato, Liane Aparecida; Sartoratto, Adilson

    2010-01-01

    The use of antibiotics in agriculture is limited when compared to their applications in human and veterinary medicine. On the other hand, the use of antimicrobials in agriculture contributes to the drug resistance of human pathogens and has stimulated the search for new antibiotics from natural products. Essential oils have been shown to exert several biological activities including antibacterial and antifungal actions. The aim of this study was to determine the activity of 28 essential oils from medicinal plants cultivated at CPMA (Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Collection), CPQBA/UNICAMP, against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Penz.) Sacc., the anthracnose agent in yellow passion fruit (Passiflora edulis Sims f. flavicarpa Deg), as well as evaluating their effect in the control of post-harvest decay. The oils were obtained by water-distillation using a Clevenger-type system and their minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) determined by the micro-dilution method. According to the results, 15 of the 28 essential oils presented activity against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, and the following four oils presented MIC values between 0.25 and 0.3 mg/mL: Coriandrum sativum, Cymbopogon citratus, Cymbopogon flexuosus and Lippia alba. The evaluation of Cymbopogon citratus essential oil in the control of post-harvest decay in yellow passion fruit showed that the disease index of the samples treated with the essential oil did not differ (P ≤ 0.05) from that of the samples treated with fungicide. The present study shows the potential of Cymbopogon citratus essential oil in the control of the anthracnose agent in yellow passion fruit.

  5. Comparative effects of Cymbopogon schoenanthus essential oil and piperitone on Callosobruchus maculatus development.

    PubMed

    Ketoh, Guillaume K; Koumaglo, Honore K; Glitho, Isabelle A; Huignard, Jacques

    2006-12-01

    The insecticidal activity of crude essential oil extracted from Cymbopogon schoenanthus and of its main constituent, piperitone, was assessed on different developmental stages of Callosobruchus maculatus. Piperitone was more toxic to adults with a LC(50) value of 1.6 microl/l vs. 2.7 microl/l obtained with the crude extract. Piperitone inhibited the development of newly laid eggs and of neonate larvae, but was less toxic than the crude extract to individuals developing inside the seeds.

  6. Java Mission Evaluation Workstation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pettinger, Ross; Watlington, Tim; Ryley, Richard; Harbour, Jeff

    2006-01-01

    The Java Mission Evaluation Workstation System (JMEWS) is a collection of applications designed to retrieve, display, and analyze both real-time and recorded telemetry data. This software is currently being used by both the Space Shuttle Program (SSP) and the International Space Station (ISS) program. JMEWS was written in the Java programming language to satisfy the requirement of platform independence. An object-oriented design was used to satisfy additional requirements and to make the software easily extendable. By virtue of its platform independence, JMEWS can be used on the UNIX workstations in the Mission Control Center (MCC) and on office computers. JMEWS includes an interactive editor that allows users to easily develop displays that meet their specific needs. The displays can be developed and modified while viewing data. By simply selecting a data source, the user can view real-time, recorded, or test data.

  7. Developing JAVA Card Application with RMI API

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    JunWu, Xu; JunLing, Liang

    This paper describes research in the use of the RMI to develop Java Card applications. the Java Card RMI (JCRMI), which is based on the J2SE RMI distributed-object model. In the RMI model a server application creates and makes accessible remote objects, and a client application obtains remote references to the server's remote objects, and then invokes remote methods on them. In JCRMI, the Java Card applet is the server, and the host application is the client.

  8. Jess, the Java expert system shell

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman-Hill, E.J.

    1997-11-01

    This report describes Jess, a clone of the popular CLIPS expert system shell written entirely in Java. Jess supports the development of rule-based expert systems which can be tightly coupled to code written in the powerful, portable Java language. The syntax of the Jess language is discussed, and a comprehensive list of supported functions is presented. A guide to extending Jess by writing Java code is also included.

  9. Performance and Scalability of the NAS Parallel Benchmarks in Java

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frumkin, Michael A.; Schultz, Matthew; Jin, Haoqiang; Yan, Jerry; Biegel, Bryan A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Several features make Java an attractive choice for scientific applications. In order to gauge the applicability of Java to Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), we have implemented the NAS (NASA Advanced Supercomputing) Parallel Benchmarks in Java. The performance and scalability of the benchmarks point out the areas where improvement in Java compiler technology and in Java thread implementation would position Java closer to Fortran in the competition for scientific applications.

  10. Implementation of the NAS Parallel Benchmarks in Java

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frumkin, Michael A.; Schultz, Matthew; Jin, Haoqiang; Yan, Jerry; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Several features make Java an attractive choice for High Performance Computing (HPC). In order to gauge the applicability of Java to Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), we have implemented the NAS (NASA Advanced Supercomputing) Parallel Benchmarks in Java. The performance and scalability of the benchmarks point out the areas where improvement in Java compiler technology and in Java thread implementation would position Java closer to Fortran in the competition for CFD applications.

  11. Sandia secure processor : a native Java processor.

    SciTech Connect

    Wickstrom, Gregory Lloyd; Gale, Jason Carl; Ma, Kwok Kee

    2003-08-01

    The Sandia Secure Processor (SSP) is a new native Java processor that has been specifically designed for embedded applications. The SSP's design is a system composed of a core Java processor that directly executes Java bytecodes, on-chip intelligent IO modules, and a suite of software tools for simulation and compiling executable binary files. The SSP is unique in that it provides a way to control real-time IO modules for embedded applications. The system software for the SSP is a 'class loader' that takes Java .class files (created with your favorite Java compiler), links them together, and compiles a binary. The complete SSP system provides very powerful functionality with very light hardware requirements with the potential to be used in a wide variety of small-system embedded applications. This paper gives a detail description of the Sandia Secure Processor and its unique features.

  12. Bringing Interactivity to the Web: The JAVA Solution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knee, Richard H.; Cafolla, Ralph

    Java is an object-oriented programming language of the Internet. It's popularity lies in its ability to create interactive Web sites across platforms. The most common Java programs are applications and applets, which adhere to a set of conventions that lets them run within a Java-compatible browser. Java is becoming an essential subject matter and…

  13. Java and its future in biomedical computing.

    PubMed Central

    Rodgers, R P

    1996-01-01

    Java, a new object-oriented computing language related to C++, is receiving considerable attention due to its use in creating network-sharable, platform-independent software modules (known as "applets") that can be used with the World Wide Web. The Web has rapidly become the most commonly used information-retrieval tool associated with the global computer network known as the Internet, and Java has the potential to further accelerate the Web's application to medical problems. Java's potentially wide acceptance due to its Web association and its own technical merits also suggests that it may become a popular language for non-Web-based, object-oriented computing. PMID:8880677

  14. Analysis of variables affecting unemployment rate and detecting for cluster in West Java, Central Java, and East Java in 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samuel, Putra A.; Widyaningsih, Yekti; Lestari, Dian

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study is modeling the Unemployment Rate (UR) in West Java, Central Java, and East Java, with rate of disease, infant mortality rate, educational level, population size, proportion of married people, and GDRP as the explanatory variables. Spatial factors are also considered in the modeling since the closer the distance, the higher the correlation. This study uses the secondary data from BPS (Badan Pusat Statistik). The data will be analyzed using Moran I test, to obtain the information about spatial dependence, and using Spatial Autoregressive modeling to obtain the information, which variables are significant affecting UR and how great the influence of the spatial factors. The result is, variables proportion of married people, rate of disease, and population size are related significantly to UR. In all three regions, the Hotspot of unemployed will also be detected districts/cities using Spatial Scan Statistics Method. The results are 22 districts/cities as a regional group with the highest unemployed (Most likely cluster) in the study area; 2 districts/cities as a regional group with the highest unemployed in West Java; 1 district/city as a regional groups with the highest unemployed in Central Java; 15 districts/cities as a regional group with the highest unemployed in East Java.

  15. Java PathFinder User Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Havelund, Klaus

    1999-01-01

    The JAVA PATHFINDER, JPF, is a translator from a subset of JAVA 1.0 to PROMELA, the programming language of the SPIN model checker. The purpose of JPF is to establish a framework for verification and debugging of JAVA programming based on model checking. The main goal is to automate program verification such that a programmer can apply it in the daily work without the need for a specialist to manually reformulate a program into a different notation in order to analyze the program. The system is especially suited for analyzing multi-threaded JAVA applications, where normal testing usually falls short. The system can find deadlocks and violations of boolean assertions stated by the programmer in a special assertion language. This document explains how to Use JPF.

  16. Multiparadigm communications in Java for Grid computing.

    SciTech Connect

    Getov, V.; von Laszewski, G.; Philippsen, M.; Foster, I.; Mathematics and Computer Science; Univ. of Westminster; Univ. of Karlsruhe

    2001-01-01

    In this article, we argue that the rapid development of Java technology now makes it possible to support, in a single object-oriented framework, the different communication and coordination structures that arise in scientific applications. We outline how this integrated approach can be achieved, reviewing in the process the state-of-the-art in communication paradigms within Java. We also present recent evaluation results indicating that this integrated approach can be achieved without compromising on performance.

  17. Java simulations of embedded control systems.

    PubMed

    Farias, Gonzalo; Cervin, Anton; Arzén, Karl-Erik; Dormido, Sebastián; Esquembre, Francisco

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces a new Open Source Java library suited for the simulation of embedded control systems. The library is based on the ideas and architecture of TrueTime, a toolbox of Matlab devoted to this topic, and allows Java programmers to simulate the performance of control processes which run in a real time environment. Such simulations can improve considerably the learning and design of multitasking real-time systems. The choice of Java increases considerably the usability of our library, because many educators program already in this language. But also because the library can be easily used by Easy Java Simulations (EJS), a popular modeling and authoring tool that is increasingly used in the field of Control Education. EJS allows instructors, students, and researchers with less programming capabilities to create advanced interactive simulations in Java. The paper describes the ideas, implementation, and sample use of the new library both for pure Java programmers and for EJS users. The JTT library and some examples are online available on http://lab.dia.uned.es/jtt.

  18. Use of Cymbopogon Citratus Essential Oil in Food Preservation: Recent Advances and Future Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Ekpenyong, Christopher E; Akpan, Ernest E

    2015-07-06

    The economic burdens and health implications of food spoilage are increasing. Contamination of food sources by fungi, bacteria, yeast, nematodes, insects, and rodents remains a major public health concern. Research has focused on developing safer natural products and innovations to meet consumers' acceptance as alternatives to synthetic food preservatives. Many recent novel preservative techniques and applications of both natural and synthetic origin continue to proliferate in food and chemical industries. In particular, some essential oils of plant origin are potent food preservatives and are thus attractive alternatives to synthetic preservatives. This paper provides an overview of recent advances and future prospects in assessing the efficacy of theuse of Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass) essential oil in food preservation. The possible mechanisms of action and toxicological profile as well as evidence for or against the use of this essential oil as an alternative to synthetic food preservatives in domestic and industrial applications are discussed.

  19. Chemical composition and in vitro antitrypanosomal activity of fractions of essential oil from Cymbopogon nardus L.

    PubMed

    Muhd Haffiz, J; Norhayati, I; Getha, K; Nor Azah, M A; Mohd Ilham, A; Lili Sahira, H; Roshan Jahn, M S; Muhd Syamil, A

    2013-03-01

    Essential oil from Cymbopogon nardus was evaluated for activity against Trypanosoma brucei brucei BS221 (IC50 = 0.31 ± 0.03 μg/mL) and cytotoxic effect on normal kidney (Vero) cells (IC50 = >100 μg/mL). The crude essential oil was subjected to various chromatography techniques afforded active sub fractions with antitrypanosomal activity; F4 (IC50 = 0.61 ± 0.06 μg/mL), F6 (IC50= 0.73 ± 0.33 μg/mL), F7 (IC50 = 1.15 ± 0 μg/mL) and F8 (IC50 = 1.11 ± 0.01 μg/mL). These active fractions did not exhibit any toxic effects against Vero cell lines and the chemical profiles investigation indicated presence of α-and γ-eudesmol, elemol, α-cadinol and eugenol by GC/MS analysis.

  20. Phytostabilisation potential of lemon grass (Cymbopogon flexuosus (Nees ex Stend) Wats) on iron ore tailings.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, M; Dhal, N K; Patra, P; Das, B; Reddy, P S R

    2012-01-01

    The present pot culture study was carried out for the potential phytostabilisation of iron ore tailings using lemon grass (Cymbopogon flexuosus) a drought tolerant, perennial, aromatic grass. Experiments have been conducted by varying the composition of garden soil (control) with iron ore tailings. The various parameters, viz. growth of plants, number of tillers, biomass and oil content of lemon grass are evaluated. The studies have indicated that growth parameters of lemon grass in 1:1 composition of garden soil and iron ore tailings are significantly more (-5% increase) compared to plants grown in control soil. However, the oil content of lemon grass in both the cases more or less remained same. The results also infer that at higher proportion of tailings the yield of biomass decreases. The studies indicate that lemongrass with its fibrous root system is proved to be an efficient soil binder by preventing soil erosion.

  1. [Alcoholic extract of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) on the control of Boophilus microplus in cattle].

    PubMed

    Heimerdinger, Arli; Olivo, Clair J; Molento, Marcelo B; Agnolin, Carlos A; Ziech, Magnos F; Scaravelli, Luciene Fernanda B; Skonieski, Fernando R; Both, José F; Charão, Pablo S

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) alcoholic extracts on the control of Boophilus microplus in naturally infested Holstein cows. Twelve animals were allocated in three groups of four animals. Group 1 was treated with amitraz at 0.025%, Group 2 was treated with lemongrass extracts at 1.36% and Group 3 with the same product at 2.72% of the plant. Engorged ticks were evaluated on animals with length superior to 4.0 mm, before (mean of days -3, -2, -1) and at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 14 days after treatment. The mean efficacy of amitraz was 97.93%. Lemongrass extract at 2.72% reduced tick infestation by 40.3, 46.6 and 41.5% on day 3, 7 and 14 post-treatment, respectively.

  2. Cytogenotoxicity of Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf (lemon grass) aqueous extracts in vegetal test systems.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Saulo M; Silva, Pâmela S; Viccini, Lyderson F

    2010-06-01

    The lemon grass, Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf, is an important species of Poaceae family commonly used in the folk medicine in many countries. The aim of this study was to investigate the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of aqueous extracts from C. citratus leaves on Lactuca sativa (lettuce) root tip meristem cells by cytogenetic studies that have never been done before for lemon grass extracts. For this, lettuce seeds were treated for 72h with different concentrations of lemon grass aqueous extracts (5; 10; 20 and 30 mg/mL). The percentage of germination, root development and cellular behavior were analyzed, and the results showed that the highest concentration of aqueous extracts reduced the mitotic index, the seed germination and the root development of lettuce. The extracts have also induced chromosome aberrations and cellular death in the roots cells of L. sativa.

  3. Evaluation of the chemical composition of Brazilian commercial Cymbopogon citratus (D.C.) stapf samples.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Luiz Cláudio Almeida; Pereira, Ulisses Alves; Martinazzo, Ana Paula; Maltha, Célia Regina Alvares; Teixeira, Róbson Ricardo; Melo, Evandro de Castro

    2008-08-27

    The concentration and the chemical composition of the essential oils obtained from different samples of Cymbopogon citratus were evaluated. Among the 12 samples investigated (11 dried leaf samples and fresh plant leaves), seven presented essential oil concentrations within the threshold established by the Brazilian legislation. The moisture content was also determined and the majority of the samples presented humidity contents near 12%. The GC and GC/MS analyses of the essential oils led to identification of 22 compounds, with neral and geranial as the two major components. The total percentage of these two compounds varied within the investigated sample oils from 40.7% to 75.4%. In addition, a considerable variation in the chemical composition of the analyzed samples was observed. The process of grinding the leaves significantly decreased (by up to 68%) the essential oil content, as well as the percentage of myrcene in the oils.

  4. In Vitro Mass Propagation of Cymbopogon citratus Stapf., a Medicinal Gramineae.

    PubMed

    Quiala, Elisa; Barbón, Raúl; Capote, Alina; Pérez, Naivy; Jiménez, Elio

    2016-01-01

    Cymbopogon citratus (D.C.) Stapf. is a medicinal plant source of lemon grass oils with multiple uses in the pharmaceutical and food industry. Conventional propagation in semisolid culture medium has become a fast tool for mass propagation of lemon grass, but the production cost must be lower. A solution could be the application of in vitro propagation methods based on liquid culture advantages and automation. This chapter provides two efficient protocols for in vitro propagation via organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis of this medicinal plant. Firstly, we report the production of shoots using a temporary immersion system (TIS). Secondly, a protocol for somatic embryogenesis using semisolid culture for callus formation and multiplication, and liquid culture in a rotatory shaker and conventional bioreactors for the maintenance of embryogenic culture, is described. Well-developed plants can be achieved from both protocols. Here we provide a fast and efficient technology for mass propagation of this medicinal plant taking the advantage of liquid culture and automation.

  5. Java Expert System Shell Version 6.0

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman-Hill, Ernest

    2002-06-18

    Java Expert Shell System - Jess - is a rule engine and scripting environment written entirely in Sun's Java language, Jess was orginially inspired by the CLIPS expert system shell, but has grown int a complete, distinct JAVA-influenced environment of its own. Using Jess, you can build Java applets and applications that have the capacity to "reason" using knowledge you supply in the form of declarative rules. Jess is surprisingly fast, and for some problems is faster than CLIPS, in that many Jess scripts are valid CLIPS scripts and vice-versa. Like CLIPS, Jess uses the Rete algorithm to process rules, a very efficient mechanism for solving the difficult many-to-many matching problem. Jess adds many features to CLIPS, including backwards chaining and the ability to manipulate and directly reason about Java objects. Jess is also a powerful Java scripting environment, from which you can create Java objects and call Java methods without compiling any Java Code.

  6. Hyper-Threaded Java: Use the Java Concurrency API to Speed Up Time-Consuming Tasks

    SciTech Connect

    Scarberry, Randy

    2006-11-21

    This is for a Java World article that was already published on Nov 21, 2006. When I originally submitted the draft, Java World wasn't in the available lists of publications. Now that it is, Hanford Library staff recommended that I resubmit so it would be counted. Original submission ID: PNNL-SA-52490

  7. Larvicidal activity of Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf. and Croton macrostachyus Del. against Anopheles arabiensis Patton, a potent malaria vector.

    PubMed

    Karunamoorthi, K; Ilango, K

    2010-01-01

    Methanol leaf extracts of two Ethiopian traditional medicinal plants viz., Lomisar [vernacular name (local native language, Amharic); Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf. (Poaceae)] and Bisana [vernacular name (local native language, Amharic); Croton macrostachyus Del. (Euphorbiaceae)] were screened for larvicidal activity against late third instar larvae of Anopheles arabiensis Patton, a potent malaria vector in Ethiopia. The larval mortality was observed 24 h of post treatment. Both plant extracts demonstrated varying degrees of larvicidal activity against Anopheles arabiensis. Cymbopogon citratus extract has exhibited potent larvicidal activity than Croton macrostachyus at lower concentrations. The LC50 and LC90 values of Cymbopogon citratus were 74.02 and 158.20 ppm, respectively. From this data, a chi-square value 2.760 is significant at the P < 0.05 level. While, the LC50 and LC90 values of Croton macrostachyus were 89.25 and 224.98 ppm, respectively and the chi-square value 1.035 is significant at the P < 0.05 level. The present investigation establishes that these plant extracts could serve as potent mosquito larvicidal agents against Anopheles arabiensis. However, their mode of actions and larvicidal efficiency under the field conditions should be scrutinized and determined in the near future.

  8. Java classes for nonprocedural variogram modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faulkner, Barton R.

    2002-04-01

    A set of Java TM classes was written for variogram modeling to support research for US EPA's Regional Vulnerability Assessment Program (ReVA). The modeling objectives of this research program are to use conceptual programming tools for numerical analysis for regional risk assessment. The classes presented use of object-oriented design elements, and their use is described for the benefit of programmers. To help facilitate their use, class diagrams and standard JavaDoc commenting were employed. Java's support for polymorphism and inheritance is used and these are described as ways to promote extension of these classes for other geostatistical applications. Among the advantages is the ease of programming, code reuse, and conceptual, rather than procedural implementation. A graphical application for variogram modeling that uses the classes is also provided and described. It can also be used by non-programmers. This application uses a generalized least-squares fitting algorithm for robust parametric variogram model fitting through the variogram cloud. This feature makes this program unique from other freely available variogram modeling programs, though the classes are presented primarily so they may be extended for use in other Java programs. More traditional variogram plotting and fitting utilities are also provided. This application is graphical and platform-neutral. It uses classes of the recently proposed Java API for linear algebra, called the JAMA package.

  9. Instrumentation of Java Bytecode for Runtime Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, Allen; Haveland, Klaus

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes JSpy, a system for high-level instrumentation of Java bytecode and its use with JPaX, OUT system for runtime analysis of Java programs. JPaX monitors the execution of temporal logic formulas and performs predicative analysis of deadlocks and data races. JSpy s input is an instrumentation specification, which consists of a collection of rules, where a rule is a predicate/action pair The predicate is a conjunction of syntactic constraints on a Java statement, and the action is a description of logging information to be inserted in the bytecode corresponding to the statement. JSpy is built using JTrek an instrumentation package at a lower level of abstraction.

  10. Sawja: Static Analysis Workshop for Java

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubert, Laurent; Barré, Nicolas; Besson, Frédéric; Demange, Delphine; Jensen, Thomas; Monfort, Vincent; Pichardie, David; Turpin, Tiphaine

    Static analysis is a powerful technique for automatic verification of programs but raises major engineering challenges when developing a full-fledged analyzer for a realistic language such as Java. Efficiency and precision of such a tool rely partly on low level components which only depend on the syntactic structure of the language and therefore should not be redesigned for each implementation of a new static analysis. This paper describes the Sawja library: a static analysis workshop fully compliant with Java 6 which provides OCaml modules for efficiently manipulating Java bytecode programs. We present the main features of the library, including i) efficient functional data-structures for representing a program with implicit sharing and lazy parsing, ii) an intermediate stack-less representation, and iii) fast computation and manipulation of complete programs. We provide experimental evaluations of the different features with respect to time, memory and precision.

  11. Authenticity control of essential oils containing citronellal and citral by chiral and stable-isotope gas-chromatographic analysis.

    PubMed

    Nhu-Trang, Tran-Thi; Casabianca, Hervé; Grenier-Loustalot, Marie-Florence

    2006-12-01

    Enantioselective capillary GC on a Supelco beta-DEX 225 column (heptakis(2,3-di-O-acetyl-6-O-tert-butyldimethylsilyl)-beta-cyclodextrin SPB 20poly--20% diphenyl, 80% dimethylsiloxane) and isotope-ratio mass spectrometry, coupled online with capillary GC on an HP5 column have been used for origin-specific analysis and authenticity control of essential oils, for example lemon (Citrus limon), lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus and Cymbopogon flexuosus), citronella (Cymbopogon nardus L.--Ceylon type and Cymbopogon winterianus--Java type), Litsea cubeba, Lippia citriodora, lemon myrtle (Backhousia citriodora), lemon gum (Eucalyptus citriodora), and, especially, precious lemon balm oil (Melissa officinalis L.). Isotope data (delta13C(PDB) and delta2H(V-SMOW)) for citral (neral + geranial) and citronellal from on-line GC-C/Py-IRMS and chiral data for citronellal in these essential oils are reported. The possibility of using these data to determine the origin of these essential oils and to detect adulteration is discussed. Principal-components analysis (PCA) of specific compounds in two essential oils of lemongrass and Litsea cubeba was performed as a practical statistical method for distinguishing between these two types of oil.

  12. A Java Applet for Illustrating Internet Error Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holliday, Mark A.

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the author's experiences developing a Java applet that illustrates how error control is implemented in the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP). One section discusses the concepts which the TCP error control Java applet is intended to convey, while the nature of the Java applet is covered in another section. The author…

  13. JAVA CLASSES FOR NONPROCEDURAL VARIOGRAM MONITORING

    EPA Science Inventory

    A set of Java classes was written for variogram modeling to support research for US EPA's Regional Vulnerability Assessment Program (ReVA). The modeling objectives of this research program are to use conceptual programming tools for numerical analysis for regional risk assessm...

  14. Interactive Economics Instruction with Java and CGI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerdes, Geoffrey R.

    2000-01-01

    States that this Web site is based on the conviction that Web-based materials must contain interactive modules to achieve value beyond that obtained by conventional media. Discusses three applets that can be reached at the homepage of the Web site by selecting the Java applets link. (CMK)

  15. Testing the use of a citronella-based repellent as an effective method to reduce the prevalence and abundance of biting flies in avian nests.

    PubMed

    Martínez-de la Puente, Josué; Merino, Santiago; Lobato, Elisa; Rivero-de Aguilar, Juan; del Cerro, Sara; Ruiz-de-Castañeda, Rafael

    2009-04-01

    Here, we validate the use of a citronella (natural oil) based repellent to reduce the abundance of flying blood-sucking insects in avian nests. These insects are important parasites of birds affecting them as blood feeders and as vectors of a diversity of pathogens. When nestling were 10 days old, we assigned wild great tit Parus major nests to one of two treatments, control and fumigated nests. The abundance of biting midges and blackflies captured during 3 days following the treatment application were lower in fumigated nests with respect to control ones. By contrast, the abundance of blowfly pupae measured when nestlings left their nests was not affected by the treatment. Although many experimental studies modify the abundance of nest-dweller ectoparasites, to our knowledge, this is the first one describing an easy, safe, and effective method, reducing the total abundance of both biting midges and blackflies in wild avian nests. Our results could be used in future conservation projects and experimental studies on host-parasite evolution affecting the abundance of flying blood-feeder insects under natural conditions.

  16. Modular VO oriented Java EE service deployer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molinaro, Marco; Cepparo, Francesco; De Marco, Marco; Knapic, Cristina; Apollo, Pietro; Smareglia, Riccardo

    2014-07-01

    The International Virtual Observatory Alliance (IVOA) has produced many standards and recommendations whose aim is to generate an architecture that starts from astrophysical resources, in a general sense, and ends up in deployed consumable services (that are themselves astrophysical resources). Focusing on the Data Access Layer (DAL) system architecture, that these standards define, in the last years a web based application has been developed and maintained at INAF-OATs IA2 (Italian National institute for Astrophysics - Astronomical Observatory of Trieste, Italian center of Astronomical Archives) to try to deploy and manage multiple VO (Virtual Observatory) services in a uniform way: VO-Dance. However a set of criticalities have arisen since when the VO-Dance idea has been produced, plus some major changes underwent and are undergoing at the IVOA DAL layer (and related standards): this urged IA2 to identify a new solution for its own service layer. Keeping on the basic ideas from VO-Dance (simple service configuration, service instantiation at call time and modularity) while switching to different software technologies (e.g. dismissing Java Reflection in favour of Enterprise Java Bean, EJB, based solution), the new solution has been sketched out and tested for feasibility. Here we present the results originating from this test study. The main constraints for this new project come from various fields. A better homogenized solution rising from IVOA DAL standards: for example the new DALI (Data Access Layer Interface) specification that acts as a common interface system for previous and oncoming access protocols. The need for a modular system where each component is based upon a single VO specification allowing services to rely on common capabilities instead of homogenizing them inside service components directly. The search for a scalable system that takes advantage from distributed systems. The constraints find answer in the adopted solutions hereafter sketched. The

  17. Acaricidal activity of Cymbopogon citratus and Azadirachta indica against house dust mites

    PubMed Central

    Hanifah, Azima Laili; Awang, Siti Hazar; Ming, Ho Tze; Abidin, Suhaili Zainal; Omar, Maizatul Hashima

    2011-01-01

    Objective To examine the acaricidal effects of the essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus leaf extract (lemongrass) and ethanolic Azadirachta indica leaf extract (neem) against house dust mites Dermatophagoides farinae (D. farinae) and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (D. pteronyssinus). Methods Twenty-five adults mites were placed onto treated filter paper that is soaked with plant extract and been tested at different concentrations (50.00%, 25.00%, 12.50%, 6.25% and 3.13%) and exposure times (24hrs, 48hrs, 72hrs and 96 hrs). All treatments were replicated 7 times, and the experiment repeated once. The topical and contact activities of the two herbs were investigated. Results Mortalities from lemongrass extract were higher than neem for both topical and contact activities. At 50 % concentration, both 24 hrs topical and contact exposures to lemongrass resulted in more than 91% mortalities for both species of mites. At the same concentration and exposure time, neem resulted in topical mortalities of 40.3% and 15.7% against D. pteronyssinus and D. farinae respectively; contact mortalities were 8.0% and 8.9% against the 2 mites, respectively. There was no difference in topical mortalities of D. pteronyssinus from exposure to concentrations of lemongrass and neem up to 12.50%; lemongrass was more effective than neem at the higher concentrations. Conclusions Generally, topical mortalities of D. farinae due to lemongrass are higher than that due to neem. Contact mortalities of lemongrass are always higher that neem against both species of mites. PMID:23569794

  18. Pyrolysis and kinetic analyses of Camel grass (Cymbopogon schoenanthus) for bioenergy.

    PubMed

    Mehmood, Muhammad Aamer; Ye, Guangbin; Luo, Huibo; Liu, Chenguang; Malik, Sana; Afzal, Ifrah; Xu, Jianren; Ahmad, Muhammad Sajjad

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this work was to study the thermal degradation of grass (Cymbopogon schoenanthus) under an inert environment at three heating rates, including 10, 30, and 50°Cmin(-1) in order to evaluate its bioenergy potential. Pyrolysis experiments were performed in a simultaneous Thermogravimetry-Differential Scanning Calorimetry analyzer. Thermal data were used to analyze kinetic parameters through isoconversional models of Flynn-Wall-Ozawa (FWO) and Kissenger-Akahira-Sunose (KSA) methods. The pre-exponential factors values have shown the reaction to follow first order kinetics. Activation energy values were shown to be 84-193 and 96-192kJmol(-1) as calculated by KSA and FWO methods, respectively. Differences between activation energy and enthalpy of reaction values (∼5 to 6kJmol(-1)) showed product formation is favorable. The Gibb's free energy (173-177kJmol(-1)) and High Heating Value (15.00MJkg(-1)) have shown the considerable bioenergy potential of this low-cost biomass.

  19. Antifungal activity of Cymbopogon winterianus jowitt ex bor against Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Wylly Araújo; de Oliveira Pereira, Fillipe; de Luna, Giliara Carol Diniz Gomes; Lima, Igara Oliveira; Wanderley, Paulo Alves; de Lima, Rita Baltazar; de Oliveira Lima, Edeltrudes

    2011-01-01

    Candida albicans is an opportunistic yeast and a member of the normal human flora that commonly causes infections in patients with any type of deficiency of the immune system. The essential oils have been tested for antimycotic activity and pose much potential as antifungal agents. This work investigated the activity of the essential oil of Cymbopogon winterianus against C. albicans by MIC, MFC and time-kill methods. The essential oil (EO) was obtained by hydrodistillation using a Clevenger-type apparatus. It was tested fifteen strains of C. albicans. The MIC was determined by the microdilution method and the MFC was determined when an aliquot of the broth microdilution was cultivated in SDA medium. The phytochemical analysis of EO showed presence of citronellal (23,59%), geraniol (18,81%) and citronellol (11,74%). The EO showed antifungal activity, and the concentrations 625 µg/mL and 1250 µg/mL inhibited the growth of all strains tested and it was fungicidal, respectively. The antimicrobial activity of various concentrations of EO was analyzed over time, it was found concentration-dependent antifungal activity, whose behavior was similar to amphotericin B and nystatin. PMID:24031651

  20. Green synthesis, characterization and biological activities of silver nanoparticles from alkalinized Cymbopogon citratus Stapf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajayi, Emmanuel; Afolayan, Anthony

    2017-03-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been synthesized from the alkalinized leaf extract of Cymbopogon citratus, also known as lemon grass (LG), and characterized for their size and shape using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The total formation of the AgNPs was observed visually with a color change from yellow to brownish-black. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS/EDX) were conducted to determine the various functional groups and the concentration of metal ions in the nanoparticles. The data analysis showed spherically shaped nanoparticles with a size of 10–33 nm, as revealed by TEM, thereby complementing the result for SEM. FTIR identifies the ethylene group as a reducing and capping agent for the formation of the nanoparticles. The x-ray diffraction pattern confirmed the presence of silver crystallites as well as their size, further confirming the result of the TEM. AgNPs do not exhibit very good potential as free radical scavengers when compared to the standards. The synthesized AgNPs in suspension showed activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) in the range of 31.25–62.5 µg ml‑1. In summary, the synthesized AgNPs possessed an acceptable size and shape.

  1. Rapid propagation of lemongrass (Cymbopogon flexuosus (Nees) Wats.) through somatic embryogenesis in vitro.

    PubMed

    Nayak, S; Debata, B K; Sahoo, S

    1996-01-01

    Somatic embryos induced from callus cultures of lemongrass [Cymbopogon flexuosus (Nees) Wats.] on Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 5 mg/l of 2,4-D, 0.1 mg/l of NAA and 0.5 mg/l of Kn developed into plantlets when plated on a medium supplemented with 3 mg/l of BA, 1 mg/l of GA3 and 0.1 mg/l of NAA. The regeneration potential of callus was retained for more than 2 years on the nutrient medium supplemented with comparatively lower levels of growth regulators (2,4-D at 2 mg/l, NAA at 0.1 mg/l and Kn at 0.25 mg/l). Approximately 30-35 plantlets were produced after two months of culture per 100 mg of callus inoculated. Regenerants were transplanted into soil and transferred to the field for assessment of various morphological and biochemical characteristics. The results of 1 year of field trials showed that plants derived from somatic embryoids were more uniform in all the characteristics examined when compared with the field performance of plants raised through slips by standard propagation procedures. Thus, a procedure has been developed for high frequency long term plant production of lemongrass through in vitro methods.

  2. Assessment of antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties of Cymbopogon winterianus leaf essential oil.

    PubMed

    Leite, Bárbara L S; Bonfim, Rangel R; Antoniolli, Angelo R; Thomazzi, Sara M; Araújo, Adriano A S; Blank, Arie F; Estevam, Charles S; Cambui, Erica V F; Bonjardim, Leonardo R; Albuquerque Júnior, Ricardo L C; Quintans-Júnior, Lucindo J

    2010-10-01

    The present study investigated the antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of the leaf essential oil (LEO) of Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt (Poaceae). In the acetic acid-induced writhing and formalin tests, the LEO (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly reduced (p < 0.05) the number of writhings and paw licking times in the first (0-5 min) and second (15-30 min) phases, respectively. In contrast, the LEO did not alter the latency time for mice licking the rear paws in hot-plate test. The LEO inhibited the carrageenan-induced neutrophil migration to the peritoneal cavity in a dose-dependent manner (35.5%, 42.8%, and 66.1% at doses of 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg, respectively, p < 0.001). Moreover, LEO exhibited higher scavenging activity toward 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals with an IC(50) (12.66 ± 0.56 μg/mL). Our present results demonstrated that the LEO has antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant properties.

  3. Optimized extraction of polysaccharides from Cymbopogon citratus and its biological activities.

    PubMed

    Thangam, Ramar; Suresh, Veeraperumal; Kannan, Soundarapandian

    2014-04-01

    In this study the extraction of hot water soluble polysaccharides (HWSPs) from Cymbopogon citratus using hot water decoction was discussed. Response surface methodology (RSM) based on a three level, three variable central composite rotatable design (CCRD), was employed to obtain best possible combination of extraction time (X1: 30-180 min), extraction temperature (X2: 70-100 °C) and water to the raw material ratio (X3: 10-60) for maximum HWSPs extraction. The optimum extraction conditions were as follows: extraction time was around 113.81 min, extraction temperature at 99.66 °C and the ratio of water to raw material was 33.11 g/mL. Under these conditions, the experimental yield was 13.24±0.23%, which is well in close agreement with the value predicted by RSM model yield (13.19%). The basic characterization of HWSPs was determined by using the FTIR. These preliminary in vitro biological studies indicated that lemongrass polysaccharides were useful for anticancer therapy.

  4. Ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry, and biological activities of Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf extracts.

    PubMed

    Ekpenyong, Christopher E; Akpan, Ernest; Nyoh, Azah

    2015-05-01

    Cymbopogon citratus is a widely distributed perennial herb belonging to the Poaceae family and has been extensively consumed for its medicinal, cosmetic, and nutritional effects for centuries. A large number of reports have been published describing the pharmacological, biological, and therapeutic actions of this herb. In this review, we summarized the literatures on related studies (up to January, 2014) that highlighted the pharmacologic and biological effects of the major phytochemicals isolated from C. citratus extracts and its essential oil. The components of the essential oils found in C. citratus have a similar pharmacokinetic properties, including absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion. They are quickly absorbed following oral, pulmonary, and dermal administration. Based on the published reports, it can also be inferred that, after absorption from the small intestine, some phytochemicals in C. citratus can undergo oxidation, glucuronidation, sulfation, and/or O-methylation. Excretion is through urine, feces and/or expired volatiles. The biotransformation reactions of C. citratus bioactive constituents are essential for its relatively safe consumption and therapeutic applications. The data available so far warrant further studies evaluating C. citratus pharmacokinetics. Reliable pharmacokinetic data in humans would be critical for a better understanding of the the systemic handling of C. citratus.

  5. Free radical scavengers and antioxidants from Lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf.).

    PubMed

    Cheel, José; Theoduloz, Cristina; Rodríguez, Jaime; Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo

    2005-04-06

    Methanol, MeOH/water extracts, infusion, and decoction of Cymbopogon citratus were assessed for free radical scavenging effects measured by the bleaching of the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical, scavenging of the superoxide anion, and inhibition of the enzyme xanthine oxidase (XO) and lipid peroxidation in human erythrocytes. The extracts presented effect in the DPPH and superoxide anion assay, with values ranging between 40 and 68% and 15-32% at 33 and 50 microg/mL, respectively, inhibited lipid peroxidation in erythrocytes by 19-71% at 500 microg/mL and were inactive toward the XO at 50 microg/mL. Isoorientin, isoscoparin, swertiajaponin, isoorientin 2' '-O-rhamnoside, orientin, chlorogenic acid, and caffeic acid were isolated and identified by spectroscopic methods. Isoorientin and orientin presented similar activities toward the DPPH (IC(50): 9-10 microM) and inhibited lipid peroxidation by 70% at 100 microg/mL. Caffeic and chlorogenic acid were active superoxide anion scavengers with IC(50) values of 68.8 and 54.2 microM, respectively, and a strong effect toward DPPH. Caffeic acid inhibited lipid peroxidation by 85% at 100 microg/mL.

  6. Activation of intrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway in cancer cells by Cymbopogon citratus polysaccharide fractions.

    PubMed

    Thangam, Ramar; Sathuvan, Malairaj; Poongodi, Arasu; Suresh, Veeraperumal; Pazhanichamy, Kalailingam; Sivasubramanian, Srinivasan; Kanipandian, Nagarajan; Ganesan, Nalini; Rengasamy, Ramasamy; Thirumurugan, Ramasamy; Kannan, Soundarapandian

    2014-07-17

    Essential oils of Cymbopogon citratus were already reported to have wide ranging medical and industrial applications. However, information on polysaccharides from the plant and their anticancer activities are limited. In the present study, polysaccharides from C. citratus were extracted and fractionated by anion exchange and gel filtration chromatography. Two different polysaccharide fractions such as F1 and F2 were obtained, and these fractions were found to have distinct acidic polysaccharides as characterized by their molecular weight and sugar content. NMR spectral analysis revealed the presence of (1→4) linked b-d-Xylofuranose moiety in these polysaccharides. Using these polysaccharide fractions F1 and F2, anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities were evaluated against cancer cells in vitro and the mechanism of action of the polysaccharides in inducing apoptosis in cancer cells via intrinsic pathway was also proposed. Two different reproductive cancer cells such as Siha and LNCap were employed for in vitro studies on cytotoxicity, induction of apoptosis and apoptotic DNA fragmentation, changes in mitochondrial membrane potential, and profiles of gene and protein expression in response to treatment of cells by the polysaccharide fractions. These polysaccharide fractions exhibited potential cytotoxic and apoptotic effects on carcinoma cells, and they induced apoptosis in these cells through the events of up-regulation of caspase 3, down-regulation of bcl-2 family genes followed by cytochrome c release.

  7. Investigation of the mechanisms underlying the gastroprotective effect of cymbopogon citratus essential oil.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Cn; De Souza, Hf; De Oliveria, G; Costa, Jgm; Kerntopf, Mr; Campos, Ar

    2012-01-01

    Cymbopogon citratus is a medicinal plant popularly used in Brazil for the treatment of various diseases, and the research interest in this plant is justifiable because of its potential medicinal value in stomachache and gastric ulcer. This study was aimed to test the validity of this practice by using experimental models of gastric ulcer and to clarify the mechanisms of gastroprotection by C. citratus leaves essential oil (EOCC). EOCC was evaluated for the ability to protect the gastric mucosa against injuries caused by necrotizing agents (absolute ethanol and aspirin) in rodents. The results of this study revealed that EOCC posses a dose-independent anti-ulcer effect against the different experimental models. EOCC pretreatment depicted a higher preventive index in ethanol-(88%) and aspirin-induced (76%) acute ulceration. On pretreatment of mice with indomethacin, the cyclooxygenase inhibitor slightly suppressed the gastroprotective effect of EOCC (48.5%). Furthermore, EOCC gastroprotection was not attenuated in mice pretreated with L-NAME (85.2%), glibenclamide (100%), or yohimbine (79.7%), the respective inhibitors of nitric oxide synthase, K(+) (ATP) channel activation, and α(2) receptors. These results confirmed the traditional use of C. citratus for the treatment of gastric ulcer. Thus, we provide the first evidence that EOCC reduces gastric damage induced by ethanol, at least in part, by mechanisms that involve endogenous prostaglandins.

  8. Effect of Cymbopogon citratus and Citral on Vascular Smooth Muscle of the Isolated Thoracic Rat Aorta.

    PubMed

    Devi, R Chitra; Sim, S M; Ismail, R

    2012-01-01

    Cymbopogon citratus has been shown to have antioxidant, antimicrobial, antispasmodic and chemo-protective properties. Citral, is the major constituent of C. citratus. This study investigated the effects of methanolic extracts of leaves (LE), stems (SE), and roots (RE) of C. citratus and citral on vascular smooth muscle and explored their possible mechanisms of action. The experiment was conducted using isolated tissue preparations, where citral, LE, SE, and RE were added separately into a tissue bath that contained aortic rings, which were pre-contracted with phenylephrine (PE). Citral, LE, and RE exhibited a dose-dependent relaxant effect on the PE-induced contractions. Citral appeared to partially act via NO as its vasorelaxant effect was attenuated by L-NAME. However, the effect of LE may involve prostacyclin as indomethacin reversed the relaxant effect of LE on the PE-induced contraction. Furthermore, citral, LE, and RE abolished the restoration of PE-induced contraction caused by the addition of increasing doses of calcium in both endothelium intact and denuded rings. These findings suggest that the relaxation effect of citral, LE, and RE is endothelium-independent and may be mainly by affecting the intracellular concentration of calcium. Citral may partially act through the NO pathway while a vasodilator prostaglandin may mediate the effect of LE.

  9. Chemical composition and insecticidal activity of Cymbopogon citratus essential oil from Cuba and Brazil against housefly.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Zeneida Teixeira; Sánchez, Félix Fernández; dos Santos, Arith Ramos; Amaral, Ana Claudia Fernandes; Ferreira, José Luiz Pinto; Escalona-Arranz, Julio César; Queiroz, Margareth Maria de Carvalho

    2015-01-01

    Essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus collected from Brazil and Cuba was tested to a chemical characterization and then was tested on the post-embryonic development of Musca domestica. The chemical composition analysis by GC-MS of the oils from Brazil/Cuba allowed the identification of 13 and 12 major constituents respectively; nine of them common to both. In the both oils, the main components were the isomers geranial and neral, which together form the compound citral. This corresponds to a total of 97.92%/Brazil and 97.69%/Cuba of the compounds identified. The monoterpene myrcene, observed only in the sample of Cuba, presented a large relative abundance (6.52%). The essential oil of C. citratus (Brazil/Cuba) was dissolved in DMSO and tested at concentrations of 5, 10, 25, 50, 75 and 100% and citral was prepared by mixing 16.8 mg with 960 µL DMSO. Both essential oils and monoterpene citral were applied topically to newly-hatched larvae (1µL/larva). The results showed a lethal concentration (LC50) of 4.25 and 3.24% for the Brazilian and Cuban essential oils, respectively. Mortalities of larval and newly-hatched larvae to adult periods were dose-dependent for the two both oils as for monoterpene citral, reaching 90%. Both essential oils and citral caused morphological changes in adult specimens.

  10. Hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of fresh leaf aqueous extract of Cymbopogon citratus Stapf. in rats.

    PubMed

    Adeneye, Adejuwon Adewale; Agbaje, Esther Oluwatoyin

    2007-07-25

    The present study was designed to investigate the hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of the single, daily oral dosing of 125-500 mg/kg of fresh leaf aqueous extract of Cymbopogon citratus Stapf. (CCi) in normal, male Wistar rats for 42 days. The average weights of rats per group were taken at 2 weeks interval for 42 days. On day 43, blood samples from the rats were collected for fasting plasma glucose (FPG), total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoproteins (LDL-c), very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL-c) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL-c) assays through cardiac puncture under halothane anesthesia. Acute oral dose toxicity study of CCi was also conducted using limit dose test of the Up and Down Procedure statistical program (AOT425StatPgm, Version 1.0) at a dose of 5000 mg/kg body weight/oral route. Our results showed CCi to lower FPG and lipid parameters dose dependently (p<0.05) while raising the plasma HDL-c level (p<0.05) in same dose-related fashion but with no effect on plasma triglycerides level (p>0.05). Results of acute oral toxicity showed CCi to be of low toxicity and as such could be considered relatively safe on acute exposure. Thus, confirming its folkloric use and safety in suspected Type 2 diabetic patients.

  11. Comparative analysis of the oil and supercritical CO(2) extract of Cymbopogon citratus Stapf.

    PubMed

    Marongiu, Bruno; Piras, Alessandra; Porcedda, Silvia; Tuveri, Enrica

    2006-05-10

    Dried and ground leaves of lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus Stapf.) were used as a matrix for supercritical extraction of essential oil with CO(2). The objective of this study was to analyze the influence of pressure on the supercritical extraction. A series of experiments were carried out, for 360 min, at 50 degrees C and at different pressures: 90, 100, 110 and 120 bar. Extraction conditions were chosen to maximize citral content in the extract oil. The collected extracts were analysed by GC-MS and their composition was compared with that of the essential oil isolated by hydrodistillation and by steam distillation. At higher solvent density the extract aspect changes passing from a characteristic yellow essential oil to yellowish semi-solid mass because of the extraction of high molecular mass compounds. The optimum conditions for citral extraction were 90 bar and 50 degrees C, at these conditions citral represent more than 68% of the essential oil and the extraction yield was 0.65% while the yield obtained from hydrodistillation was 0.43% with a content of citral of 73%.

  12. Interplate coupling along the Java trench from CGPS observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meilano, I.; Kuncoro, H.; Susilo, S.; Efendi, J.; Abidin, H. Z.; Nugraha, A. D.; Widiyantoro, S.

    2014-12-01

    Interplate seismogenic zones along the Java trench were estimated by using continuous GPS observation from South of Lampung in the west to Lombok Island in the east. The observation period starting from 2010 to 2013 with more than 60 CGPS observation stations. The GPS analysis indicates that present-day deformation of Java Island is controlled by rotation of Sunda land, extension in the southern Strait of Sunda, postseismic deformation of the 2006 earthquake and the coupling between Indo-Australian plate and Sunda land. Strain rate solutions indicate compression in the south of Java Island. Using elastic dislocation theory the estimated interplate seismozonic coupling in the Java trench is about 50 percent in the sunda strait, smaller in the south west java and become larger to the east. Slip deficit on subduction interface has important implication for seismic hazard of Java Island. Keywords: CGPS observation, Interplate Seismogenic, Java Trench

  13. JavaGenes and Condor: Cycle-Scavenging Genetic Algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Globus, Al; Langhirt, Eric; Livny, Miron; Ramamurthy, Ravishankar; Soloman, Marvin; Traugott, Steve

    2000-01-01

    A genetic algorithm code, JavaGenes, was written in Java and used to evolve pharmaceutical drug molecules and digital circuits. JavaGenes was run under the Condor cycle-scavenging batch system managing 100-170 desktop SGI workstations. Genetic algorithms mimic biological evolution by evolving solutions to problems using crossover and mutation. While most genetic algorithms evolve strings or trees, JavaGenes evolves graphs representing (currently) molecules and circuits. Java was chosen as the implementation language because the genetic algorithm requires random splitting and recombining of graphs, a complex data structure manipulation with ample opportunities for memory leaks, loose pointers, out-of-bound indices, and other hard to find bugs. Java garbage-collection memory management, lack of pointer arithmetic, and array-bounds index checking prevents these bugs from occurring, substantially reducing development time. While a run-time performance penalty must be paid, the only unacceptable performance we encountered was using standard Java serialization to checkpoint and restart the code. This was fixed by a two-day implementation of custom checkpointing. JavaGenes is minimally integrated with Condor; in other words, JavaGenes must do its own checkpointing and I/O redirection. A prototype Java-aware version of Condor was developed using standard Java serialization for checkpointing. For the prototype to be useful, standard Java serialization must be significantly optimized. JavaGenes is approximately 8700 lines of code and a few thousand JavaGenes jobs have been run. Most jobs ran for a few days. Results include proof that genetic algorithms can evolve directed and undirected graphs, development of a novel crossover operator for graphs, a paper in the journal Nanotechnology, and another paper in preparation.

  14. The state of the Java universe

    SciTech Connect

    2011-02-08

    Speaker Bio: James Gosling received a B.Sc. in computer science from the University of Calgary, Canada in 1977. He received a Ph.D. in computer science from Carnegie-Mellon University in 1983. The title of his thesis was The Algebraic Manipulation of Constraints. He has built satellite data acquisition systems, a multiprocessor version of UNIX®, several compilers, mail systems, and window managers. He has also built a WYSIWYG text editor, a constraint-based drawing editor, and a text editor called Emacs, for UNIX systems. At Sun his early activity was as lead engineer of the NeWS window system. He did the original design of the Java programming language and implemented its original compiler and virtual machine. He has recently been a contributor to the Real-Time Specification for Java.

  15. The state of the Java universe

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Speaker Bio: James Gosling received a B.Sc. in computer science from the University of Calgary, Canada in 1977. He received a Ph.D. in computer science from Carnegie-Mellon University in 1983. The title of his thesis was The Algebraic Manipulation of Constraints. He has built satellite data acquisition systems, a multiprocessor version of UNIX®, several compilers, mail systems, and window managers. He has also built a WYSIWYG text editor, a constraint-based drawing editor, and a text editor called Emacs, for UNIX systems. At Sun his early activity was as lead engineer of the NeWS window system. He did the original design of the Java programming language and implemented its original compiler and virtual machine. He has recently been a contributor to the Real-Time Specification for Java.

  16. A magnetotelluric profile across Central Java, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritter, O.; Hoffmann-Rothe, A.; Müller, A.; Dwipa, S.; Arsadi, E. M.; Mahfi, A.; Nurnusanto, I.; Byrdina, S.; Echternacht, F.; Haak, V.

    1998-12-01

    Along a N30°E striking profile in central Java, Indonesia we recorded broadband magnetotelluric data at 8 sites in the period range 0.01 s-10000s. A preliminary analysis of apparent resistivity, phase and magnetic transfer function data favours a one-dimensional interpretation of most sites for the upper 3-5 km of the crust and a two- or three- dimensional structure for the lower crust. Several conductive features can be distinguished: (i) a strong “ocean effect” at the southern most site, (ii) a zone of very high conductivity in the central part of the profile, and (iii) a conductor in the north that cannot be caused by the shallow Java sea. We discuss tentatively causes for these anomalies. The conductor in the central part of the profile is probably connected with volcanic or geothermal activity, while the anomaly in the north could be an expression of processes associated with an active fault zone.

  17. Safe Commits for Transactional Featherweight Java

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thuong Tran, Thi Mai; Steffen, Martin

    Transactions are a high-level alternative for low-level concurrency-control mechanisms such as locks, semaphores, monitors. A recent proposal for integrating transactional features into programming languages is Transactional Featherweight Java (TFJ), extending Featherweight Java by adding transactions. With support for nested and multi-threaded transactions, its transactional model is rather expressive. In particular, the constructs governing transactions - to start and to commit a transaction - can be used freely with a non-lexical scope. On the downside, this flexibility also allows for an incorrect use of these constructs, e.g., trying to perform a commit outside any transaction. To catch those kinds of errors, we introduce a static type and effect system for the safe use of transactions for TFJ. We prove the soundness of our type system by subject reduction.

  18. A Reconfigurable Processor Infrastructure for Accelerating Java Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Youngsun; Hwang, Seok Joong; Kim, Seon Wook

    In this paper, we present a reconfigurable processor infrastructure to accelerate Java applications, called Jaguar. The Jaguar infrastructure consists of a compiler framework and a runtime environment support. The compiler framework selects a group of Java methods to be translated into hardware for delivering the best performance under limited resources, and translates the selected Java methods into Verilog synthesizable code modules. The runtime environment support includes the Java virtual machine (JVM) running on a host processor to provide Java execution environment to the generated Java accelerator through communication interface units while preserving Java semantics. Our compiler infrastructure is a tightly integrated and solid compiler-aided solution for Java reconfigurable computing. There is no limitation in generating synthesizable Verilog modules from any Java application while preserving Java semantics. In terms of performance, our infrastructure achieves the speedup by 5.4 times on average and by up to 9.4 times in measured benchmarks with respect to JVM-only execution. Furthermore, two optimization schemes such as an instruction folding and a live buffer removal can reduce 24% on average and up to 39% of the resource consumption.

  19. APINetworks Java. A Java approach to the efficient treatment of large-scale complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz-Caro, Camelia; Niño, Alfonso; Reyes, Sebastián; Castillo, Miriam

    2016-10-01

    We present a new version of the core structural package of our Application Programming Interface, APINetworks, for the treatment of complex networks in arbitrary computational environments. The new version is written in Java and presents several advantages over the previous C++ version: the portability of the Java code, the easiness of object-oriented design implementations, and the simplicity of memory management. In addition, some additional data structures are introduced for storing the sets of nodes and edges. Also, by resorting to the different garbage collectors currently available in the JVM the Java version is much more efficient than the C++ one with respect to memory management. In particular, the G1 collector is the most efficient one because of the parallel execution of G1 and the Java application. Using G1, APINetworks Java outperforms the C++ version and the well-known NetworkX and JGraphT packages in the building and BFS traversal of linear and complete networks. The better memory management of the present version allows for the modeling of much larger networks.

  20. JavaGenes: Evolving Graphs with Crossover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Globus, Al; Atsatt, Sean; Lawton, John; Wipke, Todd

    2000-01-01

    Genetic algorithms usually use string or tree representations. We have developed a novel crossover operator for a directed and undirected graph representation, and used this operator to evolve molecules and circuits. Unlike strings or trees, a single point in the representation cannot divide every possible graph into two parts, because graphs may contain cycles. Thus, the crossover operator is non-trivial. A steady-state, tournament selection genetic algorithm code (JavaGenes) was written to implement and test the graph crossover operator. All runs were executed by cycle-scavagging on networked workstations using the Condor batch processing system. The JavaGenes code has evolved pharmaceutical drug molecules and simple digital circuits. Results to date suggest that JavaGenes can evolve moderate sized drug molecules and very small circuits in reasonable time. The algorithm has greater difficulty with somewhat larger circuits, suggesting that directed graphs (circuits) are more difficult to evolve than undirected graphs (molecules), although necessary differences in the crossover operator may also explain the results. In principle, JavaGenes should be able to evolve other graph-representable systems, such as transportation networks, metabolic pathways, and computer networks. However, large graphs evolve significantly slower than smaller graphs, presumably because the space-of-all-graphs explodes combinatorially with graph size. Since the representation strongly affects genetic algorithm performance, adding graphs to the evolutionary programmer's bag-of-tricks should be beneficial. Also, since graph evolution operates directly on the phenotype, the genotype-phenotype translation step, common in genetic algorithm work, is eliminated.

