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Sample records for jet fuel exposure

  1. Jet Fuel Exposure and Neurological Health in Military Personnel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-07-01

    relationship between JP-8 fuel exposure and adverse neurological outcomes in military personnel working in a cold climate environment. The research...with hypothesized neurocognitive and neurophysiologic performance outcomes . The project has two phases: Tier I is to conduct onsite exposure ...AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-06-1-0105 TITLE: Jet Fuel Exposure and Neurological

  2. Urinary biomarkers of exposure to jet fuel (JP-8).

    PubMed Central

    Serdar, Berrin; Egeghy, Peter P; Waidyanatha, Suramya; Gibson, Roger; Rappaport, Stephen M

    2003-01-01

    Benzene, naphthalene, and 1- and 2-naphthol were measured in urine samples obtained from 322 U.S. Air Force personnel categorized a priori as likely to have low, moderate, or high exposure to jet fuel [jet propulsion fuel-8 (JP-8)]. In postexposure samples, levels of these analytes in the high-exposure group were 3- to 29-fold greater than in the low-exposure group and 2- to 12-fold greater than in the moderate-exposure group. Heavy exposure to JP-8 contributed roughly the same amount of benzene and more than three times the amount of naphthalene compared with cigarette smoking. Strong correlations were observed among postexposure levels of naphthalene-based biomarkers in urine and naphthalene in air and breath. We conclude that urinary naphthalene and the naphthols can serve as biomarkers of exposure to jet fuel. Of these, the naphthols are probably more useful because of their greater abundance and slower elimination kinetics. PMID:14594628

  3. A dermatotoxicokinetic model of human exposures to jet fuel.

    PubMed

    Kim, David; Andersen, Melvin E; Nylander-French, Leena A

    2006-09-01

    Workers, both in the military and the commercial airline industry, are exposed to jet fuel by inhalation and dermal contact. We present a dermatotoxicokinetic (DTK) model that quantifies the absorption, distribution, and elimination of aromatic and aliphatic components of jet fuel following dermal exposures in humans. Kinetic data were obtained from 10 healthy volunteers following a single dose of JP-8 to the forearm over a surface area of 20 cm2. Blood samples were taken before exposure (t = 0 h), after exposure (t = 0.5 h), and every 0.5 h for up to 3.5 h postexposure. The DTK model that best fit the data included five compartments: (1) surface, (2) stratum corneum (SC), (3) viable epidermis, (4) blood, and (5) storage. The DTK model was used to predict blood concentrations of the components of JP-8 based on dermal-exposure measurements made in occupational-exposure settings in order to better understand the toxicokinetic behavior of these compounds. Monte Carlo simulations of dermal exposure and cumulative internal dose demonstrated no overlap among the low-, medium-, and high-exposure groups. The DTK model provides a quantitative understanding of the relationship between the mass of JP-8 components in the SC and the concentrations of each component in the systemic circulation. The model may be used for the development of a toxicokinetic modeling strategy for multiroute exposure to jet fuel.

  4. Immunotoxicological effects of JP-8 jet fuel exposure.

    PubMed

    Harris, D T; Sakiestewa, D; Robledo, R F; Witten, M

    1997-01-01

    Chronic exposure to jet fuel has been shown to have adverse effects on human liver function, to cause emotional dysfunction, to cause abnormal electroencephalograms, to cause shortened attention spans, and to decrease sensorimotor speed (3-5). Due to the decision by the United States Air Force to implement the widespread use of JP-8 jet fuel in its operations, a thorough understanding of its potential effects upon exposed personnel is both critical and necessary. Exposure to potential environmental toxicants such as JP-8 may have significant effects on host systems beyond those readily visible (e.g., physiology, cardiology, respiratory, etc.); e.g., the immune system. Significant changes in immune consequences, even if short-lived, may have serious consequences for the exposed host that may impinge affect susceptibility to infectious agents. Major alterations in immune function that are long-lasting may result in an increased likelihood of development and/or progression of cancer, as well as autoimmune diseases. In the current study mice were exposed for 1h/day for 7 days to varying concentrations of aerosolized JP-8 jet fuel to simulate occupational exposures. Twenty-four hours after the last exposure the mice were analyzed for effects on their immune systems. It was observed that even at exposure concentrations as low as 100 mg/m3 detrimental effects on the immune system occurred. Decreases in viable immune cell numbers and immune organ weights were found. Jet fuel exposure resulted in losses of different immune cell subpopulations depending upon the immune organ being examined. Further, JP-8 exposure resulted in significantly decreased immune function, as analyzed by mitogenesis assays. Suppressed immune function could not be overcome by the addition of exogenous growth factors known to stimulate immune function. Thus, short-term, low concentration exposure of mice to JP-8 jet fuel caused significant toxicological effects on the immune system. It appears that

  5. Immunotoxicity evaluation of jet a jet fuel in female rats after 28-day dermal exposure.

    PubMed

    Mann, Cynthia M; Peachee, Vanessa L; Trimmer, Gary W; Lee, Ji-Eun; Twerdok, Lorraine E; White, Kimber L

    2008-01-01

    The potential for jet fuel to modulate immune functions has been reported in mice following dermal, inhalation, and oral routes of exposure; however, a functional evaluation of the immune system in rats following jet fuel exposure has not been conducted. In this study potential effects of commercial jet fuel (Jet A) on the rat immune system were assessed using a battery of functional assays developed to screen potential immunotoxic compounds. Jet A was applied to the unoccluded skin of 6- to 7-wk-old female Crl:CD (SD)IGS BR rats at doses of 165, 330, or 495 mg/kg/d for 28 d. Mineral oil was used as a vehicle to mitigate irritation resulting from repeated exposure to jet fuel. Cyclophosphamide and anti-asialo GM1 were used as positive controls for immunotoxic effects. In contrast to reported immunotoxic effects of jet fuel in mice, dermal exposure of rats to Jet A did not result in alterations in spleen or thymus weights, splenic lymphocyte subpopulations, immunoglobulin (Ig) M antibody-forming cell response to the T-dependent antigen, sheep red blood cells (sRBC), spleen cell proliferative response to anti-CD3 antibody, or natural killer (NK) cell activity. In each of the immunotoxicological assays conducted, the positive control produced the expected results, demonstrating the assay was capable of detecting an effect if one had occurred. Based on the immunological parameters evaluated under the experimental conditions of the study, Jet A did not adversely affect immune responses of female rats. It remains to be determined whether the observed difference between this study and some other studies reflects a difference in the immunological response of rats and mice or is the result of other factors.

  6. Human exposure to the jet fuel, JP-8.

    PubMed

    Tu, Raymond H; Mitchell, Clifford S; Kay, Gary G; Risby, Terence H

    2004-01-01

    This study investigates anecdotal reports that have suggested adverse health effects associated with acute or chronic exposure to jet fuel. JP-8 exposure during the course of the study day was estimated using breath analysis. Health effects associated with exposure were measured using a neurocognitive testing battery and liver and kidney function tests. Breath analysis provided an estimate of an individual's recent JP-8 exposure that had occurred via inhalation and dermal routes. All individuals studied on base exhaled aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons that are found in JP-8. The subject who showed evidence of the most exposure to JP-8 had a breath concentration of 11.5 mg x m(-3) for total JP-8. This breath concentration suggested that exposure to JP-8 at an Air Guard Base is much less than exposure observed at other Air Force Bases. This reduction in exposure to JP-8 is attributed to the safety practices and standard operating procedures carried out by base personnel. The base personnel who exhibited the highest exposures to JP-8 were fuel cell workers, fuel specialists and smokers, who smoked downwind from the flightline. Although study-day exposures appear to be much less than current guidelines, chronic exposure at these low levels appeared to affect neurocognitive functioning. JP-8-exposed individuals performed significantly poorer than a sample of non-exposed age- and education-matched individuals on 20 of 47 measures of information processing and other cognitive functions.

  7. Bilateral Vestibular Dysfunction Associated With Chronic Exposure to Military Jet Propellant Type-Eight Jet Fuel.

    PubMed

    Fife, Terry D; Robb, Michael J A; Steenerson, Kristen K; Saha, Kamala C

    2018-01-01

    We describe three patients diagnosed with bilateral vestibular dysfunction associated with the jet propellant type-eight (JP-8) fuel exposure. Chronic exposure to aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons, which are the main constituents of JP-8 military aircraft jet fuel, occurred over 3-5 years' duration while working on or near the flight line. Exposure to toxic hydrocarbons was substantiated by the presence of JP-8 metabolite n -hexane in the blood of one of the cases. The presenting symptoms were dizziness, headache, fatigue, and imbalance. Rotational chair testing confirmed bilateral vestibular dysfunction in all the three patients. Vestibular function improved over time once the exposure was removed. Bilateral vestibular dysfunction has been associated with hydrocarbon exposure in humans, but only recently has emphasis been placed specifically on the detrimental effects of JP-8 jet fuel and its numerous hydrocarbon constituents. Data are limited on the mechanism of JP-8-induced vestibular dysfunction or ototoxicity. Early recognition of JP-8 toxicity risk, cessation of exposure, and customized vestibular therapy offer the best chance for improved balance. Bilateral vestibular impairment is under-recognized in those chronically exposed to all forms of jet fuel.

  8. Bilateral Vestibular Dysfunction Associated With Chronic Exposure to Military Jet Propellant Type-Eight Jet Fuel

    PubMed Central

    Fife, Terry D.; Robb, Michael J. A.; Steenerson, Kristen K.; Saha, Kamala C.

    2018-01-01

    We describe three patients diagnosed with bilateral vestibular dysfunction associated with the jet propellant type-eight (JP-8) fuel exposure. Chronic exposure to aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons, which are the main constituents of JP-8 military aircraft jet fuel, occurred over 3–5 years’ duration while working on or near the flight line. Exposure to toxic hydrocarbons was substantiated by the presence of JP-8 metabolite n-hexane in the blood of one of the cases. The presenting symptoms were dizziness, headache, fatigue, and imbalance. Rotational chair testing confirmed bilateral vestibular dysfunction in all the three patients. Vestibular function improved over time once the exposure was removed. Bilateral vestibular dysfunction has been associated with hydrocarbon exposure in humans, but only recently has emphasis been placed specifically on the detrimental effects of JP-8 jet fuel and its numerous hydrocarbon constituents. Data are limited on the mechanism of JP-8-induced vestibular dysfunction or ototoxicity. Early recognition of JP-8 toxicity risk, cessation of exposure, and customized vestibular therapy offer the best chance for improved balance. Bilateral vestibular impairment is under-recognized in those chronically exposed to all forms of jet fuel. PMID:29867750

  9. Effects of concurrent noise and jet fuel exposure on hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, Laura R; LeMasters, Grace K; Olsen, Donna M; Succop, Paul

    2005-03-01

    We sought to examine the effects of occupational exposure to jet fuel on hearing in military workers. Noise-exposed subjects, with or without jet fuel exposure, underwent hearing tests. Work histories, recreational exposures, protective equipment, medical histories, alcohol, smoking, and demographics were collected by questionnaire. Jet fuel, solvent, and noise exposure data were collected from records. Fuel exposure estimates were less than 34% of the OSHA Threshold Limit Values. Subjects with 3 years of jet fuel exposure had a 70% increase in adjusted odds of hearing loss (OR = 1.7; 95% CI = 1.14-2.53) and the odds increased to 2.41 (95% CI = 1.04-5.57) for 12 years of noise and fuel exposure. These findings suggest that jet fuel has a toxic affect on the auditory system.

  10. PERSONAL EXPOSURE TO JP-8 JET FUEL VAPORS AND EXHAUST AT AIR FORCE BASES

    EPA Science Inventory

    JP-8 jet fuel (similar to commercial/international jet A-1 fuel) is the standard military fuel for all types of vehicles, including the U.S. Air Force aircraft inventory. As such, JP-8 presents the most common chemical exposure in the Air Force, particularly for flight and gro...

  11. The influence of hydrocarbon composition and exposure conditions on jet fuel-induced immunotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Hilgaertner, Jianhua W; He, Xianghui; Camacho, Daniel; Badowski, Michael; Witten, Mark; Harris, David T

    2011-11-01

    Chronic jet fuel exposure could be detrimental to the health and well-being of exposed personnel, adversely affect their work performance and predispose these individuals to increased incidences of infectious disease, cancer and autoimmune disorders. Short-term (7 day) JP-8 jet fuel exposure has been shown to cause lung injury and immune dysfunction. Physiological alterations can be influenced not only by jet fuel exposure concentration (absolute amount), but also are dependent on the type of exposure (aerosol versus vapor) and the composition of the jet fuel (hydrocarbon composition). In the current study, these variables were examined with relation to effects of jet fuel exposure on immune function. It was discovered that real-time, in-line monitoring of jet fuel exposure resulted in aerosol exposure concentrations that were approximately one-eighth the concentration of previously reported exposure systems. Further, the effects of a synthetic jet fuel designed to eliminate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were also examined. Both of these changes in exposure reduced but did not eliminate the deleterious effects on the immune system of exposed mice.

  12. Biological and health effects of exposure to kerosene-based jet fuels and performance additives.

    PubMed

    Ritchie, Glenn; Still, Kenneth; Rossi, John; Bekkedal, Marni; Bobb, Andrew; Arfsten, Darryl

    2003-01-01

    Over 2 million military and civilian personnel per year (over 1 million in the United States) are occupationally exposed, respectively, to jet propulsion fuel-8 (JP-8), JP-8 +100 or JP-5, or to the civil aviation equivalents Jet A or Jet A-1. Approximately 60 billion gallon of these kerosene-based jet fuels are annually consumed worldwide (26 billion gallon in the United States), including over 5 billion gallon of JP-8 by the militaries of the United States and other NATO countries. JP-8, for example, represents the largest single chemical exposure in the U.S. military (2.53 billion gallon in 2000), while Jet A and A-1 are among the most common sources of nonmilitary occupational chemical exposure. Although more recent figures were not available, approximately 4.06 billion gallon of kerosene per se were consumed in the United States in 1990 (IARC, 1992). These exposures may occur repeatedly to raw fuel, vapor phase, aerosol phase, or fuel combustion exhaust by dermal absorption, pulmonary inhalation, or oral ingestion routes. Additionally, the public may be repeatedly exposed to lower levels of jet fuel vapor/aerosol or to fuel combustion products through atmospheric contamination, or to raw fuel constituents by contact with contaminated groundwater or soil. Kerosene-based hydrocarbon fuels are complex mixtures of up to 260+ aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon compounds (C(6) -C(17+); possibly 2000+ isomeric forms), including varying concentrations of potential toxicants such as benzene, n-hexane, toluene, xylenes, trimethylpentane, methoxyethanol, naphthalenes (including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons [PAHs], and certain other C(9)-C(12) fractions (i.e., n-propylbenzene, trimethylbenzene isomers). While hydrocarbon fuel exposures occur typically at concentrations below current permissible exposure limits (PELs) for the parent fuel or its constituent chemicals, it is unknown whether additive or synergistic interactions among hydrocarbon constituents, up to six

  13. Exposure to low levels of jet-propulsion fuel impairs brainstem encoding of stimulus intensity.

    PubMed

    Guthrie, O'neil W; Xu, Helen; Wong, Brian A; McInturf, Shawn M; Reboulet, Jim E; Ortiz, Pedro A; Mattie, David R

    2014-01-01

    Jet propulsion fuel-8 (JP-8) is a kerosene-based fuel that is used in military jets. The U.S. Armed Services and North Atlantic Treaty Organization countries adopted JP-8 as a standard fuel source and the U.S. military alone consumes more than 2.5 billion gallons annually. Preliminary epidemiologic data suggested that JP-8 may interact with noise to induce hearing loss, and animal studies revealed damage to presynaptic sensory cells in the cochlea. In the current study, Long-Evans rats were divided into four experimental groups: control, noise only, JP-8 only, and JP-8 + noise. A subototoxic level of JP-8 was used alone or in combination with a nondamaging level of noise. Functional and structural assays of the presynaptic sensory cells combined with neurophysiologic studies of the cochlear nerve revealed that peripheral auditory function was not affected by individual exposures and there was no effect when the exposures were combined. However, the central auditory nervous system exhibited impaired brainstem encoding of stimulus intensity. These findings may represent important and major shifts in the theoretical framework that governs current understanding of jet fuel and/or jet fuel + noise-induced ototoxicity. From an epidemiologic perspective, results indicate that jet fuel exposure may exert consequences on auditory function that may be more widespread and insidious than what was previously shown. It is possible that a large population of military personnel who are suffering from the effects of jet fuel exposure may be misidentified because they would exhibit normal hearing thresholds but harbor a "hidden" brainstem dysfunction.

  14. Occupational health and safety assessment of exposure to jet fuel combustion products in air medical transport.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Russell D; Thomas, Laura; Rusk, Frederick C; Marques, Shauna D; McGuire, Dan

    2010-01-01

    Transport medicine personnel are potentially exposed to jet fuel combustion products. Setting-specific data are required to determine whether this poses a risk. This study assessed exposure to jet fuel combustion products, compared various engine ignition scenarios, and determined methods to minimize exposure. The Beechcraft King Air B200 turboprop aircraft equipped with twin turbine engines, using a kerosene-based jet fuel (Jet A-1), was used to measure products of combustion during boarding, engine startup, and flight in three separate engine start scenarios ("shielded": internal engine start, door closed; "exposed": ground power unit start, door open; and "minimized": ground power unit right engine start, door open). Real-time continuous monitoring equipment was used for oxygen, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide, volatile organic compounds, and particulate matter. Integrated methods were used for aldehydes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, volatile organic compounds, and aliphatic hydrocarbons. Samples were taken in the paramedic breathing zone for approximately 60 minutes, starting just before the paramedics boarded the aircraft. Data were compared against regulated time-weighted exposure thresholds to determine the presence of potentially harmful products of combustion. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, aldehydes, volatile organic compounds, and aliphatic hydrocarbons were found at very low concentrations or beneath the limits of detection. There were significant differences in exposures to particulates, carbon monoxide, and total volatile organic compound between the "exposed" and "minimized" scenarios. Elevated concentrations of carbon monoxide and total volatile organic compounds were present during the ground power unit-assisted dual-engine start. There were no appreciable exposures during the "minimized" or "shielded" scenarios. Air medical personnel exposures to jet fuel combustion products were

  15. METHOD OF LIQUID-LIQUID EXTRACTION OF BLOOD SURROGATES FOR ASSESSING HUMAN EXPOSURE TO JET FUEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    A baseline method of liquid?liquid extraction for assessing human exposure to JP-8 jet fuel was established by extracting several representative compounds ranging from very volatile to semi-volatile organic compounds, including benzene, toluene, nonane, decane, undecane, tridec...

  16. EXHALED HUMAN BREATH MEASUREMENT OF JET FUEL CONSTITUENTS: DISTINGUISHING BETWEEN INHALATION AND DERMAL EXPOSURE ROUTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    In response to anecdotal reports, perceived health issues, and widespread complaints, the U.S. military launched an investigation into the occupational and environmental human exposure to jet fuel. The work described in the presentation assesses the correlation between two breat...

  17. The Utility of Naphthyl-Keratin Adducts as Biomarkers for Jet-Fuel Exposure

    EPA Science Inventory

    We investigated the association between biomarkers of dermal exposure, naphthyl-keratin adducts (NKA), and urine naphthalene biomarker levels in 105 workers routinely exposed to jet-fuel. A moderate correlation was observed between NKA and urine naphthalene levels (p = 0.061). Th...

  18. Exposures to jet fuel and benzene during aircraft fuel tank repair in the U.S. Air Force.

    PubMed

    Carlton, G N; Smith, L B

    2000-06-01

    Jet fuel and benzene vapor exposures were measured during aircraft fuel tank entry and repair at twelve U.S. Air Force bases. Breathing zone samples were collected on the fuel workers who performed the repair. In addition, instantaneous samples were taken at various points during the procedures with SUMMA canisters and subsequent analysis by mass spectrometry. The highest eight-hour time-weighted average (TWA) fuel exposure found was 1304 mg/m3; the highest 15-minute short-term exposure was 10,295 mg/m3. The results indicate workers who repair fuel tanks containing explosion suppression foam have a significantly higher exposure to jet fuel as compared to workers who repair tanks without foam (p < 0.001). It is assumed these elevations result from the tendency for fuel, absorbed by the foam, to volatilize during the foam removal process. Fuel tanks that allow flow-through ventilation during repair resulted in lower exposures compared to those tanks that have only one access port and, as a result, cannot be ventilated efficiently. The instantaneous sampling results confirm that benzene exposures occur during fuel tank repair; levels up to 49.1 mg/m3 were found inside the tanks during the repairs. As with jet fuel, these elevated benzene concentrations were more likely to occur in foamed tanks. The high temperatures associated with fuel tank repair, along with the requirement to wear vapor-permeable cotton coveralls for fire reasons, could result in an increase in the benzene body burden of tank entrants.

  19. Dermal exposure to jet fuel suppresses delayed-type hypersensitivity: a critical role for aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Gerardo; Limon-Flores, Alberto Yairh; Ullrich, Stephen E

    2007-12-01

    Dermal exposure to military (JP-8) and/or commercial (Jet-A) jet fuel suppresses cell-mediated immune reactions. Immune regulatory cytokines and biological modifiers, including platelet activating factor (PAF), prostaglandin E(2), and interleukin-10, have been implicated in the pathway of events leading to immune suppression. It is estimated that approximately 260 different hydrocarbons are found in jet fuel, and the exact identity of the active immunotoxic agent(s) is unknown. The recent availability of synthetic jet fuel (S-8), which is refined from natural gas, and is devoid of aromatic hydrocarbons, made it feasible to design experiments to address this problem. Here we tested the hypothesis that the aromatic hydrocarbons present in jet fuel are responsible for immune suppression. We report that applying S-8 to the skin of mice does not upregulate the expression of epidermal cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) nor does it induce immune suppression. Adding back a cocktail of seven of the most prevalent aromatic hydrocarbons found in jet fuel (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene, 1,2,4-trimethlybenzene, cyclohexylbenzene, and dimethylnaphthalene) to S-8 upregulated epidermal COX-2 expression and suppressed a delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reaction. Injecting PAF receptor antagonists, or a selective cycloozygenase-2 inhibitor into mice treated with S-8 supplemented with the aromatic cocktail, blocked suppression of DTH, similar to data previously reported using JP-8. These findings identify the aromatic hydrocarbons found in jet fuel as the agents responsible for suppressing DTH, in part by the upregulation of COX-2, and the production of immune regulatory factors and cytokines.

  20. Personal exposure to JP-8 jet fuel vapors and exhaust at air force bases.

    PubMed

    Pleil, J D; Smith, L B; Zelnick, S D

    2000-03-01

    JP-8 jet fuel (similar to commercial/international jet A-1 fuel) is the standard military fuel for all types of vehicles, including the U.S. Air Force aircraft inventory. As such, JP-8 presents the most common chemical exposure in the Air Force, particularly for flight and ground crew personnel during preflight operations and for maintenance personnel performing routine tasks. Personal exposure at an Air Force base occurs through occupational exposure for personnel involved with fuel and aircraft handling and/or through incidental exposure, primarily through inhalation of ambient fuel vapors. Because JP-8 is less volatile than its predecessor fuel (JP-4), contact with liquid fuel on skin and clothing may result in prolonged exposure. The slowly evaporating JP-8 fuel tends to linger on exposed personnel during their interaction with their previously unexposed colleagues. To begin to assess the relative exposures, we made ambient air measurements and used recently developed methods for collecting exhaled breath in special containers. We then analyzed for certain volatile marker compounds for JP-8, as well as for some aromatic hydrocarbons (especially benzene) that are related to long-term health risks. Ambient samples were collected by using compact, battery-operated, personal whole-air samplers that have recently been developed as commercial products; breath samples were collected using our single-breath canister method that uses 1-L canisters fitted with valves and small disposable breathing tubes. We collected breath samples from various groups of Air Force personnel and found a demonstrable JP-8 exposure for all subjects, ranging from slight elevations as compared to a control cohort to > 100 [mutilpe] the control values. This work suggests that further studies should be performed on specific issues to obtain pertinent exposure data. The data can be applied to assessments of health outcomes and to recommendations for changes in the use of personal protective

  1. JP-8 jet fuel exposure suppresses the immune response to viral infections.

    PubMed

    Harris, D T; Sakiestewa, D; Titone, D; He, X; Hyde, J; Witten, M

    2008-05-01

    The US Air Force has implemented the widespread use of JP-8 jet fuel in its operations, although a thorough understanding of its potential effects upon exposed personnel is unclear. Previous work has reported that JP-8 exposure is immunosuppressive. Exposure of mice to JP-8 for 1A h/day resulted in immediate secretion of two immunosuppressive agents, namely, interleukin-10 and prostaglandin E2. Thus, it was of interest to determine if jet fuel exposure might alter the immune response to infectious agents. The Hong Kong influenza model was used for these studies. Mice were exposed to 1000A mg/m(3) JP-8 (1A h/day) for 7A days before influenza viral infection. Animals were infected intra-nasally with virus and followed in terms of overall survival as well as immune responses. All surviving animals were killed 14A days after viral infection. In the present study, JP-8 exposure increased the severity of the viral infection by suppressing the anti-viral immune responses. That is, exposure of mice to JP-8 for 1A h/day for 7A days before infection resulted in decreased immune cell viability after exposure and infection, a greater than fourfold decrease in immune proliferative responses to mitogens, as well as an overall loss of CD3(+), CD4(+), and CD8(+) T cells from the lymph nodes, but not the spleens, of infected animals. These changes resulted in decreased survival of the exposed and infected mice, with only 33% of animals surviving as compared with 50% of mice infected but not jet fuel-exposed (and 100% of mice exposed only to JP-8). Thus, short-term, low-concentration JP-8 jet fuel exposures have significant suppressive effects on the immune system which can result in increased severity of viral infections.

  2. Inhalation exposure to jet fuel (JP8) among U.S. Air Force personnel.

    PubMed

    Smith, Kristen W; Proctor, Susan P; Ozonoff, Al; McClean, Michael D

    2010-10-01

    As jet fuel is a common occupational exposure among military and civilian populations, this study was conducted to characterize jet fuel (JP8) exposure among active duty U.S. Air Force personnel. Personnel (n = 24) were divided a priori into high, moderate, and low exposure groups. Questionnaires and personal air samples (breathing zone) were collected from each worker over 3 consecutive days (72 worker-days) and analyzed for total hydrocarbons (THC), benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes, and naphthalene. Air samples were collected from inside the fuel tank and analyzed for the same analytes. Linear mixed-effects models were used to evaluate the exposure data. Our results show that the correlation of THC (a measure of overall JP8 inhalation exposure) with all other analytes was moderate to strong in the a priori high and moderate exposure groups combined. Inhalation exposure to all analytes varied significantly by self-reported JP8 exposure (THC levels higher among workers reporting JP8 exposure), a priori exposure group (THC levels in high group > moderate group > low group), and more specific job task groupings (THC levels among workers in fuel systems hangar group > refueling maintenance group > fuel systems office group > fuel handling group > clinic group), with task groupings explaining the most between-worker variability. Among highly exposed workers, statistically significant job task-related predictors of inhalation exposure to THC indicated that increased time in the hangar, working close to the fuel tank (inside > less than 25 ft > greater than 25 ft), primary job (entrant > attendant/runner/fireguard > outside hangar), and performing various tasks near the fuel tank, such as searching for a leak, resulted in higher JP8 exposure. This study shows that while a priori exposure groups were useful in distinguishing JP8 exposure levels, job task-based categories should be considered in epidemiologic study designs to improve exposure classification. Finally

  3. Urinary biomarkers of occupational jet fuel exposure among Air Force personnel.

    PubMed

    Smith, Kristen W; Proctor, Susan P; Ozonoff, A L; McClean, Michael D

    2012-01-01

    There is a potential for widespread occupational exposure to jet fuel among military and civilian personnel. Urinary metabolites of naphthalene have been suggested for use as short-term biomarkers of exposure to jet fuel (jet propulsion fuel 8 (JP8)). In this study, urinary biomarkers of JP8 were evaluated among US Air Force personnel. Personnel (n=24) were divided a priori into high, moderate, and low exposure groups. Pre- and post-shift urine samples were collected from each worker over three workdays and analyzed for metabolites of naphthalene (1- and 2-naphthol). Questionnaires and breathing-zone naphthalene samples were collected from each worker during the same workdays. Linear mixed-effects models were used to evaluate the exposure data. Post-shift levels of 1- and 2-naphthol varied significantly by a priori exposure group (levels in high group>moderate group>low group), and breathing-zone naphthalene was a significant predictor of post-shift levels of 1- and 2-naphthol, indicating that for every unit increase in breathing-zone naphthalene, there was an increase in naphthol levels. These results indicate that post-shift levels of urinary 1- and 2-naphthol reflect JP8 exposure during the work-shift and may be useful surrogates of JP8 exposure. Among the high exposed workers, significant job-related predictors of post-shift levels of 1- and 2-naphthol included entering the fuel tank, repairing leaks, direct skin contact with JP8, and not wearing gloves during the work-shift. The job-related predictors of 1- and 2-naphthol emphasize the importance of reducing inhalation and dermal exposure through the use of personal protective equipment while working in an environment with JP8.

  4. Short-term exposure to JP-8 jet fuel results in long-term immunotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Harris, D T; Sakiestewa, D; Robledo, R F; Witten, M

    1997-01-01

    Chronic exposure to jet fuel has been shown to have adverse effects on human liver function, to cause emotional dysfunction, to cause abnormal electroencephalograms, to cause shortened attention spans, and to decrease sensorimotor speed. Due to the decision by the United States Air Force to implement the widespread use of JP-8 jet fuel in its operations, a thorough understanding of its potential effects upon exposed personnel is both critical and necessary. Exposure to potential environmental toxicants such as JP-8 may have significant effects on host systems beyond those readily visible (i.e., physiology, cardiology, respiratory, etc.); e.g., the immune system. Previous studies have shown that short-term, low concentration JP-8 exposure had significant effects on the immune system, which should have serious consequences for the exposed host in terms of susceptibility to infectious agents. If these alterations in immune function were long-lasting, it might also result in an increased likelihood of development and/or progression of cancer, as well as autoimmune disease. In the current study, mice were exposed for 1 h/day for 7 days to a moderate (1000 mg/m3) and a high (2500 mg/m3) concentration of aerosolized JP-8 jet fuel to stimulate occupational exposures. One to 28 days after the last exposure the mice were analyzed for effects of the exposure on their immune systems. It was observed that decrease in viable immune cell numbers and immune organ weights found at 24 h after exposure persisted for extended periods of time. Further, JP-8 exposure resulted in significantly decreased immune infection, as analyzed by mitogenesis assays, which persisted for up to 4 weeks post-exposure. Thus, short-term exposure of mice to JP-8 jet fuel caused significant toxicological effects on the immune system, which were long-lasting and persistent. It appears that the immune system may be the most sensitive indicator of toxicological damage due to JP-8 exposure. Such long

  5. Characterization of a nose-only inhalation exposure system for hydrocarbon mixtures and jet fuels.

    PubMed

    Martin, Sheppard A; Tremblay, Raphael T; Brunson, Kristyn F; Kendrick, Christine; Fisher, Jeffrey W

    2010-04-01

    A directed-flow nose-only inhalation exposure system was constructed to support development of physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models for complex hydrocarbon mixtures, such as jet fuels. Due to the complex nature of the aerosol and vapor-phase hydrocarbon exposures, care was taken to investigate the chamber hydrocarbon stability, vapor and aerosol droplet compositions, and droplet size distribution. Two-generation systems for aerosolizing fuel and hydrocarbons were compared and characterized for use with either jet fuels or a simple mixture of eight hydrocarbons. Total hydrocarbon concentration was monitored via online gas chromatography (GC). Aerosol/vapor (A/V) ratios, and total and individual hydrocarbon concentrations, were determined using adsorbent tubes analyzed by thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (TDS-GC-MS). Droplet size distribution was assessed via seven-stage cascade impactor. Droplet mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) was between 1 and 3 mum, depending on the generator and mixture utilized. A/V hydrocarbon concentrations ranged from approximately 200 to 1300 mg/m(3), with between 20% and 80% aerosol content, depending on the mixture. The aerosolized hydrocarbon mixtures remained stable during the 4-h exposure periods, with coefficients of variation (CV) of less than 10% for the total hydrocarbon concentrations. There was greater variability in the measurement of individual hydrocarbons in the A-V phase. In conclusion, modern analytical chemistry instruments allow for improved descriptions of inhalation exposures of rodents to aerosolized fuel.

  6. JP-8 jet fuel exposure potentiates tumor development in two experimental model systems.

    PubMed

    Harris, D T; Sakiestewa, D; Titone, D; He, X; Hyde, J; Witten, M

    2007-11-01

    The US Air Force has implemented the widespread use of JP-8 jet fuel in its operations, although a thorough understanding of its potential effects upon exposed personnel is unclear. Previous work has reported that JP-8 exposure is immunosuppressive. Exposure of mice to JP-8 for 1 h/day resulted in immediate secretion of two immunosuppressive agents; namely, interleukin-10 (IL-10) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). Thus, it was of interest to determine if jet fuel exposure might promote tumor growth and metastasis. The syngeneic B16 tumor model was used for these studies. Animals were injected intravenously with tumor cells, and lung colonies were enumerated. Animals were also examined for metastatic spread of the tumor. Mice were either exposed to 1000 mg/m3 JP-8 (1 h/ day) for 7 days before tumor injection or were exposed to JP-8 at the time of tumor injection. All animals were killed 17 days after tumor injection. In the present study, JP8 exposure potentiated the growth and metastases of B16 tumors in an animal model. Exposure of mice to JP-8 for 1 h/day before tumor induction resulted in an approximately 8.7-fold increase in tumors, whereas those mice exposed to JP8 at the time of tumor induction had a 5.6-fold increase in tumor numbers. Thus, low concentration JP-8 jet fuel exposures have significant immune suppressive effects on the immune system that can result in increased tumor formation and metastases. We have now extended the observations to an experimental subcutaneous tumor model. JP8 exposure at the time of tumor induction in this model did not affect the growth of the tumor. However, JP8-exposed, tumor-bearing animals died at an accelerated rate as compared with air-exposed, tumor-bearing mice.

  7. Effects of in utero JP-8 jet fuel exposure on the immune systems of pregnant and newborn mice.

    PubMed

    Harris, D T; Sakiestewa, D; He, X; Titone, D; Witten, M

    2007-10-01

    The US Air Force has implemented the widespread use of JP-8 jet fuel in its operations, although a thorough understanding of its potential effects upon exposed personnel is unclear. Previous work has reported that JP-8 exposure is immunosuppressive. In the present study, the effects of in-utero JP-8 jet fuel exposure in mice were examined to ascertain any potential effects of jet fuel exposure on female personnel and their offspring. Exposure by the aerosol route (at 1000 mg/m3 for 1 h/day; similar to exposures incurred by flight line personnel) commencing during the first (d7 to birth) or last (d15 to birth) trimester of pregnancy was analyzed. It was observed that even 6-8 weeks after the last jet fuel exposure that the immune system of the dams (mother of newborn mice) was affected (in accordance with previous reports on normal mice). That is, thymus organ weights and viable cell numbers were decreased, and immune function was depressed. A decrease in viable male offspring was found, notably more pronounced when exposure started during the first trimester of pregnancy. Regardless of when jet fuel exposure started, all newborn mice (at 6-8 weeks after birth) reported significant immunosuppression. That is, newborn pups displayed decreased immune organ weights, decreased viable immune cell numbers and suppressed immune function. When the data were analyzed in relation to the respective mothers of the pups the data were more pronounced. Although all jet fuel-exposed pups were immunosuppressed as compared with control pups, male offspring were more affected by jet fuel exposure than female pups. Furthermore, the immune function of the newborn mice was directly correlated to the immune function of their respective mothers. That is, mothers showing the lowest immune function after JP-8 exposure gave birth to pups displaying the greatest effects of jet fuel exposure on immune function. Mothers who showed the highest levels of immune function after in-utero JP-8

  8. JP-8 jet fuel can promote auditory impairment resulting from subsequent noise exposure in rats.

    PubMed

    Fechter, Laurence D; Gearhart, Caroline; Fulton, Sherry; Campbell, Jerry; Fisher, Jeffrey; Na, Kwangsam; Cocker, David; Nelson-Miller, Alisa; Moon, Patrick; Pouyatos, Benoit

    2007-08-01

    We report on the transient and persistent effects of JP-8 jet fuel exposure on auditory function in rats. JP-8 has become the standard jet fuel utilized in the United States and North Atlantic Treaty Organization countries for military use and it is closely related to Jet A fuel, which is used in U.S. domestic aviation. Rats received JP-8 fuel (1000 mg/m(3)) by nose-only inhalation for 4 h and half of them were immediately subjected to an octave band of noise ranging between 97 and 105 dB in different experiments. The noise by itself produces a small, but permanent auditory impairment. The current permissible exposure level for JP-8 is 350 mg/m(3). Additionally, a positive control group received only noise exposure, and a fourth group consisted of untreated control subjects. Exposures occurred either on 1 day or repeatedly on 5 successive days. Impairments in auditory function were assessed using distortion product otoacoustic emissions and compound action potential testing. In other rats, tissues were harvested following JP-8 exposure for assessment of hydrocarbon levels or glutathione (GSH) levels. A single JP-8 exposure by itself at 1000 mg/m(3) did not disrupt auditory function. However, exposure to JP-8 and noise produced an additive disruption in outer hair cell function. Repeated 5-day JP-8 exposure at 1000 mg/m(3) for 4 h produced impairment of outer hair cell function that was most evident at the first postexposure assessment time. Partial though not complete recovery was observed over a 4-week postexposure period. The adverse effects of repeated JP-8 exposures on auditory function were inconsistent, but combined treatment with JP-8 + noise yielded greater impairment of auditory function, and hair cell loss than did noise by itself. Qualitative comparison of outer hair cell loss suggests an increase in outer hair cell death among rats treated with JP-8 + noise for 5 days as compared to noise alone. In most instances, hydrocarbon constituents of the fuel

  9. Characterization of inhalation exposure to jet fuel among U.S. Air Force personnel.

    PubMed

    Merchant-Borna, Kian; Rodrigues, Ema G; Smith, Kristen W; Proctor, Susan P; McClean, Michael D

    2012-07-01

    Jet propulsion fuel-8 (JP-8) is the primary jet fuel used by the US military, collectively consuming ~2.5 billion gallons annually. Previous reports suggest that JP-8 is potentially toxic to the immune, respiratory, and nervous systems. The objectives of this study were to evaluate inhalation exposure to JP-8 constituents among active duty United States Air Force (USAF) personnel while performing job-related tasks, identify significant predictors of inhalation exposure to JP-8, and evaluate the extent to which surrogate exposure classifications were predictive of measured JP-8 exposures. Seventy-three full-time USAF personnel from three different air force bases were monitored during four consecutive workdays where personal air samples were collected and analyzed for benzene, ethylbenzene, toluene, xylenes, total hydrocarbons (THC), and naphthalene. The participants were categorized a priori into high- and low-exposure groups, based on their exposure to JP-8 during their typical workday. Additional JP-8 exposure categories included job title groups and self-reported exposure to JP-8. Linear mixed-effects models were used to evaluate predictors of personal air concentrations. The concentrations of THC in air were significantly different between a priori exposure groups (2.6 mg m(-3) in high group versus 0.5 mg m(-3) in low, P < 0.0001), with similar differences observed for other analytes in air. Naphthalene was strongly correlated with THC (r = 0.82, P < 0.0001) and both were positively correlated with the relative humidity of the work environment. Exposures to THC and naphthalene varied significantly by job categories based on USAF specialty codes and were highest among personnel working in fuel distribution/maintenance, though self-reported exposure to JP-8 was an even stronger predictor of measured exposure in models that explained 72% (THC) and 67% (naphthalene) of between-worker variability. In fact, both self-report JP-8 exposure and a priori exposure groups

  10. Personal exposure to JP-8 jet fuel vapors and exhaust at air force bases.

    PubMed Central

    Pleil, J D; Smith, L B; Zelnick, S D

    2000-01-01

    JP-8 jet fuel (similar to commercial/international jet A-1 fuel) is the standard military fuel for all types of vehicles, including the U.S. Air Force aircraft inventory. As such, JP-8 presents the most common chemical exposure in the Air Force, particularly for flight and ground crew personnel during preflight operations and for maintenance personnel performing routine tasks. Personal exposure at an Air Force base occurs through occupational exposure for personnel involved with fuel and aircraft handling and/or through incidental exposure, primarily through inhalation of ambient fuel vapors. Because JP-8 is less volatile than its predecessor fuel (JP-4), contact with liquid fuel on skin and clothing may result in prolonged exposure. The slowly evaporating JP-8 fuel tends to linger on exposed personnel during their interaction with their previously unexposed colleagues. To begin to assess the relative exposures, we made ambient air measurements and used recently developed methods for collecting exhaled breath in special containers. We then analyzed for certain volatile marker compounds for JP-8, as well as for some aromatic hydrocarbons (especially benzene) that are related to long-term health risks. Ambient samples were collected by using compact, battery-operated, personal whole-air samplers that have recently been developed as commercial products; breath samples were collected using our single-breath canister method that uses 1-L canisters fitted with valves and small disposable breathing tubes. We collected breath samples from various groups of Air Force personnel and found a demonstrable JP-8 exposure for all subjects, ranging from slight elevations as compared to a control cohort to > 100 [mutilpe] the control values. This work suggests that further studies should be performed on specific issues to obtain pertinent exposure data. The data can be applied to assessments of health outcomes and to recommendations for changes in the use of personal protective

  11. The utility of naphthyl-keratin adducts as biomarkers for jet-fuel exposure.

    PubMed

    Kang-Sickel, Juei-Chuan C; Butler, Mary Ann; Frame, Lynn; Serdar, Berrin; Chao, Yi-Chun E; Egeghy, Peter; Rappaport, Stephen M; Toennis, Christine A; Li, Wang; Borisova, Tatyana; French, John E; Nylander-French, Leena A

    2011-11-01

    We investigated the association between biomarkers of dermal exposure, naphthyl-keratin adducts (NKA), and urine naphthalene biomarker levels in 105 workers routinely exposed to jet-fuel. A moderate correlation was observed between NKA and urine naphthalene levels (p = 0.061). The NKA, post-exposure breath naphthalene, and male gender were associated with an increase, while CYP2E1*6 DD and GSTT1-plus (++/+-) genotypes were associated with a decrease in urine naphthalene level (p < 0.0001). The NKA show great promise as biomarkers for dermal exposure to naphthalene. Further studies are warranted to characterize the relationship between NKA, other exposure biomarkers, and/or biomarkers of biological effects due to naphthalene and/or PAH exposure.

  12. Postural sway and exposure to jet propulsion fuel 8 among US Air Force personnel.

    PubMed

    Maule, Alexis L; Heaton, Kristin J; Rodrigues, Ema; Smith, Kristen W; McClean, Michael D; Proctor, Susan P

    2013-04-01

    To determine whether short-term jet propulsion fuel 8 (JP-8) exposure is associated with balance measurements in JP-8-exposed air force personnel. As part of a larger neuroepidemiology study, balance tasks were completed by JP-8-exposed individuals (n = 37). Short-term JP-8 exposure was measured using personal breathing zone levels and urinary biomarkers. Multivariate linear regression analyses were conducted to examine the relationship between workday JP-8 exposure and postural sway. Balance control decreased as the task became more challenging. Workday exposure to JP-8, measured by either personal air or urinary metabolite levels, was not significantly related to postural sway. Increases in workday postural sway were associated with demographic variables, including younger age, being a current smoker, and higher body mass index. Results suggest that short-term workday JP-8 exposure does not significantly contribute to diminished balance control.

  13. The utility of naphthyl-keratin adducts as biomarkers for jet-fuel exposure

    PubMed Central

    Kang-Sickel, Juei-Chuan C.; Butler, Mary Ann; Frame, Lynn; Serdar, Berrin; Chao, Yi-Chun E.; Egeghy, Peter; Rappaport, Stephen M.; Toennis, Christine A.; Li, Wang; Borisova, Tatyana; French, John E.; Nylander-French, Leena A.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the association between biomarkers of dermal exposure, naphthyl-keratin adducts (NKA), and urine naphthalene biomarker levels in 105 workers routinely exposed to jet-fuel. A moderate correlation was observed between NKA and urine naphthalene levels (p = 0.061). The NKA, post-exposure breath naphthalene, and male gender were associated with an increase, while CYP2E1*6 DD and GSTT1-plus (++/+−) genotypes were associated with a decrease in urine naphthalene level (p < 0.0001). The NKA show great promise as biomarkers for dermal exposure to naphthalene. Further studies are warranted to characterize the relationship between NKA, other exposure biomarkers, and/or biomarkers of biological effects due to naphthalene and/or PAH exposure. PMID:21961652

  14. Subchronic JP-8 jet fuel exposure enhances vulnerability to noise-induced hearing loss in rats.

    PubMed

    Fechter, L D; Fisher, J W; Chapman, G D; Mokashi, V P; Ortiz, P A; Reboulet, J E; Stubbs, J E; Lear, A M; McInturf, S M; Prues, S L; Gearhart, C A; Fulton, S; Mattie, D R

    2012-01-01

    Both laboratory and epidemiological studies published over the past two decades have identified the risk of excess hearing loss when specific chemical contaminants are present along with noise. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potency of JP-8 jet fuel to enhance noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) using inhalation exposure to fuel and simultaneous exposure to either continuous or intermittent noise exposure over a 4-wk exposure period using both male and female Fischer 344 rats. In the initial study, male (n = 5) and female (n = 5) rats received inhalation exposure to JP-8 fuel for 6 h/d, 5 d/wk for 4 wk at concentrations of 200, 750, or 1500 mg/m³. Parallel groups of rats also received nondamaging noise (constant octave band noise at 85 dB(lin)) in combination with the fuel, noise alone (75, 85, or 95 dB), or no exposure to fuel or noise. Significant concentration-related impairment of auditory function measured by distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAE) and compound action potential (CAP) threshold was seen in rats exposed to combined JP-8 plus noise exposure when JP-8 levels of 1500 mg/m³ were presented with trends toward impairment seen with 750 mg/m³ JP-8 + noise. JP-8 alone exerted no significant effect on auditory function. In addition, noise was able to disrupt the DPOAE and increase auditory thresholds only when noise exposure was at 95 dB. In a subsequent study, male (n = 5 per group) and female (n = 5 per group) rats received 1000 mg/m³ JP-8 for 6 h/d, 5 d/wk for 4 wk with and without exposure to 102 dB octave band noise that was present for 15 min out of each hour (total noise duration 90 min). Comparisons were made to rats receiving only noise, and thosereceiving no experimental treatment. Significant impairment of auditory thresholds especially for high-frequency tones was identified in the male rats receiving combined treatment. This study provides a basis for estimating excessive hearing loss under

  15. Pulmonary Evaluation of Permissible Exposure Limit of Syntroleum S-8 Synthetic Jet Fuel in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Simon S.; Thomas, Alana; Barbaris, Brian; Lantz, R. Clark; Witten, Mark L.

    2009-01-01

    No current studies have systematically examined pulmonary health effects associated with Syntroleum S-8 synthetic jet fuel (S-8). In order to gain an understanding about the threshold concentration in which lung injury is observed, C57BL/6 male mice were nose-only exposed to S-8 for 1 h/day for 7 days at average concentrations of 0 (control), 93, 352, and 616 mg/m3. Evaluation of pulmonary function, airway epithelial barrier integrity, and pathohistology was performed 24 h after the final exposures. Significant decreases were detected in expiratory lung resistance and total lung compliance of the 352 mg/m3 group, for which no clear concentration-dependent alterations could be determined. No significant changes in respiratory permeability were exhibited, indicating that there was no loss of epithelial barrier integrity following S-8 exposure. However, morphological examination and morphometric analysis of distal lung tissue, by using transmission electron microscopy, revealed cellular damage in alveolar type II epithelial cells, with significant increases in volume density of lamellar bodies/vacuoles at 352 and 616 S-8 mg/m3. Moreover, terminal bronchiolar Clara injury, as evidenced by apical membrane blebs, was observed at relatively low concentrations, suggesting if this synthetic jet fuel is utilized, the current permissible exposure limit of 350 mg/m3 for hydrocarbon fuels should cautiously be applied. PMID:19357071

  16. Pulmonary evaluation of permissible exposure limit of syntroleum S-8 synthetic jet fuel in mice.

    PubMed

    Wong, Simon S; Thomas, Alana; Barbaris, Brian; Lantz, R Clark; Witten, Mark L

    2009-06-01

    No current studies have systematically examined pulmonary health effects associated with Syntroleum S-8 synthetic jet fuel (S-8). In order to gain an understanding about the threshold concentration in which lung injury is observed, C57BL/6 male mice were nose-only exposed to S-8 for 1 h/day for 7 days at average concentrations of 0 (control), 93, 352, and 616 mg/m(3). Evaluation of pulmonary function, airway epithelial barrier integrity, and pathohistology was performed 24 h after the final exposures. Significant decreases were detected in expiratory lung resistance and total lung compliance of the 352 mg/m(3) group, for which no clear concentration-dependent alterations could be determined. No significant changes in respiratory permeability were exhibited, indicating that there was no loss of epithelial barrier integrity following S-8 exposure. However, morphological examination and morphometric analysis of distal lung tissue, by using transmission electron microscopy, revealed cellular damage in alveolar type II epithelial cells, with significant increases in volume density of lamellar bodies/vacuoles at 352 and 616 S-8 mg/m(3). Moreover, terminal bronchiolar Clara injury, as evidenced by apical membrane blebs, was observed at relatively low concentrations, suggesting if this synthetic jet fuel is utilized, the current permissible exposure limit of 350 mg/m(3) for hydrocarbon fuels should cautiously be applied.

  17. Gene expression profiles in the rat central nervous system induced by JP-8 jet fuel vapor exposure.

    PubMed

    Lin, Baochuan; Ritchie, Glenn D; Rossi, John; Pancrazio, Joseph J

    2004-06-17

    Jet propulsion fuel-8 (JP-8) is the predominant fuel for military land vehicles and aircraft used in the US and NATO. Occupational exposure to jet fuel in military personnel has raised concern for the health risk associated with such exposure in the Department of Defense. Clinical studies of humans chronically exposed to jet fuel have suggested both neurotoxicity and neurobehavioral deficits. We utilized rat neurobiology U34 array to measure gene expression changes in whole brain tissue of rats exposed repeatedly to JP-8, under conditions that simulated possible occupational exposure (6 h/day for 91 days) to JP-8 vapor at 250, 500, and 1000 mg/m(3), respectively. Our studies revealed that the gene expression changes of exposure groups can be divided into two main categories according to their functions: (1). neurotransmitter signaling pathways; and (2). stress response. The implications of these gene expression changes are discussed.

  18. Occupational Jet Fuel Exposure and Invasive Cancer Occurrence in the United States Air Force, 1989-2003

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    Krishnadasan, A., Kennedy, N., Morgenstern, H., Ritz , B. Estimated effects of solvents and mineral oils on cancer incidence and mortality in a cohort of...aerospace workers. Am J Ind Med 2005; 48: 249-58. 25. Carlton , GN and Smith, LB. Exposures to jet fuel and benzene during aircraft fuel tank repair in

  19. Proteomic analysis of the renal effects of simulated occupational jet fuel exposure.

    PubMed

    Witzmann, F A; Bauer, M D; Fieno, A M; Grant, R A; Keough, T W; Lacey, M P; Sun, Y; Witten, M L; Young, R S

    2000-03-01

    We analyzed protein expression in the cytosolic fraction prepared from whole kidneys in male Swiss-Webster mice exposed 1 h/day for five days to aerosolized JP-8 jet fuel at a concentration of 1000 mg/m3, simulating military occupational exposure. Kidney cytosol samples were solubilized and separated via large-scale, high-resolution two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and gel patterns scanned, digitized and processed for statistical analysis. Significant changes in soluble kidney proteins resulted from jet fuel exposure. Several of the altered proteins were identified by peptide mass finger-printing and related to ultrastructural abnormalities, altered protein processing, metabolic effects, and paradoxical stress protein/detoxification system responses. These results demonstrate a significant but comparatively moderate JP-8 effect on protein expression in the kidney and provide novel molecular evidence of JP-8 nephrotoxicity. Human risk is suggested by these data but conclusive assessment awaits a noninvasive search for biomarkers in JP-8 exposed humans.

  20. Chronic effects on JP-8 jet fuel exposure on the lungs. Final technical report, 1 April 1991-31 March 1994

    SciT

    Witten, M.L.

    1994-06-02

    There are four major findings from the three years of work devoted to the effects of chronic JP-8 jet fuel exposure on the lungs and secondary organs. These findings are the following chronic exposure to JP-8 jet fuel alters pulmonary function and lung structures with an acute response with as little as seven days of low dose, approximately 500 mg/m3, exposure to JP-8 jet fuel; chronic exposure to JP-8 jet fuel increased liver, spleen, and kidney weights compared to controls. Microscopic evaluation of liver sections were normal; however, kidney and spleen had histological changes consistent with organic solvent exposure. Theremore » is a correlation between JP-8 jet fuel exposure-induced decreases in lung Substance P levels and lung neutral endopeptidase levels. Chronic exposure to JP-8 jet fuel caused a decrease in lung Substance P levels with a corresponding increase in lung neutral endopeptidase levels; and, there is a recovery process in the 56 day low dose JP-8 jet fuel-exposed lungs as marked by a return to baseline and longitudinal control 99mTcDTPA values. The 99mTcDTPA data was very consistent with our pathologic findings of very little lung injury in the 56 day low dose JP-8 jet fuel-exposed rats. We speculate that this finding indicates that there is a 'threshold' level of JP-8 jet fuel exposure that the lungs' defense mechanism(s) can tolerate.« less

  1. Ototoxic potential of JP-8 and a Fischer-Tropsch synthetic jet fuel following subacute inhalation exposure in rats.

    PubMed

    Fechter, Laurence D; Gearhart, Caroline A; Fulton, Sherry

    2010-07-01

    This study was undertaken to identify the ototoxic potential of two jet fuels presented alone and in combination with noise. Rats were exposed via a subacute inhalation paradigm to JP-8 jet fuel, a kerosene-based fuel refined from petroleum, and a synthetic fuel produced by the Fischer-Tropsch (FT) process. Although JP-8 contains small ( approximately 5%) concentrations of aromatic hydrocarbons some of which known to be ototoxic, the synthetic fuel does not. The objectives of this study were to identify a lowest observed adverse effect level and a no observed adverse effect level for each jet fuel and to provide some preliminary, but admittedly, indirect evidence concerning the possible role of the aromatic hydrocarbon component of petroleum-based jet fuel on hearing. Rats (n = 5-19) received inhalation exposure to JP-8 or to FT fuel for 4 h/day on five consecutive days at doses of 500, 1000, and 2000 mg/m(3). Additional groups were exposed to various fuel concentrations followed by 1 h of an octave band of noise, noise alone, or no exposure to fuel or noise. Significant dose-related impairment in the distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAE) was seen in subjects exposed to combined JP-8 plus noise exposure when JP-8 levels of at least 1000 mg/m(3) were presented. No noticeable impairment was observed at JP-8 levels of 500 mg/m(3) + noise. In contrast to the effects of JP-8 on noise-induced hearing loss, FT exposure had no effect by itself or in combination with noise exposure even at the highest exposure level tested. Despite an observed loss in DPOAE amplitude seen only when JP-8 and noise were combined, there was no loss in auditory threshold or increase in hair cell loss in any exposure group.

  2. Jet fuel-induced immunotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Harris, D T; Sakiestewa, D; Titone, D; Robledo, R F; Young, R S; Witten, M

    2000-09-01

    Chronic exposure to jet fuel has been shown to cause human liver dysfunction, emotional dysfunction, abnormal electroencephalograms, shortened attention spans, and to decrease sensorimotor speed (3-5). Exposure to potential environmental toxicants such as jet fuel may have significant effects on host systems beyond those readily visible (e.g., physiology, cardiology, respiratory, etc.), e.g., the immune system. Significant changes in immune function, even if short-lived, may have serious consequences for the exposed host that may impinge affect susceptibility to infectious agents. Major alterations in immune function that are long lasting may result in an increased likelihood of development and/or progression of cancer, as well as autoimmune diseases. In the current study mice were exposed 1 h/day for 7 days to a 1000-mg/m3 concentration of aerosolized jet fuel obtained from various sources (JP-8, JP-8+100 and Jet A1) and of differing compositions to simulate occupational exposures. Twenty-four hours after the last exposure the mice were analyzed for effects on the immune system. It was observed that exposure to all jet fuel sources examined had detrimental effects on the immune system. Decreases in viable immune cell numbers and immune organ weights were found. Jet fuel exposure resulted in differential losses of immune cell populations in the thymus. Further, jet fuel exposure resulted in significantly decreased immune function, as analyzed by mitogenesis assays. Suppressed immune function could not be overcome by the addition of exogenous growth factors known to stimulate immune function. Thus, short-term, low-concentration exposure of mice to aerosolized jet fuel, regardless of source or composition, caused significant deleterious effects on the immune system.

  3. (2-methoxyethoxy)acetic acid: a urinary biomarker of exposure for jet fuel JP-8.

    PubMed

    B'hymer, Clayton; Mathias, Patricia; Krieg, Edward; Cheever, Kenneth L; Toennis, Christine A; Clark, John C; Kesner, James S; Gibson, Roger L; Butler, Mary Ann

    2012-05-01

    To demonstrate the utility of the urinary metabolite (2-methoxyethoxy)acetic acid (MEAA) as a biomarker of exposure. 2-(2-methoxyethoxy)ethanol [diethylene glycol monomethyl ether] is an anti-icing agent used in the formulation of JP-8, and it is added at a known uniform 0.1% (v/v) concentration to each batch lot. JP-8 is a kerosene-based fuel containing different compounds that vary in the content of every batch/lot of fuel; thus, MEAA has the potential to be a more specific and a consistent quantitative biomarker for JP-8 exposure. MEAA was used to measure exposure of jet propulsion fuel 8 (JP-8) in United States Air Force (USAF) personnel working at six airbases within the United States. Post-shift urine specimens from various personnel including high (n = 98), moderate (n = 38), and low (n = 61) exposure workgroup categories were collected and analyzed by a gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric test method. The three exposure groups were evaluated for the number per group positive for MEAA, and a statistical analysis consisted of pair-wise t-tests for unequal variances was used to test for the differences in mean MEAA concentrations between the exposure groups. The number of samples detected as positive for MEAA exposure, that is, those above the test method's limit of detection (LOD = 0.1 μg/ml), were 92 (93.9%), 13 (34.2%), and 2 (3.3%) for the high, moderate, and low exposure workgroup categories, respectively. The mean urinary MEAA level was significantly greater in the high exposure category (6.8 μg/ml), compared to the moderate (0.42 μg/ml) and the low (0.07 μg/ml) exposure categories. The maximum concentration of urinary MEAA was 110 μg/ml for the high exposure category, while 4.8 μg/ml and 0.2 μg/ml maximum levels were found in the moderate and low exposure categories, respectively. This study demonstrated that urinary MEAA can be used as an accurate biomarker of exposure for JP-8 workers and clearly distinguished the differences in JP-8

  4. Benzene and naphthalene in air and breath as indicators of exposure to jet fuel

    PubMed Central

    Egeghy, P; Hauf-Cabalo, L; Gibson, R; Rappaport, S

    2003-01-01

    Aims: To estimate exposures to benzene and naphthalene among military personnel working with jet fuel (JP-8) and to determine whether naphthalene might serve as a surrogate for JP-8 in studies of health effects. Methods: Benzene and naphthalene were measured in air and breath of 326 personnel in the US Air Force, who had been assigned a priori into low, moderate, and high exposure categories for JP-8. Results: Median air concentrations for persons in the low, moderate, and high exposure categories were 3.1, 7.4, and 252 µg benzene/m3 air, 4.6, 9.0, and 11.4 µg benzene/m3 breath, 1.9, 10.3, and 485 µg naphthalene/m3 air, and 0.73, 0.93, and 1.83 µg naphthalene/m3 breath, respectively. In the moderate and high exposure categories, 5% and 15% of the benzene air concentrations, respectively, were above the 2002 threshold limit value (TLV) of 1.6 mg/m3. Multiple regression analyses of air and breath levels revealed prominent background sources of benzene exposure, including cigarette smoke. However, naphthalene exposure was not unduly influenced by sources other than JP-8. Among heavily exposed workers, dermal contact with JP-8 contributed to air and breath concentrations along with several physical and environmental factors. Conclusions: Personnel having regular contact with JP-8 are occasionally exposed to benzene at levels above the current TLV. Among heavily exposed workers, uptake of JP-8 components occurs via both inhalation and dermal contact. Naphthalene in air and breath can serve as useful measures of exposure to JP-8 and uptake of fuel components in the body. PMID:14634191

  5. EVALUATION AND COMPARISON OF URINARY METABOLIC BIOMARKERS OF EXPOSURE FOR THE JET FUEL JP-8

    PubMed Central

    B’Hymer, Clayton; Krieg, Edward; Cheever, Kenneth L.; Toennis, Christine A.; Clark, John C.; Kesner, James S.; Gibson, Roger; Butler, Mary Ann

    2015-01-01

    A study of workers exposed to jet fuel propellant 8 (JP-8) was conducted at U.S. Air Force bases and included the evaluation of three biomarkers of exposure: S-benzylmercapturic acid (BMA), S-phenylmercapturic acid (PMA), and (2-methoxyethoxy)acetic acid (MEAA). Postshift urine specimens were collected from various personnel categorized as high (n = 98), moderate (n = 38) and low (n = 61) JP-8 exposure based on work activities. BMA and PMA urinary levels were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS), and MEAA urinary levels were determined by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The numbers of samples determined as positive for the presence of the BMA biomarker (above the test method’s limit of detection [LOD = 0.5 ng/ml]) were 96 (98.0%), 37 (97.4%), and 58 (95.1%) for the high, moderate, and low (control) exposure workgroup categories, respectively. The numbers of samples determined as positive for the presence of the PMA biomarker (LOD = 0.5 ng/ml) were 33 (33.7%), 9 (23.7%), and 12 (19.7%) for the high, moderate, and low exposure categories. The numbers of samples determined as positive for the presence of the MEAA biomarker (LOD = 0.1 μg/ml) were 92 (93.4%), 13 (34.2%), and 2 (3.3%) for the high, moderate, and low exposure categories. Statistical analysis of the mean levels of the analytes demonstrated MEAA to be the most accurate or appropriate biomarker for JP-8 exposure using urinary concentrations either adjusted or not adjusted for creatinine; mean levels of BMA and PMA were not statistically significant between workgroup categories after adjusting for creatinine. PMID:22712851

  6. Evaluation and comparison of urinary metabolic biomarkers of exposure for the jet fuel JP-8.

    PubMed

    B'Hymer, Clayton; Krieg, Edward; Cheever, Kenneth L; Toennis, Christine A; Clark, John C; Kesner, James S; Gibson, Roger; Butler, Mary Ann

    2012-01-01

    A study of workers exposed to jet fuel propellant 8 (JP-8) was conducted at U.S. Air Force bases and included the evaluation of three biomarkers of exposure: S-benzylmercapturic acid (BMA), S-phenylmercapturic acid (PMA), and (2-methoxyethoxy)acetic acid (MEAA). Postshift urine specimens were collected from various personnel categorized as high (n = 98), moderate (n = 38) and low (n = 61) JP-8 exposure based on work activities. BMA and PMA urinary levels were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS), and MEAA urinary levels were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The numbers of samples determined as positive for the presence of the BMA biomarker (above the test method's limit of detection [LOD = 0.5 ng/ml]) were 96 (98.0%), 37 (97.4%), and 58 (95.1%) for the high, moderate, and low (control) exposure workgroup categories, respectively. The numbers of samples determined as positive for the presence of the PMA biomarker (LOD = 0.5 ng/ml) were 33 (33.7%), 9 (23.7%), and 12 (19.7%) for the high, moderate, and low exposure categories. The numbers of samples determined as positive for the presence of the MEAA biomarker (LOD = 0.1 μ g/ml) were 92 (93.4%), 13 (34.2%), and 2 (3.3%) for the high, moderate, and low exposure categories. Statistical analysis of the mean levels of the analytes demonstrated MEAA to be the most accurate or appropriate biomarker for JP-8 exposure using urinary concentrations either adjusted or not adjusted for creatinine; mean levels of BMA and PMA were not statistically significant between workgroup categories after adjusting for creatinine.

  7. Long-term exposure to jet fuel: an investigation on occupationally exposed workers with special reference to the nervous system.

    PubMed

    Knave, B; Persson, H E; Goldberg, J M; Westerholm, P

    1976-09-01

    In the present study the results of a neurological and neurophysiological health examination of 29 aircraft factory workers chronically exposed to jet fuel vapors are presented. The exposed subjects were classified into a heavily exposed and a less heavily exposed group. The examination included a standardized clinical neurological examination, measurements of the conduction velocities in the peripheral nerves, and threshold determinations of vibratory sensations in the extremities. All 13 persons examined in the heavily exposed group and 7 of the 16 in the less heavily exposed group stated that they had repeatedly experienced acute effects (dizziness, respiratory tract symptoms, heart palpitations, a feeling of pressure on the chest, nausea, headache) of the jet fuel vapors in the inhaled air. A high rate of symptoms indicative of neurasthenia and psychasthenia and symptoms and signs indicative of polyneuropathy was observed both in the heavily exposed group and in the two groups combined in comparison with reference groups. Considering the presented facts concerning (a) the acute effects on repeated occasions, (b) the high rates of symptoms indicative of neurasthenia and psychasthenia and symptoms and signs indicative of polyneuropathy, and (c) the differences in the observations made between the two groups with varying degrees of exposure to jet fuel, the authors interpreted the results as indicative of a possible effect of long-term exposure to jet fuel on the nervous system.

  8. Dermal Exposure to Jet Fuel JP-8 Significantly Contributes to the Production of Urinary Naphthols in Fuel-Cell Maintenance Workers

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Yi-Chun E.; Kupper, Lawrence L.; Serdar, Berrin; Egeghy, Peter P.; Rappaport, Stephen M.; Nylander-French, Leena A.

