Science.gov

Sample records for jet mk ii

  1. Deposition of 13C tracer in the JET MkII-HD divertor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jet-Efda Contributors Likonen, J.; Hakola, A.; Strachan, J.; Coad, J. P.; Widdowson, A.; Koivuranta, S.; Hole, D. E.; Mizohata, K.; Rubel, M.; Jachmich, S.; Stamp, M.

    2011-08-01

    Migration of 13C has been investigated at JET by puffing 13CH4 into the outer midplane at the end of the 2007 campaign. The 13C deposition profile was measured with secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and Rutherford backscattering (RBS) techniques. 13C was mainly found on Tile 1 and near the outer strike point (OSP) on Tile 7. The 13C transport was modelled with the EDGE2D/NIMBUS code. Previous work indicates that migration pathways are: (1) through the main chamber scrape-off layer (SOL), (2) migration through the private flux region (PFR) aided by E × B drifts and (3) neutral migration originating near the strike points. The main contribution of this paper is to further describe the neutral migration.

  2. Structural studies of deposited layers on JET MkII-SRP inner divertor tiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Likonen, J.; Coad, J. P.; Vainonen-Ahlgren, E.; Renvall, T.; Hole, D. E.; Rubel, M.; Widdowson, A.; JET-EFDA Contributors

    2007-06-01

    Deposited layers formed on JET inner divertor tiles during 1998-2004 and 2001-2004 campaigns have been investigated using secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), Rutherford Backscattering (RBS) and optical microscopy. The thickness of the deposit decreases from the top of vertical tile 1 to the bottom and then increases on vertical tile 3 reaching ∼60 μm. There are even thicker deposits on the small sloping section of the floor tile 4 that can be accessed by the plasma at the inner divertor legs. Deposited films on divertor inner wall tiles are enriched in Be indicating chemical erosion of C and a multi-step transport of C to the shadowed area on floor tile 4. The films have generally a layered and globular structure in the areas with plasma contact.

  3. Deposition of 13C tracer in the JET MkII-HD divertor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Likonen, J.; Airila, M.; Alves, E.; Barradas, N.; Brezinsek, S.; Coad, J. P.; Devaux, S.; Groth, M.; Grünhagen, S.; Hakola, A.; Jachmich, S.; Koivuranta, S.; Makkonen, T.; Rubel, M.; Strachan, J.; Stamp, M.; Widdowson, A.; EFDA contributors, JET-

    2011-12-01

    Migration of 13C has been investigated at JET by injecting 13C-labelled methane at the outer divertor base at the end of the 2009 campaign. The 13C deposition profiles on carbon fibre composite divertor tiles were measured by secondary ion mass spectrometry and Rutherford backscattering techniques. 13C was mainly deposited near the puffing location on the outer divertor base tiles. High amounts of 13C were also found at the outer vertical target: at the bottom of the lower and at the top of the upper plates. Thirty-three percent of puffed 13CH4 was instantly pumped out by the divertor cryopump, which is close to the pump duct entrance. Global 13C transport in the torus was modelled by the EDGE2D/EIRENE and DIVIMP codes, and local 13C migration in the vicinity of the injection location by the ERO code. The DIVIMP and EDGE2D simulations show strong prompt deposition of 13C directly adjacent to the injection point as well as in the far scrape-off layer (SOL) along both the inner and outer divertor targets. In addition, the measured 13C deposition along the outer divertor wall tiles is qualitatively reproduced. However, EDGE2D and DIVIMP do not predict any deposition along the divertor surfaces facing the private plasma on the inner floor tile and inboard of the outer strike point on tile 5. The ERO calculations also indicate that most of the deposition occurs close to the injection location on the vertical face of the LBSRP tile and the horizontal part of tile 6.

  4. CaMK-II activation is essential for zebrafish inner ear development and acts through Delta-Notch signaling.

    PubMed

    Rothschild, Sarah C; Lahvic, Jamie; Francescatto, Ludmila; McLeod, Jamie J A; Burgess, Shawn M; Tombes, Robert M

    2013-09-01

    Zebrafish inner ear development is characterized by the crystallization of otoliths onto immotile kinocilia that protrude from sensory "hair" cells. The stereotypical formation of these sensory structures is dependent on the expression of key patterning genes and on Ca2+ signals. One potential target of Ca2+ signaling in the inner ear is the type II Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMK-II), which is preferentially activated in hair cells, with intense activation at the base of kinocilia. In zebrafish, CaMK-II is encoded by seven genes; the expression of one of these genes (camk2g1) is enriched in hair cells. The suppression of camk2g1 expression by antisense morpholino oligonucleotides or inhibition of CaMK-II activation by the pharmacological antagonist, KN-93, results in aberrant otolith formation without preventing cilia formation. In fact, CaMK-II suppression results in additional ciliated hair cells and altered levels of Delta-Notch signaling members. DeltaA and deltaD transcripts are increased and DeltaD protein accumulates in hair cells of CaMK-II morphants, indicative of defective recycling and/or exocytosis. Our findings indicate that CaMK-II plays a critical role in the developing ear, influencing cell differentiation through extranuclear effects on Delta-Notch signaling. Continued expression and activation of CaMK-II in maculae and cristae in older embryos suggests continued roles in auditory sensory maturation and transduction.

  5. Jet physics at CDF Run II

    SciTech Connect

    Safonov, A.; /UC, Davis

    2004-12-01

    The latest results on jet physics at CDF are presented and discussed. Particular attention is paid to studies of the inclusive jet cross section using 177 pb{sup -1} of Run II data. Also discussed is a study of gluon and quark jet fragmentation.

  6. Phase II study of an AKT inhibitor MK2206 in patients with relapsed or refractory lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Oki, Yasuhiro; Fanale, Michelle; Romaguera, Jorge; Fayad, Luis; Fowler, Nathan; Copeland, Amanda; Samaniego, Felipe; Kwak, Larry W.; Neelapu, Sattva; Wang, Michael; Feng, Lei; Younes, Anas

    2017-01-01

    Summary We conducted a phase II study of the AKT inhibitor, MK2206 in patients with relapsed or refractory lymphoma of any histology excluding Burkitt lymphoma or lymphoblastic lymphoma. MK-2206 was administered orally at 200 mg once weekly in 28-d cycles up to 12 cycles in the absence of progression or significant toxicity. The dose was adjusted based on tolerance. A total of 59 patients were enrolled. The final doses patients received were 300 mg (n = 33), 250 mg (n = 2), 200 mg (n = 16) and 135 mg (n = 8). Based on intent-to-treat analysis, objective response was observed in 8 (14%) patients (2 complete response and 6 partial response), with median response duration of 5.8 months. The overall response rate was 20% in 25 patients with classical Hodgkin lymphoma. Rash was the most common toxicity (any grade 53%, Grade 3 in 15%) and was observed in a dose-dependent manner. The correlative cytokine analysis showed paradoxical increase in several cytokines, which may be explained by negative feedback mechanism induced by the on-target effect of AKT inhibitor. Our data demonstrate that MK2206 has a favourable safety profile with a modest activity in patients with relapsed Hodgkin lymphoma. The future studies should explore mechanism-based combinations (clinicaltrials.gov NCT01258998). PMID:26213141

  7. Phase II study of an AKT inhibitor MK2206 in patients with relapsed or refractory lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Oki, Yasuhiro; Fanale, Michelle; Romaguera, Jorge; Fayad, Luis; Fowler, Nathan; Copeland, Amanda; Samaniego, Felipe; Kwak, Larry W; Neelapu, Sattva; Wang, Michael; Feng, Lei; Younes, Anas

    2015-11-01

    We conducted a phase II study of the AKT inhibitor, MK2206 in patients with relapsed or refractory lymphoma of any histology excluding Burkitt lymphoma or lymphoblastic lymphoma. MK-2206 was administered orally at 200 mg once weekly in 28-d cycles up to 12 cycles in the absence of progression or significant toxicity. The dose was adjusted based on tolerance. A total of 59 patients were enrolled. The final doses patients received were 300 mg (n = 33), 250 mg (n = 2), 200 mg (n = 16) and 135 mg (n = 8). Based on intent-to-treat analysis, objective response was observed in 8 (14%) patients (2 complete response and 6 partial response), with median response duration of 5·8 months. The overall response rate was 20% in 25 patients with classical Hodgkin lymphoma. Rash was the most common toxicity (any grade 53%, Grade 3 in 15%) and was observed in a dose-dependent manner. The correlative cytokine analysis showed paradoxical increase in several cytokines, which may be explained by negative feedback mechanism induced by the on-target effect of AKT inhibitor. Our data demonstrate that MK2206 has a favourable safety profile with a modest activity in patients with relapsed Hodgkin lymphoma. The future studies should explore mechanism-based combinations (clinicaltrials.gov NCT01258998). © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Cadmium affects focal adhesion kinase (FAK) in mesangial cells: involvement of CaMK-II and the actin cytoskeleton.

    PubMed

    Choong, Grace; Liu, Ying; Templeton, Douglas M

    2013-08-01

    The toxic metal ion cadmium (Cd(2+)) induces pleiotropic effects on cell death and survival, in part through effects on cell signaling mechanisms and cytoskeletal dynamics. Linking these phenomena appears to be calmodulin-dependent activation of the Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMK-II). Here we show that interference with the dynamics of the filamentous actin cytoskeleton, either by stabilization or destabilization, results in disruption of focal adhesions at the ends of organized actin structures, and in particular the loss of vinculin and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) from the contacts is a result. Low-level exposure of renal mesangial cells to CdCl2 disrupts the actin cytoskeleton and recapitulates the effects of manipulation of cytoskeletal dynamics with biological agents. Specifically, Cd(2+) treatment causes loss of vinculin and FAK from focal contacts, concomitant with cytoskeletal disruption, and preservation of cytoskeletal integrity with either a calmodulin antagonist or a CaMK-II inhibitor abrogates these effects of Cd(2+). Notably, inhibition of CaMK-II decreases the migration of FAK-phosphoTyr925 to a membrane-associated compartment where it is otherwise sequestered from focal adhesions in a Cd(2+)-dependent manner. These results add further insight into the mechanism of the CaMK-II-dependent effects of Cd(2+) on cellular function. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. The effects of ropivacaine hydrochloride on the expression of CaMK II mRNA in the dorsal root ganglion neurons.

    PubMed

    Wen, Xianjie; Lai, Xiaohong; Li, Xiaohong; Zhang, Tao; Liang, Hua

    2016-12-01

    In this study, we identified the subtype of Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMK II) mRNA in dorsal root ganglion neurons and observed the effects of ropivacaine hydrochloride in different concentration and different exposure time on the mRNA expression. Dorsal root ganglion neurons were isolated from the SD rats and cultured in vitro. The mRNA of the CaMK II subtype in dorsal root ganglion neurons were detected by real-time PCR. As well as, the dorsal root ganglion neurons were treated with ropivacaine hydrochloride in different concentration (1mM,2mM, 3mM and 4mM) for the same exposure time of 4h, or different exposure time (0h,2h,3h,4h and 6h) at the same concentration(3mM). The changes of the mRNA expression of the CaMK II subtype were observed with real-time PCR. All subtype mRNA of the CaMK II, CaMK IIα, CaMK IIβ, CaMK II δ, CaMK IIγ, can be detected in dorsal root ganglion neurons. With the increased of the concentration and exposure time of the ropivacaine hydrochloride, all the subtype mRNA expression increased. Ropivacaine hydrochloride up-regulate the CaMK IIβ, CaMK IIδ, CaMK IIg mRNA expression with the concentration and exposure time increasing. The nerve blocking or the neurotoxicity of the ropivacaine hydrochloride maybe involved with CaMK II.

  10. A jet in crossflow. II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Needham, D. J.; Riley, N.; Lytton, C. C.; Smith, J. H. B.

    1990-02-01

    A recent paper by Needham et al. (1988) considers the flow of a jet of inviscid, incompressible fluid emerging from a circular pipe into a weak crossflow. In this paper, their results are extended. In particular, it is shown how the Kutta condition at the pipe lip may be satisfied, and details of the flow field obtained from both the formal resolution and a field calculation are presented.

  11. Laboratory Evaluation of the Analox Sub MK II P-S Prototype Hyperbaric O2CO2 Analyzer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-01

    times of five species from a commercially acquired primary gas standard, each -10 ppm, in air: Freon 113, methyl chloroform, benzene, toluene, and...and identify by block number) FIELD GROUP SUB-GROUP Air purity, carbon dioxide analyzers, closed-space atmospheres, diving gas , dry deck shelter, gas ...analysis, gas psuity, infrared, oxygen analyzers, submarines 19. ABSTRACT Three prototype Analox hyperbaric analyzers (model SUB MK II P-S). modified by

  12. Behavior of EBR-II Mk-V-type fuel elements in simulated loss-of-flow tests

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Y.Y.; Tsai, H.; Billone, M.C.; Kramer, J.M. )

    1992-01-01

    The next step in the development of metal fuels for the integral fast reactor (IFR) is the conversion of the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) core to one containing the ternary U-20 Pu-10 Zr alloy clad with HT-9 cladding, i.e., the Mk-V core. This paper presents results of three hot-cell furnace simulation tests on irradiated Mk-V-type fuel elements (U-19 Pu-10 Zr/HT-9), which were performed to support the safety case for the Mk-V core. These tests were designed to envelop an umbrella (bounding) unlikely loss-of-flow (LOF) event in EBR-II during which the calculated peak cladding temperature would reach 776[degree]C for < 2 min. The principal objectives of these tests were (a) demonstration of the safety margin of the fuel element, (b) investigation of cladding breaching behavior, and (c) provision of data for validation of the FPIN2 and LIFE-METAL codes.

  13. [Fe II] jets from intermediate-mass protostars in Carina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiter, Megan; Smith, Nathan; Bally, John

    2016-12-01

    We present new HST/WFC3-IR narrow-band [Fe II] images of protostellar jets in the Carina Nebula. Combined with five previously published sources, we have a sample of 18 jets and two Herbig-Haro (HH) objects. All of the jets we targeted with Wide-Field Camera 3 (WFC3) show bright infrared [Fe II] emission, and a few Hα candidate jets are confirmed as collimated outflows based on the morphology of their [Fe II] emission. Continuum-subtracted images clearly separate jet emission from the adjacent ionization front, providing a better tracer of the collimated jet than Hα and allowing us to connect these jets with their embedded driving sources. The [Fe II] 1.64 μm/Hα flux ratio measured in the jets is ≳5 times larger than in the adjacent ionization fronts. The low-ionization jet core requires high densities to shield Fe+ against further ionization by the FUV radiation from O-type stars in the H II region. High jet densities imply high mass-loss rates, consistent with the intermediate-mass driving sources we identify for 13 jets. The remaining jets emerge from opaque globules that obscure emission from the protostar. In many respects, the HH jets in Carina look like a scaled-up version of the jets driven by low-mass protostars. Altogether, these observations suggest that [Fe II] emission is a reliable tracer of dense, irradiated jets driven by intermediate-mass protostars. We argue that highly collimated outflows are common to more massive protostars, and that they suggest the outflow physics inferred for low-mass stars formation scales up to at least ˜8 M⊙.

  14. Performance Oriented Packaging Testing of Tank, Cartridge, 3 IN/50, Mk 5 Mods 0, 1, 2 for Packing Group II Solid Hazardous Materials.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-04-01

    NUMBERS Performance Oriented Packaging Testing of Tank, D I k T Cartridge, 3*/50, Mk 5 Mods 0 , 1, 2 for Packing Group 11t~~c Solid Hazardous Materials r...due to their similarities in design, size, and weight, this test is considered representative of qualifica- tion testing for the Mk 5 Mods 0 , 2 3"/50...TANK, CARTRIDGE, 3"/50, MK 5 MODS 0 , 1, 2 FOR PACKING GROUP II SOLID HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Author: Karcn McDonnell Mechanical Engineer Performing

  15. EM61 MkII Transect Demonstration at Former Camp Beale Technology Demonstration Data Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-07-12

    the Impact Area of the Badlands Bombing Range, SD [12] as part of ESTCP Project 4003. The EM61 is a time-domain instrument with either a single...array was demonstrated in 2001 [12] at the Badlands Bombing Range, SD with little demonstrable gain over the single decay of the MkI array. A second...Blossom Point Facility [11]. In 2001, a second demonstration was conducted at the Impact Area of the Badlands Bombing Range, SD [12] as part of

  16. Active Region Jets II: Triggering and Evolution of Violent Jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sterling, Alphonse C.; Moore, Ronald L.; Falconer, David; Panesar, Navdeep K.; Martinez, Francisco

    2017-08-01

    We study a series of X-ray-bright, rapidly evolving active-region coronal jets outside the leading sunspot of AR 12259, using Hinode/XRT, SDO/AIA and HMI, and IRIS/SJ data. The detailed evolution of such rapidly evolving “violent” jets remained a mystery after our previous investigation of active region jets (Sterling et al. 2016, ApJ, 821, 100). The jets we investigate here erupt from three localized subregions, each containing a rapidly evolving (positive) minority-polarity magnetic-flux patch bathed in a (majority) negative-polarity magnetic-flux background. At least several of the jets begin with eruptions of what appear to be thin (thickness ˜<2‧‧) miniature-filament (minifilament) “strands” from a magnetic neutral line where magnetic flux cancelation is ongoing, consistent with the magnetic configuration presented for coronal-hole jets in Sterling et al. (2015, Nature, 523, 437). For some jets strands are difficult/ impossible to detect, perhaps due to their thinness, obscuration by surrounding bright or dark features, or the absence of erupting cool-material minifilaments in those jets. Tracing in detail the flux evolution in one of the subregions, we find bursts of strong jetting occurring only during times of strong flux cancelation. Averaged over seven jetting episodes, the cancelation rate was ~1.5×10^19 Mx/hr. An average flux of ~5×10^18 Mx canceled prior to each episode, arguably building up ~10^28—10^29 ergs of free magnetic energy per jet. From these and previous observations, we infer that flux cancelation is the fundamental process responsible for the pre-eruption buildup and triggering of at least many jets in active regions, quiet regions, and coronal holes.

  17. Instabilities in astrophysical jets. II - Numerical simulations of slab jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhao, Jun-Hui; Burns, Jack O.; Norman, Michael L.; Sulkanen, Martin E.

    1992-01-01

    Numerical simulations of an unstable supersonic slab-symmetric jet are described. The instabilities within the jet are characterized by growing internal body waves and their coupled surface waves that are also predicted in linear perturbation theory. The characteristic theory of fluid dynamics is used to help interpret the wave morphologies. It is demonstrated that these waves can be excited by imposing an arbitrary disturbance. From the numerical simulations, it is found that the sound waves propagating against the flow slow down as they propagate outward, and they grow in amplitude. These waves eventually disrupt the jet at a certain length. This disruption length is related to the jet Mach number and the perturbation intensity. Thus, the Mach number of a jet observed with a radio telescope can be estimated by measuring the disruption length and estimating the perturbation intensity. The jet Mach numbers in radio tailed sources determined in this way agree quite well with estimates from ram pressure bending arguments. The wiggles and flares observed in many extragalactic jets, especially in tailed radio sources, appear to be intimately related to instabilities and the jet disruption process.

  18. Performance Oriented Packaging Testing of Tank, Cartridge, 3 in/50, Mk 5 Mods 0, 1, 2 for Packing Group II Solid Hazardous Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    Mods 0 , 1, 2 for Packing Group II Solid Hazardous Materials 6. AUTHORIS) Karen McDonnell 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8...design, size, and weight, this test is considered representative of qualifica- tion testing for the Mk 5 Mods 0 , 2 3"/50 Cartridge Tanks as per the...PERFORMANCE ORIENTED PACKAGING TESTING OF TANK, CARTRIDGE, 3"/50, MK 5 MODS 0 , 1, 2 FOR PACKING GROUP II SOLID HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Author: Karen

  19. Behavior of EBR-II Mk-V-type fuel elements in simulated loss-of-flow tests

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Y.Y.; Tsai, H.; Billone, M.C.; Holland, J.W.; Kramer, J.M. )

    1992-11-01

    This report discusses three furnace heating tests which were conducted with irradiated, HT9-clad and U-19wt.%Pu-l0wt.%Zr-alloy fuel, Mk-V-type fuel elements in the Alpha-Gamma Hot Cell Facility at Argonne National Laboratory, Illinois. In general, very significant safety margins for fuel-element cladding breaching have been demonstrated in these tests, under conditions that would envelop a bounding unlikely loss-of-flow event in EBR-II. Highlights of the test results will be given, as well as discussions of the cladding breaching mechanisms, axial fuel motion, and fuel surface liquefaction found in high-temperature testing of irradiated metallic fuel elements.

  20. Simvastatin pretreatment protects cerebrum from neuronal injury by decreasing the expressions of phosphor-CaMK II and AQP4 in ischemic stroke rats.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Min-xia; Lu, Chao; Xia, Chun-mei; Qiao, Zhong-wei; Zhu, Da-nian

    2014-12-01

    Excitotoxicity and cytotoxic edema are the two major factors resulting in neuronal injury during brain ischemia and reperfusion. Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMK II), the downstream signal molecular of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs), is a mediator in the excitotoxicity. Aquaporin 4 (AQP4), expressed mainly in the brain, is an important aquaporin to control the flux of water. In a previous study, we had reported that pretreatment of simvastatin protected the cerebrum from ischemia and reperfusion injury by decreasing neurological deficit score and infarct area (Zhu et al. PLoS One 7:e51552, 2012). The present study used a middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model to further explore the pleiotropic effect of simvastatin via CaMK II and AQP4. The results showed that simvastatin reduced degenerated cells and brain edema while decreasing the protein expressions of phosphor-CaMK II and AQP4, and increasing the ratios of Bcl-2/Bax, which was independent of cholesterol-lowering effect. Immunocomplexes formed between the subunit of NMDARs-NR3A and AQP4 were detected for the first time. It was concluded that simvastatin could protect the cerebrum from neuronal excitotoxicity and cytotoxic edema by downregulating the expressions of phosphor-CaMK II and AQP4, and that the interaction between NR3A and AQP4 might provide the base for AQP4 involving in the signaling pathways mediated by NMDARs.

  1. Randomized phase II trial of cytosine arabinoside with and without the CHK1 inhibitor MK-8776 in relapsed and refractory acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Webster, Jonathan A; Tibes, Raoul; Morris, Larry; Blackford, Amanda L; Litzow, Mark; Patnaik, Mrinal; Rosner, Gary L; Gojo, Ivana; Kinders, Robert; Wang, Lihua; Doyle, L Austin; Huntoon, Catherine J; Karnitz, Larry M; Kaufmann, Scott H; Karp, Judith E; Smith, B Douglas

    2017-10-01

    Cytosine arabinoside (AraC) remains the backbone of most treatment regimens for acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Incorporation of AraC into DNA activates checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1), leading to cell-cycle arrest and diminished AraC cytotoxicity, which can be reversed by the selective Chk1 inhibitor MK-8776. Building on a Phase I trial, we conducted a phase II trial comparing timed sequential AraC with or without MK-8776. Patients with relapsed or primary refractory AML were randomized 1:1 to receive either AraC with MK-8776 (Arm A); or AraC alone (Arm B). 32 patients were treated: 14 assigned to Arm A and 18 to Arm B. There were 5 (36%) complete responses (CR/CRi) and 1 (7%) partial response (PR) in Arm A, and 8 (44%) CR/CRis and 1 (6%) PR in Arm B. Median survival did not differ significantly between the two groups (5.9months in Arm A vs. 4.5 months in Arm B). MK-8776 led to a robust increase in DNA damage in circulating leukemic blasts as measured by increased γ-H2AX (16.9%±6.1% prior and 36.4%±6.8% at one hour after MK-8776 infusion, p=0.016). Response rates and survival were similar between the two groups in spite of evidence that MK-8776 augmented DNA damage in circulating leukemic blasts. Better than expected results in the control arm using timed sequential AraC and truncated patient enrollment may have limited the ability to detect clinical benefit from the combination. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Electrospinning and electrically forced jets. II. Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hohman, Moses M.; Shin, Michael; Rutledge, Gregory; Brenner, Michael P.

    2001-08-01

    Electrospinning is a process in which solid fibers are produced from a polymeric fluid stream (solution or melt) delivered through a millimeter-scale nozzle. This article uses the stability theory described in the previous article to develop a quantitative method for predicting when electrospinning occurs. First a method for calculating the shape and charge density of a steady jet as it thins from the nozzle is presented and is shown to capture quantitative features of the experiments. Then, this information is combined with the stability analysis to predict scaling laws for the jet behavior and to produce operating diagrams for when electrospinning occurs, both as a function of experimental parameters. Predictions for how the regime of electrospinning changes as a function of the fluid conductivity and viscosity are presented.

  3. [Intervention of Qi-activating and Spleen-strengthening Herbs on Ca2+/CaMK II Signaling Pathways Key Factors in Skeletal Muscle Tissue of Rats with Spleen-qi Deficiency].

    PubMed

    Duan, Yong-qiang; Cheng, Ying-xia; Liang, Yu-jie; Cheng, Wei-dong; Du, Juan; Yang, Xiao-yi; Wang, Yan

    2015-03-01

    To observe changes of [Ca2+]i concentration and CaM, CaMK II and p-CaMK II of Ca2+/CaMK II signaling pathways in skeletal muscle tissue of rats with spleen-qi deficiency and intervention of Sijunzi decoction and extract of Hedysarum polybotrys. Rats were randomized into four groups: normal control group, spleen-qi deficient model group, extract from Hedysarum polybotrys group and Sijunzi decoction group, ten rats in each group. After the spleen-qi deficient models were built by comprehensive application of rhubarb, exhaustive and hungry methods, and treatment groups were treated with extract from Hedysarum polybotrys at 6 g/(kg . d) or Sijunzi decoction at 20 g/(kg . d) for 21 d. Then, general existence,gastrointestinal hormones GAS and MOT levels, and activities of Na+-K+-ATPase and Ca2+-Mg2+-ATPase of skeletal muscle were evaluated. Also, confocal laser technology was used to test cellular[Ca2+]i concentrations in skeletal muscle and Western blotting technique was used to test CaM, CaMK II and p-CaMK 11 expression in intestinal tissue of spleen-qi deficient model rats. Compared with normal group, general condition was poor, levels of GAS and MOT decreased (P <0. 01), activities of Na+-K+-ATPase and Ca2+-Mg2+-ATPase, [Ca2+]i concentration as well as expression of CaM, CaMK II and p-CaMK II in skeletal muscle decreased significantly (P < 0. 01) in spleen-qi deficienct model rats. Compared with model group, general condition improved significantly, as well as level of MOT in intestinal increased (P <0. 05) in the rats of extract from Hedysarum polybotrys group and Sijunzi decoction group,while level of GAS increased in intestinal(P <0. 05) in the rats of Sijunzi decoction group; Moreover, activities of Na+-K+-ATPase and Ca2+-Mg2+-ATPase as well as [Ca2+]i concentration and expression of CaM and CaMK II in skeletal muscle tissue increased (P < 0. 05) in the rats of extract from Hedysarum polybotrys group and Sijunzi decoction group, while p-CaMK II in skeletal muscle

  4. Phase II Study of the AKT inhibitor MK-2206 plus Erlotinib in Patients with Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer who Previously Progressed on Erlotinib

    PubMed Central

    Lara, Primo N.; Longmate, Jeff; Mack, Philip C.; Kelly, Karen; Socinski, Mark A.; Salgia, Ravi; Gitlitz, Barbara; Li, Tianhong; Koczywas, Mariana; Reckamp, Karen L.; Gandara, David R.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Preclinical modeling in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) showed that stimulation with hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), the ligand for MET, could reverse the cytostatic and cytotoxic effects of the epidermal-growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor erlotinib in erlotinib-sensitive cell lines. Inhibitors of AKT signaling mitigated this HGF-mediated resistance, partially restoring erlotinib activity. We conducted a phase II trial of erlotinib plus MK2206, a highly selective inhibitor of AKT, in NSCLC patients. Experimental Design Eligible patients must have progressed following prior benefit from erlotinib, defined as response or stable disease > 12 weeks. Treatment consisted of erlotinib 150 mg po QD + MK-2206 45 mg po QOD on a 28 day cycle. Primary endpoints were RECIST response rate > 30% (stratum 1: EGFR mutant) and disease control rate (DCR) > 20% at 12 weeks (stratum 2: EGFR wild type). Results Eighty patients were enrolled, 45 and 35 in stratum 1 and 2, respectively. Most common attributable adverse events (all grade 3) were rash, diarrhea, fatigue, and mucositis. Response and DCR were respectively 9% and 40% in stratum 1; 3% and 47% in stratum 2. Median progression free survival was 4.4 months in stratum 1 and 4.6 months in stratum 2. Conclusions Combination MK2206 and erlotinib met its primary endpoint in erlotinib-pretreated patients with EGFR wild type NSCLC. While activity was seen in EGFR mutated NSCLC, this did not exceed a priori estimates. AKT pathway inhibition merits further clinical evaluation in EGFR wild type NSCLC. PMID:26106072

  5. MK-0991 (Merck & Co).

    PubMed

    Groll, A H; Walsh, T J

    1999-11-01

    Merck is developing the echinocandin-type antifungal, MK-0991 (L-743872), a beta-1,3-glucan synthesis inhibitor. It is currently undergoing phase III trials for the potential treatment of systemic fungal infections. The compound entered phase II clinical trials in late 1996. It was administered iv once daily and showed antifungal activity in vitro and in vivo against Candida (including azole-resistant Candida), Aspergillus and certain other fungi. The in vitro activity of MK-0991 has been confirmed by several studies. In November 1998, Morgan Stanley Dean Witter predicted worldwide sales of 40 million USD in 2000, rising to 275 million USD in 2005. In February 1999, Credit Suisse Dean Witter predicted sales of 65 million USD in 2001, rising to 330 million USD in 2002. In February 1999, Lehman Brothers predicted 60% probabilities of US and ex-US market penetrations and launch onto these markets by 2000. Expected sales are predicted to be 15 million USD (in the US) and 10 million USD (ex-US) in 2000, rising to 200 USD million and 175 million USD respectively in 2002. Peak annual sales of 500 million USD (US) and 500 million USD (ex-US) are predicted in 2008.

  6. Fabrication and testing of a 4-node micro-pocket fission detector array for the Kansas State University TRIGA Mk. II research nuclear reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichenberger, Michael A.; Nichols, Daniel M.; Stevenson, Sarah R.; Swope, Tanner M.; Hilger, Caden W.; Unruh, Troy C.; McGregor, Douglas S.; Roberts, Jeremy A.

    2017-08-01

    Advancements in nuclear reactor core modeling and computational capability have encouraged further development of in-core neutron sensors. Micro-Pocket Fission Detectors (MPFDs) have been fabricated and tested previously, but successful testing of these prior detectors was limited to single-node operation with specialized designs. Described in this work is a modular, four-node MPFD array fabricated and tested at Kansas State University (KSU). The four sensor nodes were equally spaced to span the length of the fuel-region of the KSU TRIGA Mk. II research nuclear reactor core. The encapsulated array was filled with argon gas, serving as an ionization medium in the small cavities of the MPFDs. The unified design improved device ruggedness and simplified construction over previous designs. A 0.315-in. (8-mm) penetration in the upper grid plate of the KSU TRIGA Mk. II research nuclear reactor was used to deploy the array between fuel elements in the core. The MPFD array was coupled to an electronic support system which has been developed to support pulse-mode operation. Neutron-induced pulses were observed on all four sensor channels. Stable device operation was confirmed by testing under steady-state reactor conditions. Each of the four sensors in the array responded to changes in reactor power between 10 kWth and full power (750 kWth). Reactor power transients were observed in real-time including positive transients with periods of 5, 15, and 30 s. Finally, manual reactor power oscillations were observed in real-time.

  7. MiR-152 May Silence Translation of CaMK II and Induce Spontaneous Immune Tolerance in Mouse Liver Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jingcheng; Yan, Sheng; Zhou, Lin; Xie, Haiyang; Chen, Hui; Li, Hui; Zhang, Jinhua; Zhao, Jiacong; Zheng, Shusen

    2014-01-01

    Spontaneous immune tolerance in mouse liver transplantation has always been a hotspot in transplantation-immune research. Recent studies revealed that regulatory T cells (Tregs), hepatic satellite cells and Kupffer cells play a potential role in spontaneous immune tolerance, however the precise mechanism of spontaneous immune tolerance is still undefined. By using Microarray Chips, we investigated different immune regulatory factors to decipher critical mechanisms of spontaneous tolerance after mouse liver transplantation. Allogeneic (C57BL/6-C3H) and syngeneic (C3H-C3H) liver transplantation were performed by 6-8 weeks old male C57BL/6 and C3H mice. Graft samples (N = 4 each group) were collected from 8 weeks post-operation mice. 11 differentially expressed miRNAs in allogeneic grafts (Allografts) vs. syngeneic grafts (Syngrafts) were identified using Agilent Mouse miRNA Chips. It was revealed that 185 genes were modified by the 11 miRNAs, furthermore, within the 185 target genes, 11 of them were tightly correlated with immune regulation after Gene Ontology (GO), Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analysis and Genbank data cross-comparison. Verified by real-time PCR and western blot, our results indicated that mRNA expression levels of IL-6 and TAB2 were respectively down regulated following miR-142-3p and miR-155 augment. In addition, increased miR-152 just silenced mRNA of CaMK II and down-regulated translation of CaMK II in tolerated liver grafts, which may play a critical role in immune regulation and spontaneous tolerance induction of mouse liver transplantation. PMID:25133393

  8. MiR-152 may silence translation of CaMK II and induce spontaneous immune tolerance in mouse liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Tian, Yang; Ding, Yuan; Wang, Jingcheng; Yan, Sheng; Zhou, Lin; Xie, Haiyang; Chen, Hui; Li, Hui; Zhang, Jinhua; Zhao, Jiacong; Zheng, Shusen

    2014-01-01

    Spontaneous immune tolerance in mouse liver transplantation has always been a hotspot in transplantation-immune research. Recent studies revealed that regulatory T cells (Tregs), hepatic satellite cells and Kupffer cells play a potential role in spontaneous immune tolerance, however the precise mechanism of spontaneous immune tolerance is still undefined. By using Microarray Chips, we investigated different immune regulatory factors to decipher critical mechanisms of spontaneous tolerance after mouse liver transplantation. Allogeneic (C57BL/6-C3H) and syngeneic (C3H-C3H) liver transplantation were performed by 6-8 weeks old male C57BL/6 and C3H mice. Graft samples (N = 4 each group) were collected from 8 weeks post-operation mice. 11 differentially expressed miRNAs in allogeneic grafts (Allografts) vs. syngeneic grafts (Syngrafts) were identified using Agilent Mouse miRNA Chips. It was revealed that 185 genes were modified by the 11 miRNAs, furthermore, within the 185 target genes, 11 of them were tightly correlated with immune regulation after Gene Ontology (GO), Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analysis and Genbank data cross-comparison. Verified by real-time PCR and western blot, our results indicated that mRNA expression levels of IL-6 and TAB2 were respectively down regulated following miR-142-3p and miR-155 augment. In addition, increased miR-152 just silenced mRNA of CaMK II and down-regulated translation of CaMK II in tolerated liver grafts, which may play a critical role in immune regulation and spontaneous tolerance induction of mouse liver transplantation.

  9. Observations of Chromospheric Anemone Jets with Hinode CaII Broadband Filtergraph and Hida CaII Spectroheliograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morita, Satoshi; Shibata, Kazunari; Ueno, Satoru; Ichimoto, Kiyoshi; Kitai, Reizaburo; Otsuji, Ken-Ichi

    2010-08-01

    We report on the first simultaneous observations of chromospheric ``anemone'' jets in solar active regions with the Hinode Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) CaII H broadband filtergraph and the CaII K spetroheliograph on the Domeless Solar Telescope (DST) at Hida Observatory. During the period of coordinated observations, nine chromospheric anemone jets were simultaneously observed with the two instruments. These observations revealed three important features: (1) the jets are generated in the lower chromosphere; i.e., these cannot be seen in CaII K3; (2) the length and lifetime of the jets are 0.4-5 Mm and 40-320 s, respectively; (3) the apparent velocity of the jets observed with the SOT is 3-24 km s-1, while the CaII K3 component at the jets shows a blueshift (in 5 events) in the range of 2-6 km s-1. The chromospheric anemone jets are associated with mixed polarity regions, which are either small emerging flux regions or moving magnetic features. It is found that the CaII K line often shows red or blue asymmetry in the K2/K1 component; the footpoint of the jets associated with emerging flux regions often shows a redshift (2-16 km s-1), while the one with moving magnetic features shows a blueshift (˜5 km s-1). A detailed analysis of the magnetic evolution of the jet-forming regions revealed that the reconnection rate (or canceling rate) of the total magnetic flux at the footpoint of the jets is on the order of 1016 Mx s-1, and the resulting magnetic energy release rate is (1.1-10) × 1024 erg s-1, with a total energy release of (1-13) × 1026 erg for the duration of the magnetic cancellation, ˜130 s. These are comparable to the estimated total energy, ˜1026 erg, in a single chromospheric anemone jet. In addition to the DST CaII K spectroheliogram and the SOT CaII H broadband filtergram, we also used for analysis an SOT magnetogram as well as a Hida Hα filtergram. We present a physical model of the jet based on the observation, and discuss the relation between

  10. Hypothyroidism following developmental iodine deficiency reduces hippocampal neurogranin, CaMK II and calmodulin and elevates calcineurin in lactational rats.

    PubMed

    Dong, Jing; Liu, Wanyang; Wang, Yi; Xi, Qi; Chen, Jie

    2010-11-01

    Developmental iodine deficiency (ID) leads to inadequate thyroid hormone that impairs learning and memory with an unclear mechanism. Here, we show that hippocampal neurogranin, calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), calmodulin (CaM) and calcineurin (CaN) are implicated in the brain impairment in lactational rat hippocampus following developmental ID and hypothyroidism. Three developmental rat models were created by administrating dam rats with either iodine-deficient diet or propylthiouracil (PTU, 5 ppm or 15 ppm)-added drinking water from gestational day (GD) 6 till postnatal day (PN) 21. Then, the neurogranin, CaMKII, CaM and CaN in the hippocampus were detected with immunohistochemistry and western blotting on PN14 and PN21. The iodine-deficient and hypothyroid pups showed significantly lower level of neurogranin, CaMKII and CaM and significantly increased CaN in hippocampal CA1 and CA3 regions than the controls on PN14 and PN21 (P<0.05, respectively). Data indicate that, in lactational rats, hippocampal neurogranin, CaMKII, CaM and CaN are involved in the brain impairment by developmental ID and hypothyroidism. Copyright © 2010 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Solar Active Region Coronal Jets. II. Triggering and Evolution of Violent Jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sterling, Alphonse C.; Moore, Ronald L.; Falconer, David A.; Panesar, Navdeep K.; Martinez, Francisco

    2017-07-01

    We study a series of X-ray-bright, rapidly evolving active region coronal jets outside the leading sunspot of AR 12259, using Hinode/X-ray telescope, Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO)/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) and Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI), and Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) data. The detailed evolution of such rapidly evolving “violent” jets remained a mystery after our previous investigation of active region jets. The jets we investigate here erupt from three localized subregions, each containing a rapidly evolving (positive) minority-polarity magnetic-flux patch bathed in a (majority) negative-polarity magnetic-flux background. At least several of the jets begin with eruptions of what appear to be thin (thickness ≲ 2\\prime\\prime ) miniature-filament (minifilament) “strands” from a magnetic neutral line where magnetic flux cancelation is ongoing, consistent with the magnetic configuration presented for coronal-hole jets in Sterling et al. (2016). Some jets strands are difficult/impossible to detect, perhaps due to, e.g., their thinness, obscuration by surrounding bright or dark features, or the absence of erupting cool-material minifilaments in those jets. Tracing in detail the flux evolution in one of the subregions, we find bursts of strong jetting occurring only during times of strong flux cancelation. Averaged over seven jetting episodes, the cancelation rate was ˜ 1.5× {10}19 Mx hr-1. An average flux of ˜ 5× {10}18 Mx canceled prior to each episode, arguably building up ˜1028-1029 erg of free magnetic energy per jet. From these and previous observations, we infer that flux cancelation is the fundamental process responsible for the pre-eruption build up and triggering of at least many jets in active regions, quiet regions, and coronal holes.

  12. QUASI-STATIC MODEL OF MAGNETICALLY COLLIMATED JETS AND RADIO LOBES. II. JET STRUCTURE AND STABILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Colgate, Stirling A.; Li, Hui; Fowler, T. Kenneth; Hooper, E. Bickford; McClenaghan, Joseph; Lin, Zhihong

    2015-11-10

    This is the second in a series of companion papers showing that when an efficient dynamo can be maintained by accretion disks around supermassive black holes in active galactic nuclei, it can lead to the formation of a powerful, magnetically driven, and mediated helix that could explain both the observed radio jet/lobe structures and ultimately the enormous power inferred from the observed ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays. In the first paper, we showed self-consistently that minimizing viscous dissipation in the disk naturally leads to jets of maximum power with boundary conditions known to yield jets as a low-density, magnetically collimated tower, consistent with observational constraints of wire-like currents at distances far from the black hole. In this paper we show that these magnetic towers remain collimated as they grow in length at nonrelativistic velocities. Differences with relativistic jet models are explained by three-dimensional magnetic structures derived from a detailed examination of stability properties of the tower model, including a broad diffuse pinch with current profiles predicted by a detailed jet solution outside the collimated central column treated as an electric circuit. We justify our model in part by the derived jet dimensions in reasonable agreement with observations. Using these jet properties, we also discuss the implications for relativistic particle acceleration in nonrelativistically moving jets. The appendices justify the low jet densities yielding our results and speculate how to reconcile our nonrelativistic treatment with general relativistic MHD simulations.

  13. Performance in He II of a centrifugal pump with a jet pump inducer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daney, D. E.; Ludtke, P. R.; Kashani, A.

    1989-05-01

    The tendency of turbopumps operating in He II to cavitate makes their use in zero gravity questionable because of the zero net positive suction head (NPSH) available at the pump inlet. This paper investigates a jet pump, positioned at the inlet of a centrifugal pump with a screw inducer, as a means of operating a centrifugal pump at zero or lower NPSH. Pump performance in He II was measured as a function of NPSH for six different combinations of primary and secondary nozzles. Suction heads down to -91 mm were measured for a 3-percent reduction in developed head. These are referenced to the leading edge of the screw inducer, which is 100 mm above the jet pump inlet. Because cavitation at the primary jet always precedes cavitation in the jet pump secondary nozzle, the reverse (pressure driven) flow through a porous plug as a means of obtaining a subcooled primary jet was also tested. These tests were inconclusive.

  14. Chromospheric Anemone Jets Observed with Hinode/SOT and Hida Ca II Spectroheliograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morita, S.; Shibata, K.; Ueno, S.; Ichimoto, K.; Kitai, R.; Otsuji, K.

    2012-08-01

    We present the first simultaneous observations of chromospheric “anemone” jets in active regions with the Ca II H broadband filetergram on the Hinode/SOT and with the Ca II K spetroheliogram on the Domeless Solar Telescope (DST) at the Hida Observatory. During coordinated observation period, 9 chromospheric anemone jets were simultaneously observed with the two instruments. These observations revealed: (1) the jets are generated in the low chromosphere because these cannot be seen in Ca II K3, (2) these jets are associated with mixed polarity regions which are either small emerging flux regions or moving magnetic features, (3) the Ca II K line often show red or blue asymmetry in K2/K1 component; the footpoint of the jets associated with emerging flux regions often show red asymmetry (2-16 km s-1), while the one with moving magnetic features show blue asymmetry (˜5 km s-1). The magnetic cancellations were observed at the footpoint of the jets. The canceling rates are of order of 1016 Mx s-1, and the resulting magnetic energy release rate (1.1-10)×1024 erg s-1, with the total energy release (1-13)×1026 erg for the duration of the magnetic cancellations, ˜130 s. These are comparable to the estimated total energy, ˜1026 erg, in a single chromospheric anemone jet.

  15. VISCOUS BOUNDARY LAYERS OF RADIATION-DOMINATED, RELATIVISTIC JETS. II. THE FREE-STREAMING JET MODEL

    SciTech Connect

    Coughlin, Eric R.; Begelman, Mitchell C. E-mail: mitch@jila.colorado.edu

    2015-08-10

    We analyze the interaction of a radiation-dominated jet and its surroundings using the equations of radiation hydrodynamics in the viscous limit. In a previous paper we considered the two-stream scenario, which treats the jet and its surroundings as distinct media interacting through radiation viscous forces. Here we present an alternative boundary layer model, known as the free-streaming jet model—where a narrow stream of fluid is injected into a static medium—and present solutions where the flow is ultrarelativistic and the boundary layer is dominated by radiation. It is shown that these jets entrain material from their surroundings and that their cores have a lower density of scatterers and a harder spectrum of photons, leading to observational consequences for lines of sight that look “down the barrel of the jet.” These jetted outflow models may be applicable to the jets produced during long gamma-ray bursts and super-Eddington phases of tidal disruption events.

  16. Vector space methods of photometric analysis. II - Refinement of the MK grid for B stars. III - The two components of ultraviolet reddening

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Massa, D.

    1980-01-01

    This paper discusses systematic errors which arise from exclusive use of the MK system to determine reddening. It is found that implementation of uvby, beta photometry to refine the qualitative MK grid substantially reduces stellar mismatch error. A working definition of 'identical' ubvy, beta types is investigated and the relationship of uvby to B-V color excesses is determined. A comparison is also made of the hydrogen based uvby, beta types with the MK system based on He and metal lines. A small core correlated effective temperature luminosity error in the MK system for the early B stars is observed along with a breakdown of the MK luminosity criteria for the late B stars. The second part investigates the wavelength dependence of interstellar extinction in the ultraviolet wavelength range observed with the TD-1 satellite. In this study the sets of identical stars employed to find reddening are determined more precisely than in previous studies and consist only of normal, nonsupergiant stars. A multivariate analysis of variance techniques in an unbiased coordinate system is used for determining the wavelength dependence of reddening.

  17. Performance oriented packaging testing of nine Mk 3 Mod 0 signal containers in PPP-B-621 wood box for packing group II solid hazardous materials. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Libbert, K.J.

    1992-10-01

    A PPP-B-621 wood box containing nine Mk 3 Mod 0 Signal containers was tested for conformance to Performance Oriented Packaging criteria established by Code of Federal Regulations Title 49 CFR. The container was tested with a gross weight of 123.3 pounds (56 kilograms) and met all requirements.

  18. ATLAS jet trigger update for the LHC run II

    SciTech Connect

    Delgado, A. T.

    2015-07-01

    The CERN Large Hadron Collider is the biggest and most powerful particle collider ever built. It produces up to 40 million proton-proton collisions per second at unprecedented energies to explore the fundamental laws and properties of Nature. The ATLAS experiment is one of the detectors that analyses and records these collisions. It generates dozens of GB/s of data that has to be reduced before it can be permanently stored, the event selection is made by the ATLAS trigger system, which reduces the data volume by a factor of 105. The trigger system has to be highly configurable in order to adapt to changing running conditions and maximize the physics output whilst keeping the output rate under control. A particularly interesting pattern generated during collisions consists of a collimated spray of particles, known as a hadronic jet. To retain the interesting jets and efficiently reject the overwhelming background, optimal jet energy resolution is needed. Therefore the Jet trigger software requires CPU-intensive reconstruction algorithms. In order to reduce the resources needed for the reconstruction step, a partial detector readout scheme was developed, which effectively suppresses the low activity regions of the calorimeter. In this paper we describe the overall ATLAS trigger software, and the jet trigger in particular, along with the improvements made on the system. We then focus on detailed studies of the algorithm timing and the performance impact of the full and partial calorimeter readout schemes. We conclude with an outlook of the jet trigger plans for the next LHC data-taking period. (authors)

  19. [Fe II] Emission Tracing Massive, Irradiated Jets from Intermediate-Mass Protostars in the Carina Nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiter, Megan; Smith, Nathan

    2013-07-01

    We present new spectroscopy and HST and ground-based AO imaging of five protostellar jets in the Carina nebula. Near-IR [Fe II] emission traces dense gas in the jet that is self-shielded from Lyman continuum photons from nearby O-type stars, but is excited by non-ionizing FUV photons that penetrate the ionization front within the jet. New near-IR [Fe II] images reveal a substantial mass of dense, neutral gas that is not seen in Halpha emission from these jets, leading to densities and mass-loss rate estimates an order of magnitude higher than those derived from the Halpha emission measure. Higher jet mass-loss rates require higher accretion rates, implying that these jets are driven by intermediate-mass (~2-8 Msun) protostars. For two of the sources, mid-IR luminosities of the driving sources are clearly consistent with intermediate-mass protostars, while the other two driving sources are more deeply embedded and require imaging at longer wavelengths with high spatial resolution to confirm their luminosity. Tangential velocities from new proper motion measurements exceed velocities typical for lower-luminosity sources (100-200 km/s). In addition, these outflows are highly collimated, with opening angles of only a few degrees, similar to low-mass protostars. We propose that these jets reflect essentially the same outflow phenomenon seen in low-mass protostars, but that the collimated atomic jet core is irradiated and rendered observable. Thus, the jets in Carina constitute a new view of collimated jets from intermediate-mass protostars that exists in a feedback dominated environment, and offer strong additional evidence that stars up to ~8 Msun form by the same accretion mechanisms as low-mass stars.

  20. Development and Testing of a Jet Assisted Polycrystalline Diamond Drilling Bit. Phase II Development Efforts

    SciTech Connect

    David S. Pixton

    1999-09-20

    Phase II efforts to develop a jet-assisted rotary-percussion drill bit are discussed. Key developments under this contract include: (1) a design for a more robust polycrystalline diamond drag cutter; (2) a new drilling mechanism which improves penetration and life of cutters; and (3) a means of creating a high-pressure mud jet inside of a percussion drill bit. Field tests of the new drill bit and the new robust cutter are forthcoming.

  1. Measurement of the inclusive jet cross section using the midpoint algorithm in Run II at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Group, Robert Craig

    2006-01-01

    A measurement is presented of the inclusive jet cross section using the Midpoint jet clustering algorithm in five different rapidity regions. This is the first analysis which measures the inclusive jet cross section using the Midpoint algorithm in the forward region of the detector. The measurement is based on more than 1 fb-1 of integrated luminosity of Run II data taken by the CDF experiment at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. The results are consistent with the predictions of perturbative quantum chromodynamics.

  2. [Fe II] Emission Tracing Dense Jets from Intermediate-mass Protostars in Carina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiter, Megan; Smith, N.

    2013-01-01

    We present narrowband WFC3-UVIS and -IR images of four protostellar jets in the Carina nebula, HH 666, HH 901, HH 902, and HH 1066. Near-IR [Fe II] images reveal a substantial mass of dense, neutral gas that was not seen in previous studies of the Hα emission from these jets. New estimates of the mass-loss rates exceed those derived from the Hα emission measure by an order of magnitude. Higher jet mass-loss rates require higher accretion rates onto their driving protostars, implying that these jets are driven by intermediate-mass (˜ 2 - 8 M⊙) stars. All four of these HH jets are highly collimated, with opening angles of only a few degrees, similar to those observed in low-mass protostars. In more quiescent environments, this atomic core remains invisible, and outflows are traced by shock-excited molecules in the walls of the outflow cavity. In the harsh radiative environment of the Carina nebula, molecules entrained in the outflow are rapidly destroyed, and the atomic jet core is irradiated and photoevaporated. Thus, the jets in Carina constitute a new view of collimated jets from intermediate-mass protostars that exist in a harsh, feedback dominated environment, and offer strong evidence that stars up to at least ˜ 8 M⊙ form by the same accretion mechanisms as low-mass stars.

  3. Dynamic characteristics of peripheral jet ACV. II - Pitching motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, T.; Maeda, H.

    The dynamic pitching characteristics of peripheral jet ACV (Air Cushion Vehicle) which have a stability curtain are investigated analytically and experimentally. The measured values of moment, lift and cushion pressure are compared with numerical results noting applicability to the pitching motion. The response of ACV to the sinusoidal pitching oscillation of the ground is also studied.

  4. Jets.

    PubMed

    Rhines, Peter B.

    1994-06-01

    This is a discussion of concentrated large-scale flows in planetary atmospheres and oceans, argued from the viewpoint of basic geophysical fluid dynamics. We give several elementary examples in which these flows form jets on rotating spheres. Jet formation occurs under a variety of circumstances: when flows driven by external stress have a rigid boundary which can balance the Coriolis force, and at which further concentration can be caused by the beta effect; when there are singular lines like the line of vanishing windstress or windstress-curl, or the Equator; when compact sources of momentum, heat or mass radiate jet-like beta plumes along latitude circles; when random external stirring of the fluid becomes organized by the beta effect into jets; when internal instability of the mass field generates zonal flow which then is concentrated into jets; when bottom topographic obstacles radiate jets, and when frontogenesis leads to shallow jet formation. Essential to the process of jet formation in stratified fluids is the baroclinic life cycle described in geostrophic turbulence studies; there, conversion from potential to kinetic energy generates eddy motions, and these convert to quasibarotropic motions which then radiate and induce jet-like large-scale circulation. Ideas of potential vorticity stirring by eddies generalize the notion of Rossby-wave radiation, showing how jets embedded in an ambient potential vorticity gradient (typically due to the spherical geometry of the rotating planet) gain eastward momentum while promoting broader, weaker westward circulation. Homogenization of potential vorticity is an important limit point, which many geophysical circulations achieve. This well-mixed state is found in subdomains of the terrestrial midlatitude oceans, the high-latitude circumpolar ocean, and episodically in the middle atmosphere. Homogenization expels potential vorticity gradients vertically to the top and bottom of the fluid, and sideways to the edges of

  5. Triggering on B-jets at CDF II

    SciTech Connect

    Amerio, Silvia; Casarsa, Massimo; Cortiana, Giorgio; Donini, Julien; Lucchesi, Donatella; Pagan Griso, Simone; /Padua U. /INFN, Padua

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present a trigger algorithm able to select online events enriched of b-jets. This feature is of central interest in order to extend the physics reach for standard model and minimal super symmetric model Higgs decaying into a pair of b-quarks. The algorithm fully exploits the recently upgraded CDFII tracking system and Level 2 CALorimeter cluster finder. These upgrades are necessary to cope with Tevatron increasing luminosity and provide new and refined trigger primitives that are the key elements of our algorithm together with the already existing silicon vertex trigger. A b-hadron can travel some millimeters before decaying and the trigger algorithm exploits this characteristic by searching for tracks displaced with respect to the primary vertex and matched to energetic jets of particles. We discuss the study and the optimization of the algorithm, its technical implementation as well as its performance. The new trigger provides an efficient selection for Higgs decaying into a pair of b-quarks and runs up to high luminosity with an acceptable occupancy of the available bandwidth.

  6. Performance oriented packaging testing of Mk 117 Mod 0 JATO shipping container for packing Group II solid hazardous materials. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Dwyer, J.J.

    1992-10-01

    This Performance Oriented Packaging (POP) test was conducted to ascertain whether the Mk 117 Mod 0 JATO Shipping Container meets the Packing Group 11 requirements specified by the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 49 CFR, Parts 107 through 178, dated 31 December 1991. The packaged commodity used for the test was two inert rocket motors weighing 23 kg (50 pounds) each. This represents the current maximum commodity weight. Gross weight of the loaded container was 59 kg (1 30 pounds). The test results indicate that the container has conformed to the POP requirements.

  7. Observations of jets from low-luminosity stars. II - SVS 12, HH 30, near HL Tauri, and HH 34

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Martin; Jones, B. F.

    1987-01-01

    Spatially resolved spectral scans were obtained for four Herbig-Haro jets emanating from low-luminosity premain-sequence stars. There appears to be a general tendency for the excitation and electron density to diminish along these jets. For three jets, the electron density dependence is close to 1/r. HH 30's scattered stellar continuum showed much weaker Fe II lines in 1985 than in 1979, indicative of variable stellar activity. The most distant knot in HH 34's jet has the lowest excitation of any known HH object, with S II-line/H-alpha = 12.

  8. A dynamical model for FR II type radio sources with terminated jet activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuligowska, Elżbieta

    2017-02-01

    Context. The extension of the KDA analytical model of FR II-type source evolution originally assuming a continuum injection process in the jet-IGM interaction towards a case of the jet's termination is presented and briefly discussed. Aims: The dynamical evolution of FR II-type sources predicted with this extended model, hereafter referred to as KDA EXT, and its application to the chosen radio sources. Methods: Following the classical approach based on the source's continuous injection and self-similarity, I propose the effective formulae describing the length and luminosity evolution of the lobes during an absence of the jet flow, and present the resulting diagrams for the characteristics mentioned. Results: Using an algorithm based on the numerical integration of a modified formula for jet power, the KDA EXT model is fitted to three radio galaxies. Their predicted spectra are then compared to the observed spectra, proving that these fits are better than the best spectral fit provided by the original KDA model of the FR II-type sources dynamical evolution.

  9. Measurement of the inclusive jet cross section at D0 Run II

    SciTech Connect

    Agram, Jean-Laurent

    2004-12-17

    This work describes the measurement of inclusive jets cross section in the DØ experiment. This cross section is computed as a function of jet transverse momentum, in several rapidity intervals. This quantity is sensitive to the proton structure and is crucial for the determination of parton distribution functions (PDF), essentially for the gluon at high proton momentum fraction. The measurement presented here gives the first values obtained for Tevatron Run II for the cross section in several rapidity intervals, for an integrated luminosity of 143 pb-1. The results are in agreement, within the uncertainties, with theoretical Standard Model predictions, showing no evidence for new physics.

  10. AGN jet power, formation of X-ray cavities, and FR I/II dichotomy in galaxy clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, Yutaka; Kawakatu, Nozomu; Shlosman, Isaac

    2016-04-01

    We investigate the ability of jets in active galactic nuclei to break out of the ambient gas with sufficiently large advance velocities. Using observationally estimated jet power, we analyze 28 bright elliptical galaxies in nearby galaxy clusters. Because the gas density profiles in the innermost regions of galaxies have not been resolved so far, we consider two extreme cases for temperature and density profiles. We also follow two types of evolution for the jet cocoons: being driven by the pressure inside the cocoon [Fanaroff-Riley (FR) type I], and being driven by the jet momentum (FR type II). Our main result is that regardless of the assumed form of the density profiles, jets with observed powers of ≲1044 erg s-1 are not powerful enough to evolve as FR II sources. Instead, they evolve as FR I sources and appear to be decelerated below the buoyant velocities of the cocoons when jets were propagating through the central dense regions of the host galaxies. This explains why FR I sources are more frequent than FR II sources in clusters. Furthermore, we predict the sizes of X-ray cavities from the observed jet powers and compare them with the observed ones-they are consistent within a factor of two if the FR I type evolution is realized. Finally, we find that the jets with a power ≳1044 erg s-1 are less affected by the ambient medium, and some of them, but not all, could serve as precursors of the FR II sources.

  11. On the efficiency of jet production in FR II radio galaxies and quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusinek, Katarzyna; Sikora, Marek; Kozieł-Wierzbowska, Dorota; Godfrey, Leith

    2017-04-01

    Jet powers in many radio galaxies with extended radio structures appear to exceed their associated accretion luminosities. In systems with very low accretion rates, this is likely due to the very low accretion luminosities resulting from radiatively inefficient accretion flows. In systems with high accretion rates, the accretion flows are expected to be radiatively efficient, and the production of such powerful jets may require an accretion scenario, which involves magnetically arrested discs (MADs). However, numerical simulations of the MAD scenario indicate that jet production efficiency is large only for geometrically thick accretion flows and scales roughly with (H/R)2, where H is the disc height and R is the distance from the black hole. Using samples of FR II radio galaxies and quasars accreting at moderate accretion rates, we show that their jets are much more powerful than predicted by the MAD scenario. We discuss possible origins of this discrepancy, suggesting that it can be related to approximations adopted in magnetohydrodynamic simulations to treat optically thick accretion flow within the MAD zone, or may indicate that accretion discs are geometrically thicker than the standard theory predicts.

  12. A Phase II Dose-Ranging Study Evaluating the Efficacy and Safety of the Orexin Receptor Antagonist Filorexant (MK-6096) in Patients with Primary Insomnia

    PubMed Central

    Mahoney, Erin; Jackson, Saheeda; Hutzelmann, Jill; Zhao, Xin; Jia, Nan; Snyder, Ellen; Snavely, Duane; Michelson, David; Roth, Thomas; Herring, W. Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Background: Filorexant (MK-6096) is an orexin receptor antagonist; here, we evaluate the efficacy of filorexant in the treatment of insomnia in adults. Methods: A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, two 4-week–period, adaptive crossover polysomnography study was conducted at 51 sites worldwide. Patients (18 to <65 years) with insomnia received 1 of 4 doses of oral filorexant (2.5, 5, 10, 20mg) once daily at bedtime during one period and matching placebo in the other period in 1 of 8 possible treatment sequences. Polysomnography was performed on night 1 and end of week 4 of each period. The primary endpoint was sleep efficiency at night 1 and end of week 4. Secondary endpoints included wakefulness after persistent sleep onset and latency to onset of persistent sleep. Results: A total of 324 patients received study treatment, 315 received ≥1 dose of placebo, and 318 ≥1 dose of filorexant (2.5mg, n=79; 5mg, n=78; 10mg, n=80; 20mg, n=81). All filorexant doses (2.5/5/10/20mg) were significantly superior to placebo in improving sleep among patients with insomnia as measured by sleep efficiency and wakefulness after persistent sleep onset on night 1 and end of week 4. The 2 higher filorexant doses (10/20mg) were also significantly more effective than placebo in improving sleep onset as measured by latency to onset of persistent sleep at night 1 and end of week 4. Filorexant was generally well tolerated. Conclusions: Orexin receptor antagonism by filorexant significantly improved sleep efficiency in nonelderly patients with insomnia. Dose-related improvements in sleep onset and maintenance outcomes were also observed with filorexant. PMID:26979830

  13. Test and Evaluation of MK 15 UBA Battery Duration and a MK 15 UBA Oxygen Addition Solenoid

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-10-01

    improved battery test procedures. II. EQUIPMENT DESCRIPTION A. MK 15 UBA. The MK 15 MOD 0 UBA is a closed circuit mixed gas rebreather which utilizes a...the body and adding oxygen to the inspired gas as required. Movement of recirculating gas through the circuit is normally accomplished by the natural...inhalation and exhalation action of the divers lungs. Check valves in the mouthpiece ensure a one-way flow of gas through the circuit . Carbon Dioxide

  14. Precise measurement of the top quark mass in the lepton+jets topology at CDF II

    SciTech Connect

    Abulencia, A.; Adelman, J.; Affolder, T.; Akimoto, T.; Albrow, M.G.; Amerio, S.; Amidei, D.; Anastassov, A.; Anikeev, K.; Annovi, A.; Antos, J.; /Comenius U. /Tsukuba U.

    2007-03-01

    The authors present a measurement of the mass of the top quark from proton-antiproton collisions recorded at the CDF experiment in Run II of the Fermilab Tevatron. They analyze events from the single lepton plus jets final state (t{bar t} {yields} W{sup +}bW{sup -}{bar b} {yields} lvbq{bar q}{bar b}). The top quark mass is extracted using a direct calculation of the probability density that each event corresponds to the t{bar t} final state. The probability is a function of both the mass of the top quark and the energy scale of the calorimeter jets, which is constrained in situ by the hadronic W boson mass. Using 167 events observed in 955 pb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity, they achieve the single most precise measurement of the top quark mass, 170.8 {+-} 2.2(stat.) {+-} 1.4(syst.) GeV/c{sup 2}.

  15. HH 666: different kinematics from H α and [Fe II] emission provide a missing link between jets and outflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiter, Megan; Smith, Nathan; Kiminki, Megan M.; Bally, John

    2015-06-01

    HH 666 is an externally irradiated protostellar outflow in the Carina nebula for which we present new near-IR [Fe II] spectra obtained with the Folded-Port Infrared Echellette spectrograph at Magellan Observatory. Earlier H α and near-IR [Fe II] imaging revealed that the two emission lines trace substantially different morphologies in the inner ˜40 arcsec of the outflow. H α traces a broad cocoon that surrounds the collimated [Fe II] jet that extends throughout the parent dust pillar. New spectra show that this discrepancy extends to their kinematics. Near-IR [Fe II] emission traces steady, fast velocities of ±200 km s-1 from the eastern and western limbs of the jet. We compare this to a previously published H α spectrum that reveals a Hubble-flow velocity structure near the jet-driving source. New, second-epoch Hubble Space Telescope (HST)/Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) H α images reveal the lateral spreading of the H α outflow lobe away from the jet axis. H α proper motions also indicate a sudden increase in the mass-loss rate ˜1000 yr ago, while steady [Fe II] emission throughout the inner jet suggest that the burst is ongoing. An accretion burst sustained for ˜1000 yr is an order of magnitude longer than expected for FU Orionis outbursts, but represents only a small fraction of the total age of the HH 666 outflow. Altogether, available data suggests that [Fe II] traces the highly collimated protostellar jet while H α traces the entrained and irradiated outflow. HH 666 appears to be a missing link between bare jets seen in H II regions and entrained molecular outflows seen from embedded protostars in more quiescent regions.

  16. HST/WFC3 imaging of protostellar jets in Carina: [Fe II] emission tracing massive jets from intermediate-mass protostars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiter, Megan; Smith, Nathan

    2013-08-01

    We present narrow-band Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3)-UVIS and WFC3-IR images of four externally irradiated protostellar jets in the Carina nebula: HH 666, HH 901, HH 902 and HH 1066. These massive jets are unusual because they are bathed in UV radiation from dozens of nearby O-type stars, but despite the strong incident ionizing radiation, portions of the jet remain neutral. Near-IR [Fe II] images reveal dense, neutral gas that was not seen in previous studies of Hα emission. We show that near-IR [Fe II] emitting gas must be self-shielded from Lyman continuum photons, regardless of its excitation mechanism (shocks, far-ultraviolet radiation or both). High densities are required for the survival of Fe+ amid the strong Lyman continuum luminosity from Tr14, raising estimates of the mass-loss rates by an order of magnitude. Higher jet mass-loss rates require higher accretion rates on to their driving protostars, implying that these jets are driven by intermediate-mass (˜2-8 M⊙) stars. Indeed, the IR driving sources of two of these outflows have luminosities that require intermediate-mass protostars (the other two are so deeply embedded that their luminosity is uncertain). All four of these HH jets are highly collimated, with opening angles of only a few degrees, similar to those observed in low-mass protostars. We propose that these jets reflect essentially the same outflow phenomenon seen in wide-angle molecular outflows associated with intermediate- and high-mass protostars, but that the collimated atomic jet core is irradiated and rendered observable in the harsh radiative environment of the Carina nebula. In more quiescent environments, this atomic core remains invisible, and outflows traced by shock-excited molecules in the outflow cavity give the impression that these outflows have a wider opening angle. Thus, the externally irradiated jets in Carina constitute a new view of collimated jets from intermediate-mass protostars and offer strong additional evidence

  17. A Direct Top-Quark Width Measurement from Lepton + Jets Events at CDF II

    SciTech Connect

    Aaltonen, T.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Amerio, S.; Amidei, D.; Anastassov, A.; Annovi, A.; Antos, J.; Apollinari, G.; Appel, J.A.; Apresyan, A.; Arisawa, T.; /Waseda U. /Dubna, JINR

    2010-08-01

    We present a measurement of the top-quark width using t{bar t} events produced in p{bar p} collisions at Fermilab's Tevatron collider and collected by the CDF II detector. In the mode where the top quark decays to a W boson and a bottom quark, we select events in which one W decays leptonically and the other hadronically (lepton + jets channel) . From a data sample corresponding to 4.3 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity, we identify 756 candidate events. The top-quark mass and the mass of W boson that decays hadronically are reconstructed for each event and compared with templates of different top-quark widths ({Lambda}{sub t}) and deviations from nominal jet energy scale ({Delta}{sub JES}) to perform a simultaneous fit for both parameters, where {Delta}{sub JES} is used for the in situ calibration of the jet energy scale. By applying a Feldman-Cousins approach, we establish an upper limit at 95% confidence level (CL) of {Lambda}{sub t} < 7.6 GeV and a two-sided 68% CL interval of 0.3 GeV < {Lambda}{sub t} < 4.4 GeV for a top-quark mass of 172.5 GeV/c{sup 2}, which are consistant with the standard model prediction. This is the first direct measurement of {Lambda}{sub t} to set a lower limit with 68% CL.

  18. The Estimate of Kinetic Power of Jets in FR II Radio Galaxies: Existence of Invisible Components?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Hirotaka; Kino, Motoki; Kawakatu, Nozomu; Isobe, Naoki; Yamada, Shoichi

    2008-10-01

    We investigate the total kinetic power (Lj) and age (tage) of powerful jets in FR II radio galaxies by comparison of the dynamical model of expanding cocoons with observations. We select four FR II radio sources (Cygnus A, 3C 223, 3C 284, and 3C 219), for which the mass-density profiles of the intracluster medium (ICM) are known in the literature. It is found that large fractions gtrsim0.02-0.7 of the Eddington luminosity (LEdd) are carried away as kinetic power of jets. The upper limit of estimated 2Lj/LEdd is larger than unity (lesssim10) for some sources, suggesting the possibility of super-Eddington mass accretions. As a consequence of the large powers, we also find that the total energy stored in the cocoon (Ec) exceeds the energy derived from the minimum energy condition for the energy of radiating nonthermal electrons and magnetic fields (Emin): 4 < Ec/Emin < 310. This implies that most of the energy in the cocoon is carried by invisible components such as thermal leptons (electron and positron) and/or protons.

  19. On the interaction of a sound pulse with the shear layer of an axisymmetric jet. II - Heated jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bayliss, A.; Maestrello, L.

    1983-01-01

    The fluctuating field of a heated jet excited by a sound pulse is simulated numerically. The fluctuations in both the flow field and the far field are studied. The flow field results depend crucially on the stability properties of the heated jet. The altered stability properties due to the heating cause a reduction in the overall fluctuations and a shift of the instability waves into lower frequencies. These changes cause a similar downward shift in the far field spectrum and a reduction in the total far field noise. The results provide a partial explanation in terms of stability theory of experimentally observed properties of the noise of heated jets.

  20. Stimulation of fibroblast proliferation by neokyotorphin requires Ca influx and activation of PKA, CaMK II and MAPK/ERK.

    PubMed

    Sazonova, Olga V; Blishchenko, Elena Yu; Tolmazova, Anna G; Khachin, Dmitry P; Leontiev, Konstantin V; Karelin, Andrey A; Ivanov, Vadim T

    2007-01-01

    Neokyotorphin [TSKYR, hemoglobin alpha-chain fragment (137-141)] has previously been shown to enhance fibroblast proliferation, its effect depending on cell density and serum level. Here we show the dependence of the effect of neokyotorphin on cell type and its correlation with the effect of protein kinase A (PKA) activator 8-Br-cAMP, but not the PKC activator 4beta-phorbol 12-myristate, 13-acetate (PMA). In L929 fibroblasts, the proliferative effect of neokyotorphin was suppressed by the Ca2+ L-type channel inhibitors verapamil or nifedipine, the intracellular Ca2+ chelator 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid acetoxymethyl ester, kinase inhibitors H-89 (PKA), KN-62 (Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase II) and PD98059 (mitogen-activated protein kinase). The proliferative effect of 8-Br-cAMP was also suppressed by KN-62 and PD98059. PKC suppression (downregulation with PMA or inhibition with bisindolylmaleimide XI) did not affect neokyotorphin action. The results obtained point to a cAMP-like action for neokyotorphin.