  1. Measurement Analysis When Benchmarking Java Card Platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paradinas, Pierre; Cordry, Julien; Bouzefrane, Samia

    The advent of the Java Card standard has been a major turning point in smart card technology. With the growing acceptance of this standard, understanding the performance behaviour of these platforms is becoming crucial. To meet this need, we present in this paper, a benchmark framework that enables performance evaluation at the bytecode level. This paper focuses on the validity of our time measurements on smart cards.

  2. Rickettsia Felis in Xenopsylla Cheopis, Java, Indonesia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-08-01

    Gonzalez JP, et al. Identification of Rickettsia spp. and Bartonella spp. in fleas from the Thai-Myanmar border. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2003;990:173–81. 6...Oriental rat fleas (Xenopsylla cheopis) collect- ed from rodents and shrews in Java, Indonesia. We describe the first evidence of R. felis in...Indonesia and nat- urally occurring R. felis in Oriental rat fleas . Murine typhus (endemic typhus, fleaborne typhus),caused by Rickettsia typhi, is

  3. astrojs: JavaScript Libraries for Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapadia, A.; Smith, A.

    2013-10-01

    Astronomers mainly use the web for data retrieval. To create visualizations and conduct analyses requires installation of many external packages, often creating a difficult task for the astronomer. An ideal situation would move many of the common tasks to a browser — a homogenous solution for data access, visualization, and analyses in one application. As part of an effort to build research tools around core citizen science experiences, the Zooniverse is building science grade tools for handling astronomical data. As the browser is Zooniverse's medium, JavaScript — the only client-side programming language — becomes ever more relevant for feature-rich web applications. The technology industry is investing large development time in improving JavaScript engines resulting in performance gains that exceed other scripting languages. The science community could benefit from this investment by migrating development of desktop applications to web applications. Similar to the astropy initiative, ASTROJS is providing a consolidation of JavaScript libraries for in-browser client-side astronomical data visualization and analyses.

  4. A Visual Editor in Java for View

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stansifer, Ryan

    2000-01-01

    In this project we continued the development of a visual editor in the Java programming language to create screens on which to display real-time data. The data comes from the numerous systems monitoring the operation of the space shuttle while on the ground and in space, and from the many tests of subsystems. The data can be displayed on any computer platform running a Java-enabled World Wide Web (WWW) browser and connected to the Internet. Previously a special-purpose program bad been written to display data on emulations of character-based display screens used for many years at NASA. The goal now is to display bit-mapped screens created by a visual editor. We report here on the visual editor that creates the display screens. This project continues the work we bad done previously. Previously we had followed the design of the 'beanbox,' a prototype visual editor created by Sun Microsystems. We abandoned this approach and implemented a prototype using a more direct approach. In addition, our prototype is based on newly released Java 2 graphical user interface (GUI) libraries. The result has been a visually more appealing appearance and a more robust application.

  5. Proline accumulation in lemongrass (Cymbopogon flexuosus Stapf.) due to heavy metal stress.

    PubMed

    Handique, G K; Handique, A K

    2009-03-01

    Toxic heavy metals viz. lead, mercury and cadmium induced differential accumulation of proline in lemongrass (Cymbopogon flexuosus Stapf.) grown in soil amended with 50, 100, 200, 350 and 500 mg kg(-1) of the metals have been studied. Proline accumulation was found to be metal specific, organ specific and linear dose dependant. Further, proline accumulation following short term exposure (two months after transplantation) was higher than long term exposure (nine months after transplantation). Proline accumulation following short term exposure was 2.032 to 3.839 micro moles g(-1) for cadmium (50-200 mg kg(-1)); the corresponding range for mercury was 1.968 to 5.670 micro moles g(-1) and 0.830 to 4.567 micro moles g(-1) for lead (50-500 mg kg(-1) for mercury and lead). Proline accumulation was consistently higher in young tender leaf than old leaf, irrespective of the metal or duration of exposure. For cadmium treatment proline level was 2.032 to 3.839 micro moles g(-1) for young leaves while the corresponding value for old leaf was 1.728 to 2.396 micro moles g(-1) following short term exposure. The same trend was observed for the other two metals and duration of exposure. For control set proline accumulation in root was 0.425 micro moles g(-1) as against 0.805 and 0.533 micro moles g(-1) in young and old leaves respectively indicating that proline accumulation in root are lower than leaves, under both normal and stressed condition.

  6. Manipulation of rumen ecology by dietary lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus Stapf.) powder supplementation.

    PubMed

    Wanapat, M; Cherdthong, A; Pakdee, P; Wanapat, S

    2008-12-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of lemongrass [Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf.] powder (LGP) on rumen ecology, rumen microorganisms, and digestibility of nutrients. Four ruminally fistulated crossbred (Brahman native) beef cattle were randomly assigned according to a 4 x 4 Latin square design. The dietary treatments were LGP supplementation at 0, 100, 200, and 300 g/d with urea-treated rice straw (5%) fed to allow ad libitum intake. Digestibilities of DM, ether extract, and NDF were significantly different among treatments and were greatest at 100 g/d of supplementation. However, digestibility of CP was decreased with LGP supplementation (P < 0.05), whereas ruminal NH(3)-N and plasma urea N were decreased with incremental additions of LGP (P < 0.05). Ruminal VFA concentrations were similar among supplementation concentrations (P > 0.05). Total viable bacteria, amylolytic bacteria, and cellulolytic bacteria were significantly different among treatments and were greatest at 100 g/d of supplementation (4.7 x 10(9), 1.7 x 10(7), and 2.0 x 10(9) cfu/mL, respectively). Protozoal populations were significantly decreased by LGP supplementation. In addition, efficiency of rumen microbial N synthesis based on OM truly digested in the rumen was enriched by LGP supplementation, especially at 100 g/d (34.2 g of N/kg of OM truly digested in the rumen). Based on this study, it could be concluded that supplementation of LGP at 100 g/d improved digestibilities of nutrients, rumen microbial population, and microbial protein synthesis efficiency, thus improving rumen ecology in beef cattle.

  7. Palmarosa [Cymbopogon martinii (Roxb.) Wats.] as a putative crop for phytoremediation, in tannery sludge polluted soil.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Janhvi; Chand, Sukhmal; Pandey, Shipra; Rajkumari; Patra, D D

    2015-12-01

    A field experiment using tannery sludge as a soil amendment material and palmarosa (Cymbopogon martinii) as a potential phytostabilizer was conducted to investigate their synergistic effect in relation to the improvement in soil quality/property. Three consecutive harvests of two cultivars of palmarosa-PRC-1 and Trishna, were examined to find out the influence of different tannery sludge doses on their herb, dry matter, essential oil yield and heavy metal accumulation. Soil fertility parameters (N, P, K, Organic carbon) were markedly affected by different doses of sludge. Enhanced soil nitrogen was positively correlated with herb yield (0.719*) and plant height (0.797*). The highest dose of tannery sludge (100 t ha(-1)) exhibited best performance than other treatments with respect to herb, dry matter and oil yield in all three harvests. Trishna was found to be superior to PRC-1 in relation to same studied traits. Quality of oil varied, but was insignificant statistically. Uptake of heavy metals followed same order (Cr>Ni>Pb>Cd) in roots and shoots. Translocation factor <1 for all trace elements and Bioconcentration factor >1 was observed in case of all heavy metals. Overall, tannery sludge enhanced the productivity of crop and metal accumulation occurred in roots with a meager translocation to shoots, hence it can be used as a phytostabiliser. The major advantage of taking palmarosa in metal polluted soil is that unlike food and agricultural crops, the product (essential oil) is extracted by hydro-distillation and there is no chance of oil contamination, thus is commercially acceptable.

  8. Antimicrobial constituents and synergism effect of the essential oils from Cymbopogon citratus and Alpinia galanga.

    PubMed

    Tadtong, Sarin; Watthanachaiyingcharoen, Rith; Kamkaen, Narisa

    2014-02-01

    From the fresh leaf sheathes of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) and rhizomes of galanga (Alpinia galanga) light yellow and colorless oils, respectively, were obtained by hydrodistillation and microwave assisted extraction (MAE) in yields of 0.24% and 0.03%, and 0.11% and trace (w/w), respectively. By GC/MS analysis, five major constituents were identified in lemongrass oil, E-citral, Z-citral, beta-myrcene, selina-6-en-4-ol, and cis-ocimene, and five in galanga oil, 1,8-cineole, phenol 4-(2-propenyl)-acetate, dl-limonene, alpha-pinene, and a-terpineol. Three major components of the combined lemongrass and galanga oils (ratio 7:3, 1:1, 3:7) were 1,8-cineole (46.3%, 31.5%, 19.3%), E-citral (12.8%, 22.7%, 32.8%) and Z-citral (8.5%, 15.2%, 21.6%). The MICs of lemongrass and galanga oils were: against Staphylococcus aureus 0.5% and 4%, v/v, against Pseudomonas aeruginosa 40% and >40%,v/v, against Streptococcus bovis 0.25% and 0.5%, v/v, and against Candida albicans 0.25% and 0.5%, v/v. Citral (from lemongrass oil) gave greater potentiation than 1,8-cineole (from galanga oil). The combination profiles of galanga oil with lemongrass oil (volume ratios 3:7, 1:1, and 7:3) were tested against the four pathogenic microorganisms. Synergistic activity was best noted for only one ratio (volume ratio 3:7) as the sigmafic< 1 against all tested microorganisms. The present investigation provides evidenc that the utilization of two essential oils in combination should be assessed for synergistic antimicrobial activity in order to reduce their minimum effective dose.

  9. Spasmolytic effect of citral and extracts of Cymbopogon citratus on isolated rabbit ileum.

    PubMed

    Devi, Ramachandran Chitra; Sim, Si Mui; Ismail, Rosnah

    2011-01-01

    Cymbopogon citratus, commonly known as lemongrass, has been shown to have antioxidant, antimicrobial and chemo-protective properties. Citral, a monoterpenoid, is the major constituent of C. citratus that gives off a lemony scent and is postulated to be responsible for most of its actions. In addition, C. citratus has been traditionally used to treat gastrointestinal discomforts, however, the scientific evidence for this is still lacking. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of the extracts of various parts of C. citratus (leaves, stems and roots) and citral on the visceral smooth muscle activity of rabbit ileum. The effect of the test substances were tested on the spontaneous contraction, acetylcholine (ACh)- and KCl-induced contractions. Citral at doses between 0.061 mM to 15.6 mM and the extract of leaves at doses between 0.001 mg/mL to 1 mg/mL significantly reduced the spontaneous, ACh- and KCl-induced ileal contractions. When the ileum was incubated in K(+)-rich-Ca(2+)-free Tyrode's solution, it showed only minute contractions. However, the strength of contraction was increased with the addition of increasing concentrations of CaCl(2). The presence of citral almost abolished the effect of adding CaCl(2), while the leaf extract shifted the calcium concentration-response curve to the right, suggesting a calcium antagonistic effect. These results were similar to that elicited by verapamil, a known calcium channel blocker. In addition, the spasmolytic effect of citral was observed to be reduced by the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, L-NAME. In conclusion, citral and the leaf extract of C. citratus exhibited spasmolytic activity and it appeared that they may act as calcium antagonists. Furthermore, the relaxant effect of citral, but not that of the leaf extract may be mediated by nitric oxide suggesting the presence of other chemical components in the leaf extract other than citral.

  10. Effects of Cymbopogon citratus and Ferula assa-foetida extracts on glutamate-induced neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Tayeboon, Ghazaleh S; Tavakoli, Fatemeh; Hassani, Shokoufeh; Khanavi, Mahnaz; Sabzevari, Omid; Ostad, S Nasser

    2013-10-01

    Many of CNS diseases can lead to a great quantity of release of glutamate and the extreme glutamate induces neuronal cell damage and death. Here, we wanted to investigate the effects of Cymbopogon citratus essential oil and Ferula assa-foetida extracts treatment on glutamate-induced cell damage in a primary culture of rat cerebellar granule neurons. Cerebellums were collected from 7-d rat brains and cerebellar granule neurons were obtained after 8-d culture. CGN cells were treated with C. citratus essential oil and F. assa-foetida extracts at concentration of 100 μg/ml before, after, and during exposure to 30 μM glutamate. The cellular viability was evaluated by 3-(4, 5-dimethytthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazoliumbromide (MTT) staining. The flow cytometry assay was used to examine cell cycle and apoptosis. MTT assay showed a glutamate-induced reduction in cellular viability while treatment with C. citratus essential oil and F. assa-foetida extracts before, during, and after exposure to glutamate was increased. Flow cytometric analysis indicated that F. assa-foetida extracts treatment significantly (p < 0.001) attenuated glutamate-induced apoptotic/necrotic cell death and the necrotic rate was decreased by C. citratus essential oil treatment compared to glutamate group, significantly (p < 0.001). The results show that C. citratus essential oil and F. assa-foetida extracts display neuroprotective effects in glutamate-induced neurotoxicity. These extracts exert antiapoptotic activity in cerebellar granule neurons due to cell cycle arrest in G0G1 phase, which explain the beneficial effects of C. citratus essential oil and F. assa-foetida extracts as therapies for neurologic disorders.

  11. Anti-proliferative effect and phytochemical analysis of Cymbopogon citratus extract.

    PubMed

    Halabi, Mohammed F; Sheikh, Bassem Y

    2014-01-01

    The antiproliferative and antioxidant potential of Cymbopogon citratus (Lemon grass) extracts were investigated. The extracts were isolated by solvent maceration method and thereafter subjected to antiproliferative activity test on five different cancer cells: human colon carcinoma (HCT-116), breast carcinoma (MCF-7 and MDA-MB 231), ovarian carcinoma (SKOV-3 and COAV), and a normal liver cell line (WRL 68). The cell viability was determined using MTT assay. The DPPH radical scavenging assay revealed a concentration dependent trend. A maximum percentage inhibition of 45% and an IC50 of 278  μg/mL were observed when aqueous extract was evaluated. In contrast, 48.3% and IC50 of 258.9  μg/mL were observed when 50% ethanolic extract was evaluated. Both extracts at concentration of 50 to 800  μg/mL showed appreciative metal chelating activity with IC50 value of 172.2 ± 31  μg/mL to 456.5 ± 30  μg/mL. Depending on extraction solvent content, extract obtained from 50% ethanolic solvent proved to be more potent on breast cancer MCF-7 cell line (IC50 = 68  μg/mL). On the other hand, 90% ethanolic extract showed a moderate potency on the ovarian cancer (COAV) and MCF-7 cells having an IC50 of 104.6  μg/mL each. These results suggested antiproliferative efficacy of C. citratus ethanolic extract against human cancer cell lines.

  12. Antioxidant effects of different extracts from Melissa officinalis, Matricaria recutita and Cymbopogon citratus.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Romaiana Picada; Fachinetto, Roselei; de Souza Prestes, Alessandro; Puntel, Robson Luiz; Santos da Silva, Gloria Narjara; Heinzmann, Berta Maria; Boschetti, Ticiane Krapf; Athayde, Margareth Linde; Bürger, Marilise Escobar; Morel, Ademir Farias; Morsch, Vera Maria; Rocha, João Batista Teixeira

    2009-05-01

    Considering the important role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of several neurological diseases, and the growing evidence of the presence of compounds with antioxidant properties in the plant extracts, the aim of the present study was to investigate the antioxidant capacity of three plants used in Brazil to treat neurological disorders: Melissa officinalis, Matricaria recutita and Cymbopogon citratus. The antioxidant effect of phenolic compounds commonly found in plant extracts, namely, quercetin, gallic acid, quercitrin and rutin was also examined for comparative purposes. Cerebral lipid peroxidation (assessed by TBARS) was induced by iron sulfate (10 microM), sodium nitroprusside (5 microM) or 3-nitropropionic acid (2 mM). Free radical scavenger properties and the chemical composition of plant extracts were assessed by 1'-1' Diphenyl-2' picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method and by Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC), respectively. M. officinalis aqueous extract caused the highest decrease in TBARS production induced by all tested pro-oxidants. In the DPPH assay, M. officinalis presented also the best antioxidant effect, but, in this case, the antioxidant potencies were similar for the aqueous, methanolic and ethanolic extracts. Among the purified compounds, quercetin had the highest antioxidant activity followed by gallic acid, quercitrin and rutin. In this work, we have demonstrated that the plant extracts could protect against oxidative damage induced by various pro-oxidant agents that induce lipid peroxidation by different process. Thus, plant extracts could inhibit the generation of early chemical reactive species that subsequently initiate lipid peroxidation or, alternatively, they could block a common final pathway in the process of polyunsaturated fatty acids peroxidation. Our study indicates that M. officinalis could be considered an effective agent in the prevention of various neurological diseases associated with oxidative stress.

  13. Effect of Citrus reticulata and Cymbopogon citratus essential oils on Aspergillus flavus growth and aflatoxin production on Asparagus racemosus.

    PubMed

    Singh, Priyanka; Shukla, Ravindra; Kumar, Ashok; Prakash, Bhanu; Singh, Shubhra; Dubey, Nawal Kishore

    2010-09-01

    Essential oils extracted from Citrus reticulata and Cymbopogon citratus were tested in vitro against the toxigenic strain of Aspergillus flavus, isolated from the tuberous roots of Asparagus racemosus, used in preparation of herbal drugs. The essential oils completely inhibited the growth of A. flavus at 750 ppm and also exhibited a broad fungitoxic spectrum against nine additional fungi isolated from the roots. Citrus reticulata and Cymbopogon citratus essential oils completely inhibited aflatoxin B(1) production at 750 and 500 ppm, respectively. During in vivo investigation, the incidence of fungi and aflatoxin B(1) production decreased considerably in essential oil-treated root samples. The findings thus indicate possible exploitation of the essential oils as effective inhibitor of aflatoxin B(1) production and as post-harvest fungitoxicant of traditionally used plant origin for the control of storage fungi. These essential oils may be recommended as plant-based antifungals as well as aflatoxin B(1) suppressors in post-harvest processing of herbal samples.

  14. Effects of Cymbopogon nardus (L.) W. Watson essential oil on the growth and morphogenesis of Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    de Billerbeck, V G; Roques, C G; Bessière, J M; Fonvieille, J L; Dargent, R

    2001-01-01

    The growth inhibitory effect of Cymbopogon nardus (L.) W. Watson var. nurdus essential oil on Aspergillus niger (Van Tieghem) mycelium was determined on agar medium. The mycelium growth was completely inhibited at 800 mg/L. This concentration was found to be lethal under the test conditions. Essential oil at 400 mg/L caused growth inhibition of 80% after 4 days of incubation, and a delay in conidiation of 4 days compared with the control. Microscopic observations were carried out to determine the ultrastructural modifications of A. niger hyphae after treatment with C. nardus essential oil. The main change observed by transmission electron microscopy concerned the hyphal diameter and the hyphal wall, which appeared markedly thinner. These modifications in cytological structure might be caused by the interference of the essential oil with the enzymes responsible for wall synthesis which disturb normal growth. Moreover, the essential oil caused plasma membrane disruption and mitochondrial structure disorganization. The findings thus indicate the possibility of exploiting Cymbopogon nardus essential oil as an effective inhibitor of biodegrading and storage-contaminating fungi.

  15. In vivo antimalarial activity of essential oils from Cymbopogon citratus and Ocimum gratissimum on mice infected with Plasmodium berghei.

    PubMed

    Tchoumbougnang, F; Zollo, P H; Dagne, E; Mekonnen, Y

    2005-01-01

    The essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation from fresh leaves of Cymbopogon citratus and Ocimum gratissimum growing in Cameroon were analyzed by GC and GC/MS. The main constituents of the oil of Ocimum gratissimum were gamma-terpinene (21.9 %), beta-phellandrene (21.1 %), limonene (11.4 %) and thymol (11.2 %), while the oil of Cymbopogon citratus contained geranial (32.8 %), neral (29.0 %), myrcene (16.2 %) and beta-pinene (10.5 %). The effects of these oils on the growth of Plasmodium berghei were investigated. Both oils showed significant antimalarial activities in the four-day suppressive in vivo test in mice. At concentrations of 200, 300 and 500 mg/kg of mouse per day, the essential oil of C. citratus produced the highest activity with the respective percentages of suppression of parasitaemia: 62.1 %, 81.7 % and 86.6 %. The corresponding values for the oil of O. gratissimum at the same concentrations were 55.0 %, 75.2 % and 77.8 %, respectively. Chloroquine (10 mg/kg of mouse, positive control) had a suppressive activity of 100 %.

  16. Implementation of BT, SP, LU, and FT of NAS Parallel Benchmarks in Java

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultz, Matthew; Frumkin, Michael; Jin, Hao-Qiang; Yan, Jerry

    2000-01-01

    A number of Java features make it an attractive but a debatable choice for High Performance Computing. We have implemented benchmarks working on single structured grid BT,SP,LU and FT in Java. The performance and scalability of the Java code shows that a significant improvement in Java compiler technology and in Java thread implementation are necessary for Java to compete with Fortran in HPC applications.

  17. Lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus) essential oil as a potent anti-inflammatory and antifungal drugs.

    PubMed

    Boukhatem, Mohamed Nadjib; Ferhat, Mohamed Amine; Kameli, Abdelkrim; Saidi, Fairouz; Kebir, Hadjer Tchoketch

    2014-01-01

    Background Volatile oils obtained from lemon grass [Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf, Poaceae family] are used in traditional medicine as remedies for the treatment of various diseases. Aims In the present study, lemon grass essential oil (LGEO) was evaluated for its in vivo topical and oral anti-inflammatory effects, and for its in vitro antifungal activity using both liquid and vapor phases. Methods The chemical profile of LGEO as determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis revealed two major components: geranial (42.2%), and neral (31.5%). The antifungal activity of LGEO was evaluated against several pathogenic yeasts and filamentous fungi using disc diffusion and vapor diffusion methods. Results LGEO exhibited promising antifungal effect against Candida albicans, C.tropicalis, and Aspergillus niger, with different inhibition zone diameters (IZDs) (35-90 mm). IZD increased with increasing oil volume. Significantly, higher anti-Candida activity was observed in the vapor phase. For the evaluation of the anti-inflammatory effect, LGEO (10 mg/kg, administered orally) significantly reduced carrageenan-induced paw edema with a similar effect to that observed for oral diclofenac (50 mg/kg), which was used as the positive control. Oral administration of LGEO showed dose-dependent anti-inflammatory activity. In addition, topical application of LGEO in vivo resulted in a potent anti-inflammatory effect, as demonstrated by using the mouse model of croton oil-induced ear edema. To our knowledge, this is the first such report to be published. The topical application of LGEO at doses of 5 and 10 µL/ear significantly reduced acute ear edema induced by croton oil in 62.5 and 75% of the mice, respectively. In addition, histological analysis clearly confirmed that LGEO inhibits the skin inflammatory response in animal models. Conclusion Results of the present study indicate that LGEO has a noteworthy potential for the development of drugs for the treatment of

  18. Lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus) essential oil as a potent anti-inflammatory and antifungal drugs

    PubMed Central

    Boukhatem, Mohamed Nadjib; Ferhat, Mohamed Amine; Kameli, Abdelkrim; Saidi, Fairouz; Kebir, Hadjer Tchoketch

    2014-01-01

    Background Volatile oils obtained from lemon grass [Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf, Poaceae family] are used in traditional medicine as remedies for the treatment of various diseases. Aims In the present study, lemon grass essential oil (LGEO) was evaluated for its in vivo topical and oral anti-inflammatory effects, and for its in vitro antifungal activity using both liquid and vapor phases. Methods The chemical profile of LGEO as determined by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis revealed two major components: geranial (42.2%), and neral (31.5%). The antifungal activity of LGEO was evaluated against several pathogenic yeasts and filamentous fungi using disc diffusion and vapor diffusion methods. Results LGEO exhibited promising antifungal effect against Candida albicans, C. tropicalis, and Aspergillus niger, with different inhibition zone diameters (IZDs) (35–90 mm). IZD increased with increasing oil volume. Significantly, higher anti-Candida activity was observed in the vapor phase. For the evaluation of the anti-inflammatory effect, LGEO (10 mg/kg, administered orally) significantly reduced carrageenan-induced paw edema with a similar effect to that observed for oral diclofenac (50 mg/kg), which was used as the positive control. Oral administration of LGEO showed dose-dependent anti-inflammatory activity. In addition, topical application of LGEO in vivo resulted in a potent anti-inflammatory effect, as demonstrated by using the mouse model of croton oil-induced ear edema. To our knowledge, this is the first such report to be published. The topical application of LGEO at doses of 5 and 10 µL/ear significantly reduced acute ear edema induced by croton oil in 62.5 and 75% of the mice, respectively. In addition, histological analysis clearly confirmed that LGEO inhibits the skin inflammatory response in animal models. Conclusion Results of the present study indicate that LGEO has a noteworthy potential for the development of drugs for the treatment of

  19. Developmental Process Model for the Java Intelligent Tutoring System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sykes, Edward

    2007-01-01

    The Java Intelligent Tutoring System (JITS) was designed and developed to support the growing trend of Java programming around the world. JITS is an advanced web-based personalized tutoring system that is unique in several ways. Most programming Intelligent Tutoring Systems require the teacher to author problems with corresponding solutions. JITS,…

  20. JavaScript: Convenient Interactivity for the Class Web Page.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Patricia

    This paper shows how JavaScript can be used within HTML pages to add interactive review sessions and quizzes incorporating graphics and sound files. JavaScript has the advantage of providing basic interactive functions without the use of separate software applications and players. Because it can be part of a standard HTML page, it is…

  1. Java: A New Brew for Educators, Administrators and Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Barbara

    1996-01-01

    Java is an object-oriented programming language developed by Sun Microsystems; its benefits include platform independence, security, and interactivity. Within the college community, Java is being used in programming courses, collaborative technology research projects, computer graphics instruction, and distance education. (AEF)

  2. Paintbrush of Discovery: Using Java Applets to Enhance Mathematics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eason, Ray; Heath, Garrett

    2004-01-01

    This article addresses the enhancement of the learning environment by using Java applets in the mathematics classroom. Currently, the first year mathematics program at the United States Military Academy involves one semester of modeling with discrete dynamical systems (DDS). Several faculty members from the Academy have integrated Java applets…

  3. High-Performance Java Codes for Computational Fluid Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riley, Christopher; Chatterjee, Siddhartha; Biswas, Rupak; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The computational science community is reluctant to write large-scale computationally -intensive applications in Java due to concerns over Java's poor performance, despite the claimed software engineering advantages of its object-oriented features. Naive Java implementations of numerical algorithms can perform poorly compared to corresponding Fortran or C implementations. To achieve high performance, Java applications must be designed with good performance as a primary goal. This paper presents the object-oriented design and implementation of two real-world applications from the field of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD): a finite-volume fluid flow solver (LAURA, from NASA Langley Research Center), and an unstructured mesh adaptation algorithm (2D_TAG, from NASA Ames Research Center). This work builds on our previous experience with the design of high-performance numerical libraries in Java. We examine the performance of the applications using the currently available Java infrastructure and show that the Java version of the flow solver LAURA performs almost within a factor of 2 of the original procedural version. Our Java version of the mesh adaptation algorithm 2D_TAG performs within a factor of 1.5 of its original procedural version on certain platforms. Our results demonstrate that object-oriented software design principles are not necessarily inimical to high performance.

  4. A Geostationary Earth Orbit Satellite Model Using Easy Java Simulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wee, Loo Kang; Goh, Giam Hwee

    2013-01-01

    We develop an Easy Java Simulation (EJS) model for students to visualize geostationary orbits near Earth, modelled using a Java 3D implementation of the EJS 3D library. The simplified physics model is described and simulated using a simple constant angular velocity equation. We discuss four computer model design ideas: (1) a simple and realistic…

  5. Dynamic Learning Objects to Teach Java Programming Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Narasimhamurthy, Uma; Al Shawkani, Khuloud

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a model for teaching Java Programming Language through Dynamic Learning Objects. The design of the learning objects was based on effective learning design principles to help students learn the complex topic of Java Programming. Visualization was also used to facilitate the learning of the concepts. (Contains 1 figure and 2…

  6. Real-time Java for flight applications: an update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dvorak, D.

    2003-01-01

    The RTSJ is a specification for supporting real-time execution in the Java programming language. The specification has been shaped by several guiding principles, particularly: predictable execution as the first priority in all tradeoffs, no syntactic extensions to Java, and backward compatibility.

  7. JAVA SWING-BASED PLOTTING PACKAGE RESIDING WITHIN XAL

    SciTech Connect

    Shishlo, Andrei P; Chu, Paul; Pelaia II, Tom

    2007-01-01

    A data plotting package residing in the XAL tools set is presented. This package is based on Java SWING, and therefore it has the same portability as Java itself. The data types for charts, bar-charts, and color-surface plots are described. The algorithms, performance, interactive capabilities, limitations, and the best usage practices of this plotting package are discussed.

  8. Lippia alba, Melissa officinalis and Cymbopogon citratus: effects of the aqueous extracts on the isolated hearts of rats.

    PubMed

    Gazola, Ruth; Machado, Denise; Ruggiero, Campos; Singi, Glenan; Macedo Alexandre, Mariângela

    2004-11-01

    1. This research was developed to evaluate the actions of the aqueous extracts of leaves of Lippia alba, Melissa officinalis and Cymbopogon citratus upon contractile force (CF) and cardiac rate (CR). 2. For the experiments in isolated heart, 21 male adult rats were used. The hearts were perfused according to Langendorff's method. The records of CF and CR were obtained in control and after application of the extracts. The extracts were utilized in doses: 0.038, 0.38, 3.8 and 38 mg. Results obtained were compared by statistic analyses. 3. The aqueous extracts provoked significant CR reduction and did not alter the CF. The negative CR effect may have occurred by cardiac muscarinics receptors stimulation.

  9. Comparative chemical and analgesic properties of essential oils of Cymbopogon nardus (L) Rendle of Benin and Congo.

    PubMed

    Abena, A A; Gbenou, J D; Yayi, E; Moudachirou, M; Ongoka, R P; Ouamba, J M; Silou, T

    2007-02-16

    The chemical and analgesic comparison of essential oils of Cymbopogon nardus (L) Rendle of Benin and Congo was investigated. The chemical analysis wa carried out by using GS/MS for identification of components of the two essential oils while acetic acid-induced writhings, hot plate and tail flick test models were used for analgesic activity. The results showed that the two essential oils exhibited comparable activity on acetic acid-induced writhings, however, the essential oil of Benin induced more significant effect on hot plate model while the Congolese specie showed more effect in the tail flick test. These observations could be explained by some qualitative and/or quantitative differences observed between the constituents of the two essential oils studied.

  10. GC-MS evaluation of Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf oil obtained using modified hydrodistillation and microwave extraction methods.

    PubMed

    Ajayi, E O; Sadimenko, A P; Afolayan, A J

    2016-10-15

    Bioactive compounds of Cymbopogon citratus essential oil, using different media have been tentatively identified with the aid of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Hydrodistillation was complemented using weakly acidic and alkaline media for the oil extraction. Solvent-free microwave extraction (SFME) was also used. Analyses of the oils revealed the presence of 7, 16, 22, and 15 compounds in the water-distilled (WD), microwave-distilled (MD), acid-distilled (AD), and base-distilled (BD), essential oils, respectively. Total yield of the volatile fractions was 0.73%, 0.64%, 0.70%, and 0.45%, respectively. Citral was found to be the major component, the base extraction having the highest content. This was followed by 2-isopropenyl-5-methylhex-4-enal, p-cymene, and 2-thujene. The antimicrobial, antibacterial, and antioxidant activities and assessment of medicinal/nutritional uses of the essential oils are subjects of future studies.

  11. [Anti-Candida albicans activity of essential oils including Lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) oil and its component, citral].

    PubMed

    Abe, Shigeru; Sato, Yuichi; Inoue, Shigeharu; Ishibashi, Hiroko; Maruyama, Naho; Takizawa, Toshio; Oshima, Haruyuki; Yamaguchi, Hideyo

    2003-01-01

    The effects of 12 essential oils, popularly used as antifungal treatments in aromatherapy, on growth of Candida albicans were investigated. Mycelial growth of C. albicans, which is known to give the fungus the capacity to invade mucosal tissues, was inhibited in the medium containing 100 micro g/ml of the oils: lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus), thyme (Thymus vulgaris), patchouli (Pogostemon cablin) and cedarwood (Cedrus atlantica). Not only lemongrass oil but also citral, a major component of lemongrass oil (80%), in the range of 25 and 200 micro g/ml inhibited the mycelial growth but allowed yeast-form growth. More than 200 micro g/ml of citral clearly inhibited both mycelial and yeast-form growth of C. albicans. These results provide experimental evidence suggesting the potential value of lemongrass oil for the treatment of oral or vaginal candidiasis.

  12. Effectiveness of Cymbopogon citratus L. essential oil to inhibit the growth of some filamentous fungi and yeasts.

    PubMed

    Irkin, Reyhan; Korukluoglu, Mihriban

    2009-02-01

    Lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus L.) oil has been known as having therapeutic and antibacterial properties, and its antifungal activity is currently the subject of renewed interest. This study aimed to verify the effectivenesses of C. citratus essential oil to inhibit the growth/survival of some fungi (Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus niger, Fusarium oxysporum, and Penicillium roquefortii) and yeasts (Candida albicans, Candida oleophila, Hansenula anomala, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Saccharomyces uvarum, and Metschnikowia fructicola). C. citratus essential oil showed effectiveness in inhibiting the growth of all fungi by disc diffusion and broth dilution bioassay. Minimum inhibitory and minimum fungicidal concentrations between 0.062 and 20 microL/mL were determined. The Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute agar-based method was also applied for A. niger and C. albicans. Data show the strong antifungal properties of lemon grass oil (C. citratus) in vitro.

  13. Petroleum systems of the Northwest Java Province, Java and offshore southeast Sumatra, Indonesia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bishop, Michele G.

    2000-01-01

    Mature, synrift lacustrine shales of Eocene to Oligocene age and mature, late-rift coals and coaly shales of Oligocene to Miocene age are source rocks for oil and gas in two important petroleum systems of the onshore and offshore areas of the Northwest Java Basin. Biogenic gas and carbonate-sourced gas have also been identified. These hydrocarbons are trapped primarily in anticlines and fault blocks involving sandstone and carbonate reservoirs. These source rocks and reservoir rocks were deposited in a complex of Tertiary rift basins formed from single or multiple half-grabens on the south edge of the Sunda Shelf plate. The overall transgressive succession was punctuated by clastic input from the exposed Sunda Shelf and marine transgressions from the south. The Northwest Java province may contain more than 2 billion barrels of oil equivalent in addition to the 10 billion barrels of oil equivalent already identified.

  14. New Web Server - the Java Version of Tempest - Produced

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    York, David W.; Ponyik, Joseph G.

    2000-01-01

    A new software design and development effort has produced a Java (Sun Microsystems, Inc.) version of the award-winning Tempest software (refs. 1 and 2). In 1999, the Embedded Web Technology (EWT) team received a prestigious R&D 100 Award for Tempest, Java Version. In this article, "Tempest" will refer to the Java version of Tempest, a World Wide Web server for desktop or embedded systems. Tempest was designed at the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field to run on any platform for which a Java Virtual Machine (JVM, Sun Microsystems, Inc.) exists. The JVM acts as a translator between the native code of the platform and the byte code of Tempest, which is compiled in Java. These byte code files are Java executables with a ".class" extension. Multiple byte code files can be zipped together as a "*.jar" file for more efficient transmission over the Internet. Today's popular browsers, such as Netscape (Netscape Communications Corporation) and Internet Explorer (Microsoft Corporation) have built-in Virtual Machines to display Java applets.

  15. Debris Dispersion Model Using Java 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thirumalainambi, Rajkumar; Bardina, Jorge

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes web based simulation of Shuttle launch operations and debris dispersion. Java 3D graphics provides geometric and visual content with suitable mathematical model and behaviors of Shuttle launch. Because the model is so heterogeneous and interrelated with various factors, 3D graphics combined with physical models provides mechanisms to understand the complexity of launch and range operations. The main focus in the modeling and simulation covers orbital dynamics and range safety. Range safety areas include destruct limit lines, telemetry and tracking and population risk near range. If there is an explosion of Shuttle during launch, debris dispersion is explained. The shuttle launch and range operations in this paper are discussed based on the operations from Kennedy Space Center, Florida, USA.

  16. VOTable JAVA Streaming Writer and Applications.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkarni, P.; Kembhavi, A.; Kale, S.

    2004-07-01

    Virtual Observatory related tools use a new standard for data transfer called the VOTable format. This is a variant of the xml format that enables easy transfer of data over the web. We describe a streaming interface that can bridge the VOTable format, through a user friendly graphical interface, with the FITS and ASCII formats, which are commonly used by astronomers. A streaming interface is important for efficient use of memory because of the large size of catalogues. The tools are developed in JAVA to provide a platform independent interface. We have also developed a stand-alone version that can be used to convert data stored in ASCII or FITS format on a local machine. The Streaming writer is successfully being used in VOPlot (See Kale et al 2004 for a description of VOPlot).We present the test results of converting huge FITS and ASCII data into the VOTable format on machines that have only limited memory.

  17. Dynamic triggering of Lusi, East Java Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lupi, Matteo; Saenger, Erik H.; Fuchs, Florian; Miller, Steve

    2016-04-01

    On the 27th of May 2006, a M6.3 strike slip earthquake struck beneath Yogyakarta, Java. Forty-seven hours later a mixture of mud, breccia, and gas reached the surface near Sidoarjo, 250 km far from the epicenter, creating several mud vents aligned along a NW-SE direction. The mud eruption reached a peak of 180.000 km3 of erupted material per day and it is still ongoing. The major eruption crater was named Lusi and represents the surface expression of a newborn sedimentary-hosted hydrothermal system. Lusi flooded several villages causing a loss of approximately 4 billions to Indonesia. Previous geochemical and geological data suggest that the Yogyakarta earthquake may have reactivated parts of the Watukosek fault system, a strike slip structure upon which Lusi resides. The Watukosek fault systems connects the East Java basin to the volcanic arc, which may explain the presence of both biogenic and thermogenic fluids. To quantify the effects of incoming seismic energy at Lusi we conducted a seismic wave propagation study on a geological model of Lusi's structure. A key feature of our model is a low velocity shear zone in the Kalibeng formation caused by elevated pore pressures, which is often neglected in other studies. Our analysis highlights the importance of the overall geological structure that focused the seismic energy causing elevated strain rates at depth. In particular, we show that body waves generated by the Yogyakarta earthquake may have induced liquefaction of the Kalibeng formation. As consequence, the liquefied mud injected and reactivated parts of the Watukosek fault system. Our findings are in agreement with previous studies suggesting that Lusi was an unfortunate case of dynamic triggering promoted by the Yogyakarta earthquake.

  18. Space Radar Image of Central Java, Indonesia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The summits of two large volcanoes in Central Java, Indonesia are shown in the center of this radar image. Lava flows of different ages and surface roughness appear in shades of green and yellow surrounding the summit of Mt. Merbabu (mid-center) and Mt. Merapi (lower center). Mt. Merapi erupted on November 28, 1994 about six weeks after this image was taken. The eruption killed more than 60 people and forced the evacuation of more than 6,000 others. Thousands of other residents were put on alert due to the possibility of volcanic debris mudflows, called lahars, that threatened nearby towns. Mt. Merapi is located approximately 40 kilometers (25 miles) north of Yogyakarta, the capital of Central Java. The older volcano at the top of the image is unnamed. Lake Rawapening is the dark blue feature in the upper right. The light blue area southeast of the lake is the city of Salatiga. Directly south of Salatiga and southeast of Mt. Merapi is the city of Boyolali. Scientists are studying Mt. Merapi as part of the international 'Decade Volcanoes' project, because of its recent activity and potential threat to local populations. The radar data are being used to identify and distinguish a variety of volcanic features. This image was acquired on October 10, 1994 by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and the United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The image is centered at 7.5 degrees South latitude and 110.5 degrees East longitude and covers an area of 33 kilometers by 65 kilometers (20 miles by 40 miles).

  19. Context-sensitive trace inlining for Java.

    PubMed

    Häubl, Christian; Wimmer, Christian; Mössenböck, Hanspeter

    2013-12-01

    Method inlining is one of the most important optimizations in method-based just-in-time (JIT) compilers. It widens the compilation scope and therefore allows optimizing multiple methods as a whole, which increases the performance. However, if method inlining is used too frequently, the compilation time increases and too much machine code is generated. This has negative effects on the performance. Trace-based JIT compilers only compile frequently executed paths, so-called traces, instead of whole methods. This may result in faster compilation, less generated machine code, and better optimized machine code. In the previous work, we implemented a trace recording infrastructure and a trace-based compiler for [Formula: see text], by modifying the Java HotSpot VM. Based on this work, we evaluate the effect of trace inlining on the performance and the amount of generated machine code. Trace inlining has several major advantages when compared to method inlining. First, trace inlining is more selective than method inlining, because only frequently executed paths are inlined. Second, the recorded traces may capture information about virtual calls, which simplify inlining. A third advantage is that trace information is context sensitive so that different method parts can be inlined depending on the specific call site. These advantages allow more aggressive inlining while the amount of generated machine code is still reasonable. We evaluate several inlining heuristics on the benchmark suites DaCapo 9.12 Bach, SPECjbb2005, and SPECjvm2008 and show that our trace-based compiler achieves an up to 51% higher peak performance than the method-based Java HotSpot client compiler. Furthermore, we show that the large compilation scope of our trace-based compiler has a positive effect on other compiler optimizations such as constant folding or null check elimination.

  20. HotJava: Sun's Animated Interactive World Wide Web Browser for the Internet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machovec, George S., Ed.

    1995-01-01

    Examines HotJava and Java, World Wide Web technology for use on the Internet. HotJava, an interactive, animated Web browser, based on the object-oriented Java programming language, is different from HTML-based browsers such as Netscape. Its client/server design does not understand Internet protocols but can dynamically find what it needs to know.…

  1. Spilling the beans on java 3D: a tool for the virtual anatomist.

    PubMed

    Guttmann, G D

    1999-04-15

    The computing world has just provided the anatomist with another tool: Java 3D, within the Java 2 platform. On December 9, 1998, Sun Microsystems released Java 2. Java 3D classes are now included in the jar (Java Archive) archives of the extensions directory of Java 2. Java 3D is also a part of the Java Media Suite of APIs (Application Programming Interfaces). But what is Java? How does Java 3D work? How do you view Java 3D objects? A brief introduction to the concepts of Java and object-oriented programming is provided. Also, there is a short description of the tools of Java 3D and of the Java 3D viewer. Thus, the virtual anatomist has another set of computer tools to use for modeling various aspects of anatomy, such as embryological development. Also, the virtual anatomist will be able to assist the surgeon with virtual surgery using the tools found in Java 3D. Java 3D will be able to fulfill gaps, such as the lack of platform independence, interactivity, and manipulability of 3D images, currently existing in many anatomical computer-aided learning programs.

  2. Evaluation of Trace Metal Profile in Cymbopogon validus and Hyparrhenia hirta Used as Traditional Herbs from Environmentally Diverse Region of Komga, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Tembeni, Babalwa; Oyedeji, Adebola O.

    2016-01-01

    FAAS was used for the analysis of trace metals in fresh and dry plant parts of Cymbopogon validus and Hyparrhenia hirta species with the aim of determining the trace metals concentrations in selected traditional plants consumed in Eastern Cape, South Africa. The trace metal concentration (mg/kg) in the samples of dry Cymbopogon validus leaves (DCVL) showed Cu of 12.40 ± 1.000; Zn of 2.42 ± 0.401; Fe of 2.50 ± 0.410; Mn of 1.31 ± 0.210; Pb of 3.36 ± 0.401 mg/kg, while the samples of fresh Hyparrhenia hirta flowers (FHHF) gave Cu of 9.77 ± 0.610; Zn of 0.70 ± 0.200; Fe of 2.11 ± 0.200; Mn of 1.15 ± 0.080; Pb of 3.15 ± 0.100 mg/kg. Abundance of metal concentrations follows the order: Cu > Fe > Pb > Mn > Zn in the flower samples of Cymbopogon validus and Hyparrhenia hirta species. The concentrations of trace metals in both plant parts were below the permissible limits (PL) set by WHO. It is suggested that pharmacovigilance be carried out periodically to improve the quality, safety, and efficiency of various herbal products. PMID:27795868

  3. JavaScript and interactive web pages in radiology.

    PubMed

    Gurney, J W

    2001-10-01

    Web publishing is becoming a more common method of disseminating information. JavaScript is an object-orientated language embedded into modern browsers and has a wide variety of uses. The use of JavaScript in radiology is illustrated by calculating the indices of sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values from a table of true positives, true negatives, false positives, and false negatives. In addition, a single line of JavaScript code can be used to annotate images, which has a wide variety of uses.

  4. Prototyping Faithful Execution in a Java virtual machine.

    SciTech Connect

    Tarman, Thomas David; Campbell, Philip LaRoche; Pierson, Lyndon George

    2003-09-01

    This report presents the implementation of a stateless scheme for Faithful Execution, the design for which is presented in a companion report, ''Principles of Faithful Execution in the Implementation of Trusted Objects'' (SAND 2003-2328). We added a simple cryptographic capability to an already simplified class loader and its associated Java Virtual Machine (JVM) to provide a byte-level implementation of Faithful Execution. The extended class loader and JVM we refer to collectively as the Sandia Faithfully Executing Java architecture (or JavaFE for short). This prototype is intended to enable exploration of more sophisticated techniques which we intend to implement in hardware.

  5. The 17 July 2006 Tsunami earthquake in West Java, Indonesia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mori, J.; Mooney, W.D.; Afnimar,; Kurniawan, S.; Anaya, A.I.; Widiyantoro, S.

    2007-01-01

    A tsunami earthquake (Mw = 7.7) occurred south of Java on 17 July 2006. The event produced relatively low levels of high-frequency radiation, and local felt reports indicated only weak shaking in Java. There was no ground motion damage from the earthquake, but there was extensive damage and loss of life from the tsunami along 250 km of the southern coasts of West Java and Central Java. An inspection of the area a few days after the earthquake showed extensive damage to wooden and unreinforced masonry buildings that were located within several hundred meters of the coast. Since there was no tsunami warning system in place, efforts to escape the large waves depended on how people reacted to the earthquake shaking, which was only weakly felt in the coastal areas. This experience emphasizes the need for adequate tsunami warning systems for the Indian Ocean region.

  6. The CERN PS/SL Controls Java Application Programming Interface

    SciTech Connect

    I. Deloose; J. Cuperus; P. Charrue; F. DiMaio; K. Kostro; M. Vanden Eynden; W. Watson

    1999-10-01

    The PS/SL Convergence Project was launched in March 1998. Its objective is to deliver a common control as infrastructure for the CERN accelerators by year 2001. In the framework of this convergence activity, a project was launched to develop a Java Application Programming Interface (API) between programs written in the Java language and the PS and SL accelerator equipment. This Java API was specified and developed in collaboration with TJNAF. It is based on the Java CDEV [1] package that has been extended in order to end up with a CERN/TJNAF common product. It implements a detailed model composed of devices organized in named classes that provide a property-based interface. It supports data subscription and introspection facilities. The device model is presented and the capabilities of the API are described with syntax examples. The software architecture is also described.

  7. MSAViewer: interactive JavaScript visualization of multiple sequence alignments.

    PubMed

    Yachdav, Guy; Wilzbach, Sebastian; Rauscher, Benedikt; Sheridan, Robert; Sillitoe, Ian; Procter, James; Lewis, Suzanna E; Rost, Burkhard; Goldberg, Tatyana

    2016-11-15

    The MSAViewer is a quick and easy visualization and analysis JavaScript component for Multiple Sequence Alignment data of any size. Core features include interactive navigation through the alignment, application of popular color schemes, sorting, selecting and filtering. The MSAViewer is 'web ready': written entirely in JavaScript, compatible with modern web browsers and does not require any specialized software. The MSAViewer is part of the BioJS collection of components.

  8. Java Performance for Scientific Applications on LLNL Computer Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kapfer, C; Wissink, A

    2002-05-10

    Languages in use for high performance computing at the laboratory--Fortran (f77 and f90), C, and C++--have many years of development behind them and are generally considered the fastest available. However, Fortran and C do not readily extend to object-oriented programming models, limiting their capability for very complex simulation software. C++ facilitates object-oriented programming but is a very complex and error-prone language. Java offers a number of capabilities that these other languages do not. For instance it implements cleaner (i.e., easier to use and less prone to errors) object-oriented models than C++. It also offers networking and security as part of the language standard, and cross-platform executables that make it architecture neutral, to name a few. These features have made Java very popular for industrial computing applications. The aim of this paper is to explain the trade-offs in using Java for large-scale scientific applications at LLNL. Despite its advantages, the computational science community has been reluctant to write large-scale computationally intensive applications in Java due to concerns over its poor performance. However, considerable progress has been made over the last several years. The Java Grande Forum [1] has been promoting the use of Java for large-scale computing. Members have introduced efficient array libraries, developed fast just-in-time (JIT) compilers, and built links to existing packages used in high performance parallel computing.

  9. Real-time Java for on-board systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cechticky, V.; Pasetti, A.

    2002-07-01

    The Java language has several attractive features but cannot at present be used in on-board systems primarily because it lacks support for hard real-time operation. This shortcoming is in being addressed: some suppliers are already providing implementations of Java that are RT-compliant; Sun Microsystem has approved a formal specification for a real-time extension of the language; and an independent consortium is working on an alternative specification for real-time Java. It is therefore expected that, within a year or so, standardized commercial implementations of real-time Java will be on the market. Availability of real-time implementations now opens the way to its use on-board. Within this context, this paper has two objectives. Firstly, it discusses the suitability of Java for on-board applications. Secondly, it reports the results of an ESA study to port a software framework for on-board control systems to a commercial real-time version of Java.

  10. jFuzz: A Concolic Whitebox Fuzzer for Java

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jayaraman, Karthick; Harvison, David; Ganesh, Vijay; Kiezun, Adam

    2009-01-01

    We present jFuzz, a automatic testing tool for Java programs. jFuzz is a concolic whitebox fuzzer, built on the NASA Java PathFinder, an explicit-state Java model checker, and a framework for developing reliability and analysis tools for Java. Starting from a seed input, jFuzz automatically and systematically generates inputs that exercise new program paths. jFuzz uses a combination of concrete and symbolic execution, and constraint solving. Time spent on solving constraints can be significant. We implemented several well-known optimizations and name-independent caching, which aggressively normalizes the constraints to reduce the number of calls to the constraint solver. We present preliminary results due to the optimizations, and demonstrate the effectiveness of jFuzz in creating good test inputs. The source code of jFuzz is available as part of the NASA Java PathFinder. jFuzz is intended to be a research testbed for investigating new testing and analysis techniques based on concrete and symbolic execution. The source code of jFuzz is available as part of the NASA Java PathFinder.

  11. A JAVA User Interface for the Virtual Human

    SciTech Connect

    Easterly, C E; Strickler, D J; Tolliver, J S; Ward, R C

    1999-10-13

    A human simulation environment, the Virtual Human (VH), is under development at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Virtual Human connects three-dimensional (3D) anatomical models of the body with dynamic physiological models to investigate a wide range of human biological and physical responses to stimuli. We have utilized the Java programming language to develop a flexible user interface to the VH. The Java prototype interface has been designed to display dynamic results from selected physiological models, with user control of the initial model parameters and ability to steer the simulation as it is proceeding. Taking advantage of Java's Remote Method Invocation (RMI) features, the interface runs as a Java client that connects to a Java RMI server process running on a remote server machine. The RMI server can couple to physiological models written in Java, or in other programming languages, including C and FORTRAN. Future versions of the interface will be linked to 3D anatomical models of the human body to complete the development of the VH.

  12. Sedimentary deposits study of the 2006 Java tsunami, in Pangandaran, West Java (preliminary result)

    SciTech Connect

    Maemunah, Imun; Suparka, Emmy Puspito, Nanang T; Hidayati, Sri

    2015-04-24

    The 2006 Java Earthquake (Mw 7.2) has generated a tsunami that reached Pangandaran coastal plain with 9.7 m above sea level height of wave. In 2014 we examined the tsunami deposit exposed in shallow trenches along a∼300 m at 5 transect from shoreline to inland on Karapyak and Madasari, Pangandaran. We documented stratigraphically and sedimentologically, the characteristics of Java Tsunami deposit on Karapyak and Madasari and compared both sediments. In local farmland a moderately-sorted, brown soil is buried by a poorly-sorted, grey, medium-grained sand-sheet. The tsunami deposit was distinguished from the underlying soil by a pronounced increase in grain size that becomes finner upwards and landwards. Decreasing concentration of coarse size particles with distance toward inland are in agreement with grain size analysis. The thickest tsunami deposit is about 25 cm found at 84 m from shoreline in Madasari and about 15 cm found at 80 m from shoreline in Karapyak. The thickness of tsunami deposits in some transect become thinner landward but in some other transect lack a consistent suggested strongly affected by local topography. Tsunami deposits at Karapyak and Madasari show many similarities. Both deposits consist of coarse sand that sharply overlies a finer sandy soil. The presence mud drapes and other sedimentary structure like graded bedding, massive beds, mud clasts in many locations shows a dynamics process of tsunami waves. The imbrication coarse and shell fragments of the 2006 Java, tsunami deposits also provide information about the curent direction, allowing us to distinguish run up deposits from backwash deposits.

  13. Jeagle: a JAVA Runtime Verification Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DAmorim, Marcelo; Havelund, Klaus

    2005-01-01

    We introduce the temporal logic Jeagle and its supporting tool for runtime verification of Java programs. A monitor for an Jeagle formula checks if a finite trace of program events satisfies the formula. Jeagle is a programming oriented extension of the rule-based powerful Eagle logic that has been shown to be capable of defining and implementing a range of finite trace monitoring logics, including future and past time temporal logic, real-time and metric temporal logics, interval logics, forms of quantified temporal logics, and so on. Monitoring is achieved on a state-by-state basis avoiding any need to store the input trace. Jeagle extends Eagle with constructs for capturing parameterized program events such as method calls and method returns. Parameters can be the objects that methods are called upon, arguments to methods, and return values. Jeagle allows one to refer to these in formulas. The tool performs automated program instrumentation using AspectJ. We show the transformational semantics of Jeagle.

  14. Org.Lcsim: Event Reconstruction in Java

    SciTech Connect

    Graf, Norman A.; /SLAC

    2012-04-19

    Maximizing the physics performance of detectors being designed for the International Linear Collider, while remaining sensitive to cost constraints, requires a powerful, efficient, and flexible simulation, reconstruction and analysis environment to study the capabilities of a large number of different detector designs. The preparation of Letters Of Intent for the International Linear Collider involved the detailed study of dozens of detector options, layouts and readout technologies; the final physics benchmarking studies required the reconstruction and analysis of hundreds of millions of events. We describe the Java-based software toolkit (org.lcsim) which was used for full event reconstruction and analysis. The components are fully modular and are available for tasks from digitization of tracking detector signals through to cluster finding, pattern recognition, track-fitting, calorimeter clustering, individual particle reconstruction, jet-finding, and analysis. The detector is defined by the same xml input files used for the detector response simulation, ensuring the simulation and reconstruction geometries are always commensurate by construction. We discuss the architecture as well as the performance.