    2006-01-01

    Jet propulsion fuel 8 (JP-8) is the major jet fuel used worldwide and has been recognized as a major source of chemical exposure, both inhalation and dermal, for fuel-cell maintenance workers. We investigated the contributions of dermal and inhalation exposure to JP-8 to the total body dose of U.S. Air Force fuel-cell maintenance workers using naphthalene as a surrogate for JP-8 exposure. Dermal, breathing zone, and exhaled breath measurements of naphthalene were obtained using tape-strip sampling, passive monitoring, and glass bulbs, respectively. Levels of urinary 1- and 2-naphthols were determined in urine samples and used as biomarkers of JP-8 exposure. Multiple linear regression analyses were conducted to investigate the relative contributions of dermal and inhalation exposure to JP-8, and demographic and work-related covariates, to the levels of urinary naphthols. Our results show that both inhalation exposure and smoking significantly contributed to urinary 1-naphthol levels. The contribution of dermal exposure was significantly associated with levels of urinary 2-naphthol but not with urinary 1-naphthol among fuel-cell maintenance workers who wore supplied-air respirators. We conclude that dermal exposure to JP-8 significantly contributes to the systemic dose and affects the levels of urinary naphthalene metabolites. Future work on dermal xenobiotic metabolism and toxicokinetic studies are warranted in order to gain additional knowledge on naphthalene metabolism in the skin and the contribution to systemic exposure. PMID:16451852

  9. Dermal exposure to jet fuel JP-8 significantly contributes to the production of urinary naphthols in fuel-cell maintenance workers.

    PubMed

    Chao, Yi-Chun E; Kupper, Lawrence L; Serdar, Berrin; Egeghy, Peter P; Rappaport, Stephen M; Nylander-French, Leena A

    2006-02-01

    Jet propulsion fuel 8 (JP-8) is the major jet fuel used worldwide and has been recognized as a major source of chemical exposure, both inhalation and dermal, for fuel-cell maintenance workers. We investigated the contributions of dermal and inhalation exposure to JP-8 to the total body dose of U.S. Air Force fuel-cell maintenance workers using naphthalene as a surrogate for JP-8 exposure. Dermal, breathing zone, and exhaled breath measurements of naphthalene were obtained using tape-strip sampling, passive monitoring, and glass bulbs, respectively. Levels of urinary 1- and 2-naphthols were determined in urine samples and used as biomarkers of JP-8 exposure. Multiple linear regression analyses were conducted to investigate the relative contributions of dermal and inhalation exposure to JP-8, and demographic and work-related covariates, to the levels of urinary naphthols. Our results show that both inhalation exposure and smoking significantly contributed to urinary 1-naphthol levels. The contribution of dermal exposure was significantly associated with levels of urinary 2-naphthol but not with urinary 1-naphthol among fuel-cell maintenance workers who wore supplied-air respirators. We conclude that dermal exposure to JP-8 significantly contributes to the systemic dose and affects the levels of urinary naphthalene metabolites. Future work on dermal xenobiotic metabolism and toxicokinetic studies are warranted in order to gain additional knowledge on naphthalene metabolism in the skin and the contribution to systemic exposure.

  10. Mast cells mediate the immune suppression induced by dermal exposure to JP-8 jet fuel.

    PubMed

    Limón-Flores, Alberto Y; Chacón-Salinas, Rommel; Ramos, Gerardo; Ullrich, Stephen E

    2009-11-01

    Applying jet propulsion-8 (JP-8) jet fuel to the skin of mice induces immune suppression. Applying JP-8 to the skin of mice suppresses T-cell-mediated immune reactions including, contact hypersensitivity (CHS) delayed-type hypersensitivity and T-cell proliferation. Because dermal mast cells play an important immune regulatory role in vivo, we tested the hypothesis that mast cells mediate jet fuel-induced immune suppression. When we applied JP-8 to the skin of mast cell deficient mice CHS was not suppressed. Reconstituting mast cell deficient mice with wild-type bone marrow derived mast cells (mast cell "knock-in mice") restored JP-8-induced immune suppression. When, however, mast cells from prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2))-deficient mice were used, the ability of JP-8 to suppress CHS was not restored, indicating that mast cell-derived PGE(2) was activating immune suppression. Examining the density of mast cells in the skin and lymph nodes of JP-8-treated mice indicated that jet fuel treatment caused an initial increase in mast cell density in the skin, followed by increased numbers of mast cells in the subcutaneous space and then in draining lymph nodes. Applying JP-8 to the skin increased mast cell expression of CXCR4, and increased the expression of CXCL12 by draining lymph node cells. Because CXCL12 is a chemoattractant for CXCR4+ mast cells, we treated JP-8-treated mice with AMD3100, a CXCR4 antagonist. AMD3100 blocked the mobilization of mast cells to the draining lymph node and inhibited JP-8-induced immune suppression. Our findings demonstrate the importance of mast cells in mediating jet fuel-induced immune suppression.

  11. Inhalation exposure to JP-8 jet fuel alters pulmonary function and substance P levels in Fischer 344 rats.

    PubMed

    Pfaff, J; Parton, K; Lantz, R C; Chen, H; Hays, A M; Witten, M L

    1995-01-01

    In a simulated military flightline exposure protocol, Fischer 344 rats (F344) were used to investigate the pulmonary effects of JP-8 jet fuel inhalation. Exposures were nose only and for 1 h daily. Groups were exposed for 7 days (7D) or 28 days (28D). Each exposure group had a matched longitudinal control group (LC7 and LC28). Exposure concentrations of 520 mg m-3 caused an increase in dynamic compliance after 7 days of exposure, but compliance changes were not seen with continued exposure (28D, 495 mg m-3). Pulmonary resistance was increased in both 7- and 28-day JP-8-exposed groups. Changes in pulmonary function were accompanied by a decrease in substance P concentrations from the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). No significant change was observed in BALF levels of 6-keto-PGF1 alpha, the stable metabolite of prostacyclin, which is a marker of endothelial cell function. The JP-8-exposed rats gained significantly less weight during the study period than the LC7 and LC28 groups, and the lungs of the 7D group were heavier by wet lung/body weight ratio (WtL/WtB). Alveolar clearance of technetium-labelled diethylenetriamine pentaacetate ([99mTc]DTPA) was increased in jet fuel-exposed groups. Light microscopy showed no pathological evidence of lung injury. Recovery from the early pulmonary effects of JP-8 inhalation occurred with continued exposure, as seen by recovery of pulmonary compliance and WtL/WtB.

  12. Long-term exposure to jet fuel. II. A cross-sectional epidemiologic investigation on occupationally exposed industrial workers with special reference to the nervous system.

    PubMed

    Knave, B; Olson, B A; Elofsson, S; Gamberale, F; Isaksson, A; Mindus, P; Persson, H E; Struwe, G; Wennberg, A; Westerholm, P

    1978-03-01

    Thirty jet fuel exposed workers selected according to exposure criteria and thirty nonexposed controls from a jet motor factory were examined, with special reference to the nervous system, by occupational hygiene physicians, psychiatrists, psychologists, and neurophysiologists. The controls and the exposed subjects were matched with respect to age, employment duration, and education. Among the exposed subjects the mean exposure duration was 17 years, and 300 mg/m3 was calculated as a rough time-weighted average exposure level. The investigation revealed significant differences between the exposed and nonexposed groups for (a) incidence and prevalence of psychiatric symptoms, (b) psychological tests with the load on attention and sensorimotor speed and (c) electroencephalograms. When the control group was selected, it was ensured that the two groups were essentially equivalent except for exposure to jet fuel. It is concluded, therefore, that the differences found between the groups are probably related to exposure to jet fuel.

  13. Female Reproductive Effects of Exposure to Jet Fuel at U.S. Air Force Bases

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-05-01

    amenorrhea and dys- strual characteristics of adult Afri- tors associated with menstrual disor- ,e r 4.6, 7 13 Prolonged bleed- can-Americans, and few...smokers than in non-smokers. Al- Stress (measured by life event or strual disorders.4󈧒 The major though vigorous exercise has been perceived stress...bases for both military and civilian the frequency of physical exercise .7 although personal gains (eg, starting women. Specifically, jet fuel, gaso

  14. Renewable jet fuel.

    PubMed

    Kallio, Pauli; Pásztor, András; Akhtar, M Kalim; Jones, Patrik R

    2014-04-01

    Novel strategies for sustainable replacement of finite fossil fuels are intensely pursued in fundamental research, applied science and industry. In the case of jet fuels used in gas-turbine engine aircrafts, the production and use of synthetic bio-derived kerosenes are advancing rapidly. Microbial biotechnology could potentially also be used to complement the renewable production of jet fuel, as demonstrated by the production of bioethanol and biodiesel for piston engine vehicles. Engineered microbial biosynthesis of medium chain length alkanes, which constitute the major fraction of petroleum-based jet fuels, was recently demonstrated. Although efficiencies currently are far from that needed for commercial application, this discovery has spurred research towards future production platforms using both fermentative and direct photobiological routes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Biological and Health Effects of Exposure to Kerosene-Based Jet Fuels and Performance Additives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    cancer , or other serious organic disease in fuel-exposed workers, large numbers of self-reported health complaints in this cohort appear to justify...is little epidemiological evidence for fuel-induced death, cancer , or other serious organic disease in fuel-exposed workers, large numbers of self...kidneys of some BaP-exposed males. Exposure to respirable PAHs is thought to represent a significant human cancer risk (Holland et al., 1981; U.S

  16. Mast Cells Mediate the Immune Suppression Induced by Dermal Exposure to JP-8 Jet Fuel

    PubMed Central

    Limón-Flores, Alberto Y.; Chacón-Salinas, Rommel; Ramos, Gerardo; Ullrich, Stephen E.

    2009-01-01

    Applying jet propulsion-8 (JP-8) jet fuel to the skin of mice induces immune suppression. Applying JP-8 to the skin of mice suppresses T-cell–mediated immune reactions including, contact hypersensitivity (CHS) delayed-type hypersensitivity and T-cell proliferation. Because dermal mast cells play an important immune regulatory role in vivo, we tested the hypothesis that mast cells mediate jet fuel–induced immune suppression. When we applied JP-8 to the skin of mast cell deficient mice CHS was not suppressed. Reconstituting mast cell deficient mice with wild-type bone marrow derived mast cells (mast cell “knock-in mice”) restored JP-8–induced immune suppression. When, however, mast cells from prostaglandin E2 (PGE2)–deficient mice were used, the ability of JP-8 to suppress CHS was not restored, indicating that mast cell–derived PGE2 was activating immune suppression. Examining the density of mast cells in the skin and lymph nodes of JP-8-treated mice indicated that jet fuel treatment caused an initial increase in mast cell density in the skin, followed by increased numbers of mast cells in the subcutaneous space and then in draining lymph nodes. Applying JP-8 to the skin increased mast cell expression of CXCR4, and increased the expression of CXCL12 by draining lymph node cells. Because CXCL12 is a chemoattractant for CXCR4+ mast cells, we treated JP-8-treated mice with AMD3100, a CXCR4 antagonist. AMD3100 blocked the mobilization of mast cells to the draining lymph node and inhibited JP-8–induced immune suppression. Our findings demonstrate the importance of mast cells in mediating jet fuel–induced immune suppression. PMID:19726579

  17. Effect of in vivo jet fuel exposure on subsequent in vitro dermal absorption of individual aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbon fuel constituents.

    PubMed

    Muhammad, F; Monteiro-Riviere, N A; Baynes, R E; Riviere, J E

    2005-05-14

    The percutaneous absorption of topically applied jet fuel hydrocarbons (HC) through skin previously exposed to jet fuel has not been investigated, although this exposure scenario is the occupational norm. Pigs were exposed to JP-8 jet fuel-soaked cotton fabrics for 1 and 4 d with repeated daily exposures. Preexposed and unexposed skin was then dermatomed and placed in flow-through in vitro diffusion cells. Five cells with exposed skin and four cells with unexposed skin were dosed with a mixture of 14 different HC consisting of nonane, decane, undecane, dodecane, tridecane, tetradecane, pentadecane, hexadecane, ethyl benzene, o-xylene, trimethyl benzene (TMB), cyclohexyl benzene (CHB), naphthalene, and dimethyl naphthalene (DMN) in water + ethanol (50:50) as diluent. Another five cells containing only JP-8-exposed skin were dosed solely with diluent in order to determine the skin retention of jet fuel HC. The absorption parameters of flux, diffusivity, and permeability were calculated for the studied HC. The data indicated that there was a two-fold and four-fold increase in absorption of specific aromatic HC like ethyl benzene, o-xylene, and TMB through 1- and 4-dJP-8 preexposed skin, respectively. Similarly, dodecane and tridecane were absorbed more in 4-d than 1-dJP-8 preexposed skin experiments. The absorption of naphthalene and DMN was 1.5 times greater than the controls in both 1- and 4-d preexposures. CHB, naphthalene, and DMN had significant persistent skin retention in 4-d preexposures as compared to 1-d exposures that might leave skin capable of further absorption several days postexposure. The possible mechanism of an increase in HC absorption in fuel preexposed skin may be via lipid extraction from the stratum corneum as indicated by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. This study suggests that the preexposure of skin to jet fuel enhances the subsequent in vitro percutaneous absorption of HC, so single-dose absorption data for jet fuel HC from

  18. Volatile Organic Compounds in Blood as Biomarkers of Exposure to JP-8 Jet Fuel Among US Air Force Personnel.

    PubMed

    Maule, Alexis L; Proctor, Susan P; Blount, Benjamin C; Chambers, David M; McClean, Michael D

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate blood volatile organic compound (VOC) levels as biomarkers of occupational jet propulsion fuel 8 (JP-8) exposure while controlling for smoking. Among 69 Air Force personnel, post-shift blood samples were analyzed for components of JP-8, including ethylbenzene, toluene, o-xylene, and m/p-xylene, and for the smoking biomarker, 2,5-dimethylfuran. JP-8 exposure was characterized based on self-report and measured work shift levels of total hydrocarbons in personal air. Multivariate regression was used to evaluate the relationship between JP-8 exposure and post-shift blood VOCs while controlling for potential confounding from smoking. Blood VOC concentrations were higher among US Air Force personnel who reported JP-8 exposure and work shift smoking. Breathing zone total hydrocarbons was a significant predictor of VOC blood levels, after controlling for smoking. These findings support the use of blood VOCs as a biomarker of occupational JP-8 exposure.

  19. Neutral endopeptidase (NEP) and its role in pathological pulmonary change with inhalation exposure to JP-8 jet fuel.

    PubMed

    Pfaff, J K; Tollinger, B J; Lantz, R C; Chen, H; Hays, A M; Witten, M L

    1996-01-01

    Through a simulated flightline exposure protocol, Fischer 344 rats (F344) were subjected to an aerosol/vapor mix of the military jet fuel, JP-8. Previous studies with this model of lung injury have revealed significant increases in pulmonary resistance, increased alveolar clearance of 99mTcDTPA, and a decrease in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) concentration of the neuropeptide substance P (SP). Exposures to JP-8 were nose-only and for one hour daily. Six groups of Fischer 344 rats were exposed for 7, 28, or 56 days at two JP-8 concentrations (low dose = 469-520 mg/m3/hr, high dose = 814-1263 mg/m3/hr). Exposed groups were matched with longitudinal controls. In response to JP-8 inhalation, exposure animals demonstrated a dose-dependent as well as duration-determined reduction in BALF SP concentration. Both JP-8 concentrations caused significant pathological changes in lower pulmonary structures.

  20. IN VIVO COMPARISON OF EPITHELIAL RESPONSES FOR S-8 VERSUS JP-8 JET FUELS BELOW PERMISSIBLE EXPOSURE LIMIT

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Simon S.; Vargas, Jason; Thomas, Alana; Fastje, Cindy; McLaughlin, Michael; Camponovo, Ryan; Lantz, R. Clark; Heys, Jeffrey; Witten, Mark L.

    2010-01-01

    This study was designed to characterize and compare the pulmonary effects in distal lung from a low-level exposure to jet propellant-8 fuel (JP-8) and a new synthetic-8 fuel (S-8). It is hypothesized that both fuels have different airway epithelial deposition and responses. Consequently, male C57BL/6 mice were nose-only exposed to S-8 and JP-8 at average concentrations of 53 mg/m3 for 1 hour/day for 7 days. A pulmonary function test performed 24 hr after the final exposure indicated that there was a significant increase in expiratory lung resistance in the S-8 mice, whereas JP-8 mice had significant increases in both inspiratory and expiratory lung resistance compared to control values. Neither significant S-8 nor JP-8 respiratory permeability changes were observed compared to controls, suggesting no loss of epithelial barrier integrity. Morphological examination and morphometric analysis of airway tissue demonstrated that both fuels showed different patterns of targeted epithelial cells: bronchioles in S-8 and alveoli/terminal bronchioles in JP-8. Collectively, our data suggest that both fuels may have partially different deposition patterns, which may possibly contribute to specific different adverse effects in lung ventilatory function. PMID:18930109

  1. Repeated aerosol-vapor JP-8 jet fuel exposure affects neurobehavior and neurotransmitter levels in a rat model.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Carol M; Figueredo, Aurelio J; Wright, Lynda S; Wong, Simon S; Witten, Mark L

    2007-07-01

    Four groups of Fischer Brown Norway hybrid rats were exposed for 5, 10, 15, or 20 d to aerosolized-vapor jet propulsion fuel 8 (JP-8) compared to freely moving (5 and 10-d exposures) or sham-confined controls (15 and 20-d exposures). Behavioral testing utilized the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Functional Observational Battery. Exploratory ethological factor analysis identified three salient factors (central nervous system [CNS] excitability, autonomic 1, and autonomic 2) for use in profiling JP-8 exposure in future studies. The factors were used as dependent variables in general linear modeling. Exposed animals were found to engage in more rearing and hyperaroused behavior compared to controls, replicating prior JP-8 exposure findings. Exposed animals also showed increasing but rapidly decelerating stool output (autonomic 1), and a significant increasing linear trend for urine output (autonomic 2). No significant trends were noted for either of the control groups for the autonomic factors. Rats from each of the groups for each of the time frames were randomly selected for tissue assay from seven brain regions for neurotransmitter levels. Hippocampal DOPAC was significantly elevated after 4-wk JP-8 exposure compared to both control groups, suggesting increased dopamine release and metabolism. Findings indicate that behavioral changes do not appear to manifest until wk 3 and 4 of exposure, suggesting the need for longitudinal studies to determine if these behaviors occur due to cumulative exposure, or due to behavioral sensitization related to repeated exposure to aerosolized-vapor JP-8.

  2. Risk factors of jet fuel combustion products.

    PubMed

    Tesseraux, Irene

    2004-04-01

    Air travel is increasing and airports are being newly built or enlarged. Concern is rising about the exposure to toxic combustion products in the population living in the vicinity of large airports. Jet fuels are well characterized regarding their physical and chemical properties. Health effects of fuel vapors and liquid fuel are described after occupational exposure and in animal studies. Rather less is known about combustion products of jet fuels and exposure to those. Aircraft emissions vary with the engine type, the engine load and the fuel. Among jet aircrafts there are differences between civil and military jet engines and their fuels. Combustion of jet fuel results in CO2, H2O, CO, C, NOx, particles and a great number of organic compounds. Among the emitted hydrocarbons (HCs), no compound (indicator) characteristic for jet engines could be detected so far. Jet engines do not seem to be a source of halogenated compounds or heavy metals. They contain, however, various toxicologically relevant compounds including carcinogenic substances. A comparison between organic compounds in the emissions of jet engines and diesel vehicle engines revealed no major differences in the composition. Risk factors of jet engine fuel exhaust can only be named in context of exposure data. Using available monitoring data, the possibilities and limitations for a risk assessment approach for the population living around large airports are presented. The analysis of such data shows that there is an impact on the air quality of the adjacent communities, but this impact does not result in levels higher than those in a typical urban environment.

  3. JP-8 jet fuel exposure rapidly induces high levels of IL-10 and PGE2 secretion and is correlated with loss of immune function.

    PubMed

    Harris, David T; Sakiestewa, Debbie; Titone, Dominic; Witten, Mark

    2007-05-01

    The US Air Force has implemented the widespread use of JP-8 jet fuel in its operations, although a thorough understanding of its potential effects upon exposed personnel is unclear. Previous work has demonstrated that JP-8 exposure is immunosuppressive. In the present study, the potential mechanisms for the effects of JP-8 exposure on the immune system were investigated. Exposure of mice to JP-8 for 1 h/day resulted in immediate secretion of two immunosuppressive agents; namely, interleukin-10 (IL-10) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). JP-8 exposure rapidly induced a persistently high level of serum IL-10 and PGE2 at an exposure concentration of 1000 mg/m3. IL-10 levels peaked at 2 h post-JP-8 exposure and then stabilized at significantly elevated serum levels, while PGE2 levels peaked after 2-3 days of exposure and then stabilized. Elevated IL-10 and PGE2 levels may at least partially explain the effects of JP-8 exposure on immune function. Elevated IL-10 and PGE2 levels, however, cannot explain all of the effects due to JP-8 exposure (e.g., decreased organ weights and decreased viable immune cells), as treatment with a PGE2 inhibitor did not completely reverse the immunosuppressive effects of jet fuel exposure. Thus, low concentration JP-8 jet fuel exposures have significant effects on the immune system, which can be partially explained by the secretion of immunosuppressive modulators, which are cumulative over time.

  4. Comparative electrophysiological evaluation of hippocampal function following repeated inhalation exposures to JP-8, Jet A, JP-5, and the synthetic Fischer Tropsch fuel.

    PubMed

    Rohan, Joyce G; McInturf, Shawn M; Miklasevich, Molly K; Gut, Chester P; Grimm, Michael D; Reboulet, James E; Howard, William R; Mumy, Karen L

    2018-01-01

    Exposure to fuels continues to be a concern in both military and general populations. The aim of this study was to examine effects of in vivo rat repeated exposures to different types of jet fuel utilizing microelectrode arrays for comparative electrophysiological (EP) measurements in hippocampal slices. Animals were exposed to increasing concentrations of four jet fuels, Jet Propellant (JP)-8, Jet A, JP-5, or synthetic Fischer Tropsch (FT) fuel via whole-body inhalation for 20 d (6 hr/d, 5 d/week for 28 d) and synaptic transmission as well as behavioral performance were assessed. Our behavioral studies indicated no significant changes in behavioral performance in animals exposed to JP-8, Jet A, or JP-5. A significant deviation in learning pattern during the Morris water maze task was observed in rats exposed to the highest concentration of FT (2000 mg/m 3 ). There were also significant differences in the EP profile of hippocampal neurons from animals exposed to JP-8, Jet A, JP-5, or FT compared to control air. However, these differences were not consistent across fuels or dose dependent. As expected, patterns of EP alterations in brain slices from JP-8 and Jet A exposures were more similar compared to those from JP-5 and FT. Further longitudinal investigations are needed to determine if these EP effects are transient or persistent. Such studies may dictate if and how one may use EP measurements to indicate potential susceptibility to neurological impairments, particularly those that result from inhalation exposure to chemicals or mixtures.

  5. Jet aircraft hydrocarbon fuels technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Longwell, J. P. (Editor)

    1978-01-01

    A broad specification, referee fuel was proposed for research and development. This fuel has a lower, closely specified hydrogen content and higher final boiling point and freezing point than ASTM Jet A. The workshop recommended various priority items for fuel research and development. Key items include prediction of tradeoffs among fuel refining, distribution, and aircraft operating costs; combustor liner temperature and emissions studies; and practical simulator investigations of the effect of high freezing point and low thermal stability fuels on aircraft fuel systems.

  6. OVERVIEW OF EPA HUMAN EXPOSURE MEASUREMENTS PROJECTS AS APPLIED TO JP-8 JET FUEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    One of the many responsibilities of the National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is the development and demonstration of methodology for assessing human exposure to environmental pollutants. As such, personnel from the Human E...

  7. Jet Fuel-Associated Occupational Contact Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Contestable, James J

    2017-03-01

    Occupational contact dermatitis is a ubiquitous problem. Sailors onboard U.S. Navy vessels are at high risk given the multitude of potential workplace exposures. Solvents, petrochemicals, and fuels are abundant and can cause irritant or allergic contact dermatitis. Symptoms of contact dermatitis can cause inability to work and, if chronic, may require a change in rating or job. Prevention of this issue requires patient education about the risks and correct personnel protective equipment. Even with preventative strategies in place, exposures and cases of contact dermatitis will occur. Treatment consists of topical steroids and immunomodulators, as well as barrier creams and emollients. The goal of treatment is to fully restore the skin's natural barrier and prevent further exposure. A classic case of jet fuel-associated contact dermatitis is reviewed. A literature review utilizing PubMed, Google Scholar, and Google Search was conducted to elucidate our understanding of this issue, current occupational health guidelines, preventative approaches, and treatments. This case report provides guidance and recommendations for providers who encounter contact dermatitis related to petrochemicals, such as jet fuel. The literature review revealed limited knowledge surrounding in vivo human skin effects of jet fuel, specifically JP-5. Even larger gaps were found in our understanding of, and guidelines for, protective modalities against jet fuel exposure and dermatitis. A case is presented to facilitate recognition of jet fuel contact dermatitis and guidance for treatment and prevention. Given our current limited knowledge and guidelines concerning protective equipment and skin protectants, multiple proposals for future studies are suggested. Reprint & Copyright © 2017 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  8. Inhalation Exposure to Jet Fuel (JP8) Among U.S. Air Force Personnel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-10-01

    less Ihan 25 ft > grrater tlulII 25 I t). primary job (entranl > (IIItlldomirum.er/jireglloro > Oil /side IWllgar), (HId performillg I"Orious tasks...collect vapor samples on coconut shell chareoal in tWQ.scction (100 mg/50 mg) glass sorbcnt tubes (Anasorb; SKC Inc .. Eighty Four. Pa.) at a now...dermal JP8 exposure study (~) assessed three body surfaces, additional body regions were not assessed in this study to minimize the burden Oil study

  9. Jet fuel instability mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daniel, S. R.

    1985-01-01

    The mechanisms of the formation of fuel-insoluble deposits were studied in several real fuels and in a model fuel consisting of tetralin in dodecane solution. The influence of addition to the fuels of small concentrations of various compounds on the quantities of deposits formed and on the formation and disappearance of oxygenated species in solution was assessed. The effect of temperature on deposit formation was also investigated over the range of 308-453 K.

  10. Fuels characterization studies. [jet fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seng, G. T.; Antoine, A. C.; Flores, F. J.

    1980-01-01

    Current analytical techniques used in the characterization of broadened properties fuels are briefly described. Included are liquid chromatography, gas chromatography, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. High performance liquid chromatographic ground-type methods development is being approached from several directions, including aromatic fraction standards development and the elimination of standards through removal or partial removal of the alkene and aromatic fractions or through the use of whole fuel refractive index values. More sensitive methods for alkene determinations using an ultraviolet-visible detector are also being pursued. Some of the more successful gas chromatographic physical property determinations for petroleum derived fuels are the distillation curve (simulated distillation), heat of combustion, hydrogen content, API gravity, viscosity, flash point, and (to a lesser extent) freezing point.

  11. Jet Fuel Thermal Stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, W. F. (Editor)

    1979-01-01

    Various aspects of the thermal stability problem associated with the use of broadened-specification and nonpetroleum-derived turbine fuels are addressed. The state of the art is reviewed and the status of the research being conducted at various laboratories is presented. Discussions among representatives from universities, refineries, engine and airframe manufacturers, airlines, the Government, and others are presented along with conclusions and both broad and specific recommendations for future stability research and development. It is concluded that significant additional effort is required to cope with the fuel stability problems which will be associated with the potentially poorer quality fuels of the future such as broadened specification petroleum fuels or fuels produced from synthetic sources.

  12. Commercial jet fuel quality control

    SciT

    Strauss, K.H.

    1995-05-01

    The paper discusses the purpose of jet fuel quality control between the refinery and the aircraft. It describes fixed equipment, including various types of filters, and the usefulness and limitations of this equipment. Test equipment is reviewed as are various surveillance procedures. These include the Air Transport Association specification ATA 103, the FAA Advisory Circular 150/5230-4, the International Air Transport Association Guidance Material for Fuel Quality Control and Fuelling Service and the Guidelines for Quality Control at Jointly Operated Fuel Systems. Some past and current quality control problems are briefly mentioned.

  13. Jet fuels from synthetic crudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antoine, A. C.; Gallagher, J. P.

    1977-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine the technical problems in the conversion of a significant portion of a barrel of either a shale oil or a coal synthetic crude oil into a suitable aviation turbine fuel. Three syncrudes were used, one from shale and two from coal, chosen as representative of typical crudes from future commercial production. The material was used to produce jet fuels of varying specifications by distillation, hydrotreating, and hydrocracking. Attention is given to process requirements, hydrotreating process conditions, the methods used to analyze the final products, the conditions for shale oil processing, and the coal liquid processing conditions. The results of the investigation show that jet fuels of defined specifications can be made from oil shale and coal syncrudes using readily available commercial processes.

  14. Effects of repeated exposure of rats to JP-5 or JP-8 jet fuel vapor on neurobehavioral capacity and neurotransmitter levels.

    PubMed

    Rossi, J; Nordholm, A F; Carpenter, R L; Ritchie, G D; Malcomb, W

    2001-07-20

    The U.S. Naval Service is anticipating transition from the nearly exclusive use of JP-5 jet fuel to predominant use of JP-8, consistent with the primary utilization by the U.S. Army, U.S. Air Force, and the militaries of most NATO countries. To compare the relative risk of repeated exposure to JP-5 versus JP-8 vapor, groups of 32 male Sprague-Dawley rats each were exposed for 6 h/d, 5 d/wk for 6 wk (180 h) to JP-8 jet fuel vapor (1,000 +/- 10% mg/m3), IP-5 vapor (1,200 +/- 10% mg/m3), or room air control conditions. Following a 65-d rest period, rats completed 10 tests selected from the Neurobehavioral Toxicity Assessment Battery (NTAB) to evaluate changes in performance capacity. Repeated exposure to JP-5 resulted in significant effects on only one test, forelimb grip strength (FGS), while exposure to JP-8 vapor resulted in a significant difference versus controls on appetitive reinforcer approach sensitization (ARAS). Rats were further evaluated for concentrations of major neurotransmitters and metabolites in five brain regions and in the blood serum. Levels of dopamine, the dopamine metabolite dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), and the serotonin metabolite homovanillic acid (HVA) were significantly modulated in various brain regions, as measured 85+ d postexposure. Similarly, serum levels of the serotonin metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) were differentially modulated following JP-8 or JP-5 exposure. Results are compared to previously published research evaluating the neurotoxicity of repeated exposure to other hydrocarbon fuels and solvents.

  15. Trends of jet fuel demand and properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, R.

    1984-01-01

    Petroleum industry forecasts predict an increasing demand for jet fuels, a decrease in the gasoline-to-distillate (heavier fuel) demand ratio, and a greater influx of poorer quality petroleum in the next two to three decades. These projections are important for refinery product analyses. The forecasts have not been accurate, however, in predicting the recent, short term fluctuations in jet fuel and competing product demand. Changes in petroleum quality can be assessed, in part, by a review of jet fuel property inspections. Surveys covering the last 10 years show that average jet fuel freezing points, aromatic contents, and smoke points have trends toward their specification limits.

  16. Propane-Fueled Jet Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farwell, D. A.; Svenson, A. J.; Ramsier, R. D.

    2001-04-01

    We present our recent efforts to design, construct, and test a gas turbine, or jet, engine. Our design utilizes a turbocharger and ignition system from an automobile, and a flame tube/reaction chamber unit fabricated by hand from stainless steel. Once the engine is running, it is completely self-sustaining as long as there is a fuel supply, which in our case is propane. Air is forced into the intake where it is compressed and then injected into the combustion chamber where it is mixed with propane. The spark plugs ignite the air-propane mixture which burns to produce thrust at the exhaust. We have performed operational tests under different environmental conditions and with several turbochargers. We are currently working on adding a lubrication system to the engine, and will discuss our plan to experiment with the reaction chamber and flame tube design in an effort to improve performance and efficiency. *Corresponding author: rex@uakron.edu

  17. Alternative jet fuel scenario analysis report

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2012-11-30

    This analysis presents a bottom up projection of the potential production of alternative aviation (jet) fuels in North America (United States, Canada, and Mexico) and the European Union in the next decade. The analysis is based on available pla...

  18. MEETING IN VANCOUVER, B.C.: MICRONUCLEUS STUDIES IN THE PERIPHERAL BLOOD AND BONE MARROW OF MICE TREATED WITH JET FUELS, JP-8 AND JET-A

    EPA Science Inventory

    The potential adverse effects of dermal and inhalation exposure of jet fuels are important for health hazard evaluation in humans. In an animal model, the genotoxic potential of jet fuels, JP-8 and Jet-A, was investigated. Mice were treated dermally with either a single or multip...

  19. MICRONUCLEUS STUDIES IN THE PERIPHERAL BLOOD AND BONE MARROW OF MICE TREATED WITH JET FUELS, JP-8 AND JET-A

    EPA Science Inventory

    The potential adverse effects of dermal and inhalation exposure of jet fuels are important for health hazard evaluation in humans. In an animal model, the genotoxic potential of jet fuels, JP-8 and Jet-A, was investigated. Mice were treated dermally with either a single or multip...

  20. Compatibility of elastomers in alternate jet fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalfayan, S. H.; Fedors, R. F.; Reilly, W. W.

    1979-01-01

    The compatibility of elastomeric compositions of known resistance to aircraft fuels was tested for potential use in Jet A type fuels obtainable from alternate sources, such as coal. Since such fuels were not available at the time, synthetic alternate fuels were prepared by adding tetralin to a petroleum based Jet A type fuel to simulate coal derived fuels which are expected to contain higher amounts of aromatic and hydroaromatic hydrocarbons. The elastomeric compounds tested were based on butadiene-acrylonitrile rubber, a castable Thiokol polysulfide rubber, and a castable fluorosilicone rubber. Batches of various cross-link densities of these rubbers were made and their chemical stress relaxation behavior in fuel, air, and nitrogen, their swelling properties, and response to mechanical testing were determined.

  1. Past, present and emerging toxicity issues for jet fuel.

    PubMed

    Mattie, David R; Sterner, Teresa R

    2011-07-15

    The US Air Force wrote the specification for the first official hydrocarbon-based jet fuel, JP-4, in 1951. This paper will briefly review the toxicity of the current fuel, JP-8, as compared to JP-4. JP-8 has been found to have low acute toxicity with the adverse effects being slight dermal irritation and weak dermal sensitization in animals. JP-4 also has low acute toxicity with slight dermal irritation as the adverse effect. Respiratory tract sensory irritation was greater in JP-8 than in JP-4. Recent data suggest exposure to jet fuel may contribute to hearing loss. Subchronic studies for 90 days with JP-8 and JP-4 showed little toxicity with the primary effect being male rat specific hydrocarbon nephropathy. A 1-year study was conducted for JP-4. The only tumors seen were associated with the male rat specific hydrocarbon nephropathy. A number of immunosuppressive effects have been seen after exposure to JP-8. Limited neurobehavioral effects have been associated with JP-8. JP-8 is not a developmental toxicant and has little reproductive toxicity. JP-4 has not been tested for immune, neurobehavioral or reproductive endpoints. JP-8 and JP-4 were negative in mutagenicity tests but JP-4 showed an increase in unscheduled DNA synthesis. Currently, JP-8 is being used as the standard for comparison of future fuels, including alternative fuels. Emerging issues of concern with jet fuels include naphthalene content, immunotoxicity and inhalation exposure characterization and modeling of complex mixtures such as jet fuels. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Past, present and emerging toxicity issues for jet fuel

    SciT

    Mattie, David R., E-mail: david.mattie@wpafb.af.mil; Sterner, Teresa R.

    2011-07-15

    The US Air Force wrote the specification for the first official hydrocarbon-based jet fuel, JP-4, in 1951. This paper will briefly review the toxicity of the current fuel, JP-8, as compared to JP-4. JP-8 has been found to have low acute toxicity with the adverse effects being slight dermal irritation and weak dermal sensitization in animals. JP-4 also has low acute toxicity with slight dermal irritation as the adverse effect. Respiratory tract sensory irritation was greater in JP-8 than in JP-4. Recent data suggest exposure to jet fuel may contribute to hearing loss. Subchronic studies for 90 days with JP-8more » and JP-4 showed little toxicity with the primary effect being male rat specific hydrocarbon nephropathy. A 1-year study was conducted for JP-4. The only tumors seen were associated with the male rat specific hydrocarbon nephropathy. A number of immunosuppressive effects have been seen after exposure to JP-8. Limited neurobehavioral effects have been associated with JP-8. JP-8 is not a developmental toxicant and has little reproductive toxicity. JP-4 has not been tested for immune, neurobehavioral or reproductive endpoints. JP-8 and JP-4 were negative in mutagenicity tests but JP-4 showed an increase in unscheduled DNA synthesis. Currently, JP-8 is being used as the standard for comparison of future fuels, including alternative fuels. Emerging issues of concern with jet fuels include naphthalene content, immunotoxicity and inhalation exposure characterization and modeling of complex mixtures such as jet fuels.« less

  3. CYTOGENETIC STUDIES IN MICE TREATED WITH THE JET FUELS, JET-A AND JP-8

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cytogenetic studies in mice treated with the jet fuels, Jet-A and JP-8
    Abstract
    The genotoxic potential of the jet fuels, Jet-A and JP-8, were examined in mice treated on the skin with a single dose of 240 ug/mouse. Peripheral blood smears were prepared at the start of the ...

  4. Jet Fuel Thermal Stability Investigations Using Ellipsometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nash, Leigh; Vasu, Subith S.; Klettlinger, Jennifer Lindsey

    2017-01-01

    Jet fuels are typically used for endothermic cooling in practical engines where their thermal stability is very important. In this work the thermal stability of Sasol IPK (a synthetic jet fuel) with varying levels of naphthalene has been studied on stainless steel substrates using spectroscopic ellipsometry in the temperature range 385-400 K. Ellipsometry is an optical technique that measures the changes in a light beam’s polarization and intensity after it reflects off of a thin film to determine the film’s thickness and optical properties. All of the tubes used were rated as thermally unstable by the color standard portion of the Jet Fuel Thermal Oxidation Test, and this was confirmed by the deposit thicknesses observed using ellipsometry. A new amorphous model on a stainless steel substrate was used to model the data and obtain the results. It was observed that, as would be expected, increasing the temperature of the tube increased the overall deposit amount for a constant concentration of naphthalene. The repeatability of these measurements was assessed using multiple trials of the same fuel at 385 K. Lastly, the effect of increasing the naphthalene concentration in the fuel at a constant temperature was found to increase the deposit thickness.In conclusion, ellipsometry was used to investigate the thermal stability of jet fuels on stainless steel substrate. The effects of increasing temperature and addition of naphthalene on stainless steel tubes with Sasol IPK fuel were investigated. It was found, as expected, that increasing temperature lead to an increase in deposit thickness. It wasAmerican Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics6also found that increasing amounts of naphthalene increased the maximum deposit thickness. The repeatability of these measurements was investigated using multiple tests at the same conditions. The present work provides as a better quantitative tool compared to the widely used JFTOT technique. Future work will expand on the

  5. Fuel Microemulsions for Jet Engine Smoke Reduction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-05-01

    ESL-TR-80-25 FUEL MICROEMULSIONS FOR JET ENGINE SMOKE REDUCTION LEVEL$: 0• D.W. NAEGELI , G.E. FODOR, C.A. MOSES MOBILE ENERGY DIVISION 1N•j SOUTHWEST...Moses, C.A, and D.W. Naegeli , "Fuel Property Effects on Combustor Per- formance," AS!E Paper 79-GT-178, San Diego, CA, January 1979. 17. Naegeli , D.W

  6. Ejector device for direct injection fuel jet

    DOEpatents

    Upatnieks, Ansis [Livermore, CA

    2006-05-30

    Disclosed is a device for increasing entrainment and mixing in an air/fuel zone of a direct fuel injection system. The device comprises an ejector nozzle in the form of an inverted funnel whose central axis is aligned along the central axis of a fuel injector jet and whose narrow end is placed just above the jet outlet. It is found that effective ejector performance is achieved when the ejector geometry is adjusted such that it comprises a funnel whose interior surface diverges about 7.degree. to about 9.degree. away from the funnel central axis, wherein the funnel inlet diameter is about 2 to about 3 times the diameter of the injected fuel plume as the fuel plume reaches the ejector inlet, and wherein the funnel length equal to about 1 to about 4 times the ejector inlet diameter. Moreover, the ejector is most effectively disposed at a separation distance away from the fuel jet equal to about 1 to about 2 time the ejector inlet diameter.

  7. Powder Extinguishants for Jet-Fuel Fires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Altman, R. L.; Mayer, L. A.; Ling, A. C.

    1986-01-01

    Mixtures of alkali metal dawsonite and metal halide show superior performance. In tests of new dry powder fire extinguishants, mixtures of potassium dawsonite with either stannous iodide or potassium iodide found effective for extinguishing jet-fuel fires on hot metal surfaces (up to 900 degrees C). Mixtures performed more effectively than either compound alone.

  8. Thermal protection performance of opposing jet generating with solid fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Binxian; Liu, Weiqiang

    2018-03-01

    A light and small gas supply device, which uses fuel gas generating with solid fuel as coolant gas, is introduced for opposing jet thermal protection in hypersonic vehicles. A numerical study on heat flux reduction in hypersonic flow with opposing jet is conducted to investigate the cooling efficiency of fuel gas. Flow field and cooling efficiency at different jet temperatures, as well as the effect of fuel gas, are determined. Detailed results show that shock stand-off distance changes with an increase in jet pressure ratio and remains constant with an increase in jet temperature. Cooling efficiency weakens with an increase in jet temperature and can be strengthened by enhancing jet pressure. Lastly, a remarkable heat flux reduction is observed with fuel gas injection with respect to no fuel gas injection when jet temperature reaches 900 K, thereby proving the positive cooling efficiency of fuel gas.

  9. Evaluation of Jet Fuel Induced Hearing Loss in Rats

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-13

    flow of approximately 20 liters per minute (lpm) through the nebulizer. This air flow coupled with the nebulizer nozzle design created an...inch PVC pipe contained the spray pattern. The pipe was initially reduced in size to accept an orifice plate which can be used to measure flow rate...chamber flow . Two drain ports were used to remove residual jet fuel which accumulated after a day‟s exposure. To achieve the 10 1500 mg/m 3

  10. The Oxidation and Ignition of Jet Fuels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-01-03

    approved for public release. A series of experimental studies designed to elucidate the oxidative reactivity and ignition properties of jet fuel and its...3 2. Experimental Method……………………………………………..………………….……..4 2.1. Shock tube…………………………………………………….…………………….4 2.2. Mid-infrared... experimental kinetics database for larger hydrocarbon components, real transportation fuels, model fuel mixtures, and important intermediate species

  11. Jet Fuel Thermal Stability Investigations using Ellipsometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nash, Leigh; Klettlinger, Jennifer; Vasu, Subith

    2017-01-01

    Ellipsometry is an optical technique used to measure the thickness of thin films. This technique was used to measure the thickness of deposits created by heated jet fuel, specifically Sasol IPK on stainless steel tubes. A new amorphous model was used to iteratively determine the film thickness. This method was found to be repeatable, and the thickness of deposit increased with increasing temperature and increasing concentration of naphthalene.

  12. Acute toxicity evaluation of JP-8 jet fuel and JP-8 jet fuel containing additives. Final report, November 1995-February 1996

    SciT

    Wolfe, R.E.; Kinead, E.R.; Feldmann, M.L.

    1996-11-01

    To reduce fuel fouling in current U.S Navy and Air Force aircraft systems and to provide additional heat sink and thermal stability for future systems, the Air Force is developing an improved JP-8 jet fuel (JP-8 + 100). Two companies (Betz and Mobil) have developed additive packages that are currently being tested in aircraft systems. To determine if the additive packages will produce health effects for flightline personnel, acute testing was performed on JP-8 and the two JP-8 + 100 jet fuels. A single oral dose at 5 mg jet fuel/kg body weight to five male and five female F-344more » rats, and a single dermal application of 2 g jet fuel/kg body weight applied to five male and five female NZW rabbits resulted in no deaths. No signs of toxic stress were observed, and all animals gained weight over the 14-day observation periods. Single treatment of 0.5 mL neat jet fuel to rabbit skin produced negative results for skin irritation. Guinea pigs tailed to elicit a sensitization response following repeated applications of the jet fuels. Inhalation vapor exposure to JP-8, JP-8 + 100 (Betz), and JP-8 (Mobil) were determined to be >3.43, >3.52, and >3.57 mg/L, respectively. LD% values for aerosol exposure to JP-8, JP-8 + 100 (Betz), and JP-8 + 100 (Mobil) were >4.44, >4.39, and >4.54 mg/L, respectively. Under the conditions of these tests, the additive packages did not potentiate the acute effects normally associated with JP-8 jet fuel exposures.« less

  13. Cleanup of a jet fuel spill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fesko, Steve

    1996-11-01

    Eaton operates a corporate aircraft hanger facility in Battle Creek, Michigan. Tests showed that two underground storage tanks leaked. Investigation confirmed this release discharged several hundred gallons of Jet A kerosene into the soil and groundwater. The oil moved downward approximately 30 feet and spread laterally onto the water table. Test results showed kerosene in the adsorbed, free and dissolved states. Eaton researched and investigated three clean-up options. They included pump and treat, dig and haul and bioremediation. Jet fuel is composed of readily biodegradable hydrocarbon chains. This fact coupled with the depth to groundwater and geologic setting made bioremediation the low cost and most effective alternative. A recovery well was installed at the leading edge of the dissolved contamination. A pump moved water from this well into a nutrient addition system. Nutrients added included nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium. Additionally, air was sparged into the water. The water was discharged into an infiltration gallery installed when the underground storage tanks were removed. Water circulated between the pump and the infiltration basin in a closed loop fashion. This oxygenated, nutrient rich water actively and aggressively treated the soils between the bottom of the gallery and the top of the groundwater and the groundwater. The system began operating in August of 1993 and reduced jet fuel to below detection levels. In August of 1995 The State of Michigan issued a clean closure declaration to the site.

  14. Inhalation of Hydrocarbon Jet Fuel Suppress Central Auditory Nervous System Function.

    PubMed

    Guthrie, O'neil W; Wong, Brian A; McInturf, Shawn M; Reboulet, James E; Ortiz, Pedro A; Mattie, David R

    2015-01-01

    More than 800 million L/d of hydrocarbon fuels is used to power cars, boats, and jet airplanes. The weekly consumption of these fuels necessarily puts the public at risk for repeated inhalation exposure. Recent studies showed that exposure to hydrocarbon jet fuel produces lethality in presynaptic sensory cells, leading to hearing loss, especially in the presence of noise. However, the effects of hydrocarbon jet fuel on the central auditory nervous system (CANS) have not received much attention. It is important to investigate the effects of hydrocarbons on the CANS in order to complete current knowledge regarding the ototoxic profile of such exposures. The objective of the current study was to determine whether inhalation exposure to hydrocarbon jet fuel might affect the functions of the CANS. Male Fischer 344 rats were randomly divided into four groups (control, noise, fuel, and fuel + noise). The structural and functional integrity of presynaptic sensory cells was determined in each group. Neurotransmission in both peripheral and central auditory pathways was simultaneously evaluated in order to identify and differentiate between peripheral and central dysfunctions. There were no detectable effects on pre- and postsynaptic peripheral functions. However, the responsiveness of the brain was significantly depressed and neural transmission time was markedly delayed. The development of CANS dysfunctions in the general public and the military due to cumulative exposure to hydrocarbon fuels may represent a significant but currently unrecognized public health issue.

  15. Fuzzy Evaluating Customer Satisfaction of Jet Fuel Companies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Haiying; Fang, Guoyi

    Based on the market characters of jet fuel companies, the paper proposes an evaluation index system of jet fuel company customer satisfaction from five dimensions as time, business, security, fee and service. And a multi-level fuzzy evaluation model composing with the analytic hierarchy process approach and fuzzy evaluation approach is given. Finally a case of one jet fuel company customer satisfaction evaluation is studied and the evaluation results response the feelings of the jet fuel company customers, which shows the fuzzy evaluation model is effective and efficient.

  16. Production of bio-jet fuel from microalgae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elmoraghy, Marian

    The increase in petroleum-based aviation fuel consumption, the decrease in petroleum resources, the fluctuation of the crude oil price, the increase in greenhouse gas emission and the need for energy security are motivating the development of an alternate jet fuel. Bio-jet fuel has to be a drop in fuel, technically and economically feasible, environmentally friendly, greener than jet fuel, produced locally and low gallon per Btu. Bic jet fuel has been produced by blending petro-based jet fuel with microalgae biodiesel (Fatty Acid Methyl Ester, or simply FAME). Indoor microalgae growth, lipids extraction and transetrification to biodiesel are energy and fresh water intensive and time consuming. In addition, the quality of the biodiesel product and the physical properties of the bio-jet fuel blends are unknown. This work addressed these challenges. Minimizing the energy requirements and making microalgae growth process greener were accomplished by replacing fluorescent lights with light emitting diodes (LEDs). Reducing fresh water footprint in algae growth was accomplished by waste water use. Microalgae biodiesel production time was reduced using the one-step (in-situ transestrification) process. Yields up to 56.82 mg FAME/g dry algae were obtained. Predicted physical properties of in-situ FAME satisfied European and American standards confirming its quality. Lipid triggering by nitrogen deprivation was accomplished in order to increase the FAME production. Bio-jet fuel freezing points and heating values were measured for different jet fuel to biodiesel blend ratios.

  17. BREATH MEASUREMENT OF TOTAL BODY BURDEN OF JP-8 JET FUEL FOR EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A complex epidemiological investigation of the effects of acute exposure to JP-8 jet fuel in the U.S. Air Force was performed through the study of about 350 human subjects across six Air Force bases. The focus was on fuels system maintenance personnel as the "exposed"...

  18. Toxicological profile for jet fuels (JP-4 and JP-7)

    SciT

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    This statement was prepared to give you information about jet fuels JP-4 and JP-7 and to emphasize the human effects that may result from exposure to them. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has identified 1,397 hazardous waste sites as the most serious in the nation. These sites make up the National Priorities List (NPL) and are the sites targeted for long-term federal clean-up activities. JP-4 has been found in at least 4 of these sites. JP-7 has not been found in any NPL site.

  19. Near-term feasibility of alternative jet fuels

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2009-01-01

    This technical report documents the results of a joint study by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and the RAND Corporation on alternative fuels for commercial aviation. The study compared potential alternative jet fuels on the basis of ...

  20. Age-related differences in pulmonary inflammatory responses to JP-8 jet fuel aerosol inhalation.

    PubMed

    Wang, S; Young, R S; Witten, M L

    2001-02-01

    Our previous studies have demonstrated that JP-8 jet fuel aerosol inhalation induced lung injury and dysfunction. To further examine JP-8 jet fuel-induced inflammatory mechanisms, a total of 40 male C57BL/6 mice (young, 3.5 months; adult, 12 months; half in each age group) were randomly assigned to the exposure or control groups. Mice were nose-only exposed to room air or atmospheres of 1000 mg/m3 JP-8 jet fuel for 1 h/day for 7 days. Lung injury was assessed by pulmonary mechanics, respiratory permeability, lavaged cell profile, and chemical mediators in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). The young and adult mice exposed to JP-8 jet fuel had similar values with regards to increased lung dynamic compliance, lung permeability, BALF cell count, and decreased PGE2. However, there were several different responses between the young-versus-adult mice with respect to BALF cell differential, TNF-alpha, and 8-iso-PGF2,, levels after exposure to JP-8 jet fuel. These data suggest that JP-8 jet fuel may have different inflammatory mechanisms leading to lung injury and dysfunction in the younger-versus-adult mice.

  1. Mathematical Model of the Jet Engine Fuel System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimko, Marek

    2015-05-01

    The paper discusses the design of a simplified mathematical model of the jet (turbo-compressor) engine fuel system. The solution will be based on the regulation law, where the control parameter is a fuel mass flow rate and the regulated parameter is the rotational speed. A differential equation of the jet engine and also differential equations of other fuel system components (fuel pump, throttle valve, pressure regulator) will be described, with respect to advanced predetermined simplifications.

  2. Subacute effects of inhaled Jet Fuel-A (Jet A) on airway and immune function in female rats.

    PubMed

    Sweeney, Lisa M; Prues, Susan L; Reboulet, James E

    2013-04-01

    Two studies were conducted to assess the potential airway and immune effects following subacute (14 d) exposure of female rats to 500, 1000 or 2000 mg/m³ of Jet-A for 4 h/d. The first study used Sprague-Dawley rats; the second study included both Fischer 344 (F344) and Sprague-Dawley rats. In the first study, exposure to 2000 mg/m³ jet fuel may have caused significant upper airway inflammation on day 7 post-exposure, as indicated by elevated protein and lactate dehydrogenase in nasal lavage fluid, but any inflammation resolved by day 14 post-exposure. No significant impact on immune cell populations in the spleens was observed. The histological examination showed no evidence of infectious or toxic effect. In the second study, body weights of the F344 rats in the 2000 mg/m³ group were depressed, as compared to the controls, at the end of the exposure. Some lung lavage fluid markers were increased at 24 h after the final exposure, however, no test article-induced histological changes were observed in the lungs, nasal cavities, or any other tissue of any of the jet fuel exposed animals. Overall, these studies demonstrated limited evidence of effects of 14 d of exposure to Jet A on the airways, immune system, or any other organ or system of female Sprague-Dawley and F344 rats, with no remarkable differences between strains. The lack of identified significant airway or immune effects was in contrast to previous examinations of jet fuel for pulmonary toxicity in mice and rats and for immunotoxicity in mice.

  3. Jet Propellant 8 versus Alternative Jet Fuels: A Life-Cycle Perspective

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    United States imports.26 The CBTL process uses three existing technologies to convert coal and biomass into liquid fuel: gasification , FT synthesis...and carbon capture and storage. Gasification converts coal and biomass into CO and H2, a mixture commonly referred to as “syngas.” FT synthesis...com- pare petroleum-derived jet fuel (i.e., JP-8) to an alternative jet fuel derived from a coal- biomass -to-liquid (CBTL) process. The EIO- LCA

  4. Autoxidation of jet fuels: Implications for modeling and thermal stability

    SciT

    Heneghan, S.P.; Chin, L.P.

    1995-05-01

    The study and modeling of jet fuel thermal deposition is dependent on an understanding of and ability to model the oxidation chemistry. Global modeling of jet fuel oxidation is complicated by several facts. First, liquid jet fuels are hard to heat rapidly and fuels may begin to oxidize during the heat-up phase. Non-isothermal conditions can be accounted for but the evaluation of temperature versus time is difficult. Second, the jet fuels are a mixture of many compounds that may oxidize at different rates. Third, jet fuel oxidation may be autoaccelerating through the decomposition of the oxidation products. Attempts to modelmore » the deposition of jet fuels in two different flowing systems showed the inadequacy of a simple two-parameter global Arrhenius oxidation rate constant. Discarding previous assumptions about the form of the global rate constants results in a four parameter model (which accounts for autoacceleration). This paper discusses the source of the rate constant form and the meaning of each parameter. One of these parameters is associated with the pre-exponential of the autoxidation chain length. This value is expected to vary inversely to thermal stability. We calculate the parameters for two different fuels and discuss the implication to thermal and oxidative stability of the fuels. Finally, we discuss the effect of non-Arrhenius behavior on current modeling of deposition efforts.« less

  5. Hydrocarbons (jet fuel JP-8) induce epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of obesity, reproductive disease and sperm epimutations.

    PubMed

    Tracey, Rebecca; Manikkam, Mohan; Guerrero-Bosagna, Carlos; Skinner, Michael K

    2013-04-01

    Environmental compounds have been shown to promote epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of disease. The current study was designed to determine if a hydrocarbon mixture involving jet fuel (JP-8) promotes epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of disease. Gestating F0 generation female rats were transiently exposed during the fetal gonadal development period. The direct exposure F1 generation had an increased incidence of kidney abnormalities in both females and males, prostate and pubertal abnormalities in males, and primordial follicle loss and polycystic ovarian disease in females. The first transgenerational generation is the F3 generation, and the jet fuel lineage had an increased incidence of primordial follicle loss and polycystic ovarian disease in females, and obesity in both females and males. Analysis of the jet fuel lineage F3 generation sperm epigenome identified 33 differential DNA methylation regions, termed epimutations. Observations demonstrate hydrocarbons can promote epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of disease and sperm epimutations, potential biomarkers for ancestral exposures. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Hydrocarbons (Jet Fuel JP-8) Induce Epigenetic Transgenerational Inheritance of Obesity, Reproductive Disease and Sperm Epimutations

    PubMed Central

    Tracey, Rebecca; Manikkam, Mohan; Guerrero-Bosagna, Carlos; Skinner, Michael K.

    2012-01-01

    Environmental compounds have been shown to promote epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of disease. The current study was designed to determine if a hydrocarbon mixture involving jet fuel (JP-8) promotes epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of disease. Gestating F0 generation female rats were transiently exposed during the fetal gonadal development period. The direct exposure F1 generation had an increased incidence of kidney abnormalities in both females and males, prostate and pubertal abnormalities in males, and primordial follicle loss and polycystic ovarian disease in females. The first transgenerational generation is the F3 generation, and the jet fuel lineage had an increased incidence of primordial follicle loss and polycystic ovarian disease in females, and obesity in both females and males. Analysis of the jet fuel lineage F3 generation sperm epigenome identified 33 differential DNA methylation regions, termed epimutations. Observations demonstrate hydrocarbons can promote epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of disease and sperm epimutations, potential biomarkers for ancestral exposures. PMID:23453003

  7. Visualization of supersonic diesel fuel jets using a shadowgraph technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pianthong, Kulachate; Behnia, Masud; Milton, Brian E.

    2001-04-01

    High-speed liquid jets have been widely used to cut or penetrate material. It has been recently conjectured that the characteristics of high-speed fuel jets may also be of benefit to engines requiring direct fuel injection into the combustion chamber. Important factors are combustion efficiency and emission control enhancement for better atomization. Fundamental studies of very high velocity liquid jets are therefore very important. The characteristics and behavior of supersonic liquid jets have been studied with the aid of a shadowgraph technique. The high-speed liquid jet (in the supersonic range) is generated by the use of a vertical, single stage powder gun. The performance of the launcher and its relation to the jet exit velocity, with a range of nozzle shapes, has been examined. This paper presents the visual evidence of supersonic diesel fuel jets (velocity around 2000 m/s) investigated by the shadowgraph method. An Argon jet has been used as a light source. With a rise time of 0.07 microseconds, light duration of 0.2 microseconds and the use of high speed Polaroid film, the shadowgraph method can effectively capture the hypersonic diesel fuel jet and its strong leading edge shock waves. This provides a clearer picture of each stage of the generation of hypersonic diesel fuel jets and makes the study of supersonic diesel fuel jet characteristics and the potential for auto-ignition possible. Also, in the experiment, a pressure relief section has been used to minimize the compressed air or blast wave ahead of the projectile. However, the benefit of using a pressure relief section in the design is not clearly known. To investigate this effect, additional experiments have been performed with the use of the shadowgraph method, showing the projectile leaving and traveling inside the nozzle at a velocity around 1100 m/s.

  8. Subacute Effects of Inhaled Jet Fuel-A (JET A) on Airway and Immune Function in Rats

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-16

    the source of the oil used in its manufacture. This study used fuel provided by five of the major oil companies ( blend POSF-4658, Chevron, Shell Oil... using a Hastings (Model 40) monitor. The chamber system schematic is depicted in Figure 4. Figure 4. Schematic of exposure control system...were used due to concerns that the air control animals (Group 2) might be unintentionally exposed to background levels of Jet A. Group 2 was exposed

  9. IET. Jet fuel tank being lowered into position below grade. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    IET. Jet fuel tank being lowered into position below grade. Two tanks already in place. Date: October 18, 1954. INEEL negative no. 12535 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  10. Partitioning of Aromatic Constituents into Water from Jet Fuels.

    PubMed

    Tien, Chien-Jung; Shu, Youn-Yuen; Ciou, Shih-Rong; Chen, Colin S

    2015-08-01

    A comprehensive study of the most commonly used jet fuels (i.e., Jet A-1 and JP-8) was performed to properly assess potential contamination of the subsurface environment from a leaking underground storage tank occurred in an airport. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the concentration ranges of the major components in the water-soluble fraction of jet fuels and to estimate the jet fuel-water partition coefficients (K fw) for target compounds using partitioning experiments and a polyparameter linear free-energy relationship (PP-LFER) approach. The average molecular weight of Jet A-1 and JP-8 was estimated to be 161 and 147 g/mole, respectively. The density of Jet A-1 and JP-8 was measured to be 786 and 780 g/L, respectively. The distribution of nonpolar target compounds between the fuel and water phases was described using a two-phase liquid-liquid equilibrium model. Models were derived using Raoult's law convention for the activity coefficients and the liquid solubility. The observed inverse, log-log linear dependence of the K fw values on the aqueous solubility were well predicted by assuming jet fuel to be an ideal solvent mixture. The experimental partition coefficients were generally well reproduced by PP-LFER.

  11. IMPLEMENTATION OF NATURAL ATTENUATION AT A JP-4 JET FUEL RELEASE AFTER ACTIVE REMEDIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    After eighteen months of active remediation at a JP-4 jet-fuel spill, a residual of unremediated hydrocarbon remained. Further site characterization was conducted to evaluate the contribution of natural attenuation to control exposure to hazards associated with the residual cont...

  12. Chemistry and Transport Properties for Jet Fuel Combustion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-01

    AFRL-OSR-VA-TR-2013-0168 Chemistry and Transport Properties for Jet Fuel Combustion Angela Violi University of Michigan...5a. CONTRACT NUMBER (U) Chemistry and Transport Properties for Jet Fuel Combustion 5b. GRANT NUMBER FA9550-09-1-0021 5c...combustors.   Although,  chemical  kinetic  mechanisms  of  hydrocarbons  have  been  widely  studied,  molecular   transport

  13. Acute Dermal Irritation Study of Six Jet Fuels in New Zealand White Rabbits: Comparison of Four Bio-Based Jet Fuels with Two Petroleum JP-8 Fuels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-02-01

    NA 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 62202F 6. AUTHOR(S) Sterner, Teresa R.1; Hurley, Jonathon M.2; Edwards, James T.3; Shafer, Linda M.4; Mattie , David R... Mattie , D.R. 2014. Acute Dermal Irritation Study of Ten Jet Fuels in New Zealand White Rabbits: Comparison of Synthetic and Bio -Based Jet Fuels with...AFRL-RH-WP-TR-2014-0046 ACUTE DERMAL IRRITATION STUDY OF SIX JET FUELS IN NEW ZEALAND WHITE RABBITS: COMPARISON OF FOUR BIO -BASED JET FUELS

  14. Advanced Thermally Stable Coal-Based Jet Fuels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-01

    of hydrotreated refined chemical oil derived jet fuels in the pyrolytic regime. Preprints of Papers-American Chemical Society Division of Fuel...hydrogenation of a mixture of light cycle oil and refined chemical oil met or exceeded all but four JP-8 specifications. The fuel has excellent low-temperature...mixture of light cycle oil and refined chemical oil met or exceeded all but four JP-8 specifications. The fuel has excellent low-temperature viscosity

  15. The liquid fuel jet in subsonic crossflow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, T. T.; Karagozian, A. R.

    1990-01-01

    An analytical/numerical model is described which predicts the behavior of nonreacting and reacting liquid jets injected transversely into subsonic cross flow. The compressible flowfield about the elliptical jet cross section is solved at various locations along the jet trajectory by analytical means for free-stream local Mach number perpendicular to jet cross section smaller than 0.3 and by numerical means for free-stream local Mach number perpendicular to jet cross section in the range 0.3-1.0. External and internal boundary layers along the jet cross section are solved by integral and numerical methods, and the mass losses due to boundary layer shedding, evaporation, and combustion are calculated and incorporated into the trajectory calculation. Comparison of predicted trajectories is made with limited experimental observations.

  16. Jet Fuel Kerosene is not Immunosuppressive in Mice or Rats Following Inhalation for 28 Days

    PubMed Central

    White, Kimber L.; DeLorme, Michael P.; Beatty, Patrick W.; Smith, Matthew J.; Peachee, Vanessa L.

    2013-01-01

    Previous reports indicated that inhalation of JP-8 aviation turbine fuel is immunosuppressive. However, in some of those studies, the exposure concentrations were underestimated, and percent of test article as vapor or aerosol was not determined. Furthermore, it is unknown whether the observed effects are attributable to the base hydrocarbon fuel (jet fuel kerosene) or to the various fuel additives in jet fuels. The present studies were conducted, in compliance with Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) regulations, to evaluate the effects of jet fuel kerosene on the immune system, in conjunction with an accurate, quantitative characterization of the aerosol and vapor exposure concentrations. Two female rodent species (B6C3F1 mice and Crl:CD rats) were exposed by nose-only inhalation to jet fuel kerosene at targeted concentrations of 0, 500, 1000, or 2000 mg/m3 for 6 h daily for 28 d. Humoral, cell-mediated, and innate immune functions were subsequently evaluated. No marked effects were observed in either species on body weights, spleen or thymus weights, the T-dependent antibody-forming cell response (plaque assay), or the delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response. With a few exceptions, spleen cell numbers and phenotypes were also unaffected. Natural killer (NK) cell activity in mice was unaffected, while the NK assessment in rats was not usable due to an unusually low response in all groups. These studies demonstrate that inhalation of jet fuel kerosene for 28 d at levels up to 2000 mg/m3 did not adversely affect the functional immune responses of female mice and rats. PMID:24028664

  17. Jet fuel kerosene is not immunosuppressive in mice or rats following inhalation for 28 days.

    PubMed

    White, Kimber L; DeLorme, Michael P; Beatty, Patrick W; Smith, Matthew J; Peachee, Vanessa L

    2013-01-01

    Previous reports indicated that inhalation of JP-8 aviation turbine fuel is immunosuppressive. However, in some of those studies, the exposure concentrations were underestimated, and percent of test article as vapor or aerosol was not determined. Furthermore, it is unknown whether the observed effects are attributable to the base hydrocarbon fuel (jet fuel kerosene) or to the various fuel additives in jet fuels. The present studies were conducted, in compliance with Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) regulations, to evaluate the effects of jet fuel kerosene on the immune system, in conjunction with an accurate, quantitative characterization of the aerosol and vapor exposure concentrations. Two female rodent species (B6C3F1 mice and Crl:CD rats) were exposed by nose-only inhalation to jet fuel kerosene at targeted concentrations of 0, 500, 1000, or 2000 mg/m(3) for 6 h daily for 28 d. Humoral, cell-mediated, and innate immune functions were subsequently evaluated. No marked effects were observed in either species on body weights, spleen or thymus weights, the T-dependent antibody-forming cell response (plaque assay), or the delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response. With a few exceptions, spleen cell numbers and phenotypes were also unaffected. Natural killer (NK) cell activity in mice was unaffected, while the NK assessment in rats was not usable due to an unusually low response in all groups. These studies demonstrate that inhalation of jet fuel kerosene for 28 d at levels up to 2000 mg/m(3) did not adversely affect the functional immune responses of female mice and rats.