  1. Chandra Reveals Twin X-Ray Jets in the Powerful FR II Radio Galaxy 3C 353

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kataoka, J.; Stawarz, Ł.; Harris, D. E.; Siemiginowska, A.; Ostrowski, M.; Swain, M. R.; Hardcastle, M. J.; Goodger, J. L.; Iwasawa, K.; Edwards, P. G.

    2008-10-01

    We report X-ray imaging of the powerful FR II radio galaxy 3C 353 using the Chandra X-Ray Observatory. Due to 3C 353's two 4' ' wide and 2' long jets we are able to study in detail the internal structure of the large-scale relativistic outflows at both radio and X-ray photon energies with the subarcsecond spatial resolution provided by the VLA and Chandra instruments. In a 90 ks Chandra observation, we have detected X-ray emission from most radio structures in 3C 353, including the nucleus, the jet and the counterjet, the terminal jet regions (hot spots), and one radio lobe. We show that the detection of the X-ray emission associated with the radio knots and counterknots, which is most likely nonthermal in origin, puts several crucial constraints on the X-ray emission mechanisms in powerful large-scale jets of quasars and FR II sources. In particular, we show that this detection is inconsistent with the inverse-Compton model proposed in the literature and instead implies a synchrotron origin of the X-ray jet photons. We also find that the width of the X-ray counterjet is possibly narrower than that measured in radio bands, that the radio to X-ray flux ratio decreases systematically downstream along the jets, and that there are substantial (kpc-scale) offsets between the positions of the X-ray and radio intensity maxima within each knot, whose magnitudes increase away from the nucleus. We discuss all these findings in the wider context of the physics of extragalactic jets, proposing some particular although not definitive solutions or interpretations for each problem. In general, we find that the synchrotron X-ray emission of extragalactic large-scale jets is not only shaped by the global hydrodynamical configuration of the outflows, but is also likely to be very sensitive to the microscopic parameters of the jet plasma. A complete, self-consistent model for the X-ray emission of extragalactic jets still remains elusive.

  2. Chandra Reveals Twin X-ray Jets in the Powerful FR-II Radio Galaxy 3C353

    SciTech Connect

    Kataoka, J.; Stawarz, L.; Harris, D.E.; Siemiginowska, A.; Ostrowski, M.; Swain, M.R.; Hardcastle, M.J.; Goodger, J.L.; Iwasawa, K.; Edwards, P.G.

    2008-06-13

    We report X-ray imaging of the powerful FR II radio galaxy 3C 353 using the Chandra X-ray Observatory. 3C 353's two 4-inch wide and 2-feet long jets allow us to study in detail the internal structure of the large-scale relativistic outflows at both radio and X-ray photon energies with the sub-arcsecond spatial resolution provided by the VLA and Chandra instruments. In a 90 ks Chandra observation, we have detected X-ray emission from most radio structures in 3C 353, including the nucleus, the jet and the counterjet, the terminal jet regions (hotspots), and one radio lobe. We show that the detection of the X-ray emission associated with the radio knots and counterknots, which is most likely non-thermal in origin, puts several crucial constraints on the X-ray emission mechanisms in powerful large-scale jets of quasars and FR II sources. In particular, we show that this detection is inconsistent with the inverse-Compton model proposed in the literature, and instead implies a synchrotron origin of the X-ray jet photons. We also find that the width of the X-ray counterjet is possibly narrower than that measured in radio bands, that the radio-to-X-ray flux ratio decreases systematically downstream along the jets, and that there are substantial (kpc-scale) offsets between the positions of the X-ray and radio intensity maxima within each knot, whose magnitudes increase away from the nucleus. We discuss all these findings in the wider context of the physics of extragalactic jets, proposing some particular though not definitive solutions or interpretations for each problem. In general, we find that the synchrotron X-ray emission of extragalactic large-scale jets is not only shaped by the global hydrodynamical configuration of the outflows, but is also likely to be very sensitive to the microscopic parameters of the jet plasma. A complete, self-consistent model for the X-ray emission of extragalactic jets still remains elusive.

  3. Chandra Reveals Twin X-ray Jets in the Powerful FR II Radio Galaxy 3C 353

    SciTech Connect

    Kataoka, Jun

    2008-12-24

    We report X-ray imaging of the powerful FR II radio galaxy 3C 353 using the Chandra X-ray Observatory. 3C 353's two 4''-wide and 2'-long jets allow us to study in detail the internal structure of the large-scale relativistic outflows at both radio and X-ray photon energies with the sub-arcsecond spatial resolution provided by the VLA and Chandra instruments. In a 90 ks Chandra observation, we have detected X-ray emission from most radio structures in 3C 353, including the nucleus, the jet and the counterjet, the terminal jet regions (hotspots), and one radio lobe. We show that the detection of the X-ray emission associated with the radio knots and counterknots, which is most likely non-thermal in origin, puts several crucial constraints on the X-ray emission mechanisms in powerful large-scale jets of quasars and FR II sources. In particular, we show that this detection is inconsistent with the inverse-Compton model proposed in the literature, and instead implies a synchrotron origin of the X-ray jet photons. We also find that the width of the X-ray counterjet is possibly narrower than that measured in radio bands, that the radio-to-X-ray flux ratio decreases systematically downstream along the jets, and that there are substantial (kpc-scale) offsets between the positions of the X-ray and radio intensity maxima within each knot, whose magnitudes increase away from the nucleus. We discuss all these findings in the wider context of the physics of extragalactic jets, proposing some particular though not definitive solutions or interpretations for each problem. In general, we find that the synchrotron X-ray emission of extragalactic large-scale jets is not only shaped by the global hydrodynamical configuration of the outflows, but is also likely to be very sensitive to the microscopic parameters of the jet plasma. A complete, self-consistent model for the X-ray emission of extragalactic jets still remains elusive.

  4. Solar X-ray Jets, Type-II Spicules, Granule-size Emerging Bipoles, and the Genesis of the Heliosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Ronald L.; Sterling, Alphonse C.; Cirtain, Jonathan W.; Falconer, David A.

    2011-04-01

    From Hinode observations of solar X-ray jets, Type-II spicules, and granule-size emerging bipolar magnetic fields in quiet regions and coronal holes, we advocate a scenario for powering coronal heating and the solar wind. In this scenario, Type-II spicules and Alfvén waves are generated by the granule-size emerging bipoles (EBs) in the manner of the generation of X-ray jets by larger magnetic bipoles. From observations and this scenario, we estimate that Type-II spicules and their co-generated Alfvén waves carry into the corona an area-average flux of mechanical energy of ~7 × 105 erg cm-2 s-1. This is enough to power the corona and solar wind in quiet regions and coronal holes, and therefore indicates that the granule-size EBs are the main engines that generate and sustain the entire heliosphere.

  5. A model for straight and helical solar jets. II. Parametric study of the plasma beta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pariat, E.; Dalmasse, K.; DeVore, C. R.; Antiochos, S. K.; Karpen, J. T.

    2016-11-01

    Context. Jets are dynamic, impulsive, well-collimated plasma events that develop at many different scales and in different layers of the solar atmosphere. Aims: Jets are believed to be induced by magnetic reconnection, a process central to many astrophysical phenomena. Within the solar atmosphere, jet-like events develop in many different environments, e.g., in the vicinity of active regions, as well as in coronal holes, and at various scales, from small photospheric spicules to large coronal jets. In all these events, signatures of helical structure and/or twisting/rotating motions are regularly observed. We aim to establish that a single model can generally reproduce the observed properties of these jet-like events. Methods: Using our state-of-the-art numerical solver ARMS, we present a parametric study of a numerical tridimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model of solar jet-like events. Within the MHD paradigm, we study the impact of varying the atmospheric plasma β on the generation and properties of solar-like jets. Results: The parametric study validates our model of jets for plasma β ranging from 10-3 to 1, typical of the different layers and magnetic environments of the solar atmosphere. Our model of jets can robustly explain the generation of helical solar jet-like events at various β ≤ 1. We introduces the new result that the plasma β modifies the morphology of the helical jet, explaining the different observed shapes of jets at different scales and in different layers of the solar atmosphere. Conclusions: Our results enable us to understand the energisation, triggering, and driving processes of jet-like events. Our model enables us to make predictions of the impulsiveness and energetics of jets as determined by the surrounding environment, as well as the morphological properties of the resulting jets.

  6. The First measurement of the top quark mass at CDF II in the lepton+jets and dilepton channels simultaneously

    SciTech Connect

    Aaltonen, T.; Adelman, J.; Akimoto, T.; Albrow, Michael G.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Amerio, S.; Amidei, Dante E.; Anastassov, A.; Annovi, Alberto; Antos, J.; Apollinari, G.; /Fermilab /Purdue U.

    2008-09-01

    The authors present a measurement of the mass of the top quark using data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 1.9 fb{sup -1} of p{bar p} collisions collected at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV with the CDF II detector at Fermilab's Tevatron. This is the first measurement of the top quark mass using top-antitop pair candidate events in the lepton + jets and dilepton decay channels simultaneously. They reconstruct two observables in each channel and use a non-parametric kernel density estimation technique to derive two-dimensional probability density functions from simulated signal and background samples. The observables are the top quark mass and the invariant mass of two jets from the W decay in the lepton + jets channel, and the top quark mass and the scalar sum of transverse energy of the event in the diletpon channel. They perform a simultaneous fit for the top quark mass and the jet energy scale, which is constrained in situ by the hadronic W boson mass. using 332 lepton + jets candidate events and 144 diletpon candidate events, they measure the top quark mass to be m{sub top} = 171.9 {+-} 1.7 (stat. + JES) {+-} 1.1 (other sys.) GeV/c{sup 2} = 171.9 {+-} 2.0 GeV/c{sup 2}.

  7. Measurement of the W Plus N Inclusive Jets Cross-Section at CDF Run II

    SciTech Connect

    Stentz, Dale James

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis we present the study of the production of the W boson in association with hadronic jets at the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF). Along with the electroweak properties the W boson, we examine jet kinematic variables with the aim of studying predictions of perturbative quantum chromodynamics. We derive several di erential crosssections as a function of the inclusive jet multiplicity and the transverse momenta of each jet. In this analysis, we are using 2.8 fb-1 of data and consider both the electron and muon lepton nal states for the W boson decay.

  8. Antidepressant Effects of (+)-MK-801 and (-)-MK-801 in the Social Defeat Stress Model

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Bangkun; Ren, Qian; Ma, Min; Chen, Qian-Xue

    2016-01-01

    Background: Current data on antidepressant action of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist, (+)-MK-801, is inconsistent. This study was conducted to examine the effects of (+)-MK-801 and its less potent stereoisomer, (-)-MK-801, in the social defeat stress model of depression. Methods: The antidepressant effects of (+)-MK-801 (0.1mg/kg) and (-)-MK-801 (0.1mg/kg) in the social defeat stress model were examined. Results: In the tail suspension and forced swimming tests, both stereoisomers significantly attenuated increased immobility time in susceptible mice. In the sucrose preference test, (+)-MK-801, but not (-)-MK-801, significantly enhanced reduced sucrose consumption 2 or 4 days after a single dose. However, no antianhedonia effects were detected 7 days after a single dose of either stereoisomer. Conclusions: Both stereoisomers of MK-801 induced rapid antidepressant effects in the social defeat stress model, although neither produced a long-lasting effect (7 days). PMID:27608811

  9. PAGaN II: The Evolution of AGN Jets on Sub-Parsec Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Junghwan; Trippe, Sascha; Kang, Sincheol; Kim, Jae-Young; Park, Jong-Ho; Lee, Taeseok; Kim, Daewon; Kino, Motoki; Lee, Sang-Sung; Sohn, Bong Won

    2015-10-01

    We report first results from KVN and VERA Array (KaVA) VLBI observations obtained in the frame of our Plasma-physics of Active Galactic Nuclei (PAGaN) project. We observed eight selected AGN at 22 and 43 GHz in single polarization (LCP) between March 2014 and April 2015. Each source was observed for 6 to 8 hours per observing run to maximize the uv coverage. We obtained a total of 15 deep high-resolution images permitting the identification of individual circular Gaussian jet components and three spectral index maps of BL Lac, 3C~111 and 3C~345 from simultaneous dual-frequency observations. The spectral index maps show trends in agreement with general expectations -- flat core and steep jets -- while the actual value of the spectral index for jets shows indications for a dependence on AGN type. We analyzed the kinematics of jet components of BL Lac and 3C~111, detecting superluminal proper motions with maximum apparent speeds of about 5c. This constrains the lower limits of the intrinsic component velocities to ˜0.98c and the upper limits of the angle between jet and line of sight to ˜20°. In agreement with global jet expansion, jet components show systematically larger diameters d at larger core distances r, following the global relation d≈0.2r, albeit within substantial scatter.

  10. Stability of hydrodynamical relativistic planar jets. II. Long-term nonlinear evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perucho, M.; Martí, J. M.; Hanasz, M.

    2004-11-01

    In this paper we continue our study of the Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) instability in relativistic planar jets following the long-term evolution of the numerical simulations which were introduced in Paper I. The models have been classified into four classes (I to IV) with regard to their evolution in the nonlinear phase, characterized by the process of jet/ambient mixing and momentum transfer. Models undergoing qualitatively different non-linear evolution are clearly grouped in well-separated regions in a jet Lorentz factor/jet-to-ambient enthalpy diagram. Jets with a low Lorentz factor and small enthalpy ratio are disrupted by a strong shock after saturation. Those with a large Lorentz factor and enthalpy ratio are unstable although the process of mixing and momentum exchange proceeds to a longer time scale due to a steady conversion of kinetic to internal energy in the jet. In these cases, the high value of the initial Lorentz seems to prevent transversal velocity from growing far enough to generate the strong shock that breaks the slower jets. Finally, jets with either high Lorentz factors and small enthalpy ratios or low Lorentz factors and large enthalpy ratios appear as the most stable. In the long term, all the models develop a distinct transversal structure (shear/transition layers) as a consequence of KH perturbation growth. The properties of these shear layers are analyzed in connection with the parameters of the original jet models. Appendix A is only available in electronic form at http://www.edpsciences.org

  11. Development of a technique for inflight jet noise simulation. I, II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clapper, W. S.; Stringas, E. J.; Mani, R.; Banerian, G.

    1976-01-01

    Several possible noise simulation techniques were evaluated, including closed circuit wind tunnels, free jets, rocket sleds and high speed trains. The free jet technique was selected for demonstration and verification. The first paper describes the selection and development of the technique and presents results for simulation and in-flight tests of the Learjet, F106, and Bertin Aerotrain. The second presents a theoretical study relating the two sets of noise signatures. It is concluded that the free jet simulation technique provides a satisfactory assessment of in-flight noise.

  12. Development of a technique for inflight jet noise simulation. I, II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clapper, W. S.; Stringas, E. J.; Mani, R.; Banerian, G.

    1976-01-01

    Several possible noise simulation techniques were evaluated, including closed circuit wind tunnels, free jets, rocket sleds and high speed trains. The free jet technique was selected for demonstration and verification. The first paper describes the selection and development of the technique and presents results for simulation and in-flight tests of the Learjet, F106, and Bertin Aerotrain. The second presents a theoretical study relating the two sets of noise signatures. It is concluded that the free jet simulation technique provides a satisfactory assessment of in-flight noise.

  13. Precise measurement of the top-quark mass in the lepton+jets topology at CDF II.

    PubMed

    Aaltonen, T; Abulencia, A; Adelman, J; Affolder, T; Akimoto, T; Albrow, M G; Amerio, S; Amidei, D; Anastassov, A; Anikeev, K; Annovi, A; Antos, J; Aoki, M; Apollinari, G; Arisawa, T; Artikov, A; Ashmanskas, W; Attal, A; Aurisano, A; Azfar, F; Azzi-Bacchetta, P; Azzurri, P; Bacchetta, N; Badgett, W; Barbaro-Galtieri, A; Barnes, V E; Barnett, B A; Baroiant, S; Bartsch, V; Bauer, G; Beauchemin, P-H; Bedeschi, F; Behari, S; Bellettini, G; Bellinger, J; Belloni, A; Benjamin, D; Beretvas, A; Beringer, J; Berry, T; Bhatti, A; Binkley, M; Bisello, D; Bizjak, I; Blair, R E; Blocker, C; Blumenfeld, B; Bocci, A; Bodek, A; Boisvert, V; Bolla, G; Bolshov, A; Bortoletto, D; Boudreau, J; Boveia, A; Brau, B; Brigliadori, L; Bromberg, C; Brubaker, E; Budagov, J; Budd, H S; Budd, S; Burkett, K; Busetto, G; Bussey, P; Buzatu, A; Byrum, K L; Cabrera, S; Campanelli, M; Campbell, M; Canelli, F; Canepa, A; Carrillo, S; Carlsmith, D; Carosi, R; Carron, S; Casal, B; Casarsa, M; Castro, A; Catastini, P; Cauz, D; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Chang, S H; Chen, Y C; Chertok, M; Chiarelli, G; Chlachidze, G; Chlebana, F; Cho, I; Cho, K; Chokheli, D; Chou, J P; Choudalakis, G; Chuang, S H; Chung, K; Chung, W H; Chung, Y S; Cilijak, M; Ciobanu, C I; Ciocci, M A; Clark, A; Clark, D; Coca, M; Compostella, G; Convery, M E; Conway, J; Cooper, B; Copic, K; Cordelli, M; Cortiana, G; Crescioli, F; Cuenca Almenar, C; Cuevas, J; Culbertson, R; Cully, J C; DaRonco, S; Datta, M; D'Auria, S; Davies, T; Dagenhart, D; de Barbaro, P; De Cecco, S; Deisher, A; De Lentdecker, G; De Lorenzo, G; Dell'Orso, M; Delli Paoli, F; Demortier, L; Deng, J; Deninno, M; De Pedis, D; Derwent, P F; Di Giovanni, G P; Dionisi, C; Di Ruzza, B; Dittmann, J R; D'Onofrio, M; Dörr, C; Donati, S; Dong, P; Donini, J; Dorigo, T; Dube, S; Efron, J; Erbacher, R; Errede, D; Errede, S; Eusebi, R; Fang, H C; Farrington, S; Fedorko, I; Fedorko, W T; Feild, R G; Feindt, M; Fernandez, J P; Field, R; Flanagan, G; Forrest, R; Forrester, S; Franklin, M; Freeman, J C; Furic, I; Gallinaro, M; Galyardt, J; Garcia, J E; Garberson, F; Garfinkel, A F; Gay, C; Gerberich, H; Gerdes, D; Giagu, S; Giannetti, P; Gibson, K; Gimmell, J L; Ginsburg, C; Giokaris, N; Giordani, M; Giromini, P; Giunta, M; Giurgiu, G; Glagolev, V; Glenzinski, D; Gold, M; Goldschmidt, N; Goldstein, J; Golossanov, A; Gomez, G; Gomez-Ceballos, G; Goncharov, M; González, O; Gorelov, I; Goshaw, A T; Goulianos, K; Gresele, A; Grinstein, S; Grosso-Pilcher, C; Group, R C; Grundler, U; Guimaraes da Costa, J; Gunay-Unalan, Z; Haber, C; Hahn, K; Hahn, S R; Halkiadakis, E; Hamilton, A; Han, B-Y; Han, J Y; Handler, R; Happacher, F; Hara, K; Hare, D; Hare, M; Harper, S; Harr, R F; Harris, R M; Hartz, M; Hatakeyama, K; Hauser, J; Hays, C; Heck, M; Heijboer, A; Heinemann, B; Heinrich, J; Henderson, C; Herndon, M; Heuser, J; Hidas, D; Hill, C S; Hirschbuehl, D; Hocker, A; Holloway, A; Hou, S; Houlden, M; Hsu, S-C; Huffman, B T; Hughes, R E; Husemann, U; Huston, J; Incandela, J; Introzzi, G; Iori, M; Ivanov, A; Iyutin, B; James, E; Jang, D; Jayatilaka, B; Jeans, D; Jeon, E J; Jindariani, S; Johnson, W; Jones, M; Joo, K K; Jun, S Y; Jung, J E; Junk, T R; Kamon, T; Karchin, P E; Kato, Y; Kemp, Y; Kephart, R; Kerzel, U; Khotilovich, V; Kilminster, B; Kim, D H; Kim, H S; Kim, J E; Kim, M J; Kim, S B; Kim, S H; Kim, Y K; Kimura, N; Kirsch, L; Klimenko, S; Klute, M; Knuteson, B; Ko, B R; Kondo, K; Kong, D J; Konigsberg, J; Korytov, A; Kotwal, A V; Kraan, A C; Kraus, J; Kreps, M; Kroll, J; Krumnack, N; Kruse, M; Krutelyov, V; Kubo, T; Kuhlmann, S E; Kuhr, T; Kulkarni, N P; Kusakabe, Y; Kwang, S; Laasanen, A T; Lai, S; Lami, S; Lammel, S; Lancaster, M; Lander, R L; Lannon, K; Lath, A; Latino, G; Lazzizzera, I; LeCompte, T; Lee, J; Lee, J; Lee, Y J; Lee, S W; Lefèvre, R; Leonardo, N; Leone, S; Levy, S; Lewis, J D; Lin, C; Lin, C S; Lindgren, M; Lipeles, E; Lister, A; Litvintsev, D O; Liu, T; Lockyer, N S; Loginov, A; Loreti, M; Lu, R-S; Lucchesi, D; Lujan, P; Lukens, P; Lungu, G; Lyons, L; Lys, J; Lysak, R; Lytken, E; Mack, P; MacQueen, D; Madrak, R; Maeshima, K; Makhoul, K; Maki, T; Maksimovic, P; Malde, S; Malik, S; Manca, G; Manousakis, A; Margaroli, F; Marginean, R; Marino, C; Marino, C P; Martin, A; Martin, M; Martin, V; Martínez, M; Martínez-Ballarín, R; Maruyama, T; Mastrandrea, P; Masubuchi, T; Matsunaga, H; Mattson, M E; Mazini, R; Mazzanti, P; McFarland, K S; McIntyre, P; McNulty, R; Mehta, A; Mehtala, P; Menzemer, S; Menzione, A; Merkel, P; Mesropian, C; Messina, A; Miao, T; Miladinovic, N; Miles, J; Miller, R; Mills, C; Milnik, M; Mitra, A; Mitselmakher, G; Miyamoto, A; Moed, S; Moggi, N; Mohr, B; Moon, C S; Moore, R; Morello, M; Movilla Fernandez, P; Mülmenstädt, J; Mukherjee, A; Muller, Th; Mumford, R; Murat, P; Mussini, M; Nachtman, J; Nagano, A; Naganoma, J; Nakamura, K; Nakano, I; Napier, A; Necula, V; Neu, C; Neubauer, M S; Nielsen, J; Nodulman, L; Norniella, O; Nurse, E; Oh, S H; Oh, Y D; Oksuzian, I; Okusawa, T; Oldeman, R; Orava, R; Osterberg, K; Pagliarone, C; Palencia, E; Papadimitriou, V; Papaikonomou, A; Paramonov, A A; Parks, B; Pashapour, S; Patrick, J; Pauletta, G; Paulini, M; Paus, C; Pellett, D E; Penzo, A; Phillips, T J; Piacentino, G; Piedra, J; Pinera, L; Pitts, K; Plager, C; Pondrom, L; Portell, X; Poukhov, O; Pounder, N; Prakoshyn, F; Pronko, A; Proudfoot, J; Ptohos, F; Punzi, G; Pursley, J; Rademacker, J; Rahaman, A; Ramakrishnan, V; Ranjan, N; Redondo, I; Reisert, B; Rekovic, V; Renton, P; Rescigno, M; Richter, S; Rimondi, F; Ristori, L; Robson, A; Rodrigo, T; Rogers, E; Rolli, S; Roser, R; Rossi, M; Rossin, R; Roy, P; Ruiz, A; Russ, J; Rusu, V; Saarikko, H; Safonov, A; Sakumoto, W K; Salamanna, G; Saltó, O; Santi, L; Sarkar, S; Sartori, L; Sato, K; Savard, P; Savoy-Navarro, A; Scheidle, T; Schlabach, P; Schmidt, E E; Schmidt, M P; Schmitt, M; Schwarz, T; Scodellaro, L; Scott, A L; Scribano, A; Scuri, F; Sedov, A; Seidel, S; Seiya, Y; Semenov, A; Sexton-Kennedy, L; Sfyrla, A; Shalhout, S Z; Shapiro, M D; Shears, T; Shepard, P F; Sherman, D; Shimojima, M; Shochet, M; Shon, Y; Shreyber, I; Sidoti, A; Sinervo, P; Sisakyan, A; Slaughter, A J; Slaunwhite, J; Sliwa, K; Smith, J R; Snider, F D; Snihur, R; Soderberg, M; Soha, A; Somalwar, S; Sorin, V; Spalding, J; Spinella, F; Spreitzer, T; Squillacioti, P; Stanitzki, M; Staveris-Polykalas, A; St Denis, R; Stelzer, B; Stelzer-Chilton, O; Stentz, D; Strologas, J; Stuart, D; Suh, J S; Sukhanov, A; Sun, H; Suslov, I; Suzuki, T; Taffard, A; Takashima, R; Takeuchi, Y; Tanaka, R; Tecchio, M; Teng, P K; Terashi, K; Thom, J; Thompson, A S; Thomson, E; Tipton, P; Tiwari, V; Tkaczyk, S; Toback, D; Tokar, S; Tollefson, K; Tomura, T; Tonelli, D; Torre, S; Torretta, D; Tourneur, S; Trischuk, W; Tsuno, S; Tu, Y; Turini, N; Ukegawa, F; Uozumi, S; Vallecorsa, S; van Remortel, N; Varganov, A; Vataga, E; Vazquez, F; Velev, G; Vellidis, C; Veramendi, G; Veszpremi, V; Vidal, M; Vidal, R; Vila, I; Vilar, R; Vine, T; Vogel, M; Vollrath, I; Volobouev, I; Volpi, G; Würthwein, F; Wagner, P; Wagner, R G; Wagner, R L; Wagner, J; Wagner, W; Wallny, R; Wang, S M; Warburton, A; Waters, D; Weinberger, M; Wester, W C; Whitehouse, B; Whiteson, D; Wicklund, A B; Wicklund, E; Williams, G; Williams, H H; Wilson, P; Winer, B L; Wittich, P; Wolbers, S; Wolfe, C; Wright, T; Wu, X; Wynne, S M; Yagil, A; Yamamoto, K; Yamaoka, J; Yamashita, T; Yang, C; Yang, U K; Yang, Y C; Yao, W M; Yeh, G P; Yoh, J; Yorita, K; Yoshida, T; Yu, G B; Yu, I; Yu, S S; Yun, J C; Zanello, L; Zanetti, A; Zaw, I; Zhang, X; Zhou, J; Zucchelli, S

    2007-11-02

    We present a measurement of the mass of the top quark from proton-antiproton collisions recorded at the CDF experiment in Run II of the Fermilab Tevatron. We analyze events from the single lepton plus jets final state (tt-->W(+)bW(-)b-->lnubqq'b). The top-quark mass is extracted using a direct calculation of the probability density that each event corresponds to the tt final state. The probability is a function of both the mass of the top quark and the energy scale of the calorimeter jets, which is constrained in situ by the hadronic W boson mass. Using 167 events observed in 955 pb(-1) of integrated luminosity, we achieve the single most precise measurement of the top-quark mass, 170.8+/-2.2(stat.)+/-1.4(syst.) GeV/c(2).

  14. A small deletion hotspot in the type II keratin gene mK6irs1/Krt2-6g on mouse chromosome 15, a candidate for causing the wavy hair of the caracul (Ca) mutation.

    PubMed Central

    Kikkawa, Yoshiaki; Oyama, Ayumi; Ishii, Rie; Miura, Ikuo; Amano, Takashi; Ishii, Yoshiyuki; Yoshikawa, Yasuhiro; Masuya, Hiroshi; Wakana, Shigeharu; Shiroishi, Toshihiko; Taya, Choji; Yonekawa, Hiromichi

    2003-01-01

    A new mutation has arisen in a colony of mice transgenic for human alpha-galactosidase. The mutation is independent of the transgenic insertion, autosomal dominant, and morphologically very similar to the classical wavy coat mutation, caracul (Ca), on chromosome 15. Therefore, we designated this locus the caracul Rinshoken (Ca(Rin)). Applying a positional cloning approach, we identified the mK6irs1/Krt2-6g gene as a strong candidate for Ca(Rin) because among five Ca alleles examined mutations always occurred in the highly conserved positions of the alpha-helical rod domain (1A and 2B subdomain) of this putative gene product. The most striking finding is that four independently discovered alleles, the three preexistent alleles Ca(J), Ca(9J), Ca(10J), and our allele Ca(Rin), all share one identical amino acid deletion (N 140 del) and the fifth, Ca(medJ), has an amino acid substitution (A 431 D). These findings indicate that a mutation hotspot exists in the Ca locus. Additionally, we describe a Ca mutant allele induced by ENU mutagenesis, which also possesses an amino acid substitution (L 424 W) in the mK6irs1/Krt2-6g gene. The identification of the Ca candidate gene enables us to further define the nature of the genetic pathway required for hair formation and provides an important new candidate that may be implicated in human hair and skin diseases. PMID:14573483

  15. A 20mK temperature sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, N.; Sadoulet, B.; Shutt, T.; Beeman, J.; Haller, E.E.; Lange, A.; Park, I.; Ross, R.; Stanton, C.; Steiner, H.

    1987-11-01

    We are developing a 20mK temperature sensor made of neutron transmutation doped (NTD) germanium for use as a phonon detector in a dark matter search. We find that NTD germanium thermistors around 20mK have resistances which are a strong function of temperature, and have sufficient sensitivity to eventually reach a base line rms energy fluctuation of 6eV at 25mK. Further work is needed to understand the extreme sensitivity of the thermistors to bias power. 13 refs., 18 figs.

  16. Turbulence measurements in the vicinity of a strong polar jet during POLSTRACC/GWLCYCLE II/SALSA, 2016

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bramberger, Martina; Dörnbrack, Andreas; Rapp, Markus; Gemsa, Steffen; Raynor, Kevin

    2017-04-01

    In January 2016, the combined POLar STRAtosphere in a Changing Climate (POLSTRACC), Investigation of the life cycle of gravity waves (GW-LCYCLE) II and Seasonality of Air mass transport and origin in the Lowermost Stratosphere (SALSA) campaign, shortly abbreviated as PGS, took place in Kiruna, Sweden. During this campaign, on 31 January 2016, a strong polar jet with horizontal wind speeds up to 100 m/s was located above northern Great Britain. The research flight PGS12 lead the High Altitude LOng range (HALO) aircraft right above the jet streak of this polar jet, a region which is known from theoretical studies for prevalent turbulence. Here, we present a case study in which high-resolution in-situ aircraft measurements are employed to analyse and quantify turbulence in the described region with parameters such as e.g. turbulent kinetic energy and the eddy dissipation rate. This analysis is supported by idealized numerical simulations to determine involved processes for the generation of turbulence. Complementing, forecasts and operational analyses of the integrated forecast system (IFS) of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) are used to thoroughly analyze the meteorological situation.

  17. Near Noise Field of a Jet-engine Exhaust II : Cross Correlation of Sound Pressures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callaghan, Edmund E; Howes, Walton L; Coles, Willard D

    1956-01-01

    Pressure cross correlations were obtained over a range of jet velocities both longitudinally and laterally for the overall sound pressure and for several frequency bands. The region of positive correlation was found to increase with distance downstream of the nozzle exit and was greater for lateral than for longitudinal correlations. In general, little change in the correlation curves was found as a function of jet velocity or frequency band width. Measurements made with a fixed and a movable microphone in a plate showed correlations similar to the free-field results. The results are interpreted in terms of pressure loads on surfaces.

  18. On the acceleration and deceleration of relativistic jets in active galactic nuclei - II. Mass loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nokhrina, E. E.; Beskin, V. S.

    2017-08-01

    The effect of mass loading of the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flow in relativistic jets from active galactic nuclei (AGNs) due to γγ → e+e- conversion is considered analytically. We argue that the effects of charge average separation due to specific initial pairs' motion lead to partial magnetic and electric field screening or enhancement. The effect of the field screening has not been considered earlier. The pairs with the centre of mass moving faster or slower than the bulk plasma flow create a surface charge and a current that either screen or enhance both electric and magnetic fields in a pair creation domain. This impacts the bulk flow motion, which either accelerates or decelerates. The pairs with the centre of mass moving with exactly the drift velocity do not induce the field disturbance. In this case, the flow decelerates due to pure mass loading. For these different cases, the Lorentz factor of the loaded outflow is calculated as a function of loading pair number density. The effect may be important on sub-parsec to parsec scales due to the conversion of TeV jet radiation on the soft infrared to the ultraviolet external isotropic photon field. This leads to a jet outer shell acceleration. The conversion of MeV jet radiation on larger scales may account for the flow deceleration due to pure mass loading. The proposed mechanism may be a source of internal shocks and instabilities in the pair creation region.

  19. Synchrotron and inverse-Compton emission from blazar jets - II. An accelerating jet model with a geometry set by observations of M87

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potter, William J.; Cotter, Garret

    2013-02-01

    In this paper we develop the jet model of Potter & Cotter to include a magnetically dominated accelerating parabolic base transitioning to a slowly decelerating conical jet with a geometry set by recent radio observations of M87. We conserve relativistic energy-momentum and particle number along the jet and calculate the observed synchrotron emission from the jet by calculating the integrated line-of-sight synchrotron opacity through the jet in the rest frame of each section of plasma. We calculate the inverse-Compton emission from synchrotron, cosmic microwave background (CMB), accretion disc, starlight, broad-line region (BLR), dusty torus and narrow-line region photons by transforming into the rest frame of the plasma along the jet. We fit our model to simultaneous multi-wavelength observations of the Compton-dominant FSRQ type blazar PKS 0227-369, with a jet geometry set by M87 and an accelerating bulk Lorentz factor consistent with simulations and theory. We investigate models in which the jet comes into equipartition at different distances along the jet and equipartition is maintained via the conversion of jet bulk kinetic energy into particle acceleration. We find that the jet must still be magnetically dominated within the BLR and cannot be in equipartition due to the severe radiative energy losses. The model fits the observations, including radio data, very well if the jet comes into equipartition outside the BLR within the dusty torus (1.5 pc) or at further distances (34 pc). The fits require a high-power jet with a large bulk Lorentz factor observed close to the line of sight, consistent with our expectations for a Compton-dominant blazar. We find that our fit in which the jet comes into equipartition furthest along the jet, which has a jet with the geometry of M87 scaled linearly with black hole mass, has an inferred black hole mass close to previous estimates. This implies that the jet of PKS 0227 might be well described by the same jet geometry as M87.

  20. The Chk1 inhibitor MK-8776 increases the radiosensitivity of human triple-negative breast cancer by inhibiting autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Zhi-rui; Yang, Zhao-zhi; Wang, Shao-jia; Zhang, Li; Luo, Ju-rui; Feng, Yan; Yu, Xiao-li; Chen, Xing-xing; Guo, Xiao-mao

    2017-01-01

    MK-8776 is a recently described inhibitor that is highly selective for checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1), which can weaken the DNA repair capacity in cancer cells to achieve chemo-sensitization. A number of studies show that MK-8776 enhances the cytotoxicity of hydroxyurea and gemcitabine without increasing normal tissue toxicities. Thus far, there is no evidence that MK-8776 can be used as a radiotherapy sensitization agent. In this study, we investigated the effects of MK-8776 on the radiosensitivity of 3 human triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cell lines MDA-MB-231, BT-549 and CAL-51. MK-8776 dose-dependently inhibited the proliferation of MDA-MB-231, BT-549 and CAL-51 cells with IC50 values of 9.4, 17.6 and 2.1 μmol/L, respectively. Compared with irradiation-alone treatment, pretreatment with a low dose of MK-8776 (100–400 nmol/L) significantly increased irradiation-induced γH2A.X foci in the 3 TNBC cell lines, suggesting enhanced DNA damage by MK-8776, inhibited the cell proliferation and increased the radiosensitivity of the 3 TNBC cell lines. Similar results were obtained in MDA-MB-231 xenograft tumors in nude mice that received MK-8776 (15 or 40 mg/kg, ip) 26 d after irradiation. To explore the mechanisms underlying the radio-sensitization by MK-8776, we used TEM and found that irradiation significantly increased the numbers of autophagosomes in the 3 TNBC cell lines. Moreover, irradiation markedly elevated the levels of Atg5, and promoted the transformation of LC3-I to LC3-II in the cells. Pretreatment with the low dose of MK-8776 suppressed these effects. The above results suggest that MK-8776 increases human TNBC radiosensitivity by inhibiting irradiation-induced autophagy and that MK-8776 may be a potential agent in the radiosensitization of human TNBC. PMID:28042876

  1. Development and testing of a high-pressure downhole pump for jet-assist drilling. Topical report, Phase II

    SciTech Connect

    1997-10-01

    The goal of jet-assisted drilling is to increase the rate of penetration (ROP) in deeper gas and oil wells, where the rocks become harder and more difficult to drill. Increasing the ROP can result in fewer drilling days, and therefore, lower drilling cost. In late 1993, FlowDril and the Gas Research Institute (GRI) began a three-year development of a down hole pump (DHP{reg_sign}) capable of producing 30,000 psi out pressure to provide the high-pressure flow for high-pressure jet-assist of the drill bit. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) through its Morgantown, WV (DOE-Morgantown) field office, joined with GRI and FlowDril to develop and test a second prototype designed for drilling in 7-7/8 inch holes. This project, {open_quotes}Development and Testing of a High-Pressure Down Hole Pump for Jet-Assist Drilling,{close_quotes} is for the development and testing of the second prototype. It was planned in two phases. Phase I included an update of a market analysis, a design, fabrication, and an initial laboratory test of the second prototype. Phase II is continued iterative laboratory and field developmental testing. This report summarizes the results of Phase II. In the downhole pump approach shown in the following figure, conventional drill pipe and drill collars are used, with the DHP as the last component of the bottom hole assembly next to the bit. The DHP is a reciprocating double ended, intensifier style positive displacement, high-pressure pump. The drive fluid and the high-pressure output fluid are both derived from the same source, the abrasive drilling mud pumped downhole through the drill string. Approximately seven percent of the stream is pressurized to 30,000 psi and directed through a high-pressure nozzle on the drill bit to produce the high speed jet and assist the mechanical action of the bit to make it drill faster.

  2. Studies of the Jet in Bl Lacertae. II. Superluminal Alfvén Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, M. H.; Meier, D. L.; Arshakian, T. G.; Clausen-Brown, E.; Homan, D. C.; Hovatta, T.; Kovalev, Y. Y.; Lister, M. L.; Pushkarev, A. B.; Richards, J. L.; Savolainen, T.

    2015-04-01

    We study the kinematics of ridge lines on the parsec-scale jet of the active galactic nucleus BL Lacertae. We show that the ridge lines display transverse patterns that move superluminally downstream, and that the moving patterns are analogous to waves on a whip. Their apparent speeds β app (units of c) range from 3.9 to 13.5, corresponding to {β }{wave}{gal}=0.981-0.998 in the galaxy frame. We show that the magnetic field in the jet is well ordered with a strong transverse component, and assume that it is helical and that the transverse patterns are Alfvén waves propagating downstream on the longitudinal component of the magnetic field. The wave-induced transverse speed of the jet is non-relativistic ({β }{tr}{gal}≲ 0.09). In 2010 the wave activity subsided and the jet then displayed a mild wiggle that had a complex oscillatory behavior. The Alfvén waves appear to be excited by changes in the position angle of the recollimation shock, in analogy to exciting a wave on a whip by shaking the handle. A simple model of the system with plasma sound speed β s = 0.3 and apparent speed of a slow MHD wave β app, S = 4 yields Lorentz factor of the beam Γbeam ∼ 4.5, pitch angle of the helix (in the beam frame) α ∼ 67°, Alfvén speed β A ∼ 0.64, and magnetosonic Mach number M ms ∼ 4.7. This describes a plasma in which the magnetic field is dominant and in a rather tight helix, and Alfvén waves are responsible for the moving transverse patterns.

  3. Altitude-chamber performance of British Rolls-Royce Nene II engine III : 18.00-inch-diameter jet nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grey, Ralph E; Brightwell, Virginia L; Barson, Zelmar; NACA

    1950-01-01

    An altitude-chamber investigation of British Rolls-Royce Nene II turbojet engine was conducted over range of altitudes from sea level to 65,000 feet and ram pressure ratios from 1.10 to 3.50, using an 18.00-inch-diameter jet nozzle. The 18.00-inch-diameter jet nozzle gave slightly lower values of net-thrust specific fuel consumption than either the 18.41- or the standard 18.75-inch-diameter jet nozzles at high flight speeds. At low flight speeds, the 18.41-inch-diameter jet nozzle gave the lowest value of net-thrust specific fuel consumption.

  4. The 5-6 December 1991 FIRE IFO II jet stream cirrus case study: Possible influences of Volcanic Aerosols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sassen, Kenneth; Starr, David O'C.; Mace, Gerald G.; Poellot, Michael R.; Melfi, S. H.; Eberhard, Wynn L.; Spinhirne, James D.; Eloranta, E. W.; Hagen, Donald E.; Hallett, John

    1995-01-01

    In presenting an overview of the cirus clouds comprehensively studied by ground-based and airborne sensors from Coffeyville, Kansas, during the 5-6 December 1992 Project First ISCCP Region Experiment (FIRE) Intensive Fields Observation (IFO) II case study period, evidence is provided that volcanic aerosols friom the June 1991 Pinatubo eruptions may have significantly influenced the formation and maintenance of the cirrus. Following the local appearance of a spur of stratospheric volcanic debris from the subtropics, a series of jet streaks subsequently conditioned the troposphere through tropopause foldings with sulfur-based particles that became effective cloud-forming nuclei in cirrus clouds. Aerosol and ozone measurements suggest a complicated history of stratospheric-tropospheric exchanges embedded within the upper-level flow, and cirrus cloud formation was noted to occur locally at the boundaries of stratospheric aerosol-enriched layers that became humidified through diffusion, precipitation, or advective processes. Apparent cirrus cloud alterations include abnormally high ice crystal concentrations (up to approximately 600/L), complex radial ice crystal types, and relatively large haze particles in cirrus uncinus cell heads at temperatures between -40 and -50 C. Implications for volcanic-cirrus cloud climate effects and usual (nonvolcanic aerosol) jet stream cirrus cloud formation are discussed.

  5. Class II combination therapy (distal jet and Jasper Jumpers): a case report.

    PubMed

    Bowman, S J

    2000-09-01

    Class II combination therapy is a method that combines orthodontic and orthopedic mechanics in a single stage of treatment. Molar distalization is followed by fixed functional mechanics to reduce the dependence upon patient compliance while seeking more predictable completion of Class II correction.

  6. Measurement of the WW + WZ production cross section using the lepton + jets final state at CDF II.

    PubMed

    Aaltonen, T; Adelman, J; Alvarez González, B; Amerio, S; Amidei, D; Anastassov, A; Annovi, A; Antos, J; Apollinari, G; Apresyan, A; Arisawa, T; Artikov, A; Asaadi, J; Ashmanskas, W; Attal, A; Aurisano, A; Azfar, F; Badgett, W; Barbaro-Galtieri, A; Barnes, V E; Barnett, B A; Barria, P; Bartos, P; Bauer, G; Beauchemin, P-H; Bedeschi, F; Beecher, D; Behari, S; Bellettini, G; Bellinger, J; Benjamin, D; Beretvas, A; Bhatti, A; Binkley, M; Bisello, D; Bizjak, I; Blair, R E; Blocker, C; Blumenfeld, B; Bocci, A; Bodek, A; Boisvert, V; Bortoletto, D; Boudreau, J; Boveia, A; Brau, B; Bridgeman, A; Brigliadori, L; Bromberg, C; Brubaker, E; Budagov, J; Budd, H S; Budd, S; Burkett, K; Busetto, G; Bussey, P; Buzatu, A; Byrum, K L; Cabrera, S; Calancha, C; Camarda, S; Campanelli, M; Campbell, M; Canelli, F; Canepa, A; Carls, B; Carlsmith, D; Carosi, R; Carrillo, S; Carron, S; Casal, B; Casarsa, M; Castro, A; Catastini, P; Cauz, D; Cavaliere, V; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Chang, S H; Chen, Y C; Chertok, M; Chiarelli, G; Chlachidze, G; Chlebana, F; Cho, K; Chokheli, D; Chou, J P; Chung, K; Chung, W H; Chung, Y S; Chwalek, T; Ciobanu, C I; Ciocci, M A; Clark, A; Clark, D; Compostella, G; Convery, M E; Conway, J; Corbo, M; Cordelli, M; Cox, C A; Cox, D J; Crescioli, F; Cuenca Almenar, C; Cuevas, J; Culbertson, R; Cully, J C; Dagenhart, D; Datta, M; Davies, T; de Barbaro, P; De Cecco, S; Deisher, A; De Lorenzo, G; Dell'Orso, M; Deluca, C; Demortier, L; Deng, J; Deninno, M; d'Errico, M; Di Canto, A; di Giovanni, G P; Di Ruzza, B; Dittmann, J R; D'Onofrio, M; Donati, S; Dong, P; Dorigo, T; Dube, S; Ebina, K; Elagin, A; Erbacher, R; Errede, D; Errede, S; Ershaidat, N; Eusebi, R; Fang, H C; Farrington, S; Fedorko, W T; Feild, R G; Feindt, M; Fernandez, J P; Ferrazza, C; Field, R; Flanagan, G; Forrest, R; Frank, M J; Franklin, M; Freeman, J C; Furic, I; Gallinaro, M; Galyardt, J; Garberson, F; Garcia, J E; Garfinkel, A F; Garosi, P; Gerberich, H; Gerdes, D; Gessler, A; Giagu, S; Giakoumopoulou, V; Giannetti, P; Gibson, K; Gimmell, J L; Ginsburg, C M; Giokaris, N; Giordani, M; Giromini, P; Giunta, M; Giurgiu, G; Glagolev, V; Glenzinski, D; Gold, M; Goldschmidt, N; Golossanov, A; Gomez, G; Gomez-Ceballos, G; Goncharov, M; González, O; Gorelov, I; Goshaw, A T; Goulianos, K; Gresele, A; Grinstein, S; Grosso-Pilcher, C; Group, R C; Grundler, U; Guimaraes da Costa, J; Gunay-Unalan, Z; Haber, C; Hahn, S R; Halkiadakis, E; Han, B-Y; Han, J Y; Happacher, F; Hara, K; Hare, D; Hare, M; Harr, R F; Hartz, M; Hatakeyama, K; Hays, C; Heck, M; Heinrich, J; Herndon, M; Heuser, J; Hewamanage, S; Hidas, D; Hill, C S; Hirschbuehl, D; Hocker, A; Hou, S; Houlden, M; Hsu, S-C; Hughes, R E; Hurwitz, M; Husemann, U; Hussein, M; Huston, J; Incandela, J; Introzzi, G; Iori, M; Ivanov, A; James, E; Jang, D; Jayatilaka, B; Jeon, E J; Jha, M K; Jindariani, S; Johnson, W; Jones, M; Joo, K K; Jun, S Y; Jung, J E; Junk, T R; Kamon, T; Kar, D; Karchin, P E; Kato, Y; Kephart, R; Ketchum, W; Keung, J; Khotilovich, V; Kilminster, B; Kim, D H; Kim, H S; Kim, H W; Kim, J E; Kim, M J; Kim, S B; Kim, S H; Kim, Y K; Kimura, N; Kirsch, L; Klimenko, S; Kondo, K; Kong, D J; Konigsberg, J; Korytov, A; Kotwal, A V; Kreps, M; Kroll, J; Krop, D; Krumnack, N; Kruse, M; Krutelyov, V; Kuhr, T; Kulkarni, N P; Kurata, M; Kwang, S; Laasanen, A T; Lami, S; Lammel, S; Lancaster, M; Lander, R L; Lannon, K; Lath, A; Latino, G; Lazzizzera, I; LeCompte, T; Lee, E; Lee, H S; Lee, J S; Lee, S W; Leone, S; Lewis, J D; Lin, C-J; Linacre, J; Lindgren, M; Lipeles, E; Lister, A; Litvintsev, D O; Liu, C; Liu, T; Lockyer, N S; Loginov, A; Lovas, L; Lucchesi, D; Lueck, J; Lujan, P; Lukens, P; Lungu, G; Lys, J; Lysak, R; MacQueen, D; Madrak, R; Maeshima, K; Makhoul, K; Maksimovic, P; Malde, S; Malik, S; Manca, G; Manousakis-Katsikakis, A; Margaroli, F; Marino, C; Marino, C P; Martin, A; Martin, V; Martínez, M; Martínez-Ballarín, R; Mastrandrea, P; Mathis, M; Mattson, M E; Mazzanti, P; McFarland, K S; McIntyre, P; McNulty, R; Mehta, A; Mehtala, P; Menzione, A; Mesropian, C; Miao, T; Mietlicki, D; Miladinovic, N; Miller, R; Mills, C; Milnik, M; Mitra, A; Mitselmakher, G; Miyake, H; Moed, S; Moggi, N; Mondragon, M N; Moon, C S; Moore, R; Morello, M J; Morlock, J; Movilla Fernandez, P; Mülmenstädt, J; Mukherjee, A; Muller, Th; Murat, P; Mussini, M; Nachtman, J; Nagai, Y; Naganoma, J; Nakamura, K; Nakano, I; Napier, A; Nett, J; Neu, C; Neubauer, M S; Neubauer, S; Nielsen, J; Nodulman, L; Norman, M; Norniella, O; Nurse, E; Oakes, L; Oh, S H; Oh, Y D; Oksuzian, I; Okusawa, T; Orava, R; Osterberg, K; Pagan Griso, S; Pagliarone, C; Palencia, E; Papadimitriou, V; Papaikonomou, A; Paramanov, A A; Parks, B; Pashapour, S; Patrick, J; Pauletta, G; Paulini, M; Paus, C; Peiffer, T; Pellett, D E; Penzo, A; Phillips, T J; Piacentino, G; Pianori, E; Pinera, L; Pitts, K; Plager, C; Pondrom, L; Potamianos, K; Poukhov, O; Prokoshin, F; Pronko, A; Ptohos, F; Pueschel, E; Punzi, G; Pursley, J; Rademacker, J; Rahaman, A; Ramakrishnan, V; Ranjan, N; Redondo, I; Renton, P; Renz, M; Rescigno, M; Richter, S; Rimondi, F; Ristori, L; Robson, A; Rodrigo, T; Rodriguez, T; Rogers, E; Rolli, S; Roser, R; Rossi, M; Rossin, R; Roy, P; Ruiz, A; Russ, J; Rusu, V; Rutherford, B; Saarikko, H; Safonov, A; Sakumoto, W K; Santi, L; Sartori, L; Sato, K; Savoy-Navarro, A; Schlabach, P; Schmidt, A; Schmidt, E E; Schmidt, M A; Schmidt, M P; Schmitt, M; Schwarz, T; Scodellaro, L; Scribano, A; Scuri, F; Sedov, A; Seidel, S; Seiya, Y; Semenov, A; Sexton-Kennedy, L; Sforza, F; Sfyrla, A; Shalhout, S Z; Shears, T; Shepard, P F; Shimojima, M; Shiraishi, S; Shochet, M; Shon, Y; Shreyber, I; Simonenko, A; Sinervo, P; Sisakyan, A; Slaughter, A J; Slaunwhite, J; Sliwa, K; Smith, J R; Snider, F D; Snihur, R; Soha, A; Somalwar, S; Sorin, V; Squillacioti, P; Stanitzki, M; St Denis, R; Stelzer, B; Stelzer-Chilton, O; Stentz, D; Strologas, J; Strycker, G L; Suh, J S; Sukhanov, A; Suslov, I; Taffard, A; Takashima, R; Takeuchi, Y; Tanaka, R; Tang, J; Tecchio, M; Teng, P K; Thom, J; Thome, J; Thompson, G A; Thomson, E; Tipton, P; Ttito-Guzmán, P; Tkaczyk, S; Toback, D; Tokar, S; Tollefson, K; Tomura, T; Tonelli, D; Torre, S; Torretta, D; Totaro, P; Tourneur, S; Trovato, M; Tsai, S-Y; Tu, Y; Turini, N; Ukegawa, F; Uozumi, S; van Remortel, N; Varganov, A; Vataga, E; Vázquez, F; Velev, G; Vellidis, C; Vidal, M; Vila, I; Vilar, R; Vogel, M; Volobouev, I; Volpi, G; Wagner, P; Wagner, R G; Wagner, R L; Wagner, W; Wagner-Kuhr, J; Wakisaka, T; Wallny, R; Wang, S M; Warburton, A; Waters, D; Weinberger, M; Weinelt, J; Wester, W C; Whitehouse, B; Whiteson, D; Wicklund, A B; Wicklund, E; Wilbur, S; Williams, G; Williams, H H; Wilson, P; Winer, B L; Wittich, P; Wolbers, S; Wolfe, C; Wolfe, H; Wright, T; Wu, X; Würthwein, F; Yagil, A; Yamamoto, K; Yamaoka, J; Yang, U K; Yang, Y C; Yao, W M; Yeh, G P; Yi, K; Yoh, J; Yorita, K; Yoshida, T; Yu, G B; Yu, I; Yu, S S; Yun, J C; Zanetti, A; Zeng, Y; Zhang, X; Zheng, Y; Zucchelli, S

    2010-03-12

    We report two complementary measurements of the WW + WZ cross section in the final state consisting of an electron or muon, missing transverse energy, and jets, performed using pp collision data at square root of s = 1.96 TeV collected by the CDF II detector. The first method uses the dijet invariant mass distribution while the second more sensitive method uses matrix-element calculations. The result from the second method has a signal significance of 5.4sigma and is the first observation of WW + WZ production using this signature. Combining the results gives sigma(WW + WZ) = 16.0 +/- 3.3 pb, in agreement with the standard model prediction.

  7. Measurement of the WW+WZ Production Cross Section Using the lepton+jets Final State at CDF II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aaltonen, T.; Adelman, J.; Álvarez González, B.; Amerio, S.; Amidei, D.; Anastassov, A.; Annovi, A.; Antos, J.; Apollinari, G.; Apresyan, A.; Arisawa, T.; Artikov, A.; Asaadi, J.; Ashmanskas, W.; Attal, A.; Aurisano, A.; Azfar, F.; Badgett, W.; Barbaro-Galtieri, A.; Barnes, V. E.; Barnett, B. A.; Barria, P.; Bartos, P.; Bauer, G.; Beauchemin, P.-H.; Bedeschi, F.; Beecher, D.; Behari, S.; Bellettini, G.; Bellinger, J.; Benjamin, D.; Beretvas, A.; Bhatti, A.; Binkley, M.; Bisello, D.; Bizjak, I.; Blair, R. E.; Blocker, C.; Blumenfeld, B.; Bocci, A.; Bodek, A.; Boisvert, V.; Bortoletto, D.; Boudreau, J.; Boveia, A.; Brau, B.; Bridgeman, A.; Brigliadori, L.; Bromberg, C.; Brubaker, E.; Budagov, J.; Budd, H. S.; Budd, S.; Burkett, K.; Busetto, G.; Bussey, P.; Buzatu, A.; Byrum, K. L.; Cabrera, S.; Calancha, C.; Camarda, S.; Campanelli, M.; Campbell, M.; Canelli, F.; Canepa, A.; Carls, B.; Carlsmith, D.; Carosi, R.; Carrillo, S.; Carron, S.; Casal, B.; Casarsa, M.; Castro, A.; Catastini, P.; Cauz, D.; Cavaliere, V.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Cerri, A.; Cerrito, L.; Chang, S. H.; Chen, Y. C.; Chertok, M.; Chiarelli, G.; Chlachidze, G.; Chlebana, F.; Cho, K.; Chokheli, D.; Chou, J. P.; Chung, K.; Chung, W. H.; Chung, Y. S.; Chwalek, T.; Ciobanu, C. I.; Ciocci, M. A.; Clark, A.; Clark, D.; Compostella, G.; Convery, M. E.; Conway, J.; Corbo, M.; Cordelli, M.; Cox, C. A.; Cox, D. J.; Crescioli, F.; Cuenca Almenar, C.; Cuevas, J.; Culbertson, R.; Cully, J. C.; Dagenhart, D.; Datta, M.; Davies, T.; de Barbaro, P.; de Cecco, S.; Deisher, A.; de Lorenzo, G.; Dell'Orso, M.; Deluca, C.; Demortier, L.; Deng, J.; Deninno, M.; D'Errico, M.; di Canto, A.; di Giovanni, G. P.; di Ruzza, B.; Dittmann, J. R.; D'Onofrio, M.; Donati, S.; Dong, P.; Dorigo, T.; Dube, S.; Ebina, K.; Elagin, A.; Erbacher, R.; Errede, D.; Errede, S.; Ershaidat, N.; Eusebi, R.; Fang, H. C.; Farrington, S.; Fedorko, W. T.; Feild, R. G.; Feindt, M.; Fernandez, J. P.; Ferrazza, C.; Field, R.; Flanagan, G.; Forrest, R.; Frank, M. J.; Franklin, M.; Freeman, J. C.; Furic, I.; Gallinaro, M.; Galyardt, J.; Garberson, F.; Garcia, J. E.; Garfinkel, A. F.; Garosi, P.; Gerberich, H.; Gerdes, D.; Gessler, A.; Giagu, S.; Giakoumopoulou, V.; Giannetti, P.; Gibson, K.; Gimmell, J. L.; Ginsburg, C. M.; Giokaris, N.; Giordani, M.; Giromini, P.; Giunta, M.; Giurgiu, G.; Glagolev, V.; Glenzinski, D.; Gold, M.; Goldschmidt, N.; Golossanov, A.; Gomez, G.; Gomez-Ceballos, G.; Goncharov, M.; González, O.; Gorelov, I.; Goshaw, A. T.; Goulianos, K.; Gresele, A.; Grinstein, S.; Grosso-Pilcher, C.; Group, R. C.; Grundler, U.; Guimaraes da Costa, J.; Gunay-Unalan, Z.; Haber, C.; Hahn, S. R.; Halkiadakis, E.; Han, B.-Y.; Han, J. Y.; Happacher, F.; Hara, K.; Hare, D.; Hare, M.; Harr, R. F.; Hartz, M.; Hatakeyama, K.; Hays, C.; Heck, M.; Heinrich, J.; Herndon, M.; Heuser, J.; Hewamanage, S.; Hidas, D.; Hill, C. S.; Hirschbuehl, D.; Hocker, A.; Hou, S.; Houlden, M.; Hsu, S.-C.; Hughes, R. E.; Hurwitz, M.; Husemann, U.; Hussein, M.; Huston, J.; Incandela, J.; Introzzi, G.; Iori, M.; Ivanov, A.; James, E.; Jang, D.; Jayatilaka, B.; Jeon, E. J.; Jha, M. K.; Jindariani, S.; Johnson, W.; Jones, M.; Joo, K. K.; Jun, S. Y.; Jung, J. E.; Junk, T. R.; Kamon, T.; Kar, D.; Karchin, P. E.; Kato, Y.; Kephart, R.; Ketchum, W.; Keung, J.; Khotilovich, V.; Kilminster, B.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, H. S.; Kim, H. W.; Kim, J. E.; Kim, M. J.; Kim, S. B.; Kim, S. H.; Kim, Y. K.; Kimura, N.; Kirsch, L.; Klimenko, S.; Kondo, K.; Kong, D. J.; Konigsberg, J.; Korytov, A.; Kotwal, A. V.; Kreps, M.; Kroll, J.; Krop, D.; Krumnack, N.; Kruse, M.; Krutelyov, V.; Kuhr, T.; Kulkarni, N. P.; Kurata, M.; Kwang, S.; Laasanen, A. T.; Lami, S.; Lammel, S.; Lancaster, M.; Lander, R. L.; Lannon, K.; Lath, A.; Latino, G.; Lazzizzera, I.; Lecompte, T.; Lee, E.; Lee, H. S.; Lee, J. S.; Lee, S. W.; Leone, S.; Lewis, J. D.; Lin, C.-J.; Linacre, J.; Lindgren, M.; Lipeles, E.; Lister, A.; Litvintsev, D. O.; Liu, C.; Liu, T.; Lockyer, N. S.; Loginov, A.; Lovas, L.; Lucchesi, D.; Lueck, J.; Lujan, P.; Lukens, P.; Lungu, G.; Lys, J.; Lysak, R.; MacQueen, D.; Madrak, R.; Maeshima, K.; Makhoul, K.; Maksimovic, P.; Malde, S.; Malik, S.; Manca, G.; Manousakis-Katsikakis, A.; Margaroli, F.; Marino, C.; Marino, C. P.; Martin, A.; Martin, V.; Martínez, M.; Martínez-Ballarín, R.; Mastrandrea, P.; Mathis, M.; Mattson, M. E.; Mazzanti, P.; McFarland, K. S.; McIntyre, P.; McNulty, R.; Mehta, A.; Mehtala, P.; Menzione, A.; Mesropian, C.; Miao, T.; Mietlicki, D.; Miladinovic, N.; Miller, R.; Mills, C.; Milnik, M.; Mitra, A.; Mitselmakher, G.; Miyake, H.; Moed, S.; Moggi, N.; Mondragon, M. N.; Moon, C. S.; Moore, R.; Morello, M. J.; Morlock, J.; Movilla Fernandez, P.; Mülmenstädt, J.; Mukherjee, A.; Muller, Th.; Murat, P.; Mussini, M.; Nachtman, J.; Nagai, Y.; Naganoma, J.; Nakamura, K.; Nakano, I.; Napier, A.; Nett, J.; Neu, C.; Neubauer, M. S.; Neubauer, S.; Nielsen, J.; Nodulman, L.; Norman, M.; Norniella, O.; Nurse, E.; Oakes, L.; Oh, S. H.; Oh, Y. D.; Oksuzian, I.; Okusawa, T.; Orava, R.; Osterberg, K.; Pagan Griso, S.; Pagliarone, C.; Palencia, E.; Papadimitriou, V.; Papaikonomou, A.; Paramanov, A. A.; Parks, B.; Pashapour, S.; Patrick, J.; Pauletta, G.; Paulini, M.; Paus, C.; Peiffer, T.; Pellett, D. E.; Penzo, A.; Phillips, T. J.; Piacentino, G.; Pianori, E.; Pinera, L.; Pitts, K.; Plager, C.; Pondrom, L.; Potamianos, K.; Poukhov, O.; Prokoshin, F.; Pronko, A.; Ptohos, F.; Pueschel, E.; Punzi, G.; Pursley, J.; Rademacker, J.; Rahaman, A.; Ramakrishnan, V.; Ranjan, N.; Redondo, I.; Renton, P.; Renz, M.; Rescigno, M.; Richter, S.; Rimondi, F.; Ristori, L.; Robson, A.; Rodrigo, T.; Rodriguez, T.; Rogers, E.; Rolli, S.; Roser, R.; Rossi, M.; Rossin, R.; Roy, P.; Ruiz, A.; Russ, J.; Rusu, V.; Rutherford, B.; Saarikko, H.; Safonov, A.; Sakumoto, W. K.; Santi, L.; Sartori, L.; Sato, K.; Savoy-Navarro, A.; Schlabach, P.; Schmidt, A.; Schmidt, E. E.; Schmidt, M. A.; Schmidt, M. P.; Schmitt, M.; Schwarz, T.; Scodellaro, L.; Scribano, A.; Scuri, F.; Sedov, A.; Seidel, S.; Seiya, Y.; Semenov, A.; Sexton-Kennedy, L.; Sforza, F.; Sfyrla, A.; Shalhout, S. Z.; Shears, T.; Shepard, P. F.; Shimojima, M.; Shiraishi, S.; Shochet, M.; Shon, Y.; Shreyber, I.; Simonenko, A.; Sinervo, P.; Sisakyan, A.; Slaughter, A. J.; Slaunwhite, J.; Sliwa, K.; Smith, J. R.; Snider, F. D.; Snihur, R.; Soha, A.; Somalwar, S.; Sorin, V.; Squillacioti, P.; Stanitzki, M.; St. Denis, R.; Stelzer, B.; Stelzer-Chilton, O.; Stentz, D.; Strologas, J.; Strycker, G. L.; Suh, J. S.; Sukhanov, A.; Suslov, I.; Taffard, A.; Takashima, R.; Takeuchi, Y.; Tanaka, R.; Tang, J.; Tecchio, M.; Teng, P. K.; Thom, J.; Thome, J.; Thompson, G. A.; Thomson, E.; Tipton, P.; Ttito-Guzmán, P.; Tkaczyk, S.; Toback, D.; Tokar, S.; Tollefson, K.; Tomura, T.; Tonelli, D.; Torre, S.; Torretta, D.; Totaro, P.; Tourneur, S.; Trovato, M.; Tsai, S.-Y.; Tu, Y.; Turini, N.; Ukegawa, F.; Uozumi, S.; van Remortel, N.; Varganov, A.; Vataga, E.; Vázquez, F.; Velev, G.; Vellidis, C.; Vidal, M.; Vila, I.; Vilar, R.; Vogel, M.; Volobouev, I.; Volpi, G.; Wagner, P.; Wagner, R. G.; Wagner, R. L.; Wagner, W.; Wagner-Kuhr, J.; Wakisaka, T.; Wallny, R.; Wang, S. M.; Warburton, A.; Waters, D.; Weinberger, M.; Weinelt, J.; Wester, W. C., III; Whitehouse, B.; Whiteson, D.; Wicklund, A. B.; Wicklund, E.; Wilbur, S.; Williams, G.; Williams, H. H.; Wilson, P.; Winer, B. L.; Wittich, P.; Wolbers, S.; Wolfe, C.; Wolfe, H.; Wright, T.; Wu, X.; Würthwein, F.; Yagil, A.; Yamamoto, K.; Yamaoka, J.; Yang, U. K.; Yang, Y. C.; Yao, W. M.; Yeh, G. P.; Yi, K.; Yoh, J.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, T.; Yu, G. B.; Yu, I.; Yu, S. S.; Yun, J. C.; Zanetti, A.; Zeng, Y.; Zhang, X.; Zheng, Y.; Zucchelli, S.; CDF Collaboration

    2010-03-01

    We report two complementary measurements of the WW+WZ cross section in the final state consisting of an electron or muon, missing transverse energy, and jets, performed using pp¯ collision data at s=1.96TeV collected by the CDF II detector. The first method uses the dijet invariant mass distribution while the second more sensitive method uses matrix-element calculations. The result from the second method has a signal significance of 5.4σ and is the first observation of WW+WZ production using this signature. Combining the results gives σWW+WZ=16.0±3.3pb, in agreement with the standard model prediction.

  8. Dichotomy of Solar Coronal Jets: Standard Jets and Blowout Jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Ronald L.; Cirtain, Jonathan W.; Sterling, Alphonse C.; Falconer, David A.

    2010-09-01

    By examining many X-ray jets in Hinode/X-Ray Telescope coronal X-ray movies of the polar coronal holes, we found that there is a dichotomy of polar X-ray jets. About two thirds fit the standard reconnection picture for coronal jets, and about one third are another type. We present observations indicating that the non-standard jets are counterparts of erupting-loop Hα macrospicules, jets in which the jet-base magnetic arch undergoes a miniature version of the blowout eruptions that produce major coronal mass ejections. From the coronal X-ray movies we present in detail two typical standard X-ray jets and two typical blowout X-ray jets that were also caught in He II 304 Å snapshots from STEREO/EUVI. The distinguishing features of blowout X-ray jets are (1) X-ray brightening inside the base arch in addition to the outside bright point that standard jets have, (2) blowout eruption of the base arch's core field, often carrying a filament of cool (T ~ 104 - 105 K) plasma, and (3) an extra jet-spire strand rooted close to the bright point. We present cartoons showing how reconnection during blowout eruption of the base arch could produce the observed features of blowout X-ray jets. We infer that (1) the standard-jet/blowout-jet dichotomy of coronal jets results from the dichotomy of base arches that do not have and base arches that do have enough shear and twist to erupt open, and (2) there is a large class of spicules that are standard jets and a comparably large class of spicules that are blowout jets.

  9. DICHOTOMY OF SOLAR CORONAL JETS: STANDARD JETS AND BLOWOUT JETS

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, Ronald L.; Cirtain, Jonathan W.; Sterling, Alphonse C.; Falconer, David A.

    2010-09-01

    By examining many X-ray jets in Hinode/X-Ray Telescope coronal X-ray movies of the polar coronal holes, we found that there is a dichotomy of polar X-ray jets. About two thirds fit the standard reconnection picture for coronal jets, and about one third are another type. We present observations indicating that the non-standard jets are counterparts of erupting-loop H{alpha} macrospicules, jets in which the jet-base magnetic arch undergoes a miniature version of the blowout eruptions that produce major coronal mass ejections. From the coronal X-ray movies we present in detail two typical standard X-ray jets and two typical blowout X-ray jets that were also caught in He II 304 A snapshots from STEREO/EUVI. The distinguishing features of blowout X-ray jets are (1) X-ray brightening inside the base arch in addition to the outside bright point that standard jets have, (2) blowout eruption of the base arch's core field, often carrying a filament of cool (T {approx} 10{sup 4} - 10{sup 5} K) plasma, and (3) an extra jet-spire strand rooted close to the bright point. We present cartoons showing how reconnection during blowout eruption of the base arch could produce the observed features of blowout X-ray jets. We infer that (1) the standard-jet/blowout-jet dichotomy of coronal jets results from the dichotomy of base arches that do not have and base arches that do have enough shear and twist to erupt open, and (2) there is a large class of spicules that are standard jets and a comparably large class of spicules that are blowout jets.

  10. Dichotomy of Solar Coronal Jets: Standard Jets and Blowout Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, R. L.; Cirtain, J. W.; Sterling, A. C.; Falconer, D. A.

    2010-01-01

    By examining many X-ray jets in Hinode/XRT coronal X-ray movies of the polar coronal holes, we found that there is a dichotomy of polar X-ray jets. About two thirds fit the standard reconnection picture for coronal jets, and about one third are another type. We present observations indicating that the non-standard jets are counterparts of erupting-loop H alpha macrospicules, jets in which the jet-base magnetic arch undergoes a miniature version of the blowout eruptions that produce major CMEs. From the coronal X-ray movies we present in detail two typical standard X-ray jets and two typical blowout X-ray jets that were also caught in He II 304 Angstrom snapshots from STEREO/EUVI. The distinguishing features of blowout X-ray jets are (1) X-ray brightening inside the base arch in addition to the outside bright point that standard jets have, (2) blowout eruption of the base arch's core field, often carrying a filament of cool (T 10(exp 4) - 10(exp 5) K) plasma, and (3) an extra jet-spire strand rooted close to the bright point. We present cartoons showing how reconnection during blowout eruption of the base arch could produce the observed features of blowout X-ray jets. We infer that (1) the standard-jet/blowout-jet dichotomy of coronal jets results from the dichotomy of base arches that do not have and base arches that do have enough shear and twist to erupt open, and (2) there is a large class of spicules that are standard jets and a comparably large class of spicules that are blowout jets.