  15. Building interactive virtual environments for simulated training in medicine using VRML and Java/JavaScript.

    PubMed

    Korocsec, D; Holobar, A; Divjak, M; Zazula, D

    2005-12-01

    Medicine is a difficult thing to learn. Experimenting with real patients should not be the only option; simulation deserves a special attention here. Virtual Reality Modelling Language (VRML) as a tool for building virtual objects and scenes has a good record of educational applications in medicine, especially for static and animated visualisations of body parts and organs. However, to create computer simulations resembling situations in real environments the required level of interactivity and dynamics is difficult to achieve. In the present paper we describe some approaches and techniques which we used to push the limits of the current VRML technology further toward dynamic 3D representation of virtual environments (VEs). Our demonstration is based on the implementation of a virtual baby model, whose vital signs can be controlled from an external Java application. The main contributions of this work are: (a) outline and evaluation of the three-level VRML/Java implementation of the dynamic virtual environment, (b) proposal for a modified VRML Timesensor node, which greatly improves the overall control of system performance, and (c) architecture of the prototype distributed virtual environment for training in neonatal resuscitation comprising the interactive virtual newborn, active bedside monitor for vital signs and full 3D representation of the surgery room.

  16. Toxicity and gastric tolerance of essential oils from Cymbopogon citratus, Ocimum gratissimum and Ocimum basilicum in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Fandohan, P; Gnonlonfin, B; Laleye, A; Gbenou, J D; Darboux, R; Moudachirou, M

    2008-07-01

    Oils of Cymbopogon citratus, Ocimum gratissimum and Ocimum basilicum are widely used for their medicinal properties, and as food flavours and perfumes. Recently in a study in West Africa, these oils have been recommended to combat Fusarium verticillioides and subsequent fumonisin contamination in stored maize, but their toxicological profile was not investigated. The current study was undertaken to provide data on acute and subacute toxicity as well as on gastric tolerance of these oils in rat. For this purpose, the oils were given by gavage to Wistar rats for 14 consecutive days. The animals were observed daily for their general behaviour and survival, and their visceral organs such as stomach and liver were taken after sacrifice for histological analyses. A dose-dependent effect of the tested oils was observed during the study. Applied at doses generally higher than 1500 mg/kg body weight, the oils caused significant functional damages to stomach and liver of rat. Unlike the other oils, administration of O. gratissimum oil did not result in adverse effects in rat liver at the tested doses. The no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) of the tested oils has been established. The three tested oils can be considered as safe to human when applied on stored maize at recommended concentrations.

  17. Effects of Cymbopogon citratus L. essential oil on the growth, morphogenesis and aflatoxin production of Aspergillus flavus ML2-strain.

    PubMed

    Helal, G A; Sarhan, M M; Abu Shahla, A N K; Abou El-Khair, E K

    2007-02-01

    The mycelial growth of Aspergillus flavus Link was completely inhibited using 1.5 (microl/ml or 2.0 (microl/ml of Cymbopogon citratus essential oil applied by fumigation or contact method in Czapek's liquid medium, respectively. This oil was found also to be fungicidal at the same concentrations. The sublethal doses 1.0 and 1.5 (microl/ml inhibited about 65% of fungal growth after five days of incubation and delayed conidiation as compared with the control. Microscopic observations using Light Microscope (LM), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) were carried out to determine the ultra structural modifications of A. flavus hyphae after treatment with C. citratus essential oil. The hyphal diameter decreased and hyphal wall appeared as precipitates and disappeared in some regions. This oil also caused plasma membrane disruption and mitochondrial structure disorganization. Moreover, Ca(+2), K(+) and Mg(+2) leakages increased from the fumigated mycelium and its total lipid content decreased, while the saturated and unsaturated fatty acids increased. One of the most important results obtained during this study was the ability of C. citratus essential oil at its sublethal dose to completely inhibit aflatoxin B(1) production from A. flavus. These findings increase the possibility of exploiting C. citratus essential oil as an effective inhibitor of biodegradation and storage contaminating fungi and also in fruit juice preservation.

  18. Fumigant Antifungal Activity of Corymbia citriodora and Cymbopogon nardus Essential Oils and Citronellal against Three Fungal Species

    PubMed Central

    Aguiar, Raimundo Wagner de S.; Ootani, Marcio A.; Ascencio, Sérgio Donizeti; Ferreira, Talita P. S.; dos Santos, Manoel M.; dos Santos, Gil R.

    2014-01-01

    Corymbia citriodora and Cymbopogon nardus essential oils samples were analyzed by GC and GC-MS and their qualitative and quantitative compositions established. The main component of essential oils of C. citriodora and C. nardus was citronellal, at 61.78% and 36.6%, respectively. The essential oils and citronellal were tested for their fumigant antifungal activity against Pyricularia (Magnaporthe) grisea, Aspergillus spp., and Colletotrichum musae. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ranged from 100 to 200 ppm for the essential oils and 25 to 50 mg·mL−1 for citronellal. The contact assay using the essential oils and citronellal showed growth inhibition of the three fungal species. However, a concentration of 1.47 mg·mL−1 only reduced the inhibition of Aspergillus growth to 90% at 14 days of exposure. For the fumigant assay, 0.05, 0.11, and 0.23 mg·mL−1 of essential oils and citronellal drastically affected growth of P. grisea, Aspergillus spp., and C. musae. Harmful effects on the sporulation and germination of the three fungi were seen, and there was complete inhibition at 0.15 mg·mL−1 with both oils and citronellal. This showed that the crude component of essential oils of C. citriodora and C. nardus markedly suppressed spore production, germination, and growth inhibition of P. grisea, Aspergillus spp., and Colletotrichum musae. PMID:24600325

  19. Effect of Inhaling Cymbopogon martinii Essential Oil and Geraniol on Serum Biochemistry Parameters and Oxidative Stress in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Bruna Fernanda Murbach Teles; Braga, Camila Pereira; dos Santos, Klinsmann Carolo; Barbosa, Lidiane Nunes; Rall, Vera Lúcia Mores; Sforcin, José Maurício; Fernandes, Ana Angélica Henrique; Fernandes Júnior, Ary

    2014-01-01

    The effects of the inhalation of Cymbopogon martinii essential oil (EO) and geraniol on Wistar rats were evaluated for biochemical parameters and hepatic oxidative stress. Wistar rats were divided into three groups (n = 8): G1 was control group, treated with saline solution; G2 received geraniol; and G3 received C. martinii EO by inhalation during 30 days. No significant differences were observed in glycemia and triacylglycerol levels; G2 and G3 decreased (P < 0.05) total cholesterol level. There were no differences in serum protein, urea, aspartate aminotransferase activity, and total hepatic protein. Creatinine levels increased in G2 but decreased in G3. Alanine aminotransferase activity and lipid hydroperoxide were higher in G2 than in G3. Catalase and superoxide dismutase activities were higher in G3. C. martinii EO and geraniol increased glutathione peroxidase. Oxidative stress caused by geraniol may have triggered some degree of hepatic toxicity, as verified by the increase in serum creatinine and alanine aminotransferase. Therefore, the beneficial effects of EO on oxidative stress can prevent the toxicity in the liver. This proves possible interactions between geraniol and numerous chemical compounds present in C. martinii EO. PMID:25574396

  20. Fumigant antifungal activity of Corymbia citriodora and Cymbopogon nardus essential oils and citronellal against three fungal species.

    PubMed

    Aguiar, Raimundo Wagner de S; Ootani, Marcio A; Ascencio, Sérgio Donizeti; Ferreira, Talita P S; Dos Santos, Manoel M; dos Santos, Gil R

    2014-01-01

    Corymbia citriodora and Cymbopogon nardus essential oils samples were analyzed by GC and GC-MS and their qualitative and quantitative compositions established. The main component of essential oils of C. citriodora and C. nardus was citronellal, at 61.78% and 36.6%, respectively. The essential oils and citronellal were tested for their fumigant antifungal activity against Pyricularia (Magnaporthe) grisea, Aspergillus spp., and Colletotrichum musae. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ranged from 100 to 200 ppm for the essential oils and 25 to 50 mg · mL(-1) for citronellal. The contact assay using the essential oils and citronellal showed growth inhibition of the three fungal species. However, a concentration of 1.47 mg · mL(-1) only reduced the inhibition of Aspergillus growth to 90% at 14 days of exposure. For the fumigant assay, 0.05, 0.11, and 0.23 mg · mL(-1) of essential oils and citronellal drastically affected growth of P. grisea, Aspergillus spp., and C. musae. Harmful effects on the sporulation and germination of the three fungi were seen, and there was complete inhibition at 0.15 mg · mL(-1) with both oils and citronellal. This showed that the crude component of essential oils of C. citriodora and C. nardus markedly suppressed spore production, germination, and growth inhibition of P. grisea, Aspergillus spp., and Colletotrichum musae.

  1. Flavan hetero-dimers in the Cymbopogon citratus infusion tannin fraction and their contribution to the antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Costa, Gustavo; González-Manzano, Susana; González-Paramás, Ana; Figueiredo, Isabel Vitória; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Batista, Maria Teresa

    2015-03-01

    Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass) leaf infusion, a commonly used ingredient in Asian, African and Latin American cuisines, is also used in traditional medicine for the treatment of several pathological conditions; however, little is known about their bioactive compounds. Recent studies revealed the crucial role of the phenolic compounds namely flavonoids and tannins on the infusion bioactivity. Flavonoids have already been characterized; however the tannin fraction of lemongrass infusion is still uncharted. The aim of the present work is to characterize this fraction, and to evaluate its contribution to the antioxidant potential of this plant. Chemical characterization was achieved by HPLC-DAD-ESI/tandem MS and the antioxidant activity was evaluated using DPPH, ABTS and FRAP assays. Hetero-dimeric flavan structures have been described for the first time in lemongrass consisting of apigeniflavan or luteoliflavan units linked to a flavanone, either naringenin or eriodictyol, which may occur as aglycone or glycosylated forms. The antioxidant capacity of the fraction containing these compounds was significantly higher than the infusion, indicating its potential as a source of natural antioxidants.

  2. Biochemical characteristics of a novel vegetative tissue geraniol acetyltransferase from a monoterpene oil grass (Palmarosa, Cymbopogon martinii var. Motia) leaf.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Pankaj K; Sangwan, Neelam S; Bose, Subir K; Sangwan, Rajender S

    2013-04-01

    Plants synthesize volatile alcohol esters on environmental insult or as metabolic induction during flower/fruit development. However, essential oil plants constitutively produce them as the oil constituents. Their synthesis is catalyzed by BAHD family enzymes called alcohol acyltransferases (AATs). However, no AAT has been characterized from plant foliage synthesizing acyclic monoterpenoids containing essential oils. Therefore, we have purified and biochemically characterized a geraniol: acetyl coenzyme A acetyltransferase (GAAT) from Palmarosa aroma grass (Cymbopogon martinii) leaf. MALDI-assisted proteomic study of the 43kDa monomeric enzyme revealed its sequence motif novelties e.g. relaxed conservation at Phe and Trp in DFGWG'. This suggests permissiveness of variations in the conserved motif without loss of catalytic ability. Also, some new conserved/semi-conserved motifs of AATs were recognized. The GAAT k(cat)/K(m) values (300-700M(-1)s(-1)) were low (a generic characteristic for secondary metabolism enzyme) but higher than those of some floral AATs. Wide substrate acceptability for catalyzing acetylation of diverse primary alcohols (chain of ≥C(6)) implied its catalytic description as a 'primary aliphatic alcohol acetyltransferase'. It signifies metabolic ability to deliver diverse aroma esters, should the acceptor alcohols be available in planta. To our knowledge, this is the first report of detailed kinetics of a vegetal monoterpenol acyltransferase.

  3. Inhibitory effect of three C-glycosylflavonoids from Cymbopogon citratus (Lemongrass) on human low density lipoprotein oxidation.

    PubMed

    Orrego, Roxana; Leiva, Elba; Cheel, José

    2009-09-30

    This study assessed the inhibitory effect of three C-glycosylflavonoids from Cymbopogon citratus leaves--isoorientin (1), swertiajaponin (2) and isoorientin 2"-Orhamnoside (3)--on human LDL oxidation. Isolated LDL was incubated with compounds 1-3 and the kinetics of lipid peroxidation were assessed by conjugated diene and malondialdehyde-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (MDA-TBARS) formation after addition of copper ions. Significant differences (p < 0.05) between the lag time phase of the control and the lag time phase in the presence of the compounds 1 (0.25 microM) and 2 (0.50 microM) were observed. After five hours of incubation all three compounds showed a significant inhibitory effect on MDA-TBARS formation with respect to the control. After six hours of incubation only compound 1 kept a remarkable antioxidant effect. This study demonstrates that isoorientin (1) is an effective inhibitor of in vitro LDL oxidation. As oxidative damage to LDL is a key event in the formation of atherosclerotic lesions, the use of this natural antioxidant may be beneficial to prevent or attenuate atherosclerosis.

  4. Anti-inflammatory activity of Cymbopogon citratus leaf infusion in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated dendritic cells: contribution of the polyphenols.

    PubMed

    Figueirinha, Artur; Cruz, Maria Teresa; Francisco, Vera; Lopes, M Celeste; Batista, Maria Teresa

    2010-06-01

    Cymbopogon citratus, an herb known worldwide as lemongrass, is widely consumed as an aromatic drink, and its fresh and dried leaves are currently used in traditional cuisine. However, little is known about the mechanism of action of C. citratus, namely, the anti-inflammatory effects of its dietary components. Because nitric oxide (NO), produced in large quantities by activated inflammatory cells, has been demonstrated to be involved in the pathogenesis of acute and chronic inflammation, we evaluated the effects of the infusion of dried leaves from C. citratus, as well as its polyphenolic fractions--flavonoid-, tannin-, and phenolic acid-rich fractions (FF, TF, and PAF, respectively)--on the NO production induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in a skin-derived dendritic cell line (FSDC). C. citratus infusion significantly inhibited the LPS-induced NO production and inducible NO synthase (iNOS) protein expression. All the polyphenolic fractions tested also reduced the iNOS protein levels and NO production stimulated by LPS in FSDC cells, without affecting cell viability, with the strongest effects being observed for the fractions with mono- and polymeric flavonoids (FF and TF, respectively). Our results also indicated that the anti-inflammatory properties of FF are mainly due to luteolin glycosides. In conclusion, C. citratus has NO scavenging activity and inhibits iNOS expression and should be explored for the treatment of inflammatory diseases, in particular of the gastrointestinal tract.

  5. Laboratory assessment of acaricidal activity of Cymbopogon winterianus, Vitex negundo and Withania somnifera extracts against deltamethrin resistant Hyalomma anatolicum.

    PubMed

    Singh, Nirbhay Kumar; Jyoti; Vemu, Bhaskar; Nandi, Abhijit; Singh, Harkirat; Kumar, Rajender; Dumka, V K

    2014-07-01

    Larval packet test was used for detection of resistance levels against cypermethrin and deltamethrin, the most commonly used synthetic pyrethroids, in the multi-host tick Hyalomma anatolicum collected from district Moga, Punjab (India). Results indicated the presence of level I resistance against deltamethrin (RF = 2.81), whereas the tick isolate was susceptible to cypermethrin (RF = 0.2). The aqueous and ethanolic extracts of leaves of Cymbopogon winterianus, Vitex negundo and Withania somnifera along with roots of Vitex negundo were assessed for their acaricidal activity against the larvae of deltamethrin resistant H. anatolicum. The efficacy was assessed by measuring per cent larval mortality and determination of LC50 values. The various ethanolic extracts produced a concentration dependent increase in larval tick mortality, whereas the aqueous extracts exhibited a much lower mortality. The highest mortality (93.7 ± 0.66 %) was observed at the 5.0 % concentration of ethanolic extract of leaves of C. winterianus and the lowest LC50 value (0.011 %) was recorded for ethanolic extracts of leaves of V. negundo. The results indicated that these plant extracts have potential to be developed as herbal acaricides.

  6. Antioxidant potential of Cymbopogon citratus extract: alleviation of carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic oxidative stress and toxicity.

    PubMed

    Koh, Pei Hoon; Mokhtar, Ruzaidi Azli Mohd; Iqbal, Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate the effect of Cymbopogon citratus against carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-mediated hepatic oxidative damage in rats. Rats were administrated with C. citratus extract (100, 200 and 300 mg/kg b.w.) for 14 days before the challenge of CCl(4) (1.2 ml/kg b.w. p.o) on 13th and 14th days. Hepatic damage was evaluated by employing serum biochemical parameters (alanine aminotransferase-ALT, aspartate aminotransferase-AST and lactate dehydrogenase-LDH), malondialdehye (MDA) level, reduced GSH and antioxidant enzymes (catalase: CAT, glutathione peroxidase: GPX, quinone reductase: QR, glutathione S-transferase: GST, glutathione reductase: GR, glucose-6-phosphate dehyrogenase: G6PD). In addition, CCl(4)-mediated hepatic damage was further evaluated by histopathological examination. However, most of these changes were alleviated by prophylactic treatment of animals with C. citratus dose dependently (p < 0.05). The protection was further evident through decreased histopathological alterations in liver. The results of the present study indicated that the hepatoprotective effect of C. citratus might be ascribable to its antioxidant and free radical scavenging property.

  7. A novel ionic amphiphilic chitosan derivative as a stabilizer of nanoemulsions: Improvement of antimicrobial activity of Cymbopogon citratus essential oil.

    PubMed

    Bonferoni, Maria Cristina; Sandri, Giuseppina; Rossi, Silvia; Usai, Donatella; Liakos, Ioannis; Garzoni, Alice; Fiamma, Maura; Zanetti, Stefania; Athanassiou, Athanassia; Caramella, Carla; Ferrari, Franca

    2017-01-24

    Amphiphilic chitosans have been recently proposed to improve delivery of poorly soluble drugs. In the present paper a derivative obtained by ionic interaction between chitosan and oleic acid was for the first time studied to physically stabilize o/w nanoemulsions of an antimicrobial essential oil, Cymbopogon citratus (Lemongrass), in a low energy and mild conditions emulsification process. The novel combination of spontaneous emulsification process with chitosan oleate amphiphilic properties resulted in a stable dispersion of a few hundred nanometer droplets. Positive zeta potential confirmed the presence of a chitosan shell around the oil droplets, which is responsible for the nanoemulsion physical stabilization and for the maintenance of chitosan bioactive properties, such as mucoadhesion. Cytotoxicity test was performed on four different cell lines (HEp-2, Caco-2, WKD and McCoy cells) showing biocompatibility of the system. The maintenance and in some cases even a clear improvement in the essential oil antimicrobial activity towards nine bacterial and ten fungal strains, all of clinical relevance was verified for Lemongrass nanoemulsion.

  8. In vitro activity of the essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus and its major component (citral) on Leishmania amazonensis.

    PubMed

    Santin, Marta Regina; dos Santos, Adriana Oliveira; Nakamura, Celso Vataru; Dias Filho, Benedito Prado; Ferreira, Izabel Cristina Piloto; Ueda-Nakamura, Tânia

    2009-11-01

    Leishmaniasis causes considerable mortality throughout the world, affecting more than 12 million people. Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf, Family Poaceae, is a widely used herb in tropical countries and is also known as a source of ethnomedicines. In this study, the inhibitory effect and the morphological and ultrastructural alterations on Leishmania amazonensis by the essential oil (EO) of C. citratus and its main constituent, citral, were evaluated. The results showed that the antiproliferative activity of EO on promastigotes and axenic amastigotes, and intracellular amastigote forms of L. amazonensis was significantly better than citral, and indicated a dose-dependent effect. Neither compound showed a cytotoxic effect on macrophage strain J774G8. The promastigote forms of L. amazonensis underwent remarkable morphological and ultrastructural alterations compared with untreated cultures. These alterations were visible by light, scanning, and transmission electron microscopy of promastigotes treated with EO and citral at concentrations corresponding to the IC(50) (1.7 and 8.0 microg/ml) and IC(90) (3.2 and 25 microg/ml), respectively, after 72 h of incubation. This study revealed that citral-rich essential oil from C. citratus has promising antileishmanial properties, and is a good candidate for further research to develop a new anti-protozoan drug.

  9. Effects of Cymbopogon citratus L. essential oil on the growth, lipid content and morphogenesis of Aspergillus niger ML2-strain.

    PubMed

    Helal, G A; Sarhan, M M; Abu Shahla, A N K; Abou El-Khair, E K

    2006-01-01

    The mycelial growth of Aspergillus niger van Tieghem was completely inhibited using 1.5 (microl/ml or 2.0 (microl/ml of Cymbopogon citratus essential oil applied by fumigation or contact method in Czapek liquid medium, respectively. This oil was found also to be fungicidal at the same concentrations. The sublethal doses 1.0 and 1.5 (microl/ml inhibited about 70% of fungal growth after five days of incubation and delayed conidiation as compared with the control. Microscopic observations using Light Microscope (LM), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) were carried out to determine the ultra structural modifications of A. niger hyphae after treatment with C. citratus essential oil. The hyphal diameter and hyphal wall appeared markedly thinner. This oil also caused plasma membrane disruption and mitochondrial structure disorganization. Moreover, Ca+2, K+ and Mg+2 leakages increased from the fumigated mycelium and its total lipid content decreased, while the saturated fatty acids decreased and unsaturated fatty acids increased. These findings increase the possibility of exploiting C. citratus essential oil as an effective inhibitor of biodegrading and storage contaminating fungi and in fruit juice preservation.

  10. Effect of Cymbopogon citratus L. essential oil on growth and morphogenesis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae ML2-strain.

    PubMed

    Helal, G A; Sarhan, M M; Abu Shahla, A N K; Abou El-Khair, E K

    2006-01-01

    The growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was completely inhibited using 2.0 microl/ml or 4.0 microl/ml of Cymbopogon citratus essential oil applied by fumigation or contact method in Sabouraud's broth medium, respectively. This oil was found also to be fungicidal at the same concentrations. The sublethal doses 1.0 and 3.0 microl/ml inhibited about 98% of yeast growth after 24 hr of incubation as compared with the control. Microscopic observations using Light Microscope (LM), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) showed morphogenic and ultrastructure changes in the fumigated cells with 1.0 microl/ml of the oil. These changes including decrease in cell size, depressions on the surface of the cells, alteration in cell wall thickness and disruption of plasma membrane. Moreover, Ca(+2), K(+) and Mg(+2) leakages increased from the fumigated cells and its total lipid content decreased. Also, the fatty acid composition was altered with decrease in the amount of saturated fatty acids and increase in the amount of unsaturated fatty acids.

  11. Cymbopogon citratus-synthesized gold nanoparticles boost the predation efficiency of copepod Mesocyclops aspericornis against malaria and dengue mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Murugan, Kadarkarai; Benelli, Giovanni; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Subramaniam, Jayapal; Jeyalalitha, Tirupathi; Dinesh, Devakumar; Nicoletti, Marcello; Hwang, Jiang-Shiou; Suresh, Udaiyan; Madhiyazhagan, Pari

    2015-06-01

    Plant-borne compounds can be employed to synthesize mosquitocidal nanoparticles that are effective at low doses. However, how they affect the activity of mosquito predators in the aquatic environment is unknown. In this study, we synthesized gold nanoparticles (AuN) using the leaf extract of Cymbopogon citratus, which acted as a reducing and capping agent. AuN were characterized by a variety of biophysical methods and sorted for size in order to confirm structural integrity. C. citratus extract and biosynthesized AuN were tested against larvae and pupae of the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi and the dengue vector Aedes aegypti. LC₅₀ of C. citratus extract ranged from 219.32 ppm to 471.36 ppm. LC₅₀ of AuN ranged from 18.80 ppm to 41.52 ppm. In laboratory, the predatory efficiency of the cyclopoid crustacean Mesocyclops aspericornis against A. stephensi larvae was 26.8% (larva I) and 17% (larva II), while against A. aegypti was 56% (I) and 35.1% (II). Predation against late-instar larvae was minimal. In AuN-contaminated environment,predation efficiency against A. stephensi was 45.6% (I) and 26.7% (II), while against A. aegypti was 77.3% (I) and 51.6% (II). Overall, low doses of AuN may help to boost the control of Anopheles and Aedes larval populations in copepod-based control programs.

  12. Creating Web-Based Scientific Applications Using Java Servlets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, Grant; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    There are many advantages to developing web-based scientific applications. Any number of people can access the application concurrently. The application can be accessed from a remote location. The application becomes essentially platform-independent because it can be run from any machine that has internet access and can run a web browser. Maintenance and upgrades to the application are simplified since only one copy of the application exists in a centralized location. This paper details the creation of web-based applications using Java servlets. Java is a powerful, versatile programming language that is well suited to developing web-based programs. A Java servlet provides the interface between the central server and the remote client machines. The servlet accepts input data from the client, runs the application on the server, and sends the output back to the client machine. The type of servlet that supports the HTTP protocol will be discussed in depth. Among the topics the paper will discuss are how to write an http servlet, how the servlet can run applications written in Java and other languages, and how to set up a Java web server. The entire process will be demonstrated by building a web-based application to compute stagnation point heat transfer.

  13. First geodetic measurement of convergence across the Java Trench

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tregoning, P.; Brunner, F. K.; Bock, Y.; Puntodewo, S. S. O.; Mccraffrey, R.; Genrich, J. F.; Calais, E.; Rais, J.; Subarya, C.

    1994-01-01

    Convergence across the Java Trench has been estimated for the first time, from annual Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements commencing in 1989. The directions of motion of Christmas and Cocos Island are within 1 deg of that predicted by the No-Net Rotation (NNR) NUVEL-1 plate motion model for the Australian plate although their rates are 25% and 37% less than predcited, respectively. The motion of West Java differs significantly from the NNR NUVEL-1 prediction for the Eurasian plate with a 1 deg difference in direction and a 40% increase in rate. We infer that either West Java moves with a distinct Southeast Asian plate or this region experiences plate margin deformation. The convergence of Christmas Island with respect to West Java is 67 +/- mm/yr in a direction N11 deg E +/- 4 deg which is orthogonal to the trench. The magnitude of convergence agrees well with rescaled NUVEL-1 relative plate model which predicts a value of 71 mm/yr between Australia and Eurasia. The direction of motion matches the direction inferred from earthquake slip vectors at the trench but may be more northerly than the N20 deg E +/- 3 deg predicted by NUVEL-1. On June 2, 1994, almost a year after the last GPS survey, an M(sub W) = 7.5 earthquake with slip vector direction N5 deg occurred south of central Java.

  14. Data showing chemical compositions of the essential oils of the leaves of Cymbopogon citratus obtained by varying pH of the extraction medium.

    PubMed

    Ajayi, E O; Sadimenko, A P; Afolayan, A J

    2016-09-01

    This article describes the various chemical components as obtained from the oils in the leaves of Cymbopogon citratus using hydrodistillation and solvent-free microwave extraction methods. Furthermore, extractions of the oils were also carried out with a slight in pH variation and compared, "GC-MS evaluation of C. citratus (DC) Stapf oil obtained using modified hydrodistillation and microwave extraction methods" (Ajayi et al., 2016 [1]). The current article contains one table exhibiting a list of compounds in the four different methods of extraction. Comparative studies amongst the various methods of extraction are highlighted in the table.

  15. Use of dimethyldioxirane in the epoxidation of the main constituents of the essential oils obtained from Tagetes lucida, Cymbopogon citratus, Lippia alba and Eucalyptus citriodora.

    PubMed

    Veloza, Luz A; Orozco, Lina M; Sepúlveda-Arias, Juan C

    2011-07-01

    Dimethyldioxirane (DMDO), a widely used oxidant in organic synthesis is considered an environmentally friendly oxygen transfer reagent because acetone is the only byproduct formed in its oxidation reactions. This work describes the isolation of the main constituents (terpenes) in the essential oils obtained from Tagetes lucida, Cymbopogon citratus, Lippia alba and Eucalyptus citriodora, their epoxidation with DMDO in acetone solution and the characterization of the resulting epoxides by GC-MS (EI) and NMR. This is one of the first reports involving the application of dioxirane chemistry to essential oils in order to generate modified compounds with potential uses in several areas of medicine and industry.

  16. A Java speech implementation of the Mini Mental Status Exam.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, S. S.; Starren, J.

    1999-01-01

    The Folstein Mini Mental Status Exam (MMSE) is a simple, widely used, verbally administered test to assess cognitive function. The Java Speech Application Programming Interface (JSAPI) is a new, cross-platform interface for both speech recognition and speech synthesis in the Java environment. To evaluate the suitability of the JSAPI for interactive, patient interview applications, a JSAPI implementation of the MMSE was developed. The MMSE contains questions that vary in structure in order to assess different cognitive functions. This question variability provided an excellent test-bed to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of JSAPI. The application is based on Java platform 2 and a JSAPI interface to the IBM ViaVoice recognition engine. Design and implementations issues are discussed. Preliminary usability studies demonstrate that an automated MMSE maybe a useful screening tool for cognitive disorders and changes. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:10566396

  17. Add Java extensions to your wiki: Java applets can bring dynamic functionality to your wiki pages

    SciTech Connect

    Scarberry, Randall E.

    2008-08-12

    Virtually everyone familiar with today’s world wide web has encountered the free online encyclopedia Wikipedia many times. What you may not know is that Wikipedia is driven by an excellent open-source product called MediaWiki which is available to anyone for free. This has led to a proliferation of wiki sites devoted to just about any topic one can imagine. Users of a wiki can add content -- all that is required of them is that they type in their additions into their web browsers using the simple markup language called wikitext. Even better, the developers of wikitext made it extensible. With a little server-side development of your own, you can add your own custom syntax. Users aware of your extensions can then utilize them on their wiki pages with a few simple keystrokes. These extensions can be custom decorations, formatting, web applications, and even instances of the venerable old Java applet. One example of a Java applet extension is the Jmol extension (REF), used to embed a 3-D molecular viewer. This article will walk you through the deployment of a fairly elaborate applet via a MediaWiki extension. By no means exhaustive -- an entire book would be required for that -- it will demonstrate how to give the applet resize handles using using a little Javascript and CSS coding and some popular Javascript libraries. It even describes how a user may customize the extension somewhat using a wiki template. Finally, it explains a rudimentary persistence mechanism which allows applets to save data directly to the wiki pages on which they reside.

  18. A Standalone Vision Impairments Simulator for Java Swing Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oikonomou, Theofanis; Votis, Konstantinos; Korn, Peter; Tzovaras, Dimitrios; Likothanasis, Spriridon

    A lot of work has been done lately in an attempt to assess accessibility. For the case of web rich-client applications several tools exist that simulate how a vision impaired or colour-blind person would perceive this content. In this work we propose a simulation tool for non-web JavaTM Swing applications. Developers and designers face a real challenge when creating software that has to cope with a lot of interaction situations, as well as specific directives for ensuring an accessible interaction. The proposed standalone tool will assist them to explore user-centered design and important accessibility issues for their JavaTM Swing implementations.

  19. Symbolic PathFinder: Symbolic Execution of Java Bytecode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pasareanu, Corina S.; Rungta, Neha

    2010-01-01

    Symbolic Pathfinder (SPF) combines symbolic execution with model checking and constraint solving for automated test case generation and error detection in Java programs with unspecified inputs. In this tool, programs are executed on symbolic inputs representing multiple concrete inputs. Values of variables are represented as constraints generated from the analysis of Java bytecode. The constraints are solved using off-the shelf solvers to generate test inputs guaranteed to achieve complex coverage criteria. SPF has been used successfully at NASA, in academia, and in industry.

  20. [A Java class library for accessing Cadplan data].

    PubMed

    Zagler, Norbert

    2008-01-01

    A Java class library was developed to be able to access the data of the treatment planning system Varian Cad-plan which was decommissioned in 2005. The library reads and encapsulates the most important patient data. It facilitates creating viewing software for CT slices, contours and isodoses. Keeping alive old Cadplan hardware is no longer necessary. The files can be stored on any server in the network of a department and they can be accessed from any workstation capable of running Java software.

  1. Zika Virus, a Cause of Fever in Central Java, Indonesia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-01-01

    ZIKA VIRUS, A CAUSE OF FEVER IN CENTRAL JAVA, INDONESIA J.G. Olson, T.G. Ksiazek, Suhandiman and Triwibowo REPORT NO. TR-879 NAMRU- DT1 &, AUG 0 9...75, No. 3, 1981 Zika virus, a cause of fever in Central Java, Indonesia J. G. OLSON’, T. G. KSIAZEK’, SUHANDIMAN 2 AND TRIwIBOWO 2 ’U.S. Naval...clinical history was taken and a involvement. Three additional isolations of ZIKA check list of signs and symptoms was completed were made from

  2. Scientific Programming Using Java and C: A Remote Sensing Example

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prados, Donald; Johnson, Michael; Mohamed, Mohamed A.; Cao, Chang-Yong; Gasser, Jerry; Powell, Don; McGregor, Lloyd

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents results of a project to port code for processing remotely sensed data from the UNIX environment to Windows. Factors considered during this process include time schedule, cost, resource availability, reuse of existing code, rapid interface development, ease of integration, and platform independence. The approach selected for this project used both Java and C. By using Java for the graphical user interface and C for the domain model, the strengths of both languages were utilized and the resulting code can easily be ported to other platforms. The advantages of this approach are discussed in this paper.

  3. Verification of Java Programs using Symbolic Execution and Invariant Generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pasareanu, Corina; Visser, Willem

    2004-01-01

    Software verification is recognized as an important and difficult problem. We present a norel framework, based on symbolic execution, for the automated verification of software. The framework uses annotations in the form of method specifications an3 loop invariants. We present a novel iterative technique that uses invariant strengthening and approximation for discovering these loop invariants automatically. The technique handles different types of data (e.g. boolean and numeric constraints, dynamically allocated structures and arrays) and it allows for checking universally quantified formulas. Our framework is built on top of the Java PathFinder model checking toolset and it was used for the verification of several non-trivial Java programs.

  4. Identification of recently active faults and folds in Java, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marliyani, G. I.; Arrowsmith, R.; Helmi, H.

    2013-12-01

    We analyze the spatial pattern of active deformation in Java, Indonesia with the aim of characterizing the deformation of the upper plate of the subduction zone in this region. The lack of detailed neotectonic studies in Java is mostly because of its relatively low rate of deformation in spite of significant historical seismic activity. In addition, the abundance of young volcanic materials as well as the region's high precipitation rate and vegetation cover obscure structural relationships and prevent reliable estimates of offset along active faults as well as exhumed intra-arc faults. Detailed maps of active faults derived from satellite and field-based neotectonic mapping, paleoseismic data, as well as new data on the fault kinematics and estimates of orientation of principal stresses from volcano morphology characterize recently active faults and folds. The structures in West Java are dominated by strike-slip faulting, while Central and northern part of East Java are dominated by folds and thrusting with minor normal faulting. The structures vary in length from hundreds meters to tens of kilometers and mainly trend N75°E, N8°E with some minor N45°W. Our preliminary mapping indicates that there are no large scale continuous structures in Java, and that instead deformation is distributed over wide areas along small structures. We established several paleoseismic sites along some of the identified structures. We excavated two shallow trenches along the Pasuruan fault, a normal fault striking NW-SE that forms a straight 13 km scarp cutting Pleistocene deltaic deposits of the north shore of East Java. The trenches exposed faulted and folded fluvial, alluvial and colluvial strata that record at least four ground-rupturing earthquakes since the Pleistocene. The Pasuruan site proves its potential to provide a paleoseismic record rarely found in Java. Abundant Quaternary volcanoes are emplaced throughout Java; most of the volcanoes show elongation in N100°E and N20

  5. Treatment of pityriasis versicolor with topical application of essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf - therapeutic pilot study*

    PubMed Central

    Carmo, Egberto Santos; Pereira, Fillipe de Oliveira; Cavalcante, Neuza Maria; Gayoso, Carla Wanderley; Lima, Edeltrudes de Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Pityriasis versicolor is a fungal infection caused by Malassezia spp. that has frequent relapses. OBJECTIVES The main objective of this research was to perform phase I and II clinical studies, using formulations containing essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus in patients with pityriasis versicolor. METHODS Phase I study included twenty volunteers to ascertain the safety of the formulations. In phase II, 47 volunteers randomly received essential oil formulations at 1.25 μL/mL concentration, for forty days. The shampoo should be applied three times a week and the cream twice a day. A control group in phase II, consisting of 29 volunteers, received the same formulations but with 2% ketoconazole as the active ingredient. RESULTS No significant adverse events were observed in volunteers during Phase I. In Phase II, 30 (63.83%) volunteers using essential oil and 18 (62.07%) using ketoconazole remained until the end of the study. We observed a predominance of lesions in disseminated form, with M. sympodialis detected as the predominant agent identified in cultures. After 40 days of treatment, the rate of mycological cure was 60% (p <0.05) for the group treated with essential oil of C. citratus and over 80% (p <0.05) for the group treated with ketoconazole formulations. CONCLUSIONS Notwithstanding the safety and antifungal effects observed in this study after application of formulations containing the essential oil of C. citratus, further studies with larger populations should be performed to confirm the actual potential of these formulations in the treatment of patients with Pityriasis versicolor. PMID:23793205

  6. Inhibitory activity of Syzygium aromaticum and Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf. essential oils against Listeria monocytogenes inoculated in bovine ground meat

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Thales Leandro Coutinho; das Graças Cardoso, Maria; de Araújo Soares, Rodrigo; Ramos, Eduardo Mendes; Piccoli, Roberta Hilsdorf; Tebaldi, Victor Maximiliano Reis

    2013-01-01

    This research evaluated the antimicrobial effect of the clove (Syzygium aromaticum) and lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf.) essential oils (EOs) against Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19117 growth added to bovine ground meat stored under refrigeration (5 ± 2 °C) for three days. The EOs, extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), were tested in vitro using an agar well diffusion methodology for determination of Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC). The MIC concentrations for both essential oils on culture tested of L. monocytogenes were 1.56%. The EOs concentrations applied in contaminated ground beef were 1.56, 3.125 and 6.25% (w/v) based on MIC levels and possible activity reductions by food constituents. The bacteria populations were significantly reduced (p ≤ 0.05) after one day of storage in ground meat samples treated with clove and lemongrass EOs at concentrations of 1.56%. There were no significant counts of L. monocytogenes in samples at the other concentrations of the two oils applied after the second day of storage. The sensory acceptability evaluation of the bovine ground meat samples treated with EOs showed that the addition at concentrations higher than 1.56% promote undesirable alterations of taste, odor and characteristic color. The application of EOs at low concentrations in food products can be used in combination with other preservation methods, such as refrigeration, to control pathogens and spoilage bacteria during shelf-life; which goes according to current market trends, where consumers are requesting natural products. PMID:24294222

  7. The use of powder and essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus against mould deterioration and aflatoxin contamination of "egusi" melon seeds.

    PubMed

    Bankole, S A; Joda, A O; Ashidi, J S

    2005-01-01

    Experiments were carried out to determine the potential of using the powder and essential oil from dried ground leaves of Cymbopogon citratus (lemon grass) to control storage deterioration and aflatoxin contamination of melon seeds. Four mould species: Aspergillus flavus, A. niger, A. tamarii and Penicillium citrinum were inoculated in the form of conidia suspension (approx. 10(6) conidia per ml) unto shelled melon seeds. The powdered dry leaves and essential oil from lemon grass were mixed with the inoculated seeds at levels ranging from 1-10 g/100 g seeds and 0.1 to 1.0 ml/100 g seeds respectively. The ground leaves significantly reduced the extent of deterioration in melon seeds inoculated with different fungi compared to the untreated inoculated seeds. The essential oil at 0.1 and 0.25 ml/100 g seeds and ground leaves at 10 g/100 g seeds significantly reduced deterioration and aflatoxin production in shelled melon seeds inoculated with toxigenic A. flavus. At higher dosages (0.5 and 1.0 ml/100 g seeds), the essential oil completely prevented aflatoxin production. After 6 months in farmers' stores, unshelled melon seeds treated with 0.5 ml/ 100 g seeds of essential oil and 10 g/100 g seeds of powdered leaves of C. citratus had significantly lower proportion of visibly diseased seeds and Aspergillus spp. infestation levels and significantly higher seed germination compared to the untreated seeds. The oil content, free fatty acid and peroxide values in seeds protected with essential oil after 6 months did not significantly differ from the values in seeds before storage. The efficacy of the essential oil in preserving the quality of melon seeds in stores was statistically at par with that of fungicide (iprodione) treatment.

  8. Growth Inhibition and Morphological Alterations of Trichophyton Rubrum Induced by Essential oil from Cymbopogon Winterianus Jowitt Ex Bor

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira Pereira, Fillipe; Alves Wanderley, Paulo; Cavalcanti Viana, Fernando Antônio; Baltazar de Lima, Rita; Barbosa de Sousa, Frederico; de Oliveira Lima, Edeltrudes

    2011-01-01

    Trichophyton rubrum is one of the most common fungi causer of dermatophytosis, mycosis that affect humans and animals around the world. Researches aiming new products with antifungal activity become necessary to overcome difficulties on treatment of these infections. Accordingly, this study aimed to investigate the antifungal activity of essential oil from Cymbopogon winterianus against the dermatophyte T. rubrum. The antifungal screening was performed by solid medium diffusion method with 16 T. rubrum strains, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicide concentration (MFC) were determined using the microdilution method. The effects on mycelial dry weight and morphology were also observed. Screening showed essential oil in natura inhibited all the tested strains, with inhibition zones between 24-28 mm diameter. MIC50 and MIC90 values of the essential oil were 312 μg/mL for nearly all the essayed strains (93.75 %) while the MFC50 and MFC90 values were about eight times higher than MIC for all tested strains. All tested essential oil concentrations managed to inhibit strongly the mycelium development. Main morphological changes on the fungal strains observed under light microscopy, which were provided by the essential oil include loss of conidiation, alterations concerning form and pigmentation of hyphae. In the oil presence, colonies showed folds, cream color and slightly darker than the control, pigment production was absent on the reverse and with evident folds. It is concluded that C. winterianus essential oil showed activity against T. rubrum. Therefore, it could be known as potential antifungal compound especially for protection against dermatophytosis. PMID:24031626

  9. Effect of Cymbopogon martinii, Foeniculum vulgare, and Trachyspermum ammi Essential Oils on the Growth and Mycotoxins Production by Aspergillus Species

    PubMed Central

    Woldeamanuel, Yimtubezinash; Asrat, Daniel; Debella, Asfaw

    2014-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate effect of essential oils on Aspergillus spore germination, growth, and mycotoxin production. In vitro antifungal and antiaflatoxigenic activities of Cymbopogon martinii, Foeniculum vulgare, and Trachyspermum ammi essential oils were carried out on toxigenic strains of Aspergillus species. Plant materials were hydrodistilled for 4-5 h in Clevenger apparatus. 0.25 μL/mL, 0.5 μL/mL, 1 μL/mL, 2 μL/mL, and 4 μL/mL concentrations of each essential oil were prepared in 0.1% Tween 80 (V/V). T. ammi oil showed highest antifungal activity. Absolute mycelial inhibition was recorded at 1 μL/mL by essential oils of T. ammi. The oil also showed complete inhibition of spore germination at a concentration of 2 μL/mL. In addition, T. ammi oil showed significant antiaflatoxigenic potency by totally inhibiting toxin production from A. niger and A. flavus at 0.5 and 0.75 μL/mL, respectively. C. martinii, F. vulgare, and T. ammi oils as antifungals were found superior over synthetic preservative. Moreover, a concentration of 5336.297 μL/kg body weight was recorded for LC50 on mice indicating the low mammalian toxicity. In conclusion, the essential oils from T. ammi can be a potential source of safe natural food preservative for food commodities contamination by Aspergillus species. PMID:26904653

  10. Food preservative potential of essential oils and fractions from Cymbopogon citratus, Ocimum gratissimum and Thymus vulgaris against mycotoxigenic fungi.

    PubMed

    Nguefack, J; Dongmo, J B Lekagne; Dakole, C D; Leth, V; Vismer, H F; Torp, J; Guemdjom, E F N; Mbeffo, M; Tamgue, O; Fotio, D; Zollo, P H Amvam; Nkengfack, A E

    2009-05-31

    The food preservative potential of essential oils from three aromatic plants Cymbopogon citratus, Ocimum gratissimum and Thymus vulgaris and their fractions was investigated against two mycotoxigenic strains each of Aspergillus ochraceus, Penicillium expansum and P. verrucosum. The fungicidal activity was determined and expressed as a Number of Decimal Reduction of the colony forming units per ml (NDR cfu). The influence of pH variation on this activity was studied. The NDR cfu varied with the essential oils and its concentration, the pH of the medium and the strain tested. The essential oils from O. gratissimum exhibited the highest activity against the six fungal strains under the three pH tested. T. vulgaris and C. citratus essential oils were less active against the Penicillium species tested and A. ochraceus, respectively. Potassium sorbate did not present any activity at pH 6 and 9. At pH 3, its NDR cfu was the lowest against the six fungal strains. At the same pH and at 4000 ppm, the three essential oils presented a NRD cfu > or = 6 against strains of A. ochraceus and P. expansum. The same result was obtained with T. vulgaris and C. citratus at 8000 ppm against both strains of P. verrucosum. The highest activity of the three essential oils was recorded at pH 3 against A. ochraceus strains and at pH 9 against both species of Penicillium. From the fractionation, three active fractions were obtained each from C. citratus and O. gratissimum, and two active fractions from T. vulgaris. These active fractions exhibited a NDR cfu, two to seven folds higher than that of the complete essential oils.

  11. Protective effects of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus STAPF) essential oil on DNA damage and carcinogenesis in female Balb/C mice.

    PubMed

    Bidinotto, Lucas T; Costa, Celso A R A; Salvadori, Daisy M F; Costa, Mirtes; Rodrigues, Maria A M; Barbisan, Luís F

    2011-08-01

    This study investigated the protective effect of oral treatment with lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus STAPF) essential oil (LGEO) on leukocyte DNA damage induced by N-methyl-N-nitrosurea (MNU). Also, the anticarcinogenic activity of LGEO was investigated in a multi-organ carcinogenesis bioassay induced by 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)antracene, 1,2-dimethylhydrazine and N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxibuthyl)nitrosamine in Balb/C female Balb/c mice (DDB-initiated mice). In the short-term study, the animals were allocated into three groups: vehicle group (negative control), MNU group (positive control) and LGEO 500 mg kg⁻¹ (five times per week for 5 weeks) plus MNU group (test group). Blood samples were collected to analyze leukocyte DNA damage by comet assay 4 h after each MNU application at the end of weeks 3 and 5. The LGEO 500 mg kg⁻¹ treated group showed significantly lower (P < 0.01) leukocyte DNA damage than its respective positive group exposed to MNU alone at week 3. In the medium-term study, DDB-initiated mice were allocated into three groups: vehicle group (positive control) and LGEO 125 or 500 mg kg⁻¹ (five times per week for 6 weeks; test groups). At week 20, all animals were euthanized and mammary glands, colon and urinary bladder were processed for histopathological analyses for detection of preneoplastic and neoplastic lesions. A slight non-significant effect of treatment with LGEO 500 mg kg⁻¹ in reducing development of alveolar and ductal mammary hyperplasia was found (P = 0.075). Our findings indicate that lemongrass essential oil provided protective action against MNU-induced DNA damage and a potential anticarcinogenic activity against mammary carcinogenesis in DDB-initiated female Balb/C mice.

  12. Inhibitory activity of Syzygium aromaticum and Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf. essential oils against Listeria monocytogenes inoculated in bovine ground meat.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Thales Leandro Coutinho; das Graças Cardoso, Maria; de Araújo Soares, Rodrigo; Ramos, Eduardo Mendes; Piccoli, Roberta Hilsdorf; Tebaldi, Victor Maximiliano Reis

    2013-01-01

    This research evaluated the antimicrobial effect of the clove (Syzygium aromaticum) and lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf.) essential oils (EOs) against Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19117 growth added to bovine ground meat stored under refrigeration (5 ± 2 °C) for three days. The EOs, extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), were tested in vitro using an agar well diffusion methodology for determination of Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC). The MIC concentrations for both essential oils on culture tested of L. monocytogenes were 1.56%. The EOs concentrations applied in contaminated ground beef were 1.56, 3.125 and 6.25% (w/v) based on MIC levels and possible activity reductions by food constituents. The bacteria populations were significantly reduced (p ≤ 0.05) after one day of storage in ground meat samples treated with clove and lemongrass EOs at concentrations of 1.56%. There were no significant counts of L. monocytogenes in samples at the other concentrations of the two oils applied after the second day of storage. The sensory acceptability evaluation of the bovine ground meat samples treated with EOs showed that the addition at concentrations higher than 1.56% promote undesirable alterations of taste, odor and characteristic color. The application of EOs at low concentrations in food products can be used in combination with other preservation methods, such as refrigeration, to control pathogens and spoilage bacteria during shelf-life; which goes according to current market trends, where consumers are requesting natural products.

  13. Protective effect of Cymbopogon citratus on hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress in the reproductive system of male rats.

    PubMed

    Rahim, Saleh M; Taha, Ekhlass M; Mubark, Zaid M; Aziz, Salam S; Simon, K D; Mazlan, A G

    2013-12-01

    Cymbopogon citratus (C. citratus) has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and chemoprotective properties. This study was conducted to evaluate the protective effect of C. citratus aqueous extract against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced oxidative stress and injury in the reproductive system of male rats. The twenty-five rats used in this study were divided into five groups, comprised of five rats each. The control group received standard food and drink. The H2O2 group received standard food and water with 0.5% H2O2. The rats in the H2O2 + C. citratus group and H2O2 + vitamin E group received standard food, H2O2, and C. citratus [100 mg·kg(-1) body weight (bw)], or vitamin E as an antioxidant reference (500 mg·kg(-1) bw), respectively. The C. citratus group was given C. citratus (100 mg·kg(-1) bw) in addition to the standard food and drink. The treatments were administered for 30 days. The H2O2 treatment significantly (P < 0.05) decreased body, testicular, and epididymal weight, as well as glutathione (GSH) level, but markedly increased malonaldehyde (MDA) in serum and testes homogenates. The rats treated with H2O2 exhibited testicular degeneration and significant reduction in sperm viability, motility, count, and rate of normal sperm. The C. citratus, vitamin E, and H2O2 treatment significantly (P < 0.05) increased the body, testicular, and epididymal weight, testosterone level, the values of the various sperm characteristics, and GSH. However, this treatment markedly reduced MDA in serum and testes homogenates, as well as testicular histopathological alterations in the H2O2-treated rats. The C. citratus aqueous extract reduced oxidative stress and protected male rats against H2O2-induced reproductive system injury.

  14. Free radical scavengers from Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) stapf plants cultivated in bioreactors by the temporary immersion (TIS) principle.

    PubMed

    Tapia, Alejandro; Cheel, José; Theoduloz, Cristina; Rodríguez, Jaime; Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo; Gerth, Andre; Wilken, Dirk; Jordan, Miguel; Jiménez-González, Elio; Gomez-Kosky, Rafael; Mendoza, Elisa Quiala

    2007-01-01

    The biomass production of Cymbopogon citratus shoots cultivated in bioreactors according to the temporary immersion (TIS) principle was assessed under different growth conditions. The effect of gassing with CO2-enriched air, reduced immersion frequency, vessel size and culture time on total phenolic and flavonoid content and free radical scavenging effect of the methanolic extracts was measured. From the TIS-culture of C. citratus, seven compounds were isolated and identified as caffeic acid (1), chlorogenic acid (2), neochlorogenic acid (3), p-hydroxybenzoic acid (4), p-hydroxybenzoic acid 3-O-beta-D-glucoside (5), glutamic acid (6) and luteolin 6-C-fucopyranoside (7). The occurrence of compounds 1-7 and their variability in C. citratus grown under different TIS conditions was determined by HPLC. The free radical scavenging effect of the methanolic extract and compounds was measured by the discoloration of the free radical 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). The main metabolites in 6- and 8-week-old cultures, both in 5 and 10 1 vessels, were chlorogenic acid (2) (100-113 mg%) and neochlorogenic acid (3) (80-119 mg%), while in the cultures with CO2-enriched air and reduced immersion frequency the main compound detected in the extracts was glutamic acid (6) (400 and 670 mg% for the green and white biomass and 619 and 630 mg% for the green and white biomass, respectively). The most active compounds, as free radical scavengers, in the DPPH discoloration assay were caffeic acid (1), chlorogenic acid (2), neochlorogenic acid (3) and the flavonoid luteolin 6-C-fucopyranoside (7).

  15. Developing Multimedia Courseware for the Internet's Java versus Shockwave.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Majchrzak, Tina L.

    1996-01-01

    Describes and compares two methods for developing multimedia courseware for use on the Internet: an authoring tool called Shockwave, and an object-oriented language called Java. Topics include vector graphics, browsers, interaction with network protocols, data security, multithreading, and computer languages versus development environments. (LRW)

  16. Infrastructure for Rapid Development of Java GUI Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jeremy; Hostetter, Carl F.; Wheeler, Philip

    2006-01-01

    The Java Application Shell (JAS) is a software framework that accelerates the development of Java graphical-user-interface (GUI) application programs by enabling the reuse of common, proven GUI elements, as distinguished from writing custom code for GUI elements. JAS is a software infrastructure upon which Java interactive application programs and graphical user interfaces (GUIs) for those programs can be built as sets of plug-ins. JAS provides an application- programming interface that is extensible by application-specific plugins that describe and encapsulate both specifications of a GUI and application-specific functionality tied to the specified GUI elements. The desired GUI elements are specified in Extensible Markup Language (XML) descriptions instead of in compiled code. JAS reads and interprets these descriptions, then creates and configures a corresponding GUI from a standard set of generic, reusable GUI elements. These elements are then attached (again, according to the XML descriptions) to application-specific compiled code and scripts. An application program constructed by use of JAS as its core can be extended by writing new plug-ins and replacing existing plug-ins. Thus, JAS solves many problems that Java programmers generally solve anew for each project, thereby reducing development and testing time.

  17. Simulation Tools for Power Electronics Courses Based on Java Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canesin, Carlos A.; Goncalves, Flavio A. S.; Sampaio, Leonardo P.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents interactive power electronics educational tools. These interactive tools make use of the benefits of Java language to provide a dynamic and interactive approach to simulating steady-state ideal rectifiers (uncontrolled and controlled; single-phase and three-phase). Additionally, this paper discusses the development and use of…

  18. Teaching Introductory Programming to IS Students: Java Problems and Pitfalls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pendergast, Mark O.

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the impact the use of the Java programming language has had on the way our students learn to program and the success they achieve. The importance of a properly constructed first course in programming cannot be overstated. A course well experienced will leave students with good programming habits, the ability to learn on their…

  19. [A biomedical signal processing toolkit programmed by Java].

    PubMed

    Xie, Haiyuan

    2012-09-01

    According to the biomedical signal characteristics, a new biomedical signal processing toolkit is developed. The toolkit is programmed by Java. It is used in basic digital signal processing, random signal processing and etc. All the methods in toolkit has been tested, the program is robust. The feature of the toolkit is detailed explained, easy use and good practicability.

  20. Distriblets: Java-Based Distributed Computing on the Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finkel, David; Wills, Craig E.; Brennan, Brian; Brennan, Chris

    1999-01-01

    Describes a system for using the World Wide Web to distribute computational tasks to multiple hosts on the Web that is written in Java programming language. Describes the programs written to carry out the load distribution, the structure of a "distriblet" class, and experiences in using this system. (Author/LRW)

  1. JSXGraph--Dynamic Mathematics with JavaScript

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerhauser, Michael; Valentin, Bianca; Wassermann, Alfred

    2010-01-01

    Since Java applets seem to be on the retreat in web application, other approaches for displaying interactive mathematics in the web browser are needed. One such alternative could be our open-source project JSXGraph. It is a cross-browser library for displaying interactive geometry, function plotting, graphs, and data visualization in a web…

  2. Estimation of toxicity using a Java based software tool

    EPA Science Inventory

    A software tool has been developed that will allow a user to estimate the toxicity for a variety of endpoints (such as acute aquatic toxicity). The software tool is coded in Java and can be accessed using a web browser (or alternatively downloaded and ran as a stand alone applic...

  3. Early Supplemental Feeding and Spontaneous Play in West Java, Indonesia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walka, Helen; Pollitt, Ernesto; Triana, Nina; Jahari, Abas B.