  18. Laser Induced Fluorescence Detection of Gums in Jet Fuels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-05-01

    Classification) Laser Induced Fluorescence Detection of GLus in Jet Fuels 12 PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) David W. Naegeli and Ralph H. Hill 13a. TYPE OF REPORT 13b...degraded jet fuel.( ) 47 REFERENCES 1. Fodor, G.E.; Naegeli , D.W.; Kohl, K.B.; Cuellar, J.P., Jr., Interim Report BFLRF No. 199, AD A163590, Belvoir Fuels...and Lubricants Research Facility, Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX, June 1985. 2. Fodor, G.E.; Naegeli , D.W., Proceedings of the 2nd

  19. Integrated coke, asphalt and jet fuel production process and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Shang, Jer Y.

    1991-01-01

    A process and apparatus for the production of coke, asphalt and jet fuel m a feed of fossil fuels containing volatile carbon compounds therein is disclosed. The process includes the steps of pyrolyzing the feed in an entrained bed pyrolyzing means, separating the volatile pyrolysis products from the solid pyrolysis products removing at least one coke from the solid pyrolysis products, fractionating the volatile pyrolysis products to produce an overhead stream and a bottom stream which is useful as asphalt for road pavement, condensing the overhead stream to produce a condensed liquid fraction and a noncondensable, gaseous fraction, and removing water from the condensed liquid fraction to produce a jet fuel-containing product. The disclosed apparatus is useful for practicing the foregoing process. the process provides a useful method of mass producing and jet fuels from materials such as coal, oil shale and tar sands.

  20. Micro hollow cathode discharge jets utilizing solid fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikic, Dejan

    2017-10-01

    Micro hollow cathode discharge devices with a solid fuel layer embedded between the electrodes have demonstrated an enhanced jetting process. Outlined are series of experiments in various pressure and gas conditions as well as vacuum. Examples of use of these devices in series and parallel configurations are presented. Evidence of utilization of solid fuel is obtained through optical spectroscopy and analysis of remaining fuel layer.

  1. Aviation Fuel Exposure Resulting in Otitis Externa with Vertigo.

    PubMed

    Long, Robert J; Charles, Reese A

    2018-07-01

    Otitis externa secondary to irritant or chemical exposure is well documented; however, specifically secondary to jet fuel exposure and its associated toxicology is not. Over 2 million military and civilian personnel per year are occupationally exposed to aviation fuels. An aircraft maintainer presented with noninfectious acute otitis externa secondary to external ear canal exposure to JP-5 jet fuel. Proper exposure guidelines were followed, but it was not realized that the external ear canal was involved. The first symptoms to emerge were vertigo, dizziness, and disequilibrium; however, on physical exam it appeared that there was no middle ear involvement. Otitis externa normally does not present with vestibular symptoms as the pathology affects the external ear canal dermal tissue. Upon review of JP-5's toxicology profile, dermal absorption is a route of entry and can cause general neurological symptoms, including loss of coordination. This case highlights potential deficiencies in the standardized safety data sheets that are used after exposure. Without mention of possible auricular exposure one may focus on the logical protection of the eyes, mouth, and visible skin. This is concerning due to potential delayed exposure symptoms, dermal absorption, high level of dermal destruction, and the close proximity to the sensory system. The goal of this case report is to improve the knowledge of providers caring for personnel who may be exposed and to suggest possible revisions to the Safety Data Sheets for jet fuel.Long RJ, Charles RA. Aviation fuel exposure resulting in otitis externa with vertigo. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2018; 89(7):661-663.

  2. Jet Fuel, Noise, and the Central Auditory Nervous System: A Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Warner, Rachelle; Fuente, Adrian; Hickson, Louise

    2015-09-01

    Prompted by the continued prevalence of hearing related disabilities accepted as eligible for compensation and treatment under Australian Department of Veterans' Affairs legislation, a review of recent literature regarding possible causation mechanisms and thus, possible prevention strategies, is timely. The emerging thoughts on the effects of a combination of jet fuel and noise exposure on the central auditory nervous system (CANS) have relevance in the military aviation context because of the high exposures to solvents (including fuels) and unique noise hazards related to weapons systems and military aircraft. This literature review aimed to identify and analyze the current knowledge base of the effects of combined exposure to JP-8 jet fuel (or its aromatic solvent components) and noise on the CANS in human populations. We reviewed articles examining electrophysiological and behavioral measurement of the CANS following combined exposures to jet fuel (or its aromatic constituents) and noise. A total of 6 articles met the inclusion criteria for the review and their results are summarized. The articles considered in this review indicate that assessment of the CANS should be undertaken as part of a comprehensive test battery for military members exposed to both noise and solvents in the workplace. Reprint & Copyright © 2015 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  3. Thermal Stability Testing of a Fischer-Tropsch Fuel and Various Blends with Jet A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klettlinger, Jennifer Suder; Surgenor, Angela; Yen, Chia

    2010-01-01

    Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) jet fuel composition differs from petroleum-based, conventional commercial jet fuel because of differences in feedstock and production methodology. Fischer-Tropsch fuel typically has a lower aromatic and sulfur content and consists primarily of iso and normal parafins. The ASTM D3241 specification for Jet Fuel Thermal Oxidation Test (JFTOT) break point testing method was used to test the breakpoint of a baseline conventional Jet A, a commercial grade F-T jet fuel, and various blends of this F-T fuel in Jet A. The testing completed in this report was supported by the NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Subsonics Fixed Wing Project.

  4. Thermal Stability of Jet Fuels: Kinetics of Forming Deposit Precursors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naegeli, David W.

    1997-01-01

    The focus of this study was on the autoxidation kinetics of deposit precursor formation in jet fuels. The objectives were: (1) to demonstrate that laser-induced fluorescence is a viable kinetic tool for measuring rates of deposit precursor formation in jet fuels; (2) to determine global rate expressions for the formation of thermal deposit precursors in jet fuels; and (3) to better understand the chemical mechanism of thermal stability. The fuels were isothermally stressed in small glass ampules in the 120 to 180 C range. Concentrations of deposit precursor, hydroperoxide and oxygen consumption were measured over time in the thermally stressed fuels. Deposit precursors were measured using laser-induced fluorescence (LIF), hydroperoxides using a spectrophotometric technique, and oxygen consumption by the pressure loss in the ampule. The expressions, I.P. = 1.278 x 10(exp -11)exp(28,517.9/RT) and R(sub dp) = 2.382 x 10(exp 17)exp(-34,369.2/RT) for the induction period, I.P. and rate of deposit precursor formation R(sub dp), were determined for Jet A fuel. The results of the study support a new theory of deposit formation in jet fuels, which suggest that acid catalyzed ionic reactions compete with free radical reactions to form deposit precursors. The results indicate that deposit precursors form only when aromatics are present in the fuel. Traces of sulfur reduce the rate of autoxidation but increase the yield of deposit precursor. Free radical chemistry is responsible for hydroperoxide formation and the oxidation of sulfur compounds to sulfonic acids. Phenols are then formed by the acid catalyzed decomposition of benzylic hydroperoxides, and deposit precursors are produced by the reaction of phenols with aldehydes, which forms a polymer similar to Bakelite. Deposit precursors appear to have a phenolic resin-like structure because the LIF spectra of the deposit precursors were similar to that of phenolic resin dissolved in TAM.

  5. Jet fuel toxicity: skin damage measured by 900-MHz MRI skin microscopy and visualization by 3D MR image processing.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Rakesh; Locke, Bruce R

    2010-09-01

    The toxicity of jet fuels was measured using noninvasive magnetic resonance microimaging (MRM) at 900-MHz magnetic field. The hypothesis was that MRM can visualize and measure the epidermis exfoliation and hair follicle size of rat skin tissue due to toxic skin irritation after skin exposure to jet fuels. High-resolution 900-MHz MRM was used to measure the change in size of hair follicle, epidermis thickening and dermis in the skin after jet fuel exposure. A number of imaging techniques utilized included magnetization transfer contrast (MTC), spin-lattice relaxation constant (T1-weighting), combination of T2-weighting with magnetic field inhomogeneity (T2*-weighting), magnetization transfer weighting, diffusion tensor weighting and chemical shift weighting. These techniques were used to obtain 2D slices and 3D multislice-multiecho images with high-contrast resolution and high magnetic resonance signal with better skin details. The segmented color-coded feature spaces after image processing of the epidermis and hair follicle structures were used to compare the toxic exposure to tetradecane, dodecane, hexadecane and JP-8 jet fuels. Jet fuel exposure caused skin damage (erythema) at high temperature in addition to chemical intoxication. Erythema scores of the skin were distinct for jet fuels. The multicontrast enhancement at optimized TE and TR parameters generated high MRM signal of different skin structures. The multiple contrast approach made visible details of skin structures by combining specific information achieved from each of the microimaging techniques. At short echo time, MRM images and digitized histological sections confirmed exfoliated epidermis, dermis thickening and hair follicle atrophy after exposure to jet fuels. MRM data showed correlation with the histopathology data for epidermis thickness (R(2)=0.9052, P<.0002) and hair root area (R(2)=0.88, P<.0002). The toxicity of jet fuels on skin structures was in the order of tetradecane

  6. Spray Characterization of Gas-to-Liquid Synthetic Jet Fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kannaiyan, Kumaran; Sadr, Reza; GTL jet fuel Consortium Team

    2012-11-01

    Gas-to-Liquid (GTL) Synthetic Paraffinic Kerosene (SPK) fuel obtained from Fischer-Tropsch synthesis has grabbed the global attention due to its cleaner combustion characteristics. GTL fuels are expected to meet the vital qualities such as atomization, combustion and emission characteristics of conventional jet fuels. It is imperative to understand fuel atomization in order to gain insights on the combustion and emission aspects of an alternative fuel. In this work spray characteristics of GTL-SPK, which could be used as a drop-in fuel in aircraft gas turbine engines, is studied. This work outlines the spray experimental facility, the methodology used and the results obtained using two SPK's with different chemical compositions. The spray characteristics, such as droplet size and distribution, are presented at three differential pressures across a simplex nozzle and compared with that of the conventional Jet A-1 fuel. Experimental results clearly show that although the chemical composition is significantly different between SPK's, the spray characteristics are not very different. This could be attributed to the minimal difference in fluid properties between the SPK's. Also, the spray characteristics of SPK's show close resemblance to the spray characteristics of Jet A-1 fuel.

  7. Phenol-selective mass spectrometric analysis of jet fuel.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Haoxuan; Janusson, Eric; Luo, Jingwei; Piers, James; Islam, Farhana; McGarvey, G Bryce; Oliver, Allen G; Granot, Ori; McIndoe, J Scott

    2017-08-21

    Bromobenzyl compounds react selectively with phenols via the Williamson ether synthesis. An imidazolium charge-tagged bromobenzyl compound can be used to reveal phenol impurities in jet fuel by analysis via electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. The complex matrix as revealed by Cold EI GC/MS analysis is reduced to a few simple sets of compounds in the charge-tagged ESI mass spectrum, primarily substituted phenols and thiols. Examination of jet fuels treated by different refinery methods reveals the efficacy of these approaches in removing these contaminants.

  8. Production of jet fuel precursor monoterpenoids from engineered Escherichia coli: Production of Jet Fuel Precursor Monoterpenoids

    SciT

    Mendez-Perez, Daniel; Alonso-Gutierrez, Jorge; Hu, Qijun

    Monoterpenes (C 10 isoprenoids) are the main components of essential oils and are possible precursors for many commodity chemicals and high energy density fuels. Monoterpenes are synthesized from geranyl diphosphate (GPP), which is also the precursor for the biosynthesis of farnesyl diphosphate (FPP). FPP biosynthesis diverts the carbon flux from monoterpene production to C 15 products and quinone biosynthesis. In this study, we tested a chromosomal mutation of Escherichia coli's native FPP synthase (IspA) to improve GPP availability for the production of monoterpenes using a heterologous mevalonate pathway. Monoterpene production at high levels required not only optimization of GPP productionmore » but also a basal level of FPP to maintain growth. The optimized strains produced two jet fuel precursor monoterpenoids 1,8-cineole and linalool at the titer of 653 mg/L and 505 mg/L, respectively, in batch cultures with 1% glucose. The engineered strains developed in this work provide useful resources for the production of high-value monoterpenes.« less

  9. Production of jet fuel precursor monoterpenoids from engineered Escherichia coli: Production of Jet Fuel Precursor Monoterpenoids

    DOE PAGES

    Mendez-Perez, Daniel; Alonso-Gutierrez, Jorge; Hu, Qijun; ...

    2017-05-18

    Monoterpenes (C 10 isoprenoids) are the main components of essential oils and are possible precursors for many commodity chemicals and high energy density fuels. Monoterpenes are synthesized from geranyl diphosphate (GPP), which is also the precursor for the biosynthesis of farnesyl diphosphate (FPP). FPP biosynthesis diverts the carbon flux from monoterpene production to C 15 products and quinone biosynthesis. In this study, we tested a chromosomal mutation of Escherichia coli's native FPP synthase (IspA) to improve GPP availability for the production of monoterpenes using a heterologous mevalonate pathway. Monoterpene production at high levels required not only optimization of GPP productionmore » but also a basal level of FPP to maintain growth. The optimized strains produced two jet fuel precursor monoterpenoids 1,8-cineole and linalool at the titer of 653 mg/L and 505 mg/L, respectively, in batch cultures with 1% glucose. The engineered strains developed in this work provide useful resources for the production of high-value monoterpenes.« less

  10. Review of Jet Fuel Life Cycle Assessment Methods and Sustainability Metrics

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2015-12-01

    The primary aim of this study is to help aviation jet fuel purchasers (primarily commercial airlines and the U.S. military) to understand the sustainability implications of their jet fuel purchases and provide guidelines for procuring sustainable fue...

  11. Simplified jet fuel reaction mechanism for lean burn combustion application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Chi-Ming; Kundu, Krishna; Ghorashi, Bahman

    1993-01-01

    Successful modeling of combustion and emissions in gas turbine engine combustors requires an adequate description of the reaction mechanism. Detailed mechanisms contain a large number of chemical species participating simultaneously in many elementary kinetic steps. Current computational fluid dynamic models must include fuel vaporization, fuel-air mixing, chemical reactions, and complicated boundary geometries. A five-step Jet-A fuel mechanism which involves pyrolysis and subsequent oxidation of paraffin and aromatic compounds is presented. This mechanism is verified by comparing with Jet-A fuel ignition delay time experimental data, and species concentrations obtained from flametube experiments. This five-step mechanism appears to be better than the current one- and two-step mechanisms.

  12. Measurement and correlation of jet fuel viscosities at low temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schruben, D. L.

    1985-01-01

    Apparatus and procedures were developed to measure jet fuel viscosity for eight current and future jet fuels at temperatures from ambient to near -60 C by shear viscometry. Viscosity data showed good reproducibility even at temperatures a few degrees below the measured freezing point. The viscosity-temperature relationship could be correlated by two linear segments when plotted as a standard log-log type representation (ASTM D 341). At high temperatures, the viscosity-temperature slope is low. At low temperatures, where wax precipitation is significant, the slope is higher. The breakpoint between temperature regions is the filter flow temperature, a fuel characteristic approximated by the freezing point. A generalization of the representation for the eight experimental fuels provided a predictive correlation for low-temperature viscosity, considered sufficiently accurate for many design or performance calculations.

  13. Military Jet Fuels, 1944-1987

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-11-01

    first high density, synthetic hydrocarbon missile fuel. Developed by the US Navy, RJ-4 was used in the mid-1960s in the ramjet-powered Tales missile...High Density Synthetic Hydrocarbon Type. Grades 7P-9 and JP-10, covers two fuels currently in use in the Air Launched Cruise Missile (ALCM). JP-9...revealed that a significant quantity of copper was in the fuel, carried over from a copper- sweetening process. The copper was chelated by the metal

  14. Development of a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model for inhalation of jet fuels in the rat.

    PubMed

    Martin, Sheppard A; Campbell, Jerry L; Tremblay, Raphael T; Fisher, Jeffrey W

    2012-01-01

    The pharmacokinetic behavior of the majority of jet fuel constituents has not been previously described in the framework of a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for inhalation exposure. Toxic effects have been reported in multiple organ systems, though exposure methods varied across studies, utilizing either vaporized or aerosolized fuels. The purpose of this work was to assess the pharmacokinetics of aerosolized and vaporized fuels, and develop a PBPK model capable of describing both types of exposures. To support model development, n-tetradecane and n-octane exposures were conducted at 89 mg/m(3) aerosol+vapor and 1000-5000 ppm vapor, respectively. Exposures to JP-8 and S-8 were conducted at ~900-1000 mg/m(3), and ~200 mg/m(3) to a 50:50 blend of both fuels. Sub-models were developed to assess the behavior of representative constituents and grouped unquantified constituents, termed "lumps", accounting for the remaining fuel mass. The sub-models were combined into the first PBPK model for petroleum and synthetic jet fuels. Inhalation of hydrocarbon vapors was described with simple gas-exchange assumptions for uptake and exhalation. For aerosol droplets systemic uptake occurred in the thoracic region. Visceral tissues were described using perfusion and diffusion-limited equations. The model described kinetics at multiple fuel concentrations, utilizing a chemical "lumping" strategy to estimate parameters for fractions of speciated and unspeciated hydrocarbons and gauge metabolic interactions. The model more accurately simulated aromatic and lower molecular weight (MW) n-alkanes than some higher MW chemicals. Metabolic interactions were more pronounced at high (~2700-1000 mg/m(3)) concentrations. This research represents the most detailed assessment of fuel pharmacokinetics to date.

  15. Heat transfer correlations for kerosene fuels and mixtures and physical properties for Jet A fuel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ackerman, G. H.; Faith, L. E.

    1972-01-01

    Heat transfer correlations are reported for conventional Jet A fuel for both laminar and turbulent flow in circular tubes. Correlations were developed for cooling in turbine engines, but have broader applications in petroleum and chemical processing, and other industrial applications.

  16. Military jet fuel from shale oil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coppola, E. N.

    1980-01-01

    Investigations leading to a specification for aviation turbine fuel produced from whole crude shale oil are described. Refining methods involving hydrocracking, hydrotreating, and extraction processes are briefly examined and their production capabilities are assessed.

  17. Behaviour of conductivity improvers in jet fuel

    SciT

    Dacre, B.; Hetherington, J.I.

    1995-05-01

    Dangerous accumulation of electrostatic charge can occur due to high speed pumping and microfiltration of fuel. This can be avoided by increasing the electrical conductivity of the fuel using conductivity improver additives. However, marked variations occur in the conductivity response of different fuels when doped to the same level with conductivity improver. This has been attributed to interactions of the conductivity improver with other fuel additives or fuel contaminants. The present work concentrates on the effects of fuel contaminants, in particular polar compounds, on the performance of the conductivity improver. Conductivity is the fuel property of prime interest. The conductivitymore » response of model systems of the conductivity improver STADIS 450 in dodecane has been measured and the effect on this conductivity of additions of model polar contaminants sodium naphthenate, sodium dodecyl benzene sulphonate, and sodium phenate have been measured. The sodium salts have been found to have a complex effect on the performance of STADIS 450, reducing the conductivity at low concentrations to a minimum value and then increasing the conductivity at high concentrations of sodium salts. This work has focused on characterising this minimum in the conductivity values and on understanding the reason for its occurrence. The effects on the minimum conductivity value of the following parameters are investigated: (a) time, (b) STADIS 450 concentration, (c) sodium salt concentration, (d) mixed sodium salts, (e) experimental method, (f) a phenol, (g) individual components of STADIS 450. The complex conductivity response of the STADIS 450 to sodium salt impurities is discussed in terms of possible inter-molecular interactions.« less

  18. Transverse liquid fuel jet breakup, burning, and ignition

    SciT

    Li, Hsi-shang

    1990-01-01

    An analytical/numerical study of the breakup, burning, and ignition of liquid fuels injected transversely into a hot air stream is conducted. The non-reacting liquid jet breakup location is determined by the local sonic point criterion first proposed by Schetz, et al. (1980). Two models, one employing analysis of an elliptical jet cross-section and the other employing a two-dimensional blunt body to represent the transverse jet, have been used for sonic point calculations. An auxiliary criterion based on surface tension stability is used as a separate means of determining the breakup location. For the reacting liquid jet problem, a diffusion flamemore » supported by a one-step chemical reaction within the gaseous boundary layer is solved along the ellipse surface in subsonic crossflow. Typical flame structures and concentration profiles have been calculated for various locations along the jet cross-section as a function of upstream Mach numbers. The integrated reaction rate along the jet cross-section is used to predict ignition position, which is found to be situated near the stagnation point. While a multi-step reaction is needed to represent the ignition process more accurately, the present calculation does yield reasonable predictions concerning ignition along a curved surface.« less

  19. Inhibition of jet fuel aliphatic hydrocarbon induced toxicity in human epidermal keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Inman, A O; Monteiro-Riviere, N A; Riviere, J E

    2008-05-01

    Jet propellant (JP)-8, the primary jet fuel used by the U.S. military, consists of hydrocarbon-rich kerosene base commercial jet fuel (Jet-A) plus additives DC1-4A, Stadis 450 and diethylene glycol monomethyl ether. Human epidermal keratinocytes (HEK) were exposed to JP-8, aliphatic hydrocarbon (HC) fuel S-8 and aliphatic HC pentadecane (penta), tetradecane (tetra), tridecane (tri) and undecane (un) for 5 min. Additional studies were conducted with signal transduction pathway blockers parthenolide (P; 3.0 microm), isohelenin (I; 3.0 microm), SB 203580 (SB; 13.3 microm), substance P (SP; 3.0 microm) and recombinant human IL-10 (rHIL-10; 10 ng ml(-1)). In the absence of inhibitors, JP-8 and to a lesser extent un and S-8, had the greatest toxic effect on cell viability and inflammation suggesting, as least in vitro, that synthetic S-8 fuel is less irritating than the currently used JP-8. Each inhibitor significantly (P < 0.05) decreased HEK viability. DMSO, the vehicle for P, I and SB, had a minimal effect on viability. Overall, IL-8 production was suppressed at least 30% after treatment with each inhibitor. Normalizing data relative to control indicate which inhibitors suppress HC-mediated IL-8 to control levels. P was the most effective inhibitor of IL-8 release; IL-8 was significantly decreased after exposure to un, tri, tetra and penta but significantly increased after JP-8 exposure compared with controls. Inhibitors were not effective in suppressing IL-8 release in JP-8 exposures to control levels. This study shows that inhibiting NF-kappa B, which appears to play a role in cytokine production in HC-exposed HEK in vitro, may reduce the inflammatory effect of HC in vivo. Copyright (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Aerosol spectral optical depths - Jet fuel and forest fire smokes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pueschel, R. F.; Livingston, J. M.

    1990-01-01

    The Ames autotracking airborne sun photometer was used to investigate the spectral depth between 380 and 1020 nm of smokes from a jet fuel pool fire and a forest fire in May and August 1988, respectively. Results show that the forest fire smoke exhibited a stronger wavelength dependence of optical depths than did the jet fuel fire smoke at optical depths less than unity. At optical depths greater than or equal to 1, both smokes showed neutral wavelength dependence, similar to that of an optically thin stratus deck. These results verify findings of earlier investigations and have implications both on the climatic impact of large-scale smokes and on the wavelength-dependent transmission of electromagnetic signals.

  1. The effects of oxygen scavenging on jet fuel thermal stability

    SciT

    Heneghan, S.P.; Williams, T.F.; Whitacre, S.

    1996-10-01

    Preliminary tests with a proposed oxygen scavenger (triphenyl-phosphine, TPP) have been done in closed static and flowing systems to study its effects on the oxidation and the deposit formation of jet fuel. TPP was found to significantly slow the oxidation of hexadecane or jet fuel at some temperatures/concentrations and increase the oxidation rate at other conditions. The additive helped decrease the formation of deposits at higher concentrations (200 mg/l) but not at lower concentrations. No evidence of phosphorous was observed in the deposits that were formed. Gas chomatography combined with mass spectrometry and atomic emission detection showed that TPP producedmore » the expected oxidation product (triphenylphosphineoxide) and an unexpected triphenylphosphine-sulfide. The GC/AED allowed A quantitative analysis of the conversion efficiency of TPP to TPPO upon stressing in a closed system.« less

  2. Measurement of the Diffusion Coefficient of Water in RP-3 and RP-5 Jet Fuels Using Digital Holography Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chaoyue; Feng, Shiyu; Shao, Lei; Pan, Jun; Liu, Weihua

    2018-04-01

    The diffusion coefficient of water in jet fuel was measured employing double-exposure digital holographic interferometry to clarify the diffusion process and make the aircraft fuel system safe. The experimental method and apparatus are introduced in detail, and the digital image processing program is coded in MATLAB according to the theory of the Fourier transform. At temperatures ranging from 278.15 K to 333.15 K in intervals of 5 K, the diffusion coefficient of water in RP-3 and RP-5 jet fuels ranges from 2.6967 × 10 -10 m2·s-1 to 8.7332 × 10 -10 m2·s-1 and from 2.3517 × 10 -10 m2·s-1 to 8.0099 × 10-10 m2·s-1, respectively. The relationship between the measured diffusion coefficient and temperature can be well fitted by the Arrhenius law. The diffusion coefficient of water in RP-3 jet fuel is higher than that of water in RP-5 jet fuel at the same temperature. Furthermore, the viscosities of the two jet fuels were measured and found to be expressible in the form of the Arrhenius equation. The relationship among the diffusion coefficient, viscosity and temperature is analyzed according to the classic prediction model, namely the Stokes-Einstein correlation, and this correlation is further revised via experimental data to obtain a more accurate predication result.

  3. Jet fuel based high pressure solid oxide fuel cell system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gummalla, Mallika (Inventor); Yamanis, Jean (Inventor); Olsommer, Benoit (Inventor); Dardas, Zissis (Inventor); Bayt, Robert (Inventor); Srinivasan, Hari (Inventor); Dasgupta, Arindam (Inventor); Hardin, Larry (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A power system for an aircraft includes a solid oxide fuel cell system which generates electric power for the aircraft and an exhaust stream; and a heat exchanger for transferring heat from the exhaust stream of the solid oxide fuel cell to a heat requiring system or component of the aircraft. The heat can be transferred to fuel for the primary engine of the aircraft. Further, the same fuel can be used to power both the primary engine and the SOFC. A heat exchanger is positioned to cool reformate before feeding to the fuel cell. SOFC exhaust is treated and used as inerting gas. Finally, oxidant to the SOFC can be obtained from the aircraft cabin, or exterior, or both.

  4. Jet Fuel Based High Pressure Solid Oxide Fuel Cell System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srinivasan, Hari (Inventor); Hardin, Larry (Inventor); Gummalla, Mallika (Inventor); Yamanis, Jean (Inventor); Olsommer, Benoit (Inventor); Dardas, Zissis (Inventor); Dasgupta, Arindam (Inventor); Bayt, Robert (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A power system for an aircraft includes a solid oxide fuel cell system which generates electric power for the aircraft and an exhaust stream; and a heat exchanger for transferring heat from the exhaust stream of the solid oxide fuel cell to a heat requiring system or component of the aircraft. The heat can be transferred to fuel for the primary engine of the aircraft. Further, the same fuel can be used to power both the primary engine and the SOFC. A heat exchanger is positioned to cool reformate before feeding to the fuel cell. SOFC exhaust is treated and used as inerting gas. Finally, oxidant to the SOFC can be obtained from the aircraft cabin, or exterior, or both.

  5. Past, Present and Emerging Toxicity Issues for Jet Fuel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    Statistically significant dominant lethal effects were not observed for either mice or rats (Air Force, 1978). However, because of the small sample...Adams, M.M., 2004. Immunological and hematological effects observed in B6C3F1 mice exposed to JP-8 jet fuel for 14 days. J. Toxicol. Environ. Health A...acute toxicity with the adverse effects being slight dermal irritation and weak dermal sensitization in animals. JP-4 also has low acute toxicity with

  6. Identification of microorganisms isolated from jet fuel systems.

    PubMed

    Edmonds, P; Cooney, J J

    1967-03-01

    Seventy-two samples from jet aircraft fuel systems were examined for microbial contamination. Ten contaminated samples yielded 43 microorganisms which were classified into nine genera of bacteria and three genera of fungi. The predominant types, comprising about 37% of the isolated cultures, were identified as Bacillus spp. The remaining cultures were distributed among 11 genera, each of which represented 2 to 9% of the total isolates. Four cultures could not be assigned to a genus on the basis of the diagnostic criteria used. Only five isolates, in the genera Pseudomonas and Hormodendrum (Cladosporium), grew abundantly in a mineral salts solution with JP-4 fuel as the sole source of carbon. The presence of fuel utilizers in a fuel system may be a better index to potential problems that have been correlated with microbial contamination than the presence of aerobic sporeforming bacilli.

  7. Mixing enhancement in a scramjet combustor using fuel jet injection swirl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flesberg, Sonja M.

    The scramjet engine has proven to be a viable means of powering a hypersonic vehicle, especially after successful flights of the X-51 WaveRider and various Hy-SHOT test vehicles. The major challenge associated with operating a scramjet engine is the short residence time of the fuel and oxidizer in the combustor. The fuel and oxidizer have only milliseconds to mix, ignite and combust in the combustion chamber. Combustion cannot occur until the fuel and oxidizer are mixed on a molecular level. Therefore the improvement of mixing is of utmost interest since this can increase combustion efficiency. This study investigated mixing enhancement of fuel and oxidizer within the combustion chamber of a scramjet by introducing swirl to the fuel jet. The investigation was accomplished with numerical simulations using STAR-CCM+ computational fluid dynamic software. The geometry of the University of Virginia Supersonic Combustion Facility was used to model the isolator, combustor and nozzle of a scramjet engine for simulation purposes. Experimental data from previous research at the facility was used to verify the simulation model before investigating the effect of fuel jet swirl on mixing. The model used coaxial fuel jet with a swirling annular jet. Single coaxial fuel jet and dual coaxial fuel jet configurations were simulated for the investigation. The coaxial fuel jets were modelled with a swirling annular jet and non-swirling core jet. Numerical analysis showed that fuel jet swirl not only increased mixing and entrainment of the fuel with the oxidizer but the mixing occurred further upstream than without fuel jet swirl. The burning efficiency was calculated for the all the configurations. An increase in burning efficiency indicated an increase in the mixing of H2 with O2. In the case of the single fuel jet models, the maximum burning efficiency increase due to fuel injection jet swirl was 23.3%. The research also investigated the possibility that interaction between two

  8. Epithelioid sarcoma of the thumb associated with hydrazine fuel exposure: a case report.

    PubMed

    Helmers, Scott; Ruland, Robert T; Jacob, Lionel N

    2004-01-01

    Hydrazine fuels are commonly used propellants for missiles and tactical jet aircraft used by the U.S. Air Force and the National Aeronautical and Space Administration. Hydrazine fuels are known to cause cancer after respiratory exposure or ingestion in laboratory animals and humans. Although hydrazine is known to cause skin irritation, there are no published reports describing cancer developing after cutaneous exposure to hydrazine in humans. Hydrazine is known to cause cancer in animals after skin exposure and is used to induce angiosarcomas in mice after cutaneous exposure. We present a case of an epithelioid sarcoma developing in the thumb of a patient after repeated exposure to hydrazine fuel. We hypothesize that the epithelioid sarcoma is a consequence of cutaneous exposure to hydrazine fuel. Continued efforts to develop less toxic alternative fuels and increased personal protection from occupational exposure are highly recommended.

  9. Jet flames of a refuse derived fuel

    SciT

    Weber, Roman; Kupka, Tomasz; Zajac, Krzysztof

    This paper is concerned with combustion of a refuse derived fuel in a small-scale flame. The objective is to provide a direct comparison of the RDF flame properties with properties of pulverized coal flames fired under similar boundary conditions. Measurements of temperature, gas composition (O{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, CO, NO) and burnout have demonstrated fundamental differences between the coal flames and the RDF flames. The pulverized coals ignite in the close vicinity of the burner and most of the combustion is completed within the first 300 ms. Despite the high volatile content of the RDF, its combustion extends far intomore » the furnace and after 1.8 s residence time only a 94% burnout has been achieved. This effect has been attributed not only to the larger particle size of fluffy RDF particles but also to differences in RDF volatiles if compared to coal volatiles. Substantial amounts of oily tars have been observed in the RDF flames even though the flame temperatures exceeded 1300 C. The presence of these tars has enhanced the slagging propensity of RDF flames and rapidly growing deposits of high carbon content have been observed. (author)« less

  10. Assessment of potential asbestos exposures from jet engine overhaul work.

    PubMed

    Mlynarek, S P; Van Orden, D R

    2012-06-01

    Asbestos fibers have been used in a wide variety of products and numerous studies have shown that exposures from the use or manipulation of these products can vary widely. Jet engines contained various components (gaskets, clamps, o-rings and insulation) that contained asbestos that potentially could release airborne fibers during routine maintenance or during an engine overhaul. To evaluate the potential exposures to aircraft mechanics, a Pratt & Whitney JT3D jet engine was obtained and overhauled by experienced mechanics using tools and work practices similar to those used since the time this engine was manufactured. This study has demonstrated that the disturbance of asbestos-containing gaskets, o-rings, and other types of asbestos-containing components, while performing overhaul work to a jet engine produces very few airborne fibers, and that virtually none of these aerosolized fibers is asbestos. The overhaul work was observed to be dirty and oily. The exposures to the mechanics and bystanders were several orders of magnitude below OSHA exposure regulations, both current and historic. The data presented underscore the lack of risk to the health of persons conducting this work and to other persons in proximity to it from airborne asbestos. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Analytic tests and their relation to jet fuel thermal stability

    SciT

    Heneghan, S.P.; Kauffman, R.E.

    1995-05-01

    The evaluation of jet fuel thermal stability (TS) by simple analytic procedures has long been a goal of fuels chemists. The reason is obvious: if the analytic chemist can determine which types of material cause his test to respond, the refiners will know which materials to remove to improve stability. Complicating this quest is the lack of an acceptable quantitative TS test with which to compare any analytic procedures. To circumvent this problem, we recently compiled the results of TS tests for 12 fuels using six separate test procedures. The results covering a range of flow and temperature conditions showmore » that TS is not as dependent on test conditions as previously thought. Also, comparing the results from these tests with several analytic procedures shows that either a measure of the number of phenols or the total sulfur present in jet fuels is strongly indicative of the TS. The phenols have been measured using a cyclic voltammetry technique and the polar material by gas chromatography (atomic emission detection) following a solid phase extraction on silica gel. The polar material has been identified as mainly phenols (by mass spectrometry identification). Measures of the total acid number or peroxide concentration have little correlation with TS.« less

  12. Loop system for creating jet fuel vapor standards used in the calibration of infrared spectrophotometers and gas chromatographs.

    PubMed

    Reboulet, James; Cunningham, Robert; Gunasekar, Palur G; Chapman, Gail D; Stevens, Sean C

    2009-02-01

    A whole body inhalation study of mixed jet fuel vapor and its aerosol necessitated the development of a method for preparing vapor only standards from the neat fuel. Jet fuel is a complex mixture of components which partitions between aerosol and vapor when aspirated based on relative volatility of the individual compounds. A method was desired which could separate the vapor portion from the aerosol component to prepare standards for the calibration of infrared spectrophotometers and a head space gas chromatography system. A re-circulating loop system was developed which provided vapor only standards whose composition matched those seen in an exposure system. Comparisons of nominal concentrations in the exposure system to those determined by infrared spectrophotometry were in 92-95% agreement. Comparison of jet fuel vapor concentrations determined by infrared spectrophotometry compared to head space gas chromatography yielded a 93% overall agreement in trial runs. These levels of agreement show the loop system to be a viable method for creating jet fuel vapor standards for calibrating instruments.

  13. Jet Fuel Exacerbated Noise-Induced Hearing Loss: Focus on Prediction of Central Auditory Processing Dysfunction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-09-01

    to develop a multi-scale model, together with relevant supporting experimental data, to describe jet fuel exacerbated noise induced hearing loss. In...scale model, together with relevant supporting experimental data, to describe jet fuel exacerbated noise-induced hearing loss. Such hearing loss...project was to develop a multi-scale model, together with relevant supporting experimental data, to describe jet fuel exacerbated NIHL. Herein we

  14. Platelet activating factor receptor binding plays a critical role in jet fuel-induced immune suppression.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Gerardo; Kazimi, Nasser; Nghiem, Dat X; Walterscheid, Jeffrey P; Ullrich, Stephen E

    2004-03-15

    Applying military jet fuel (JP-8) or commercial jet fuel (Jet-A) to the skin of mice suppresses the immune response in a dose-dependent manner. The release of biological response modifiers, particularly prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), is a critical step in activating immune suppression. Previous studies have shown that injecting selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors into jet fuel-treated mice blocks immune suppression. Because the inflammatory phospholipid mediator, platelet-activating factor (PAF), up-regulates cyclooxygenase-2 production and PGE2 synthesis by keratinocytes, we tested the hypothesis that PAF-receptor binding plays a role in jet fuel-induced immune suppression. Treating keratinocyte cultures with PAF and/or jet fuel (JP-8 and Jet-A) stimulates PGE2 secretion. Jet fuel-induced PGE2 production was suppressed by treating the keratinocytes with specific PAF-receptor antagonists. Injecting mice with PAF, or treating the skin of the mice with JP-8, or Jet-A, induced immune suppression. Jet fuel-induced immune suppression was blocked when the jet fuel-treated mice were injected with PAF-receptor antagonists before treatment. Jet fuel treatment has been reported to activate oxidative stress and treating the mice with anti-oxidants (Vitamins C, or E or beta-hydroxy toluene), before jet fuel application, interfered with immune suppression. These findings confirm previous studies showing that PAF-receptor binding can modulate immune function. Furthermore, they suggest that PAF-receptor binding may be an early event in the induction of immune suppression by immunotoxic environmental agents that target the skin.

  15. Computer analysis of effects of altering jet fuel properties on refinery costs and yields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breton, T.; Dunbar, D.

    1984-01-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the adequacy of future U.S. jet fuel supplies, the potential for large increases in the cost of jet fuel, and to what extent a relaxation in jet fuel properties would remedy these potential problems. The results of the study indicate that refiners should be able to meet jet fuel output requirements in all regions of the country within the current Jet A specifications during the 1990-2010 period. The results also indicate that it will be more difficult to meet Jet A specifications on the West Coast, because the feedstock quality is worse and the required jet fuel yield (jet fuel/crude refined) is higher than in the East. The results show that jet fuel production costs could be reduced by relaxing fuel properties. Potential cost savings in the East (PADDs I-IV) through property relaxation were found to be about 1.3 cents/liter (5 cents/gallon) in January 1, 1981 dollars between 1990 and 2010. However, the savings from property relaxation were all obtained within the range of current Jet A specifications, so there is no financial incentive to relax Jet A fuel specifications in the East. In the West (PADD V) the potential cost savings from lowering fuel quality were considerably greater than in the East. Cost savings from 2.7 to 3.7 cents/liter (10-14 cents/gallon) were found. In contrast to the East, on the West Coast a significant part of the savings was obtained through relaxation of the current Jet A fuel specifications.

  16. Physical and chemical behavior of flowing endothermic jet fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, Thomas Arthur

    Hydrocarbon fuels have been used as cooling media for aircraft jet engines for decades. However, modern aircraft engines are reaching a practical heat transfer limit beyond which the convective heat transfer provided by fuels is no longer adequate. One solution is to use an endothermic fuel that absorbs heat through a series of pyrolytic chemical reactions. However, many of the physical and chemical processes involved in endothermic fuel degradation are not well understood. The purpose of this dissertation is to study different characteristics of endothermic fuels using experiments and computational models. In the first section, data from three flow experiments using heated Jet-A fuel and additives were analyzed (with the aid of CFD calculations) to study the effects of treated surfaces on surface deposition. Surface deposition is the primary impediment in creating an operational endothermic fuel heat exchanger system, because deposits can obstruct fuel pathways causing a catastrophic system failure. As heated fuel flows through a fuel system, trace species within the fuel react with dissolved O2 to form surface deposits. At relatively higher fuel temperatures, the dissolved O2 is depleted, and pyrolytic chemistry becomes dominant (at temperatures greater than ˜500 °C). In the first experiment, the dissolved O2 consumption of heated fuel was measured on different surface types over a range of temperatures. It is found that use of treated tubes significantly delays oxidation of the fuel. In the second experiment, the treated length of tubing was progressively increased, which varied the characteristics of the thermal-oxidative deposits formed. In the third experiment, pyrolytic surface deposition in either fully treated or untreated tubes is studied. It is found that the treated surface significantly reduced the formation of surface deposits for both thermal oxidative and pyrolytic degradation mechanisms. Moreover, it is found that the chemical reactions resulting

  17. Minimum-fuel, 3-dimensional flightpath guidance of transfer jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neuman, F.; Kreindler, E.

    1984-01-01

    Minimum fuel, three dimensional flightpaths for commercial jet aircraft are discussed. The theoretical development is divided into two sections. In both sections, the necessary conditions of optimal control, including singular arcs and state constraints, are used. One section treats the initial and final portions (below 10,000 ft) of long optimal flightpaths. Here all possible paths can be derived by generating fields of extremals. Another section treats the complete intermediate length, three dimensional terminal area flightpaths. Here only representative sample flightpaths can be computed. Sufficient detail is provided to give the student of optimal control a complex example of a useful application of optimal control theory.

  18. Jet-A fuel evaporation analysis in conical tube injectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lai, M.-C.; Chue, T.-H.; Zhu, G.; Sun, H.; Tacina, R.; Chun, K.; Hicks, Y.

    1991-01-01

    A simple one-dimensional drop-life-history analysis and a multidimensional spray calculation using KIVA-II code are applied to the vaporization of Jet-A fuel in multiple tube injectors. Within the assumptions of the analysis, the one-dimensional results are useful for design purposes. The pressure-atomizer breakup models do not accurately predict the dropsize measured experimentally or deduced from the one-dimensional analysis. Cold flow visualization and dropsize measurements show that capillary wave breakup mechanism plays an important role in the spray angle and droplet impingement on the tube wall.

  19. Low-Cost Jet Fuel Starter Design Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-12-02

    2G 27 3^ 38 & 39 60 vi WflU I LIST OF TABLES (continued) TABLE NO, 7 D-l I>-2 TITLE PAGE NO, Sea Level Design Point Component...Improvements 60 Turbojet Performance Summary D-3 Turbofan Performance Summary D-5 vii 1 SECTION INTRODUCTION The purpose of this study was to define...temperature difference between the top and bot- tom of the starter, does not begin to have an effect until after 60 seconds from shutdown. The Jet fuel

  20. Coal liquefaction process wherein jet fuel, diesel fuel and/or ASTM No. 2 fuel oil is recovered

    DOEpatents

    Bauman, Richard F.; Ryan, Daniel F.

    1982-01-01

    An improved process for the liquefaction of coal and similar solid carbonaceous materials wherein a hydrogen donor solvent or diluent derived from the solid carbonaceous material is used to form a slurry of the solid carbonaceous material and wherein the naphthenic components from the solvent or diluent fraction are separated and used as jet fuel components. The extraction increases the relative concentration of hydroaromatic (hydrogen donor) components and as a result reduces the gas yield during liquefaction and decreases hydrogen consumption during said liquefaction. The hydrogenation severity can be controlled to increase the yield of naphthenic components and hence the yield of jet fuel and in a preferred embodiment jet fuel yield is maximized while at the same time maintaining solvent balance.

  1. Thermal Stability Testing of Fischer-Tropsch Fuel and Various Blends with Jet A, as Well as Aromatic Blend Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klettlinger, J.; Rich, R.; Yen, C.; Surgenor, A.

    2011-01-01

    Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) jet fuel composition differs from petroleum-based, conventional commercial jet fuel because of differences in feedstock and production methodology. Fischer-Tropsch fuel typically has a lower aromatic and sulfur content and consists primarily of iso and normal parafins. The ASTM D3241 specification for Jet Fuel Thermal Oxidation Test (JFTOT) break point testing method was used to test the breakpoint of a baseline conventional Jet A, a commercial grade F-T jet fuel, and various blends of this F-T fuel in Jet A. The testing completed in this report was supported by the NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Subsonics Fixed Wing Project.

  2. Novel characterization of the aerosol and gas-phase composition of aerosolized jet fuel.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Raphael T; Martin, Sheppard A; Fisher, Jeffrey W

    2010-04-01

    Few robust methods are available to characterize the composition of aerosolized complex hydrocarbon mixtures. The difficulty in separating the droplets from their surrounding vapors and preserving their content is challenging, more so with fuels, which contain hydrocarbons ranging from very low to very high volatility. Presented here is a novel method that uses commercially available absorbent tubes to measure a series of hydrocarbons in the vapor and droplets from aerosolized jet fuels. Aerosol composition and concentrations were calculated from the differential between measured total (aerosol and gas-phase) and measured gas-phase concentrations. Total samples were collected directly, whereas gas-phase only samples were collected behind a glass fiber filter to remove droplets. All samples were collected for 1 min at 400 ml min(-1) and quantified using thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. This method was validated for the quantification of the vapor and droplet content from 4-h aerosolized jet fuel exposure to JP-8 and S-8 at total concentrations ranging from 200 to 1000 mg/m(3). Paired samples (gas-phase only and total) were collected every approximately 40 min. Calibrations were performed with neat fuel to calculate total concentration and also with a series of authentic standards to calculate specific compound concentrations. Accuracy was good when compared to an online GC-FID (gas chromatography-flame ionization detection) technique. Variability was 15% or less for total concentrations, the sum of all gas-phase compounds, and for most specific compound concentrations in both phases. Although validated for jet fuels, this method can be adapted to other hydrocarbon-based mixtures.

  3. Carbon monoxide exposure from aircraft fueling vehicles.

    PubMed

    McCammon, C S; Halperin, W F; Lemen, R A

    1981-01-01

    Investigators from the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health observed deficiencies in maintenance of fueling trucks at an international airport. The exhaust system is vented under the front bumper, a standard design on fueling trucks which is intended to minimize the proximity of the exhaust system to the jet fuel in the vehicles. Carbon monoxide levels were measured in the cabs of 17 fueling trucks with windows closed, heaters on, and in different positions relative to the wind. One truck had an average CO level of 300 ppm, two exceeded 100 ppm, five others exceeded 50 ppm, while levels in the other nine averaged less than or equal to 500 ppm. Levels of CO depended on the mechanical condition of the vehicle and the vehicle's orientation to the wind. Stringent maintenance is required as the exhaust design is not fail-safe.

  4. Evaluation of genotoxic and oxidative effects in workers exposed to jet propulsion fuel.

    PubMed

    Erdem, Onur; Sayal, Ahmet; Eken, Ayşe; Akay, Cemal; Aydın, Ahmet

    2012-05-01

    Jet fuel is a common occupational exposure risk among military and civilian populations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate genotoxic and oxidative effects in workers occupational exposure to jet propulsion fuel (JP-8). In this study, sister-chromatid exchange (SCE), high frequency of SCE cells (HFCs), and micronuclei (MN) were determined for 43 workers exposed to JP-8 and 38 control subjects. We measured the antioxidant enzyme activities including that of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), and catalase (CAT). The levels of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) were also studied. Urinary 1- and 2-naphthol excretion was used as a biomarker of occupational exposure to JP-8. The results obtained from cytogenetic analysis show a statistically significant increase in frequency of SCE in the exposed workers when compared to controls (P < 0.05). Interestingly, the mean value of the frequency (%o) of MN and HFCs for workers and controls did not show any statistical differences (P > 0.05). Oxidative stress parameters were not statistically different between exposed and control groups except for TBARS levels. Urinary 1-and 2-naphthol levels of exposed workers were found to be significantly higher than those of control subjects. Occupational exposure to JP-8 resulted in no significant genotoxic and oxidative effects, while smoking is the principal confounding factor for the some parameters. To understand the genotoxic and oxidative effects of JP-8 exposure, further studies should be planned to find out whether human populations may be at increased risk for cancer because of the exposures related to occupation and lifestyle.

  5. Atomization and combustion performance of antimisting kerosene and jet fuel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleeter, R.; Parikh, P.; Sarohia, V.

    1983-01-01

    Combustion performance of antimisting kerosene (AMK) containing FM-9 polymer was investigated at various levels of degradation (restoration of AMK for normal use in a gas turbine engine). To establish the relationship of degradation and atomization to performance in an aircraft gas turbine combustor, sprays formed by the nozzle of a JT8-D combustor with Jet A and AMK at 1 atmosphere (atm) (14.1 lb/square in absolute) pressure and 22 C at several degradation levels were analyzed. A new spray characterization technique based on digital image analysis of high resolution, wide field spray images formed under pulsed ruby laser sheet illumination was developed. Combustion tests were performed for these fuels in a JT8-D single can combustor facility to measure combustion efficiency and the lean extinction limit. Correlation of combustion performance under simulated engine operating conditions with nozzle spray Sauter mean diameter (SMD) measured at 1 atm and 22 C were observed. Fuel spray SMD and hence the combustion efficiency are strongly influenced by fuel degradation level. Use of even the most highly degraded AMK tested (filter ratio = 1.2) resulted in an increase in fuel consumption of 0.08% to 0.20% at engine cruise conditions.

  6. Combustor exhaust emissions with air-atomizing splash-groove fuel injectors burning Jet A and Diesel number 2 fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingebo, R. D.; Norgren, C. T.

    1975-01-01

    Air-atomizing, splash-groove injectors were shown to improve primary-zone fuel spreading and reduce combustor exhaust emissions for Jet A and diesel number 2 fuels. With Jet A fuel large-orifice, splash-groove injectors the oxides-of-nitrogen emission index was reduced, but emissions of carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbons, or smoke were unaffected. Small-orifice, splash-groove injectors did not reduce oxides of nitrogen, but reduced the smoke number and carbon monoxide and unburned-hydrocarbon emission indices. With diesel number 2 fuel, the small-orifice, splash-groove injectors reduced oxides of nitrogen by 19 percent, smoke number by 28 percent, carbon monoxide by 75 percent, and unburned hydrocarbons by 50 percent. Smoke number and unburned hydrocarbons were twice as high with diesel number 2 as with Jet A fuel. Combustor blowout limits were similar for diesel number 2 and Jet A fuels.

  7. Metabolites from inhalation of aerosolized S-8 synthetic jet fuel in rats.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Raphael T; Martin, Sheppard A; Fisher, Jeffrey W

    2011-01-01

    Alternative fuels are being considered for civilian and military uses. One of these is S-8, a replacement jet fuel synthesized using the Fischer-Tropsch process, which contains no aromatic compounds and is mainly composed of straight and branched alkanes. Metabolites of S-8 fuel in laboratory animals have not been identified. The goal of this study was to identify metabolic products from exposure to aerosolized S-8 and a designed straight-chain alkane/polyaromatic mixture (decane, undecane, dodecane, tridecane, tetradecane, pentadecane, naphthalene, and 2-methylnaphthalene) in male Fischer 344 rats. Collected blood and tissue samples were analyzed for 70 straight and branched alcohols and ketones ranging from 7 to 15 carbons. No fuel metabolites were observed in the blood, lungs, brain, and fat following S-8 exposure. Metabolites were detected in the liver, urine, and feces. Most of the metabolites were 2- and 3-position alcohols and ketones of prominent hydrocarbons with very few 1- or 4-position metabolites. Following exposure to the alkane mixture, metabolites were observed in the blood, liver, and lungs. Interestingly, heavy metabolites (3-tridecanone, 2-tridecanol, and 2-tetradecanol) were observed only in the lung tissues possibly indicating that metabolism occurred in the lungs. With the exception of these heavy metabolites, the metabolic profiles observed in this study are consistent with previous studies reporting on the metabolism of individual alkanes. Further work is needed to determine the potential metabolic interactions of parent, primary, and secondary metabolites and identify more polar metabolites. Some metabolites may have potential use as biomarkers of exposure to fuels.

  8. [Progress and prospect of bio-jet fuels industry in domestic and overseas].

    PubMed

    Qiao, Kai; Fu, Jie; Zhou, Feng; Ma, Huixia

    2016-10-25

    We reviewed the progress of the bio-jet fuels industry in recent years and systematically analyzed the technical routes that have been approved or in the pipeline for approval by ASTM D7566. In addition, we highlighted a novel pathway to produce drop-in fuel by near-critical hydrolysis of waste cooking oils or algal oils followed by catalytic decarboxylation. Also, we introduced the source of oils and fats feedstock and the domestic bio-jet fuel industry status during the 12th Five-Year-Plan period. Based on our own research, we discussed the prospect of the bio-jet fuel industry and future research needs.

  9. Investigation of charge dissipation in jet fuel in a dielectric fuel tank

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitanin, E. L.; Kravtsov, P. A.; Trofimov, V. A.; Kitanina, E. E.; Bondarenko, D. A.

    2017-09-01

    The electrostatic charge dissipation process in jet fuel in a polypropylene tank was investigated experimentally. Groundable metallic terminals were installed in the tank walls to accelerate the dissipation process. Several sensors and an electrometer with a current measuring range from 10-11 to 10-3 A were specifically designed to study the dissipation rates. It was demonstrated that thanks to the sensors and the electrometer one can obtain reliable measurements of the dissipation rate and look at how it is influenced by the number and locations of the terminals. Conductivity of jet fuel and effective conductivity of the tank walls were investigated in addition. The experimental data agree well with the numerical simulation results obtained using COMSOL software package.

  10. Investigations into the low temperature behavior of jet fuels: Visualization, modeling, and viscosity studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkins, Daniel L.

    Aircraft operation in arctic regions or at high altitudes exposes jet fuel to temperatures below freeze point temperature specifications. Fuel constituents may solidify and remain within tanks or block fuel system components. Military and scientific requirements have been met with costly, low freeze point specialty jet fuels. Commercial airline interest in polar routes and the use of high altitude unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) has spurred interest in the effects of low temperatures and low-temperature additives on jet fuel. The solidification of jet fuel due to freezing is not well understood and limited visualization of fuel freezing existed prior to the research presented in this dissertation. Consequently, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling that simulates jet fuel freezing and model validation were incomplete prior to the present work. The ability to simulate jet fuel freezing is a necessary tool for fuel system designers. An additional impediment to the understanding and simulation of jet fuel freezing has been the absence of published low-temperature thermo-physical properties, including viscosity, which the present work addresses. The dissertation is subdivided into three major segments covering visualization, modeling and validation, and viscosity studies. In the first segment samples of jet fuel, JPTS, kerosene, Jet A and Jet A containing additives, were cooled below their freeze point temperatures in a rectangular, optical cell. Images and temperature data recorded during the solidification process provided information on crystal habit, crystallization behavior, and the influence of the buoyancy-driven flow on freezing. N-alkane composition of the samples was determined. The Jet A sample contained the least n-alkane mass. The cooling of JPTS resulted in the least wax formation while the cooling of kerosene yielded the greatest wax formation. The JPTS and kerosene samples exhibited similar crystallization behavior and crystal habits during

  11. Public health, climate, and economic impacts of desulfurizing jet fuel.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Steven R H; Yim, Steve H L; Gilmore, Christopher K; Murray, Lee T; Kuhn, Stephen R; Tai, Amos P K; Yantosca, Robert M; Byun, Daewon W; Ngan, Fong; Li, Xiangshang; Levy, Jonathan I; Ashok, Akshay; Koo, Jamin; Wong, Hsin Min; Dessens, Olivier; Balasubramanian, Sathya; Fleming, Gregg G; Pearlson, Matthew N; Wollersheim, Christoph; Malina, Robert; Arunachalam, Saravanan; Binkowski, Francis S; Leibensperger, Eric M; Jacob, Daniel J; Hileman, James I; Waitz, Ian A

    2012-04-17

    In jurisdictions including the US and the EU ground transportation and marine fuels have recently been required to contain lower concentrations of sulfur, which has resulted in reduced atmospheric SO(x) emissions. In contrast, the maximum sulfur content of aviation fuel has remained unchanged at 3000 ppm (although sulfur levels average 600 ppm in practice). We assess the costs and benefits of a potential ultra-low sulfur (15 ppm) jet fuel standard ("ULSJ"). We estimate that global implementation of ULSJ will cost US$1-4bn per year and prevent 900-4000 air quality-related premature mortalities per year. Radiative forcing associated with reduction in atmospheric sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium loading is estimated at +3.4 mW/m(2) (equivalent to about 1/10th of the warming due to CO(2) emissions from aviation) and ULSJ increases life cycle CO(2) emissions by approximately 2%. The public health benefits are dominated by the reduction in cruise SO(x) emissions, so a key uncertainty is the atmospheric modeling of vertical transport of pollution from cruise altitudes to the ground. Comparisons of modeled and measured vertical profiles of CO, PAN, O(3), and (7)Be indicate that this uncertainty is low relative to uncertainties regarding the value of statistical life and the toxicity of fine particulate matter.

  12. Conversion of microalgae to jet fuel: process design and simulation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui-Yuan; Bluck, David; Van Wie, Bernard J

    2014-09-01

    Microalgae's aquatic, non-edible, highly genetically modifiable nature and fast growth rate are considered ideal for biomass conversion to liquid fuels providing promise for future shortages in fossil fuels and for reducing greenhouse gas and pollutant emissions from combustion. We demonstrate adaptability of PRO/II software by simulating a microalgae photo-bio-reactor and thermolysis with fixed conversion isothermal reactors adding a heat exchanger for thermolysis. We model a cooling tower and gas floatation with zero-duty flash drums adding solids removal for floatation. Properties data are from PRO/II's thermodynamic data manager. Hydrotreating is analyzed within PRO/II's case study option, made subject to Jet B fuel constraints, and we determine an optimal 6.8% bioleum bypass ratio, 230°C hydrotreater temperature, and 20:1 bottoms to overhead distillation ratio. Process economic feasibility occurs if cheap CO2, H2O and nutrient resources are available, along with solar energy and energy from byproduct combustion, and hydrotreater H2 from product reforming. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Skeletal Mechanism Generation of Surrogate Jet Fuels for Aeropropulsion Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sung, Chih-Jen; Niemeyer, Kyle E.

    2010-05-01

    A novel implementation for the skeletal reduction of large detailed reaction mechanisms using the directed relation graph with error propagation and sensitivity analysis (DRGEPSA) is developed and presented with skeletal reductions of two important hydrocarbon components, n-heptane and n-decane, relevant to surrogate jet fuel development. DRGEPSA integrates two previously developed methods, directed relation graph-aided sensitivity analysis (DRGASA) and directed relation graph with error propagation (DRGEP), by first applying DRGEP to efficiently remove many unimportant species prior to sensitivity analysis to further remove unimportant species, producing an optimally small skeletal mechanism for a given error limit. It is illustrated that the combination of the DRGEP and DRGASA methods allows the DRGEPSA approach to overcome the weaknesses of each previous method, specifically that DRGEP cannot identify all unimportant species and that DRGASA shields unimportant species from removal.

  14. Topical absorption and toxicity studies of jet fuel hydrocarbons in skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhammad, Faqir

    Kerosene-based fuels have been used for many decades. Over 2 million military and civilian personnel each year are occupationally exposed to various jet fuel mixtures. Dermatitis is one of the major health concerns associated with these exposures. In the past, separate absorption and toxicity studies have been conducted to find the etiology of such skin disorders. There was a need for integrated absorption and toxicity studies to define the causative constituents of jet fuel responsible for skin irritation. The focus of this thesis was to study the percutaneous absorption and to identify the hydrocarbons (HC) causing irritation in jet fuels so that preventive measures could be taken in the future. The initial study was conducted to understand the possible mechanism for additive interactions on hydrocarbon absorption/disposition in silastic, porcine skin and isolated perfused porcine skin flap (IPPSF) models. The influence of JP-8 (100) additives (MDA, BHT, 8Q405) on the dermal kinetics of 14C-naphthalene and 14C/3H-dodecane as markers of HC absorption was evaluated. This study indicated that individual and combination of additives influenced marker disposition in different membranes. MDA was a significant suppressor while BHT was a significant enhancer of naphthalene absorption in IPPSF. The 8Q405 significantly reduced naphthalene content in dosed silastic and skin indicating a direct interaction between additive and marker HC. Similarly, the individual MDA and BHT significantly retained naphthalene in the stratum corneum of porcine skin, but the combination of both of these additives statistically decreased the marker retention in the stratum corneum suggesting a potential biological interaction. This study concluded that all components of a chemical mixture should be assessed since the effects of single components administered alone or as pairs may be confounded when all are present in the complete mixture. However, this study indicated that the marker HC

  15. Experimental study on spray characteristics of alternate jet fuels using Phase Doppler Anemometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kannaiyan, Kumaran; Sadr, Reza

    2013-11-01

    Gas-to-Liquid (GTL) fuels have gained global attention due to their cleaner combustion characteristics. The chemical and physical properties of GTL jet fuels are different from conventional jet fuels owing to the difference in their production methodology. It is important to study the spray characteristics of GTL jet fuels as the change of physical properties can affect atomization, mixing, evaporation and combustion process, ultimately affecting emission process. In this work, spray characteristics of two GTL synthetic jet fuels are studied using a pressure-swirl nozzle at different injection pressures and atmospheric ambient condition. Phase Doppler Anemometry (PDA) measurements of droplet size and velocity are compared with those of regular Jet A-1 fuel at several axial and radial locations downstream of the nozzle exit. Experimental results show that although the GTL fuels have different physical properties such as viscosity, density, and surface tension, among each other the resultant change in the spray characteristics is insignificant. Furthermore, the presented results show that GTL fuel spray characteristics exhibit close similarity to those of Jet A-1 fuel. Funded by Qatar Science and Technology Park.

  16. Microbial alkane production for jet fuel industry: motivation, state of the art and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Díaz, Lorena; Caballero, Antonio; Pérez-Hernández, Natalia; Segura, Ana

    2017-01-01

    Bio-jet fuel has attracted a lot of interest in recent years and has become a focus for aircraft and engine manufacturers, oil companies, governments and researchers. Given the global concern about environmental issues and the instability of oil market, bio-jet fuel has been identified as a promising way to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions from the aviation industry, while also promoting energy security. Although a number of bio-jet fuel sources have been approved for manufacture, their commercialization and entry into the market is still a far way away. In this review, we provide an overview of the drivers for intensified research into bio-jet fuel technologies, the type of chemical compounds found in bio-jet fuel preparations and the current state of related pre-commercial technologies. The biosynthesis of hydrocarbons is one of the most promising approaches for bio-jet fuel production, and thus we provide a detailed analysis of recent advances in the microbial biosynthesis of hydrocarbons (with a focus on alkanes). Finally, we explore the latest developments and their implications for the future of research into bio-jet fuel technologies. © 2016 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  17. Effects of Jet Fuel Spills on the Microbial Community of Soil †

    PubMed Central

    Song, Hong-Gyu; Bartha, Richard

    1990-01-01

    Hydrocarbon residues, microbial numbers, and microbial activity were measured and correlated in loam soil contaminated by jet fuel spills resulting in 50 and 135 mg of hydrocarbon g of soil−1. Contaminated soil was incubated at 27°C either as well-aerated surface soil or as poorly aerated subsurface soil. In the former case, the effects of bioremediation treatment on residues, microbial numbers, and microbial activity were also assessed. Hydrocarbon residues were measured by quantitative gas chromatography. Enumerations included direct counts of metabolically active bacteria, measurement of mycelial length, plate counts of aerobic heterotrophs, and most probable numbers of hydrocarbon degraders. Activity was assessed by fluorescein diacetate (FDA) hydrolysis. Jet fuel disappeared much more rapidly from surface soil than it did from subsurface soil. In surface soil, microbial numbers and mycelial length were increased by 2 to 2.5 orders of magnitude as a result of jet fuel contamination alone and by 3 to 4 orders of magnitude as a result of the combination of jet fuel contamination and bioremediation. FDA hydrolysis was stimulated by jet fuel and bioremediation, but was inhibited by jet fuel alone. The latter was traced to an inhibition of the FDA assay by jet fuel biodegradation products. In subsurface soil, oxygen limitation strongly attenuated microbial responses to jet fuel. An increase in the most probable numbers of hydrocarbon degraders was accompanied by a decline in other aerobic heterotrophs, so that total plate counts changed little. The correlations between hydrocarbon residues, microbial numbers, and microbial activity help in elucidating microbial contributions to jet fuel elimination from soil. PMID:16348138

  18. Production of jet fuel precursor monoterpenoids from engineered Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Mendez-Perez, Daniel; Alonso-Gutierrez, Jorge; Hu, Qijun; Molinas, Margaux; Baidoo, Edward E K; Wang, George; Chan, Leanne J G; Adams, Paul D; Petzold, Christopher J; Keasling, Jay D; Lee, Taek S

    2017-08-01

    Monoterpenes (C 10 isoprenoids) are the main components of essential oils and are possible precursors for many commodity chemicals and high energy density fuels. Monoterpenes are synthesized from geranyl diphosphate (GPP), which is also the precursor for the biosynthesis of farnesyl diphosphate (FPP). FPP biosynthesis diverts the carbon flux from monoterpene production to C 15 products and quinone biosynthesis. In this study, we tested a chromosomal mutation of Escherichia coli's native FPP synthase (IspA) to improve GPP availability for the production of monoterpenes using a heterologous mevalonate pathway. Monoterpene production at high levels required not only optimization of GPP production but also a basal level of FPP to maintain growth. The optimized strains produced two jet fuel precursor monoterpenoids 1,8-cineole and linalool at the titer of 653 mg/L and 505 mg/L, respectively, in batch cultures with 1% glucose. The engineered strains developed in this work provide useful resources for the production of high-value monoterpenes. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 1703-1712. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Effects of JP-8 Jet Fuel on Homeostasis of Clone 9 Rat Liver Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, C. L.; Barhoumi, R.; Burghardt, R.; Miladi, A.; Jung, A.