  11. Probing the disc wind-jet connection in black hole transients II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz Trigo, Maria

    2013-10-01

    We propose six observations of one high inclination black hole low mass X-ray binary (LMXB) at different stages of its outburst. We will investigate the presence of X-ray narrow absorption/emission features in the XMM spectra, which are a signature of a disc wind, and their relation to the accreting regime. Such features, identified with ions like FeXXV and FeXXVI, have been observed in a number of LMXBs and give us information about the mass outflow rate and the launching mechanism of the wind. With simultaneous radio observations we will probe the jet power as a function of the wind properties and how the radio flux density correlates with the X-ray flux at different accretion regimes. We will also investigate the broadening mechanism of the FeK emission line detected up to now in several LMXBs.

  12. AGN jet-induced feedback in galaxies - II. Galaxy colours from a multicloud simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tortora, C.; Antonuccio-Delogu, V.; Kaviraj, S.; Silk, J.; Romeo, A. D.; Becciani, U.

    2009-06-01

    We study the feedback from an active galactic nucleus (AGN) on stellar formation within its host galaxy, mainly using one high-resolution numerical simulation of the jet propagation within the interstellar medium (ISM) of an early-type galaxy (ETG). In particular, we show that in a realistic simulation where the jet propagates into a two-phase ISM, star formation (SF) can initially be slightly enhanced and then, on time-scales of few million years, rapidly quenched, as a consequence both of the high temperatures attained and of the reduction of cloud mass (mainly due to Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities). We then introduce a model of (prevalently) negative AGN feedback, where an exponentially declining star formation is quenched, on a very short time-scale, at a time tAGN, due to AGN feedback. Using the Bruzual and Charlot population synthesis model and our SF history, we predict galaxy colours from this model and match them to a sample of nearby ETGs showing signs of recent episodes of SF, see Kaviraj et al. We find that the quantity tgal-tAGN, where tgal is the galaxy age, is an excellent indicator of the presence of feedback processes, and peaks significantly around tgal-tAGN ~ 0.85Gyr for our sample, consistent with feedback from recent energy injection by AGNs in relatively bright (MB <~ -19) and massive nearby ETGs. Galaxies that have experienced this recent feedback show an enhancement of 3 mag in NUV (GALEX) - g, with respect to the unperturbed, no-feedback evolution. Hence, they can be easily identified in large combined near UV-optical surveys.

  13. MK2 balances inflammation and cell death.

    PubMed

    Oberst, Andrew

    2017-09-29

    The cytokine tumour necrosis factor (TNF) and the toll-like receptors (TLRs) coordinate immune responses by activating inflammatory transcriptional programs, but these signals can also trigger cell death. Recent studies identify the MAP kinase substrate MK2 as a key player in determining whether cells live or die in response to TNF and TLR signalling.

  14. Emerging jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwaller, Pedro; Stolarski, Daniel; Weiler, Andreas

    2015-05-01

    In this work, we propose a novel search strategy for new physics at the LHC that utilizes calorimeter jets that (i) are composed dominantly of displaced tracks and (ii) have many different vertices within the jet cone. Such emerging jet signatures are smoking guns for models with a composite dark sector where a parton shower in the dark sector is followed by displaced decays of dark pions back to SM jets. No current LHC searches are sensitive to this type of phenomenology. We perform a detailed simulation for a benchmark signal with two regular and two emerging jets, and present and implement strategies to suppress QCD backgrounds by up to six orders of magnitude. At the 14 TeV LHC, this signature can be probed with mediator masses as large as 1.5 TeV for a range of dark pion lifetimes, and the reach is increased further at the high-luminosity LHC. The emerging jet search is also sensitive to a broad class of long-lived phenomena, and we show this for a supersymmetric model with R-parity violation. Possibilities for discovery at LHCb are also discussed.

  15. Preliminary Results of Nene II Engine Altitude-chamber Performance Investigation. 2; Altitude Performance using 18.41-inch Diameter-jet Nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstron, J. C.; Wilsted, H. D.; Vincent, K. R.

    1948-01-01

    An investigation is being conducted to determine the altitude performance characteristics of the Nene II engine and its components. The present paper presents preliminary results obtained using a jet nozzle of 18.41 inches in diameter, giving an area equal to 96.4 percent of the area of the standard jet nozzle of this engine. The test results presented are for conditions simulating altitudes from seal level to 50,000 feet and ram-pressure ratios from 1.00 to 2.70. The ram pressure ratios correspond to flight Mach numbers between zero and 1.28.

  16. Mass and momentum turbulent transport experiments with swirling confined coaxial jets. II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roback, R.; Johnson, B. V.

    1986-01-01

    An experimental study of mixing downstream of swirling coaxial jets discharging into an expanded duct was conducted to obtain data for the evaluation and improvement of turbulent transport models currently used in a variety of computational procedures throughout the combustion community. A combination of laser velocimeter and laser induced fluorescence techniques was employed to obtain mean and fluctuating velocity and concentration distributions at selected axial and radial locations throughout the flow field. Flow visualization techniques were also employed to determine qualitatively the time dependent characteristics of the flow and the scale of turbulence. Simultaneous two component velocity and concentration/velocity measurements provided data which were used to determine the average momentum and mass transport rates for each of three measurement planes. Mixing for swirling flows occurred in several steps of axial and radial mean convective flow and was completed in one-third the length required for nonswirling flow. Comparison of the mass and momentum transport processes for swirling and nonswirling flows indicated that large differences existed in these processes between the two flows.

  17. [Fe II] 1.64 μm FEATURES OF JETS AND OUTFLOWS FROM YOUNG STELLAR OBJECTS IN THE CARINA NEBULA

    SciTech Connect

    Shinn, Jong-Ho; Lee, Jae-Joon; Chun, Moo-Young; Lyo, A.-Ran; Moon, Dae-Sik; Kyeong, Jaemann; Park, Byeong-Gon; Pyo, Tae-Soo; Lee, Ho-Gyu; Kim, Hyun-Jeong; Koo, Bon-Chul; Lee, Yong-Hyun; Sung, Hwankyung; Hur, Hyeonoh

    2013-11-01

    We present [Fe II] 1.64 μm imaging observations for jets and outflows from young stellar objects (YSOs) over the northern part (∼24' × 45') of the Carina Nebula, a massive star-forming region. The observations were performed with IRIS2 of the Anglo-Australian Telescope and the seeing was ∼1.''5 ± 0.''5. Eleven jet and outflow features are detected at eight different regions and are termed ionized Fe objects (IFOs). One Herbig-Haro candidate that was missed in Hubble Space Telescope Hα observations is newly identified as HHc-16, referring to our [Fe II] images. IFOs have knotty or longish shapes, and the detection rate of IFOs against previously identified YSOs is 1.4%, which should be treated as a lower limit. Four IFOs show anti-correlated peak intensities in [Fe II] and Hα, where the ratio I([Fe II])/I(Hα) is higher for longish IFOs than for knotty IFOs. We estimate the outflow mass loss rate from the [Fe II] flux using two different methods. The jet-driving objects are identified for three IFOs (IFO-2, -4, and -7) for which we study the relations between the outflow mass loss rate and the YSO physical parameters from the radiative transfer model fitting. The ratios of the outflow mass loss rate over the disk accretion rate for IFO-4 and -7 are consistent with the previously reported values (10{sup –2}-10{sup +1}), while the ratio is higher for IFO-2. This excess may result from underestimating the disk accretion rate. The jet-driving objects are likely to be low- or intermediate-mass stars. Other YSO physical parameters, such as luminosity and age, show reasonable relations or trends.

  18. Particle diffusion and localized acceleration in inhomogeneous AGN jets - II. Stochastic variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xuhui; Pohl, Martin; Böttcher, Markus; Gao, Shan

    2016-05-01

    We study the stochastic variation of blazar emission under a 2D spatially resolved leptonic jet model we previously developed. Random events of particle acceleration and injection in small zones within the emission region are assumed to be responsible for flux variations. In addition to producing spectral energy distributions that describe the observed flux of Mrk 421, we further analyse the timing properties of the simulated light curves, such as the power spectral density (PSD) at different bands, flux-flux correlations, as well as the cross-correlation function between X-rays and TeV γ-rays. We find spectral breaks in the PSD at a time-scale comparable to the dominant characteristic time-scale in the system, which is usually the pre-defined decay time-scale of an acceleration event. Cooling imposes a delay, and so PSDs taken at lower energy bands in each emission component (synchrotron or inverse Compton) generally break at longer time-scales. The flux-flux correlation between X-rays and TeV γ-rays can be either quadratic or linear, depending on whether or not there are large variation of the injection into the particle acceleration process. When the relationship is quadratic, the TeV flares lag the X-ray flares, and the optical and GeV flares are large enough to be comparable to the ones in X-ray. When the relationship is linear, the lags are insignificant, and the optical and GeV flares are small.

  19. The jovian anticyclone BA. II. Circulation and interaction with the zonal jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hueso, R.; Legarreta, J.; García-Melendo, E.; Sánchez-Lavega, A.; Pérez-Hoyos, S.

    2009-10-01

    In this second part of our study of the large jovian anticyclone BA we present detailed measurements of its internal circulation and numerical models of its interaction with the zonal jets and nearby cyclonic regions. We characterized the flow using high-resolution observations obtained by the Cassini spacecraft in December 2000 (9 months after the genesis of BA as a result of the merger of two large White Ovals), by the ACS camera onboard HST in January 2005 and April 2006 and by the New Horizons spacecraft in February 2007. Cloud motions were derived from high-resolution images using an automatic correlator that provides a large sampling of the motions in images separated by short time intervals (30 min-2 h). The internal wind structure did not change when the oval changed its color reddening in late 2005-early 2006 and all four datasets from 2000 to 2007 consistently show a similar wind regime: an asymmetric intense anticyclonic vortex with faster winds in its Southern portion with mean speeds of 110 m/s and peak velocities of 135 m/s. These speeds are slightly higher than those measured in the three White Ovals predecessors of BA by the Voyagers [Mitchell, J.L., Beebe, R.F., Ingersoll, A.P., Garneau, G.W., 1981. J. Geophys. Res. 86, 8751-8757] and Galileo [Vasavada, A.R., and 13 colleagues, 1998. Icarus 135, 265-275] but not as much as it has been recently reported [Simon-Miller, A.A., Chanover, N.J., Orton, G.S., Sussman, M., Tsavaris, I.G., Karkoschka, E., 2006. Icarus 185, 558-562; Cheng, A.F., and 14 colleagues, 2008. Astronom. J. 135, 2446-2452]. The asymmetry of the velocities in the vortex is a consequence of the interaction of BA with the zonal circulation and emerges as a natural result in high-resolution simulations of the vortex dynamics using the EPIC model.

  20. Use of Nramp2-transfected Chinese hamster ovary cells and reticulocytes from mk/mk mice to study iron transport mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, An-Sheng; Canonne-Hergaux, Francois; Gruenheid, Samantha; Gros, Philippe; Ponka, Prem

    2009-01-01

    Objective We investigated mechanisms involved in iron (Fe) transport by DMT1 (endosomal Fe(II) exporter, encoded by the Nramp2 gene) using wild-type Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and Nramp2-transfected CHO cells, as well as reticulocytes from normal and mk/mk mice that have a defect in DMT1. Materials and Methods CHO cells and reticulocytes were incubated with 59Fe bound to various ligands. The radioiron was present in its Fe(II) or Fe(III) forms or bound to transferrin (Tf), and the internalized 59Fe measured under varying experimental conditions. Additionally, 125I-Tf interaction with reticulocytes was investigated and 59Fe incorporation into their heme was determined. Results Hyperexpression of DMT1 in CHO cells greatly increases their capacity to acquire ferrous iron. Although CHO-Nramp2 cells showed an increase in Fe(III) uptake as compared to CHO cells, they transported Fe(III) with much lower efficacy than Fe(II). In addition to their defect in Fe uptake, mk/mk reticulocytes also showed a decrease in Tf receptor levels. Conclusions Given that CHO cells acquire iron from Fe(II)-ascorbate with much higher rates than from Fe(III)-Tf, Tf-receptor levels represent the rate-limiting step in their iron uptake. As Fe(III) transport by CHO-Nramp2 cells can be inhibited by the impermeable oxidant K3Fe(CN)6, a membrane ferric reductase is probably needed for reduction of Fe(III) to Fe(II), which is then transported by DMT1. DMT1 is not a limiting factor in Fe acquisition by normal reticulocytes and their heme synthesis. PMID:18722041

  1. Aerodynamic Loads and Separation Characteristics of the BLU-27B/B, MK- 82SE, and GBU-8 Weapons in the F-16 Aircraft Flow Field at Mach Numbers from 0.4 to 1.2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-10-01

    76-147 Cm 1.2 0.8 o.q 0 SIMBOL CONFIG = ~ STORE ® IS E 0.60 MK-SESE m 15 E 0.80 MK-SESE IS E 0.90 MK-82SE IS E 0.95 MK-B2SE PYLON RRCK 6 M...0 10 .0 1 2 6 A E D C - T R - 7 6 - 1 4 7 SIMBOL CONFIG = H. STORE PILON RICK ~tt 0 11 I0 0.80 MK-82SE 7 I - 3 0 B II 10 0.60 HR-B2SE 7 T

  2. Quiet-time statistics of electrostatic turbulent fluxes from the JET tokamak and the W7-AS and TJ-II stellarators.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, R; van Milligen, B Ph; Newman, D E; Carreras, B A

    2003-05-09

    The statistics of the quiet times between successive turbulent flux bursts measured at the edge of the JET tokamak and the W7-AS and TJ-II stellarators are analyzed in search for evidence of self-organized critical behavior. The results obtained are consistent with what would be expected in the situation where the underlying plasma is indeed in a near critical state.

  3. A magnetohydrodynamic model of the M87 jet. II. Self-consistent quad-shock jet model for optical relativistic motions and particle acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamura, Masanori

    2014-04-20

    We describe a new paradigm for understanding both relativistic motions and particle acceleration in the M87 jet: a magnetically dominated relativistic flow that naturally produces four relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) shocks (forward/reverse fast and slow modes). We apply this model to a set of optical super- and subluminal motions discovered by Biretta and coworkers with the Hubble Space Telescope during 1994-1998. The model concept consists of ejection of a single relativistic Poynting jet, which possesses a coherent helical (poloidal + toroidal) magnetic component, at the remarkably flaring point HST-1. We are able to reproduce quantitatively proper motions of components seen in the optical observations of HST-1 with the same model we used previously to describe similar features in radio very long baseline interferometry observations in 2005-2006. This indicates that the quad relativistic MHD shock model can be applied generally to recurring pairs of super/subluminal knots ejected from the upstream edge of the HST-1 complex as observed from radio to optical wavelengths, with forward/reverse fast-mode MHD shocks then responsible for observed moving features. Moreover, we identify such intrinsic properties as the shock compression ratio, degree of magnetization, and magnetic obliquity and show that they are suitable to mediate diffusive shock acceleration of relativistic particles via the first-order Fermi process. We suggest that relativistic MHD shocks in Poynting-flux-dominated helical jets may play a role in explaining observed emission and proper motions in many active galactic nuclei.

  4. VLBI Observations of Southern Egret Identifications II. VLBA Observations and the Importance of Jet Bending in Gamma-Ray Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tingay, S. J.; Murphy, D. W.; Edwards, P. G.

    1998-01-01

    The pc-scale jets in gamma-ray quite AGN apear to have more and larger bends than the pc-scale jets in EGRET-identified AGN. Caution should be exercised when interpreting these results however, since we point out that significant, but difficult to quantify, observational biases may also be at work in these samples.

  5. Thermal Conductivity of Manganin Between 10 mK and 54 mK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ventura, Guglielmo; Giomi, Silvia

    2017-09-01

    The thermal conductivity of Manganin (Cu 86 %, Ni 2 %, Mn 12 %) in the range 10-50 mK was measured by means of a new method that uses a metal-insulator junction (M-I.J) of known characteristics to read temperatures at one end of the sample. The same power P that crosses the sample to measure its thermal resistance flows through the M-I.J. A suitable choice of the M-I.J allows the temperature T of the upper end of the sample to rise above 20 mK. T was measured by a small size Ruthenium thermometer.

  6. Development of the Mk-112 Detonator

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-12-01

    This is within 10 % of the reported value for the Mk 57-1 of 27.6 volts ( 14283 ergs). Therefore, the design goal of similar firing energy...Code R12) White Oak, Silver Spring, Maryland 20910 10 . PROGRAM ELEMENT, PROJECT, TASK AREA 4 WORK UNIT NUMBERS 64601N-QUICKSTRIKE- 52072...CURED AT 70 F FOR 72 HOURS) 10 5 AVERAGE RESISTANCE CHANGE (LEADS-TO-CASE) VS. TIME TO CURE. (ELECTRODAG CURED AT 180OF FOR 24 HOURS) 11 6

  7. Effect of the Angiotensin I Converting Enzyme Inhibitor, MK-421, on Experimentally Induced Drinking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fregley, Melvin J.; Fater, Dennis C.; Greenleaf, John E.

    1982-01-01

    MK-421, the ethyl ester maleate salt of N-(S)-1-(ethoxycarbonyl)-3-phenyl-propyl- Ala-L-Pro, is an angiotensin I converting enzyme inhibitor. An initial objective was to determine whether MK-421, administered at 0, 2.5, 5.0, 10.0, 20.0 and 40.0 mg/kg, ip to 96 female rats 15 min prior to administration of the beta-adrenergic agonist, isoproterenol (25 microgram/kg, ip), would inhibit the drinking induced by isoproterenol during 2 h after its administration. The water intake induced by isoproterenol was inhibited significantly by 2.5 mg MK-421/kg. When a similar experiment was performed using Angiotensin I (AI) (200 microgram/kg, ip) as the dipsogenic agent, MK-421 (5 mg/kg, ip), administered 15 min prior to AI, inhibited significantly both the dipsogenic and the diuretic effect of AI. However, administration of angiotensin II (AII, 200 microgram/kg, ip) 15 min after MK-421 (5mg/kg) was accompanied by a water intake that did not differ from AII alone. The drink induced by ip administration of 1.0 m NaCl solution (1% of body wt, ip) was not inhibited by administration of MK-421 (5 mg/kg) 15 min prior to allowing access to water while the drink induced by a 24 h dehydration was partially inhibited. Thus, the drinks induced by administraition of either isoproterenol or AI are dependent on formation of AII. That induced by dehydration is partially dependent, while that induced by hypertonic siilinc is independent of the formation of AII.

  8. Gas Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chaplygin, S.

    1944-01-01

    A brief summary of the contents of this paper is presented here. In part I the differential equations of the problem of a gas flow in two dimensions is derived and the particular integrals by which the problem on jets is solved are given. Use is made of the same independent variables as Molenbroek used, but it is found to be more suitable to consider other functions. The stream function and velocity potential corresponding to the problem are given in the form of series. The investigation on the convergence of these series in connection with certain properties of the functions entering them forms the subject of part II. In part III the problem of the outflow of a gas from an infinite vessel with plane walls is solved. In part IV the impact of a gas jet on a plate is considered and the limiting case where the jet expands to infinity changing into a gas flow is taken up in more detail. This also solved the equivalent problem of the resistance of a gaseous medium to the motion of a plate. Finally, in part V, an approximate method is presented that permits a simpler solution of the problem of jet flows in the case where the velocities of the gas (velocities of the particles in the gas) are not very large.

  9. In vitro cytokine release from rat type II pneumocytes and alveolar macrophages following exposure to JP-8 jet fuel in co-culture.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shengjun; Young, R Scotte; Sun, Nina N; Witten, Mark L

    2002-05-01

    Alveolar type II epithelial cells (AIIE) and pulmonary alveolar macrophages (PAM) are involved in pulmonary toxicity of JP-8 jet fuel exposure. To further elucidate their inflammatory mechanisms, the effect(s) of JP-8 jet fuel on cytokine secretion were examined in a transformed rat AIIE cell line (RLE-6TN) culture alone, primary PAM (from Fischer 344 rats) culture alone, and the co-culture of AIIE and primary PAM. A series of JP-8 jet fuel concentrations (0-0.8 microg/ml), which may actually be encountered in alveolar space of lungs exposed in vivo, were placed in cell culture for 24 h. Cultured AIIE alone secreted spontaneously interleukin (IL)-1beta and -6 [below detectable limits for IL-10 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha)], whereas cultured PAM alone secreted IL-1beta, -10, and TNF-alpha, in a concentration-dependent manner. These data suggest that the release of cytokines, not only from PAM but also from AIIE cells, may contribute to JP-8 jet fuel-induced inflammatory response in the alveolar space. However, the co-cultures of AIIE and PAM showed no significant changes in IL-1beta, -6, and TNF-alpha at any JP-8 jet fuel concentration compared to control values. These cytokine levels in co-cultures of AIIE and PAM were inversely related to these of cultured AIIE or PAM alone. Interestingly, IL-10 levels in the co-culture system were concentration-dependently increased up to 1058% at JP-8 concentrations of 0.8 microg/ml, although under detectable limits in cultured AIIE alone and no significant concentration change in cultured PAM alone. It appears that PAM may possibly act via paracrine and/or autocrine pathways to signal AIIE cells to regulate cytokine release.

  10. Bioavailability and Chemical/Functional Aspects of Synthetic MK-7 vs Fermentation-Derived MK-7 in Randomised Controlled Trials.

    PubMed

    Møller, Mona; Gjelstad, Ingrid M Fange; Baksaas, Ingebjørg; Grande, Tone; Aukrust, Inger Reidun; Drevon, Christian A

    2016-07-04

    We investigated the bioavailability of a synthetic form of the vitamin K2 molecule menaquinone-7 (MK-7) in a randomised single-blinded two-way cross-over study. Healthy subjects (20 - 66 years of age) took a single 180 μg dose of synthetic MK-7 or fermentation-derived MK-7, and serum MK-7 concentrations were monitored for 72 hours to calculate AUC(0 - 72 h) and Cmax. We also compared the biological effects of placebo, fermentation-derived MK-7 (90 μg) and 3 doses of synthetic MK-7(45, 90 and 180 μg) in a randomised double-blinded parallel study. Healthy subjects (20 - 60 years of age) took one of the supplements daily for 43 days, and the fraction of carboxylated osteocalcin (OC) was compared between day 1 and day 43 as a marker for vitamin K activity. In the bioavailability study, the 90 % confidence interval for the ratio of the AUC(0-72 h) values for synthetic and fermentationderived MK-7 was 83 - 111, indicating bioequivalence. The 90 % confidence interval for the Cmax ratio was 83 - 131. The serum concentrations of carboxylated OC and undercarboxylated OC were increased (p = 0.01) and reduced (p = 0.02), respectively, after daily intake of 180 μg of synthetic MK-7 for 43 days, indicating increased vitamin K activity. Across both studies, only 1 participant reported an adverse event (dry mouth; 180 μg synthetic MK-7 group, functional study) that was considered possibly related to synthetic MK-7 supplementation. Our findings provide evidence that the tested synthetic form of MK-7 is bioequivalent to fermentation-derived MK-7, exhibits vitamin K activity and is well tolerated in healthy subjects.

  11. The discovery of the potent aurora inhibitor MK-0457 (VX-680).

    PubMed

    Bebbington, David; Binch, Hayley; Charrier, Jean-Damien; Everitt, Simon; Fraysse, Damien; Golec, Julian; Kay, David; Knegtel, Ronald; Mak, Chau; Mazzei, Francesca; Miller, Andrew; Mortimore, Michael; O'Donnell, Michael; Patel, Sanjay; Pierard, Francoise; Pinder, Joanne; Pollard, John; Ramaya, Sharn; Robinson, Daniel; Rutherford, Alistair; Studley, John; Westcott, James

    2009-07-01

    The identification of a novel series of Aurora kinase inhibitors and exploitation of their SAR is described. Replacement of the initial quinazoline core with a pyrimidine scaffold and modification of substituents led to a series of very potent inhibitors of cellular proliferation. MK-0457 (VX-680) has been assessed in Phase II clinical trials in patients with treatment-refractory chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) or Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia (Ph+ALL) containing the T315I mutation.

  12. A Case Study of the MK 16 MOD O Underwater Breathing Apparatus Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-06-01

    7 COS4aII CODES 18 SuBEC T LERMS Contrinue on reverse it ne(csay and ,dvnrjt1 b) block number) FIELD GRO)P SIUBGROUP Explosive Ordnance...protection the mission profile of the MK 16 would be severely restricted. 27 The NAVEODTECHCEN pier on the Potomac River was chosen as the T&E site due to its

  13. Blob Formation and Ejection in Coronal Jets due to the Plasmoid and Kelvin-Helmholtz Instabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Lei; Zhang, Qing-Min; Murphy, Nicholas A.; Lin, Jun

    2017-05-01

    We perform 2D resistive magnetohydrodynamic simulations of coronal jets driven by flux emergence along the lower boundary. The reconnection layers are susceptible to the formation of blobs that are ejected in the jet. Our simulation with low plasma β (Case I) shows that magnetic islands form easily and propagate upward in the jet. These islands are multithermal and thus are predicted to show up in hot channels (335 Å and 211 Å) and the cool channel (304 Å) in observations by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on the Solar Dynamics Observatory. The islands have maximum temperatures of 8 MK, lifetimes of 120 s, diameters of 6 Mm, and velocities of 200 km s-1. These parameters are similar to the properties of blobs observed in extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) jets by AIA. The Kelvin-Helmholtz instability develops in our simulation with moderately high plasma β (Case II) and leads to the formation of bright vortex-like blobs above the multiple high magnetosonic Mach number regions that appear along the jet. These vortex-like blobs can also be identified in the AIA channels. However, they eventually move downward and disappear after the high magnetosonic Mach number regions disappear. In the lower plasma β case, the lifetime for the jet is shorter, the jet and magnetic islands are formed with higher velocities and temperatures, the current-sheet fragments are more chaotic, and more magnetic islands are generated. Our results show that the plasmoid instability and Kelvin-Helmholtz instability along the jet are both possible causes of the formation of blobs observed at EUV wavelengths.

  14. Twin Jet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, Brenda; Bozak, Rick

    2010-01-01

    Many subsonic and supersonic vehicles in the current fleet have multiple engines mounted near one another. Some future vehicle concepts may use innovative propulsion systems such as distributed propulsion which will result in multiple jets mounted in close proximity. Engine configurations with multiple jets have the ability to exploit jet-by-jet shielding which may significantly reduce noise. Jet-by-jet shielding is the ability of one jet to shield noise that is emitted by another jet. The sensitivity of jet-by-jet shielding to jet spacing and simulated flight stream Mach number are not well understood. The current experiment investigates the impact of jet spacing, jet operating condition, and flight stream Mach number on the noise radiated from subsonic and supersonic twin jets.

  15. Measurement of the Inclusive Jet Cross Section using the k(T) algorithm in p anti-p collisions at s**(1/2) = 1.96-TeV with the CDF II Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Abulencia, A.; Adelman, J.; Affolder, Anthony Allen; Akimoto, T.; Albrow, Michael G.; Ambrose, D.; Amerio, S.; Amidei, Dante E.; Anastassov, A.; Anikeev, Konstantin; Annovi, A.; /Frascati /Comenius U.

    2007-01-01

    The authors report on measurements of the inclusive jet production cross section as a function of the jet transverse momentum in p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV, using the k{sub T} algorithm and a data sample corresponding to 1.0 fb{sup -1} collected with the Collider Detector at Fermilab in Run II. The measurements are carried out in five different jet rapidity regions with |y{sup jet}| < 2.1 and transverse momentum in the range 54 < p{sub T}{sup jet} < 700 GeV/c. Next-to-leading order perturbative QCD predictions are in good agreement with the measured cross sections.

  16. Search for Anomalous Production of Photon + Jets + Missing Transverse Energy in $p\\bar{p}$ Collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=1.96$~TeV Using the CDF II Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Hewamanage, Samantha Kaushalya

    2011-01-01

    A model-independent signature-based search for physics beyond the Standard Model is performed in the photon + jets + missing transverse energy channel in \\ppbar collisions at a center of mass energy of 1.96 TeV using the CDF II detector. Events with a photon + jets are predicted by the Standard Model and also by many theoretical models beyond the Standard Model. In the Standard Model, the main mechanisms for photon + jets production include quark-antiquark annihilation and quark-gluon scattering. No intrinsic missing transverse energy is present in any of these Standard Model processes. In this search, photon + $\\geq$1 jet and photon + $\\geq$2 jet events are analyzed with and without a minimum requirement on the missing transverse energy. Numerous mass distributions and kinematic distributions are studied and no significant excess over the background prediction is found. All results indicate good agreement with expectations of the Standard Model.

  17. MK-2206 sensitizes BRCA-deficient epithelial ovarian adenocarcinoma to cisplatin and olaparib.

    PubMed

    Whicker, Margaret E; Lin, Z Ping; Hanna, Ruth; Sartorelli, Alan C; Ratner, Elena S

    2016-07-27

    Platinum resistance is a major obstacle in the treatment of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Activation of the AKT pathway promotes platinum resistance while inhibition of AKT sensitizes chemoresistant cells. Patients with BRCA mutant EOC, and thus a defect in the homologous recombination (HR) repair pathway, demonstrate greater clinical response to platinum and olaparib therapy than patients with BRCA wild-type EOC. MK-2206, an allosteric inhibitor of AKT phosphorylation, sensitizes a variety of cell types to various anticancer agents and is currently undergoing phase II trials as monotherapy for platinum-resistant ovarian, fallopian tube, and peritoneal cancer. This study examines the differential effects of AKT inhibition with cisplatin and olaparib therapy in BRCA1/2-deficient versus wild-type EOC. PEO1, a chemosensitive BRCA2-mutant serous ovarian adenocarcinoma, and PEO4, a reverted BRCA2-proficient line from the same patient after the development of chemotherapeutic resistance, were primarily used for the study. In PEO1, MK-2206 demonstrated moderate to strong synergism with cisplatin and olaparib at all doses, while demonstrating antagonism at all doses in PEO4. Baseline phospho-AKT activity in untreated cells was upregulated in both BRCA1- and 2-deficient cell lines. MK-2206 prevented cisplatin- and olaparib-induced AKT activation in the BRCA2-deficient PEO1 cells. We propose that BRCA-deficient EOC cells upregulate baseline AKT activity to enhance survival in the absence of HR. Higher AKT activity is also required to withstand cytotoxic agent-induced DNA damage, leading to strong synergism between MK-2206 and cisplatin or olaparib therapy in BRCA-deficient cells. MK-2206 shows promise as a chemosensitization agent in BRCA-deficient EOC and merits clinical investigation in this patient population.

  18. A computational study on thiourea analogs as potent MK-2 inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Hao, Ming; Ren, Hong; Luo, Fang; Zhang, Shuwei; Qiu, Jieshan; Ji, Mingjuan; Si, Hongzong; Li, Guohui

    2012-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase 2 (MK-2) has been identified as a drug target for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. Currently, a series of thiourea analogs as potent MK-2 inhibitors were studied using comprehensive computational methods by 3D-QSAR, molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulations for a further improvement in activities. The optimal 3D models exhibit high statistical significance of the results, especially for the CoMFA results with r(2) (ncv), q(2) values of 0.974, 0.536 for the internal validation, and r(2) (pred), r(2) (m) values of 0.910, 0.723 for the external validation and Roy's index, respectively. In addition, more rigorous validation criteria suggested by Tropsha were also employed to check the built models. Graphic representation of the results, as contoured 3D coefficient plots, also provides a clue to the reasonable modification of molecules: (i) The substituent with a bulky size and electron-rich group at the C5 position of the pyrazine ring is required to enhance the potency; (ii) The H-bond acceptor group in the C3 position of the pyrazine ring is likely to be helpful to increase MK-2 inhibition; (iii) The small and electropositive substituent as a hydrogen bond donor of the C2 position in the oxazolone ring is favored; In addition, several important amino acid residues were also identified as playing an important role in MK-2 inhibition. The agreement between 3D-QSAR, molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulations also proves the rationality of the developed models. These results, we hope, may be helpful in designing novel and potential MK-2 inhibitors.

  19. A Computational Study on Thiourea Analogs as Potent MK-2 Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Ming; Ren, Hong; Luo, Fang; Zhang, Shuwei; Qiu, Jieshan; Ji, Mingjuan; Si, Hongzong; Li, Guohui

    2012-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase 2 (MK-2) has been identified as a drug target for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. Currently, a series of thiourea analogs as potent MK-2 inhibitors were studied using comprehensive computational methods by 3D-QSAR, molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulations for a further improvement in activities. The optimal 3D models exhibit high statistical significance of the results, especially for the CoMFA results with r2ncv, q2 values of 0.974, 0.536 for the internal validation, and r2pred, r2m values of 0.910, 0.723 for the external validation and Roy’s index, respectively. In addition, more rigorous validation criteria suggested by Tropsha were also employed to check the built models. Graphic representation of the results, as contoured 3D coefficient plots, also provides a clue to the reasonable modification of molecules: (i) The substituent with a bulky size and electron-rich group at the C5 position of the pyrazine ring is required to enhance the potency; (ii) The H-bond acceptor group in the C3 position of the pyrazine ring is likely to be helpful to increase MK-2 inhibition; (iii) The small and electropositive substituent as a hydrogen bond donor of the C2 position in the oxazolone ring is favored; In addition, several important amino acid residues were also identified as playing an important role in MK-2 inhibition. The agreement between 3D-QSAR, molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulations also proves the rationality of the developed models. These results, we hope, may be helpful in designing novel and potential MK-2 inhibitors. PMID:22837679

  20. Impingement heat transfer within arrays of circular jets. II - Effects of crossflow in the presence of roughness elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trabold, T. A.; Obot, N. T.

    1987-05-01

    An experimental investigation was carried out to determine the effects of jet-induced crossflow on impingement heat transfer from rough surfaces. The jets impinged on surfaces having repeated square ribs, with transverse flow of the spent air. Two crossflow schemes were tested: discharge of the spent air through two opposite sides (intermediate crossflow) and through one side (complete or maximum crossflow) of the rectangular impingement surface. The rib height was fixed at 0.813 mm, while the pitch-to-height ratio (p/e) was varied between 6 and 10. The study covered standoff spacing and jet Reynolds number in the range 2 to 16 jet hole diameters and, 1300 to 21,000, respectively. Three nozzle plates, having 48, 90 and 180 square-edged holes, were tested. For the maximum crossflow scheme, the presence of roughness results in small upstream reductions in heat transfer coefficient, with marked improvement in the downstream section; indicating that roughness elements can be used to compensate for the degradation that is usually associated with impingement on smooth surfaces.

  1. Complete multiwavelength evolution of galactic black hole transients during outburst decay. II. Compact jets and X-ray variability properties

    SciTech Connect

    Dinçer, T.; Kalemci, E.; Tomsick, J. A.; Buxton, M. M.; Bailyn, C. D.

    2014-11-01

    We investigated the relation between compact jet emission and X-ray variability properties of all black hole transients with multiwavelength coverage during their outburst decays. We studied the evolution of all power spectral components (including low-frequency quasi-periodic oscillations; QPOs), and related this evolution to changes in jet properties tracked by radio and infrared observations. We grouped sources according to their tracks in the radio/X-ray luminosity relation and show that the standards show stronger broadband X-ray variability than outliers at a given X-ray luminosity when the compact jet turns on. This trend is consistent with the internal shock model and can be important for the understanding of the presence of tracks in the radio/X-ray luminosity relation. We also observed that the total and the QPO rms amplitudes increase together during the earlier part of the outburst decay, but after the compact jet turns, either the QPO disappears or its rms amplitude decreases significantly while the total rms amplitudes remain high. We discuss these results with a scenario including a variable corona and a non-variable disk with a mechanism for the QPO separate from the mechanism that creates broad components. Finally, we evaluated the timing predictions of the magnetically dominated accretion flow model that can explain the presence of tracks in the radio/X-ray luminosity relation.

  2. Jet shielding of jet noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simonich, J. C.; Amiet, R. K.; Schlinker, R. H.

    1986-01-01

    An experimental and theoretical study was conducted to develop a validated first principle analysis for predicting the jet noise reduction achieved by shielding one jet exhaust flow with a second, closely spaced, identical jet flow. A generalized fuel jet noise analytical model was formulated in which the acoustic radiation from a source jet propagates through the velocity and temperature discontinuity of the adjacent shielding jet. Input variables to the prediction procedure include jet Mach number, spacing, temperature, diameter, and source frequency. Refraction, diffraction, and reflection effects, which control the dual jet directivity pattern, are incorporated in the theory. The analysis calculates the difference in sound pressure level between the dual jet configuration and the radiation field based on superimposing two independent jet noise directivity patterns. Jet shielding was found experimentally to reduce noise levels in the common plane of the dual jet system relative to the noise generated by two independent jets.

  3. Measurement of the $W+$ jets differential cross-sections in $p\\bar{p}$ collisions at $\\sqrt{s} = 1.96$ TeV using the CDF II Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Driutti, Anna

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis the measurements of differential cross sections for the production of the $W$-boson in association with jets in $p\\bar{p}$ collisions at $\\sqrt{s} = 1.96$ TeV are presented. The measurements are based on 9.0 fb$^{-1}$ of CDF Run II data (i.e., the full dataset). Only events in which the W-boson decays leptonically (i.e., W → ev and W → μv)and at least one jet is present are considered. The lepton candidates are required to have a transverse energy $E^{\\ell}_T > 25$GeV and pseudorapidity in the range |n| < 1 whereas, the jets are reconstructed using the JETCLU algorithm with a radius of 0.4 requiring transverse energy $E^{jet}_T > 25$GeV and pseudorapidity in the range |ηjet| < 2. The reconstructed W-boson transverse mass should be greater than 40GeV/c2. The differential cross sections as a function of the jet multiplicity ($N$ > or = to 1, 2, 3, 4) and the leading jet transverse energy, are measured separately for each decay channel and then combined. For a meaningful comparison with theory the measured cross-sections are unfolded to remove detector effects. The resulting particle-level cross-sections are compared to theoretical predictions.

  4. Nanoelectronic primary thermometry below 4 mK.

    PubMed

    Bradley, D I; George, R E; Gunnarsson, D; Haley, R P; Heikkinen, H; Pashkin, Yu A; Penttilä, J; Prance, J R; Prunnila, M; Roschier, L; Sarsby, M

    2016-01-27

    Cooling nanoelectronic structures to millikelvin temperatures presents extreme challenges in maintaining thermal contact between the electrons in the device and an external cold bath. It is typically found that when nanoscale devices are cooled to ∼ 10 mK the electrons are significantly overheated. Here we report the cooling of electrons in nanoelectronic Coulomb blockade thermometers below 4 mK. The low operating temperature is attributed to an optimized design that incorporates cooling fins with a high electron-phonon coupling and on-chip electronic filters, combined with low-noise electronic measurements. By immersing a Coulomb blockade thermometer in the (3)He/(4)He refrigerant of a dilution refrigerator, we measure a lowest electron temperature of 3.7 mK and a trend to a saturated electron temperature approaching 3 mK. This work demonstrates how nanoelectronic samples can be cooled further into the low-millikelvin range.

  5. DARK JETS IN SOLAR CORONAL HOLES

    SciTech Connect

    Young, Peter R.

    2015-03-10

    A new solar feature termed a dark jet is identified from observations of an extended solar coronal hole that was continuously monitored for over 44 hr by the Extreme Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer on board the Hinode spacecraft in 2011 February 8–10 as part of Hinode Operation Plan No. 177 (HOP 177). Line of sight (LOS) velocity maps derived from the coronal Fe xii λ195.12 emission line, formed at 1.5 MK, revealed a number of large-scale, jet-like structures that showed significant blueshifts. The structures had either weak or no intensity signal in 193 Å filter images from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory, suggesting that the jets are essentially invisible to imaging instruments. The dark jets are rooted in bright points and occur both within the coronal hole and at the quiet Sun–coronal hole boundary. They exhibit a wide range of shapes, from narrow columns to fan-shaped structures, and sometimes multiple jets are seen close together. A detailed study of one dark jet showed LOS speeds increasing along the jet axis from 52 to 107 km s{sup −1} and a temperature of 1.2–1.3 MK. The low intensity of the jet was due either to a small filling factor of 2% or to a curtain-like morphology. From the HOP 177 sample, dark jets are as common as regular coronal hole jets, but their low intensity suggests a mass flux around two orders of magnitude lower.

  6. Multiple scattering of light in a spherical cometary atmosphere with an axisymmetric dust jet. II - Image simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chick, Kenneth M.; Gombosi, Tamas I.

    1993-01-01

    A numerical solution for the multiple light scattering in spherical axisymmetric geometry is applied to the simulation of images of a coma as it would appear to a near-flying satellite such as Giotto. The appearance of symmetric comas and dust jets is examined in detail; the nucleus visibility is studied; the effect of forward scattering is considered; and single and multiple scattering effects are quantified. Attention is given to simulated images of a coma with a hollow cone of dust, as predicted by dust-gas hydrodynamic modeling. The cone's appearance is very similar to the northern area of activity on Comet Halley, observed by the Giotto HMC.

  7. Multiple scattering of light in a spherical cometary atmosphere with an axisymmetric dust jet. II - Image simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chick, Kenneth M.; Gombosi, Tamas I.

    1993-01-01

    A numerical solution for the multiple light scattering in spherical axisymmetric geometry is applied to the simulation of images of a coma as it would appear to a near-flying satellite such as Giotto. The appearance of symmetric comas and dust jets is examined in detail; the nucleus visibility is studied; the effect of forward scattering is considered; and single and multiple scattering effects are quantified. Attention is given to simulated images of a coma with a hollow cone of dust, as predicted by dust-gas hydrodynamic modeling. The cone's appearance is very similar to the northern area of activity on Comet Halley, observed by the Giotto HMC.

  8. The impact of dynamic data assimilation on the numerical simulations of the QE II cyclone and an analysis of the jet streak influencing the precyclogenetic environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manobianco, John; Uccellini, Louis W.; Brill, Keith F.; Kuo, Ying-Hwa

    1992-01-01

    A mesoscale numerical model is combined with a dynamic data assimilation via Newtonian relaxation, or 'nudging', to provide initial conditions for subsequent simulations of the QE II cyclone. Both the nudging technique and the inclusion of supplementary data are shown to have a large positive impact on the simulation of the QE II cyclone during the initial phase of rapid cyclone development. Within the initial development period (from 1200 to 1800 UTC 9 September 1978), the dynamic assimilation of operational and bogus data yields a coherent two-layer divergence pattern that is not well defined in the model run using only the operational data and static initialization. Diagnostic analysis based on the simulations show that the initial development of the QE II storm between 0000 UTC 9 September and 0000 UTC 10 September was embedded within an indirect circulation of an intense 300-hPa jet streak, was related to baroclinic processes extending throughout a deep portion of the troposphere, and was associated with a classic two-layer mass-divergence profile expected for an extratropical cyclone.

  9. The impact of dynamic data assimilation on the numerical simulations of the QE II cyclone and an analysis of the jet streak influencing the precyclogenetic environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manobianco, John; Uccellini, Louis W.; Brill, Keith F.; Kuo, Ying-Hwa

    1992-01-01

    A mesoscale numerical model is combined with a dynamic data assimilation via Newtonian relaxation, or 'nudging', to provide initial conditions for subsequent simulations of the QE II cyclone. Both the nudging technique and the inclusion of supplementary data are shown to have a large positive impact on the simulation of the QE II cyclone during the initial phase of rapid cyclone development. Within the initial development period (from 1200 to 1800 UTC 9 September 1978), the dynamic assimilation of operational and bogus data yields a coherent two-layer divergence pattern that is not well defined in the model run using only the operational data and static initialization. Diagnostic analysis based on the simulations show that the initial development of the QE II storm between 0000 UTC 9 September and 0000 UTC 10 September was embedded within an indirect circulation of an intense 300-hPa jet streak, was related to baroclinic processes extending throughout a deep portion of the troposphere, and was associated with a classic two-layer mass-divergence profile expected for an extratropical cyclone.

  10. Jetting tool

    SciTech Connect

    Szarka, D.D.; Schwegman, S.L.

    1991-07-09

    This patent describes an apparatus for hydraulically jetting a well tool disposed in a well, the well tool having a sliding member. It comprises positioner means for operably engaging the sliding member of the well tool; and a jetting means, connected at a rotatable connection to the positioner means so that the jetting means is rotatable relative to the positioner means and the well tool, for hydraulically jetting the well tool as the jetting means is rotated relative thereto.

  11. Interrogating two schedules of the AKT inhibitor MK-2206 in patients with advanced solid tumors incorporating novel pharmacodynamic and functional imaging biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Yap, Timothy A.; Yan, Li; Patnaik, Amita; Tunariu, Nina; Biondo, Andrea; Fearen, Ivy; Papadopoulos, Kyriakos P.; Olmos, David; Baird, Richard; Delgado, Liliana; Tetteh, Ernestina; Beckman, Robert A.; Lupinacci, Lisa; Riisnaes, Ruth; Decordova, Shaun; Heaton, Simon P.; Swales, Karen; deSouza, Nandita M; Leach, Martin O.; Garrett, Michelle D.; Sullivan, Daniel M.; de Bono, Johann S.; Tolcher, Anthony W.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Multiple cancers harbor genetic aberrations that impact AKT signaling. MK-2206 is a potent pan-AKT inhibitor with a maximum tolerated dose (MTD) previously established at 60mg on alternate days (QOD). Due to a long half-life (60-80h), a weekly (QW) MK-2206 schedule was pursued to compare intermittent QW and continuous QOD dosing. Experimental Design Patients with advanced cancers were enrolled onto a QW dose-escalation phase I study to investigate the safety and pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic profiles of tumor and platelet-rich plasma (PRP). The QOD MTD of MK-2206 was also assessed in patients with ovarian and castration-resistant prostate cancers, and patients with advanced cancers undergoing multiparametric functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies, including dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI, diffusion-weighted imaging, magnetic resonance spectroscopy and intrinsic susceptibility-weighted MRI. Results Seventy-one patients were enrolled; 38 patients had 60mg MK-2206 QOD, while 33 received MK-2206 at 90mg, 135mg, 150mg, 200mg, 250mg, and 300mg QW. The QW MK-2206 MTD was established at 200mg following dose-limiting rash at 250mg and 300mg. QW dosing appeared to be similarly tolerated to QOD, with toxicities including rash, gastrointestinal symptoms, fatigue, and hyperglycemia. Significant AKT pathway blockade was observed with both continuous QOD and intermittent QW dosing of MK-2206 in serially-obtained tumor and PRP specimens. The functional imaging studies demonstrated that complex multiparametric MRI protocols may be effectively implemented in a phase I trial. Conclusions MK-2206 safely results in significant AKT pathway blockade in QOD and QW schedules. The intermittent dose of 200mg QW is currently used in phase II MK-2206 monotherapy and combination studies. PMID:25239610

  12. W + jet production at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Messina, Andrea; /INFN, Rome

    2006-10-01

    A measurement of W {yields} e{nu} + n-jet cross sections in p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV using the Collider Detector at Fermilab in Run II (CDF II) is presented. The measurement is based on an integrated luminosity of 320 pb{sup -1}, and includes events with up to 4 or more jets. In each jet multiplicity sample the differential and cumulative cross sections with respect to the transverse energy of the i{sup th} jet are measured. For W+ {ge} 2 jets the differential cross section with respect to the 2-leading jets invariant mass m{sub j{sub 1}j{sub 2}} and angural separation {Delta} R{sub j{sub 1}j{sub 2}} is also reported. The data are compared to predictions from Monte Carlo simulations.

  13. Modifications of inhibitory transmission onto pyramidal neurons by postnatal exposure to MK-801: Effects of enriched environment.

    PubMed

    Shojaei, Amir; Anaraki, Afsaneh Kamali; Mirnajafi-Zadeh, Javad; Atapour, Nafiseh

    2017-04-01

    Early enriched environment (EE) prevents several deficits associated with postnatal MK-801 [N-Methyl-d-Aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist] treatment such as cognitive and locomotor deficits. We sought physiological correlates to such changes by looking at inhibitory synaptic inputs onto pyramidal cells in a prefrontal cortex slice preparation. Pharmacologically isolated γ-amino-butyric acid A (GABAA) receptor-mediated currents were measured using whole-cell patch clamp recordings. Wistar rats were raised in standard or EE from birth up to the time of experiments and were injected with saline or MK-801 (1mg/kg) on postnatal days (P) 6-10. We recorded miniature inhibitory post-synaptic currents (mIPSCs) of pyramidal cells in layer II/III of prefrontal cortex and measured their frequency, amplitude and kinetics. In control animals, the amplitude and frequency of mIPSCs increased strikingly during development from P21 to P28. MK-801 accelerated the development of mIPSCs frequency but caused a significant decrease in the amplitude of mIPSCs on P28 suggesting a significant reduction of inhibition onto pyramidal cells. EE per se led to a significant increase in both frequency and amplitude of mIPSCs, but its application to MK-801-treated rats resulted in moderate rescue of GABAergic transmission on P28. We conclude that postnatal MK-801 leads to reduced inhibitory transmission onto pyramidal cells of prefrontal cortex at adolescence which may underlie behavioural and morphological differences detected in vivo in rats. EE presentation from birth rather prevents GABAergic alterations associated with postnatal MK-801 treatment at adolescence.

  14. Analysis of Performance of Jet Engine from Characteristics of Components II : Interaction of Components as Determined from Engine Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, Arthur W; Alpert, Sumner; Beede, William; Kovach, Karl

    1949-01-01

    In order to understand the operation and the interaction of jet-engine components during engine operation and to determine how component characteristics may be used to compute engine performance, a method to analyze and to estimate performance of such engines was devised and applied to the study of the characteristics of a research turbojet engine built for this investigation. An attempt was made to correlate turbine performance obtained from engine experiments with that obtained by the simpler procedure of separately calibrating the turbine with cold air as a driving fluid in order to investigate the applicability of component calibration. The system of analysis was also applied to prediction of the engine and component performance with assumed modifications of the burner and bearing characteristics, to prediction of component and engine operation during engine acceleration, and to estimates of the performance of the engine and the components when the exhaust gas was used to drive a power turbine.

  15. Sound generated by instability waves of supersonic flows. I Two-dimensional mixing layers. II - Axisymmetric jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tam, C. K. W.; Burton, D. E.

    1984-01-01

    An investigation is conducted of the phenomenon of sound generation by spatially growing instability waves in high-speed flows. It is pointed out that this process of noise generation is most effective when the flow is supersonic relative to the ambient speed of sound. The inner and outer asymptotic expansions corresponding to an excited instability wave in a two-dimensional mixing layer and its associated acoustic fields are constructed in terms of the inner and outer spatial variables. In matching the solutions, the intermediate matching principle of Van Dyke and Cole is followed. The validity of the theory is tested by applying it to an axisymmetric supersonic jet and comparing the calculated results with experimental measurements. Very favorable agreements are found both in the calculated instability-wave amplitude distribution (the inner solution) and the near pressure field level contours (the outer solution) in each case.

  16. Sound generated by instability waves of supersonic flows. I Two-dimensional mixing layers. II - Axisymmetric jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tam, C. K. W.; Burton, D. E.

    1984-01-01

    An investigation is conducted of the phenomenon of sound generation by spatially growing instability waves in high-speed flows. It is pointed out that this process of noise generation is most effective when the flow is supersonic relative to the ambient speed of sound. The inner and outer asymptotic expansions corresponding to an excited instability wave in a two-dimensional mixing layer and its associated acoustic fields are constructed in terms of the inner and outer spatial variables. In matching the solutions, the intermediate matching principle of Van Dyke and Cole is followed. The validity of the theory is tested by applying it to an axisymmetric supersonic jet and comparing the calculated results with experimental measurements. Very favorable agreements are found both in the calculated instability-wave amplitude distribution (the inner solution) and the near pressure field level contours (the outer solution) in each case.

  17. Measurement of the WW+WZ Production Cross Section Using the Lepton+Jets Final State at CDF II

    SciTech Connect

    Aaltonen, T.; Adelman, J.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Amerio, S.; Amidei, D.; Anastassov, A.; Annovi, A.; Antos, J.; Apollinari, G.; Apresyan, A.; Arisawa, T.; /Waseda U. /Dubna, JINR

    2009-11-01

    We report two complementary measurements of the diboson (WW + WZ) cross section in the final state consisting of an electron or muon, missing transverse energy, and jets, performed using p{bar p} collision data at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV collected by the Collider Detector at Fermilab. The first method uses the dijet invariant mass distribution while the second method uses more of the kinematic information in the event through matrix-element calculations of the signal and background processes and has a higher sensitivity. The result from the second method has a signal significance of 5.4{sigma} and is the first observation of WW + WZ production using this signature. Combining the results from both methods gives {sigma}{sub WW+WZ} = 16.0 {+-} 3.3 pb, in agreement with the standard model prediction.

  18. Use of a Ni60Ti shape memory alloy for active jet engine chevron application: II. Experimentally validated numerical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartl, D. J.; Mooney, J. T.; Lagoudas, D. C.; Calkins, F. T.; Mabe, J. H.

    2010-01-01

    A shape memory alloy (SMA) composition of Ni60Ti40 (wt%) was chosen for the fabrication of active beam components used as cyclic actuators and incorporated into morphing aerospace structures. The active structure is a variable-geometry chevron (VGC) designed to reduce jet engine noise in the take-off flight regime while maintaining efficiency in the cruise regime. This two-part work addresses the training, characterization and derived material properties of the new nickel-rich NiTi composition, the assessment of the actuation properties of the active beam actuator and the accurate analysis of the VGC and its subcomponents using a model calibrated from the material characterization. The second part of this two-part work focuses on the numerical modeling of the jet engine chevron application, where the end goal is the accurate prediction of the VGC actuation response. A three-dimensional (3D) thermomechanical constitutive model is used for the analysis and is calibrated using the axial testing results from part I. To best capture the material response, features of several SMA constitutive models proposed in the literature are combined to form a new model that accounts for two material behaviors not previously addressed simultaneously. These are the variation in the generated maximum actuation strain with applied stress level and a smooth strain-temperature constitutive response at the beginning and end of transformation. The accuracy of the modeling effort is assessed by comparing the analysis deflection predictions for a given loading path imposed on the VGC or its subcomponents to independently obtained experimental results consisting of photogrammetric data. For the case of full actuation of the assembled VGC, the average error in predicted centerline deflection is less than 6%.

  19. Rolipram attenuates MK-801-induced deficits in latent inhibition.

    PubMed

    Davis, Jennifer A; Gould, Thomas J

    2005-04-01

    Latent inhibition is used to examine attention and study cognitive deficits associated with schizophrenia. Research using MK-801, an N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) open channel blocker, implicates glutamate receptors in acquisition of latent inhibition of cued fear conditioning. Evidence suggests an important relationship between NMDA-induced increases in cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and learning and memory. The authors examine whether amplification of the cAMP signaling pathway by rolipram, a selective Type 4 cAMP phosphodiesterase inhibitor, reverses MK-801-induced impairments in latent inhibition. One day before training, mice were injected with MK-801, rolipram, MK-801 and rolipram, or vehicle and received 20 preexposures or no preexposures to an auditory conditioned stimulus (CS). Training consisted of 2 CS-footshock unconditioned stimulus pairings. Rolipram attenuated the disruptive effect of MK-801 on latent inhibition, which suggests a role for the cAMP signaling pathway in the task and implicates phosphodiesterase inhibition as a target for treating cognitive impairments associated with schizophrenia.

  20. Clinical physiology and mechanism of dizocilpine (MK-801)

    PubMed Central

    Somanathan, Ratnasamy

    2010-01-01

    Dizocilpine (MK-801), an extensively investigated drug possessing secondary amine and benzenoid functions, displays a wide array of biological properties, including anticonvulsant and anesthetic. There is scant discussion of biomechanism. A relevant, important finding is formation of oxidative metabolites in the hydroxylamine and phenolic categories. Analogy to cocaine metabolites suggests participation of redox entities, such as, hydroxylamine, nitroxide and nitrosonium, which can lead to electron transfer and radical formation. There is also similarity to metabolism by 3,3′-iminodipropionitrile and phencyclidine. Alternatively, the phenolic metabolites are well-known precursors of ET quinones. The review documents various physiological effects, mainly involving the central nervous system. Also of interest are the pro- and anti-oxidant properties. Considerable attention has been paid to MK-801 as an antagonist of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor in the glutamate category. This aspect is often associated with effects on the central nervous system. The review also provides recent literature dealing with MK-801/NMDA receptor in various areas of bioactivity. Studies were made of MK-801 involvement in working memory processing. Deficits in behavior were noted after administration of the drug. Treatment of mice with dizocilpine induced learning impairment. The influence of MK-801 on fear has been investigated. The substance is known to exert an analgesic effect in pain control. A number of reports deal with anesthetic properties. PMID:20716924

  1. Fuzzy jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackey, Lester; Nachman, Benjamin; Schwartzman, Ariel; Stansbury, Conrad

    2016-06-01

    Collimated streams of particles produced in high energy physics experiments are organized using clustering algorithms to form jets. To construct jets, the experimental collaborations based at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) primarily use agglomerative hierarchical clustering schemes known as sequential recombination. We propose a new class of algorithms for clustering jets that use infrared and collinear safe mixture models. These new algorithms, known as fuzzy jets, are clustered using maximum likelihood techniques and can dynamically determine various properties of jets like their size. We show that the fuzzy jet size adds additional information to conventional jet tagging variables in boosted topologies. Furthermore, we study the impact of pileup and show that with some slight modifications to the algorithm, fuzzy jets can be stable up to high pileup interaction multiplicities.

  2. Fuzzy jets

    DOE PAGES

    Mackey, Lester; Nachman, Benjamin; Schwartzman, Ariel; ...

    2016-06-01

    Collimated streams of particles produced in high energy physics experiments are organized using clustering algorithms to form jets . To construct jets, the experimental collaborations based at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) primarily use agglomerative hierarchical clustering schemes known as sequential recombination. We propose a new class of algorithms for clustering jets that use infrared and collinear safe mixture models. These new algorithms, known as fuzzy jets , are clustered using maximum likelihood techniques and can dynamically determine various properties of jets like their size. We show that the fuzzy jet size adds additional information to conventional jet tagging variablesmore » in boosted topologies. Furthermore, we study the impact of pileup and show that with some slight modifications to the algorithm, fuzzy jets can be stable up to high pileup interaction multiplicities.« less

  3. Fuzzy jets

    SciTech Connect

    Mackey, Lester; Nachman, Benjamin; Schwartzman, Ariel; Stansbury, Conrad

    2016-06-01

    Collimated streams of particles produced in high energy physics experiments are organized using clustering algorithms to form jets . To construct jets, the experimental collaborations based at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) primarily use agglomerative hierarchical clustering schemes known as sequential recombination. We propose a new class of algorithms for clustering jets that use infrared and collinear safe mixture models. These new algorithms, known as fuzzy jets , are clustered using maximum likelihood techniques and can dynamically determine various properties of jets like their size. We show that the fuzzy jet size adds additional information to conventional jet tagging variables in boosted topologies. Furthermore, we study the impact of pileup and show that with some slight modifications to the algorithm, fuzzy jets can be stable up to high pileup interaction multiplicities.

  4. SAFARI engineering model 50 mK cooler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duband, L.; Duval, J. M.; Luchier, N.

    2014-11-01

    SAFARI is an infrared instrument developed by a European based consortium to be flown in SPICA, a Japanese led mission. The SAFARI detectors are transition edge sensors (TES) and require temperatures down to 50 mK for their operation. For that purpose we have developed a hybrid architecture based on the combination of a 300 mK sorption stage and a small adiabatic demagnetization stage. An engineering model has been designed to provide net heat lifts of 0.4 and 14 μW respectively at 50 and 300 mK, with an overall cycle duration of 48 h and a duty cycle objective of over 75%. The cooler is self-contained, fits in a volume of 156 × 312 × 182 mm and is expected to weigh 5.1 kg. It has been designed to withstand static loads of 120 g and a random vibration level of 21 g RMS.

  5. The mystery of the frozen M-K medium.

    PubMed

    McGee, J; Lanier, J D

    1980-09-01

    Donor corneal material stored or transported in M-K medium can freeze easily if placed in an insulated environment, such as a styrofoam container, with ice that is colder than 0 degrees C. To assure proper maintenance of the recommended temperature of M-K medium of + 4 degrees C, the ice used should be allowed to stand at room temperature until it has a glistening, wet look to its surfaces. M-K medium already cooled to + 4 degrees C can be safely stored and maintained at + 4 degrees C in a well-insulated styrofoam container for approximately 24 hours if this type of glistening-wet, melting ice is used.

  6. Comparative neurobiological effects of ibogaine and MK-801 in rats.

    PubMed

    Baumann, M H; Rothman, R B; Ali, S F

    2000-05-01

    Ibogaine is a plant-derived alkaloid with putative 'anti-addictive' properties. Although ibogaine binds to multiple targets in the brain, recent evidence suggests the drug acts as an N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonist similar to MK-801. The purpose of the present study was to compare neurochemical and neuroendocrine effects of ibogaine and MK-801 in vivo. Male rats received either i.p. saline, ibogaine (10 and 100 mg/kg), or MK-801 (0.1 and 1 mg/kg). Groups of rats (N=6-8/group) were decapitated 30 or 60 min after injection. Brains were harvested for analysis of dopamine (DA) and its metabolites, while trunk blood was collected for analysis of plasma corticosterone and prolactin. Ibogaine produced marked dose-dependent reductions in tissue DA with concurrent increases in the metabolites, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanillic acid (HVA). This profile of ibogaine-induced effects on DA metabolism was consistently observed in the cortex, striatum, olfactory tubercle, and hypothalamus. MK-801, on the other hand, did not reduce DA levels in any brain region but did cause modest region-specific elevations in DA metabolites. Ibogaine and MK-801 caused comparable elevations in circulating corticosterone, but only ibogaine increased prolactin. The present findings show that the effects of ibogaine on DA neurotransmission and neuroendocrine secretion are not fully mimicked by MK-801. Thus, the wide spectrum of in vivo actions of ibogaine can probably not be explained simply on the basis of antagonism at NMDA receptors.

  7. Manned Certification Tests of the Modernized MK 16 MOD 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-11-01

    control band. Table 1. Number of dives per modernized MK 16 MOD 1. Depth (fsw) Rig serial number CO161 CO320 CO327 CO356 CO407 1017 130 5...Southerland, 1.3 ATA PO2 N2-O2 Decompression Table Validation, NEDU TR 9-00, Navy Experimental Diving Unit, Sep 2000. 3. W. A. Gerth and T. M. Johnson...Development and Validation of 1.3 ATA PO2-in-He Decompression Tables for the MK 16 MOD 1 UBA, NEDU TR 02-10, Navy Experimental Diving Unit, Aug 2002

  8. mkESA: enhanced suffix array construction tool.

    PubMed

    Homann, Robert; Fleer, David; Giegerich, Robert; Rehmsmeier, Marc

    2009-04-15

    We introduce the tool mkESA, an open source program for constructing enhanced suffix arrays (ESAs), striving for low memory consumption, yet high practical speed. mkESA is a user-friendly program written in portable C99, based on a parallelized version of the Deep-Shallow suffix array construction algorithm, which is known for its high speed and small memory usage. The tool handles large FASTA files with multiple sequences, and computes suffix arrays and various additional tables, such as the LCP table (longest common prefix) or the inverse suffix array, from given sequence data.

  9. Testing of 100 mK bolometers for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, A. G.; Ade, P. A. R.; Bhatia, R. S.; Griffin, M. J.; Maffei, B.; Nartallo, R.; Beeman, J. W.; Bock, J.; Lange, A.; DelCastillo, H.

    1996-01-01

    Electrical and optical performance data are presented for a prototype 100 mK spider-web bolometer operating under very low photon backgrounds. These data are compared with the bolometer theory and are used to estimate the expected sensitivity of such a detector used for low background space astronomy. The results demonstrate that the sensitivity and speed of response requirements of the bolometer instruments proposed for these missions can be met by 100 mK spider-web bolometers using neutron transmutation doped germanium as the temperature sensitive element.

  10. Testing of 100 mK bolometers for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, A. G.; Ade, P. A. R.; Bhatia, R. S.; Griffin, M. J.; Maffei, B.; Nartallo, R.; Beeman, J. W.; Bock, J.; Lange, A.; DelCastillo, H.

    1996-01-01

    Electrical and optical performance data are presented for a prototype 100 mK spider-web bolometer operating under very low photon backgrounds. These data are compared with the bolometer theory and are used to estimate the expected sensitivity of such a detector used for low background space astronomy. The results demonstrate that the sensitivity and speed of response requirements of the bolometer instruments proposed for these missions can be met by 100 mK spider-web bolometers using neutron transmutation doped germanium as the temperature sensitive element.

  11. 300 mK and 50 mK cooling systems for long-life space applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, J.; Perkinson, M. C.; D'Arrigo, P.; Geelen, K.; Hepburn, I.; Brockley-Blatt, C.; Duband, L.; Bradshaw, T.

    2008-05-01

    The X-ray Evolving Universe Spectroscopy mission is a candidate for the ESA Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 plan, with two possible instruments at 300 mK and 50 mK. Astrium, under ESA contract, has worked with MSSL, RAL, and CEA-SBT, to propose a suitable payload accommodation scheme meeting ESA's requirements. Exhaustive trade-offs were performed, according to a described methodology, leading to two designs incorporating closed-cycle active coolers maximizing well proven heritage concepts. These concepts are described, and although they have been prepared for XEUS, there are other future mission concepts which could also benefit from 50 mK cooling with a lifetime greater than 10 years.

  12. Search for vector-like quark production in the lepton+jets and dilepton+jets final states using 5.4 fb-1 of Run II data

    SciTech Connect

    Caughron, Seth

    2011-01-01

    The Standard Model of particle physics provides an excellent description of particle interactions at energies up to ~1 TeV, but it is expected to fail above that scale. Multiple models developed to describe phenomena above the TeV scale predict the existence of very massive, vector-like quarks. A search for single electroweak production of such particles in p$\\bar{p}$ collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 1.96 TeV is performed in the W+jets and Z+jets channels. The data were collected by the DØ detector at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 5.4 fb-1. Events consistent with a heavy object decaying to a vector boson and a jet are selected. We observe no significant excess in comparison to the background prediction and set 95% confidence level upper limits on production cross sections for vector-like quarks decaying to W+jet and Z+jet. Assuming a vector-like quark -- standard model quark coupling parameter $\\tilde{κ}$qQ of unity, we exclude vector-like quarks with mass below 693 GeV for decays to W+jet and mass below 449 GeV for decays to Z+jet. These represent the most sensitive limits to date.

  13. Inclusive jet production at the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Norniella, Olga; /Barcelona, IFAE

    2006-08-01

    Preliminary results on inclusive jet production in proton-antiproton collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV based on 1 fb{sup -1} of CDF Run II data are presented. Measurements are preformed using different jet algorithms in a wide range of jet transverse momentum and jet rapidity. The measured cross sections are compared to next-to-leading order perturbative QCD calculations

  14. Low dose MK-801 reduces social investigation in mice.

    PubMed

    Zou, Hong; Zhang, Chenghao; Xie, Qinglian; Zhang, Manfang; Shi, Junwei; Jin, Meilei; Yu, Lei

    2008-10-01

    To characterize MK-801's effect on social behavior in mice, we examined adult male ICR mice for interaction with companion mice (juvenile male). Test mice were injected with either saline or MK-801 (0.1 mg/kg), and were tested 30 min later for their social behavior during a 5-min session. A second encounter took place 30 min later, with either a familiar companion mouse (the same as in the initial encounter) or a novel mouse. In saline controls, second encounter with a familiar companion mouse showed reduced social investigative behaviors (anogenital sniffing and staying together), indicating habituation toward a familiar mouse. Second encounter with a novel companion mouse did not show habituation in social investigative behaviors. Pretreatment with MK-801 reduced anogenital sniffing during the first encounter. At the second encounter, these mice displayed non-discriminative habituation of social investigative behaviors, with reduced anogenital sniffing and staying together, regardless of whether the companion mouse was a familiar or a novel one. These results indicate that MK-801 affected exploratory activities of mice, resulting in both reduced social investigative behaviors during first encounter with a companion mouse, and diminished discriminative capacities for a familiar vs. a novel companion mouse during subsequent encounter.

  15. Explosive Nucleosynthesis in Magnetohydrodynamical Jets from Collapsars. II --- Heavy-Element Nucleosynthesis of s, p, r-Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ono, M.; Hashimoto, M.; Fujimoto, S.; Kotake, K.; Yamada, S.

    2012-10-01

    We investigate the nucleosynthesis in a massive star of 70 M_{⊙} with solar metallicity in the main sequence stage. The helium core mass after hydrogen burning corresponds to 32 M_{⊙}. Nucleosynthesis calculations have been performed during the stellar evolution and the jetlike supernova explosion of a collapsar model. We focus on the production of elements heavier than iron group nuclei. Nucleosynthesis calculations have been accomplished consistently from hydrostatic to dynamic stages by using large nuclear reaction networks, where the weak s-, p-, and r-processes are taken into account. We confirm that s-elements of 60 < A < 90 are highly overproduced relative to the solar abundances in the hydrostatic nucleosynthesis. During oxygen burning, p-elements of A > 90 are produced via photodisintegrations of seed s-elements. However, the produced p-elements are disintegrated in later stages except for ^{180}Ta. In the explosive nucleosynthesis, elements of 90 < A < 160 are significantly overproduced relative to the solar values owing to the r-process, which is very different from the results of spherical explosion models. Only heavy p-elements (N > 50) are overproduced via the p-process because of the low peak temperatures in the oxygen- and neon-rich layers. Compared with the previous study of r-process nucleosynthesis calculations in the collapsar model of 40 M_{⊙} by Fujimoto et al. [S. Fujimoto, M. Hashimoto, K. Kotake and S. Yamada, Astrophys. J. 656 (2007), 382; S. Fujimoto, N. Nishimura and M. Hashimoto, Astrophys. J. 680 (2008), 1350], our jet model cannot contribute to the third peak of the solar r-elements and intermediate p-elements, which have been much produced because of the distribution of the lowest part of electron fraction in the ejecta. Averaging the overproduction factors over the progenitor masses with the use of Salpeter's IMF, we suggest that the 70 M_{⊙} star could contribute to the solar weak s}-elements of 60 < A < 90 and neutron

  16. Microbolometer uncooled infrared camera with 20-mK NETD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radford, William A.; Murphy, Daniel F.; Finch, A.; Kennedy, A.; Kojiro, J. K.; Ray, M.; Wyles, Richard; Coda, R.; Moody, Edgar A.; Baur, Stephan

    1998-07-01

    Raytheon Sensors and Communications Systems has developed a prototype infrared imaging rifle-sight using an uncooled, microbolometer FPA. The Longwavelength Staring Sensor (LWSS) has been characterized by NVESD, where it demonstrated NETD and MRT values that are unsurpassed for uncooled FPA technology. The NVESD-measured NETD values were 24 mK with f/0.7 optics and 42 mK with an f/1/0 aperture. When used with the f/0.7 optics, NVESD measured MRT values less than 60 mK at the nyquist spatial frequency. Similar measurements at f/1.0 produced MRT values less than 110 mK. Further optimization of the microbolometers is expected to produce FPAs with NETD values less than 20 mK for f/1.0 apertures. The high- performance uncooled microbolometer FPA (SBRC-151) used in the LWSS was developed by Raytheon Santa Barbara Research Center. The 320 X 240 FPA utilizes a high-yield CMOS readout integrated circuit (ROIC) that achieves high sensitivity, low output nonuniformity, and large scene dynamic range. The ROIC provides multi-level, on-chip nonuniformity correction and on- chip temperature compensation. The FPA has 50 micrometer X 50 micrometer pixels and operates at frame rates up to 60 Hz with a single output. The VO(subscript X) microbolometer detectors are produced at SBRC using an advanced dry-etch fabrication process. In addition to the LWSS project, SBRC has initiated low-rate production of the microbolometer FPAs. This work is being performed in support of Raytheon-Amber for commercial radiometer cameras. The pixel operability of the production radiometer FPAs (AE-189) are greater than 99.9%.