    This study examined the effects of nutritional supplements on the duration and level of spontaneous play of 55 mildly to moderately malnourished toddlers living within the tea plantations of West Java, Indonesia. Infants were randomly assigned by their day care centers to one of three supplement groups: (1) energy and micronutrient supplements;…

  4. Strategies for Teaching Object-Oriented Concepts with Java

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sicilia, Miguel-Angel

    2006-01-01

    A considerable amount of experiences in teaching object-oriented concepts using the Java language have been reported to date, some of which describe language pitfalls and concrete learning difficulties. In this paper, a number of additional issues that have been experienced as difficult for students to master, along with approaches intended to…

  5. HEP data analysis using jHepWork and Java.

    SciTech Connect

    Chekanov, S.; High Energy Physics

    2009-03-23

    A role of Java in high-energy physics (HEP) and recent progress in development of a platform-independent data-analysis framework, jHepWork, is discussed. The framework produces professional graphics and has many libraries for data manipulation.

  6. Reconstructing Ontong Java Nui: Implications for Pacific absolute plate motion, hotspot drift and true polar wander

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandler, Michael T.; Wessel, Paul; Taylor, Brian; Seton, Maria; Kim, Seung-Sep; Hyeong, Kiseong

    2012-05-01

    The Taylor (2006) hypothesis suggesting a common origin for the Ontong Java, Manihiki, and Hikurangi large igneous provinces provides an opportunity for a quantitative reconstruction and reassessment of the Ontong Java-Louisville hotspot connection. Our plate tectonic reconstructions of the three plateaus into Ontong Java Nui, or greater Ontong Java, combined with models for Pacific absolute plate motion (APM), allow an analysis of this connection. A new survey of the central Ellice Basin confirms easterly fracture zones, northerly abyssal hill fabric, as well as an area of sigmoidally-southeast-trending fracture zones associated with a late-stage spreading reorientation. From the fracture zone trends we derive new rotation poles for a two-stage model of Ellice Basin opening between the Ontong Java and Manihiki Plateaus. We use these and a single stage pole for separation of the Manihiki and Hikurangi Plateaus, together with three different Pacific APMs, to reconstruct the Ontong Java Nui super plateau back to 123 Ma and compare its predicted location with paleolatitude data obtained from the Ontong Java and Manihiki plateaus. Discrepancies between our Ontong Java Nui reconstructions and Ontong Java and Manihiki paleolatitudes are largest for the fixed Pacific hotspot APM. Assuming a Louisville hotspot source for Ontong Java Nui, remaining disparity between Ontong Java Nui's paleo-location at 123 Ma and published paleomagnetic latitudes for Ontong Java plateau imply that 8°-19° of Louisville hotspot drift or true polar wander may have occurred since the formation of Ontong Java Nui. However, the older portions of the Pacific APMs could easily be biased by a similar amount, making a firm identification of the dominant source of misfit difficult. Prior studies required a combined 26° of hotspot drift, octupole bias effects, and true polar wander just to link the Ontong Java Plateau to Louisville. Consequently, we suggest the super plateau hypothesis and our new

  7. Interactive Learning with Java Applets: Using Interactive, Web-Based Java Applets to Present Science in a Concrete, Meaningful Manner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corder, Greg

    2005-01-01

    Science teachers face challenges that affect the quality of instruction. Tight budgets, limited resources, school schedules, and other obstacles limit students' opportunities to experience science that is visual and interactive. Incorporating web-based Java applets into science instruction offers a practical solution to these challenges. The…

  8. OntoCAT -- simple ontology search and integration in Java, R and REST/JavaScript

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Ontologies have become an essential asset in the bioinformatics toolbox and a number of ontology access resources are now available, for example, the EBI Ontology Lookup Service (OLS) and the NCBO BioPortal. However, these resources differ substantially in mode, ease of access, and ontology content. This makes it relatively difficult to access each ontology source separately, map their contents to research data, and much of this effort is being replicated across different research groups. Results OntoCAT provides a seamless programming interface to query heterogeneous ontology resources including OLS and BioPortal, as well as user-specified local OWL and OBO files. Each resource is wrapped behind easy to learn Java, Bioconductor/R and REST web service commands enabling reuse and integration of ontology software efforts despite variation in technologies. It is also available as a stand-alone MOLGENIS database and a Google App Engine application. Conclusions OntoCAT provides a robust, configurable solution for accessing ontology terms specified locally and from remote services, is available as a stand-alone tool and has been tested thoroughly in the ArrayExpress, MOLGENIS, EFO and Gen2Phen phenotype use cases. Availability http://www.ontocat.org PMID:21619703

  9. A multi-threaded approach to using asynchronous C libraries with Java

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gates, John; Deich, William

    2014-07-01

    It is very common to write device drivers and code that access low level operation system functions in C or C+ +. There are also many powerful C and C++ libraries available for a variety of tasks. Java is a programming language that is meant to be system independent and is arguably much simpler to code than C/C++. However, Java has minimal support for talking to native libraries, which results in interesting challenges when using C/C++ libraries with Java code. Part of the problem is that Java's standard mechanism for communicating with C libraries, Java Native Interface, requires a significant amount of effort to do fairly simple things, such as copy structure data from C to a class in Java. This is largely solved by using the Java Native Access Library, which provides a reasonable way of transferring data between C structures and Java classes and calling C functions from Java. A more serious issue is that there is no mechanism for a C/C++ library loaded by a Java program to call a Java function in the Java program, as this is a major issue with any library that uses callback functions. A solution to this problem was found using a moderate amount of C code and multiple threads in Java. The Keck Task Language API (KTL) is used as a primary means of inter-process communication at Keck and Lick Observatory. KTL is implemented in a series or C libraries and uses callback functions for asynchronous communication. It is a good demonstration of how to use a C library within a Java program.

  10. Essential Oil of Cymbopogon nardus (L.) Rendle: A Strategy to Combat Fungal Infections Caused by Candida Species

    PubMed Central

    De Toledo, Luciani Gaspar; Ramos, Matheus Aparecido Dos Santos; Spósito, Larissa; Castilho, Elza Maria; Pavan, Fernando Rogério; Lopes, Érica De Oliveira; Zocolo, Guilherme Julião; Silva, Francisca Aliny Nunes; Soares, Tigressa Helena; dos Santos, André Gonzaga; Bauab, Taís Maria; De Almeida, Margarete Teresa Gottardo

    2016-01-01

    Background: The incidence of fungal infections, especially those caused by Candida yeasts, has increased over the last two decades. However, the indicated therapy for fungal control has limitations. Hence, medicinal plants have emerged as an alternative in the search for new antifungal agents as they present compounds, such as essential oils, with important biological effects. Published data demonstrate important pharmacological properties of the essential oil of Cymbopogon nardus (L.) Rendle; these include anti-tumor, anti-nociceptive, and antibacterial activities, and so an investigation of this compound against pathogenic fungi is interesting. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the chemical composition and biological potential of essential oil (EO) obtained from the leaves of C. nardus focusing on its antifungal profile against Candida species. Methods: The EO was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Testing of the antifungal potential against standard and clinical strains was performed by determining the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC), time-kill, inhibition of Candida albicans hyphae growth, and inhibition of mature biofilms. Additionally, the cytotoxicity was investigated by the IC50 against HepG-2 (hepatic) and MRC-5 (fibroblast) cell lines. Results: According to the chemical analysis, the main compounds of the EO were the oxygen-containing monoterpenes: citronellal, geranial, geraniol, citronellol, and neral. The results showed important antifungal potential for all strains tested with MIC values ranging from 250 to 1000 μg/mL, except for two clinical isolates of C. tropicalis (MIC > 1000 μg/mL). The time-kill assay showed that the EO inhibited the growth of the yeast and inhibited hyphal formation of C. albicans strains at concentrations ranging from 15.8 to 1000 μg/mL. Inhibition of mature biofilms of strains of C. albicans, C. krusei and C. parapsilosis occurred at a

  11. Chemical Composition and Anti-Candidiasis Mediated Wound Healing Property of Cymbopogon nardus Essential Oil on Chronic Diabetic Wounds

    PubMed Central

    Kandimalla, Raghuram; Kalita, Sanjeeb; Choudhury, Bhaswati; Dash, Suvakanta; Kalita, Kasturi; Kotoky, Jibon

    2016-01-01

    Poor wound healing is one of the major complication of diabetic patients which arises due to different factors like hyperglycemia, oxidative stress, vascular insufficiency and microbial infections. Candidiasis of diabetic wounds is a difficult to treat condition and potentially can lead to organ amputation. There are a few number of medications available in market to treat this chronic condition; which demands for alternative treatment options. In traditional system of medicine like Ayurveda, essential oil extracted from leaves of Cymbopogon nardus L. (Poaceae) has been using for the treatment of microbial infections, inflammation and pain. In this regard, we have evaluated anti-Candida and anti-inflammatory activity mediated wound healing property of C. nardus essential oil (EO-CN) on candidiasis of diabetic wounds. EO-CN was obtained through hydro-distillation and subjected to Gas chromatography–mass spectroscopy (GC–MS) analysis for chemical profiling. Anti-Candida activity of EO-CN was tested against Candida albicans, C. glabrata and C. tropicalis by in vitro zone of inhibition and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assays. Anti-candidiasis ability of EO-CN was evaluated on C. albicans infected diabetic wounds of mice through measuring candida load on the 7th, 14th, and 21st day of treatment. Further progression in wound healing was confirmed by measuring the inflammatory marker levels and histopathology of wounded tissues on last day of EO-CN treatment. A total of 95 compounds were identified through GC–MS analysis, with major compounds like citral, 2,6-octadienal-, 3,7-dimethyl-, geranyl acetate, citronellal, geraniol, and citronellol. In vitro test results demonstrated strong anti-Candida activity of EO-CN with a MIC value of 25 μg/ml against C. albicans, 50 μg/ml against C. glabrata and C. tropicalis. EO-CN treatment resulted in significant reduction of candida load on diabetic wounds. Acceleration in wound healing was indicated by declined

  12. Chemical Composition and Anti-Candidiasis Mediated Wound Healing Property of Cymbopogon nardus Essential Oil on Chronic Diabetic Wounds.

    PubMed

    Kandimalla, Raghuram; Kalita, Sanjeeb; Choudhury, Bhaswati; Dash, Suvakanta; Kalita, Kasturi; Kotoky, Jibon

    2016-01-01

    Poor wound healing is one of the major complication of diabetic patients which arises due to different factors like hyperglycemia, oxidative stress, vascular insufficiency and microbial infections. Candidiasis of diabetic wounds is a difficult to treat condition and potentially can lead to organ amputation. There are a few number of medications available in market to treat this chronic condition; which demands for alternative treatment options. In traditional system of medicine like Ayurveda, essential oil extracted from leaves of Cymbopogon nardus L. (Poaceae) has been using for the treatment of microbial infections, inflammation and pain. In this regard, we have evaluated anti-Candida and anti-inflammatory activity mediated wound healing property of C. nardus essential oil (EO-CN) on candidiasis of diabetic wounds. EO-CN was obtained through hydro-distillation and subjected to Gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) analysis for chemical profiling. Anti-Candida activity of EO-CN was tested against Candida albicans, C. glabrata and C. tropicalis by in vitro zone of inhibition and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assays. Anti-candidiasis ability of EO-CN was evaluated on C. albicans infected diabetic wounds of mice through measuring candida load on the 7th, 14th, and 21st day of treatment. Further progression in wound healing was confirmed by measuring the inflammatory marker levels and histopathology of wounded tissues on last day of EO-CN treatment. A total of 95 compounds were identified through GC-MS analysis, with major compounds like citral, 2,6-octadienal-, 3,7-dimethyl-, geranyl acetate, citronellal, geraniol, and citronellol. In vitro test results demonstrated strong anti-Candida activity of EO-CN with a MIC value of 25 μg/ml against C. albicans, 50 μg/ml against C. glabrata and C. tropicalis. EO-CN treatment resulted in significant reduction of candida load on diabetic wounds. Acceleration in wound healing was indicated by declined levels of

  13. Acaricidal activity of Cymbopogon winterianus, Vitex negundo and Withania somnifera against synthetic pyrethroid resistant Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.

    PubMed

    Singh, Nirbhay Kumar; Jyoti; Vemu, Bhaskar; Nandi, Abhijit; Singh, Harkirat; Kumar, Rajender; Dumka, V K

    2014-01-01

    Detection of resistance levels against cypermethrin and deltamethrin, the most commonly used synthetic pyrethroids (SPs) against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus collected from Moga, Punjab (India) was carried out using larval packet test. Results indicated the presence of resistance of level I and III against cypermethrin (resistance factors (RF) = 4.67) and deltamethrin (RF = 34.2), respectively. Adult immersion test was used to assess the acaricidal activity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of leaves of Cymbopogon winterianus, Vitex negundo, and Withania somnifera along with roots of V. negundo against the SP resistant engorged females of R. (B.) microplus. The efficacy of various extracts was assessed by estimation of percent adult mortality, reproductive index (RI), percent inhibition of oviposition (%IO), and hatching rate. A concentration dependent increase in tick mortality was recorded which was more marked with various ethanolic extracts, and highest mortality was recorded in ticks treated with ethanolic extract of leaves of C. winterianus. The LC50 values were determined by applying regression equation analysis to the probit transformed data of mortality for various aqueous and ethanolic extracts. Acaricidal property was recorded to be higher in ethanolic extracts, and high activity was found with the ethanolic extract of leaves of C. winterianus with LC50 (95% CL) values of 0.46% (0.35-0.59%), followed by W. somnifera as 5.21% (4.45-6.09%) and V. negundo as 7.02% (4.58-10.74%). The egg mass weight of the live ticks treated with different concentrations of the various extract was significantly (p < 0.01) lower than that of control ticks; consequently, the RI and the %IO value of the treated ticks were reduced. Further, complete inhibition of hatching was recorded in eggs laid by ticks treated with ethanolic extracts of leaves of V. negundo and aqueous extracts of leaves of W. somnifera. The results of the current study indicate that extracts of C

  14. Discrimination of consonance and dissonance in Java sparrows.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, S; Uozumi, M; Tanaka, N

    2005-09-30

    Six adult Java sparrows were trained to discriminate between consonant and dissonant sounds consisting of three tones. In the consonance group, the perching response was reinforced when consonance was presented, but not when dissonance was presented. Both groups were given an inversion test, in which the first inversion of the chord was used as a stimulus. Four of six birds learned the discrimination and were given two tests. In the first test, novel consonances and novel dissonances were presented. All birds maintained the discrimination. When inverted consonances and dissonances were presented in the second test, the discriminative behavior was not well demonstrated. When novel dissonances consisting of tones with different intervals were presented in the third test, birds trained to perch for dissonance performed well, whereas those trained to perch for consonance did not. In summary, Java sparrows were able to discriminate between consonances and dissonances and demonstrated generalization to new combinations, they do not discriminate the same consonances and dissonances.

  15. Interface Generation and Compositional Verification in JavaPathfinder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giannakopoulou, Dimitra; Pasareanu, Corina

    2009-01-01

    We present a novel algorithm for interface generation of software components. Given a component, our algorithm uses learning techniques to compute a permissive interface representing legal usage of the component. Unlike our previous work, this algorithm does not require knowledge about the component s environment. Furthermore, in contrast to other related approaches, our algorithm computes permissive interfaces even in the presence of non-determinism in the component. Our algorithm is implemented in the JavaPathfinder model checking framework for UML statechart components. We have also added support for automated assume-guarantee style compositional verification in JavaPathfinder, using component interfaces. We report on the application of the presented approach to the generation of interfaces for flight software components.

  16. Shuttle Data Center File-Processing Tool in Java

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barry, Matthew R.; Miller, Walter H.

    2006-01-01

    A Java-language computer program has been written to facilitate mining of data in files in the Shuttle Data Center (SDC) archives. This program can be executed on a variety of workstations or via Web-browser programs. This program is partly similar to prior C-language programs used for the same purpose, while differing from those programs in that it exploits the platform-neutrality of Java in implementing several features that are important for analysis of large sets of time-series data. The program supports regular expression queries of SDC archive files, reads the files, interleaves the time-stamped samples according to a chosen output, then transforms the results into that format. A user can choose among a variety of output file formats that are useful for diverse purposes, including plotting, Markov modeling, multivariate density estimation, and wavelet multiresolution analysis, as well as for playback of data in support of simulation and testing.

  17. Java-based communication in a High Performance Computing environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fries, A.; de Mora, J. Portell I.; Sirvent, R.

    2011-02-01

    Java is one of the most widely used computer programming languages, however its use in High Performance Computing (HPC) is relatively low. A typical HPC environment consists of a number of multi-core computing nodes, while a typical application running in such an environment will normally contain CPU intensive code that can be executed in parallel. Such an application may require inter-node as well as intra-node communication. Message Passing Interface (MPI) is a language independent specification of an API to allow such communication. MPJExpress (Baker et al. 2006) and F-MPJ (Taboada et al. 2009) are Java-based implementations of MPI, designed with the efficient performance of data transfers as a main objective. In this paper we discuss the scalability of one approach of distributing data to compute nodes in HPC and we propose the design of an alternative data transfer system, building upon MPI.

  18. A High-Availability, Distributed Hardware Control System Using Java

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niessner, Albert F.

    2011-01-01

    Two independent coronagraph experiments that require 24/7 availability with different optical layouts and different motion control requirements are commanded and controlled with the same Java software system executing on many geographically scattered computer systems interconnected via TCP/IP. High availability of a distributed system requires that the computers have a robust communication messaging system making the mix of TCP/IP (a robust transport), and XML (a robust message) a natural choice. XML also adds the configuration flexibility. Java then adds object-oriented paradigms, exception handling, heavily tested libraries, and many third party tools for implementation robustness. The result is a software system that provides users 24/7 access to two diverse experiments with XML files defining the differences

  19. Using Runtime Analysis to Guide Model Checking of Java Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Havelund, Klaus; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes how two runtime analysis algorithms, an existing data race detection algorithm and a new deadlock detection algorithm, have been implemented to analyze Java programs. Runtime analysis is based on the idea of executing the program once. and observing the generated run to extract various kinds of information. This information can then be used to predict whether other different runs may violate some properties of interest, in addition of course to demonstrate whether the generated run itself violates such properties. These runtime analyses can be performed stand-alone to generate a set of warnings. It is furthermore demonstrated how these warnings can be used to guide a model checker, thereby reducing the search space. The described techniques have been implemented in the b e grown Java model checker called PathFinder.

  20. Java PathExplorer: A Runtime Verification Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Havelund, Klaus; Rosu, Grigore; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We describe recent work on designing an environment called Java PathExplorer for monitoring the execution of Java programs. This environment facilitates the testing of execution traces against high level specifications, including temporal logic formulae. In addition, it contains algorithms for detecting classical error patterns in concurrent programs, such as deadlocks and data races. An initial prototype of the tool has been applied to the executive module of the planetary Rover K9, developed at NASA Ames. In this paper we describe the background and motivation for the development of this tool, including comments on how it relates to formal methods tools as well as to traditional testing, and we then present the tool itself.

  1. BioJava: an open-source framework for bioinformatics in 2012

    PubMed Central

    Prlić, Andreas; Yates, Andrew; Bliven, Spencer E.; Rose, Peter W.; Jacobsen, Julius; Troshin, Peter V.; Chapman, Mark; Gao, Jianjiong; Koh, Chuan Hock; Foisy, Sylvain; Holland, Richard; Rimša, Gediminas; Heuer, Michael L.; Brandstätter–Müller, H.; Bourne, Philip E.; Willis, Scooter

    2012-01-01

    Motivation: BioJava is an open-source project for processing of biological data in the Java programming language. We have recently released a new version (3.0.5), which is a major update to the code base that greatly extends its functionality. Results: BioJava now consists of several independent modules that provide state-of-the-art tools for protein structure comparison, pairwise and multiple sequence alignments, working with DNA and protein sequences, analysis of amino acid properties, detection of protein modifications and prediction of disordered regions in proteins as well as parsers for common file formats using a biologically meaningful data model. Availability: BioJava is an open-source project distributed under the Lesser GPL (LGPL). BioJava can be downloaded from the BioJava website (http://www.biojava.org). BioJava requires Java 1.6 or higher. All inquiries should be directed to the BioJava mailing lists. Details are available at http://biojava.org/wiki/BioJava:MailingLists Contact: andreas.prlic@gmail.com PMID:22877863

  2. Inquiry Response Security Issues with CGI Scripting and JAVA Implementations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-03-26

    remote systems. The phf cgi-script is supposed to provide a phone number lookup - service. But specific queries can be sent to it to run arbitrary...Subtitle Inquiry Response Security Issues with CGI Scripting and JAVA Implementations Contract or Grant Number Program Element Number Authors Project... Number Task Number Work Unit Number Performing Organization Name(s) and Address(es) IATAC 8283 Greensboro Drive McLean, VA 22102 Performing

  3. ImageJ: Image processing and analysis in Java

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasband, W. S.

    2012-06-01

    ImageJ is a public domain Java image processing program inspired by NIH Image. It can display, edit, analyze, process, save and print 8-bit, 16-bit and 32-bit images. It can read many image formats including TIFF, GIF, JPEG, BMP, DICOM, FITS and "raw". It supports "stacks", a series of images that share a single window. It is multithreaded, so time-consuming operations such as image file reading can be performed in parallel with other operations.

  4. PrismTech Data Distribution Service Java API Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riggs, Cortney

    2008-01-01

    My internship duties with Launch Control Systems required me to start performance testing of an Object Management Group's (OMG) Data Distribution Service (DDS) specification implementation by PrismTech Limited through the Java programming language application programming interface (API). DDS is a networking middleware for Real-Time Data Distribution. The performance testing involves latency, redundant publishers, extended duration, redundant failover, and read performance. Time constraints allowed only for a data throughput test. I have designed the testing applications to perform all performance tests when time is allowed. Performance evaluation data such as megabits per second and central processing unit (CPU) time consumption were not easily attainable through the Java programming language; they required new methods and classes created in the test applications. Evaluation of this product showed the rate that data can be sent across the network. Performance rates are better on Linux platforms than AIX and Sun platforms. Compared to previous C++ programming language API, the performance evaluation also shows the language differences for the implementation. The Java API of the DDS has a lower throughput performance than the C++ API.

  5. Java-based cryptosystem for PACS and tele-imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tjandra, Donny; Wong, Stephen T. C.; Yu, Yuan-Pin

    1998-07-01

    Traditional PACS systems are based on two-tier client server architectures, and require the use of costly, high-end client workstations for image viewing. Consequently, PACS systems using the two-tier architecture do not scale well as data increases in size and complexity. Furthermore, use of dedicated viewing workstations incurs costs in deployment and maintenance. To address these issues, the use of digital library technologies, such as the World Wide Web, Java, and CORBA, is being explored to distribute PACS data to serve a broader range of healthcare providers in an economic and efficient manner. Integration of PACS systems with digital library technologies allows access to medical information through open networks such as the Internet. However, use of open networks to transmit medical data introduces problems with maintaining privacy and integrity of patient information. Cryptography and digital timestamping is used to protect sensitive information from unauthorized access or tampering. A major concern when using cryptography and digital timestamping is the performance degradation associated with the mathematical calculations needed to encrypt/decrypt an image dataset, or to calculate the hash value of an image. The performance issue is compounded by the extra layer associated with the CORBA middleware, and the use of programming languages interpreted at the client side, such as Java. This paper study the extent to which Java-based cryptography and digital timestamping affects performance in a PACS system integrated with digital library technologies.

  6. Investigation of upper crustal structure beneath eastern Java

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martha, Agustya Adi; Widiyantoro, Sri; Cummnins, Phil; Saygin, Erdinc; Masturyono

    2016-05-01

    The complexity of geology structure in eastern Java causes this region has many potential resources as much as the disasters. Therefore, the East Java province represents an interesting area to be explored, especially regarding its upper crustal structure. To investigate this structure, we employ the Ambient Noise Tomography (ANT) method. We have used seismic waveform data from 25 Meteorological, Climatological and Geophysical Agency (BMKG) stationary seismographic stations and 26 portable seismographs installed for 2 to 8 weeks. Inter-station cross-correlation produces more than 800 Rayleigh wave components, which depict the structure beneath eastern Java. Based on the checkerboard resolution test, we found that the optimal grid size is 0.25ox0.25o. Our inversion results for the periods of 1 to 10 s indicate a good agreement with geological and Bouguer anomaly maps. Rembang high depression, most of the southern mountains zone, the northern part of Rembang zone and the central part of the Madura Island, the area of high gravity anomaly and areas dominated with igneous rocks are associated with high velocity zones. On the other hand, Kendeng zone and most of the basin in the Rembang zone are associated with low velocity zones.

  7. Women's status and child survival in West Java, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Widayatun

    1991-03-01

    This study is introduced by a literature review of the concept of women's status, and related factors that determine infant and child mortality. Women's status is primarily defined by education, occupation and economic activity, which affect women's decision-making in the home and their independence in larger society. Cluster analysis was used to identify geographical patterns of standardized women's status variables among 20 regencies and 4 municipalities in West Java. Euclidian distances were computed between pairs of regencies across the 13 indicators. Pearson's correlations and multiple regression were used to compare associations between women's status variables and infant and child mortality, after controlling for economic development. Using data from the 1980 census, the study demonstrated large regional variations in women's status in West Java, with higher status in both the household and in society in the south and central highlands than in the north and west. Women's status is closely related to infant and child mortality, independent of the level of development. There was 1 notable exception, the municipality of Bogor, where infant and child mortality were higher than average rates for the cluster of areas with higher women's status. The results suggest that improved education, and increase in age at 1st marriage are key elements for improving the status of women in West Java.

  8. Ambient Noise Tomography of central Java, with Transdimensional Bayesian Inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zulhan, Zulfakriza; Saygin, Erdinc; Cummins, Phil; Widiyantoro, Sri; Nugraha, Andri Dian; Luehr, Birger-G.; Bodin, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Delineating the crustal structure of central Java is crucial for understanding its complex tectonic setting. However, seismic imaging of the strong heterogeneity typical of such a tectonically active region can be challenging, particularly in the upper crust where velocity contrasts are strongest and steep body wave ray-paths provide poor resolution. We have applied ambient noise cross correlation of pair stations in central Java, Indonesia by using the MERapi Amphibious EXperiment (MERAMEX) dataset. The data were collected between May to October 2004. We used 120 of 134 temporary seismic stations for about 150 days of observation, which covered central Java. More than 5000 Rayleigh wave Green's function were extracted by cross-correlating the noise simultaneously recorded at available station pairs. We applied a fully nonlinear 2D Bayesian inversion technique to the retrieved travel times. Features in the derived tomographic images correlate well with previous studies, and some shallow structures that were not evident in previous studies are clearly imaged with Ambient Noise Tomography. The Kendeng Basin and several active volcanoes appear with very low group velocities, and anomalies with relatively high velocities can be interpreted in terms of crustal sutures and/or surface geological features.

  9. Trace and Essential Elements Analysis in Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf Samples by Graphite Furnace-Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy and Its Health Concern

    PubMed Central

    Anal, Jasha Momo H.

    2014-01-01

    Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf commonly known as lemon grass is used extensively as green tea and even as herbal tea ingredient across the world. Plants have the ability to uptake metals as nutrient from the soil and its environment which are so essential for their physiological and biochemical growth. Concentrations of these twelve trace elements, namely, Mg, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Mo, As, Cd, and Pb, are analysed by graphite furnace-atomic absorption spectroscopy (GF-AAS) and are compared with the permissible limits of FAO/WHO, ICMR, and NIH, USA, which are found to be within permissible limits. Toxic metals like As, Cd, and Pb, analysed are within the tolerable daily diet limit and at low concentration. PMID:25525430

  10. Scientific validation of synergistic antioxidant effects in commercialised mixtures of Cymbopogon citratus and Pterospartum tridentatum or Gomphrena globosa for infusions preparation.

    PubMed

    Roriz, Custódio Lobo; Barros, Lillian; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2015-10-15

    Pterospartum tridentatum (L.) Willk., Gomphrena globosa L. and Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf. are examples of medicinal plants with antioxidant properties on their own, but that can be improved when mixed. In the present work, the antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds were determined in the infusions prepared from the individual plants, and from mixtures of these plants in different proportions. P. tridentatum > C. citratus > G. globosa was the order observed for antioxidant efficacy, which can be related to their different composition in phenolic compounds. Synergism was the main effect observed among the tested mixtures, mainly for the infusions prepared from the plants in proportion 40%:60% (either P. tridentatum and C. citratus; or G. globosa and C. citratus). The infusion obtained with 40% of P. tridentatum and 60% of C. citratus gave the highest antioxidant properties. The present study validates the commercialisation of the studied plants combined in specific proportions.

  11. Trace and Essential Elements Analysis in Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf Samples by Graphite Furnace-Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy and Its Health Concern.

    PubMed

    Anal, Jasha Momo H

    2014-01-01

    Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf commonly known as lemon grass is used extensively as green tea and even as herbal tea ingredient across the world. Plants have the ability to uptake metals as nutrient from the soil and its environment which are so essential for their physiological and biochemical growth. Concentrations of these twelve trace elements, namely, Mg, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Mo, As, Cd, and Pb, are analysed by graphite furnace-atomic absorption spectroscopy (GF-AAS) and are compared with the permissible limits of FAO/WHO, ICMR, and NIH, USA, which are found to be within permissible limits. Toxic metals like As, Cd, and Pb, analysed are within the tolerable daily diet limit and at low concentration.

  12. Conversion of natural aldehydes from Eucalyptus citriodora, Cymbopogon citratus, and Lippia multiflora into oximes: GC-MS and FT-IR analysis.

    PubMed

    Ouédraogo, Igor W; Boulvin, Michael; Flammang, Robert; Gerbaux, Pascal; Bonzi-Coulibaly, Yvonne L

    2009-08-31

    Three carbonyl-containing extracts of essential oils from Eucalyptus citriodora (Myrtaceae), Cymbopogon citratus (Gramineae) and Lippia multiflora (Verbenaceae) were used for the preparation of oximes. The reaction mixtures were analyzed by GC-MS and different compounds were identified on the basis of their retention times and mass spectra. We observed quantitative conversion of aldehydes to their corresponding oximes with a purity of 95 to 99%. E and Z stereoisomers of the oximes were obtained and separated by GC-MS. During GC analysis, the high temperature in the injector was shown to cause partial dehydratation of oximes and the resulting nitriles were readily identified. Based on FT-IR spectroscopy, that revealed the high stability and low volatility of these compounds, the so-obtained oximes could be useful for future biological studies.

  13. Conversion of the agent-oriented domain-specific language ALAS into JavaScript

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sredojević, Dejan; Vidaković, Milan; Okanović, Dušan; Mitrović, Dejan; Ivanović, Mirjana

    2016-06-01

    This paper shows generation of JavaScript code from code written in agent-oriented domain-specific language ALAS. ALAS is an agent-oriented domain-specific language for writing software agents that are executed within XJAF middleware. Since the agents can be executed on various platforms, they must be converted into a language of the target platform. We also try to utilize existing tools and technologies to make the whole conversion process as simple as possible, as well as faster and more efficient. We use the Xtext framework that is compatible with Java to implement ALAS infrastructure - editor and code generator. Since Xtext supports Java, generation of Java code from ALAS code is straightforward. To generate a JavaScript code that will be executed within the target JavaScript XJAF implementation, Google Web Toolkit (GWT) is used.

  14. Access Control of Web- and Java-Based Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tso, Kam S.; Pajevski, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Cybersecurity has become a great concern as threats of service interruption, unauthorized access, stealing and altering of information, and spreading of viruses have become more prevalent and serious. Application layer access control of applications is a critical component in the overall security solution that also includes encryption, firewalls, virtual private networks, antivirus, and intrusion detection. An access control solution, based on an open-source access manager augmented with custom software components, was developed to provide protection to both Web-based and Javabased client and server applications. The DISA Security Service (DISA-SS) provides common access control capabilities for AMMOS software applications through a set of application programming interfaces (APIs) and network- accessible security services for authentication, single sign-on, authorization checking, and authorization policy management. The OpenAM access management technology designed for Web applications can be extended to meet the needs of Java thick clients and stand alone servers that are commonly used in the JPL AMMOS environment. The DISA-SS reusable components have greatly reduced the effort for each AMMOS subsystem to develop its own access control strategy. The novelty of this work is that it leverages an open-source access management product that was designed for Webbased applications to provide access control for Java thick clients and Java standalone servers. Thick clients and standalone servers are still commonly used in businesses and government, especially for applications that require rich graphical user interfaces and high-performance visualization that cannot be met by thin clients running on Web browsers

  15. The importance of Java and CORBA in medicine.

    PubMed

    Forslund, D W; Cook, J L

    1997-01-01

    One of the most powerful tools available for telemedicine is a multimedia medical record accessible over a wide area and simultaneously editable by multiple physicians. The ability to do this through an intuitive interface linking multiple distributed data repositories while maintaining full data integrity is a fundamental enabling technology in healthcare. We discuss the role of distributed object technology using Java and CORBA in providing this capability including an example of such a system (TeleMed) which can be accessed through the World Wide Web. Issues of security, scalability, data integrity, and usability are emphasized.

  16. Simulium (Gomphostilbia) merapiense sp. nov. (Diptera: Simuliidae) from Java, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Takaoka, Hiroyuki; Sofian-Azirun, Mohd; Ya'cob, Zubaidah; Chen, Chee Dhang; Low, Van Lun; Zaid, Adnan

    2016-01-01

    Simulium (Gomphostilbia) merapiense sp. nov. is described based on females, males, pupae, and mature larvae from Yagyakarta, Java, Indonesia. This new species is placed in the Simulium epistum species-group, and is characterized by the pupal gill with eight short filaments all arising at the same level from a short stalk, somewhat enlarged basal fenestra, entirely bare pupal head and thoracic integument, and small and short larval postgenal cleft. These characters rarely are found in the subgenus. Taxonomic notes are given to separate this new species from related species of the S. epistum species-group.

  17. Java-based Open Platform for distributed health telematics applications.

    PubMed

    Hoepner, Petra; Eckert, Klaus-Peter

    2003-01-01

    Within the European HARP project, a Java-based Open Platform has been specified and implemented to support trustworthy distributed applications for health. Emphasis was put on security services for enabling both communication and application security. The Open Platform is Web-based and comprises the Client environment, Web/Application server, as well as Database and Archive servers. Servlets composed and executed according to the user's authorisation create signed XML messages. From those messages, user-role-related applets are generated. The technical details of the realisation are presented. Possible future enhancements for user-centric, adaptable services based on next-generation mobile service environments are outlined.

  18. Java Image I/O for VICAR, PDS, and ISIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deen, Robert G.; Levoe, Steven R.

    2011-01-01

    This library, written in Java, supports input and output of images and metadata (labels) in the VICAR, PDS image, and ISIS-2 and ISIS-3 file formats. Three levels of access exist. The first level comprises the low-level, direct access to the file. This allows an application to read and write specific image tiles, lines, or pixels and to manipulate the label data directly. This layer is analogous to the C-language "VICAR Run-Time Library" (RTL), which is the image I/O library for the (C/C++/Fortran) VICAR image processing system from JPL MIPL (Multimission Image Processing Lab). This low-level library can also be used to read and write labeled, uncompressed images stored in formats similar to VICAR, such as ISIS-2 and -3, and a subset of PDS (image format). The second level of access involves two codecs based on Java Advanced Imaging (JAI) to provide access to VICAR and PDS images in a file-format-independent manner. JAI is supplied by Sun Microsystems as an extension to desktop Java, and has a number of codecs for formats such as GIF, TIFF, JPEG, etc. Although Sun has deprecated the codec mechanism (replaced by IIO), it is still used in many places. The VICAR and PDS codecs allow any program written using the JAI codec spec to use VICAR or PDS images automatically, with no specific knowledge of the VICAR or PDS formats. Support for metadata (labels) is included, but is format-dependent. The PDS codec, when processing PDS images with an embedded VIAR label ("dual-labeled images," such as used for MER), presents the VICAR label in a new way that is compatible with the VICAR codec. The third level of access involves VICAR, PDS, and ISIS Image I/O plugins. The Java core includes an "Image I/O" (IIO) package that is similar in concept to the JAI codec, but is newer and more capable. Applications written to the IIO specification can use any image format for which a plug-in exists, with no specific knowledge of the format itself.

  19. Type Discovery for Parameterized Race-Free Java

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-12-10

    benchmarks in [vPG01]. The last three programs (moldyn, raytracer and montecarlo ) are part of the Java Grande Forum Benchmark Suite, available at http...hedc 7072 206 31 10 2 3 jgfutil 376 10 0 0 0 0 Barrier classes 134 3 2 0 0 1 moldyn 730 91 7 5 0 0 raytracer 1308 61 2 1 1 0 montecarlo 3198 94 26 3 0...raytracer, moldyn and montecarlo use the jgfutil package that provides a Timer for measuring program execution time and an Instrumentor for manipulating

  20. Soft Volcanic Sediments Compound 2006 Java Earthquake Disaster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, Thomas R.; Lühr, Birger; Sobiesiak, Monika; Grosser, Helmut; Wang, Rongjiang; Parolai, Stefano; Wetzel, Hans-Ulrich; Zschau, Jochen; Milkereit, Claus; Günther, Erwin; Wassermann, Jo; Behr, Yannik; Anggraini, Ade; Brotopuspito, Kirbani Sri; Harjadi, Prih

    2007-11-01

    When the region south of Mount Merapi volcano in central Java, Indonesia, was struck by a magnitude 6.4 earthquake, the city of Yogyakarta and its suburbs were partly devastated. The event caused severe damage to the densely inhabited area, leaving about 6000 people dead, 50,000 injured, and between 500,000 and 1 million homeless. With over 155,000 houses totally destroyed and 200,000 damaged, more houses were affected in this earthquake area than in Aceh and Nias after the earthquake-tsunami disasters of 26 December 2004 and 28 March 2005 combined [United Nations, 2006].

  1. Seismicity of the Earth 1900-2012 Java and vicinity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, Eric S.; Hayes, Gavin P.; Bernardino, Melissa; Dannemann, Fransiska K.; Furlong, Kevin P.; Benz, Harley M.; Villaseñor, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    The Sunda convergent margin extends for 5,600 km from the Bay of Bengal and the Andaman Sea, both located northwest of the map area, towards the island of Sumba in the southeast, and then continues eastward as the Banda arc system. This tectonically active margin is a result of the India and Australia plates converging with and subducting beneath the Sunda plate at a rate of approximately 50 to 70 mm/yr. The main physiographic feature associated with this convergent margin is the Sunda-Java Trench, which stretches for 3,000 km parallel to the Java and Sumatra land masses and terminates at 120° E. The convergence of the Indo-Australia and Sunda plates produces two active volcanic arcs: Sunda, which extends from 105 to 122° E and Banda, which extends from 122 to 128° E. The Sunda arc results solely from relatively simple oceanic plate subduction, while the Banda arc represents the transition from oceanic subduction to continental collision, where a complex, broad deforming zone is found. Based on modern activity, the Banda arc can be divided into three distinct zones: an inactive section, the Wetar Zone, bound by two active segments, the Flores Zone in the west and the Damar Zone in the east. The lack of volcanism in the Wetar Zone is attributed to the collision of Australia with the Sunda plate. The absence of gap in volcanic activity is underlain by a gap in intermediate depth seismicity, which is in contrast to nearly continuous, deep seismicity below all three sections of the arc. The Flores Zone is characterized by down-dip compression in the subducted slab at intermediate depths and late Quaternary uplift of the forearc. These unusual features, along with GPS data interpretations indicate that the Flores Zone marks the transition between subduction of oceanic crust in the west and the collision of continental crust in the east. The Java section of the Sunda arc is considered relatively aseismic historically when compared to the highly seismically active

  2. Developing Interactive Educational Engineering Software for the World Wide Web with Java.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, John A.; Afjeh, Abdollah A.

    1998-01-01

    Illustrates the design and implementation of a Java applet for use in educational propulsion engineering curricula. The Java Gas Turbine Simulator applet provides an interactive graphical environment which allows the rapid, efficient construction and analysis of arbitrary gas turbine systems. The simulator can be easily accessed from the World…

  3. Processes in KaffeOS: Isolation, Resource Management, and Sharing in Java

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-04-01

    general-purpose models for managing resources in Java exist, such as the J-Kernel [21] or Echidna [19]. However, these solutions super- impose an...editors, Proc. of WebNet ’97, pp. 33–38, October 1997. [19] L. Gorrie. Echidna — a free multiprocess system in Java. http://www.javagroup.org/ echidna

  4. An Investigation of Factors Related to Self-Efficacy for Java Programming among Engineering Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Askar, Petek; Davenport, David

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the factors related to self-efficacy for Java programming among first year engineering students. An instrument assessing Java programming self-efficacy was developed from the computer programming self-efficacy scale of Ramalingam & Wiedenbeck. The instrument was administered at the beginning of the…

  5. Java across Different Curricula, Courses and Countries Using a Common Pool of Teaching Material

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivanovic, Mirjana; Budimac, Zoran; Mishev, Anastas; Bothe, Klaus; Jurca, Ioan

    2013-01-01

    Under the auspices of a DAAD funded educational project, a subproject devoted to different aspects of teaching the Java programming language started several years ago. The initial intention of the subproject was to attract members of the subproject to prepare some teaching materials for teaching essentials of the Java programming language. During…

  6. Collaborative Scheduling Using JMS in a Mixed Java and .NET Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Yeou-Fang; Wax, Allan; Lam, Ray; Baldwin, John; Borden, Chet

    2006-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation to demonstrate collaborative scheduling using Java Message Service (JMS) in a mixed Java and .Net environment is given. The topics include: 1) NASA Deep Space Network scheduling; 2) Collaborative scheduling concept; 3) Distributed computing environment; 4) Platform concerns in a distributed environment; 5) Messaging and data synchronization; and 6) The prototype.

  7. JPLEX: Java Simplex Implementation with Branch-and-Bound Search for Automated Test Assembly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Ryoungsun; Kim, Jiseon; Dodd, Barbara G.; Chung, Hyewon

    2011-01-01

    JPLEX, short for Java simPLEX, is an automated test assembly (ATA) program. It is a mixed integer linear programming (MILP) solver written in Java. It reads in a configuration file, solves the minimization problem, and produces an output file for postprocessing. It implements the simplex algorithm to create a fully relaxed solution and…

  8. Mobile SCALe: Rules and Analysis for Secure Java and Android Coding

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-11-01

    Implementation We used the Soot Java analysis framework [Vallée-Rai 1999, Sable 2012, Einarsson 2008]. Soot provides a suite of static analysis...Engineering). Addison-Wesley Professional, 2013 (ISBN 978-0-321-93315-7). [ Sable 2012] Sable Research Group. Soot: A Java Optimization Framework, v

  9. Study on Design and Implementation of JAVA Programming Procedural Assessment Standard

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tingting, Xu; Hua, Ma; Xiujuan, Wang; Jing, Wang

    2015-01-01

    The traditional JAVA course examination is just a list of questions from which we cannot know students' skills of programming. According to the eight abilities in curriculum objectives, we designed an assessment standard of JAVA programming course that is based on employment orientation and apply it to practical teaching to check the teaching…

  10. Developing Educational Materials in Java: A Report from the Front Lines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurtz, Barry; O'Neal, Michael

    This paper describes the use of Java to develop a variety of educational materials to supplement both traditional instruction and Internet-based instruction. Efforts have focused on three projects that vary in course level, content, and style of interaction. Unlike the simple Java applets on the Web, these are very sophisticated simulation…

  11. Enhancing Web applications in radiology with Java: estimating MR imaging relaxation times.

    PubMed

    Dagher, A P; Fitzpatrick, M; Flanders, A E; Eng, J

    1998-01-01

    Java is a relatively new programming language that has been used to develop a World Wide Web-based tool for estimating magnetic resonance (MR) imaging relaxation times, thereby demonstrating how Java may be used for Web-based radiology applications beyond improving the user interface of teaching files. A standard processing algorithm coded with Java is downloaded along with the hypertext markup language (HTML) document. The user (client) selects the desired pulse sequence and inputs data obtained from a region of interest on the MR images. The algorithm is used to modify selected MR imaging parameters in an equation that models the phenomenon being evaluated. MR imaging relaxation times are estimated, and confidence intervals and a P value expressing the accuracy of the final results are calculated. Design features such as simplicity, object-oriented programming, and security restrictions allow Java to expand the capabilities of HTML by offering a more versatile user interface that includes dynamic annotations and graphics. Java also allows the client to perform more sophisticated information processing and computation than is usually associated with Web applications. Java is likely to become a standard programming option, and the development of stand-alone Java applications may become more common as Java is integrated into future versions of computer operating systems.

  12. An evaluation of Java's I/O capabilities for high-performance computing.

    SciTech Connect

    Dickens, P. M.; Thakur, R.

    2000-11-10

    Java is quickly becoming the preferred language for writing distributed applications because of its inherent support for programming on distributed platforms. In particular, Java provides compile-time and run-time security, automatic garbage collection, inherent support for multithreading, support for persistent objects and object migration, and portability. Given these significant advantages of Java, there is a growing interest in using Java for high-performance computing applications. To be successful in the high-performance computing domain, however, Java must have the capability to efficiently handle the significant I/O requirements commonly found in high-performance computing applications. While there has been significant research in high-performance I/O using languages such as C, C++, and Fortran, there has been relatively little research into the I/O capabilities of Java. In this paper, we evaluate the I/O capabilities of Java for high-performance computing. We examine several approaches that attempt to provide high-performance I/O--many of which are not obvious at first glance--and investigate their performance in both parallel and multithreaded environments. We also provide suggestions for expanding the I/O capabilities of Java to better support the needs of high-performance computing applications.

  13. Implementing a Java Based GUI for RICH Detector Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lendacky, Andrew; Voloshin, Andrew; Benmokhtar, Fatiha

    2016-09-01

    The CLAS12 detector at Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF) is undergoing an upgrade. One of the improvements is the addition of a Ring Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) detector to improve particle identification in the 3-8 GeV/c momentum range. Approximately 400 multi anode photomultiplier tubes (MAPMTs) are going to be used to detect Cherenkov Radiation in the single photoelectron spectra (SPS). The SPS of each pixel of all MAPMTs have been fitted to a mathematical model of roughly 45 parameters for 4 HVs, 3 OD. Out of those parameters, 9 can be used to evaluate the PMTs performance and placement in the detector. To help analyze data when the RICH is operational, a GUI application was written in Java using Swing and detector packages from TJNAF. To store and retrieve the data, a MySQL database program was written in Java using the JDBC package. Using the database, the GUI pulls the values and produces histograms and graphs for a selected PMT at a specific HV and OD. The GUI will allow researchers to easily view a PMT's performance and efficiency to help with data analysis and ring reconstruction when the RICH is finished.

  14. Prevalence and Risk Factors for Toxoplasmosis in Middle Java, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Retmanasari, Annisa; Widartono, Barandi Sapta; Wijayanti, Mahardika Agus; Artama, Wayan Tunas

    2017-03-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a zoonosis caused by Toxoplasma gondii. Risk factors include consumption of undercooked meat, raw vegetables, and unfiltered water. This study aims to determine the seroprevalence and spatial distribution of toxoplasmosis in Middle Java, Indonesia, using an EcoHealth approach, combined with geographic information system (GIS). A total of 630 participants were randomly selected from seven districts. Each participant completed a questionnaire and provided a blood sample. The seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis was 62.5%. Of those who were seropositive, 90.1% were IgG+, and 9.9% were IgG+ and IgM+. Several risk factors were identified, including living at elevations of ≤200 m, compared with >200 m (OR = 56.2; P < 0.001), daily contact with raw meat (OR = 1.8; P = 0.001), unfiltered water (OR = 1.7; P = 0.003), and density of cats (OR = 1.4; P = 0.045). Visualizing the spatial distribution of seropositive respondents highlighted clustering in lowland areas. This study highlighted that Middle Java has a high prevalence of toxoplasmosis and identified some important environmental, ecological, and demographic risk factors. When researching diseases, such as toxoplasmosis, where animal hosts, human lifestyle, and environmental factors are involved in transmission, an EcoHealth method is essential to ensure a fully collaborative approach to developing interventions to reduce the risk of transmission in high-risk populations.

  15. JavaScript DNA translator: DNA-aligned protein translations.

    PubMed

    Perry, William L

    2002-12-01

    There are many instances in molecular biology when it is necessary to identify ORFs in a DNA sequence. While programs exist for displaying protein translations in multiple ORFs in alignment with a DNA sequence, they are often expensive, exist as add-ons to software that must be purchased, or are only compatible with a particular operating system. JavaScript DNA Translator is a shareware application written in JavaScript, a scripting language interpreted by the Netscape Communicator and Internet Explorer Web browsers, which makes it compatible with several different operating systems. While the program uses a familiar Web page interface, it requires no connection to the Internet since calculations are performed on the user's own computer. The program analyzes one or multiple DNA sequences and generates translations in up to six reading frames aligned to a DNA sequence, in addition to displaying translations as separate sequences in FASTA format. ORFs within a reading frame can also be displayed as separate sequences. Flexible formatting options are provided, including the ability to hide ORFs below a minimum size specified by the user. The program is available free of charge at the BioTechniques Software Library (www.Biotechniques.com).

  16. Towards a Certified Lightweight Array Bound Checker for Java Bytecode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pichardie, David

    2009-01-01

    Dynamic array bound checks are crucial elements for the security of a Java Virtual Machines. These dynamic checks are however expensive and several static analysis techniques have been proposed to eliminate explicit bounds checks. Such analyses require advanced numerical and symbolic manipulations that 1) penalize bytecode loading or dynamic compilation, 2) complexify the trusted computing base. Following the Foundational Proof Carrying Code methodology, our goal is to provide a lightweight bytecode verifier for eliminating array bound checks that is both efficient and trustable. In this work, we define a generic relational program analysis for an imperative, stackoriented byte code language with procedures, arrays and global variables and instantiate it with a relational abstract domain as polyhedra. The analysis has automatic inference of loop invariants and method pre-/post-conditions, and efficient checking of analysis results by a simple checker. Invariants, which can be large, can be specialized for proving a safety policy using an automatic pruning technique which reduces their size. The result of the analysis can be checked efficiently by annotating the program with parts of the invariant together with certificates of polyhedral inclusions. The resulting checker is sufficiently simple to be entirely certified within the Coq proof assistant for a simple fragment of the Java bytecode language. During the talk, we will also report on our ongoing effort to scale this approach for the full sequential JVM.

  17. JAva GUi for Applied Research (JAGUAR) v 3.0

    SciTech Connect

    2013-09-09

    JAGUAR is a Java software tool for automatically rendering a graphical user interface (GUI) from a structured input specification. It is designed as a plug-in to the Eclipse workbench to enable users to create, edit, and externally execute analysis application input decks and then view the results. JAGUAR serves as a GUI for Sandia's DAKOTA software toolkit for optimization and uncertainty quantification. It will include problem (input deck)set-up, option specification, analysis execution, and results visualization. Through the use of wizards, templates, and views, JAGUAR helps uses navigate the complexity of DAKOTA's complete input specification. JAGUAR is implemented in Java, leveraging Eclipse extension points and Eclipse user interface. JAGUAR parses a DAKOTA NIDR input specification and presents the user with linked graphical and plain text representations of problem set-up and option specification for DAKOTA studies. After the data has been input by the user, JAGUAR generates one or more input files for DAKOTA, executes DAKOTA, and captures and interprets the results

  18. Tertiary Magmatism on the Early Cretaceous Ontong Java Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coffin, M. F.; Inoue, H.; Mochizuki, K.; Nakamura, Y.; Kroenke, L.

    2008-12-01

    The Ontong Java Plateau (OJP) in the western equatorial Pacific is the largest flood basalt province, or large igneous province (LIP), known in the oceans. Although the bulk of the OJP is believed to have formed in Early Cretaceous time, ca. 122 Ma, ca, 90 Ma basalts have also been recovered from the OJP and obducted OJP sections in the Solomon Islands. Still younger igneous rock is found in the Solomon Islands (Tejada et al., 1996), and the submarine plateau is itself surmounted by atolls, seamounts, and other features of presumed igneous origin, for which age data are lacking. To investigate this apparently younger igneous activity on the OJP itself, we have identified submarine lava flows and/or a volcaniclastic apron around Tauu Atoll on the southwestern OJP using seismic reflection data. Through stratigraphic correlation with Deep Sea Drilling Project and Ocean Drilling Program sites, we interpret the age of the igneous activity that created Tauu Atoll to be Middle Eocene to Miocene. Through similar seismic identification and stratigraphic correlation, we interpret an Oligocene to Miocene age for three hydrothermal vents in the central OJP. On the northwestern margin of the OJP, an unnamed seamount likely represents impingement of the much younger Caroline hotspot with the OJP. More seismic reflection and/or drilling data will be required to date Ontong Java Atoll, one of the largest atolls on the globe, as well as the many other atolls and seamounts surmounting the OJP.

  19. Fringe—A Java-based finite fringe analysis package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McIntyre, Timothy J.; Bishop, Alexis I.

    2012-09-01

    A package for analysing two-dimensional finite fringe interferograms is described. Through a combination of automatic and interactive routines, an interferogram can be processed to extract the phase shift imparted on the recording light by a transparent object. The package consists of routines to condition and pad the original image for Fourier transform analysis, to filter the image and obtain the phase, to unwrap the phase, and to remove the background phase ramp. A sample image recorded using holographic interferometry is successfully analysed. Program summary Program title: FRINGE Catalogue identifier: AEMM_v1_0 Program summary URL: http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEMM_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 134006 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 4029801 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Java. Computer: Personal Computers. Operating system: Mac OS X, Windows XP, Linux and any other system that can run Java Jar files. RAM: 1GB recommended Classification: 18. Nature of problem: A standalone multi-platform program to perform analysis of finite fringe interferograms. Solution method: Fourier filtering approach with phase unwrapping and background subtraction. Restrictions: Designed to analyse square images. Running time: Interactive processing takes several minutes. Minimal cpu time.

  20. Event Reconstruction for Many-core Architectures using Java

    SciTech Connect

    Graf, Norman A.; /SLAC

    2012-04-19

    Although Moore's Law remains technically valid, the performance enhancements in computing which traditionally resulted from increased CPU speeds ended years ago. Chip manufacturers have chosen to increase the number of core CPUs per chip instead of increasing clock speed. Unfortunately, these extra CPUs do not automatically result in improvements in simulation or reconstruction times. To take advantage of this extra computing power requires changing how software is written. Event reconstruction is globally serial, in the sense that raw data has to be unpacked first, channels have to be clustered to produce hits before those hits are identified as belonging to a track or shower, tracks have to be found and fit before they are vertexed, etc. However, many of the individual procedures along the reconstruction chain are intrinsically independent and are perfect candidates for optimization using multi-core architecture. Threading is perhaps the simplest approach to parallelizing a program and Java includes a powerful threading facility built into the language. We have developed a fast and flexible reconstruction package (org.lcsim) written in Java that has been used for numerous physics and detector optimization studies. In this paper we present the results of our studies on optimizing the performance of this toolkit using multiple threads on many-core architectures.

  1. Copper, zinc and cadmium in benthic organisms from the Java Sea and estuarine and coastal areas around East Java

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Everaarts, J. M.; Boon, J. P.; Kastoro, W.; Fischer, C. V.; Razak, H.; Sumanta, I.

    A study was made of the concentrations of copper, zinc and cadmium in benthic organisms, representing the phyla Mollusca, Arthropoda, Echinodermata and Pisces, from the riverine and estuarine areas of the rivers Brantas and Solo (East Java) and the adjacent coastal area. Moreover, an assessment was made of the contamination of the benthic biota with these elements in the Java Sea and Bali Sea. Benthic organisms show a species-specific uptake pattern for each element. Compared to the same type of animals from estuaries and coastal areas in temperate regions of western Europe, the concentrations of cadmium are considerably higher, while copper and zinc concentrations are somewhat lower. There is no general trend in concentration levels of the metals in specimens from rivers, estuaries, coastal zone and open sea. In some groups of organisms ( e.g. shrimp, starfish) the concentrations of copper and zinc are highest in specimens from rivers and estuaries. In contrast, cadmium concentration levels in e.g. crab, shrimp and squid are lowest in riverine and estuarine areas. Significant differences in metal concentrations in these organisms were found between the dry monsoon period (July, August) and the beginning of the wet monsoon (November, December). No relationship existed between the metal concentration of the organisms and the silt fraction of the sediment (grain size < 63 μm) or the bulk sediment.