    2000-01-01

    Chronic exposure to JP-8 and other kerosene-based petroleum distillates has been associated with hepatic, renal, neurologic, pulmonary, and immune toxicity. However, the effects of kerosene-type jet fuels on cellular homeostasis hitherto have not been reported. Fluorescence imaging using a Meridian Ultima laser scanning fluorescence microscope was used to evaluate the effect of JP-8 jet fuel on a communication competent rat liver cell line. Several endpoints of cellular function were measured including gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC), mitochondrial and plasma membrane potential (MMP and PMP, respectively), intracellular glutathione (GSH) concentration, glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Cells were treated with JP-8 (0.01 to 2% in ethanol (EtOH)) for the following time points: 1 h, 24 h, 48 h, and analysis immediately after addition of jet fuel. GJIC analyzed directly after addition of 1% JP-8 was reduced 4.9-fold relative to EtOH-dosed control groups and further reduction (12.6-fold) was observed in cells treated for 1 h. Moreover, GJIC was not recoverable in cells treated with 1% JP-8 for 1 h and subsequently washed and incubated in fresh medium for 1 h. Significant changes in GSH content and GST activity were observed in cells analyzed directly after addition of 1% JP-8. GSH content increased in cells treated for 1 h with less than 2% JP-8 whereas treatment with 2% JP-8 for 1 h resulted in a 50% reduction in intracellular GSH relative to EtOH-dosed controls. Cells treated with 1% JP-8 for 48 h exhibited changes in GSH levels. However, higher JP-8 concentrations exhibited more pronounced changes in GSH and GST, which led to suppression of GSH synthesis. ROS increased in a dose-responsive fashion at JP-8 concentrations up to 1%, but decreased to 80% of control values at 2% and 3% JP-8. A 25% reduction in PMP was observed in cells treated for 1 h with 1% JP-8. In contrast, cells treated for 48 h

  20. Tumorigenic Evaluation of Jet Fuels JP-TS and JP-7.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-04-01

    DTIC AL-TR-1991 0020 3 ELECTE0 AD-A252 012 JUN 2 6 1992• • TUMORIGENIC EVALUATION OF JET FUELS JP-TS AND JP-7 E. R. Kinkead C. L. Gaworski C. D...Evaluation of Jet Fuels JP-TS and JP-7. The research described in this report began in March 1981 and was completed in February 1991 under U.S. Air Force...of jet engines in military and commercial aircraft has led to the development of a number of petroleum distillate fuels with special properties. These

  1. Advanced thermally stable jet fuels: Technical progress report, October 1994--December 1994

    SciT

    Schobert, H.H.; Eser, S.; Song, C.

    There are five tasks within this project on thermally stable coal-based jet fuels. Progress on each of the tasks is described. Task 1, Investigation of the quantitative degradation chemistry of fuels, has 5 subtasks which are described: Literature review on thermal stability of jet fuels; Pyrolytic and catalytic reactions of potential endothermic fuels: cis- and trans-decalin; Use of site specific {sup 13}C-labeling to examine the thermal stressing of 1-phenylhexane: A case study for the determination of reaction kinetics in complex fuel mixtures versus model compound studies; Estimation of critical temperatures of jet fuels; and Surface effects on deposit formation inmore » a flow reactor system. Under Task 2, Investigation of incipient deposition, the subtask reported is Uncertainty analysis on growth and deposition of particles during heating of coal-derived aviation gas turbine fuels; under Task 3, Characterization of solid gums, sediments, and carbonaceous deposits, is subtask, Studies of surface chemistry of PX-21 activated carbon during thermal degradation of jet A-1 fuel and n-dodecane; under Task 4, Coal-based fuel stabilization studies, is subtask, Exploratory screening and development potential of jet fuel thermal stabilizers over 400 C; and under Task 5, Exploratory studies on the direct conversion of coal to high quality jet fuels, are 4 subtasks: Novel approaches to low-severity coal liquefaction and coal/resid co-processing using water and dispersed catalysts; Shape-selective naphthalene hydrogenation for production of thermally stable jet fuels; Design of a batch mode and a continuous mode three-phase reactor system for the liquefaction of coal and upgrading of coal liquids; and Exploratory studies on coal liquids upgrading using mesopores molecular sieve catalysts. 136 refs., 69 figs., 24 tabs.« less

  2. Protection from JP-8 jet fuel induced immunotoxicity by administration of aerosolized substance P.

    PubMed

    Harris, D T; Sakiestewa, D; Robledo, R F; Witten, M

    1997-01-01

    Chronic exposure to jet fuel has been shown to cause human liver dysfunction, emotional dysfunction, abnormal electroencephalograms, shortened attention spans, and decreased sensorimotor speed. The United States Air Force has decided to implement the widespread use of JP-8 jet fuel in its operations, although a thorough understanding of its potential effects upon exposed personnel is unclear. Exposure to potential environment toxicants such as JP-8 may have significant effects on host physiology. Previous studies in mice have shown that short-term, low concentration JP-8 exposure had significant effects on the immune system; e.g., decreased viable immune cell numbers, decreased immune organ weights, and loss on immune function that persisted for extended periods of time (i.e., up to 4 weeks post-exposure). Previous studies have shown that JP-8 induced pulmonary dysfunction was associated with a decrease in levels of the neuropeptide substance P (SP) in lung lavage fluids. It was found that administration of aerosolized SP was able to protect exposed animals from such JP-8 induced pulmonary changes. In the current study, aerosolized SP was analyzed for its effects on JP-i induced immunotoxicity in exposed mice. It was observed that SP administration could protect JP-8 exposed animals from losses of viable immune cell numbers, but not losses in immune organ weights. Further, exposure of animals to SP inhibitors generally increased the immunotoxicity of JP-8 exposure. SP appeared to act on all immune cell populations equally as analyzed by flow cytometry, as no one immune cell population appeared to be preferentially protected by SP. Also, SP administration was capable of protecting JP-8 exposed animals from loss of immune function at all concentrations of JP-8 utilized (250-2500 mg/m3). Significantly, SP only needed to be administered for 15 minutes after JP-8 exposure, and was active at both 1 microM and 1 nM concentrations. Thus, SP administration appears to be a

  3. Hydrocarbon bio-jet fuel from bioconversion of poplar biomass: life cycle assessment.

    PubMed

    Budsberg, Erik; Crawford, Jordan T; Morgan, Hannah; Chin, Wei Shan; Bura, Renata; Gustafson, Rick

    2016-01-01

    Bio-jet fuels compatible with current aviation infrastructure are needed as an alternative to petroleum-based jet fuel to lower greenhouse gas emissions and reduce dependence on fossil fuels. Cradle to grave life cycle analysis is used to investigate the global warming potential and fossil fuel use of converting poplar biomass to drop-in bio-jet fuel via a novel bioconversion platform. Unique to the biorefinery designs in this research is an acetogen fermentation step. Following dilute acid pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis, poplar biomass is fermented to acetic acid and then distilled, hydroprocessed, and oligomerized to jet fuel. Natural gas steam reforming and lignin gasification are proposed to meet hydrogen demands at the biorefineries. Separate well to wake simulations are performed using the hydrogen production processes to obtain life cycle data. Both biorefinery designs are assessed using natural gas and hog fuel to meet excess heat demands. Global warming potential of the natural gas steam reforming and lignin gasification bio-jet fuel scenarios range from CO2 equivalences of 60 to 66 and 32 to 73 g MJ(-1), respectively. Fossil fuel usage of the natural gas steam reforming and lignin gasification bio-jet fuel scenarios range from 0.78 to 0.84 and 0.71 to 1.0 MJ MJ(-1), respectively. Lower values for each impact category result from using hog fuel to meet excess heat/steam demands. Higher values result from using natural gas to meet the excess heat demands. Bio-jet fuels produced from the bioconversion of poplar biomass reduce the global warming potential and fossil fuel use compared with petroleum-based jet fuel. Production of hydrogen is identified as a major source of greenhouse gas emissions and fossil fuel use in both the natural gas steam reforming and lignin gasification bio-jet simulations. Using hog fuel instead of natural gas to meet heat demands can help lower the global warming potential and fossil fuel use at the biorefineries.

  4. The Collection of Ice in Jet A-1 Fuel Pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maloney, Thomas C.

    Ice collection and blockages in fuel systems have been of interest to the aerospace community since their discovery in the late 1950's when a B-52 crashed. A recent growth of interest was provoked by several incidents that occurred within the last few years. This study seeks to understand the underlying principles of ice growth in fuel flow systems. Tests were performed in a recirculated fuel system with a fuel tank that held approximately 115 gallons of Jet A-1 fuel and ice accumulation was observed in two removable test pipes. The setup was in an altitude chamber capable of -60 °F and the experiments involved full scale flow components. Initially, tests were done to better understand the system and variables that effected accumulation. First, initial conditions within the test pipes were varied. Next, pipe geometry, pipe surface properties, initial water content of the fuel and heat transfer from the fuel pipe were varied. As a result of the tests, observations were made about other effects involved in the study. The effects include: the result of sequentially run tests, the effect of the fuel on the freezing temperature of the entrained water, the effect of ice accumulation on pipe welds, and the effect of the test pipe entrance and exit flow conditions on ice accumulation. The results of initial tests were qualitative. Later quantitative tests were done to demonstrate the dependence of temperature, Reynolds number, and heat transfer on ice accumulation. Tests were quantified with a pressure increase across the pipe sections that was normalized by the expected theoretical initial pressure. As a result of these tests the effect of contamination in the fuel was revealed. For ease of reference, the initial tests were called "stage I" and the later tests were called "stage II". The results of stage I showed that accumulation of soft ice was greatest when a layer of hard ice had initially formed on the pipe surface. Stainless steel collected more ice than Teflon

  5. Computational Thermochemistry of Jet Fuels and Rocket Propellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crawford, T. Daniel

    2002-01-01

    The design of new high-energy density molecules as candidates for jet and rocket fuels is an important goal of modern chemical thermodynamics. The NASA Glenn Research Center is home to a database of thermodynamic data for over 2000 compounds related to this goal, in the form of least-squares fits of heat capacities, enthalpies, and entropies as functions of temperature over the range of 300 - 6000 K. The chemical equilibrium with applications (CEA) program written and maintained by researchers at NASA Glenn over the last fifty years, makes use of this database for modeling the performance of potential rocket propellants. During its long history, the NASA Glenn database has been developed based on experimental results and data published in the scientific literature such as the standard JANAF tables. The recent development of efficient computational techniques based on quantum chemical methods provides an alternative source of information for expansion of such databases. For example, it is now possible to model dissociation or combustion reactions of small molecules to high accuracy using techniques such as coupled cluster theory or density functional theory. Unfortunately, the current applicability of reliable computational models is limited to relatively small molecules containing only around a dozen (non-hydrogen) atoms. We propose to extend the applicability of coupled cluster theory- often referred to as the 'gold standard' of quantum chemical methods- to molecules containing 30-50 non-hydrogen atoms. The centerpiece of this work is the concept of local correlation, in which the description of the electron interactions- known as electron correlation effects- are reduced to only their most important localized components. Such an advance has the potential to greatly expand the current reach of computational thermochemistry and thus to have a significant impact on the theoretical study of jet and rocket propellants.

  6. Effect of Fuel Additives on Spray Performance of Alternative Jet Fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kannaiyan, Kumaran; Sadr, Reza

    2015-11-01

    Role of alternative fuels on reducing the combustion pollutants is gaining momentum in both land and air transport. Recent studies have shown that addition of nanoscale metal particles as fuel additives to liquid fuels have a positive effect not only on their combustion performance but also in reducing the pollutant formation. However, most of those studies are still in the early stages of investigation with the addition of nanoparticles at low weight percentages. Such an addition can affect the hydrodynamic and thermo-physical properties of the fuel. In this study, the near nozzle spray performance of gas-to-liquid jet fuel with and without the addition of alumina nanoparticles are investigated at macro- and microscopic levels using optical diagnostic techniques. At macroscopic level, the addition of nanoparticles is seen to enhance the sheet breakup process when compared to that of the base fuel. Furthermore, the microscopic spray characteristics such as droplet size and velocity are also found to be affected. Although the addition of nanoscale metal particles at low weight percentages does not affect the bulk fluid properties, the atomization process is found to be affected in the near nozzle region. Funded by Qatar National Research Fund.

  7. Effect of hydroprocessing severity on characteristics of jet fuel from OSCO 2 and Paraho distillates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prok, G. M.; Flores, F. J.; Seng, G. T.

    1981-01-01

    Jet A boiling range fuels and broad-property research fuels were produced by hydroprocessing shale oil distillates, and their properties were measured to characterize the fuels. The distillates were the fraction of whole shale oil boiling below 343 C from TOSCO 2 and Paraho syncrudes. The TOSCO 2 was hydroprocessed at medium severity, and the Paraho was hydroprocessed at high, medium, and low severities. Fuels meeting Jet A requirements except for the freezing point were produced from the medium severity TOSCO 2 and the high severity Paraho. Target properties of a broad property research fuel were met by the medium severity TOSCO 2 and the high severity Paraho except for the freezing point and a high hydrogen content. Medium and low severity Paraho jet fuels did not meet thermal stability and freezing point requirements.

  8. Conversion of crop seed oils to jet fuel and associated methods

    DOEpatents

    Ginosar, Daniel M.; Petkovic, Lucia M.; Thompson, David N.

    2010-05-18

    Aspects of the invention include methods to produce jet fuel from biological oil sources. The method may be comprised of two steps: hydrocracking and reforming. The process may be self-sufficient in heat and hydrogen.

  9. Environmental cost-benefit analysis of ultra low sulfur jet fuel.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2011-12-01

    Aircraft emissions can reduce air quality, leading to adverse health impacts including : increased risk of premature mortality. A technically viable way to mitigate the health : impacts of aviation is the use of desulfurized jet fuel, as has been don...

  10. Hydrocarbon group type determination in jet fuels by high performance liquid chromatography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antoine, A. C.

    1977-01-01

    Thirty-two jet and diesel fuel samples of varying chemical composition and physical properties were prepared from oil shale and coal syncrudes. Hydrocarbon types in these samples were determined by a fluorescent indicator adsorption analysis, and the results from three laboratories are presented and compared. Two methods of rapid high performance liquid chromatography were used to analyze some of the samples, and these results are also presented and compared. Two samples of petroleum-based Jet A fuel are similarly analyzed.

  11. Emission FTIR analyses of thin microscopic patches of jet fuel residues deposited on heated metal surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauer, J. L.; Vogel, P.

    1986-01-01

    The relationship of fuel stability to fuel composition and the development of mechanisms for deposit formation were investigated. Fuel deposits reduce heat transfer efficiency and increase resistance to fuel flow and are highly detrimental to aircraft performance. Infrared emission Fourier transform spectroscopy was chosen as the primary method of analysis because it was sensitive enough to be used in-situ on tiny patches of monolayers or of only a few molecular layers of deposits which generally proved completely insoluble in any nondestructive solvents. Deposits of four base fuels were compared; dodecane, a dodecane/tetralin blend, commercial Jet A fuel, and a broadened-properties jet fuel particularly rich in polynuclear aromatics. Every fuel in turn was provided with and without small additions of such additives as thiophene, furan, pyrrole, and copper and iron naphthenates.

  12. Flame deformation and entrainment associated with an isothermal transverse fuel jet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, D. W.; Karagozian, A. R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes an analytical model of an incompressible, isothermal reacting jet in crossflow. The model represents the flow in the jet cross-section by a counter rotating vortex pair, a flow structure that has been observed to dominate the jet behavior. The reaction surface surrounding the fuel jet is represented as a composite of strained diffusion flames that are stretched and deformed by the vortex pair flow. The results shed new light on the interaction between the vortex pair circulation and flame structure evolution and their relation to the concept of entrainment.

  13. JP-8+100: The development of high-thermal-stability jet fuel

    SciT

    Heneghan, S.P.; Zabarnick, S.; Ballal, D.R.

    1996-09-01

    Jet fuel requirements have evolved over the years as a balance of the demands placed by advanced aircraft performance (technological need), fuel cost (economic factors), and fuel availability (strategic factors). In a modern aircraft, the jet fuel not only provides the propulsive energy for flight, but also is the primary coolant for aircraft and engine subsystems. To meet the evolving challenge of improving the cooling potential of jet fuel while maintaining the current availability at a minimal price increase, the US Air Force, industry, and academia have teamed to develop an additive package for JP-8 fuels. This paper describes themore » development of an additive package for JP-8, to produce JP-8+100. This new fuel offers a 55 C increase in the bulk maximum temperature (from 325 F to 425 F) and improves the heat sink capability by 50%. Major advances made during the development JP-8 + 100 fuel include the development of several new quantitative fuel analysis tests, a free radical theory of autooxidation, adaptation of new chemistry models to computational fluid dynamics programs, and a nonparametric statistical analysis to evaluate thermal stability. Hundreds of additives were tested for effectiveness, and a package of additives was then formulated for JP-8 fuel. This package has been tested for fuel system materials compatibility and general fuel applicability. To date, the flight testing ha shown an improvement in thermal stability of JP-8 fuel. This improvement has resulted in a significant reduction in fuel-related maintenance costs and a threefold increase in mean time between fuel-related failures. In this manner, a novel high-thermal-stability jet fuel for the 21st century has been successfully developed.« less

  14. Experimental and Modeling Studies of the Combustion Characteristics of Conventional and Alternative Jet Fuels. Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meeks, Ellen; Naik, Chitral V.; Puduppakkam, Karthik V.; Modak, Abhijit; Egolfopoulos, Fokion N.; Tsotsis, Theo; Westbrook, Charles K.

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of this project have been to develop a comprehensive set of fundamental data regarding the combustion behavior of jet fuels and appropriately associated model fuels. Based on the fundamental study results, an auxiliary objective was to identify differentiating characteristics of molecular fuel components that can be used to explain different fuel behavior and that may ultimately be used in the planning and design of optimal fuel-production processes. The fuels studied in this project were Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) fuels and biomass-derived jet fuels that meet certain specifications of currently used jet propulsion applications. Prior to this project, there were no systematic experimental flame data available for such fuels. One of the key goals has been to generate such data, and to use this data in developing and verifying effective kinetic models. The models have then been reduced through automated means to enable multidimensional simulation of the combustion characteristics of such fuels in real combustors. Such reliable kinetic models, validated against fundamental data derived from laminar flames using idealized flow models, are key to the development and design of optimal combustors and fuels. The models provide direct information about the relative contribution of different molecular constituents to the fuel performance and can be used to assess both combustion and emissions characteristics.

  15. Numerical Investigation on Sensitivity of Liquid Jet Breakup to Physical Fuel Properties with Experimental Comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dokyun; Bravo, Luis; Matusik, Katarzyna; Duke, Daniel; Kastengren, Alan; Swantek, Andy; Powell, Christopher; Ham, Frank

    2016-11-01

    One of the major concerns in modern direct injection engines is the sensitivity of engine performance to fuel characteristics. Recent works have shown that even slight differences in fuel properties can cause significant changes in efficiency and emission of an engine. Since the combustion process is very sensitive to the fuel/air mixture formation resulting from disintegration of liquid jet, the precise assessment of fuel sensitivity on liquid jet atomization process is required first to study the impact of different fuels on the combustion. In the present study, the breaking process of a liquid jet from a diesel injector injecting into a quiescent gas chamber is investigated numerically and experimentally for different liquid fuels (n-dodecane, iso-octane, CAT A2 and C3). The unsplit geometric Volume-of-Fluid method is employed to capture the phase interface in Large-eddy simulations and results are compared against the radiography measurement from Argonne National Lab including jet penetration, liquid mass distribution and volume fraction. The breakup characteristics will be shown for different fuels as well as droplet PDF statistics to demonstrate the influences of the physical properties on the primary atomization of liquid jet. Supported by HPCMP FRONTIER award, US DOD, Office of the Army.

  16. Evaluation of Cetane Improver Additive in Alternative Jet Fuel Blends

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-07-01

    diesel engines are sensitive to cetane values of fuel. Some fuels originating from nonpetroleum sources contain low cetane numbers that have trouble...Improver Additive, Diesel Fuel, JP-8, Kerosene, Aviation Fuel, Alternative Fuel 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: a. REPORT ,,b. ABSTRACT r· THIS...performance of a diesel fuel oil obtained by comparing it to reference fuels in a standardized engine test (1). The cetane number has an inverse

  17. Effect of fuel density and heating value on ram-jet airplane range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henneberry, Hugh M

    1952-01-01

    An analytical investigation of the effects of fuel density and heating value on the cruising range of a ram-jet airplane was made. Results indicate that with present-day knowledge of chemical fuels, neither very high nor very low fuel densities have any advantages for long-range flight. Of the fuels investigated, the borohydrides and metallic boron have the greatest range potential. Aluminum and aluminum hydrocarbon slurries were inferior to pure hydrocarbon fuel and boron-hydrocarbon slurries were superior on a range basis. It was concluded that the practical difficulties associated with the use of liquid hydrogen fuel cannot be justified on a range basis.

  18. Jet A fuel recovery using micellar flooding: Design and implementation.

    PubMed

    Kostarelos, Konstantinos; Lenschow, Søren R; Stylianou, Marinos A; de Blanc, Phillip C; Mygind, Mette Marie; Christensen, Anders G

    2016-09-01

    Surfactants offer two mechanisms for recovering NAPLs: 1) to mobilize NAPL by reducing NAPL/water interfacial tension, and; 2) to increase the NAPL's aqueous solubility-called solubilization-as an enhancement to pump & treat. The second approach has been well-studied and applied successfully in several pilot-scale and a few full-scale tests within the last 15years, known as Surfactant Enhanced Aquifer Remediation (SEAR). A useful source of information for this second approach is the "Surfactant-enhanced aquifer remediation (SEAR) design manual" from the U.S. Navy Facilities Engineering Command. Few attempts, however, have been made at recovering NAPLs using the mobilization approach presented in this paper. Now, a full-scale field implementation of the mobilization approach is planned to recover an LNAPL (Jet A fuel) from a surficial sand aquifer located in Denmark using a smaller amount of surfactant solution and fewer PVs of throughput compared with the SEAR approach. The approach will rely on mobilizing the LNAPL so that it is recovered ahead of the surfactant microemulsion, also known as a micellar flood. This paper will review the laboratory work performed as part of the design for a full-scale implementation of a micellar flood. Completed lab work includes screening of surfactants, phase behavior and detailed salinity scans of the most promising formulations, and generating a ternary diagram to be used for the numerical simulations of the field application. The site owners and regulators were able to make crucial decisions such as the anticipated field results based on this work. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Human exposure limits to hypergolic fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, H. D.; James, J. T.; Limero, T. F.

    1992-01-01

    Over the past four decades, many studies have been conducted on the toxicities of the rocket propellants hydrazine (HZ) and monomethylhydrazine (MH). Numerous technical challenges have made it difficult to unambiguously interpret the results of these studies, and there is considerable divergence between results obtained by different investigators on the inhalation concentrations (MAC's) for each toxic effect inducible by exposure to hypergolic fuels in spacecraft atmospheres, NASA undertook a critical review of published and unpublished investigations on the toxicities of these compounds. The current state of the art practices for similar studies. While many questions remain unanswered, MAC's were determined using the best available data for a variety of toxic endpoints for potential continuous exposure durations ranging from 1 hour to 180 days. Spacecraft MAC's (SMAC's) were set for each compound based on the most sensitive toxic endpoint at each exposure duration.

  20. Oilseeds for use in biodiesel and drop-in renewable jet fuel

    Oilseeds, primarily soybean and canola, are currently used as feedstocks for biodiesel production. Oilseeds can also be used to produce drop-in renewable jet fuel and diesel products. While soybean and canola are the most common oilseed crops used for renewable fuel production in the U.S., many othe...

  1. Cost and fuel consumption per nautical mile for two engine jet transports using OPTIM and TRAGEN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiggs, J. F.

    1982-01-01

    The cost and fuel consumption per nautical mile for two engine jet transports are computed using OPTIM and TRAGEN. The savings in fuel and direct operating costs per nautical mile for each of the different types of optimal trajectories over a standard profile are shown.

  2. Opportunities and challenges for developing an oilseed to renewable jet fuel industry

    Military and commercial aviation have expressed interest in using renewable aviation biofuels, with an initial goal of 1 billion gallons of drop-in aviation biofuels by 2018. While these fuels could come from many sources, hydrotreated renewable jet fuel (HRJ) from vegetable oils have been demonstra...

  3. PROTOZOA IN SUBSURFACE SEDIMENTS FROM SITE CONTAMI- NATED WITH AVIATION GASOLINE OR JET FUEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Numbers of protozoa in the subsurface of aviation gasoline and jet fuel spill areas at a Coast Guard base at Traverse City, Mich., were determined. Boreholes were drilled in an uncontaminated location, in contaminated but untreated parts of the fuel plumes, and in the aviation ga...

  4. Market cost of renewable jet fuel adoption in the United States.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2013-03-01

    The US Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has a goal that one billion gallons of renewable jet : fuel is consumed by the US aviation industry each year from 2018. We examine the cost to US airlines : of meeting this goal using renewable fuel produ...

  5. Parametric performance of a turbojet engine combustor using jet A and A diesel fuel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butze, H. F.; Humenik, F. M.

    1979-01-01

    The performance of a single-can JT8D combustor was evaluated with Jet A and a high-aromatic diesel fuel over a parametric range of combustor-inlet conditions. Performance parameters investigated were combustion efficiency, emissions of CO, unburned hydrocarbons, and NOx, as well as liner temperatures and smoke. At all conditions the use of diesel fuel instead of Jet A resulted in increases in smoke numbers and liner temperatures; gaseous emissions, on the other hand, did not differ significantly between the two fuels.

  6. Predicted exhaust emissions from a methanol and jet fueled gas turbine combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adelman, H. G.; Browning, L. H.; Pefley, R. K.

    1975-01-01

    A computer model of a gas turbine combustor has been used to predict the kinetic combustion and pollutant formation processes for methanol and simulated jet fuel. Use of the kinetic reaction mechanisms has also allowed a study of ignition delay and flammability limit of these two fuels. The NOX emissions for methanol were predicted to be from 69 to 92% lower than those for jet fuel at the same equivalence ratio which is in agreement with experimentally observed results. The high heat of vaporization of methanol lowers both the combustor inlet mixture temperatures and the final combustion temperatures. The lower combustion temperatures lead to low NOX emissions while the lower inlet mixture temperatures increase methanol's ignition delay. This increase in ignition delay dictates the lean flammability limit of methanol to be 0.8, while jet fuel is shown to combust at 0.4.

  7. Radiation exposures due to fossil fuel combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, Harold L.

    The current consensus regarding the potential radiation exposures resulting from the combustion of fossil fuels is examined. Sources, releases and potential doses to humans are discussed, both for power plants and waste materials. It is concluded that the radiation exposure to most individuals from any pathway is probably insignificant, i.e. only a tiny fraction of the dose received from natural sources in soil and building materials. Any small dose that may result from power-plant emissions will most likely be from inhalation of the small insoluble ash particles from the more poorly controlled plants burning higher than average activity fuel, rather than from direct or indirect ingestion of food grown on contaminated soil. One potentially significant pathway for exposure to humans that requires further evaluation is the effect on indoor external γ-radiation levels resulting from the use of flyash in building materials. The combustion of natural gas in private dwellings is also discussed, and the radiological consequences are concluded to be generally insignificant, except under certain extraordinary circumstances.

  8. Preliminary assessment of Malaysian micro-algae strains for the production of bio jet fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, J. T.; Mustafa, E. M.; Vello, V.; Lim, P.; Nik Sulaiman, N. M.; Majid, N. Abdul; Phang, S.; Tahir, P. Md.; Liew, K.

    2016-10-01

    Malaysia is the main hub in South-East Asia and has one of the highest air traffic movements in the region. Being rich in biodiversity, Malaysia has long been touted as country rich in biodiversity and therefore, attracts great interests as a place to setup bio-refineries and produce bio-fuels such as biodiesel, bio-petrol, green diesel, and bio-jet fuel Kerosene Jet A-1. Micro-algae is poised to alleviate certain disadvantages seen in first generation and second generation feedstock. In this study, the objective is to seek out potential micro-algae species in Malaysia to determine which are suitable to be used as the feedstock to enable bio-jet fuel production in Malaysia. From 79 samples collected over 30 sites throughout Malaysia, six species were isolated and compared for their biomass productivity and lipid content. Their lipid contents were then used to derived the require amount of micro-algae biomass to yield 1 kg of certifiable jet fuel via the HEFA process, and to meet a scenario where Malaysia implements a 2% alternative (bio-) jet fuel requirement.

  9. Comparison of atomization characteristics of drop-in and conventional jet fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kannaiyan, Kumaran; Sadr, Reza; Micro Scale Thermo-Fluids Lab Team

    2016-11-01

    Surge in energy demand and stringent emission norms have been driving the interest on alternative drop-in fuels in aviation industry. The gas-to-liquid (GTL), synthetic paraffinic kerosene fuel derived from natural gas, has drawn significant attention as drop-in fuel due to its cleaner combustion characteristics when compared to other alternative fuels derived from various feedstocks. The fuel specifications such as chemical and physical properties of drop-in fuels are different from those of the conventional jet fuels, which can affect their atomization characteristics and in turn the combustion performance. The near nozzle liquid sheet dynamics of the drop-in fuel, GTL, is studied at different nozzle operating conditions and compared with that of the conventional Jet A-1 fuel. The statistical analysis of the near nozzle sheet dynamics shows that the drop-in fuel atomization characteristics are comparable to those of the conventional fuel. Furthermore, the microscopic spray characteristics measured using phase Doppler anemometry at downstream locations are slightly different between the fuels. Authors acknowledge the support by National Priorities Research Program (NPRP) of Qatar National Research Fund through the Grant NPRP-7-1449-2-523.

  10. Techno-economic and resource analysis of hydroprocessed renewable jet fuel.

    PubMed

    Tao, Ling; Milbrandt, Anelia; Zhang, Yanan; Wang, Wei-Cheng

    2017-01-01

    Biomass-derived jet fuel is an alternative jet fuel (AJF) showing promise of reducing the dependence on fossil fuel and greenhouse gas emissions. Hydroprocessed esters and fatty acids (HEFA) concept is also known as one of the pathways for producing bio jet fuel. HEFA fuel was approved by the American Society for Testing and Materials in 2011, and can be blended up to 50% with conventional jet fuel. Since then, several HEFA economic and life-cycle assessments have been published in literature. However, there have been limited analyses on feedstock availability, composition, and their impact on hydrocarbon yield (particularly jet blendstock yield) and overall process economics. This study examines over 20 oil feedstocks, their geographic distribution and production levels, oil yield, prices, and chemical composition. The results of our compositional analysis indicate that most oils contain mainly C 16 and C 18 fatty acids except pennycress, yellow grease, and mustard, which contain higher values and thus would require hydrocracking to improve jet fuel production. Coconut oil has a large content of shorter carbon fatty acids, making it a good feedstock candidate for renewable gasoline instead of jet substitutes' production. Techno-economic analysis (TEA) was performed for five selected oil feedstocks-camelina, pennycress, jatropha, castor bean, and yellow grease-using the HEFA process concept. The resource analysis indicates that oil crops currently grown in the United States (namely soybean) have relatively low oil yield when compared to oil crops grown in other parts of the world, such as palm, coconut, and jatropha. Also, non-terrestrial oil sources, such as animal fats and greases, have relatively lower prices than terrestrial oil crops. The minimum jet fuel selling price for these five resources ranges between $3.8 and $11.0 per gallon. The results of our TEA and resource studies indicate the key cost drivers for a biorefinery converting oil to jet hydrocarbons

  11. Techno-economic and resource analysis of hydroprocessed renewable jet fuel

    DOE PAGES

    Tao, Ling; Milbrandt, Anelia; Zhang, Yanan; ...

    2017-11-09

    Biomass-derived jet fuel is an alternative jet fuel (AJF) showing promise of reducing the dependence on fossil fuel and greenhouse gas emissions. Hydroprocessed esters and fatty acids (HEFA) concept is also known as one of the pathways for producing bio jet fuel. HEFA fuel was approved by the American Society for Testing and Materials in 2011, and can be blended up to 50% with conventional jet fuel. Since then, several HEFA economic and life-cycle assessments have been published in literature. However, there have been limited analyses on feedstock availability, composition, and their impact on hydrocarbon yield (particularly jet blendstock yield)more » and overall process economics. Our study examines over 20 oil feedstocks, their geographic distribution and production levels, oil yield, prices, and chemical composition. The results of our compositional analysis, thus, indicate that most oils contain mainly C16 and C18 fatty acids except pennycress, yellow grease, and mustard, which contain higher values and thus would require hydrocracking to improve jet fuel production. Coconut oil has a large content of shorter carbon fatty acids, making it a good feedstock candidate for renewable gasoline instead of jet substitutes' production. Techno-economic analysis (TEA) was performed for five selected oil feedstocks - camelina, pennycress, jatropha, castor bean, and yellow grease - using the HEFA process concept. The resource analysis indicates that oil crops currently grown in the United States (namely soybean) have relatively low oil yield when compared to oil crops grown in other parts of the world, such as palm, coconut, and jatropha. Also, non-terrestrial oil sources, such as animal fats and greases, have relatively lower prices than terrestrial oil crops. The minimum jet fuel selling price for these five resources ranges between $3.8 and $11.0 per gallon. The results of our TEA and resource studies indicate the key cost drivers for a biorefinery converting oil to

  12. Techno-economic and resource analysis of hydroprocessed renewable jet fuel

    SciT

    Tao, Ling; Milbrandt, Anelia; Zhang, Yanan

    Biomass-derived jet fuel is an alternative jet fuel (AJF) showing promise of reducing the dependence on fossil fuel and greenhouse gas emissions. Hydroprocessed esters and fatty acids (HEFA) concept is also known as one of the pathways for producing bio jet fuel. HEFA fuel was approved by the American Society for Testing and Materials in 2011, and can be blended up to 50% with conventional jet fuel. Since then, several HEFA economic and life-cycle assessments have been published in literature. However, there have been limited analyses on feedstock availability, composition, and their impact on hydrocarbon yield (particularly jet blendstock yield)more » and overall process economics. Our study examines over 20 oil feedstocks, their geographic distribution and production levels, oil yield, prices, and chemical composition. The results of our compositional analysis, thus, indicate that most oils contain mainly C16 and C18 fatty acids except pennycress, yellow grease, and mustard, which contain higher values and thus would require hydrocracking to improve jet fuel production. Coconut oil has a large content of shorter carbon fatty acids, making it a good feedstock candidate for renewable gasoline instead of jet substitutes' production. Techno-economic analysis (TEA) was performed for five selected oil feedstocks - camelina, pennycress, jatropha, castor bean, and yellow grease - using the HEFA process concept. The resource analysis indicates that oil crops currently grown in the United States (namely soybean) have relatively low oil yield when compared to oil crops grown in other parts of the world, such as palm, coconut, and jatropha. Also, non-terrestrial oil sources, such as animal fats and greases, have relatively lower prices than terrestrial oil crops. The minimum jet fuel selling price for these five resources ranges between $3.8 and $11.0 per gallon. The results of our TEA and resource studies indicate the key cost drivers for a biorefinery converting oil to

  13. Evaluation of 10 Jet Fuels in the Salmonella-Escherichia coli Mutagenicity Assay

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-07

    4658), Valero 25% Aromatic JP8 (POSF 8457), KiOR Hydrotreated Kerosene/ Bio -Kerosene (POSF 10327), ARA ReadiJet (POSF 10328), Amyris Farnesane (POSF...JP8 (POSF 8457) * KiOR Hydrotreated Kerosene/ Bio -Kerosene (POSF 10327) * ARA ReadiJet (POSF 10328) * Amyris Farnesane (POSF 10329) * Virent HDO-SK...fuel/plate. Due to evidence of toxicity, KiOR Hydrotreated Kerosene/ Bio -Kerosene (POSF 10327) and Virent HDO-SK (POSF 10330) were used at

  14. Development of an Impinging-jet Fuel-injection Valve Nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spanogle, J A; Hemmeter, G H

    1931-01-01

    During an investigation to determine the possibilities and limitations of a two-stroke-cycle engine and ignition, it was necessary to develop a fuel injection valve nozzle to produce a disk-shaped, well dispersed spray. Preliminary tests showed that two smooth jets impinging upon each other at an angle of 74 degrees gave a spray with the desired characteristics. Nozzles were built on this basis and, when used in fuel-injection valves, produced a spray that fulfilled the original requirements. The spray is so well dispersed that it can be carried along with an air stream of comparatively low velocity or entrained with the fuel jet from a round-hole orifice. The characteristics of the spray from an impinging-jet nozzle limits its application to situations where wide dispersion is required by the conditions in the engine cylinder and the combustion chamber.

  15. ERBS fuel addendum: Pollution reduction technology program small jet aircraft engines, phase 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruce, T. W.; Davis, F. G.; Kuhn, T. E.; Mongia, H. C.

    1982-01-01

    A Model TFE731-2 engine with a low emission, variable geometry combustion system was tested to compare the effects of operating the engine on Commercial Jet-A aviation turbine fuel and experimental referee broad specification (ERBS) fuels. Low power emission levels were essentially identical while the high power NOx emission indexes were approximately 15% lower with the EBRS fuel. The exhaust smoke number was approximately 50% higher with ERBS at the takeoff thrust setting; however, both values were still below the EPA limit of 40 for the Model TFE731 engine. Primary zone liner wall temperature ran an average of 25 K higher with ERBS fuel than with Jet-A. The possible adoption of broadened proprties fuels for gas turbine applications is suggested.

  16. Detection of DNA damage in workers exposed to JP-8 jet fuel.

    PubMed

    Krieg, Edward F; Mathias, Patricia I; Toennis, Christine A; Clark, John C; Marlow, Kate L; B'hymer, Clayton; Singh, Narendra P; Gibson, Roger L; Butler, Mary Ann

    2012-09-18

    The genotoxicity of jet propulsion fuel 8 (JP-8) was assessed in the leukocytes of archived blood specimens from U.S. Air Force personnel using the comet assay. No differences in mean comet assay measurements were found between low, moderate, and high exposure groups before or after a 4h work shift. Before the work shift, mean tail DNA and mean tail (Olive) moment increased as the concentration of benzene measured in end-exhaled breath increased, indicating that prior environmental or work-related exposures to benzene produced DNA damage. The number of cells with highly damaged DNA decreased as the pre-shift benzene concentration in breath increased. It is not clear why the decrease is occurring. Mean tail DNA and mean tail (Olive) moment decreased as the concentrations of benzene and naphthalene measured in breath immediately after the work shift increased. These inverse relationships may reflect a slower rate of absorption or a faster rate of expiration of benzene in the lung. The number of cells with highly damaged DNA increased as the concentration of urinary (2-methoxyethoxy)acetic acid (MEAA) increased. This relationship was not seen in urinary MEAA adjusted for creatinine. MEAA is a metabolite of the deicing agent 2-(2-methoxyethoxy)ethanol contained in JP-8. MEAA or a component of JP-8 correlated with MEAA may have a toxic effect on DNA. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Water Footprint and Land Requirement of Solar Thermochemical Jet-Fuel Production.

    PubMed

    Falter, Christoph; Pitz-Paal, Robert

    2017-11-07

    The production of alternative fuels via the solar thermochemical pathway has the potential to provide supply security and to significantly reduce greenhouse gas emissions. H 2 O and CO 2 are converted to liquid hydrocarbon fuels using concentrated solar energy mediated by redox reactions of a metal oxide. Because attractive production locations are in arid regions, the water footprint and the land requirement of this fuel production pathway are analyzed. The water footprint consists of 7.4 liters per liter of jet fuel of direct demand on-site and 42.4 liters per liter of jet fuel of indirect demand, where the dominant contributions are the mining of the rare earth oxide ceria, the manufacturing of the solar concentration infrastructure, and the cleaning of the mirrors. The area-specific productivity is found to be 33 362 liters per hectare per year of jet fuel equivalents, where the land coverage is mainly due to the concentration of solar energy for heat and electricity. The water footprint and the land requirement of the solar thermochemical fuel pathway are larger than the best power-to-liquid pathways but an order of magnitude lower than the best biomass-to-liquid pathways. For the production of solar thermochemical fuels arid regions are best-suited, and for biofuels regions of a moderate and humid climate.

  18. Feasibility of Producing and Using Biomass-Based Diesel and Jet Fuel in the United States

    SciT

    Milbrandt, A.; Kinchin, C.; McCormick, R.

    The study summarizes the best available public data on the production, capacity, cost, market demand, and feedstock availability for the production of biomass-based diesel and jet fuel. It includes an overview of the current conversion processes and current state-of-development for the production of biomass-based jet and diesel fuel, as well as the key companies pursuing this effort. Thediscussion analyzes all this information in the context of meeting the RFS mandate, highlights uncertainties for the future industry development, and key business opportunities.

  19. A new approach for bio-jet fuel generation from palm oil and limonene in the absence of hydrogen.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingjing; Zhao, Chen

    2015-12-18

    The traditional methodology includes a carbon-chain shortening strategy to produce bio-jet fuel from lipids via a two-stage process with hydrogen. Here, we propose a new solution using a carbon-chain filling strategy to convert C10 terpene and lipids to jet fuel ranged hydrocarbons with aromatic hydrocarbon ingredients in the absence of hydrogen.

  20. FIELD-PRODUCED JP-8 STANDARD FOR CALIBRATION OF LOWER EXPLOSIVE LIMIT METERS USED BY JET FUEL TANK MAINTENANCE PERSONNEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thousands of military personnel and tens of thousands of civilian workers perform jet fuel tank entry procedures. Before entering the confined space of a jet fuel tank, OSHA regulations (29CFR1910.146) require the internal atmosphere be tested with a calibrated, direct-reading...

  1. Carbon-13 and proton nuclear magnetic resonance analysis of shale-derived refinery products and jet fuels and of experimental referee broadened-specification jet fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dalling, D. K.; Bailey, B. K.; Pugmire, R. J.

    1984-01-01

    A proton and carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) study was conducted of Ashland shale oil refinery products, experimental referee broadened-specification jet fuels, and of related isoprenoid model compounds. Supercritical fluid chromatography techniques using carbon dioxide were developed on a preparative scale, so that samples could be quantitatively separated into saturates and aromatic fractions for study by NMR. An optimized average parameter treatment was developed, and the NMR results were analyzed in terms of the resulting average parameters; formulation of model mixtures was demonstrated. Application of novel spectroscopic techniques to fuel samples was investigated.

  2. Design of "model-friendly" turbulent non-premixed jet burners for C2+ hydrocarbon fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jiayao; Shaddix, Christopher R.; Schefer, Robert W.

    2011-07-01

    Experimental measurements in laboratory-scale turbulent burners with well-controlled boundary and flow configurations can provide valuable data for validating models of turbulence-chemistry interactions applicable to the design and analysis of practical combustors. This paper reports on the design of two canonical nonpremixed turbulent jet burners for use with undiluted gaseous and liquid hydrocarbon fuels, respectively. Previous burners of this type have only been developed for fuels composed of H2, CO, and/or methane, often with substantial dilution. While both new burners are composed of concentric tubes with annular pilot flames, the liquid-fuel burner has an additional fuel vaporization step and an electrically heated fuel vapor delivery system. The performance of these burners is demonstrated by interrogating four ethylene flames and one flame fueled by a simple JP-8 surrogate. Through visual observation, it is found that the visible flame lengths show good agreement with standard empirical correlations. Rayleigh line imaging demonstrates that the pilot flame provides a spatially homogeneous flow of hot products along the edge of the fuel jet. Planar imaging of OH laser-induced fluorescence reveals a lack of local flame extinction in the high-strain near-burner region for fuel jet Reynolds numbers (Re) less than 20 000, and increasingly common extinction events for higher jet velocities. Planar imaging of soot laser-induced incandescence shows that the soot layers in these flames are relatively thin and are entrained into vortical flow structures in fuel-rich regions inside of the flame sheet.

  3. Liquid phase products and solid deposit formation from thermally stressed model jet fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, W. S.; Bittker, D. A.

    1984-01-01

    The relationship between solid deposit formation and liquid degradation product concentration was studied for the high temperature (400 C) stressing of three hydrocarbon model fuels. A Jet Fuel Thermal Oxidation Tester was used to simulate actual engine fuel system conditions. The effects of fuel type, dissolved oxygen concentration, and hot surface contact time (reaction time) were studied. Effects of reaction time and removal of dissolved oxygen on deposit formation were found to be different for n-dodecane and for 2-ethylnaphthalene. When ten percent tetralin is added to n-dodecane to give a simpler model of an actual jet fuel, the tetralin inhibits both the deposit formation and the degradation of n-dodecane. For 2-ethylnaphthalene primary product analyses indicate a possible self-inhibition at long reaction times of the secondary reactions which form the deposit precursors. The mechanism of the primary breakdown of these fuels is suggested and the primary products which participate in these precursor-forming reactions are identified. Some implications of the results to the thermal degradation of real jet fuels are given.

  4. Long-term health experience of jet engine manufacturing workers: VII: occupational exposures.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Kathleen J; Esmen, Nurtan A; Hancock, Roger P; Lacey, Steven E; Marsh, Gary M; Buchanich, Jeanine M; Youk, Ada O

    2013-06-01

    To reconstruct agent-specific occupational exposures for a cohort of jet engine manufacturing workers for use in an epidemiological mortality study. Potential chemical and physical exposures at eight jet engine manufacturing and overhaul/repair plants were evaluated for the period 1952 to 2001. Eleven agents were selected for detailed examination, and a job-exposure matrix was constructed. Quantitative exposure estimates were generated for metalworking fluids, nickel, cobalt, chromium, solvents, and incomplete combustion aerosol from metalworking fluids. Qualitative exposure estimates were assigned for ionizing radiation, electromagnetic fields, polychlorinated biphenyls, and lead-cadmium. All exposures showed decreasing trends over the study period. The quantitative exposure levels generated in this study were lower than early contemporaneous professional practice recommendations and were similar to or lower than published data from other industries.

  5. An experimental study of the autoignition characteristics of conventional jet fuel/oxidizer mixtures: Jet-A and JP-8

    SciT

    Kumar, Kamal; Sung, Chih-Jen

    2010-04-15

    Ignition delay times of Jet-A/oxidizer and JP-8/oxidizer mixtures are measured using a heated rapid compression machine at compressed charge pressures corresponding to 7, 15, and 30 bar, compressed temperatures ranging from 650 to 1100 K, and equivalence ratios varying from 0.42 to 2.26. When using air as the oxidant, two oxidizer-to-fuel mass ratios of 13 and 19 are investigated. To achieve higher compressed temperatures for fuel lean mixtures (equivalence ratio of {proportional_to}0.42), argon dilution is also used and the corresponding oxidizer-to-fuel mass ratio is 84.9. For the conditions studied, experimental results show two-stage ignition characteristics for both Jet-A and JP-8.more » Variations of both the first-stage and overall ignition delays with compressed temperature, compressed pressure, and equivalence ratio are reported and correlated. It is noted that the negative temperature coefficient phenomenon becomes more prominent at relatively lower pressures. Furthermore, the first-stage-ignition delay is found to be less sensitive to changes in equivalence ratio and primarily dependent on temperature. (author)« less

  6. Infrared spectroscopy for the determination of hydrocarbon types in jet fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buchar, C. S.

    1981-01-01

    The concentration of hydrocarbon types in conventional jet fuels and synfuels can be measured using a computerized infrared spectrophotometer. The computerized spectrophotometer is calibrated using a fuel of known aromatic and olefinic content. Once calibration is completed, other fuels can be rapidly analyzed using an analytical program built into the computer. The concentration of saturates can be calculated as 100 percent minus the sum of the aromatic and olefinic concentrations. The analysis of a number of jet fuels produced an average standard deviation of 1.76 percent for aromatic types and one of 3.99 percent for olefinic types. Other substances such as oils and organic mixtures can be analyzed for their hydrocarbon content.

  7. Life-cycle analysis of camelina biodiesel and jet-fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dangol, Namrata

    Camelina sativa (Camelina) could be a potential feedstock to help meet the goal of 36 billion gallons of biofuel production in the United States by 2022, as set forth by EISA of 2007. This research is focused on assessing the energy balance and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from camelina biodiesel grown and produced in the Pacific Northwest (PNW) region of the USA. Data were collected from a camelina farm in the region and compared to literature values. Energy used in camelina crushing and transesterification were measured at the University of Idaho. Life cycle analysis showed that use of camelina biodiesel reduces GHG emissions by 72% compared to 2005 baseline diesel fuel. Camelina biodiesel at B100 level, however, did not meet the ASTM D6751 specification for oxidative stability without any additives but could be corrected with proper additive. Camelina had a smaller seed size compared to canola and consequently required 23% more energy for crushing. Despite higher energy use for crushing, the net energy ratio for camelina biodiesel was found to be 3.68. From the agronomic standpoint, camelina can be incorporated as a rotational crop into low rainfall areas of the PNW. Wheat areas of PNW with annual rainfall from 19 to 38 cm (7.5--15") and currently incorporating fallow into their rotations were considered as potential areas for camelina. There were 846,500 hectares (2.1 million acres) of land available in the region that could potentially produce 443.0 million L of biodiesel (117.1 million gal) and 1.2 billion kg of meal per year. This meal quantity is about 12.1% of the potential camelina meal that could be used as livestock feed in the PNW. Therefore, it was concluded that the meal has adequate market to be consumed locally as livestock feed. This research also conducted the life cycle analysis of camelina jet fuel produced in the laboratory scale facility. The jet fuel was produced via deoxygenation of the camelina oil in an inert environment, in the

  8. Effect of increased fuel temperature on emissions of oxides of nitrogen from a gas turbine combustor burning ASTM jet-A fuel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marchionna, N. R.

    1974-01-01

    An annular gas turbine combustor was tested with heated ASTM Jet-A fuel to determine the effect of increased fuel temperature on the formation of oxides of nitrogen. Fuel temperature ranged from ambient to 700 K. The NOx emission index increased at a rate of 6 percent per 100 K increase in fuel temperature.

  9. Low-Temperature Additive Performance in Jet A Fuels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-01

    coking issues for the U-2 aircraft while still retaining the required low temperature flow improvement. For the Global Hawk a lower optimum ...employ the additive at the lower concentration (2,000 mg/L), so the failure at 4,000 mg/L should not be a problem . Fuel POSF-3602 shows a JFTOT...combustor, may experience no problems due to the increased fuel viscosity caused by the additive. However, another fuel system that puts less heat into the

  10. Flame ignition studies of conventional and alternative jet fuels and surrogate components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ning

    Practical jet fuels are widely used in air-breathing propulsion, but the chemical mechanisms that control their combustion are not yet understood. Thousands of components are contained in conventional and alternative jet fuels, making thus any effort to model their combustion behavior a daunting task. That has been the motivation behind the development of surrogate fuels that contain typically a small number of neat components, whose physical properties and combustion behavior mimic those of the real jet fuel, and whose kinetics could be modeled with increased degree of confidence. Towards that end, a large number of experimental data are required both for the real fuels and the attendant surrogate components that could be used to develop and validate detailed kinetic models. Those kinetic models could be used then upon reduction to model a combustor and eventually optimize its performance. Among all flame phenomena, ignition is rather sensitive to the oxidative and pyrolytic propensity of the fuel as well as to its diffusivity. The counterflow configuration is ideal in probing both the fuel reactivity and diffusivity aspects of the ignition process and it was used in the present work to determine the ignition temperatures of premixed and non-premixed flames of a variety of fuels relevant to air-breathing propulsion. The experiments were performed at atmospheric pressure, elevated unburned fuel mixture temperatures, and various strain rates that were measured locally. Several recent kinetic models were used in direct numerical simulations of the experiments and the computed results were tested against the experimental data. Furthermore, through sensitivity, reaction path, and structure analyses of the computed flames, insight was provided into the dominant mechanisms that control ignition. It was found that ignition is primarily sensitive to fuel diffusion and secondarily sensitive to chemical kinetics and intermediate species diffusivities under the low fuel

  11. Impact of Alternative Jet Fuels on Engine Exhaust Composition During the 2015 ECLIF Ground-Based Measurements Campaign.

    PubMed

    Schripp, Tobias; Anderson, Bruce; Crosbie, Ewan C; Moore, Richard H; Herrmann, Friederike; Oßwald, Patrick; Wahl, Claus; Kapernaum, Manfred; Köhler, Markus; Le Clercq, Patrick; Rauch, Bastian; Eichler, Philipp; Mikoviny, Tomas; Wisthaler, Armin

    2018-04-17

    The application of fuels from renewable sources ("alternative fuels") in aviation is important for the reduction of anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions, but may also attribute to reduced release of particles from jet engines. The present experiment describes ground-based measurements in the framework of the ECLIF (Emission and Climate Impact of Alternative Fuels) campaign using an Airbus A320 (V2527-A5 engines) burning six fuels of chemically different composition. Two reference Jet A-1 with slightly different chemical parameters were applied and further used in combination with a Fischer-Tropsch synthetic paraffinic kerosene (FT-SPK) to prepare three semi synthetic jet fuels (SSJF) of different aromatic content. In addition, one commercially available fully synthetic jet fuel (FSJF) featured the lowest aromatic content of the fuel selection. Neither the release of nitrogen oxide or carbon monoxide was significantly affected by the different fuel composition. The measured particle emission indices showed a reduction up to 50% (number) and 70% (mass) for two alternative jet fuels (FSJF, SSJF2) at low power settings in comparison to the reference fuels. The reduction is less pronounced at higher operating conditions but the release of particle number and particle mass is still significantly lower for the alternative fuels than for both reference fuels. The observed correlation between emitted particle mass and fuel aromatics is not strict. Here, the H/C ratio is a better indicator for soot emission.

  12. Climate Impact and Economic Feasibility of Solar Thermochemical Jet Fuel Production.

    PubMed

    Falter, Christoph; Batteiger, Valentin; Sizmann, Andreas

    2016-01-05

    Solar thermochemistry presents a promising option for the efficient conversion of H2O and CO2 into liquid hydrocarbon fuels using concentrated solar energy. To explore the potential of this fuel production pathway, the climate impact and economic performance are analyzed. Key drivers for the economic and ecological performance are thermochemical energy conversion efficiency, the level of solar irradiation, operation and maintenance, and the initial investment in the fuel production plant. For the baseline case of a solar tower concentrator with CO2 capture from air, jet fuel production costs of 2.23 €/L and life cycle greenhouse gas (LC GHG) emissions of 0.49 kgCO2-equiv/L are estimated. Capturing CO2 from a natural gas combined cycle power plant instead of the air reduces the production costs by 15% but leads to LC GHG emissions higher than that of conventional jet fuel. Favorable assumptions for all involved process steps (30% thermochemical energy conversion efficiency, 3000 kWh/(m(2) a) solar irradiation, low CO2 and heliostat costs) result in jet fuel production costs of 1.28 €/L at LC GHG emissions close to zero. Even lower production costs may be achieved if the commercial value of oxygen as a byproduct is considered.

  13. Biomolecular Profiling of Jet Fuel Toxicity Using Proteomics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-02-28

    pulmonary alveolar type II cells and macrophages, and human epidermal keratinocytes in various exposure models. Results strongly suggest an injurious effect ...of exposure on all cells studied. In both pulmonary and skin cells, the protein profiles of JP-8 effect corroborates previous histological findings...potential intervention by Substance P (SP) in the pulmonary effects of JP-8 exposure , studies incorporating SP treatment along with JP-8 exposure

  14. Spatial distribution of jet fuel in the vadoze zone of a heterogeneous and fractured soil.

    PubMed

    Tzovolou, D N; Benoit, Y; Haeseler, F; Klint, K E; Tsakiroglou, C D

    2009-04-01

    The goal of the present work is to screen and evaluate all available data before selecting and testing remediation technologies on heterogeneous soils polluted by jet fuel. The migration pathways of non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) in the subsurface relate closely with soil properties. A case study is performed on the vadoze zone of a military airport of north-west Poland contaminated by jet fuel. Soil samples are collected from various depths of two cells, and on-site and off-site chemical analyses of hydrocarbons are conducted by using Pollut Eval apparatus and GC-MS, respectively. The geological conceptual model of the site along with microscopic and hydraulic properties of the porous matrix and fractures enable us to interpret the non-uniform spatial distribution of jet fuel constituents. The total concentration of the jet fuel and its main hydrocarbon families (n-paraffins, major aromatics) over the two cells is governed by the slow preferential flow of NAPL through the porous matrix, the rapid NAPL convective flow through vertical desiccation and sub-horizontal glaciotectonic fractures, and n-paraffin biodegradation in upper layers where the rates of oxygen transfer is not limited by complexities of the pore structure. The information collected is valuable for the selection, implementation and evaluation of two in situ remediation methods.

  15. Combustion Gas Properties I-ASTM Jet a Fuel and Dry Air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R. E.; Trout, A. M.; Wear, J. D.; Mcbride, B. J.

    1984-01-01

    A series of computations was made to produce the equilibrium temperature and gas composition for ASTM jet A fuel and dry air. The computed tables and figures provide combustion gas property data for pressures from 0.5 to 50 atmospheres and equivalence ratios from 0 to 2.0.

  16. Life cycle water footprint analysis for rapeseed derived jet fuel in North Dakota

    Rapeseed is a promising feedstock source for hydroprocessed esters and fatty acids (HEFA) jet fuel production to address energy security and climate change mitigation. However, concerns have been raised about its impact on water as large scale biofuels production may place pressure on fresh water su...

  17. Analyzing hydrotreated renewable jet fuel (HRJ) feedstock availability using crop simulation modeling

    While hydrotreated renewable jet fuel (HRJ) has been demonstrated for use in commercial and military aviation, a challenge to large-scale adoption is availability of cost competitive feedstocks. Brassica oilseed crops like Brassica napus, B. rapa, B. juncea, B. carinata, Sinapis alba, and Camelina s...

  18. Worldwide Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) of Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions from Petroleum Jet Fuel

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2017-11-09

    The main objective of this project was to calculate greenhouse gas emissions estimates for petroleum jet fuels for the recent past and for future scenarios in the coming decades. Results were reported globally and broken out by world regions, and the...

  19. Multifunctional Fuel Additives for Reduced Jet Particulate Emissions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-01

    additives, turbine engine emissions, particulates, chemical kinetics, combustion, JP-8 chemistry 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 19a. NAME OF...from the UNICORN CFD code using the full and skeletal versions of the Violi et al JP-8 mechanism ...................114 Figure 64. Comparison of...calculated jet flame benzene mole fraction contours from the UNICORN CFD code using the full and skeletal versions of the Violi et al JP-8 mechanism

  20. Refinery Integration of By-Products from Coal-Derived Jet Fuels

    SciT

    Caroline Clifford; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song

    2008-03-31

    The final report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during length of the project. The goal of this project was to integrate coal into a refinery in order to produce coal-based jet fuel, with the major goal to examine the products other than jet fuel. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal-based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. The main goal of Task 1 was the production of coal-based jet fuel and other products that would need to be utilized in other fuels or for non-fuel sources, using knownmore » refining technology. The gasoline, diesel fuel, and fuel oil were tested in other aspects of the project. Light cycle oil (LCO) and refined chemical oil (RCO) were blended, hydrotreated to removed sulfur, and hydrogenated, then fractionated in the original production of jet fuel. Two main approaches, taken during the project period, varied where the fractionation took place, in order to preserve the life of catalysts used, which includes (1) fractionation of the hydrotreated blend to remove sulfur and nitrogen, followed by a hydrogenation step of the lighter fraction, and (2) fractionation of the LCO and RCO before any hydrotreatment. Task 2 involved assessment of the impact of refinery integration of JP-900 production on gasoline and diesel fuel. Fuel properties, ignition characteristics and engine combustion of model fuels and fuel samples from pilot-scale production runs were characterized. The model fuels used to represent the coal-based fuel streams were blended into full-boiling range fuels to simulate the mixing of fuel streams within the refinery to create potential 'finished' fuels. The representative compounds of the coal-based gasoline were cyclohexane and methyl cyclohexane, and for the coal-base diesel fuel they were fluorine and phenanthrene. Both the octane number (ON) of the coal-based gasoline and the cetane number (CN) of the coal-based diesel were low, relative to

  1. Review of the Flammability Hazard of Jet A Fuel Vapor in Civil Transport Aircraft Fuels Tanks

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1998-06-01

    This report documents the findings of a Fuel Flammability Task Group made up of recognized fuel and combustion specialists investigating the flammability and explosiveness of fuel within an aircraft fuel tank. The task group reviewed all available re...

  2. Alcohol-to-Jet (ATJ) Fuel Blending Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The U.S. Army sought to study the effect of blending highly iso-paraffinic ATJ blending...stock into JP-8 in order to understand the effect ATJ fuel blends will have on ground vehicle engines and support equipment. This subtask under Work... Synthetic Fuel, JP-8, diesel engine, combustion 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a. NAME OF

  3. Drop-in Jet and Diesel Fuels from Renewable Oils

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-11

    Feed Stock Availability • Commercialization Approach 3 Current Alternate Fuel Technologies • Fischer-Tropsch (FT) and Syngas Fuels • First used in...FL • CH Crude oil production • > 24-hour continuous operation • Steady-state performance • 90-93% FA conversion • 5+ gal/hr • Camelina oil feed ...byproduct recovery/value • Demonstrate water management • Optimization hydrotreating • Evaluate additional feed stocks • Algal oil, Camelina oil, other

  4. Preliminary Investigation of Performance and Starting Characteristics of Liquid Fluorine : Liquid Oxygen Mixtures with Jet Fuel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothenberg, Edward A; Ordin, Paul M

    1954-01-01

    The performance of jet fuel with an oxidant mixture containing 70 percent liquid fluorine and 30 percent liquid oxygen by weight was investigated in a 500-pound-thrust engine operating at a chamber pressure of 300 pounds per square inch absolute. A one-oxidant-on-one-fuel skewed-hole impinging-jet injector was evaluated in a chamber of characteristic length equal to 50 inches. A maximum experimental specific impulse of 268 pound-seconds per pound was obtained at 25 percent fuel, which corresponds to 96 percent of the maximum theoretical specific impulse based on frozen composition expansion. The maximum characteristic velocity obtained was 6050 feet per second at 23 percent fuel, or 94 percent of the theoretical maximum. The average thrust coefficient was 1.38 for the 500-pound thrust combustion-chamber nozzle used, which was 99 percent of the theoretical (frozen) maximum. Mixtures of fluorine and oxygen were found to be self-igniting with jet fuel with fluorine concentrations as low as 4 percent, when low starting propellant flow rated were used.

  5. Applications of photoacoustic techniques to the study of jet fuel residue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Claspy, P. C.

    1983-01-01

    It has been known for many years that fuels for jet aircraft engines demonstrate thermal instability. One manifestation of this thermal instability is the formation of deleterious fuel-derived thermally-induced deposits on surfaces of the aircraft's fuel-handling system. The results of an investigation of the feasibility of applying photoacoustic techniques to the study of the physical properties of these thermal deposits are presented. Both phase imaging and magnitude imaging and spectroscopy were investigated. It is concluded that the use of photoacoustic techniques in the study of films of the type encountered in this investigation is not practical.

  6. Fire Safety Tests Comparing Synthetic Jet and Diesel Fuels with JP-8 (POSTPRINT)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-01

    about 25% aromatics and 75% saturated (paraffin and naphthene ) hydro- carbons [5]. JP-8 is produced from jet fuel A by adding a corrosion inhibitor...4529a 43.9 44.2 Lubricity (mm) ASTM D – 5001 0.58 0.92 Acidity (mg KOH/g) ASTM D – 3242 0.004 0.003 SPK fuels taken from Moses [7], diesel fuels taken...this occurred the burnback pan was removed from the agent pan. The flames in the agent pan were allowed to break up the foam blanket and propagate until

  7. Effects of Fuel Composition on Combustion Stability and NO X Emissions for Traditional and Alternative Jet Fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vijlee, Shazib Z.

    Synthetic jet fuels are studied to help understand their viability as alternatives to traditionally derived jet fuel. Two combustion parameters -- flame stability and NOX emissions -- are used to compare these fuels through experiments and models. At its core, this is a fuels study comparing how chemical makeup and behavior relate. Six 'real', complex fuels are studied in this work -- four are synthetic from alternative sources and two are traditional from petroleum sources. Two of the synthetic fuels are derived from natural gas and coal via the Fischer Tropsch catalytic process. The other two are derived from Camelina oil and tallow via hydroprocessing. The traditional military jet fuel, JP8, is used as a baseline as it is derived from petroleum. The sixth fuel is derived from petroleum and is used to study the effects of aromatic content on the synthetic fuels. The synthetic fuels lack aromatic compounds, which are an important class of hydrocarbons necessary for fuel handling systems to function properly. Several single-component fuels are studied (through models and/or experiments) to facilitate interpretation and understanding. The flame stability study first compares all the 'real', complex fuels for blowout. A toroidal stirred reactor is used to try and isolate temperature and chemical effects. The modeling study of blowout in the toroidal reactor is the key to understanding any fuel-based differences in blowout behavior. A detailed, reacting CFD model of methane is used to understand how the reactor stabilizes the flame and how that changes as the reactor approaches blowout. A 22 species reduced form of GRI 3.0 is used to model methane chemistry. The knowledge of the radical species role is utilized to investigate the differences between a highly aliphatic fuel (surrogated by iso-octane) and a highly aromatic fuel (surrogated by toluene). A perfectly stirred reactor model is used to study the chemical kinetic pathways for these fuels near blowout. The

  8. Jet fuel property changes and their effect on producibility and cost in the U.S., Canada, and Europe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Varga, G. M., Jr.; Avella, A. J., Jr.; Cunningham, A. R.; Featherston, C. D.; Gorgol, J. F.; Graf, A. J.; Lieberman, M.; Oliver, G. A.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of changes in properties and blending stocks on the refinery output and cost of jet fuel in the U.S., Canada, and Europe were determined. Computerized refinery models that minimize production costs and incorporated a 1981 cost structure and supply/demand projections to the year 2010 were used. Except in the West U.S., no changes in jet fuel properties were required to meet all projected demands, even allowing for deteriorating crude qualities and changes in competing product demand. In the West U.S., property changes or the use of cracked blendstocks were projected to be required after 1990 to meet expected demand. Generally, relaxation of aromatics and freezing point, or the use of cracked stocks produced similar results, i.e., jet fuel output could be increased by up to a factor of three or its production cost lowered by up to $10/cu m. High quality hydrocracked stocks are now used on a limited basis to produce jet fuel. The conversion of U.S. and NATO military forces from wide-cut to kerosene-based jet fuel is addressed. This conversion resulted in increased costs of several hundred million dollars annually. These costs can be reduced by relaxing kerosene jet fuel properties, using cracked stocks and/or considering the greater volumetric energy content of kerosene jet fuel.