  17. Phase I Trial of MK-0752 in Children With Refractory CNS Malignancies: A Pediatric Brain Tumor Consortium Study

    PubMed Central

    Fouladi, Maryam; Stewart, Clinton F.; Olson, James; Wagner, Lars M.; Onar-Thomas, Arzu; Kocak, Mehmet; Packer, Roger J.; Goldman, Stewart; Gururangan, Sridharan; Gajjar, Amar; Demuth, Tim; Kun, Larry E.; Boyett, James M.; Gilbertson, Richard J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To estimate the maximum-tolerated dose (MTD), describe dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs), and characterize pharmacokinetic properties of MK-0752, a gamma secretase inhibitor, in children with refractory or recurrent CNS malignancies. Patients and Methods MK-0752 was administered once daily for 3 consecutive days of every 7 days at escalating dosages starting at 200 mg/m2. The modified continual reassessment method was used to estimate the MTD. A course was 28 days in duration. Pharmacokinetic analysis was performed during the first course. Expression of NOTCH and hairy enhancer of split (HES) proteins was assessed in peripheral-blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) before and following treatment with MK-0752. Results Twenty-three eligible patients were enrolled: 10 males (median age, 8.1 years; range, 2.6 to 17.7 years) with diagnoses of brainstem glioma (n = 6), ependymoma (n = 8), medulloblastoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor (n = 4), glioblastoma multiforme (n = 2), atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (n = 1), malignant glioma (n = 1), and choroid plexus carcinoma, (n = 1). Seventeen patients were fully evaluable for toxicity. No DLTs occurred in the three patients enrolled at 200 mg/m2/dose. At 260 mg/m2/dose, DLTs occurred in two of six patients, both of whom experienced grade 3 ALT and AST. There were no grade 4 toxicities; non–dose-limiting grade 3 toxicities included hypokalemia and lymphopenia. Population pharmacokinetic values (% coefficient of variation) for MK-0752 were apparent oral clearance, 0.444 (38%) L/h/m2; apparent volume of distribution, 7.36 (24%) L/m2; and ka, 0.358 (99%) hr−1. Conclusion MK-0752 is well-tolerated in children with recurrent CNS malignancies. The recommended phase II dose using the 3 days on followed by 4 days off schedule is 260 mg/m2/dose once daily. PMID:21825264

  18. Cosmic jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rees, M. J.

    1986-01-01

    The evidence that active galactic nuclei produce collimated plasma jets is summarised. The strongest radio galaxies are probably energised by relativistic plasma jets generated by spinning black holes interacting with magnetic fields attached to infalling matter. Such objects can produce e(+)-e(-) plasma, and may be relevant to the acceleration of the highest-energy cosmic ray primaries. Small-scale counterparts of the jet phenomenon within our own galaxy are briefly reviewed.

  19. Water Jetting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Hi-Tech Inc., a company which manufactures water jetting equipment, needed a high pressure rotating swivel, but found that available hardware for the system was unsatisfactory. They were assisted by Marshall, which had developed water jetting technology to clean the Space Shuttles. The result was a completely automatic water jetting system which cuts rock and granite and removes concrete. Labor costs have been reduced; dust is suppressed and production has been increased.

  20. Jet maximization, axis minimization, and stable cone finding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thaler, Jesse

    2015-10-01

    Jet finding is a type of optimization problem, where hadrons from a high-energy collision event are grouped into jets based on a clustering criterion. As three interesting examples, one can form a jet cluster that (i) optimizes the overall jet four-vector, (ii) optimizes the jet axis, or (iii) aligns the jet axis with the jet four-vector. In this paper, we show that these three approaches to jet finding, despite being philosophically quite different, can be regarded as descendants of a mother optimization problem. For the special case of finding a single cone jet of fixed opening angle, the three approaches are genuinely identical when defined appropriately, and the result is a stable cone jet with the largest value of a quantity J . This relationship is only approximate for cone jets in the rapidity-azimuth plane, as used at the Large Hadron Collider, though the differences are mild for small radius jets.

  1. Search for Third Generation Squarks in the Missing Transverse Energy plus Jet Sample at CDF Run II

    SciTech Connect

    Marono, Miguel Vidal

    2010-03-01

    lightest SUSY particle (LSP) which would provide a candidate for cold dark matter, that account for 23% of the universe content, as strongly suggested by recent astrophysical data [1]. The Tevatron is a hadron collider operating at Fermilab, USA. This accelerator provides proton-antiproton (p$\\bar{p}$) collisions with a center of mass energy of √s = 1.96 TeV. CDF and D0 are the detectors built to analyse the products of the collisions provided by the Tevatron. Both experiments have produced a very significant scientific output in the last few years, like the discovery of the top quark or the measurement of the Bs mixing. The Tevatron experiments are also reaching sensitivity to the SM Higgs boson. The scientific program of CDF includes a broad spectrum on searches for physics signatures beyond the Standard Model. Tevatron is still the energy frontier, what means an unique opportunity to produce a discovery in physic beyond the Standard Model. The analyses presented in this thesis focus on the search for third generation squarks in the missing transverse energy plus jets final state. The production of sbottom ($\\tilde{b}$) and stop ($\\tilde{t}$) quarks could be highly enhanced at the Tevatron, giving the possibility of discovering new physics or limiting the parameter space available in the theory. No signal is found over the predicted Standard Model background in both searches. Instead, 95% confidence level limits are set on the production cross section, and then translated into the mass plane of the hypothetical particles. This thesis sketches the basic theory concepts of the Standard Model and the Minimal Supersymmetric Extension in Chapter 2. Chapter 3, describes the Tevatron and CDF. Based on the CDF subsystems information, Chapter 4 and 5 describe the analysis objet reconstruction and the heavy flavor tagging tools. The development of the analyses is shown in Chapter 6 and Chapter 7. Finally, Chapter 8 is devoted to discuss the results and conclusions

  2. A retinoid responsive cytokine gene, MK, is preferentially expressed in the proximal tubules of the kidney and human tumor cell lines.

    PubMed Central

    Kitamura, M.; Shirasawa, T.; Mitarai, T.; Muramatsu, T.; Maruyama, N.

    1993-01-01

    The aim of this study was to survey the expression of an embryonic cytokine gene, MK, in the normal organs and neoplastic tissues of adults. Northern analysis showed that MK mRNA was exclusively expressed in the kidney among murine organs including thymus, lung, heart, spleen, liver, and kidney. In situ hybridization analysis revealed that MK expression was localized in the proximal tubules and metaplastic Bowman's epithelium, but not in other nephron segments such as glomeruli, loop of Henle, distal tubules, and collecting ducts. To investigate whether MK expression is a marker of tubular cell lineage, several cell lines originating from renal tubules were tested. No expression of MK was detected in PtK1 and LLC-PK1 cells derived from marsupial and porcine proximal tubules or in MDBK and MDCK cells from bovine and canine distal/collecting tubules. Unexpectedly, the MK gene was expressed in a human renal cell carcinoma line, VMRC-RCW, and the expression was up-regulated in the presence of retinoic acid. To elucidate the involvement of MK in the development of tumors, we further examined its expression in a variety of human neoplastic cell lines: YMB-1-C (breast cancer), EBC-1 (lung squamous cell carcinoma), RERF-LC-OK (lung adenocarcinoma), SBC-3 (lung small cell carcinoma), HSC-2 (mouth squamous cell carcinoma), NUGC-2 (gastric cancer), COLO201 (colon cancer), HepG2 (hepatoma), MIA PaCa-2 (pancreatic cancer), MCAS (ovarian cancer), HeLa (cervical cancer), BeWo (chorionic carcinoma), ITO-II (testicular tumor), T24 (urinary bladder tumor), and G-401 (Wilms' tumor). Strong signals were detected in COLO201, HepG2, ITO-II, T24, G-401, and weaker but distinct signals were detected in YMB-1-C, HSC-2, and MCAS cells. The MK gene was, therefore, widely expressed in neoplastic cells originating from genital organs, intestinal tract, liver, mammary gland, and urinary tract, and the expression was not restricted to adenocarcinomas, but was also observed in other types of

  3. Replacement of SR 4990 by Barium Styphnate in the Mk 24 Actuator

    DTIC Science & Technology

    the SR-4990 in the Mk 24 Actuator. Experimental work was performed with barium styphnate , lead mononitroresorcinate, and two manufactured powders...Candidate materials were first screened using a pressure bomb. Final testing was performed in the Mk 24 Actuator design. Test results showed that of the four candidates, barium styphnate is the best material for the Actuator Mk 24.

  4. MK-801 protects against neuronal injury induced by electrical stimulation.

    PubMed

    Agnew, W F; McCreery, D B; Yuen, T G; Bullara, L A

    1993-01-01

    The ability of MK-801, a non-competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist, to protect neurons in the cerebral cortex from injury induced by prolonged electrical stimulation was assessed in cats. Platinum disc electrodes 8.0 mm in diameter and with a surface area of 0.5 cm2 were implanted in the subdural space over the parietal cortex. Ten days after implantation of the electrodes, all animals received continuous stimulation for 7 h using charge-balanced, cathodic-first, controlled current pulses with a charge density of 20 microC/cm2 and a charge/phase of 10 microC/phase. They received either no MK-801, or 0.33 or 5.0 mg/kg (i.v.) administered intravenously, just before the start of the stimulation. Immediately following the stimulation, the animals were perfused and the cerebral cortex examined by light microscopy at eight sites beneath the electrodes. Neuronal damage in the form of shrunken, hyperchromic neurons and perineuronal halos was present only beneath the stimulating electrodes; damage was moderate to severe in stimulated animals that had not received MK-801, slight in animals receiving 0.33 mg/kg, and none to slight in animals receiving 5.0 mg/kg. These results indicate that MK-801, in an apparently dose-dependent fashion, provides substantial but not complete protection against neuronal injury induced by prolonged electrical stimulation. Thus prolonged electrical stimulation can be added to the list of neuropathologic conditions which involve glutamate-induced excitotoxic damage via the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor. The results also support the hypothesis of neuronal hyperactivity as a principal cause of electrically-induced injury in the central nervous system. The implications for design of protocols for functional electrical stimulation are discussed.

  5. Parallel Calculation of CCSDT and Mk-MRCCSDT Energies.

    PubMed

    Prochnow, Eric; Harding, Michael E; Gauss, Jürgen

    2010-08-10

    A scheme for the parallel calculation of energies at the coupled-cluster singles, doubles, and triples (CCSDT) level of theory, several approximate iterative CCSDT schemes (CCSDT-1a, CCSDT-1b, CCSDT-2, CCSDT-3, and CC3), and for the state-specific multireference coupled-cluster ansatz suggested by Mukherjee with a full treatment of triple excitations (Mk-MRCCSDT) is presented. The proposed scheme is based on the adaptation of a highly efficient serial coupled-cluster code leading to a communication-minimized implementation by parallelizing the time-determining steps. The parallel algorithm is tailored for affordable cluster architectures connected by standard communication networks such as Gigabit Ethernet. In this way, CCSDT and Mk-MRCCSDT computations become feasible even for larger molecular systems and basis sets. An analysis of the time-determining steps for CCSDT and Mk-MRCCSDT, namely the computation of the triple-excitation amplitudes and their individual contributions, is carried out. Benchmark calculations are presented for the N2O, ozone, and benzene molecules, proving that the parallelization of these steps is sufficient to obtain an efficient parallel scheme. A first application to the case of 2,6-pyridyne using a triple-ζ quality basis (222 basis functions) is presented demonstrating the efficiency of the current implementation.

  6. 300 mK Continuous Cooling, Sorption-Adr System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duval, J. M.; Duband, L.; Luchier, N.; Tirolien, T.

    2010-04-01

    The 300 mK cooling system of two instruments onboard the Herschel satellite is achieved by the use of 3He sorption coolers developed and manufactured in CEA/SBT. This cooling system provides alternate (i.e. one-shot) cooling. The addition of a small ADR stage with a gas-gap heat switch allows continuous cooling at 300 mK by using the magnetic stage as an active thermal ballast. The realization of this continuous cooling based on a Herschel type sorption cooler is described here. It is shown that our prototype can provide continuous cooling at a stable temperature or alternatively gives the possibility of changing the setting of the nominal temperature rapidly and without thermal losses. The former mode is indeed extremely useful for detector tests and qualifications. The thermal stability is discussed. This project funded by the French Space Agency, CNES, will also provide additional knowledge to CEA/SBT in the design and realization of 50 mK cooling system using these coupled technologies.

  7. 3He melting curve below 15 mK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuyama, Hiroshi; Ishimoto, Hidehiko; Tazaki, Tetsurou; Ogawa, Shinji

    1987-12-01

    We have performed new measurements of the P-T relation along the 3He melting curve for temperatures between 0.4 and 15 mK in zero magnetic field. The temperature was determined by a Pt-wire nuclear-magnetic-resonance thermometer calibrated against the National Bureau of Standards scale (1983) above 15 mK. Three distinct points on the melting curve (the two superfluid transitions and the nuclear-spin ordering in the solid phase) were observed at temperatures lower than currently accepted values by about 10%. Our results are in good agreement with the P-T relation recently proposed by Greywall using a La-cerium magnesium nitrate thermometer, but differ seriously from the thermodynamic measurements by Halperin et al. From the measured melting curve, we could determine the ground-state energy of a nuclear spin in solid 3He to be -1.24 mK at the melting density. This value can be quantitatively explained by the current four-spin exchange theory.

  8. Measurement of σ(p$\\bar{p}$ -> t$\\bar{t}$) in the τ + jets channel by the D0 experiment at Run II of the Tevatron Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Arov, Mikhail

    2008-07-01

    The top quark is the heaviest and most mysterious of the known elementary particles. Therefore, careful study of its production rate and other properties is of utmost importance for modern particle physics. The Tevatron is the only facility currently capable of studying top quark properties by on-shell production. Measurement of the top quark pair production cross section is one of the major goals of the Tevatron Run II physics program. It provides an excellent test of QCD at energies exceeding 100 GeV. We report on a new measurement of p$\\bar{p}$ → t$\\bar{t}$ production at √s = 1.96 TeV using 350 pb-1 of data collected with the D0 detector between 2002 and 2005. We focus on the final state where a W boson from one of the top quarks decays into a τ lepton and its associated neutrino, while the other decays into a quark-antiquark pair. We aim to select those events in which the τ lepton subsequently decays to one or three charged hadrons, zero or more neutral hadrons and a tau neutrino (the charge conjugate processes are implied in all of the above). The observable signature thus consists of a narrow calorimeter shower with associated track(s) characteristic of a hadronic tau decay, four or more jets, of which two are initiated by b quarks accompanying the W's in the top quark decays, and a large net missing momentum in the transverse plane due to the energetic neutrino-antineutrino pair that leave no trace in the detector media. The preliminary result for the measured cross section is: σ(t$\\bar{t}$) = 5.1$+4.3\\atop{-3.5}$(stat) $+0.7\\atop{-0.7}$(syst) ± 0.3 (lumi.) pb.

  9. Intermittent maser flare around the high-mass young stellar object G353.273 + 0.641 - II. Detection of a radio and molecular jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motogi, K.; Sorai, K.; Niinuma, K.; Sugiyama, K.; Honma, M.; Fujisawa, K.

    2013-01-01

    We report the first detection of a radio continuum and molecular jet associated with a dominant blue-shifted maser source, G353.273+0.641. A radio jet is extended 3000 au along the north-west-south-east (NW-SE) direction. H2O masers are found to be clustered in the root of a bipolar radio jet. A molecular jet is detected by thermal SiO ( \\upsilon = 0, J = 2-1) emission. The SiO spectrum is extremely wide ( - 120 to +87 km s- 1) and significantly blue-shift dominated, similar to the maser emission. The observed geometry and remarkable spectral similarity between H2O maser and SiO strongly suggest the existence of a maser-scale ( ˜ 340 au) molecular jet that is enclosed by the extended radio jet. We propose a disc-masking scenario as the origin of the strong blue-shift dominance, where an optically thick disc obscures a red-shifted lobe of a compact jet.

  10. MK3 Modulation Affects BMI1-Dependent and Independent Cell Cycle Check-Points

    PubMed Central

    Dahlmans, Vivian E. H.; Spaapen, Frank; Salvaing, Juliette; Vanhove, Jolien; Geijselaers, Claudia; Bartels, Stefanie J. J.; Partouns, Iris; Neumann, Dietbert; Speel, Ernst-Jan; Takihara, Yoshihiro; Wouters, Bradly G.; Voncken, Jan Willem

    2015-01-01

    Although the MK3 gene was originally found deleted in some cancers, it is highly expressed in others. The relevance of MK3 for oncogenesis is currently not clear. We recently reported that MK3 controls ERK activity via a negative feedback mechanism. This prompted us to investigate a potential role for MK3 in cell proliferation. We here show that overexpression of MK3 induces a proliferative arrest in normal diploid human fibroblasts, characterized by enhanced expression of replication stress- and senescence-associated markers. Surprisingly, MK3 depletion evokes similar senescence characteristics in the fibroblast model. We previously identified MK3 as a binding partner of Polycomb Repressive Complex 1 (PRC1) proteins. In the current study we show that MK3 overexpression results in reduced cellular EZH2 levels and concomitant loss of epigenetic H3K27me3-marking and PRC1/chromatin-occupation at the CDKN2A/INK4A locus. In agreement with this, the PRC1 oncoprotein BMI1, but not the PCR2 protein EZH2, bypasses MK3-induced senescence in fibroblasts and suppresses P16INK4A expression. In contrast, BMI1 does not rescue the MK3 loss-of-function phenotype, suggesting the involvement of multiple different checkpoints in gain and loss of MK3 function. Notably, MK3 ablation enhances proliferation in two different cancer cells. Finally, the fibroblast model was used to evaluate the effect of potential tumorigenic MK3 driver-mutations on cell proliferation and M/SAPK signaling imbalance. Taken together, our findings support a role for MK3 in control of proliferation and replicative life-span, in part through concerted action with BMI1, and suggest that the effect of MK3 modulation or mutation on M/SAPK signaling and, ultimately, proliferation, is cell context-dependent. PMID:25853770

  11. Bouncing Jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wadhwa, Navish; Vlachos, Pavlos; Jung, Sunghwan

    2011-11-01

    Contrary to common intuition, free jets of fluid can ``bounce'' off each other on collision in mid-air, through the effect of a lubricating air film that separates the jets. We have developed a simple experimental setup to stably demonstrate and study the non-coalescence of jets on collision. We present the results of an experimental investigation of oblique collision between two silicone oil jets, supported by a simple analytical explanation. Our focus is on elucidating the role of various physical forces at play such as viscous stresses, capillary force and inertia. A parametric study conducted by varying the nozzle diameter, jet velocity, angle of inclination and fluid viscosity reveals the scaling laws for the quantities involved such as contact time. We observed a transition from bouncing to coalescence with an increase in jet velocity and inclination angle. We propose that a balance between the contact time of jets and the time required for drainage of the trapped air film can provide a criterion for transition from non-coalescence to coalescence.

  12. Heat transfer at a sapphire - indium interface in the 30 mK - 300 mK temperature range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liberadzka, J.; Koettig, T.; Bremer, J.; van der Post, C. C. W.; ter Brake, H. J. M.

    2017-02-01

    Within the framework of the AEgIS (Antimatter Experiment: Gravity, Interferometry, Spectroscopy) project a direct measurement of the Earth’s gravitational acceleration on antihydrogen will be carried out. In order to obtain satisfactory precision of the measurement, the thermal movement of the particles should be reduced. Therefore a Penning trap, which is used to trap antiprotons and create antihydrogen, will be placed on a mixing chamber of an especially designed dilution refrigerator. The trap consists of 10 electrodes, which need to be electrically insulated, but thermally anchored. To ensure that the trap remains at a temperature below 100 mK, the heat transfer at the metallic-dielectric boundary is investigated. A copper - indium - sapphire - indium - copper sandwich setup was mounted on the CERN Cryolab dilution refrigerator. Keeping the mixing chamber at a constant low temperature in the range of 30 mK to 300 mK, steady-state measurements with indium in normal conducting and superconducting states have been performed. Obtained results along with a precise description of our setup are presented.

  13. The evolution of instabilities in the axisymmetric jet. I - The linear growth of disturbances near the nozzle. II - The flow resulting from the interaction between two waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, J.; Wygnanski, I.

    1987-01-01

    The modal distribution of coherent structures evolving near the nozzle of a circular jet was studied experimentally and theoretically, with particular attention given to the effects produced on the instability modes by transverse curvature, flow divergence, inhomogeneous inflow conditions, and the detailed shape of the mean velocity profile. Experiments were performed using a specially constructed air-jet facility; hot-wire anemometers were used in conjunction with Disa Model 55P11 sensors for flow measurements. The linear model used as a transfer function is capable of predicting the spectral distribution of the velocity perturbations in a jet. Consideration was also given to studies of leading nonlinear interactions generated by waves externally superimposed on an axisymmetric jet; theoretical predictions were verified experimentally.

  14. Discovery of a novel glucagon receptor antagonist N-[(4-{(1S)-1-[3-(3, 5-dichlorophenyl)-5-(6-methoxynaphthalen-2-yl)-1H-pyrazol-1-yl]ethyl}phenyl)carbonyl]-β-alanine (MK-0893) for the treatment of type II diabetes.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Yusheng; Guo, Jian; Candelore, Mari R; Liang, Rui; Miller, Corey; Dallas-Yang, Qing; Jiang, Guoqiang; McCann, Peggy E; Qureshi, Sajjad A; Tong, Xinchun; Xu, Shiyao Sherrie; Shang, Jackie; Vincent, Stella H; Tota, Laurie M; Wright, Michael J; Yang, Xiaodong; Zhang, Bei B; Tata, James R; Parmee, Emma R

    2012-07-12

    A potent, selective glucagon receptor antagonist 9m, N-[(4-{(1S)-1-[3-(3,5-dichlorophenyl)-5-(6-methoxynaphthalen-2-yl)-1H-pyrazol-1-yl]ethyl}phenyl)carbonyl]-β-alanine, was discovered by optimization of a previously identified lead. Compound 9m is a reversible and competitive antagonist with high binding affinity (IC(50) of 6.6 nM) and functional cAMP activity (IC(50) of 15.7 nM). It is selective for glucagon receptor relative to other family B GPCRs, showing IC(50) values of 1020 nM for GIPR, 9200 nM for PAC1, and >10000 nM for GLP-1R, VPAC1, and VPAC2. Compound 9m blunted glucagon-induced glucose elevation in hGCGR mice and rhesus monkeys. It also lowered ambient glucose levels in both acute and chronic mouse models: in hGCGR ob/ob mice it reduced glucose (AUC 0-6 h) by 32% and 39% at 3 and 10 mpk single doses, respectively. In hGCGR mice on a high fat diet, compound 9m at 3, and 10 mpk po in feed lowered blood glucose levels by 89% and 94% at day 10, respectively, relative to the difference between the vehicle control and lean hGCGR mice. On the basis of its favorable biological and DMPK properties, compound 9m (MK-0893) was selected for further preclinical and clinical evaluations.

  15. Experiment on performance of adjustable jet pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, J. M.; Long, X. P.; Zhang, S. B.; Lu, X.

    2012-11-01

    When the water level of upper or lower reaches of hydraulic power station changes, the adjustable jet pump which is different from traditional fixed jet pump can maintain stable pressure and flow rate for the system of technical water supply of hydraulic power plant. The model test indicates that the efficiency of the adjustable jet pump is slightly lower than fixed jet pump near rating operation point. With the decrease of opening degree, both efficiencies are more and more close to each other. The fundamental performance of I-type adjustable jet pump is better than II-type and the cavitation performance of I-type adjustable jet pump is worse than II-type. Test data also indicate that the performance of adjustable jet pump is very different from fixed jet pump, so the theory of fixed jet pump is not able to be copied to adjustable jet pump. It is necessary to farther study on the performance of the adjustable jet pump. This paper has reference value for analogous design of system of circulation water supply to turbine units in hydraulic power station.

  16. Osmotic stress induces the phosphorylation of WNK4 Ser575 via the p38MAPK-MK pathway

    PubMed Central

    Maruyama, Junichi; Kobayashi, Yumie; Umeda, Tsuyoshi; Vandewalle, Alain; Takeda, Kohsuke; Ichijo, Hidenori; Naguro, Isao

    2016-01-01

    The With No lysine [K] (WNK)-Ste20-related proline/alanine-rich kinase (SPAK)/oxidative stress-responsive kinase 1 (OSR1) pathway has been reported to be a crucial signaling pathway for triggering pseudohypoaldosteronism type II (PHAII), an autosomal dominant hereditary disease that is characterized by hypertension. However, the molecular mechanism(s) by which the WNK-SPAK/OSR1 pathway is regulated remain unclear. In this report, we identified WNK4 as an interacting partner of a recently identified MAP3K, apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 3 (ASK3). We found that WNK4 is phosphorylated in an ASK3 kinase activity-dependent manner. By exploring the ASK3-dependent phosphorylation sites, we identified Ser575 as a novel phosphorylation site in WNK4 by LC-MS/MS analysis. ASK3-dependent WNK4 Ser575 phosphorylation was mediated by the p38MAPK-MAPK-activated protein kinase (MK) pathway. Osmotic stress, as well as hypotonic low-chloride stimulation, increased WNK4 Ser575 phosphorylation via the p38MAPK-MK pathway. ASK3 was required for the p38MAPK activation induced by hypotonic stimulation but was not required for that induced by hypertonic stimulation or hypotonic low-chloride stimulation. Our results suggest that the p38MAPK-MK pathway might regulate WNK4 in an osmotic stress-dependent manner but its upstream regulators might be divergent depending on the types of osmotic stimuli. PMID:26732173

  17. Business Jet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The Citation Jet, developed by Cessna Aircraft Company, Wichita, KS, is the first business jet to employ Langley Research Center's natural laminar flow (NLF) technology. NLF reduces drag and therefore saves fuel by using only the shape of the wing to keep the airflow smooth, or laminar. This reduces friction between the air and wing, and therefore, reduces drag. NASA's Central Industrial Applications Center, Rural Enterprises, Inc., Durant, OK, its Kansas affiliate, and Wichita State University assisted in the technology transfer.

  18. Flutter Analysis and Recommended Testing of the F-4/C/D/E Aircraft Carrying Mk 84 or Mk 82 Bombs on the Outboard Wing Stations.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    investigate possible carriage to 650 knots equivalent airspeed or M - 1.4, whichever is less. The bombs analyzed were the MK84 suspended directly from the...equivalent airspeed or M = 1.4, whichever is less. For these three MK82 bomb loading configurations, flight testing is recommended to establish if adequate

  19. Isolation of the Entomopathogenic Fungal Strain Cod-MK1201 from a Cicada Nymph and Assessment of Its Antibacterial Activities.

    PubMed

    Sangdee, Kusavadee; Nakbanpote, Woranan; Sangdee, Aphidech

    2015-01-01

    The entomopathogenic fungus Cod-MK1201 was isolated from a dead cicada nymph. Three regions of ribosomal nuclear DNA, the internal transcribed spacers of nuclear ribosomal DNA repeats (ITS), the partial small subunit of rDNA (nrSSU) , and the partial large subunit of rDNA (nrLSU), and two protein-coding regions, the elongation factor 1α (EF-1α), and the largest subunit of the RNA polymerase II (rpb1) gene, were sequenced and used for fungal identification. The phylogenetic analysis of the ITS and the combined data set of the five genes indicated that the fungal isolate Cod-MK1201 is a new strain of Cordyceps sp. that is closely related to Cordyceps nipponica and C. kanzashiana. Crude extracts of mycelium-cultured Cod-MK1201 were obtained using distilled water and 50% (v/v) ethanol, and the antibacterial activity of each was determined. Both extracts had activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, but the ethanol extract was the more potent of the two. The antibacterial activity of the protein fractions of these extracts was also determined. The protein fraction from the ethanol extract was more antibacterial than the protein fraction from the aqueous extract. Three antibacterial constituents including adenosine, the total phenolic content (TPC), and the total flavonoid content (TFC) was also determined. The results showed that the adenosine content, the TPC, and the TFC of the ethanol extract were more active than those of the aqueous extract. Moreover, synergism was detected between these antibacterial constituents. In conclusion, the entomopathogenic fungal isolate Cod-MK1201 represents a natural source of antibacterial agents.

  20. Equilibrium shape of (4)He crystal under zero gravity below 200 mK.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Takuya; Ohuchi, Haruka; Nomura, Ryuji; Okuda, Yuichi

    2015-10-01

    Equilibrium crystal shape is the lowest energy crystal shape that is hardly realized in ordinary crystals because of their slow relaxation. (4)He quantum crystals in a superfluid have been expected as unique exceptions that grow extremely fast at very low temperatures. However, on the ground, gravity considerably deforms the crystals and conceals the equilibrium crystal shape, and thus, gravity-free environment is needed to observe the equilibrium shape of (4)He. We report the relaxation processes of macroscopic (4)He crystals in a superfluid below 200 mK under zero gravity using a parabolic flight of a jet plane. When gravity was removed from a gravity-flattened (4)He crystal, the crystal rapidly transformed into a shape with flat surfaces. Although the relaxation processes were highly dependent on the initial condition, the crystals relaxed to a nearly homothetic shape in the end, indicating that they were truly in an equilibrium shape minimizing the interfacial free energy. Thanks to the equilibrium shape, we were able to determine the Wulff's origin and the size of the c-facet together with the vicinal surface profile next to the c-facet. The c-facet size was extremely small in the quantum crystals, and the facet-like flat surfaces were found to be the vicinal surfaces. At the same time, the interfacial free energy of the a-facet and s-facet was also obtained.

  1. Hot Electrons and Energy Transport in Metals at MK Temperatures.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roukes, Michael Lee

    Using a new technique involving the generation of hot carriers, we directly measure energy loss lifetimes for electrons in impure metals at mK temperatures. At these temperatures very weak inelastic scattering processes determine energy transport out of the electron gas. A temperature difference between the electron gas and the lattice can be induced by applying an extremely small electric field (of order 1 (mu)V/cm at 25 mK). This temperature difference reflects the rate at which electrons lose energy to the surroundings. The experiment is carried out using a pair of interdigitated thin film resistors mounted on a millidegree demagnetization cryostat: we obtain electron temperature directly by observing current fluctuations. Noise generated by the resistors is measured using an ultra-sensitive two -channel dc SQUID system, providing femtoamp resolution at KHz frequencies. A dc voltage applied across one resistor imposes the bias field causing electron heating. Phonon temperature in the metal lattice is obtained by measuring noise from a second (unbiased) resistor, which is tightly coupled thermally to the first (biased). Our measurements show that electron heating follows an E('2/5) power law in the regime where electron temperature is largely determined by the electric field, E. This implies a T('-3) law for the energy loss lifetime, suggesting electron -acoustic phonon processes dominate. In the mK temperature regime the conductivity is impurity limited and remains ohmic, even as the electrons heat. Assuming a T('3) dependence and extrapolating our measured rates to higher temperatures, we find agreement with electron-phonon rates measured above 1K in clean bulk metals. This contrasts with results from weak localization experiments showing a power law differing from T('3) and much faster rates. This difference arises because weak localization experiments measure the electron phase coherence lifetime; our electron heating experiments, however, measure an energy

  2. MK-82 bomb characterization for the sympathetic detonation study

    SciTech Connect

    Lucht, R.A.; Hantel, L.W.

    1988-01-01

    Optical, radiographic, and electronic pin techniques were used to evaluate the fragmentation of tail- and side-initiated MK-82 MOD 1 general purpose bombs. They were found to contain large voids, randomly located from bomb to bomb, in the Tritonal explosive fill. Characteristics of the void-side performance of the bomb were found to be as much as 10% different from the nonvoid side and were much less reproducible than the characteristics of the nonvoid side. The data collected will be useful in evaluating sympathetic detonation mitigation systems designed for use with the bombs. 12 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. MAPKAP kinase 2 (MK2)-dependent and -independent models of blister formation in pemphigus vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Mao, Xuming; Li, Hong; Sano, Yasuyo; Gaestel, Matthias; Mo Park, Jin; Payne, Aimee S

    2014-01-01

    Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) is an autoimmune blistering disease characterized by autoantibodies to the keratinocyte adhesion protein desmoglein 3 (Dsg3). Previous studies suggest that PV pathogenesis involves p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase-dependent and -independent pathways. However, p38 is a difficult protein to study and therapeutically target because it has four isoforms and multiple downstream effectors. In this study, we identify MAPKAP (mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein) kinase 2 (MK2) as a downstream effector of p38 signaling in PV and describe MK2-dependent and -independent mechanisms of blister formation using passive transfer of human anti-Dsg IgG4 mAbs to neonatal mice. In human keratinocytes, PV mAbs activate MK2 in a dose-dependent manner. MK2 is also activated in human pemphigus skin blisters, causing translocation of MK2 from the nucleus to the cytosol. Small-molecule inhibition of MK2 and silencing of MK2 expression block PV mAb-induced Dsg3 endocytosis in human keratinocytes. In addition, small-molecule inhibition and genetic deletion of p38α and MK2 inhibit spontaneous but not induced suprabasal blisters by PV mAbs in mouse passive transfer models. Collectively, these data suggest that MK2 is a key downstream effector of p38 that can modulate PV autoantibody pathogenicity. MK2 inhibition may be a valuable adjunctive therapy for control of pemphigus blistering.

  4. MAPKAP kinase 2 (MK2)-dependent and independent models of blister formation in pemphigus vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Xuming; Li, Hong; Sano, Yasuyo; Gaestel, Matthias; Park, Jin Mo; Payne, Aimee S.

    2013-01-01

    Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) is an autoimmune blistering disease characterized by autoantibodies to the keratinocyte adhesion protein desmoglein (Dsg) 3. Previous studies suggest that PV pathogenesis involves p38 mitogen activated protein kinase-dependent and -independent pathways. However, p38 is a difficult protein to study and therapeutically target because it has four isoforms and multiple downstream effectors. In the current study, we identify MAPKAP kinase 2 (MK2) as a downstream effector of p38 signaling in PV and describe MK2-dependent and -independent mechanisms of blister formation using passive transfer of human anti-Dsg IgG4 mAbs to neonatal mice. In human keratinocytes, PV mAbs activate MK2 in a dose-dependent manner. MK2 is also activated in human pemphigus skin blisters, causing translocation of MK2 from the nucleus to the cytosol. Small molecule inhibition of MK2 and silencing of MK2 expression block PV mAb-induced Dsg3 endocytosis in human keratinocytes. Additionally, small molecule inhibition and genetic deletion of p38α and MK2 inhibit spontaneous, but not induced, suprabasal blisters by PV mAbs in mouse passive transfer models. Collectively, these data suggest that MK2 is a key downstream effector of p38 that can modulate PV autoantibody pathogenicity. MK2 inhibition may be a valuable adjunctive therapy for control of pemphigus blistering. PMID:23657501

  5. Overview of co-deposition and fuel inventory in castellated divertor structures at JET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubel, M. J.; Coad, J. P.; Pitts, R. A.; JET-EFDA Work Programme

    2007-08-01

    The main focus of this work is fuel retention in plasma components of the JET water-cooled Mk-I divertors operated with small tiles, first with carbon fibre composite (CFC) and then with castellated beryllium. Until recently these have been the only large-scale structures of this type used in fusion experiments. Three issues regarding fuel retention and material migration are addressed: (i) accumulation in gaps separating tiles and in the grooves of castellation; (ii) comparison of deposition on carbon and beryllium; (iii) in-depth migration of deuterium into the bulk of CFC. The essential results are summarised as follows: (i) co-deposition occurs up to a few cm deep in the gaps between the Mk-I tiles; (ii) fuel inventory in the CFC tile gaps exceeds that on plasma-facing surfaces by up to a factor of 2; (iii) in gaps between the beryllium tiles from the inner divertor corner the fuel content reaches 30% of that on plasma-facing surfaces, whereas in the grooves of castellation in Be the fuel content is less than 3.0% of that found on the top surface; (iv) fuel inventory on the Be tiles is strongly associated with the carbon co-deposition; (v) the D content measured in the bulk (1.5 mm below the surface) on cleaved CFC tiles exceeds 1 × 10 15 cm -2. Implications of these results for a next-step device are addressed and the transport mechanism into the gaps is briefly discussed. The results presented here suggest that in a machine with non-carbon walls in the main chamber (as foreseen for ITER) the material transport and subsequent fuel inventory in the castellation would be reduced.

  6. NASA Jet Noise Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, Brenda

    2016-01-01

    The presentation highlights NASA's jet noise research for 2016. Jet-noise modeling efforts, jet-surface interactions results, acoustic characteristics of multi-stream jets, and N+2 Supersonic Aircraft system studies are presented.

  7. [Jet lag].

    PubMed

    Lagarde, D; Doireau, P

    1997-01-01

    Desynchronization of circadian rhythmicity resulting from rapid travel through at least four time zones leads to symptoms known in everyday English as jet-lag. The most detrimental effect of jet-lag is fatigue with poor alertness and psychomotor performance. Severity is subject to individual variation in susceptibility (morning/evening typology, age,...) and environmental factors (direction of travel, number of time zones crossed, psychosocial environment...). Many measures used to prevent or reduce jet lag are inappropriate or ineffective and some may even be dangerous, such as use of melatonin. One of the most reliable preventive techniques consists of reinforcing social synchronizers by maintaining exposure to sunlight and social activity. Only two drugs currently available on the market can be recommended, i.e. non-benzodiazepinic hypnotics which induce high quality sleep to allow quick recovery and a new time-release caffeine agent which has been shown to prolong psychomotor performance.

  8. Jet-Induced Star Formation

    SciTech Connect

    van Breugel, W; Fragile, C; Anninos, P; Murray, S

    2003-12-16

    Jets from radio galaxies can have dramatic effects on the medium through which they propagate. We review observational evidence for jet-induced star formation in low ('FR-I') and high ('FR-II') luminosity radio galaxies, at low and high redshifts respectively. We then discuss numerical simulations which are aimed to explain a jet-induced starburst ('Minkowski's Object') in the nearby FR-I type radio galaxy NGC 541. We conclude that jets can induce star formation in moderately dense (10 cm{sup -3}), warm (10{sup 4} K) gas; that this may be more common in the dense environments of forming, active galaxies; and that this may provide a mechanism for 'positive' feedback from AGN in the galaxy formation process.

  9. 2,4-Diaminopyrimidine MK2 inhibitors. Part I: Observation of an unexpected inhibitor binding mode

    SciTech Connect

    Argiriadi, Maria A.; Ericsson, Anna M.; Harris, Christopher M.; Banach, David L.; Borhani, David W.; Calderwood, David J.; Demers, Megan D.; DiMauro, Jennifer; Dixon, Richard W.; Hardman, Jennifer; Kwak, Silvia; Li, Biqin; Mankovich, John A.; Marcotte, Douglas; Mullen, Kelly D.; Ni, Baofu; Pietras, M.; Sadhukhan, Ramkrishna; Sousa, Silvino; Tomlinson, Medha J.; Wang, L.; Xiang, T.; Talanian, R.V.

    2010-09-17

    MK2 is a Ser/Thr kinase of significant interest as an anti-inflammatory drug discovery target. Here we describe the development of in vitro tools for the identification and characterization of MK2 inhibitors, including validation of inhibitor interactions with the crystallography construct and determination of the unique binding mode of 2,4-diaminopyrimidine inhibitors in the MK2 active site.

  10. Configuration Management For Expert System Development: Application to the MK 92 Prototype Maintenance Advisor Expert System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-03-01

    The high turnover rate of student developers and the frequency with which changes are made to the expert system have highlighted a need for controlling...thesis develops a configuration management plan for the MK92 Maintenance Advisor Expert System (MK92 MAES) to assist object members in the management of...suitability for application in an expert system development environment. Finally, specific recommendations are presented for establishing a configuration management process for MK92 MAES project.

  11. Measurement of the WW and WZ production cross section using final states with a charged lepton and heavy-flavor jets in the full CDF Run II data set

    DOE PAGES

    Aaltonen, T.; Amerio, S.; Amidei, D.; ...

    2016-08-23

    We present a measurement of the total WW and WZ production cross sections inmore » $$p\\bar{p}$$ collision at $$\\sqrt{s}$$ = 1.96 TeV, in a final state consistent with leptonic W boson decay and jets originating from heavy-flavor quarks from either a W or a Z boson decay. This analysis uses the full data set collected with the CDF II detector during Run II of the Tevatron collider, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 9.4 fb-1. An analysis of the dijet mass spectrum provides 3.7σ evidence of the summed production processes of either WW or WZ bosons with a measured total cross section of σWW+WZ = 13.7±3.9 pb. Independent measurements of the WW and WZ production cross sections are allowed by the different heavy-flavor decay patterns of the W and Z bosons and by the analysis of secondary-decay vertices reconstructed within heavy-flavor jets. The productions of WW and of WZ dibosons are independently seen with significances of 2.9σ and 2.1σ, respectively, with total cross sections of σWW = 9.4±4.2 pb and σWZ = 3.7$$+2.5\\atop{-2.2}$$ pb. Lastly, the measurements are consistent with standard-model predictions.« less

  12. MK-8776, a novel chk1 kinase inhibitor, radiosensitizes p53-defective human tumor cells

    PubMed Central

    Bridges, Kathleen A.; Chen, Xingxing; Liu, Huifeng; Rock, Crosby; Buchholz, Thomas A.; Shumway, Stuart D.; Skinner, Heath D.; Meyn, Raymond E.

    2016-01-01

    Radiotherapy is commonly used to treat a variety of solid tumors but improvements in the therapeutic ratio are sorely needed. The aim of this study was to assess the Chk1 kinase inhibitor, MK-8776, for its ability to radiosensitize human tumor cells. Cells derived from NSCLC and HNSCC cancers were tested for radiosensitization by MK-8776. The ability of MK-8776 to abrogate the radiation-induced G2 block was determined using flow cytometry. Effects on repair of radiation-induced DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) were determined on the basis of rad51, γ-H2AX and 53BP1 foci. Clonogenic survival analyses indicated that MK-8776 radiosensitized p53-defective tumor cells but not lines with wild-type p53. Abrogation of the G2 block was evident in both p53-defective cells and p53 wild-type lines indicating no correlation with radiosensitization. However, only p53-defective cells entered mitosis harboring unrepaired DSBs. MK-8776 appeared to inhibit repair of radiation-induced DSBs at early times after irradiation. A comparison of MK-8776 to the wee1 inhibitor, MK-1775, suggested both similarities and differences in their activities. In conclusion, MK-8776 radiosensitizes tumor cells by mechanisms that include abrogation of the G2 block and inhibition of DSB repair. Our findings support the clinical evaluation of MK-8776 in combination with radiation. PMID:27690219

  13. The Pseudophosphatase MK-STYX Induces Neurite-Like Outgrowths in PC12 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Flowers, Brittany M.; Rusnak, Lauren E.; Wong, Kristen E.; Banks, Dallas A.; Munyikwa, Michelle R.; McFarland, Alexander G.; Hinton, Shantá D.

    2014-01-01

    The rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cell line is a widely used system to study neuronal differentiation for which sustained activation of the extracellular signaling related kinase (ERK) pathway is required. Here, we investigate the function of MK-STYX [MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) phosphoserine/threonine/tyrosine-binding protein] in neuronal differentiation. MK-STYX is a member of the MAPK phosphatase (MKP) family, which is generally responsible for dephosphorylating the ERKs. However, MK-STYX lacks catalytic activity due to the absence of the nucleophilic cysteine in the active site signature motif HC(X5)R that is essential for phosphatase activity. Despite being catalytically inactive, MK-STYX has been shown to play a role in important cellular pathways, including stress responses. Here we show that PC12 cells endogenously express MK-STYX. In addition, MK-STYX, but not its catalytically active mutant, induced neurite-like outgrowths in PC12 cells. Furthermore, MK-STYX dramatically increased the number of cells with neurite extensions in response to nerve growth factor (NGF), whereas the catalytically active mutant did not. MK-STYX continued to induce neurites in the presence of a MEK (MAP kinase kinase) inhibitor suggesting that MK-STYX does not act through the Ras-ERK/MAPK pathway but is involved in another pathway whose inactivation leads to neuronal differentiation. RhoA activity assays indicated that MK-STYX induced extensions through the Rho signaling pathway. MK-STYX decreased RhoA activation, whereas RhoA activation increased when MK-STYX was down-regulated. Furthermore, MK-STYX affected downstream players of RhoA such as the actin binding protein cofilin. The presence of MK-STYX decreased the phosphorylation of cofilin in non NGF stimulated cells, but increased its phosphorylation in NGF stimulated cells, whereas knocking down MK-STYX caused an opposite effect. Taken together our data suggest that MK-STYX may be a regulator of RhoA signaling, and

  14. Jet Dipolarity: Top Tagging with Color Flow

    SciTech Connect

    Hook, Anson; Jankowiak, Martin; Wacker, Jay G.; /SLAC

    2011-08-12

    A new jet observable, dipolarity, is introduced that can distinguish whether a pair of subjets arises from a color singlet source. This observable is incorporated into the HEPTopTagger and is shown to improve discrimination between top jets and QCD jets for moderate to high p{sub T}. The impressive resolution of the ATLAS and CMS detectors means that a typical QCD jet at the LHC deposits energy in {Omicron}(10-100) calorimeter cells. Such fine-grained calorimetry allows for jets to be studied in much greater detail than previously, with sophisticated versions of current techniques making it possible to measure more than just the bulk properties of jets (e.g. event jet multiplicities or jet masses). One goal of the LHC is to employ these techniques to extend the amount of information available from each jet, allowing for a broader probe of the properties of QCD. The past several years have seen significant progress in developing such jet substructure techniques. A number of general purpose tools have been developed, including: (i) top-tagging algorithms designed for use at both lower and higher p{sub T} as well as (ii) jet grooming techniques such as filtering, pruning, and trimming, which are designed to improve jet mass resolution. Jet substructure techniques have also been studied in the context of specific particle searches, where they have been shown to substantially extend the reach of traditional search techniques in a wide variety of scenarios, including for example boosted Higgses, neutral spin-one resonances, searches for supersymmetry, and many others. Despite these many successes, however, there is every reason to expect that there remains room for refinement of jet substructure techniques.

  15. Measurement of the top quark mass using the template method in the lepton plus jets channel with in situ W ---> j j calibration at CDF-II

    SciTech Connect

    Adelman, Jahred A.; Arguin, J.F.; Bellettini, G.; Brubaker, E.; Budagov, J.; Chlachidze, G.; Demortier, L.; Gibson, A.; Kim, S.; Kim, Y.K.; Maruyama, T.; Sato, K.; Shochet, M.; Sinervo, P.; Tomura, T.; Velev, G.; Xie, S.; Yang, U.K.; /Chicago U. /Toronto U. /INFN, Pisa /Dubna, JINR /Rockefeller U. /LBL, Berkeley /Tsukuba U. /Fermilab

    2006-05-01

    We report an updated measurement of the top quark mass in the lepton plus jets channel of t{bar t} events from p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV. This measurement uses a dataset with integrated luminosity of 680 pb{sup -1}, containing 360 t{bar t} candidates separated into four subsamples. A top quark mass is reconstructed for each event by using energy and momentum constraints on the top quark pair decay products. We also employ the reconstructed mass of hadronic W boson decays W {yields} jj to constrain in situ the largest systematic uncertainty of the top quark mass measurement: the jet energy scale. Monte Carlo templates of the reconstructed top quark and W boson mass are produced as a function of the true top quark mass and the jet energy scale. The distribution of reconstructed top quark and W boson mass in the data are compared to the Monte Carlo templates using a likelihood fit to obtain: M{sub top} = 173.4 {+-} 2.8 GeV/c{sup 2}.

  16. The many lives of active galactic nuclei-II: The formation and evolution of radio jets and their impact on galaxy evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raouf, Mojtaba; Shabala, Stanislav S.; Croton, Darren J.; Khosroshahi, Habib G.; Bernyk, Maksym

    2017-10-01

    We describe new efforts to model radio active galactic nuclei (AGN) in a cosmological context using the Semi-Analytic Galaxy Evolution (SAGE) semi-analytic galaxy model. Our new method tracks the physical properties of radio jets in massive galaxies including the evolution of radio lobes and their impact on the surrounding gas. This model also self consistently follows the gas cooling-heating cycle that significantly shapes star formation and the life and death of many galaxy types. Adding jet physics to SAGE adds new physical properties to the model output, which in turn allows us to make more detailed predictions for the radio AGN population. After calibrating the model to a set of core observations we analyse predictions for jet power, radio cocoon size, radio luminosity and stellar mass. We find that the model is able to match the stellar mass-radio luminosity relation at z ∼ 0 and the radio luminosity function out to z ∼ 1. This updated model will make possible the construction of customised AGN-focused mock survey catalogues to be used for large-scale observing programs.

  17. CONSTRAINING THE PHYSICAL CONDITIONS IN THE JETS OF γ-RAY FLARING BLAZARS USING CENTIMETER-BAND POLARIMETRY AND RADIATIVE TRANSFER SIMULATIONS. II. EXPLORING PARAMETER SPACE AND IMPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, Philip A.; Aller, Margo F.; Aller, Hugh D. E-mail: mfa@umich.edu

    2015-02-01

    We analyze the shock-in-jet models for the γ-ray flaring blazars 0420-014, OJ 287, and 1156+295 presented in Paper I, quantifying how well the modeling constrains internal properties of the flow (low-energy spectral cutoff, partition between random and ordered magnetic field), the flow dynamics (quiescent flow speed and orientation), and the number and strength of the shocks responsible for radio-band flaring. We conclude that well-sampled, multifrequency polarized flux light curves are crucial for defining source properties. We argue for few, if any, low-energy particles in these flows, suggesting no entrainment and efficient energization of jet material, and for approximate energy equipartition between the random and ordered magnetic field components, suggesting that the ordered field is built by nontrivial dynamo action from the random component, or that the latter arises from a jet instability that preserves the larger-scale, ordered flow. We present evidence that the difference between orphan radio-band (no γ-ray counterpart) and non-orphan flares is due to more complex shock interactions in the latter case.

  18. STS-42 Commander Grabe uses DTO 653 MK1 Rowing Machine on OV-103's middeck

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1992-01-30

    STS042-05-037 (30 Jan 1992) --- Astronaut Ronald J. Grabe, STS-42 commander, exercises using MK1 Rowing Machine on the middeck of Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103. Grabe is using the exercise device as part of Development Test Objective (DTO) 653, Evaluation of MK1 Rowing Machine. The forward lockers appear at Grabe's right and the sleep station behind him.

  19. Test report for K Basin MK I lid removal and replacement system

    SciTech Connect

    Omberg, R.P.; Roe, N.R.

    1996-08-21

    This report provides the results of acceptance testing of sampling equipment for use in the Hanford K Basin. The equipment, MK I Lid Removal/Replacement Tools, were designed to remove/replace MK I Spent Fuel Canister lids so that other equipment may be used to sample the canister contents. The tools were determined to be acceptable for their intended use.

  20. STS-42 Commander Grabe uses DTO 653 MK1 Rowing Machine on OV-103's middeck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    STS-42 Commander Ronald J. Grabe exercises using MK1 Rowing Machine on the middeck of Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103. Grabe is using the exercise device as part of Development Test Objective (DTO) 653, Evaluation of MK1 Rowing Machine. The forward lockers appear at Grabe's right and the sleep station behind him.

  1. Applying Multimedia to the MK 92 Mod 2 Maintenance Advisor Expert System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-09-01

    This thesis is part of a software project to develop a diagnostic expert system for the MK 92 Mod 2 fire control system (FCS) daily system...technology, to the MK 92 Mod 2 Maintenance Advisor Expert System (MAES). The MAES application is intended for distribution to fleet sailors in order to

  2. Medial Prefrontal Administration of MK-801 Impairs T-maze Discrimination Reversal Learning in Weanling Rats

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Deborah J.; Stanton, Mark E.

    2009-01-01

    Several executive functions rely on the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in the rat. Aspiration and neurotoxic lesions of the mPFC impair reversal learning in adult rats [1, 16, 34, 55]. Systemic administration of MK-801, an NMDA receptor antagonist, impairs T-maze reversal learning in weanling rats but the role of mPFC NMDA receptor antagonism in this effect is not known in either adult or young animals. This set of studies showed that mPFC NMDA receptors are specifically involved in T-maze discrimination reversal in weanling rats. In Experiment 1, 26-day-old rats (P26) demonstrated a dose-dependent impairment following bilateral mPFC administration of either 2.5 or 5.0 µg MK-801 or saline (vehicle) during the reversal training phase only. In Experiment 2, P26 rats were trained on the same task, but 4 groups of rats received bilateral mPFC infusions during acquisition only (MK-SAL), reversal only (SAL-MK), both phases (MK-MK) or neither phase (SAL-SAL). MK-801 impaired performance only when infused during reversal. This suggests that NMDA receptor antagonism in the mPFC is selectively involved in reversal learning during development and this may account for the previously reported effects of systemic MK-801 on T-maze discrimination reversal in weanling rats. PMID:19643149

  3. Functional receptors and intracellular signal pathways of midkine (MK) and pleiotrophin (PTN).

    PubMed

    Xu, Chuanying; Zhu, Shunying; Wu, Mingyuan; Han, Wei; Yu, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Midkine (MK) and pleiotrophin (PTN) belong to the subfamily of heparin binding growth factors. They have ca. 50% structural homology, with similar C- and N-domains as well as comparable binding affinity to heparin, glycoproteins and proteoglycans. Both MK and PTN have diverse functions, such as mitogenicity, inflammation, angiogenesis, oncogenesis and stem cell self-renewal. The high expression of MK and PTN in many kinds of cancers makes them excellent as cancer biomarkers and targets for anticancer drug development. In addition, the important roles of MK and PTN in the regeneration of tissues, such as myocardium, cartilage, neuron, muscle, and bone, make them attractive candidates for the treatment of degenerative diseases such as myocardiac and cerebral infarction, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and skeletal muscle injury. As a result, there has been a growing interest in the mechanisms of MK and PTN function, including the diverse receptors on the cell membrane and complex signal pathways in the cytoplasm. This work reviews the structures of MK and PTN, as well as the receptors and the intracellular signal pathways involving MK and PTN which will pave the way for future development of MK and PTN therapeutics.

  4. MK-STYX, a catalytically inactive phosphatase regulating mitochondrially dependent apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Niemi, Natalie M; Lanning, Nathan J; Klomp, Jeff A; Tait, Stephen W; Xu, Yong; Dykema, Karl J; Murphy, Leon O; Gaither, L Alex; Xu, H Eric; Furge, Kyle A; Green, Douglas R; MacKeigan, Jeffrey P

    2011-04-01

    Evasion of apoptosis is a significant problem affecting an array of cancers. In order to identify novel regulators of apoptosis, we performed an RNA interference (RNAi) screen against all kinases and phosphatases in the human genome. We identified MK-STYX (STYXL1), a catalytically inactive phosphatase with homology to the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphatases. Despite this homology, MK-STYX knockdown does not significantly regulate MAPK signaling in response to growth factors or apoptotic stimuli. Rather, RNAi-mediated knockdown of MK-STYX inhibits cells from undergoing apoptosis induced by cellular stressors activating mitochondrion-dependent apoptosis. This MK-STYX phenotype mimics the loss of Bax and Bak, two potent guardians of mitochondrial apoptotic potential. Similar to loss of both Bax and Bak, cells without MK-STYX expression are unable to release cytochrome c. Proapoptotic members of the BCL-2 family (Bax, Bid, and Bim) are unable to trigger cytochrome c release in MK-STYX-depleted cells, placing the apoptotic deficiency at the level of mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP). MK-STYX was found to localize to the mitochondria but is neither released from the mitochondria upon apoptotic stress nor proximal to the machinery currently known to control MOMP, indicating that MK-STYX regulates MOMP using a distinct mechanism.

  5. Jet lag.

    PubMed

    Herxheimer, Andrew

    2008-12-04

    Jet lag affects most air travellers crossing five or more time zones; it tends to be worse on eastward than on westward flights. We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of interventions to prevent or minimise jet lag? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to June 2008 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). We found five systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: hypnotics, melatonin, and lifestyle and environmental adaptations.

  6. {sup 3}He melting pressure temperature scale below 25 mK

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, E.D.; Ni, W.; Xia, J.S.

    1995-04-01

    Using {sup 60}Co {gamma} ray anisotropy radiation as a primary thermometer, with a Pt NMR susceptibility secondary thermometer, the authors have made high precision measurements of the {sup 3}He melting pressure versus temperature from 500 {mu}K to 25 mK. Temperatures obtained for the fixed points on the melting curve are: the superfluid A transition T{sub A} = 2.505 mK, the A-B transition T{sub AB} = 1.948 mK, and the solid ordering temperature T{sub N} = 0.934 mK. The authors provide a functional form for P(T), which, with the fixed points, constitutes a convenient temperature scale, based on a primary thermometer, usable to well below 1 mK.

  7. Discovery of MK-1832, a Kv1.5 inhibitor with improved selectivity and pharmacokinetics.

    PubMed

    Wolkenberg, Scott E; Nolt, M Brad; Bilodeau, Mark T; Trotter, B Wesley; Manley, Peter J; Kett, Nathan R; Nanda, Kausik K; Wu, Zhicai; Cato, Matthew J; Kane, Stefanie A; Kiss, Laszlo; Spencer, Robert H; Wang, Jixin; Lynch, Joseph J; Regan, Christopher P; Stump, Gary L; Li, Bing; White, Rebecca; Yeh, Suzie; Dinsmore, Christopher J; Lindsley, Craig W; Hartman, George D

    2017-02-15

    Selective inhibition of Kv1.5, which underlies the ultra-rapid delayed rectifier current, IKur, has been pursued as a treatment for atrial fibrillation. Here we describe the discovery of MK-1832, a Kv1.5 inhibitor with improved selectivity versus the off-target current IKs, whose inhibition has been associated with ventricular proarrhythmia. MK-1832 exhibits improved selectivity for IKur over IKs (>3000-fold versus 70-fold for MK-0448), consistent with an observed larger window between atrial and ventricular effects in vivo (>1800-fold versus 210-fold for MK-0448). MK-1832 also exhibits an improved preclinical pharmacokinetic profile consistent with projected once daily dosing in humans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Hadron production by e/sup +/e/sup -/ annihilation at center-of-mass energies between 2. 6 and 7. 8 GeV. II. Jet structure and related inclusive distributions

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, G.; Alam, M.S.; Boyarski, A.M.; Breidenbach, M.; Bulos, F.; Dakin, J.T.; Dorfan, J.M.; Feldman, G.J.; Fischer, G.E.; Fryberger, D.; Hartill, D.L.; Jaros, J.A.; Jean-Marie, B.; Larsen, R.R.; Lueth, V.; Lynch, H.L.; Lyon, D.; Morehouse, C.C.; Paterson, J.M.; Perl, M.L.; Peruzzi, I.; Piccolo, M.; Pun, T.P.; Rapidis, P.; Richter, B.; Schindler, R.H.; Schwitters, R.F.; Siegrist, J.L.; Tanenbaum, W.; Vannucci, F.; Abrams, G.S.; Briggs, D.; Carithers, W.C.; Chinowsky, W.; Cooper, S.; DeVoe, R.G.; Friedberg, C.E.; Goldhaber, G.; Hollebeek, R.J.; Johnson, A.D.; Kadyk, J.A.; Litke, A.M.; Madaras, R.J.; Nguyen, H.K.; Pierre, F.M.; Sadoulet, B.; Trilling, G.H.; Whitaker, J.S.; Winkelmann, F.C.; Wiss, J.E.

    1982-09-01

    We present results on the jet structure observed in multihadronic events produced by e/sup +/e/sup -/ annihilation in the Mark I magnetic detector at SPEAR. The evidence for jet structure and the jet-axis angular distribution are reported. We give inclusive distributions of the hadrons in Feynman x, rapidity, and transverse momentum relative to the jet axis.

  9. MK2 inhibitory peptide delivered in nanopolyplexes prevents vascular graft intimal hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Brian C.; Hocking, Kyle M.; Osgood, Michael J.; Voskresensky, Igor; Dmowska, Julia; Kilchrist, Kameron V.; Brophy, Colleen M.; Duvall, Craig L.

    2017-01-01

    Autologous vein grafts are commonly used for coronary and peripheral artery bypass but have a high incidence of intimal hyperplasia (IH) and failure. We present a nanopolyplex (NP) approach that efficiently delivers a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)–activated protein (MAPKAP) kinase 2 inhibitory peptide (MK2i) to graft tissue to improve long-term patency by inhibiting pathways that initiate IH. In vitro testing in human vascular smooth muscle cells revealed that formulation into MK2i-NPs increased cell internalization, endosomal escape, and intracellular half-life of MK2i. This efficient delivery mechanism enabled MK2i-NPs to sustain potent inhibition of inflammatory cytokine production and migration in vascular cells. In intact human saphenous vein, MK2i-NPs blocked inflammatory and migratory signaling, as confirmed by reduced phosphorylation of the posttranscriptional gene regulator heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A0, the transcription factor cAMP (adenosine 3′,5′-monophosphate) element–binding protein, and the chaperone heat shock protein 27. The molecular effects of MK2i-NPs caused functional inhibition of IH in human saphenous vein cultured ex vivo. In a rabbit vein transplant model, a 30-min intraoperative graft treatment with MK2i-NPs significantly reduced in vivo IH 28 days posttransplant compared with untreated or free MK2i–treated grafts. The decrease in IH in MK2i-NP–treated grafts in the rabbit model also corresponded with decreased cellular proliferation and maintenance of the vascular wall smooth muscle cells in a more contractile phenotype. These data indicate that nanoformulated MK2 inhibitors are a promising strategy for preventing graft failure. PMID:26062847

  10. Effect of the glucocorticoid receptor antagonist RU486 on MK-801 induced behavioural sensitisation

    PubMed Central

    Lefevre, Emilia M.; Medley, Gregory A.; Reeks, Timothy; Alexander, Suzy; Burne, Thomas H. J.; Eyles, Darryl W.

    2017-01-01

    Stress is known to modulate sensitisation to repeated psychostimulant exposure. However, there is no direct evidence linking glucocorticoids and sensitisation achieved by repeated administration of the NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801. We tested the hypothesis that co-administration of RU486, a glucocorticoid receptor (GR) antagonist, prior to repeated daily MK-801 injections would block the expression of locomotor sensitisation due to its dual effects on corticosterone and dopamine. We employed a repeated MK-801 administration locomotor sensitisation paradigm in male Sprague Dawley rats. RU486 or a dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) vehicle was co-administered with MK-801 or saline during the induction phase. Subsequent to withdrawal, rats were challenged with MK-801 alone to test for the expression of sensitisation. In a separate cohort of rats, plasma corticosterone levels were quantified from blood samples taken on the 1st, 4th and 7th day of induction and at expression. One day after challenge, nucleus accumbens tissue levels of dopamine and its metabolites DOPAC and HVA were measured. During the induction phase, RU486 progressively enhanced locomotor sensitisation to MK-801. RU486 and MK-801 both showed stimulatory effects on corticosterone levels and this was further augmented when given in combination. Contrary to our hypothesis, RU486 did not block the expression of locomotor sensitisation to MK-801 and actually increased levels of dopamine, DOPAC and HVA in nucleus accumbens tissue. Our results showed that RU486 has augmentative rather than inhibitory effects on MK-801-induced sensitisation. This study indicates a divergent role for glucocorticoids in sensitisation to MK-801 compared to sensitisation with other psychostimulants. PMID:28430805

  11. MK2 Deletion in Mice Prevents Diabetes-Induced Perturbations in Lipid Metabolism and Cardiac Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Matthieu; Coderre, Lise; Lachance, Dominic; Houde, Valérie; Martel, Cécile; Thompson Legault, Julie; Gillis, Marc-Antoine; Bouchard, Bertrand; Daneault, Caroline; Carpentier, André C; Gaestel, Matthias; Allen, Bruce G; Des Rosiers, Christine

    2016-02-01

    Heart disease remains a major complication of diabetes, and the identification of new therapeutic targets is essential. This study investigates the role of the protein kinase MK2, a p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase downstream target, in the development of diabetes-induced cardiomyopathy. Diabetes was induced in control (MK2(+/+)) and MK2-null (MK2(-/-)) mice using repeated injections of a low dose of streptozotocin (STZ). This protocol generated in MK2(+/+) mice a model of diabetes characterized by a 50% decrease in plasma insulin, hyperglycemia, and insulin resistance (IR), as well as major contractile dysfunction, which was associated with alterations in proteins involved in calcium handling. While MK2(-/-)-STZ mice remained hyperglycemic, they showed improved IR and none of the cardiac functional or molecular alterations. Further analyses highlighted marked lipid perturbations in MK2(+/+)-STZ mice, which encompass increased 1) circulating levels of free fatty acid, ketone bodies, and long-chain acylcarnitines and 2) cardiac triglyceride accumulation and ex vivo palmitate β-oxidation. MK2(-/-)-STZ mice were also protected against all these diabetes-induced lipid alterations. Our results demonstrate the benefits of MK2 deletion on diabetes-induced cardiac molecular and lipid metabolic changes, as well as contractile dysfunction. As a result, MK2 represents a new potential therapeutic target to prevent diabetes-induced cardiac dysfunction. © 2016 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  12. The pseudophosphatase MK-STYX interacts with G3BP and decreases stress granule formation

    PubMed Central

    Hinton, Shantá D.; Myers, Michael P.; Roggero, Vincent R.; Allison, Lizabeth A.; Tonks, Nicholas K.

    2010-01-01

    MK-STYX [MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) phospho-serine/threonine/tyrosine-binding protein] is a pseudophosphatase member of the dual-specificity phosphatase subfamily of the PTPs (protein tyrosine phosphatases). MK-STYX is catalytically inactive due to the absence of two amino acids from the signature motif that are essential for phosphatase activity. The nucleophilic cysteine residue and the adjacent histidine residue, which are conserved in all active dual-specificity phosphatases, are replaced by serine and phenylalanine residues respectively in MK-STYX. Mutations to introduce histidine and cysteine residues into the active site of MK-STYX generated an active phosphatase. Using MS, we identified G3BP1 [Ras-GAP (GTPase-activating protein) SH3 (Src homology 3) domain-binding protein-1], a regulator of Ras signalling, as a binding partner of MK-STYX. We observed that G3BP1 bound to native MK-STYX; however, binding to the mutant catalytically active form of MK-STYX was dramatically reduced. G3BP1 is also an RNA-binding protein with endoribonuclease activity that is recruited to ‘stress granules’ after stress stimuli. Stress granules are large subcellular structures that serve as sites of mRNA sorting, in which untranslated mRNAs accumulate. We have shown that expression of MK-STYX inhibited stress granule formation induced either by aresenite or expression of G3BP itself; however, the catalytically active mutant MK-STYX was impaired in its ability to inhibit G3BP-induced stress granule assembly. These results reveal a novel facet of the function of a member of the PTP family, illustrating a role for MK-STYX in regulating the ability of G3BP1 to integrate changes in growth-factor stimulation and environmental stress with the regulation of protein synthesis. PMID:20180778

  13. In vitro preclinical evaluation studies with the echinocandin antifungal MK-0991 (L-743,872).

    PubMed Central

    Bartizal, K; Gill, C J; Abruzzo, G K; Flattery, A M; Kong, L; Scott, P M; Smith, J G; Leighton, C E; Bouffard, A; Dropinski, J F; Balkovec, J

    1997-01-01

    The echinocandin MK-0991, formerly L-743,872, is a water-soluble lipopeptide that has been demonstrated in preclinical studies to have potent activity against Candida spp., Aspergillus fumigatus, and Pneumocystis carinii. An extensive in vitro biological evaluation of MK-0991 was performed to better define the potential activities of this novel compound. Susceptibility testing with MK-0991 against approximately 200 clinical isolates of Candida, Cryptococcus neoformans, and Aspergillus isolates was conducted to determine MICs and minimum fungicidal concentrations MF(s). The MFC at which 90% of isolates are inhibited for 40 C. albicans clinical isolates was 0.5 microg/ml. Susceptibility testing with panels of antifungal agent-resistant species of Candida and C. neoformans isolates indicated that the MK-0991 MFCs for these isolates are comparable to those obtained for susceptible isolates. Growth kinetic studies of MK-0991 against Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis isolates showed that the compound exhibited fungicidal activity (i.e., a 99% reduction in viability) within 3 to 7 h at concentrations ranging from 0.06 to 1 microg/ml (0.25 to 4 times the MIC). Drug combination studies with MK-0991 plus amphotericin B found that this combination was not antagonistic against C. albicans, C. neoformans, or A. fumigatus in vitro. Studies with 0 to 50% pooled human or mouse serum established that fungal susceptibility to MK-0991 was not significantly influenced by the presence of human or mouse serum. Results from resistance induction studies suggested that the susceptibility of C. albicans was not altered by repeated exposure (40 passages) to MK-0991. Erythrocyte hemolysis studies with MK-0991 with washed and unwashed human or mouse erythrocytes indicated minimal hemolytic potential with this compound. These favorable results of preclinical studies support further studies with MK-0991 with humans. PMID:9371328

  14. Normal cadmium uptake in microcytic anemia mk/mk mice suggests that DMT1 is not the only cadmium transporter in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Tomohito; Momoi, Kanae; Hosoyamada, Makoto Kimura, Masaki; Shibasaki, Toshiaki

    2008-03-15

    Divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1) is a mammalian iron (Fe) transporter and also transports Cadmium (Cd) in vitro. This study compared Cd absorption in DMT1-dysfunctional MK/Rej-{sup mk}/{sub mk} mice (mk/mk mice) and in DMT1-functional, Fe-deficient wild-type (WT) mice, to clarify the role of DMT1 in intestinal Cd absorption in vivo. Mice were given 1 ppm CdCl{sub 2} aq in drinking water for 2 weeks, and the concentrations of Cd and Fe in liver, kidney, and intestinal epithelium were subsequently determined. The Fe concentration in intestinal epithelia of WT mice was decreased in proportion to the level of dietary Fe limitation, while Cd accumulation under the same conditions was increased. DMT1 mRNA expression in the small intestine of Fe-deficient WT mice was clearly increased compared to that in Fe-sufficient WT mice. Iron deficiency resulted in up-regulation of Cd uptake in the intestine of Fe-deficient WT mice. The mk/mk mice have a mutation in DMT1 and loss of its function led to decreased intestinal Fe concentration. However, intestinal Cd accumulation was the same as in WT mice and it was also increased in Fe-deficient situation. There is the possibility that an unknown Cd pathway has taken a role on Cd intestinal absorption in vivo and that this pathway is regulated by food Fe concentrations. Therefore, DMT1 is not the sole transporter of intestinal cadmium absorption in vivo.