  2. Tectonic Control of Piercement Structures in Central Java, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzini, A.; Hadi, S.; Etiope, G.; Inguaggiato, S.

    2014-12-01

    A recent field expedition in Central Java targeted the mapping and sampling of several piercements structures in central Java (Indonesia), most of which have never been documented before. Here, at least seven structures erupting mud water and gas are distributed along a NE-SW alignment that extends for about 10 kilometers. Some of the mapped structures (Bledug Kuwu, Bledug Cangkring Krabagan, Mendikil, Banjarsari, Krewek) have been named after the neighboring local village. None of these have obvious elevation despite the vigorous emission of gas and mud, suggesting that significant caldera collapse is ongoing. Among the most relevant: Bledug Kuwu is certainly the most impressive structure with three main eruption sites in the crater area bursting more than 5 m large hot mud bubbles. Similar characteristics are present at the smaller (200 m in diameter) Bledug Cangkring Krabagan, that is also surrounded by numerous pools and gryphons seeping around the main crater. The smaller sized Mendikil is the only visited structure that, at the moment of the sampling, did not show seepage of hot fluids. Banjarsari and Krewek (up to 200 m wide) are characterized by scattered hot water-dominated pools where gas is vented vigorously. In particular the hot pools are systematically covered by travertine concretions. Water and gas geochemisty confirms the seepage of CO2 dominated gas and water with hydrothermal signature. The investigated structures appear to follow an obvious NE-SW oriented lineament that most likely coincides with a tectonic structure (fault?) that controls their location. Indeed the field observations and the analyses suggest that likely scenario is that this fault (?) acts as a preferential pathway for the expulsion of hydrothermal fluids to the surface. Very little is known about this region, neither is known why several of these structures erupt hot mud despite their significant distance from the two closest volcanic structures (i.e. Mt. Muria 60 km to the NW

  3. Prevalence of antibodies to Japanese encephalitis virus among pigs in Bali and East Java, Indonesia, 2008.

    PubMed

    Yamanaka, Atsushi; Mulyatno, Kris Cahyo; Susilowati, Helen; Hendrianto, Eryk; Utsumi, Takako; Amin, Mochamad; Lusida, Maria Inge; Soegijanto, Soegeng; Konishi, Eiji

    2010-01-01

    Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a fatal disease in Asia. Pigs are considered to be the effective amplifying host for JEV in the peridomestic environment. Bali Island and Java Island in Indonesia provide a model to assess the effect of pigs on JEV transmission, since the pig density is nearly 100-fold higher in Bali than Java, while the geographic and climatologic environments are equivalent in these areas. We surveyed antibodies to JEV among 123 pigs in Mengwi (Bali) and 96 pigs in Tulungagung (East Java) in 2008 by the hemagglutination-inhibition (HAI) test. Overall prevalences were 49% in Bali and 6% in Java, with a significant difference between them (P < 0.001). Monthly infection rates estimated from age-dependent antibody prevalences were 11% in Bali and 2% in Java. In addition, 2-mercaptoethanol-sensitive antibodies were found only from Bali samples. Further, the average HAI antibody titer obtained from positive samples was significantly higher in Bali (1:52) than Java (1:10; P < 0.001). These results indicated that JEV transmission in nature is more active in Bali than East Java.

  4. Image2000: A Free, Innovative, Java Based Imaging Package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pell, Nicholas; Wheeler, Phil; Cornwell, Carl; Matusow, David; Obenschain, Arthur F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center's (GSFC) Scientific and Educational Endeavors (SEE) and the Center for Image Processing in Education (CIPE) use satellite image processing as part of their science lessons developed for students and educators. The image processing products that they use, as part of these lessons, no longer fulfill the needs of SEE and CIPE because these products are either dependent on a particular computing platform, hard to customize and extend, or do not have enough functionality. SEE and CIPE began looking for what they considered the "perfect" image processing tool that was platform independent, rich in functionality and could easily be extended and customized for their purposes. At the request of SEE, NASA's GSFC, code 588 the Advanced Architectures and Automation Branch developed a powerful new Java based image processing endeavors.

  5. A knowledge discovery object model API for Java

    PubMed Central

    Zuyderduyn, Scott D; Jones, Steven JM

    2003-01-01

    Background Biological data resources have become heterogeneous and derive from multiple sources. This introduces challenges in the management and utilization of this data in software development. Although efforts are underway to create a standard format for the transmission and storage of biological data, this objective has yet to be fully realized. Results This work describes an application programming interface (API) that provides a framework for developing an effective biological knowledge ontology for Java-based software projects. The API provides a robust framework for the data acquisition and management needs of an ontology implementation. In addition, the API contains classes to assist in creating GUIs to represent this data visually. Conclusions The Knowledge Discovery Object Model (KDOM) API is particularly useful for medium to large applications, or for a number of smaller software projects with common characteristics or objectives. KDOM can be coupled effectively with other biologically relevant APIs and classes. Source code, libraries, documentation and examples are available at . PMID:14583100

  6. Java, Image Browsing, and the NCSA Astronomy Digital Image Library

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plante, R. L.; Goscha, D.

    We review our experience, including some lessons learned, with using Java to create data browsing tools for use with the Astronomy Digital Image Library (ADIL) and related digital library projects at NCSA\\@. We give an overview of our Image Data Browser, a generalized tool under development through a collaboration with the NCSA/NASA Project Horizon in support of access to earth and space science data. Emphasis has been placed on a design that can support a variety of data formats and applications both within and outside of astronomy. ADIL will use this tool in a variety of guises to browse and download images from the Library's collection. We see such a tool filling an important niche as a pipeline from a data repository to specialized, native data analysis software (e.g., IRAF, AIPS).

  7. Risk analysis of landslide disaster in Ponorogo, East Java, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koesuma, S.; Saido, A. P.; Fukuda, Y.

    2016-11-01

    Ponorogo is one of regency in South-West of East Java Province, Indonesia, where located in subduction zone between Eurasia and Australia plate tectonics. It has a lot of mountain area which is disaster-prone area for landslide. We have collected landslide data in 305 villages in Ponorogo and make it to be Hazards Index. Then we also calculate Vulnerability Index, Economic Loss index, Environmental Damage Index and Capacity Index. The risk analysis map is composed of three components H (Hazards), V (Vulnerability, Economic Loss index, Environmental Damage Index) and C (Capacity Index). The method is based on regulations of National Disaster Management Authority (BNPB) number 02/2012 and number 03/2012. It has three classes of risk index, i.e. Low, Medium and High. Ponorogo city has a medium landslide risk index.

  8. The complete mitochondrial genome of Java warty pig (Sus verrucosus).

    PubMed

    Fan, Jie; Li, Chun-Hong; Shi, Wei

    2015-06-01

    In the present study, the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the Java warty pig was reported for the first time. The total length of the mitogenome was 16,479 bp. It contained the typical structure, including 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and 1 non-coding control region (D-loop region) as that of most other pigs. The overall composition of the mitogenome was estimated to be 34.9% for A, 26.1% for T, 26.0% for C and 13.0% for G showing an A-T (61.0%)-rich feature. The mitochondrial genome analyzed here will provide new genetic resource to uncover pigs' evolution.

  9. Access Control of Web and Java Based Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tso, Kam S.; Pajevski, Michael J.; Johnson, Bryan

    2011-01-01

    Cyber security has gained national and international attention as a result of near continuous headlines from financial institutions, retail stores, government offices and universities reporting compromised systems and stolen data. Concerns continue to rise as threats of service interruption, and spreading of viruses become ever more prevalent and serious. Controlling access to application layer resources is a critical component in a layered security solution that includes encryption, firewalls, virtual private networks, antivirus, and intrusion detection. In this paper we discuss the development of an application-level access control solution, based on an open-source access manager augmented with custom software components, to provide protection to both Web-based and Java-based client and server applications.

  10. Teaching smartphone and microcontroller systems using "Android Java"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tigrek, Seyitriza

    Mobile devices are becoming indispensable tools for many students and educators. Mobile technology is starting a new era in the computing methodologies in many engineering disciplines and laboratories. Microcontroller extension that communicates with mobile devices will take the data acquisition and control process into a new level in the sensing technology and communication. The purpose of this thesis is to develop a framework to incorporate the new mobile platform with robust embedded systems into the engineering curriculum. For this purpose a course material is developed "Introduction to Programming Java on a Mobile Platform" to teach novice programmers how to create applications, specifically on Android. Combining an introductory level programming class with the Android platform can appeal to non-programming individuals in multiple disciplines. The proposed course curriculum reduces the learning time, and allows senior engineering students to use the new framework for their specific needs in the labs such as mobile data acquisition and control projects. This work provides techniques for instructors with modest programming background to teach cutting edge technology, which is smartphone programming. Techniques developed in this work minimize unnecessary information carried into current teaching approaches with hands-on practice. It also helps the students with minimal background requirements overcome the barriers that have evolved around computer programming. The motivation of this thesis is to create a tailored programming introductory course to teach Java programming on Android by incorporating selected efficient methods from extant literature. The mechanism proposed in this thesis is to keep students motivated by an active approach based on student-centered learning with collaborative work. Teamwork through pair programming is adapted in this teaching process. Bloom's taxonomy, along with a knowledge survey, is used as a guide to classify the information and

  11. Activity of Ocimum basilicum, Ocimum canum, and Cymbopogon citratus essential oils against Plasmodium falciparum and mature-stage larvae of Anopheles funestus s.s.

    PubMed

    Akono Ntonga, Patrick; Baldovini, Nicolas; Mouray, Elisabeth; Mambu, Lengo; Belong, Philippe; Grellier, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    The biological activities of essential oils from three plants grown in Cameroon: Ocimum basilicum, Ocimum canum, and Cymbopogon citratus were tested against Plasmodium falciparum and mature-stage larvae of Anopheles funestus. Gas chromatography and gas chromatography - mass spectrometry analyses showed that the main compounds are geranial, 1,8-cineole and linalool in C. citratus, O. canum and O. basilicum, respectively. Larvicidal tests carried out according to the protocol recommended by the World Health Organization showed that the essential oil of leaves of C. citratus is the most active against larvae of An. funestus (LC50 values = 35.5 ppm and 34.6 ppm, respectively, for larval stages III and IV after 6 h of exposure). Besides, the in vitro anti-plasmodial activity evaluated by the radioisotopic method showed that the C. citratus oil is the most active against P. falciparum, with an IC50 value of 4.2 ± 0.5 μg/mL compared with O. canum (20.6 ± 3.4 μg/mL) and O. basilicum (21 ± 4.6 μg/mL). These essential oils can be recommended for the development of natural biocides for fighting the larvae of malaria vectors and for the isolation of natural products with anti-malarial activity.

  12. Effects of essential oils from Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf., Lippia sidoides Cham., and Ocimum gratissimum L. on growth and ultrastructure of Leishmania chagasi promastigotes.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Valéria C S; Moura, Daniela M S; Lopes, José A D; de Andrade, Paulo P; da Silva, Nicácio H; Figueiredo, Regina C B Q

    2009-04-01

    The current therapy for leishmaniasis, which affects annually about 2 million people, is far from satisfactory. All available drugs require parenteral administration and are potentially toxic. Plant essential oils have been traditionally used in folk medicine and appear as valuable alternative source for chemotherapeutic compounds. In this study, we demonstrated the effect of essential oils from Cymbopogon citratus, Lippia sidoides, and Ocimum gratissimum on growth and ultrastructure of Leishmania chagasi promastigote forms. Steam distillation was used to isolate the essential oils, and their constituents were characterized by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance. All essential oils showed in vitro inhibitory action on L. chagasi promastigotes growth in a dose-dependent way, with IC(50)/72 h of 45, 89, and 75 microg/mL for C. citratus, L. sidoides, and O. gratissimum, respectively. Drastic morphological alterations were observed in all essential oil-treated parasites, including cell swelling, accumulation of lipid droplets in the cytoplasm, and increase of acidocalcisome volume. Furthermore, aberrant-shaped cells with multi-septate body were observed by scanning electron microscopy, suggesting an additional effect on cytokinesis. Taken together, our data show that these essential oils affect the parasite viability being the C. citratus essential oil the most effective against L. chagasi.

  13. Assessment of Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) stapf essential oil as herbal preservatives based on antifungal, antiaflatoxin, and antiochratoxin activities and in vivo efficacy during storage.

    PubMed

    Sonker, Nivedita; Pandey, Abhay K; Singh, Pooja; Tripathi, N N

    2014-04-01

    Thirty-five randomly collected samples of stored table grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) from different markets of Gorakhpur city, Uttar Pradesh, India, revealed occurrence of 11 types of fungi. Of which, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, and Aspergillus ochraceus were dominant causing severe decay of grapes with 58%, 52%, and 67% incidence, respectively. On screening of 15 essential oils at 0.33 μL/mL, Cymbopogon citratus oil caused 100% mycelial inhibition against aforesaid dominant fungi. Oil was fungistatic at 0.29 μL/mL and exhibited broad fungitoxicity against other fruit rotting fungi associated with collected samples. C. citratus oil completely inhibited the growth and mycotoxin (AFB1 and OTA) secretion of the aflatoxigenic and ochratoxigenic strains of A. flavus, A. niger, and A. ochraceus at 0.8 μL/mL. E-Citral (52.9%) and Z-Citral (39.38%) were the major components of C. citratus oil during gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. Application of 200 and 300 μL of C. citratus oil on 1 kg of stored grapes showed enhancement of shelf life up to 10 d. The oil did not exhibit any phytotoxic effect on fruits. These results confirm that C. citratus oil could be a natural alternative to commercial fungicide for control of fruit rotting fungi of stored grapes.

  14. Growth of Cymbopogon citratus and Vetiveria zizanioides on Cu mine tailings amended with chicken manure and manure-soil mixtures: a pot scale study.

    PubMed

    Das, Manab; Maiti, Subodh Kumar

    2009-01-01

    The Rakha Cu mines are located at East Singhbhum, Jharkhand, India and their activities ceased in 2001. The tailings (residue) were permanently stored in tailings ponds that require vegetation to reduce their impact on the environment. A pot scale study was conducted to evaluate the suitability of Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Ex Nees and Vetiveria zizanioides (L) Nash for the reclamation of Cu tailings and to evaluate the effects of chicken manure and soil-manure mixtures on the revegetation of such tailings. Application of manure and soil-manure mixtures resulted in significant increase in pH, EC, OC, CEC and nutritional status of Cu tailings. The environmentally available and DTPA extractable Cu and Ni concentration reduced in amended tailings, while Mn and Zn content increased significantly. Plants grown on amended tailings accumulated lesser Cu and Ni but higher Mn and Zn. Plant biomass increased proportionally to manure and soil-manure mixtures application rates. Lemon grass produced more biomass than vetiver grass in either of the amended tailings. From the pot experiment, it can be suggested that application of chicken manure @ 5% (w/w) and in combination with lemon grass, could be a viable option for reclamation (phytostabilization) of toxic tailings.

  15. Angolan Cymbopogon citratus used for therapeutic benefits: nutritional composition and influence of solvents in phytochemicals content and antioxidant activity of leaf extracts.

    PubMed

    Soares, Marta O; Alves, Rita C; Pires, Pedro C; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P; Vinha, Ana F

    2013-10-01

    Folk medicine is a relevant and effective part of indigenous healthcare systems which are, in practice, totally dependent on traditional healers. An outstanding coincidence between indigenous medicinal plant uses and scientifically proved pharmacological properties of several phytochemicals has been observed along the years. This work focused on the leaves of a medicinal plant traditionally used for therapeutic benefits (Angolan Cymbopogon citratus), in order to evaluate their nutritional value. The bioactive phytochemical composition and antioxidant activity of leaf extracts prepared with different solvents (water, methanol and ethanol) were also evaluated. The plant leaves contained ∼60% of carbohydrates, protein (∼20%), fat (∼5%), ash (∼4%) and moisture (∼9%). The phytochemicals screening revealed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, and terpenoids in all extracts. Methanolic extracts also contained alkaloids and steroids. Several methods were used to evaluate total antioxidant capacity of the different extracts (DPPH·, NO·, and H₂O₂ scavenging assays, reducing power, and FRAP). Ethanolic extracts presented a significantly higher antioxidant activity (p<0.05) except for FRAP, in which the best results were achieved by the aqueous extracts. Methanolic extracts showed the lowest radical scavenging activities for both DPPH· and NO· radicals.

  16. In vitro and in vivo antifungal activity of essential oils of Cymbopogon martini and Chenopodium ambrosioides and their synergism against dermatophytes.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Chandra Shekhar; Shukla, Ravindra; Kumar, Ashok; Dubey, N K

    2010-03-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the antifungal efficacy of essential oils (EO) of Cymbopogon martini, Chenopodium ambrosioides and of their combination against dermatophytes and some filamentous fungi in vitro as well as in vivo using a guinea pig model. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of EOs and of their combination were found between 150 and 500 ppm, while those of known antifungal drugs ranged from 1000 to 5500 ppm. EO ointments were prepared and applied against induced ringworm in guinea pig model and disease removal was observed in 7-21 days, and the hair samples showed negative results for fungal culture in a time-dependent manner after the application of EO ointments. Chemical constituents of EOs were determined by GC-MS. Both the EOs and their combination displayed strong antifungal effects. The results provide a scientific validation for the use of these EOs in the treatment of dermatophyte infections and may be recommended as an alternative to synthetic drug for topical application.

  17. Preparation, Characterization, and Pharmacological Activity of Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt ex Bor (Poaceae) Leaf Essential Oil of β-Cyclodextrin Inclusion Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Priscila L.; Araújo, Adriano A. S.; Quintans, Jullyana S. S.; Oliveira, Makson G. B.; Brito, Renan G.; Serafini, Mairim R.; Menezes, Paula P.; Santos, Marcio R. V.; Alves, Pericles B.; de Lucca Júnior, Waldecy; Blank, Arie F.; La Rocca, Viviana; Almeida, Reinaldo N.; Quintans-Júnior, Lucindo J.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the orofacial antinociceptive effect of the Cymbopogon winterianus essential oil (LEO) complexed in β-cyclodextrin (LEO-CD) and to assess the possible involvement of the central nervous system (CNS). The LEO was extracted, chromatographed, and complexed in β-cyclodextrin. The complex was characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetry derivative (TG/DTG). Male Swiss mice (2-3 months) were treated with LEO-CD (50–200 mg/kg, p.o.), vehicle (distilled water, p.o.), or standard drug (i.p.) and subjected to the orofacial nociception formalin-, capsaicin-, and glutamate-induced. After the formalin test, the animals were perfused and the brains subjected to immunofluorescence for Fos. The rota-rod test (7 rpm/min) was carried out. Geraniol (37.57%) was the main compound of LEO. DSC and TG/DTG proved the complexation. The orofacial nociceptive behavior was significantly (p < 0.05) reduced. The number of Fos-positive cells was significantly changed in the dorsal raphe nucleus (p < 0.01), locus coeruleus (p < 0.001), trigeminal nucleus (p < 0.05), and trigeminal thalamic tract (p < 0.05). LEO-CD did not cause changes in motor coordination in the rota-rod test. Thus, our results suggested that LEO-CD has an orofacial antinociceptive profile, probably mediated by the activation of the CNS without changing the motor coordination. PMID:26246838

  18. Preparation, Characterization, and Pharmacological Activity of Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt ex Bor (Poaceae) Leaf Essential Oil of β-Cyclodextrin Inclusion Complexes.

    PubMed

    Santos, Priscila L; Araújo, Adriano A S; Quintans, Jullyana S S; Oliveira, Makson G B; Brito, Renan G; Serafini, Mairim R; Menezes, Paula P; Santos, Marcio R V; Alves, Pericles B; de Lucca Júnior, Waldecy; Blank, Arie F; La Rocca, Viviana; Almeida, Reinaldo N; Quintans-Júnior, Lucindo J

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the orofacial antinociceptive effect of the Cymbopogon winterianus essential oil (LEO) complexed in β-cyclodextrin (LEO-CD) and to assess the possible involvement of the central nervous system (CNS). The LEO was extracted, chromatographed, and complexed in β-cyclodextrin. The complex was characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetry derivative (TG/DTG). Male Swiss mice (2-3 months) were treated with LEO-CD (50-200 mg/kg, p.o.), vehicle (distilled water, p.o.), or standard drug (i.p.) and subjected to the orofacial nociception formalin-, capsaicin-, and glutamate-induced. After the formalin test, the animals were perfused and the brains subjected to immunofluorescence for Fos. The rota-rod test (7 rpm/min) was carried out. Geraniol (37.57%) was the main compound of LEO. DSC and TG/DTG proved the complexation. The orofacial nociceptive behavior was significantly (p < 0.05) reduced. The number of Fos-positive cells was significantly changed in the dorsal raphe nucleus (p < 0.01), locus coeruleus (p < 0.001), trigeminal nucleus (p < 0.05), and trigeminal thalamic tract (p < 0.05). LEO-CD did not cause changes in motor coordination in the rota-rod test. Thus, our results suggested that LEO-CD has an orofacial antinociceptive profile, probably mediated by the activation of the CNS without changing the motor coordination.

  19. Activity of Ocimum basilicum, Ocimum canum, and Cymbopogon citratus essential oils against Plasmodium falciparum and mature-stage larvae of Anopheles funestus s.s.

    PubMed Central

    Akono Ntonga, Patrick; Baldovini, Nicolas; Mouray, Elisabeth; Mambu, Lengo; Belong, Philippe; Grellier, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    The biological activities of essential oils from three plants grown in Cameroon: Ocimum basilicum, Ocimum canum, and Cymbopogon citratus were tested against Plasmodium falciparum and mature-stage larvae of Anopheles funestus. Gas chromatography and gas chromatography – mass spectrometry analyses showed that the main compounds are geranial, 1,8-cineole and linalool in C. citratus, O. canum and O. basilicum, respectively. Larvicidal tests carried out according to the protocol recommended by the World Health Organization showed that the essential oil of leaves of C. citratus is the most active against larvae of An. funestus (LC50 values = 35.5 ppm and 34.6 ppm, respectively, for larval stages III and IV after 6 h of exposure). Besides, the in vitro anti-plasmodial activity evaluated by the radioisotopic method showed that the C. citratus oil is the most active against P. falciparum, with an IC50 value of 4.2 ± 0.5 μg/mL compared with O. canum (20.6 ± 3.4 μg/mL) and O. basilicum (21 ± 4.6 μg/mL). These essential oils can be recommended for the development of natural biocides for fighting the larvae of malaria vectors and for the isolation of natural products with anti-malarial activity. PMID:24995776

  20. Effect of Organic Manures on the Growth of Cymbopogon citratus and Chrysopogon zizanioides for the Phytoremediation of Chromite-Asbestos Mine Waste: A Pot Scale Experiment.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Adarsh; Maiti, Subodh Kumar

    2015-01-01

    The abandoned chromite-asbestos mines are located in the Roro hills, West Singhbhum, Jharkhand, India, where mining operation ceased in 1983, and since then these mines are causing environmental pollution. The present study was planned to phytoremediate these metalloid and metal contaminated mine waste by using two aromatic grasses, Cymbopogon citratus and Chrysopogon zizanioides by applying different proportions of amendments (chicken manure, farmyard manure and garden soil). Mine waste has neutral pH, low electrical conductivity and organic carbon with higher concentration of total metals (Cr and Ni) as compared to soil. Application of manures resulted significant improvements of mine waste characteristics and plant growth, reduction in the availability of total extractable toxic metals (Cr, Ni) and increase in Mn, Zn and Cu concentration in the substrate. The maximum growth and biomass production for C. citratus and C. zizanioides were found in T-IV combination comprising of mine waste (90%), chicken manure (2.5%), farmyard manure (2.5%) and garden soil (5%). Addition of T-IV combination also resulted in low Cr and Ni accumulation in roots and reduction in translocation to shoots. Study indicates that C. citratus and C. zizanioides can be used for phytostabilization of abandoned chromite-asbestos mine waste with amendments.

  1. Cholesterol reduction and lack of genotoxic or toxic effects in mice after repeated 21-day oral intake of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) essential oil.

    PubMed

    Costa, Celso A R A; Bidinotto, Lucas T; Takahira, Regina K; Salvadori, Daisy M F; Barbisan, Luís F; Costa, Mirtes

    2011-09-01

    Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass) is currently used in traditional folk medicine. Although this species presents widespread use, there are no scientific data on its efficacy or safety after repeated treatments. Therefore, this work investigated the toxicity and genotoxicity of this lemongrass's essential oil (EO) in male Swiss mice. The single LD(50) based on a 24h acute oral toxicity study was found to be around 3500 mg/kg. In a repeated-dose 21-day oral toxicity study, mice were randomly assigned to two control groups, saline- or Tween 80 0.01%-treated groups, or one of the three experimental groups receiving lemongrass EO (1, 10 or 100mg/kg). No significant changes in gross pathology, body weight, absolute or relative organ weights, histology (brain, heart, kidneys, liver, lungs, stomach, spleen and urinary bladder), urinalysis or clinical biochemistry were observed in EO-treated mice relative to the control groups. Additionally, blood cholesterol was reduced after EO-treatment at the highest dose tested. Similarly, data from the comet assay in peripheral blood cells showed no genotoxic effect from the EO. In conclusion, our findings verified the safety of lemongrass intake at the doses used in folk medicine and indicated the beneficial effect of reducing the blood cholesterol level.

  2. Monoterpenic aldehydes as potential anti-Leishmania agents: activity of Cymbopogon citratus and citral on L. infantum, L. tropica and L. major.

    PubMed

    Machado, M; Pires, P; Dinis, A M; Santos-Rosa, M; Alves, V; Salgueiro, L; Cavaleiro, C; Sousa, M C

    2012-03-01

    In order to contribute for the search of new drugs for leishmaniasis, we study the susceptibility of Leishmania infantum, Leishmania tropica and Leishmania major to Cymbopogon citratus essential oil and major compounds, mrycene and citral. C. citratus and citral were the most active inhibiting L. infantum, L. tropica and L. major growth at IC(50) concentrations ranging from 25 to 52 μg/ml and from 34 to 42 μg/ml, respectively. L. infantum promastigotes exposed to essential oil and citral underwent considerable ultrastructural alterations, namely mitochondrial and kinetoplast swelling, autophagosomal structures, disruption of nuclear membrane and nuclear chromatin condensation. C. citratus essential oil and citral promoted the leishmanicidal effect by triggering a programmed cell death. In fact, the leishmanicidal activity was mediated via apoptosis as evidenced by externalization of phosphatidylserine, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, and cell-cycle arrest at the G(0)/G(1) phase. Taken together, ours findings lead us to propose that citral was responsible for anti-Leishmania activity of the C. citratus and both may represent a valuable source for therapeutic control of leishmaniasis.

  3. Effect of Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass) and Syzygium aromaticum (clove) oils on the morphology and mortality of Aedes aegypti and Anopheles dirus larvae.

    PubMed

    Soonwera, Mayura; Phasomkusolsil, Siriporn

    2016-04-01

    Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass) and Syzygium aromaticum (clove) oils were evaluated to determine mortality rates, morphological aberrations, and persistence when used against third and fourth larval instars of Aedes aegypti and Anopheles dirus. The oils were evaluated at 1, 5, and 10 % concentrations in mixtures with soybean oil. Persistence of higher concentrations was measured over a period of 10 days. For Ae. aegypti, both plant oils caused various morphological aberrations to include deformed larvae, incomplete eclosion, white pupae, deformed pupae, dead normal pupae, and incomplete pupal eclosion. All of these aberrations led to larval mortality. In Ae. aegypti larvae, there were no significant differences in mortality at days 1, 5, and 10 or between third and fourth larval instar exposure. In An. dirus, morphological aberrations were rare and S. aromaticum oil was more effective in causing mortality among all larval stages. Both oils were equally effective at producing mortality on days 1, 5, and 10. Both oils had slightly increased LT50 rates from day 1 to day 10. In conclusion, both lemongrass and clove oils have significant effects on the immature stages of Ae. aegypti and An. dirus and could potentially be developed for use as larvicides.

  4. Suppression of oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory mediators by Cymbopogon citratus D. Stapf extract in lipopolysaccharide stimulated murine alveolar macrophages.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, M; Dwivedi, U N; Kakkar, P

    2010-10-01

    Exploration of antioxidants of plant origin and their scientific validation for their immense pharmacological potential is emerging as an issue of intense research now-a-days.The effect of Cymbopogon citratus extract was seen on cell viability, oxidative stress markers i.e. ROS production, SOD activity, lipid peroxidation and GSH content of murine alveolar macrophages stressed with lipopolysaccharide. Modulation in release of NO and pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α along with alterations in mitochondrial membrane potential under stress were compared with known plant derived antioxidant quercetin. The extract was not found to be cytotoxic at any of the selected doses. At 5 and 10 μg the extract showed significant increase in SOD activity, GSH content (p<0.001), decrease in ROS production as seen by fluorescent dye DCFH-DA and also MDA formation (lipid peroxidation marker) significantly. The extract also showed reduction in the release of pro-inflammatory mediators TNF-α and NO significantly indicating an anti-inflammatory effect. The extract was able to restore mitochondrial membrane potential as estimated by spectrofluorimetry using the fluorescent dye Rhodamine 123. The results suggest potential use of the cytoprotective, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory property of C. citratus in the form of dietary component and also in formulations against lung inflammatory diseases where oxidative stress plays an important role.

  5. Preventive efficacy of hydroalcoholic extract of Cymbopogon citratus against radiation-induced DNA damage on V79 cells and free radical scavenging ability against radicals generated in vitro.

    PubMed

    Rao, B S S; Shanbhoge, R; Rao, B N; Adiga, S K; Upadhya, D; Aithal, B K; Kumar, M R S

    2009-04-01

    This study presents the findings of free radical scavenging and antigenotoxic effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Cymbopogon citratus (CCE). The CCE at a concentration of 60 microg/mL resulted in a significant scavenging ability of 2,2-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH; (85%), 2,2-azinobis (3-ethyl benzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS; 77%), hydroxyl (70%), superoxide (76%), nitric oxide (78%) free radicals generated using in vitro and also a moderate anti-lipid peroxidative effect (57%). Further, the radiation-induced antigenotoxic potential of CCE was assessed in Chinese hamster lung fibroblast cells (V79) using micronucleus assay. The CCE resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in the yield of radiation-induced micronuclei, with a maximum effect at 125 microg/mL CCE for 1 h before 2 Gy of radiation. Similarly, there was a significant (P < 0.05-0.0001) decrease in percentage of micronuclei when V79 cells were treated with optimal dose of CCE (125 microg/mL) before exposure to different doses of gamma radiation, that is, 0.5-4 Gy, compared with radiation alone groups. The results of the micronucleus study indicated antigenotoxic effect demonstrating the radioprotective potential of CCE and, which may partly due to its and antioxidant capacity as it presented its ability to scavenge various free radicals in vitro and anti-lipid peroxidative potential.

  6. MzJava: An open source library for mass spectrometry data processing.

    PubMed

    Horlacher, Oliver; Nikitin, Frederic; Alocci, Davide; Mariethoz, Julien; Müller, Markus; Lisacek, Frederique

    2015-11-03

    Mass spectrometry (MS) is a widely used and evolving technique for the high-throughput identification of molecules in biological samples. The need for sharing and reuse of code among bioinformaticians working with MS data prompted the design and implementation of MzJava, an open-source Java Application Programming Interface (API) for MS related data processing. MzJava provides data structures and algorithms for representing and processing mass spectra and their associated biological molecules, such as metabolites, glycans and peptides. MzJava includes functionality to perform mass calculation, peak processing (e.g. centroiding, filtering, transforming), spectrum alignment and clustering, protein digestion, fragmentation of peptides and glycans as well as scoring functions for spectrum-spectrum and peptide/glycan-spectrum matches. For data import and export MzJava implements readers and writers for commonly used data formats. For many classes support for the Hadoop MapReduce (hadoop.apache.org) and Apache Spark (spark.apache.org) frameworks for cluster computing was implemented. The library has been developed applying best practices of software engineering. To ensure that MzJava contains code that is correct and easy to use the library's API was carefully designed and thoroughly tested. MzJava is an open-source project distributed under the AGPL v3.0 licence. MzJava requires Java 1.7 or higher. Binaries, source code and documentation can be downloaded from http://mzjava.expasy.org and https://bitbucket.org/sib-pig/mzjava. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Computational Proteomics.

  7. Towards Crustal Structure of Java Island (Sunda Arc) from Ambient Seismic Noise Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widiyantoro, Sri; Zulhan, Zulfakriza; Martha, Agustya; Saygin, Erdinc; Cummins, Phil

    2015-04-01

    In our previous studies, P- and S-wave velocity structures beneath the Sunda Arc were successfully imaged using a global data set and a nested regional-global tomographic method was employed. To obtain more detailed P- and S-wave velocity structures beneath Java, in the central part of the Sunda Arc, we then used local data sets, i.e. newline from the MErapi AMphibious EXperiment (MERAMEX) and the Meteorological, Climatological and Geophysical Agency (MCGA), as well as employed a double-difference technique for tomographic imaging. The results of the imaging show e.g. that P- and S-wave velocities are significantly reduced in the uppermost mantle beneath central Java. In order to obtain detailed crustal structure information beneath Java, the Ambient Noise Tomography (ANT) method was used. The application of this method to the MERAMEX data has produced a good crustal model beneath central Java. We continue our experiment to image crustal structure of eastern Java. We have used seismic waveform data recorded by 22 MCGA stationary seismographic stations and 25 portable seismographs installed for 2 to 8 weeks. The data were processed to obtain waveforms of cross-correlated noise between pairs of seismographic stations. Our preliminary results presented here indicate that the Kendeng zone, an area of low gravity anomaly, is associated with a low velocity zone. On the other hand, the southern mountain range, which has a high gravity anomaly, is related to a high velocity anomaly (as shown by our tomographic images). In future work we will install more seismographic stations in eastern Java as well as in western Java to conduct ANT imaging for the whole of Java Island. The expected result combined with the mantle velocity models resulting from our body wave tomography will allow for accurate location of earthquake hypocenters and determination of regional tectonic structures. Both of these are valuable for understanding seismic hazard in Java, the most densely populated

  8. Data Visualization in Physics I: Java applets for interactive demonstration of physics concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherry, Elizabeth M.; Evans, Steven J.; Hastings, Harold M.; Fenton, Flavio F.

    2006-03-01

    As computing resources continue to develop toward increased flexibility and power, illustration of scientific concepts has become significantly easier. Java applets in particular form an especially appropriate medium through which simulations and animations can be shared easily across platforms. In this talk, we will show several Java applets that illustrate different concepts in physics, particularly in biophysics, complex systems, and excitable media. Various graphical interfaces will be shown for 0d to 2d systems. In addition, we will demonstrate how to incorporate Java applets into PowerPoint for easy presentation of results in classes and seminars.

  9. The kinematics of crustal deformation in Java from GPS observations: Implications for fault slip partitioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koulali, A.; McClusky, S.; Susilo, S.; Leonard, Y.; Cummins, P.; Tregoning, P.; Meilano, I.; Efendi, J.; Wijanarto, A. B.

    2017-01-01

    Our understanding of seismic risk in Java has been focused primarily on the subduction zone, where the seismic records during the last century have shown the occurrence of a number of tsunami earthquakes. However, the potential of the existence of active crustal structures within the island of Java itself is less well known. Historical archives show the occurrence of several devastating earthquake ruptures north of the volcanic arc in west Java during the 18th and the 19th centuries, suggesting the existence of active faults that need to be identified in order to guide seismic hazard assessment. Here we use geodetic constraints from the Global Positioning System (GPS) to quantify the present day crustal deformation in Java. The GPS velocities reveal a homogeneous counterclockwise rotation of the Java Block independent of Sunda Block, consistent with a NE-SW convergence between the Australian Plate and southeast Asia. Continuous GPS observations show a time-dependent change in the linear rate of surface motion in west Java, which we interpret as an ongoing long-term post-seismic deformation following the 2006 Mw 7.7 Java earthquake. We use an elastic block model in combination with a viscoelastic model to correct for this post-seismic transient and derive the long-term inter-seismic velocity, which we interpret as a combination of tectonic block motions and crustal faults strain related deformation. There is a north-south gradient in the resulting velocity field with a decrease in the magnitude towards the North across the Kendeng Thrust in the east and the Baribis Thrust in the west. We suggest that the Baribis Thrust is active and accommodating a slow relative motion between Java and the Sunda Block at about 5 ± 0.2 mm /yr. We propose a kinematic model of convergence of the Australian Plate and the Sunda Block, involving a slip partitioning between the Java Trench and a left-lateral structure extending E-W along Java with most of the convergence being

  10. A begomovirus associated with Ageratum yellow vein disease in Indonesia: evidence for natural recombination between tomato leaf curl Java virus and Ageratum yellow vein virus-[Java].

    PubMed

    Kon, T; Kuwabara, K; Hidayat, S H; Ikegami, M

    2007-01-01

    A begomovirus (2747 nucleotides) and a satellite DNA beta component (1360 nucleotides) have been isolated from Ageratum conyzoides L. plants with yellow vein symptoms growing in Java, Indonesia. The begomovirus is most closely related to Tomato leaf curl Java virus (ToLCJV) (91 and 98% in the total nucleotide and coat protein amino acid sequences, respectively), although the products of ORFs C1 and C4 are more closely related to those of Ageratum yellow vein virus-[Java] (91 and 95% identity, respectively). For this reason, the begomovirus it is considered to be a strain of ToLCJV and is referred to as ToLCJV-Ageratum. The virus probably derives from a recombination event in which nucleotides 2389-2692 of ToLCJV have been replaced with the corresponding region of the AYVV-[Java] genome, which includes the 5' part of the intergenic region and the C1 and C4 ORFs. Infection of A. conyzoides with ToLCJV-Ageratum alone produced no symptoms, but co-infection with DNAbeta induced yellow vein symptoms. Symptoms induced in Nicotiana benthamiana by ToLCJV-Ageratum, ToLCJV and AYVV-[Java] are consistent with the exchange of pathogenicity determinant ORF C4 during recombination.

  11. JDAQ: a Java based software package for multi-channel data acquisition

    SciTech Connect

    McKisson, John

    2012-07-31

    The source code for the Java Data Acquisition suite provides interfaces to the JLab built USB FPGA ADC across a LAN network. Each jDaq node provides ListMode data from JLab built detector systems and readouts.

  12. Viewing multiple sequence alignments with the JavaScript Sequence Alignment Viewer (JSAV).

    PubMed

    Martin, Andrew C R

    2014-01-01

    The JavaScript Sequence Alignment Viewer (JSAV) is designed as a simple-to-use JavaScript component for displaying sequence alignments on web pages. The display of sequences is highly configurable with options to allow alternative coloring schemes, sorting of sequences and 'dotifying' repeated amino acids. An option is also available to submit selected sequences to another web site, or to other JavaScript code. JSAV is implemented purely in JavaScript making use of the JQuery and JQuery-UI libraries. It does not use any HTML5-specific options to help with browser compatibility. The code is documented using JSDOC and is available from http://www.bioinf.org.uk/software/jsav/.

  13. Programming with non-heap memory in the real time specification for Java

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bollella, G.; Canham, T.; Carson, V.; Champlin, V.; Dvorak, D.; Giovannoni, B.; Indictor, M.; Meyer, K.; Reinholtz, A.; Murray, K.

    2003-01-01

    The Real-Time Specification for Java (RTSJ) provides facilities for deterministic, real-time execution in a language that is otherwise subject to variable latencies in memory allocation and garbage collection.

  14. Long aseismic slip duration of the 2006 Java tsunami earthquake based on GPS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raharja, Rio; Gunawan, Endra; Meilano, Irwan; Abidin, Hasanuddin Z.; Efendi, Joni

    2016-10-01

    The Java earthquake occurred on July 17, 2006 with magnitude 7.8 associated to the subduction process of Indo-Australian plate and Sundaland block off southwestern coast of Java. We present postseismic deformation parameters of the 2006 Java earthquake analyzed using campaign GPS observation from 2006 to 2008 and continuous observation from 2007 to 2014. We use an analytical approach of logarithmic and exponential functions to model these GPS data. We find that the decay time in the order of hundreds of days after the mainshock as observed by 8 years' data after the mainshock for magnitude 7 earthquake is longer than a general megathrust earthquake event. Our findings suggest that the 2006 Java earthquake which is considered as "tsunami earthquake" most probably occurred in the region that has low rigidity and tends to continuously slip for long time periods.

  15. Reassembling the Ontong Java-Manihiki-Hikurangi large igneous province: Insights and challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandler, M. T.; Wessel, P.; Taylor, B.; Sager, W. W.

    2012-12-01

    The tectonic history of ~30% of the Pacific plate south of Equator which formed during the Cretaceous Normal Supercron is difficult to establish due to its lack of a lineated magnetic anomaly pattern. This region, including the Ontong Java, Manihiki, and Hikurangi large igneous provinces, as well as the interlying Ellice Basin and Osbourn Trough, lacks active seafloor spreading centers and has thus been largely neglected by seagoing research scientists. Nonetheless, the CNS South Pacific may prove to be important for understanding Pacific history. Ontong Java's mean basement paleolatitude measurement differs from absolute plate model (APM) reconstructions for the plateau by ~8--19 degrees (Chandler et al. (2012)), indicating that either current APM models are erroneous, substantial plume drift or true polar wander occurred, or that Ontong Java experienced unrecognized motion early in its history. In support of the latter are recent findings that little to no Louisville plume drift occurred after ~70 Ma (Gee et al. (2011)), that true polar wander estimates for the ~125 Ma Ontong Java vicinity are negligible (Steinberger and Torsvik (2008)), and our recent observation of a 2:1 bias between Ontong Java's paleolatitude and latitude differences (Chandler and Wessel (2011), Chandler et al. (In prep)). These differences, computed among ODP Sites 807 and 1183 - 1187, suggest significant clockwise rotation of ~40 degrees since Ontong Java's formation at ~125 Ma. Although this rotation does not resolve the paleolatitude discrepancy it does suggest that Ontong Java's paleolatitudes may not be suitable for constraining Pacific APM. Seafloor formed at the Osbourn Trough and in the Ellice Basin make up much of the CNS South Pacific. These regions exhibit fossil spreading centers believed responsible for the breakup of Earth's largest known igneous province, the Ontong Java-Manihiki-Hikurangi super-plateau (e.g., Taylor (2006), Chandler et al. (2012)). Understanding this little

  16. [Radiology information system using HTML, JavaScript, and Web server].

    PubMed

    Sone, M; Sasaki, M; Oikawa, H; Yoshioka, K; Ehara, S; Tamakawa, Y

    1997-12-01

    We have developed a radiology information system using intranet techniques, including hypertext markup language, JavaScript, and Web server. JavaScript made it possible to develop an easy-to-use application, as well as to reduce network traffic and load on the server. The system we have developed is inexpensive and flexible, and its development and maintenance are much easier than with the previous system.

  17. Heterogeneous Concurrent Modeling and Design in Java (Volume 3: Ptolemy II Domains)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-04-15

    Heterogeneous Concurrent Modeling and Design in Java (Volume 3: Ptolemy II Domains) Christopher Brooks Edward A. Lee Xiaojun Liu Stephen Neuendorffer...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Heterogeneous Concurrent Modeling and Design in Java (Volume 3: Ptolemy II Domains) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...State of California Micro Program, and the following companies: Agilent, Bosch, HSBC, Lockheed-Martin, National Instruments, and Toyota. PTOLEMY II

  18. Heterogeneous Concurrent Modeling and Design in Java (Volume 2: Ptolemy II Software Architecture)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-04-01

    Heterogeneous Concurrent Modeling and Design in Java (Volume 2: Ptolemy II Software Architecture) Christopher Brooks Edward A. Lee Xiaojun Liu...00-2008 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Heterogeneous Concurrent Modeling and Design in Java (Volume 2: Ptolemy II Software Architecture) 5a. CONTRACT...the State of California Micro Program, and the following companies: Agilent, Bosch, HSBC, Lockheed-Martin, National Instruments, and Toyota. PTOLEMY II

  19. FastScript3D - A Companion to Java 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koenig, Patti

    2005-01-01

    FastScript3D is a computer program, written in the Java 3D(TM) programming language, that establishes an alternative language that helps users who lack expertise in Java 3D to use Java 3D for constructing three-dimensional (3D)-appearing graphics. The FastScript3D language provides a set of simple, intuitive, one-line text-string commands for creating, controlling, and animating 3D models. The first word in a string is the name of a command; the rest of the string contains the data arguments for the command. The commands can also be used as an aid to learning Java 3D. Developers can extend the language by adding custom text-string commands. The commands can define new 3D objects or load representations of 3D objects from files in formats compatible with such other software systems as X3D. The text strings can be easily integrated into other languages. FastScript3D facilitates communication between scripting languages [which enable programming of hyper-text markup language (HTML) documents to interact with users] and Java 3D. The FastScript3D language can be extended and customized on both the scripting side and the Java 3D side.

  20. JAtlasView: a Java atlas-viewer for browsing biomedical 3D images and atlases

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Guangjie; Burton, Nick; Hill, Bill; Davidson, Duncan; Kerwin, Janet; Scott, Mark; Lindsay, Susan; Baldock, Richard

    2005-01-01

    Background Many three-dimensional (3D) images are routinely collected in biomedical research and a number of digital atlases with associated anatomical and other information have been published. A number of tools are available for viewing this data ranging from commercial visualization packages to freely available, typically system architecture dependent, solutions. Here we discuss an atlas viewer implemented to run on any workstation using the architecture neutral Java programming language. Results We report the development of a freely available Java based viewer for 3D image data, descibe the structure and functionality of the viewer and how automated tools can be developed to manage the Java Native Interface code. The viewer allows arbitrary re-sectioning of the data and interactive browsing through the volume. With appropriately formatted data, for example as provided for the Electronic Atlas of the Developing Human Brain, a 3D surface view and anatomical browsing is available. The interface is developed in Java with Java3D providing the 3D rendering. For efficiency the image data is manipulated using the Woolz image-processing library provided as a dynamically linked module for each machine architecture. Conclusion We conclude that Java provides an appropriate environment for efficient development of these tools and techniques exist to allow computationally efficient image-processing libraries to be integrated relatively easily. PMID:15757508

  1. Identifying Processor Bottlenecks in Virtual Machine Based Execution of Java Bytecode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Pradeep; Murakami, Kazuaki

    Despite the prevalence of Java workloads across a variety of processor architectures, there is very little published data on the impact of the various processor design decisions on Java performance. We attribute the lack of data to the large design space resulting from the complexity of the modern superscalar processor and the additional complexities associated with executing Java bytecode using a virtual machine. To address this shortcoming, we use a statistically rigorous methodology to systematically quantify the the impact of the various processor microarchitecture parameters on Java execution performance. The adopted methodology enables efficient screening of significant factor effects in a large design space consisting of 35 factors (32-billion potential configurations) using merely 72 observations per benchmark application. We quantify and tabulate the significance of each of the 35 factors for 13 benchmark applications. While these tables provide various insights into Java performance, they consistently highlight the performance significance of the instruction delivery mechanism, especially the instruction cache and the ITLB design parameters. Furthermore, these tables enable the architect to identify processor bottlenecks for Java workloads by providing an estimate of the relative impact of various design decisions.

  2. Acaricidal activity of the essential oils from Eucalyptus citriodora and Cymbopogon nardus on larvae of Amblyomma cajennense (Acari: Ixodidae) and Anocentor nitens (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Clemente, Mateus Aparecido; de Oliveira Monteiro, Caio Márcio; Scoralik, Márcio Goldner; Gomes, Fernando Teixeira; de Azevedo Prata, Márcia Cristina; Daemon, Erik

    2010-09-01

    The present study evaluated the acaricidal activity of essential oils from Eucalyptus citriodora and Cymbopogon nardus on non-engorged larvae of Amblyomma cajennense and Anocentor nitens. In order to carry out the study, six groups were formed, each concentration being a treatment (6.25%, 12.5%, 25%, and 50%, respectively) and also with the creation of a control group (distilled water) and a positive control (Deltametrine). For each treatment, approximately 100 larvae of these ticks were placed onto filter papers (2 x 2 cm) impregnated with the concentrations used to test. Next, the envelopes were closed bearing inside the filter paper with measurements of 6 x 6 cm. For each group, six repetitions were performed, and after 24 h live and dead larvae were counted. This procedure was carried out for two essential oils on the two species of ticks. For A. cajennense, the acaricide efficacy of E. citriodora oil was of 10.8%, 35.3%, 34.5%, and 53.1%, whereas the efficacy of C. nardus was of 0.0%, 0.0%, 0.0%, and 61.1% at concentrations of 6.25%, 12.5%, 25.0%, and 50.0%, respectively. In relation to A. nitens, the acaricide efficacy of E. citriodora oil was of 20.1%, 84.5%, 89.2%, and 100.0%, whereas the efficacy of C. nardus was of 0.0%, 90.8%, 100.0%, and 100.0% at concentrations of 6.25%, 12.5%, 25.0%, and 50.0%, respectively. The results indicate that the essential oils tested showed a promising acaricidal activity mainly on A. nitens larvae.

  3. Phytochemical composition of Cymbopogon citratus and Eucalyptus citriodora essential oils and their anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties on Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Gbenou, Joachin D; Ahounou, Judith F; Akakpo, Huguette B; Laleye, Anatole; Yayi, Eléonore; Gbaguidi, Fernand; Baba-Moussa, Lamine; Darboux, Raphael; Dansou, Pierre; Moudachirou, Mansourou; Kotchoni, Simeon O

    2013-02-01

    Cymbopogon citratus and Eucalyptus citriodora are widely used herbs/plants as a source of ethnomedicines in tropical regions of the world. In this work, we studied the anti-inflammatory and gastroprotective effects of C. citratus and E. citriodora essential oils on formol-induced edema, and acetic acid induced abdominal cramps in Wistar rats. To fully understand the chemically induced anti-inflammatory properties of these plants, we first analyzed the chemical composition of the essential oils. A total of 16 chemical constituents accounting for 93.69 % of the oil, were identified in C. citratus among which, Geranial (27.04 %), neral (19.93 %) and myrcene (27.04 %) were the major constituents. For E. citriodora, 19 compounds representing 97.2 % of the extracted oil were identified. The dominant compound of E. citriodora essential oil was citronellal (83.50 %). In vivo analysis and histological assay showed that the two essential oils displayed significant dose dependent edema inhibition effect over time. They displayed strong analgesic and antipyretic properties similar to that induced by 50 mg/kg of acetylsalicylate of lysine. However, the E. citriodora essential oil was more effective than that of C. citratus. We identified significant numbers of aldehyde molecules in both essential oils mediating antioxidant activity that may contribute to the anti-inflammatory effects observed on the rats. Altogether, this work demonstrates the anti-inflammatory property of C. citratus and E. citriodora suggesting their potential role as adjuvant therapeutic alternatives in dealing with inflammatory-related diseases.

  4. Inactivation of Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella Enteritidis by Cymbopogon citratus D.C. Stapf. Essential Oil in Pineapple Juice.

    PubMed

    Leite, Caroline Junqueira Barcellos; de Sousa, Jossana Pereira; Medeiros, José Alberto da Costa; da Conceição, Maria Lúcia; dos Santos Falcão-Silva, Vivyanne; de Souza, Evandro Leite

    2016-02-01

    In the present study, the efficacy of Cymbopogon citratus D.C. Stapf. essential oil (CCEO) to provoke a 5-log CFU/ml (5-log) inactivation in a mixed composite of Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis in pineapple (Ananas comosus (L.) Merril) juice (4°C) was assessed. Moreover, the effects of CCEO on the physicochemical and sensory quality parameters of pineapple juice were evaluated. The MIC of CCEO was 5 μl/ml against the composite mix examined. For L. monocytogenes and E. coli inoculated in juice containing CCEO (5, 2.5, and 1.25 μl/ml), a ≥5-log reduction was detected after 15 min of exposure. This same result was obtained for Salmonella Enteritidis incubated alone in pineapple juice containing CCEO at 5 and 2.5 μl/ml. Overall, Salmonella Enteritidis was the most tolerant and L. monocytogenes was the most sensitive to CCEO. The physicochemical properties (pH, titratable acidic [citric acid per 100 g], and soluble solids) of pineapple juice containing CCEO (2.5 and 1.25 μl/ml) were maintained. Juice containing CCEO (2.5 and 1.25 μl/ml) exhibited similar scores for odor, appearance, and viscosity compared with juice without CCEO. However, unsatisfactory changes in taste and aftertaste were observed in juices containing CCEO. These results suggest that CCEO could be used as an alternative antimicrobial compound to ensure the safety of pineapple juice, although CCEO at the tested concentrations negatively impacted its taste. Therefore, further studies are needed to determine the balance between microbial safety and taste acceptability of pineapple juice containing CCEO.

  5. Geranyl acetate esterase controls and regulates the level of geraniol in lemongrass (Cymbopogon flexuosus Nees ex Steud.) mutant cv. GRL-1 leaves.

    PubMed

    Ganjewala, Deepak; Luthra, Rajesh

    2009-01-01

    Essential oil isolated from lemongrass (Cymbopogon flexuosus) mutant cv. GRL-1 leaves is mainly composed of geraniol (G) and geranyl acetate (GA). The proportion of G and GA markedly fluctuates during leaf development. The proportions of GA and G in the essential oil recorded at day 10 after leaf emergence were approximately 59% and approximately 33% respectively. However, the level of GA went down from approximately 59 to approximately 3% whereas the level of G rose from approximately 33 to approximately 91% during the leaf growth period from day 10 to day 50. However, the decline in the level of GA was most pronounced in the early (day 10 to day 30) stage of leaf growth. The trend of changes in the proportion of GA and G has clearly indicated the role of an esterase that must be involved in the conversion of GA to G during leaf development. We isolated an esterase from leaves of different ages that converts GA into G and has been given the name geranyl acetate esterase (GAE). The GAE activity markedly varied during the leaf development cycle; it was closely correlated with the monoterpene (GA and G) composition throughout leaf development. GAE appeared as several isoenzymes but only three (GAE-I, GAE-II, and GAE-III) of them had significant GA cleaving activity. The GAE isoenzymes pattern was greatly influenced by the leaf developmental stages and so their GA cleaving activities. Like the GAE activity, GAE isoenzyme patterns were also found to be consistent with the monoterpene (GA and G) composition. GAE had an optimum pH at 8.5 and temperature at 30 degrees C. Besides GAE, a compound with phosphatase activity capable of hydrolyzing geranyl diphosphate (GPP) to produce geraniol has also been isolated.

  6. Housefly (Musca domestica L.) control potential of Cymbopogon citratus Stapf. (Poales: Poaceae) essential oil and monoterpenes (citral and 1,8-cineole).

    PubMed

    Kumar, Peeyush; Mishra, Sapna; Malik, Anushree; Satya, Santosh

    2013-01-01

    In spite of being a major vector for several domestic, medical, and veterinary pests, the control aspect of the common housefly, Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae) is often neglected. In the present study, the essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus and its major components were evaluated for control of housefly. The chemical composition analysis of C. citratus oil by gas chromatographic mass spectrometry (GC-MS) revealed citral (47 %) and 1,8-cineole (7.5 %) as principal components. The analysis of oil vapor by solid phase microextraction (SPME/GC-MS) showed increase in citral (74.9 %) and 1,8-cineole (8.6 %) content. Assay of oil against housefly larvae and pupae through contact toxicity assay showed lethal concentration (LC)(50) value of 0.41 μl/cm(2) and of percentage inhibition rate (PIR) of 77.3 %, respectively. Fumigation assay was comparatively more effective with LC(50) of 48.6 μl/L against housefly larvae, and a PIR value of 100 % against housefly pupae. The monoterpenes, citral, and 1,8-cineole, when assessed for their insecticidal activity against housefly larvae, showed LC(50) of 0.002 and 0.01 μl/cm(2) (contact toxicity assay) and LC(50) of 3.3 and 2.4 μl/L (fumigation assay). For pupicidal assay, both citral and 1,8-cineole had a PIR value of 100 %. High efficacy of citral and 1,8-cineole against housefly, established them to be an active insecticidal agent of C. citratus oil. The study demonstrates potentiality of C. citratus oil as an excellent insecticide for housefly control, and the results open up the opportunity of oil/monoterpenes being developed into an eco-friendly, economical, and acceptable product.