  9. Experimental verification of the thermodynamic properties for a jet-A fuel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graciasalcedo, Carmen M.; Brabbs, Theodore A.; Mcbride, Bonnie J.

    1988-01-01

    Thermodynamic properties for a Jet-A fuel were determined by Shell Development Company in 1970 under a contract for NASA Lewis Research Center. The polynomial fit necessary to include Jet-A fuel (liquid and gaseous phases) in the library of thermodynamic properties of the NASA Lewis Chemical Equilibrium Program is calculated. To verify the thermodynamic data, the temperatures of mixtures of liquid Jet-A injected into a hot nitrogen stream were experimentally measured and compared to those calculated by the program. Iso-octane, a fuel for which the thermodynamic properties are well known, was used as a standard to calibrate the apparatus. The measured temperatures for the iso-octane/nitrogen mixtures reproduced the calculated temperatures except for a small loss due to the non-adiabatic behavior of the apparatus. The measurements for Jet-A were corrected for this heat loss and showed excellent agreement with the calculated temperatures. These experiments show that this process can be adequately described by the thermodynamic properties fitted for the Chemical Equilibrium Program.

  10. FAR-TECH's Nanoparticle Plasma Jet System and its Application to Disruptions, Deep Fueling, and Diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, J. R.; Bogatu, I. N.; Galkin, S. A.; Kim, J. S.

    2012-10-01

    Hyper-velocity plasma jets have potential applications in tokamaks for disruption mitigation, deep fueling and diagnostics. Pulsed power based solid-state sources and plasma accelerators offer advantages of rapid response and mass delivery at high velocities. Fast response is critical for some disruption mitigation scenario needs, while high velocity is especially important for penetration into tokamak plasma and its confining magnetic field, as in the case of deep fueling. FAR-TECH is developing the capability of producing large-mass hyper-velocity plasma jets. The prototype solid-state source has produced: 1) >8.4 mg of H2 gas only, and 2) >25 mg of H2 and >180 mg of C60 in a H2/C60 gas mixture. Using a coaxial plasma gun coupled to the source, we have successfully demonstrated the acceleration of composite H/C60 plasma jets, with momentum as high as 0.6 g.km/s, and containing an estimated C60 mass of ˜75 mg. We present the status of FAR-TECH's nanoparticle plasma jet system and discuss its application to disruptions, deep fueling, and diagnostics. A new TiH2/C60 solid-state source capable of generating significantly higher quantities of H2 and C60 in <0.5 ms will be discussed.

  11. Fuel-rich catalytic combustion of Jet-A fuel-equivalence ratios 5.0 to 8.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brabbs, Theodore A.; Gracia-Salcedo, Carmen M.

    1989-01-01

    Fuel-rich catalytic combustion (E.R. greater than 5.0) is a unique technique for preheating a hydrocarbon fuel to temperatures much higher than those obtained by conventional heat exchangers. In addition to producing very reactive molecules, the process upgrades the structure of the fuel by the formation of hydrogen and smaller hydrocarbons and produces a cleaner burning fuel by removing some of the fuel carbon from the soot formation chain. With fuel-rich catalytic combustion as the first stage of a two stage combustion system, enhanced fuel properties can be utilized by both high speed engines, where time for ignition and complete combustion is limited, and engines where emission of thermal NO sub x is critical. Two-stage combustion (rich-lean) has been shown to be effective for NO sub x reduction in stationary burners where residence times are long enough to burn-up the soot formed in the first stage. Such residence times are not available in aircraft engines. Thus, the soot-free nature of the present process is critical for high speed engines. The successful application of fuel-rich catalytic combustion to Jet-A, a multicomponent fuel used in gas turbine combustors, is discusssed.

  12. Transverse liquid fuel jet breakup, burning, and ignition. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Hsi-Shang

    1990-01-01

    An analytical study of the breakup, burning, and ignition of liquid fuels injected transversely into a hot air stream is conducted. The non-reacting liquid jet breakup location is determined by the local sonic point criterion. Two models, one employing analysis of an elliptical jet cross-section and the other employing a two-dimensional blunt body to represent the transverse jet, were used for sonic point calculations. An auxiliary criterion based on surface tension stability is used as a separate means of determining the breakup location. For the reacting liquid jet problem, a diffusion flame supported by a one-step chemical reaction within the gaseous boundary layer is solved along the ellipse surface in subsonic cross flow. Typical flame structures and concentration profiles were calculated for various locations along the jet cross-section as a function of upstream Mach numbers. The integration reaction rate along the jet cross-section is used to predict ignition position, which is found to be situated near the stagnation point. While a multi-step reaction is needed to represent the ignition process more accurately, the present calculation does yield reasonable predictions concerning ignition along a curved surface.

  13. Life cycle assessment of residual lignocellulosic biomass-based jet fuel with activated carbon and lignosulfonate as co-products.

    PubMed

    Pierobon, Francesca; Eastin, Ivan L; Ganguly, Indroneil

    2018-01-01

    Bio-jet fuels are emerging as a valuable alternative to petroleum-based fuels for their potential for reducing greenhouse gas emissions and fossil fuel dependence. In this study, residual woody biomass from slash piles in the U.S. Pacific Northwest is used as a feedstock to produce iso-paraffinic kerosene, through the production of sugar and subsequent patented proprietary fermentation and upgrading. To enhance the economic viability and reduce the environmental impacts of iso-paraffinic kerosene, two co-products, activated carbon and lignosulfonate, are simultaneously produced within the same bio-refinery. A cradle-to-grave life cycle assessment (LCA) is performed for the residual woody biomass-based bio-jet fuel and compared against the cradle-to-grave LCA of petroleum-based jet fuel. This paper also discusses the differences in the environmental impacts of the residual biomass-based bio-jet fuel using two different approaches, mass allocation and system expansion, to partition the impacts between the bio-fuel and the co-products, which are produced in the bio-refinery. The environmental assessment of biomass-based bio-jet fuel reveals an improvement along most critical environmental criteria, as compared to its petroleum-based counterpart. However, the results present significant differences in the environmental impact of biomass-based bio-jet fuel, based on the partitioning method adopted. The mass allocation approach shows a greater improvement along most of the environmental criteria, as compared to the system expansion approach. However, independent of the partitioning approach, the results of this study reveal that more than the EISA mandated 60% reduction in the global warming potential could be achieved by substituting petroleum-based jet fuel with residual woody biomass-based jet fuel. Converting residual woody biomass from slash piles into bio-jet fuel presents the additional benefit of avoiding the impacts of slash pile burning in the forest, which

  14. Biomass fuel exposure and respiratory diseases in India.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Rajendra; Singh, Abhijeet; Garg, Rajiv; Giridhar, Giridhar B

    2012-10-01

    One half of the world's population relies on biomass fuel as the primary source of domestic energy. Biomass fuel exposure causes a high degree of morbidity and mortality in humans. This is especially true in the context of developing countries, which account for 99% of the world's biomass fuel use. Biomass fuel consists of fire wood, dung cakes, agricultural crop residues such as straw, grass, and shrubs, coal fuels and kerosene. Together, they supply 75% of the domestic energy in India. An estimated three-quarters of Indian households use biomass fuel as the primary means for domestic cooking. Ninety percent of rural households and 32% of urban households cook their meals on a biomass stove. There are wide variations between the rural and urban households regarding the specific type of biomass fuel used. Globally, almost 2 million deaths per year are attributable to solid fuel use, with more than 99% of these occurring in developing countries. Biomass fuel accounts for 5-6% of the national burden of disease. Burning biomass fuels emits toxic fumes into the air that consist of small solid particles, carbon monoxide, polyorganic and polyaromatic hydrocarbons, and formaldehyde. Exposure to biomass fuels has been found to be associated with many respiratory diseases such as acute lower respiratory infections, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, lung cancer, pulmonary tuberculosis, and asthma. Biomass fuel exposure is closely related to the burden of disease in India. Hopes are that future studies will examine the morbidity associated with biomass exposure and seek to prevent it. Concerted efforts to improve stove design and transition to high-efficiency low-emission fuels may reduce respiratory disease associated with biomass fuel exposure.

  15. Correlation between in vivo and in vitro pulmonary responses to jet propulsion fuel-8 using precision-cut lung slices and a dynamic organ culture system.

    PubMed

    Hays, Allison M; Lantz, R Clark; Witten, Mark L

    2003-01-01

    In tissue slice models, interactions between the heterogeneous cell types comprising the lung parenchyma are maintained thus providing a controlled system for the study of pulmonary toxicology in vitro. However, validation of the model in vitro system must be affirmed. Previous reports, in in vivo systems, have demonstrated that Clara cells and alveolar type II cells are the targets following inhalation of JP-8 jet fuel. We have utilized the lung slice model to determine if cellular targets are similar following in vitro exposure to JP-8. Agar-filled adult rat lung explants were cored and precision cut, using the Brende/Vitron tissue slicer. Slices were cultured on titanium screens located as half-cylinders in cylindrical Teflon cradles that were loaded into standard scintillation vials and incubated at 37 degrees C. Slices were exposed to JP-8 jet fuel (0.5 mg/ml, 1.0 mg/ml, and 1.5 mg/ml in medium) for up to 24 hours. We determined ATP content using a luciferin-luciferase bioluminescent assay. No significant difference was found between the JP-8 jet fuel doses or time points, when compared to controls. Results were correlated with structural alterations following aerosol inhalation of JP-8. As a general observation, ultrastructural evaluation of alveolar type cells revealed an apparent increase in the number and size of surfactant secreting lamellar bodies that was JP-8 jet fuel-dose dependent. These results are similar to those observed following aerosol inhalation exposure. Thus, the lung tissue slice model appears to mimic in vivo effects of JP-8 and therefore is a useful model system for studying the mechanisms of lunginjury following JP-8 exposure.

  16. Gum and deposit formation from jet turbine and diesel fuels

    SciT

    Mayo, F.R.; Lan, B.Y.

    1983-09-01

    The present paper describes measurements of rates of oxidation and soluble gum formation in both pure hydrocarbons and in mixed hydrocarbon fuels. Some patterns which appear can be explained on the basis of what is known about co-oxidation of hydrocarbon mixtures. The oxidations were conducted in an oil bath at 130/sup 0/C. Gum formation is closely associated with oxidation. The compounds that copolymerize with oxygen to produce polyperoxides require the least amount of oxygen to yield a mg of gum; among other pure hydrocarbons and fuels, the rates of gum formation and oxygen absorption decrease together. The most useful approachmore » to understanding and reducing gum and deposit formation will come through understanding the effects of condensed aromatic and heterocyclic compounds on the oxidation rates of fuels. 4 figures. 4 tables.« less

  17. H-mode fueling optimization with the supersonic deuterium jet in NSTX

    SciT

    Soukhanovskii, V A; Bell, M G; Bell, R E

    2008-06-18

    High-performance, long-pulse 0.7-1.2 MA 6-7 MW NBI-heated small-ELM H-mode plasma discharges are developed in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) as prototypes for confinement and current drive extrapolations to future spherical tori. It is envisioned that innovative lithium coating techniques for H-mode density pumping and a supersonic deuterium jet for plasma refueling will be used to achieve the low pedestal collisionality and low n{sub e}/n{sub G} fractions (0.3-0.6), both of which being essential conditions for maximizing the non-inductive (bootstrap and beam driven) current fractions. The low field side supersonic gas injector (SGI) on NSTX consists of a small converging-diverging graphitemore » Laval nozzle and a piezoelectric gas valve. The nozzle is capable of producing a deuterium jet with Mach number M {le} 4, estimated gas density at the nozzle exit n {le} 5 x 10{sup 23} m{sup -3}, estimated temperature T {ge} 70 K, and flow velocity v = 2:4 km/s. The nozzle Reynolds number Reis {approx_equal} 6000. The nozzle and the valve are enclosed in a protective carbon fiber composite shroud and mounted on a movable probe at a midplane port location. Despite the beneficial L-mode fueling experience with supersonic jets in limiter tokamaks, there is a limited experience with fueling of high-performance H-mode divertor discharges and the associated density, MHD stability, and MARFE limits. In initial supersonic deuterium jet fueling experiments in NSTX, a reliable H-mode access, a low NBI power threshold, P{sub LH} {le} 2 MW, and a high fueling efficiency (0.1-0.4) have been demonstrated. Progress has also been made toward a better control of the injected fueling gas by decreasing the uncontrolled high field side (HFS) injector fueling rate by up to 95 % and complementing it with the supersonic jet fueling. These results motivated recent upgrades to the SGI gas delivery and control systems. The new SGI-Upgrade (SGI-U) capabilities include multi

  18. An investigation of air solubility in Jet A fuel at high pressures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faeth, G. M.

    1981-01-01

    Problems concerned with the supercritical injection concept are discussed. Supercritical injection involves dissolving air into a fuel prior to injection. A similar effect is obtained by preheating the fuel so that a portion of the fuel flashes when its pressure is reduced. Flashing improves atomization properties and the presence of air in the primary zone of a spray flame reduces the formation of pollutants. The investigation is divided into three phases: (1) measure the solubility and density properties of fuel/gas mixtures, including Jet A/air, at pressures and correlate these results using theory; (2) investigate the atomization properties of flashing liquids, including fuel/dissolved gas systems. Determine and correlate the effect of inlet properties and injector geometry on mass flow rates, Sauter mean diameter and spray angles; (3) examine the combustion properties of flashing injection in an open burner flame, considering flame shape and soot production.

  19. Gum and deposit formation from jet-turbine and diesel fuels at 130C

    SciT

    Mayo, F.R.; Lan, Bosco Y.

    1986-01-01

    The ultimate objective of this work is to devise an accelerated test to compare rates of soluble gum and deposit formation from jet-turbine and diesel fuels in storage and of hard deposits in engines. This paper describes rates of oxygen absorption and gum formation in air at 130 C. For a single fuel or hydrocarbon, the rate of gum formation is closely proportional to the oxygen absorbed, even when this rate varies with purification and additives. In general, pure hydrocarbons absorb oxygen much faster than the fuels, but the fuels and 2-ethylnaphthalene give more gum for the oxygen absorbed thanmore » the other pure hydrocarbons. Gum has two main sources; one appears to be associated with the chain termination mechanism in oxidation, the other coupling of fuel molecules in the absence of oxygen. Other possibilities are discussed.« less

  20. Life cycle greenhouse gas emissions of sugar cane renewable jet fuel.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Marcelo; Gurgel, Angelo C; Seabra, Joaquim E A

    2014-12-16

    This study evaluated the life cycle GHG emissions of a renewable jet fuel produced from sugar cane in Brazil under a consequential approach. The analysis included the direct and indirect emissions associated with sugar cane production and fuel processing, distribution, and use for a projected 2020 scenario. The CA-GREET model was used as the basic analytical tool, while Land Use Change (LUC) emissions were estimated employing the GTAP-BIO-ADV and AEZ-EF models. Feedstock production and LUC impacts were evaluated as the main sources of emissions, respectively estimated as 14.6 and 12 g CO2eq/MJ of biofuel in the base case. However, the renewable jet fuel would strongly benefit from bagasse and trash-based cogeneration, which would enable a net life cycle emission of 8.5 g CO2eq/MJ of biofuel in the base case, whereas Monte Carlo results indicate 21 ± 11 g CO2eq/MJ. Besides the major influence of the electricity surplus, the sensitivity analysis showed that the cropland-pasture yield elasticity and the choice of the land use factor employed to sugar cane are relevant parameters for the biofuel life cycle performance. Uncertainties about these estimations exist, especially because the study relies on projected performances, and further studies about LUC are also needed to improve the knowledge about their contribution to the renewable jet fuel life cycle.

  1. Greenhouse gas emissions and land use change from Jatropha curcas-based jet fuel in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bailis, Robert E; Baka, Jennifer E

    2010-11-15

    This analysis presents a comparison of life-cycle GHG emissions from synthetic paraffinic kerosene (SPK) produced as jet fuel substitute from jatropha curcas feedstock cultivated in Brazil against a reference scenario of conventional jet fuel. Life cycle inventory data are derived from surveys of actual Jatropha growers and processors. Results indicate that a baseline scenario, which assumes a medium yield of 4 tons of dry fruit per hectare under drip irrigation with existing logistical conditions using energy-based coproduct allocation methodology, and assumes a 20-year plantation lifetime with no direct land use change (dLUC), results in the emissions of 40 kg CO₂e per GJ of fuel produced, a 55% reduction relative to conventional jet fuel. However, dLUC based on observations of land-use transitions leads to widely varying changes in carbon stocks ranging from losses in excess of 50 tons of carbon per hectare when Jatropha is planted in native cerrado woodlands to gains of 10-15 tons of carbon per hectare when Jatropha is planted in former agro-pastoral land. Thus, aggregate emissions vary from a low of 13 kg CO₂e per GJ when Jatropha is planted in former agro-pastoral lands, an 85% decrease from the reference scenario, to 141 kg CO₂e per GJ when Jatropha is planted in cerrado woodlands, a 60% increase over the reference scenario. Additional sensitivities are also explored, including changes in yield, exclusion of irrigation, shortened supply chains, and alternative allocation methodologies.

  2. Transpiration cooling in the locality of a transverse fuel jet for supersonic combustors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Northam, G. Burton; Capriotti, Diego P.; Byington, Carl S.

    1990-01-01

    The objective of the current work was to determine the feasibility of transpiration cooling for the relief of the local heating rates in the region of a sonic, perpendicular, fuel jet of gaseous hydrogen. Experiments were conducted to determine the interaction between the cooling required and flameholding limits of a transverse jet in a high-enthalpy, Mach 3 flow in both open-jet and direct-connect test mode. Pulsed shadowgraphs were used to illustrate the flow field. Infrared thermal images indicated the surface temperatures, and the OH(-) emission of the flame was used to visualize the limits of combustion. Wall, static presures indicated the location of the combustion within the duct and were used to calculate the combustion efficiency. The results from both series of tests at facility total temperatures of 1700 K and 2000 K are presented.

  3. Mixing of Pure Air Jets with a Reacting Fuel-Rich Crossflow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leong, M. Y.; Samuelsen, G. S.; Holdeman, J. D.

    1997-01-01

    Jets in a crossflow play an integral role in practical combustion systems such as can and annular gas turbine combustors in conventional systems, and the Rich-burn/Quick-mix/Lean-burn (RQL) combustor utilized in stationary applications and proposed for advanced subsonic and supersonic transports. The success of the RQL combustor rests with the performance of the quick-mixing section that bridges the rich and lean zones. The mixing of jet air with a rich crossflow to bring the reaction to completion in the lean zone must be performed rapidly and thoroughly in order to decrease the extent of near-stoichiometric fluid pocket formation. Fluid pockets at near-stoichiometric equivalence ratios are undesirable because the high temperatures attained accelerate pollutant formation kinetics associated with nitric oxide (NO). The present study develops a model experiment designed to reveal the processes that occur when jet air is introduced into hot effluent emanating from a fuel-rich reaction zone.

  4. Oxygen and Fuel Jet Diffusion Flame Studies in Microgravity Motivated by Spacecraft Oxygen Storage Fire Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sunderland, P. B.; Yuan, Z.-G.; Krishnan, S. S.; Abshire, J. M.; Gore, J. P.

    2003-01-01

    Owing to the absence of past work involving flames similar to the Mir fire namely oxygen-enhanced, inverse gas-jet diffusion flames in microgravity the objectives of this work are as follows: 1. Observe the effects of enhanced oxygen conditions on laminar jet diffusion flames with ethane fuel. 2. Consider both earth gravity and microgravity. 3. Examine both normal and inverse flames. 4. Compare the measured flame lengths and widths with calibrated predictions of several flame shape models. This study expands on the work of Hwang and Gore which emphasized radiative emissions from oxygen-enhanced inverse flames in earth gravity, and Sunderland et al. which emphasized the shapes of normal and inverse oxygen-enhanced gas-jet diffusion flames in microgravity.

  5. Highly Selective Upgrading of Biomass-Derived Alcohol Mixtures for Jet/Diesel-Fuel Components.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qiang; Xu, Guoqiang; Wang, Xicheng; Liu, Xiaoran; Mu, Xindong

    2016-12-20

    In light of the increasing concern about the energy and environmental problems caused by the combustion of petroleum-based fuels (e.g., jet and diesel fuels), the development of new procedures for their sustainable production from renewable biomass-derived platform compounds has attracted tremendous attention recently. Long-chain ketones/alcohols are promising fuel components owing to the fuel properties that closely resemble those of traditional fuels. The focus of this report is the production of long-chain ketones/alcohols by direct upgrading of biomass-derived short-chain alcohol mixtures (e.g., isopropanol-butanol-ethanol mixtures) in pure water. An efficient Pd catalyst system was developed for these highly selective transformations. Long-chain ketones/alcohols (C 8 -C 19 ), which can be used as precursors for renewable jet/diesel fuel, were obtained in good-to-high selectivity (>90 %) by using the developed Pd catalyst. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Jet Fuel Exposure and Neurological Health in Military Personnel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-01

    and dermal samples E Absorbed Dose measure: Exhaled breath, urine , blood F Lifestyle factors (smoking), use of protective equipment (gloves...toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene, and naphthalene. To assess personal absorbed dose levels to JP8 components, exhaled breath and urine samples were...the following primary analytes of interest were measured: benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene, and naphthalene. Pre- and post- shift urine samples

  7. Jet Fuel Exposure and Neurological Health in Military Personnel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-01

    MACA ) or bovine serum albumin (BSA) in Hank’s Balanced Salr Solution {H BSS) or HBSS alone. Mice were sacrificed alTer I, 3, G. 12. I R and 24h...isolated from lung tissue for microarmy analysis and RT-PCR. MACA .tdmini>tratiun induced a rapid increase in HALF ncutrophils, lymphocytes...produc- tion, signaling. infl:unmarory cell recruitment, adh..-.ion and activation in 3h and 12h MACA -tre:lted samples as compared to BSA or HBSS

  8. Acoustic Excitation of Liquid Fuel Droplets and Coaxial Jets

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    would also like to acknowledge the support of the NASA Microgravity Combustion program which made possible the completion of this research and Maj...fuels exposed to different acoustic excitation conditions in a laboratory environment and during free-fall (microgravity) conditions in a NASA drop tower...then sent to two amplifiers, one for each piezo-siren. The amplifiers were a Krohn-Hite (model 7500) and a Trek (model PZD2000A), which amplified the

  9. Biomass Processing using Ionic Liquids for Jet Fuel Production

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-09

    lignocellulosic biomass. Biomass consists predominantly of three biopolymers— lignin , hemicellulose and cellulose. For fuel production, it is necessary to...hydrocarbons. The lignin and cellulose, however, have very low solubility in conventional solvents making processing difficult. Typically a pretreatment step...is used to break up the lignin and make the cellulose accessible to further hydrolysis to glucose. Pretreatment, however, is one of the most

  10. Constraints on JP-900 Jet Fuel Production Concepts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    most of this research effort has focused on a coal-tar blending process. Penn State currently plans to build a one-barrel- per-day pilot plant and...which a mixture of solid coal and a refinery intermediate, decant oil, is used to pro- duce a combination of liquid fuels and coke. The findings and...petroleum refinery intermedi- ate (specifically, light cycle oil). More recently, attention has been directed toward a co-coking process, in which a

  11. Performance of hybrid ball bearings in oil and jet fuel

    SciT

    Schrader, S.M.; Pfaffenberger, E.E.

    1992-07-01

    A 308-size hybrid ball bearing, with ceramic balls and steel rings, was tested using a diester oil and gas turbine fuel as lubricants at several speeds and loads. Heat generation data from this test work was then correlated with the heat generation model from a widely used computer code. The ability of this hybrid split inner ring bearing design to endure thrust reversals, which are expected in many turbine applications, was demonstrated. Finally, the bearing was successfully endurance tested in JP-10 fuel for 25 hours at 7560 N axial load and 36,000 rpm. This work has successfully demonstrated the technologymore » necessary to use fuel-lubricated hybrid bearings in limited-life gas turbine engine applications such as missiles, drones, and other unmanned air vehicles (UAVs). In addition, it has provided guidance for use in designing such bearing systems. As a result, the benefits of removing the conventional oil lubricant system, i.e., design simplification and reduced maintenance, can be realized. 6 refs.« less

  12. Enhanced fuel efficiency on tractor-trailers using synthetic jet-based active flow control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amitay, Michael; Menicovich, David; Gallardo, Daniele

    2016-04-01

    The application of piezo-electrically-driven synthetic-jet-based active flow control to reduce drag on tractor-trailers was explored experimentally in wind tunnel testing as well as full-scale road tests. Aerodynamic drag accounts for more than 50% of the usable energy at highway speeds, a problem that applies primarily to trailer trucks. Therefore, a reduction in aerodynamic drag results in large saving of fuel and reduction in CO2 emissions. The active flow control technique that is being used relies on a modular system comprised of distributed, small, highly efficient actuators. These actuators, called synthetic jets, are jets that are synthesized at the edge of an orifice by a periodic motion of a piezoelectric diaphragm(s) mounted on one (or more) walls of a sealed cavity. The synthetic jet is zero net mass flux (ZNMF), but it allows momentum transfer to flow. It is typically driven near diaphragm and/or cavity resonance, and therefore, small electric input [O(10W)] is required. Another advantage of this actuator is that no plumbing is required. The system doesn't require changes to the body of the truck, can be easily reconfigured to various types of vehicles, and consumes small amounts of electrical power from the existing electrical system of the truck. Preliminary wind tunnel results showed up to 18% reduction in fuel consumption, whereas road tests also showed very promising results.

  13. Highly efficient conversion of terpenoid biomass to jet-fuel range cycloalkanes in a biphasic tandem catalytic process

    SciT

    Yang, Xiaokun; Li, Teng; Tang, Kan

    2017-06-12

    The demand for bio-jet fuels to reduce carbon emissions is increasing substantially in the aviation sector, while the scarcity of high-density jet fuel components limits the use of bio-jet fuels in high-performance aircrafts compared with conventional jet fuels. In this paper, we report a novel biphasic tandem catalytic process (biTCP) for synthesizing cycloalkanes from renewable terpenoid biomass, such as 1,8-cineole. Multistep tandem reactions, including C–O ring opening by hydrolysis, dehydration, and hydrogenation, were carried out in the “one-pot” biTCP. 1,8-Cineole was efficiently converted to p-menthane at high yields (>99%) in the biTCP under mild reaction conditions. Finally, the catalytic reactionmore » mechanism is discussed.« less

  14. Aircraft dual-shaft jet engine with indirect action fuel flow controller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tudosie, Alexandru-Nicolae

    2017-06-01

    The paper deals with an aircraft single-jet engine's control system, based on a fuel flow controller. Considering the engine as controlled object and its thrust the most important operation effect, from the multitude of engine's parameters only its rotational speed n is measurable and proportional to its thrust, so engine's speed has become the most important controlled parameter. Engine's control system is based on fuel injection Qi dosage, while the output is engine's speed n. Based on embedded system's main parts' mathematical models, the author has described the system by its block diagram with transfer functions; furthermore, some Simulink-Matlab simulations are performed, concerning embedded system quality (its output parameters time behavior) and, meanwhile, some conclusions concerning engine's parameters mutual influences are revealed. Quantitative determinations are based on author's previous research results and contributions, as well as on existing models (taken from technical literature). The method can be extended for any multi-spool engine, single- or twin-jet.

  15. Shock wave calibration of under-expanded natural gas fuel jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, T. R.; Milton, B. E.

    2008-10-01

    Natural gas, a fuel abundant in nature, cannot be used by itself in conventional diesel engines because of its low cetane number. However, it can be used as the primary fuel with ignition by a pilot diesel spray. This is called dual-fuelling. The gas may be introduced either into the inlet manifold or, preferably, directly into the cylinder where it is injected as a short duration, intermittent, sonic jet. For accurate delivery in the latter case, a constant flow-rate from the injector is required into the constantly varying pressure in the cylinder. Thus, a sonic (choked) jet is required which is generally highly under-expanded. Immediately at the nozzle exit, a shock structure develops which can provide essential information about the downstream flow. This shock structure, generally referred to as a “barrel” shock, provides a key to understanding the full injection process. It is examined both experimentally and numerically in this paper.

  16. Effect of high surface area activated carbon on thermal degradation of jet fuel

    SciT

    Gergova, K.; Eser, S.; Arumugam, R.

    1995-05-01

    Different solid carbons added to jet fuel during thermal stressing cause substantial changes in pyrolytic degradation reactions. Activated carbons, especially high surface area activated carbons were found to be very effective in suppressing solid deposition on metal reactor walls during stressing at high temperatures (425 and 450{degrees}C). The high surface area activated carbon PX-21 prevented solid deposition on reactor walls even after 5h at 450{degrees}C. The differences seen in the liquid product composition when activated carbon is added indicated that the carbon surfaces affect the degradation reactions. Thermal stressing experiments were carried out on commercial petroleum-derived JPTS jet fuel. Wemore » also used n-octane and n-dodecane as model compounds in order to simplify the study of the chemical changes which take place upon activated carbon addition. In separate experiments, the presence of a hydrogen donor, decalin, together with PX-21 was also studied.« less

  17. Hydrocarbon group type determination in jet fuels by high performance liquid chromatography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antoine, A. C.

    1977-01-01

    Results are given for the analysis of some jet and diesel fuel samples which were prepared from oil shale and coal syncrudes. Thirty-two samples of varying chemical composition and physical properties were obtained. Hydrocarbon types in these samples were determined by fluorescent indicator adsorption (FIA) analysis, and the results from three laboratories are presented and compared. Recently, rapid high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods have been proposed for hydrocarbon group type analysis, with some suggestion for their use as a replacement of the FIA technique. Two of these methods were used to analyze some of the samples, and these results are also presented and compared. Two samples of petroleum-based Jet A fuel are similarly analyzed.

  18. Wabash Valley Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle, Coal to Fischer Tropsch Jet Fuel Conversion Study

    SciT

    Shah, Jayesh; Hess, Fernando; Horzen, Wessel van

    This reports examines the feasibility of converting the existing Wabash Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plant into a liquid fuel facility, with the goal of maximizing jet fuel production. The fuels produced are required to be in compliance with Section 526 of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA 2007 §526) lifecycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions requirements, so lifecycle GHG emissions from the fuel must be equal to or better than conventional fuels. Retrofitting an existing gasification facility reduces the technical risk and capital costs associated with a coal to liquids project, leading to a higher probability ofmore » implementation and more competitive liquid fuel prices. The existing combustion turbine will continue to operate on low cost natural gas and low carbon fuel gas from the gasification facility. The gasification technology utilized at Wabash is the E-Gas™ Technology and has been in commercial operation since 1995. In order to minimize capital costs, the study maximizes reuse of existing equipment with minimal modifications. Plant data and process models were used to develop process data for downstream units. Process modeling was utilized for the syngas conditioning, acid gas removal, CO 2 compression and utility units. Syngas conversion to Fischer Tropsch (FT) liquids and upgrading of the liquids was modeled and designed by Johnson Matthey Davy Technologies (JM Davy). In order to maintain the GHG emission profile below that of conventional fuels, the CO 2 from the process must be captured and exported for sequestration or enhanced oil recovery. In addition the power utilized for the plant’s auxiliary loads had to be supplied by a low carbon fuel source. Since the process produces a fuel gas with sufficient energy content to power the plant’s loads, this fuel gas was converted to hydrogen and exported to the existing gas turbine for low carbon power production. Utilizing low carbon fuel gas and process steam

  19. Synthesis of jet fuel range branched cycloalkanes with mesityl oxide and 2-methylfuran from lignocellulose.

    PubMed

    Li, Shanshan; Li, Ning; Wang, Wentao; Li, Lin; Wang, Aiqin; Wang, Xiaodong; Zhang, Tao

    2016-09-01

    Jet fuel range branched cycloalkanes with high density (0.82 g mL(-1)) and low freezing point (217-219 K) was first prepared by the solvent-free intramolecular aldol condensation of the trione from the hydrolysis of the alkylation product of mesityl oxide and 2-methylfuran (or the one-pot reaction of mesityl oxide, 2-methylfuran and water), followed by hydrodeoxygenation (HDO).

  20. Partitioning behavior of aromatic components in jet fuel into diverse membrane-coated fibers.

    PubMed

    Baynes, Ronald E; Xia, Xin-Rui; Barlow, Beth M; Riviere, Jim E

    2007-11-01

    Jet fuel components are known to partition into skin and produce occupational irritant contact dermatitis (OICD) and potentially adverse systemic effects. The purpose of this study was to determine how jet fuel components partition (1) from solvent mixtures into diverse membrane-coated fibers (MCFs) and (2) from biological media into MCFs to predict tissue distribution. Three diverse MCFs, polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS, lipophilic), polyacrylate (PA, polarizable), and carbowax (CAR, polar), were selected to simulate the physicochemical properties of skin in vivo. Following an appropriate equilibrium time between the MCF and dosing solutions, the MCF was injected directly into a gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer (GC-MS) to quantify the amount that partitioned into the membrane. Three vehicles (water, 50% ethanol-water, and albumin-containing media solution) were studied for selected jet fuel components. The more hydrophobic the component, the greater was the partitioning into the membranes across all MCF types, especially from water. The presence of ethanol as a surrogate solvent resulted in significantly reduced partitioning into the MCFs with discernible differences across the three fibers based on their chemistries. The presence of a plasma substitute (media) also reduced partitioning into the MCF, with the CAR MCF system being better correlated to the predicted partitioning of aromatic components into skin. This study demonstrated that a single or multiple set of MCF fibers may be used as a surrogate for octanol/water systems and skin to assess partitioning behavior of nine aromatic components frequently formulated with jet fuels. These diverse inert fibers were able to assess solute partitioning from a blood substitute such as media into a membrane possessing physicochemical properties similar to human skin. This information may be incorporated into physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models to provide a more accurate assessment of tissue dosimetry of

  1. Synthesis of jet fuel range branched cycloalkanes with mesityl oxide and 2-methylfuran from lignocellulose

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shanshan; Li, Ning; Wang, Wentao; Li, Lin; Wang, Aiqin; Wang, Xiaodong; Zhang, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Jet fuel range branched cycloalkanes with high density (0.82 g mL−1) and low freezing point (217–219 K) was first prepared by the solvent-free intramolecular aldol condensation of the trione from the hydrolysis of the alkylation product of mesityl oxide and 2-methylfuran (or the one-pot reaction of mesityl oxide, 2-methylfuran and water), followed by hydrodeoxygenation (HDO). PMID:27582417

  2. Quantitating the Absorption, Partitioning and Toxicity of Hydrocarbon Components of JP-8 Jet Fuel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-08-24

    with the skin. AFOSR Jet Fuel Toxicology Workshop. Tucson, AZ. October, 2004. 5. Basak SC, Riviere JE, Baynes RE, Xia XR, Gute BD. A hierarchical QSAR ... Toxicology Workshop, Tucson, AZ, 2005. 12. Basak SC, Riviere J, Baynes R, Gute BD: Theoretical descriptor based QSARs in predicting skin penetration of...NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER Center for Chemical Toxicology Research and Pharmacokinetics College of Veterinary

  3. Synthesis of jet fuel range branched cycloalkanes with mesityl oxide and 2-methylfuran from lignocellulose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shanshan; Li, Ning; Wang, Wentao; Li, Lin; Wang, Aiqin; Wang, Xiaodong; Zhang, Tao

    2016-09-01

    Jet fuel range branched cycloalkanes with high density (0.82 g mL-1) and low freezing point (217-219 K) was first prepared by the solvent-free intramolecular aldol condensation of the trione from the hydrolysis of the alkylation product of mesityl oxide and 2-methylfuran (or the one-pot reaction of mesityl oxide, 2-methylfuran and water), followed by hydrodeoxygenation (HDO).

  4. Evaluation of the Occupational Risks from Jet Fuel (Toxicity Screening Battery)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    1α may serve as a marker of epidermal damage or stress due to irritation in this in vitro model. As an alternative to the 3-dimensional human skin...AFRL-RH-FS-SR-2013-0003 Final Report: Evaluation of the Occupational Risks from Jet Fuel (Toxicity Screening Battery) David R. Mattie...2. REPORT TYPE Special Report 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) Oct 2010 – Dec 2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Evaluation of the Occupational Risks from

  5. Flight and Preflight Tests of a Ram Jet Burning Magnesium Slurry Fuel and Utilizing a Solid-propellant Gas Generator for Fuel Expulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartlett, Walter, A , jr; Hagginbotham, William K , Jr

    1955-01-01

    Data obtained from the first flight test of a ram jet utilizing a magnesium slurry fuel are presented. The ram jet accelerated from a Mach number of 1.75 to a Mach number of 3.48 in 15.5 seconds. During this period a maximum values of air specific impulse and gross thrust coefficient were calculated to be 151 seconds and 0.658, respectively. The rocket gas generator used as a fuel-pumping system operated successfully.

  6. Advanced Thermally Stable Coal-Based Jet Fuels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-10-01

    has been minimized, additional dispersant does not affect deposition. Presumably, a second deposit 400 3PO Meat , Ntgen, S houn 3 JP8 N..t, AW, 5 h"Lrm...between 1.0 and 1.5. These fuel-rich equivalence ratios were 18 5 9 X-610 (RCO:LCO=1:1) A JP-8 4 JP-900 / /Tp= - 550K1 3 Ph = - 0.51 MPaMi*= 32 g/ s / 2...NUMBER F49620-99-1-0290 5C. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 61102F 6. AUTHOR( S ) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 2308 Se. TASK NUMBER Harold H. Schobert BC 5f. WORK UNIT

  7. A Nonlinear Fuel Optimal Reaction Jet Control Law

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-07-29

    derive a nonlinear fuel optimal attitude control system (ACS) that drives the final state to the desired state according to a cost function that...αroll = 0.22 rad/s2 and αyaw = 0.20 rad/s2. [ ] ( )( )ωωτω rrr&r r&r ⋅×−⋅= ⋅Ω−= − 2 1 1 II QQ (9) where, Q r is the attitude quaternion ...from Table-1 regarding the relative performance of the nonlinear controller with a conventional PID controller ( used in this paper as a benchmark for

  8. Numerical Simulation and Industrial Experimental Research on the Coherent Jet with "CH4 + N2" Mixed Fuel Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Shaoyan; Zhu, Rong; Dong, Kai; Liu, Runzao

    2018-06-01

    Coherent jet technology is widely used in the electric arc furnace (EAF) steelmaking process to deliver more energy and momentum into the molten steel bath. Meanwhile, the characteristics of a coherent jet using pure CH4 as the fuel gas have been well investigated in previous studies. To reduce the consumption of CH4, coherent jet technology using "CH4 + N2" mixed fuel gas instead of pure CH4 was proposed and studied in detail by numerical simulation in the present work. The Eddy Dissipation Concept model, which has detailed chemical kinetic mechanisms, was adopted to model the fuel gas combustion reactions. Experimental measurements were carried out to validate the accuracy of the computational model. The present study shows that the jet characteristics of the main oxygen improve along with the increase of the CH4 ratio in fuel gas and with the increase of the flow rate of fuel gas. When the CH4 ratio in the fuel gas is 25 pct, the fuel gas flow rate only has a limited influence on the jet characteristics, unlike the rest of the fuel gas compositions, because a high N2 proportion deteriorates the combustion performance and leads to severe incomplete combustion. Moreover, a false potential core phenomenon was observed and explained in the present study. Based on the average values, the jet length of a coherent jet with 75 pct CH4 can achieve 89.8 pct of that with 100 pct CH4. Finally, an industrial experiment was carried out on a commercial 100t EAF using coherent jet with 75 pct CH4, showing that the average CH4 consumption was reduced from 3.84 to 3.05 Nm3 t-1 under the premise of no obvious changes in the other production indexes.

  9. Performance of Aqueous Film Forming Foam (AFFF) on Large-Scale Hydroprocessed Renewable Jet (HRJ) Fuel Fires

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    aqueous film forming foam ( AFFF ) firefighting agents and equipment are capable of...AFRL-RX-TY-TR-2012-0012 PERFORMANCE OF AQUEOUS FILM FORMING FOAM ( AFFF ) ON LARGE-SCALE HYDROPROCESSED RENEWABLE JET (HRJ) FUEL FIRES...Performance of Aqueous Film Forming Foam ( AFFF ) on Large-Scale Hydroprocessed Renewable Jet (HRJ) Fuel Fires FA4819-09-C-0030 0602102F 4915 D0

  10. Investigation of air solubility in jet A fuel at high pressures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rupprecht, S. D.; Faeth, G. M.

    1981-01-01

    The solubility and density properties of saturated mixtures of fuels and gases were measured. The fuels consisted of Jet A and dodecane, the gases were air and nitrogen. The test range included pressures of 1.03 to 10.34 MPa and temperatures of 298 to 373 K. The results were correlated successfully, using the Soave equation of state. Over this test range, dissolved gas concentrations were roughly proportional to pressure and increased slightly with increasing temperature. Mixture density was relatively independent of dissolved gas concentration.

  11. Minimum-fuel, three-dimensional flight paths for jet transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neuman, F.; Kreindler, E.

    1985-01-01

    A number of studies dealing with fuel minimization are concerned with three-dimensional flight. However, only Neuman and Kreindler (1982) consider cases involving commercial jet transports. In the latter study, only the climb-out and descent portions of complete long-range flight paths below 10,000 ft altitude have been investigated. The present investigation is concerned with the computation of minimum-fuel nonturning and turning flight paths for climb-outs from 2000 to 10,000 ft for long-range flights (greater than 50 n mi), and for complete flight paths of lengths between 5 and 50 n mi.

  12. Study of Cetane Properties of ATJ Blends Based on World Survey of Jet Fuels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-01-28

    49.84 N/A N/A N/A 46.92 N/A N/A N/A 12 (100% Syn.) 1 57.79 N/A N/A N/A 53.48 N/A N/A N/A a - Conventional petroleum based jet fuel; b - Oil Shale ...Australia (% Nitrogen content unknown) c - Oil Shale , Australia (Low Nitrogen); d - Oil Shale , Australia (High Nitrogen) U/A – Unavailable in PQIS...fuel b - Oil Shale , Australia (% Nitrogen content unknown) c - Oil Shale , Australia (Low Nitrogen) d - Oil Shale , Australia (High Nitrogen) U/A

  13. Environmental Quality Research-Fate of Toxic Jet Fuel Components in Aquatic Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-12-01

    literature suggests that the maximum growt rate of Chlorella vulgaris is almost certainly between 1.5 and 2.5 days at water temperatures near 25°C...the results of an investigation of the potential toxic effects of the jet fuel JP-4 (petroleum-based and shale-based) on the aqueous environ- ment... investigated included fuel/ H 2 0 ratios and mixing times. Hydrocarbon composition of the WSF of JP-4, both petroleum e.nd shale-derived, appears to be

  14. Use of bacteriophage to prevent Pseudomonas aeruginosa contamination and fouling in Jet A aviation fuel.

    PubMed

    Bojanowski, Caitlin L; Crookes-Goodson, Wendy J; Robinson, Jayne B

    2016-11-01

    In the present study, the use of bacteriophages to prevent growth and/or biofouling by Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 was investigated in microcosms containing Jet A aviation fuel as the carbon source. Bacteriophages were found to be effective at preventing biofilm formation but did not always prevent planktonic growth in the microcosms. This result was at odds with experiments conducted in nutrient-rich medium, demonstrating the necessity to test antimicrobial and antifouling strategies under conditions as near as possible to the 'real world'. The success of the bacteriophages at preventing biofilm formation makes them potential candidates as antifouling agents for fuel systems.

  15. Preliminary analysis of aircraft fuel systems for use with broadened specification jet fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pasion, A. J.; Thomas, I.

    1977-01-01

    An analytical study was conducted on the use of broadened specification hydrocarbon fuels in present day aircraft. A short range Boeing 727 mission and three long range Boeing 747 missions were used as basis of calculation for one-day-per-year extreme values of fuel loading, airport ambient and altitude ambient temperatures with various seasonal and climatic conditions. Four hypothetical fuels were selected; two high-vapor-pressure fuels with 35 kPa and 70 kPa RVP and two high-freezing-point fuels with -29 C and -18 C freezing points. In-flight fuel temperatures were predicted by Boeing's aircraft fuel tank thermal analyzer computer program. Boil-off rates were calculated for the high vapor pressure fuels and heating/insulation requirements for the high freezing point fuels were established. Possible minor and major heating system modifications were investigated with respect to heat output, performance and economic penalties for the high freezing point fuels.

  16. Further studies of fuels from alternate sources - fire extinguishment experiments with JP-5 jet turbine fuel derived from shale. Final report

    SciT

    Hazlett, R.N.; Affens, W.A.; McLaren, G.W.

    1978-05-01

    Fire extinguishment experiments with JP-5 jet fuels derived from shale crude oil and also from petroleum (for comparison) were conducted at NRL's Chesapeake Bay facility. The experiments were conducted in a 40-foot diameter circular pool using Aqueous Film Forming Foam (AFFF) as the fire extinguishing agent. The results with both types of fuel were similar, and it was concluded that the techniques and agents for AFFF application, which have been developed for petroleum fuel fires, can also be used for shale derived jet fuel.

  17. Synthesis and analysis of jet fuel from shale oil and coal syncrudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallagher, J. P.; Collins, T. A.; Nelson, T. J.; Pedersen, M. J.; Robison, M. G.; Wisinski, L. J.

    1976-01-01

    Thirty-two jet fuel samples of varying properties were produced from shale oil and coal syncrudes, and analyzed to assess their suitability for use. TOSCO II shale oil and H-COAL and COED syncrudes were used as starting materials. The processes used were among those commonly in use in petroleum processing-distillation, hydrogenation and catalytic hydrocracking. The processing conditions required to meet two levels of specifications regarding aromatic, hydrogen, sulfur and nitrogen contents at two yield levels were determined and found to be more demanding than normally required in petroleum processing. Analysis of the samples produced indicated that if the more stringent specifications of 13.5% hydrogen (min.) and 0.02% nitrogen (max.) were met, products similar in properties to conventional jet fuels were obtained. In general, shale oil was easier to process (catalyst deactivation was seen when processing coal syncrudes), consumed less hydrogen and yielded superior products. Based on these considerations, shale oil appears to be preferred to coal as a petroleum substitute for jet fuel production.

  18. Mixing enhancement of reacting parallel fuel jets in a supersonic combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drummond, J. P.

    1991-01-01

    Pursuant to a NASA-Langley development program for a scramjet HST propulsion system entailing the optimization of the scramjet combustor's fuel-air mixing and reaction characteristics, a numerical study has been conducted of the candidate parallel fuel injectors. Attention is given to a method for flow mixing-process and combustion-efficiency enhancement in which a supersonic circular hydrogen jet coflows with a supersonic air stream. When enhanced by a planar oblique shock, the injector configuration exhibited a substantial degree of induced vorticity in the fuel stream which increased mixing and chemical reaction rates, relative to the unshocked configuration. The resulting heat release was effective in breaking down the stable hydrogen vortex pair that had inhibited more extensive fuel-air mixing.

  19. Reduced Equations for Calculating the Combustion Rates of Jet-A and Methane Fuel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molnar, Melissa; Marek, C. John

    2003-01-01

    Simplified kinetic schemes for Jet-A and methane fuels were developed to be used in numerical combustion codes, such as the National Combustor Code (NCC) that is being developed at Glenn. These kinetic schemes presented here result in a correlation that gives the chemical kinetic time as a function of initial overall cell fuel/air ratio, pressure, and temperature. The correlations would then be used with the turbulent mixing times to determine the limiting properties and progress of the reaction. A similar correlation was also developed using data from NASA's Chemical Equilibrium Applications (CEA) code to determine the equilibrium concentration of carbon monoxide as a function of fuel air ratio, pressure, and temperature. The NASA Glenn GLSENS kinetics code calculates the reaction rates and rate constants for each species in a kinetic scheme for finite kinetic rates. These reaction rates and the values obtained from the equilibrium correlations were then used to calculate the necessary chemical kinetic times. Chemical kinetic time equations for fuel, carbon monoxide, and NOx were obtained for both Jet-A fuel and methane.

  20. Determination of total and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in aviation jet fuel.

    PubMed

    Bernabei, M; Reda, R; Galiero, R; Bocchinfuso, G

    2003-01-24

    The aviation jet fuel widely used in turbine engine aircraft is manufactured from straight-run kerosene. The combustion quality of jet fuel is largely related to the hydrocarbon composition of the fuel itself; paraffins have better burning properties than aromatic compounds, especially naphthalenes and light polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which are characterised as soot and smoke producers. For this reason the burning quality of fuel is generally measured as smoke fermation. This evaluation is carried out with UV spectrophotometric determination of total naphthalene hydrocarbons and a chromatographic analysis to determine the total aromatic compounds. These methods can be considered insufficient to evaluate the human health impact of these compounds due to their inability to measure trace (ppm) amounts of each aromatic hyrcarbon and each PAH in accordance with limitations imposed because of their toxicological properties. In this paper two analytical methods are presented. Both are based on a gas chromatographic technique with a mass detector operating in be selected ion monitoring mode. The first method was able to determine more than 60 aromatic hydrocarbons in a fuel sample in a 35-min chromatographic run, while the second was able to carry out the analysis of more than 30 PAHs in a 40-min chromatographic run. The linearity and sensitivity of the methods in measuring these analytes at trace levels are described.

  1. Structure of Laminar Permanently Blue, Opposed-Jet Ethylene-Fueled Diffusion Flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, K.-C.; Faeth, G. M.; Urban, D. L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The structure and state relationships of laminar soot-free (permanently blue) ethylene-fueled diffusion flames at various strain rates were studied both experimentally and computationally using an opposed-jet configuration. Measurements of gas velocities, temperatures, and compositions were carried out along the stagnation stream line. Corresponding predictions of flame structure were obtained, based on numerical simulations using several contemporary reaction mechanisms for methane oxidation. Flame conditions studied included ethylene-fueled opposed-jet diffusion flames having stoichiometric mixture fractions of 0.7 with measurements involving strain rates of 60-240/s and predictions involving strain rates of 0-1140/s at normal temperature and pressure. It was found that measured major gas species concentrations and temperature distributions were in reasonably good agreement with predictions using mechanisms due to GRI-Mech and Peters and that effects of preferential diffusion significantly influence flame structure even when reactant mass diffusivities are similar. Oxygen leakage to fuel-rich conditions and carbon monoxide leakage to fuel-lean conditions both increased as strain rates increased. Furthermore, increased strain rates caused increased fuel concentrations near the flame sheet, decreased peak gas temperatures, and decreased concentrations of carbon dioxide and water vapor throughout the flames. State relationships for major gas species and gas temperatures were found to exist over a broad range of strain rates, providing potential for significant computational simplifications for modeling purposes in some instances.

  2. Structure of Laminar Permanently Blue, Opposed-Jet Ethylene-Fueled Diffusion Flames. Appendix E

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, K.-C.; Faeth, G. M.; Urban, D. L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The structure and state relationships of laminar soot-free (permanently blue) ethylene-fueled diffusion flames at various strain rates were studied both experimentally and computationally using an opposed-jet configuration. Measurements of gas velocities, temperatures, and compositions were carried out along the stagnation stream line. Corresponding predictions of flame structure were obtained, based on numerical simulations using several contemporary reaction mechanisms for methane oxidation. Flame conditions studied included ethylene-fueled opposed-jet diffusion flames having stoichiometric mixture fractions of 0.7 with measurements involving strain rates of 60-240/s and predictions involving strain rates of 0-1140/s at normal temperature and pressure. It was found that measured major gas species concentrations and temperature distributions were in reasonably good agreement with predictions using mechanisms due to GRI-Mech and Peters and that effects of preferential diffusion significantly influence flame structure even when reactant mass diffusivities are similar. Oxygen leakage to fuel-rich conditions and carbon monoxide leakage to fuel-lean conditions both increased as strain rates increased. Furthermore, increased strain rates caused increased fuel concentrations near the flame sheet, decreased peak gas temperatures, and decreased concentrations of carbon dioxide and water vapor throughout the flames. State relationships for major gas species and gas temperatures were found to exist over a broad range of strain rates, providing potential for significant computational simplifications for modeling purposes in some instances.

  3. Fuel Regression Characteristics of Cascaded Multistage Impinging-Jet (CAMUI) Type Hybrid Rocket

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itoh, Mitsunori; Maeda, Takenori; Kakikura, Akihito; Kaneko, Yudai; Mori, Kazuhiro; Nakashima, Takuji; Wakita, Masashi; Uematsu, Tsutomu; Totani, Tsuyoshi; Oshima, Nobuyuki; Nagata, Harunori

    A series of lab-scale firing tests was conducted to investigate the fuel regression characteristics of Cascaded Multistage Impinging-jet (CAMUI) type hybrid rocket. The alternative fuel grain used in this rocket consists of a number of cylindrical fuel blocks with two ports, which were aligned along the axis of the combustion chamber with a small gap. The ports are aligned staggered with respect to ones of neighboring blocks so that the combustion gas flow impinges on the forward-end surface of each block. In this fuel grain, forward-end surfaces, back-end surfaces and ports of fuel blocks contribute as burning surfaces. Polyethylene and LOX were used as a propellant, and the tests were conducted at the chamber pressure of 0.5 2MPa and the mass flux of 50 200kg/m2s. Main results obtained in this study are in the followings: The regression rate of each surface was obtained as a function of the propellant mass flux and local equivalent ratio of the combustion gas. At back-end surfaces the regression rate has a high sensitivity on the gap height of neighboring fuel blocks. These fuel regression characteristics will contribute as fundamental data to improve the optimum design of the fuel grain.

  4. Life-cycle analysis of greenhouse gas emissions from renewable jet fuel production.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Sierk; Antonissen, Kay; Hoefnagels, Ric; Lonza, Laura; Wang, Michael; Faaij, André; Junginger, Martin

    2017-01-01

    The introduction of renewable jet fuel (RJF) is considered an important emission mitigation measure for the aviation industry. This study compares the well-to-wake (WtWa) greenhouse gas (GHG) emission performance of multiple RJF conversion pathways and explores the impact of different co-product allocation methods. The insights obtained in this study are of particular importance if RJF is included as an emission mitigation instrument in the global Carbon Offsetting and Reduction Scheme for International Aviation (CORSIA). Fischer-Tropsch pathways yield the highest GHG emission reduction compared to fossil jet fuel (86-104%) of the pathways in scope, followed by Hydrothermal Liquefaction (77-80%) and sugarcane- (71-75%) and corn stover-based Alcohol-to-Jet (60-75%). Feedstock cultivation, hydrogen and conversion inputs were shown to be major contributors to the overall WtWa GHG emission performance. The choice of allocation method mainly affects pathways yielding high shares of co-products or producing co-products which effectively displace carbon intensive products (e.g., electricity). Renewable jet fuel can contribute to significant reduction of aviation-related GHG emissions, provided the right feedstock and conversion technology are used. The GHG emission performance of RJF may be further improved by using sustainable hydrogen sources or applying carbon capture and storage. Based on the character and impact of different co-product allocation methods, we recommend using energy and economic allocation (for non-energy co-products) at a global level, as it leverages the universal character of energy allocation while adequately valuing non-energy co-products.

  5. In vitro time- and dose-effect response of JP-8 and S-8 jet fuel on alveolar type II epithelial cells of rats.

    PubMed

    Robb, Tiffany M; Rogers, Michael J; Woodward, Suann S; Wong, Simon S; Witten, Mark L

    2010-07-01

    This study was designed to characterize and compare the effects of jet propellant-8 (JP-8) fuel and synthetic-8 (S-8) on cell viability and nitric oxide synthesis in cultured alveolar type II epithelial cells of rats. Exposure times varied from 0.25, 0.5, 1, and 6 hours at the following concentrations of jet fuel: 0.0, 0.1, 0.4, and 2.0 microg/mL. Data indicate that JP-8 presents a gradual decline in cell viability and steady elevation in nitric oxide release as exposure concentrations increase. At a 2.0 microg/mL concentration of JP-8, nearly all of the cells are not viable. Moreover, S-8 exposure to rat type II lung cells demonstrated an abrupt fall in percentage cell viability and increases in nitric oxide measurement, particularly after the 2.0 microg/mL was reached at 1 and 6 hours. At 0.0, 0.2, and 0.4 microg/mL concentrations of S-8, percentage viability was sustained at steady concentrations. The results suggest different epithelial toxicity and mechanistic effects of S-8 and JP-8, providing further insight concerning the impairment imposed at specific levels of lung function and pathology induced by the different fuels.

  6. Binder Jetting: A Novel Solid Oxide Fuel-Cell Fabrication Process and Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manogharan, Guha; Kioko, Meshack; Linkous, Clovis

    2015-03-01

    With an ever-growing concern to find a more efficient and less polluting means of producing electricity, fuel cells have constantly been of great interest. Fuel cells electrochemically convert chemical energy directly into electricity and heat without resorting to combustion/mechanical cycling. This article studies the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), which is a high-temperature (100°C to 1000°C) ceramic cell made from all solid-state components and can operate under a wide range of fuel sources such as hydrogen, methanol, gasoline, diesel, and gasified coal. Traditionally, SOFCs are fabricated using processes such as tape casting, calendaring, extrusion, and warm pressing for substrate support, followed by screen printing, slurry coating, spray techniques, vapor deposition, and sputter techniques, which have limited control in substrate microstructure. In this article, the feasibility of engineering the porosity and configuration of an SOFC via an additive manufacturing (AM) method known as binder jet printing was explored. The anode, cathode and oxygen ion-conducting electrolyte layers were fabricated through AM sequentially as a complete fuel cell unit. The cell performance was measured in two modes: (I) as an electrolytic oxygen pump and (II) as a galvanic electricity generator using hydrogen gas as the fuel. An analysis on influence of porosity was performed through SEM studies and permeability testing. An additional study on fuel cell material composition was conducted to verify the effects of binder jetting through SEM-EDS. Electrical discharge of the AM fabricated SOFC and nonlinearity of permeability tests show that, with additional work, the porosity of the cell can be modified for optimal performance at operating flow and temperature conditions.

  7. Exposure to tri-o-cresyl phosphate detected in jet airplane passengers.

    PubMed

    Liyasova, Mariya; Li, Bin; Schopfer, Lawrence M; Nachon, Florian; Masson, Patrick; Furlong, Clement E; Lockridge, Oksana

    2011-11-01

    The aircraft cabin and flight deck ventilation are supplied from partially compressed unfiltered bleed air directly from the engine. Worn or defective engine seals can result in the release of engine oil into the cabin air supply. Aircrew and passengers have complained of illness following such "fume events". Adverse health effects are hypothesized to result from exposure to tricresyl phosphate mixed esters, a chemical added to jet engine oil and hydraulic fluid for its anti-wear properties. Our goal was to develop a laboratory test for exposure to tricresyl phosphate. The assay was based on the fact that the active-site serine of butyrylcholinesterase reacts with the active metabolite of tri-o-cresyl phosphate, cresyl saligenin phosphate, to make a stable phosphorylated adduct with an added mass of 80 Da. No other organophosphorus agent makes this adduct in vivo on butyrylcholinesterase. Blood samples from jet airplane passengers were obtained 24-48 h after completing a flight. Butyrylcholinesterase was partially purified from 25 ml serum or plasma, digested with pepsin, enriched for phosphorylated peptides by binding to titanium oxide, and analyzed by mass spectrometry. Of 12 jet airplane passengers tested, 6 were positive for exposure to tri-o-cresyl phosphate that is, they had detectable amounts of the phosphorylated peptide FGEpSAGAAS. The level of exposure was very low. No more than 0.05 to 3% of plasma butyrylcholinesterase was modified. None of the subjects had toxic symptoms. Four of the positive subjects were retested 3 to 7 months following their last airplane trip and were found to be negative for phosphorylated butyrylcholinesterase. In conclusion, this is the first report of an assay that detects exposure to tri-o-cresyl phosphate in jet airplane travelers. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Exposure to tri-o-cresyl phosphate detected in jet airplane passengers

    PubMed Central

    Liyasova, Mariya; Li, Bin; Schopfer, Lawrence M.; Nachon, Florian; Masson, Patrick; Furlong, Clement E.; Lockridge, Oksana

    2011-01-01

    The aircraft cabin and flight deck ventilation are supplied from partially compressed unfiltered bleed air directly from the engine. Worn or defective engine seals can result in the release of engine oil into the cabin air supply. Aircrew and passengers have complained of illness following such “fume events”. Adverse health effects are hypothesized to result from exposure to tricresyl phosphate mixed esters, a chemical added to jet engine oil and hydraulic fluid for its anti-wear properties. Our goal was to develop a laboratory test for exposure to tricresyl phosphate. The assay was based on the fact that the active-site serine of butyrylcholinesterase reacts with the active metabolite of tri-o-cresyl phosphate, cresyl saligenin phosphate, to make a stable phosphorylated adduct with an added mass of 80 Da. No other organophosphorus agent makes this adduct in vivo on butyrylcholinesterase. Blood samples from jet airplane passengers were obtained 24–48 hours after completing a flight. Butyrylcholinesterase was partially purified from 25 ml serum or plasma, digested with pepsin, enriched for phosphorylated peptides by binding to titanium oxide, and analyzed by mass spectrometry. Of 12 jet airplane passengers tested, 6 were positive for exposure to tri-o-cresyl phosphate that is, they had detectable amounts of the phosphorylated peptide FGEpSAGAAS. The level of exposure was very low. No more than 0.05 to 3% of plasma butyrylcholinesterase was modified. None of the subjects had toxic symptoms. Four of the positive subjects were retested 3 to 7 months following their last airplane trip and were found to be negative for phosphorylated butyrylcholinesterase. In conclusion, this is the first report of an assay that detects exposure to tri-o-cresyl phosphate in jet airplane travelers. PMID:21723309

  9. Direct Coal -to-Liquids (CTL) for Jet Fuel Using Biomass-Derived Solvents

    SciT

    Chauhan, Satya P.; Garbark, Daniel B.; Taha, Rachid

    Battelle has demonstrated a novel and potentially breakthrough technology for a direct coal-to-liquids (CTL) process for producing jet fuel using biomass-derived coal solvents (bio-solvents). The Battelle process offers a significant reduction in capital and operating costs and a substantial reduction in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, without requiring carbon capture and storage (CCS). The results of the project are the advancement of three steps of the hybrid coal/biomass-to-jet fuel process to the technology readiness level (TRL) of 5. The project objectives were achieved over two phases. In Phase 1, all three major process steps were explored and refined at bench-scale, including:more » (1) biomass conversion to high hydrogen-donor bio-solvent; (2) coal dissolution in biomass-derived bio-solvent, without requiring molecular H 2, to produce a synthetic crude (syncrude); and (3) two-stage catalytic hydrotreating/hydrogenation of syncrude to jet fuel and other distillates. In Phase 2, all three subsystems of the CTL process were scaled up to a pre-pilot scale, and an economic analysis was carried out. A total of over 40 bio-solvents were identified and prepared. The most unique attribute of Battelle’s bio-solvents is their ability to provide much-needed hydrogen to liquefy coal and thus increase its hydrogen content so much that the resulting syncrude is liquid at room temperature. Based on the laboratory-scale testing with bituminous coals from Ohio and West Virginia, a total of 12 novel bio-solvent met the goal of greater than 80% coal solubility, with 8 bio-solvents being as good as or better than a well-known but expensive hydrogen-donor solvent, tetralin. The Battelle CTL process was then scaled up to 1 ton/day (1TPD) at a pre-pilot facility operated in Morgantown, WV. These tests were conducted, in part, to produce enough material for syncrude-upgrading testing. To convert the Battelle-CTL syncrude into a form suitable as a blending stock for jet turbine

  10. Impact of aviation non-CO₂ combustion effects on the environmental feasibility of alternative jet fuels.

    PubMed

    Stratton, Russell W; Wolfe, Philip J; Hileman, James I

    2011-12-15

    Alternative fuels represent a potential option for reducing the climate impacts of the aviation sector. The climate impacts of alternatives fuel are traditionally considered as a ratio of life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to those of the displaced petroleum product; however, this ignores the climate impacts of the non-CO(2) combustion effects from aircraft in the upper atmosphere. The results of this study show that including non-CO(2) combustion emissions and effects in the life cycle of a Synthetic Paraffinic Kerosene (SPK) fuel can lead to a decrease in the relative merit of the SPK fuel relative to conventional jet fuel. For example, an SPK fuel option with zero life cycle GHG emissions would offer a 100% reduction in GHG emissions but only a 48% reduction in actual climate impact using a 100-year time window and the nominal climate modeling assumption set outlined herein. Therefore, climate change mitigation policies for aviation that rely exclusively on relative well-to-wake life cycle GHG emissions as a proxy for aviation climate impact may overestimate the benefit of alternative fuel use on the global climate system.

  11. Liquid Fuel Emulsion Jet-in-Crossflow Penetration and Dispersion Under High Pressure Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez, Guillermo Andres

    The current work focuses on the jet-in-crossflow penetration and dispersion behavior of water-in-oil emulsions in a high pressure environment. Both fuel injection strategies of using a water-in-oil emulsion and a jet-in-crossflow have demonstrated unique benefits in improving gas turbine performance from an emissions and efficiency standpoint. A jet-in-crossflow is very practical for use in gas turbine engines, rocket propulsion, and aircraft engines since it utilizes already available crossflow air to atomize fuel. Injecting water into a combustion chamber in the form of a water-in-oil emulsion allows for pollutant emissions reduction while reducing efficiency loses that may result from using a separate water or steam injection circuit. Dispersion effects on oil droplets are expected, therefore investigating the distribution of both oil and water droplets in the crossflow is an objective in this work. Understanding the synchronization and injection behavior of the two strategies is of key interest due to their combined benefits. A water-to-oil ratio and an ambient pressure parameter are developed for emulsion jet-in-crossflow trajectories. To this end, a total of 24 emulsion jet-in-crossflow tests were performed with varying ambient pressures of 2-8 atm and momentum flux ratios of 50, 85, and 120. Sobel edge filtering was applied to each averaged image obtained from a high speed video of each test case. Averaged and filtered images were used to resolve top and bottom edges of the trajectory in addition to the overall peak intensity up to 40 mm downstream of the injection point. An optimized correlation was established and found to differ from literature based correlations obtained under atmospheric pressure conditions. Overall it was found that additional parameters were not necessary for the top edge and peak intensity correlations, but a need for a unique emulsion bottom edge and width trajectory correlation was recognized. In addition to investigating emulsion

  12. Deposit formation in liquid fuels. II - The effect of selected compounds on the storage stability of Jet A turbine fuel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Worstell, J. H.; Daniel, S. R.