  15. Filament Eruptions, Jets, and Space Weather

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Ronald; Sterling, Alphonse; Robe, Nick; Falconer, David; Cirtain, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Previously, from chromospheric H alpha and coronal X-ray movies of the Sun's polar coronal holes, it was found that nearly all coronal jets (greater than 90%) are one or the other of two roughly equally common different kinds, different in how they erupt: standard jets and blowout jets (Yamauchi et al 2004, Apl, 605, 5ll: Moore et all 2010, Apj, 720, 757). Here, from inspection of SDO/AIA He II 304 A movies of 54 polar x-ray jets observed in Hinode/XRT movies, we report, as Moore et al (2010) anticipated, that (1) most standard x-ray jets (greater than 80%) show no ejected plasma that is cool enough (T is less than or approximately 10(exp 5K) to be seen in the He II 304 A movies; (2) nearly all blownout X-ray jets (greater than 90%) show obvious ejection of such cool plasma; (3) whereas when cool plasma is ejected in standard X-ray jets, it shows no lateral expansion, the cool plasma ejected in blowout X-ray jets shows strong lateral expansion; and (4) in many blowout X-ray jets, the cool plasma ejection displays the erupting-magnetic-rope form of clasic filament eruptions and is thereby seen to be a miniature filament eruption. The XRT movies also showed most blowout X-ray jets to be larger and brighter, and hence to apparently have more energy, than most standard X-ray jets. These observations (1) confirm the dichotomy of coronal jets, (2) agree with the Shibata model for standard jets, and (3) support the conclusion of Moore et al (2010) that in blowout jets the magnetic-arch base of the jet erupts in the manner of the much larger magnetic arcades in which the core field, the field rooted along the arcade's polarity inversion line, is sheared and twisted (sigmoid), often carries a cool-plasma filament, and erupts to blowout the arcade, producing a CME. From Hinode/SOT Ca II movies of the polar limb, Sterling et al (2010, ApJ, 714, L1) found that chromospheric Type-II spicules show a dichotomy of eruption dynamics similar to that found here for the cool

  16. Development and Initial Review of the Mark II Navy 44 Sail Training Craft

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    intensive training environment) • Offshore capability for trips to Bermuda with a semi-skilled crew of ten • Favorable treatment under existing rating... triangle and headsails • Existing systems by type, to be updated as directed Features to be improved: • Construction materials, scantlings and...consistent with the MK I’s. The mast height, standing rigging and fore triangle base had to be identical between the MK I and MK II. However, PYD wanted

  17. Inhibition of peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)alpha by MK886.

    PubMed Central

    Kehrer, J P; Biswal, S S; La, E; Thuillier, P; Datta, K; Fischer, S M; Vanden Heuvel, J P

    2001-01-01

    Although MK886 was originally identified as an inhibitor of 5-lipoxygenase activating protein (FLAP), recent data demonstrate that this activity does not underlie its ability to induce apoptosis [Datta, Biswal and Kehrer (1999) Biochem. J. 340, 371--375]. Since FLAP is a fatty-acid binding protein, it is conceivable that MK886 may affect other such proteins. A family of nuclear receptors that are activated by fatty acids and their metabolites, the peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), have been implicated in apoptosis and may represent a target for MK886. The ability of MK886 to inhibit PPAR-alpha, -beta and -gamma activity was assessed using reporter assay systems (peroxisome-proliferator response element--luciferase). Using a transient transfection system in monkey kidney fibroblast CV-1 cells, mouse keratinocyte 308 cells and human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells, 10--20 microM MK886 inhibited Wy14,643 activation of PPAR alpha by approximately 80%. Similar inhibition of PPAR alpha by MK886 was observed with a stable transfection reporter system in CV-1 cells. Only minimal inhibitory effects were seen on PPAR beta and PPAR gamma. MK886 inhibited PPAR alpha by a non-competitive mechanism as shown by its effects on the binding of arachidonic acid to PPAR alpha protein, and a dose-response study using a transient transfection reporter assay in COS-1 cells. An assay assessing PPAR ligand-receptor interactions showed that MK886 prevents the conformational change necessary for active-complex formation. The expression of keratin-1, a protein encoded by a PPAR alpha-responsive gene, was reduced by MK886 in a culture of mouse primary keratinocytes, suggesting that PPAR inhibition has functional consequences in normal cells. Although Jurkat cells express all PPAR isoforms, various PPAR alpha and PPAR gamma agonists were unable to prevent MK886-induced apoptosis. This is consistent with MK886 functioning as a non-competitive inhibitor of PPAR alpha, but may

  18. In vitro antibacterial activity of norfloxacin (MK-0366).

    PubMed Central

    King, A; Warren, C; Shannon, K; Phillips, I

    1982-01-01

    The in vitro activity of norfloxacin (MK-0366) compared with that of beta-lactam antibiotics and, where appropriate of gentamicin or metronidazole was assessed against recent clinical isolates of common bacteria. The compound was highly active against most enterobacteria (minimal inhibitory concentrations [MICs], 0.008 to 32 micrograms/ml; 90% inhibited by 0.25 micrograms/ml), Haemophilus influenzae (MICs, 0.03 to 0.12 micrograms/ml), and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (MICs, 0.008 to 0.016 micrograms/ml). It was also active against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MICs, 0.12 to 2 micrograms/ml), most other pseudomonads (MICs, 0.03 to 32 micrograms/ml), and Acinetobacter calcoaceticus (MICs 0.06 to 4 micrograms/ml). Norfloxacin was somewhat less active against staphylococci (MICs, 0.25 to 4 micrograms/ml; 1 microgram/ml required to inhibit 50% of isolates) and streptococci (MICs, 0.5 to 64 micrograms/ml). Members of the Bacteroides fragilis group of anaerobes were relatively resistant to norfloxacin (MICs, 8 to 128 micrograms/ml), as were most other anaerobes. PMID:6211139

  19. The PIT MkV pulsed inductive thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dailey, C. Lee; Lovberg, Ralph H.

    1993-01-01

    The pulsed inductive thruster (PIT) is an electrodeless, magnetic rocket engine that can operate with any gaseous propellant. A puff of gas injected against the face of a flat (spiral) coil is ionized and ejected by the magnetic field of a fast-rising current pulse from a capacitor bank discharge. Single shot operation on an impulse balance has provided efficiency and I(sub sp) data that characterize operation at any power level (pulse rate). The 1-m diameter MkV thruster concept offers low estimated engine mass at low powers, together with power capability up to more than 1 MW for the 1-m diameter design. A 20 kW design estimate indicates specific mass comparable to Ion Engine specific mass for 10,000 hour operation, while a 100,000 hour design would have a specific mass 1/3 that of the Ion Engine. Performance data are reported for ammonia and hydrazine. With ammonia, at 32 KV coil voltage, efficiency is a little more than 50 percent from 4000 to more than 8000 seconds I(sub sp). Comparison with data at 24 and 28 kV indicates that a wider I(sub sp) range could be achieved at higher coil voltages, if required for deep space missions.

  20. The PIT MkV pulsed inductive thruster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dailey, C. Lee; Lovberg, Ralph H.

    1993-07-01

    The pulsed inductive thruster (PIT) is an electrodeless, magnetic rocket engine that can operate with any gaseous propellant. A puff of gas injected against the face of a flat (spiral) coil is ionized and ejected by the magnetic field of a fast-rising current pulse from a capacitor bank discharge. Single shot operation on an impulse balance has provided efficiency and I(sub sp) data that characterize operation at any power level (pulse rate). The 1-m diameter MkV thruster concept offers low estimated engine mass at low powers, together with power capability up to more than 1 MW for the 1-m diameter design. A 20 kW design estimate indicates specific mass comparable to Ion Engine specific mass for 10,000 hour operation, while a 100,000 hour design would have a specific mass 1/3 that of the Ion Engine. Performance data are reported for ammonia and hydrazine. With ammonia, at 32 KV coil voltage, efficiency is a little more than 50 percent from 4000 to more than 8000 seconds I(sub sp). Comparison with data at 24 and 28 kV indicates that a wider I(sub sp) range could be achieved at higher coil voltages, if required for deep space missions.

  1. Results of W-87/Mk21 Deployment Separation Shock Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Avalle, C.A.

    1999-04-21

    This report summarizes results of the W-87/Mk21 Deployment Separation Shock Tests conducted at the Survivability and Vulnerability Integration Center (SVIC) Hill Air Force Base in Ogden, Utah, from 10/5/98 to 10/8/98. Specific details regarding the test plan and procedures can be found in the Master Test Plan listed in the references. Test Objectives: (1) Evaluate the performance of a set of servo accelerometers during and post Re-entry Vehicle (RV) separation events. These ultra-sensitive accelerometers ({mu}g) needed operate during and after the separation shock events and these tests would serve as confirmation of proper functioning. These sensors were later flown on FrU-15, a development flight unit supporting the Instrumented High Fidelity Joint Test Assembly Program, as part of an experimental Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) measure RV dynamics during RV mechanical separation and spin-up. (2) Measure separation shock response at the IMU accelerometer locations. (3) Measure separation shock response at locations on the warhead and RV common to locations used on MMIII separation tests conducted at LMMS Valley Forge for data comparison.

  2. Top Jets at the LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Almeida, L.G.; Lee, S.J.; Perez, G.; Sung, I.; Virzi, J.

    2008-10-06

    We investigatethe reconstruction of high pT hadronically-decaying top quarksat the Large Hadron Collider. One of the main challenges in identifying energetictop quarks is that the decay products become increasingly collimated. This reducesthe efficacy of conventional reconstruction methods that exploit the topology of thetop quark decay chain. We focus on the cases where the decay products of the topquark are reconstructed as a single jet, a"top-jet." The most basic"top-tag" methodbased on jet mass measurement is considered in detail. To analyze the feasibility ofthe top-tagging method, both theoretical and experimental aspects of the large QCDjet background contribution are examined. Based on a factorization approach, wederive a simple analytic approximation for the shape of the QCD jet mass spectrum.We observe very good agreement with the Monte Carlo simulation. We consider high pT tt bar production in the Standard Model as an example, and show that our theoretical QCD jet mass distributions can efficiently characterize the background via sideband analyses. We show that with 25 fb-1 of data, our approach allows us to resolve top-jets with pT _> 1 TeV, from the QCD background, and about 1.5 TeV top-jets with 100 fb-1, without relying on b-tagging. To further improve the significancewe consider jet shapes (recently analyzed in 0807.0234 [hep-ph]), which resolve thesubstructure of energy flow inside cone jets. A method of measuring the top quarkpolarization by using the transverse momentum of the bottom quark is also presented.The main advantages of our approach are: (i) the mass distributions are driven byfirst principle calculations, instead of relying solely on Monte Carlo simulation; (ii) for high pT jets (pT _> 1 TeV), IR-safe jet shape variables are robust against detectorresolution effects. Our analysis can be applied to other boosted massive particlessuch as the electroweak gauge bosons and the Higgs.

  3. Identification of Statistical Invariance for Anodic Signals of Mk-IV Electrorefiner

    SciTech Connect

    Supathorn Phongikaroon; Tae-Sic Yoo

    2007-09-01

    A statistical invariance technique is proposed for an analysis of anodic signals from the Mk-IV electrorefiner (ER) currently used for treating spent EBR-II fuel. Voltage and applied current signals obtained from the Data Archival Software System (DASS) were used in this study. In general, the plots of these signals from different experimental runs present complex patterns to analyze—the currents were adjusted and shut-off due to limited ampere-hr or cut-off cell voltage; the voltage would increase showing a sign that uranium in the fuel elements had been depleted. Rather than directly analyzing these sets of time-series signals, a simple nonlinear function of these signal sequences and division were observed, which returned resistance series information. The primary idea deriving the methodology presented in this paper is that “anodic resistance time series should show intrinsic kinetic progress of anodic ER process.” A simple histogram-based analysis reveals notable statistical information, which may be invariant under ideal ER operating conditions. For instance, the results suggest that mostly uranium dissolution would be preferentially transferred around 0.00217 - 0.00354 ohm and other minor distribution peaks may possibly represent other transfers of fission species in the system.

  4. Evaluation of the angiogenic potency of a novel exopolysaccharide produced by the MK1 bacterial strain.

    PubMed

    Park, Ji-Yun; Kim, Beom Su; Lee, Jun

    2016-09-01

    Angiogenesis is an essential physiological step in wound healing and other regenerative processes. Here, we evaluated the angiogenic properties of an exopolysaccharide (EPS) secreted by MK1 (MK1-EPS), a novel bacterial strain isolated from Neungee mushrooms. MK1-EPS significantly increased human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) proliferation, migration, and vascular tube formation. MK1-EPS enhanced the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and p38, which are mitogen-activated protein kinases. In addition, the expression of p21 and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM1), and phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), but not of protein kinase B (AKT), were increased. Specific inhibitors of p38 (SB203580), ERK (PD98059), and JNK (SP600125) inhibited MK1-EPS-induced HUVEC proliferation, tube formation, and cell migration, and partially attenuated MKI-EPS-induced expression of p21 and ICAM1, and STAT3 phosphorylation. After surgical implantation into rabbit calvarial bone defects, new blood vessel formation was significantly higher with MK1-EPS composite bone granules than with granules alone, and new bone formation increased significantly. Therefore, MK1-EPS induces angiogenesis and may have potential for use as a bone regeneration agent in bone tissue engineering applications.

  5. Interaction of the NMDA receptor noncompetitive antagonist MK-801 with model and native membranes.

    PubMed Central

    Moring, J; Niego, L A; Ganley, L M; Trumbore, M W; Herbette, L G

    1994-01-01

    MK-801, a noncompetitive antagonist of the NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate) receptor, has protective effects against excitotoxicity and ethanol withdrawal seizures. We have determined membrane/buffer partition coefficients (Kp[mem]) of MK-801 and its rates of association with and dissociation from membranes. Kp[mem] (+/- SD) = 1137 (+/- 320) in DOPC membranes and 485 (+/- 99) in synaptoneurosomal (SNM) lipid membranes from rat cerebral cortex (unilamellar vesicles). In multilamellar vesicles, Kp[mem] was higher: 3374 (+/- 253) in DOPC and 6879 (+/- 947) in SNM. In cholesterol/DOPC membranes, Kp[mem] decreased as the cholesterol content increased. MK-801 associated with and dissociated from membranes rapidly. Addition of ethanol to SNM did not affect Kp[mem]. MK-801 decreased the cooperative unit size of DMPC membranes. The decrease was smaller than that caused by 1,4-dihydropyridine drugs, indicating a weaker interaction with the hydrocarbon core. Small angle x-ray diffraction, with multilayer autocorrelation difference function modeling, indicated that MK-801 in a cholesterol/DOPC membrane (mole ratio = 0.6) causes a perturbation at approximately 16.0 A from the bilayer center. In bilayers of cholesterol/DOPC = 0.15 (mole ratio) or pure DOPC, the perturbation caused by MK-801 was more complex. The physical chemical interactions of MK-801 with membranes in vitro are consistent with a fast onset and short duration of action in vivo. PMID:7696477

  6. The effect of human cytomegalovirus on the formation of CFU-MK in vitro.

    PubMed

    Yao, Junxia; Song, Sanjun; Hu, Lihua

    2004-01-01

    To investigate the mechanism and the suppressive effect of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) on colony forming unit-megakaryocyte (CFU-MK), semi-solid culture system was used to observe the effect of HCMV AD169 strain on CFU-MK's growth of 18 cord blood samples. HCMV DNA and immediate early (IE) protein mRNA in CFU-MK was detected by PCR and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Our results showed that HCMV AD169 significantly suppressed the formation of CFU-MK in vitro. Compared with the mock group, the CFU-MK colonies decreased by 21.6%, 33.8% and 46.3%, respectively, in all the 3 infected groups (P<0.05), suggesting the suppression and the titer of the virus was dose-dependent. Both HCMV DNA and the expression of HCMV IE protein mRNA were positively detected in the colony cells of viral infected group. It is concluded that HCMV AD169 strain could inhibit the differentiation and proliferation of CFU-MK by directly infecting their progenitors. There was early transcription of HCMV IE protein in CFU-MK infected by virus.

  7. New insights into the activation, interaction partners and possible functions of MK5/PRAK.

    PubMed

    Perander, Maria; Keyse, Stephen M; Seternes, Ole-Morten

    2016-01-01

    MAP kinase-activated protein kinase 5 (MK5) was first described as a downstream target of the p38 MAP kinase pathway leading to its alternative acronym of p38-regulated/activated protein kinase (PRAK). However, since the discovery that MK5 is a bona fide interaction partner of the atypical MAP kinases ERK3 and ERK4 and that this interaction leads to both the activation and subcellular relocalisation of MK5, there has been considerable debate as to the relative roles of these MAPK pathways in mediating the activation and biological functions of MK5. Here we discuss recent progress in defining novel upstream components of the ERK3/ERK4 signalling pathway, our increased understanding of the mechanism by which MK5 interacts with and is activated by ERK3 and ERK4, and the discovery of novel interaction partners for MK5. Finally, we review recent literature that suggests novel biological functions for MK5 in a range of physiological and pathophysiological conditions including neuronal function and cancer.

  8. Two Types of Magnetohydrodynamic Sheath Jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaburaki, Osamu

    2009-06-01

    Recent observations of astrophysical jets emanating from various galactic nuclei strongly suggest that a double-layered structure, or a spine-sheath structure, is likely to be their common feature. We propose that such a sheath jet structure can be formed magnetohydrodynamically within a valley of the magnetic pressures, which is formed between the peaks due to the poloidal and toroidal components, with the centrifugal force acting on the rotating sheath plasma being balanced by the hoop stress of the toroidal field. The poloidal field concentrated near the polar axis is maintained by a converging plasma flow toward the jet region, and the toroidal field is developed outside the jet cone owing to the poloidal current circulating through the jet. Under such situations, the set of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations allows two main types of solutions, at least, in the region far from the footpoint. The first type solution describes the jets of marginally bound nature. This type is realized when the jet temperature decreases like a virial one, and neither the pressure-gradient nor the MHD forces, which are both determined consistently, cannot completely overcome the gravity, even at infinity. The second type is realized under an isothermal situation, and the gravity is cancelled exactly by the pressure-gradient force. Hence, the jets of this type are accelerated purely by the MHD force. It is also suggested that these two types correspond, respectively, to the jets from type I and II radio galaxies in the Fanaroff-Riley classification.

  9. Jet lag

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Jet lag is a syndrome caused by disruption of the "body clock", and affects most air travellers crossing five or more time zones; it tends to be worse on eastward than on westward flights. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of interventions to prevent or minimise jet lag? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to June 2008 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found five systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: hypnotics, lifestyle and environmental adaptations, and melatonin. PMID:19445780

  10. NAAG peptidase inhibitors block cognitive deficit induced by MK-801 and motor activation induced by d-amphetamine in animal models of schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Olszewski, R T; Janczura, K J; Ball, S R; Madore, J C; Lavin, K M; Lee, J C-M; Lee, M J; Der, E K; Hark, T J; Farago, P R; Profaci, C P; Bzdega, T; Neale, J H

    2012-01-01

    The most widely validated animal models of the positive, negative and cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia involve administration of d-amphetamine or the open channel NMDA receptor blockers, dizocilpine (MK-801), phencyclidine (PCP) and ketamine. The drug ZJ43 potently inhibits glutamate carboxypeptidase II (GCPII), an enzyme that inactivates the peptide transmitter N-acetylaspartylglutamate (NAAG) and reduces positive and negative behaviors induced by PCP in several of these models. NAAG is an agonist at the metabotropic glutamate receptor 3 (mGluR3). Polymorphisms in this receptor have been associated with expression of schizophrenia. This study aimed to determine whether two different NAAG peptidase inhibitors are effective in dopamine models, whether their efficacy was eliminated in GCPII knockout mice and whether the efficacy of these inhibitors extended to MK-801-induced cognitive deficits as assessed using the novel object recognition test. ZJ43 blocked motor activation when given before or after d-amphetamine treatment. (R,S)-2-phosphono-methylpentanedioic acid (2-PMPA), another potent NAAG peptidase inhibitor, also reduced motor activation induced by PCP or d-amphetamine. 2-PMPA was not effective in GCPII knockout mice. ZJ43 and 2-PMPA also blocked MK-801-induced deficits in novel object recognition when given before, but not after, the acquisition trial. The group II mGluR antagonist LY341495 blocked the effects of NAAG peptidase inhibition in these studies. 2-PMPA was more potent than ZJ43 in a test of NAAG peptidase inhibition in vivo. By bridging the dopamine and glutamate theories of schizophrenia with two structurally different NAAG peptidase inhibitors and demonstrating their efficacy in blocking MK-801-induced memory deficits, these data advance the concept that NAAG peptidase inhibition represents a potentially novel antipsychotic therapy. PMID:22850437

  11. The role of purinergic and dopaminergic systems on MK-801-induced antidepressant effects in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Raquel Bohrer; Siebel, Anna Maria; Bonan, Carla Denise

    2015-12-01

    Depression is a serious disease characterized by low mood, anhedonia, loss of interest in daily activities, appetite and sleep disturbances, reduced concentration, and psychomotor agitation. There is a growing interest in NMDA antagonists as a promising target for the development of new antidepressants. Considering that purinergic and dopaminergic systems are involved in depression and anxiety states, we characterized the role of these signaling pathways on MK-801-induced antidepressant effects in zebrafish. Animals treated with MK-801 at the doses of 5, 10, 15, or 20μM during 15, 30, or 60min spent longer time in the top area of aquariums in comparison to control group, indicating an anxiolytic/antidepressant effect induced by this drug. Animals treated with MK-801 spent longer time period at top area until 2 (5μM MK-801) and 4 (20μM MK-801) hours after treatment, returning to basal levels from 24h to 7days after exposure. Repeated MK-801 treatment did not induce cumulative effects, since animals treated daily during 7days had the same behavioral response pattern observed since the first until the 7th day. In order to investigate the effects of adenosine A1 and A2A receptor antagonist and agonist and the influence of modulation of adenosine levels on MK-801 effects, we treated zebrafish with caffeine, DPCPX, CPA, ZM 241385, CGS 21680, AMPCP, EHNA, dipyridamole, and NBTI during 30min before MK-801 exposure. The non-specific adenosine receptor antagonist caffeine (50mg/kg) and the selective A1 receptor antagonist DPCPX (15mg/kg) prevented the behavioral changes induced by MK-801. The non-specific nucleoside transporter (NT) inhibitor dipyridamole (10mg/kg) exacerbated the behavioral changes induced by MK-801. Dopamine receptor antagonists (sulpiride and SCH 23390) did not change the behavioral alterations induced by MK-801. Our findings demonstrated that antidepressant-like effects of MK-801 in zebrafish are mediated through adenosine A1 receptor activation

  12. Magnetic measurements of CeAl sub 3 to below 1 mK

    SciTech Connect

    Avenel, O.; Xia, J.S.; Andraka, B.; Jee, C.S.; Xu, M.; Qian, Y.J.; Lang, T.; Moyland, P.L.; Ni, W.; Signore, P.J.C.; Adams, E.D.; Ihas, G.G.; Meisel, M.W.; Stewart, G.R.; Sullivan, N.S.; Takano, Y. )

    1992-03-01

    The magnetic susceptibility of a polycrystalline, single-phase sample of CeAl{sub 3} has been measured from 10 K to below 800 {mu}K. Above 40 mK, the temperature dependence of the susceptibility is consistent with the results of other groups and possesses a broad peak around 500 mK. Using standard rf superconducting-quantum-interference-device detection techniques operating at 16 Hz, the sample, which was located in a shielded environment having a residual static field of less than 2 nT, was not observed to show any magnetic anomaly from 40 mK down to the lowest achievable temperature.

  13. Fatigue Testing of the MK3 Mod0 2000 Lb Bail Lugs: Test Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-08-01

    REPORT REQUESTING AUTHORITY: No. 1 Central Ammunition Depot, RAAF ITEMS TESTED: Sixty one MK3 MODO 2000 lb bail lugs from four different lot numbers SUMMARY...identifying run-out, lugs from lot numbers I and 4 shall be used due to the availability of a larger quantity of these lugs in comparison to the others. 5...to lugs from four different lot numbers as follows: F1/*t = MK3 MODO (ET) 30003-1380540 ETW-1 277 F2/** = MK3 MODO 30003-1380540 SMN81J 001008 F3

  14. Effects of histamine on MK-801-induced memory deficits in radial maze performance in rats.

    PubMed

    Chen, Z; Zhao, Q; Sugimoto, Y; Fujii, Y; Kamei, C

    1999-08-21

    The effects of histamine on the spatial memory deficits induced by MK-801 were investigated using the eight-arm radial maze paradigm in rats. Intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of histamine or thioperamide, and intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of histidine improved the spatial memory deficits induced by MK-801. Similar results were obtained with 2-thiazolylethylamine. In contrast, 4-methylhistamine showed no significant effect. Based on these observations, it seems likely that the protective effect of histamine on MK-801-induced spatial memory deficit is mediated by H(1)-receptors.

  15. Measurement of the acoustic properties of amorphous silica above 4.5 mK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazaretski, E.; Merithew, R. D.; Pohl, R. O.; Parpia, J. M.

    2005-04-01

    Measurements of speed of sound and internal friction of a-SiO2 were extended down to ≈4mK (sample temperature) in a cryostat shielded with lead against γ radiation. We conclude that the sample starts to thermally decouple below 8mK primarily due to internal heat release. Down to 10mK , the speed of sound is shown to be compatible with the predictions of the tunneling model, with no evidence seen for a low energy cut-off of the tunnel splitting, contrary to our earlier claims.

  16. Silicon switch approach in TRPV1 antagonist MK-056 and its analogues.

    PubMed

    Chang, Minsun; Park, Seol-Rin; Kim, Juhyun; Jang, Mijung; Park, Jeong Hyun; Park, Ji Eun; Park, Hyeung-Geun; Suh, Young-Ger; Jeong, Yeon Su; Park, Young-Ho; Kim, Hee-Doo

    2010-01-01

    In searching for opportunities to exploit the benefits of silicon in TRPV1 research, we tried to investigate the pharmacological effects of sila-substitution (C/Si exchange) of tert-butyl group in the MK-056 series. Compound 13a, with a 4-positioned trimethylsilanyl group on the B ring in place of tert-butyl group, exhibited the most potent antagonist activity with IC(50) values of 0.15 microM, which is almost equipotent with that of MK-056. This is the first example that tert-butyl group on MK-056 series can be replaced to the other substituent without loss of activity.

  17. Probing the innermost regions of AGN jets and their magnetic fields with RadioAstron. II. Observations of 3C 273 at minimum activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruni, G.; Gómez, J. L.; Casadio, C.; Lobanov, A.; Kovalev, Y. Y.; Sokolovsky, K. V.; Lisakov, M. M.; Bach, U.; Marscher, A.; Jorstad, S.; Anderson, J. M.; Krichbaum, T. P.; Savolainen, T.; Vega-García, L.; Fuentes, A.; Zensus, J. A.; Alberdi, A.; Lee, S.-S.; Lu, R.-S.; Pérez-Torres, M.; Ros, E.

    2017-08-01

    Context. RadioAstron is a 10 m orbiting radio telescope mounted on the Spektr-R satellite, launched in 2011, performing Space Very Long Baseline Interferometry (SVLBI) observations supported by a global ground array of radio telescopes. With an apogee of 350 000 km, it is offering for the first time the possibility to perform μas-resolution imaging in the cm-band. Aims: The RadioAstron active galactic nuclei (AGN) polarization Key Science Project (KSP) aims at exploiting the unprecedented angular resolution provided by RadioAstron to study jet launching/collimation and magnetic-field configuration in AGN jets. The targets of our KSP are some of the most powerful blazars in the sky. Methods: We present observations at 22 GHz of 3C 273, performed in 2014, designed to reach a maximum baseline of approximately nine Earth diameters. Reaching an angular resolution of 0.3 mas, we study a particularly low-activity state of the source, and estimate the nuclear region brightness temperature, comparing with the extreme one detected one year before during the RadioAstron early science period. We also make use of the VLBA-BU-BLAZAR survey data, at 43 GHz, to study the kinematics of the jet in a 1.5-yr time window. Results: We find that the nuclear brightness temperature is two orders of magnitude lower than the exceptionally high value detected in 2013 with RadioAstron at the same frequency (1.4 × 1013 K, source-frame), and even one order of magnitude lower than the equipartition value. The kinematics analysis at 43 GHz shows that a new component was ejected 2 months after the 2013 epoch, visible also in our 22 GHz map presented here. Consequently this was located upstream of the core during the brightness temperature peak. Fermi-LAT observations for the period 2010-2014 do not show any γ-ray flare in conjunction with the passage of the new component by the core at 43 GHz. Conclusions: These observations confirm that the previously detected extreme brightness temperature in

  18. Inclusive Jets in PHP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roloff, P.

    Differential inclusive-jet cross sections have been measured in photoproduction for boson virtualities Q^2 < 1 GeV^2 with the ZEUS detector at HERA using an integrated luminosity of 300 pb^-1. Jets were identified in the laboratory frame using the k_T, anti-k_T or SIScone jet algorithms. Cross sections are presented as functions of the jet pseudorapidity, eta(jet), and the jet transverse energy, E_T(jet). Next-to-leading-order QCD calculations give a good description of the measurements, except for jets with low E_T(jet) and high eta(jet). The cross sections have the potential to improve the determination of the PDFs in future QCD fits. Values of alpha_s(M_Z) have been extracted from the measurements based on different jet algorithms. In addition, the energy-scale dependence of the strong coupling was determined.

  19. Altitude Test Chamber Investigation of Performance of a 28-inch Ram-jet Engine II : Effects of Gutter Width and Blocked Area on Operating Range and Combustion Efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shillito, T B; Jones, W L; Kahn, R W

    1950-01-01

    Altitude-test-chamber investigation of effects of flame-holder blocked area and gutter width on performance of 28-inch diameter ram jet at simulated flight Mach number of 2.0 for altitudes from 40,000 to 55,000 feet was conducted at NACA Lewis laboratory. Ten flame holders investigated covered gutter widths from 1.00 to 2.50 inches and blocked areas from 40.5 to 62.0 percent of combustion-chamber area. Gutter width did not appreciably affect combustion efficiency. Increase in blocked area from 40 to 62 percent resulted in 5- to 10-percent increase in combustion efficiency. Increasing gutter width resulted in improvement in fuel-air-ratio operating range.

  20. Magnetic Untwisting in Most Solar X-Ray Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Ronald; Sterling, Alphonse; Falconer, David; Robe, Dominic

    2013-01-01

    From 54 X-ray jets observed in the polar coronal holes by Hinode's X-Ray Telescope (XRT) during coverage in movies from Solar Dynamic Observatory's Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) taken in its He II 304 Å band at a cadence of 12 s, we have established a basic characteristic of solar X-ray jets: untwisting motion in the spire. In this presentation, we show the progression of few of these X-ray jets in XRT images and track their untwisting in AIA He II images. From their structure displayed in their XRT movies, 19 jets were evidently standard jets made by interchange reconnection of the magnetic-arcade base with ambient open field, 32 were evidently blowout jets made by blowout eruption of the base arcade, and 3 were of ambiguous form. As was anticipated from the >10,000 km span of the base arcade in most polar X-ray jets and from the disparity of standard jets and blowout jets in their magnetic production, few of the standard X-ray jets (3 of 19) but nearly all of the blowout X-ray jets (29 of 32) carried enough cool (T is approximately 105 K) plasma to be seen in their He II movies. In the 32 X-ray jets that showed a cool component, the He II movies show 10-100 km/s untwisting motions about the axis of the spire in all 3 standard jets and in 26 of the 29 blowout jets. Evidently, the open magnetic field in nearly all blowout X-ray jets and probably in most standard X-ray jets carries transient twist. This twist apparently relaxes by propagating out along the open field as a torsional wave. High-resolution spectrograms and Dopplergrams have shown that most Type-II spicules have torsional motions of 10-30 km/s. Our observation of similar torsional motion in X-ray jets strengthens the case for Type-II spicules being made in the same way as X-ray jets, by blowout eruption of a twisted magnetic arcade in the spicule base and/or by interchange reconnection of the twisted base arcade with the ambient open field. This work was funded by NASA's Heliophysics Division

  1. Beryllium accumulation at the inner divertor of JET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Likonen, J.; Vainonen-Ahlgren, E.; Coad, J. P.; Zilliacus, R.; Renvall, T.; Hole, D. E.; Rubel, M.; Arstila, K.; Matthews, G. F.; Stamp, M.; JET-EFDA Contributors

    2005-03-01

    MkIIGB divertor tiles exposed in JET for the 1998-2001 and 1999-2001 campaigns have been used to assess the amount of beryllium and carbon deposited at the inner divertor wall. Total amount of Be at the inner divertor tiles was determined and integrated toroidally. Results were compared with data obtained with optical spectroscopy and good agreement was obtained. The amount of deposited C was computed from the amount of deposited Be assuming that the Be/C ratio arriving in the divertor is the same as the Be/C ratio in the main chamber. On the basis of this analysis we would expect there to be ˜0.4 kg of C deposited. This gives an average C deposition rate lower than during the MkIIA phase.

  2. Corporate Jet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation, Savannah, GA, used a version of a NASA program called WIBCO to design a wing for the Gulfstream IV (G-IV) which will help to reduce transonic drag (created by shock waves that develop as an airplane approaches the speed of sound). The G-IV cruises at 88 percent of the speed of sound, and holds the international record in its class for round-the-world flight. They also used the STANS5 and Profile programs in the design. They will use the NASA program GASP to help determine the gross weight, range, speed, payload and optimum wing area of an intercontinental supersonic business jet being developed in cooperation with Sukhoi Design Bureau, a Soviet organization.

  3. Pyrrolopyridine inhibitors of mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase 2 (MK-2).

    PubMed

    Anderson, David R; Meyers, Marvin J; Vernier, William F; Mahoney, Matthew W; Kurumbail, Ravi G; Caspers, Nicole; Poda, Gennadiy I; Schindler, John F; Reitz, David B; Mourey, Robert J

    2007-05-31

    A new class of potent kinase inhibitors selective for mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase 2 (MAPKAP-K2 or MK-2) for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis has been prepared and evaluated. These inhibitors have IC50 values as low as 10 nM against the target and have good selectivity profiles against a number of kinases including CDK2, ERK, JNK, and p38. These MK-2 inhibitors have been shown to suppress TNFalpha production in U397 cells and to be efficacious in an acute inflammation model. The structure-activity relationships of this series, the selectivity for MK-2 and their activity in both in vitro and in vivo models are discussed. The observed selectivity is discussed with the aid of an MK-2/inhibitor crystal structure.

  4. Systemic hyperthermia masks the neuroprotective effects of MK-801, but not rosiglitazone in brain ischaemia.

    PubMed

    Nategh, Mohsen; Shaveisi, Kaveh; Shabanzadeh, Alireza P; Sadr, Seyed Sh; Parviz, Mohsen; Ghabaei, Mojdeh

    2010-09-01

    The use of neuroprotective agents has been under investigation for the treatment of ischaemic brain stroke. In this study, we examined the effects of rosiglitazone and MK-801, two potential neuroprotectants, on thromboembloic focal stroke in hyperthermic rats. The animals were assigned into groups of rosiglitazone, MK-801 and control, all under both normothermic and hyperthermic conditions. A focal ischaemia was induced by injection of preformed clot into the origin of the middle cerebral artery. The animals were assessed by measuring infarct size and brain oedema and also evaluating neurological deficit and seizure activity. Rosiglitazone improved infarct volume and neurological deficit in both normo- (36%) and hyperthermic (63%) animals; but MK-801 only improved normothermic animals. Our results do not support the use of MK-801 in hyperthermic conditions of brain stroke but suggest that rosiglitazone may preserve its efficiency even in hyperthermia.

  5. Rapid single-flux-quantum circuits for low noise mK operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Intiso, Samuel; Pekola, Jukka; Savin, Alexander; Devyatov, Ygor; Kidiyarova-Shevchenko, Anna

    2006-05-01

    Rapid single-flux-quantum (RSFQ) technology has been proposed as control electronics for superconducting quantum bits because of the material and working temperature compatibility. In this work, we consider practical aspects of RSFQ circuit design for low noise low power operation. At the working temperature of 20 mK and operational frequency of 2 GHz, dissipated power per junction is reduced to 25 pW by using 6 µA critical current junctions available at the Hypres and VTT low Jc fabrication process. To limit phonon temperature to 30 mK, a maximum of 40 junctions can be placed on a 5 mm × 5 mm chip. Electron temperature in resistive shunts of Josephson junctions is minimized by use of cooling fins, giving minimum electron temperatures of about 150 mK for the Hypres process and 70 mK for the VTT process.

  6. Effect of cannabidiol in a MK-801-rodent model of aspects of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Gururajan, Anand; Taylor, David Alan; Malone, Daniel Thomas

    2011-09-23

    Cannabidiol is a non-psychoactive phytocannabinoid which, based on several previous preclinical and clinical reports, is purported to have antipsychotic potential. The purpose of this investigation was to further investigate if these effects would be seen using an MK-801-induced rat model of aspects of schizophrenia. MK-801 is an NMDA receptor-antagonist known to produce hyperactivity, deficits in prepulse inhibition and social withdrawal, behaviours which correlate well with some of the positive, cognitive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Following a 4-day acclimatisation to the holding room, rats were acclimatised to startle chambers on day 5 and their prepulse inhibition (PPI) determined on day 6 following treatment with cannabidiol or vehicle and MK-801 or vehicle. On day 9, rats were acclimatised to the social interaction testing arena and on day 10, were tested for social interaction and locomotor activity following the same treatments. Cannabidiol treatment alone disrupted PPI and produced hyperactivity but had no effect on social behaviour. Cannabidiol had no effect on MK-801-induced disruption of PPI or hyperactivity but showed potential towards inhibiting MK-801-induced social withdrawal. As a comparator, we also tested the effect of the atypical antipsychotic clozapine which only partially reversed MK-801-induced disruption of PPI but was able to reverse MK-801-induced hyperactivity and social withdrawal. In conclusion, cannabidiol showed both propsychotic activity and partial antipsychotic activity in an MK-801-induced model of aspects of schizophrenia. Further behavioural studies would be required using a range of species, strains, animal models and testing paradigms to conclusively establish the antipsychotic potential of cannabidiol.

  7. Heat Capacity Setup for Superconducting Bolometer Absorbers below 400 mK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, V.; Mathimalar, S.; Dokania, N.; Nanal, V.; Pillay, R. G.; Ramakrishnan, S.

    2014-05-01

    A calorimeter set up with very low heat capacity (20 nJ/K at 100 mK) has been designed using commercial Carbon based resistors. This calorimeter is used to determine the heat capacity of small samples of superconducting bolometer absorbers. In particular, we present heat capacity studies of Tin, a bolometer candidate for Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay in Sn, in the temperature range of 60-400 mK.

  8. MK-2206 induces apoptosis of AML cells and enhances the cytotoxicity of cytarabine.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jeng-Wei; Lin, Yu-Min; Lai, Yen-Ling; Chen, Chien-Yuan; Hu, Chung-Yi; Tien, Hwei-Fang; Ou, Da-Liang; Lin, Liang-In

    2015-07-01

    Genetic alterations in the PI3K/AKT cascade have been linked to various human cancers including acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and have emerged to be promising targets for treatment. In this study, we explored the molecular mechanism and clinical implication of a specific allosteric AKT inhibitor, MK-2206, in the treatment of AML. Four leukemia cell lines, MV-4-11, MOLM-13, OCI/AML3, and U937, were used. Apoptosis and cell cycle distribution were determined by flow cytometry analysis. Expression of anti-apoptotic protein family and glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) signaling was determined by western blotting. Drug combination effects of MK-2206 with cytarabine were evaluated by cell proliferation assay, and the combination index values were calculated by CompuSyn software. MK-2206 had no effect on normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells, but induced G1-phase arrest and apoptosis in leukemia cells. Among anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members, only myeloid cell leukemia-1 (Mcl-1) was significantly suppressed. Mcl-1 suppression by MK-2206 was closely associated with decreased GSK3β phosphorylation at Ser9, an event leads to GSK3β activation. Furthermore, the effect of MK-2206 on Mcl-1 downregulation was abolished by GSK3β inhibitor, lithium chloride and proteasome inhibitor, MG-132, suggesting that MK-2206 acted through a GSK3β-mediated, proteasome-dependent protein degradation. In addition, co-administration of MK-2206 with cytarabine could enhance the cytotoxic efficacy of cytarabine in leukemia cell lines. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that MK-2206 is an active agent in AML and its efficacy as in combination with cytarabine is implicated.

  9. Jet inclusive cross sections

    SciTech Connect

    Del Duca, V.

    1992-11-01

    Minijet production in jet inclusive cross sections at hadron colliders, with large rapidity intervals between the tagged jets, is evaluated by using the BFKL pomeron. We describe the jet inclusive cross section for an arbitrary number of tagged jets, and show that it behaves like a system of coupled pomerons.

  10. Realization of PLTS-2000 for Low-Temperature Resistance Thermometer Calibration Services Below 650 mK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakagawa, Hisashi

    2016-11-01

    In this study, the Provisional Low Temperature Scale of 2000 (PLTS-2000) was realized below 650 mK for the purpose of launching low-temperature resistance thermometer calibration services in Japan. A Straty-Adams-type 3He melting pressure thermometer (MPT) and a dilution refrigerator were used to realize the PLTS-2000. Offsets due to hydrostatic pressure head in a filling capillary line of the MPT were adjusted using the minimum pressure fixed point on the 3He melting curve. A rather large MPT hysteresis between the decreasing and increasing pressures was observed during pressure calibration of the MPT and was the main source of uncertainty. The combined standard uncertainty (k = 1) between 50 mK and 650 mK was estimated to be in the range of 0.40 mK to 2.62 mK. The MPT and a number of resistance thermometers with negative temperature coefficients were mounted on the experimental platform with a thermal connection to a mixing chamber and compared in a multiple-temperature-point calibration. The temperature range around the melting pressure minimum, 250 mK to 400 mK, was not used for the calibration. The expanded uncertainty (k = 2) in the calibration based on realization of the PLTS-2000 between 50 mK and 650 mK was estimated to be in the range of 0.86 mK to 5.25 mK.

  11. asymptoticMK: A Web-Based Tool for the Asymptotic McDonald-Kreitman Test.

    PubMed

    Haller, Benjamin C; Messer, Philipp W

    2017-05-05

    The McDonald-Kreitman (MK) test is a widely used method for quantifying the role of positive selection in molecular evolution. One key shortcoming of this test lies in its sensitivity to the presence of slightly deleterious mutations, which can severely bias its estimates. An asymptotic version of the MK test was recently introduced that addresses this problem by evaluating polymorphism levels for different mutation frequencies separately, and then extrapolating a function fitted to that data. Here, we present asymptoticMK, a web-based implementation of this asymptotic MK test. Our web service provides a simple R-based interface into which the user can upload the required data (polymorphism and divergence data for the genomic test region and a neutrally evolving reference region). The web service then analyzes the data and provides plots of the test results. This service is free to use, open-source, and available at http://benhaller.com/messerlab/asymptoticMK.html We provide results from simulations to illustrate the performance and robustness of the asymptoticMK test under a wide range of model parameters. Copyright © 2017 Haller and Messer.

  12. Discovery of a Potent Dihydrooxadiazole Series of Non-ATP-Competitive MK2 (MAPKAPK2) Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Qin, Jun; Dhondi, Pawan; Huang, Xianhai; Aslanian, Robert; Fossetta, James; Tian, Fang; Lundell, Daniel; Palani, Anandan

    2012-02-09

    Inhibition of MK2 has been shown to offer advantages over that of p38 MAPK in the development of cures for inflammatory diseases such as arthritis. P38 MAPK knockout in mice was lethal, whereas MK2-null mice demonstrated strong inhibition of disease progression in collagen-induced arthritis and appeared normal and viable. However, it is challenging to develop ATP-competitive MK2 inhibitors due to high ATP binding affinity to the kinase. Non-ATP-competitive MK2 inhibitors interact and bind to the kinase in a mode independent of ATP concentration, which could provide better selectivity and cellular potency. Therefore, it is desirable to identify non-ATP-competitive MK2 inhibitors. Through structure optimization of lead compound 1, a novel series of dihydrooxadiazoles was discovered. Additional structure-activity relationship (SAR) study of this series led to the identification of compound 38 as a non-ATP-competitive MK2 inhibitor with potent enzymatic activity and good cellular potency. The SAR, synthesis, and biological data of dihydrooxadiazole series are discussed.

  13. Untangling the protostars and jets in HH 900

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiter, Megan; Smith, Nathan

    2013-02-01

    We propose to obtain high resolution (comparable to HST), narrowband [Fe II] images with GSAOI to disentangle the protostars and jets in HH 900. Recent H-alpha imaging of HH 900 reveals an unusually broad outflow emerging from a small ( 1"), dark globule in Trumpler 16. A bright H-alpha microjet along the western edge of HH 900 may be a second jet-protostar system that was ejected from the dark globule. Strong UV radiation from the many O stars in Trumpler 16 illuminates unshocked material in these jets, making it possible to estimate the jet mass-loss rates and infer the mass accretion history of the driving protostars. Two Spitzer-detected YSOs appear to lie within the globule, although with relatively coarse resolution (2"), Spitzer cannot resolve which protostar drives the jet. However, for HH jets with an associated Spitzer source, we have shown that IR [Fe II] emission traces the jet into the dark globule, connecting the H-alpha jet with the driving protostar. In addition, [Fe II] in these externally irradiated jets is excited in the dense, neutral jet core and may trace most of the mass in the outflow. We also propose to obtain narrowband H_2 images of HH 900 to see if extended H2 emission seen in ground-based images without AO correction corresponds to molecules entrained in the outflow. The associated Spitzer YSOs suggest that HH 900 samples the lower mass end of the jet-driving protostars detectable in Carina. Previous studies of [Fe II] in HH jets in Carina have focused on bright, highly collimated outflows likely driven by more massive, and more evolved protostars. Thus, HH 900 provides an important test of the behavior of lower mass jet driving protostars. These observation will be a chapter in P.I. M. Reiter's PhD thesis.

  14. Measurement of the Top Quark Mass with In Situ Jet Energy Scale Calibration Using Hadronic W Boson Decays at CDF-II

    SciTech Connect

    Arguin, Jean-Francois

    2006-01-01

    We report a measurement of the top quark mass with the upgraded collider detector at Fermilab (CDF-II). The top quarks are produced in pairs (tt) in proton-antiproton collisions with a center-of-mass energy of 1.96 TeV.

  15. Calcium and ZmCCaMK are involved in brassinosteroid-induced antioxidant defense in maize leaves.

    PubMed

    Yan, Jingwei; Guan, Li; Sun, Yue; Zhu, Yuan; Liu, Lei; Lu, Rui; Jiang, Mingyi; Tan, Mingpu; Zhang, Aying

    2015-05-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) have been shown to enhance stress tolerance by inducing antioxidant defense systems. However, the mechanisms of BR-induced antioxidant defense in plants remain to be determined. In this study, the role of calcium (Ca(2+)) and maize calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CCaMK), ZmCCaMK, in BR-induced antioxidant defense, and the relationship between ZmCCaMK and Ca(2+) in BR signaling were investigated. BR treatment led to a significant increase in cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration in protoplasts from maize mesophyll, and Ca(2+) was shown to be required for BR-induced antioxidant defense. Treatment with BR induced increases in gene expression and enzyme activity of ZmCCaMK in maize leaves. Transient overexpression and silencing of ZmCCaMK in maize protoplasts demonstrated that ZmCCaMK was required for BR-induced antioxidant defense. The requirement for CCaMK was further investigated using a loss-of-function mutant of OsCCaMK, the orthologous gene of ZmCCaMK in rice. Consistent with the findings in maize, BR treatment could not induce antioxidant defense in the rice OsCCAMK mutant. Furthermore, Ca(2+) was required for BR-induced gene expression and activation of ZmCCaMK, while ZmCCaMK was shown to enhance the BR-induced increase in cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration. Moreover, our results also showed that ZmCCaMK and H2O2 influenced each other. These results indicate that Ca(2+) works together with ZmCCaMK in BR-induced antioxidant defense, and there are two positive feedback loops between Ca(2+) or H2O2 and ZmCCaMK in BR signaling in maize.

  16. Capsicum annuum transcription factor WRKYa positively regulates defense response upon TMV infection and is a substrate of CaMK1 and CaMK2.

    PubMed

    Huh, Sung Un; Lee, Gil-Je; Jung, Ji Hoon; Kim, Yunsik; Kim, Young Jin; Paek, Kyung-Hee

    2015-01-23

    Plants are constantly exposed to pathogens and environmental stresses. To minimize damage caused by these potentially harmful factors, plants respond by massive transcriptional reprogramming of various stress-related genes via major transcription factor families. One of the transcription factor families, WRKY, plays an important role in diverse stress response of plants and is often useful to generate genetically engineered crop plants. In this study, we carried out functional characterization of CaWRKYa encoding group I WRKY member, which is induced during hypersensitive response (HR) in hot pepper (Capsicum annuum) upon Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) infection. CaWRKYa was involved in L-mediated resistance via transcriptional reprogramming of pathogenesis-related (PR) gene expression and affected HR upon TMV-P0 infection. CaWRKYa acts as a positive regulator of this defense system and could bind to the W-box of diverse PR genes promoters. Furthermore, we found Capsicum annuum mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 (CaMK1) and 2 (CaMK2) interacted with CaWRKYa and phosphorylated the SP clusters but not the MAPK docking (D)-domain of CaWRKYa. Thus, these results demonstrated that CaWRKYa was regulated by CaMK1 and CaMK2 at the posttranslational level in hot pepper.

  17. The quiet Sun average Doppler shift of coronal lines up to 2 MK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dadashi, N.; Teriaca, L.; Solanki, S. K.

    2011-10-01

    Context. The average Doppler shift shown by spectral lines formed from the chromosphere to the corona reveals important information on the mass and energy balance of the solar atmosphere, providing an important observational constraint to any models of the solar corona. Previous spectroscopic observations of vacuum ultra-violet (VUV) lines have revealed a persistent average wavelength shift of lines formed at temperatures up to 1 MK. At higher temperatures, the behaviour is still essentially unknown. Aims: Here we analyse combined SUMER (Solar Ultraviolet Measurements of Emitted Radiation)/SoHO (Solar and Heliospheric Observatory) and EIS (EUV Imaging Spectrometer)/Hinode observations of the quiet Sun around disk centre to determine, for the first time, the average Doppler shift of several spectral lines formed between 1 and 2 MK, where the largest part of the quiet coronal emission is formed. Methods: The measurements are based on a novel technique applied to EIS spectra to measure the difference in Doppler shift between lines formed at different temperatures. Simultaneous wavelength-calibrated SUMER spectra allow establishing the absolute value at the reference temperature of T ≈ 1 MK. Results: The average line shifts at 1 MK < T < 1.8 MK are modestly, but clearly bluer than those observed at 1 MK. By accepting an average blue shift of about (-1.8 ± 0.6) km s-1 at 1 MK (as provided by SUMER measurements), this translates into a maximum Doppler shift of (-4.4 ± 2.2) km s-1 around 1.8 MK. The measured value appears to decrease to about (-1.3 ± 2.6) km s-1 at the Fe xv formation temperature of 2.1 MK. Conclusions: The measured average Doppler shift between 0.01 and 2.1 MK, for which we provide a parametrisation, appears to be qualitatively and roughly quantitatively consistent with what foreseen by 3D coronal models where heating is produced by dissipation of currents induced by photospheric motions and by reconnection with emerging magnetic flux.

  18. The relationship of structural ischemic brain damage to neurobehavioural deficit: the effect of postischemic MK-801.

    PubMed

    Rod, M R; Whishaw, I Q; Auer, R N

    1990-06-01

    Global cerebral ischemia is well known to cause neuronal necrosis in selectively vulnerable sectors of the hippocampus. Since the hippocampus of the rat is involved in spatial navigation, learning, and memory, selective deficits in these abilities may arise from ischemic brain damage. Previous studies have shown (a) a detectable neurobehavioural deficit due to ischemic brain damage limited to half of the CA1 sector of the hippocampus and (b) a reduction of ischemic neuronal necrosis with the noncompetitive N-methyl-D-Aspartate (NMDA) antagonist MK-801. This study was designed to determine the relationship between the improvement in structural brain damage in postischemically treated rats and any improvement in neurobehavioural performance, using a learning-set water task. Seventeen male Wistar rats received 10.5 min of forebrain ischemia induced by carotid clamping and hypotension. Brain temperature was estimated with probes in the temporalis muscle. Ten of these animals received no therapy (controls), and seven animals received 5 mg/kg MK-801 iv, 20 min postischemia. Six additional rats underwent a sham operation. Postischemic hypothermia was prevented with heating lamps. Four controls and one MK-801 treated animal died. The survivors were then tested on a place learning-set task in a swimming pool paradigm, and quantitative histopathologic analysis of their entire brains was done. The learning-set task revealed defects in spatial navigation, reflected as increased errors and latency in the performance of the untreated control rats. The performance of the MK-801 treated group progressively approached that of sham-operated rats over the course of testing and was significantly better than controls. Importantly, no long-term detrimental effect of MK-801 on the learning-set task performance was seen. Quantitative neuropathology revealed significantly less damage in the MK-801 treated group in all major brain regions. In the hippocampus, MK-801 treated animals showed

  19. Identification of peptides in wheat germ hydrolysate that demonstrate calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II inhibitory activity.

    PubMed

    Kumrungsee, Thanutchaporn; Akiyama, Sayaka; Guo, Jian; Tanaka, Mitsuru; Matsui, Toshiro

    2016-12-15

    Hydrolysis of wheat germ by proteases resulted in bioactive peptides that demonstrated an inhibitory effect against the vasoconstrictive Ca(2+)-calmodulin (CaM)-dependent protein kinase II (CaMK II). The hydrolysate by thermolysin (1.0wt%, 5h) showed a particularly potent CaMK II inhibition. As a result of mixed mode high-performance liquid chromatography of thermolysin hydrolysate with pH elution gradient ranging between 4.8 and 8.9, the fraction eluted at pH 8.9 was the most potent CaMK II inhibitor. From this fraction, Trp-Val and Trp-Ile were identified as CaMK II inhibitors. In Sprague-Dawley rats, an enhanced aortic CaMK II activity by 1μM phenylephrine was significantly (p<0.05) suppressed by 15-min incubation with 300μM Trp-Val or Trp-Ile. On the basis of Ca(2+)-chelating fluorescence and CaMK II activity assays, it was concluded that Trp-Val and Trp-Ile competed with Ca(2+)-CaM complex to bind to CaMK II with Ki values of 5.4 and 3.6μM, respectively.

  20. Long-term health experience of jet engine manufacturing workers: II. Total and cause-specific mortality excluding central nervous system neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Marsh, Gary M; Buchanich, Jeanine M; Youk, Ada O; Cunningham, Michael A; Lieberman, Frank S; Kennedy, Kathleen J; Lacey, Steven E; Hancock, Roger P; Esmen, Nurtan A

    2008-10-01

    As part of an exploratory investigation of an unusual occurrence of glioblastoma at one jet engine manufacturing facility located in North Haven, Connecticut (CT), we examined total and cause-specific (excluding central nervous system neoplasms) mortality rates at eight of the company's CT facilities. Subjects were 223,894 workers ever employed in one or more of the manufacturing facilities from 1952 to 2001. Vital status was determined through 2004 for 99% of subjects and cause of death for 95% of 68,701 deaths. We computed standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) based on US and CT state rates and modeled internal cohort rates. We observed overall deficits in deaths based on national and state comparisons from all causes, all cancers and most of the cause of death categories examined. State comparisons revealed statistically significant excesses in deaths greater than 25% for kidney cancer (68 deaths, SMR = 1.30, CI = 1.01-1.65) and "other non-malignant respiratory disease" (291 deaths, SMR = 1.27, CI = 1.13-1.42) among subjects employed only at North Haven, and for bronchitis (713 deaths, SMR = 1.28, CI = 1.18-1.37) among all hourly workers. These excesses occurred mainly among short-term workers and hourly workers. We found no evidence of elevated mortality risks for all causes combined, all cancers combined and most of the causes of death categories examined. The pattern of findings for kidney cancer, bronchitis and other non-malignant respiratory disease, based on currently available data, suggests these excesses may be due to non-occupational risk factors or to external occupational factors. We will investigate these excesses further when detailed work history and exposure data from the companion exposure assessment project become available.

  1. Stretched Inertial Jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghabache, Elisabeth; Antkowiak, Arnaud; Seon, Thomas; Villermaux, Emmanuel

    2015-11-01

    Liquid jets often arise as short-lived bursting liquid flows. Cavitation or impact-driven jets, bursting champagne bubbles, shaped-charge jets, ballistospores or drop-on-demand inkjet printing are a few examples where liquid jets are suddenly released. The trademark of all these discharge jets is the property of being stretched, due to the quenching injection. the present theoretical and experimental investigation, the structure of the jet flow field will be unraveled experimentally for a few emblematic occurrences of discharge jets. Though the injection markedly depends on each flow configuration, the jet velocity field will be shown to be systematically and rapidly attracted to the universal stretching flow z/t. The emergence of this inertial attractor actually only relies on simple kinematic ingredients, and as such is fairly generic. The universality of the jet velocity structure will be discussed.

  2. NMDA antagonist MK801 recreates auditory electrophysiology disruption present in autism and other neurodevelopmental disorders.

    PubMed

    Saunders, John A; Gandal, Michael J; Roberts, Timothy P; Siegel, Steve J

    2012-10-01

    Autism is a highly disabling neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by social deficits, language impairment, and repetitive behaviors. There are few effective biological treatments for this disorder, partly due to the lack of translational biomarkers. However, recent data suggest that autism has reliable electrophysiological endophenotypes, along with evidence that some deficits may be caused by NMDA receptor (NMDAR) dysfunction. Similarly, the NMDAR antagonist MK801 has been used in behavioral animal models of autism. Since MK801 has also been used as a model of schizophrenia, this paper examines the independent and overlapping ways in which MK801 recreates the electrophysiogical changes present in both diseases. Mouse EEG was recorded in response to auditory stimuli after either vehicle or MK801 and the dose-response relationship for each measure was determined. ERP component amplitude and latency analysis was performed along with time-frequency analysis of gamma frequency inter-trial coherence and evoked power. Evoked gamma power and ITC were decreased by MK801 at the highest dose. P1, N1 latency and gamma baseline power were increased in dose dependent fashion following MK801. There were no amplitude changes in P1 or N1. MK801 caused alterations in evoked gamma activity, gamma ITC, gamma baseline power, P1 and N1 latency similar to findings in autism. These data provide evidence indicating that NMDAR dysfunction may contribute to deficits specific to autism and some that overlap with other disorders such as schizophrenia. Such observations could be important for developing novel therapeutics, as electrophysiological endophenotypes associate with functional measures and may provide early biomarkers for efficacy in clinical trials. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Antiviral Activity of MK-4965, a Novel Nonnucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor▿

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Ming-Tain; Munshi, Vandna; Touch, Sinoeun; Tynebor, Robert M.; Tucker, Thomas J.; McKenna, Philip M.; Williams, Theresa M.; DiStefano, Daniel J.; Hazuda, Daria J.; Miller, Michael D.

    2009-01-01

    Nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) are the mainstays of therapy for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infections. However, the effectiveness of NNRTIs can be hampered by the development of resistance mutations which confer cross-resistance to drugs in the same class. Extensive efforts have been made to identify new NNRTIs that can suppress the replication of the prevalent NNRTI-resistant viruses. MK-4965 is a novel NNRTI that possesses both diaryl ether and indazole moieties. The compound displays potency at subnanomolar concentrations against wild-type (WT), K103N, and Y181C reverse transcriptase (RT) in biochemical assays. MK-4965 is also highly potent against the WT virus and two most prevalent NNRTI-resistant viruses (viruses that harbor the K103N or the Y181C mutation), against which it had 95% effective concentrations (EC95s) of <30 nM in the presence of 10% fetal bovine serum. The antiviral EC95 of MK-4965 was reduced approximately four- to sixfold when it was tested in 50% human serum. Moreover, MK-4965 was evaluated with a panel of 15 viruses with NNRTI resistance-associated mutations and showed a superior mutant profile to that of efavirenz but not to that of etravirine. MK-4965 was similarly effective against various HIV-1 subtypes and viruses containing nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor or protease inhibitor resistance-conferring mutations. A two-drug combination study showed that the antiviral activity of MK-4965 was nonantagonistic with each of the 18 FDA-licensed drugs tested vice versa in the present study. Taken together, these in vitro data show that MK-4965 possesses the desired properties for further development as a new NNRTI for the treatment of HIV-1 infection. PMID:19289522

  4. Mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase 2 in angiotensin II-induced inflammation and hypertension: regulation of oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimian, Talin; Li, Melissa Wei; Lemarié, Catherine A; Simeone, Stefania M C; Pagano, Patrick J; Gaestel, Matthias; Paradis, Pierre; Wassmann, Sven; Schiffrin, Ernesto L

    2011-02-01

    Vascular oxidative stress and inflammation play an important role in angiotensin II-induced hypertension, and mitogen-activated protein kinases participate in these processes. We questioned whether mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase 2 (MK2), a downstream target of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, is involved in angiotensin II-induced vascular responses. In vivo experiments were performed in wild-type and Mk2 knockout mice infused intravenously with angiotensin II. Angiotensin II induced a 30 mm Hg increase in mean blood pressure in wild-type that was delayed in Mk2 knockout mice. Angiotensin II increased superoxide production and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 in blood vessels of wild-type but not in Mk2 knockout mice. Mk2 knockdown by small interfering RNA in mouse mesenteric vascular smooth muscle cells caused a 42% reduction in MK2 protein and blunted the angiotensin II-induced 40% increase of MK2 expression. Mk2 knockdown blunted angiotensin II-induced doubling of intracellular adhesion molecule-1 expression, 2.4-fold increase of nuclear p65, and 1.4-fold increase in Ets-1. Mk2 knockdown abrogated the angiotensin II-induced 4.7-fold and 1.3-fold increase of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 mRNA and protein. Angiotensin II enhanced reactive oxygen species levels (by 29%) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase activity (by 48%), both abolished by Mk2 knockdown. Reduction of MK2 blocked angiotensin II-induced p47phox translocation to the membrane, associated with a 53% enhanced catalase expression. Angiotensin II-induced increase of MK2 was prevented by the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase inhibitor Nox2ds-tat. Mk2 small interfering RNA prevented the angiotensin II-induced 30% increase of proliferation. In conclusion, MK2 plays a critical role in angiotensin II signaling, leading to hypertension, oxidative stress via activation of p47phox and inhibition of antioxidants, and vascular inflammation

  5. Control of jet noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schreck, Stefan

    1992-01-01

    To investigate the possibility of active control of jet noise, knowledge of the noise generation mechanisms in natural jets is essential. Once these mechanisms are determined, active control can be used to manipulate the noise production processes. We investigated the evolution of the flow fields and the acoustic fields of rectangular and circular jets. A predominant flapping mode was found in the supersonic rectangular jets. We hope to increase the spreading of supersonic jets by active control of the flapping mode found in rectangular supersonic jets.

  6. Understanding jet noise.

    PubMed

    Karabasov, S A

    2010-08-13

    Jets are one of the most fascinating topics in fluid mechanics. For aeronautics, turbulent jet-noise modelling is particularly challenging, not only because of the poor understanding of high Reynolds number turbulence, but also because of the extremely low acoustic efficiency of high-speed jets. Turbulent jet-noise models starting from the classical Lighthill acoustic analogy to state-of-the art models were considered. No attempt was made to present any complete overview of jet-noise theories. Instead, the aim was to emphasize the importance of sound generation and mean-flow propagation effects, as well as their interference, for the understanding and prediction of jet noise.

  7. Minifilament Eruption as the Source of a Blowout Jet, C-class Flare, and Type-III Radio Burst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Junchao; Jiang, Yunchun; Yang, Jiayan; Li, Haidong; Xu, Zhe

    2017-01-01

    We report a strong minifilament eruption associated with Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite C1.6 flare and WIND type-III radio burst. The minifilament, which lies at the periphery of active region 12259, is detected by Hα images from the New Vacuum Solar Telescope. The minifilament undergoes a partial and then a full eruption. Simultaneously, two co-spatial jets are successively observed in extreme ultraviolet images from the Solar Dynamic Observatory. The first jet exhibits a typical fan-spine geometry, suggesting that the co-spatial minifilament is possibly embedded in magnetic fields with a fan-spine structure. However, the second jet displays blowout morphology when the entire minifilament erupts upward, leaving behind a hard X-ray emission source in the base. Differential emission measure analyses show that the eruptive region is heated up to about 4 MK during the fan-spine jet, while up to about 7 MK during the blowout jet. In particular, the blowout jet is accompanied by an interplanetary type-III radio burst observed by WIND/WAVES in the frequency range from above 10 to 0.1 MHz. Hence, the minifilament eruption is correlated with the interplanetary type-III radio burst for the first time. These results not only suggest that coronal jets can result from magnetic reconnection initiated by erupting minifilaments with open fields, but also shed light on the potential influence of minifilament eruption on interplanetary space.

  8. Antipsychotic drugs reverse MK-801-induced cognitive and social interaction deficits in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Seibt, Kelly Juliana; Piato, Angelo Luis; da Luz Oliveira, Renata; Capiotti, Katiucia Marques; Vianna, Monica Ryff; Bonan, Carla Denise

    2011-10-10

    Schizophrenia is a severe mental illness characterized by positive and negative symptoms and cognitive deficits. Reduction of glutamatergic neurotransmission by NMDA receptor antagonists mimics symptoms of schizophrenia. Modeling social interaction and cognitive impairment in animals can be of great benefit in the effort to develop novel treatments for negative and cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia. Studies have demonstrated that these behavioral changes are, in some cases, sensitive to remediation by antipsychotic drugs. The zebrafish has been proposed as a candidate to study the in vivo effects of several drugs and to discover new pharmacological targets. In the current study we investigated the ability of antipsychotic drugs to reverse schizophrenia-like symptoms produced by the NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801. Results showed that MK-801 (5μM) given pre-training hindered memory formation while both atypical antipsychotics sulpiride (250μM) and olanzapine (50μM) improved MK-801-induced amnesia. The same change was observed in the social interaction task, where atypical antipsychotics reversed the MK-801-induced social interaction deficit whereas the typical antipsychotic haloperidol (9μM) was ineffective to reverse those behavioral deficits. Therefore, MK-801-treated zebrafish showed some behavioral features observed in schizophrenia, such as cognitive and social interaction deficits, which were reverted by current available atypical drugs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Latent inhibition disruption by MK-801 in a conditioned taste-aversion paradigm.

    PubMed

    Traverso, L M; Ruiz, G; De la Casa, L G

    2003-09-01

    N-Methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors appear to be involved in CS processing and memory consolidation. The present paper analyzed the effect of the non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonist Dizocilpine maleate (MK-801) on Latent Inhibition (LI)-retarded learning of a CS-US association after to-be-CS preexposures at time of testing, using Wistar rats as experimental subjects. If NMDA receptors are involved in CS processing, MK-801 administration should affect LI. In fact, previous experiments revealed that a 2.0mg/kg MK-801 dose, administered 20 h before preexposure and conditioning, abolished LI in a conditioned taste-aversion paradigm. In the present paper, MK-801 (0.2 mg/kg) was either injected after preexposure, after conditioning, or after both preexposure and conditioning stages. LI was abolished when MK-801 was injected after preexposure, but not when it was injected after conditioning. These results support the role of NMDA receptors in CS processing and memory consolidation.

  10. MK801 attenuates secondary injury in a mouse experimental compression model of spinal cord trauma

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Glutamergic excitotoxicity has been shown to play a deleterious role in the pathophysiology of spinal cord injury (SCI). The aim of this study was to investigate the neuroprotective effect of dizocilpine maleate, MK801 (2 mg/Kg, 30 min and 6 hours after injury) in a mice model of SCI. The spinal cord trauma was induced by the application of vascular clips to the dura via a four-level T5-T8 laminectomy. Results Spinal cord injury in mice resulted in severe trauma characterized by edema, neutrophil infiltration and apoptosis. In this study we clearly demonstrated that administration of MK801 attenuated all inflammatory parameters. In fact 24 hours after injury, the degree of spinal cord inflammation and tissue injury (evaluated as histological score), infiltration of neutrophils, NF-κB activation, iNOS, cytokines levels (TNF-α and IL-1β), neurotrophin expression were markedly reduced by MK801 treatment. Moreover, in a separate set of experiments, we have demonstrated that MK801 treatment significantly improved the recovery of locomotory function. Conclusions Blockade of NMDA by MK801 lends support to the potential importance of NMDA antagonists as therapeutic agents in the treatment of acute spinal cord injury. PMID:21492450

  11. Sex-specific restoration of MK-801-induced sensorimotor gating deficit by environmental enrichment.

    PubMed

    Nozari, M; Shabani, M; Farhangi, A M; Mazhari, S; Atapour, N

    2015-07-23

    Despite ample evidence of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor dysfunction in schizophrenia, no study has addressed the effects of enriched environment (EE) on sensorimotor gating deficits induced by postnatal NMDA receptor blockade. We evaluated the effect of EE on sensorimotor gating (measured by prepulse inhibition, PPI), or on sensorimotor gating deficit induced by the NMDA receptor antagonist (+)-5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo[a,d]cyclohepten-5,10-imine maleate (MK-801) in both sexes of Wistar rats. Rats were injected with MK-801 (1 mg/kg) on postnatal days (P) 6-10. EE was provided from birth up to the time of experiments on P28-30 or P58-60. PPI data were collected at three prepulse intensities and then averaged to yield global PPI. MK-801 treatment reduced PPI significantly in both sexes. While EE per se had no significant effect on PPI, it restored MK-801-induced PPI deficit only in male rats. An extended period of EE did not influence PPI deficit in female rats. Our results indicate that postnatal exposure to MK-801 may exert long-lasting effects on neuronal circuits underlying sensorimotor gating. Sex-specific modulation of such effects by EE suggests sexually dimorphic mechanisms are involved.