  7. DNA sequence chromatogram browsing using JAVA and CORBA.

    PubMed

    Parsons, J D; Buehler, E; Hillier, L

    1999-03-01

    DNA sequence chromatograms (traces) are the primary data source for all large-scale genomic and expressed sequence tags (ESTs) sequencing projects. Access to the sequencing trace assists many later analyses, for example contig assembly and polymorphism detection, but obtaining and using traces is problematic. Traces are not collected and published centrally, they are much larger than the base calls derived from them, and viewing them requires the interactivity of a local graphical client with local data. To provide efficient global access to DNA traces, we developed a client/server system based on flexible Java components integrated into other applications including an applet for use in a WWW browser and a stand-alone trace viewer. Client/server interaction is facilitated by CORBA middleware which provides a well-defined interface, a naming service, and location independence. [The software is packaged as a Jar file available from the following URL: http://www.ebi.ac.uk/jparsons. Links to working examples of the trace viewers can be found at http://corba.ebi.ac.uk/EST. All the Washington University mouse EST traces are available for browsing at the same URL.

  8. Halimeda bioherms of the eastern Java Sea, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, H. H.; Phipps, C. V.; Effendi, L.

    1987-04-01

    Extensive areas of coalescing bioherms composed primarily of disarticulated Halimeda plates occur on a large carbonate bank (Kalukalukuang Bank) located 50 to 70 km east of the central Sunda Shelf margin (eastern Java Sea, Indonesia). High-resolution seismic profiles suggest that these features attain maximum thicknesses of up to 52 m above an acoustically reflective surface interpreted as the top of the Pleistocene. Piston cores and vibracores from the bioherms indicate a composition of Halimeda packstone containing varying amounts of foraminifera-rich carbonate mud. A shell lag occurs at their base above the Pleistocene(?) surface. Seismic stratigraphy of the bioherms suggests that they generally developed as individual mounds that accreted both vertically and laterally until they coalesced to form composite features. Discordant reflectors are common and probably represent morphological modifications associated with high-energy events, current scour, or local mass movement. Halimeda bioherms occur in water depths ≥20 m on both exposed and reef-protected bank margins, unlike the only other recorded modern examples, which occur in the lagoonal facies behind the northern Great Barrier ribbon reefs of Australia. Their presence and rapid growth rates (to 5.9 m/1000 yr as determined from carbon-14 dating of piston core subsamples) are possibly related to upwelling of deep, nutrient-rich, south-moving water from Makassar Strait.

  9. Boron isotope variations in geothermal systems on Java, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purnomo, Budi Joko; Pichler, Thomas; You, Chen-Feng

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents δ11B data for hot springs, hot acid crater lakes, geothermal brines and a steam vent from Java, Indonesia. The processes that produce a large range of the δ11B values were investigated, including the possible input of seawater as well as the contrast δ11B compositions of acid sulfate and acid chloride crater lakes. The δ11B values of hot springs ranged from - 2.4 to + 28.7‰ and acid crater lakes ranged from + 0.6 to + 34.9‰. The δ11B and Cl/B values in waters from the Parangtritis and Krakal geothermal systems confirmed seawater input. The δ11B values of acid sulfate crater lakes ranged from + 5.5 to + 34.9‰ and were higher than the δ11B of + 0.6‰ of the acid chloride crater lake. The heavier δ11B in the acid sulfate crater lakes was caused by a combination of vapor phase addition and further enrichment due to evaporation and B adsorption onto clay minerals. In contrast, the light δ11B of the acid chloride crater lake was a result of acid water-rocks interaction. The correlations of δ11B composition with δ18O and δ2H indicated that the B isotope corresponded to their groundwater mixing sources, but not for J21 (Segaran) and J48 (Cikundul) that underwent 11B isotope enrichment by B adsorption into minerals.

  10. Field Training Activities for Hydrologic Science in West Java, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agustina, C.; Fajri, P. N.; Fathoni, F.; Gusti, T. P.; Harifa, A. C.; Hendra, Y.; Hertanti, D. R.; Lusiana, N.; Rohmat, F. I.; Agouridis, C.; Fryar, A. E.; Milewski, A.; Pandjaitan, N.; Santoso, R.; Suharyanto, A.

    2013-12-01

    In hydrologic science and engineering, one challenge is establishing a common framework for discussion among workers from different disciplines. As part of the 'Building Opportunity Out of Science and Technology: Helping Hydrologic Outreach (BOOST H2O)' project, which is supported by the U.S. Department of State, nine current or recent graduate students from four Indonesian universities participated in a week of training activities during June 2013. Students had backgrounds in agricultural engineering, civil and environmental engineering, water resources engineering, natural resources management, and soil science. Professors leading the training, which was based at Bogor Agricultural University (IPB) in west Java, included an agricultural engineer, civil engineers, and geologists. Activities in surface-water hydrology included geomorphic assessment of streams (measuring slope, cross-section, and bed-clast size) and gauging stream flow (wading with top-setting rods and a current meter for a large stream, and using a bucket and stopwatch for a small stream). Groundwater-hydrology activities included measuring depth to water in wells, conducting a pumping test with an observation well, and performing vertical electrical soundings to infer hydrostratigraphy. Students also performed relatively simple water-quality measurements (temperature, electrical conductivity, pH, and alkalinity) in streams, wells, and springs. The group analyzed data with commercially-available software such as AQTESOLV for well hydraulics, freeware such as the U.S. Geological Survey alkalinity calculator, and Excel spreadsheets. Results were discussed in the context of landscape position, lithology, and land use.

  11. Using XML and Java for Astronomical Instrumentation Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ames, Troy; Koons, Lisa; Sall, Ken; Warsaw, Craig

    2000-01-01

    Traditionally, instrument command and control systems have been highly specialized, consisting mostly of custom code that is difficult to develop, maintain, and extend. Such solutions are initially very costly and are inflexible to subsequent engineering change requests, increasing software maintenance costs. Instrument description is too tightly coupled with details of implementation. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center is developing a general and highly extensible framework that applies to any kind of instrument that can be controlled by a computer. The software architecture combines the platform independent processing capabilities of Java with the power of the Extensible Markup Language (XML), a human readable and machine understandable way to describe structured data. A key aspect of the object-oriented architecture is software that is driven by an instrument description, written using the Instrument Markup Language (IML). ]ML is used to describe graphical user interfaces to control and monitor the instrument, command sets and command formats, data streams, and communication mechanisms. Although the current effort is targeted for the High-resolution Airborne Wideband Camera, a first-light instrument of the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy, the framework is designed to be generic and extensible so that it can be applied to any instrument.

  12. Microtremor study of Gunung Anyar mud volcano, Surabaya, East Java

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syaifuddin, Firman; Bahri, Ayi Syaeful; Lestari, Wien; Pandu, Juan

    2016-05-01

    The existence of mud volcano system in East Java is known from the ancient period, especially in Surabaya. Gunung Anyar mud volcano is one of the mud volcano system manifestation was appeared close to the residence. Because of this phenomenon we have to learn about the impact of this mud volcano manifestation to the neighbourhood. The microtremor study was conducted to evaluate the possible influence effect of the mud volcano to the environment and get more information about the subsurface condition in this area. Microtremor is one of the geophysical methods which measure the natural tremor or vibration of the earth, the dominant frequency of the tremor represent thickness of the soft sediment layer overlay above the bed rock or harder rock layer beneath our feet. In this study 90 stations was measured to record the natural tremor. The result from this study shows the direct influenced area of this small mud volcano system is close to 50m from the centre of the mud volcano and bed rock of this area is range between 66 to 140 meter.

  13. Mating success follows duet dancing in the Java sparrow

    PubMed Central

    Iwama, Midori

    2017-01-01

    Mutual interactions between sexes have multiple signalling functions. Duet singing in songbirds is related to mutual mate guarding, joint resource defence, and signalling commitment. Coordinated visual displays of mating pairs are thought to perform similar functions, but are less well understood. The current study evaluated mutual interactions in an Estrildid species to explore the relative importance of duet dancing and male singing in mating success of pairs in a first encounter. When Java sparrows (Lonchura oryzivora) court prospective mates, only males sing. However, both males and females perform courtship dances, often in a duet-like manner. These dances are typically terminated by female copulation solicitation displays (CSDs). In the current study, we observed higher mating success when courtship dances were mutually exchanged, and when males sang. However, the sex initiating the courtship did not affect mating success. Most females produced CSDs after duet dancing but before hearing the entire song, indicating that duet dancing played a crucial role in mating. This finding highlights an unexplored aspect of duetting behaviour in the process of mutual mate choice. These results conflict with the majority of past songbird research, which has interpreted songs as primary behavioural sexual signals. PMID:28273111

  14. Satellite radiance data assimilation for rainfall prediction in Java Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagita, Novvria; Hidayati, Rini; Hidayat, Rahmat; Gustari, Indra

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the influence of satellite radiance data assimilation for predicting two days of heavy rainfall in the Java region. The first case occurred from 22 to 23 on January 2015 while the second case occurred from 1 to 2 on February 2015. The analysis examined before and after data assimilation in the two cases study. The Global Forecast System (GFS) data were used as initial condition which was assimilated with several data such as surface observation data, radiance data from AMSUA sensor, radiance data from HIRS sensor, and radiance data from MHS sensor. Weather Research and Forecasting Data Assimilation (WRFDA) is a tool which is used in this study for assimilating process with Three Dimensional Variation (3D-Var) method. The Quantitative Precipitation Forecast (QPF) skill was used to evaluate influence data assimilation for rainfall prediction. The result of the study obtained different rainfall prediction with different data assimilation. In general, the surface observation data assimilation has lower QPF skill than the satellite radiance data assimilation. Even thought radiance data assimilation has slightly contribution on rainfall prediction, but it gave better accuracy on rainfall prediction for two heavy rainfall cases.

  15. Predictability of Java Monsoon Rainfall Anomalies: A Case Study.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hastenrath, Stefan

    1987-01-01

    A substantial portion of the interannual variability of rainfall at Jakarta, Java, can be predicted from antecedent pressure anomalies at Darwin, northern Australia; the pressure persistence, the concurrent correlation of pressure and rainfall, and the predictability of rainfall from antecedent pressure are all largest during the `east' monsoon (June-November). Because of the relatively simple large-scale circulation setting, warranting a single predictor (Darwin pressure), this region is chosen for a series of experiments aimed at exploring the seasonality and secular variations of predictability, optimal length of dependent record, and updating of the regression base period used for predictions on the independent data set.The major features of pressure-rainfall relationships are common through much of the 1911-83 record, namely sign and general magnitude of correlations and the closer relationships during the east, as compared to the west monsoon. Considerable differences are, however, apparent between decades. Them may stem from both sampling deficiencies (noise) and real long-term changes of the pressure-rainfall couplings due to secular alterations in the large-scale circulation setting. The competition between these two factors is relevant concerning the optimal length of the dependent record used for predictions into the independent data set, as well as the updating of the regression base period.

  16. An Interactive Java Statistical Image Segmentation System: GemIdent.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Susan; Kapelner, Adam; Lee, Peter P

    2009-06-01

    Supervised learning can be used to segment/identify regions of interest in images using both color and morphological information. A novel object identification algorithm was developed in Java to locate immune and cancer cells in images of immunohistochemically-stained lymph node tissue from a recent study published by Kohrt et al. (2005). The algorithms are also showing promise in other domains. The success of the method depends heavily on the use of color, the relative homogeneity of object appearance and on interactivity. As is often the case in segmentation, an algorithm specifically tailored to the application works better than using broader methods that work passably well on any problem. Our main innovation is the interactive feature extraction from color images. We also enable the user to improve the classification with an interactive visualization system. This is then coupled with the statistical learning algorithms and intensive feedback from the user over many classification-correction iterations, resulting in a highly accurate and user-friendly solution. The system ultimately provides the locations of every cell recognized in the entire tissue in a text file tailored to be easily imported into R (Ihaka and Gentleman 1996; R Development Core Team 2009) for further statistical analyses. This data is invaluable in the study of spatial and multidimensional relationships between cell populations and tumor structure. This system is available at http://www.GemIdent.com/ together with three demonstration videos and a manual.

  17. Seismic wave speed structure of the Ontong Java Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Covellone, Brian M.; Savage, Brian; Shen, Yang

    2015-06-01

    The Ontong Java Plateau (OJP) represents the result of a significant event in the Earth's geologic history. Limited geophysical and geochemical data, as well as the plateau's relative isolation in the Pacific ocean, have made interpretation of the modern day geologic structure and its 120 Ma formation history difficult. Here we present the highest resolution image to date of the wave speed structure of the OJP region. We use a data set that combines Rayleigh waves extracted from both ambient noise and earthquake waveforms and an iterative finite-frequency tomography methodology. The combination of datasets allow us to best exploit the limited station distribution in the Pacific and image wave speed structures between 35 km and 300 km into the Earth. We image a region of fast shear wave speeds, greater than 4.75 km/s, that extends to greater than 100 km beneath the plateau. The wave speeds are similar to as observed in cratonic environments and are consistent with a compositional anomaly that resulted from the residuum of eclogite entrainment during the plateau's formation. The combination of our imaged wave speed structure and previous geochemical work suggest that a surfacing plume head entrained eclogite from the deep mantle and accounts for the anomalous buoyancy characteristics of the plateau and observed fast wave speeds.

  18. Web-based remote machine control system in Java

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Shiwoo

    2000-12-01

    Rapidly evolving information technology, especially World Wide Web (WWW), brought many innovative changes to people's lives and businesses. Information technology not only influences people's daily lives and business but also impacts on manufacturing. As computers become powerful and affordable, factories introduced computers to their shop floor to integrate manufacturing since 1980's. Because manufacturing industries tend to acquire world-wide manufacturing facilities, it got difficult to set up, control, maintain, and optimize to facilitate manufacturing resources on global sites. However, little work has been done in the area of global manufacturing until recently. A Web-Based Machine Control System (WMCS), which controls remote manufacturing resources using a general-purpose web browser has been implemented at Computer Integrated Manufacturing (CIM) laboratory of Northeastern University. This research presents a framework and Java implementation of WMCS for Manufacturing. The general-purpose web browser has been used as a front-end interface to interact with WMCS through HTTP (Hyper-Text Transfer Protocol) protocol.

  19. Playing jigsaw with large igneous provinces - a plate-tectonic reconstruction of Ontong Java Nui

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hochmuth, Katharina; Gohl, Karsten; Uenzelmann-Neben, Gabriele; Werner, Reinhard

    2015-04-01

    Ontong Java Nui is a Cretaceous large igneous province (LIP), which was rifted apart into various smaller plateaus shortly after its emplacement around 125 Ma in the central Pacific. It incorporated the Ontong Java Plateau, the Hikurangi Plateau and the Manihiki Plateau as well as multiple smaller fragments, which have been subducted. Its size has been estimated to be approximately 0.8% of the Earth's surface. A volcanic edifice of this size has potentially had a great impact on the environment such as its CO2 release. The break-up of the "Super"-LIP is poorly constrained, because the break-up and subsequent seafloor spreading occurred within the Cretaceous Quiet Period. The Manihiki Plateau is presumably the centerpiece of this "Super"-LIP and shows by its margins and internal fragmentation that its tectonic and volcanic activity is related to the break-up of Ontong Java Nui. By incorporating two new seismic refraction/wide-angle reflection lines across two of the main sub-plateaus of the Manihiki Plateau, we can classify the break-up modes of the individual margins of the Manihiki Plateau. The Western Plateaus experienced crustal stretching due to the westward motion of the Ontong Java Plateau. The High Plateau shows sharp strike-slip movements at its eastern boundary towards an earlier part of Ontong Java Nui, which is has been subducted, and a rifted margin with a strong volcanic overprint at its southern edges towards the Hikurangi Plateau. These observations allow us a re-examination of the conjugate margins of the Hikurangi Plateau and the Ontong Java Plateau. The repositioning of the different plateaus leads to the conclusion that Ontong Java Nui was larger (~1.2% of the Earth's surface at emplacement) than previously anticipated. We use these finding to improve the plate tectonic reconstruction of the Cretaceous Pacific and to illuminate the role of the LIPs within the plate tectonic circuit in the western and central Pacific.

  20. High-performance file I/O in Java : existing approaches and bulk I/O extensions.

    SciTech Connect

    Bonachea, D.; Dickens, P.; Thakur, R.; Mathematics and Computer Science; Univ. of California at Berkeley; Illinois Institute of Technology

    2001-07-01

    There is a growing interest in using Java as the language for developing high-performance computing applications. To be successful in the high-performance computing domain, however, Java must not only be able to provide high computational performance, but also high-performance I/O. In this paper, we first examine several approaches that attempt to provide high-performance I/O in Java - many of which are not obvious at first glance - and evaluate their performance on two parallel machines, the IBM SP and the SGI Origin2000. We then propose extensions to the Java I/O library that address the deficiencies in the Java I/O API and improve performance dramatically. The extensions add bulk (array) I/O operations to Java, thereby removing much of the overhead currently associated with array I/O in Java. We have implemented the extensions in two ways: in a standard JVM using the Java Native Interface (JNI) and in a high-performance parallel dialect of Java called Titanium. We describe the two implementations and present performance results that demonstrate the benefits of the proposed extensions.

  1. The geological evolution of Merapi volcano, Central Java, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gertisser, Ralf; Charbonnier, Sylvain J.; Keller, Jörg; Quidelleur, Xavier

    2012-07-01

    Merapi is an almost persistently active basalt to basaltic andesite volcanic complex in Central Java (Indonesia) and often referred to as the type volcano for small-volume pyroclastic flows generated by gravitational lava dome failures (Merapi-type nuées ardentes). Stratigraphic field data, published and new radiocarbon ages in conjunction with a new set of 40K-40Ar and 40Ar-39Ar ages, and whole-rock geochemical data allow a reassessment of the geological and geochemical evolution of the volcanic complex. An adapted version of the published geological map of Merapi [(Wirakusumah et al. 1989), Peta Geologi Gunungapi Merapi, Jawa Tengah (Geologic map of Merapi volcano, Central Java), 1:50,000] is presented, in which eight main volcano stratigraphic units are distinguished, linked to three main evolutionary stages of the volcanic complex—Proto-Merapi, Old Merapi and New Merapi. Construction of the Merapi volcanic complex began after 170 ka. The two earliest (Proto-Merapi) volcanic edifices, Gunung Bibi (109 ± 60 ka), a small basaltic andesite volcanic structure on Merapi's north-east flank, and Gunung Turgo and Gunung Plawangan (138 ± 3 ka; 135 ± 3 ka), two basaltic hills in the southern sector of the volcano, predate the Merapi cone sensu stricto. Old Merapi started to grow at ~30 ka, building a stratovolcano of basaltic andesite lavas and intercalated pyroclastic rocks. This older Merapi edifice was destroyed by one or, possibly, several flank failures, the latest of which occurred after 4.8 ± 1.5 ka and marks the end of the Old Merapi stage. The construction of the recent Merapi cone (New Merapi) began afterwards. Mostly basaltic andesite pyroclastic and epiclastic deposits of both Old and New Merapi (<11,792 ± 90 14C years BP) cover the lower flanks of the edifice. A shift from medium-K to high-K character of the eruptive products occurred at ~1,900 14C years BP, with all younger products having high-K affinity. The radiocarbon record points towards an

  2. Java multi-histogram volume rendering framework for medical images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senseney, Justin; Bokinsky, Alexandra; Cheng, Ruida; McCreedy, Evan; McAuliffe, Matthew J.

    2013-03-01

    This work extends the multi-histogram volume rendering framework proposed by Kniss et al. [1] to provide rendering results based on the impression of overlaid triangles on a graph of image intensity versus gradient magnitude. The developed method of volume rendering allows for greater emphasis to boundary visualization while avoiding issues common in medical image acquisition. For example, partial voluming effects in computed tomography and intensity inhomogeneity of similar tissue types in magnetic resonance imaging introduce pixel values that will not reflect differing tissue types when a standard transfer function is applied to an intensity histogram. This new framework uses developing technology to improve upon the Kniss multi-histogram framework by using Java, the GPU, and MIPAV, an open-source medical image processing application, to allow multi-histogram techniques to be widely disseminated. The OpenGL view aligned texture rendering approach suffered from performance setbacks, inaccessibility, and usability problems. Rendering results can now be interactively compared with other rendering frameworks, surfaces can now be extracted for use in other programs, and file formats that are widely used in the field of biomedical imaging can be visualized using this multi-histogram approach. OpenCL and GLSL are used to produce this new multi-histogram approach, leveraging texture memory on the graphics processing unit of desktops to provide a new interactive method for visualizing biomedical images. Performance results for this method are generated and qualitative rendering results are compared. The resulting framework provides the opportunity for further applications in medical imaging, both in volume rendering and in generic image processing.

  3. Using XML and Java Technologies for Astronomical Instrument Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ames, Troy; Case, Lynne; Powers, Edward I. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Traditionally, instrument command and control systems have been highly specialized, consisting mostly of custom code that is difficult to develop, maintain, and extend. Such solutions are initially very costly and are inflexible to subsequent engineering change requests, increasing software maintenance costs. Instrument description is too tightly coupled with details of implementation. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, under the Instrument Remote Control (IRC) project, is developing a general and highly extensible framework that applies to any kind of instrument that can be controlled by a computer. The software architecture combines the platform independent processing capabilities of Java with the power of the Extensible Markup Language (XML), a human readable and machine understandable way to describe structured data. A key aspect of the object-oriented architecture is that the software is driven by an instrument description, written using the Instrument Markup Language (IML), a dialect of XML. IML is used to describe the command sets and command formats of the instrument, communication mechanisms, format of the data coming from the instrument, and characteristics of the graphical user interface to control and monitor the instrument. The IRC framework allows the users to define a data analysis pipeline which converts data coming out of the instrument. The data can be used in visualizations in order for the user to assess the data in real-time, if necessary. The data analysis pipeline algorithms can be supplied by the user in a variety of forms or programming languages. Although the current integration effort is targeted for the High-resolution Airborne Wideband Camera (HAWC) and the Submillimeter and Far Infrared Experiment (SAFIRE), first-light instruments of the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA), the framework is designed to be generic and extensible so that it can be applied to any instrument. Plans are underway to test the framework

  4. Java Architecture for Detect and Avoid Extensibility and Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santiago, Confesor; Mueller, Eric Richard; Johnson, Marcus A.; Abramson, Michael; Snow, James William

    2015-01-01

    Unmanned aircraft will equip with a detect-and-avoid (DAA) system that enables them to comply with the requirement to "see and avoid" other aircraft, an important layer in the overall set of procedural, strategic and tactical separation methods designed to prevent mid-air collisions. This paper describes a capability called Java Architecture for Detect and Avoid Extensibility and Modeling (JADEM), developed to prototype and help evaluate various DAA technological requirements by providing a flexible and extensible software platform that models all major detect-and-avoid functions. Figure 1 illustrates JADEM's architecture. The surveillance module can be actual equipment on the unmanned aircraft or simulators that model the process by which sensors on-board detect other aircraft and provide track data to the traffic display. The track evaluation function evaluates each detected aircraft and decides whether to provide an alert to the pilot and its severity. Guidance is a combination of intruder track information, alerting, and avoidance/advisory algorithms behind the tools shown on the traffic display to aid the pilot in determining a maneuver to avoid a loss of well clear. All these functions are designed with a common interface and configurable implementation, which is critical in exploring DAA requirements. To date, JADEM has been utilized in three computer simulations of the National Airspace System, three pilot-in-the-loop experiments using a total of 37 professional UAS pilots, and two flight tests using NASA's Predator-B unmanned aircraft, named Ikhana. The data collected has directly informed the quantitative separation standard for "well clear", safety case, requirements development, and the operational environment for the DAA minimum operational performance standards. This work was performed by the Separation Assurance/Sense and Avoid Interoperability team under NASA's UAS Integration in the NAS project.

  5. Earthquake Early Warning Beta Users: Java, Modeling, and Mobile Apps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strauss, J. A.; Vinci, M.; Steele, W. P.; Allen, R. M.; Hellweg, M.

    2014-12-01

    Earthquake Early Warning (EEW) is a system that can provide a few to tens of seconds warning prior to ground shaking at a user's location. The goal and purpose of such a system is to reduce, or minimize, the damage, costs, and casualties resulting from an earthquake. A demonstration earthquake early warning system (ShakeAlert) is undergoing testing in the United States by the UC Berkeley Seismological Laboratory, Caltech, ETH Zurich, University of Washington, the USGS, and beta users in California and the Pacific Northwest. The beta users receive earthquake information very rapidly in real-time and are providing feedback on their experiences of performance and potential uses within their organization. Beta user interactions allow the ShakeAlert team to discern: which alert delivery options are most effective, what changes would make the UserDisplay more useful in a pre-disaster situation, and most importantly, what actions users plan to take for various scenarios. Actions could include: personal safety approaches, such as drop cover, and hold on; automated processes and procedures, such as opening elevator or fire stations doors; or situational awareness. Users are beginning to determine which policy and technological changes may need to be enacted, and funding requirements to implement their automated controls. The use of models and mobile apps are beginning to augment the basic Java desktop applet. Modeling allows beta users to test their early warning responses against various scenarios without having to wait for a real event. Mobile apps are also changing the possible response landscape, providing other avenues for people to receive information. All of these combine to improve business continuity and resiliency.

  6. Diatoms and Water Quality of Telaga Warna Dieng, Java Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Retnaningsih Soeprobowati, Tri; Widodo Agung Suedy, Sri; Hadiyanto

    2017-02-01

    Diatoms are popular name for Bacillariophyte, the microalgae with the specific characteristic of silicious cell walls that well preserved in the sediments. The different diatoms assemblage in the sediment layers indicate different environment at the time of the diatoms live and deposited. Telaga Warna is small lake in Dieng Plateau. Telaga means lake, Warna means colour. It is called Telaga Warna because previously have 4 colours i.e. red, white, blue, and yellow which was influenced by weather, time, and site of view. This study aims to analysis the diatoms communities and water quality of Telaga Warna Dieng, Java, Indonesia. Coring conducted at three different locations. Water sampling carried out on all three spots. Analysis of diatoms consist of three stages: digestion, preparation, and identification of diatoms. There were 59 diatoms species found in Telaga Warna Dieng that were belong to 9 groups diatoms of centric, arafid, eunotoid, birafid, monorafid, birafid, epitemid, nitzschioid, and surirelloid. Eunotia, Pinnularia, and Melosira were the dominant genus from Telaga Warna. The water quality parameters that exceeded Indonesia Water Quality Standard were pH (2.2 – 5.4), Pb, Cd, Cr, Cu. Based on the abundance of species Eunotia and Pinnularia in Telaga Warna Dieng indicates that water tends to be acidic. The dominance of Melosira indicates waters rich in nitrogen. Based on the total concentration of nitrogen and phosphorous, Telaga Warna was in an eutrophic – hipereutrophic conditions with total nitrogen concentration > 1.9 mg/L and total phosphorus concentration > 0.1 mg/L.

  7. Historical evidence of the 1936 Mojokerto skull discovery, East Java.

    PubMed

    Huffman, O Frank; Shipman, Pat; Hertler, Christine; de Vos, John; Aziz, Fachroel

    2005-04-01

    To resolve ambiguities in the literature, we detail the discovery history of the Mojokerto child's skull (Perning 1), employing letters, maps, photographs, reports, and newspaper accounts not previously used for this purpose. Andoyo, an experienced vertebrate-fossil collector with the Geological Survey of the Netherlands Indies, found the skull on February 13, 1936, while collecting for Johan Duyfjes, who had mapped the field area geologically. On February 18-19 Andoyo sent the fossil and a 1:25,000-topographic map showing the discovery point to Survey headquarters. The locality lies between Perning and Sumbertengu villages, approximately 10km northeast of Mojokerto city, East Java. G.H. Ralph von Koenigswald, Survey paleontologist, identified the specimen as Pithecanthropus and then named it Homo modjokertensis (it is now accepted as Homo erectus). Unfortunately he confused the discovery record in a March 28 newspaper article by characterizing the skull as a "surface find" [Dutch: oppervlaktevondst] while also attributing it to ancient beds. von Koenigswald probably had insufficient basis for either assertion, having not yet talked to Andoyo or Duyfjes. Eugene Dubois challenged von Koenigswald on the "surface-find" issue, Andoyo was consulted, and Duyfjes went to the site. Duyfjes and von Koenigswald then published scientific papers stating that the skull was unearthed 1m deep from a hill-slope outcrop of conglomeratic sandstone in Duyfjes' Pucangan formation. A cross section by Andoyo, which may show the Mojokerto site, also indicates a skull at 1m depth in conglomeratic sandstone. Photographs taken in 1936-1938 show a shallow pit at a single field location that fits Duyfjes' site description and is identified as the Mojokerto-skull site in 1940-1943 publications. By WWII the scientific community accepted the skull as an early hominid. Although von Koenigswald's "surface-find" comment remains a source of doubt in the record, we consider in situ discovery for the

  8. West Java Snack Mapping based on Snack Types, Main Ingredients, and Processing Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nurani, A. S.; Subekti, S.; Ana

    2016-04-01

    The research was motivated by lack of literature on archipelago snack especially from West Java. It aims to explore the snack types, the processing techniques, and the main ingredients by planning a learning material on archipelago cake especially from West Java. The research methods used are descriptive observations and interviews. The samples were randomly chosen from all regions in West Java. The findings show the identification of traditional snack from West java including: 1. snack types which are similar in all regions as research sample namely: opak, rangginang, nagasari, aliagrem, cuhcur, keripik, semprong, wajit, dodol, kecimpring, combro, tape ketan, and surabi. The typical snack types involve burayot (Garut), simping kaum (Purwakarta), surabi hejo (Karawang), papais cisaat (Subang), Papais moyong, opak bakar (Kuningan), opak oded, ranggesing (Sumedang), gapit, tapel (Cirebon), gulampo, kue aci (Tasikmalaya), wajit cililin, gurilem (West Bandung), and borondong (Bandung District); 2. various processing techniques namely: steaming, boiling, frying, caramelizing, baking, grilling, roaster, sugaring; 3. various main ingredients namely rice, local glutinous rice, rice flour, glutinous rice flour, starch, wheat flour, hunkue flour, cassava, sweet potato, banana, nuts, and corn; 4. snack classification in West Java namely (1) traditional snack, (2) creation-snack, (3) modification-snack, (4) outside influence-snack.

  9. Cloning of PRL and VIP cDNAs of the Java sparrow (Padda oryzivora).

    PubMed

    Hiyama, Gen; Sato, Tsukasa; Zadworny, David; Kansaku, Norio

    2009-04-01

    Complementary DNA (cDNA) of prolactin (PRL) and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) of the Java sparrow were cloned and sequenced. The proximal region of the PRL promoter was also identified. Java sparrow PRL was found to have 88.3, 88.3, and 89.1% sequence identity at the cDNA level to PRL of chicken, turkey, and duck, respectively. The predicted amino acid sequence had an overall similarity with a comparable region of chicken (91.4%), turkey (88.9%) and duck (92.0%) PRL. Based on the cDNA sequence and genomic structure of the chicken PRL gene, the proximal promoter was characterized. Sequence analysis of the proximal region of Java sparrow PRL promoter revealed a high degree of similarity to that of chicken, turkey and duck PRL promoters. Moreover, cDNA of prepro-VIP was also cloned and sequenced. Java sparrow prepro-VIP shows high similarity to chicken and turkey prepro-VIP. However, the region upstream of the 5' untranslated region of Java sparrow prepro-VIP did not show similarity to that of chicken. These results suggest that the mechanisms, which regulate expression of the VIP gene, may be different between precocial and altricial birds, but expression of the PRL gene may be widely conserved in avian species.

  10. A Directory Service for the CERN PS/SL Java Programming Interface

    SciTech Connect

    Cuperus, J.; Charrue, P.; DiMaio, F.; Kostro, K.; Watson, W.

    1999-10-01

    The CERN PS and SL accelerator control groups developed a common application programming interface (API) in Java [1]. Part of this API is a directory service that provide information about the underlying hardware and software. With this information, it is possible to write generic programs that do general actions on lists of devices without hard coding of device names. And, starting from a device name, full details about related devices, the device itself and its class and properties, can be obtained, including the meaning of bits and bit-patterns in status words. The interface definition is independent of any implementation but a reference implementation is provided using Java Database Connectivity (JDBC) against a set of tables in a relational database. Data from very different systems can be brought together and presented in a uniform way to the user. The full potential of the directory service is reached when it is used in software components (Java Beans).

  11. A preliminary study of paleotsunami deposit along the south coast of East Java: Pacitan-Banyuwangi

    SciTech Connect

    Anugrah, Suci D.; Istiyanati; Zaim, Yahdi; Rizal, Yan; Aswan

    2015-04-24

    Along the southern coast of East Java Indonesia, at a number of localities, it can be identified and attempted to assign the age of tsunami deposit. Laboratory analyses were conducted also to support this study such as Granulometry, Paleontology and radiometric dating analysis. The presence of tsunami 1994 deposit in the area of Pancer, Lampon, Prigi and Grajagan was found, as a result of 7.8 Magnitude Banyuwangi Earthquake. The radiometric dating analysis also identified some paleotsunami deposit of about 1921 and 1930 in the area of Prigi and Teleng. This paleotsunami is assumed to have a correlation with an earthquake in the south of Java at the same time. An outcrop in the Prigi and Teleng strongly convinced the fact of an earthquake generated tsunami in the south of Java in the year of about 1921 and 1930.

  12. Collaborative Scheduling Using JMS in a Mixed Java and .NET Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Yeou-Fang; Wax, Allan; Lam, Ray; Baldwin, John; Borden, Chet

    2006-01-01

    A collaborative framework/environment was proto-typed to prove the feasibility of scheduling space flight missions on NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN) in a distributed fashion. In this environment, effective collaboration relies on efficient communications among all flight mission and DSN scheduling users. There-fore, messaging becomes critical to timely event notification and data synchronization. In the prototype, a rapid messaging system using Java Message Service (JMS) in a mixed Java and .NET environment is established. This scheme allows both Java and .NET applications to communicate with each other for data synchronization and schedule negotiation. The JMS approach we used is based on a centralized messaging scheme. With proper use of a high speed messaging system, all users in this collaborative framework can communicate with each other to generate a schedule collaboratively to meet DSN and projects tracking needs.

  13. Server-Side JavaScript Debugging: Viewing the Contents of an Object

    SciTech Connect

    Hampton, J.; Simons, R.

    1999-04-21

    JavaScript allows the definition and use of large, complex objects. Unlike some other object-oriented languages, it also allows run-time modifications not only of the values of object components, but also of the very structure of the object itself. This feature is powerful and sometimes very convenient, but it can be difficult to keep track of the object's structure and values throughout program execution. What's needed is a simple way to view the current state of an object at any point during execution. There is a debug function that is included in the Netscape server-side JavaScript environment. The function outputs the value(s) of the expression given as the argument to the function in the JavaScript Application Manager's debug window [SSJS].

  14. BioLayout(Java): versatile network visualisation of structural and functional relationships.

    PubMed

    Goldovsky, Leon; Cases, Ildefonso; Enright, Anton J; Ouzounis, Christos A

    2005-01-01

    Visualisation of biological networks is becoming a common task for the analysis of high-throughput data. These networks correspond to a wide variety of biological relationships, such as sequence similarity, metabolic pathways, gene regulatory cascades and protein interactions. We present a general approach for the representation and analysis of networks of variable type, size and complexity. The application is based on the original BioLayout program (C-language implementation of the Fruchterman-Rheingold layout algorithm), entirely re-written in Java to guarantee portability across platforms. BioLayout(Java) provides broader functionality, various analysis techniques, extensions for better visualisation and a new user interface. Examples of analysis of biological networks using BioLayout(Java) are presented.

  15. Female autonomy, the family, and industrialization in Java.

    PubMed

    Wolf, D L

    1988-03-01

    It is generally argued that industrialization has an adverse affect on the position of women due to their exclusion from industrial employment and the resulting erosion of their status. This article addresses a case study of the question of gender stratification and industrialization by analyzing the relationship between factory daughters and their families in Java, Indonesia. From an initial 1-month daily survey of income and expenditures conducted among 14 workers in Nuwun, Wolf found that although they contributed 28% of their wages to the family, in cash or in kind, they overspent their wages by 40%. She then designed a more extensive survey, including questions about access to other income, debts, and savings. To determine if the relationship between daughters and family economy was related to residence, she expanded the survey to include 3 different groups of workers: commuters, migrants, and residents. Commuters lived with their parents in the agricultural village, Nuwan, and were the sole focus of the 1st income survey. Migrants were boarders in an industrialized village, Pamit, and residents walked to work. Single women are the focus of this paper due to the very different contribution daughters can potentially make to the family's welfare. The case study suggests that industrialization at the very least maintains, and may even enhance, female status within the family. To summarize, if a family can release a daughter for factory employment and can forgo the returns from her labor, there are eventual benefits for both the worker and her family. Worker-daughters are less of a financial burden on families. The savings provide surplus income that is not used for subsistence needs. Families gain tangible status goods that are displayed in the house and, at the same time, have access to insurance for crises and cash needs. Daughters, on the other hand, choose what to purchase and for whom. They gain prestige as donors of thoughtful gifts to family members, and

  16. 1883 Krakatau Tsunami Deposits In Teluk Banten (nw Java, Indonesia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Bergh, G. D.; van Weering, Tj. C. E.; de Haas, H.

    Teluk Banten is a shallow (less than 10 m deep) marine embayment with coral reef islands, close to the Krakatau volcanic complex and facing the Java Sea to the North. The 1883 Krakatau eruption generated a tsunami, which had a devastating effect on the neighboring coastal areas. In Teluk Banten the wave height was estimated to have been around 1.8 m. Relatively little is known about the effects of this tsunami on the sea floor. We have assessed the effects of the 1883 Krakatau eruption and the associ- ated tsunami on the bottom sediments in Teluk Banten by studying numerous bottom samples that were collected in and outside Teluk Banten with a gravity corer. On these cores we performed magnetic susceptibility measurements, XRF major element anal- ysis, grain size analysis and analysis of the downcore distribution of 210Pb isotopes. X-ray photographs were also taken of a number of cores. The 1883 tsunami layer has been identified in these bottom samples based on textural, compositional and 210Pb geochronological data. An important diagnostic criterion consists of the occurrence of tephra conform descriptions given of the tephra associated with the 1883 eruption. The spatial variability of the tsunamite in and outside Teluk Banten is described. The tsunamite consists of a sandy layer with abundant reworked shell and other carbon- ate fragments. Coarse clastic components in the tsunamite consist of locally derived material eroded from the marine bottom sediments (mostly pellets) and tephra. Only at close proximity to the south coast also land-derived components are incorporated in the tsunamite. The tsunamite has its thickest development in localized areas of the central bay. Along the northern seaward facing slope of the bay the tsunamite is best preserved, as little post-depositional modifications have occurred here. In the Eastern bay area subsequent erosion has supposedly removed the Krakatau event layer com- pletely. Along the West coast of Teluk Banten the only

  17. The effects of Ginseng Java root extract on uterine contractility in nonpregnant rats

    PubMed Central

    Sukwan, Catthareeya; Wray, Susan; Kupittayanant, Sajeera

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Ginseng Java or Talinum paniculatum (Jacq.) Geartn has long been used in herbal recipes because of its various therapeutic properties. Ginseng Java is believed to be beneficial to the female reproductive system by inducing lactation and restoring uterine functions after the postpartum period. There are, however, no scientific data on verifying the effects on the uterus to support its therapeutic relevance. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of Ginseng Java root extract and its possible mechanism(s) of action on uterine contractility. Female virgin rats were humanely killed by CO2 asphyxia and uteri removed. Isometric force was measured in strips of longitudinal myometrium. The effects of Ginseng Java root extract at its IC50 concentration (0.23 mg/mL) on spontaneous, oxytocin‐induced (10 nmol/L), and depolarized (KCl 40 mmol/L) contraction were investigated. After establishing regular phasic contractions, the application of Java root extract significantly inhibited spontaneous uterine contractility (n =5). The extract also significantly inhibited the contraction induced by high KCl solution (n =5) and oxytocin (n =5). The extract also inhibited oxytocin‐induced contraction in the absence of external Ca entry (n =7) and the tonic force induced by oxytocin in the presence of high KCl solution. Taken together, the data demonstrate a potent and consistent ability of extract from Ginseng Java root to reduce myometrial contractility. The tocolytic effects were demonstrated on both spontaneous and agonist‐induced contractions. The fact that force was inhibited in depolarized conditions suggests that the possible mechanisms may be blockade of Ca influx via L‐type Ca channels. The data in Ca‐free solutions suggest that the extract also reduces IP3‐induced Ca release from the internal store. These tocolytic effects do not support the use of ginseng to help with postpartum contractility, but instead suggest it may be

  18. Multi-tier Internet Architecture with Java, UML and OOA &D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavez, J.

    The Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) is the fourth and final element in NASA's family of ``Great Observatories'' and is set for a December 2001 launch. SIRTF will provide infrared imaging and spectroscopy in the 3 to 180-micron wavelength range. SIRTF will deploy an Internet Java application, the SIRTF Planning and Observation Tools (SPOT) to facilitate the proposal creation, editing and monitoring processes. Java will provide a development and runtime environment capable of supporting the diverse and globally dispersed astronomical community. The SPOT will provide a means of standardized input of observation parameters that can be integrated into the mission planning function using predefined workflow processes. The use of highly automated workflow processes will help keep the Development and Operations budgets within their current cost constraints. The Science Operations Application Server (SOAS) is being designed and developed to support the SPOT and Science Operations System (SOS). SOAS will provide integration of back end services such as database, astronomical catalogs, and estimation software and legacy software libraries. Development of this application server architecture required the design and development of an object communications architecture and software deployment mechanism. The object communications architecture makes use of the built in serialization capabilities of Java and the Hypertext Transport Protocol (HTTP) for implementation. The software deployment mechanism is designed to provide initial software installation and an automated update facility and is implemented using a Commercial Off The Shelf (COTS) software package. Enterprise Java Beans will be developed and deployed within the SOAS to satisfy requests to the DBMS for proposal processing. This presentation will also cover the synergy between the UML and Java. The SOAS development team will utilize OOA&D, the UML and Java to design, document and implement the SOAS.

  19. Towards a Framework for Generating Tests to Satisfy Complex Code Coverage in Java Pathfinder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staats, Matt

    2009-01-01

    We present work on a prototype tool based on the JavaPathfinder (JPF) model checker for automatically generating tests satisfying the MC/DC code coverage criterion. Using the Eclipse IDE, developers and testers can quickly instrument Java source code with JPF annotations covering all MC/DC coverage obligations, and JPF can then be used to automatically generate tests that satisfy these obligations. The prototype extension to JPF enables various tasks useful in automatic test generation to be performed, such as test suite reduction and execution of generated tests.

  20. A Probabilistic Tsunami Assessment for Western Australia and the South coast of Java

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burbidge, D. R.; Cummins, P. R.; Thio, H. K.

    2006-12-01

    Prior to July 2006, the only known, large megathrust earthquake known to have occurred (Mw=7.6, on 2 June, 1994) south of Java could be argued to be an anomaly in what is essentially aseismic subduction in this part of the Sunda Arc. The occurrence of a second such event (Mw=7.8) on 17 July, however, has demonstrated that they can occur anywhere along the Sunda Arc. These events produced large tsunamis along the coast of Java that killed hundreds (222 and 663, respectively). On the one hand, these earthquakes are much smaller than the Mw=9+ earthquakes known to occur off Sumatra, and the mortality associated with them is much smaller than the staggering human toll of the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami (IOT), which killed 167,000 on the Sumatran coast. On the other hand, the density of population along the south Java coast is much higher than that along the Sumatran coast, and we do not know how large or how frequent tsunamigenic earthquakes off Java may be. The possibility exists that tsunami risk, as measured in human lives, may be higher for Java than for Sumatra. Furthermore, future events off Sumatra can be expected off its central and perhaps its southern coast, where most of the teletsunami energy will be directed into the open Indian Ocean. Events off Java, however, will direct much more teletsunami energy towards the northwest coast of Australia. Both the 1994 and the 2006 tsunamis originating off south Java caused significant tsunamis at specific locations along the West Australian coast. Here we present a new probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment for the offshore wave height expected along the south coast of Java and the West Australian coast from earthquakes along the Sunda Arc subduction zone. This assessment is based on a new estimate of the rate of megathrust earthquake occurrence along the Sunda Arc subduction zone based on the global rate of occurrence of giant subduction zone earthquakes, the length of the subduction zone and its rate of convergence

  1. Design Study on Integration of StarView II and JIPA Using Advanced Java Mech anisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolensky, Markus; Mayhew, Bruce; Kennedy, Bridget

    This case study examines the use of the latest software techniques for merging independent Java applets and applications. STScI's new Java interface to the archive, StarView II, will make use of the ST-ECF stand-alone FITS image viewer JIPA. We discuss how state-of-the-art software techniques like Remote Method Invocation (RMI), multithreading, and the Reflection API influence the design of a common interface between StarView II and JIPA. Furthermore, it is demonstrated how the JDBC interface will provide the two applications with concurrent access to the archive.

  2. A new small karst-dwelling species of Cyrtodactylus (Reptilia: Squamata: Gekkonidae) from Java, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Riyanto, Awal; Bauer, Aaron M; Yudha, Donan Satria

    2014-04-07

    A new small karst-dwelling species of the genus Cyrtodactylus is described from East Java and Special Province of Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Cyrtodactylus semiadii sp. nov. is a small species (SVL to 47.1 mm in females, 42.1 mm in males) distinguished from all other congeners by unique characters combination: short, robust, cylindrical tail, indistinct ventrolateral folds, absence of precloacal groove, absence of enlarged femoral scales, absence of precloacal and femoral pores and lack of enlarged median subcaudal scales. It is the third member of the genus recorded from Java

  3. Understanding Resonance Graphs Using Easy Java Simulations (EJS) and Why We Use EJS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wee, Loo Kang; Lee, Tat Leong; Chew, Charles; Wong, Darren; Tan, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports a computer model simulation created using Easy Java Simulation (EJS) for learners to visualize how the steady-state amplitude of a driven oscillating system varies with the frequency of the periodic driving force. The simulation shows (N = 100) identical spring-mass systems being subjected to (1) a periodic driving force of…

  4. Measuring the Effects of Virtual Pair Programming in an Introductory Programming Java Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zacharis, N. Z.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of virtual pair programming (VPP) on student performance and satisfaction in an introductory Java course. Students used online tools that integrated desktop sharing and real-time communication, and the metrics examined showed that VPP is an acceptable alternative to individual programming experience.…

  5. Complete Whole-Genome Sequence of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovar Java NCTC5706.

    PubMed

    Fazal, Mohammed-Abbas; Alexander, Sarah; Burnett, Edward; Deheer-Graham, Ana; Oliver, Karen; Holroyd, Nancy; Parkhill, Julian; Russell, Julie E

    2016-11-03

    Salmonellae are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality globally. Here, we report the first complete genome sequence for Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Java strain NCTC5706. This strain is of historical significance, having been isolated in the pre-antibiotic era and was deposited into the National Collection of Type Cultures in 1939.

  6. Complete Whole-Genome Sequence of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovar Java NCTC5706

    PubMed Central

    Fazal, Mohammed-Abbas; Burnett, Edward; Deheer-Graham, Ana; Oliver, Karen; Holroyd, Nancy; Russell, Julie E.

    2016-01-01

    Salmonellae are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality globally. Here, we report the first complete genome sequence for Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Java strain NCTC5706. This strain is of historical significance, having been isolated in the pre-antibiotic era and was deposited into the National Collection of Type Cultures in 1939. PMID:27811100

  7. [Some notes on methods of age estimation: an attempt in a Sundanese village, West Java].

    PubMed

    Igarashi, T

    1982-09-01

    This study is concerned with the problem of age misstatement in Indonesia. The author first presents an analysis of age data that were collected directly from the population of a Sundanese village in West Java and that indicate the extent of the problem. Various approaches used to estimate age and the problems associated with their use are then described. (summary in ENG)

  8. Programmed Instruction for Teaching Java: Consideration of Learn Unit Frequency and Rule-Test Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emurian, Henry H.

    2007-01-01

    At the beginning of a Java computer programming course, nine students in an undergraduate class and nine students in a graduate class completed a web-based programmed instruction tutoring system that taught a simple computer program. All students exited the tutor with an identical level of skill, at least as determined by the tutor's required…

  9. Cyclospora cayetanensis among expatriate and indigenous populations of West Java, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Fryauff, D J; Krippner, R; Prodjodipuro, P; Ewald, C; Kawengian, S; Pegelow, K; Yun, T; von Heydwolff-Wehnert, C; Oyofo, B; Gross, R

    1999-01-01

    From January 1995 through July 1998, we investigated the occurrence of Cyclospora cayetanensis infection associated with gastrointestinal illness or diarrhea in foreign residents and natives of West Java, Indonesia. We found that C. cayetanensis was the main protozoal cause of gastrointestinal illness and diarrhea in adult foreign residents during the wet season. The parasite rarely caused illness in the indigenous population or in children.

  10. Geological structure analysis in Central Java using travel time tomography technique of S waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palupi, I. R.; Raharjo, W.; Nurdian, S. W.; Giamboro, W. S.; Santoso, A.

    2016-11-01

    Java is one of the islands in Indonesia that is prone to the earthquakes, in south of Java, there is the Australian Plate move to the Java island and press with perpendicular direction. This plate movement formed subduction zone and cause earthquakes. The earthquake is the release of energy due to the sudden movement of the plates. When an earthquake occurs, the energy is released and record by seismometers in the waveform. The first wave recorded is called the P waves (primary) and the next wave is called S waves (secondary). Both of these waves have different characteristics in terms of propagation and direction of movement. S wave is composed of waves of Rayleigh and Love waves, with each direction of movement of the vertical and horizontal, subsurface imaging by using S wave tomography technique can describe the type of the S wave through the medium. The variation of wave velocity under Central Java (esearch area) is ranging from -10% to 10% at the depth of 20, 30 and 40 km, the velocity decrease with the depth increase. Moho discontinuity is lies in the depth of 32 km under the crust, it is indicates there is strong heterogenity in Moho.

  11. Comparing the Effectiveness of Self-Learning Java Workshops with Traditional Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eranki, Kiran L. N.; Moudgalya, Kannan M.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we study the effectiveness of a method called Spoken Tutorial, which is a candidate technique for self-learning. The performance of college students who self-learned Java through the Spoken Tutorial method is found to be better than that of conventional learners. Although the method evaluated in this work helps both genders, females…

  12. Eco-Tourism Development Strategy Balurannational Park in the Regency of Situbondo, East Java, Indonesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siswanto, Adil; Moeljadi

    2015-01-01

    Baluran National Park in the regency of Situbondo, East Java-Indonesia, highly prospective for development of sustainable tourism that can improve the welfare of local people. The suitable tourism type is eco-tourism with local people involvement. The purposes of this study are: 1) To know the local people involvement in eco-tourism development;…

  13. Project Golden Gate: towards real-time Java in space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dvorak, Daniel; Bollella, Greg; Canham, Tim; Carson, Vanessa; Champlin, Virgil; Giovannoni, Brian; Indictor, Mark; Meyer, Kenny; Murray, Alex; Reinholtz, Kirk

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the problem domain and our experimentation with the first commercial implementation of the Real Time Specification for Java. The two main issues explored in this report are: (1) the effect of RTSJ's non-heap memory on the programming model, and (2) performance benchmarking of RTSJ/Linux relative to C++/VxWorks.

  14. A distributed computing system for magnetic resonance imaging: Java-based processing and binding of XML.

    PubMed

    de Beer, R; Graveron-Demilly, D; Nastase, S; van Ormondt, D

    2004-03-01

    Recently we have developed a Java-based heterogeneous distributed computing system for the field of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). It is a software system for embedding the various image reconstruction algorithms that we have created for handling MRI data sets with sparse sampling distributions. Since these data sets may result from multi-dimensional MRI measurements our system has to control the storage and manipulation of large amounts of data. In this paper we describe how we have employed the extensible markup language (XML) to realize this data handling in a highly structured way. To that end we have used Java packages, recently released by Sun Microsystems, to process XML documents and to compile pieces of XML code into Java classes. We have effectuated a flexible storage and manipulation approach for all kinds of data within the MRI system, such as data describing and containing multi-dimensional MRI measurements, data configuring image reconstruction methods and data representing and visualizing the various services of the system. We have found that the object-oriented approach, possible with the Java programming environment, combined with the XML technology is a convenient way of describing and handling various data streams in heterogeneous distributed computing systems.

  15. An Implementation of Secure Flow Type Interference for a Subset of Java

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-09-01

    Smart cards play an important role in a digital society. A smart card contains memory or an embedded microprocessor with the capability of enabling a...violations. This technique is developed further here for a language called Java Card, in which smart card applications are written. A prototype

  16. Architecture, Design, and Development of an HTML/JavaScript Web-Based Group Support System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romano, Nicholas C., Jr.; Nunamaker, Jay F., Jr.; Briggs, Robert O.; Vogel, Douglas R.

    1998-01-01

    Examines the need for virtual workspaces and describes the architecture, design, and development of GroupSystems for the World Wide Web (GSWeb), an HTML/JavaScript Web-based Group Support System (GSS). GSWeb, an application interface similar to a Graphical User Interface (GUI), is currently used by teams around the world and relies on user…

  17. Java RMI Software Technology for the Payload Planning System of the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, Barrett R.

    1999-01-01

    The Payload Planning System is for experiment planning on the International Space Station. The planning process has a number of different aspects which need to be stored in a database which is then used to generate reports on the planning process in a variety of formats. This process is currently structured as a 3-tier client/server software architecture comprised of a Java applet at the front end, a Java server in the middle, and an Oracle database in the third tier. This system presently uses CGI, the Common Gateway Interface, to communicate between the user-interface and server tiers and Active Data Objects (ADO) to communicate between the server and database tiers. This project investigated other methods and tools for performing the communications between the three tiers of the current system so that both the system performance and software development time could be improved. We specifically found that for the hardware and software platforms that PPS is required to run on, the best solution is to use Java Remote Method Invocation (RMI) for communication between the client and server and SQLJ (Structured Query Language for Java) for server interaction with the database. Prototype implementations showed that RMI combined with SQLJ significantly improved performance and also greatly facilitated construction of the communication software.

  18. Assessing Students' Structured Programming Skills with Java: The "Blue, Berry, and Blueberry" Assignment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Xihui

    2010-01-01

    Java is an object-oriented programming language. From a software engineering perspective, object-oriented design and programming is used at the architectural design, and structured design and programming is used at the detailed design within methods. As such, structured programming skills are fundamental to more advanced object-oriented…

  19. Dusk to dawn activity patterns of anopheline mosquitoes in West Timor and Java, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Ndoen, Ermi; Wild, Clyde; Dale, Pat; Sipe, Neil; Dale, Mike

    2011-05-01

    Malaria is a serious health issue in Indonesia. We investigated the dusk to dawn anopheline mosquito activity patterns, host-seeking and resting locations in coastal plain, hilly and highland areas in West Timor and Java. Adult mosquitoes were captured landing on humans or resting in houses or animal barns. Data analyzed were: mosquito night-time activities; period of peak activity; night-time activity in specific periods of time and for mosquito resting locations. Eleven species were recorded; data were sparse for some species therefore detailed analyses were performed for four species only. In Java Anopheles vagus was common, with a bimodal pattern of high activity. In West Timor, its activity peaked around midnight. Other species with peak activity around the middle of the night were An. barbirostris and An. subpictus. Most species showed no biting and resting preference for indoors or outdoors, although An. barbirostris preferred indoors in West Timor, but outdoors in Java. An. aconitus and An. annularis preferred resting in human dwellings; An. subpictus and An. vagus preferred resting in animal barns. An. barbirostris preferred resting in human dwellings in West Timor and in animal barns in Java. The information is useful for planning the mosquito control aspect of malaria management. For example, where mosquito species have peak activity at night indoors, bednets and indoor residual spraying should reduce malaria risk, but where mosquitoes are most active outdoors, other options may be more effective.