    1981-01-01

    The influence of substituted pyridines, pyrroles, indoles, and quinolines on the storage stability of conventional Jet A turbine fuel is evaluated. Significant increases in the amount of deposit formed in accelerated storage tests are found upon addition of these compounds at levels as low as one ppm nitrogen. While the effect is correlated with basicity of the nitrogen compound within a given compound class, the correlation does not hold between classes (pyridines, quinolines, etc.). Steric hindrance at the nitrogen atom greatly inhibits deposit promotion. The characteristics, but not the elemental composition, of deposits vary with the identity of the added nitrogen compound and with deposition temperature.

  13. Cryogenic and Simulated Fuel Jet Breakup in Argon, Helium and Nitrogen Gas Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingebo, Robert D.

    1995-01-01

    Two-phase flow atomization of liquid nitrogen jets was experimentally investigated. They were co-axially injected into high-velocity gas flows of helium, nitrogen and argon, respectively, and atomized internally inside a two-fluid fuel nozzle. Cryogenic sprays with relatively high specific surface areas were produced, i.e., ratios of surface area to volume were fairly high. This was indicated by values of reciprocal Sauter mean diameters, RSMD's, as measured with a scattered- light scanning instrument developed at NASA Lewis Research Center. Correlating expressions were derived for the three atomizing gases over a gas temperature range of 111 to 422 K. Also, the correlation was extended to include waterjet breakup data that had been previously obtained in simulating fuel jet breakup in sonic velocity gas flow. The final correlating expression included a new dimensionless molecular-scale acceleration group. It was needed to correlate RSMD data, for LN2 and H2O sprays, with the fluid properties of the liquid jets and atomizing gases used in this investigation.

  14. Life cycle assessment of camelina oil derived biodiesel and jet fuel in the Canadian Prairies.

    PubMed

    Li, Xue; Mupondwa, Edmund

    2014-05-15

    This study evaluated the environmental impact of biodiesel and hydroprocessed renewable jet fuel derived from camelina oil in terms of global warming potential, human health, ecosystem quality, and energy resource consumption. The life cycle inventory is based on production activities in the Canadian Prairies and encompasses activities ranging from agricultural production to oil extraction and fuel conversion. The system expansion method is used in this study to avoid allocation and to credit input energy to co-products associated with the products displaced in the market during camelina oil extraction and fuel processing. This is the preferred allocation method for LCA analysis in the context of most renewable and sustainable energy programs. The results show that greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from 1 MJ of camelina derived biodiesel ranged from 7.61 to 24.72 g CO2 equivalent and 3.06 to 31.01 kg CO2/MJ equivalent for camelina HRJ fuel. Non-renewable energy consumption for camelina biodiesel ranged from 0.40 to 0.67 MJ/MJ; HRJ fuel ranged from -0.13 to 0.52 MJ/MJ. Camelina oil as a feedstock for fuel production accounted for the highest contribution to overall environmental performance, demonstrating the importance of reducing environmental burdens during the agricultural production process. Attaining higher seed yield would dramatically lower environmental impacts associated with camelina seed, oil, and fuel production. The lower GHG emissions and energy consumption associated with camelina in comparison with other oilseed derived fuel and petroleum fuel make camelina derived fuel from Canadian Prairies environmentally attractive. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Gum and deposit formation from jet turbine and diesel fuels at 100/sup 0/C

    SciT

    Mayo, F.R.; Lan, B.Y.

    1987-02-01

    Rates of oxidation and gum formation for six hydrocarbons, three jet turbine fuels and three diesel fuels have been measured at 100/sup 0/C in the presence of t-Bu/sub 2/O/sub 2/ as initiator. Four of the six fuels oxidize faster at 100/sup 0/C than in previous work at 130/sup 0/C without initiator. For any single substrate, the amount of gum produced for the oxygen absorbed is similar at 100 and 130/sup 0/C, even with large changes in rates and t-Bu/sub 2/O/sub 2/ concentrations. In general, the pure hydrocarbons have long kinetic chains and give good yields of hydroperoxides.

  16. Advanced thermally stable jet fuels. Technical progress report, January 1995--March 1995

    SciT

    Schobert, H.H.; Eser, S.; Song, C.

    Quantitative structure-property relationships have been applied to study the thermal stability of pure hydrocarbons typical of jet fuel components. A simple method of chemical structure description in terms of Benson groups was tested in searching for structure-property relationships for the hydrocarbons tested experimentally in this program. Molecular connectivity as a structure-based approach to chemical structure-property relationship analysis was also tested. Further development of both the experimental data base and computational methods will be necessary. Thermal decomposition studies, using glass tube reactors, were extended to two additional model compounds: n-decane and n-dodecane. Efforts on refining the deposit growth measurement and characterizationmore » of suspended matter in stressed fuels have lead to improvements in the analysis of stressed fuels. Catalytic hydrogenation and dehydrogenation studies utilizing a molybdenum sulfide catalyst are also described.« less

  17. Agronomic comparison of several brassica species in the U.S. Corn Belt as feedstock for hydrotreated jet fuel

    Through a patented process developed in the U.S., hydrotreated renewable jet fuel (HRJ) derived from plant oils has been commercially demonstrated. However, full-scale production has not yet come to fruition because HRJ is not economically competitive with petroleum-based fuels due to high feedstock...

  18. Comparison of several Brassica species in the north central U.S. for potential jet fuel feedstock

    Hydrotreated renewable jet fuel (HRJ) derived from crop oils has been commercially demonstrated but full-scale production has been hindered by feedstock costs that make the product more costly than petroleum-based fuels. Maintaining low feedstock costs while developing crops attractive to farmers to...

  19. Lubricity of well-characterized jet and broad-cut fuels by ball-on-cylinder machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prok, G. M.; Kim, W. S.

    1984-01-01

    A ball-on-cylinder machine (BOCM) was used to measure the lubricity of fuels. The fuels tested were well-characterized fuels available from other programs at the NASA Lewis Research Center plus some in-house mildly hydroprocessed shale fuels from other programs included Jet-A, ERBS fuel, ERBS blends, and blend stock. The BOCM tests were made before and after clay treatment of some of these fuels with both humidified air and dry nitrogen as the preconditioning and cover gas. As expected, clay treatment always reduced fuel lubricity. Using nitrogen preconditioning and cover gas always resulted in a smaller wear scar diameter than when humidified air was used. Also observed was an indication of lower lubricity with lower boiling range fuels and lower aromatic fuels. Gas chromatographic analysis indicted changes in BOCM-stressed fuels.

  20. Performance and emissions of a catalytic reactor with propane, diesel, and Jet A fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, D. N.

    1977-01-01

    Tests were made to determine the performance and emissions of a catalytic reactor operated with propane, No. 2 diesel, and Jet A fuels. A 12-cm diameter and 16-cm long catalytic reactor using a proprietary noble metal catalyst was operated at an inlet temperature of 800 K, a pressure of 300,000 Pa and reference velocities of 10 to 15 m/s. No significant differences between the performance of the three fuels were observed when 98.5 percent purity propane was used. The combustion efficiency for 99.8-percent purity propane tested later was significantly lower, however. The diesel fuel contained 135 ppm of bound nitrogen and consequently produced the highest NOx emissions of the three fuels. As much as 85 percent of the bound nitrogen was converted to NOx. Steady-state emissions goals based on half the most stringent proposed automotive standards were met when the reactor was operated at an adiabatic combustion temperature higher than 1350 K with all fuels except the 99.8-percent purity propane. With that fuel, a minimum temperature of 1480 K was required.

  1. The costs of production of alternative jet fuel: A harmonized stochastic assessment.

    PubMed

    Bann, Seamus J; Malina, Robert; Staples, Mark D; Suresh, Pooja; Pearlson, Matthew; Tyner, Wallace E; Hileman, James I; Barrett, Steven

    2017-03-01

    This study quantifies and compares the costs of production for six alternative jet fuel pathways using consistent financial and technical assumptions. Uncertainty was propagated through the analysis using Monte Carlo simulations. The six processes assessed were HEFA, advanced fermentation, Fischer-Tropsch, aqueous phase processing, hydrothermal liquefaction, and fast pyrolysis. The results indicate that none of the six processes would be profitable in the absence of government incentives, with HEFA using yellow grease, HEFA using tallow, and FT revealing the lowest mean jet fuel prices at $0.91/liter ($0.66/liter-$1.24/liter), $1.06/liter ($0.79/liter-$1.42/liter), and $1.15/liter ($0.95/liter-$1.39/liter), respectively. This study also quantifies plant performance in the United States with a Renewable Fuel Standard policy analysis. Results indicate that some pathways could achieve positive NPV with relatively high likelihood under existing policy supports, with HEFA and FPH revealing the highest probability of positive NPV at 94.9% and 99.7%, respectively, in the best-case scenario. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Phenomenological study of the behavior of some silica formers in a high velocity jet fuel burner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cawley, J. D.; Handschuh, R. F.

    1985-01-01

    Samples of four silica formers: single crystal SiC, sintered alpha-SiC, reaction sintered Si3N4 and polycrystalline MoSi2, were subjected to a Mach 1 jet fuel burner for 1 hr, at a sample temperature of 1375 deg C (2500 deg F). Two phenomena were identified which may be deleterious to a gas turbine application of these materials. The glass layer formed on the MoSi2 deformed appreciably under the aerodynamic load. A scale developed on the samples of the other materials which consisted of particular matter from the gas stream entrapped in a SiO2 matrix.

  3. Biodegradation of Jet Fuel-4 (JP-4) in Sequencing Batch Reactors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-06-01

    nalw~eo %CUMENTATION PAGE__ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _O 74S Ab -A258 020 L AW POi~W6 DATI .~ TYP AIMqm ,-& 0 U. glbs A~ I ma"&LFUN Mu BIODEGRADATION OF JET FUEL...Specific Objectives of This Proposal Are: 1. To assess the ability of C. resinae , P. chrysosporium and selected bacterial consortia to degrade individual...chemical components of JP-4. 2. To develop a sequencing batch reactor that utilizes C. resinae to degrade chemical components of JP-4 in contaminated

  4. Subtask 3.11 - Production of CBTL-Based Jet Fuels from Biomass-Based Feedstocks and Montana Coal

    SciT

    Sharma, Ramesh

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC), in partnership with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Accelergy Corporation, an advanced fuels developer with technologies exclusively licensed from Exxon Mobil, undertook Subtask 3.11 to use a recently installed bench-scale direct coal liquefaction (DCL) system capable of converting 45 pounds/hour of pulverized, dried coal to a liquid suitable for upgrading to fuels and/or chemicals. The process involves liquefaction of Rosebud mine coal (Montana coal) coupled with an upgrading scheme to produce a naphthenic fuel. The upgrading comprises catalytic hydrotreating and saturation to produce naphthenic fuel. A synthetic jet fuel was preparedmore » by blending equal volumes of naphthenic fuel with similar aliphatic fuel derived from biomass and 11 volume % of aromatic hydrocarbons. The synthetic fuel was tested using standard ASTM International techniques to determine compliance with JP-8 fuel. The composite fuel thus produced not only meets but exceeds the military aviation fuel-screening criteria. A 500-milliliter synthetic jet fuel sample which met internal screening criteria was submitted to the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) at Wright–Patterson Air Force Base, Dayton, Ohio, for evaluation. The sample was confirmed by AFRL to be in compliance with U.S. Air Force-prescribed alternative aviation fuel initial screening criteria. The results show that this fuel meets or exceeds the key specification parameters for JP-8, a petroleum-based jet fuel widely used by the U.S. military. JP-8 specifications include parameters such as freeze point, density, flash point, and others; all of which were met by the EERC fuel sample. The fuel also exceeds the thermal stability specification of JP-8 fuel as determined by the quartz crystalline microbalance (QCM) test also performed at an independent laboratory as well as AFRL. This means that the EERC fuel looks and acts identically to petroleum-derived jet fuel and can

  5. Chemical Processing of Non-Crop Plants for Jet Fuel Blends Production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulis, M. J.; Hepp, A. F.; McDowell, M.; Ribita, D.

    2009-01-01

    The use of Biofuels has been gaining in popularity over the past few years due to their ability to reduce the dependence on fossil fuels. Biofuels as a renewable energy source can be a viable option for sustaining long-term energy needs if they are managed efficiently. We describe our initial efforts to exploit algae, halophytes and other non-crop plants to produce synthetics for fuel blends that can potentially be used as fuels for aviation and non-aerospace applications. Our efforts have been dedicated to crafting efficient extraction and refining processes in order to extract constituents from the plant materials with the ultimate goal of determining the feasibility of producing biomass-based jet fuel from the refined extract. Two extraction methods have been developed based on communition processes, and liquid-solid extraction techniques. Refining procedures such as chlorophyll removal and transesterification of triglycerides have been performed. Gas chromatography in tandem with mass spectroscopy is currently being utilized in order to qualitatively determine the individual components of the refined extract. We also briefly discuss and compare alternative methods to extract fuel-blending agents from alternative biofuels sources.

  6. Comparison of PM emissions from a commercial jet engine burning conventional, biomass, and Fischer-Tropsch fuels.

    PubMed

    Lobo, Prem; Hagen, Donald E; Whitefield, Philip D

    2011-12-15

    Rising fuel costs, an increasing desire to enhance security of energy supply, and potential environmental benefits have driven research into alternative renewable fuels for commercial aviation applications. This paper reports the results of the first measurements of particulate matter (PM) emissions from a CFM56-7B commercial jet engine burning conventional and alternative biomass- and, Fischer-Tropsch (F-T)-based fuels. PM emissions reductions are observed with all fuels and blends when compared to the emissions from a reference conventional fuel, Jet A1, and are attributed to fuel properties associated with the fuels and blends studied. Although the alternative fuel candidates studied in this campaign offer the potential for large PM emissions reductions, with the exception of the 50% blend of F-T fuel, they do not meet current standards for aviation fuel and thus cannot be considered as certified replacement fuels. Over the ICAO Landing Takeoff Cycle, which is intended to simulate aircraft engine operations that affect local air quality, the overall PM number-based emissions for the 50% blend of F-T fuel were reduced by 34 ± 7%, and the mass-based emissions were reduced by 39 ± 7%.

  7. Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography for the analysis of synthetic and crude-derived jet fuels.

    PubMed

    van der Westhuizen, Rina; Ajam, Mariam; De Coning, Piet; Beens, Jan; de Villiers, André; Sandra, Pat

    2011-07-15

    Fully synthetic jet fuel (FSJF) produced via Fischer-Tropsch (FT) technology was recently approved by the international aviation fuel authorities. To receive approval, comparison of FSJF and crude-derived fuel and blends on their qualitative and quantitative hydrocarbon composition was of utmost importance. This was performed by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC) in the reversed phase mode. The hydrocarbon composition of synthetic and crude-derived jet fuels is very similar and all compounds detected in the synthetic product are also present in crude-derived fuels. Quantitatively, the synthetic fuel consists of a higher degree of aliphatic branching with less than half the aromatic content of the crude-derived fuel. GC×GC analyses also indicated the presence of trace levels of hetero-atomic impurities in the crude-derived product that were absent in the synthetic product. While clay-treatment removed some of the impurities and improved the fuel stability, the crude-derived product still contained traces of cyclic and aromatic S-containing compounds afterwards. Lower level of aromatics and the absence of sulphur are some of the factors that contribute to the better fuel stability and environmental properties of the synthetic fuel. GC×GC was further applied for the analysis of products during Jet Fuel Thermal Oxidation Testing (JFTOT), which measures deposit formation of a fuel under simulated engine conditions. JFTOT showed the synthetic fuel to be much more stable than the crude-derived fuel. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Refinery Integration of By-Products from Coal-Derived Jet Fuels

    SciT

    Caroline E. Burgess Clifford; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song

    2006-05-17

    This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the first six months of the third year of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts, acquisition and installation of a research gasoline engine, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. Characterization of the gasolinemore » fuel indicates a dominance of single ring alkylcycloalkanes that have a low octane rating; however, blends containing these compounds do not have a negative effect upon gasoline when blended in refinery gasoline streams. Characterization of the diesel fuel indicates a dominance of 3-ring aromatics that have a low cetane value; however, these compounds do not have a negative effect upon diesel when blended in refinery diesel streams. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Equipment is now in place to begin fuel oil evaluations to assess the quality of coal based fuel oil. Combustion and characterization of fuel oil indicates that the fuel is somewhere in between a No. 4 and a No. 6 fuel oil. Emission testing indicates the fuel burns similarly to these two fuels, but trace metals for the coal-based material are different than petroleum-based fuel oils. Co-coking studies using cleaned coal are highly reproducible in the pilot-scale delayed coker. Evaluation of the coke by Alcoa, Inc. indicated that while the coke produced is of very good quality, the metals content of the carbon is still high in iron and silica. Coke is being evaluated for other possible

  9. The study of the plasma jets of lead and silver simulating spent nuclear fuel components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonov, N. N.; Gavrikov, A. V.; Smirnov, V. P.; Liziakin, G. D.; Usmanov, R. A.; Vorona, N. A.; Timirkhanov, R. A.

    2018-01-01

    One of the tasks that must be solved to develop a spent nuclear fuel (SNF) plasma separation method is a creation of plasma source of substances simulating SNF components. Plasma of the diffuse arc discharge in a magnetic field with an incandescent cathode was considered in this paper, as such source. The discharge was initiated in a model substances vapor (lead and silver). Evaporation was carried out by crucible induction heating. Current- voltage characteristics of the discharge were obtained. Spectral analysis of the plasma jets radiation and double probe characteristics measurements in the area behind the anode were carried out. The minimum potential difference between the anode and cathode reached a value of about 7 V at current of about 1 A. When the potential difference in the discharge gap was close to 30 V (4.5 A) and 10 V (5.2 A) electron temperature in the plasma jet was 5-7 eV and 1-3 eV, respectively. Plasma density in jets took the value from 1011 cm-3 to 1012 cm-3. The obtained results indicate the possibility of using this type of discharge for the SNF plasma separation method approbation.

  10. Reduction of gaseous pollutant emissions from gas turbine combustors using hydrogen-enriched jet fuel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clayton, R. M.

    1976-01-01

    Recent progress in an evaluation of the applicability of the hydrogen enrichment concept to achieve ultralow gaseous pollutant emission from gas turbine combustion systems is described. The target emission indexes for the program are 1.0 for oxides of nitrogen and carbon monoxide, and 0.5 for unburned hydrocarbons. The basic concept utilizes premixed molecular hydrogen, conventional jet fuel, and air to depress the lean flammability limit of the mixed fuel. This is shown to permit very lean combustion with its low NOx production while simulataneously providing an increased flame stability margin with which to maintain low CO and HC emission. Experimental emission characteristics and selected analytical results are presented for a cylindrical research combustor designed for operation with inlet-air state conditions typical for a 30:1 compression ratio, high bypass ratio, turbofan commercial engine.

  11. Mathematical model of an indirect action fuel flow controller for aircraft jet engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tudosie, Alexandru-Nicolae

    2017-06-01

    The paper deals with a fuel mass flow rate controller with indirect action for aircraft jet engines. The author has identified fuel controller's main parts and its operation mode, then, based on these observations, one has determined motion equations of each main part, which have built system's non-linear mathematical model. In order to realize a better study this model was linearised (using the finite differences method) and then adimensionalized. Based on this new form of the mathematical model, after applying Laplace transformation, the embedded system (controller+engine) was described by the block diagram with transfer functions. Some Simulink-Matlab simulations were performed, concerning system's time behavior for step input, which lead to some useful conclusions and extension possibilities.

  12. Long-term fuel retention in JET ITER-like wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinola, K.; Widdowson, A.; Likonen, J.; Alves, E.; Baron-Wiechec, A.; Barradas, N.; Brezinsek, S.; Catarino, N.; Coad, P.; Koivuranta, S.; Krat, S.; Matthews, G. F.; Mayer, M.; Petersson, P.; Contributors, JET

    2016-02-01

    Post-mortem studies with ion beam analysis, thermal desorption, and secondary ion mass spectrometry have been applied for investigating the long-term fuel retention in the JET ITER-like wall components. The retention takes place via implantation and co-deposition, and the highest retention values were found to correlate with the thickness of the deposited impurity layers. From the total amount of retained D fuel over half was detected in the divertor region. The majority of the retained D is on the top surface of the inner divertor, whereas the least retention was measured in the main chamber on the mid-plane of the inner wall limiter. The recessed areas of the inner wall showed significant contribution to the main chamber total retention. Thermal desorption spectroscopy analysis revealed the energetic T from DD reactions being implanted in the divertor. The total T inventory was assessed to be \\gt 0.3 {{mg}}.

  13. Hydrocarbon bio-jet fuel from bioconversion of poplar biomass: techno-economic assessment.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Jordan T; Shan, Chin Wei; Budsberg, Erik; Morgan, Hannah; Bura, Renata; Gustafson, Rick

    2016-01-01

    Infrastructure compatible hydrocarbon biofuel proposed to qualify as renewable transportation fuel under the U.S. Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 and Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS2) is evaluated. The process uses a hybrid poplar feedstock, which undergoes dilute acid pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. Sugars are fermented to acetic acid, which undergoes conversion to ethyl acetate, ethanol, ethylene, and finally a saturated hydrocarbon end product. An unfermentable lignin stream may be burned for steam and electricity production, or gasified to produce hydrogen. During biofuel production, hydrogen gas is required and may be obtained by various methods including lignin gasification. Both technical and economic aspects of the biorefinery are analyzed, with different hydrogen sources considered including steam reforming of natural gas and gasification of lignin. Cash operating costs for jet fuel production are estimated to range from 0.67 to 0.86 USD L -1 depending on facility capacity. Minimum fuel selling prices with a 15 % discount rate are estimated to range from 1.14 to 1.79 USD L -1 . Capacities of 76, 190, and 380 million liters of jet fuel per year are investigated. Capital investments range from 356 to 1026 million USD. A unique biorefinery is explored to produce a hydrocarbon biofuel with a high yield from bone dry wood of 330 L t -1 . This yield is achieved chiefly due to the use of acetogenic bacteria that do not produce carbon dioxide as a co-product during fermentation. Capital investment is significant in the biorefinery in part because hydrogen is required to produce a fully de-oxygenated fuel. Minimum selling price to achieve reasonable returns on investment is sensitive to capital financing options because of high capital costs. Various strategies, such as producing alternative, intermediate products, are investigated with the intent to reduce risk in building the proposed facility. It appears that producing and selling these

  14. Composition-explicit distillation curves of aviation fuel JP-8 and a coal-based jet fuel

    SciT

    Beverly L. Smith; Thomas J. Bruno

    2007-09-15

    We have recently introduced several important improvements in the measurement of distillation curves for complex fluids. The modifications to the classical measurement provide for (1) a composition explicit data channel for each distillate fraction (for both qualitative and quantitative analysis); (2) temperature measurements that are true thermodynamic state points; (3) temperature, volume, and pressure measurements of low uncertainty suitable for an equation of state development; (4) consistency with a century of historical data; (5) an assessment of the energy content of each distillate fraction; (6) a trace chemical analysis of each distillate fraction; and (7) a corrosivity assessment of eachmore » distillate fraction. The most significant modification is achieved with a new sampling approach that allows precise qualitative as well as quantitative analyses of each fraction, on the fly. We have applied the new method to the measurement of rocket propellant, gasoline, and jet fuels. In this paper, we present the application of the technique to representative batches of the military aviation fuel JP-8, and also to a coal-derived fuel developed as a potential substitute. We present not only the distillation curves but also a chemical characterization of each fraction and discuss the contrasts between the two fluids. 26 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.« less

  15. Overview of fuel inventory in JET with the ITER-like wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widdowson, A.; Coad, J. P.; Alves, E.; Baron-Wiechec, A.; Barradas, N. P.; Brezinsek, S.; Catarino, N.; Corregidor, V.; Heinola, K.; Koivuranta, S.; Krat, S.; Lahtinen, A.; Likonen, J.; Matthews, G. F.; Mayer, M.; Petersson, P.; Rubel, M.; Contributors, JET

    2017-08-01

    Post mortem analyses of JET ITER-Like-Wall tiles and passive diagnostics have been completed after each of the first two campaigns (ILW-1 and ILW-2). They show that the global fuel inventory is still dominated by co-deposition; hence plasma parameters and sputtering processes affecting material migration influence the distribution of retained fuel. In particular, differences between results from the two campaigns may be attributed to a greater proportion of pulses run with strike points in the divertor corners, and having about 300 discharges in hydrogen at the end of ILW-2. Recessed and remote areas can contribute to fuel retention due to the larger areas involved, e.g. recessed main chamber walls, gaps in castellated Be main chamber tiles and material migration to remote divertor areas. The fuel retention and material migration due to the bulk W Tile 5 during ILW-1 are presented. Overall these tiles account for only a small percentage of the global accountancy for ILW-1.

  16. Gum and deposit formation from jet-turbine and diesel fuels at 100 C

    SciT

    Mayo, F.R.; Lan, B.Y.

    1987-01-01

    Rates of oxidation and gum formation for six hydrocarbons, three jet-turbine fuels and three diesel fuels have been measured at 100 C in the presence of t-Bu2O2 tert-butyl-peroxide as initiator. Four of six fuels oxidize faster at 100 C than in previous work at 130 C with initiator. Four any single substrate, the amount of gum produced for the oxygen absorbed is similar at 100 and 130 C even with large changes in rates and t-Bu2O2 concentrations. Thus, one mechanism of gum formation is intimately associated with oxidation. The effects of t-Bu2O2 concentration on the rates of oxygen absorption andmore » gum formation show that gum formation is associated with chain termination by two peroxy radicals. In general, the pure hydrocarbons have long kinetic chains and give good yields of hydroperoxides. The fuels give short kinetic chains and produce little hydroperoxide but but much more gum formation is the coupling of substrates by peroxides in the absence of oxygen. The mechanism, condensation of oxidation products from alkylnaphthalenes, is also proposed.« less

  17. Air impacts from three alternatives for producing JP-8 jet fuel.

    PubMed

    Kositkanawuth, Ketwalee; Gangupomu, Roja Haritha; Sattler, Melanie L; Dennis, Brian H; MacDonnell, Frederick M; Billo, Richard; Priest, John W

    2012-10-01

    To increase U.S. petroleum energy independence, the University of Texas at Arlington (UT Arlington) has developed a direct coal liquefaction process which uses a hydrogenated solvent and a proprietary catalyst to convert lignite coal to crude oil. This sweet crude can be refined to form JP-8 military jet fuel, as well as other end products like gasoline and diesel. This paper presents an analysis of air pollutants resulting from using UT Arlington's liquefaction process to produce crude and then JP-8, compared with 2 alternative processes: conventional crude extraction and refining (CCER), and the Fischer-Tropsch process. For each of the 3 processes, air pollutant emissions through production of JP-8 fuel were considered, including emissions from upstream extraction/ production, transportation, and conversion/refining. Air pollutants from the direct liquefaction process were measured using a LandTEC GEM2000 Plus, Draeger color detector tubes, OhioLumex RA-915 Light Hg Analyzer, and SRI 8610 gas chromatograph with thermal conductivity detector. According to the screening analysis presented here, producing jet fuel from UT Arlington crude results in lower levels of pollutants compared to international conventional crude extraction/refining. Compared to US domestic CCER, the UTA process emits lower levels of CO2-e, NO(x), and Hg, and higher levels of CO and SO2. Emissions from the UT Arlington process for producing JP-8 are estimated to be lower than for the Fischer-Tropsch process for all pollutants, with the exception of CO2-e, which were high for the UT Arlington process due to nitrous oxide emissions from crude refining. When comparing emissions from conventional lignite combustion to produce electricity, versus UT Arlington coal liquefaction to make JP-8 and subsequent JP-8 transport, emissions from the UT Arlington process are estimated to be lower for all air pollutants, per MJ of power delivered to the end user. The United States currently imports two

  18. Stochastic techno-economic analysis of alcohol-to-jet fuel production.

    PubMed

    Yao, Guolin; Staples, Mark D; Malina, Robert; Tyner, Wallace E

    2017-01-01

    Alcohol-to-jet (ATJ) is one of the technical feasible biofuel technologies. It produces jet fuel from sugary, starchy, and lignocellulosic biomass, such as sugarcane, corn grain, and switchgrass, via fermentation of sugars to ethanol or other alcohols. This study assesses the ATJ biofuel production pathway for these three biomass feedstocks, and advances existing techno-economic analyses of biofuels in three ways. First, we incorporate technical uncertainty for all by-products and co-products though statistical linkages between conversion efficiencies and input and output levels. Second, future price uncertainty is based on case-by-case time-series estimation, and a local sensitivity analysis is conducted with respect to each uncertain variable. Third, breakeven price distributions are developed to communicate the inherent uncertainty in breakeven price. This research also considers uncertainties in utility input requirements, fuel and by-product outputs, as well as price uncertainties for all major inputs, products, and co-products. All analyses are done from the perspective of a private firm. The stochastic dominance results of net present values (NPV) and breakeven price distributions show that sugarcane is the lowest cost feedstock over the entire range of uncertainty with the least risks, followed by corn grain and switchgrass, with the mean breakeven jet fuel prices being $0.96/L ($3.65/gal), $1.01/L ($3.84/gal), and $1.38/L ($5.21/gal), respectively. The variation of revenues from by-products in corn grain pathway can significantly impact its profitability. Sensitivity analyses show that technical uncertainty significantly impacts breakeven price and NPV distributions. Technical uncertainty is critical in determining the economic performance of the ATJ fuel pathway. Technical uncertainty needs to be considered in future economic analyses. The variation of revenues from by-products plays a significant role in profitability. With the distribution of breakeven

  19. Spontaneous ignition in afterburner segment tests at an inlet temperature of 1240 K and a pressure of 1 atmosphere with ASTM jet-A fuel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultz, D. F.; Branstetter, J. R.

    1973-01-01

    A brief testing program was undertaken to determine if spontaneous ignition and stable combustion could be obtained in a jet engine afterburning operating with an inlet temperature of 1240 K and a pressure of 1 atmosphere with ASTM Jet-A fuel. Spontaneous ignition with 100-percent combustion efficiency and stable burning was obtained using water-cooled fuel spraybars as flameholders.

  20. IN-SITU AIR INJECTION, SOIL VACUUM EXTRACTION AND ENHANCED BIODEGRADATION: A CASE STUDY IN A JP-4 JET FUEL CONTAMINATED SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) and the U.S. Coast Guard (USCG) conducted a joint demonstration of in situ remediation of a JP-4 jet fuel spill at the USCG Support Center in Elizabeth City, North Carolina. The jet fuel was trapped beneath a clay layer that ext...

  1. Fabrication of high exposure nuclear fuel pellets

    DOEpatents

    Frederickson, James R.

    1987-01-01

    A method is disclosed for making a fuel pellet for a nuclear reactor. A mixture is prepared of PuO.sub.2 and UO.sub.2 powders, where the mixture contains at least about 30% PuO.sub.2, and where at least about 12% of the Pu is the Pu.sup.240 isotope. To this mixture is added about 0.3 to about 5% of a binder having a melting point of at least about 250.degree. F. The mixture is pressed to form a slug and the slug is granulated. Up to about 4.7% of a lubricant having a melting point of at least about 330.degree. F. is added to the granulated slug. Both the binder and the lubricant are selected from a group consisting of polyvinyl carboxylate, polyvinyl alcohol, naturally occurring high molecular weight cellulosic polymers, chemically modified high molecular weight cellulosic polymers, and mixtures thereof. The mixture is pressed to form a pellet and the pellet is sintered.

  2. Combustion Temperature Measurement by Spontaneous Raman Scattering in a Jet-A Fueled Gas Turbine Combustor Sector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hicks, Yolanda R.; DeGroot, Wilhelmus A.; Locke, Randy J.; Anderson, Robert C.

    2002-01-01

    Spontaneous vibrational Raman scattering was used to measure temperature in an aviation combustor sector burning jet fuel. The inlet temperature ranged from 670 K (750 F) to 756 K (900 F) and pressures from 13 to 55 bar. With the exception of a discrepancy that we attribute to soot, good agreement was seen between the Raman-derived temperatures and the theoretical temperatures calculated from the inlet conditions. The technique used to obtain the temperature uses the relationship between the N2 anti-Stokes and Stokes signals, within a given Raman spectrum. The test was performed using a NASA-concept fuel injector and Jet-A fuel over a range of fuel/air ratios. This work represents the first such measurements in a high-pressure, research aero-combustor facility.

  3. Rapid Response R&D for the Propulsion Directorate. Delivery Order 0019: Advanced Alternative Energy Technologies, Subtask: Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Analysis of Advanced Jet Propulsion Fuels: Fischer-Tropsch Based SPK-1 Case Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    carry finished jet fuel from the CBTL facility. The pipeline connects the CBTL facility to a petroleum refinery located in Wood River, Illinois...Under Option 1, all the blended jet fuel is transported via pipeline from the refinery in Wood River to Chicago’s O’Hare airport. Under Option 2...shipping F-T jet fuel to a refinery in Wood River, Illinois (near St. Louis, Missouri) for blending and final transport of the blended jet fuel to

  4. Opposed Jet Burner Approach for Characterizing Flameholding Potentials of Hydrocarbon Scramjet Fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pellett, Gerald L.; Convery, Janet L.; Wilson, Lloyd G.

    2006-01-01

    Opposed Jet Burner (OJB) tools have been used extensively by the authors to measure Flame Strength (FS) extinction limits of laminar H2/N2 air and (recently) hydrocarbon (HC) air Counterflow Diffusion Flames (CFDFs) at one atm. This paper details normalization of FSs of N2- diluted H2 and HC systems to account for effects of fuel composition, temperature, pressure, jet diameter, inflow Reynolds number, and inflow velocity profile (plug, contoured nozzle; and parabolic, straight tube). Normalized results exemplify a sensitive accurate means of validating, globally, reduced chemical kinetic models at approx. 1 atm and the relatively low temperatures approximating the loss of non-premixed idealized flameholding, e.g., in scramjet combustors. Laminar FS is defined locally as maximum air input velocity, U(sub air), that sustains combustion of a counter-jet of g-fuel at extinction. It uniquely characterizes a fuel. And global axial strain rate at extinction (U(sub air) normalized by nozzle or tube diameter, D(sub n or (sub t)) can be compared directly with computed extinction limits, determined using either a 1-D Navier Stokes stream-function solution, using detailed transport and finite rate chemistry, or (better yet) a detailed 2-D Navier Stokes numerical simulation. The experimental results define an idealized flameholding reactivity scale that shows wide ranging (50 x) normalized FS s for various vaporized-liquid and gaseous HCs, including, in ascending order: JP-10, methane, JP-7, n-heptane, n-butane, propane, ethane, and ethylene. Results from H2 air produce a unique and exceptionally strong flame that agree within approx. 1% of a recent 2-D numerically simulated FS for a 3 mm tube-OJB. Thus we suggest that experimental FS s and/or FS ratios, for various neat and blended HCs w/ and w/o additives, offer accurate global tests of chemical kinetic models at the Ts and Ps of extinction. In conclusion, we argue the FS approach is more direct and fundamental, for

  5. Water consumption footprint and land requirements of large-scale alternative diesel and jet fuel production.

    PubMed

    Staples, Mark D; Olcay, Hakan; Malina, Robert; Trivedi, Parthsarathi; Pearlson, Matthew N; Strzepek, Kenneth; Paltsev, Sergey V; Wollersheim, Christoph; Barrett, Steven R H

    2013-01-01

    Middle distillate (MD) transportation fuels, including diesel and jet fuel, make up almost 30% of liquid fuel consumption in the United States. Alternative drop-in MD and biodiesel could potentially reduce dependence on crude oil and the greenhouse gas intensity of transportation. However, the water and land resource requirements of these novel fuel production technologies must be better understood. This analysis quantifies the lifecycle green and blue water consumption footprints of producing: MD from conventional crude oil; Fischer-Tropsch MD from natural gas and coal; fermentation and advanced fermentation MD from biomass; and hydroprocessed esters and fatty acids MD and biodiesel from oilseed crops, throughout the contiguous United States. We find that FT MD and alternative MD derived from rainfed biomass have lifecycle blue water consumption footprints of 1.6 to 20.1 Lwater/LMD, comparable to conventional MD, which ranges between 4.1 and 7.4 Lwater/LMD. Alternative MD derived from irrigated biomass has a lifecycle blue water consumption footprint potentially several orders of magnitude larger, between 2.7 and 22 600 Lwater/LMD. Alternative MD derived from biomass has a lifecycle green water consumption footprint between 1.1 and 19 200 Lwater/LMD. Results are disaggregated to characterize the relationship between geo-spatial location and lifecycle water consumption footprint. We also quantify the trade-offs between blue water consumption footprint and areal MD productivity, which ranges from 490 to 4200 LMD/ha, under assumptions of rainfed and irrigated biomass cultivation. Finally, we show that if biomass cultivation for alternative MD is irrigated, the ratio of the increase in areal MD productivity to the increase in blue water consumption footprint is a function of geo-spatial location and feedstock-to-fuel production pathway.

  6. Optimizing carbon efficiency of jet fuel range alkanes from cellulose co-fed with polyethylene via catalytically combined processes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuesong; Lei, Hanwu; Zhu, Lei; Zhu, Xiaolu; Qian, Moriko; Yadavalli, Gayatri; Yan, Di; Wu, Joan; Chen, Shulin

    2016-08-01

    Enhanced carbon yields of renewable alkanes for jet fuels were obtained through the catalytic microwave-induced co-pyrolysis and hydrogenation process. The well-promoted ZSM-5 catalyst had high selectivity toward C8-C16 aromatic hydrocarbons. The raw organics with improved carbon yield (∼44%) were more principally lumped in the jet fuel range at the catalytic temperature of 375°C with the LDPE to cellulose (representing waste plastics to lignocellulose) mass ratio of 0.75. It was also observed that the four species of raw organics from the catalytic microwave co-pyrolysis were almost completely converted into saturated hydrocarbons; the hydrogenation process was conducted in the n-heptane medium by using home-made Raney Ni catalyst under a low-severity condition. The overall carbon yield (with regards to co-reactants of cellulose and LDPE) of hydrogenated organics that mostly match jet fuels was sustainably enhanced to above 39%. Meanwhile, ∼90% selectivity toward jet fuel range alkanes was attained. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Service the Two-Piece Flo-Jet Carburetor. Fuel System. Student Manual 3. Small Engine Repair Series. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Pamela

    This student manual, part of a small-engine repair series on servicing fuel systems, is designed for use by special needs students in Texas. The manual explains in pictures and short sentences, written on a low reading level, the job of servicing two-piece flo-jet carburetors. Along with the steps of this repair job, specific safety and caution…

  8. Spontaneous ignition temperature limits of jet A fuel in research-combustor segment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingebo, R. D.

    1974-01-01

    The effects of inlet-air pressure and reference velocity on the spontaneous-ignition temperature limits of Jet A fuel were determined in a combustor segment with a primary-zone length of 0.076 m (3 in.). At a constant reference velocity of 21.4 m/sec (170 ft/sec), increasing the inlet-air pressure from 21 to 207 N/sq cm decreased the spontaneous-ignition temperature limit from approximately 700 to 555 K. At a constant inlet-air pressure of 41 N/sq cm, increasing the reference velocity from 12.2 to 30.5 m/sec increased the spontaneous-ignition temperature limit from approximately 575 to 800 K. Results are compared with other data in the literature.

  9. Aerobic biodegradation potential of subsurface microorganisms from a jet fuel-contaminated aquifer

    Aelion, C.M.; Bradley, P.M.

    1991-01-01

    In 1975, a leak of 83,000 gallons (314,189 liters) of jet fuel (JP-4) contaminated a shallow water-table aquifer near North Charleston, S.C. Laboratory experiments were conducted with contaminated sediments to assess the aerobic biodegradation potential of the in situ microbial community. Sediments were incubated with 14C-labeled organic compounds, and the evolution of 14CO2 was measured over time. Gas chromatographic analyses were used to monitor CO2 production and O2 consumption under aerobic conditions. Results indicated that the microbes from contaminated sediments remained active despite the potentially toxic effects of JP-4. 14CO2 was measured from [14C]glucose respiration in unamended and nitrate-amended samples after 1 day of incubation. Total [14C]glucose metabolism was greater in 1 mM nitrate-amended than in unamended samples because of increased cellular incorporation of 14C label. [14C]benzene and [14C]toluene were not significantly respired after 3 months of incubation. With the addition of 1 mM NO3, CO2 production measured by gas chromatographic analysis increased linearly during 2 months of incubation at a rate of 0.099 ??mol g-1 (dry weight) day-1 while oxygen concentration decreased at a rate of 0.124 ??mol g-1 (dry weight) day-1. With no added nitrate, CO2 production was not different from that in metabolically inhibited control vials. From the examination of selected components of JP-4, the n-alkane hexane appeared to be degraded as opposed to the branched alkanes of similar molecular weight. The results suggest that the in situ microbial community is active despite the JP-4 jet fuel contamination and that biodegradation may be compound specific. Also, the community is strongly nitrogen limited, and nitrogen additions may be required to significantly enhance hydrocarbon biodegradation.

  10. Factors affecting the silver corrosion performance of jet fuel from the Merox process

    SciT

    Viljoen, C.L.; Hietkamp, S.; Marais, B.

    1995-05-01

    The Natref refinery at Sasolburg, South Africa, which is 63,6% owned by Sasol and 36,5% by Total, is producing Jet A-1 fuel at a rate of 80 m{sup 3}/h by means of a UOP Merox process. A substantial part of the crude oil slate is made up from crudes which have been stored for considerable times in underground mines. Since the 1970`s, Natref has experienced sporadic non-conformance of its treated jet fuel to the silver corrosion (IP 227) test. Various causes and explanations for the sporadic silver corrosion occurrence have been put forward but a direct causal link has remainedmore » obscure. The paper addresses these possible causes for silver corrosion and some of the process changes which have been made to alleviate the problem. Emphasis is placed on the most recent approaches which were taken to identify the origin of the sporadic silver corrosion. An inventory of all the potential causes was made, such a bacterial action, elemental sulphur formation in storage, etc. and experiments designed to test the validity of these causes, are discussed. A statistical evaluation which was done of the historical process data over a 2 year period, failed to link the use of mine crudes directly to Ag-corrosion occurrence. However, a correlation between elemental sulphur and H{sub 2}S levels in the feed to the Merox reactor and Ag-corrosion was observed. Finally, the outcome of the experiments are discussed, as well as the conclusions which were reached from the observed results.« less

  11. Effect of prenatal exposure to kitchen fuel on birth weight.

    PubMed

    Kadam, Yugantara Ramesh; Mimansa, Anugya; Chavan, Pragati Vishnu; Gore, Alka Dilip

    2013-10-01

    Maternal exposure to kitchen fuel smoke may lead to impaired fetal growth. To study the effect of exposure to various kitchen fuels on birth weight. Retrospective analytical. Hospital based. Mothers and their newborns. Mothers registered in first trimester with minimum 3 visits, non-anemic, full-term, and singleton delivery. History of Pregnancy Induced Hypertension (PIH), Diabetes Mellitus (DM), tobacco chewers or mishri users. 328 mothers and their new-borne. Six months. Study tools: Chi-square, Z-test, ANOVA, and binary logistic regression. Effect of confounders on birth weight was tested and found to be non-significant. Mean ± SD of birth weight was 2.669 ± 0.442 in Liquid Petroleium Gas (LPG) users (n = 178), 2.465 ± 0.465 in wood users (n = 94), 2.557 ± 0.603 in LPG + wood users (n = 27) and 2.617 ± 0.470 in kerosene users (n = 29). Infants born to wood users had lowest birth weight and averagely 204 g lighter than LPG users (F = 4.056, P < 0.01). Percentage of newborns with low birth weight (LBW) in wood users was 44.68% which was significantly higher than in LPG users (24.16%), LPG + wood users (40.74%) and in kerosene users (34.48%) (Chi-square = 12.926, P < 0.01). As duration of exposure to wood fuel increases there is significant decline in birth weight (F = 3.825, P < 0.05). By using logistic regression type of fuel is only best predictor. Cooking with wood fuel is a significant risk-factor for LBW, which is modifiable.

  12. Effects of aerosol-vapor JP-8 jet fuel on the functional observational battery, and learning and memory in the rat.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, C M; Houston, F P; Podgornik, M N; Young, R S; Barnes, C A; Witten, M L

    2001-01-01

    To determine whether JP-8 jet fuel affects parameters of the Functional Observational Battery (FOB), visual discrimination, or spatial learning and memory, the authors exposed groups of male Fischer Brown Norway hybrid rats for 28 d to aerosol/vapor-delivered JP-8, or to JP-8 followed by 15 min of aerosolized substance P analogue, or to sham-confined fresh room air. Behavioral testing was accomplished with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Functional Observational Battery. The authors used the Morris swim task to test visual and spatial learning and memory testing. The spatial test included examination of memory for the original target location following 15 d of JP-8 exposure, as well as a 3-d new target location learning paradigm implemented the day that followed the final day of exposure. Only JP-8 exposed animals had significant weight loss by the 2nd week of exposure compared with JP-8 with substance P and control rats; this finding compares with those of prior studies of JP-8 jet fuel. Rats exposed to JP-8 with or without substance P exhibited significantly greater rearing and less grooming behavior over time than did controls during Functional Observational Battery open-field testing. Exposed rats also swam significantly faster than controls during the new target location training and testing, thus supporting the increased activity noted during Functional Observational Battery testing. There were no significant differences between the exposed and control groups' performances during acquisition, retention, or learning of the new platform location in either the visual discrimination or spatial version of the Morris swim task. The data suggest that although visual discrimination and spatial learning and memory were not disrupted by JP-8 exposure, arousal indices and activity measures were distinctly different in these animals.

  13. From lignin to cycloparaffins and aromatics: directional synthesis of jet and diesel fuel range biofuels using biomass.

    PubMed

    Bi, Peiyan; Wang, Jicong; Zhang, Yajing; Jiang, Peiwen; Wu, Xiaoping; Liu, Junxu; Xue, He; Wang, Tiejun; Li, Quanxin

    2015-05-01

    The continual growth in commercial aviation fuels and more strict environmental legislations have led to immense interest in developing green aviation fuels from biomass. This paper demonstrated a controllable transformation of lignin into jet and diesel fuel range hydrocarbons, involving directional production of C8-C15 aromatics by the catalytic depolymerization of lignin into C6-C8 low carbon aromatic monomers coupled with the alkylation of aromatics, and the directional production of C8-C15 cycloparaffins by the hydrogenation of aromatics. The key step, the production of the desired C8-C15 aromatics with the selectivity up to 94.3%, was achieved by the low temperature alkylation reactions of the lignin-derived monomers using ionic liquid. The synthetic biofuels basically met the main technical requirements of conventional jet fuels. The transformation potentially provides a useful way for the development of cycloparaffinic and aromatic components in jet fuels using renewable lignocellulose biomass. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. The methodology of variable management of propellant fuel consumption by jet-propulsion engines of a spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovtun, V. S.

    2012-12-01

    Traditionally, management of propellant fuel consumption on board of a spacecraft is only associated with the operation of jet-propulsion engines (JPE) that are actuator devices of motion control systems (MCS). The efficiency of propellant fuel consumption depends not only on the operation of the MCS, but also, to one extent or another, on all systems functioning on board of a spacecraft, and on processes that occur in them and involve conversion of variable management of propellant fuel consumption by JPEs as a constituent part of the control of the complex process of spacecraft flight.

  15. 14 CFR Appendix N to Part 25 - Fuel Tank Flammability Exposure and Reliability Analysis

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... flammability exposure time for a fuel tank. (k) Oxygen evolution occurs when oxygen dissolved in the fuel is... evolution from the fuel results in the fuel tank or compartment exceeding the inert level. The applicant must include any times when oxygen evolution from the fuel in the tank or compartment under evaluation...

  16. 14 CFR Appendix N to Part 25 - Fuel Tank Flammability Exposure and Reliability Analysis

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... flammability exposure time for a fuel tank. (k) Oxygen evolution occurs when oxygen dissolved in the fuel is... evolution from the fuel results in the fuel tank or compartment exceeding the inert level. The applicant must include any times when oxygen evolution from the fuel in the tank or compartment under evaluation...

  17. 14 CFR Appendix N to Part 25 - Fuel Tank Flammability Exposure and Reliability Analysis

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... flammability exposure time for a fuel tank. (k) Oxygen evolution occurs when oxygen dissolved in the fuel is... evolution from the fuel results in the fuel tank or compartment exceeding the inert level. The applicant must include any times when oxygen evolution from the fuel in the tank or compartment under evaluation...

  18. Evolutionary Engineering Improves Tolerance for Replacement Jet Fuels in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Brennan, Timothy C. R.; Williams, Thomas C.; Schulz, Benjamin L.; Palfreyman, Robin W.; Nielsen, Lars K.

    2015-01-01

    Monoterpenes are liquid hydrocarbons with applications ranging from flavor and fragrance to replacement jet fuel. Their toxicity, however, presents a major challenge for microbial synthesis. Here we evolved limonene-tolerant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains and sequenced six strains across the 200-generation evolutionary time course. Mutations were found in the tricalbin proteins Tcb2p and Tcb3p. Genomic reconstruction in the parent strain showed that truncation of a single protein (tTcb3p1-989), but not its complete deletion, was sufficient to recover the evolved phenotype improving limonene fitness 9-fold. tTcb3p1-989 increased tolerance toward two other monoterpenes (β-pinene and myrcene) 11- and 8-fold, respectively, and tolerance toward the biojet fuel blend AMJ-700t (10% cymene, 50% limonene, 40% farnesene) 4-fold. tTcb3p1-989 is the first example of successful engineering of phase tolerance and creates opportunities for production of the highly toxic C10 alkenes in yeast. PMID:25746998

  19. Synthesis and analysis of jet fuels from shale oil and coal syncrudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antoine, A. C.; Gallagher, J. P.

    1976-01-01

    The technical problems involved in converting a significant portion of a barrel of either a shale oil or coal syncrude into a suitable aviation turbine fuel were studied. TOSCO shale oil, H-Coal and COED coal syncrudes were the starting materials. They were processed by distillation and hydrocracking to produce two levels of yield (20 and 40 weight percent) of material having a distillation range of approximately 422 to 561 K (300 F to 550 F). The full distillation range 311 to 616 K (100 F to 650 F) materials were hydrotreated to meet two sets of specifications (20 and 40 volume percent aromatics, 13.5 and 12.75 weight percent H, 0.2 and 0.5 weight percent S, and 0.1 and 0.2 weight percent N). The hydrotreated materials were distilled to meet given end point and volatility requirements. The syntheses were carried out in laboratory and pilot plant equipment scaled to produce thirty-two 0.0757 cu m (2-gal)samples of jet fuel of varying defined specifications. Detailed analyses for physical and chemical properties were made on the crude starting materials and on the products.

  20. Opposed Jet Burner Extinction Limits: Simple Mixed Hydrocarbon Scramjet Fuels vs Air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pellett, Gerald L.; Vaden, Sarah N.; Wilson, Lloyd G.

    2007-01-01

    Opposed Jet Burner tools have been used extensively by the authors to measure Flame Strength (FS) of laminar non-premixed H2 air and simple hydrocarbon (HC) air counterflow diffusion flames at 1-atm. FS represents a strain-induced extinction limit based on air jet velocity. This paper follows AIAA-2006-5223, and provides new HC air FSs for global testing of chemical kinetics, and for characterizing idealized flameholding potentials during early scramjet-like combustion. Previous FS data included six HCs, pure and N2-diluted; and three HC-diluted H2 fuels, where FS decayed very nonlinearly as HC was added to H2, due to H-atom scavenging. This study presents FSs on mixtures of (candidate surrogate) HCs, some with very high FS ethylene. Included are four binary gaseous systems at 300 K, and a hot ternary system at approx. 600 K. The binaries are methane + ethylene, ethane + ethylene, methane + ethane, and methane + propylene. The first three also form two ternary systems. The hot ternary includes both 10.8 and 21.3 mole % vaporized n-heptane and full ranges of methane + ethylene. Normalized FS data provide accurate means of (1) validating, globally, chemical kinetics for extinction of non-premixed flames, and (2) estimating (scaling by HC) the loss of incipient flameholding in scramjet combustors. The n-heptane is part of a proposed baseline simulant (10 mole % with 30% methane + 60% ethylene) that mimics the ignition of endothermically cracked JP-7 like kerosene fuel, as suggested by Colket and Spadaccini in 2001 in their shock tube Scramjet Fuels Autoignition Study. Presently, we use FS to gauge idealized flameholding, and define HC surrogates. First, FS was characterized for hot nheptane + methane + ethylene; then a hot 36 mole % methane + 64% ethylene surrogate was defined that mimics FS of the baseline simulant system. A similar hot ethane + ethylene surrogate can also be defined, but it has lower vapor pressure at 300 K, and thus exhibits reduced gaseous

  1. Wildfire exposure and fuel management on western US national forests.

    PubMed

    Ager, Alan A; Day, Michelle A; McHugh, Charles W; Short, Karen; Gilbertson-Day, Julie; Finney, Mark A; Calkin, David E

    2014-12-01

    Substantial investments in fuel management activities on national forests in the western US are part of a national strategy to reduce human and ecological losses from catastrophic wildfire and create fire resilient landscapes. Prioritizing these investments within and among national forests remains a challenge, partly because a comprehensive assessment that establishes the current wildfire risk and exposure does not exist, making it difficult to identify national priorities and target specific areas for fuel management. To gain a broader understanding of wildfire exposure in the national forest system, we analyzed an array of simulated and empirical data on wildfire activity and fuel treatment investments on the 82 western US national forests. We first summarized recent fire data to examine variation among the Forests in ignition frequency and burned area in relation to investments in fuel reduction treatments. We then used simulation modeling to analyze fine-scale spatial variation in burn probability and intensity. We also estimated the probability of a mega-fire event on each of the Forests, and the transmission of fires ignited on national forests to the surrounding urban interface. The analysis showed a good correspondence between recent area burned and predictions from the simulation models. The modeling also illustrated the magnitude of the variation in both burn probability and intensity among and within Forests. Simulated burn probabilities in most instances were lower than historical, reflecting fire exclusion on many national forests. Simulated wildfire transmission from national forests to the urban interface was highly variable among the Forests. We discuss how the results of the study can be used to prioritize investments in hazardous fuel reduction within a comprehensive multi-scale risk management framework. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Bench-Scale Monolith Autothermal Reformer Catalyst Screening Evaluations in a Micro-Reactor With Jet-A Fuel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tomsik, Thomas M.; Yen, Judy C.H.; Budge, John R.

    2006-01-01

    Solid oxide fuel cell systems used in the aerospace or commercial aviation environment require a compact, light-weight and highly durable catalytic fuel processor. The fuel processing method considered here is an autothermal reforming (ATR) step. The ATR converts Jet-A fuel by a reaction with steam and air forming hydrogen (H2) and carbon monoxide (CO) to be used for production of electrical power in the fuel cell. This paper addresses the first phase of an experimental catalyst screening study, looking at the relative effectiveness of several monolith catalyst types when operating with untreated Jet-A fuel. Six monolith catalyst materials were selected for preliminary evaluation and experimental bench-scale screening in a small 0.05 kWe micro-reactor test apparatus. These tests were conducted to assess relative catalyst performance under atmospheric pressure ATR conditions and processing Jet-A fuel at a steam-to-carbon ratio of 3.5, a value higher than anticipated to be run in an optimized system. The average reformer efficiencies for the six catalysts tested ranged from 75 to 83 percent at a constant gas-hourly space velocity of 12,000 hr 1. The corresponding hydrocarbon conversion efficiency varied from 86 to 95 percent during experiments run at reaction temperatures between 750 to 830 C. Based on the results of the short-duration 100 hr tests reported herein, two of the highest performing catalysts were selected for further evaluation in a follow-on 1000 hr life durability study in Phase II.

  3. Pollutant formation in fuel lean recirculating flows. Ph.D. Thesis. Final Report; [in an Opposed Reacting Jet Combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schefer, R. W.; Sawyer, R. F.

    1976-01-01

    An opposed reacting jet combustor (ORJ) was tested at a pressure of 1 atmosphere. A premixed propane/air stream was stabilized by a counterflowing jet of the same reactants. The resulting intensely mixed zone of partially reacted combustion products produced stable combustion at equivalence ratios as low as 0.45. Measurements are presented for main stream velocities of 7.74 and 13.6 m/sec with an opposed jet velocity of 96 m/sec, inlet air temperatures from 300 to 600 K, and equivalence ratios from 0.45 to 0.625. Fuel lean premixed combustion was an effective method of achieving low NOx emissions and high combustion efficiencies simultaneously. Under conditions promoting lower flame temperature, NO2 constituted up to 100 percent of the total NOx. At higher temperatures this percentage decreased to a minimum of 50 percent.

  4. Mortality and cancer morbidity after exposure to military aircraft fuel.

    PubMed

    Seldén, A; Ahlborg, G

    1991-08-01

    In order to elucidate a possible excess risk of lymphatic malignancies due to aircraft fuel exposure in the Swedish Armed Forces (SAF), a historical prospective cohort study was conducted. During a 9-year follow-up period, 3 cases of malignant lymphoma were detected versus 3.21 expected tumors of the lymphatic system (standardized incidence ratio (SIR) 93; 95% confidence interval (CI) 19-273) among 2,176 men. The overall SIR was 91 (CI 66-120), whereas the corresponding mortality ratio was only 54 (CI 42-68; p less than 0.001). In conclusion, no evidence was found for an association between military aircraft fuel and the occurrence of malignant lymphomas or other malignancies among exposed men in the SAF. For a definite risk assessment, further follow-up is necessary.

  5. FAA Center of Excellence for Alternative Jet Fuels & Environment : Annual Technical Report : December, 2016 : For the period September 13, 2013 - September 30, 2015

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2015-12-01

    This report covers the period between the initial establishment of the FAA Center of Excellence for Alternative Jet Fuels and Environment on September 13, 2013 through September 30, 2015. The Center was established by the authority of FAA solicitatio...

  6. Hydroprocessed Esters and Fatty Acids (HEFA) Bio-Based Jet Fuels: Sensory Irritation Study and Human Health Hazard Assessment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-30

    AFRL-RH-FS-TR-2014-0001 Hydroprocessed Esters and Fatty Acids (HEFA) Bio -Based Jet Fuels: Sensory Irritation Study and Human Health Hazard...Karen L. Mumy Brian A. Wong R. Arden James James Reboulet Brian Sharits Michael Grimm Nathan Gargas Naval Medical Research Unit - Dayton...Wright-Patterson AFB OH Richard C. Striebich AFRL/RQTF Wright-Patterson AFB OH David R. Mattie Bioeffects Division Molecular Bioeffects Branch

  7. Effect of swirler-mounted mixing venturi on emissions of flame-tube combustor using jet A fuel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ercegovic, D. B.

    1979-01-01

    Six headplate modules in a flame-tube combustor were evaluated. Unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and oxides of nitrogen were measured for three types of fuel injectors both with and without a mixing venturi. Tests were conducted using jet A fuel at an inlet pressure of 0.69 megapascal, an inlet temperature of 478 K, and an isothermal static pressure drop of 3 percent. Oxides of nitrogen were reduced by over 50 percent with a mixing venturi with no performance penalties in either other gaseous emissions or pressure drop.

  8. Influence of environmental factors on denitrification in sediment contaminated with JP-4 jet fuel

    Bradley, Paul M.; Aelion, C. Marjorie; Vroblesky, Don A.

    1992-01-01

    In 1975, the loss of approximately 83,000 gallons of JP-4 grade jet fuel resulted in contamination of the shallow aquifer near North Charleston, South Carolina. To identify those factors likely to influence microbial activity under denitrifying conditions, we examined the fate of amended NO3, the effect of pH, NO3, and PO4 on denitrification, and the variability of denitrification in sediments collected at the site. Denitrification (N2O-N production) accounted for 98% of the depletion of NO3-N under anaerobic conditions. Both carbon mineralization and denitrification rates increased asymptotically with increasing NO3 to a maximum at approximately 1 mM NO3. Addition of up to 1 mM PO4 did not significantly increase N2O and CO2 production. Denitrification rates were at least 38% lower at pH = 4 than observed at pH = 7. Comparison of samples with differing degrees of hydrocarbon contamination indicated that at least a tenfold variation in sediment denitrification occurs at the North Charleston site.

  9. Synthesis of Renewable Triketones, Diketones, and Jet-Fuel Range Cycloalkanes with 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural and Ketones.

    PubMed

    Li, Shanshan; Chen, Fang; Li, Ning; Wang, Wentao; Sheng, Xueru; Wang, Aiqin; Cong, Yu; Wang, Xiaodong; Zhang, Tao

    2017-02-22

    A series of renewable C 9 -C 12 triketones with repeating [COCH 2 CH 2 ] units were synthesized in high carbon yields (ca. 90 %) by the aqueous-phase hydrogenation of the aldol-condensation products of 5-hydroxylmethylfurfural (HMF) and ketones over an Au/TiO 2 catalyst. Compared with the reported routes, this new route has many advantages such as being environmentally friendly, having fewer steps, using a cheaper and reusable catalyst, etc. The triketones as obtained can be used as feedstocks in the production of conducting or semi-conducting polymers. Through a solvent-free intramolecular aldol condensation over solid-base catalysts, the triketones were selectively converted to diketones, which can be used as intermediates in the synthesis of useful chemicals or polymers. As another application, the tri- and diketones can also be utilized as precursors for the synthesis of jet-fuel range branched cycloalkanes with low freezing points (224-248 K) and high densities (ca. 0.81 g mL -1 ). © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Neutron spectroscopy as a fuel ion ratio diagnostic: lessons from JET and prospects for ITER.

    PubMed

    Ericsson, G; Conroy, S; Gatu Johnson, M; Andersson Sundén, E; Cecconello, M; Eriksson, J; Hellesen, C; Sangaroon, S; Weiszflog, M

    2010-10-01

    The determination of the fuel ion ratio n(t)/n(d) in ITER is required at a precision of 20%, time resolution of 100 ms, spatial resolution of a/10, and over a range of 0.016 keV and for n(T)/n(D)<0.6. A crucial issue is the signal-to-background situation in the measurement of the weak 2.5 MeV emission from DD reactions in the presence of a background of scattered 14 MeV DT neutrons. Important experimental input and corroboration for this assessment are presented from the time-of-flight neutron spectrometer at JET where the presence of a strong component of backscattered neutrons is observed. Neutron emission components on ITER due to beam-thermal and tritium-tritium reactions can further enhance the prospects for NES.

  11. Electron spin resonance study of thermal instability reactions in jet fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeldes, H.; Livingston, R.

    1984-01-01

    Free radicals were studied by electron spin resonance (ESR) using model compounds that are representative of constituents of jet fuels. Radical formation was initiated with peroxides and hydroperoxides by using UV photolysis at and near room temperature and thermal initiation at higher temperatures. Both oxygen free and air saturated systems were studied. N-Dodecane was frequently used as a solvent, and a mixture of n-dodecyl radicals was made with a peroxide initiator in n-dodecane (free of oxygen) thermally at 212 C and photolytically at room temperature. Hydrogen abstraction from the 3,4,5 and 6-positions gives radicals that are sufficiently alike that their spectra are essentially superimposed. The radical formed by abstract of hydrogen from the 2-position gives a different spectrum. ESR parameters for these radicals were measured. The radical formed by abstraction of a primary hydrogen was not observed. Similar radicals are formed from n-decane. A variety of exploratory experiments were carried out with systems that give free radical spectra to which was added small amounts of 2,5-dimethylpyrrole.

  12. In vitro toxicities of experimental jet fuel system ice-inhibiting agents.

    PubMed

    Geiss, K T; Frazier, J M

    2001-07-02

    One research emphasis within the Department of Defense has been to seek the replacement of operational compounds with alternatives that pose less potential risk to human and ecological systems. Alternatives to glycol ethers, such as diethylene glycol monomethyl ether (M-DE), were investigated for use as jet fuel system ice-inhibiting agents (FSIIs). This group of chemicals includes three derivatives of 1,3-dioxolane-4-methanol (M-1, M-2, and M-3) and a 1,3-dioxane (M-27). In addition, M-DE was evaluated as a reference compound. Our approach was to implement an in vitro test battery based on primary rat hepatocyte cultures to perform initial toxicity evaluations. Hepatocytes were exposed to experimental chemicals (0, 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1, 10 mM dosages) for periods up to 24 h. Samples were assayed for lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, MTT dye reduction activity, glutathione level, and rate of protein synthesis as indicators of toxicity. Of the compounds tested, M-1, especially at the 10-mM dose, appeared to be more potent than the other chemicals, as measured by these toxicity assays. M-DE, the current FSII, elicited little response in the toxicity assays. Although some variations in toxicity were observed at the 10-mM dose, the in vitro toxicities of the chemicals tested (except for M-1) were not considerably greater than that of M-DE.

  13. Assessment of intrinsic bioremediation of jet fuel contamination in a shallow aquifer, Beaufort, South Carolina

    Chapelle, Frank; Landmeyer, J.E.; Bradley, P.M.

    1995-01-01

    Field and laboratory studies show that microorganisms indigenous to the ground-water system underlying Tank Farm C, Marine Corps Air Station Beaufort, S.C., degrade petroleum hydrocarbons under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Under aerobic conditions, sediments from the shallow aquifer underlying the site mineralized radiolabeled (14C) toluene to 14CO2 with first-order rate constants of about -0.29 per day. Sediments incubated under anaerobic conditions mineralized radiolabeled toluene more slowly, with first-order rate constants of -0.001 per day. Although anaerobic rates of biodegradation are low, they are significant in the hydrologic and geochemical context of the site. Because of low hydraulic conductivities (1.9-9.1 feet per day) and low hydraulic gradients (about 0.004 feet per feet), ground water flows slowly (approximately 20 feet per year) at this site. Furthermore, aquifer sediments contain organic-rich peat that has a high sorptive capacity. Under these conditions, hydrocarbon contaminants have moved no further than 10 feet downgradient of the jet fuel free product. Digital solute-transport simulations, using the range of model parameters measured at the site, show that dissolved contaminants will be completely degraded before they are discharged from the aquifer into adjacent surface-water bodies. These results show that natural attenuation processes are containing the migration of soluble hydrocarbons, and that intrinsic bioremediation is a potentially effective remedial strategy at this site.