  12. Properties of Mlso MK3 White-Light CMEs from 1989-1996

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    St Cyr, O. C.; Flint, Q.; Xie, H.; Webb, D. F.; Burkepile, J.; Lecinski, A. R.

    2014-12-01

    Observations low in the solar corona are key to understanding the initiation and propagation of coronal mass ejections (CMEs). Similar to solar magnetographs and total solar irradiance measurements, white-light coronagraph observations are another aspect of Heliophysics that have followed a path comparable to that found in Earth science, where longevity and continuity of measurements lead to new understanding through modeling. Previously we have reported on our efforts to fill the only remaining data gap since 1973 in the CME rate using the Mauna Loa Solar Observatory's MK3 K-coronameter observations from 1989-1996. The MK3 instrument observed routinely several hours most days beginning in 1980 until it was upgraded to MK4 in 1998. MK3 CMEs detected from 1980-1989 were compared with Solwind and SMM and reported by St. Cyr et al. (1999). Here we provide a preliminary report on the statistical properties of CMEs detected during 1989-1996. Since this period began in solar maximum activity conditions and descended into minimum, we can compare the properties of MLSO MK3 events with CMEs detected by other coronagraphs during similar activity phases.

  13. Comparison of SOHO/UVCS and MLSO MK4 Coronameter Densities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, K.-S.; Moon, Y.-J.; Kim, K.-S.; Lee, J.-Y.; Cho, K.-S.; Choe, G. S.

    2008-01-01

    This paper compares the density distributions of the solar corona obtained by UVCS and the Mauna MLSO MK4 coronameter. This is the first attempt to compare the coronal densities estimated by the two instruments. Two UVCS emission lines (O VI 1032 hand 1037.6 A), which have both radiative and collisional components, were used. The coronal number density is determined from the ratio of these two components. The coronal density can be determined by inverting MLSO MK4 polarization maps. It was found that the mean electron number density in a helmet streamer observed by MK4 on 2003 April 28 is fairly consistent with that observed by UVCS. For a coronal hole and an active region observed on 1999 October 19 and 24, the MK4 coronal densities are close to those from the UVCS. The results demonstrate that MK4 polarization data can provide a coronal density distribution in a large field of view with a time cadence of about three minutes.

  14. A dominant function of CCaMK in intracellular accommodation of bacterial and fungal endosymbionts

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Teruyuki; Banba, Mari; Shimoda, Yoshikazu; Kouchi, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Makoto; Imaizumi-Anraku, Haruko

    2010-01-01

    In legumes, Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CCaMK) is a component of the common symbiosis genes that are required for both root nodule (RN) and arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) symbioses and is thought to be a decoder of Ca2+ spiking, one of the earliest cellular responses to microbial signals. A gain-of-function mutation of CCaMK has been shown to induce spontaneous nodulation without rhizobia, but the significance of CCaMK activation in bacterial and/or fungal infection processes is not fully understood. Here we show that a gain-of-function CCaMKT265D suppresses loss-of-function mutations of common symbiosis genes required for the generation of Ca2+ spiking, not only for nodule organogenesis but also for successful infection of rhizobia and AM fungi, demonstrating that the common symbiosis genes upstream of Ca2+ spiking are required solely to activate CCaMK. In RN symbiosis, however, CCaMKT265D induced nodule organogenesis, but not rhizobial infection, on Nod factor receptor (NFRs) mutants. We propose a model of symbiotic signaling in host legume plants, in which CCaMK plays a key role in the coordinated induction of infection thread formation and nodule organogenesis. PMID:20409002

  15. Cytotoxicities of enniatins H, I, and MK1688 from Fusarium oxysporum KFCC 11363P.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hee-Seok; Song, Hyuk-Hwan; Jeong, Jin-Ho; Shin, Cha-Gyun; Choi, Sang-Un; Lee, Chan

    2008-06-01

    Enniatins (ENs) H, I, and MK1688 and beauvericin (BEA) were purified from concentrated chloroform extracts of Fusarium oxysporum KFCC 11363P submerged cultures using HPLC, and their in vitro cytotoxicities were evaluated against four human carcinoma cell lines (lung, A549; ovarian, SK-OV-3; skin melanoma, SK-MEL-2; and colon, HCT15) using the sulforhodamine B (SRB) method. ENs I and MK1688 inhibited the growth of cancer cell lines most strongly and had similar cytotoxic effects on the tested human cancer cell cultures. The cytotoxicity of ENs I and MK1688 was three- to fourfold higher than that of BEA and EN H. When cultivated in Fusarium-defined medium (FDM), the concentrations of ENs and BEA produced in F. oxysporum KFCC 11363P decreased in the following order: EN MK1688 (0.81 g/L) >EN I (0.55 g/L) >BEA (0.17 g/L) > EN H (0.16 g/L). This study has shown that ENs H, I, and MK1688 exhibit cytotoxicity against certain adenocarcinoma cell lines. The results indicate the need for more investigations into the significance of the biological properties of these new ENs.

  16. Cannabidiol Affects MK-801-Induced Changes in the PPI Learned Response of Capuchin Monkeys (Sapajus spp.)

    PubMed Central

    Saletti, Patricia G.; Maior, Rafael S.; Barros, Marilia; Nishijo, Hisao; Tomaz, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    There are several lines of evidence indicating a possible therapeutic action of cannabidiol (CBD) in schizophrenia treatment. Studies with rodents have demonstrated that CBD reverses MK-801 effects in prepulse inhibition (PPI) disruption, which may indicate that CBD acts by improving sensorimotor gating deficits. In the present study, we investigated the effects of CBD on a PPI learned response of capuchin monkeys (Sapajus spp.). A total of seven monkeys were employed in this study. In Experiment 1, we evaluated the CBD (doses of 15, 30, 60 mg/kg, i.p.) effects on PPI. In Experiment 2, the effects of sub-chronic MK-801 (0.02 mg/kg, i.m.) on PPI were challenged by a CBD pre-treatment. No changes in PPI response were observed after CBD-alone administration. However, MK-801 increased the PPI response of our animals. CBD pre-treatment blocked the PPI increase induced by MK-801. Our findings suggest that CBD’s reversal of the MK-801 effects on PPI is unlikely to stem from a direct involvement on sensorimotor mechanisms, but may possibly reflect its anxiolytic properties. PMID:28289391

  17. NMDA antagonist MK-801 impairs acquisition of place strategies, but not their use.

    PubMed

    Mackes, Jennifer L; Willner, Jeffrey

    2006-11-25

    Evidence that NMDA receptors contribute to synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus has stimulated research on their role in behavioral learning and memory. Recent studies indicate that NMDA antagonists decrease use of place strategies by rats in a T-maze task that can be solved using either a "place" or "response" strategy. In the present study, rats were given MK-801 before maze exposure and/or training on this redundant strategy T-maze task. MK-801 did not impair rats' ability to learn the task, but did change the strategies they used on a probe trial administered after learning. MK-801 decreased use of place strategies only when administered before both maze exposure and training; rats given MK-801 only before maze exposure or only before training tended to use place strategies on the probe trial. These results show that MK-801 does not prevent rats from utilizing previously acquired spatial information, but does appear to impair the acquisition of spatial information needed for place strategies.

  18. Control of jet noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schreck, Stefan

    1993-01-01

    This reports describes experiments conducted at the High-Speed Jet Facility at the University of Southern California on supersonic jets. The goal of the study was to develop methods for controlling the noise emitted from supersonic jets by passive and/or active means. Work by Seiner et al (1991) indicates that eddy Mach wave radiation is the dominant noise source in a heated high speed jet. Eddy Mach radiation is caused by turbulent eddies traveling at supersonic speed in the shear layer of the jet. The convection velocity of the eddies decays with increasing distance from the nozzle exit due to the mixing of the jet stream with the ambient fluid. Once the convection speed reaches subsonic velocities, eddy Mach wave radiation ceases. To control noise, a rapid decay of the convection velocity is desired. This may be accomplished by enhanced mixing in the jet. In this study, small aspect ratio rectangular jet nozzles were tested. A flapping mode was noticed in the jets. By amplifying screech components of the jets and destabilizing the jet columns with a collar device, the flapping mode was excited. The result was a rapid decay of the jet velocity. A reduction in eddy Mach radiation in rectangular supersonic jets may be achieved with this device.

  19. Fundamental Study of Jet Noise Generation and Suppression. Volume I.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    representation for the sound field surrounding a jet is provided which yields a solution giving some insight to noise generating mechanisms. Finally, a general ... review and analysis is provided of the experimental studies of others concerning jet noise generation and suppression. Volume I contains the technical details and Volume II is a bibliography. (Author)

  20. Sensorimotor gating impairments induced by MK-801 treatment may be reduced by tolerance effect and by familiarization in monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Saletti, Patricia G.; Maior, Rafael S.; Hori, Etsuro; Nishijo, Hisao; Tomaz, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Dizocilpine (MK-801) is a non-competitive NMDA antagonist that induces schizophreniclike effects. It is therefore widely used in experimental models of schizophrenia including prepulse inhibition (PPI) impairments in rodents. Nevertheless, MK-801 has never been tested in monkeys on a PPI paradigm. In order to evaluate MK-801 effects on monkeys’ PPI, we tested eight capuchin monkeys (Sapajus spp.) using three different doses of MK-801 (0.01; 0.02; 0.03 mg/kg). Results show PPI impairment in acute administration of the highest dose (0.03 mg/kg). PPI impairment induced by MK-801 was reversed by re-exposure to the PPI test throughout treatment trials, in contrast with rodent studies. These results indicate that tolerance effect and familiarization with PPI test may reduce the sensorimotor gating deficits induced by MK-801 in monkeys, suggesting a drug-training interaction. PMID:26441660

  1. Activation of calcium- and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CCaMK), the central regulator of plant root endosymbiosis.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sylvia; Parniske, Martin

    2012-08-01

    The key molecular event during the development of arbuscular mycorrhiza and the root nodule symbiosis is the activation of calcium- and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CCaMK). Its regulation is complex and involves positive as well as negative regulation facilitated by autophosphorylation of two conserved sites. Deregulated versions of CCaMK are sufficient for mediating both organogenesis and infection processes. Epistasis tests demonstrated that a main function of signaling components upstream of calcium spiking is the activation of CCaMK. Despite CCaMK being a central signaling hub, specificity for both symbioses exists, resulting in differential transcriptional gene expression patterns. While the specificity upstream of CCaMK can be conceptualized by the specific perception of rhizobial and fungal lipo-chitooligosaccharides via cognate LysM receptors, the mechanisms conferring transcriptional specificity downstream of CCaMK are likely conferred by a variety of transcriptional regulators, mediating symbiosis appropriate gene regulation.

  2. High Velocity Jet Noise Source Location and Reduction. Task 3 - Experimental Investigation of Suppression Principles. Volume II - Parametric Testing and Source Measurements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-12-01

    to waa r 4 q E wit W 71, II "A A /’_ ___ __ __ a , r64-3n.-Dlimatar Conical Nozzle # AT-3M In. 2 . t 14) e, Col c ts 1A.o vo0 11A.00 1U0.40 o I o q...aa.echuii facility. A summary of physical and opeating Scharacterii. offh t two vy waa shown in Figure 3-17, The nae deep- dish mirror was designcd to...01’ ------------ - - - n I.- . , * I-V,0 a .a CQCO. 0, O’ 0 0ý- c:v.~.t LPV cca-t 0c r- m~9 mItWmm09ýc’ w LE ~ ý’ J. % 0: !1.. g.OO O𔃺. 0~o.oo.j Uil

  3. A Coronal Hole Jet Observed with Hinode and the Solar Dynamics Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Peter H.; Muglach, Karin

    2014-01-01

    A small blowout jet was observed at the boundary of the south coronal hole on 2011 February 8 at around 21:00 UT. Images from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) revealed an expanding loop rising from one footpoint of a compact, bipolar bright point. Magnetograms from the Helioseismic Magnetic Imager (HMI) on board SDO showed that the jet was triggered by the cancelation of a parasitic positive polarity feature near the negative pole of the bright point. The jet emission was present for 25 mins and it extended 30 Mm from the bright point. Spectra from the EUV Imaging Spectrometer on board Hinode yielded a temperature and density of 1.6 MK and 0.9-1.7 × 10( exp 8) cu cm for the ejected plasma. Line-of-sight velocities reached up to 250 km/s. The density of the bright point was 7.6 × 10(exp 8) cu cm, and the peak of the bright point's emission measure occurred at 1.3 MK, with no plasma above 3 MK.

  4. Glottal jet inertance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mphail, Michael; Krane, Michael

    2016-11-01

    Estimates of an inertive contribution of the glottal jet to glottal aerodynamic resistance is presented. Given that inertance of the flow in a constriction can be expressed in terms of the kinetic energy of the flow, and that a jet is a maximum kinetic energy flow pattern, it is argued that the glottal jet possesses its own inertance which is at least as large as that of the vocal tract. These arguments are supported by estimates of inertance obtained from simulations of an unsteady flow through an axisymmetric orifice, and of a compliant constriction with the approximate shape and mechanical properties of the vocal folds. It is further shown that the inertive effect of the glottal jet depends on the jet path and jet mixing, with a slowly diffusing, symmetric jet showing higher inertance than an asymmetric jet which rapidly mixes with supraglottal air. Acknowledge support of NIH Grant 2R01DC005642-10A1.

  5. Combined Experimental and Computational Study on the Unimolecular Decomposition of JP-8 Jet Fuel Surrogates. II: n-Dodecane (n-C12H26).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Long; Yang, Tao; Kaiser, Ralf I; Troy, Tyler P; Ahmed, Musahid; Ribeiro, Joao Marcelo; Belisario-Lara, Daniel; Mebel, Alexander M

    2017-02-16

    We investigated temperature-dependent products in the pyrolysis of helium-seeded n-dodecane, which represents a surrogate of the n-alkane fraction of Jet Propellant-8 (JP-8) aviation fuel. The experiments were performed in a high temperature chemical reactor over a temperature range of 1200 K to 1600 K at a pressure of 600 Torr, with in situ identification of the nascent products in a supersonic molecular beam using single photon vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photoionization coupled with the analysis of the ions in a reflectron time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ReTOF). For the first time, the initial decomposition products of n-dodecane-including radicals and thermally labile closed-shell species-were probed in experiments, which effectively exclude mass growth processes. A total of 15 different products were identified, such as molecular hydrogen (H2), C2 to C7 1-alkenes [ethylene (C2H4) to 1-heptene (C7H14)], C1-C3 radicals [methyl (CH3), ethyl (C2H5), allyl (C3H5)], small C1-C3 hydrocarbons [acetylene (C2H2), allene (C3H4), methylacetylene (C3H4)], as well as the reaction products [1,3-butadiene (C4H6), 2-butene (C4H8)] attributed to higher-order processes. Electronic structure calculations carried out at the G3(CCSD,MP2)//B3LYP/6-311G(d,p) level of theory combined with RRKM/master equation of rate constants for relevant reaction steps showed that n-dodecane decomposes initially by a nonterminal C-C bond cleavage and producing a mixture of alkyl radicals from ethyl to decyl with approximately equal branching ratios. The alkyl radicals appear to be unstable under the experimental conditions and to rapidly dissociate either directly by C-C bond β-scission to produce ethylene (C2H4) plus a smaller 1-alkyl radical with the number of carbon atoms diminished by two or via 1,5-, 1,6-, or 1,7- 1,4-, 1,9-, or 1,8-H shifts followed by C-C β-scission producing alkenes from propene to 1-nonene together with smaller 1-alkyl radicals. The stability and hence the branching ratios

  6. Evidence for an X-Ray Jet in DG Tauri A?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Güdel, M.; Skinner, S. L.; Briggs, K. R.; Audard, M.; Arzner, K.; Telleschi, A.

    2005-06-01

    We present evidence for an X-ray jet in the T Tauri star DG Tau A based on Chandra ACIS data. DG Tau A, a jet-driving classical T Tauri star with a flat infrared spectrum, reveals an unusual X-ray spectrum that requires two thermal components with different intervening absorption column densities. The softer component shows a low temperature of T~2.9 MK, and its absorption is compatible with the stellar optical extinction (hydrogen column density NH~5×1021 cm-2). In contrast, the harder component reveals a temperature (22 MK) characteristic of active T Tauri stars, but its emission is more strongly absorbed (NH~2.8×1022 cm-2). Furthermore, the high-resolution ACIS-S image reveals a weak excess of soft (0.5-2 keV) counts at distances of 2"-4" from the star precisely along the optical jet, with a suggestive concentration at 4", where a bow shock-like structure has previously been identified in optical line observations. The energy distribution of these photons is similar to those of the stellar soft component. We interpret the soft spectral component as originating from shocks at the base of the jet, with shock-heating continuing out to a distance of at least 500 AU along the jet, whereas the hard component is most likely coronal or magnetospheric as in other young stellar systems.

  7. Fountain-Jet Turbulence.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-09-01

    and 3 times higher than expected from free- jet results. Hill et al., (Reference 6) in work with foun- tain jets impacting fuselage models, detected ...delineate the origins of the turbulent anomalies associated with fountain jets by extending the previous studies. The results are presented herein...jet velocities were detected with a Thermal Systems Inc. Model 1050 dual-channel constant-temperature anemometer equipped with a Thermal Systems Inc

  8. Jets of incipient liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reshetnikov, A. V.; Mazheiko, N. A.; Skripov, V. P.

    2000-05-01

    Jets of incipient water escaping into the atmosphere through a short channel are photographed. In some experiments. complete disintegration of the jet is observed. The relationship of this phenomenon with intense volume incipience is considered. The role of the Coanda effect upon complete opening of the jet is revealed. Measurement results of the recoil force R of the jets of incipient liquids are presented. Cases of negative thrust caused by the Coanda effect are noted. Generalization of experimental data is proposed.

  9. NASA Jet Noise Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, Brenda

    2012-01-01

    The presentation highlights jet-noise research conducted in the Subsonic Fixed Wing, Supersonics, and Environmentally Responsible Aviation Projects in the Fundamental Aeronautics Program at NASA. The research efforts discussed include NASA's updated Aircraft NOise Prediction Program (ANOPP2), acoustic-analogy-based prediction tools, jet-surface-interaction studies, plasma-actuator investigations, N+2 Supersonics Validation studies, rectangular-jet experiments, twin-jet experiments, and Hybrid Wind Body (HWB) activities.

  10. Discovery of selective and orally available spiro-3-piperidyl ATP-competitive MK2 inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Kaptein, Allard; Oubrie, Arthur; de Zwart, Edwin; Hoogenboom, Niels; de Wit, Joeri; van de Kar, Bas; van Hoek, Maaike; Vogel, Gerard; de Kimpe, Vera; Schultz-Fademrecht, Carsten; Borsboom, Judith; van Zeeland, Mario; Versteegh, Judith; Kazemier, Bert; de Roos, Jeroen; Wijnands, Frank; Dulos, John; Jaeger, Martin; Leandro-Garcia, Paula; Barf, Tjeerd

    2011-06-15

    The identification of a potent, selective, and orally available MK2 inhibitor series is described. The initial absence of oral bioavailability was successfully tackled by moving the basic nitrogen of the spiro-4-piperidyl moiety towards the electron-deficient pyrrolepyridinedione core, thereby reducing the pK(a) and improving Caco-2 permeability. The resulting racemic spiro-3-piperidyl analogues were separated by chiral preparative HPLC, and the activity towards MK2 inhibition was shown to reside mostly in the first eluting stereoisomer. This led to the identification of new MK2 inhibitors, such as (S)-23, with low nanomolar biochemical inhibition (EC(50) 7.4 nM) and submicromolar cellular target engagement activity (EC(50) 0.5 μM).

  11. Further measurements of the acoustic performance of a variant of the MK 4 helmet earmuff assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cogger, M. K.; Wood, S. A.; Lucas, S. H.

    1981-11-01

    Acoustic tests of the attenuation, frequency response and total harmonic distortion of experimental earmuff assemblies intended as alternatives to the B2 production shells fitted to the Mk 4 flight helmet are reported. The experimental earmuff (melamine shells with flanges) dough molded compound without flanges (Mk 4 alternative assemblies) and B2 production shells (Mk 4 helmet) were tested. Attenuation was calculated from insertion loss, i.e., the difference in db between the unoccluded and occluded spectra. Objective tests, using an artificial ear, and semiobjective tests, using 15 short haired, clean shaven subjects were performed. The A-weighted level of the sound field was 99 db(A), lasting for 15 min, the equivalent of 84 db(A) for 8 hr. The experimental earmuff is superior to the other designs.

  12. Akt inhibitor MK2206 prevents influenza pH1N1 virus infection in vitro.

    PubMed

    Denisova, Oxana V; Söderholm, Sandra; Virtanen, Salla; Von Schantz, Carina; Bychkov, Dmitrii; Vashchinkina, Elena; Desloovere, Jens; Tynell, Janne; Ikonen, Niina; Theisen, Linda L; Nyman, Tuula A; Matikainen, Sampsa; Kallioniemi, Olli; Julkunen, Ilkka; Muller, Claude P; Saelens, Xavier; Verkhusha, Vladislav V; Kainov, Denis E

    2014-07-01

    The influenza pH1N1 virus caused a global flu pandemic in 2009 and continues manifestation as a seasonal virus. Better understanding of the virus-host cell interaction could result in development of better prevention and treatment options. Here we show that the Akt inhibitor MK2206 blocks influenza pH1N1 virus infection in vitro. In particular, at noncytotoxic concentrations, MK2206 alters Akt signaling and inhibits endocytic uptake of the virus. Interestingly, MK2206 is unable to inhibit H3N2, H7N9, and H5N1 viruses, indicating that pH1N1 evolved specific requirements for efficient infection. Thus, Akt signaling could be exploited further for development of better therapeutics against pH1N1 virus.

  13. Attenuation of MK-801-induced behavioral perseveration by typical and atypical antipsychotic pretreatment in rats.

    PubMed

    Tuplin, Erin W; Stocco, Marlaina R; Holahan, Matthew R

    2015-08-01

    The noncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist (+)-5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo [a,d] cyclohepten-5-10-imine maleate (MK-801) has been shown to increase the probability of operant responding during extinction and reduce infralimbic prefrontal cortical activation, possibly modeling the cognitive dysfunction symptomology, and underlying cause, in patients with schizophrenia. The present study sought to determine if typical and/or atypical antipsychotics would attenuate the MK-801-induced behavioral perseveration and whether this would be associated with concomitant changes in phosphorylated ERK1/2 (pERK1/2) labeling in the infralimbic cortex (IL). Male, Long Evans rats were pretreated with the typical antipsychotic, Flupenthixol (0, 0.125, 0.25 or 0.5 mg/kg) or the atypical antipsychotic, aripiprazole (0, 0.3, 1.0, 3.0 mg/kg), then given 0.1 mg/kg MK-801 followed by a 60-min appetitive operant extinction session. Flupenthixol produced a dose-dependent decrease in MK-801-induced bar pressing behavior and locomotor activity and a dose-dependent increase in IL pERK1/2 labeling. Aripiprazole produced a U-shaped dose-response curve on MK-801-induced bar pressing behavior, a dose-dependent decrease in locomotor activity but no changes in IL pERK1/2 labeling. The attenuation of the MK-801-induced behavioral (bar pressing, locomotion) profile by Flupenthixol indicates a clear dopaminergic contribution to this behavior. The behavioral effect of aripiprazole may be due to its a) binding to presynaptic dopamine receptors at the midrange dose decreasing dopamine output and b) binding to postsynaptic dopamine receptors at the higher dose increasing dopamine tone. While both classes of antipsychotics can normalize perseverative behavioral symptoms, the underlying prefrontal cortical dysregulation seems to persist.

  14. Prenatal ethanol exposure modifies [3H]MK-801 binding to NMDA receptors: spermidine and ifenprodil.

    PubMed

    Honse, Yumiko; Randall, Patrick K; Leslie, Steven W

    2003-12-01

    It has been suggested that abnormalities seen in fetal alcohol syndrome are linked with NMDA receptor malfunction. Our laboratory has previously shown that prenatal ethanol treatment decreases [3H]MK-801 binding density at postnatal day 21, when NMDA receptor subunit protein levels were unaltered. Thus, the focus of the present study was to examine whether prenatal ethanol modifies native NMDA receptor levels. Cerebral cortices were taken from offspring born to three treatment groups of pregnant Sprague Dawley(R) rats: an ethanol group given an ethanol liquid diet during the gestational period, a pair-fed control group that received a liquid diet without ethanol, and an ad libitum group fed rat chow and tap water. Western blot studies were carried out at postnatal days 1, 7, 14, and 21 to examine total protein expression of NR1 and NR1b splice variants. NR2 subunit levels were examined by [3H]MK-801 binding studies using spermidine, an endogenous polyamine, and ifenprodil, a selective NR2B antagonist. [3H]MK-801 binding density was significantly reduced in prenatal ethanol-treated groups compared with ad libitum and pair-fed control groups. Spermidine increased [3H]MK-801 binding, although potentiation by spermidine was not significantly different among all three experimental groups. Furthermore, no significant differences in total protein expression of NR1 or NR1b splice variants were observed in cortical membrane homogenates at postnatal days 1 through 21. [3H]MK-801 binding in the presence of ifenprodil showed that prenatal ethanol treatment significantly decreased low-affinity ifenprodil binding. High-affinity ifenprodil binding was reduced in both pair-fed and ethanol-treated groups. These results suggest that prenatal ethanol treatment reduces [3H]MK-801 binding and that this reduction may be due to a decrease in NR2A subunits.

  15. Supplemental Reactor Physics Calculations and Analysis of ELF Mk 1A Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Pope, Michael A.

    2014-10-01

    These calculations supplement previous the reactor physics work evaluating the Enhanced Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) Fuel (ELF) Mk 1A element. This includes various additional comparisons between the current Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) and LEU along with further characterization of the performance of the ELF fuel. The excess reactivity to be held down at BOC for ELF Mk 1A fuel is estimated to be approximately $2.75 greater than with HEU for a typical cycle. This is a combined effect of the absence of burnable poison in the ELF fuel and the reduced neck shim worth in LEU fuel compared to HEU. Burnable poison rods were conceptualized for use in the small B positions containing Gd2O3 absorber. These were shown to provide $2.37 of negative reactivity at BOC and to burn out in less than half of a cycle. The worth of OSCCs is approximately the same between HEU and ELF Mk 1A (LEU) fuels in the representative loading evaluated. This was evaluated by rotating all banks simultaneously. The safety rod worth is relatively unchanged between HEU and ELF Mk 1A (LEU) fuels in the representative loading evaluated. However, this should be reevaluated with different loadings. Neutron flux, both total and fast (>1 MeV), is either the same or reduced upon changing from HEU to ELF Mk 1A (LEU) fuels in the representative loading evaluated. This is consistent with the well-established trend of lower neutron fluxes for a given power in LEU than HEU.The IPT loop void reactivity is approximately the same or less positive with ELF Mk 1A (LEU) fuel than HEU in the representative loading evaluated.

  16. The effects of low dose MK-801 administration on NMDAR dependent executive functions in pigeons.

    PubMed

    Gökhan, Nurper; Neuwirth, Lorenz S; Meehan, Edward F

    2017-05-01

    An avian analogue of human fronto-executive dysfunction was used to study the long-term effects of a repeated low dose of MK-801. MK-801 is known to selectively antagonize the excitatory N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDAR) and indirectly impair inhibitory related processes (GABA-AR). First, eight pigeons were divided into two groups, receiving either 0.15mg/kg MK-801 or saline (i.p.) 1-hour prior to each session. Thirty 90-min sessions of a Differential Reinforcement of Low Rate of Response (DRL-10s) schedule were run over 3-months. Both overall number of responses and efficiency were unaffected by treatment, establishing a sub-threshold motoric dose. Then, another eight pigeons, treated identically, were given an operant visual discrimination task. Results demonstrated impairment of the fronto-striatal function of both excitatory and inhibitory processes in the MK-801 group during the entire 3-months. A 30-session treatment cross-over showed that the Saline-to-MK-801 group was unaffected, whereas the MK-801-to-Saline group exhibited rapid recovery of inhibitory control, however excitatory control did not fully recover. Together, these results suggested that the NMDAR system is involved in the acquisition of excitatory learning, but only in the expression of inhibitory learning. Our findings were discussed in terms of the value of avian models in translational research. Furthermore, our results were examined within the context of the NIH Research Domain of Criteria initiative and the role of NMDAR disruption, which underlie executive dysfunction in various neuropsychiatric disorders. Finally, our findings suggested that the potential long-term effects of the clinical and recreational use of NMDAR antagonists require further study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Therapeutic effect of the NMDA antagonist MK-801 on low-level laser induced retinal injury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, W.-H.; Wu, J.; Chen, P.; Dou, J.-T.; Pan, C.-Y.; Mu, Y.-M.; Lu, J.-M.

    2009-03-01

    The aim of this article was to explore the mechanism of injury in rat retina after constant low-level helium-neon (He-Ne) laser exposure and therapeutic effects of MK-801, an N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, on laser-induced retinal injury. He-Ne laser lesions were created in the central retina of adult Wistar Kyoto rats and were followed immediately by intraperitoneal injection of MK-801 (2 mg/kg) or saline, macroscopical and microscopical lesion were observed by funduscope and light microscope. Ultrastructural changes of the degenerating cells were examined by electron microscopy. Photoreceptor apoptosis was evaluated by TdT-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL). mRNA levels were measured by in situ hybridization and NMDA receptor expression was determined by immunohistochemistry. Laser induced damage was histologically quantified by image-analysis morphometry. Electroretinograms (ERGs) were recorded at different time point after the cessation of exposure to constant irradiation. There was no visible bleeding, exudation or necrosis under funduscope. TUNEL and electron microscopy showed photoreceptor apoptosis after irradiation. MK-801-treated animals had significantly fewer TUNEL-positive cells in the photoreceptors than saline-treated animals after exposure to laser. In situ hybridization (ISH) showed that the NMDAR mRNA level of MK-801-treated rats decreased in the inner plexiform layer 6 h after the cessation of exposure to constant irradiation when compared with that of saline-treated rats. So did Immunohistochemistry (IHC). Electroretinogram showed that b-wave amplitudes of MK-801-treated group were higher than that of saline-treated group after laser exposure. These findings suggest that Low level laser may cause the retinal pathological changes under given conditions. High expression of NMDAR is one of the possible mechanisms causing experimental retinal laser injury of rats. MK-801 exhibits the therapeutic effect due to promote the

  18. 77 FR 24880 - Safety Zone; Jet Express Triathlon, Sandusky Bay, Lake Erie, Lakeside, OH

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-26

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Jet Express Triathlon, Sandusky Bay, Lake... intended to restrict vessels from portions of Lake Erie during the Jet Express Triathlon. This proposed... jumping off the ferry boat JET EXPRESS II at the designated position, then swim to the dedicated position...

  19. Study of Jet Transverse Momentum and Jet Rapidity Dependence on Dijet Azimuthal Decorrelations

    SciTech Connect

    Chakravarthula, Kiran

    2012-01-01

    In a collision experiment involving highly energetic particles such as hadrons, processes at high momentum transfers can provide information useful for many studies involving Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). One way of analyzing these interactions is through angular distributions. In hadron-hadron collisions, the angular distribution between the two leading jets with the largest transverse momentum (pT ) is affected by the production of additional jets. While soft radiation causes small differences in the azimuthal angular distribution of the two leading jets produced in a collision event, additional hard jets produced in the event have more pronounced influence on the distribution of the two leading jets produced in the collision. Thus, the dijet azimuthal angular distribution can serve as a variable that can be used to study the transition from soft to hard QCD processes in a collision event. This dissertation presents a triple-differential study involving the azimuthal angular distribution and the jet transverse momenta, and jet rapidities of the first two leading jets. The data used for this research are obtained from proton-antiproton (p$\\bar{p}$) collisions occurring at a center of mass energy of 1.96TeV, using the DØ detector in Run II of the Tevatron Collider at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL) in Illinois, USA. Comparisons are made to perturbative QCD (pQCD) predictions at next-to-leading order (NLO).

  20. Inhibition of Morphine Tolerance and Dependence by the NMDA Receptor Antagonist MK-801

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trujillo, Keith A.; Akil, Huda

    1991-01-01

    The N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) subtype of the glutamate receptor is an important mediator of several forms of neural and behavioral plasticity. The present studies examined whether NMDA receptors might be involved in the development of opiate tolerance and dependence, two examples of behavioral plasticity. The noncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 attenuated the development of tolerance to the analgesic effect of morphine without affecting acute morphine analgesia. In addition, MK-801 attenuated the development of morphine dependence as assessed by naloxone-precipitated withdrawal. These results suggest that NMDA receptors may be important in the development of opiate tolerance and dependence.

  1. Sex differences in the effect of MK-801 on normal and spinal cord injured rats.

    PubMed

    Nieto-Sampedro, M; Bailón, C; Rivas, F; Moreno, M T

    1991-01-01

    The induction of functional paraplegia in female rats by contusive spinal cord injury was not prevented by compound MK-801. However, the treatment reduced cavitation around the lesion epicenter to 14 mm3 compared to 17 mm3 in untreated controls t-test, P < 0.28) and conserved more neurons in defined regions outside the lesion epicenter (drug-treated animals vs untreated controls: 299 vs 73 neurons/mm2; t-test, P < 0.009). Thus, although MK-801 was only partially effective in preventing neuronal death secondary to contusion injury it appeared to have a definite neuroprotective effect. In view of the variety of side effects of MK-801 and the controversy on the mechanism of neuroprotection, we examined the action of the drug on non-injured animals. The effects of the drug were strongly sex-dependent. One hour after subcutaneous injection (0.5 mg/kg), female rats were hypothermic (36.8 °C treated vs 38.3 °C control) whereas male rats were hyperthermic (39.6 °C treated vs 38.4 °C control). In females, MK-801 caused cessation of cycling and appearance of numerous polymorphonuclear (PMN) phagocytes in vaginal frotis. Also, beginning 24 h after MK-801 injection, the proportion of PMN increased 400% in female blood, whereas males maintained control values. Arthritis-like joint inflammation was prominent in the toes of female rats, but males were unaffected. After continued treatment with the drug for 15 days, PMN count in female rats decreased and the animals resumed cycling. However, during this period female rats lost 20% of their weight, whereas males gained 26%. One hour after MK-801 injection large increases in blood pressure occurred in both sexes, returning to normal values 2 h later. Hypothermia does not appear to be a factor in the neuroprotective effect of MK-801, but the drug has a number of potentially dangerous side effects, particularly in female rats. Because polymorphonuclear cells are known sources of oxygen free radicals, neuroprotection by MK-801

  2. 100-mK bolometric receiver for low-background astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, S. T.; Clapp, Andre; Devlin, Mark J.; Fischer, Marc L.; Hagmann, Chris; Lange, A. E.; Richards, Paul L.

    1993-10-01

    The design and construction of 100 mK composite bolometers for low background submillimeter and millimeter-wave astronomy are discussed. The bolometers are cooled to 100 mK using an adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator. The bolometers consist of a silicon substrate suspended by nylon fibers, a bismuth film absorber, a neutron transmutation doped germanium thermometer with graphite fiber electrical leads, and a brass wire thermal strap. Heated JFET amplifiers located on the 1.5 K cold plate are used to read out the bolometer signals. Electrically measured noise equivalent powers as low as 2 X 10(superscript -17) W/(root)Hz have been achieved.

  3. Impact of Air Injection on Jet Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, Brenda; Norum, Tom

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this viewgraph presentation is to review the program to determine impact of core fluidic chevrons on noise produced by dual stream jets (i.e., broadband shock noise - supersonic, and mixing noise - subsonic and supersonic). The presentation reviews the sources of jet noise. It shows designs of Generation II Fluidic Chevrons. The injection impacts shock structure and stream disturbances through enhanced mixing. This may impact constructive interference between acoustic sources. The high fan pressures may inhibit mixing produced by core injectors. A fan stream injection may be required for better noise reduction. In future the modification of Gen II nozzles to allow for some azimuthal control: will allow for higher mass flow rates and will allow for shallower injection angles A Flow field study is scheduled for spring, 2008 The conclusions are that injection can reduce well-defined shock noise and injection reduces mixing noise near peak jet noise angle

  4. Calculation of the thermodynamic properties of liquid 3He 4He mixtures for temperatures below 150 mK and 3He concentrations between 0.1 and 8% at zero pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuerten, J. G. M.; Castelijns, C. A. M.; De Waele, A. T. A. M.; Gijsman, H. M.

    1985-02-01

    We performed calculations of thermodynamic quantities of dilute liquid 3He- 4He mixtures, starting from experimental values of the specific heat and the osmotic pressure. The calculations are confined to temperatures below 150 mK and 3He concentrations between 0.1 and 8% at zero pressure. Contrary to previous calculations performed by Radebaugh, our results are in good agreement with the experimental data on both the osmotic pressure and the enthalpy in dilute 3He 4He II mixtures.

  5. Inhibitory effects of KN-93, an inhibitor of Ca2+ calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, on light-regulated root gravitropism in maize.

    PubMed

    Lu Y-T; Feldman, L J; Hidaka, H

    1993-01-01

    Light is essential for root gravitropism in Zea mays L., cultivar Merit. It is hypothesized that calcium mediates this light-regulated response. KN-93, an inhibitor of calcium/calmodulin kinase II (CaMK II), inhibits light-regulated root gravitropism but does not affect light perception. We hypothesize that CaMK II, or a homologue, operates late in the light/gravity signal transduction chain. Here we provide evidence suggesting a possible physiological involvement of CaMK II in root gravitropism in plants.

  6. Inhibitory effects of KN-93, an inhibitor of Ca2+ calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, on light-regulated root gravitropism in maize

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldman, L. J.; Hidaka, H.

    1993-01-01

    Light is essential for root gravitropism in Zea mays L., cultivar Merit. It is hypothesized that calcium mediates this light-regulated response. KN-93, an inhibitor of calcium/calmodulin kinase II (CaMK II), inhibits light-regulated root gravitropism but does not affect light perception. We hypothesize that CaMK II, or a homologue, operates late in the light/gravity signal transduction chain. Here we provide evidence suggesting a possible physiological involvement of CaMK II in root gravitropism in plants.

  7. Inhibitory effects of KN-93, an inhibitor of Ca2+ calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, on light-regulated root gravitropism in maize

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldman, L. J.; Hidaka, H.

    1993-01-01

    Light is essential for root gravitropism in Zea mays L., cultivar Merit. It is hypothesized that calcium mediates this light-regulated response. KN-93, an inhibitor of calcium/calmodulin kinase II (CaMK II), inhibits light-regulated root gravitropism but does not affect light perception. We hypothesize that CaMK II, or a homologue, operates late in the light/gravity signal transduction chain. Here we provide evidence suggesting a possible physiological involvement of CaMK II in root gravitropism in plants.

  8. Measured Sensitivity of the First Mark II Phased Array Feed on an ASKAP Antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chippendale, A. P.; Brown, A. J.; Beresford, R. J.; Hampson, G. A.; Macleod, A.; Shaw, R. D.; Brothers, M. L.; Cantrall, C.; Forsyth, A. R.; Hay, S. G.; Leach, M.

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents the measured sensitivity of CSIRO's first Mk. II phased array feed (PAF) on an ASKAP antenna. The Mk. II achieves a minimum system-temperature-over-efficiency T_{sys}/η of 78 K at 1.23 GHz and is 95 K or better from 835 MHz to 1.8 GHz. This PAF was designed for the Australian SKA Pathfinder telescope to demonstrate fast astronomical surveys with a wide field of view for the Square Kilometre Array (SKA).

  9. Effects of an oral allosteric AKT inhibitor (MK-2206) on human nasopharyngeal cancer in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yuan-Yuan; Tian, Ying; Zhang, Jing; Xu, Fei; Yang, Yun-Peng; Huang, Yan; Zhao, Hong-Yun; Zhang, Jian-Wei; Xue, Cong; Lam, Michael H; Yan, Li; Hu, Zhi-Huang; Dinglin, Xiao-Xiao; Zhang, Li

    2014-01-01

    Aim Protein kinase B (AKT) signaling frequently is deregulated in human cancers and plays an important role in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). This preclinical study investigated the effect of MK-2206, a potent allosteric AKT inhibitor, on human NPC cells in vitro and in vivo. Methods The effect of MK-2206 on the growth and proliferation of CNE-1, CNE-2, HONE-1, and SUNE-1 cells was assessed by Cell Counting Kit 8 and colony formation assay. Flow cytometry was performed to analyze cell cycle and apoptosis. The effects of MK-2206 on the AKT pathway were analyzed by Western blotting. Autophagy induction was evaluated via electron microscopy and Western blot. To test the effects of MK-2206 in vivo, CNE-2 cells were subcutaneously implanted into nude mice. Tumor-bearing mice were treated orally with MK-2206 or placebo. Tumors were harvested for immunohistochemical analysis. Results In vitro, MK-2206 inhibited the four NPC cell line growths and reduced the sizes of the colonies in a dose-dependent manner. At 72 and 96 hours, the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of MK-2206 in CNE-1, CNE-2, and HONE-1 cell lines were 3–5 μM, whereas in SUNE-1, IC50 was less than 1 μM, and MK-2206 induced cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase. However, our study found no evidence of apoptosis. MK-2206 induced autophagy in NPC cells, as evidenced by electron microscopy and Western blot, and inhibited the growth of tumors that were subcutaneously implanted in mice. Inhibition of downstream phosphorylation through the PRAS40 and S6 pathways seems to be the main mechanism for the MK-2206-induced growth inhibition. Conclusion Our preclinical study suggests that MK-2206’s antiproliferative effect may be useful for NPC treatment; however, strategies for reinforcing this effect are needed to maximize clinical benefit. PMID:25336925

  10. Large bouncing jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardin, Karl; Weislogel, Mark

    2016-11-01

    We experimentally investigate the phenomena of large jet rebound (bounce), a mode of fluid transfer following oblique jet impacts on hydrophobic surfaces. We initially seek to describe the regimes of such jet bounce in tests conducted in the weightless environment of a drop tower. A parametric study reveals the dependence of the rebound mode on the relevant dimensionless groups such as Weber number We⊥ defined on the velocity component perpendicular to the surface. We show that significantly larger diameter jets behave similarly as much smaller jets demonstrated during previous terrestrial investigations when We⊥ 1 . For We⊥ > 1 , large jet impacts create fishbone-like structures. We also explore rebounds from nonplanar substrates. Improving our understanding of such jet rebound opens avenues for unique transport capabilities. NASA Cooperative Agreement NNX12A047A.

  11. Hydroacoustic pulsating jet generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unrau, A.; Meier, G. E. A.

    1987-04-01

    A high pressure turbulent jet generator connected to a low pressure hydraulic tube is studied to investigate water hammer in tubes with fast flow variations, generating high pressure pulsating water jets. The pulsating jet generator consists of a tube, a hydraulic valve, a spring, and a water container. The jet is the effect of the combination of turbulent pipe flow with a valve for flow nozzle. The jet pressure depends on specific oscillation impedance and flow velocity variations. For inlet pressure of 0.5 to 2 bar the pressure rises to 40 bar. The described pulsating jet generator is more effective than the earlier model. A piezoelectric pressure controller is used to register pressure signals and high speed photos are made of the jet. Test results are consistent with theoretical calculation.

  12. The dusty silhouette jet HH 1019 in the Carina Nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiter, Megan; Kiminki, Megan M.; Smith, Nathan; Bally, John

    2017-06-01

    We report the discovery in Hubble Space Telescope (HST) images of the new Herbig-Haro jet, HH 1019, located near the Tr 14 cluster in the Carina Nebula. Like other HH jets in the region, this bipolar collimated flow emerges from the head of a dark dust pillar. However, HH 1019 is unique because - unlike all other HH jets known to date - it is identified by a linear chain of dark, dusty knots that are seen primarily in silhouette against the background screen of the H II region. Proper motions confirm that these dark condensations move along the jet axis at high speed. [S ii] emission traces a highly collimated jet that is spatially coincident with these dust knots. The high extinction in the body of the jet suggests that this outflow has lifted a large amount of dust directly from the disc, although it is possible that it has entrained dust from its surrounding protostellar envelope before exiting the dust pillar. If dust in HH 1019 originates from the circumstellar disc, this provides further evidence for a jet launched from a range of radii in the disc, including those outside the dust sublimation radius. HH 1019 may be the prototype for a new subclass of dusty HH objects seen primarily in extinction against the background screen of a bright H II region. Such jets may be common, but difficult to observe because they require the special condition of a very bright background in order to be seen in silhouette.

  13. Field Jet Erosion Tests on the Mississippi River Collocated Demonstration Section, Plaquemines Parish, Louisiana

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    ER D C/ G SL T R- 15 -1 3 Field Jet Erosion Tests on the Mississippi River Collocated Demonstration Section, Plaquemines Parish...default. ERDC/GSL TR-15-13 June 2015 Field Jet Erosion Tests on the Mississippi River Collocated Demonstration Section, Plaquemines Parish...Prepared for U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Washington, DC 20314-1000 ERDC/GSL TR-15-13 ii Abstract Field jet erosion tests (JETs) were

  14. HST Polarimetry of the 3C 273 Jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clautice, Devon; Perlman, Eric S.; Sparks, William B.; Biretta, John A.; O'Dea, Christopher P.; Baum, Stefi Alison; Cheung, Chi C.; Birkinshaw, Mark; Worrall, Diana M.; Martel, Andre; Urry, C. Megan; Stawarz, Lukasz; Coppi, Paolo S.; Uchiyama, Yasunobu; Cara, Mihai; Meisenheimer, Klaus; Begelman, Mitchell C.

    2017-01-01

    We present preliminary results using HST polarimetry of the jet of 3C 273. Polarization is a critical parameter for understanding jet flows, and has proven essential in characterizing the physics of FR I jets; high-quality HST polarimetry has been done for just two other FR II jets previously. Our recent work on two quasar jets, where we measured high optical polarization in the brightest X-ray knots, has favored the synchrotron emission model over the alternative IC/CMB model for their optical to X-ray emission. These new observations of 3C 273 allow for the determination of the magnetic field structure and confirmation of which emission mechanisms are operating to create its optical to X-ray emission, and will allow us to greatly advance modeling efforts for this jet and nail down its kinetic power, a key unknown parameter for understanding quasars and their cosmological effects.

  15. Preliminary Mark-18A (Mk-18A) Target Material Recovery Program Product Acceptance Criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, Sharon M.; Patton, Bradley D.

    2016-09-01

    The Mk-18A Target Material Recovery Program (MTMRP) was established in 2015 to preserve the unique materials, e.g. 244Pu, in 65 previously irradiated Mk-18A targets for future use. This program utilizes existing capabilities at SRS and Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to process targets, recover materials from them, and to package the recovered materials for shipping to ORNL. It also utilizes existing capabilities at ORNL to receive and store the recovered materials, and to provide any additional processing of the recovered materials or residuals required to prepare them for future beneficial use. The MTMRP is presently preparing for the processing of these valuable targets which is expected to begin in ~2019. As part of the preparations for operations, this report documents the preliminary acceptance criteria for the plutonium and heavy curium materials to be recovered from the Mk-18A targets at SRNL for transport and storage at ORNL. These acceptance criteria were developed based on preliminary concepts developed for processing, transporting, and storing the recovered Mk-18A materials. They will need to be refined as these concepts are developed in more detail.

  16. The leukotriene LTD4 receptor antagonist MK571 specifically modulates MRP associated multidrug resistance.

    PubMed

    Gekeler, V; Ise, W; Sanders, K H; Ulrich, W R; Beck, J

    1995-03-08

    The multidrug resistant cell lines HL60/AR and GLC4/ADR show high overexpression of the gene encoding the multidrug resistance associated protein MRP compared to their drug sensitive parental counterparts. This and the virtual absence of mdr1/P-glycoprotein gene expression was proven by a complementary DNA polymerase chain reaction (cDNA-PCR) approach. Applying a 72-hour tetrazolium based colorimetric MTT-assay we demonstrate on both MDR sublines a dose-dependent modulation of drug resistances by the leukotriene LTD4 receptor antagonist MK571. A complete reversal of vincristine resistances was achieved at final MK571 concentrations of 30 microM (HL60/AR) or 50 microM (GLC4/ADR) which by itself did not disturb cellular proliferation. The drug resistance of a mdr1/P-gp overexpressing multidrug-resistant HL60 subline, in contrast, was not significantly affected by MK571. Similar effects were seen using the glutathione (GSH) synthesis inhibitor buthionine sulfoximine (BSO). Our results point to a relationship between MRP and a conjugate transporter and identify MK571 as a new tool structure for developing modulators specific for a MRP associated multidrug resistance.

  17. 50 mK cooling solution with an ADR precooled by a sorption cooler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luchier, N.; Duval, J. M.; Duband, L.; Camus, P.; Donnier-Valentin, G.; Linder, M.

    2010-09-01

    CEA/SBT is currently developing a 2.5 K-50 mK cooling solution composed of a small demagnetization refrigerator (ADR) precooled by a sorption cooler, equivalent to the high temperature stage of a two-stage ADR system. Thanks to the use of this dual technology, a low weight cooler able to reach 50 mK with a heat sink up to 2.5 K can be designed. Because the sorption cooler is probably the lightest solution to produce sub-Kelvin temperatures, these developments allow us to propose a solution to face the drastic reduction in the mass budget of space missions like SPICA or IXO. The European Space Agency (ESA) is funding the development of an engineering model able to produce 1 μW net heat lift at 50 mK. It is sized so that the sorption cooler provides an additional 10 μW at 300 mK. The ESA main requirements are an autonomy of more than 24 h and a recycling time smaller than 8 h. We present the design of the system able to meet these requirements as well as the expected performances and preliminary measurements.

  18. Performances of the 50 mK ADR/sorption cooler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luchier, N.; Duval, J. M.; Duband, L.; Tirolien, T.

    2012-04-01

    CEA/SBT is currently testing a 50 mK cooler developed in the framework of a European Space Agency Technological Research Program targeted for the Advanced Telescope for High Energy Astrophysics space mission. This cooler is composed of a small demagnetization refrigerator pre cooled by a sorption cooler stage. This Engineering Model is able to produce 1 μW of net heat lift at 50 mK and an additional 10 μW at 300 mK provided by the sorption cooler stage. The autonomy of the cooler is 24 h, and once the low temperature phase at 50 mK is over, it can be recycled in about 8 h with 10 μW and 100 μW available at respectively the 2.5 and 15 K heat sinks. These performances are in agreement with the European Space Agency requirements. In this paper, we present the detailed thermal performances of the cooler in nominal conditions as well as sensitivity measurements of the variation of the heat sink and the cold end temperatures.

  19. Application of human CFU-Mk assay to predict potential thrombocytotoxicity of drugs.

    PubMed

    Pessina, A; Parent-Massin, D; Albella, B; Van Den Heuvel, R; Casati, S; Croera, C; Malerba, I; Sibiril, Y; Gomez, S; de Smedt, A; Gribaldo, L

    2009-02-01

    Megakaryocytopoiesis gives rise to platelets by proliferation and differentiation of lineage-specific progenitors, identified in vitro as Colony Forming Unit-Megakaryocytes (CFU-Mk). The aim of this study was to refine and optimize the in vitro Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) of the CFU-Mk assay for detecting drug-induced thrombocytopenia and to prevalidate a model for predicting the acute exposure levels that cause maximum tolerated decreases in the platelets count, based on the correlation with the maximal plasma concentrations (C max) in vivo. The assay was linear under the SOP conditions, and the in vitro endpoints (percentage of colonies growing) were reproducible within and across laboratories. The protocol performance phase was carried out testing 10 drugs (selected on the base of their recognised or potential in vivo haematotoxicity, according to the literature). Results showed that a relationship can be established between the maximal concentration in plasma (C max) and the in vitro concentrations that inhibited the 10-50-90 percent of colonies growth (ICs). When C max is lower than IC10, it is possible to predict that the chemicals have no direct toxicity effect on CFU-Mk and could not induce thrombocytopenia due to bone marrow damage. When the C max is higher than IC90 and/or IC50, thrombocytopenia can occur due to direct toxicity of chemicals on CFU-Mk progenitors.

  20. The effects of CA1 5HT4 receptors in MK801-induced amnesia and hyperlocomotion.

    PubMed

    Nasehi, Mohammad; Tabatabaie, Maryam; Khakpai, Fatemeh; Zarrindast, Mohammad-Reza

    2015-02-05

    In this study, the effects of 5-HT4 receptors of the CA1 on MK801-induced amnesia and hyperlocomotion were examined. One-trial step-down method was used to assess memory retention and then, the hole-board method to assess exploratory behaviors. The results showed that post-training intra-CA1 administration of RS67333 (62.5 and 625 ng/mouse) and RS23597 (1 and 10 ng/mouse) decreased memory consolidation, but it did not alter head-dip counts, head-dip latency and locomotor activity. Similarly, MK801 (0.5 and 1 μg/mouse) decreased memory consolidation, but had no effect on head-dip counts and head-dip latency. Interestingly, it increased locomotor activity. The results also showed that post-training intra-CA1 injection of a sub-threshold dose of RS67333 (6.25 ng/mouse) or RS23597 (0.1 ng/mouse) could heighten MK801 induced amnesia and decrease locomotor activity, but it did not alter head-dip counts and head-dip latency. In conclusion, our findings suggest that the CA1 5-HT4 receptors are involved in MK801-induced amnesia and hyperlocomotion.

  1. Pyrroloquinoline quinone prevents MK-801-induced stereotypical behavior and cognitive deficits in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xingqin; Chen, Quancheng; Hu, Xindai; Mao, Shishi; Kong, Yanyan

    2014-01-01

    Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ), an essential nutrient, antioxidant, redox modulator, and nerve growth factor, prevents cognitive deficits associated with oxidative stress-induced neurodegeneration. Previous molecular imaging studies also demonstrate that PQQ binds to N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. In this study, we investigated the effects of PQQ on stereotypical behaviors and cognitive deficits induced by MK-801, a non-competitive NMDA antagonist used to model schizophrenia. Mice were given repeated injections of MK-801 (0.5mg/kg/d) and PQQ (0.2, 2.0, or 20 μg/kg/d) for 60 days. Behavior was evaluated using a variety of motor, social, and cognitive tests. We found that PQQ administration significantly attenuated MK-801-induced increases in stereotypical behavior and ataxia, suggesting a protective role of PQQ against MK-801-induced neuronal dysfunction and psychiatric disorders. Future studies are necessary to elucidate the underlying mechanisms of PQQ. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Discovery of MK-8718, an HIV Protease Inhibitor Containing a Novel Morpholine Aspartate Binding Group.

    PubMed

    Bungard, Christopher J; Williams, Peter D; Ballard, Jeanine E; Bennett, David J; Beaulieu, Christian; Bahnck-Teets, Carolyn; Carroll, Steve S; Chang, Ronald K; Dubost, David C; Fay, John F; Diamond, Tracy L; Greshock, Thomas J; Hao, Li; Holloway, M Katharine; Felock, Peter J; Gesell, Jennifer J; Su, Hua-Poo; Manikowski, Jesse J; McKay, Daniel J; Miller, Mike; Min, Xu; Molinaro, Carmela; Moradei, Oscar M; Nantermet, Philippe G; Nadeau, Christian; Sanchez, Rosa I; Satyanarayana, Tummanapalli; Shipe, William D; Singh, Sanjay K; Truong, Vouy Linh; Vijayasaradhi, Sivalenka; Wiscount, Catherine M; Vacca, Joseph P; Crane, Sheldon N; McCauley, John A

    2016-07-14

    A novel HIV protease inhibitor was designed using a morpholine core as the aspartate binding group. Analysis of the crystal structure of the initial lead bound to HIV protease enabled optimization of enzyme potency and antiviral activity. This afforded a series of potent orally bioavailable inhibitors of which MK-8718 was identified as a compound with a favorable overall profile.

  3. Development of amorphous solid dispersion formulations of a poorly water-soluble drug, MK-0364.

    PubMed

    Sotthivirat, S; McKelvey, C; Moser, J; Rege, B; Xu, W; Zhang, D

    2013-08-16

    The goal of this study was to demonstrate that MK-0364 solid dispersions can be developed as a means to increase the solubility and bioavailability of a poorly water-soluble drug, MK-0364. The potential solid dispersions would enable an oral solid dosage form as a monotherapy or combination product of MK-0364. Preliminary screening included sample preparation via a solvent casting method, physical characterization, and in vitro dissolution testing. Lead formulations were subsequently manufactured using hot melt extrusion (HME) and spray-drying (SD). All HME (without polyvinyl pyrrolidone) and SD formulations exhibit characteristics of a single phase glass including an amorphous halo when analyzed with X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), a single glass transition temperature (Tg) measured with differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and supersaturation when dissolved in dissolution media. The oral absorption of MK-0364 from selected HME and SD formulations in monkeys results in marginally greater exposure with a consistently longer Tmax relative to a liquid filled capsule reference. Based on the processability, physical characterization, in vitro dissolution, and animal pharmacokinetic results, copovidone- and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose acetate succinate (HPMCAS)-based solid dispersion formulations are viable product concepts. The physical stability of both the solid dispersion formulations was also evaluated for 54 weeks under different conditions. The copovidone-based solid dispersion requires protection from moisture.

  4. Plasma Heating to Super-Hot Temperatures (>30 MK) in the August 9, 2011 Solar Flare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharykin, Ivan; Struminsky, Alexei; Zimovets, Ivan

    2015-08-01

    We investigate the August 9, 2011 solar flare of X-ray class X6.9, the "hottest" flare from 2000 to 2012, with a peak plasma temperature according to GOES data of 33 MK. Our goal is to determine the cause of such an anomalously high plasma temperature and to investigate the energy balance in the flare region with allowance made for the presence of a super-hot plasma (>30 MK). We analyze the RHESSI, GOES, AIA/SDO, and EVE/SDO data and discuss the spatial structure of the flare region and the results of our spectral analysis of its X-ray emission. Our analysis of the RHESSI X-ray spectra is performed in the one-temperature and two-temperature approximations by taking into account the emission of hot (20 MK) and super-hot (45 MK) plasmas. The hard X-ray spectrum in both models is fitted by power laws. The observed peculiarities of the flare are shown to be better explained in terms of the two-temperature model, in which the super-hot plasma is located at the flare loop tops (or in the magnetic cusp region). The formation of the super-hot plasma can be associated with its heating through primary energy release and with the suppression of thermal conduction.

  5. Effects of MK-886, a leukotriene biosynthesis inhibitor, in a rabbit model of endotoxic shock.

    PubMed

    Can, C; Cinar, M G; Ulker, S; Evinç, A; Koşay, S

    1998-06-05

    Leukotrienes are one of the biological mediators that play a role in endotoxic shock. In this study, we investigated the effects of a leukotriene biosynthesis inhibitor, MK-886, in a rabbit model of endotoxic shock. Lipopolysaccharide (Escherichia coli serotype 055:B5) infusion (1 mg kg(-1) h(-1)) to rabbits caused a biphasic decline in arterial blood pressure and decreased the vasoresponsiveness to phenylephrine, potassium chloride, sodium nitroprusside and acetylcholine in abdominal aortic rings. Oral administration of MK-886 (3-(1-(4-chlorobenzyl)-3-t-butyl-thio-5-isopropylindol-2-yl(-2,2-+ ++dimethylpropanoic acid) (5 mg/kg) 3 h prior to lipopolysaccharide infusion significantly inhibited the decline in arterial blood pressure and enhanced the responsiveness to phenylephrine and acetylcholine, whereas the changes in sodium nitroprusside and potassium chloride responses were not significant. However, the pD2 (-log EC50) values for sodium nitroprusside in this group were higher than those of the group that received lipopolysaccharide alone. Neither the administration of the vehicle alone to endotoxemic rabbits, nor MK-886 administration to control animals, caused significant changes. These data suggest that MK-886 attenuates the hypotension and partially reverses the impaired vascular responsiveness observed in endotoxic shock.

  6. Developmental vitamin D deficiency alters MK-801-induced behaviours in adult offspring.

    PubMed

    Kesby, James P; O'Loan, Jonathan C; Alexander, Suzanne; Deng, Chao; Huang, Xu-Feng; McGrath, John J; Eyles, Darryl W; Burne, Thomas H J

    2012-04-01

    Developmental vitamin D (DVD) deficiency is a candidate risk factor for developing schizophrenia in humans. In rodents DVD deficiency induces subtle changes in the way the brain develops. This early developmental insult leads to select behavioural changes in the adult, such as an enhanced response to amphetamine-induced locomotion in female DVD-deficient rats but not in male DVD-deficient rats and an enhanced locomotor response to the N-methyl-D: -aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, MK-801, in male DVD-deficient rats. However, the response to MK-801-induced locomotion in female DVD-deficient rats is unknown. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to further examine this behavioural finding in male and female rats and assess NMDA receptor density. DVD-deficient Sprague Dawley rats were assessed for locomotion, ataxia, acoustic startle response (ASR) and prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the ASR to multiple doses of MK-801. The NMDA receptor density in relevant brain regions was assessed in a drug-naive cohort. DVD deficiency increased locomotion in response to MK-801 in both sexes. DVD-deficient rats also showed an enhanced ASR compared with control rats, but PPI was normal. Moreover, DVD deficiency decreased NMDA receptor density in the caudate putamen of both sexes. These results suggest that a transient prenatal vitamin D deficiency has a long-lasting effect on NMDA-mediated signalling in the rodent brain and may be a plausible candidate risk factor for schizophrenia and other neuropsychiatric disorders.

  7. Effects of MK-801 and amphetamine treatments on allergic lung inflammatory response in mice.

    PubMed

    Hamasato, Eduardo Kenji; Ligeiro de Oliveira, Ana Paula; Lino-dos-Santos-Franco, Adriana; Ribeiro, Alison; Ferraz de Paula, Viviane; Peron, Jean Pierre Schatzmann; Damazo, Amílcar Sabino; Tavares-de-Lima, Wothan; Palermo-Neto, João

    2013-08-01

    Glutamate acts as a neurotransmitter within the Central Nervous System (CNS) and modifies immune cell activity. In lymphocytes, NMDA glutamate receptors regulate intracellular calcium, the production of reactive oxygen species and cytokine synthesis. MK-801, a NMDA receptor open-channel blocker, inhibits calcium entry into mast cells, thereby preventing mast cell degranulation. Several lines of evidence have shown the involvement of NMDA glutamate receptors in amphetamine (AMPH)-induced effects. AMPH treatment has been reported to modify allergic lung inflammation. This study evaluated the effects of MK-801 (0.25mg/kg) and AMPH (2.0mg/kg), given alone or in combination, on allergic lung inflammation in mice and the possible involvement of NMDA receptors in this process. In OVA-sensitized and challenged mice, AMPH and MK-801 given alone decreased cellular migration into the lung, reduced IL-13 and IL10 levels in BAL supernatant, reduced ICAM-1 and L-selectin expression in granulocytes in the BAL and decreased mast cell degranulation. AMPH treatment also decreased IL-5 levels. When both drugs were administered, treatment with MK-801 reversed the decrease in the number of eosinophils and neutrophils induced by AMPH in the BAL of OVA-sensitized and challenged mice as well as the effects on the expression of L-selectin and ICAM-1 in granulocytes, the IL-10, IL-5 and IL-13 levels in BAL supernatants and increased mast cell degranulation. At the same time, treatment with MK-801, AMPH or with MK-801+AMPH increased corticosterone serum levels in allergic mice. These results are discussed in light of possible indirect effects of AMPH and MK-801 via endocrine outflow from the CNS (i.e., HPA-axis activity) to the periphery and/or as a consequence of the direct action of these drugs on immune cell activity, with emphasis given to mast cell participation in the allergic lung response of mice. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Japan's Future Plans for Missions to Primitive Bodies: Hayabusa-2, Hayabusa-Mk2, and Marco Polo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshikawa, M.; Yano, H.; Kawaguchi, J.; Hayabusa-2 Pre-Project Team; Small Body Exploration Wg

    2008-03-01

    In Japan, we have studied about the future missions to primitive bodies in the solar system after Hayabusa mission. The new missions are called Hayabusa-2 and Hayabusa-Mk2. Hayabusa-Mk2 is now considered as Marco Polo with European researchers.

  9. DNA Damage activates A Spatially Distinct Late Cytoplasmic Cell Cycle Checkpoint Network Controlled by MK2-mediated RNA Stabilization

    PubMed Central

    Reinhardt, H. Christian; Hasskamp, Pia; Schmedding, Ingolf; Morandell, Sandra; van Vugt, Marcel .A.T.M.; Wang, XiaoZhe; Linding, Rune; Ong, Shao-En; Weaver, David; Carr, Steven A.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Following genotoxic stress, cells activate a complex kinase-based signaling network to arrest the cell cycle and initiate DNA repair. p53-defective tumor cells rewire their checkpoint response and become dependent on the p38/MK2 pathway for survival after DNA damage, despite a functional ATR-Chk1 pathway. We used functional genetics to dissect the contributions of Chk1 and MK2 to checkpoint control. We show that nuclear Chk1 activity is essential to establish a G2/M checkpoint, while cytoplasmic MK2 activity is critical for prolonged checkpoint maintenance through a process of post-transcriptional mRNA stabilization. Following DNA damage, the p38/MK2 complex relocalizes from nucleus to cytoplasm where MK2, phosphorylates hnRNPA0, to stabilize Gadd45α mRNA, while p38 phosphorylates and releases the translational inhibitor TIAR. In addition, MK2 phosphorylates PARN, blocking Gadd45α mRNA degradation. Gadd45α functions within a positive feedback loop, sustaining the MK2-dependent cytoplasmic sequestration of Cdc25B/C to block mitotic entry in the presence of unrepaired DNA damage. Our findings demonstrate a critical role for the MK2 pathway in the post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression as part of the DNA damage response in cancer cells. PMID:20932473

  10. Z boson production in association with heavy quark jets at D0

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph Anthony Zennamo, III

    2013-10-28

    The dominant background in searches for a Higgs boson decaying into b-quarks at the Tevatron is production of a Z boson in association with either b- or c-quark initiated jets (b or c jets). This thesis describes the first measurements of the ratio of differential cross sections σ (Z + b jet)/ σ(Z + jet), and the first measurements of the ratio of cross sections σ (Z + c jet)/ σ(Z + jet) and σ (Z + c jet)/ σ(Z + b jet). These measurements are performed using the full D0 Run II data set corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 9.7 fb-1. The ratio of differential cross sections σ(Z + b jet)/σ (Z + jet) have been measured as a function of jet and Z boson pT , jet η , and Δφ(Z, jet). The Z+c jet ratios of differential cross sections are measured as a function of jet and Z boson pT .

  11. Relation between Spinning Conditions and Jet Profile in Electrospinning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadomae, Yosuke; Sugimoto, Masataka; Taniguchi, Takashi; Koyama, Kiyohito

    Relationship between electrospun fibers and spinning conditions are investigated from the view point of jet profiles such as diameter distribution, jet velocity, and the evaporation rate of solvent from the surface of jet in solution electrospinning process by changing (i) the applied voltage and (ii) the relative humidity of ambient air. Profiles of jets near the droplet at the tip of needle are measured as functions of the position along the spinning line by using photographs. The measured profiles of jet can be fitted nicely by the analytic expression of spinning profile for a non-evaporating Newtonian fluid, which enables us to calculate the velocity profile of jets and the evaporation rate of solvent from the jet as a function of the position along the spinning line. Changing the applied voltage, it is found that the jet velocity and the evaporation rate in our measured region are decreased and beaded fibers are increased when increasing the applied voltage, on the other hand the total amount of evaporated solvent from a jet in our measured region is too small to affect the profile of jet and to change the viscosity of solution in the jet. Changing the relative humidity, it is found that profiles of jets are almost the same except for the evaporation rate. The evaporation rate in our measured region is increased by decreasing the relative humidity. In the lower humidity region, less than 60% of humidity, beaded fibers are hardly formed, but in the higher humidity region, more than 60%, beaded fibers are increased with increasing humidity. From the results in two conditions (i) and (ii), it is found that the beaded fibers are easily formed as the evaporation rate of solvent becomes smaller.

  12. Jet Substructure Without Trees

    SciTech Connect

    Jankowiak, Martin; Larkoski, Andrew J.; /SLAC /Stanford U., ITP

    2011-08-19

    We present an alternative approach to identifying and characterizing jet substructure. An angular correlation function is introduced that can be used to extract angular and mass scales within a jet without reference to a clustering algorithm. This procedure gives rise to a number of useful jet observables. As an application, we construct a top quark tagging algorithm that is competitive with existing methods. In preparation for the LHC, the past several years have seen extensive work on various aspects of collider searches. With the excellent resolution of the ATLAS and CMS detectors as a catalyst, one area that has undergone significant development is jet substructure physics. The use of jet substructure techniques, which probe the fine-grained details of how energy is distributed in jets, has two broad goals. First, measuring more than just the bulk properties of jets allows for additional probes of QCD. For example, jet substructure measurements can be compared against precision perturbative QCD calculations or used to tune Monte Carlo event generators. Second, jet substructure allows for additional handles in event discrimination. These handles could play an important role at the LHC in discriminating between signal and background events in a wide variety of particle searches. For example, Monte Carlo studies indicate that jet substructure techniques allow for efficient reconstruction of boosted heavy objects such as the W{sup {+-}} and Z{sup 0} gauge bosons, the top quark, and the Higgs boson.