  20. FMT (Flight Software Memory Tracker) For Cassini Spacecraft-Software Engineering Using JAVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kan, Edwin P.; Uffelman, Hal; Wax, Allan H.

    1997-01-01

    The software engineering design of the Flight Software Memory Tracker (FMT) Tool is discussed in this paper. FMT is a ground analysis software set, consisting of utilities and procedures, designed to track the flight software, i.e., images of memory load and updatable parameters of the computers on-board Cassini spacecraft. FMT is implemented in Java.

  1. High Resolution Hypocenter Relocation for Events in Central Java, Indonesia using Double-Difference Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahara, D. P.; Widiyantoro, S.; Nugraha, A. D.; Sule, R.; Luehr, B. G.

    2010-12-01

    Seismic and volcanic activities in Central Java are highly related to the subduction of the Indo-Australian plate. In the MERapi AMphibious Experiments (MERAMEX), a network consisting of 169 seismographic stations was installed onshore and offshore in central Java and recorded 282 events during the operation. In this study, we present the results of relative hypocenters relocation by using Double Difference (DD) method to image the subduction beneath the volcanic chain in central Java. The DD method is an iterative procedure using Least Square optimization to determine high-resolution hypocenter locations over large distances. This relocation method uses absolute travel-time measurements and/or cross-correlation of P- and S-wave differential travel-time measurements. The preliminary results of our study showed that the algorithm could collapse the diffused event locations obtained from previous study into a sharp image of seismicity structure and reduce the residual travel time errors significantly (7 - 60%). As a result, narrow regions of a double seismic zone which correlated with the subducting slab can be determined more accurately. The dip angle of the slab increases gradually from almost horizontal beneath offshore to very steep (65-80 degrees) beneath the northern part of central Java. The aseismic gap at depths of 140 km - 185 km is also depicted clearly. The next step of the ongoing research is to provide detailed quantitative constraints on the structures of the mantle wedge and crust beneath central Java and to show the ascending paths of fluids and partially molten materials below the volcanic arc by applying Double-Difference Tomography method (TomoDD).

  2. Anomalous Java cooling at the initiation of positive Indian Ocean Dipole events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delman, Andrew S.; Sprintall, Janet; McClean, Julie L.; Talley, Lynne D.

    2016-08-01

    Anomalous sea surface temperature (SST) cooling south of Java, initiated during May-July, is an important precursor to positive Indian Ocean Dipole (pIOD) events. As shown previously, the Java SST anomalies are spatially and temporally coincident with seasonal upwelling induced locally by southeasterly trade winds. However, we confirm earlier findings that interannual variability of the Java cooling is primarily driven by remote wind forcing from coastal Sumatra and the equatorial Indian Ocean (EqIO); we also find an influence from winds along the Indonesian Throughflow. The wind forcing in the EqIO and along coastal Sumatra does not initiate SST cooling locally due to a deep thermocline and thick barrier layer, but can force upwelling Kelvin waves that induce substantial surface cooling once they reach the seasonally shallower thermocline near the coast of Java. Satellite altimetry is used to obtain a Kelvin wave coefficient that approximates Kelvin wave amplitude variations along the equator. All pIOD years in the satellite record have anomalous levels of upwelling Kelvin wave activity along the equator during April-June, suggesting that upwelling waves during this season are necessary for pIOD event development. However, a change to wind-forced downwelling Kelvin waves during July-August can abruptly terminate cool Java SST anomalies and weaken the pIOD event. Upwelling Kelvin wave activity along the equator and wind stress anomalies west of Sumatra are both robust predictors of the IOD index later in the calendar year, while values of the Kelvin wave coefficient are the most reliable predictor of pIOD events specifically.

  3. Museum of Perception and Cognition website: using JavaScript to increase interactivity in Web-based presentations.

    PubMed

    Lange, M

    1999-02-01

    The present paper introduces the Museum of Perception and Cognition website. This site offers an interactive introduction to cognitive psychology via a JavaScript-based illustration of optical illusions and a Java-based presentation of experimental paradigms. Its content and utilization as lecture support for 1st-year students at Free University of Brussels is described. This paper also endeavors to share experience we gained in Web-based lecture materials development. It introduces the Web lecturer with JavaScript features and utilization and provides him/her with a description of reusable JavaScript routines downloadable from our site that relate to more engaging, interactive, and effective Web-based presentation of course materials.

  4. The Influence of Remote Wind Forcing and Kelvin Waves on the Java Upwelling in Positive IOD Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delman, A. S.; Sprintall, J.; McClean, J.; Talley, L. D.

    2014-12-01

    The seasonal upwelling region just south of Java, Indonesia plays a critical role in the development and evolution of Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) events. In this study the effects of local and remote surface wind anomalies on the interannual variability of SST south of Java are investigated using remote sensing datasets. Though upwelling-favorable winds along the Java coast are responsible for the seasonal SST cooling (June-September) in most years, the anomalously enhanced upwelling that precedes positive IOD (IOD+) events is almost entirely associated with remote wind forcing. Surface wind-SST anomaly correlations for May-July and composites of the early phases of IOD+ events both suggest that the anomalous Java upwelling is closely linked to strengthened southeasterly winds in the eastern equatorial Ocean and along the coast of Sumatra. In contrast, only minor wind anomalies are observed along coastal Java during IOD+ years. To explain the influence of remote winds on the interannual variability of Java upwelling, we also quantify oceanic Kelvin wave activity along the equator-Sumatra-Java waveguide. A sea level projection method is applied to altimetric observations, removing sea level anomaly (SLA) variations due to steric height changes and Rossby waves. The method produces a Kelvin wave amplitude that is more robustly correlated with SST cooling south of Java than gridded SLA. Extreme negative values of the Kelvin wave amplitude in May-July, corresponding to high-amplitude upwelling waves, precede all of the strong IOD+ events in the period of record. These results suggest an outsize impact from anomalous winds in the equatorial-coastal waveguide during austral late fall/early winter, and emphasize the important role of oceanic Kelvin waves in conveying remote wind forcing to the upwelling region.

  5. Identification of the terebrantian thrips (Insecta, Thysanoptera) associated with cultivated plants in Java, Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Sartiami, Dewi; Mound, Laurence A.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract An illustrated identification key is provided to 49 species of Thysanoptera, Terebrantia that have been found in association with cultivated plants in Java. This is the first published identification system to this group of insects from Indonesia, and includes 15 species not previously recorded from Indonesia, and a further three species not previously recorded from Java. A table is provided indicating the plants from which thrips were taken. PMID:23794915

  6. Identification of the terebrantian thrips (Insecta, Thysanoptera) associated with cultivated plants in Java, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Sartiami, Dewi; Mound, Laurence A

    2013-01-01

    An illustrated identification key is provided to 49 species of Thysanoptera, Terebrantia that have been found in association with cultivated plants in Java. This is the first published identification system to this group of insects from Indonesia, and includes 15 species not previously recorded from Indonesia, and a further three species not previously recorded from Java. A table is provided indicating the plants from which thrips were taken.

  7. Notes on species belonging to the genus coreomyces (laboulbeniales) collected from java island, indonesia.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yong-Bo; Na, Young-Hee; Kim, Sung-Jun; Lim, Chae-Kyu

    2008-06-01

    Four species of Laboulbeniales collected from Java Island, Indonesia between August and September in 2006 are described. These species, which belong to the genus Coreomyces and were found on the family Corixidae of the order Hemiptera, were as follows; Coreomycus corixae Thaxter, Coreomyces micronectae Thaxter and Coreomyces orientalis Thaxter, which were found on Micronecta sedula Horvath, and Coreomyces recurvatus Thaxter, which was found on Micronecta sedula Horvath and Xenocorixa sp. C. corixae Thaxter and C. orientalis Thaxter were originally found on Micronecta, whereas C. recurvatus Thaxter was originally found on Xenocorixa. All species described herein are new to Java Island. The specimens were deposited in the Biological Herbarium, Division of Science Education, College of Education, Chosun University.

  8. Identifying of ground water level by using geoelectric method in Karanganyar, Central Java, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koesuma, S.; Sulastoro

    2016-11-01

    This study aims to determine ground water level in Karanganyar regency, Central Java Province, Indonesia. Karanganyar regency is located in west flank of Lawu volcano, the third highest volcano in Central Java Province. Karanganyar lays from the top submit of Lawu volcano to down town of city with altitude 3265 m to 88 m. Same as other mountain area, Karanganyar has a lot of ground water potential. We use geoelectric method to finds out how deep of ground water level. The survey locations are distributed surround Karanganyar regency which contain 22 sites, in period survey of 2013 - 2015. Schlumberger configuration is used for acqusition data with lenght of current electrode distance varies from 1 m to 700 m. The result shows that ground water level are located in depth from 50 meter to 150 meter with lithology of tuff and sand. In Munggur and Kedung Jeruk sites, we found two potential aquifers, which are shallow and deep aquifers.

  9. Nutritional value of spiny lobsters (Panulirus sp.) from Southern Coast of Java

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haryono, F. Eko Dwi; Hutabarat, Sahala; Hutabarat, Johannes; Ambariyanto

    2015-12-01

    Five species of spiny lobsters are known to live in southern coast of Java. These lobsters are very popular seafood which was believed to have high nutritional value. However, nutrition content of these species from the area has not been investigated. This research was conducted to study nutrition content in these crustaceans. Five spiny lobsters i.e. Panulirus homarus, P. versicolor, P. ornatus, P. penicullatus, and P. longipes, were collected randomly from different locations at the southern coast of Java. Morphometric measurements were conducted prior to proximate analysis of these lobsters. All species of spiny lobsters investigated have similar carapace length. However, P. homarus and P. versicolor have the highest muscle weight. Proximate analysis shows that P. homarus also has high protein (24.18%) and carbohydrate content (55.68%) and lowest lipid content (6.18%) compare with other species. These results suggest that this lobster has best nutritional value for consumption.

  10. An open source Java web application to build self-contained Web GIS sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavala Romero, O.; Ahmed, A.; Chassignet, E.; Zavala-Hidalgo, J.

    2014-12-01

    This work describes OWGIS, an open source Java web application that creates Web GIS sites by automatically writing HTML and JavaScript code. OWGIS is configured by XML files that define which layers (geographic datasets) will be displayed on the websites. This project uses several Open Geospatial Consortium standards to request data from typical map servers, such as GeoServer, and is also able to request data from ncWMS servers. The latter allows for the displaying of 4D data stored using the NetCDF file format (widely used for storing environmental model datasets). Some of the features available on the sites built with OWGIS are: multiple languages, animations, vertical profiles and vertical transects, color palettes, color ranges, and the ability to download data. OWGIS main users are scientists, such as oceanographers or climate scientists, who store their data in NetCDF files and want to analyze, visualize, share, or compare their data using a website.

  11. Earthquake hypocenter relocation using double difference method in East Java and surrounding areas

    SciTech Connect

    C, Aprilia Puspita; Nugraha, Andri Dian; Puspito, Nanang T

    2015-04-24

    Determination of precise hypocenter location is very important in order to provide information about subsurface fault plane and for seismic hazard analysis. In this study, we have relocated hypocenter earthquakes in Eastern part of Java and surrounding areas from local earthquake data catalog compiled by Meteorological, Climatological, and Geophysical Agency of Indonesia (MCGA) in time period 2009-2012 by using the double-difference method. The results show that after relocation processes, there are significantly changes in position and orientation of earthquake hypocenter which is correlated with the geological setting in this region. We observed indication of double seismic zone at depths of 70-120 km within the subducting slab in south of eastern part of Java region. Our results will provide useful information for advance seismological studies and seismic hazard analysis in this study.

  12. Java-based framework for the secure distribution of electronic medical records.

    PubMed

    Goh, A

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, we present a Java-based framework for the processing, storage and delivery of Electronic Medical Records (EMR). The choice of Java as a developmental and operational environment ensures operability over a wide-range of client-side platforms, with our on-going work emphasising migration towards Extensible Markup Language (XML) capable Web browser clients. Telemedicine in support of womb-to-tomb healthcare as articulated by the Multimedia Supercorridor (MSC) Telemedicine initiative--which motivated this project--will require high-volume data exchange over an insecure public-access Wide Area Network (WAN), thereby requiring a hybrid cryptosystem with both symmetric and asymmetric components. Our prototype framework features a pre-transaction authentication and key negotiation sequence which can be readily modified for client-side environments ranging from Web browsers without local storage capability to workstations with serial connectivity to a tamper-proof device, and also for point-to-multipoint transaction processes.

  13. Tatool: a Java-based open-source programming framework for psychological studies.

    PubMed

    von Bastian, Claudia C; Locher, André; Ruflin, Michael

    2013-03-01

    Tatool (Training and Testing Tool) was developed to assist researchers with programming training software, experiments, and questionnaires. Tatool is Java-based, and thus is a platform-independent and object-oriented framework. The architecture was designed to meet the requirements of experimental designs and provides a large number of predefined functions that are useful in psychological studies. Tatool comprises features crucial for training studies (e.g., configurable training schedules, adaptive training algorithms, and individual training statistics) and allows for running studies online via Java Web Start. The accompanying "Tatool Online" platform provides the possibility to manage studies and participants' data easily with a Web-based interface. Tatool is published open source under the GNU Lesser General Public License, and is available at www.tatool.ch.

  14. A Toba-scale eruption in the Early Miocene: The Semilir eruption, East Java, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smyth, Helen R.; Crowley, Quentin G.; Hall, Robert; Kinny, Peter D.; Hamilton, P. Joseph; Schmidt, Daniela N.

    2011-10-01

    The Indonesian archipelago is well-known for volcanic activity and has been the location of three catastrophic eruptions in the last million years: Krakatau, Tambora and Toba. However, there are no reports of large magnitude eruptions during the earlier Cenozoic despite a long volcanic record in Indonesia during subduction of Indian Ocean lithosphere since the Eocene. Here we report an Early Miocene major eruption, the Semilir eruption, in south Java, the main phase of which occurred at 20.7 ± 0.02 Ma. This major volcanic eruption appears similar in scale, but not in type, to the 74 ka Toba event. Its products can be identified elsewhere in Java and are likely to have been distributed widely in SE Asia and adjacent oceans. The Semilir eruption could have triggered a climate response, but cannot yet be linked with certainty to Early Miocene climatic events such as glaciations.

  15. A Standard Java Virtual Machine for Real-Time Embedded Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Bruin, F.; Deladerrière, F.; Siebert, F.

    The AERO (Architecture for Enhanced Reprogrammability and Operability) is an ESA project with the objectives to investigate on a real-time Java virtual machine for ERC32 processor. Special attention was put on the garbage collection mechanism and deterministic execution model. The project have first investigate existing virtual machine to choose a potential candidate that will be customized, are then investigates the definition of requirements concerning a real-time interpreter in on-board systems. The second phase of the project was dedicated to the definition of software functions of the real-time Java virtual machine and to their implementation and assessment through validation tests. The resulting application is the AERO-JVM.

  16. Earthquake hypocenter relocation using double difference method in East Java and surrounding areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    C, Aprilia Puspita; Nugraha, Andri Dian; Puspito, Nanang T.

    2015-04-01

    Determination of precise hypocenter location is very important in order to provide information about subsurface fault plane and for seismic hazard analysis. In this study, we have relocated hypocenter earthquakes in Eastern part of Java and surrounding areas from local earthquake data catalog compiled by Meteorological, Climatological, and Geophysical Agency of Indonesia (MCGA) in time period 2009-2012 by using the double-difference method. The results show that after relocation processes, there are significantly changes in position and orientation of earthquake hypocenter which is correlated with the geological setting in this region. We observed indication of double seismic zone at depths of 70-120 km within the subducting slab in south of eastern part of Java region. Our results will provide useful information for advance seismological studies and seismic hazard analysis in this study.

  17. Serologic and molecular characteristics of hepatitis B virus among school children in East Java, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Utsumi, Takako; Yano, Yoshihiko; Lusida, Maria Inge; Amin, Mochamad; Soetjipto; Hotta, Hak; Hayashi, Yoshitake

    2010-07-01

    Universal childhood hepatitis B vaccination was introduced in Indonesia in 1997; by 2008, coverage was estimated to be 78%. This study aimed to investigate the serologic status and virologic characteristics of hepatitis B virus (HBV) among the children in East Java. A total of 229 healthy children born during 1994-1999 were enrolled in this study. Overall, 3.1% were positive for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and 23.6% were positive for antibody to HBsAg (anti-HBs). HBV DNA was detected in 5 of 222 HBsAg-negative carriers, which were suggested to be cases of occult HBV infection. A single amino substitution (T126I) in the S region was frequently found. HBV infection remains endemic, and the prevalence of anti-HBs remains insufficient among children in East Java, Indonesia.

  18. Cross-Platform JavaScript Coding: Shifting Sand Dunes and Shimmering Mirages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merchant, David

    1999-01-01

    Most libraries don't have the resources to cross-platform and cross-version test all of their JavaScript coding. Many turn to WYSIWYG; however, WYSIWYG editors don't generally produce optimized coding. Web developers should: test their coding on at least one 3.0 browser, code by hand using tools to help speed that process up, and include a simple…

  19. An explorative multiproxy approach to characterize the ecospace of Homo erectus at Sangiran (Java, Indonesia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hertler, Christine; Haupt, Susanne; Lüdecke, Tina; Wirkner, Mathias; Bruch, Angela

    2015-04-01

    Homo erectus inhabited the islands of the Sunda Shelf in the late Early Pleistocene. This is illustrated by an extensive record of hominid specimens stemming from a variety of sites in Java. The hominid locality Sangiran plays a crucial role in studying related environments, because the geological record at the Sangiran dome covers a stratigraphic sequence, unlike any other hominid site in Java. Although the detailed chronology of the localities in Java is still under dispute, it covers the period between the late Early and early Middle Pleistocene. Fossil evidence includes the hominin specimens proper, diverse and evolving vertebrate faunas as well as pollen profiles. We applied a multiproxy approach to analyse and reconstruct features of the Homo erectus ecospace. Preliminary results of our explorative study are introduced in this paper. Based on the pollen record, we reconstructed temperature and precipitation for the major stratigraphic units. Although resulting values are averaging over wide chronological intervals, they illustrate general climatic trends in the late Early and early Middle Pleistocene in accordance with previous studies and the MIS record. The mammalian specimens we selected for this preliminary study possess a more restricted stratigraphic provenience. Our analyses are based on a dental sample of Duboisia santeng from the Koenigswald collection (n=14). The occurrence of the taxon is restricted to 3 layers in the stratigraphy. We reconstructed body mass and inferred diet from mesowear and isotope studies. There is no significant shift in body masses of Duboisia santeng. This result is in accordance with studies from other localities in Java. However, slight shifts in the mesowear signals (mixed feeder with increasingly browsing signal) are confirmed by studies of carbon isotopes. The analysis of oxygen isotopes provides evidence for seasonality which is compared with the signals from the vegetation.

  20. Os isotope evidence for a differentiated plume head reservoir for the Ontong Java Nui source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, B. F.; Hoernle, K.; Parkinson, I. J.; Golowin, R.; Portnyagin, M.; Turner, S.; Werner, R.

    2015-12-01

    Previous Os isotopic investigations of lavas from the Ontong Java Plateau1 observed that geographically widely dispersed samples of differing chemistries preserved an isochron of 123±8 Ma with an initial 187Os/188Os = 0.1289±0.0095. Samples from the Manihiki Plateau, itself a portion of the greater Ontong Java Nui (OJN) magmatic event, preserve a far greater range in Os isotopic signatures than previously reported for the OJP alone. In contrast to the OJP data which points towards a near-chondritic, primitive mantle source for both Kroenke and Kwambaita lavas, the low Ti Manihiki samples preserve 187Os/188Os(i) ranging from 0.1056-0.1714. High Ti Manihiki samples preserve 187Os/188Os(i) = 0.1094-0.1288. Such strongly subchondritic signatures require some component of recycled material in the mantle source, possibly SCLM (TRD low Ti samples ~3.1Ga; and ~2.3-2.6Ga for the high Ti samples). Higher initial Os isotope ratios could indicate the presence of metasomatised lithosphere and/or lower crust. The low Ti samples from Manihiki have been interpreted as the result of a two stage melting process, analogous to boninites2, the depleted source of which has itself been metasomatised by a HIMU component entrained within the plume head. Collectively the Ontong Java and Manihiki samples could conceivably contain mantle sourced from both an undifferentiated, near-chondritic source, as well as ancient, unradiogenic recycled sources. Thus the greater OJN province samples a heterogeneous source containing both primitive and recycled components. It is probable that greater degress of partial melting beneath Ontong Java homogenised these heterogeneities, whereas more complex, multi stage melting processes near the plume margin at Manihiki allowed sampling of the inherent heterogeneities within the plume head. 1: Parkinson et al., 2002, GCA 66(15A) A580. 2: Golowin et al., in prep.

  1. Cyclospora cayetanensis among expatriate and indigenous populations of West Java, Indonesia.

    PubMed Central

    Fryauff, D. J.; Krippner, R.; Prodjodipuro, P.; Ewald, C.; Kawengian, S.; Pegelow, K.; Yun, T.; von Heydwolff-Wehnert, C.; Oyofo, B.; Gross, R.

    1999-01-01

    From January 1995 through July 1998, we investigated the occurrence of Cyclospora cayetanensis infection associated with gastrointestinal illness or diarrhea in foreign residents and natives of West Java, Indonesia. We found that C. cayetanensis was the main protozoal cause of gastrointestinal illness and diarrhea in adult foreign residents during the wet season. The parasite rarely caused illness in the indigenous population or in children. PMID:10458970

  2. Tectonic features of the southern Sumatra-western Java forearc of Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlüter, H. U.; Gaedicke, C.; Roeser, H. A.; Schreckenberger, B.; Meyer, H.; Reichert, C.; Djajadihardja, Y.; Prexl, A.

    2002-10-01

    Multichannel reflection seismic profiles along the active Sunda Arc, where the Indo-Australian plate subducts under the overriding Eurasian margin revealed two accretionary wedges: The inner wedge I is of assumed Paleogene age, and the outer wedge II is of Neogene to Recent age. The inner wedge I is composed of tectonic flakes stretching from southeast Sumatra across the Sunda Strait to northwest Java, implying a similar plate tectonic regime in these areas at the time of flake development during upper Oligocene. Today, wedge I forms the outer arc high and the backstop for the younger outer wedge II. The missing outer arc high of the southern Sunda Strait is explained by a combination of Neogene transtension due to a clockwise rotation of Sumatra with respect to Java and by arc-parallel strike-slip movements. The rotation created transtensional pull-apart basins along the western Sunda Strait (Semangka Graben) as opposed to transpression and inversion on the eastern Sunda Strait, within the new detected Krakatau Basin. The arc-parallel transpressional Mentawai strike-slip fault zone (MFZ) was correlated from the Sumatra forearc basin to the northwest Java forearc basin. Off the Sunda Strait, northward bending branches of the MFZ are connected with the right-lateral Sumatra fault zone (SFZ) along the volcanic arc segment on Sumatra. It is speculated that the SFZ was attached to the Cimandiri-Pelabuhan Ratu strike-slip fault of Java prior to the presumed rotation of Sumatra, and that since the late lower Miocene the main slip movement shifted from the volcanic arc position to the forearc basin area due to increasingly oblique plate convergence.

  3. A Java Library for the Generation and Scheduling of PTX Assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Kartsaklis, Christos; Civario, G

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses an ongoing progress regarding the development of a Java-based library for rapid kernel prototyping in NVIDIA PTX and PTX instruction scheduling. It is aimed at developers seeking total control of emitted PTX, highly parametric emission of, and tunable instruction reordering. It is primarily used for code development at ICHEC but is also hoped that NVIDIA GPU community will also find it beneficial.

  4. Anatomy of the western Java plate interface from depth-migrated seismic images

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kopp, H.; Hindle, D.; Klaeschen, D.; Oncken, O.; Reichert, C.; Scholl, D.

    2009-01-01

    Newly pre-stack depth-migrated seismic images resolve the structural details of the western Java forearc and plate interface. The structural segmentation of the forearc into discrete mechanical domains correlates with distinct deformation styles. Approximately 2/3 of the trench sediment fill is detached and incorporated into frontal prism imbricates, while the floor sequence is underthrust beneath the d??collement. Western Java, however, differs markedly from margins such as Nankai or Barbados, where a uniform, continuous d??collement reflector has been imaged. In our study area, the plate interface reveals a spatially irregular, nonlinear pattern characterized by the morphological relief of subducted seamounts and thicker than average patches of underthrust sediment. The underthrust sediment is associated with a low velocity zone as determined from wide-angle data. Active underplating is not resolved, but likely contributes to the uplift of the large bivergent wedge that constitutes the forearc high. Our profile is located 100 km west of the 2006 Java tsunami earthquake. The heterogeneous d??collement zone regulates the friction behavior of the shallow subduction environment where the earthquake occurred. The alternating pattern of enhanced frictional contact zones associated with oceanic basement relief and weak material patches of underthrust sediment influences seismic coupling and possibly contributed to the heterogeneous slip distribution. Our seismic images resolve a steeply dipping splay fault, which originates at the d??collement and terminates at the sea floor and which potentially contributes to tsunami generation during co-seismic activity. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V.

  5. Lilith: A Java framework for the development of scalable tools for high performance distributed computing platforms

    SciTech Connect

    Evensky, D.A.; Gentile, A.C.; Armstrong, R.C.

    1998-03-19

    Increasingly, high performance computing constitutes the use of very large heterogeneous clusters of machines. The use and maintenance of such clusters are subject to complexities of communication between the machines in a time efficient and secure manner. Lilith is a general purpose tool that provides a highly scalable, secure, and easy distribution of user code across a heterogeneous computing platform. By handling the details of code distribution and communication, such a framework allows for the rapid development of tools for the use and management of large distributed systems. Lilith is written in Java, taking advantage of Java`s unique features of loading and distributing code dynamically, its platform independence, its thread support, and its provision of graphical components to facilitate easy to use resultant tools. The authors describe the use of Lilith in a tool developed for the maintenance of the large distributed cluster at their institution and present details of the Lilith architecture and user API for the general user development of scalable tools.

  6. Tobacco Use and Exposure among Children in Migrant and Non-migrant Households in Java, Indonesia*

    PubMed Central

    Sukamdi; Wattie, Anna Marie

    2014-01-01

    This research note aims to understand the impact of parental migration on the children who stay behind by examining the issue of smoking. It asks whether tobacco use and exposure are higher among children in migrant households compared with those in non-migrant households in Java, Indonesia. Data were collected in 2008 in two provinces, West Java and East Java, as part of the Child Health and Migrant Parents in South-East Asia (CHAMPSEA) Project. The analytical sample used here relates to children aged 9, 10 and 11 living in both non-migrant and transnational households (N=451). The findings show that the incidence of ever having smoked among these primary school-aged children is relatively low at less than 10 percent, but that boys are much more likely to have used tobacco than girls. Findings from multivariate logistic models predicting smoking behavior show no difference between the children of migrants and non-migrants; nor does household wealth appear to influence whether or not a child has tried tobacco. Gender, child stunting (low height-for-age), carer’s education, family functioning and tobacco use by friends are the four main factors found to be significantly associated with child smoking. PMID:24966446

  7. Influence of Coastal Upwelling on SST Trends along the South Coast of Java

    PubMed Central

    Varela, R.; Santos, F.; Gómez-Gesteira, M.; Álvarez, I.; Costoya, X.; Días, J. M.

    2016-01-01

    The south coast of Java has warmed at a much lower rate than adjacent ocean locations over the last three decades (1982–2015). This behavior can be observed during the upwelling season (July-October) and it is especially patent in August and September when upwelling attains the highest values. Although different warming rates (ocean-coast) had been previously observed in other areas around the world, this behavior was always linked to situations where upwelling increased or remained unchanged. South Java warming is observed at ocean locations and cooling near shore but under a scenario of decreasing upwelling (~30% in some cases). The origin of coastal cooling is due to changes in the vertical structure of the water column. A vein of subsurface water, which has cooled at a rate higher than 0.3°C per decade, is observed to enter from the northwestern part of the study area following the South Java Current. This water only manifests at surface near coast, where it is pumped up by coastal upwelling. PMID:27606676

  8. Upper crustal structure beneath East Java from ambient noise tomography: A preliminary result

    SciTech Connect

    Martha, Agustya Adi; Widiyantoro, Sri; Cummins, Phil; Saygin, Erdinc; Masturyono

    2015-04-24

    East Java has a fairly complex geological structure. Physiographically East Java can be divided into three zones, i.e. the Southern Mountains zone in the southern part, the Kendeng zone in the middle part, and the Rembang zone in the northern part. Most of the seismic hazards in this region are due to processes in the upper crust. In this study, the Ambient Noise Tomography (ANT) method is used to image the upper crustal structure beneath East Java. We have used seismic waveform data recorded by 8Meteorological, Climatological and Geophysical Agency (BMKG) stationary seismographic stations and 16 portable seismographs installed for 2 to 8 weeks. The data were processed to obtain waveforms fromnoise cross-correlation between pairs of seismographic stations. Our preliminary results indicate that the Kendeng zone, an area of low gravity anomaly, is associated with a low velocity zone. On the other hand, the southern mountain range, which has a high gravity anomaly, is related to a high velocity anomaly as shown by our tomographic images.

  9. Influence of Coastal Upwelling on SST Trends along the South Coast of Java.

    PubMed

    Varela, R; Santos, F; Gómez-Gesteira, M; Álvarez, I; Costoya, X; Días, J M

    2016-01-01

    The south coast of Java has warmed at a much lower rate than adjacent ocean locations over the last three decades (1982-2015). This behavior can be observed during the upwelling season (July-October) and it is especially patent in August and September when upwelling attains the highest values. Although different warming rates (ocean-coast) had been previously observed in other areas around the world, this behavior was always linked to situations where upwelling increased or remained unchanged. South Java warming is observed at ocean locations and cooling near shore but under a scenario of decreasing upwelling (~30% in some cases). The origin of coastal cooling is due to changes in the vertical structure of the water column. A vein of subsurface water, which has cooled at a rate higher than 0.3°C per decade, is observed to enter from the northwestern part of the study area following the South Java Current. This water only manifests at surface near coast, where it is pumped up by coastal upwelling.

  10. Upper crustal structure beneath East Java from ambient noise tomography: A preliminary result

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martha, Agustya Adi; Widiyantoro, Sri; Cummins, Phil; Saygin, Erdinc; Masturyono

    2015-04-01

    East Java has a fairly complex geological structure. Physiographically East Java can be divided into three zones, i.e. the Southern Mountains zone in the southern part, the Kendeng zone in the middle part, and the Rembang zone in the northern part. Most of the seismic hazards in this region are due to processes in the upper crust. In this study, the Ambient Noise Tomography (ANT) method is used to image the upper crustal structure beneath East Java. We have used seismic waveform data recorded by 8Meteorological, Climatological and Geophysical Agency (BMKG) stationary seismographic stations and 16 portable seismographs installed for 2 to 8 weeks. The data were processed to obtain waveforms fromnoise cross-correlation between pairs of seismographic stations. Our preliminary results indicate that the Kendeng zone, an area of low gravity anomaly, is associated with a low velocity zone. On the other hand, the southern mountain range, which has a high gravity anomaly, is related to a high velocity anomaly as shown by our tomographic images.

  11. Identification of Upper Crustal Structures Beneath Central Java, Indonesia from of Surface Wave Dispersion Inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zulhan, Zulfakriza; Saygin, Erdinc; Cummins, Phil; Widiyantoro, Sri; Nugraha, Andri Dian; Luehr, Birger-G.; Bodin, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Our previous study on MERAMEX data (Zulfakriza et al., 2014) obtained features of the tomographic images which correlate well with the surface geology of central Java in periods between 1 to 12 sec. Kendeng Basin and active volcanoes in the central part of this region are clearly imaged with low group velocities with values around 0.8 km/sec, while the carbonate structures in the southern part of the region correspond to higher group velocities in the range of 1.8 to 2.0 km/sec. In this current study, we invert dispersion curves obtained from seismic noise tomography to estimate shear wave-depth profiles of the region. The results are used to discuss the spatial variation of shear wave velocities for a depth range down from the surface to upper crust. Most of the shear wave velocity anomalies, including the upper crustal areas of the Kendeng basin and active volcanoes, are consistent with our previous study of Rayleigh wave group velocities and fit to the regional geology. Keywords: Dispersion Inversion; shear wave velocity; Central Java, Indonesia. Reference: Zulfakriza, Z., Saygin, E., Cummins, P., Widiyantoro, S., Nugraha, A., Luehr, B.-G., Bodin, T., 2014. Upper crustal structure of central Java, Indonesia, from transdimensional seismic ambient noise tomography. Geophys. J. Int. 197.

  12. Modelling of land use change in Indramayu District, West Java Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handayani, L. D. W.; Tejaningrum, M. A.; Damrah, F.

    2017-01-01

    Indramayu District into a strategic area for a stopover and overseas from East Java area because Indramayu District passed the north coast main lane, which is the first as the economic lifeblood of the Java Island. Indramayu District is part of mainstream economic Java pathways so that physical development of the area and population density as well as community activities grew by leaps and bounds. Growth acceleration raised the level of land use change. Land use change and population activities in coastal area would reduce the carrying capacity and impact on environmental quality. This research aim to analyse landuse change of years 2000 and 2011 in Indramayu District. Using this land use change map, we can predict the condition of landuse change of year 2022 in Indramayu District. Cellular Automata Markov (Markov CA) Method is used to create a spatial model of land use changes. The results of this study are predictive of land use in 2022 and the suitability with Spatial Plan (RTRW). A settlement increase predicted to continue in the future the designation of the land according to the spatial plan should be maintained.

  13. Tobacco Use and Exposure among Children in Migrant and Non-migrant Households in Java, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Sukamdi; Wattie, Anna Marie

    2013-12-01

    This research note aims to understand the impact of parental migration on the children who stay behind by examining the issue of smoking. It asks whether tobacco use and exposure are higher among children in migrant households compared with those in non-migrant households in Java, Indonesia. Data were collected in 2008 in two provinces, West Java and East Java, as part of the Child Health and Migrant Parents in South-East Asia (CHAMPSEA) Project. The analytical sample used here relates to children aged 9, 10 and 11 living in both non-migrant and transnational households (N=451). The findings show that the incidence of ever having smoked among these primary school-aged children is relatively low at less than 10 percent, but that boys are much more likely to have used tobacco than girls. Findings from multivariate logistic models predicting smoking behavior show no difference between the children of migrants and non-migrants; nor does household wealth appear to influence whether or not a child has tried tobacco. Gender, child stunting (low height-for-age), carer's education, family functioning and tobacco use by friends are the four main factors found to be significantly associated with child smoking.

  14. Seismic hazard analysis with PSHA method in four cities in Java.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elistyawati, Y.; Palupi, I. R.; Suharsono

    2016-11-01

    In this study the tectonic earthquakes was observed through the peak ground acceleration through the PSHA method by dividing the area of the earthquake source. This study applied the earthquake data from 1965 - 2015 that has been analyzed the completeness of the data, location research was the entire Java with stressed in four large cities prone to earthquakes. The results were found to be a hazard map with a return period of 500 years, 2500 years return period, and the hazard curve were four major cities (Jakarta, Bandung, Yogyakarta, and the city of Banyuwangi). Results Java PGA hazard map 500 years had a peak ground acceleration within 0 g ≥ 0.5 g, while the return period of 2500 years had a value of 0 to ≥ 0.8 g. While, the PGA hazard curves on the city's most influential source of the earthquake was from sources such as fault Cimandiri backgroud, for the city of Bandung earthquake sources that influence the seismic source fault dent background form. In other side, the city of Yogyakarta earthquake hazard curve of the most influential was the source of the earthquake background of the Opak fault, and the most influential hazard curve of Banyuwangi earthquake was the source of Java and Sumba megatruts earthquake.

  15. WWWinda Orchestrator: a mechanism for coordinating distributed flocks of Java Applets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutfreund, Yechezkal-Shimon; Nicol, John R.

    1997-01-01

    The WWWinda Orchestrator is a simple but powerful tool for coordinating distributed Java applets. Loosely derived from the Linda programming language developed by David Gelernter and Nicholas Carriero of Yale, WWWinda implements a distributed shared object space called TupleSpace where applets can post, read, or permanently store arbitrary Java objects. In this manner, applets can easily share information without being aware of the underlying communication mechanisms. WWWinda is a very useful for orchestrating flocks of distributed Java applets. Coordination event scan be posted to WWWinda TupleSpace and used to orchestrate the actions of remote applets. Applets can easily share information via the TupleSpace. The technology combines several functions in one simple metaphor: distributed web objects, remote messaging between applets, distributed synchronization mechanisms, object- oriented database, and a distributed event signaling mechanisms. WWWinda can be used a s platform for implementing shared VRML environments, shared groupware environments, controlling remote devices such as cameras, distributed Karaoke, distributed gaming, and shared audio and video experiences.

  16. Java Library for Input and Output of Image Data and Metadata

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deen, Robert; Levoe, Steven

    2003-01-01

    A Java-language library supports input and output (I/O) of image data and metadata (label data) in the format of the Video Image Communication and Retrieval (VICAR) image-processing software and in several similar formats, including a subset of the Planetary Data System (PDS) image file format. The library does the following: It provides low-level, direct access layer, enabling an application subprogram to read and write specific image files, lines, or pixels, and manipulate metadata directly. Two coding/decoding subprograms ("codecs" for short) based on the Java Advanced Imaging (JAI) software provide access to VICAR and PDS images in a file-format-independent manner. The VICAR and PDS codecs enable any program that conforms to the specification of the JAI codec to use VICAR or PDS images automatically, without specific knowledge of the VICAR or PDS format. The library also includes Image I/O plugin subprograms for VICAR and PDS formats. Application programs that conform to the Image I/O specification of Java version 1.4 can utilize any image format for which such a plug-in subprogram exists, without specific knowledge of the format itself. Like the aforementioned codecs, the VICAR and PDS Image I/O plug-in subprograms support reading and writing of metadata.

  17. Relationships between anopheline mosquitoes and topography in West Timor and Java, Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Malaria is a serious health issue in Indonesia. Mosquito control is one aspect of an integrated malaria management programme. To focus resources on priority areas, information is needed about the vectors and their habitats. This research aimed to identify the relationship between anopheline mosquitoes and topography in West Timor and Java. Methods Study areas were selected in three topographic types in West Timor and Java. These were: coastal plain, hilly (rice field) and highland. Adult mosquitoes were captured landing on humans identified to species level and counted. Results Eleven species were recorded, four of which were significant for malaria transmission: Anopheles aconitus, Anopheles barbirostris, Anopheles subpictus and Anopheles sundaicus. Each species occupied different topographies, but only five were significantly associated: Anopheles annularis, Anopheles vagus and Anopheles subpictus (Java only) with hilly rice fields; Anopheles barbirostris, Anopheles maculatus and Anopheles subpictus (West Timor only) with coastal areas. Conclusion Information on significant malaria vectors associated with specific topography is useful for planning the mosquito control aspect of malaria management. PMID:20796265

  18. Cognitive characteristics of learning Java, an object-oriented programming language

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Garry Lynn

    Industry and Academia are moving from procedural programming languages (e.g., COBOL) to object-oriented programming languages, such as Java for the Internet. Past studies in the cognitive aspects of programming have focused primarily on procedural programming languages. Some of the languages used have been Pascal, C, Basic, FORTAN, and COBOL. Object-oriented programming (OOP) represents a new paradigm for computing. Industry is finding that programmers are having difficulty shifting to this new programming paradigm. This instruction in OOP is currently starting in colleges and universities across the country. What are the cognitive aspects for this new OOP language Java? When is a student developmentally ready to handle the cognitive characteristics of the OOP language Java? Which cognitive teaching style is best for this OOP language Java? Questions such as the aforementioned are the focus of this research Such research is needed to improve understanding of the learning process and identify students' difficulties with OOP methods. This can enhance academic teaching and industry training (Scholtz, 1993; Sheetz, 1997; Rosson, 1990). Cognitive development as measured by the Propositional Logic Test, cognitive style as measured by the Hemispheric Mode Indicator, and physical hemispheric dominance as measured by a self-report survey were obtained from thirty-six university students studying Java programming. Findings reveal that physical hemispheric dominance is unrelated to cognitive and programming language variables. However, both procedural and object oriented programming require Piaget's formal operation cognitive level as indicated by the Propositional Logic Test. This is consistent with prior research A new finding is that object oriented programming also requires formal operation cognitive level. Another new finding is that object oriented programming appears to be unrelated to hemispheric cognitive style as indicated by the Hemispheric Mode Indicator (HMI

  19. Global Command and Control System (GCCS). Mobile Code Security Policy Guidance For Browser Script Software Development (JavaScript, JScript, VBScript)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    platform; object based scripting language created by Mr. Brendan Eich of Netscape Corporation for its Navigator client and server applications. JavaScript...the remainder of this document, the terms script or browser script shall be used to refer collectively to Netscape JavaScript, Microsoft JScript, and...Microsoft VBScript, except where the three are differentiated. When they must be referred to separately, they are referred to as Netscape JavaScript

  20. Nested generalized linear mixed model with ordinal response: Simulation and application on poverty data in Java Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widyaningsih, Yekti; Saefuddin, Asep; Notodiputro, Khairil A.; Wigena, Aji H.

    2012-05-01

    The objective of this research is to build a nested generalized linear mixed model using an ordinal response variable with some covariates. There are three main jobs in this paper, i.e. parameters estimation procedure, simulation, and implementation of the model for the real data. At the part of parameters estimation procedure, concepts of threshold, nested random effect, and computational algorithm are described. The simulations data are built for 3 conditions to know the effect of different parameter values of random effect distributions. The last job is the implementation of the model for the data about poverty in 9 districts of Java Island. The districts are Kuningan, Karawang, and Majalengka chose randomly in West Java; Temanggung, Boyolali, and Cilacap from Central Java; and Blitar, Ngawi, and Jember from East Java. The covariates in this model are province, number of bad nutrition cases, number of farmer families, and number of health personnel. In this modeling, all covariates are grouped as ordinal scale. Unit observation in this research is sub-district (kecamatan) nested in district, and districts (kabupaten) are nested in province. For the result of simulation, ARB (Absolute Relative Bias) and RRMSE (Relative Root of mean square errors) scale is used. They show that prov parameters have the highest bias, but more stable RRMSE in all conditions. The simulation design needs to be improved by adding other condition, such as higher correlation between covariates. Furthermore, as the result of the model implementation for the data, only number of farmer family and number of medical personnel have significant contributions to the level of poverty in Central Java and East Java province, and only district 2 (Karawang) of province 1 (West Java) has different random effect from the others. The source of the data is PODES (Potensi Desa) 2008 from BPS (Badan Pusat Statistik).

  1. Lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus (D.C) Stapf) polyphenols protect human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVECs) from oxidative damage induced by high glucose, hydrogen peroxide and oxidised low-density lipoprotein.

    PubMed

    Campos, J; Schmeda-Hirschmann, G; Leiva, E; Guzmán, L; Orrego, R; Fernández, P; González, M; Radojkovic, C; Zuñiga, F A; Lamperti, L; Pastene, E; Aguayo, C

    2014-05-15

    The aromatic herb Cymbopogon citratus Stapf is widely used in tropical and subtropical countries in cooking, as a herbal tea, and in traditional medicine for hypertension and diabetes. Some of its properties have been associated with the in vitro antioxidant effect of polyphenols isolated from their aerial parts. However, little is known about C. citratus effects on endothelial cells oxidative injury. Using chromatographic procedures, a polyphenol-rich fraction was obtained from C. citratus (CCF) and their antioxidant properties were assessed by cooper-induced LDL oxidation assay. The main constituents of the active CCF, identified by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection and mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-MS), were chlorogenic acid, isoorientin and swertiajaponin. CCF 10 and 100 μg/ml diminishes reactive oxidative species (ROS) production in human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVECs), challenged with high D-glucose (60% inhibition), hydrogen peroxide (80% inhibition) or oxidised low-density lipoprotein (55% inhibition). CCF 10 or 100 μg/ml did not change nitric oxide (NO) production. However, CCF was able to inhibit vasoconstriction induced by the thromboxane A2 receptor agonist U46619, which suggest a NO-independent vasodilatador effect on blood vessels. Our results suggest that lemon grass antioxidant properties might prevent endothelial dysfunction associated to an oxidative imbalance promoted by different oxidative stimuli.

  2. GEODATA: Information System Based on Geospatial for Early Warning Tracking and Analysis Agricultural Plant Diseases in Central Java

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasetyo, S. Y. J.; Agus, Y. H.; Dewi, C.; Simanjuntak, B. H.; Hartomo, K. D.

    2017-03-01

    The Government of Indonesia is currently faced with the problems of food, especially rice. It needs in large numbers that have to import from neighboring countries. Actually, the Indonesian government has the ability to produce rice to meet national needs but is still faced with the problem of pest attack rice annually increasing extent. One of the factors is that geographically Indonesia located on the migration path of world rice insect pests (called BPH or Brown Planthoppers) (Nilaparvata lugens Stal.) It leads endemic status annually. One proposed strategy to be applied is to use an early warning system based on a specific region of the main pest population. The proposed information system called GEODATA. GEODATA is Geospatial Outbreak of Disease Tracking and Analysis. The system works using a library ESSA (Exponential Smoothing - Spatial Autocorrelation) developed in previous studies in Satya Wacana Christian University. GEODATA built to meet the qualifications required surveillance device by BMKG (Indonesian Agency of Meteorology, Climatology and Geophysics’ Central Java Provinces), BPTPH (Indonesian Agency of Plant Protection and Horticulture) Central Java Provinces, BKP-KP District Boyolali, Central Java, (Indonesian Agency of Food Security and Agriculture Field Supervisor, District Boyolali, Central Java Provinces) and farmer groups. GIS GEODATA meets the needs of surveillance devices that include: (1) mapping of the disease, (2) analysis of the dynamics of the disease, and (3) prediction of attacks / disease outbreaks in a particular region. GIS GEODATA is currently under implementation in the laboratory field observations of plant pest in Central Java province, Indonesia.

  3. MJO modulation on diurnal rainfall over West Java during pre-monsoon and strong El Niño periods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yulihastin, E.; Trismidianto; Satyawardhana, H.; Nugroho, G. A.

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the MJO modulation ondiurnal rainfall in West Java during the pre-monsoon and strong El Niño periods in 2015 over West Java. The data used is a combination of satellite data, reanalysis data, radar stations data, and numerical weather prediction of Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) data with spatial resolution of 5 km. The results confirmed that the strong MJO in 4 and 5 phases has modulated the amplitude of diurnal rainfall increase significantly over West Java in phase of lag+1. Modulation on diurnal cycle of rainfall was also indicated by the persistence of the rainfall and the formation of two peaks of maximum rainfall in the afternoon and early morning. In addition, modulation of rainfall for the southern part of Java was 50% greater than the north. Moreover, the MJO modulation mechanism was characterized by the formation of an active and extending of Meso-scale Convective System (MCS) which has a cycle of up to 12 hours and persistent from November 7-9 over West Java.

  4. Handle with care: the impact of using Java applets in Web-based studies on dropout and sample composition.

    PubMed

    Stieger, Stefan; Göritz, Anja S; Voracek, Martin

    2011-05-01

    In Web-based studies, Web browsers are used to display online questionnaires. If an online questionnaire relies on non-standard technologies (e.g., Java applets), it is often necessary to install a particular browser plug-in. This can lead to technically induced dropout because some participants lack the technological know-how or the willingness to install the plug-in. In two thematically identical online studies conducted across two time points in two different participant pools (N = 1,527 and 805), we analyzed whether using a Java applet produces dropout and distortion of demographics in the final sample. Dropout was significantly higher on the Java applet questionnaire page than on the preceding and subsequent questionnaire pages. Age-specific effects were found only in one sample (i.e., dropouts were older), whereas sex-specific effects were found in both samples (i.e., women dropped out more frequently than men on the Java applet page). These results additionally support the recommendation that using additional technologies (e.g., Java applets) can be dangerous in producing a sample that is biased toward both younger and male respondents.

  5. Designing and developing portable large-scale JavaScript web applications within the Experiment Dashboard framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreeva, J.; Dzhunov, I.; Karavakis, E.; Kokoszkiewicz, L.; Nowotka, M.; Saiz, P.; Tuckett, D.

    2012-12-01

    Improvements in web browser performance and web standards compliance, as well as the availability of comprehensive JavaScript libraries, provides an opportunity to develop functionally rich yet intuitive web applications that allow users to access, render and analyse data in novel ways. However, the development of such large-scale JavaScript web applications presents new challenges, in particular with regard to code sustainability and team-based work. We present an approach that meets the challenges of large-scale JavaScript web application design and development, including client-side model-view-controller architecture, design patterns, and JavaScript libraries. Furthermore, we show how the approach leads naturally to the encapsulation of the data source as a web API, allowing applications to be easily ported to new data sources. The Experiment Dashboard framework is used for the development of applications for monitoring the distributed computing activities of virtual organisations on the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid. We demonstrate the benefits of the approach for large-scale JavaScript web applications in this context by examining the design of several Experiment Dashboard applications for data processing, data transfer and site status monitoring, and by showing how they have been ported for different virtual organisations and technologies.

  6. The deep crust beneath island arcs: Inherited zircons reveal a Gondwana continental fragment beneath East Java, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smyth, H. R.; Hamilton, P. J.; Hall, R.; Kinny, P. D.

    2007-06-01

    Inherited zircons in Cenozoic sedimentary and igneous rocks of East Java range in age from Archean to Cenozoic. The distribution of zircons reveals two different basement types at depth. The igneous rocks of the Early Cenozoic arc, found along the southeast coast, contain only Archean to Cambrian zircons. In contrast, clastic rocks of north and west of East Java contain Cretaceous zircons, which are not found in the arc rocks to the south. The presence of Cretaceous zircons supports previous interpretations that much of East Java is underlain by arc and ophiolitic rocks, accreted to the Southeast Asian margin during Cretaceous subduction. However, such accreted material cannot account for the older zircons. The age populations of Archean to Cambrian zircons in the arc rocks are similar to Gondwana crust. We interpret the East Java Early Cenozoic arc to be underlain by a continental fragment of Gondwana origin and not Cretaceous material as previously suggested. Melts rising through the crust, feeding the Early Cenozoic arc, picked up the ancient zircons through assimilation or partial melting. We suggest a Western Australian origin for the fragment, which rifted from Australia during the Mesozoic and collided with Southeast Asia, resulting in the termination of Cretaceous subduction. Continental crust was therefore present at depth beneath the arc in south Java when Cenozoic subduction began in the Eocene.

  7. Lusi mud eruption and its connection with petroleum systems of East Java

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evdokimov, Nikolay; Mazzini, Adriano; Poludetkina, Elena

    2016-04-01

    The Lusi mud eruption took place in NE Java, Indonesia, the 29th of May, 2006 and it is still erupting after nearly 10 years of activity. North-Eastern Java is part of a back-arc basin with high petroleum potential with mature source rock and an active oil system. Several studies have been conducted to understand the origin of the gas and water erupted at the Lusi crater, however very little investigations have been conducted on the oil fraction and on the clasts erupted at the crater site. In particular, a detailed investigation of the erupted solid fraction could provide distinct evidence about the depth of the conduit and useful constrains for modelling the forces necessary to fracture and eject clasts from defined depths. A large collection of clasts and fluids sampled from the Lusi crater site has been investigated completing lithological descriptions and conducting geochemical analyses. Our results show the presence of clasts that can be linked with the various formations pierced by the Lusi feeder conduit. One of the main goals was to distinguish the presence and the input of the deep regional Ngimbang Formation. The organic-rich Ngimbang Formation is the regional Eocene source rock in NE Java estimated to be buried at a depth of >4km. This is a black shale kerogen type II with TOC up to 10%. We identified significant amounts of organic rich black shale samples, several of which are coaly, and with TOC content up to 10% and very high hydrocarbon potential. Mineralogical analyses show also the presence of high temperature minerals. Ongoing analyses are comparing the composition of the oil seeping at Lusi with that extracted from the hydrocarbon impregnated black shale clast.

  8. Presentation and response timing accuracy in Adobe Flash and HTML5/JavaScript Web experiments.

    PubMed

    Reimers, Stian; Stewart, Neil

    2015-06-01

    Web-based research is becoming ubiquitous in the behavioral sciences, facilitated by convenient, readily available participant pools and relatively straightforward ways of running experiments: most recently, through the development of the HTML5 standard. Although in most studies participants give untimed responses, there is a growing interest in being able to record response times online. Existing data on the accuracy and cross-machine variability of online timing measures are limited, and generally they have compared behavioral data gathered on the Web with similar data gathered in the lab. For this article, we took a more direct approach, examining two ways of running experiments online-Adobe Flash and HTML5 with CSS3 and JavaScript-across 19 different computer systems. We used specialist hardware to measure stimulus display durations and to generate precise response times to visual stimuli in order to assess measurement accuracy, examining effects of duration, browser, and system-to-system variability (such as across different Windows versions), as well as effects of processing power and graphics capability. We found that (a) Flash and JavaScript's presentation and response time measurement accuracy are similar; (b) within-system variability is generally small, even in low-powered machines under high load; (c) the variability of measured response times across systems is somewhat larger; and (d) browser type and system hardware appear to have relatively small effects on measured response times. Modeling of the effects of this technical variability suggests that for most within- and between-subjects experiments, Flash and JavaScript can both be used to accurately detect differences in response times across conditions. Concerns are, however, noted about using some correlational or longitudinal designs online.

  9. Geometric and sedimentologic characteristic of Mid-Miocene lowstand reservoir sandstones, offshore northwest Java, Indonesia

    SciTech Connect

    Lowry, P.; Kusumanegara, Y.; Warman, S.

    1996-12-31

    Numerous reservoirs in the Upper Cibulakan Formation (Mid-Miocene) of the Offshore Northwest Java shelf occur in sharp-based sandbodies that range from less than 1 m up to 10 m in thickness. Well-log derived net-sand isopach and seismic amplitude maps of these sandbodies depict elongate features, that are 1-2 km wide and 5-8 km long. The orientation of the longest axis of these sandbodies is predominantly north-south. Conventional cores reveal that these sandbodies are burrowed to completely bioturbated sandstones. Common trace fossils associated with these sandbodies include Ophiomorpha, Teichichnus and Thalassinoides. The lower contact of these sands is typically sharp and is commonly associated with a Glossifungites surface and siderite mud clasts. Overlying and underlying mudstones are relatively devoid of burrowing. Benthonic foraminifera assemblages within these mudstones indicate inner to outer neritic conditions in a relatively restricted marine setting. The upper contact of these sandstones is gradational over a 0.5 to 1m interval. Sandbodies of the same age and similar facies were observed in outcrops in onshore west Java. Here, they can be observed to pinch out over a distance of 500 m. The lower bounding contact appears discordant with underlying interbedded sandstones and mudstones. Several of the sandstones contain abundant accumulations of the large, open marine, benthonic foraminifera Cycloclypeus and Lepidocyclina. Occasionally the concentration of these large foraminifera form limestones within the sharp-based sandbodies. These bioclastic deposits commonly exhibit planar-tabular and trough cross-stratification. The sandbodies are interpreted as having been emplaced during relative falls in sea-level within a large Mid-Miocene embayment. Our understanding of their geometry and sedimentologic characteristics is leading to a more effective exploitation strategy for these sandbodies in the Offshore Northwest Java area.