  14. Transcriptional profiling suggests that multiple metabolic adaptations are required for effective proliferation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in jet fuel.

    PubMed

    Gunasekera, Thusitha S; Striebich, Richard C; Mueller, Susan S; Strobel, Ellen M; Ruiz, Oscar N

    2013-01-01

    Fuel is a harsh environment for microbial growth. However, some bacteria can grow well due to their adaptive mechanisms. Our goal was to characterize the adaptations required for Pseudomonas aeruginosa proliferation in fuel. We have used DNA-microarrays and RT-PCR to characterize the transcriptional response of P. aeruginosa to fuel. Transcriptomics revealed that genes essential for medium- and long-chain n-alkane degradation including alkB1 and alkB2 were transcriptionally induced. Gas chromatography confirmed that P. aeruginosa possesses pathways to degrade different length n-alkanes, favoring the use of n-C11-18. Furthermore, a gamut of synergistic metabolic pathways, including porins, efflux pumps, biofilm formation, and iron transport, were transcriptionally regulated. Bioassays confirmed that efflux pumps and biofilm formation were required for growth in jet fuel. Furthermore, cell homeostasis appeared to be carefully maintained by the regulation of porins and efflux pumps. The Mex RND efflux pumps were required for fuel tolerance; blockage of these pumps precluded growth in fuel. This study provides a global understanding of the multiple metabolic adaptations required by bacteria for survival and proliferation in fuel-containing environments. This information can be applied to improve the fuel bioremediation properties of bacteria.

  15. Acute Dermal Irritation Study of Ten Jet Fuels in New Zealand White Rabbits: Comparison of Synthetic and Bio-Based Jet Fuels with Petroleum JP-8

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-02-18

    paraffinic kerosene (IPK), Sasol gas to liquid (GTL)-1 and GTL-2, Shell GTL and Syntroleum S-8 (synthetic JP-8). Four fuels were renewable bio-based fuels...5976) and GTL-2 (POSF 5977);  Shell GTL (POSF 5172, Shell Global, The Hague, The Netherlands); and  Syntroleum S-8 (synthetic JP-8, POSF 4734...from natural gas. The remaining two SPK fuels, Shell GTL (POSF 5172, Shell Global, The Hague, The Netherlands) and Syntroleum S-8 (synthetic JP-8

  16. State Relationships of Laminar Permanently-Blue Opposed-Jet Hydrocarbon-Fueled Diffusion Flames. Appendix D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, K.-C.; Faeth, G. M.; Urban, D. L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The structure and state relationships of laminar soot-free (permanently-blue) diffusion flames at various strain rates were studied experimentally using an opposed-jet configuration, motivated by the importance of soot-free hydrocarbon-fueled diffusion flames for many practical applications. Measurements of gas velocities, temperatures and compositions were carried out along the stagnation stream line. Flame conditions studied included propylene- and 1,3-butadiene-fueled opposed-jet diffusion flames having a stoichiometric mixture fractions of 0.7 and strain rates of 60-240 s (exp -1) at normal temperature and pressure. It was found that oxygen leakage to fuel-rich conditions and carbon monoxide leakage to fuel-lean conditions both increased as strain rates increased. Furthermore, increased strain rates caused increased fuel concentrations near the flame sheet, decreased peak gas temperatures, and decreased concentrations of carbon dioxide and water vapor throughout the flames. State relationships for major gas species and gas temperatures for these flames were found to exist over broad ranges of strain rates. In addition, current measurements, as well as previous measurements and predictions of ethylene-fueled permanently-blue diffusion flames, all having a stoichiometric mixture fraction of 0.7, were combined to establish generalized state relationships for permanently-blue diffusion flames for this stoichiometric mixture fraction. The combined measurements and predictions support relatively universal generalized state relationships for N2, CO2, H2O and fuel over a broad range of strain rates and fuel types. State relationships for O2 in the fuel-rich region, and for CO in the fuel-lean region, however, are functions of strain rate and fuel type. State relationships for H2 and temperature exhibit less universality, mainly due to the increased experimental uncertainties for these variables. The existence of state relationships for soot-free hydrocarbon-fueled

  17. Detection of water in jet fuel using layer-by-layer thin film coated long period grating sensor.

    PubMed

    Puckett, Sean D; Pacey, Gilbert E

    2009-04-15

    The quantitative measurement of jet fuel additives in the field is of interest to the Air Force. The "smart nozzle" project was designed as a state-of-the-art diagnostics package attached to a single-point refueling nozzle for assessing key fuel properties as the fuel is dispensed. The objective of the work was to show proof of concept that a layer-by-layer thin film and long period grating fibers could be used to detect the presence of water in jet fuel. The data for the nafion/PDMA film and a long period grating fiber is a combination capable of quantitative measurement of water in kerosene. The average response (spectral loss wavelength shift) to the kerosene sample ranged from -6.0 for 15 ppm to -126.5 for 60 ppm water. The average calculated value for the check standard was 21.71 and ranged from 21.25 to 22.00 with a true value of 22.5 ppm water. Potential interferences were observed and are judged to be insignificant in real samples.

  18. Jet fuel from 18 cool-season oilseed feedstocks in a semi-arid environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Brett; Jabro, Jay

    2017-04-01

    Renewable jet fuel feedstocks can potentially offset the demand for petroleum based transportation resources, diversify cropping systems, and provide numerous ecosystem services . However, identifying suitable feedstock supplies remains a primary constraint to adoption. A 4-yr, multi-site experiment initiated in fall 2012 investigated the yield potential of six winter- and twelve spring-types of cool-season oilseed feedstocks. Sidney, MT (250 mm annual growing season precipitation) was one of eight sites in the western USA with others in Colorado, Idaho, Iowa, Minnesota, North Dakota, Oregon, and Texas. Winter types of Camelina sativa (1), Brassica napus (4), and B. rapa (1) were planted in mid-September, while spring types of Camelina sativa (1), B. napus (4), B. rapa (1), B. juncea (2), B. carinata (2), and Sinapis alba (2) were planted in early to late April. Seeding rates varied by entry and were between 4 to 11 kg/ha. All plots were under no-till management. Plots were 3 by 9 m with each treatment (oilseed entry) replicated four times. Camelina 'Joelle' was the only fall-seeded entry that survived winters with little to no snow cover on plots and where minimum air temperature reached -32°C. Stands of 'Joelle' in the spring of all years were excellent. 'Joelle' plots were typically harvested in July, while spring types were harvested 2-6 weeks later. Severe hailstorms during the late growing seasons of 2013 and 2015 resulted in up to 95% seed loss, preventing normal seed yield harvest of spring types. The B. carinata and spring camelina were the least and most susceptible to hail damage during plant maturity, respectively. 'Joelle' winter camelina was harvested before the severe weather in both years, showing the benefit of an early maturing crop in regions prone to late season hail. Overall, camelina was the only winter type that showed potential as an oilseed feedstock due to its superior winter hardiness. For spring types, B. napus, Camelina sativa, and B

  19. The effect of copper, MDA, and accelerated aging on jet fuel thermal stability as measured by the gravimetric JFTOT

    SciT

    Pande, S.G.; Hardy, D.R.

    1995-05-01

    Thermally unstable jet fuels pose operational problems. In order to adequately identify such fuels, factors that realistically impact on thermal stability were examined. Evaluation was based on a quantitative method of measuring thermal stability, viz., NRL`s recently developed gravimetric JFTOT. This method gives a quantitative measurement of both the strip deposit and filterables formed. The pertinent factors examined, included the individual and interactive effects of: soluble copper, MDA (metal deactivator), and aging. The latter was accelerated to simulate field conditions of approximately six months aging at ambient temperature and pressure. The results indicate that the individual and interactive effects ofmore » copper, MDA, and accelerated aging appear to be fuel dependent. Based on the results, the three test fuels examined (one JP-8 and two JP-5s) were categorized as exhibiting very good, typical, and poor thermal stabilities, respectively. For both the very good and poor thermal stability fuels, the effect of copper in conjunction with accelerated aging did not significantly increase the total thermal deposits of the neat fuels. In contrast, for the typical thermal stability fuel, the combined effects of copper and accelerated aging, did. Furthermore, the addition of MDA prior to aging of the copper-doped, typical stability fuel significantly counteracted the adverse effect of copper and aging. A similar beneficial effect of MDA was not observed for the poor stability fuel. These results focus on the compositional differences among fuels and the need to elucidate these differences (physical and chemical) for a better understanding and prediction of their performance.« less

  20. Classification of jet fuel properties by near-infrared spectroscopy using fuzzy rule-building expert systems and support vector machines.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhanfeng; Bunker, Christopher E; Harrington, Peter de B

    2010-11-01

    Monitoring the changes of jet fuel physical properties is important because fuel used in high-performance aircraft must meet rigorous specifications. Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy is a fast method to characterize fuels. Because of the complexity of NIR spectral data, chemometric techniques are used to extract relevant information from spectral data to accurately classify physical properties of complex fuel samples. In this work, discrimination of fuel types and classification of flash point, freezing point, boiling point (10%, v/v), boiling point (50%, v/v), and boiling point (90%, v/v) of jet fuels (JP-5, JP-8, Jet A, and Jet A1) were investigated. Each physical property was divided into three classes, low, medium, and high ranges, using two evaluations with different class boundary definitions. The class boundaries function as the threshold to alarm when the fuel properties change. Optimal partial least squares discriminant analysis (oPLS-DA), fuzzy rule-building expert system (FuRES), and support vector machines (SVM) were used to build the calibration models between the NIR spectra and classes of physical property of jet fuels. OPLS-DA, FuRES, and SVM were compared with respect to prediction accuracy. The validation of the calibration model was conducted by applying bootstrap Latin partition (BLP), which gives a measure of precision. Prediction accuracy of 97 ± 2% of the flash point, 94 ± 2% of freezing point, 99 ± 1% of the boiling point (10%, v/v), 98 ± 2% of the boiling point (50%, v/v), and 96 ± 1% of the boiling point (90%, v/v) were obtained by FuRES in one boundaries definition. Both FuRES and SVM obtained statistically better prediction accuracy over those obtained by oPLS-DA. The results indicate that combined with chemometric classifiers NIR spectroscopy could be a fast method to monitor the changes of jet fuel physical properties.

  1. Unsteady Extinction of Opposed Jet Ethylene/Methane HIFiRE Surrogate Fuel Mixtures vs Air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaden, Sarah N.; Debes, Rachel L.; Lash, E. Lara; Burk, Rachel S.; Boyd, C. Merritt; Wilson, Lloyd G.; Pellett, Gerald L.

    2009-01-01

    A unique idealized study of the subject fuel vs. air systems was conducted using an Oscillatory-input Opposed Jet Burner (OOJB) system and a newly refined analysis. Extensive dynamic-extinction measurements were obtained on unanchored (free-floating) laminar Counter Flow Diffusion Flames (CFDFs) at 1-atm, stabilized by steady input velocities (e.g., U(sub air)) and perturbed by superimposed in-phase sinusoidal velocity inputs at fuel and air nozzle exits. Ethylene (C2H4) and methane (CH4), and intermediate 64/36 and 15/85 molar percent mixtures were studied. The latter gaseous surrogates were chosen earlier to mimic ignition and respective steady Flame Strengths (FS = U(sub air)) of vaporized and cracked, and un-cracked, JP-7 "like" kerosene for a Hypersonic International Flight Research Experimentation (HIFiRE) scramjet. For steady idealized flameholding, the 100% C2H4 flame is respectively approx. 1.3 and approx.2.7 times stronger than a 64/36 mix and CH4; but is still 12.0 times weaker than a 100% H2-air flame. Limited Hot-Wire (HW) measurements of velocity oscillations at convergent-nozzle exits, and more extensive Probe Microphone (PM) measurements of acoustic pressures, were used to normalize Dynamic FSs, which decayed linearly with pk/pk U(sub air) (velocity magnitude, HW), and also pk/pk P (pressure magnitude, PM). Thus Dynamic Flame Weakening (DFW) is defined as % decrease in FS per Pascal of pk/pk P oscillation, namely, DFW = -100 d(U(sub air)/U(sub air),0Hz)/d(pkpk P). Key findings are: (1) Ethylene flames are uniquely strong and resilient to extinction by oscillating inflows below 150 Hz; (2) Methane flames are uniquely weak; (3) Ethylene / methane surrogate flames are disproportionately strong with respect to ethylene content; and (4) Flame weakening is consistent with limited published results on forced unsteady CFDFs. Thus from 0 to approx. 10 Hz and slightly higher, lagging diffusive responses of key species led to progressive phase lags (relative

  2. Evaluation of Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME) Contamination on the Thermal Stability Characteristics of Military Jet Fuels (JP-8 And JP-5)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    of increased contamination levels of FAME in Jet A, FAME material will likely be transported in the same conveyance as JP-5 – bringing with it the...is a blend of four common biodiesel (FAME) fuels from different feedstocks. All FAME contaminated fuels were prepared with this FAME material at a

  3. Urinary polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (OH-PAH) metabolite concentrations and the effect of GST polymorphisms among US Air Force personnel exposed to jet fuel.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Ema G; Smith, Kristen; Maule, Alexis L; Sjodin, Andreas; Li, Zheng; Romanoff, Lovisa; Kelsey, Karl; Proctor, Susan; McClean, Michael D

    2014-05-01

    To evaluate the association between inhalation exposure to jet propulsion fuel 8 (JP-8) and urinary metabolites among US Air Force (USAF) personnel, and investigate the role of glutathione S-transferase polymorphisms. Personal air samples were collected from 37 full-time USAF personnel during 4 consecutive workdays and analyzed for JP-8 constituents and total hydrocarbons. Pre- and postshift urine samples were collected each day and analyzed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon urinary metabolites. Work shift exposure to total hydrocarbons was significantly associated with postshift urinary 1-naphthol (β = 0.17; P = <0.0001), 2-naphthol (β = 0.09; P = 0.005), and 2-hydroxyfluorene concentrations (β = 0.08; P = 0.006), and a significant gene-environment interaction was observed with glutathione S-transferase mu-1. USAF personnel experience inhalation exposure to JP-8, which is associated with absorption of JP-8 constituents while performing typical job-related tasks, and in our data the glutathione S-transferase mu-1 polymorphism was associated with differential metabolism of naphthalene.

  4. Urinary Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (OH-PAH) Metabolite Concentrations and the Effect of GST Polymorphisms Among US Air Force Personnel Exposed to Jet Fuel

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Ema G.; Smith, Kristen; Maule, Alexis L.; Sjodin, Andreas; Li, Zheng; Romanoff, Lovisa; Kelsey, Karl; Proctor, Susan; McClean, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the association between inhalation exposure to jet propulsion fuel 8 (JP-8) and urinary metabolites among US Air Force (USAF) personnel, and investigate the role of glutathione S-transferase polymorphisms. Methods Personal air samples were collected from 37 full-time USAF personnel during 4 consecutive workdays and analyzed for JP-8 constituents and total hydrocarbons. Pre- and postshift urine samples were collected each day and analyzed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon urinary metabolites. Results Work shift exposure to total hydrocarbons was significantly associated with postshift urinary 1-naphthol (β = 0.17; P = <0.0001), 2-naphthol (β = 0.09; P = 0.005), and 2-hydroxyfluorene concentrations (β = 0.08; P = 0.006), and a significant gene-environment interaction was observed with glutathione S-transferase mu-1. Conclusions USAF personnel experience inhalation exposure to JP-8, which is associated with absorption of JP-8 constituents while performing typical job-related tasks, and in our data the glutathione S-transferase mu-1 polymorphism was associated with differential metabolism of naphthalene. PMID:24806557

  5. Testing exposure of a jet engine to a dilute volcanic-ash cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guffanti, M.; Mastin, L. G.; Schneider, D. J.; Holliday, C. R.; Murray, J. J.

    2013-12-01

    An experiment to test the effects of volcanic-ash ingestion by a jet engine is being planned for 2014 by a consortium of U.S. Government agencies and engine manufacturers, under the auspices of NASA's Vehicle Integrated Propulsion Research Program. The experiment, using a 757-type engine, will be an on-ground, on-wing test carried out at Edwards Air Force Base, California. The experiment will involve the use of advanced jet-engine sensor technology for detecting and diagnosing engine health. A primary test objective is to determine the effect on the engine of many hours of exposure to ash concentrations (1 and 10 mg/cu m) representative of ash clouds many 100's to >1000 km from a volcanic source, an aviation environment of great interest since the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull, Iceland, eruption. A natural volcanic ash will be used; candidate sources are being evaluated. Data from previous ash/aircraft encounters, as well as published airborne measurements of the Eyjafjallajökull ash cloud, suggest the ash used should be composed primarily of glassy particles of andesitic to rhyolitic composition (SiO2 of 57-77%), with some mineral crystals, and a few tens of microns in size. Collected ash will be commercially processed less than 63 microns in size with the expectation that the ash particles will be further pulverized to smaller sizes in the engine during the test. For a nominally planned 80 hour test at multiple ash-concentration levels, the test will require roughly 500 kg of processed (appropriately sized) ash to be introduced into the engine core. Although volcanic ash clouds commonly contain volcanic gases such as sulfur dioxide, testing will not include volcanic gas or aerosol interactions as these present complex processes beyond the scope of the planned experiment. The viscous behavior of ash particles in the engine is a key issue in the experiment. The small glassy ash particles are expected to soften in the engine's hot combustion chamber, then stick to cooler

  6. Opposed jet diffusion flames of nitrogen-diluted hydrogen vs air - Axial LDA and CARS surveys; fuel/air rates at extinction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pellett, G. L.; Northam, G. B.; Wilson, L. G.; Jarrett, Olin, Jr.; Antcliff, R. R.

    1989-01-01

    An experimental study of H-air counterflow diffusion flames (CFDFs) is reported. Coaxial tubular opposed jet burners were used to form dish-shaped CFDFs centered by opposing laminar jets of H2/N2 and air in an argon bath at 1 atm. Jet velocities for extinction and flame restoration limits are shown versus input H2 concentration. LDA velocity data and CARS temperature and absolute N2, O2 density data give detailed flame structure on the air side of the stagnation point. The results show that air jet velocity is a more fundamental and appropriate measure of H2-air CFDF extinction than input H2 mass flux or fuel jet velocity. It is proposed that the observed constancy of air jet velocity for fuel mixtures containing 80 to 100 percent H2 measure a maximum, kinetically controlled rate at which the CFDF can consume oxygen in air. Fuel velocity mainly measures the input jet momentum required to center an H2/N2 versus air CFDF.

  7. Techno-Economic Analysis of Camelina-Derived Hydroprocessed Renewable Jet Fuel and its Implications on the Aviation Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shila, Jacob Joshua Howard

    Although the aviation industry contributes toward global economic growth via transportation of passengers and cargo, the increasing demand for air transportation causes concern due to the corresponding increase in aircraft engine exhaust emissions. Use of alternative fuels is one pathway that has been explored for reducing emissions in the aviation industry. Hydroprocessed renewable jet (HRJ) (also known as Hydroprocessed Esters and Fatty Acids - HEFA) fuels have been approved for blending with traditional jet fuel up to 50% by volume to be used as drop-in fuels. However, limited information exists on the economic viability of these fuels. While techno-economic studies have been conducted on the HRJ production process using soybean oil, different vegetable oils possess different hydrocarbon structures that affect the yield of HRJ fuels. This study involves the techno-economic analysis of producing Camelina-derived HRJ fuel using the option of hydro-deoxygenation (HDO). The hydrodeoxygenation option requires extra hydrogen and hence affects the overall cost of HRJ fuel production. Similar studies have been conducted on the production of Camelina-derived HRJ fuels using the same path of hydrodeoxygenation with minor contributions from both decarbonylation and decarboxylation reactions. This study, however, employs the UOP Honeywell procedure using the hydrodeoxygenation chemical reaction to estimate the breakeven price of Camelina-derived HRJ fuel. In addition, the study treats the cultivation of Camelina oilseeds, extraction of oilseeds, and the conversion of HRJ fuel as separate entities. The production of Camelina oilseed, Camelina oil, and finally Camelina-derived HRJ fuel is modeled in order to estimate the breakeven price of the fuel. In addition, the information obtained from the techno-economic analysis is used to assess the breakeven carbon price. All costs are analyzed based on 2016 US dollars. The breakeven price of Camelina oilseeds is found to be 228

  8. Experimental and computational study of methane counterflow diffusion flames perturbed by trace amounts of either jet fuel or a 6-component surrogate under non-sooting conditions

    SciT

    Bufferand, H.; Tosatto, L.; La Mantia, B.

    2009-08-15

    The chemical structure of a methane counterflow diffusion flame and of the same flame doped with 1000 ppm (molar) of either jet fuel or a 6-component jet fuel surrogate was analyzed experimentally, by gas sampling via quartz microprobes and subsequent GC/MS analysis, and computationally using a semi-detailed kinetic mechanism for the surrogate blend. Conditions were chosen to ensure that all three flames were non-sooting, with identical temperature profiles and stoichiometric mixture fraction, through a judicious selection of feed stream composition and strain rate. The experimental dataset provides a glimpse of the pyrolysis and oxidation behavior of jet fuel in amore » diffusion flame. The jet fuel initial oxidation is consistent with anticipated chemical kinetic behavior, based on thermal decomposition of large alkanes to smaller and smaller fragments and the survival of ring-stabilized aromatics at higher temperatures. The 6-component surrogate captures the same trend correctly, but the agreement is not quantitative with respect to some of the aromatics such as benzene and toluene. Various alkanes, alkenes and aromatics among the jet fuel components are either only qualitatively characterized or could not be identified, because of the presence of many isomers and overlapping spectra in the chromatogram, leaving 80% of the carbon from the jet fuel unaccounted for in the early pyrolysis history of the parent fuel. Computationally, the one-dimensional code adopted a semi-detailed kinetic mechanism for the surrogate blend that is based on an existing hierarchically constructed kinetic model for alkanes and simple aromatics, extended to account for the presence of tetralin and methylcyclohexane as reference fuels. The computational results are in reasonably good agreement with the experimental ones for the surrogate behavior, with the greatest discrepancy in the concentrations of aromatics and ethylene. (author)« less

  9. Alleviating monoterpene toxicity using a two-phase extractive fermentation for the bioproduction of jet fuel mixtures in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Timothy C R; Turner, Christopher D; Krömer, Jens O; Nielsen, Lars K

    2012-10-01

    Monoterpenes are a diverse class of compounds with applications as flavors and fragrances, pharmaceuticals and more recently, jet fuels. Engineering biosynthetic pathways for monoterpene production in microbial hosts has received increasing attention. However, monoterpenes are highly toxic to many microorganisms including Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a widely used industrial biocatalyst. In this work, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for S. cerevisiae was determined for five monoterpenes: β-pinene, limonene, myrcene, γ-terpinene, and terpinolene (1.52, 0.44, 2.12, 0.70, 0.53 mM, respectively). Given the low MIC for all compounds tested, a liquid two-phase solvent extraction system to alleviate toxicity during fermentation was evaluated. Ten solvents were tested for biocompatibility, monoterpene distribution, phase separation, and price. The solvents dioctyl phthalate, dibutyl phthalate, isopropyl myristate, and farnesene showed greater than 100-fold increase in the MIC compared to the monoterpenes in a solvent-free system. In particular, the MIC for limonene in dibutyl phthalate showed a 702-fold (308 mM, 42.1 g L(-1) of limonene) improvement while cell viability was maintained above 90%, demonstrating that extractive fermentation is a suitable tool for the reduction of monoterpene toxicity. Finally, we estimated that a limonane to farnesane ratio of 1:9 has physicochemical properties similar to traditional Jet-A aviation fuel. Since farnesene is currently produced in S. cerevisiae, its use as a co-product and extractant for microbial terpene-based jet fuel production in a two-phase system offers an attractive bioprocessing option. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Fuel Preheat Effects on Soot-Field Structure in Laminar Gas Jet Diffusion Flames Burning in 0-g and 1-g

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Konsur, Bogdan; Megaridis, Constantine M.; Griffin, Devon W.

    1999-01-01

    An experimental investigation conducted at the 2.2-s drop tower of the NASA Lewis Research Center is presented to quantify the influence of moderate fuel preheat on soot-field structure within 0-g laminar gas jet diffusion flames. Parallel work in 1-g is also presented to delineate the effect of elevated fuel temperatures on soot-field structure in buoyant flames. The experimental methodology implements jet diffusion flames of nitrogen-diluted acetylene fuel burning in quiescent air at atmospheric pressure. Fuel preheat of approximately 100 K in the 0-g laminar jet diffusion flames is found to reduce soot loadings in the annular region, but causes an increase in soot volume fractions at the centerline. In addition, fuel preheat reduces the radial extent of the soot field in 0-g. In 1-g, the same fuel preheat levels have a more moderated influence on soot loadings in the annular region, but are also seen to enhance soot concentrations near the axis low in the flame. The increased soot loadings near the flame centerline, as caused by fuel preheat, are consistent with the hypothesis that preheat levels of approximately 100 K enhance fuel pyrolysis rates. The results show that the growth stage of particles transported along the soot annulus is shortened both in 1-g and 0-g when elevated fuel temperatures are used.

  11. Combustor exhaust-emissions and blowout-limits with diesel number 2 and Jet A fuels utilizing air-atomizing and pressure-atomizing nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingebo, R. D.; Norgren, C. T.

    1975-01-01

    The effect of fuel properties on exhaust emissions and blowout limits of a high-pressure combustor segment is evaluated using a splash-groove air-atomizing fuel injector and a pressure-atomizing simplex fuel nozzle to burn both diesel number 2 and Jet A fuels. Exhaust emissions and blowout data are obtained and compared on the basis of the aromatic content and volatility of the two fuels. Exhaust smoke number and emission indices for oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, and unburned hydrocarbons are determined for comparison. As compared to the pressure-atomizing nozzle, the air-atomizing nozzle is found to reduce nitrogen oxides by 20%, smoke number by 30%, carbon monoxide by 70%, and unburned hydrocarbons by 50% when used with diesel number 2 fuel. The higher concentration of aromatics and lower volatility of diesel number 2 fuel as compared to Jet A fuel appears to have the most detrimental effect on exhaust emissions. Smoke number and unburned hydrocarbons are twice as high with diesel number 2 as with Jet A fuel.

  12. Biodegradation of international jet A-1 aviation fuel by microorganisms isolated from aircraft tank and joint hydrant storage systems.

    PubMed

    Itah, A Y; Brooks, A A; Ogar, B O; Okure, A B

    2009-09-01

    Microorganisms contaminating international Jet A-1 aircraft fuel and fuel preserved in Joint Hydrant Storage Tank (JHST) were isolated, characterized and identified. The isolates were Bacillus subtillis, Bacillus megaterium, Flavobacterium oderatum, Sarcina flava, Micrococcus varians, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus cereus and Bacillus brevis. Others included Candida tropicalis, Candida albicans, Saccharomyces estuari, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus, Cladosporium resinae, Penicillium citrinum and Penicillium frequentans. The viable plate count of microorganisms in the Aircraft Tank ranged from 1.3 (+/-0.01) x 104 cfu/mL to 2.2 (+/-1.6) x 104 cfu/mL for bacteria and 102 cfu/mL to 1.68 (+/-0.32) x 103 cfu/mL for fungi. Total bacterial counts of 1.79 (+/-0.2) x 104 cfu/mL to 2.58 (+/-0.04) x 104 cfu/mL and total fungal count of 2.1 (+/-0.1) x 103 cfu/mL to 2.28 (+/-0.5) x 103 cfu/mL were obtained for JHST. Selected isolates were re-inoculated into filter sterilized aircraft fuels and biodegradation studies carried out. After 14 days incubation, Cladosporium resinae exhibited the highest degradation rate with a percentage weight loss of 66 followed by Candida albicans (60.6) while Penicillium citrinum was the least degrader with a weight loss of 41.6%. The ability of the isolates to utilize the fuel as their sole source of carbon and energy was examined and found to vary in growth profile between the isolates. The results imply that aviation fuel could be biodegraded by hydrocarbonoclastic microorganisms. To avert a possible deterioration of fuel quality during storage, fuel pipe clogging and failure, engine component damage, wing tank corrosion and aircraft disaster, efficient routine monitoring of aircraft fuel systems is advocated.

  13. The effects of organosulfur compounds upon the storage stability of Jet A fuel. M.S. Thesis. Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heneman, F. C.

    1981-01-01

    This study examined the effect of sulfur-containing compounds on the storage stability of Jet A turbine fuel. It was found that alkyl sulfides and disulfides increased the fuel's stability while all thiols and thiophene derivatives tested decreased fuel stability (increased deposit formation) at temperatures and sulfur concentrations selected. Linear Arrhenius plots of sulfur-spiked fuel samples demonstrated that deposit formation decreased with increased slope for all alkyl sulfides, alkyl disulfides, thiols, and thiophene derivatives. A plot of insoluble deposit vs. concentration of added alkyl sulfide produces a negative slope. It appears that the inhibiting mechanism for alkyl sulfides is a result of the compound's reactivity with intermediate soluble precursors to deposit in the fuel. A method of approximating the relative basicity of weak organosulfur bases was developed via measurement of their resonance chemical shifts in proton NMR. Linear plots of log gm. deposit vs. change in chemical shift (shift differences between sulfur bases neat and complexed with I2) were found for alkyl sulfides and alkyl thiols. This suggests the possibility that increased deposit formation is due to base catalysis with these compound classes.

  14. Combustion rate limits of hydrogen plus hydrocarbon fuel: Air diffusion flames from an opposed jet burner technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pellett, Gerald L.; Guerra, Rosemary; Wilson, Lloyd G.; Reeves, Ronald N.; Northam, G. Burton

    1987-01-01

    Combustion of H2/hydrocarbon (HC) fuel mixtures may be considered in certain volume-limited supersonic airbreathing propulsion applications. Effects of HC addition to H2 were evaluated, using a recent argon-bathed, coaxial, tubular opposed jet burner (OJB) technique to measure the extinction limits of counterflow diffusion flames. The OJB flames were formed by a laminar jet of (N2 and/or HC)-diluted H2 mixture opposed by a similar jet of air at ambient conditions. The OJB data, derived from respective binary mixtures of H2 and methane, ethylene, or propane HCs, were used to characterize BLOWOFF and RESTORE. BLOWOFF is a sudden breaking of the dish-shaped OJB flame to a stable torus or ring shape, and RESTORE marks sudden restoration of the central flame by radial inward flame propagation. BLOWOFF is a measure of kinetically-limited flame reactivity/speed under highly stretched, but relatively ideal impingement flow conditions. RESTORE measures inward radial flame propagation rate, which is sensitive to ignition processes in the cool central core. It is concluded that relatively small molar amounts of added HC greatly reduce the reactivity characteristics of counterflow hydrogen-air diffusion flames, for ambient initial conditions.

  15. Investigative Study to Determine Effects of Hydro-Treated Renewable JP-8 Jet Fuel Blend in Existing Fuels Infrastructure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-01

    blended fuel be certified for use in USAF facilities. The introduction of the new fuel does have a few measureable effects that warrant monitoring: The...in surge suppressors and control valves. The blends may also cause shrinkage in certain seals which may result in short term leakage when the new...Agency (AFPA) and Air Force Civil Engineer Support Agency (AFCESA) have been tasked by AFCO to certify HRJ/JP-8 blended fuels for use in existing

  16. Gaseous Surrogate Hydrocarbons for a Hifire Scramjet that Mimic Opposed Jet Extinction Limits for Cracked JP Fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pellett, Gerald L.; Vaden, Sarah N.; Wilson, Lloyd G.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes, first, the top-down methodology used to define simple gaseous surrogate hydrocarbon (HC) fuel mixtures for a hypersonic scramjet combustion subtask of the HiFIRE program. It then presents new and updated Opposed Jet Burner (OJB) extinction-limit Flame Strength (FS) data obtained from laminar non-premixed HC vs. air counterflow diffusion flames at 1-atm, which follow from earlier investigations. FS represents a strain-induced extinction limit based on cross-section-average air jet velocity, U(sub air), that sustains combustion of a counter jet of gaseous fuel just before extinction. FS uniquely characterizes a kinetically limited fuel combustion rate. More generally, Applied Stress Rates (ASRs) at extinction (U(sub air) normalized by nozzle or tube diameter, D(sub n or t) can directly be compared with extinction limits determined numerically using either a 1-D or (preferably) a 2-D Navier Stokes simulation with detailed transport and finite rate chemistry. The FS results help to characterize and define three candidate surrogate HC fuel mixtures that exhibit a common FS 70% greater than for vaporized JP-7 fuel. These include a binary fuel mixture of 64% ethylene + 36% methane, which is our primary recommendation. It is intended to mimic the critical flameholding limit of a thermally- or catalytically-cracked JP-7 like fuel in HiFIRE scramjet combustion tests. Our supporting experimental results include: (1) An idealized kinetically-limited ASR reactivity scale, which represents maximum strength non-premixed flames for several gaseous and vaporized liquid HCs; (2) FS characterizations of Colket and Spadaccini s suggested ternary surrogate, of 60% ethylene + 30% methane + 10% n-heptane, which matches the ignition delay of a typical cracked JP fuel; (3) Data showing how our recommended binary surrogate, of 64% ethylene + 36% methane, has an identical FS; (4) Data that characterize an alternate surrogate of 44% ethylene + 56% ethane with identical

  17. Combustor exhaust-emissions and blowout-limits with diesel number 2 and jet A fuels utilizing air-atomizing and pressure atomizing nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingebo, R. D.; Norgren, C. T.

    1975-01-01

    Experimental tests with diesel number 2 and Jet A fuels were conducted in a combustor segment to obtain comparative data on exhaust emissions and blowout limits. An air-atomizing nozzle was used to inject the fuels. Tests were also made with diesel number 2 fuel using a pressure-atomizing nozzle to determine the effectiveness of the air-atomizing nozzle in reducing exhaust emissions. Test conditions included fuel-air ratios of 0.008 to 0.018, inlet-air total pressures and temperatures of 41 to 203 newtons per square centimeter and 477 to 811 K, respectively, and a reference velocity of 21.3 meters per second. Smoke number and unburned hydrocarbons were twice as high with diesel number 2 as with Jet A fuel. This was attributed to diesel number 2 having a higher concentration of aromatics and lower volatility than Jet A fuel. Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, and blowout limits were approximately the same for the two fuels. The air-atomizing nozzle, as compared with the pressure-atomizing nozzle, reduced oxides-of-nitrogen by 20 percent, smoke number by 30 percent, carbon monoxide by 70 percent, and unburned hydrocarbons by 50 percent when used with diesel number 2 fuel.

  18. Phase 1 remediation of jet fuel contaminated soil and groundwater at JFK International Airport using dual phase extraction and bioventing

    SciT

    Roth, R.; Bianco, P. Rizzo, M.; Pressly, N.

    1995-12-31

    Soil and groundwater contaminated with jet fuel at Terminal One of the JFK International Airport in New York have been remediated using dual phase extraction (DPE) and bioventing. Two areas were remediated using 51 DPE wells and 20 air sparging/air injection wells. The total area remediated by the DPE wells is estimated to be 4.8 acres. Groundwater was extracted to recover nonaqueous phase and aqueous phase jet fuel from the shallow aquifer and treated above ground by the following processes; oil/water separation, iron-oxidation, flocculation, sedimentation, filtration, air stripping and liquid-phase granular activated carbon (LPGAC) adsorption. The extracted vapors were treatedmore » by vapor-phase granular activated carbon (VPGAC) adsorption in one area, and catalytic oxidation and VPGAC adsorption in another area. After 6 months of remediation, approximately 5,490 lbs. of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were removed by soil vapor extraction (SVE), 109,650 lbs. of petroleum hydrocarbons were removed from the extracted groundwater, and 60,550 lbs. of petroleum hydrocarbons were biologically oxidized by subsurface microorganisms. Of these three mechanisms, the rate of petroleum hydrocarbon removal was the highest for biological oxidation in one area and by groundwater extraction in another area.« less

  19. Impact of broad-specification fuels on future jet aircraft. [engine components and performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grobman, J. S.

    1978-01-01

    The effects that broad specification fuels have on airframe and engine components were discussed along with the improvements in component technology required to use broad specification fuels without sacrificing performance, reliability, maintainability, or safety.

  20. National Jet Fuels Combustion Program – Area #3 : Advanced Combustion Tests

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2017-12-31

    The goal of this study is to develop, conduct, and analyze advanced laser and optical measurements in the experimental combustors developed under ASCENT National Fuel Combustion Program to measure sensitivity to fuel properties. We conducted advanced...

  1. Propulsion and Energetics Panel Working Group 13 on Alternative Jet Engine Fuels. Volume 2. Main Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-07-01

    twenty years the only economically available fuels for aircraft gas turbine engines will be those from the processing of conventional crude petroleum...alternative fuels in new aircraft engines. i.e. problems ir, combustors. turbines . and afterburners. and methods for their solution. - Fuel system...required expertise assigned to each task group. The three areas were. Supply and demand scenarios for aviation turbine fuels in the NATO Nations for the

  2. Environmental Life Cycle Assessment of Coal-Biomass to Liquid Jet Fuel Compared to Petroleum-Derived JP-8 Jet Fuel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    of gasoline. History of Diesel Diesel fuel received its name from the inventor Rudolph Diesel who invented the diesel engine in 1892 and was...additional emissions” (Searchinger, et al., 2008). The authors of this well-documented peer -reviewed paper go on to state that with land-use change the...ABOVE ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 25-03-2010 2. REPORT TYPE Master’s Thesis 3. DATES COVERED (From – To) Jan 2009 – Mar 2010 4. TITLE

  3. R&D control study : plan for future jet fuel distribution quality control and description of fuel properties catalog

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2014-05-09

    The Broad Agency Announcement Alternative Aviation Fuels was a solicitation released by the U.S. Department of Transportation Research and Innovative Technology Administration (RITA) / John A. Volpe National Transportation Systems Center with funding...

  4. Laser-Induced Fluorescence and Synthetic Jet Fuel Analysis in the Ultra Compact Combustor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-01

    In the primary zone, high- temperature, high-pressure air enters from the compressor and flows around fuel injectors spraying atomized liquid -droplet...chemical reaction in which synthesis gas , a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen, is converted into liquid hydrocarbons of various forms. The most...the fuel lines needed to be rebuilt due to a recent COAL lab renovation. The liquid fuel system had not been used for nearly two years so some

  5. Detection and Identification of Sulfur Compounds in an Australian Jet Fuel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    from a number of Australian and south-east Asian refineries that have different fuel finishing processes and methods for sweetening or desulfurising ...comparison to sulfur species that remain in deep hydrodesulfurised or alternate desulfurisation processed AVTUR/FSII fuels of the future. This work...Schmitz, C., Wasserscheid, P. (2001) Deep desulfurisation of diesel fuel by extraction with ionic liquids. Chem. Commun. 2494-2495 39. Dirk, D

  6. Emission FTIR analyses of thin microscopic patches of jet fuel residue deposited on heated metal surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauer, J. L.; Vogel, P.

    1984-01-01

    Deposits laid down in patches on metal strips in a high pressure/high temperature fuel system simulator operated with aerated fuel at varying flow rates were analyzed by emission FTIR in terms of functional groups. Significant differences were found in the spectra and amounts of deposits derived from fuels to which small concentrations of oxygen-, nitrogen-, or sulfur-containing heterocyclics or metal naphthenates were added. The spectra of deposits generated on strips by heating fuels and air in a closed container were very different from those of the flowing fluid deposits. One such closed-container dodecane deposit on silver gave a strong surface-enhanced Raman spectrum.

  7. Renewable hydrocarbons for jet fuels from biomass and plastics via microwave-induced pyrolysis and hydrogenation processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xuesong

    This dissertation aims to enhance the production of aromatic hydrocarbons in the catalytic microwave-induced pyrolysis, and maximize the production of renewable cycloalkanes for jet fuels in the hydrogenation process. In the process, ZSM-5 catalyst as the highly efficient catalyst was employed for catalyzing the pyrolytic volatiles from thermal decomposition of cellulose (a model compound of lignocellulosic biomass). A central composite experiment design (CCD) was used to optimize the product yields as a function of independent factors (e.g. catalytic temperature and catalyst to feed mass ratio). The low-density polyethylene (a mode compound of waste plastics) was then carried out in the catalytic microwave-induced pyrolysis in the presence of ZSM-5 catalyst. Thereafter, the catalytic microwave-induced co-pyrolysis of cellulose with low-density polyethylene (LDPE) was conducted over ZSM-5 catalyst. The results showed that the production of aromatic hydrocarbons was significantly enhanced and the coke formation was also considerably reduced comparing with the catalytic microwave pyrolysis of cellulose or LDPE alone. Moreover, practical lignocellulosic biomass (Douglas fir sawdust pellets) was converted into aromatics-enriched bio-oil by catalytic microwave pyrolysis. The bio-oil was subsequently hydrogenated by using the Raney Ni catalyst. A liquid-liquid extraction step was implemented to recover the liquid organics and remove the water content. Over 20% carbon yield of liquid product regarding lignocellulosic biomass was obtained. Up to 90% selectivity in the liquid product belongs to jet fuel range cycloalkanes. As the integrated processes was developed, catalytic microwave pyrolysis of cellulose with LDPE was conducted to improve aromatic production. After the liquid-liquid extraction by the optimal solvent (n-heptane), over 40% carbon yield of hydrogenated organics based on cellulose and LDPE were achieved in the hydrogenation process. As such, real

  8. Influence of Jet Fuel Composition on Aircraft Engine Emissions: A Synthesis of Aerosol Emissions Data from the NASA APEX, AAFEX, and ACCESS Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, R.; Shook, M.; Beyersdorf, A. J.; Corr, C.; Herndon, S. C.; Knighton, W. B.; Miake-Lye, R. C.; Thornhill, K. L., II; Winstead, E.; Yu, Z.; Ziemba, L. D.; Anderson, B. E.

    2015-12-01

    We statistically analyze the impact of jet fuel properties on aerosols emitted by the NASA McDonnell Douglas DC-8 CFM56-2-C1 engines burning fifteen different aviation fuels. Data were collected for this single engine type during four different, comprehensive ground tests conducted over the past decade, which allow us to clearly link changes in aerosol emissions to fuel compositional changes. It is found that the volatile aerosol fraction dominates the number and volume emissions indices (EIs) over all engine powers, which are driven by changes in fuel aromatic and sulfur content. Meanwhile, the naphthalenic content of the fuel determines the magnitude of the non-volatile number and volume EI as well as the black carbon mass EI. Linear regression coefficients are reported for each aerosol EI in terms of these properties, engine fuel flow rate, and ambient temperature, and show that reducing both fuel sulfur content and napththalenes to near-zero levels would result in roughly a ten-fold decrease in aerosol number emitted per kg of fuel burn. This work informs future efforts to model aircraft emissions changes as the aviation fleet gradually begins to transition toward low-aromatic, low-sulfur alternative jet fuels from bio-based or Fischer-Tropsch production pathways.

  9. Fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (EEM) spectroscopy and cavity ring-down (CRD) absorption spectroscopy of oil-contaminated jet fuel using fiber-optic probes.

    PubMed

    Omrani, Hengameh; Barnes, Jack A; Dudelzak, Alexander E; Loock, Hans-Peter; Waechter, Helen

    2012-06-21

    Excitation emission matrix (EEM) and cavity ring-down (CRD) spectral signatures have been used to detect and quantitatively assess contamination of jet fuels with aero-turbine lubricating oil. The EEM spectrometer has been fiber-coupled to permit in situ measurements of jet turbine oil contamination of jet fuel. Parallel Factor (PARAFAC) analysis as well as Principal Component Analysis and Regression (PCA/PCR) were used to quantify oil contamination in a range from the limit of detection (10 ppm) to 1000 ppm. Fiber-loop cavity ring-down spectroscopy using a pulsed 355 nm laser was used to quantify the oil contamination in the range of 400 ppm to 100,000 ppm. Both methods in combination therefore permit the detection of oil contamination with a linear dynamic range of about 10,000.

  10. The effect of water injection on nitric oxide emissions of a gas turbine combustor burning ASTM Jet-A fuel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marchionna, N. R.; Diehl, L. A.; Trout, A. M.

    1973-01-01

    Tests were conducted to determine the effect of water injection on oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions of a full annular, ram induction gas turbine combustor burning ASTM Jet-A fuel. The combustor was operated at conditions simulating sea-level takeoff and cruise conditions. Water at ambient temperature was injected into the combustor primary zone at water-fuel ratios up to 2. At an inlet-air temperature of 589 K (600 F) water injection decreased the NOx emission index at a constant exponential rate: NOx = NOx (o) e to the -15 W/F power (where W/F is the water-fuel ratio and NOx(o) indicates the value with no injection). The effect of increasing combustor inlet-air temperature was to decrease the effect of the water injection. Other operating variables such as pressure and reference Mach number did not appear to significantly affect the percent reduction in NOx. Smoke emissions were found to decrease with increasing water injection.

  11. Enhanced Bioreclamation of Jet Fuels: A Full-Scale Test at Eglin AFB, Florida

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-09-01

    accelerated fuel degradation. To the authors’ knowledge , in the United States only one relatively undocumented attempt at nitrate utilization has...site demonstrations. To the authors’ knowledge . only the nitrate demonstrations previously discussed have been attempted to clean tip fuel...authors* knowledge -, enhanced bioreclamation is the only demonstrated technology for in situ treatment of hydrocarbons in deeper groundwaters. 5

  12. Air pollution from aircraft. [jet exhaust - aircraft fuels/combustion efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heywood, J. B.; Chigier, N. A.

    1975-01-01

    A model which predicts nitric oxide and carbon monoxide emissions from a swirl can modular combustor is discussed. A detailed analysis of the turbulent fuel-air mixing process in the swirl can module wake region is reviewed. Hot wire anemometry was employed, and gas sampling analysis of fuel combustion emissions were performed.

  13. Catalytic conversion of isophorone to jet-fuel range aromatic hydrocarbons over a MoO(x)/SiO2 catalyst.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fang; Li, Ning; Wang, Wentao; Wang, Aiqin; Cong, Yu; Wang, Xiaodong; Zhang, Tao

    2015-07-28

    For the first time, jet fuel range C8-C9 aromatic hydrocarbons were synthesized in high carbon yield (∼80%) by the catalytic conversion of isophorone over MoO(x)/SiO2 at atmospheric pressure. A possible reaction pathway was proposed according to the control experiments and the intermediates generated during the reaction.

  14. Temperature, Oxygen, and Soot-Volume-Fraction Measurements in a Turbulent C 2H 4-Fueled Jet Flame

    SciT

    Kearney, Sean P.; Guildenbecher, Daniel Robert; Winters, Caroline

    2015-09-01

    We present a detailed set of measurements from a piloted, sooting, turbulent C 2 H 4 - fueled diffusion flame. Hybrid femtosecond/picosecond coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) is used to monitor temperature and oxygen, while laser-induced incandescence (LII) is applied for imaging of the soot volume fraction in the challenging jet-flame environment at Reynolds number, Re = 20,000. Single-laser shot results are used to map the mean and rms statistics, as well as probability densities. LII data from the soot-growth region of the flame are used to benchmark the soot source term for one-dimensional turbulence (ODT) modeling of this turbulentmore » flame. The ODT code is then used to predict temperature and oxygen fluctuations higher in the soot oxidation region higher in the flame.« less

  15. Behavior or Nonmetallic Materials in Shale Oil Derived Jet Fuels and in High Aromatic and High Sulfur Petroleum Fuels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-07-01

    degrades thermal stability and forms undesirable sulfur dioxide emissions . Although the original premises for controlling total sulfur may not still...eliminate corrosive trace contamination, presence of surfactants which deactivate filter/ separators, carry-over of refinery processing materials, and...increase raw vapor emissions from ground fuel handling facilities and during refueling operations. Controlling raw vapor emissions is difficult at 3

  16. Experimental Investigation of a Multiplex Fuel Injector Module With Discrete Jet Swirlers for Low Emission Combustors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tacina, Robert; Mao, Chien-Pei; Wey, Changlie

    2004-01-01

    A low-NOx emissions combustor concept has been demonstrated in flame-tube tests. A lean-direct injection (LDI) concept was used where the fuel is injected directly into the flame zone and the overall equivalence ratio of the mixture is lean. The LDI concept described in this report is a multiplex fuel injector module containing multipoint fuel injection tips and multi-burning zones. The injector module comprises 25 equally spaced injection tips within a 76 by 76 mm area that fits into the flame-tube duct. The air swirlers were made from a concave plate on the axis of the fuel injector using drilled holes at an angle to the axis of the fuel injector. The NOx levels were quite low and are greater than 70 percent lower than the 1996 ICAO standard. At an inlet temperature of 810 K, inlet pressure of 2760 kPa, pressure drop of 4 percent and a flame temperature of 1900 K with JP8 fuel, the NOx emission index was 9. The 25-point injector module exhibited the most uniform radial distribution of fuel-air mixture and NOx emissions in the flame tube when compared to other multipoint injection devices. A correlation is developed relating the NOx emissions to inlet temperature, inlet pressure, equivalence ratio and pressure drop.

  17. Effect of nitrogenous bases on the thermal stability of jet fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Englin, B. A.; Alekseyeva, M. P.; Gasanova, Z. I.; Isaev, A. V.; Skovorodin, G. B.; Borisova, S. M.

    1977-01-01

    Fuels from naphthenic petroleums were evaluated, and it was found that they had more N bases than those paraffinic ones (0.00024 and 0.000009% N, respectively). The removal of the N bases improved significantly the thermal stability and reduced the residue formation during oxidation of the fuel. The improvement depended on both content and composition of the bases. Thus, fuels with similar content of N bases (0.00058% N) and thermal stability had oxidation residues of 17.5 and 5.6 and sol. gum of 13 and 1.5 mg/100 ml, before and after removing the N bases, respectively.

  18. Environmental Assessment for the Maintenance, Upgrade, and Construction of the Jet Fuel Distribution System, Edwards Air Force Base, California

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR (S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER EIAP Control No. 07-0485 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING...chemical hazards such as fuel vapors, heavy metal paints, and asbestos particulates; venomous snakes; and potential exposure to hantavirus or valley...OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH Environmental hazards Personnel could be exposed to heat stress, venomous snakes, hantavirus from infected rodents, and valley

  19. National Jet Fuels Combustion Program - Area #6 : Referee Swirl-Stabilized Combustor Evaluation/Support.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this study is to develop, conduct, and analyze advanced laser and optical measurements in the referee combustor (WPAFB, Bldg. 490, RC 152) selected by the ASCENT National Fuel Combustion Program. We will conduct advanced spatially resolve...

  20. National Jet Fuels Combustion Program - overall program integration and analysis, Area #7.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this study is to develop, conduct, and analyze advanced laser and optical measurements in the referee combustor (WPAFB, Bldg. 490, RC 152) selected by the ASCENT National Fuel Combustion Program. We will conduct advanced spatially resolve...

  1. Biomass fuel smoke exposure was associated with adverse cardiac remodeling and left ventricular dysfunction in Peru.

    PubMed

    Burroughs Peña, M S; Velazquez, E J; Rivera, J D; Alenezi, F; Wong, C; Grigsby, M; Davila-Roman, V G; Gilman, R H; Miranda, J J; Checkley, W

    2017-07-01

    While household air pollution from biomass fuel combustion has been linked to cardiovascular disease, the effects on cardiac structure and function have not been well described. We sought to determine the association between biomass fuel smoke exposure and cardiac structure and function by transthoracic echocardiography. We identified a random sample of urban and rural residents living in the high-altitude region of Puno, Peru. Daily biomass fuel use was self-reported. Participants underwent transthoracic echocardiography. Multivariable linear regression was used to examine the relationship of biomass fuel use with echocardiographic measures of cardiac structure and function, adjusting for age, sex, height, body mass index, diabetes, physical activity, and tobacco use. One hundred and eighty-seven participants (80 biomass fuel users and 107 non-users) were included in this analysis (mean age 59 years, 58% women). After adjustment, daily exposure to biomass fuel smoke was associated with increased left ventricular internal diastolic diameter (P=.004), left atrial diameter (P=.03), left atrial area (four-chamber) (P=.004) and (two-chamber) (P=.03), septal E' (P=.006), and lateral E' (P=.04). Exposure to biomass fuel smoke was also associated with worse global longitudinal strain in the two-chamber view (P=.01). Daily biomass fuel use was associated with increased left ventricular size and decreased left ventricular systolic function by global longitudinal strain. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Engineering improved bio-jet fuel tolerance in Escherichia coli using a transgenic library from the hydrocarbon-degrader Marinobacter aquaeolei.

    PubMed

    Tomko, Timothy A; Dunlop, Mary J

    2015-01-01

    Recent metabolic engineering efforts have generated microorganisms that can produce biofuels, including bio-jet fuels, however these fuels are often toxic to cells, limiting production yields. There are natural examples of microorganisms that have evolved mechanisms for tolerating hydrocarbon-rich environments, such as those that thrive near natural oil seeps and in oil-polluted waters. Using genomic DNA from the hydrocarbon-degrading microbe Marinobacter aquaeolei, we constructed a transgenic library that we expressed in Escherichia coli. We exposed cells to inhibitory levels of pinene, a monoterpene that can serve as a jet fuel precursor with chemical properties similar to existing tactical fuels. Using a sequential strategy with a fosmid library followed by a plasmid library, we were able to isolate a region of DNA from the M. aquaeolei genome that conferred pinene tolerance when expressed in E. coli. We determined that a single gene, yceI, was responsible for the tolerance improvements. Overexpression of this gene placed no additional burden on the host. We also tested tolerance to other monoterpenes and showed that yceI selectively improves tolerance. The genomes of hydrocarbon-tolerant microbes represent a rich resource for tolerance engineering. Using a transgenic library, we were able to identify a single gene that improves E. coli's tolerance to the bio-jet fuel precursor pinene.

  3. Analytical evaluation of effect of equivalence ratio inlet-air temperature and combustion pressure on performance of several possible ram-jet fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tower, Leonard K; Gammon, Benson E

    1953-01-01

    The results of an analytical investigation of the theoretical air specific impulse performance and adiabatic combustion temperatures of several possible ram-jet fuels over a range of equivalence ratios, inlet-air temperatures, and combustion pressures, is presented herein. The fuels include octane-1, 50-percent-magnesium slurry, boron, pentaborane, diborane, hydrogen, carbon, and aluminum. Thermal effects from high combustion temperatures were found to effect considerably the combustion performance of all the fuels. An increase in combustion pressure was beneficial to air specific impulse at high combustion temperatures. The use of these theoretical data in engine operation and in the evaluation of experimental data is described.

  4. Aerodynamic effect of combustor inlet-air pressure on fuel jet atomization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingebo, R. D.

    1984-01-01

    Mean drop diameters were measured with a recently developed scanning radiometer in a study of the atomization of liquid jets injected cross stream in high velocity and high pressure airflows. At constant inlet air pressure, reciprocal mean drop diameter was correlated with airflow mass velocity. Over a combustor inlet-air pressure range of 1 to 21 atmospheres, the ratio of orifice to mean drop diameter, D(O)/D(M), was correlated with the product of Weber and Reynolds number, WeRe, and with the molecular scale momentum transfer ratio of gravitational to inertial forces. Previously announced in STAR as N84-22910

  5. Aerodynamic effect of combustor inlet-air pressure on fuel jet atomization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingebo, R. D.

    1984-01-01

    Mean drop diameters were measured with a recently developed scanning radiometer in a study of the atomization of liquid jets injected cross stream in high velocity and high pressure airflows. At constant inlet air pressure, reciprocal mean drop diameter, was correlated with airflow mass velocity. Over a combustor inlet-air pressure range of 1 to 21 atmospheres, the ratio of orifice to mean drop diameter, D(O)/D(M), was correlated with the product of Weber and Reynolds number, WeRe, and with the molecular scale momentum transfer ratio of gravitational to inertial forces.

  6. Estimating diesel fuel exposure for a plumber repairing an underground pipe.

    PubMed

    Finn, Mary; Stenzel, Mark; Ramachandran, Gurumurthy

    2017-04-01

    We estimated the diesel fuel exposure of a plumber repairing an underground water line leak at a truck stop. The repair work was performed over three days during which the plumber spent most of his time in a pit filled with a mixture of water and diesel fuel. Thus, the plumber was exposed via both the inhalation and dermal routes. While previously asymptomatic, he was diagnosed with acute renal failure 35 days after working at this site. No measurements were available for estimating either inhalation or dermal exposures or the cumulative dose and, therefore, two different approaches were used that were based on simple models of the exposure scenario. The first approach used the ideal gas law with the vapor pressure of the diesel fuel mixture to estimate a saturation vapor concentration, while the second one used a mass balance of the petroleum hydrocarbon component of diesel fuel in conjunction with the Henry's Law constant for this mixture. These inhalation exposure estimates were then adjusted to account for the limited ventilation in a confined space. The inhalation exposure concentrations predicted when handling the water layer alone is much lower than that expected from the organic layer. This case study illustrates the large differences in inhalation exposure associated with volatile organic layers and aqueous solution containing these chemicals. The estimate of dermal exposure was negligible compared to the inhalation exposure because the skin presents a much smaller surface area of exposure to the contaminant compared to the lungs. The methodology presented here is useful for situations where little information is available for more formal mathematical exposure modeling, but where adjustments to the worst-case exposures, estimated simply, can provide reasonable exposure estimates.

  7. PROPULSION AND POWER RAPID RESPONSE RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT (R&D) SUPPORT. Delivery Order 0011: Production Demonstration and Laboratory Evaluation of R-8 and R-8X Hydroprocessed Renewable Jet (HRJ) Fuel for the DoD Alternative Fuels Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-01

    alternative fuel from halophyte (Salicornia oil from sea plants) was also produced by the Syntroleum Corporation and termed R- 8X. Syntroleum processed...these bio- oils without catalyst change-out or processing optimization. Only a portion of the fit for purpose and characterization testing was...jet fuel, up to 50 volume %, just as F-T SPK is allowed to be used in MIL-DTL-83133F. b) The R-8 feedstock of fats, oils , and grease (FOG) was

  8. [Analysis of aromatic hydrocarbons in cracking products of jet fuel by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Li, Haijing; Zhang, Xiangwen

    2017-08-08

    As coking precursors, aromatic hydrocarbons have an effect on the cracking stability of fuels. A method for identifying and quantitating aromatics in the supercritical cracking products of jet fuel was established by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC×GC-MS). The effects of main chromatographic conditions such as initial oven temperature and modulation period on the separation of supercritical cracking products were studied. The method has good separation ability for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) isomers. A total of 27 aromatics, including monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, bicyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, tricyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, tetracyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, etc., were identified based on standard mass spectra, the retention times of standards and literature reports. Moreover, the corresponding quantitative determination was achieved by external standard method of GC×GC-FID. The results showed that the contents of aromatics increased with the increase of gas yield. When gas yield reached 22%, the bicyclic aromatic hydrocarbons began to produce, and their contents increased exponentially with the increase of gas yield. Compared with the traditional GC-MS, the method has better separation and qualitative ability, and can be applied to the separation of complex samples and qualitative and quantitative analyses of cracking products.

  9. Effect of exhaust gas recirculation on emissions from a flame-tube combustor using Liquid Jet A fuel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marek, C. J.; Tacina, R. R.

    1976-01-01

    The effects of uncooled exhaust gas recirculation as an inert diluent on emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NO + NO2) and on combustion efficiency were investigated. Ratios of recirculated combustion products to inlet airflow were varied from 10 to 80 percent by using an inlet air ejector nozzle. Liquid Jet A fuel was used. The flame-tube combustor was 10.2 cm in diameter. It was operated with and without a flameholder present. The combustor pressure was maintained constant at 0.5 MPa. The equivalence ratio was varied from 0.3 to 1.0. The inlet air temperature was varied from 590 to 800 K, and the reference velocity from 10 to 30 m/sec. Increasing the percent recirculation from 10 to 25 had the following effects: (1) the peak NOx emission was decreased by 37 percent, from 8 to 5 g NO2/kg fuel, at an inlet air temperature of 590 K and a reference velocity of 15 m/sec; (2) the combustion efficiency was increased, particularly at the higher equivalence ratios; and (3) for a high combustion efficiency of greater than 99.5 percent, the range of operation of the combustor was nearly doubled in terms of equivalence ratio. Increasing the recirculation from 25 to 50 percent did not change the emissions significantly.

  10. Long-term fuel retention and release in JET ITER-Like Wall at ITER-relevant baking temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinola, K.; Likonen, J.; Ahlgren, T.; Brezinsek, S.; De Temmerman, G.; Jepu, I.; Matthews, G. F.; Pitts, R. A.; Widdowson, A.; Contributors, JET

    2017-08-01

    The fuel outgassing efficiency from plasma-facing components exposed in JET-ILW has been studied at ITER-relevant baking temperatures. Samples retrieved from the W divertor and Be main chamber were annealed at 350 and 240 °C, respectively. Annealing was performed with thermal desoprtion spectrometry (TDS) for 0, 5 and 15 h to study the deuterium removal effectiveness at the nominal baking temperatures. The remained fraction was determined by emptying the samples fully of deuterium by heating W and Be samples up to 1000 and 775 °C,respectively. Results showed the deposits in the divertor having an increasing effect to the remaining retention at temperatures above baking. Highest remaining fractions 54 and 87 % were observed with deposit thicknesses of 10 and 40 μm, respectively. Substantially high fractions were obtained in the main chamber samples from the deposit-free erosion zone of the limiter midplane, in which the dominant fuel retention mechanism is via implantation: 15 h annealing resulted in retained deuterium higher than 90 % . TDS results from the divertor were simulated with TMAP7 calculations. The spectra were modelled with three deuterium activation energies resulting in good agreement with the experiments.

  11. Partitioning microbial respiration between jet fuel and native organic matter in an organic-rich long time-contaminated aquifer.

    PubMed

    Bugna, G C; Chanton, J P; Stauffer, T B; MacIntyre, W G; Libelo, E L

    2005-07-01

    The relative importance of jet fuel biodegradation relative to the respiration of natural organic matter in a contaminated organic-rich aquifer underlying a fire training area at Tyndall Air Force Base, Florida, USA was determined with isotopic measurements. Thirteen wells were sampled and analyzed for BTX (benzene, toluene, xylene), dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and CH4 concentrations, and delta13C and 14C of DIC. Results range from non-detectable to 3790 ppb, 1.4-24 mM, 0.2-776 microM, +5.8 per thousand to -22 per thousand, and from 52 to 99 pmc, respectively. Residual fuel was confined to two center wells underlying the fire training area. DIC and CH4 concentrations were elevated down-gradient of the contamination, but also at sites that were not in the apparent flow path of the contaminated groundwater. DIC exhibited greatest delta13C enrichment at highest DIC and CH4 concentrations indicating that CH4 production was an important respiration mode. Radiocarbon-depleted DIC was observed at sites with high hydrocarbon concentrations and down-gradient of the site. The results indicate that while natural attenuation was not rapidly reducing the quantity of free product overlying the aquifer at the site of contamination, it was at least constraining its flow away from the spill site. Apparently under the conditions of this study, BTX was degraded as rapidly as it was dissolved.

  12. Stadis{reg_sign} 450 in Merox-sweetened jet fuels

    SciT

    Henry, C.P.

    1995-05-01

    Stadis{reg_sign} 450 has been used in aviation fuels since 1983, and in many cases is the additive of choice due to conductivity retention of treated fuels during distribution, and other characteristics. In the past several years, manufacture of Shell ASA-3 (the other aviation-approved static dissipator additive) has been discontinued; current stores are being drawn down and for some refiners conversion from ASA-3 to Stadis{reg_sign} 450 is underway. In fuels sweetened by hydrogen-treating, Stadis{reg_sign} 450 performs very well and there are few reported difficulties. Chemically sweetened fuels sometimes contain trace materials not removed by the sweetening process. When treated with Stadis{reg_sign}more » 450 some of these fuels have exhibited two behaviors which are being addressed: in one case, the formation of a precipitate which disarmed coalescers; in several other cases, reduced conductivity response and loss of conductivity during storage coupled with unusually large effects on the microseparatometer water separation properties. In late 1992, a Coordinating Research Council (CRC) Panel on Coalescer Deactivation was formed to address these problems. The results of DuPont and CRC efforts are discussed, along with actions taken and underway to eliminate these problems.« less

  13. Minimum-fuel turning climbout and descent guidance of transport jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neuman, F.; Kreindler, E.

    1983-01-01

    The complete flightpath optimization problem for minimum fuel consumption from takeoff to landing including the initial and final turns from and to the runway heading is solved. However, only the initial and final segments which contain the turns are treated, since the straight-line climbout, cruise, and descent problems have already been solved. The paths are derived by generating fields of extremals, using the necessary conditions of optimal control together with singular arcs and state constraints. Results show that the speed profiles for straight flight and turning flight are essentially identical except for the final horizontal accelerating or decelerating turns. The optimal turns require no abrupt maneuvers, and an approximation of the optimal turns could be easily integrated with present straight-line climb-cruise-descent fuel-optimization algorithms. Climbout at the optimal IAS rather than the 250-knot terminal-area speed limit would save 36 lb of fuel for the 727-100 aircraft.

  14. Test Record of Flight Tests Using Alcohol-to-Jet/JP-8 Blended Fuel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    Fuel Pump Corrosion ……………………………………………………………….... 14, 15 2. Pre-Test Coke (carbon) Buildup on Swirl Cups in T55-GA-714A Engines …………………. 16 3...Post-Test Coke (carbon) Buildup on Swirl Cups in T55-GA-714A Engines ………………... 18 5 LIST OF TABLES Table Title Page 1...significant coke (carbon) buildup on the fuel nozzles and swirl cups was observed. The combustor section inspection criteria stipulates that any

  15. Microchannel Distillation of JP-8 Jet Fuel for Sulfur Content Reduction

    SciT

    Zheng, Feng; Stenkamp, Victoria S.; TeGrotenhuis, Ward E.

    2006-09-16

    In microchannel based distillation processes, thin vapor and liquid films are contacted in small channels where mass transfer is diffusion-limited. The microchannel architecture enables improvements in distillation processes. A shorter height equivalent of a theoretical plate (HETP) and therefore a more compact distillation unit can be achieved. A microchannel distillation unit was used to produce a light fraction of JP-8 fuel with reduced sulfur content for use as feed to produce fuel-cell grade hydrogen. The HETP of the microchannel unit is discussed, as well as the effects of process conditions such as feed temperature, flow rate, and reflux ratio.