  13. Oxytocin reversed MK-801-induced social interaction and aggression deficits in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Fernanda Francine; Gaspary, Karina Vidarte; Siebel, Anna Maria; Bonan, Carla Denise

    2016-09-15

    Changes in social behavior occur in several neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and autism. The interaction between individuals is an essential aspect and an adaptive response of several species, among them the zebrafish. Oxytocin is a neuroendocrine hormone associated with social behavior. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of MK-801, a non-competitive antagonist of glutamate NMDA receptors, on social interaction and aggression in zebrafish. We also examined the modulation of those effects by oxytocin, the oxytocin receptor agonist carbetocin and the oxytocin receptor antagonist L-368,899. Our results showed that MK-801 induced a decrease in the time spent in the segment closest to the conspecific school and in the time spent in the segment nearest to the mirror image, suggesting an effect on social behavior. The treatment with oxytocin after the exposure to MK-801 was able to reestablish the time spent in the segment closest to the conspecific school, as well as the time spent in the segment nearest to the mirror image. In addition, in support of the role of the oxytocin pathway in modulating those responses, we showed that the oxytocin receptor agonist carbetocin reestablished the social and aggressive behavioral deficits induced by MK-801. However, the oxytocin receptor antagonist L-368,899 was not able to reverse the behavioral changes induced by MK-801. This study supports the critical role for NMDA receptors and the oxytocinergic system in the regulation of social behavior and aggression which may be relevant for the mechanisms associated to autism and schizophrenia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. DNA microarray unravels rapid changes in transcriptome of MK-801 treated rat brain

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Yuka; Kulikova, Sofya P; Shibato, Junko; Rakwal, Randeep; Satoh, Hiroyuki; Pinault, Didier; Masuo, Yoshinori

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the impact of MK-801 on gene expression patterns genome wide in rat brain regions. METHODS: Rats were treated with an intraperitoneal injection of MK-801 [0.08 (low-dose) and 0.16 (high-dose) mg/kg] or NaCl (vehicle control). In a first series of experiment, the frontoparietal electrocorticogram was recorded 15 min before and 60 min after injection. In a second series of experiments, the whole brain of each animal was rapidly removed at 40 min post-injection, and different regions were separated: amygdala, cerebral cortex, hippocampus, hypothalamus, midbrain and ventral striatum on ice followed by DNA microarray (4 × 44 K whole rat genome chip) analysis. RESULTS: Spectral analysis revealed that a single systemic injection of MK-801 significantly and selectively augmented the power of baseline gamma frequency (30-80 Hz) oscillations in the frontoparietal electroencephalogram. DNA microarray analysis showed the largest number (up- and down- regulations) of gene expressions in the cerebral cortex (378), midbrain (376), hippocampus (375), ventral striatum (353), amygdala (301), and hypothalamus (201) under low-dose (0.08 mg/kg) of MK-801. Under high-dose (0.16 mg/kg), ventral striatum (811) showed the largest number of gene expression changes. Gene expression changes were functionally categorized to reveal expression of genes and function varies with each brain region. CONCLUSION: Acute MK-801 treatment increases synchrony of baseline gamma oscillations, and causes very early changes in gene expressions in six individual rat brain regions, a first report. PMID:26629322

  15. Lorazepam and MK-801 effects on behavioral and electrographic indices of alcohol withdrawal sensitization.

    PubMed

    Veatch, Lynn M; Becker, Howard C

    2005-12-14

    Repeated cycles of chronic ethanol exposure and withdrawal result in sensitization of withdrawal-related CNS hyperexcitability that generally reflects an imbalance in activity of GABA and glutamate systems. Many pharmacological treatments for ethanol withdrawal target neuroadaptive changes in GABA and glutamate neurotransmission. The present study utilized a mouse model of repeated withdrawals to evaluate the ability of lorazepam and MK-801 treatments to antagonize behavioral and electroencephalographic (EEG) measures of sensitized withdrawal seizure activity. Adult male C3H/He mice received chronic intermittent ethanol vapor exposure in inhalation chambers (16 h/day) and during each withdrawal cycle, separate groups of mice were evaluated for handling-induced convulsions (HIC) or abnormal EEG (high-voltage "brief spindle episodes" (BSE)) activity. Lorazepam (0.5-1.0 mg/kg) or MK-801 (0.1-0.3 mg/kg) treatment at 1 h into each of three withdrawal cycles reduced behavioral (HIC) and electrographic (BSE) signs of seizure activity in a dose-related fashion compared to vehicle-treated mice. During a subsequent untreated withdrawal, mice previously treated with lorazepam or MK-801 for earlier withdrawals exhibited reduced HIC activity during the acute phase but exacerbated HIC activity during the protracted phase of this final (fourth) withdrawal cycle. Both lorazepam and MK-801 treatment conditions resulted in enhanced BSE activity during the entire fourth (untreated) withdrawal episode. Collectively, these results suggest that while treatment of repeated ethanol withdrawals with a benzodiazepine (lorazepam) or an NMDA receptor antagonist (MK-801) may have some initial benefits in ameliorating the development of sensitized withdrawal excitability, such treatment may also render subjects more vulnerable to seizure activity at later time points.

  16. More evidence for magnetic ordering in CeCu6 at mK temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuberth, E. A.; Schupp, J.; Freese, R.; Andres, K.

    1995-05-01

    dc-magnetization measurements in various magnetic fields on two samples from the same single crystal of CeCu6 in a superconducting quantum interference device system show a plateau of the magnetic susceptibility between 400 and 50 mK, followed by a Curie-like increase towards lower temperatures. At very low temperatures the magnetization starts deviating from a 1/T behavior, saturating around 900 μK in 2.7 mT, the highest B/T ratio obtained in this experiment. We show that this Brillouin behavior must be due to a tiny amount of the magnetic ion Gd3+, present in a concentration of 1.5(3) ppm. After subtracting this contribution from the magnetization curves in various lower fields, a field-dependent structure with a drop of the magnetic susceptibility around 3 mK is left. This decrease is reduced with increasing field and has vanished in 2.7 mT. In the lowest fields the structure is very similar to one observed in ac-susceptibility measurements. The fact that this drop of χ occurs in different samples and that it can be quenched by the magnetic field points to an intrinsic antiferromagnetic ordering in CeCu6 around 3 mK. We cooled one sample to a lowest temperature of 450+40-10 μK in a field of 0.3 mT. The susceptibility further decreases with decreasing temperature and shows a small shoulder at 650 μK. In addition, we measured the specific-heat capacity of the same single crystal of CeCu6 in zero magnetic field down to a temperature of 11 mK. Between 40 and 11 mK c/T increases from 1.55 to 2.8 J/mole K2, most likely an indication of the high-temperature end of the magnetic transition.

  17. MK-801 administration during neonatal ethanol withdrawal attenuates interpositus cell loss and juvenile eyeblink conditioning deficits.

    PubMed

    Young, Brandt W; Sengelaub, Dale R; Steinmetz, Joseph E

    2010-06-01

    Binge-level doses of ethanol have been demonstrated to severely disrupt the cerebellum and cerebellum-dependent tasks when administered to rodent subjects during the early postnatal period. N-methyl-d-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor-mediated excitotoxicity associated with ethanol withdrawal has been implicated as a significant component contributing to neurotoxic effects resulting from early ethanol exposure, and studies using MK-801 (dizocilpine) have reported protection from ethanol-induced damage. The present study examined whether the administration of MK-801 during ethanol withdrawal would ameliorate ethanol-associated cell death in the interpositus nucleus of the cerebellum and behavioral deficits in a cerebellar dependent task. Long Evans rat pups were treated with ethanol (5.25 g/kg) in a binge-like manner on postnatal day 6 using intragastric intubation. Subjects then received an injection of MK-801 (0.5mg/kg) or vehicle during withdrawal, 30h after ethanol exposure. Rats were then trained on an eyeblink classical conditioning task as juveniles (40 days of age), and cerebellar interpositus nucleus numbers were assessed after conditioning. Ethanol-exposed subjects exhibited reductions in neuronal populations and behavioral deficits during eyeblink conditioning. However, MK-801 administration significantly attenuated observed deficiencies, suggesting a protective effect resulting from MK-801 treatment during ethanol withdrawal. These results support the role of NMDA receptor-mediated excitotoxicity as a component mechanism by which ethanol produces teratogenicity. Additionally, our findings support previous reports that have shown correlations between dependent measures of eyeblink classical-conditioning behavior and unbiased cell counts in the interpositus nucleus. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of nicotine on quinpirole- and dizocilpine (MK-801)-induced sensorimotor gating impairments in rats.

    PubMed

    Nespor, Amy A; Tizabi, Yousef

    2008-10-01

    Prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the acoustic startle response (ASR) is used as an index of sensorimotor gating to assess preattentive processes. Impairments in PPI have been observed in many neuropsychiatric disorders, especially schizophrenia. Administration of the glutamate N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist dizocilpine (MK-801) or dopamine receptor (D2/D3) agonist quinpirole (QNP) results in impairment (reduction) of PPI in rats. Nicotine, on the other hand, may have beneficial effects on attentional/cognitive functions. The purpose of the current set of experiments was to investigate the effects of acute and chronic nicotine on MK-801- and QNP-induced PPI impairments. Adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were treated acutely or chronically by various doses of nicotine alone or followed by an acute dose of MK-801 (0.15 mg/kg) or QNP (0.5 mg/kg). All drugs were administered intraperitoneally. Controls received saline in lieu of any drug, and ASR and PPI in each animal was evaluated 10 min after the last injection. Both MK-801 and QNP consistently impaired PPI. Administration of nicotine acutely (0.05-0.4 mg/kg) or chronically (0.2 or 0.4 mg/kg daily for 1 week) did not have any effect of its own on ASR or PPI or on MK-801-induced PPI impairment. Acute administration of 0.2 mg/kg nicotine did not have any effect on QNP-induced reduction in PPI, whereas the higher dose of 0.4 mg/kg significantly attenuated this impairment. Chronic daily administration of either 0.2 or 0.4 mg/kg nicotine for 1 week nearly normalized the QNP-induced impairments in PPI. The effect of nicotine on sensorimotor gating is dependent on the procedure as well as the dose of nicotine and appears to be efficacious against dopaminergic rather than glutamatergic disruption of PPI in rats.

  19. Characterization of the anticonflict effect of MK-801, a non-competitive NMDA antagonist.

    PubMed

    Söderpalm, A K; Blomqvist, O; Engel, J A; Söderpalm, B

    1995-02-01

    Brain serotonergic, noradrenergic and GABAergic mechanisms are all involved in the regulation of conflict behaviour, and the GABAA/benzodiazepine receptor complex may play the most central role in this context. Since facilitation of GABAergic inhibitory transmission produces anticonflict effects, it has been suggested that antagonism of excitatory inputs may serve the same cause, and, indeed, blockade of excitatory neurotransmission mediated via N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), receptors, produces anticonflict effects. In the present study, using a modified Vogel's rat conflict model, we have investigated whether the anticonflict effect of the non-competitive NMDA antagonist MK-801 can be linked to NMDA receptor blockade, and if stimulation of these receptors instead produces proconflict effects. The tentative involvement of noradrenergic, serotonergic or GABAergic effects in the MK-801-induced anticonflict effect was also studied. MK-801 produced a dose-dependent and specific anticonflict effect (maximal effect after 0.05 mg/kg, intraperitoneally, -90 min.). This anticonflict action was completely counteracted by NMDA in a dose (0.125 microgram, intracerebroventricularly) not affecting behaviour per se. The highest dose tested of NMDA alone (0.5 microgram) tended to produce a proconflict effect, but this action may be unspecific due to concomitant drug-induced motor-inhibition. Neither bicuculline and picrotoxin, antagonists at the GABAA/benzodiazepine receptor complex, nor the adrenoceptor antagonists propranolol and prazosin significantly altered the MK-801-induced anticonflict effect, whereas L-5-HTP (50 mg/kg, intraperitoneally, after inhibition of peripheral decarboxylation with benzerazide) completely abolished the anticonflict effect of MK-801.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Plasma heating to super-hot temperatures (>30 MK) in the August 9, 2011 solar flare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharykin, I. N.; Struminskii, A. B.; Zimovets, I. V.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the August 9, 2011 solar flare of X-ray class X6.9, the "hottest" flare from 2000 to 2012, with a peak plasma temperature according to GOES data of ≈32.5 MK. Our goal is to determine the cause of such an anomalously high plasma temperature and to investigate the energy balance in the flare region with allowance made for the presence of a super-hot plasma (>30 MK). We analyze the RHESSI, GOES, AIA/SDO, and EVE/SDO data and discuss the spatial structure of the flare region and the results of our spectral analysis of its X-ray emission. Our analysis of the RHESSI X-ray spectra is performed in the one-temperature and two-temperature approximations by taking into account the emission of hot (˜20 MK) and super-hot (˜45 MK) plasmas. The hard X-ray spectrum in both models is fitted by power laws. The observed peculiarities of the flare are shown to be better explained in terms of the two-temperature model, in which the super-hot plasma is located at the flare loop tops (or in the magnetic cusp region). The formation of the super-hot plasma can be associated with its heating through primary energy release and with the suppression of thermal conduction. The anomalously high temperature (33 MK according to GOES) is most likely to be an artefact of the method for calculating the temperature based on two-channel GOES measurements in the one-temperature approximation applied to the emission of a multi-temperature flare plasma with a minor contribution from the low-temperature part of the differential emission measure.

  1. Modulation of [3H]MK-801 binding to NMDA receptors in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Murray, F; Kennedy, J; Hutson, P H; Elliot, J; Huscroft, I; Mohnen, K; Russell, M G; Grimwood, S

    2000-06-02

    [3H]MK-801 binding in vivo was used to determine the occupancy of NMDA receptor ligands shown to allosterically modulate binding in vitro. ED(50) values (mg/kg) were obtained for the channel blockers (+)-5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5,4-dibenzo[a,d]cyclohepten-5,10-imine maleate ((+)-MK-801, 0.2), 1-(1-phenylcyclohexyl)piperidine (phencyclidine, PCP, 1.7) and ketamine (4.4). Antagonists at the glutamate (DL-(2-carboxypiperazine-4-yl)propyl-1-phosphonate (DL-CPP, 5.7)) and glycine site (7-Chloro-4-hydroxy-3-(3-phenoxy)-phenyl-2(H)quinolinone (L-701,324, 14.1), 3R(+)cis-4-methyl-pyrrollid-2-one (L-687,414, 15.1)) inhibited [3H]MK-801 binding in vivo to varying maximum levels (69%, 103% and 45%, respectively). NR2B subunit-selective compounds acting at the ifenprodil site inhibited [3H]MK-801 in vivo by a maximum of 52-72% and gave ED(50) values (mg/kg) of: (+/-)-(1S*, 2S*)-1-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-(4-hydroxy-4-phenylpiperidino)-1-propanol ((+/-)CP-101,606), 1.9; (+/-)-(3R, 4S)-3-[4-(4-fluorophenyl)-4-hydroxypiperidin-1-yl]chroman-4,7-diol ((+/-)CP-283,097), 1.8; (+/-)-(R*, S*)-alpha-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-beta-methyl-4-(phenylmethyl)-1-piperidine propanol ((+/-)Ro 25-6981), 1.0; ifenprodil, 6.0. The glycine site agonist D-serine stimulated binding to 151% of control with an ED(50) of 1.7 mg/kg. Results show that [3H]MK-801 binding in vivo may be used to measure receptor occupancy of ligands acting not only within the ion channel but also at modulatory sites on the NMDA receptor complex.

  2. Blockade of voltage-gated K⁺ currents in rat mesenteric arterial smooth muscle cells by MK801.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeong Min; Park, Sang Woong; Lin, Hai Yue; Shin, Kyung Chul; Sung, Dong Jun; Kim, Jae Gon; Cho, Hana; Kim, Bokyung; Bae, Young Min

    2015-01-01

    MK801 (dizocilpine), a phencyclidine (PCP) derivative, is a potent noncompetitive antagonist of the N-Methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAr). Another PCP derivative, ketamine, was reported to block voltage-gated K(+) (Kv) channels, which was independent of NMDAr function. Kv currents are major regulators of the membrane potential (Em) and excitability of muscles and neurons. Here, we investigated the effect of MK801 on the Kv channels and Em in rat mesenteric arterial smooth muscle cells (RMASMCs). We used the whole-cell patch clamp technique to analyze the effect of MK801 enantiomers on Kv channels and Em. (+)MK801 inhibited Kv channels in a concentration-dependent manner (IC50 of 89.1 ± 13.1 μM, Hill coefficient of 1.05 ± 0.08). The inhibition was voltage- and state- independent. (+)MK801 didn't influence steady-state activation and inactivation of Kv channels. (+)MK801 treatment depolarized Em in a concentration-dependent manner and concomitantly decreased membrane conductance. (-)MK801 also similarly inhibited the Kv channels (IC50 of 134.0 ± 17.5 μM, Hill coefficient of 0.87 ± 0.09). These results indicate that MK801 directly inhibits the Kv channel in a state-independent manner in RMASMCs. This MK801-mediated inhibition of Kv channels should be considered when assessing the various pharmacological effects produced by MK801, such as schizophrenia, neuroprotection, and hypertension. Copyright © 2014 Japanese Pharmacological Society. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Homology modeling and ligand docking of Mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase 5 (MK5)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase 5 (MK5) is involved in one of the major signaling pathways in cells, the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. MK5 was discovered in 1998 by the groups of Houng Ni and Ligou New, and was found to be highly conserved throughout the vertebrates. Studies, both in vivo and in vitro, have shown that it is implicated in tumor suppression as well as tumor promotion, embryogenesis, anxiety, locomotion, cell motility and cell cycle regulation. Methods In order to obtain a molecular model of MK5 that can be used as a working tool for development of chemical probes, three MK5 models were constructed and refined based on three different known crystal structures of the closely related MKs; MK2 [PDB: 2OZA and PDB: 3M2W] and MK3 [PDB: 3FHR]. The main purpose of the present MK5 molecular modeling study was to identify the best suited template for making a MK5 model. The ability of the generated models to effectively discriminate between known inhibitors and decoys was analyzed using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Results According to the ROC curve analyzes, the refined model based on 3FHR was most effective in discrimination between known inhibitors and decoys. Conclusions The 3FHR-based MK5 model may serve as a working tool for development of chemical probes using computer aided drug design. The biological function of MK5 still remains elusive, but its role as a possible drug target may be elucidated in the near future. PMID:24034446

  4. Evaluation of the KMS 48 Full Face Mask Configured for Open Circuit UBA with Crossover to Either MK 16 MOD 0 UBA or MK 25 UBA

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-05-01

    temperature: 38 ± 2 OF EQUIPMENT AND INSTRUMENTATION The following equipment was used: (a) 3 FFMs with switchover pods (b) Conshelf XIV first-stage...used: (a) 3 FFMs with switchover pods (b) Conshelf XIV first-stage regulator assembly with a quick-disconnect hose assembly (c) 1 MK 16 MOD 0 and 1...Navy Experimental Diving Unit TA02-23 321 Bullfinch Rd. NEDU TR 03-10 Panama City, FL 32407-7015 MAY-2003 Navy Experimental Diving Unit EVALUATION OF

  5. Hydrodynamics of pulsed jetting in juvenile and adult brief squid Lolliguncula brevis: evidence of multiple jet 'modes' and their implications for propulsive efficiency.

    PubMed

    Bartol, Ian K; Krueger, Paul S; Stewart, William J; Thompson, Joseph T

    2009-06-01

    The dynamics of pulsed jetting in squids throughout ontogeny is not well understood, especially with regard to the development of vortex rings, which are common features of mechanically generated jet pulses (also known as starting jets). Studies of mechanically generated starting jets have revealed a limiting principle for vortex ring formation characterized in terms of a ;formation number' (F), which delineates the transition between the formation of isolated vortex rings and vortex rings that have; pinched off' from the generating jet. Near F, there exists an optimum in pulse-averaged thrust with (potentially) low energetic cost, raising the question: do squids produce vortex rings and if so, do they fall near F, where propulsive benefits presumably occur? To better understand vortex ring dynamics and propulsive jet efficiency throughout ontogeny, brief squid Lolliguncula brevis ranging from 3.3 to 9.1 cm dorsal mantle length (DML) and swimming at speeds of 2.43-22.2 cms(-1) (0.54-3.50 DMLs(-1)) were studied using digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV). A range of jet structures were observed but most structures could be classified as variations of two principal jet modes: (1) jet mode I, where the ejected fluid rolled up into an isolated vortex ring; and (2) jet mode II, where the ejected fluid developed into a leading vortex ring that separated or ;pinched off' from a long trailing jet. The ratio of jet length [based on the vorticity extent (L(omega))] to jet diameter [based on peak vorticity locations (D(omega))] was <3.0 for jet mode I and >3.0 for jet mode II, placing the transition between modes in rough agreement with F determined in mechanical jet studies. Jet mode II produced greater time-averaged thrust and lift forces and was the jet mode most heavily used whereas jet mode I had higher propulsive efficiency, lower slip, shorter jet periods and a higher frequency of fin activity associated with it. No relationship between L(omega)/D(omega) and speed

  6. Interpretation of extragalactic jets

    SciTech Connect

    Norman, M.L.

    1985-01-01

    The nature of extragalatic radio jets is modeled. The basic hypothesis of these models is that extragalatic jets are outflows of matter which can be described within the framework of fluid dynamics and that the outflows are essentially continuous. The discussion is limited to the interpretation of large-scale (i.e., kiloparsec-scale) jets. The central problem is to infer the physical parameters of the jets from observed distributions of total and polarized intensity and angle of polarization as a function of frequency. 60 refs., 6 figs.

  7. The jet in crossflowa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karagozian, Ann R.

    2014-10-01

    The jet in crossflow, or transverse jet, is a flowfield that has relevance to a wide range of energy and propulsion systems. Over the years, our group's studies on this canonical flowfield have focused on the dynamics of the vorticity associated with equidensity and variable density jets in crossflow, including the stability characteristics of the jet's upstream shear layer, as a means of explaining jet response to altered types of excitation. The jet's upstream shear layer is demonstrated to exhibit convectively unstable behavior at high jet-to-crossflow momentum flux ratios, transitioning to absolutely unstable behavior at low momentum flux and/or density ratios, with attendant differences in shear layer vorticity evolution and rollup. These differences in stability characteristics are shown to have a significant effect on how one optimally employs external excitation to control jet penetration and spread, depending on the flow regime and specific engineering application. Yet recent unexpected observations on altered transverse jet structure under different flow conditions introduce a host of unanswered questions, primarily but not exclusively associated with the nature of molecular mixing, that make this canonical flowfield one that is of great interest for more extensive exploration.

  8. The remarkable AGN jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komissarov, Serguei

    The jets from active galactic nuclei exhibit stability which seems to be far superior compared to that of terrestrial and laboratory jets. They manage to propagate over distances up to a billion of initial jet radii. Yet this may not be an indication of some exotic physics but mainly a reflection of the specific environment these jets propagate through. The key property of this environment is a rapid decline of density and pressure along the jet, which promotes its rapid expansion. Such an expansion can suppress global instabilities, which require communication across the jet, and hence ensure its survival over huge distances. At kpc scales, some AGN jets do show signs of strong instabilities and even turn into plumes. This could be a result of the flattening of the external pressure distribution in their host galaxies or inside the radio lobes. In this regard, we discuss the possible connection between the stability issue and the Fanaroff-Riley classification of extragalactic radio sources. The observations of AGN jets on sub-kpc scale do not seem to support their supposed lack of causal connectivity. When interpreted using simple kinematic models, they reveal a rather perplexing picture with more questions than answers on the jets dynamics.

  9. Search for WW and WZ production in lepton, neutrino plus jets final states at CDF Run II and Silicon module production and detector control system for the ATLAS SemiConductor Tracker

    SciTech Connect

    Sfyrla, Anna

    2008-03-10

    In the first part of this work, we present a search for WW and WZ production in charged lepton, neutrino plus jets final states produced in p$\\bar{p}$ collisions with √s = 1.96 TeV at the Fermilab Tevatron, using 1.2 fb-1 of data accumulated with the CDF II detector. This channel is yet to be observed in hadron colliders due to the large singleWplus jets background. However, this decay mode has a much larger branching fraction than the cleaner fully leptonic mode making it more sensitive to anomalous triple gauge couplings that manifest themselves at higher transverse W momentum. Because the final state is topologically similar to associated production of a Higgs boson with a W, the techniques developed in this analysis are also applicable in that search. An Artificial Neural Network has been used for the event selection optimization. The theoretical prediction for the cross section is σWW/WZtheory x Br(W → ℓv; W/Z → jj) = 2.09 ± 0.14 pb. They measured NSignal = 410 ± 212(stat) ± 102(sys) signal events that correspond to a cross section σWW/WZ x Br(W → ℓv; W/Z → jj) = 1.47 ± 0.77(stat) ± 0.38(sys) pb. The 95% CL upper limit to the cross section is estimated to be σ x Br(W → ℓv; W/Z → jj) < 2.88 pb. The second part of the present work is technical and concerns the ATLAS SemiConductor Tracker (SCT) assembly phase. Although technical, the work in the SCT assembly phase is of prime importance for the good performance of the detector during data taking. The production at the University of Geneva of approximately one third of the silicon microstrip end-cap modules is presented. This collaborative effort of the university of Geneva group that lasted two years, resulted in 655 produced modules, 97% of which were good modules, constructed within the mechanical and electrical specifications and delivered in the SCT collaboration for assembly on the end-cap disks. The SCT end-caps and barrels

  10. The effects of MK-0677, an oral growth hormone secretagogue, in patients with hip fracture.

    PubMed

    Bach, Mark A; Rockwood, Kenneth; Zetterberg, Carl; Thamsborg, Gorm; Hébert, Réjean; Devogelaer, Jean-Pierre; Christiansen, Jens Sandahl; Rizzoli, René; Ochsner, J Lockwood; Beisaw, Norman; Gluck, Oscar; Yu, Leisure; Schwab, Thomas; Farrington, Jeanne; Taylor, Alice M; Ng, Jennifer; Fuh, Vivian

    2004-04-01

    To evaluate the effects of MK-0677, an orally active growth hormone (GH) secretagogue, on functional recovery from hip fracture in previously mobile older individuals. Placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blind trial. Thirteen medical centers in England, Sweden, Denmark, Belgium, Switzerland, Canada, and the United States. Patients were recruited between 3 and 14 days postoperatively, or no more than 18 days postfracture, at acute care hospitals and rehabilitation centers. One hundred sixty-one hip-fracture patients were enrolled. Entry criteria included consenting hip-fracture patients who were aged 65 and older and who were ambulatory before their fracture, medically stable postoperatively, and mentally competent. Patients were excluded if they had multiple fractures or severe trauma, diabetes mellitus, cancer, uncontrolled hypertension, congestive heart failure, or total hip replacement in the involved extremity. Random assignment to 6 months of daily treatment with MK-0677 or placebo. Patients were followed for an additional 6 months after completion of therapy. Change from Week 6 to Week 26 in a panel of functional performance measures. Additional outcome measures included change in the Sickness Impact Profile for Nursing Homes (SIP-NH), the ability to live independently, and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) levels. MK-0677 treatment increased serum IGF-I levels by 84% (95% confidence interval (CI)=63-107), compared with an increase of 17% (95% CI=8-28) on placebo. There were no significant differences between MK-0677 and placebo in improvement in functional performance measures or in the overall SIP-NH score. Although MK-0677 patients showed greater improvement relative to placebo in three of four lower extremity functional performance measures, in the physical domain of the SIP, and in the ability to live independently, these differences were not statistically significant. Although MK-0677 treatment increased serum IGF-I, it is uncertain whether

  11. An increase or a decrease in myosin II phosphorylation inhibits macrophage motility

    PubMed Central

    1991-01-01

    Myosin II purified from mammalian non-muscle cells is phosphorylated on the 20-kD light chain subunit (MLC20) by the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent enzyme myosin light chain kinase (MLCK). The importance of MLC20 phosphorylation in regulating cell motility was investigated by introducing either antibodies to MLCK (MK-Ab) or a Ca2+/calmodulin- independent, constitutively active form of MLCK (MK-) into macrophages. The effects of these proteins on cell motility were then determined using a quantitative chemotaxis assay. Chemotaxis is significantly diminished in macrophages containing MK-Ab compared to macrophages containing control antibodies. Moreover, there is an inverse relationship between the number of cells that migrate and the amount of MK-Ab introduced into cells. Interestingly, there is also an inverse relationship between the number of cells that migrate and the amount of MK- introduced into cells. Other experiments demonstrated that MK-Ab decreased intracellular MLC20 phosphorylation while MK- increased MLC20 phosphorylation. MK- also increased the amount of myosin associated with the cytoskeleton. These data demonstrate that the regulation of MLCK is an important aspect of cell motility and suggest that MLC20 phosphorylation must be maintained within narrow limits during translational motility by mammalian cells. PMID:2071674

  12. Evaluation of the ocean technology system's MK 1-S wireless surface unit, MK 1 DCI two diver air radio, MK 1-D-A wireless diver unit, MK 1-D-H hardwire diver unit and MK 1-D/S unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyle, B. E.

    1985-05-01

    The OTS was evaluated for intelligibility, reliability and human engineering. The test subjects possessed various levels of experience with wireless or hardwire communication and SCUBA. The conditions under which the equipment was tested varied. Surface air temperatures ranged from 37 to 85 F; water temperatures from 65 to 80 F; and water depths from 8 feet of seawater (FSW) to greater than 60 FSW. The tests were conducted inside a circular 30 foot deep ascent tower, in shallow open bay water, and finally in an open ocean environment. The equipment was evaluated in areas of both high and low noise levels on the surface as well as in water. The OTS produced an overall intelligibility of 89.24% during manned open water testing using the Modified Rhyme Test (MRT) as the evaluation criteria, with a minimum effective range of 330 yards at 12 FSW and at least 875 yards, although it appears that the range of the MK 1-D-A is somewhat greater. Human engineering aspects of the OTS were found to be more than satisfactory, with no material failures encountered during testing. It is interesting to note that whenever the equipment required minor adjustments, these could be effected by the diver in the water (on the surface) and in most cases in less than 5 minutes. The amount of maintenance required on the OTS was minimal.

  13. GPR40 partial agonist MK-2305 lower fasting glucose in the Goto Kakizaki rat via suppression of endogenous glucose production

    PubMed Central

    Kirkland, Melissa E.; Kosinski, Daniel T.; Mane, Joel; Bunzel, Michelle; Cao, Jin; Souza, Sarah; Thomas-Fowlkes, Brande; Di Salvo, Jerry; Weinglass, Adam B.; Li, Xiaoyan; Myers, Robert W.; Knagge, Kevin; Carrington, Paul E.; Hagmann, William K.

    2017-01-01

    GPR40 (FFA1) is a fatty acid receptor whose activation results in potent glucose lowering and insulinotropic effects in vivo. Several reports illustrate that GPR40 agonists exert glucose lowering in diabetic humans. To assess the mechanisms by which GPR40 partial agonists improve glucose homeostasis, we evaluated the effects of MK-2305, a potent and selective partial GPR40 agonist, in diabetic Goto Kakizaki rats. MK-2305 decreased fasting glucose after acute and chronic treatment. MK-2305-mediated changes in glucose were coupled with increases in plasma insulin during hyperglycemia and glucose challenges but not during fasting, when glucose was normalized. To determine the mechanism(s) mediating these changes in glucose metabolism, we measured the absolute contribution of precursors to glucose production in the presence or absence of MK-2305. MK-2305 treatment resulted in decreased endogenous glucose production (EGP) driven primarily through changes in gluconeogenesis from substrates entering at the TCA cycle. The decrease in EGP was not likely due to a direct effect on the liver, as isolated perfused liver studies showed no effect of MK-2305 ex vivo and GPR40 is not expressed in the liver. Taken together, our results suggest MK-2305 treatment increases glucose stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS), resulting in changes to hepatic substrate handling that improve glucose homeostasis in the diabetic state. Importantly, these data extend our understanding of the underlying mechanisms by which GPR40 partial agonists reduce hyperglycemia. PMID:28542610

  14. MMI-0100 inhibits cardiac fibrosis in myocardial infarction by direct actions on cardiomyocytes and fibroblasts via MK2 inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Lei; Yates, Cecelia C.; Lockyer, Pamela; Xie, Liang; Bevilacqua, Ariana; He, Jun; Lander, Cynthia; Patterson, Cam; Willis, Monte

    2014-01-01

    The cell-permeant peptide inhibitor of MAPKAP kinase 2 (MK2), MMI-0100, inhibits MK2 and downstream fibrosis and inflammation. Recent studies have demonstrated that MMI-0100 reduces intimal hyperplasia in a mouse vein graft model, pulmonary fibrosis in a murine bleomycin-induced model and development of adhesions in conjunction with abdominal surgery. MK2 is critical to the pathogenesis of ischemic heart injury as MK2 −/− mice are resistant to ischemic remodeling. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that inhibiting MK2 with MMI-0100 would protect the heart after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in vivo. AMI was induced by placing a permanent LAD coronary ligation. When MMI-0100 peptide was given 30 minutes after permanent LAD coronary artery ligation, the resulting fibrosis was reduced/prevented ~50% at a 2 week time point, with a corresponding improvement in cardiac function and decrease in left ventricular dilation. In cultured cardiomyocytes and fibroblasts, MMI-0100 inhibited MK2 to reduce cardiomyocyte caspase 3/7 activity, while enhancing primary cardiac fibroblast caspase 3/7 activity, which may explain MMI-0100’s salvage of cardiac function and anti-fibrotic effects in vivo. These findings suggest that therapeutic inhibition of MK2 after acute MI, using rationally-designed cell-permeant peptides, inhibits cardiac fibrosis and maintains cardiac function by mechanisms that involve inhibiting cardiomyocyte apoptosis, while enhancing primary cardiac fibroblast cell death. PMID:25257914

  15. Multimodal assessment of neuroprotection applied to the use of MK-801 in the endothelin-1 model of transient focal brain ischemia.

    PubMed

    Moyanova, Slavianka Georgieva; Kortenska, Lidia Vasileva; Mitreva, Rumiana Gesheva; Pashova, Vyara Dincova; Ngomba, Richard Teke; Nicoletti, Ferdinando

    2007-06-11

    Transient focal ischemia produced by local infusion of endothelin-1 (ET1) in the territory of the middle cerebral artery has been proposed as a potentially useful model for the screening of drugs developed for the treatment of thrombo-embolic stroke. However, most of the data rely exclusively on the assessment of the infarct volume, which is only a partial predictor of the neurological outcome of stroke. Here, we have validated the model using a multimodal approach for the assessment of neuroprotection, which includes (i) determination of the infarct volume by 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining; (ii) an in-depth behavioral analysis of the neurological deficit; and (iii) an EEG analysis of electrophysiological abnormalities in the peri-infarct somatosensory forelimb cortical area, S1FL. The non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonist, MK-801 (3 mg/kg, injected i.p. 20 min after ET1 infusion in conscious rats) could reduce the infarct volume, reverse the EEG changes occurring at early times post-ET1, and markedly improve the neurological deficit in ischemic animals. The latter effect, however, was visible at day 3 post-ET1, because the drug itself produced substantial behavioral abnormalities at earlier times. We conclude that a multimodal approach can be applied to the ET1 model of focal ischemia, and that MK-801 can be used as a reference compound to which the activity of safer neuroprotective drugs should be compared.

  16. Binding of [3H]MK-801 in subcellular fractions of Schistosoma mansoni: evidence for interaction with nicotinic receptors.

    PubMed

    Pessôa, Renata Fittipaldi; Castro, Newton Gonçalves; Noël, François

    2005-05-15

    Several studies have suggested that l-glutamate is a putative neurotransmitter in Schistosoma mansoni. Recently, we detected the presence of low-affinity binding sites for [(3)H]kainic acid in the heterogeneous (P(1)) subcellular fraction of S. mansoni. In an attempt to characterize N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in this worm, we performed binding assays with [(3)H]MK-801, a NMDA non-competitive antagonist, in the P(1) fraction of adult S. mansoni. In competition experiments, MK-801 (IC(50) approximately 200 microM) and ketamine (IC(50) approximately 500 microM) exhibited a low affinity for the sites labeled with [(3)H]MK-801. Along with the lack of modulation of this binding by glutamatergic agonists and antagonists and the absence of stereoselectivity for MK-801 isomers, these results suggest that [(3)H]MK-801 could label a site different from the classical NMDA receptor in S. mansoni. Based on the evidences that MK-801 interacts with mammalian muscle and central nervous system nicotinic receptors as a low-affinity noncompetitive antagonist, we have investigated the effects of MK-801 on the nicotine-induced flaccid paralysis of the worm, in vivo. The motility of S. mansoni was quantified by image analysis through a measure of displacement of the worm's extremities. In the presence of (-)-nicotine (10-100 microM), we observed an immediate paralysis of the worms, that was inhibited by 1mM MK-801. Besides nicotine, choline (10-50mM) was also able to inhibit the worm's motility. As a conclusion, we suggest that [(3)H]MK-801 binds to nicotinic receptors, and not NMDA receptors, in subcellular fractions of S. mansoni.

  17. Prenatal choline supplementation attenuates MK-801-induced deficits in memory, motor function, and hippocampal plasticity in adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Nickerson, Chelsea A; Brown, Alexandra L; Yu, Waylin; Chun, Yoona; Glenn, Melissa J

    2017-10-11

    Choline is essential to the development and function of the central nervous system and supplemental choline during development is neuroprotective against a variety of insults, including neurotoxins like dizocilpine (MK-801). MK-801 is an NMDA receptor antagonist that is frequently used in rodent models of psychological disorders, particularly schizophrenia. At low doses, it causes cognitive impairments, and at higher doses it induces motor deficits, anhedonia, and neuronal degeneration. The primary goals of the present study were to investigate whether prenatal choline supplementation protects against the cognitive impairments, motor deficits, and neuropathologies that are precipitated by MK-801 administration in adulthood. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a standard or supplemented choline diet prenatally. Using the novelty preference test of object recognition, we found that only prenatal standard-fed rats displayed memory consolidation deficits induced by low-dose MK-801 administered immediately following study of sample objects; all other groups, including prenatal choline supplemented rats given MK-801, showed intact memory. Following high-dose MK-801, prenatal choline supplementation significantly alleviated rats' motor response to MK-801, particularly ataxia. Using doublecortin and Ki67 to mark neurogenesis and cell division, respectively, in the hippocampus, we found that prenatal choline supplementation, in the face of MK-801 toxicity, protected against reduced hippocampal plasticity. Taken together, the current findings suggest that prenatal choline supplementation protects against a variety of behavioral and neural pathologies induced by the neurotoxin, MK-801. This research contributes to the growing body of evidence supporting the robust neuroprotective capacity of choline. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Proper motions of the HH 1 jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raga, A. C.; Reipurth, B.; Esquivel, A.; Castellanos-Ramírez, A.; Velázquez, P. F.; Hernández-Martínez, L.; Rodríguez-González, A.; Rechy-García, J. S.; Estrella-Trujillo, D.; Bally, J.; González-Gómez, D.; Riera, A.

    2017-10-01

    We describe a new method for determining proper motions of extended objects, and a pipeline developed for the application of this method. We then apply this method to an analysis of four epochs of [S II] HST images of the HH 1 jet (covering a period of ≈20 yr). We determine the proper motions of the knots along the jet, and make a reconstruction of the past ejection velocity time-variability (assuming ballistic knot motions). This reconstruction shows an "acceleration" of the ejection velocities of the jet knots, with higher velocities at more recent times. This acceleration will result in an eventual merging of the knots in ≈450 yr and at a distance of ≈80'' from the outflow source, close to the present-day position of HH 1.

  19. Numerical analysis of single and multiple jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boussoufi, Mustapha; Sabeur-Bendehina, Amina; Ouadha, Ahmed; Morsli, Souad; El Ganaoui, Mohammed

    2017-05-01

    The present study aims to use the concept of entropy generation in order to study numerically the flow and the interaction of multiple jets. Several configurations of a single jet surrounded by equidistant 3, 5, 7 and 9 circumferential jets have been studied. The turbulent incompressible Navier-Stokes equations have been solved numerically using the commercial computational fluid dynamics code Fluent. The standard k-ɛ model has been selected to assess the eddy viscosity. The domain has been reduced to a quarter of the geometry due to symmetry. Results for axial and radial velocities have been compared with experimental measurements from the literature. Furthermore, additional results involving entropy generation rate have been presented and discussed. Contribution to the topical issue "Materials for Energy harvesting, conversion and storage II (ICOME 2016)", edited by Jean-Michel Nunzi, Rachid Bennacer and Mohammed El Ganaoui

  20. Radiative versus Jet Mode in Radio Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardcastle, Martin

    2016-07-01

    In the local universe, the vast majority of radio-loud active galaxies show none of the conventional AGN apparatus of accretion disk, torus, corona, or broad/narrow-line regions. Instead such nuclear emission as they have appears to be completely dominated by emission directly from the jet; the accretion, which must be present to drive the jet, appears to be highly radiatively inefficient. However, the most radio-luminous objects in the universe are almost all quasars (type I or type II) which behave in the textbook manner, appearing as a normal radiatively efficient AGN with the addition of a jet. The past decade has seen a substantial evolution in our understanding of the physical origins of these differences, their relation to the host galaxy and environment, and their interpretation in terms of completely unified models of AGN, and I will review our current understanding of these issues in my talk.

  1. Monitoring Excitations of the N =1 Landau Level by Optical Emission at mK Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, Antonio; Wurstbauer, Ursula; Fields, Dov; Pinczuk, Aron; Watson, John; Mondal, Sumit; Manfra, Michael J.; West, Ken W.; Pfeiffer, Loren N.

    2013-03-01

    Optical emission experiments have proven to be powerful contactless probe of collective states of electrons in the second (N =1) Landau Level (LL). We report the emission spectrum from optical recombination in the N =0 and N =1 LL's the second LL. The 2DEG is confined in ultra-high-mobility GaAs quantum well structures. Optical emission red-shifted from the main luminescence of the N =0 and N =1 LL are interpreted as shakeup processes of quasiparticles in the N =1 LL. Results of two samples with different carrier densities measured in the temperature range of 42mK <=T <=650mK will be compared. The experimental observations will be discussed taking into account the striking quantum phases dominating the second LL. Supported by NSF and AvH

  2. Primary thermometry triad at 6 mK in mesoscopic circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iftikhar, Z.; Anthore, A.; Jezouin, S.; Parmentier, F. D.; Jin, Y.; Cavanna, A.; Ouerghi, A.; Gennser, U.; Pierre, F.

    2016-09-01

    Quantum physics emerge and develop as temperature is reduced. Although mesoscopic electrical circuits constitute an outstanding platform to explore quantum behaviour, the challenge in cooling the electrons impedes their potential. The strong coupling of such micrometre-scale devices with the measurement lines, combined with the weak coupling to the substrate, makes them extremely difficult to thermalize below 10 mK and imposes in situ thermometers. Here we demonstrate electronic quantum transport at 6 mK in micrometre-scale mesoscopic circuits. The thermometry methods are established by the comparison of three in situ primary thermometers, each involving a different underlying physics. The employed combination of quantum shot noise, quantum back action of a resistive circuit and conductance oscillations of a single-electron transistor covers a remarkably broad spectrum of mesoscopic phenomena. The experiment, performed in vacuum using a standard cryogen-free dilution refrigerator, paves the way towards the sub-millikelvin range with additional thermalization and refrigeration techniques.

  3. Characterization of Neutron Fields in the Experimental Fast Reactor Joyo Mk-Iii Core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeda, Shigetaka; Ito, Chikara; Ohkawachi, Yasushi; Sekine, Takashi; Aoyama, Takafumi

    2009-08-01

    In 2003, Joyo MK-III core was upgraded to increase the irradiation testing capability. This paper describes the details of distributions of neutron flux and reaction rate in the MK-III core that was measured by characterization tests during the first two operating cycles. The calculation accuracy of the core management codes HESTIA, TORT and MCNP, was also evaluated by the measured data. The calculated fission rates of 235U by HESTIA agreed well with the measured one within approximately 4% in the fuel region. MCNP could simulate within 6% in the central non-fuel irradiation test subassembly and the radial reflector region, while large discrepancies were obtained in TORT results. Hence, the precise geometry model was effective in evaluating the neutron spectrum and the flux at such locations.

  4. Permeation of Polymethoxyflavones into the Mouse Brain and Their Effect on MK-801-Induced Locomotive Hyperactivity

    PubMed Central

    Okuyama, Satoshi; Miyazaki, Kohei; Yamada, Rie; Amakura, Yoshiaki; Yoshimura, Morio; Sawamoto, Atsushi; Nakajima, Mitsunari; Furukawa, Yoshiko

    2017-01-01

    Accumulating data have indicated that citrus polymethoxyflavones (PMFs) have the ability to affect brain function. In the present study, we showed that 3,5,6,7,8,3′,4′-heptamethoxy- flavone (HMF) given intraperitoneally to mice was immediately detected in the brain and that the permeability of the brain tissues to it was significantly higher than that of other citrus PMFs (nobiletin, tangeretin, and natsudaidain). The permeation of these PMFs into the brain well correlated with their abilities to suppress MK-801-induced locomotive hyperactivity, suggesting that HMF had the ability to act directly in the brain. We also obtained data suggesting that the suppressive effect of HMF on MK-801-induced locomotive hyperactivity was mediated by phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2) in the hippocampus. PMID:28245567

  5. The CUORE cryostat: a 10 mK infrastructure for large bolometric arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dell’Oro, S.; Alessandria, F.; Bucci, C.; Caminata, A.; Canonica, L.; Cappelli, L.; Cereseto, R.; Chott, N.; Copello, S.; Cremonesi, O.; D’Addabbo, A.; Franceschi, M. A.; Gorla, P.; Guetti, M.; Ligi, C.; Napolitano, T.; Nucciotti, A.; Orlandi, D.; Pagliarone, C. E.; Pattavina, L.; Santone, D.; Singh, V.; Taffarello, L.; Terranova, F.

    2017-09-01

    The Cryogenic Underground Observatory for Rare Events (CUORE) experiment is presently in the final phases of its commissioning at the Gran Sasso Underground Laboratory (Italy). The CUORE cryogenic system will have to guarantee the optimal operation temperature of the detector (∼ 10 mK) for a live-time of 5 years. Furthermore, to avoid radioactive background, about 7 tonnes of lead are cooled to below 4 K and only few construction materials are acceptable. The CUORE detector will be by far the largest mass ever cooled to 10 mK. A description of the CUORE cryostat is presented and the specific characteristics and the performances are illustrated. The results of the (recently concluded) cryostat commissioning are also reported. They show that the CUORE cryostat is now ready to host the detector, thus confirming the possibility of realizing large bolometric arrays for rare event physics.

  6. Measurement of an explosive behavior in the mouse, induced by MK-801, a PCP analogue.

    PubMed

    Deutsch, S I; Hitri, A

    1993-06-01

    MK-801, a noncompetitive antagonist of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor complex that binds with high-affinity to the phencyclidine (PCP) binding site, stimulated an outbred strain of NIH Swiss mice to display discrete episodes of explosive jumping behavior, designated as "popping." The episodes of this behavior were characterized with respect to their dose dependency, latency, and duration. The number of mice displaying this behavior increased with increasing doses of MK-801. The intensity of the popping behavior was sensitive to dose-dependent inhibition by haloperidol, a conventional antipsychotic medication, and clozapine, an atypical antipsychotic medication. In view of PCP's ability to precipitate a schizophreniform psychosis in humans, the behavior may serve as a useful preclinical paradigm for the screening of potentially novel antipsychotic medications.

  7. A Prospective, Multicenter, Randomized Phase II Study to Evaluate the Efficacy and Safety of Eculizumab in Patients with Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS): Protocol of Japanese Eculizumab Trial for GBS (JET-GBS)

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguchi, Nobuko; Sato, Yasunori; Nagashima, Kengo; Katayama, Kanako; Sekiguchi, Yukari; Iwai, Yuta; Amino, Hiroshi; Suichi, Tomoki; Yokota, Takanori; Nishida, Yoichiro; Kohara, Nobuo; Hirata, Koichi; Nishiyama, Kazutoshi; Yabe, Ichiro; Kaida, Ken-Ichi; Suzuki, Norihiro; Nodera, Hiroyuki; Tsuji, Shoji; Koike, Haruki; Kira, Jun-Ichi; Hanaoka, Hideki; Kusunoki, Susumu; Kuwabara, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    Background Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is an immune-mediated neuropathy that causes acute flaccid paralysis. Immunoglobulin and plasma exchange are established treatments for GBS; however, a substantial number of patients, particularly those with severe disease, have poor recovery and residual deficits. Recent studies suggest that complement activation plays a pivotal role in GBS-associated axonal degeneration, and eculizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody that specifically binds to complement component 5 and potently inhibits complement activation. Objective This clinical trial aims to evaluate the efficacy and safety of eculizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody directed against complement component 5, for treatment of GBS. Methods The Japanese Eculizumab Trial for GBS (JET-GBS) is a prospective, multicenter, placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized phase II study conducted at 13 tertiary neurology centers and is funded by the Japan Agency for Medical Research and Development. A total of 33 GBS patients unable to walk independently within 2 weeks from symptom onset (Hughes functional grade 3-5) were randomized at a 2:1 ratio to receive either intravenous eculizumab (900 mg/day) or placebo once weekly for 4 weeks, followed by 20 weeks of follow-up. The primary endpoint for efficacy is the proportion of patients who regain their ability to walk without aid at 4 weeks after the first dose of the study treatment, while primary safety outcomes are the incidence of adverse events and serious adverse events during the trial. Results Enrollment for the trial began in August 2015. This trial is still ongoing. All participants have been enrolled, and follow-up will be completed in October 2016. Conclusions This study is the first to investigate the efficacy and safety of eculizumab for GBS. In case of a positive result, we will plan a phase III trial to investigate this issue in a larger number of patients. ClinicalTrial UMIN Clinical Trials Registry UMIN

  8. Jet lag modification.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Emily; McGrane, Owen; Wedmore, Ian

    2015-01-01

    Athletes often are required to travel for sports participation, both for practice and competition. A number of those crossing multiple time zones will develop jet lag disorder with possible negative consequences on their performance. This review will discuss the etiology of jet lag disorder and the techniques that are available to shorten or minimize its effects. This includes both pharmacological and nonpharmacological approaches.

  9. Jet measurements in ATLAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loch, Peter; ATLAS Collaboration

    2011-11-01

    The reconstruction of jets generated in the proton-proton collisions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at a center of mass energy of TeV with the ATLAS detector is discussed. Beginning with a brief review of the calorimeter signal definitions relevant for jet finding, and the use of reconstructed charged particle tracks, the jet reconstruction strategy is described in some detail. Emphasis is put on the jet energy scale (JES) calibration strategy applied for first data, which is based on a short sequence of data driven and simulation based calibrations and corrections to restore the measured jet energy to particle level. The level of understanding of the signal patterns entering the JES corrections is shown for selected variables in comparisons to simulations. The present systematic uncertainties on the JES, which can be as low as 2% for central jets, are presented and analyzed with respect to the individual fractional contributions entering their determination. Some characteristic jet reconstruction performance and selected results from the first year of jet physics with ATLAS in a newly accessible kinematic domain are shown in conclusion.

  10. Jet lag prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... be harder to adjust to because you lose time. Jet lag can make you feel like going to bed ... such as trying to adjust to the new time zone before you arrive. Images Jet lag prevention References Berry RB, Wagner MH. Patients with ...

  11. Yawsonde tests of 2.75-inch Mk66 mod 1rocket

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mermagen, W. H.; Oskay, V.

    1981-08-01

    The Mk66 Mod 1 is a 2.75-inch rocket which uses three wrap-around fins for flight stabilization and roll control. Performance requirements made it necessary to closely control the spin history of the rocket over its trajectory so as to avoid a resonance region. The BRL performed a small yawsonde test program to measure the roll history and yaw behavior for selected fin configurations.

  12. Injection of MK-801 affects ocular dominance shifts more than visual activity.

    PubMed

    Daw, N W; Gordon, B; Fox, K D; Flavin, H J; Kirsch, J D; Beaver, C J; Ji, Q; Reid, S N; Czepita, D

    1999-01-01

    Kittens were given intramuscular injections of the N-methyl--aspartate (NMDA) antagonist MK-801 twice daily (morning and midday) during the peak of the period of susceptibility for ocular dominance changes. They were then exposed to light with one eye closed for 4 h after each injection. The ocular dominance of these kittens was shifted significantly less than that of kittens injected with saline and exposed to light over the same period at the same age. After recording a sample of cells for an ocular dominance histogram, the kittens were injected with the same dose of MK-801 that was used during rearing to observe its effect on the activity of single cells in the visual cortex. In the majority of cells (7/13) there was no significant change in activity. Positive evidence for a reduction in activity was seen in only a minority (3/13) of cells. In a separate series of experiments, dose-response curves were measured for cells in the visual cortex in response to iontophoresis of NMDA or alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA), and the effect of an injection of MK-801 on these curves was measured. MK-801, at doses similar to those used in the ocular dominance experiments, had a significant effect on the dose-response curves for NMDA, but little effect on the dose-response curves for AMPA, or the visual responses of the cells. We conclude that ocular dominance shifts can be reduced significantly by a treatment that has little effect on the level of activity of cells in the visual cortex but does specifically affect the responses of the cells to NMDA as opposed to the responses to AMPA.

  13. Six Degree of Freedom Flight Dynamic Model of a MK-82 Store

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    were calculated in subroutine AERO2 , which retrieves the appropriate aerodynamic coefficients from the wind tunnel database using database access...23 * . * *! *1 2;3 • 0 6, Appendix B - Additional Subroutines Developed for Mk-82 ( - Simulation -. Subroutine AERO2 The AEitO2 subroutine is...is called front AERO2 and has angle of attack and sideslip as its inputs. The outputs are the Euler angles Theta and Phi, with Psi being set at zero

  14. The Effects of Nicotine on MK-801-induced Attentional Deficits: An Animal Model of Schizophrenia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-01

    pharmacological treatment of schizophrenia is based upon a serendipitous finding from the 1950s. An antihistamine, chlorpromazine , was 2 observed to have...antipsychotic effects when used in schizophrenic patients. Chlorpromazine (Thorazine) is a “conventional antipsychotic,” or a neuroleptic - a class of... pharmacokinetics of MK-801 in the rat. Research Communications in Chemical Pathology and Pharmacology, 73, 183-195. Smith, G.L. (1996). Smoking

  15. Pulmonary Oxygen Toxicity with Exercise: Single MK 25 Rebreather Dives or Split 6-Hour Exposures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-10-01

    blood samples were taken and hemoglobin and carboxyhemoglobin concentrations measured (CO- oximeter, Instrumentation Laboratory; Lexington, MA) for...performance was measured in conjunction with the dives. Two sets of similar dives using the MK 20 UBA were then conducted with three days off between...sets. Physical performance and total plasma antioxidant potential were measured . After the single dives, the incidence of respiratory symptoms (23%) or

  16. Design and Implementation of the Calibration Module of the MK 92 Prototype Maintenance Advisor Expert System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-03-01

    This thesis is the continuation of a software project to develop a diagnostic expert system for the MK92 Fire Control System based on the daily...system operability test (DSOT). The focus of this work is on the design and implementation of the calibration portion of the expert system using the Adept...visual programming expert system shell. The calibration module is designed as a top-down hierarchy of cohesive, loosely coupled procedures. These

  17. JetStar in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    aircraft provided far-field acoustic data. Between May 21, 1981 and August of 1982, the JetStar completed roughly 45 research flights with three different propellers in varying configurations. Dryden engineers analyzed some of the resultant data, while they sent flight tapes to Hamilton Standard, Lewis, and Langley for analysis there. The results indicated a need for noise-reduction technology to keep the noise levels down to the project goals. An improved version of the advanced turboprop underwent flight testing in 1987 on a Gulfstream II over Georgia in 1987. These flight tests verified predictions of a 20- to 30-percent fuel savings. However, with the end of the energy crisis, the need for such savings disappeared, and the Advanced Turboprop Project did not lead to the expected industry-wide adoption of the new propeller systems on transport aircraft. In the 1960s, the same JetStar that was used to test the advanced turboprop had been equipped with an electronic variable-stability flight-control system. Called then a General Purpose Airborne Simulator (GPAS), the aircraft could duplicate the flight characteristics of a wide variety of advanced aircraft and was used for supersonic transport and general aviation research, and as a training and support system for Space Shuttle Approach and Landing Tests at Dryden in 1977. Over the years, the JetStar has also been used for a variety of other flight research projects, including laminar-flow-control flight tests in the mid-1980s.

  18. Multiple jet study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, R. E.; Kors, D. L.

    1973-01-01

    Test data is presented which allows determination of jet penetration and mixing of multiple cold air jets into a ducted subsonic heated mainstream flow. Jet-to-mainstream momentum flux ratios ranged from 6 to 60. Temperature profile data is presented at various duct locations up to 24 orifice diameters downstream of the plane of jet injection. Except for two configurations, all geometries investigated had a single row of constant diameter orifices located transverse to the main flow direction. Orifice size and spacing between orifices were varied. Both of these were found to have a significant effect on jet penetration and mixing. The best mixing of the hot and cold streams was achieved with duct height.

  19. Instability of rectangular jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tam, Christopher K. W.; Thies, Andrew T.

    1992-01-01

    The instability of rectangular jets is investigated using a vortex sheet model. It is shown that such jets support four linearly independent families of instability waves. Within each family there are infinitely many modes. A way to classify these modes according to the characteristics of their mode shapes or eigenfunctions is proposed. A parametric study of the instability wave characteristics has been carried out. A sample of the numerical results is reported here. It is found that the first and third modes of each instability wave family are corner modes. The pressure fluctuations associated with these instability waves are localized near the corners of the jet. The second mode, however, is a center mode with maximum fluctuations concentrated in the central portion of the jet flow. The center mode has the largest spatial growth rate. It is anticipated that as the instability waves propagate downstream the center mode would emerge as the dominant instability of the jet.

  20. Description of Jet Breakup

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papageorgiou, Demetrios T.

    1996-01-01

    In this article we review recent results on the breakup of cylindrical jets of a Newtonian fluid. Capillary forces provide the main driving mechanism and our interest is in the description of the flow as the jet pinches to form drops. The approach is to describe such topological singularities by constructing local (in time and space) similarity solutions from the governing equations. This is described for breakup according to the Euler, Stokes or Navier-Stokes equations. It is found that slender jet theories can be applied when viscosity is present, but for inviscid jets the local shape of the jet at breakup is most likely of a non-slender geometry. Systems of one-dimensional models of the governing equations are solved numerically in order to illustrate these differences.

  1. Relativistic Jets and Collapsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, W.; Woosley, S. E.

    2001-05-01

    In order to study the relativistic jets from collapsars, we have developed a special relativistic multiple-dimensional hydrodynamics code similar to the GENESIS code (Aloy et al., ApJS, 122, 151). The code is based on the PPM interpolation algorithm and Marquina's Riemann solver. Using this code, we have simulated the propagation of axisymmetric jets along the rotational axis of collapsed rotating stars (collapsars). Using the progenitors of MacFadyen, Woosley, and Heger, a relativistic jet is injected at a given inner boundary radius. This radius, the opening angle of the jet, its Lorentz factor, and its total energy are parameters of the problem. A highly collimated, relativistic outflow is observed at the surface of the star several seconds later. We will discuss the hydrodynamical focusing of the jet, it's break out properties, time evolution, and sensitivity to the adopted parameters.

  2. Jet Lag in Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Aaron; Galvez, Juan Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Context: Prolonged transmeridian air travel can impart a physical and emotional burden on athletes in jet lag and travel fatigue. Jet lag may negatively affect the performance of athletes. Study Type: Descriptive review. Evidence Acquisition: A Medline search for articles relating to jet lag was performed (1990-present), as was a search relating to jet lag and athletes (1983-January, 2012). The results were reviewed for relevance. Eighty-nine sources were included in this descriptive review. Results: Behavioral strategies are recommended over pharmacological strategies when traveling with athletes; pharmacological aides may be used on an individual basis. Strategic sleeping, timed exposure to bright light, and the use of melatonin are encouraged. Conclusions: There is strong evidence that mood and cognition are adversely affected by jet lag. Some measures of individual and team performance are adversely affected as well. PMID:23016089

  3. Instability of rectangular jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tam, Christopher K. W.; Thies, Andrew T.

    1992-01-01

    The instability of rectangular jets is investigated using a vortex sheet model. It is shown that such jets support four linearly independent families of instability waves. Within each family there are infinitely many modes. A way to classify these modes according to the characteristics of their mode shapes or eigenfunctions is proposed. A parametric study of the instability wave characteristics has been carried out. A sample of the numerical results is reported here. It is found that the first and third modes of each instability wave family are corner modes. The pressure fluctuations associated with these instability waves are localized near the corners of the jet. The second mode, however, is a center mode with maximum fluctuations concentrated in the central portion of the jet flow. The center mode has the largest spatial growth rate. It is anticipated that as the instability waves propagate downstream the center mode would emerge as the dominant instability of the jet.

  4. Jet physics at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Melese, P.

    1997-05-01

    We present high E{sub T} jet measurements from CDF at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider. The incfilusive jet cross section at {radical}s = 1800 GeV with {approximately} 5 times more data is compared to the published CDF results, preliminary D0 results, and next-to-leading order QCD predictions. The {summation}E{sub T} cross section is also compared to QCD predictions and the dijet angular distribution is used to place a limit on quark compositeness. The inclusive jet cross section at {radical}s = 630 GeV is compared with that at 1800 GeV to test the QCD predictions for the scaling of jet cross sections with {radical}s. Finally, we present momentum distributions of charged particles in jets and compare them to Modified Leading Log Approximation predictions.

  5. FLARE-ASSOCIATED TYPE III RADIO BURSTS AND DYNAMICS OF THE EUV JET FROM SDO/AIA AND RHESSI OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Naihwa; Ip, Wing-Huen; Innes, Davina E-mail: wingip@astro.ncu.edu.tw

    2013-06-01

    We present a detailed description of the interrelation between the Type III radio bursts and energetic phenomena associated with the flare activities in active region AR11158 at 07:58 UT on 2011 February 15. The timing of the Type III radio burst measured by the radio wave experiment on Wind/WAVE and an array of ground-based radio telescopes coincided with an extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) jet and hard X-ray (HXR) emission observed by SDO/AIA and RHESSI, respectively. There is clear evidence that the EUV jet shares the same source region as the HXR emission. The temperature of the jet, as determined by multiwavelength measurements by Atmospheric Imaging Assembly, suggests that Type III emission is associated with hot, 7 MK, plasma at the jet's footpoint.

  6. A 30 mK, 13.5 T scanning tunneling microscope with two independent tips.

    PubMed

    Roychowdhury, Anita; Gubrud, M A; Dana, R; Anderson, J R; Lobb, C J; Wellstood, F C; Dreyer, M

    2014-04-01

    We describe the design, construction, and performance of an ultra-low temperature, high-field scanning tunneling microscope (STM) with two independent tips. The STM is mounted on a dilution refrigerator and operates at a base temperature of 30 mK with magnetic fields of up to 13.5 T. We focus on the design of the two-tip STM head, as well as the sample transfer mechanism, which allows in situ transfer from an ultra high vacuum preparation chamber while the STM is at 1.5 K. Other design details such as the vibration isolation and rf-filtered wiring are also described. Their effectiveness is demonstrated via spectral current noise characteristics and the root mean square roughness of atomic resolution images. The high-field capability is shown by the magnetic field dependence of the superconducting gap of CuxBi2Se3. Finally, we present images and spectroscopy taken with superconducting Nb tips with the refrigerator at 35 mK that indicate that the effective temperature of our tips/sample is approximately 184 mK, corresponding to an energy resolution of 16 μeV.

  7. A 30 mK, 13.5 T scanning tunneling microscope with two independent tips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roychowdhury, Anita; Gubrud, M. A.; Dana, R.; Anderson, J. R.; Lobb, C. J.; Wellstood, F. C.; Dreyer, M.

    2014-04-01

    We describe the design, construction, and performance of an ultra-low temperature, high-field scanning tunneling microscope (STM) with two independent tips. The STM is mounted on a dilution refrigerator and operates at a base temperature of 30 mK with magnetic fields of up to 13.5 T. We focus on the design of the two-tip STM head, as well as the sample transfer mechanism, which allows in situ transfer from an ultra high vacuum preparation chamber while the STM is at 1.5 K. Other design details such as the vibration isolation and rf-filtered wiring are also described. Their effectiveness is demonstrated via spectral current noise characteristics and the root mean square roughness of atomic resolution images. The high-field capability is shown by the magnetic field dependence of the superconducting gap of CuxBi2Se3. Finally, we present images and spectroscopy taken with superconducting Nb tips with the refrigerator at 35 mK that indicate that the effective temperature of our tips/sample is approximately 184 mK, corresponding to an energy resolution of 16 μeV.

  8. Thrombin Maybe Plays an Important Role in MK Differentiation into Platelets

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiao-Lei; Ge, Meng-Kai; Mao, De-Kui; Lv, Ying-Tao; Sun, Shu-Yan; Yu, Ai-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. After development and differentiation, megakaryocytes (MKs) can produce platelets. As is well known, thrombopoietin (TPO) can induce MKs to differentiate. The effect of thrombin on MKs differentiation is not clear. In this study, we used a human megakaryoblastic leukemia cell line (Meg-01) to assess the effect of thrombin on MKs differentiation. Methods. In order to interrogate the role of thrombin in Meg-01 cells differentiation, the changes of morphology, cellular function, and expression of diverse factors were analyzed. Results. The results show that thrombin suppresses Meg-01 cells proliferation and induces apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. Thrombin upregulates the expression of CD41b, which is one of the most important MK markers. Globin transcription factor 1 (GATA-1), an important transcriptional regulator, controls MK development and maturation. The expression of GATA-1 is also upregulated by thrombin in Meg-01 cells. The expression of B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), an apoptosis-inhibitory protein, is downregulated by thrombin. Phosphorylated protein kinase B (p-AKT) and phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (p-ERK) were upregulated by thrombin in Meg-01 cells. All the results are consistent with Meg-01 cells treated with TPO. Discussion and Conclusion. In conclusion, all these data indicate that thrombin maybe plays an important role in MK differentiation into platelets. However, whether the platelet-like particles are certainly platelets remains unknown. PMID:27064425

  9. Microwave attenuators for use with quantum devices below 100 mK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Jen-Hao; LeFebvre, Jay; Premaratne, Shavindra; Wellstood, F. C.; Palmer, B. S.

    2017-06-01

    To reduce the level of thermally generated electrical noise transmitted to superconducting quantum devices operating at 20 mK, we have developed thin-film microwave power attenuators operating from 1 to 10 GHz. The 20 and 30 dB attenuators are built on a quartz substrate and use 75 nm thick films of nichrome for dissipative components and 1 μm thick silver films as hot electron heat sinks. The noise temperature of the attenuators was quantified by connecting the output to a 3D cavity containing a transmon qubit and extracting the dephasing rate of the qubit as a function of temperature and dissipated power P d in the attenuator. The minimum noise temperature T n of the output from the 20 dB attenuator was T n ≤ 53 mK for no additional applied power and T n ≈ 120 mK when dissipating 30 nW. In the limit of large dissipated power ( P d > 1 nW), we find T n ∝ Pd 1 / 5.4, consistent with detailed thermal modeling of heat flow in the attenuators.

  10. MK-801 and dextromethorphan block microglial activation and protect against methamphetamine-induced neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Thomas, David M; Kuhn, Donald M

    2005-07-19

    Methamphetamine causes long-term toxicity to dopamine nerve endings of the striatum. Evidence is emerging that microglia can contribute to the neuronal damage associated with disease, injury, or inflammation, but their role in methamphetamine-induced neurotoxicity has received relatively little attention. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and the neurotoxic HIV Tat protein, which cause dopamine neuronal toxicity after direct infusion into brain, cause activation of cultured mouse microglial cells as evidenced by increased expression of intracellular cyclooxygenase-2 and elevated secretion of tumor necrosis factor-alpha. MK-801, a non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonist that is known to protect against methamphetamine neurotoxicity, prevents microglial activation by LPS and HIV Tat. Dextromethorphan, an antitussive agent with NMDA receptor blocking properties, also prevents microglial activation. In vivo, MK-801 and dextromethorphan reduce methamphetamine-induced activation of microglia in striatum and they protect dopamine nerve endings against drug-induced nerve terminal damage. The present results indicate that the ability of MK-801 and dextromethorphan to protect against methamphetamine neurotoxicity is related to their common property as blockers of microglial activation.

  11. A 30 mK, 13.5 T scanning tunneling microscope with two independent tips

    SciTech Connect

    Roychowdhury, Anita; Gubrud, M. A.; Dana, R.; Dreyer, M.; Anderson, J. R.; Lobb, C. J.; Wellstood, F. C.

    2014-04-15

    We describe the design, construction, and performance of an ultra-low temperature, high-field scanning tunneling microscope (STM) with two independent tips. The STM is mounted on a dilution refrigerator and operates at a base temperature of 30 mK with magnetic fields of up to 13.5 T. We focus on the design of the two-tip STM head, as well as the sample transfer mechanism, which allows in situ transfer from an ultra high vacuum preparation chamber while the STM is at 1.5 K. Other design details such as the vibration isolation and rf-filtered wiring are also described. Their effectiveness is demonstrated via spectral current noise characteristics and the root mean square roughness of atomic resolution images. The high-field capability is shown by the magnetic field dependence of the superconducting gap of Cu{sub x}Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3}. Finally, we present images and spectroscopy taken with superconducting Nb tips with the refrigerator at 35 mK that indicate that the effective temperature of our tips/sample is approximately 184 mK, corresponding to an energy resolution of 16 μeV.

  12. An expert computer program for classifying stars on the MK spectral classification system

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, R. O.; Corbally, C. J.

    2014-04-01

    This paper describes an expert computer program (MKCLASS) designed to classify stellar spectra on the MK Spectral Classification system in a way similar to humans—by direct comparison with the MK classification standards. Like an expert human classifier, the program first comes up with a rough spectral type, and then refines that spectral type by direct comparison with MK standards drawn from a standards library. A number of spectral peculiarities, including barium stars, Ap and Am stars, λ Bootis stars, carbon-rich giants, etc., can be detected and classified by the program. The program also evaluates the quality of the delivered spectral type. The program currently is capable of classifying spectra in the violet-green region in either the rectified or flux-calibrated format, although the accuracy of the flux calibration is not important. We report on tests of MKCLASS on spectra classified by human classifiers; those tests suggest that over the entire HR diagram, MKCLASS will classify in the temperature dimension with a precision of 0.6 spectral subclass, and in the luminosity dimension with a precision of about one half of a luminosity class. These results compare well with human classifiers.

  13. General relativistic study of astrophysical jets with internal shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vyas, Mukesh K.; Chattopadhyay, Indranil

    2017-08-01

    We explore the possibility of the formation of steady internal shocks in jets around black holes. We consider a fluid described by a relativistic equation of state, flowing about the axis of symmetry (θ = 0) in a Schwarzschild metric. We use two models for the jet geometry: (i) a conical geometry and (ii) a geometry with non-conical cross-section. A jet with conical geometry has a smooth flow, while the jet with non-conical cross-section undergoes multiple sonic points and even standing shock. The jet shock becomes stronger, as the shock location is situated farther from the central black hole. Jets with very high energy and very low energy do not harbour shocks, but jets with intermediate energies do harbour shocks. One advantage of these shocks, as opposed to shocks mediated by external medium, is that these shocks have no effect on the jet terminal speed, but may act as possible sites for particle acceleration. Typically, a jet with specific energy 1.8c2 will achieve a terminal speed of v∞ = 0.813c for jet with any geometry, where, c is the speed of light in vacuum. But for a jet of non-conical cross-section for which the length scale of the inner torus of the accretion disc is 40rg, then, in addition, a steady shock will form at rsh ∼ 7.5rg and compression ratio of R ∼ 2.7. Moreover, electron-proton jet seems to harbour the strongest shock. We will discuss possible consequences of such a scenario.