  10. Rapid change in drift of the Australian plate records collision with Ontong Java plateau.

    PubMed

    Knesel, Kurt M; Cohen, Benjamin E; Vasconcelos, Paulo M; Thiede, David S

    2008-08-07

    The subduction of oceanic plateaux, which contain extraordinarily thick basaltic crust and are the marine counterparts of continental flood-basalt provinces, is an important factor in many current models of plate motion and provides a potential mechanism for triggering plate reorganization. To evaluate such models, it is essential to decipher the history of the collision between the largest and thickest of the world's oceanic plateaux, the Ontong Java plateau, and the Australian plate, but this has been hindered by poor constraints for the arrival of the plateau at the Melanesian trench. Here we present (40)Ar-(39)Ar geochronological data on hotspot volcanoes in eastern Australian that reveal a strong link between collision of the Greenland-sized Ontong Java plateau with the Melanesian arc and motion of the Australian plate. The new ages define a short-lived period of reduced northward plate motion between 26 and 23 Myr ago, coincident with an eastward offset in the contemporaneous tracks of seamount chains in the Tasman Sea east of Australia. These features record a brief westward deflection of the Australian plate as the plateau entered and choked the Melanesian trench 26 Myr ago. From 23 Myr ago, Australia returned to a rapid northerly trajectory at roughly the same time that southwest-directed subduction began along the Trobriand trough. The timing and brevity of this collisional event correlate well with offsets in hotspot seamount tracks on the Pacific plate, including the archetypal Hawaiian chain, and thus provide strong evidence that immense oceanic plateaux, like the Ontong Java, can contribute to initiating rapid change in plate boundaries and motions on a global scale.

  11. Geological Features Inferred from Local Seismic Tomography in the Sunda Strait and West Java regions, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nugraha, A. D.; Sakti, A. P.; Rohadi, S.; Widiyantoro, S.

    2012-12-01

    We have conducted seismic tomographic inversions to obtain a P-wave seismic velocity structure beneath the Sunda Strait and West Java regions, Indonesia. The Sunda Strait is located in a complex geological system i.e. in the transition from the oblique subduction beneath Sumatra to the nearly perpendicular subduction below Java. The Krakatau active volcano is located in the Sunda Strait. In this study, we have used selected P-wave arrival times from the data catalogs of the SeisComP-BMKG network (from 2009 to 2011) and the BMKG BALAI II network (from 1992 to 2011) compiled by Badan Meteorologi,Klimatologi dan Geofisika (BMKG), Indonesia. In total, there are 1,598 local earthquakes and 10,366 P-wave phases from 25 seismographic stations that have been used for the tomographic inversions. We have also relocated the hypocenter locations along with velocity inversions simultaneously. Our preliminary results depict some prominent geological features that include: (1) a low velocity anomaly beneath north of the Ujung Kulon region, which coincides with a low gravity anomaly resulting from a previous study, (2) a low velocity anomaly alignment beneath the Krakatau volcano in the Sunda Strait, (3) a sharp contrast in velocity anomalies extending from Pelabuhan Ratu towards Jakarta with a strike of SW-NE, and (4) a low velocity anomaly in the offshore of Pelabuhan Ratu that may be correlated with the continuation of the Cimandiri fault zone. More detailed information will be presented during the meeting. Keywords: tomography, Sunda Strait, West Java, velocity anomaly

  12. Informing rubella vaccination strategies in East Java, Indonesia through transmission modelling.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yue; Wood, James; Khandaker, Gulam; Waddington, Claire; Snelling, Thomas

    2016-11-04

    An estimated 110,000 babies are born with congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) worldwide annually; a significant proportion of cases occur in Southeast Asia. Rubella vaccine programs have led to successful control of rubella and CRS, and even the elimination of disease in many countries. However, if vaccination is poorly implemented it might increase the number of women reaching childbearing age who remain susceptible to rubella and thereby paradoxically increase CRS. We used an age-structured transmission model to compare seven alternative vaccine strategies for their impact on reducing CRS disease burden in East Java, a setting which is yet to implement a rubella vaccine program. We also investigated the robustness of model predictions to variation in vaccine coverage and other key epidemiological factors. Without rubella vaccination, approximately 700 babies are estimated to be born with CRS in East Java every year at an incidence of 0.77 per 1000live births. This incidence could be reduced to 0.0045 per 1000 live births associated with 99.9% annual reduction in rubella infections after 20 years if the existing two doses of measles vaccine are substituted with two doses of measles plus rubella combination vaccine with the same coverage (87.8% of 9-month-old infants and 80% of 6-year-old children). By comparison a single dose of rubella vaccine will take longer to reduce the burden of rubella and CRS and will be less robust to lower vaccine coverage. While the findings of this study should be informative for settings similar to East Java, the conclusions are dependent on vaccine coverage which would need consideration before applying to all of Indonesia and elsewhere in Asia.

  13. Morphology of largeHalimeda bioherms, eastern Java sea (Indonesia): A side-scan sonar study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Harry H.; Phipps, Charles V.; Effendi, Lukman L.

    1987-03-01

    The most extensive and thickestHalimeda bioherms reported from modern seas occur along both open and protected margins of Kalukalukuang Bank, eastern Java Sea (Indonesia). Seismic profiles suggest these features average 20 to 30 m thick (maximum ˜ 50 m) and developed over large areas by coalescence of individual mounds. Bioherm morphologies range from numerous small mounds (˜ 10 20 m diameter) through “hay-stack” features (˜ 100 m diameter) to broad swells. Some modern bank bioherms display surface forms that appear related to onbank flow from Makassar Strait. Upwelling of cold, nutritive water is likely responsible for unusualHalimeda productivity and large bioherm development.

  14. JANIS 4: An Improved Version of the NEA Java-based Nuclear Data Information System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soppera, N.; Bossant, M.; Dupont, E.

    2014-06-01

    JANIS is software developed to facilitate the visualization and manipulation of nuclear data, giving access to evaluated data libraries, and to the EXFOR and CINDA databases. It is stand-alone Java software, downloadable from the web and distributed on DVD. Used offline, the system also makes use of an internet connection to access the NEA Data Bank database. It is now also offered as a full web application, only requiring a browser. The features added in the latest version of the software and this new web interface are described.

  15. H5N1 surveillance in migratory birds in Java, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Stoops, Arthur C; Barbara, Katie A; Indrawan, Mochamad; Ibrahim, Ima N; Petrus, Wicaksana B; Wijaya, Susan; Farzeli, Arik; Antonjaya, Ungke; Sin, Lim W; Hidayatullah, N; Kristanto, Ige; Tampubolon, A M; Purnama, S; Supriatna, Adam; Burgess, Timothy H; Williams, Maya; Putnam, Shannon D; Tobias, Steve; Blair, Patrick J

    2009-12-01

    We sought to elucidate the role of migratory birds in transmission of H5N1 in an enzoonotic area. Resident, captive, and migratory birds were sampled at five sites in Java, Indonesia. Mist nets were used to trap birds. Birds were identified to species. RNA was extracted from swabs and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) conducted for the HA and M genes of H5N1. Antibodies were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and hemagglutination inhibition test. Between October 2006 and September 2007, a total of 4,067 captive, resident, and migratory birds comprising 98 species in 23 genera were sampled. The most commonly collected birds were the common sandpiper (6% of total), striated heron (3%), and the domestic chicken (14%). The overall prevalence of H5N1 antibodies was 5.3%. A significantly higher percentage of captive birds (16.1%) showed antibody evidence of H5N1 exposure when compared to migratory or resident birds. The greatest number of seropositive birds in each category were Muschovy duck (captive), striated heron (resident), and the Pacific golden plover (migratory). Seven apparently well captive birds yielded molecular evidence of H5N1 infection. Following amplification, the HA, NA, and M genes were analyzed. Phylogenetic analysis of the HA gene showed that the isolates were 97% similar to EU124153.1 A/chicken/West Java/Garut May 2006, an isolate obtained in a similar region of West Java. While no known markers of neuraminidase inhibitor resistance were found within the NA gene, M segment analysis revealed the V27A mutation known to confer resistance to adamantanes. Our results demonstrate moderate serologic evidence of H5N1 infection in captive birds, sampled in five sites in Java, Indonesia, but only occasional infection in resident and migratory birds. These data imply that in an enzoonotic region of Indonesia the role of migratory birds in transmission of H5N1 is limited.

  16. A JAVA implementation of a medical knowledge base for decision support.

    PubMed

    Ambrosiadou, V; Goulis, D; Shankararaman, V; Shamtani, G

    1999-01-01

    Distributed decision support is a challenging issue requiring the implementation of advanced computer science techniques together with tools of development which offer ease of communication and efficiency of searching and control performance. This paper presents a JAVA implementation of a knowledge base model called ARISTOTELES which may be used in order to support the development of the medical knowledge base by clinicians in diverse specialised areas of interest. The advantages that are evident by the application of such a cognitive model are ease of knowledge acquisition, modular construction of the knowledge base and greater acceptance from clinicians.

  17. A Java chemical structure editor supporting the Modular Chemical Descriptor Language (MCDL).

    PubMed

    Trepalin, Sergei V; Yarkov, Alexander V; Pletnev, Igor V; Gakh, Andrei A

    2006-03-29

    A compact Modular Chemical Descriptor Language (MCDL) chemical structure editor (Java applet) is described. The small size (approximately 200 KB) of the applet allows its use to display and edit chemical structures in various Internet applications. The editor supports the MCDL format, in which structures are presented in compact canonical form and is capable of restoring bond orders as well as of managing atom and bond drawing overlap. A small database of cage and large cyclic fragment is used for optimal representation of difficult-to-draw molecules. The improved algorithm of the structure diagram generation can be used for other chemical notations that lack atomic coordinates (SMILES, InChI).

  18. An interactive HTML ocean nowcast GUI based on Perl and JavaScript

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakalaukus, Peter J.; Fox, Daniel N.; Louise Perkins, A.; Smedstad, Lucy F.

    1999-02-01

    We describe the use of Hyper Text Markup Language (HTML), JavaScript code, and Perl I/O to create and validate forms in an Internet-based graphical user interface (GUI) for the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) Ocean models and Assimilation Demonstration System (NOMADS). The resulting nowcast system can be operated from any compatible browser across the Internet, for although the GUI was prepared in a Netscape browser, it used no Netscape extensions. Code available at: http://www.iamg.org/CGEditor/index.htm

  19. JANIS 4: An Improved Version of the NEA Java-based Nuclear Data Information System

    SciTech Connect

    Soppera, N. Bossant, M.; Dupont, E.

    2014-06-15

    JANIS is software developed to facilitate the visualization and manipulation of nuclear data, giving access to evaluated data libraries, and to the EXFOR and CINDA databases. It is stand-alone Java software, downloadable from the web and distributed on DVD. Used offline, the system also makes use of an internet connection to access the NEA Data Bank database. It is now also offered as a full web application, only requiring a browser. The features added in the latest version of the software and this new web interface are described.

  20. Subduction of seamounts at the Java Trench: a view with long-range sidescan sonar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masson, D. G.; Parson, L. M.; Milsom, J.; Nichols, G.; Sikumbang, N.; Dwiyanto, B.; Kallagher, H.

    1990-12-01

    We describe here a 1300 km by 45 km GLORIA long-range sidescan sonar swath along the eastern Java Trench. The swath images the trench axis, a narrow strip of oceanic crust to the south, and the toe of the accretionary wedge to the north, between 108° and 120° E. Sonar images of the ocean crust show a pattern of normal faults typical of the outer wall of trenches. These result from tension related to the bending of the oceanic lithosphere into the subduction zone. A number of sub-circular seamounts are also seen, some of which are currently being subducted. Isolated "ponds" of flat-lying sediments occur in the trench axis, although along much of its length the trench is devoid of such sediment accumulations. On the inner trench wall, the accretionary wedge is recognised by its distinctive "grainy" texture, with the grain aligned sub-parallel to the deformation front. Where subducting seamounts are colliding with the wedge, large crescentic areas of very high backscattering correlate with re-entrants in the deformation front and large indentations in the wedge. The high backscattering within these collision scars is interpreted to arise from outcropping strata and talus covered slopes, resulting from erosion of an inner trench wall shortened and oversteepened by collision with a seamount. All of the sediment ponds in the trench axis occur in close association with collision scars, strongly suggesting localised erosion of the accretionary wedge in the scar areas. However, the volume of the indentations appears to be an order of magnitude greater than the volume of eroded sediments deposited in the trench, indicating that erosion cannot be the primary mechanism by which indentations are created. Most of the "missing" material must be displaced landward by thrusting and folding ahead of the seamount. Our observations at the Java Trench are broadly comparable with those made at the Japan Trench by French and Japanese workers. However, some differences in the detail of

  1. Java application for the superposition T-matrix code to study the optical properties of cosmic dust aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halder, P.; Chakraborty, A.; Deb Roy, P.; Das, H. S.

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we report the development of a java application for the Superposition T-matrix code, JaSTA (Java Superposition T-matrix App), to study the light scattering properties of aggregate structures. It has been developed using Netbeans 7.1.2, which is a java integrated development environment (IDE). The JaSTA uses double precession superposition codes for multi-sphere clusters in random orientation developed by Mackowski and Mischenko (1996). It consists of a graphical user interface (GUI) in the front hand and a database of related data in the back hand. Both the interactive GUI and database package directly enable a user to model by self-monitoring respective input parameters (namely, wavelength, complex refractive indices, grain size, etc.) to study the related optical properties of cosmic dust (namely, extinction, polarization, etc.) instantly, i.e., with zero computational time. This increases the efficiency of the user. The database of JaSTA is now created for a few sets of input parameters with a plan to create a large database in future. This application also has an option where users can compile and run the scattering code directly for aggregates in GUI environment. The JaSTA aims to provide convenient and quicker data analysis of the optical properties which can be used in different fields like planetary science, atmospheric science, nano science, etc. The current version of this software is developed for the Linux and Windows platform to study the light scattering properties of small aggregates which will be extended for larger aggregates using parallel codes in future. Catalogue identifier: AETB_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AETB_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 571570 No. of bytes in distributed program

  2. Nematodes of amphibians from Java, Indonesia, with a description of
    new species, Meteterakis wonosoboensis n. sp. (Nematoda : Heterakoidea).

    PubMed

    Purwaningsih, Endang; Dewi, Kartika; Hasegawa, Hideo

    2015-06-24

    During a survey on the parasites of amphibians of Indonesia, toads (30 Bufo melanostictus) and 246 frogs (213 Fejervarya cancrivora, 11 F. limnocharis, 22 Rana macrodon from West Java and 68 F. cancrivora from Central Java) were examined for parasitic nematodes. Three species of nematodes were found and described, i.e. Meteterakis wonosoboensis n. sp. from Fejervaria cancrivora; Meteterakis japonica from Bufo melanostictus, F. cancrivora and F. limnocharis; and Chabaudus sp. from F. cancrivora, F. limnocharis and Rana macrodon. Meteterakis wonosoboensis n. sp. is distinguished from other species of the genus by the length and shape of spicules, the number of caudal papillae, the presence of gubernaculum in male and the presence of vulval flap in female. Bufo melanostictus and Java are recorded as new host and locality for M. japonica, respectively.

  3. Advances in the spatially distributed ages-w model: parallel computation, java connection framework (JCF) integration, and streamflow/nitrogen dynamics assessment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    AgroEcoSystem-Watershed (AgES-W) is a modular, Java-based spatially distributed model which implements hydrologic and water quality (H/WQ) simulation components under the Java Connection Framework (JCF) and the Object Modeling System (OMS) environmental modeling framework. AgES-W is implicitly scala...

  4. The Use of Traditional Media in Family Planning Programs in Rural Java. Cornell University, Current Papers in the Communication Arts #2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Robert H.; Adhikarya, Ronny

    Java's present national family planning program is hampered not only by a serious lack of formal communication media, but also by cultural, social and economic barriers that impede the communication effort. To reach the predominantly rural population, family planning programs could utilize Java's traditional mass media: the folk operas, comedies,…

  5. Effectiveness of Ministry of Internal Affairs Regulation Number 15 Year 2008 about Mainstreaming Gender on Basic Education Level in the East Java, Indonesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handayani, Trisakti; Widodo, Wahyu

    2016-01-01

    General purpose of this research are: assessing the implementation of Permendagri no. 15 year 2008 about Gender Mainstreaming on Basic Education Levels in the East Java Province, analyze the problem of the implementation of Permendagri no. 15 year 2008 about Gender Mainstreaming on Basic Education Levels in the East Java Province and analyze the…

  6. First record of Puerulus mesodontus Chan, Ma & Chu, 2013 (Crustacea, Decapoda, Achelata, Palinuridae) from south of Java, Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Hakim, Agus Alim; Mashar, Ali; Butet, Nurlisa Alias; Adrianto, Luky; Farajallah, Achmad

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Three specimens of Puerulus mesodontus Chan, Ma & Chu, 2013 (Crustacea, Decapoda, Achelata, Palinuridae) were collected from Palabuhanratu Bay, southern Java, Indonesia. There is no previous record on the presence of the species in Indonesia. This finding represents the first record of this species in Java, Indonesia, and confirms that the species is present in the Indian Ocean. The morphological characters of the species are described. New information This paper contains a new distribution record of a lobster species from Indonesian waters. PMID:27099562

  7. Gamma-ray spectrometric dating of late Homo erectus skulls from Ngandong and Sambungmacan, Central Java, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Yuji; Falguères, Christophe; Sémah, François; Jacob, Teuku; Grün, Rainer

    2008-08-01

    Hominid fossils from Ngandong and Sambungmacan, Central Java, Indonesia, are considered to be the most anatomically derived and youngest representatives of Homo erectus. Nondestructive gamma-ray spectrometric dating of three of these Homo erectus skulls showed that all samples underwent uranium leaching. Nevertheless, we could establish minimum age estimates of around 40ka, with an upper age limit of around 60 to 70ka. This means that the Homo erectus of Java very likely survived the Toba eruption and may have been contemporaneous with the earliest Homo sapiens in Southeast Asia and Australasia.

  8. Providing the Persistent Data Storage in a Software Engineering Environment Using Java/COBRA and a DBMS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dhaliwal, Swarn S.

    1997-01-01

    An investigation was undertaken to build the software foundation for the WHERE (Web-based Hyper-text Environment for Requirements Engineering) project. The TCM (Toolkit for Conceptual Modeling) was chosen as the foundation software for the WHERE project which aims to provide an environment for facilitating collaboration among geographically distributed people involved in the Requirements Engineering process. The TCM is a collection of diagram and table editors and has been implemented in the C++ programming language. The C++ implementation of the TCM was translated into Java in order to allow the editors to be used for building various functionality of the WHERE project; the WHERE project intends to use the Web as its communication back- bone. One of the limitations of the translated software (TcmJava), which militated against its use in the WHERE project, was persistent data management mechanisms which it inherited from the original TCM; it was designed to be used in standalone applications. Before TcmJava editors could be used as a part of the multi-user, geographically distributed applications of the WHERE project, a persistent storage mechanism must be built which would allow data communication over the Internet, using the capabilities of the Web. An approach involving features of Java, CORBA (Common Object Request Broker), the Web, a middle-ware (Java Relational Binding (JRB)), and a database server was used to build the persistent data management infrastructure for the WHERE project. The developed infrastructure allows a TcmJava editor to be downloaded and run from a network host by using a JDK 1.1 (Java Developer's Kit) compatible Web-browser. The aforementioned editor establishes connection with a server by using the ORB (Object Request Broker) software and stores/retrieves data in/from the server. The server consists of a CORBA object or objects depending upon whether the data is to be made persistent on a single server or multiple servers. The CORBA

  9. Building from Where We Are: Web Services and Java-Based Clients to Enable Virtual Observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Candey, R. M.; Chimiak, R. A.; Han, D. B.; Harris, B. T.; Johnson, R. C.; Klipsch, C. A.; Kovalick, T. J.; Leckner, H. A.; Liu, M. H.; McGuire, R. E.

    2005-12-01

    The Space Physics Data Facility at NASA Goddard has developed a strong foundation in space science mission services and data for enhancing the scientific return of space physics research and enabling integration of these services into the emerging Virtual discipline Observatory (VxO) paradigm. We are deploying a critical set of foundation components, leveraging our data format expertise and our existing and very popular science and orbit data web-based services, such as Coordinated Data Analysis Web [CDAWeb] and Satellite Situation Center Web [SSCweb]. We have developed web services APIs for orbit location, data finding across FTP sites and in CDAWeb, data file format translation, and data visualizations that tie together existing data holdings, standardize and simplify their use, and enable much enhanced interoperability and data analysis. We describe the technologies we've developed, our experiences and lessons-learned in implementing them, why we chose some technologies over others (web services vs. CORBA or simple CGI, Java vs. JavaScript or Flash), what we might do differently now, and our future direction. We discuss the difficulties in maintaining compatibility and inter-operability through various versions of web services and in merging various client projects, while adding extended functionality such as sonification interfaces in a modular fashion.

  10. Use of XML and Java for collaborative petroleum reservoir modeling on the Internet

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Victorine, J.; Watney, W.L.; Bhattacharya, S.

    2005-01-01

    The GEMINI (Geo-Engineering Modeling through INternet Informatics) is a public-domain, web-based freeware that is made up of an integrated suite of 14 Java-based software tools to accomplish on-line, real-time geologic and engineering reservoir modeling. GEMINI facilitates distant collaborations for small company and academic clients, negotiating analyses of both single and multiple wells. The system operates on a single server and an enterprise database. External data sets must be uploaded into this database. Feedback from GEMINI users provided the impetus to develop Stand Alone Web Start Applications of GEMINI modules that reside in and operate from the user's PC. In this version, the GEMINI modules run as applets, which may reside in local user PCs, on the server, or Java Web Start. In this enhanced version, XML-based data handling procedures are used to access data from remote and local databases and save results for later access and analyses. The XML data handling process also integrates different stand-alone GEMINI modules enabling the user(s) to access multiple databases. It provides flexibility to the user to customize analytical approach, database location, and level of collaboration. An example integrated field-study using GEMINI modules and Stand Alone Web Start Applications is provided to demonstrate the versatile applicability of this freeware for cost-effective reservoir modeling. ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis of Fasciola gigantica from western Java, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Kei; Ichikawa-Seki, Madoka; Allamanda, Puttik; Wibowo, Putut Eko; Mohanta, Uday Kumar; Sodirun; Guswanto, Azirwan; Nishikawa, Yoshifumi

    2016-10-01

    Fasciola gigantica and aspermic (hybrid) Fasciola flukes are thought to be distributed in Southeast Asian countries. The objectives of this study were to investigate the distribution of these flukes from unidentified ruminants in western Java, Indonesia, and to determine their distribution history into the area. Sixty Fasciola flukes from western Java were identified as F. gigantica based on the nucleotide sequences of the nuclear phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (pepck) and DNA polymerase delta (pold) genes. The flukes were then analyzed phylogenetically based on the nucleotide sequence of the mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (nad1) gene, together with Fasciola flukes from other Asian countries. All but one F. gigantica fluke were classified in F. gigantica haplogroup C, which mainly contains nad1 haplotypes detected in flukes from Thailand, Vietnam, and China. A population genetic analysis suggested that haplogroup C spread from Thailand to the neighboring countries including Indonesia together with domestic ruminants, such as the swamp buffalo, Bubalus bubalis. The swamp buffalo is one of the important definitive hosts of Fasciola flukes in Indonesia, and is considered to have been domesticated in the north of Thailand. The remaining one fluke displayed a novel nad1 haplotype that has never been detected in the reference countries. Therefore, the origin of the fluke could not be established. No hybrid Fasciola flukes were detected in this study, in contrast to neighboring Asian countries.

  12. Use of XML and Java for collaborative petroleum reservoir modeling on the Internet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Victorine, John; Watney, W. Lynn; Bhattacharya, Saibal

    2005-11-01

    The GEMINI (Geo-Engineering Modeling through INternet Informatics) is a public-domain, web-based freeware that is made up of an integrated suite of 14 Java-based software tools to accomplish on-line, real-time geologic and engineering reservoir modeling. GEMINI facilitates distant collaborations for small company and academic clients, negotiating analyses of both single and multiple wells. The system operates on a single server and an enterprise database. External data sets must be uploaded into this database. Feedback from GEMINI users provided the impetus to develop Stand Alone Web Start Applications of GEMINI modules that reside in and operate from the user's PC. In this version, the GEMINI modules run as applets, which may reside in local user PCs, on the server, or Java Web Start. In this enhanced version, XML-based data handling procedures are used to access data from remote and local databases and save results for later access and analyses. The XML data handling process also integrates different stand-alone GEMINI modules enabling the user(s) to access multiple databases. It provides flexibility to the user to customize analytical approach, database location, and level of collaboration. An example integrated field-study using GEMINI modules and Stand Alone Web Start Applications is provided to demonstrate the versatile applicability of this freeware for cost-effective reservoir modeling.

  13. Seismic imaging of a mid-lithospheric discontinuity beneath Ontong Java Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tharimena, Saikiran; Rychert, Catherine A.; Harmon, Nicholas

    2016-09-01

    Ontong Java Plateau (OJP) is a huge, completely submerged volcanic edifice that is hypothesized to have formed during large plume melting events ∼90 and 120 My ago. It is currently resisting subduction into the North Solomon trench. The size and buoyancy of the plateau along with its history of plume melting and current interaction with a subduction zone are all similar to the characteristics and hypothesized mechanisms of continent formation. However, the plateau is remote, and enigmatic, and its proto-continent potential is debated. We use SS precursors to image seismic discontinuity structure beneath Ontong Java Plateau. We image a velocity increase with depth at 28 ± 4 km consistent with the Moho. In addition, we image velocity decreases at 80 ± 5 km and 282 ± 7 km depth. Discontinuities at 60-100 km depth are frequently observed both beneath the oceans and the continents. However, the discontinuity at 282 km is anomalous in comparison to surrounding oceanic regions; in the context of previous results it may suggest a thick viscous root beneath OJP. If such a root exists, then the discontinuity at 80 km bears some similarity to the mid-lithospheric discontinuities (MLDs) observed beneath continents. One possibility is that plume melting events, similar to that which formed OJP, may cause discontinuities in the MLD depth range. Plume-plate interaction could be a mechanism for MLD formation in some continents in the Archean prior to the onset of subduction.

  14. An Overview of the Runtime Verification Tool Java PathExplorer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Havelund, Klaus; Rosu, Grigore; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We present an overview of the Java PathExplorer runtime verification tool, in short referred to as JPAX. JPAX can monitor the execution of a Java program and check that it conforms with a set of user provided properties formulated in temporal logic. JPAX can in addition analyze the program for concurrency errors such as deadlocks and data races. The concurrency analysis requires no user provided specification. The tool facilitates automated instrumentation of a program's bytecode, which when executed will emit an event stream, the execution trace, to an observer. The observer dispatches the incoming event stream to a set of observer processes, each performing a specialized analysis, such as the temporal logic verification, the deadlock analysis and the data race analysis. Temporal logic specifications can be formulated by the user in the Maude rewriting logic, where Maude is a high-speed rewriting system for equational logic, but here extended with executable temporal logic. The Maude rewriting engine is then activated as an event driven monitoring process. Alternatively, temporal specifications can be translated into efficient automata, which check the event stream. JPAX can be used during program testing to gain increased information about program executions, and can potentially furthermore be applied during operation to survey safety critical systems.

  15. Interactions of the Greater Ontong Java mantle plume component with the Osbourn Trough.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guo-Liang; Li, Chao

    2016-11-21

    The Ontong Java-Manihiki-Hikurangi plateau (OJMHP) is considered to have originated from a starting mantle plume, and have been rifted apart by two spreading ridges. However, the ages of these spreading ridges and their possible interactions with the presumed mantle plume are unclear. The Manihiki-Hikurangi plateau has been rifted apart by the Osbourn Trough which formed the southwestern Pacific crust to the east of the Tonga-Kermadec trench. Here we report Pb-Hf-Os isotopes of the basaltic crust (Site U1365 of IODP Expedition 329) formed by the Osbourn Trough. Linear regression of Re-Os isotopes results in an age of 103.7 ± 2.3 Ma for Site U1365 basalts, indicating that the Manihiki-Hikurangi plateau was rifted apart by the Osbourn Trough with a spreading rate of ~190 mm/yr. The superfast spreading rate supports the Osbourn as an abandoned segment of the early Pacific spreading ridge, which initially overlapped with the giant starting plume. Moreover, the Pb-Hf isotopes of some of Site U1365 basalts show distinct differences from those of the Pacific mid-ocean ridge basalts, while they are similar to the basalts of the Ontong Java and Manihiki plateaus. We suggest that the OJMHP mantle plume components has been involved by the Osbourn spreading center.

  16. Interactions of the Greater Ontong Java mantle plume component with the Osbourn Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Guo-Liang; Li, Chao

    2016-11-01

    The Ontong Java-Manihiki-Hikurangi plateau (OJMHP) is considered to have originated from a starting mantle plume, and have been rifted apart by two spreading ridges. However, the ages of these spreading ridges and their possible interactions with the presumed mantle plume are unclear. The Manihiki-Hikurangi plateau has been rifted apart by the Osbourn Trough which formed the southwestern Pacific crust to the east of the Tonga-Kermadec trench. Here we report Pb-Hf-Os isotopes of the basaltic crust (Site U1365 of IODP Expedition 329) formed by the Osbourn Trough. Linear regression of Re-Os isotopes results in an age of 103.7 ± 2.3 Ma for Site U1365 basalts, indicating that the Manihiki-Hikurangi plateau was rifted apart by the Osbourn Trough with a spreading rate of ~190 mm/yr. The superfast spreading rate supports the Osbourn as an abandoned segment of the early Pacific spreading ridge, which initially overlapped with the giant starting plume. Moreover, the Pb-Hf isotopes of some of Site U1365 basalts show distinct differences from those of the Pacific mid-ocean ridge basalts, while they are similar to the basalts of the Ontong Java and Manihiki plateaus. We suggest that the OJMHP mantle plume components has been involved by the Osbourn spreading center.

  17. Pleistocene To Holocene Human, Climatic and Environmental Changes In Central and Eastern Java (indonesia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sémah, A.-M.; Sémah, F.; Simanjuntak, H. T.

    The period between 21,000 and 6000 BP, which includes the Pleistocene-Holocene boundary, is likely to have known drastic environmental changes in the Indones ian archipelago, as seen from various sedimentary, pollen analytic, and archaeological records. In a low altitude swampy basin of central Java which yielded a thick clay and peat stratigraphy, several steps can be pointed between the driest period noticed prior 15,000 BP up to a climatic optimum c. 8,000 BP: a significant increase in humidity from c. 15,000 BP onwards, an extension of the forest after 10,500 BP, completion of almost everwet conditions c. 8,500 BP before a forest regression at c.6000 BP. Correlative excavations of the cave fillings near the coast of the Indian ocean, in the Southern Mountains of Java island, reflect conspicuous changes in the archaeological record: a more or less occasional human occupation of the caves during the late Plaistocene is followed by an intensive one in the early Holocene. Human groups, who brought new technologies (like sophisticated bone tools) had to adapt to and get their subsistence in an extending rain forest like environment, with a faunal turnover (Macaca and Presbytis dominance) or in the numerous flooded basins which formed during that period (fresh water molluscs gathering and smaller tortoise hunting). They carried out close contacts with the coastal area and used also the caves as burial places.

  18. Spatial change analysis of paddy cropping pattern using MODIS time series imagery in Central Java

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arif Fatoni, Muhammad; Dwi Nugroho, Kreshna; Fatikhunnada, Alvin; Liyantono; Setiawan, Yudi

    2017-01-01

    Central Java had the diverse paddy field cropping patterns and it was influenced by several factors such as water availability, land condition, paddy fields ownership, and local culture. This research was aimed to analyze dynamic changes of paddy cropping pattern using MODIS imagery (MOD13Q1 16-day composite from 2001 to 2015). This research used k-means clustering algorithm for classified cropping pattern in Central Java based on similarity pattern of annual data from vegetation index. The result of this research classified cropping pattern become a main class and produced 15 maps of distribution cropping patterns (from 2001 to 2015). The result also divided Central Java’s paddy fields become 2 section (constant and change) based on cropping pattern that majority was caused by water availability. This research got the better accuracy (77.67%) of cropping pattern than long time series analysis from previous research. Although some classes successfully obtained upon annual time series analysis, MODIS still difficult to detect mixed crop pattern.

  19. JavaScript Access to DICOM Network and Objects in Web Browser.

    PubMed

    Drnasin, Ivan; Grgić, Mislav; Gogić, Goran

    2017-01-30

    Digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM) 3.0 standard provides the baseline for the picture archiving and communication systems (PACS). The development of Internet and various communication media initiated demand for non-DICOM access to PACS systems. Ever-increasing utilization of the web browsers, laptops and handheld devices, as opposed to desktop applications and static organizational computers, lead to development of different web technologies. The DICOM standard officials accepted those subsequently as tools of alternative access. This paper provides an overview of the current state of development of the web access technology to the DICOM repositories. It presents a different approach of using HTML5 features of the web browsers through the JavaScript language and the WebSocket protocol by enabling real-time communication with DICOM repositories. JavaScript DICOM network library, DICOM to WebSocket proxy and a proof-of-concept web application that qualifies as a DICOM 3.0 device were developed.

  20. Web-based experiments controlled by JavaScript: an example from probability learning.

    PubMed

    Birnbaum, Michael H; Wakcher, Sandra V

    2002-05-01

    JavaScript programs can be used to control Web experiments. This technique is illustrated by an experiment that tested the effects of advice on performance in the classic probability-learning paradigm. Previous research reported that people tested via the Web or in the lab tended to match the probabilities of their responses to the probabilities that those responses would be reinforced. The optimal strategy, however, is to consistently choose the more frequent event; probability matching produces suboptimal performance. We investigated manipulations we reasoned should improve performance. A horse race scenario in which participants predicted the winner in each of a series of races between two horses was compared with an abstract scenario used previously. Ten groups of learners received different amounts of advice, including all combinations of (1) explicit instructions concerning the optimal strategy, (2) explicit instructions concerning a monetary sum to maximize, and (3) accurate information concerning the probabilities of events. The results showed minimal effects of horse race versus abstract scenario. Both advice concerning the optimal strategy and probability information contributed significantly to performance in the task. This paper includes a brief tutorial on JavaScript, explaining with simple examples how to assemble a browser-based experiment.

  1. Cyclic organochlorines in epibenthic organisms from coastal waters around East Java

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boon, J. P.; Everaarts, J. M.; Kastoro, W. W.; Razak, H.; Sumanta, I.; Sumarno; Nelissen, P. H.; Stefels, J.; Hillebrand, M. Th. J.

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides and their persistent metabolites were identified in epibenthic animals from the estuaries of the rivers Brantas and Solo and from Strait Madura, Strait Bali and the Java Sea in July and November 1984. Samples of different phyla showed similar general geographical trends for the compounds investigated. Contamination with p,p'-DDE was of major importance in the river Porong, a distributary of the Brantas river system. Increased concentrations of PCBs were found near Surabaya. In Strait Madura, p,p'-DDE and PCBs were increased only in animals from the western part. Therefore the dispersion of the contaminants in biota appeared to be determined by the residual currents caused by the SE trade winds prevailing in both periods of sampling (July and November 1984). Generally no differences existed between the two sampling periods, except in the Java Sea, where PCBs were only detected during the November cruise. Compared to the animals from Strait Madura, the PCB patterns showed increased contributions of tri- and tetrachlorobiphenyls. This could not be related to differences in PCB-patterns of water or suspended particles. The compounds QCB, HCB, α-HCH, ß-HCH, o,p'-DDD, methoxychlor and several cyclodienes were generally below detection limits.

  2. Interactions of the Greater Ontong Java mantle plume component with the Osbourn Trough

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Guo-Liang; Li, Chao

    2016-01-01

    The Ontong Java-Manihiki-Hikurangi plateau (OJMHP) is considered to have originated from a starting mantle plume, and have been rifted apart by two spreading ridges. However, the ages of these spreading ridges and their possible interactions with the presumed mantle plume are unclear. The Manihiki-Hikurangi plateau has been rifted apart by the Osbourn Trough which formed the southwestern Pacific crust to the east of the Tonga-Kermadec trench. Here we report Pb-Hf-Os isotopes of the basaltic crust (Site U1365 of IODP Expedition 329) formed by the Osbourn Trough. Linear regression of Re-Os isotopes results in an age of 103.7 ± 2.3 Ma for Site U1365 basalts, indicating that the Manihiki-Hikurangi plateau was rifted apart by the Osbourn Trough with a spreading rate of ~190 mm/yr. The superfast spreading rate supports the Osbourn as an abandoned segment of the early Pacific spreading ridge, which initially overlapped with the giant starting plume. Moreover, the Pb-Hf isotopes of some of Site U1365 basalts show distinct differences from those of the Pacific mid-ocean ridge basalts, while they are similar to the basalts of the Ontong Java and Manihiki plateaus. We suggest that the OJMHP mantle plume components has been involved by the Osbourn spreading center. PMID:27869235

  3. Real-Time Lunar Prospector Data Visualization Using Web-Based Java

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deardorff, D. Glenn; Green, Bryan D.; Gerald-Yamasaki, Michael (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    The Lunar Prospector was co-developed by NASA Ames Research Center and Lockheed Martin, and was launched on January 6th, 1998. Its mission is to search for water ice and various elements in the Moon's surface, map its magnetic and gravity fields, and detect volcanic activity. For the first time, the World Wide Web is being used to graphically display near-real-time data from a planetary exploration mission to the global public. Science data from the craft's instruments, as well as engineering data for the spacecraft subsystems, are continuously displayed in time-varying XY plots. The craft's current location is displayed relative to the whole Moon, and as an off-craft observer would see in the reference frame of the craft, with the lunar terrain scrolling underneath. These features are implemented as Java applets. Analyzed data (element and mass distribution) is presented as 3D lunar maps using VRML and Javascript. During the development phase, implementations of the Java Virtual Machine were just beginning to mature enough to adequately accommodate our target featureset; incomplete and varying implementations were the biggest bottleneck to our ideal of ubiquitous browser access. Bottlenecks notwithstanding, the reaction from the Internet community was overwhelmingly enthusiastic.

  4. FastaValidator: an open-source Java library to parse and validate FASTA formatted sequences

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Advances in sequencing technologies challenge the efficient importing and validation of FASTA formatted sequence data which is still a prerequisite for most bioinformatic tools and pipelines. Comparative analysis of commonly used Bio*-frameworks (BioPerl, BioJava and Biopython) shows that their scalability and accuracy is hampered. Findings FastaValidator represents a platform-independent, standardized, light-weight software library written in the Java programming language. It targets computer scientists and bioinformaticians writing software which needs to parse quickly and accurately large amounts of sequence data. For end-users FastaValidator includes an interactive out-of-the-box validation of FASTA formatted files, as well as a non-interactive mode designed for high-throughput validation in software pipelines. Conclusions The accuracy and performance of the FastaValidator library qualifies it for large data sets such as those commonly produced by massive parallel (NGS) technologies. It offers scientists a fast, accurate and standardized method for parsing and validating FASTA formatted sequence data. PMID:24929426

  5. Phytochemical Screening and Acute Oral Toxicity Study of Java Tea Leaf Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Safinar Ismail, Intan; Azam, Amalina Ahmad; Abas, Faridah; Shaari, Khozirah; Sulaiman, Mohd Roslan

    2015-01-01

    The term Java tea refers to the decoction of Orthosiphon stamineus (OS) Benth (Lamiaceae) leaves, which are widely consumed by the people in Europe and South East Asian countries. The OS leaves are known for their use in traditional medicinal systems as a prophylactic and curative agent for urinary stone, diabetes, and hypertension and also as a diuretic agent. The present study was aimed at evaluating its possible toxicity. Herein, the major phytochemical constituents of microwave dried OS leaf, which is the common drying process for tea sachets in the market, were also identified. The acute oral toxicity test of aqueous, 50% aqueous ethanolic, and ethanolic extracts of OS was performed at a dose of 5000 mg/Kg body weight of Sprague-Dawley rats. During the 14-day study, the animals were observed for any mortality, behavioral, motor-neuronal abnormalities, body weight, and feed-water consumption pattern. The hematological and serum biochemical parameters to assess the kidney and liver functions were carried out, along with the histological analysis of these organs. It was found that all microwave dried OS leaf extracts did not cause any toxic effects or mortality at the administered dose. No abnormality was noticed in all selected parameters in rats of both sexes as compared with their respective control groups. Thus, the possible oral lethal dose for microwave dried Java tea leaves is more than 5000 mg/Kg body weight. PMID:26819955

  6. BioViews: Java-Based Tools for Genomic Data Visualization

    PubMed Central

    Helt, Gregg A.; Lewis, Suzanna; Loraine, Ann E.; Rubin, Gerald M.

    1998-01-01

    Visualization tools for bioinformatics ideally should provide universal access to the most current data in an interactive and intuitive graphical user interface. Since the introduction of Java, a language designed for distributed programming over the Web, the technology now exists to build a genomic data visualization tool that meets these requirements. Using Java we have developed a prototype genome browser applet (BioViews) that incorporates a three-level graphical view of genomic data: a physical map, an annotated sequence map, and a DNA sequence display. Annotated biological features are displayed on the physical and sequence-based maps, and the different views are interconnected. The applet is linked to several databases and can retrieve features and display hyperlinked textual data on selected features. In addition to browsing genomic data, different types of analyses can be performed interactively and the results of these analyses visualized alongside prior annotations. Our genome browser is built on top of extensible, reusable graphic components specifically designed for bioinformatics. Other groups can (and do) reuse this work in various ways. Genome centers can reuse large parts of the genome browser with minor modifications, bioinformatics groups working on sequence analysis can reuse components to build front ends for analysis programs, and biology laboratories can reuse components to publish results as dynamic Web documents. PMID:9521932

  7. Small area estimation (SAE) model: Case study of poverty in West Java Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suhartini, Titin; Sadik, Kusman; Indahwati

    2016-02-01

    This paper showed the comparative of direct estimation and indirect/Small Area Estimation (SAE) model. Model selection included resolve multicollinearity problem in auxiliary variable, such as choosing only variable non-multicollinearity and implemented principal component (PC). Concern parameters in this paper were the proportion of agricultural venture poor households and agricultural poor households area level in West Java Province. The approach for estimating these parameters could be performed based on direct estimation and SAE. The problem of direct estimation, three area even zero and could not be conducted by directly estimation, because small sample size. The proportion of agricultural venture poor households showed 19.22% and agricultural poor households showed 46.79%. The best model from agricultural venture poor households by choosing only variable non-multicollinearity and the best model from agricultural poor households by implemented PC. The best estimator showed SAE better then direct estimation both of the proportion of agricultural venture poor households and agricultural poor households area level in West Java Province. The solution overcame small sample size and obtained estimation for small area was implemented small area estimation method for evidence higher accuracy and better precision improved direct estimator.

  8. Biodiversity and Distribution of Horseshoe Crabs in Northern Coast of Java and Southern Coast of Madura

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mashar, A.; Butet, NA; Juliandi, B.; Qonita, Y.; Hakim, AA; Wardiatno, Y.

    2017-01-01

    Horseshoe crab is an important component of macro-benthos communities in the fine sand or mud substrate in coastal waters, both in the tropical and temperate region. This primitive animal consists of four species in the world, and three species can be found di Asian region, including Indonesia, namely Tachypleus tridentatus, T. gigas, and Carcinoscorpius rotundicauda. Scientific information about species distribution of three Asian horseshoe crab in Indonesia is limited, also about morphometric characters. This study aims to determine the morphometric characters and species distribution of three Asian horseshoe crab in north coast of Java and south coast of Madura Island. This study was conducted on July-August 2016. The total number of three Asian horseshoe crab obtained in this study was 260 individuals, distributed along north coast of Java and south coast of Madura Island, respectively 176 individuals of C. rotundicauda, 35 individuals of T. tridentatus, and 49 individuals of T. gigas. Tachypleus gigas has the largest size and widest class interval among three Asian horseshoe crab species. Morphometric characters is differences among three Asian horseshoe crab species. Carapace width and telson length were not significantly different among sampling locations only in T. tridentatus.

  9. A Survey of Volcanic Deformation on Java Using ALOS InSAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philibosian, B.; Simons, M.

    2008-12-01

    Of the hundreds of volcanic centers throughout the Indonesian archipelago, few are adequately monitored for pre-eruptive activity due to socioeconomic and logistical barriers, with the result that volcanic hazards in the region are not well quantified. The advent of satellite-borne L-band synthetic aperture radar, which due to its long wavelength is less sensitive to changes in vegetation, provides an opportunity for detection and measurement of volcanic deformation over broad regions in heavily vegetated tropical island arcs. We use data from the Japanese ALOS PALSAR instrument to conduct a comprehensive survey of volcanic deformation on the Indonesian island of Java, over a time period of 1-2 years. Consistent with previous results from other regions, our preliminary results suggest that volcanoes experiencing frequent, small eruptions are typically fed by magma bodies too small and/or too shallow or deep to produce a recognizable InSAR signal. However, we identified at least one deformation event on Java which is likely linked to a magmatic intrusion at 5-10 km depth. This initial test of a broad application of L-band data allowed us to better define the satellite imaging criteria required for successful observation, as well as necessary improvements to the InSAR processing algorithms originally designed for C-band data.

  10. Prevalence of hemagglutination-inhibition and neutralizing antibodies to arboviruses in horses of java.

    PubMed

    Widjaja, S; Soekotjo, W; Hartati, S; Jennings, G B; Corwin, A L

    1995-03-01

    A study was conducted to measure the prevalence of hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) and neutralizing antibodies against two arboviruses (Chikungunya and Japanese encephalitis virus) in horses of Java, Indonesia. Blood specimens were collected from a sample of 112 horses at two stables: Pulo Mas, a racing track-horse complex, located in a residential area in North Jakarta, and Pamulang, a riding school, located in a rural environment of West Jaya. Sera were tested by the HI assay and plaque reduction neutralization test. JEV antibodies were detected by HI in 58 (52%) of the horses, while only 11 (10%) had Chikungunya antibodies by HI. The proportion of Pamulang horses infected with JEV (66%) was significantly higher than found among Pulo Mas horses (40%) screened (p < 0.01). Of the 58 horses with JEV antibodies by HI, 52 (90%) were found to have specific neutralization antibodies to JEV. HI and neutralization tests on horse sera indicated that the risk to alpha virus infections was minimal in horses surveyed from Java. However, there was a high risk of JEV infection among the same population.

  11. Distributing medical images with internet technologies: a DICOM web server and a DICOM java viewer.

    PubMed

    Fernàndez-Bayó, J; Barbero, O; Rubies, C; Sentís, M; Donoso, L

    2000-01-01

    With the advent of filmless radiology, it becomes important to be able to distribute radiologic images digitally throughout an entire hospital. A new approach based on World Wide Web technologies was developed to accomplish this objective. This approach involves a Web server that allows the query and retrieval of images stored in a Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) archive. The images can be viewed inside a Web browser with use of a small Java program known as the DICOM Java Viewer, which is executed inside the browser. The system offers several advantages over more traditional picture archiving and communication systems (PACS): It is easy to install and maintain, is platform independent, allows images to be manipulated and displayed efficiently, and is easy to integrate with existing systems that are already making use of Web technologies. The system is user-friendly and can easily be used from outside the hospital if a security policy is in place. The simplicity and flexibility of Internet technologies makes them highly preferable to the more complex PACS workstations. The system works well, especially with magnetic resonance and computed tomographic images, and can help improve and simplify interdepartmental relationships in a filmless hospital environment.

  12. Detecting Theft of Java Applications via a Static Birthmark Based on Weighted Stack Patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Hyun-Il; Park, Heewan; Choi, Seokwoo; Han, Taisook

    A software birthmark means the inherent characteristics of a program that can be used to identify the program. A comparison of such birthmarks facilitates the detection of software theft. In this paper, we propose a static Java birthmark based on a set of stack patterns, which reflect the characteristic of Java applications. A stack pattern denotes a sequence of bytecodes that share their operands through the operand stack. A weight scheme is used to balance the influence of each bytecode in a comparison of the birthmarks. We evaluate the proposed birthmark with respect to two properties required for a birthmark: credibility and resilience. The empirical results show that the proposed birthmark is highly credible and resilient to program transformation. We also compare the proposed birthmark with existing birthmarks, such as that of Tamada et al. and the k-gram birthmark. The experimental results show that the proposed birthmark is more stable than the birthmarks in terms of resilience to program transformation. Thus, the proposed birthmark can provide more reliable evidence of software theft when the software is modified by someone other than author.

  13. Upper crustal structure of central Java, Indonesia, from transdimensional seismic ambient noise tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zulfakriza, Z.; Saygin, E.; Cummins, P. R.; Widiyantoro, S.; Nugraha, A. D.; Lühr, B.-G.; Bodin, T.

    2014-04-01

    Delineating the crustal structure of central Java is crucial for understanding its complex tectonic setting. However, seismic imaging of the strong heterogeneity typical of such a tectonically active region can be challenging, particularly in the upper crust where velocity contrasts are strongest and steep body wave ray paths provide poor resolution. To overcome these difficulties, we apply the technique of ambient noise tomography (ANT) to data collected during the Merapi Amphibious Experiment (MERAMEX), which covered central Java with a temporary deployment of over 120 seismometers during 2004 May-October. More than 5000 Rayleigh wave Green's functions were extracted by cross-correlating the noise simultaneously recorded at available station pairs. We applied a fully non-linear 2-D Bayesian probabilistic inversion technique to the retrieved traveltimes. Features in the derived tomographic images correlate well with previous studies, and some shallow structures that were not evident in previous studies are clearly imaged with ANT. The Kendeng Basin and several active volcanoes appear with very low group velocities, and anomalies with relatively high velocities can be interpreted in terms of crustal sutures and/or surface geological features.

  14. Protection of Paddy Field and Recommendation of Regional Planning in Cianjur Regency, West Java, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munibah, Khursatul; Yudarwati, Rani; Dwi Wahyunie, Enni; Wijaya, Hermanu

    2016-11-01

    Cianjur Regency is one of “lumbung” paddies in West Java Province that can contribute to rice sufficiency for West Java 13.5%. However conversion of paddy field into other land use still happen in Indonesia because of land rent of paddy field less than other land use and also the low commitment of Government to protect the paddy field to get food self-sufficiency. Objectives are analysis of paddy field protection and recommendation of regional planning. Paddy field protection was determined based on existing paddy field, land suitability, economic value and Regional Spatial Planning (RTRW). Recommendation of regional planning was determined based on priority level of paddy field protection, Regional Spatial Planning (RTRW) and rice sufficiency status. The results showed that land suitability, economic value and also allocating land for paddy field in the RTRW can support realization of paddy field protection. The paddy field that included into the first and third priority is 30.14% and 38.45%, respectively. The other priorities of paddy field protection are around 15%. This research is recommended that 87.5% of the paddy field existing can be protected to get rice sufficiency with surplus around 48.782 ton.

  15. Physics Laboratory Investigation of Vocational High School Field Stone and Concrete Construction Techniques in the Central Java Province (Indonesia)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purwandari, Ristiana Dyah

    2015-01-01

    The investigation aims in this study were to uncover the observations of infrastructures and physics laboratory in vocational high school for Stone and Concrete Construction Techniques Expertise Field or Teknik Konstruksi Batu dan Beton (TKBB)'s in Purwokerto Central Java Province, mapping the Vocational High School or Sekolah Menengah Kejuruan…

  16. Development of Geography Text Books Used by Senior High School Teachers Case Study at East Java-Indonesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purwanto, Edy; Fatchan, Ach.; Purwanto; Soekamto, Hadi

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the geography text book for: (1) identify and describe the errors in the organization of geography textbooks, and (2) identify and describe the content of the textbook standard errors of geography. The text book is currently being used by teachers of Senior High School in East Java. To analyze the contents of…

  17. Assessing genetic diversity in java fine-flavor cocoa (theobroma cacao l.) Germplasm by simple sequence repeat (ssr) markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Indonesia is the 3rd largest cocoa producing countries in the world, with an annual cacao bean production of 572,000 tons. The currently cultivated cacao varieties in Indonesia were inter-hybrids of various clones introduced from the Americas since the 16th century. Among them, “Java cocoa” is a wel...

  18. An Exploration of the Features and Applications of the Java NEXRAD Project at NOAA's National Climatic Data Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansari, S.; Delgreco, S.

    2005-12-01

    NOAA's National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) acquires Weather Surveillance Radar, 1988 Doppler (WSR-88D) data from a national network of ~160 NWS, DOD and FAA sites. These are commonly referred to as Next-Generation Radars (NEXRAD). The NCDC archive contains over 1000 terabytes of NEXRAD volume scan (base) data, known as Level-II, and derived products, known as Level-III, dating back to 1991. The NCDC Java NEXRAD software provides tools to decode, visualize and export NEXRAD Radar data to multiple common scientific formats. This includes the NEXRAD Viewer and NEXRAD Data Exporter applications. The Viewer is a GIS-based interactive viewer while the Data Exporter creates geo-referenced vector and raster NEXRAD datasets, in formats such as Shapefile, Well-Known Text, ASCII GRID, NetCDF and GeoTIFF. By providing users with data in familiar formats, NEXRAD data is now accessible to a broader audience. Real-time data and batch processing are supported and the Java NEXRAD API allows full integration of the software into custom applications. One example application of the Java NEXRAD Tools is the NCDC Severe Weather Inventory, a geo-database containing the severe weather features (tornado, hail, mesocyclone, storm structure) for all NEXRAD data at NCDC. Other applications include the ability to create custom mosaics and composites from multiple NEXRAD products and the incorporation of NEXRAD data into a 3-dimensional GIS environment. These applications showcase the flexibility and scalability of the Java NEXRAD Tools software package.

  19. Parents' Participation in Improving the Quality of Elementary School in the City of Malang, East Java, Indonesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sumarsono, Raden Bambang; Imron, Ali; Wiyono, Bambang Budi; Arifin, Imron

    2016-01-01

    This research aims at describing parents participation in improving the quality of education of elementary schools viewed from the school substance and management. This is a qualitative research using phenomenology approach. The research design employed is comparative multicase involving four elementary schools in Malang city, East java,…

  20. Safe Upper-Bounds Inference of Energy Consumption for Java Bytecode Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Navas, Jorge; Mendez-Lojo, Mario; Hermenegildo, Manuel V.

    2008-01-01

    Many space applications such as sensor networks, on-board satellite-based platforms, on-board vehicle monitoring systems, etc. handle large amounts of data and analysis of such data is often critical for the scientific mission. Transmitting such large amounts of data to the remote control station for analysis is usually too expensive for time-critical applications. Instead, modern space applications are increasingly relying on autonomous on-board data analysis. All these applications face many resource constraints. A key requirement is to minimize energy consumption. Several approaches have been developed for estimating the energy consumption of such applications (e.g. [3, 1]) based on measuring actual consumption at run-time for large sets of random inputs. However, this approach has the limitation that it is in general not possible to cover all possible inputs. Using formal techniques offers the potential for inferring safe energy consumption bounds, thus being specially interesting for space exploration and safety-critical systems. We have proposed and implemented a general frame- work for resource usage analysis of Java bytecode [2]. The user defines a set of resource(s) of interest to be tracked and some annotations that describe the cost of some elementary elements of the program for those resources. These values can be constants or, more generally, functions of the input data sizes. The analysis then statically derives an upper bound on the amount of those resources that the program as a whole will consume or provide, also as functions of the input data sizes. This article develops a novel application of the analysis of [2] to inferring safe upper bounds on the energy consumption of Java bytecode applications. We first use a resource model that describes the cost of each bytecode instruction in terms of the joules it consumes. With this resource model, we then generate energy consumption cost relations, which are then used to infer safe upper bounds. How