  16. Impact of 50% Alcohol to Jet Blends on Aviation Turbine Fuel Filtration and Coalescence

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-20

    Aviation and Distillate Fuel, Naval Shipboard 4. Energy Institute, July 2002. EI 1581 5th Edition Specifications and Qualification Procedures For... Distillate Fuel, Naval Shipboard 0.0 5.0 10.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 30.0 35.0 40.0 45.0 50.0 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 Se di m en t C on ce nt ra...2000 - Distillation Initial (°C) 10% Recovered (°C) 20% Recovered (°C) 50% Recovered (°C) 90 % Recovered (°C) End Point (°C) Residue (volume

  17. Health Effects Associated with Inhalation Exposure to Diesel Emission Generated with and without CeO2 Nano Fuel Additive

    EPA Science Inventory

    Diesel exhaust (DE) exposure induces adverse cardiopulmonary effects. Addition of nano cerium (Ce) oxide additive to diesel fuel (DECe) increases fuel burning efficiency resulting in altered emission characteristics and potentially altered health effects. We hypothesized that inh...

  18. Wildfire exposure and fuel management on western US national forests

    Alan A. Ager; Michelle A. Day; Charles W. McHugh; Karen Short; Julie Gilbertson-Day; Mark A. Finney; David E. Calkin

    2014-01-01

    Substantial investments in fuel management activities on national forests in the western US are part of a national strategy to reduce human and ecological losses from catastrophic wildfire and create fire resilient landscapes. Prioritizing these investments within and among national forests remains a challenge, partly because a comprehensive assessment that establishes...

  19. BIOGEOCHEMICAL EVIDENCE FOR MICROBIAL COMMUNITY CHANGE IN A JET FUEL HYDROCARBONS-CONTAMINATED AQUIFER

    EPA Science Inventory

    A glacio-fluvial aquifer located at Wurtsmith Air Force Base, Michigan, had been contaminated with JP-4 fuel hydrocarbons released after the crash of a tanker aircraft in October of 1988 Microbial biomass and community structure, associated with the aquifer sediments, were chara...

  20. The Effect of Glucose on the Growth of Filamentous Fungi in Jet Fuel.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-01-01

    A single strain of Penicillium produced the best growth under all conditions and was used in experiments analyzing hydrocarbon degradation using gas...chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Penicillium was grown in 2 and 3% fuel alone and with supplemental glucose (1%) and the non-polar extracts

  1. Evaluation and Testing of the Suitability of a Coal-Based Jet Fuel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-01

    accepted that higher aromatic content increases particulate matter formation during combustion ( Naegeli and Moses, 1980; Monroig et al., 2005...Alkyl Groups. Ind. Eng. Chem. Fundam. 23, 288-294. Naegeli , D. W., Moses, C.A., 1980. Effects of Fuel Molecular Structure on Soot Formation in Gas

  2. Fuel inventory and deposition in castellated structures in JET-ILW

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubel, M.; Petersson, P.; Zhou, Y.; Coad, J. P.; Lungu, C.; Jepu, I.; Porosnicu, C.; Matveev, D.; Kirschner, A.; Brezinsek, S.; Widdowson, A.; Alves, E.; Contributors, JET

    2017-06-01

    Since 2011 the JET tokamak has been operated with a metal ITER-like wall (JET-ILW) including castellated beryllium limiters and lamellae-type bulk tungsten tiles in the divertor. This has allowed for a large scale test of castellated plasma-facing components (PFC). Procedures for sectioning the limiters into single blocks of castellation have been developed. This facilitated morphology studies of morphology of surfaces inside the grooves for limiters after experimental campaigns 2011-2012 and 2013-2014. The deposition in the 0.4-0.5 mm wide grooves of the castellation is ‘shallow’. It reaches 1-2 mm into the 12 mm deep gap. Deuterium concentrations are small (mostly below 1  ×  1018 cm-2). The estimated total amount of deuterium in all the castellated limiters does not exceed the inventory of the plasma-facing surfaces (PFS) of the limiters. There are only traces of Ni, Cr and Fe deposited in the castellation gaps. The same applies to the carbon content. Also low deposition of D, Be and C has been measured on the sides of the bulk tungsten lamellae pieces. Modelling clearly reflects: (a) a sharp decrease in the measured deposition profiles and(b) an increase in deposition with the gap width. Both experimental and modelling data give a strong indication and information to ITER that narrow gaps in the castellated PFC are essential. X-ray diffraction on PFS has clearly shown two distinct composition patterns: Be with an admixture of Be-W intermetallic compounds (e.g. Be22W) in the deposition zone, whilst only pure Be has been detected in the erosion zone. The lack of compound formation in the erosion zone indicates that no distinct changes in the thermo-mechanical properties of the Be PFC might be expected.

  3. Aviation fuels outlook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Momenthy, A. M.

    1980-01-01

    Options for satisfying the future demand for commercial jet fuels are analyzed. It is concluded that the most effective means to this end are to attract more refiners to the jet fuel market and encourage development of processes to convert oil shale and coal to transportation fuels. Furthermore, changing the U.S. refineries fuel specification would not significantly alter jet fuel availability.

  4. Influence of Fuels, Weather and the Built Environment on the Exposure of Property to Wildfire

    PubMed Central

    Penman, Trent D.; Collins, Luke; Syphard, Alexandra D.; Keeley, Jon E.; Bradstock, Ross A.

    2014-01-01

    Wildfires can pose a significant risk to people and property. Billions of dollars are spent investing in fire management actions in an attempt to reduce the risk of loss. One of the key areas where money is spent is through fuel treatment – either fuel reduction (prescribed fire) or fuel removal (fuel breaks). Individual treatments can influence fire size and the maximum distance travelled from the ignition and presumably risk, but few studies have examined the landscape level effectiveness of these treatments. Here we use a Bayesian Network model to examine the relative influence of the built and natural environment, weather, fuel and fuel treatments in determining the risk posed from wildfire to the wildland-urban interface. Fire size and distance travelled was influenced most strongly by weather, with exposure to fires most sensitive to changes in the built environment and fire parameters. Natural environment variables and fuel load all had minor influences on fire size, distance travelled and exposure of assets. These results suggest that management of fuels provided minimal reductions in risk to assets and adequate planning of the changes in the built environment to cope with the expansion of human populations is going to be vital for managing risk from fire under future climates. PMID:25360741

  5. Influence of fuels, weather and the built environment on the exposure of property to wildfire

    Penman, Trent D.; Collins, Luke S.; Syphard, Alexandra D.; Keeley, Jon E.; Bradstock, Ross A.

    2014-01-01

    Wildfires can pose a significant risk to people and property. Billions of dollars are spent investing in fire management actions in an attempt to reduce the risk of loss. One of the key areas where money is spent is through fuel treatment – either fuel reduction (prescribed fire) or fuel removal (fuel breaks). Individual treatments can influence fire size and the maximum distance travelled from the ignition and presumably risk, but few studies have examined the landscape level effectiveness of these treatments. Here we use a Bayesian Network model to examine the relative influence of the built and natural environment, weather, fuel and fuel treatments in determining the risk posed from wildfire to the wildland-urban interface. Fire size and distance travelled was influenced most strongly by weather, with exposure to fires most sensitive to changes in the built environment and fire parameters. Natural environment variables and fuel load all had minor influences on fire size, distance travelled and exposure of assets. These results suggest that management of fuels provided minimal reductions in risk to assets and adequate planning of the changes in the built environment to cope with the expansion of human populations is going to be vital for managing risk from fire under future climates.

  6. Metal organic chemical vapor deposition of environmental barrier coatings for the inhibition of solid deposit formation from heated jet fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohan, Arun Ram

    Solid deposit formation from jet fuel compromises the fuel handling system of an aviation turbine engine and increases the maintenance downtime of an aircraft. The deposit formation process depends upon the composition of the fuel, the nature of metal surfaces that come in contact with the heated fuel and the operating conditions of the engine. The objective of the study is to investigate the effect of substrate surfaces on the amount and nature of solid deposits in the intermediate regime where both autoxidation and pyrolysis play an important role in deposit formation. A particular focus has been directed to examining the effectiveness of barrier coatings produced by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) on metal surfaces for inhibiting the solid deposit formation from jet fuel degradation. In the first part of the experimental study, a commercial Jet-A sample was stressed in a flow reactor on seven different metal surfaces: AISI316, AISI 321, AISI 304, AISI 347, Inconel 600, Inconel 718, Inconel 750X and FecrAlloy. Examination of deposits by thermal and microscopic analysis shows that the solid deposit formation is influenced by the interaction of organosulfur compounds and autoxidation products with the metal surfaces. The nature of metal sulfides was predicted by Fe-Ni-S ternary phase diagram. Thermal stressing on uncoated surfaces produced coke deposits with varying degree of structural order. They are hydrogen-rich and structurally disordered deposits, spherulitic deposits, small carbon particles with relatively ordered structures and large platelets of ordered carbon structures formed by metal catalysis. In the second part of the study, environmental barrier coatings were deposited on tube surfaces to inhibit solid deposit formation from the heated fuel. A new CVD system was configured by the proper choice of components for mass flow, pressure and temperature control in the reactor. A bubbler was designed to deliver the precursor into the reactor

  7. Indirect Liquefaction of Coal-Biomass Mixture for Production of Jet Fuel with High Productivity and Selectivity

    SciT

    Gangwal, Santosh K; McCabe, Kevin

    Coal to liquids (CTL) and coal-biomass to liquids (CBTL) processes were advanced by testing and demonstrating Southern Research’s sulfur tolerant nickel-based reforming catalyst and Chevron’s highly selective and active cobalt-zeolite hybrid Fischer-Tropsch (FT) catalyst to clean, upgrade and convert syngas predominantly to jet fuel range hydrocarbon liquids, thereby minimizing expensive cleanup and wax upgrading operations. The National Carbon Capture Center (NCCC) operated by Southern Company (SC) at Wilsonville, Alabama served as the host site for the gasifier slip-stream and simulated syngas testing/demonstration. Reformer testing was performed to (1) reform tar and light hydrocarbons, (2) decompose ammonia in the presence H2S,more » and (3) deliver the required H2 to CO ratio for FT synthesis. FT Testing was performed to produce a product primarily containing C5-C20 liquid hydrocarbons and no C21+ waxy hydrocarbons with productivity greater than 0.7 gC5+/g catalyst/h, and at least 70% diesel and jet fuel range (C8-C20) hydrocarbon selectivity in the liquid product. A novel heat-exchange reactor system was employed to enable the use of the highly active FT catalyst and larger diameter reactors that results in cost reduction for commercial systems. Following laboratory development and testing, SR’s laboratory reformer was modified to operate in a Class 1 Div. 2 environment, installed at NCCC, and successfully tested for 125 hours using raw syngas. The catalyst demonstrated near equilibrium reforming (~90%) of methane and complete reforming/decomposition of tar and ammonia in the presence of up to 380 ppm H2S. For FT synthesis, SR modified and utilized a bench scale skid mounted FT reactor system (SR-CBTL test rig) that was fully integrated with a slip stream from SC/NCCC’s transport gasifier (TRIG). The test-rig developed in a previous project (DE-FE0010231) was modified to receive up to 7.5 lb/h raw syngas augmented with bottled syngas to adjust the H

  8. Comparison of Acute Health Effects From Exposures to Diesel and Biodiesel Fuel Emissions

    PubMed Central

    Mehus, Aaron A.; Reed, Rustin J.; Lee, Vivien S. T.; Littau, Sally R.; Hu, Chengcheng; Lutz, Eric A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the comparative acute health effects associated with exposures to diesel and 75% biodiesel/25% diesel (B75) blend fuel emissions. Methods: We analyzed multiple health endpoints in 48 healthy adults before and after exposures to diesel and B75 emissions in an underground mine setting—lung function, lung and systemic inflammation, novel biomarkers of exposure, and oxidative stress were assessed. Results: B75 reduced respirable diesel particulate matter by 20%. Lung function declined significantly more after exposure to diesel emissions. Lung inflammatory cells along with sputum and plasma inflammatory mediators increased significantly to similar levels with both exposures. Urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine, a marker of oxidative stress, was not significantly changed after either exposure. Conclusions: Use of B75 lowered respirable diesel particulate matter exposure and some associated acute health effects, although lung and systemic inflammation were not reduced compared with diesel use. PMID:26147538

  9. Comparison of Acute Health Effects From Exposures to Diesel and Biodiesel Fuel Emissions.

    PubMed

    Mehus, Aaron A; Reed, Rustin J; Lee, Vivien S T; Littau, Sally R; Hu, Chengcheng; Lutz, Eric A; Burgess, Jefferey L

    2015-07-01

    To investigate the comparative acute health effects associated with exposures to diesel and 75% biodiesel/25% diesel (B75) blend fuel emissions. We analyzed multiple health endpoints in 48 healthy adults before and after exposures to diesel and B75 emissions in an underground mine setting-lung function, lung and systemic inflammation, novel biomarkers of exposure, and oxidative stress were assessed. B75 reduced respirable diesel particulate matter by 20%. Lung function declined significantly more after exposure to diesel emissions. Lung inflammatory cells along with sputum and plasma inflammatory mediators increased significantly to similar levels with both exposures. Urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine, a marker of oxidative stress, was not significantly changed after either exposure. Use of B75 lowered respirable diesel particulate matter exposure and some associated acute health effects, although lung and systemic inflammation were not reduced compared with diesel use.

  10. Jet transport energy management for minimum fuel consumption and noise impact in the terminal area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bull, J. S.; Foster, J. D.

    1974-01-01

    Significant reductions in both noise and fuel consumption can be gained through careful tailoring of approach flightpath and airspeed profile, and the point at which the landing gear and flaps are lowered. For example, the noise problem has been successfully attacked in recent years with development of the 'two-segment' approach, which brings the aircraft in at a steeper angle initially, thereby achieving noise reduction through lower thrust settings and higher altitudes. A further reduction in noise and a significant reduction in fuel consumption can be achieved with the 'decelerating approach' concept. In this case, the approach is initiated at high airspeed and in a drag configuration that allows for low thrust. The landing flaps are then lowered at the appropriate time so that the airspeed slowly decelerates to V sub r at touchdown. The decelerating approach concept can be applied to constant glideslope flightpaths or segmented flightpaths such as the two-segment approach.

  11. Computer model for refinery operations with emphasis on jet fuel production. Volume 1: Program description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunbar, D. N.; Tunnah, B. G.

    1978-01-01

    A FORTRAN computer program is described for predicting the flow streams and material, energy, and economic balances of a typical petroleum refinery, with particular emphasis on production of aviation turbine fuel of varying end point and hydrogen content specifications. The program has provision for shale oil and coal oil in addition to petroleum crudes. A case study feature permits dependent cases to be run for parametric or optimization studies by input of only the variables which are changed from the base case.

  12. Storage Stability of Jet Fuel Not Containing Anti-Oxidant (AO)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-31

    stability at ambient conditions for approximately 9 months. Anti-oxidants developed for gum control in gasoline and their effectiveness for peroxide...The high anti-oxidant efficiency of ZDDC may have been regenerated using the dithicarbamate ligands of ADDC. During peroxide radical scavenging, ZDDC...more effective in controlling soluble gum while the alkyl phenol-type was more effective in controlling insoluble residue. Eleven of the fuels in

  13. Shock Tube/Laser Absorption Studies of Jet Fuels at Low Temperatures (600-1200K)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-27

    diagnostics techniques; and the application of an aerosol shock tube to investigate low-vapor-pressure fuels. (a) Papers published in peer-reviewed...journals (N/A for none) Enter List of papers submitted or published that acknowledge ARO support from the start of the project to the date of this...printing. List the papers , including journal references, in the following categories: Received Paper 06/14/2011 6.00 Sung Hyun Pyun, Jungwan Cho, David

  14. The Behavior of Water in Jet Fuels and the Clogging of Micronic Filters at Low Temperatures,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1950-01-11

    especially at low temperatures has been made. A method for the determination of water in fuels using the Karl Fischer reagent has been developed and... method utilizing the Karl Fischer reagenti was investigated and a technique developed which proved to be more satisfactory. Procedures Determination of...LABORATORY RESTRICTED I | Method Used ------ (1) Acetyl chloride-pyridine* I 2(2) Karl Fischer Reagent - present work ---_ _ (3) Calcium hydride* 0.I i (4

  15. OPTIMIZED DETERMINATION OF TRACE JET FUEL VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN HUMAN BLOOD USING IN-FIELD LIQUID-LIQUID EXTRACTION WITH SUBSEQUENT LABORATORY GAS CHROMATOGRAPHIC-MASS SPECTROMETRIC ANALYSIS AND ON-COLUMN LARGE VOLUME INJECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A practical and sensitive method to assess volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from JP-8 jet fuel in human whole blood was developed by modifying previously established liquid-liquid extraction procedures, optimizing extraction times, solvent volume, specific sample processing te...

  16. Effect of fuel composition and differential diffusion on flame stabilization in reacting syngas jets in turbulent cross-flow

    DOE PAGES

    Minamoto, Yuki; Kolla, Hemanth; Grout, Ray W.; ...

    2015-07-24

    Here, three-dimensional direct numerical simulation results of a transverse syngas fuel jet in turbulent cross-flow of air are analyzed to study the influence of varying volume fractions of CO relative to H 2 in the fuel composition on the near field flame stabilization. The mean flame stabilizes at a similar location for CO-lean and CO-rich cases despite the trend suggested by their laminar flame speed, which is higher for the CO-lean condition. To identify local mixtures having favorable mixture conditions for flame stabilization, explosive zones are defined using a chemical explosive mode timescale. The explosive zones related to flame stabilizationmore » are located in relatively low velocity regions. The explosive zones are characterized by excess hydrogen transported solely by differential diffusion, in the absence of intense turbulent mixing or scalar dissipation rate. The conditional averages show that differential diffusion is negatively correlated with turbulent mixing. Moreover, the local turbulent Reynolds number is insufficient to estimate the magnitude of the differential diffusion effect. Alternatively, the Karlovitz number provides a better indicator of the importance of differential diffusion. A comparison of the variations of differential diffusion, turbulent mixing, heat release rate and probability of encountering explosive zones demonstrates that differential diffusion predominantly plays an important role for mixture preparation and initiation of chemical reactions, closely followed by intense chemical reactions sustained by sufficient downstream turbulent mixing. The mechanism by which differential diffusion contributes to mixture preparation is investigated using the Takeno Flame Index. The mean Flame Index, based on the combined fuel species, shows that the overall extent of premixing is not intense in the upstream regions. However, the Flame Index computed based on individual contribution of H 2 or CO species reveals that hydrogen

  17. Fluid-Plasma-Combustion Coupling Effects on the Ignition of a Fuel Jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massa, Luca; Freund, Jonathan

    2016-11-01

    We analyze the effect of plasma-combustion coupling on the ignition and flame supported by a DBD interacting with a jet of H2 in a air cross-flow. We propose that plasma-combustion coupling is due to the strong temperature-dependence of specific collisional energy loss as predicted by the Boltzmann equation, and that e- transport can be modeled by assuming a form for the E-field pulse in microstreamers. We introduce a two-way coupling based on the Boltzmann equation and the charged species conservation. The addition of this mechanism to a hydrogen combustion scheme leads to an improvement of the ignition prediction and of the understanding of the effect of the plasma on the flow. The key points of the analysis are 1) explanation of the mechanism for the two-stage ignition and quenching observed experimentally, 2) explanation of the existence of a power threshold above which the plasma is beneficial to the ignition probability, 3) understanding of the increase in power absorbed by the plasma in burning conditions and the reduction in power absorbed with an increase in the cross velocity, 4) explanation of the non-symmetric emissions and the increase in luminescence at the rotovibrational H2O band. The model is validated in part against air-H2 flow experiments. This material is based in part upon work supported by the Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, under Award Number DE-NA0002374.

  18. Indoor fuel exposure and the lung in both developing and developed countries: An update

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Synopsis Almost 3 billion people worldwide burn solid fuels indoors. These fuels include biomass and coal. Although indoor solid fuel smoke is likely a greater problem in developing countries, wood burning populations in developed countries may also be at risk from these exposures. Despite the large population at risk worldwide, the effect of exposure to indoor solid fuel smoke has not been adequately studied. Indoor air pollution from solid fuel use is strongly associated with COPD (both emphysema and chronic bronchitis), acute respiratory tract infections, and lung cancer (primarily coal use) and weakly associated with asthma, tuberculosis, and interstitial lung disease. Tobacco use further potentiates the development of respiratory disease among subjects exposed to solid fuel smoke. There is a need to perform additional interventional studies in this field. It is also important to increase awareness about the health effects of solid fuel smoke inhalation among physicians and patients as well as trigger preventive actions through education, research, and policy change in both developing and developed countries. PMID:23153607

  19. Cellulosic Biomass Sugars to Advantaged Jet Fuel – Catalytic Conversion of Corn Stover to Energy Dense, Low Freeze Point Paraffins and Naphthenes

    SciT

    Cortright, Randy

    The purpose of this project was to demonstrate the technical and commercial feasibility of producing liquid fuels, particularly jet fuel, from lignocellulosic materials, such as corn stover. This project was led by Virent, Inc. (Virent) which has developed a novel chemical catalytic process (the BioForming ® platform) capable of producing “direct replacement” liquid fuels from biomass-derived feedstocks. Virent has shown it is possible to produce an advantaged jet fuel from biomass that meets or exceeds specifications for commercial and military jet fuel through Fuel Readiness Level (FRL) 5, Process Validation. This project leveraged The National Renewable Energy Lab’s (NREL) expertisemore » in converting corn stover to sugars via dilute acid pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. NREL had previously developed this deconstruction technology for the conversion of corn stover to ethanol. In this project, Virent and NREL worked together to condition the NREL generated hydrolysate for use in Virent’s catalytic process through solids removal, contaminant reduction, and concentration steps. The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) was contracted in this project for the procurement, formatting, storage and analysis of corn stover and Northwestern University developed fundamental knowledge of lignin deconstruction that can help improve overall carbon recovery of the combined technologies. Virent conducted fundamental catalytic studies to improve the performance of the catalytic process and NREL provided catalyst characterization support. A technoeconomic analysis (TEA) was conducted at each stage of the project, with results from these analyses used to inform the direction of the project.« less

  20. Relationship between daily exposure to biomass fuel smoke and blood pressure in high-altitude Peru

    PubMed Central

    Peña, Melissa Burroughs; Romero, Karina M.; Velazquez, Eric J.; Davila-Roman, Victor G.; Gilman, Robert H.; Wise, Robert A; Miranda, J. Jaime; Checkley, William

    2015-01-01

    Household air pollution from biomass fuel use affects three billion people worldwide; however, few studies have examined the relationship between biomass fuel use and blood pressure. We sought to determine if daily biomass fuel use was associated with elevated blood pressure in high altitude Peru and if this relationship was affected by lung function. We analyzed baseline information from a population-based cohort study of adults aged ≥35 years in Puno, Peru. Daily biomass fuel use was self-reported. We used multivariable regression models to examine the relationship between daily exposure to biomass fuel smoke and blood pressure outcomes. Interactions with sex and quartiles of forced vital capacity (FVC) were conducted to evaluate for effect modification. Data from 1004 individuals (mean age 55.3 years, 51.7% female) were included. We found an association between biomass fuel use with both prehypertension (adjusted relative risk ratio 5.0, 95% CI 2.6 to 9.9) and hypertension (adjusted relative risk ratio 3.5, 95% CI 1.7 to 7.0). Biomass fuel users had a higher SBP (7.01 mmHg, 95% CI 4.4 to 9.6) and a higher DBP (5.9 mmHg, 95% CI 4.2 to 7.6) when compared to nonusers. We did not find interaction effects between daily biomass fuel use and sex or percent predicted FVC for either SBP or DBP. Biomass fuel use was associated with an increased risk of hypertension and higher blood pressure in Peru. Reducing exposure to household air pollution from biomass fuel use represents an opportunity for cardiovascular prevention. PMID:25753976

  1. Relationship between daily exposure to biomass fuel smoke and blood pressure in high-altitude Peru.

    PubMed

    Burroughs Peña, Melissa; Romero, Karina M; Velazquez, Eric J; Davila-Roman, Victor G; Gilman, Robert H; Wise, Robert A; Miranda, J Jaime; Checkley, William

    2015-05-01

    Household air pollution from biomass fuel use affects 3 billion people worldwide; however, few studies have examined the relationship between biomass fuel use and blood pressure. We sought to determine if daily biomass fuel use was associated with elevated blood pressure in high altitude Peru and if this relationship was affected by lung function. We analyzed baseline information from a population-based cohort study of adults aged ≥ 35 years in Puno, Peru. Daily biomass fuel use was self-reported. We used multivariable regression models to examine the relationship between daily exposure to biomass fuel smoke and blood pressure outcomes. Interactions with sex and quartiles of forced vital capacity were conducted to evaluate for effect modification. Data from 1004 individuals (mean age, 55.3 years; 51.7% women) were included. We found an association between biomass fuel use with both prehypertension (adjusted relative risk ratio, 5.0; 95% confidence interval, 2.6-9.9) and hypertension (adjusted relative risk ratio, 3.5; 95% confidence interval, 1.7-7.0). Biomass fuel users had a higher systolic blood pressure (7.0 mm Hg; 95% confidence interval, 4.4-9.6) and a higher diastolic blood pressure (5.9 mm Hg; 95% confidence interval, 4.2-7.6) when compared with nonusers. We did not find interaction effects between daily biomass fuel use and sex or percent predicted forced vital capacity for either systolic blood pressure or diastolic blood pressure. Biomass fuel use was associated with a higher likelihood of having hypertension and higher blood pressure in Peru. Reducing exposure to household air pollution from biomass fuel use represents an opportunity for cardiovascular prevention. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  2. Commercial Approval Plan for Synthetic Jet Fuel from Hydrotreated Fats and Oils

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-18

    driven by their experience, some of it very negative, with the other more well known organic oil derived fuel, BioDiesel. BioDiesel is methyl ester of...the fatty acid ( FAME ) that comes from the triglycerides that compose the organic oil. The HRJ SPKs are deoxygenated materials that are processed in...SwRI Cu PE506 * Semi-Quant Survey ICP/MS * Organic Elements C:H D5291 * N D4629 * S D5453 * Acid Number D3242 * Carbonyls, alcohols, esters , phenols

  3. Evaluation of Suppression of Hydroprocessed Renewable Jet (HRJ) Fuel Fires with Aqueous Film Forming Foam (AFFF)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-01

    cameras were installed around the test pan and an underwater GoPro ® video camera recorded the fire from below the layer of fuel. 3.2.2. Camera Images...Distribution A: Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. 3.2.3. Video Images A GoPro video camera with a wide angle lens recorded the tests...camera and the GoPro ® video camera were not used for fire suppression experiments. 3.3.2. Test Pans Two ¼-in thick stainless steel test pans were

  4. Advanced Thermally Stable Jet Fuels Development Program Annual Report. Volume 1. Model and Experiment System Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-09-01

    like to acknowledge R. J. Kottenstette, H. P. Stephens, D . M. Haaland, A . S. Geller, W. M. Trott, S. J. Martin, A . J. Lammie, B. J. Lammie, D . S. Blair...be expressed as F - D q?, where D is the diffusion coefficient, and q the scattering wave vector q- 4wnsin(8/2)/ A i, with n the liquid refractive...tubes C and D were generated using 11.4 mg/L JFA-5 added to the JP-8 fuel. The IR spectrum from tube A contained primarily a carbonate deposit with a

  5. Fuel Tests on an I-16 Jet-Propulsion Engine at Static Sea-Level Conditions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1947-04-29

    All fuel lines and manometer leads were Joined to tbs engine by r.;bber-hoee con::&-:tions to prov-.de flexi- bility. The test cell Itself wa3 a...The air leakage into t:.e cell was measured i:id laolntefl’ In the calculations of the air flow to the er.jine. Figure 1 also shirks tbfl...t t - ’ > / J / i / 4» / / / >•• —* / - - iw r—’ 860 <•— 4 f < Hot-« el4 oct.nt t> Unil rucl . - -Theoretical lln«i / 0 ; I T

  6. The Experimental Determination of Safe Atmospheric Exposure Concentrations of JP-10 Jet Fuel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-11-01

    adrenocortical adenoma was seen in another male control. An adrenal pheochromocytoma was observed in an exposed female dog and was the only neoplasm recorded in...Postexposure." Several unusual trends in the incidence of non-neoplastic lesions are evident in the table; however, most were regarded as sponta- neous

  7. Subchronic JP-8 Jet Fuel Exposure Enhances Vulnerability to Noise-Induced Hearing Loss in Rats

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    square inch (psi) pressure was attached to the side arm of the Sonomist. At this pressure the spray nozzle developed an air flow of approximately 20...L/min (lpm) through the nebulizer. This air flow coupled with the nebulizer nozzle design created an ultrasonic whistle that aerosolized the droplets...pipe contained the spray pattern. The pipe was reduced in size to accept an orifice plate, which was used to measure flow rate by the pressure drop

  8. Examination of Urinary Beta-Naphthol as a Biomarker Indicative of Jet Fuel Exposures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-01

    NPQ) by cytochrome P450 has been shown to alter with age, diminishing at a rate of ~ 3% per year.22 Subject age effects on cytochrome P450 enzymes ...of Ageing on cytochrome P450 enzymes : Consequences for drug biotransformation in the elderly. Current Med Chem. (2007) 14:745-757. 24. Van Winkle...naphthalene 1,2-oxide by the cytochrome P450 monooxygenase system (Fig. 1). This reaction occurs primarily in the liver, although oxidation can also

  9. A Feasibility Study of Female Active Duty Military Personnel and Exposure to Jet Fuel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-07-01

    Lancet 2:322-325, 1977. 16. Ungvary G, Cseh J, Manyai S, Molnar A, Szeberenzi S and Tatri E: Enzyme induction by o-xylene inhalation. Acta Med Acad...r.41 04 0w 0 w 0 9:L 4- - W - - -W 0) u )4 0H -H - ww (1)N (0 CID M Lf) r- O N 00 COq HO L - ( Or- rIN L -O 00’ N Nc 0 N H0 00N N CN u 117 r4iH H...W.COa a) f~~ a) 1* V 0 D0 t 00C D0 0 ) C c0 0% * Coq .c . oSq -. qqG .. J N; ; g6 .C 0 .C 6 6 cc > 0 NH Vi 66 6 LU X v ’v v* XX v ’v v X v C U) q 0) 0

  10. Female Reproductive Effects of Exposure to Jet Fuel at U.S. Air Force Bases

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-11-01

    volunteers during 1997. Volunteers then provided feedback about the process and made suggestions for improvement. This information was used to develop...breath samples were processed in the field by collecting one (1) liter of expired breath in a Tedlar bag which was subsequently introduced onto a...also alert him when samples were obtained thru to menses. The process for returning samples was also facilitated by the provision of a mailing kit

  11. Female Reproductive Effects of Exposure to Jet Fuel at U.S. Air Force Bases

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-11-01

    other than detailed manufacturing or process data) to, or use of such data by, a foreign government that is in the interest of the Government and is...or can (Do NOT include decaffeinated drinks) C0ofeTaS(dCofeel Teaa Soda ooffeel Tea I oaaCoffeel Ta Soda Coffeel Tea Soda Coffeel TeaI Soda Coffee

  12. Indoor Air Pollution and Health in Ghana: Self-Reported Exposure to Unprocessed Solid Fuel Smoke.

    PubMed

    Armah, Frederick A; Odoi, Justice O; Luginaah, Isaac

    2015-06-01

    Most countries in Sub-Saharan Africa including Ghana still depend extensively on unprocessed solid cooking fuels with many people exposed on a daily basis to harmful emissions and other health risks. In this study, using complementary log-log multivariate models, we estimated the health effects of exposure to smoke from unprocessed wood in four regions of Ghana while controlling for socio-environmental and socio-demographic factors. The results show that the distribution of self-reported exposure to smoke was highest among participants in the Northern region, rural dwellers, the 25-49 age groups, individuals with no education, and married women. As expected, exposure to smoke was higher in crowded households and in communities without basic social amenities. Region, residential locality, housing quality (type of roofing, floor and exterior materials), self-reported housing condition, and access to toilet facilities were associated with self-reported exposure to solid fuel smoke. Participants living in urban areas were less likely (OR = 0.82, ρ ≤ 0.01) to be exposed to solid fuel smoke compared to their rural counterparts. An inverse relationship between self-reported housing condition and exposure to solid fuel smoke was observed and persisted even after adjustments were made for confounding variables in the demographic model. In Ghana, the cost and intermittent shortages of liquefied petroleum gas and other alternative fuel sources hold implications for the willingness of the poor to shift to their use. Thus, the poorest rural populations with nearly no cash income and electricity, but with access to wood and/or agricultural waste, are unlikely to move to clean fuels or use significantly improved stoves without large subsidies, which are usually not sustainable. However, there appears to be large populations between these extremes that can be targeted by efforts to introduce improved stoves.

  13. In Vitro Studies and Preliminary Mathematical Model for Jet Fuel and Noise Induced Auditory Impairment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    K.C. and Hu, B.H. 2006. The role of oxidative stress in noise-induced hearing loss. Ear Hear 27(1): 1-19. Hillerdal, M. 1987. Cochlear blood flow ...Larsen, H.C., Angelborg, C. and Slepecky, N. 1984. Determination of the regional cochlear blood flow in the rat cochlea using non-radioactive...24-Hour JP-8 Exposure using a Cochlear Cell Model and Cellular Pathway Modulation

  14. Evaluation of Jet Fuel and Noise-Induced Hearing Loss in Rats (Rattus norvegicus)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-13

    product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAE) and compound action potential (CAP) testing of the cochlear nerve. Inner ear hair cell loss was also not affected...conclusion by revealing that exposure to JP-8 combined with noise may result in the loss of pre-neural cochlear sensitivity as shown by suppression of...distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAE) and depletion of cochlear sensory cells as evidenced by cytocochleograms that plot the percentage of

  15. Production of Jet Fuel-Range Hydrocarbons from Hydrodeoxygenation of Lignin over Super Lewis Acid Combined with Metal Catalysts.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongliang; Wang, Huamin; Kuhn, Eric; Tucker, Melvin P; Yang, Bin

    2018-01-10

    Super Lewis acids containing the triflate anion [e.g., Hf(OTf) 4 , Ln(OTf) 3 , In(OTf) 3 , Al(OTf) 3 ] and noble metal catalysts (e.g., Ru/C, Ru/Al 2 O 3 ) formed efficient catalytic systems to generate saturated hydrocarbons from lignin in high yields. In such catalytic systems, the metal triflates mediated rapid ether bond cleavage through selective bonding to etheric oxygens while the noble metal catalyzed subsequent hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) reactions. Near theoretical yields of hydrocarbons were produced from lignin model compounds by the combined catalysis of Hf(OTf) 4 and ruthenium-based catalysts. When a technical lignin derived from a pilot-scale biorefinery was used, more than 30 wt % of the hydrocarbons produced with this catalytic system were cyclohexane and alkylcyclohexanes in the jet fuel range. Super Lewis acids are postulated to strongly interact with lignin substrates by protonating hydroxyl groups and ether linkages, forming intermediate species that enhance hydrogenation catalysis by supported noble metal catalysts. Meanwhile, the hydrogenation of aromatic rings by the noble metal catalysts can promote deoxygenation reactions catalyzed by super Lewis acids. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Catalytic Hydrodeoxygenation of High Carbon Furylmethanes to Renewable Jet-fuel Ranged Alkanes over a Rhenium-Modified Iridium Catalyst.

    PubMed

    Liu, Sibao; Dutta, Saikat; Zheng, Weiqing; Gould, Nicholas S; Cheng, Ziwei; Xu, Bingjun; Saha, Basudeb; Vlachos, Dionisios G

    2017-08-24

    Renewable jet-fuel-range alkanes are synthesized by hydrodeoxygenation of lignocellulose-derived high-carbon furylmethanes over ReO x -modified Ir/SiO 2 catalysts under mild reaction conditions. Ir-ReO x /SiO 2 with a Re/Ir molar ratio of 2:1 exhibits the best performance, achieving a combined alkanes yield of 82-99 % from C 12 -C 15 furylmethanes. The catalyst can be regenerated in three consecutive cycles with only about 12 % loss in the combined alkanes yield. Mechanistically, the furan moieties of furylmethanes undergo simultaneous ring saturation and ring opening to form a mixture of complex oxygenates consisting of saturated furan rings, mono-keto groups, and mono-hydroxy groups. Then, these oxygenates undergo a cascade of hydrogenolysis reactions to alkanes. The high activity of Ir-ReO x /SiO 2 arises from a synergy between Ir and ReO x , whereby the acidic sites of partially reduced ReO x activate the C-O bonds of the saturated furans and alcoholic groups while the Ir sites are responsible for hydrogenation with H 2 . © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Production of Jet Fuel-Range Hydrocarbons from Hydrodeoxygenation of Lignin over Super Lewis Acid Combined with Metal Catalysts

    SciT

    Wang, Hongliang; Wang, Huamin; Kuhn, Eric

    Super Lewis acids containing the triflate anion (e.g. Hf(OTf)4, Ln(OTf)3, Al(OTf)3) and noble metal catalysts (e.g. Ru/C, Ru/Al2O3) formed efficient catalytic systems to generate saturated hydrocarbons from lignin in high yields. In such catalytic systems, the metal triflates mediated rapid ether bond cleavage via selective bonding to etheric oxygens while the noble metal catalysed subsequent hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) reactions. Near theoretical yields of hydrocarbons were produced from lignin model compounds by the combined catalysis of Hf(OTf)4 and ruthenium-based catalysts. When a technical lignin derived from a pilot-scale biorefinery was used, more than 30 wt% of the hydrocarbons produced with this catalyticmore » system were cyclohexane and alkylcyclohexanes in the jet fuel range. Super Lewis acids are postulated to strongly interact with lignin substrates via protonating hydroxyls and ether linkages, forming intermediate species that enhance hydrogenation catalysis by supported noble metal catalysts. Meanwhile, the hydrogenation of aromatic rings by the noble metal catalysts can promote oxygenation reactions catalysed by super Lewis acids.« less

  18. Production of Jet Fuel-Range Hydrocarbons from Hydrodeoxygenation of Lignin over Super Lewis Acid Combined with Metal Catalysts

    SciT

    Wang, Hongliang; Wang, Huamin; Kuhn, Eric

    Super Lewis acids containing the triflate anion [e.g., Hf(OTf) 4, Ln(OTf) 3, In(OTf) 3, Al(OTf) 3] and noble metal catalysts (e.g., Ru/C, Ru/Al2O 3) formed efficient catalytic systems to generate saturated hydrocarbons from lignin in high yields. In such catalytic systems, the metal triflates mediated rapid ether bond cleavage through selective bonding to etheric oxygens while the noble metal catalyzed subsequent hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) reactions. Near theoretical yields of hydrocarbons were produced from lignin model compounds by the combined catalysis of Hf(OTf)4 and ruthenium-based catalysts. When a technical lignin derived from a pilot-scale biorefinery was used, more than 30 wt %more » of the hydrocarbons produced with this catalytic system were cyclohexane and alkylcyclohexanes in the jet fuel range. Super Lewis acids are postulated to strongly interact with lignin substrates by protonating hydroxyl groups and ether linkages, forming intermediate species that enhance hydrogenation catalysis by supported noble metal catalysts. Meanwhile, the hydrogenation of aromatic rings by the noble metal catalysts can promote oxygenation reactions catalyzed by super Lewis acids.« less

  19. Production of Jet Fuel-Range Hydrocarbons from Hydrodeoxygenation of Lignin over Super Lewis Acid Combined with Metal Catalysts

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Hongliang; Wang, Huamin; Kuhn, Eric; ...

    2017-11-14

    Super Lewis acids containing the triflate anion [e.g., Hf(OTf) 4, Ln(OTf) 3, In(OTf) 3, Al(OTf) 3] and noble metal catalysts (e.g., Ru/C, Ru/Al2O 3) formed efficient catalytic systems to generate saturated hydrocarbons from lignin in high yields. In such catalytic systems, the metal triflates mediated rapid ether bond cleavage through selective bonding to etheric oxygens while the noble metal catalyzed subsequent hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) reactions. Near theoretical yields of hydrocarbons were produced from lignin model compounds by the combined catalysis of Hf(OTf)4 and ruthenium-based catalysts. When a technical lignin derived from a pilot-scale biorefinery was used, more than 30 wt %more » of the hydrocarbons produced with this catalytic system were cyclohexane and alkylcyclohexanes in the jet fuel range. Super Lewis acids are postulated to strongly interact with lignin substrates by protonating hydroxyl groups and ether linkages, forming intermediate species that enhance hydrogenation catalysis by supported noble metal catalysts. Meanwhile, the hydrogenation of aromatic rings by the noble metal catalysts can promote oxygenation reactions catalyzed by super Lewis acids.« less

  20. Feasibility study of surface-modified carbon cloth electrodes using atmospheric pressure plasma jets for microbial fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Shih-Hang; Liou, Jyun-Sian; Liu, Jung-Liang; Chiu, Yi-Fan; Xu, Chang-Han; Chen, Bor-Yann; Chen, Jian-Zhang

    2016-12-01

    This study investigated the surface and electrochemical properties of carbon cloth electrodes surface-modified by using atmospheric pressure plasma jets (APPJs) for applications involving microbial fuel cells (MFCs). APPJ treatment made the carbon cloth highly hydrophilic and did not introduce any observable cracks or flaws. MFCs configured with APPJ-treated carbon cloth electrodes exhibited electrochemical performance (maximum power density of 7.56 mW m-2) superior to that of MFCs configured with untreated carbon cloth electrodes (maximum power density of 2.38 mW m-2). This boost in performance can be attributed to the formation of abundant carboxyl and ammonium functional groups on the surface of APPJ-treated carbon cloth, which promoted the formation of anodic biofilms and the adhesion of bacteria, while facilitating the transfer of electrons from the bacteria to the electrodes. APPJ surface modification is non-toxic and environmentally friendly (no exogenous chemicals are required), which is particularly beneficial as the introduction of toxins might otherwise inhibit bacterial growth and metabolism. The APPJ surface modification process is rapid, cost-effective, and applicable to substrates covering a large area, making it ideal for the fabrication of large-scale MFCs and bioelectrochemical bioenergy devices.

  1. Alternative Fuels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-11

    equipment when supplying jet fuel not practicable or cost effective Unclassified 5 erna ve ue s ocus Petroleum Crude Oil (declining discovery / production...on Jet A/A-1 Approved fuels, DXXXX Unclassified 6 JP-8/5 (Commercial Jet Fuel, ASTM Spec) DARPA Alternative Jet Fuels • Agricultural crop oils ...canola, jatropha, soy, palm , etc.) Alternative fuels – University of North Dakota EERC – UOP – General Electric (GE) t i o n C o s t t i o n C o s t

  2. A Proposed Methodology for Combustion Toxicology Testing of Combined Halon Replacement Agent/Jet Fuel Interaction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-04-01

    or 1 -Chloro-1,1- difluoroethane . Its physical properties are listed in Table 3. 27 0 00 00 0 0 0 HCFC-142b has very low acute toxicity with and LC5 0...Ninety-day Inhalation Exposure of Rats and Dogs to Vapors of 2,2-dichloro-l, 1 ,l-trifluoroethane (FC-123). Haskell Laboratory Report No. 229-78. • Drysdale...AL-TR-1993-0047 AD-A272 695,Il , il’ 11111 1111 ll/i ( ( 1 I~!,ll• M A PROPOSED METHODOLOGY FOR S COMBUSTION TOXICOLOGY TESTING T OF COMBINED HALON

  3. Health and Household Air Pollution from Solid Fuel Use: The Needfor Improved Exposure Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Nearly half the world’s population relies on solid fuel combustion to meet basic household energy needs (e.g., cooking and heating). Resulting air pollution exposures are estimated to cause 3% of the global burden of disease. Large variability and a lack of resource...

  4. Metabolomics Characterization of U.S. and Japanese F-15 and C-130 Flight Line Crews Exposed to Jet Fuel Volatile Organic Compounds and Aerosols

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-30

    resulted in the identification of metabolite patterns indicative of flight line exposure when compared to non -flight line control subjects...virtually non -invasive sample collection, minimal sample processing, robust and stable analytical platform, with excellent analytical and biological...identification of metabolite patterns indicative of flight line exposure when compared to non -flight line control subjects. Regardless of fuel (JP-4 or

  5. Pregnant women and children's exposure to tobacco and solid fuel smoke in southwestern India.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Patricia J; Goudar, Shivaprasad S; Chakraborty, Hrishikesh; Moore, Janet; Derman, Richard; Kodkany, Bhala; Bellad, Mrutyunjaya; Naik, Vijjaya A; Angolkar, Mubashir; Bloch, Michele

    2011-07-01

    To examine factors associated with smoke exposure among pregnant women in rural India. We conducted a survey of exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS) and solid fuel smoke (SFS) among 736 pregnant women. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were computed using logistic regression models to assess the relationship between demographic variables and exposure to SHS and to SFS. While few respondents smoked cigarettes, 19.9% of women and 27.8% of children were frequently or always exposed to SHS, and 43.5% were at high and 46.7% at medium risk for SFE. Low educational levels and illiteracy were associated with exposure. Smoke exposure is a serious health risk for many poor women and children in India.

  6. Occupational exposure to mineral turpentine and heavy fuels: a possible risk factor for Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Helou, Rafik; Jaecker, Pierre

    2014-05-01

    The association between solvents and Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been the subject of several studies. Yet, only few studies have examined the various solvents separately, and the controls have rarely been monitored long enough. For these reasons and others, we believe that further studies are required. The objective of this study was to identify solvents associated with the clinicoradiological diagnostic of AD or mixed-type dementia (MD). A retrospective case-control study was performed in 156 patients followed up at the Memory Diagnostic Center of Bertinot Juel Hospital (France). The inclusion criteria were known occupation(s), a Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score ≥10 at the first visit, a neuropsychological evaluation performed and a diagnosis established in our Memory Diagnostic Center. The diagnostics were crossed with 9 solvents belonging to two classes of solvents. Exposure was evaluated using French national job-exposure matrices. Certain petroleum-based solvents and fuels (i.e. mineral turpentine, diesel fuel, fuel oil and kerosene) were associated with a diagnosis of AD or MD. This association was still significant after adjustment for age, sex and education (adjusted OR: 6.5; 95% CI: 2-20). Occupational exposure to mineral turpentine and heavy fuels may be a risk factor for AD and MD.

  7. Speed of sound measurements and mixing characterization of underexpanded fuel jets with supercritical reservoir condition using laser-induced thermal acoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baab, S.; Förster, F. J.; Lamanna, G.; Weigand, B.

    2016-11-01

    The four-wave mixing technique laser-induced thermal acoustics was used to measure the local speed of sound in the farfield zone of extremely underexpanded jets. N-hexane at supercritical injection temperature and pressure (supercritical reservoir condition) was injected into quiescent subcritical nitrogen (with respect to the injectant). The technique's capability to quantify the nonisothermal, turbulent mixing zone of small-scale jets is demonstrated for the first time. Consistent radially resolved speed of sound profiles are presented for different axial positions and varying injection temperatures. Furthermore, an adiabatic mixing model based on nonideal thermodynamic properties is presented to extract mixture composition and temperature from the experimental speed of sound data. High fuel mass fractions of up to 94 % are found for the centerline at an axial distance of 55 diameters from the nozzle followed by a rapid decay in axial direction. This is attributed to a supercritical fuel state at the nozzle exit resulting in the injection of a high-density fluid. The obtained concentration data are complemented by existing measurements and collapsed in a similarity law. It allows for mixture prediction of underexpanded jets with supercritical reservoir condition provided that nonideal thermodynamic behavior is considered for the nozzle flow. Specifically, it is shown that the fuel concentration in the farfield zone is very sensitive to the thermodynamic state at the nozzle exit. Here, a transition from supercritical fluid to subcritical vapor state results in strongly varying fuel concentrations, which implies high impact on the mixture formation and, consequently, on the combustion characteristics.

  8. Major factors affecting in situ biodegradation rates of jet-fuel during large-scale biosparging project in sedimentary bedrock.

    PubMed

    Machackova, Jirina; Wittlingerova, Zdena; Vlk, Kvetoslav; Zima, Jaroslav

    2012-01-01

    Biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), mainly jet fuel, had taken place at the former Soviet Army air base in the Czech Republic. The remediation of large-scale petroleum contamination of soil and groundwater has provided valuable information about biosparging efficiency in the sandstone sedimentary bedrock. In 1997 petroleum contamination was found to be present in soil and groundwater across an area of 28 hectares, divided for the clean-up purpose into smaller clean-up fields (several hectares). The total estimated quantity of TPH released to the environment was about 7,000 metric tons. Biosparging was applied as an innovative clean-up technology at the site and was operated over a 10-year period (1997-2008). Importance of a variety of factors that affect bacterial activity in unsaturated and saturated zones was widely studied on the site and influence of natural and technological factors on clean-up efficiency in heavily contaminates areas of clean-up fields (initial contaminant mass 111-452 metric ton/ha) was evaluated. Long-term monitoring of the groundwater temperature has shown seasonal rises and falls of temperature which have caused a fluctuation in biodegradation activity during clean-up. By contrast, an overall rise of average groundwater temperature was observed in the clean-up fields, most probably as a result of the biological activity during the clean-up process. The significant rise of biodegradation rates, observed after air sparging intensification, and strong linear correlation between the air injection rates and biodegradation activities have shown that the air injection rate is the principal factor in biodegradation efficiency in heavily contaminated areas. It has a far more important role for achieving a biodegradation activity than the contamination content which appeared to have had only a slight effect after the removal of about 75% of initial contamination.

  9. Co-production of acetone and ethanol with molar ratio control enables production of improved gasoline or jet fuel blends.

    PubMed

    Baer, Zachary C; Bormann, Sebastian; Sreekumar, Sanil; Grippo, Adam; Toste, F Dean; Blanch, Harvey W; Clark, Douglas S

    2016-10-01

    The fermentation of simple sugars to ethanol has been the most successful biofuel process to displace fossil fuel consumption worldwide thus far. However, the physical properties of ethanol and automotive components limit its application in most cases to 10-15 vol% blends with conventional gasoline. Fermentative co-production of ethanol and acetone coupled with a catalytic alkylation reaction could enable the production of gasoline blendstocks enriched in higher-chain oxygenates. Here we demonstrate a synthetic pathway for the production of acetone through the mevalonate precursor hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA. Expression of this pathway in various strains of Escherichia coli resulted in the co-production of acetone and ethanol. Metabolic engineering and control of the environmental conditions for microbial growth resulted in controllable acetone and ethanol production with ethanol:acetone molar ratios ranging from 0.7:1 to 10.0:1. Specifically, use of gluconic acid as a substrate increased production of acetone and balanced the redox state of the system, predictively reducing the molar ethanol:acetone ratio. Increases in ethanol production and the molar ethanol:acetone ratio were achieved by co-expression of the aldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase (AdhE) from E. coli MG1655 and by co-expression of pyruvate decarboxylase (Pdc) and alcohol dehydrogenase (AdhB) from Z. mobilis. Controlling the fermentation aeration rate and pH in a bioreactor raised the acetone titer to 5.1 g L(-1) , similar to that obtained with wild-type Clostridium acetobutylicum. Optimizing the metabolic pathway, the selection of host strain, and the physiological conditions employed for host growth together improved acetone titers over 35-fold (0.14-5.1 g/L). Finally, chemical catalysis was used to upgrade the co-produced ethanol and acetone at both low and high molar ratios to higher-chain oxygenates for gasoline and jet fuel applications. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 2079-2087. © 2016 Wiley

  10. Local and systemic toxicity of JP-8 from cutaneous exposures.

    PubMed

    McDougal, James N; Rogers, James V

    2004-04-01

    Jet propellant-8 (JP-8) jet fuel is a version of commercial jet fuel, Jet A, and is a complex mixture of primarily aliphatic (but also aromatic) hydrocarbons that varies in composition from batch to batch. There is potential for dermal exposure to jet fuels with personnel involved in aircraft refueling and maintenance operations as well as ground personnel. Cutaneous exposures have the potential to cause skin irritation, sensitization or skin cancer. JP-8 has been shown to be irritating and causes molecular changes in the skin of laboratory animals. The mechanisms of some of these effects have been investigated in intact skin and cultured skin cells. Hydrocarbons have also been shown to cause skin cancer with repeated application to the skin. Additionally, there is concern about systemic toxicity from dermal exposures to jet fuels, such as JP-8. Assessing risks from systemic absorption of hydrocarbon components is complex because most of the components are present in the mixture in small quantities (less than 1%). The effect of the fuel as a vehicle, different rates of penetration through the skin and different target organ toxicities all complicate the assessment of the hazards of cutaneous exposures. The purpose of this manuscript is to review studies of local and systemic toxicity of JP-8.

  11. Health and Household Air Pollution from Solid Fuel Use: The Need for Improved Exposure Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Peel, Jennifer L.; Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Breysse, Patrick N.; Chillrud, Steven N.; Naeher, Luke P.; Rodes, Charles E.; Vette, Alan F.; Balbus, John M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Nearly 3 billion people worldwide rely on solid fuel combustion to meet basic household energy needs. The resulting exposure to air pollution causes an estimated 4.5% of the global burden of disease. Large variability and a lack of resources for research and development have resulted in highly uncertain exposure estimates. Objective: We sought to identify research priorities for exposure assessment that will more accurately and precisely define exposure–response relationships of household air pollution necessary to inform future cleaner-burning cookstove dissemination programs. Data Sources: As part of an international workshop in May 2011, an expert group characterized the state of the science and developed recommendations for exposure assessment of household air pollution. Synthesis: The following priority research areas were identified to explain variability and reduce uncertainty of household air pollution exposure measurements: improved characterization of spatial and temporal variability for studies examining both short- and long-term health effects; development and validation of measurement technology and approaches to conduct complex exposure assessments in resource-limited settings with a large range of pollutant concentrations; and development and validation of biomarkers for estimating dose. Addressing these priority research areas, which will inherently require an increased allocation of resources for cookstove research, will lead to better characterization of exposure–response relationships. Conclusions: Although the type and extent of exposure assessment will necessarily depend on the goal and design of the cookstove study, without improved understanding of exposure–response relationships, the level of air pollution reduction necessary to meet the health targets of cookstove interventions will remain uncertain. Citation: Clark ML, Peel JL, Balakrishnan K, Breysse PN, Chillrud SN, Naeher LP, Rodes CE, Vette AF, Balbus JM. 2013. Health

  12. Oxygen exposure promotes fuel diversity for Shewanella oneidensis microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Biffinger, Justin C; Byrd, Jacqueline N; Dudley, Breanna L; Ringeisen, Bradley R

    2008-01-18

    Miniature microbial fuel cells (mini-MFCs) were used to monitor the current generated by Shewanella oneidensis DSP10 under both anaerobic and aerobic conditions when exposed to glucose as a potential electron donor. In addition to glucose, other carbon fuels including fructose, sucrose, acetate, and ascorbic acid were also tested. When the anolyte containing S. oneidensis was grown in the presence of oxygen, power densities of 270+/-10, 350+/-20, and 120+/-10 W/m(3) were recorded from the mini-MFC for glucose, fructose, and ascorbic acid electron donors, respectively, while sucrose and acetate produced no response. The power produced from glucose decreased considerably (

  13. Long-term health experience of jet engine manufacturing workers: VI: incidence of malignant central nervous system neoplasms in relation to estimated workplace exposures.

    PubMed

    Marsh, Gary M; Youk, Ada O; Buchanich, Jeanine M; Xu, Hui; Downing, Sarah; Kennedy, Kathleen J; Esmen, Nurtan A; Hancock, Roger P; Lacey, Steven E; Fleissner, Mary Lou

    2013-06-01

    To determine whether glioblastoma (GB) incidence rates among jet engine manufacturing workers were associated with specific chemical or physical exposures. Subjects were 210,784 workers employed from 1952 to 2001. We conducted a cohort incidence study and two nested case-control studies with focus on the North Haven facility where we previously observed a not statistically significant overall elevation in GB rates. We estimated individual-level exposure metrics for 11 agents. In the total cohort, none of the agent metrics considered was associated with increased GB risk. The GB incidence rates in North Haven were also not related to workplace exposures, including the "blue haze" exposure unique to North Haven. If not due to chance alone, GB rates in North Haven may reflect external occupational factors, nonoccupational factors, or workplace factors unique to North Haven unmeasured in the current evaluation.

  14. New Reduced Two-Time Step Method for Calculating Combustion and Emission Rates of Jet-A and Methane Fuel With and Without Water Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molnar, Melissa; Marek, C. John

    2004-01-01

    A simplified kinetic scheme for Jet-A, and methane fuels with water injection was developed to be used in numerical combustion codes, such as the National Combustor Code (NCC) or even simple FORTRAN codes that are being developed at Glenn. The two time step method is either an initial time averaged value (step one) or an instantaneous value (step two). The switch is based on the water concentration in moles/cc of 1x10(exp -20). The results presented here results in a correlation that gives the chemical kinetic time as two separate functions. This two step method is used as opposed to a one step time averaged method previously developed to determine the chemical kinetic time with increased accuracy. The first time averaged step is used at the initial times for smaller water concentrations. This gives the average chemical kinetic time as a function of initial overall fuel air ratio, initial water to fuel mass ratio, temperature, and pressure. The second instantaneous step, to be used with higher water concentrations, gives the chemical kinetic time as a function of instantaneous fuel and water mole concentration, pressure and temperature (T4). The simple correlations would then be compared to the turbulent mixing times to determine the limiting properties of the reaction. The NASA Glenn GLSENS kinetics code calculates the reaction rates and rate constants for each species in a kinetic scheme for finite kinetic rates. These reaction rates were then used to calculate the necessary chemical kinetic times. Chemical kinetic time equations for fuel, carbon monoxide and NOx were obtained for Jet-A fuel and methane with and without water injection to water mass loadings of 2/1 water to fuel. A similar correlation was also developed using data from NASA's Chemical Equilibrium Applications (CEA) code to determine the equilibrium concentrations of carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxide as functions of overall equivalence ratio, water to fuel mass ratio, pressure and temperature (T3

  15. Simplified Two-Time Step Method for Calculating Combustion and Emission Rates of Jet-A and Methane Fuel With and Without Water Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molnar, Melissa; Marek, C. John

    2005-01-01

    A simplified kinetic scheme for Jet-A, and methane fuels with water injection was developed to be used in numerical combustion codes, such as the National Combustor Code (NCC) or even simple FORTRAN codes. The two time step method is either an initial time averaged value (step one) or an instantaneous value (step two). The switch is based on the water concentration in moles/cc of 1x10(exp -20). The results presented here results in a correlation that gives the chemical kinetic time as two separate functions. This two time step method is used as opposed to a one step time averaged method previously developed to determine the chemical kinetic time with increased accuracy. The first time averaged step is used at the initial times for smaller water concentrations. This gives the average chemical kinetic time as a function of initial overall fuel air ratio, initial water to fuel mass ratio, temperature, and pressure. The second instantaneous step, to be used with higher water concentrations, gives the chemical kinetic time as a function of instantaneous fuel and water mole concentration, pressure and temperature (T4). The simple correlations would then be compared to the turbulent mixing times to determine the limiting rates of the reaction. The NASA Glenn GLSENS kinetics code calculates the reaction rates and rate constants for each species in a kinetic scheme for finite kinetic rates. These reaction rates are used to calculate the necessary chemical kinetic times. Chemical kinetic time equations for fuel, carbon monoxide and NOx are obtained for Jet-A fuel and methane with and without water injection to water mass loadings of 2/1 water to fuel. A similar correlation was also developed using data from NASA's Chemical Equilibrium Applications (CEA) code to determine the equilibrium concentrations of carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxide as functions of overall equivalence ratio, water to fuel mass ratio, pressure and temperature (T3). The temperature of the gas entering

  16. Temperature of aircraft cargo flame exposure during accidents involving fuel spills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansfield, J. A.

    1993-01-01

    This report describes an evaluation of flame exposure temperatures of weapons contained in alert (parked) bombers due to accidents that involve aircraft fuel fires. The evaluation includes two types of accident: collisions into an alert aircraft by an aircraft that is on landing or take-off; and engine start accidents. Both the B-1B and B-52 alert aircraft are included in the evaluation.

  17. Temperature of aircraft cargo flame exposure during accidents involving fuel spills

    SciT

    Mansfield, J.A.

    1993-01-01

    This report describes an evaluation of flame exposure temperatures of weapons contained in alert (parked) bombers due to accidents that involve aircraft fuel fires. The evaluation includes two types of accident, collisions into an alert aircraft by an aircraft that is on landing or take-off, and engine start accidents. Both the B-1B and B-52 alert aircraft are included in the evaluation.

  18. Bronchial anthracofibrosis: an emerging pulmonary disease due to biomass fuel exposure.

    PubMed

    Gupta, A; Shah, A

    2011-05-01

    1) To document current knowledge of bronchial anthracofibrosis (BAF), an emerging pulmonary disease recognised just over a decade ago; 2) to highlight the demographic profile, and clinical, radiological and bronchoscopic features peculiar to BAF; and 3) to discuss the postulated causes and clinical conditions associated with BAF, emphasising the need to characterise and recognise it as a distinct clinical disorder. An extensive search of the literature was performed in Medline/PubMed and other databases with key terms 'anthracosis', 'biomass fuels', 'bronchial anthracofibrosis' and 'pulmonary tuberculosis'. The bibliographies of papers identified were searched for further relevant articles. A total of 17 studies and six case series/reports describing 1320 patients with bronchoscopically confirmed BAF were documented. BAF was predominantly observed in elderly housewives in rural areas with prolonged exposure to biomass fuel, and was associated with respiratory diseases such as tuberculosis (TB), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pneumonia and malignancy. Exposure to biomass fuel smoke emerged as the main causative factor, but the possibility of an occupational lung disorder was also raised. Characteristic clinical, thorax computed tomography and bronchoscopic features of BAF were identified and its differentiation from endobronchial TB and bronchogenic carcinoma was described. As a pulmonary disease, BAF is yet to be highlighted in both developing and industrialised countries. BAF is currently diagnosed only on bronchoscopy, whereas a suitable non-invasive diagnostic modality would enable rapid diagnosis and increased recognition. Approaches for patients with BAF need to be developed and the serious hazards of biomass fuel use should be emphasised.

  19. Toward production of jet fuel functionality in oilseeds: identification of FatB acyl-acyl carrier protein thioesterases and evaluation of combinatorial expression strategies in Camelina seeds

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hae Jin; Silva, Jillian E.; Vu, Hieu Sy; Mockaitis, Keithanne; Nam, Jeong-Won; Cahoon, Edgar B.

    2015-01-01

    Seeds of members of the genus Cuphea accumulate medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs; 8:0–14:0). MCFA- and palmitic acid- (16:0) rich vegetable oils have received attention for jet fuel production, given their similarity in chain length to Jet A fuel hydrocarbons. Studies were conducted to test genes, including those from Cuphea, for their ability to confer jet fuel-type fatty acid accumulation in seed oil of the emerging biofuel crop Camelina sativa. Transcriptomes from Cuphea viscosissima and Cuphea pulcherrima developing seeds that accumulate >90% of C8 and C10 fatty acids revealed three FatB cDNAs (CpuFatB3, CvFatB1, and CpuFatB4) expressed predominantly in seeds and structurally divergent from typical FatB thioesterases that release 16:0 from acyl carrier protein (ACP). Expression of CpuFatB3 and CvFatB1 resulted in Camelina oil with capric acid (10:0), and CpuFatB4 expression conferred myristic acid (14:0) production and increased 16:0. Co-expression of combinations of previously characterized Cuphea and California bay FatBs produced Camelina oils with mixtures of C8–C16 fatty acids, but amounts of each fatty acid were less than obtained by expression of individual FatB cDNAs. Increases in lauric acid (12:0) and 14:0, but not 10:0, in Camelina oil and at the sn-2 position of triacylglycerols resulted from inclusion of a coconut lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase specialized for MCFAs. RNA interference (RNAi) suppression of Camelina β-ketoacyl-ACP synthase II, however, reduced 12:0 in seeds expressing a 12:0-ACP-specific FatB. Camelina lines presented here provide platforms for additional metabolic engineering targeting fatty acid synthase and specialized acyltransferases for achieving oils with high levels of jet fuel-type fatty acids. PMID:25969557

  20. Toward production of jet fuel functionality in oilseeds: identification of FatB acyl-acyl carrier protein thioesterases and evaluation of combinatorial expression strategies in Camelina seeds.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hae Jin; Silva, Jillian E; Vu, Hieu Sy; Mockaitis, Keithanne; Nam, Jeong-Won; Cahoon, Edgar B

    2015-07-01

    Seeds of members of the genus Cuphea accumulate medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs; 8:0-14:0). MCFA- and palmitic acid- (16:0) rich vegetable oils have received attention for jet fuel production, given their similarity in chain length to Jet A fuel hydrocarbons. Studies were conducted to test genes, including those from Cuphea, for their ability to confer jet fuel-type fatty acid accumulation in seed oil of the emerging biofuel crop Camelina sativa. Transcriptomes from Cuphea viscosissima and Cuphea pulcherrima developing seeds that accumulate >90% of C8 and C10 fatty acids revealed three FatB cDNAs (CpuFatB3, CvFatB1, and CpuFatB4) expressed predominantly in seeds and structurally divergent from typical FatB thioesterases that release 16:0 from acyl carrier protein (ACP). Expression of CpuFatB3 and CvFatB1 resulted in Camelina oil with capric acid (10:0), and CpuFatB4 expression conferred myristic acid (14:0) production and increased 16:0. Co-expression of combinations of previously characterized Cuphea and California bay FatBs produced Camelina oils with mixtures of C8-C16 fatty acids, but amounts of each fatty acid were less than obtained by expression of individual FatB cDNAs. Increases in lauric acid (12:0) and 14:0, but not 10:0, in Camelina oil and at the sn-2 position of triacylglycerols resulted from inclusion of a coconut lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase specialized for MCFAs. RNA interference (RNAi) suppression of Camelina β-ketoacyl-ACP synthase II, however, reduced 12:0 in seeds expressing a 12:0-ACP-specific FatB. Camelina lines presented here provide platforms for additional metabolic engineering targeting fatty acid synthase and specialized acyltransferases for achieving oils with high levels of jet fuel-type fatty acids. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.