  14. Aging jets from low-mass stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, J. A.; Chen, W. P.

    1994-01-01

    An extended faint optical jet is associated with the compact emission region plus faint star known as HH 55. HH 55 is located in the Lupus 2 cloud 2 min SW of the well studied T Tauri star RU Lupi. The HH 55 jet extends 55 sec N and 35 sec S in PA 160 deg. The HH 55 star is an emission line star of spectral type M3.5. Its image in the emission lines of H-alpha and (S II) is slightly elongated by 2 sec - 3 sec to the S but in continuum light is symmetrical and pointlike ((full width at half maximum) (FWHM) = 1.7 sec). The star and jet have several features in common with the star and jet known as Sz 102 = Th 28 in the nearby Lupus 3 cloud. We suggest that these objects are representative of the late evolutionary stage of the HH jet-outflow phenomenon and point out that such objects may be quite common although difficult to detect. With L(sub bol) approximately = 0.005 solar luminosity, and log T(sub e) approximately = 3.5, the HH 55 star is close to the main sequence and evolutionary tracks suggest an age of 3 x 10(exp 7) yr.

  15. Aging jets from low-mass stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, J. A.; Chen, W. P.

    1994-01-01

    An extended faint optical jet is associated with the compact emission region plus faint star known as HH 55. HH 55 is located in the Lupus 2 cloud 2 min SW of the well studied T Tauri star RU Lupi. The HH 55 jet extends 55 sec N and 35 sec S in PA 160 deg. The HH 55 star is an emission line star of spectral type M3.5. Its image in the emission lines of H-alpha and (S II) is slightly elongated by 2 sec - 3 sec to the S but in continuum light is symmetrical and pointlike ((full width at half maximum) (FWHM) = 1.7 sec). The star and jet have several features in common with the star and jet known as Sz 102 = Th 28 in the nearby Lupus 3 cloud. We suggest that these objects are representative of the late evolutionary stage of the HH jet-outflow phenomenon and point out that such objects may be quite common although difficult to detect. With L(sub bol) approximately = 0.005 solar luminosity, and log T(sub e) approximately = 3.5, the HH 55 star is close to the main sequence and evolutionary tracks suggest an age of 3 x 10(exp 7) yr.

  16. Optimal Jet Finder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigoriev, D. Yu.; Jankowski, E.; Tkachov, F. V.

    2003-09-01

    We describe a FORTRAN 77 implementation of the optimal jet definition for identification of jets in hadronic final states of particle collisions. We discuss details of the implementation, explain interface subroutines and provide a usage example. The source code is available from http://www.inr.ac.ru/~ftkachov/projects/jets/. Program summaryTitle of program: Optimal Jet Finder (OJF_014) Catalogue identifier: ADSB Program Summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADSB Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Computer: Any computer with the FORTRAN 77 compiler Tested with: g77/Linux on Intel, Alpha and Sparc; Sun f77/Solaris (thwgs.cern.ch); xlf/AIX (rsplus.cern.ch); MS Fortran PowerStation 4.0/Win98 Programming language used: FORTRAN 77 Memory required: ˜1 MB (or more, depending on the settings) Number of bytes in distributed program, including examples and test data: 251 463 Distribution format: tar gzip file Keywords: Hadronic jets, jet finding algorithms Nature of physical problem: Analysis of hadronic final states in high energy particle collision experiments often involves identification of hadronic jets. A large number of hadrons detected in the calorimeter is reduced to a few jets by means of a jet finding algorithm. The jets are used in further analysis which would be difficult or impossible when applied directly to the hadrons. Grigoriev et al. [ hep-ph/0301185] provide a brief introduction to the subject of jet finding algorithms and a general review of the physics of jets can be found in [Rep. Prog. Phys. 36 (1993) 1067]. Method of solution: The software we provide is an implementation of the so-called optimal jet definition ( OJD). The theory of OJD was developed by Tkachov [Phys. Rev. Lett. 73 (1994) 2405; 74 (1995) 2618; Int. J. Mod. Phys. A 12 (1997) 5411; 17 (2002) 2783]. The desired jet configuration is obtained as the one that minimizes Ω R, a certain function of the input particles and jet

  17. Simulations of Solar Jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-02-01

    Formation of a coronal jet from twisted field lines that have reconnected with the ambient field. The colors show the radial velocity of the plasma. [Adapted from Szente et al. 2017]How do jets emitted from the Suns surface contribute to its corona and to the solar wind? In a recent study, a team of scientists performed complex three-dimensional simulations of coronal jets to answer these questions.Small ExplosionsCoronal jets are relatively small eruptions from the Suns surface, with heights of roughly 100 to 10,000 km, speeds of 10 to 1,000 km/s, and lifetimes of a few minutes to around ten hours. These jets are constantly present theyre emitted even from the quiet Sun, when activity is otherwise low and weve observed them with a fleet of Sun-watching space telescopes spanning the visible, extreme ultraviolet (EUV), and X-ray wavelength bands.A comparison of simulated observations based on the authors model (left panels) to actual EUV and X-ray observations of jets (right panels). [Szente et al. 2017]Due to their ubiquity, we speculate that these jets might contribute to heating the global solar corona (which is significantly hotter than the surface below it, a curiosity known as the coronal heating problem). We can also wonder what role these jets might play in driving the overall solar wind.Launching a JetLed by Judit Szente (University of Michigan), a team of scientists has explored the impact of coronal jets on the global corona and solar wind with a series of numerical simulations. Szente and collaborators used three-dimensional, magnetohydrodynamic simulations that provide realistic treatment of the solar atmosphere, the solar wind acceleration, and the complexities of heat transfer throughout the corona.In the authors simulations, a jet is initiated as a magnetic dipole rotates at the solar surface, winding up field lines. Magnetic reconnection between the twisted lines and the background field then launches the jet from the dense and hot solar

  18. DAG/PKCδ and IP3/Ca²⁺/CaMK IIβ Operate in Parallel to Each Other in PLCγ1-Driven Cell Proliferation and Migration of Human Gastric Adenocarcinoma Cells, through Akt/mTOR/S6 Pathway.

    PubMed

    Dai, Lianzhi; Zhuang, Luhua; Zhang, Bingchang; Wang, Fen; Chen, Xiaolei; Xia, Chun; Zhang, Bing

    2015-12-01

    Phosphoinositide specific phospholipase Cγ (PLCγ) activates diacylglycerol (DAG)/protein kinase C (PKC) and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3)/Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMK II) axes to regulate import events in some cancer cells, including gastric adenocarcinoma cells. However, whether DAG/PKCδ and IP3/Ca(2+)/CaMK IIβ axes are simultaneously involved in PLCγ1-driven cell proliferation and migration of human gastric adenocarcinoma cells and the underlying mechanism are not elucidated. Here, we investigated the role of DAG/PKCδ or CaMK IIβ in PLCγ1-driven cell proliferation and migration of human gastric adenocarcinoma cells, using the BGC-823 cell line. The results indicated that the inhibition of PKCδ and CaMK IIβ could block cell proliferation and migration of BGC-823 cells as well as the effect of inhibiting PLCγ1, including the decrease of cell viability, the increase of apoptotic index, the down-regulation of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 9 expression level, and the decrease of cell migration rate. Both DAG/PKCδ and CaMK IIβ triggered protein kinase B (Akt)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)/S6 pathway to regulate protein synthesis. The data indicate that DAG/PKCδ and IP3/Ca(2+)/CaMK IIβ operate in parallel to each other in PLCγ1-driven cell proliferation and migration of human gastric adenocarcinoma cells through Akt/mTOR/S6 pathway, with important implication for validating PLCγ1 as a molecular biomarker in early gastric cancer diagnosis and disease surveillance.

  19. Phylogeny of Plant Calcium and Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases (CCaMKs) and Functional Analyses of Tomato CCaMK in Disease Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ji-Peng; Munyampundu, Jean-Pierre; Xu, You-Ping; Cai, Xin-Zhong

    2015-01-01

    Calcium and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CCaMK) is a member of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase superfamily and is essential to microbe- plant symbiosis. To date, the distribution of CCaMK gene in plants has not yet been completely understood, and its function in plant disease resistance remains unclear. In this study, we systemically identified the CCaMK genes in genomes of 44 plant species in Phytozome and analyzed the function of tomato CCaMK (SlCCaMK) in resistance to various pathogens. CCaMKs in 18 additional plant species were identified, yet the absence of CCaMK gene in green algae and cruciferous species was confirmed. Sequence analysis of full-length CCaMK proteins from 44 plant species demonstrated that plant CCaMKs are highly conserved across all domains. Most of the important regulatory amino acids are conserved throughout all sequences, with the only notable exception being observed in N-terminal autophosphorylation site corresponding to Ser 9 in the Medicago truncatula CCaMK. CCaMK gene structures are similar, mostly containing six introns with a phase profile of 200200 and the exception was only noticed at the first exons. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that CCaMK lineage is likely to have diverged early from a calcium-dependent protein kinase (CDPK) gene in the ancestor of all nonvascular plant species. The SlCCaMK gene was widely and differently responsive to diverse pathogenic stimuli. Furthermore, knock-down of SlCCaMK reduced tomato resistance to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst) DC3000 and decreased H2O2 accumulation in response to Pst DC3000 inoculation. Our results reveal that SlCCaMK positively regulates disease resistance in tomato via promoting H2O2 accumulation. SlCCaMK is the first CCaMK gene proved to function in plant disease resistance. PMID:26697034

  20. The effect of jet shape on jet injection.

    PubMed

    Park, Geehoon; Modak, Ashin; Hogan, N Catherine; Hunter, Ian W

    2015-01-01

    The effects of the dispersion pattern of a needle-free jet injector are explored. The shape of the jets were compared using a high-speed video camera and jet injections of collimated and dispersed fluid jets with a Lorentz-force actuated jet injector were made into acrylamide gel and post-mortem porcine tissue. A custom-built high-speed X-ray imaging system was used in order to observe the dynamics of the dispersion mechanism for each injection in real time. We show that a collimated jet stream results in greater tissue penetration than a dispersed jet stream.

  1. Directional control of a jet using synthetic jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frunzulica, Florin; Macovei, Alexandru Cǎtǎlin; Dumitrache, Alexandru; Crunteanu, Daniel

    2017-07-01

    The paper presents an application of synthetic jets in the flow control of a jet. The synthetic jet actuator consists of an oscillating membrane operating at high frequency and separating two cavities with exit slots of different geometries. The synthetic jets work as an alternating push-pull system and the generated vortical structure changes the flow direction of the main jet (jet vectoring). The numerical investigations are performed using a RANS solver with an adequate turbulence model and demonstrates a changing of a jet direction.

  2. Jet noise suppression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gliebe, P. R.; Brausch, J. F.; Majjigi, R. K.; Lee, R.

    1991-08-01

    The objectives of this chapter are to review and summarize the jet noise suppression technology, to provide a physical and theoretical model to explain the measured jet noise suppression characteristics of different concepts, and to provide a set of guidelines for evolving jet noise suppression designs. The underlying principle for all jet noise suppression devices is to enhance rapid mixing (i.e., diffusion) of the jet plume by geometric and aerothermodynamic means. In the case of supersonic jets, the shock-cell broadband noise reduction is effectively accomplished by the elimination or mitigation of the shock-cell structure. So far, the diffusion concepts have predominantly concentrated on jet momentum and energy (kinetic and thermal) diffusion, in that order, and have yielded better noise reduction than the simple conical nozzles. A critical technology issue that needs resolution is the effect of flight on the noise suppression potential of mechanical suppressor nozzles. A more thorough investigation of this mechanism is necessary for the successful development and design of an acceptable noise suppression device for future high-speed civil transports.

  3. Synthetic Fence Jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigurdson, Lorenz; Apps, Christopher

    2000-11-01

    "Synthetic Jets" have previously been produced where an oscillating flow with zero net mass flux acts on the edges of an orifice. The resulting flow is similar to a normal jet. We have proposed and verified that another type of jet called a "Synthetic Fence Jet" (SFJ or "fe-je") can also be created. We introduced a fence perpendicular to both a wall and an oscillating velocity field. Under certain conditions a jet was formed by vortices of alternating sign. The vortices were shed from the fence and they induced each other away from it. This phenomenon could be used as a method of flow control. The objective of this project was to use flow visualization to prove the existence of and characterize this jet. A test rig was used which incorporates smoke-wire flow visualization; independent oscillation level and frequency control; and computer- controlled data acquisition. It has been discovered that the jet direction can be vectored by altering the forcing waveform shape. To explain this a theory was developed that is based on the Biot-Savart law of vortex dynamics.

  4. Jet Noise Suppression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gliebe, P. R.; Brausch, J. F.; Majjigi, R. K.; Lee, R.

    1991-01-01

    The objectives of this chapter are to review and summarize the jet noise suppression technology, to provide a physical and theoretical model to explain the measured jet noise suppression characteristics of different concepts, and to provide a set of guidelines for evolving jet noise suppression designs. The underlying principle for all jet noise suppression devices is to enhance rapid mixing (i.e., diffusion) of the jet plume by geometric and aerothermodynamic means. In the case of supersonic jets, the shock-cell broadband noise reduction is effectively accomplished by the elimination or mitigation of the shock-cell structure. So far, the diffusion concepts have predominantly concentrated on jet momentum and energy (kinetic and thermal) diffusion, in that order, and have yielded better noise reduction than the simple conical nozzles. A critical technology issue that needs resolution is the effect of flight on the noise suppression potential of mechanical suppressor nozzles. A more thorough investigation of this mechanism is necessary for the successful development and design of an acceptable noise suppression device for future high-speed civil transports.

  5. Solar coronal jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobrzyck, D.

    The solar jets were first observed by SOHO instruments (EIT, LASCO, UVCS) during the previous solar minimum. They were small, fast ejections originating from flaring UV bright points within large polar coronal holes. The obtained data provided us with estimates of the jet plasma conditions, dynamics, evolution of the electron temperature and heating rate required to reproduce the observed ionization state. To follow the polar jets through the solar cycle a special SOHO Joint Observing Program (JOP 155) was designed. It involves a number of SOHO instruments (EIT, CDS, UVCS, LASCO) as well as TRACE. The coordinated observations have been carried out since April 2002. The data enabled to identify counterparts of the 1996-1998 solar minimum jets. Their frequency of several events per day appear comparable to the frequency from the previous solar minimum. The jets are believed to be triggered by field line reconnection between emerging magnetic dipole and pre-existing unipolar field. Existing models predict that the hot jet is formed together with another jet of a cool material. The particular goal of the coordinated SOHO and TRACE observations was to look for possible association of the hot and cool plasma ejections. Currently there is observational evidence that supports these models.

  6. The cool component and the dichotomy, lateral expansion, and axial rotation of solar X-ray jets

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, Ronald L.; Sterling, Alphonse C.; Falconer, David A.; Robe, Dominic

    2013-06-01

    We present results from a study of 54 polar X-ray jets that were observed in coronal X-ray movies from the X-ray Telescope on Hinode and had simultaneous coverage in movies of the cooler transition region (T ∼ 10{sup 5} K) taken in the He II 304 Å band of the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on Solar Dynamics Observatory. These dual observations verify the standard-jet/blowout-jet dichotomy of polar X-ray jets previously found primarily from XRT movies alone. In accord with models of blowout jets and standard jets, the AIA 304 Å movies show a cool (T ∼ 10{sup 5} K) component in nearly all blowout X-ray jets and in a small minority of standard X-ray jets, obvious lateral expansion in blowout X-ray jets but none in standard X-ray jets, and obvious axial rotation in both blowout X-ray jets and standard X-ray jets. In our sample, the number of turns of axial rotation in the cool-component standard X-ray jets is typical of that in the blowout X-ray jets, suggesting that the closed bipolar magnetic field in the jet base has substantial twist not only in all blowout X-ray jets but also in many standard X-ray jets. We point out that our results for the dichotomy, lateral expansion, and axial rotation of X-ray jets add credence to published speculation that type-II spicules are miniature analogs of X-ray jets, are generated by granule-size emerging bipoles, and thereby carry enough energy to power the corona and solar wind.

  7. Modulation of hippocampus-prefrontal cortex synaptic transmission and disruption of executive cognitive functions by MK-801.

    PubMed

    Blot, Kevin; Kimura, Shin-Ichi; Bai, Jing; Kemp, Anne; Manahan-Vaughan, Denise; Giros, Bruno; Tzavara, Eleni; Otani, Satoru

    2015-05-01

    Noncompetitive N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonists such as phencyclidine and MK-801 are known to impair cognitive function in rodents and humans, and serve as a useful tool to study the cellular basis for pathogenesis of schizophrenia cognitive symptoms. In the present study, we tested in rats the effect of MK-801 on ventral hippocampus (HPC)-medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) synaptic transmission and the performance in 2 cognitive tasks. We found that single injection of MK-801 (0.1 mg/kg) induced gradual and long-lasting increases of the HPC-mPFC response, which shares the common expression mechanisms with long-term potentiation (LTP). But unlike LTP, its induction required no enhanced or synchronized synaptic inputs, suggesting aberrant characteristics. In parallel, rats injected with MK-801 showed impairments of mPFC-dependent cognitive flexibility and HPC-mPFC pathway-dependent spatial working memory. The effects of MK-801 on HPC-mPFC responses and spatial working memory decayed in parallel within 24 h. Moreover, the therapeutically important subtype 2/3 metabotropic glutamate receptor agonist LY379268, which blocked MK-801-induced potentiation, ameliorated the MK-801-induced impairment of spatial working memory. Our results show a novel form of use-independent long-lasting potentiation in HPC-mPFC pathway induced by MK-801, which is associated with impairment of HPC-mPFC projection-dependent cognitive function. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Metabolism of MK-0524, a prostaglandin D2 receptor 1 antagonist, in microsomes and hepatocytes from preclinical species and humans.

    PubMed

    Dean, Brian J; Chang, Steve; Silva Elipe, Maria Victoria; Xia, Yuan-Qing; Braun, Matt; Soli, Eric; Zhao, Yuming; Franklin, Ronald B; Karanam, Bindhu

    2007-02-01

    (3R)-4-(4-Chlorobenzyl)-7-fluoro-5-(methylsulfonyl)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydrocyclopenta[b]indol-3-yl acetic acid (MK-0524) is a potent orally active human prostaglandin D(2) receptor 1 antagonist that is currently under development for the prevention of niacin-induced flushing. The major in vitro and in vivo metabolite of MK-0524 is the acyl glucuronic acid conjugate of the parent compound, M2. To compare metabolism of MK-0524 across preclinical species and humans, studies were undertaken to determine the in vitro kinetic parameters (K(m) and V(max)) for the glucuronidation of MK-0524 in Sprague-Dawley rat, beagle dog, cynomolgus monkey, and human liver microsomes, human intestinal microsomes, and in recombinant human UDP glucuronosyltransferases (UGT). A comparison of K(m) values indicated that UGT1A9 has the potential to catalyze the glucuronidation of MK-0524 in the liver, whereas UGT1A3 and UGT2B7 have the potential to catalyze the glucuronidation in the intestine. MK-0524 also was subject to phase I oxidative metabolism; however, the rate was significantly lower than that of glucuronidation. The rate of phase I metabolism was ranked as follows: rat approximately monkey > human intestine > dog > human liver with qualitatively similar metabolite profiles across species. In all the cases, the major metabolites were the monohydroxylated epimers (M1 and M4) and the keto-metabolite, M3. Use of inhibitory monoclonal antibodies and recombinant human cytochromes P450 suggested that CYP3A4 was the major isozyme involved in the oxidative metabolism of MK-0524, with a minor contribution from CYP2C9. The major metabolite in hepatocyte preparations was the acyl glucuronide, M2, with minor amounts of M1, M3, M4, and their corresponding glucuronides. Overall, the in vivo metabolism of MK-0524 is expected to proceed via glucuronidation, with minor contributions from oxidative pathways.

  9. The Akt inhibitor MK-2206 enhances the cytotoxicity of paclitaxel (Taxol) and cisplatin in ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ying-Hsi; Chen, Bert Yu-Hung; Lai, Wei-Ting; Wu, Shao-Fu; Guh, Jih-Hwa; Cheng, Ann-Lii; Hsu, Lih-Ching

    2015-01-01

    Abnormalities in the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway are commonly observed in human cancers and contribute to chemotherapy resistance. Combination therapy, involving the use of molecular targeted agents and traditional cytotoxic drugs, may represent a promising strategy to lower resistance and enhance cytotoxicity. Here, we demonstrate the efficacy of an Akt inhibitor, MK-2206, in increasing the cytotoxic effect of either paclitaxel (Taxol) or cisplatin against the ovarian cancer cell lines SKOV3 (with constitutively active Akt) and ES2 (with inactive Akt). Sequential treatment of Taxol or cisplatin, followed by MK-2206, induced a synergistic inhibition of cell proliferation and effectively promoted cell death, either by inhibiting the phosphorylation of Akt and its downstream effectors 4E-BP1 and p70S6K in SKOV3 cells or by restoring p53 levels, which were downregulated after Taxol or cisplatin treatment, in ES2 cells. Combination treatment also downregulated the pro-survival protein Bcl-2 in both SKOV3 and ES2 cells, which may have contributed to cell death. In addition, we discovered that Taxol/MK-2206 or cisplatin/MK-2206 combination treatment resulted in significant enhancement of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced by MK-2206, in both SKOV3 and ES2 cells; however, MK-2206-induced growth inhibition was reversed by a ROS scavenger only in ES2 cells. MK-2206 also suppressed DNA repair, particularly in SKOV3 cells. Taken together, our results demonstrate that the Akt inhibitor MK-2206 enhances the efficacy of cytotoxic agents in both Akt-active and Akt-inactive ovarian cancer cells but through different mechanisms.

  10. Effect of chronic MK-801 and/or phenytoin on the acquisition of complex behaviors in rats.

    PubMed

    Wright, L K M; Popke, E J; Allen, R R; Pearson, E C; Hammond, T G; Paule, M G

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the present experiment was to assess the effects of chronic MK-801 (an N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist) and/or phenytoin (a sodium channel blocker) treatment on behavioral acquisition and performance in rats. Learning, audio/visual discrimination and motivation were modeled using incremental repeated acquisition (IRA), audio/visual discrimination (AVD) and progressive ratio (PR) tasks, respectively. MK-801 and/or phenytoin were administered daily, 7 days/week by orogastric gavage beginning just after weaning on postnatal day (PND) 23 and continuing until PND 306. Monday through Friday behavioral assessments began on PND 27 and continued until PND 430. Throughout treatment, subjects in the high dose MK-801 (1.0 mg/kg/day) and the high dose drug combination (1.0 mg/kg/day MK-801+150 mg/kg/day phenytoin) groups exhibited decreased body weight gains compared to control subjects. For these two affected groups, response rates were also decreased in all tasks. Task acquisition, as evidenced by an increase in response accuracy, was decreased for both these groups in the AVD task, but only for the high dose MK-801 group in the IRA task. The data suggest that chronic MK-801 treatment adversely affects the acquisition of IRA and AVD task performance and that the inclusion of phenytoin in the MK-801 dosing regimen blocks some of the adverse effects of chronic MK-801 treatment on IRA task acquisition. These findings are in marked contrast with those observed in nonhuman primates and suggest important species differences associated with chronic exposure to compounds that block NMDA receptors and/or sodium channels.

  11. [Vitamin K metabolism. Menaquinone-4 (MK-4) formation from ingested VK analogues and its potent relation to bone function].

    PubMed

    Komai, Michio; Shirakawa, Hitoshi

    2007-11-01

    Phylloquinone (vitamin K(1) = VK(1)) and the menaquinones (MK-n, or vitamin K(2) = VK(2)) are naturally occurring forms of VK. Most of the menaquinone series are synthesized by microorganisms, but we have reported that MK-4 is usual in being synthesized by the conversion of orally ingested VK(1) or MK-n in the major tissues of germfree rats and mice which lack their intestinal microflora. This result led us to deny 1960's Martius' hypothesis that described the participation of bacterial enzyme of the intestinal flora to this conversion. VK acts as a cofactor in the posttranslational synthesis of gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla) from glutamic acid (Glu) residues in the nascent Gla-protein molecule. Therefore, VK is essential for blood coagulation (various clotting factors) and bone structure (as osteocalcin [OC = BGP] and matrix Gla-protein [MGP] in mammals. In addition to the liver, VK is found in the bone, brain, heart, testis, kidney, pancreas and salivary glands mainly as MK-4, and it has been reported that MK-4 itself has specific biological activities in these tissues beside Gla-protein formation. However, the physiological role of MK-4 in these organs has not been fully understood yet. Recently MK-4 has been attracted the attention of researchers due to its activities such as apoptotic activity on the osteoclast cells and leukemia cells, SXR/PXR ligand, and so on. We further review the potent important physiological role of MK-4 in the bone as well as other major tissues.

  12. Should we select for genetic moral enhancement? A thought experiment using the MoralKinder (MK+) haplotype.

    PubMed

    Faust, Halley S

    2008-01-01

    By using preimplantation haplotype diagnosis, prospective parents are able to select embryos to implant through in vitro fertilization. If we knew that the naturally-occurring (but theoretical) MoralKinder (MK+) haplotype would predispose individuals to a higher level of morality than average, is it permissible or obligatory to select for the MK+ haplotype? I.e., is it moral to select for morality? This paper explores the various potential issues that could arise from genetic moral enhancement.

  13. Jet Physics at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Sally Seidel

    2004-06-28

    Jets have been studied by the CDF Collaboration [1] as a means of searching for new particles and interactions, testing a variety of perturbative QCD predictions, and providing input for the global parton distribution function (PDF) fits. Unless otherwise indicated below, the jets were reconstructed using a cone algorithm [2] with cone radius R = 0.7 from data taken at the Fermilab Tevatron collider in Run 2, 2001-2003, with {radical}s = 1.96 TeV. Central jets, in the pseudorapidity range relative to fixed detector coordinates 0.1 < |{eta}| < 0.7, are used.

  14. Angular Scaling In Jets

    SciTech Connect

    Jankowiak, Martin; Larkoski, Andrew J.; /SLAC

    2012-02-17

    We introduce a jet shape observable defined for an ensemble of jets in terms of two-particle angular correlations and a resolution parameter R. This quantity is infrared and collinear safe and can be interpreted as a scaling exponent for the angular distribution of mass inside the jet. For small R it is close to the value 2 as a consequence of the approximately scale invariant QCD dynamics. For large R it is sensitive to non-perturbative effects. We describe the use of this correlation function for tests of QCD, for studying underlying event and pile-up effects, and for tuning Monte Carlo event generators.

  15. MK571 inhibits phase-2 conjugation of flavonols by Caco-2/TC7 cells, but does not specifically inhibit their apical efflux☆

    PubMed Central

    Barrington, Robert D.; Needs, Paul W.; Williamson, Gary; Kroon, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    MK571 is a multidrug resistance protein-2 (ABCC2, Mrp2) inhibitor and has been widely used to demonstrate the role of Mrp2 in the cellular efflux of drugs, xenobiotics and their conjugates. Numerous reports have described modulation of Caco-2 cellular efflux and transport of flavonoids in the presence of MK571. Since flavonoids are efficiently conjugated by Caco-2/TC7 cells, we investigated the effects of MK571 on the efflux of flavonoid conjugates. The flavonol aglycones kaempferol, quercetin and galangin were efficiently taken up, conjugated and effluxed by Caco-2/TC7 cells. Apically-applied MK571 caused significant reductions in both the apical and basolateral efflux of flavonol conjugates from Caco-2/TC7 monolayers. MK571 did not significantly alter the apical:basolateral efflux ratio for flavonol conjugates, however, which is not consistent with MK571 specifically inhibiting only apical Mrp2. Since MK571 decreased the total amounts of conjugates formed, and increased cellular flavonol aglycone concentrations, we explored the possibility that MK571 also inhibits phase-2 conjugation of flavonols. MK571 dose-dependently inhibited the intracellular biosynthesis of all flavonol glucuronides and sulphates by Caco-2 cells. MK571 significantly inhibited phase-2 conjugation of kaempferol by cell-free extracts of Caco-2, and production of kaempferol-4′-O-glucuronide was competitively inhibited. These data show that MK571, in addition to inhibiting MRP2, is a potential inhibitor of enterocyte phase-2 conjugation. PMID:25801004

  16. IS FS Tau B DRIVING AN ASYMMETRIC JET?

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Chun-Fan; Shang, Hsien; Takami, Michihiro; Yan, Chi-Hung; Wang, Shiang-Yu; Ohashi, Nagayoshi; Pyo, Tae-Soo; Walter, Frederick M.; Hayashi, Masahiko

    2012-04-10

    FS Tau B is one of the few T Tauri stars that possess a jet and a counterjet as well as an optically visible cavity wall. We obtained images and spectra of its jet-cavity system in the near-infrared H and K bands using the Subaru/Infrared Camera and Spectrograph and detected the jet and the counterjet in the [Fe II] 1.644 {mu}m line for the first time. Within 2'' the blueshifted jet is brighter, whereas beyond {approx}5'' the redshifted counterjet dominates the [Fe II] emission. The innermost blueshifted knot is spectrally resolved to have a large line width of {approx}110 km s{sup -1}, while the innermost redshifted knot appears spectrally unresolved. The velocity ratio of the jet to the counterjet is {approx}1.34, which suggests that FS Tau B is driving an asymmetric jet, similar to those found in several T Tauri stars. Combining with optical observations in the literature, we showed that the blueshifted jet has a lower density and higher excitation than the redshifted counterjet. We suggest that the asymmetry in brightness and velocity is the manifestation of a bipolar outflow driving at different mass-loss rates, while maintaining balance of linear momentum. A full explanation of the asymmetry in the FS Tau B system awaits detail modeling and further investigation of the kinematic structure of the wind-associated cavity walls.

  17. MK-801 alters Na+, K+-ATPase activity and oxidative status in zebrafish brain: reversal by antipsychotic drugs.

    PubMed

    Seibt, Kelly Juliana; da Luz Oliveira, Renata; Rosemberg, Denis Broock; Savio, Luiz Eduardo Baggio; Scherer, Emilene B S; Schmitz, Felipe; Wyse, Angela T S; Bonan, Carla Denise

    2012-06-01

    Schizophrenia is a debilitating mental disorder with a global prevalence of 1% and its etiology remains poorly understood. In the current study we investigated the influence of antipsychotic drugs on the effects of MK-801 administration, which is a drug that mimics biochemical changes observed in schizophrenia, on Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity and some parameters of oxidative stress in zebrafish brain. Our results showed that MK-801 treatment significantly decreased Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity, and all antipsychotics tested prevented such effects. Acute MK-801 treatment did not alter reactive oxygen/nitrogen species by 2'7'-dichlorofluorscein (H2DCF) oxidation assay, but increased the levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), when compared with controls. Some antipsychotics such as sulpiride, olanzapine, and haloperidol prevented the increase of TBARS caused by MK-801. These findings indicate oxidative damage might be a mechanism involved in the decrease of Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity induced by MK-801. The parameters evaluated in this study had not yet been tested in this animal model using the MK-801, suggesting that zebrafish is an animal model that can contribute for providing information on potential treatments and disease characteristics.

  18. The excitatory amino acid receptor antagonist MK-801 prevents the hypersensitivity induced by spinal cord ischemia in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Hao, J.X.; Xu, X.J.; Aldskogius, H.; Seiger, A.; Wiesenfeld-Hallin, Z. )

    1991-08-01

    Protection by the NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 against transient spinal cord ischemia-induced hypersensitivity was studied in rats. The spinal ischemia was initiated by vascular occlusion resulting from the interaction between the photosensitizing dye Erythrosin B and an argon laser beam. The hypersensitivity, termed allodynia, where the animals reacted by vocalization to nonnoxious mechanical stimuli in the flank area, was consistently observed during several days after induction of the ischemia. Pretreatment with MK-801 (0.1-0.5 mg/kg, iv) 10 min before laser irradiation dose dependently prevented the occurrence of allodynia. The neuroprotective effect of MK-801 was not reduced by maintaining normal body temperature during and after irradiation. There was a significant negative correlation between the delay in the administration of MK-801 after irradiation and the protective effect of the drug. Histological examination revealed slight morphological damage in the spinal cord in 38% of control rats after 1 min of laser irradiation without pretreatment with MK-801. No morphological abnormalities were observed in rats after pretreatment with MK-801 (0.5 mg/kg). The present results provide further evidence for the involvement of excitatory amino acids, through activation of the NMDA receptor, in the development of dysfunction following ischemic trauma to the spinal cord.

  19. A pilot clinical trial of the cholecystokinin receptor antagonist MK-329 in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Abbruzzese, J L; Gholson, C F; Daugherty, K; Larson, E; DuBrow, R; Berlin, R; Levin, B

    1992-01-01

    MK-329 is a nonpeptidal, highly specific cholecystokinin (CCK) receptor antagonist, with affinity for pancreatic and gallbladder CCK receptors similar to CCK itself. MK-329 and its progenitor, asperlicin, can inhibit the growth of CCK receptor-positive human pancreatic cancer in athymic mice. Based on these activities and the ability of MK-329 to transiently increase food intake and enhance morphine analgesia in murine models, we conducted an open trial of MK-329 in 18 patients with advanced pancreatic cancer in whom the CCK receptor status of the tumors was unknown. Tumor response, pain control, and nutritional parameters (hunger rating, caloric intake, body weight, and anthropometrics) were serially assessed. The results of the study failed to demonstrate any impact of MK-329 on tumor progression, pain, or nutrition. Toxicity was mild and limited to nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal cramps, with 17 of 18 patients able to tolerate treatment. While a role for MK-329 in the management of patients with advanced pancreatic cancer cannot be supported by the results of this trial, additional studies of this agent in patients with known CCK receptor-positive tumors, at escalated doses, and possibly in conjunction with other growth antagonists, appear warranted.

  20. [Effect of mPGES-1 inhibitor MK886 on apoptosis and drug resistance of HL-60/A cells].

    PubMed

    Li, Yi-Qing; Yin, Song-Mei; Nie, Da-Nian; Xie, Shuang-Feng; Ma, Li-Ping; Wang, Xiu-Ju; Wu, Yu-Dan

    2012-08-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the effect of MK886, a mPGES-1 inhibitor, on apoptosis and drug resistance of leukemia HL-60/A cell line. Expression of mPGES-1 was assayed by QT-PCR and Western blot. The effect of MK886 on HL-60/A cell proliferation was assayed by CCK-8 method, and flow cytometry was used to detect cell apoptosis. The expression of Akt and P-Akt was detected by Western blot. PGE2 was measured by ELISA. Effect of MK886 (10 µmol/L) on the chemotherapeutic sensitivity of HL-60/A cells and expression of mdr-1 mRNA and P170 protein were investigated too. The results indicated the expression of mPGES-1 was higher in HL-60/A cells. MK886 inhibited HL-60/A cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Expression of mPGES-1 and P-Akt and synthesis of PGE2 decreased significantly. MK886 reduced expression of mdr-1 and P170 protein and enhanced the sensitivity of HL-60/A cells to chemotherapeutic drugs. It is concluded that MK886 can inhibit HL-60/A cell proliferation, induce apoptosis and enhance sensitivity to chemotherapeutic drugs, the mechanism of which possibly associates to down-regulation of mPGES-1/PGE2 synthesis, reduction P-Akt expression and decreasing mdr-1 and P170 protein expression.

  1. Atmospheric Dispersion of High Velocity Jets.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-11-01

    jet "penetrates" the atmosphere before coming essentially to rest relative to the ambient wind. Stationary sources such as engine run up test staids...used to non-dimensionalize or standardize the abscissa of the temperature profile. The standard deviations are ta- bulated in Tables I, II and III for...incidence was in- creased, the length normal to the wind direction where the dispersion tribution was essentially uniform (ie. sigma approaches infinity

  2. Sexual Dimorphism in MAPK-Activated Protein Kinase-2 (MK2) Regulation of RANKL-Induced Osteoclastogenesis in Osteoclast Progenitor Subpopulations

    PubMed Central

    Herbert, Bethany A.; Valerio, Michael S.; Gaestel, Matthias; Kirkwood, Keith L.

    2015-01-01

    Osteoclasts (OCs) are bone-resorptive cells critical for maintaining skeletal integrity through coupled bone turnover. OC differentiation and activation requires receptor activator of NF-kB ligand (RANKL) signaling through the p38 MAPK pathway. However the role of the p38 MAPK substrate, MAPK-activated protein kinase 2 (MK2), is not clearly delineated. Within the bone marrow exists a specific subpopulation of defined osteoclast progenitor cells (dOCPs) with surface expression of B220-Gr1-CD11blo/-CD115+ (dOCPlo/-). In this study, we isolated dOCPs from male and female mice to determine sex-specific effects of MK2 signaling in osteoclastogenesis (OCgen). Male Mk2-/- mice display an increase in the dOCPlo cell population when compared to Mk2+/+ mice, while female Mk2-/- and Mk2+/+ mice exhibit no difference. Defined OCPs from male and female Mk2+/+ and Mk2-/- bone marrow were treated with macrophage colony stimulation factor (M-CSF) and RANKL cytokines to promote OCgen. RANKL treatment of dOCPlo cells stimulated p38 and MK2 phosphorylation. Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) assays were used to quantify OC number, size, and TRAP enzyme activity post-RANKL stimulation. MK2 signaling was critical for male dOCPlo OCgen, yet MK2 signaling regulated OCgen from female dOCP- and CD11bhi subpopulations as well. The functional gene, Ctsk, was attenuated in both male and female Mk2-/- dOCPlo-derived OCs. Conversely, MK2 signaling was only critical for gene expression of pre-OC fusion genes, Oc-stamp andTm7sf4, in male OCgen. Therefore, these data suggest there is a sexual dimorphism in MK2 signaling of OCP subpopulations. PMID:25946081

  3. Measurement of the WW and WZ production cross section using final states with a charged lepton and heavy-flavor jets in the full CDF Run II data set

    SciTech Connect

    Aaltonen, T.; Amerio, S.; Amidei, D.; Anastassov, A.; Annovi, A.; Antos, J.; Apollinari, G.; Appel, J. A.; Arisawa, T.; Artikov, A.; Asaadi, J.; Ashmanskas, W.; Auerbach, B.; Aurisano, A.; Azfar, F.; Badgett, W.; Bae, T.; Barbaro-Galtieri, A.; Barnes, V. E.; Barnett, B. A.; Barria, P.; Bartos, P.; Bauce, M.; Bedeschi, F.; Behari, S.; Bellettini, G.; Bellinger, J.; Benjamin, D.; Beretvas, A.; Bhatti, A.; Bland, K. R.; Blumenfeld, B.; Bocci, A.; Bodek, A.; Bortoletto, D.; Boudreau, J.; Boveia, A.; Brigliadori, L.; Bromberg, C.; Brucken, E.; Budagov, J.; Budd, H. S.; Burkett, K.; Busetto, G.; Bussey, P.; Butti, P.; Buzatu, A.; Calamba, A.; Camarda, S.; Campanelli, M.; Canelli, F.; Carls, B.; Carlsmith, D.; Carosi, R.; Carrillo, S.; Casal, B.; Casarsa, M.; Castro, A.; Catastini, P.; Cauz, D.; Cavaliere, V.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Cerri, A.; Cerrito, L.; Chen, Y. C.; Chertok, M.; Chiarelli, G.; Chlachidze, G.; Cho, K.; Chokheli, D.; Clark, A.; Clarke, C.; Convery, M. E.; Conway, J.; Corbo, M.; Cordelli, M.; Cox, C. A.; Cox, D. J.; Cremonesi, M.; Cruz, D.; Cuevas, J.; Culbertson, R.; d’Ascenzo, N.; Datta, M.; De Barbaro, P.; Demortier, L.; Deninno, M.; Devoto, F.; d’Errico, M.; Di Canto, A.; Di Ruzza, B.; Dittmann, J. R.; D’Onofrio, M.; Donati, S.; Dorigo, M.; Driutti, A.; Ebina, K.; Edgar, R.; Elagin, A.; Erbacher, R.; Errede, S.; Esham, B.; Eusebi, R.; Farrington, S.; Fernández Ramos, J. P.; Field, R.; Flanagan, G.; Forrest, R.; Franklin, M.; Freeman, J. C.; Frisch, H.; Funakoshi, Y.; Garfinkel, A. F.; Garosi, P.; Gerberich, H.; Gerchtein, E.; Giagu, S.; Giakoumopoulou, V.; Gibson, K.; Ginsburg, C. M.; Giokaris, N.; Giromini, P.; Giurgiu, G.; Glagolev, V.; Glenzinski, D.; Gold, M.; Goldin, D.; Golossanov, A.; Gomez, G.; Gomez-Ceballos, G.; Goncharov, M.; González López, O.; Gorelov, I.; Goshaw, A. T.; Goulianos, K.; Gramellini, E.; Grinstein, S.; Grosso-Pilcher, C.; Group, R. C.; Guimaraes da Costa, J.; Hahn, S. R.; Han, J. Y.; Happacher, F.; Hara, K.; Hare, M.; Harr, R. F.; Harrington-Taber, T.; Hatakeyama, K.; Hays, C.; Heinrich, J.; Herndon, M.; Hocker, A.; Hong, Z.; Hopkins, W.; Hou, S.; Hughes, R. E.; Husemann, U.; Huston, J.; Introzzi, G.; Iori, M.; Ivanov, A.; James, E.; Jang, D.; Jayatilaka, B.; Jeon, E. J.; Jindariani, S.; Jones, M.; Joo, K. K.; Jun, S. Y.; Junk, T. R.; Kambeitz, M.; Kamon, T.; Karchin, P. E.; Kasmi, A.; Kato, Y.; Ketchum, W.; Keung, J.; Kilminster, B.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, H. S.; Kim, J. E.; Kim, M. J.; Kim, S. B.; Kim, S. H.; Kim, Y. K.; Kim, Y. J.; Kimura, N.; Kirby, M.; Knoepfel, K.; Kondo, K.; Kong, D. J.; Konigsberg, J.; Kotwal, A. V.; Kreps, M.; Kroll, J.; Kruse, M.; Kuhr, T.; Kurata, M.; Laasanen, A. T.; Lammel, S.; Lancaster, M.; Lannon, K.; Latino, G.; Lee, H. S.; Lee, J. S.; Leone, S.; Lewis, J. D.; Limosani, A.; Lipeles, E.; Liu, H.; Liu, Q.; Liu, T.; Lockwitz, S.; Loginov, A.; Lucchesi, D.; Lueck, J.; Lujan, P.; Lukens, P.; Lungu, G.; Lys, J.; Lysak, R.; Madrak, R.; Maestro, P.; Malik, S.; Manca, G.; Manousakis-Katsikakis, A.; Margaroli, F.; Marino, P.; Martínez, M.; Matera, K.; Mattson, M. E.; Mazzacane, A.; Mazzanti, P.; McNulty, R.; Mehta, A.; Mehtala, P.; Mesropian, C.; Miao, T.; Mietlicki, D.; Mitra, A.; Miyake, H.; Moed, S.; Moggi, N.; Moon, C. S.; Moore, R.; Morello, M. J.; Mukherjee, A.; Muller, Th.; Murat, P.; Mussini, M.; Nachtman, J.; Nagai, Y.; Naganoma, J.; Nakano, I.; Napier, A.; Nett, J.; Neu, C.; Nigmanov, T.; Nodulman, L.; Noh, S. Y.; Norniella, O.; Oakes, L.; Oh, S. H.; Oh, Y. D.; Oksuzian, I.; Okusawa, T.; Orava, R.; Ortolan, L.; Pagliarone, C.; Palencia, E.; Palni, P.; Papadimitriou, V.; Parker, W.; Pauletta, G.; Paulini, M.; Paus, C.; Phillips, T. J.; Piacentino, G.; Pianori, E.; Pilot, J.; Pitts, K.; Plager, C.; Pondrom, L.; Poprocki, S.; Potamianos, K.; Prokoshin, F.; Pranko, A.; Ptohos, F.; Punzi, G.; Ranjan, N.; Redondo Fernández, I.; Renton, P.; Rescigno, M.; Riddick, T.; Rimondi, F.; Ristori, L.; Robson, A.; Rodriguez, T.; Rolli, S.; Ronzani, M.; Roser, R.; Rosner, J. L.; Ruffini, F.; Ruiz, A.; Russ, J.; Rusu, V.; Safonov, A.; Sakumoto, W. K.; Sakurai, Y.; Santi, L.; Sato, K.; Saveliev, V.; Savoy-Navarro, A.; Schlabach, P.; Schmidt, E. E.; Schwarz, T.; Scodellaro, L.; Seidel, S.; Seiya, Y.; Semenov, A.; Sforza, F.; Shalhout, S. Z.; Shears, T.; Shepard, P. F.; Shimojima, M.; Shochet, M.; Shreyber-Tecker, I.; Simonenko, A.; Sinervo, P.; Sliwa, K.; Smith, J. R.; Snider, F. D.; Sorin, V.; Song, H.; Stancari, M.; St. Denis, R.; Stelzer, B.; Stelzer-Chilton, O.; Stentz, D.; Strologas, J.; Sudo, Y.; Sukhanov, A.; Suslov, I.; Takemasa, K.; Takeuchi, Y.; Tang, J.; Tecchio, M.; Teng, P. K.; Thom, J.; Thomson, E.; Thukral, V.; Toback, D.; Tokar, S.; Tollefson, K.; Tomura, T.; Tonelli, D.; Torre, S.; Torretta, D.; Totaro, P.; Trovato, M.; Ukegawa, F.; Uozumi, S.; Vázquez, F.; Velev, G.; Vellidis, C.; Vernieri, C.; Vidal, M.; Vilar, R.; Vizán, J.; Vogel, M.; Volpi, G.; Wagner, P.; Wallny, R.; Wang, S. M.; Warburton, A.; Waters, D.; Wester, W. C.; Whiteson, D.; Wicklund, A. B.; Wilbur, S.; Williams, H. H.; Wilson, J. S.; Wilson, P.; Winer, B. L.; Wittich, P.; Wolbers, S.; Wolfe, H.; Wright, T.; Wu, X.; Wu, Z.; Yamamoto, K.; Yamato, D.; Yang, T.; Yang, U. K.; Yang, Y. C.; Yao, W. -M.; Yeh, G. P.; Yi, K.; Yoh, J.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, T.; Yu, G. B.; Yu, I.; Zanetti, A. M.; Zeng, Y.; Zhou, C.; Zucchelli, S.

    2016-08-23

    We present a measurement of the total WW and WZ production cross sections in $p\\bar{p}$ collision at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 1.96 TeV, in a final state consistent with leptonic W boson decay and jets originating from heavy-flavor quarks from either a W or a Z boson decay. This analysis uses the full data set collected with the CDF II detector during Run II of the Tevatron collider, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 9.4 fb-1. An analysis of the dijet mass spectrum provides 3.7σ evidence of the summed production processes of either WW or WZ bosons with a measured total cross section of σWW+WZ = 13.7±3.9 pb. Independent measurements of the WW and WZ production cross sections are allowed by the different heavy-flavor decay patterns of the W and Z bosons and by the analysis of secondary-decay vertices reconstructed within heavy-flavor jets. The productions of WW and of WZ dibosons are independently seen with significances of 2.9σ and 2.1σ, respectively, with total cross sections of σWW = 9.4±4.2 pb and σWZ = 3.7$+2.5\\atop{-2.2}$ pb. Lastly, the measurements are consistent with standard-model predictions.

  4. Measurement of the WW and WZ production cross section using final states with a charged lepton and heavy-flavor jets in the full CDF Run II data set

    SciTech Connect

    Aaltonen, T.; Amerio, S.; Amidei, D.; Anastassov, A.; Annovi, A.; Antos, J.; Apollinari, G.; Appel, J. A.; Arisawa, T.; Artikov, A.; Asaadi, J.; Ashmanskas, W.; Auerbach, B.; Aurisano, A.; Azfar, F.; Badgett, W.; Bae, T.; Barbaro-Galtieri, A.; Barnes, V. E.; Barnett, B. A.; Barria, P.; Bartos, P.; Bauce, M.; Bedeschi, F.; Behari, S.; Bellettini, G.; Bellinger, J.; Benjamin, D.; Beretvas, A.; Bhatti, A.; Bland, K. R.; Blumenfeld, B.; Bocci, A.; Bodek, A.; Bortoletto, D.; Boudreau, J.; Boveia, A.; Brigliadori, L.; Bromberg, C.; Brucken, E.; Budagov, J.; Budd, H. S.; Burkett, K.; Busetto, G.; Bussey, P.; Butti, P.; Buzatu, A.; Calamba, A.; Camarda, S.; Campanelli, M.; Canelli, F.; Carls, B.; Carlsmith, D.; Carosi, R.; Carrillo, S.; Casal, B.; Casarsa, M.; Castro, A.; Catastini, P.; Cauz, D.; Cavaliere, V.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Cerri, A.; Cerrito, L.; Chen, Y. C.; Chertok, M.; Chiarelli, G.; Chlachidze, G.; Cho, K.; Chokheli, D.; Clark, A.; Clarke, C.; Convery, M. E.; Conway, J.; Corbo, M.; Cordelli, M.; Cox, C. A.; Cox, D. J.; Cremonesi, M.; Cruz, D.; Cuevas, J.; Culbertson, R.; d’Ascenzo, N.; Datta, M.; De Barbaro, P.; Demortier, L.; Deninno, M.; Devoto, F.; d’Errico, M.; Di Canto, A.; Di Ruzza, B.; Dittmann, J. R.; D’Onofrio, M.; Donati, S.; Dorigo, M.; Driutti, A.; Ebina, K.; Edgar, R.; Elagin, A.; Erbacher, R.; Errede, S.; Esham, B.; Eusebi, R.; Farrington, S.; Fernández Ramos, J. P.; Field, R.; Flanagan, G.; Forrest, R.; Franklin, M.; Freeman, J. C.; Frisch, H.; Funakoshi, Y.; Garfinkel, A. F.; Garosi, P.; Gerberich, H.; Gerchtein, E.; Giagu, S.; Giakoumopoulou, V.; Gibson, K.; Ginsburg, C. M.; Giokaris, N.; Giromini, P.; Giurgiu, G.; Glagolev, V.; Glenzinski, D.; Gold, M.; Goldin, D.; Golossanov, A.; Gomez, G.; Gomez-Ceballos, G.; Goncharov, M.; González López, O.; Gorelov, I.; Goshaw, A. T.; Goulianos, K.; Gramellini, E.; Grinstein, S.; Grosso-Pilcher, C.; Group, R. C.; Guimaraes da Costa, J.; Hahn, S. R.; Han, J. Y.; Happacher, F.; Hara, K.; Hare, M.; Harr, R. F.; Harrington-Taber, T.; Hatakeyama, K.; Hays, C.; Heinrich, J.; Herndon, M.; Hocker, A.; Hong, Z.; Hopkins, W.; Hou, S.; Hughes, R. E.; Husemann, U.; Huston, J.; Introzzi, G.; Iori, M.; Ivanov, A.; James, E.; Jang, D.; Jayatilaka, B.; Jeon, E. J.; Jindariani, S.; Jones, M.; Joo, K. K.; Jun, S. Y.; Junk, T. R.; Kambeitz, M.; Kamon, T.; Karchin, P. E.; Kasmi, A.; Kato, Y.; Ketchum, W.; Keung, J.; Kilminster, B.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, H. S.; Kim, J. E.; Kim, M. J.; Kim, S. B.; Kim, S. H.; Kim, Y. K.; Kim, Y. J.; Kimura, N.; Kirby, M.; Knoepfel, K.; Kondo, K.; Kong, D. J.; Konigsberg, J.; Kotwal, A. V.; Kreps, M.; Kroll, J.; Kruse, M.; Kuhr, T.; Kurata, M.; Laasanen, A. T.; Lammel, S.; Lancaster, M.; Lannon, K.; Latino, G.; Lee, H. S.; Lee, J. S.; Leone, S.; Lewis, J. D.; Limosani, A.; Lipeles, E.; Liu, H.; Liu, Q.; Liu, T.; Lockwitz, S.; Loginov, A.; Lucchesi, D.; Lueck, J.; Lujan, P.; Lukens, P.; Lungu, G.; Lys, J.; Lysak, R.; Madrak, R.; Maestro, P.; Malik, S.; Manca, G.; Manousakis-Katsikakis, A.; Margaroli, F.; Marino, P.; Martínez, M.; Matera, K.; Mattson, M. E.; Mazzacane, A.; Mazzanti, P.; McNulty, R.; Mehta, A.; Mehtala, P.; Mesropian, C.; Miao, T.; Mietlicki, D.; Mitra, A.; Miyake, H.; Moed, S.; Moggi, N.; Moon, C. S.; Moore, R.; Morello, M. J.; Mukherjee, A.; Muller, Th.; Murat, P.; Mussini, M.; Nachtman, J.; Nagai, Y.; Naganoma, J.; Nakano, I.; Napier, A.; Nett, J.; Neu, C.; Nigmanov, T.; Nodulman, L.; Noh, S. Y.; Norniella, O.; Oakes, L.; Oh, S. H.; Oh, Y. D.; Oksuzian, I.; Okusawa, T.; Orava, R.; Ortolan, L.; Pagliarone, C.; Palencia, E.; Palni, P.; Papadimitriou, V.; Parker, W.; Pauletta, G.; Paulini, M.; Paus, C.; Phillips, T. J.; Piacentino, G.; Pianori, E.; Pilot, J.; Pitts, K.; Plager, C.; Pondrom, L.; Poprocki, S.; Potamianos, K.; Prokoshin, F.; Pranko, A.; Ptohos, F.; Punzi, G.; Ranjan, N.; Redondo Fernández, I.; Renton, P.; Rescigno, M.; Riddick, T.; Rimondi, F.; Ristori, L.; Robson, A.; Rodriguez, T.; Rolli, S.; Ronzani, M.; Roser, R.; Rosner, J. L.; Ruffini, F.; Ruiz, A.; Russ, J.; Rusu, V.; Safonov, A.; Sakumoto, W. K.; Sakurai, Y.; Santi, L.; Sato, K.; Saveliev, V.; Savoy-Navarro, A.; Schlabach, P.; Schmidt, E. E.; Schwarz, T.; Scodellaro, L.; Seidel, S.; Seiya, Y.; Semenov, A.; Sforza, F.; Shalhout, S. Z.; Shears, T.; Shepard, P. F.; Shimojima, M.; Shochet, M.; Shreyber-Tecker, I.; Simonenko, A.; Sinervo, P.; Sliwa, K.; Smith, J. R.; Snider, F. D.; Sorin, V.; Song, H.; Stancari, M.; St. Denis, R.; Stelzer, B.; Stelzer-Chilton, O.; Stentz, D.; Strologas, J.; Sudo, Y.; Sukhanov, A.; Suslov, I.; Takemasa, K.; Takeuchi, Y.; Tang, J.; Tecchio, M.; Teng, P. K.; Thom, J.; Thomson, E.; Thukral, V.; Toback, D.; Tokar, S.; Tollefson, K.; Tomura, T.; Tonelli, D.; Torre, S.; Torretta, D.; Totaro, P.; Trovato, M.; Ukegawa, F.; Uozumi, S.; Vázquez, F.; Velev, G.; Vellidis, C.; Vernieri, C.; Vidal, M.; Vilar, R.; Vizán, J.; Vogel, M.; Volpi, G.; Wagner, P.; Wallny, R.; Wang, S. M.; Warburton, A.; Waters, D.; Wester, W. C.; Whiteson, D.; Wicklund, A. B.; Wilbur, S.; Williams, H. H.; Wilson, J. S.; Wilson, P.; Winer, B. L.; Wittich, P.; Wolbers, S.; Wolfe, H.; Wright, T.; Wu, X.; Wu, Z.; Yamamoto, K.; Yamato, D.; Yang, T.; Yang, U. K.; Yang, Y. C.; Yao, W. -M.; Yeh, G. P.; Yi, K.; Yoh, J.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, T.; Yu, G. B.; Yu, I.; Zanetti, A. M.; Zeng, Y.; Zhou, C.; Zucchelli, S.

    2016-08-23

    We present a measurement of the total WW and WZ production cross sections in $p\\bar{p}$ collision at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 1.96 TeV, in a final state consistent with leptonic W boson decay and jets originating from heavy-flavor quarks from either a W or a Z boson decay. This analysis uses the full data set collected with the CDF II detector during Run II of the Tevatron collider, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 9.4 fb-1. An analysis of the dijet mass spectrum provides 3.7σ evidence of the summed production processes of either WW or WZ bosons with a measured total cross section of σWW+WZ = 13.7±3.9 pb. Independent measurements of the WW and WZ production cross sections are allowed by the different heavy-flavor decay patterns of the W and Z bosons and by the analysis of secondary-decay vertices reconstructed within heavy-flavor jets. The productions of WW and of WZ dibosons are independently seen with significances of 2.9σ and 2.1σ, respectively, with total cross sections of σWW = 9.4±4.2 pb and σWZ = 3.7$+2.5\\atop{-2.2}$ pb. Lastly, the measurements are consistent with standard-model predictions.

  5. Blinded by the Jets

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2005-07-04

    This image shows the view from NASA Deep Impact probe 30 minutes before it was pummeled by comet Tempel 1. The picture brightness has been enhanced to show the jets of dust streaming away from the comet.

  6. Counterflowing Jet Subsystem Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farr, Rebecca; Daso, Endwell; Pritchett, Victor; Wang, Ten-See

    2010-01-01

    A counterflowing jet design (a spacecraft and trans-atmospheric subsystem) employs centrally located, supersonic cold gas jets on the face of the vehicle, ejecting into the oncoming free stream. Depending on the supersonic free-stream conditions and the ejected mass flow rate of the counterflowing jets, the bow shock of the vehicle is moved upstream, further away from the vehicle. This results in an increasing shock standoff distance of the bow shock with a progressively weaker shock. At a critical jet mass flow rate, the bow shock becomes so weak that it is transformed into a series of compression waves spread out in a much wider region, thus significantly modifying the flow that wets the outer surfaces, with an attendant reduction in wave and skin friction drag and aerothermal loads.

  7. Astrophysics: Cosmic jet engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Andy

    2010-02-01

    In some galaxies, matter falling onto a supermassive black hole is ejected in narrow jets moving at close to the speed of light. New observations provide insight into the workings of these cosmic accelerators.

  8. Undercover Jet Exposed

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-04-04

    This image layout shows two views of the same baby star from NASA Spitzer Space Telescope. Spitzer view shows that this star has a second, identical jet shooting off in the opposite direction of the first.

  9. Dilution jet mixing program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srinivasan, R.; Coleman, E.; Johnson, K.

    1984-01-01

    Parametric tests were conducted to quantify the mixing of opposed rows of jets (two-sided injection) in a confined cross flow. Results show that jet penetrations for two sided injections are less than that for single-sided injections, but the jet spreading rates are faster for a given momentum ratio and orifice plate. Flow area convergence generally enhances mixing. Mixing characteristics with asymmetric and symmetric convergence are similar. For constant momentum ratio, the optimum S/H(0) with in-line injections is one half the optimum value for single sided injections. For staggered injections, the optimum S/H(0) is twice the optimum value for single-sided injection. The correlations developed predicted the temperature distributions within first order accuracy and provide a useful tool for predicting jet trajectory and temperature profiles in the dilution zone with two-sided injections.

  10. Jet propulsion for airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckingham, Edgar

    1924-01-01

    This report is a description of a method of propelling airplanes by the reaction of jet propulsion. Air is compressed and mixed with fuel in a combustion chamber, where the mixture burns at constant pressure. The combustion products issue through a nozzle, and the reaction of that of the motor-driven air screw. The computations are outlined and the results given by tables and curves. The relative fuel consumption and weight of machinery for the jet, decrease as the flying speed increases; but at 250 miles per hour the jet would still take about four times as much fuel per thrust horsepower-hour as the air screw, and the power plant would be heavier and much more complicated. Propulsion by the reaction of a simple jet can not compete with air screw propulsion at such flying speeds as are now in prospect.

  11. Multiwavelength Observations of AGN Jets: Untangling the Coupled Problems of Emission Mechanism and Jet Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perlman, Eric S.; Avachat, Sayali S.; Clautice, Devon; Georganopoulos, Markos; Meyer, Eileen; Cara, Mihai

    2016-04-01

    The discovery of X-ray and optical emission from large numbers of AGN jets is one of the key legacies of the Chandra X-ray Observatory and Hubble Space Telescope. Several dozen optical and X-ray emitting jets are now known, most of which are seen in both bands as well as in the radio, where they were first discovered. Jets carry prodigious amounts of energy and mass out from the nuclear regions out to tens to hundreds of kiloparsecs distant from the central black hole, depositing it into the host galaxy and cluster. Interpreting their multiwavelength emissions has not been easy: while in most jets, the optical and radio emission in many objects is believed to emerge via the synchrotron process, due to its characteristic spectral shape and high radio polarization, the X-ray emission has been a tougher nut to crack. In less powerful, FR I jets, such as M87, the X-ray emission is believed to be synchrotron emission from the highest energy electrons, requiring in situ particle acceleration due to the short radiative lifetimes of the particles. However, in FR II and quasar jets, a variety of emission mechanisms are possible. Until the last few years, the leading interpretation had been inverse-Comptonization of Cosmic Microwave Background photons (the IC/CMB mechanism). This requires the jet to be relativistic out to hundreds of kiloparsecs from the nucleus, and requires an electron spectrum that extends to very low Lorentz factors. However, that now appears less likely, due to observed high optical polarizations in jets where the optical and X-ray emission appears to lie on the same spectral component, as well as limits derived from Fermi observations in the GeV gamma-rays. It now appears more likely that the X-rays must arise as synchrotron emission from a second, high energy electron population. With this revelation, we must tackle anew the coupling between jet structure and emission mechanisms. Multiwavelength imaging and polarimetry can give us clues to the

  12. Radiation from Relativistic Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nishikawa, K.-I.; Mizuno, Y.; Hardee, P.; Sol, H.; Medvedev, M.; Zhang, B.; Nordlund, A.; Frederiksen, J. T.; Fishman, G. J.; Preece, R.

    2008-01-01

    Nonthermal radiation observed from astrophysical systems containing relativistic jets and shocks, e.g., gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), active galactic nuclei (AGNs), and Galactic microquasar systems usually have power-law emission spectra. Recent PIC simulations of relativistic electron-ion (electron-positron) jets injected into a stationary medium show that particle acceleration occurs within the downstream jet. In the presence of relativistic jets, instabilities such as the Buneman instability, other two-streaming instability, and the Weibel (filamentation) instability create collisionless shocks, which are responsible for particle (electron, positron, and ion) acceleration. The simulation results show that the Weibel instability is responsible for generating and amplifying highly nonuniform, small-scale magnetic fields. These magnetic fields contribute to the electron's transverse deflection behind the jet head. The 'jitter' radiation from deflected electrons in small-scale magnetic fields has different properties than synchrotron radiation which is calculated in a uniform magnetic field. This jitter radiation, a case of diffusive synchrotron radiation, may be important to understand the complex time evolution and/or spectral structure in gamma-ray bursts, relativistic jets, and supernova remnants.

  13. Relativistic Jets from Collapsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aloy, M. A.; Müller, E.; Ibáñez, J. M.; Martí, J. M.; MacFadyen, A.

    2000-03-01

    Using a collapsar progenitor model of MacFadyen & Woosley, we have simulated the propagation of an axisymmetric jet through a collapsing rotating massive star with the GENESIS multidimensional relativistic hydrodynamic code. The jet forms as a consequence of an assumed (constant or variable) energy deposition in the range of 1050-1051 ergs s-1 within a 30 deg cone around the rotation axis. The jet flow is strongly beamed (approximately less than a few degrees), spatially inhomogeneous, and time dependent. The jet reaches the surface of the stellar progenitor (R*=2.98x1010 cm) intact. At breakout, the maximum Lorentz factor of the jet flow is 33. After breakout, the jet accelerates into the circumstellar medium, whose density is assumed to decrease exponentially and then become constant, ρext=10-5 g cm-3. Outside the star, the flow begins to expand laterally also (v~c), but the beam remains very well collimated. At a distance of 2.54 R*, where the simulation ends, the Lorentz factor has increased to 44.

  14. Axisymmetric wall jet development in confined jet impingement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Tianqi; Rau, Matthew J.; Vlachos, Pavlos P.; Garimella, Suresh V.

    2017-02-01

    The flow field surrounding an axisymmetric, confined, impinging jet was investigated with a focus on the early development of the triple-layered wall jet structure. Experiments were conducted using stereo particle image velocimetry at three different confinement gap heights (2, 4, and 8 jet diameters) across Reynolds numbers ranging from 1000 to 9000. The rotating flow structures within the confinement region and their interaction with the surrounding flow were dependent on the confinement gap height and Reynolds number. The recirculation core shifted downstream as the Reynolds number increased. For the smallest confinement gap height investigated, the strong recirculation caused a disruption of the wall jet development. The radial position of the recirculation core observed at this small gap height was found to coincide with the location where the maximum wall jet velocity had decayed to 15% of the impinging jet exit velocity. After this point, the self-similarity hypothesis failed to predict the evolution of the wall jet further downstream. A reduction in confinement gap height increased the growth rates of the wall jet thickness but did not affect the decay rate of the wall jet maximum velocity. For jet Reynolds numbers above 2500, the decay rate of the maximum velocity in the developing region of the wall jet was approximately -1.1, which is close to previous results reported for the fully developed region of radial wall jets. A much higher decay rate of -1.5 was found for the wall jet formed by a laminar impinging jet at Re = 1000.

  15. Discovery of MK-3168: A PET Tracer for Imaging Brain Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    We report herein the discovery of a fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) positron emission tomography (PET) tracer. Starting from a pyrazole lead, medicinal chemistry efforts directed toward reducing lipophilicity led to the synthesis of a series of imidazole analogues. Compound 6 was chosen for further profiling due to its appropriate physical chemical properties and excellent FAAH inhibition potency across species. [11C]-6 (MK-3168) exhibited good brain uptake and FAAH-specific signal in rhesus monkeys and is a suitable PET tracer for imaging FAAH in the brain. PMID:24900701

  16. An atlas of southern MK standards from 5800 to 10200 A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danks, Anthony C.; Dennefeld, Michel

    1994-01-01

    An atlas of stellar spectra covering the wavelength range from 5800 to 10,200 A is presented of 126 southern MK standard stars, covering the luminosity classes I, III, and V. Some peculiar stars are included for comparison purposes. The spectra were obtained at a resolution of 4.3 A per pixel using a Cassegrain-mounted Boller and Chivens spectrograph equipped with a Reticon detector. The quality and utility of the data are discussed and examples of the spectra are presented. The atlas is available in digital format through the NSSDC.

  17. Unusual pyrimidine participation: efficient stereoselective synthesis of potent dual orexin receptor antagonist MK-6096.

    PubMed

    Chung, John Y L; Zhong, Yong-Li; Maloney, Kevin M; Reamer, Robert A; Moore, Jeffrey C; Strotman, Hallena; Kalinin, Alexei; Feng, Ronnie; Strotman, Neil A; Xiang, Bangping; Yasuda, Nobuyoshi

    2014-11-21

    An asymmetric synthesis of dual orexin receptor antagonist MK-6096 (1) is described. Key steps for the trans-2,5-disubstituted piperidinyl ether fragment include a biocatalytic transamination, a trans-selective Mukaiyama aldol, and a regioselective pyridyl SNAr process. The pyrimidyl benzoic acid was synthesized via a Negishi coupling and a nitrile hydrolysis. Coupling of the two fragments via a catalytic T3P-mediated amidation completed the synthesis. Unusual behaviors in the hydrolysis of pyrimidyl benzonitrile and the amide coupling of the pyrimidyl benzoic acid are also described.

  18. High-precision resistance measurements on amorphous CuTi down to 15 mK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, R.; Pratt, W. P., Jr.; Greig, D.

    1992-11-01

    We have developed a new method for making high-precision resistance measurements on amorphous-metal ribbons with very reliable thermometry down to 15 mK. In our technique the measuring current flows perpendicular to the plane of the metal ribbon and potassium metal is used to thermally anchor the ribbon to the thermometers and refrigerator. We have been able to obtain very good fits of the weak-localization and enhanced electron-electron interaction theories to the CuTi data in zero field.

  19. The intelligibility of speech presented over the telephones of the Mk 4 flying helmet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cogger, M. K.

    1980-03-01

    The intelligibility of speech presented over the earphones of the Mk 4 flying helmet was assessed using the procedure laid down in the Type Test Schedule. Results obtained using three phonetically balanced word lists presented to six subjects on two occasions indicate that speech intelligibility reaches 80 percent, the criterion of acceptability laid down in the schedule. Frequency response curves for the transducer earpiece assemblies of the helmet are given. The total harmonic distortion of the equipment used to present the spoken word lists is shown.

  20. Discovery of MK-3168: A PET Tracer for Imaging Brain Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ping; Hamill, Terence G; Chioda, Marc; Chobanian, Harry; Fung, Selena; Guo, Yan; Chang, Linda; Bakshi, Raman; Hong, Qingmei; Dellureficio, James; Lin, Linus S; Abbadie, Catherine; Alexander, Jessica; Jin, Hong; Mandala, Suzanne; Shiao, Lin-Lin; Li, Wenping; Sanabria, Sandra; Williams, David; Zeng, Zhizhen; Hajdu, Richard; Jochnowitz, Nina; Rosenbach, Mark; Karanam, Bindhu; Madeira, Maria; Salituro, Gino; Powell, Joyce; Xu, Ling; Terebetski, Jenna L; Leone, Joseph F; Miller, Patricia; Cook, Jacquelynn; Holahan, Marie; Joshi, Aniket; O'Malley, Stacey; Purcell, Mona; Posavec, Diane; Chen, Tsing-Bau; Riffel, Kerry; Williams, Mangay; Hargreaves, Richard; Sullivan, Kathleen A; Nargund, Ravi P; DeVita, Robert J

    2013-06-13

    We report herein the discovery of a fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) positron emission tomography (PET) tracer. Starting from a pyrazole lead, medicinal chemistry efforts directed toward reducing lipophilicity led to the synthesis of a series of imidazole analogues. Compound 6 was chosen for further profiling due to its appropriate physical chemical properties and excellent FAAH inhibition potency across species. [(11)C]-6 (MK-3168) exhibited good brain uptake and FAAH-specific signal in rhesus monkeys and is a suitable PET tracer for imaging FAAH in the brain.

  1. On the stability and energy dissipation in magnetized radio galaxy jets.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bromberg, Omer; Tchekhovskoy, Alexander

    2016-07-01

    It is commonly accepted that the relativistic jets observed in radio galaxies are launched magnetically and are powered by the rotational energy of the central supermassive black hole. Such jets carry most of their energy in the form of electromagnetic Poynting flux. However by the time the ejecta reach the emission zone most of that energy is transferred to relativistic motions of the jet material with a large fraction given to non-thermal particles, which calls for an efficient dissipation mechanism to work within the jet without compromising its integrity. Understanding the energy dissipation mechanisms and stability of Poynting flux dominated jets is therefore crucial for modeling these astrophysical objects. In this talk I will present the first self consistent 3D simulations of the formation and propagation of highly magnetized (σ ˜25), relativistic jets in a medium. We find that the jets develop two types of instability: i) a local, "internal" kink mode which efficiently dissipates half of the magnetic energy into heat, and ii) a global "external" mode that grows on longer time scales and causes the jets to bend sideways and wobble. Low power jets propagating in media with flat density profiles, such as galaxy cluster cores, are susceptible to the global mode, and develop FRI like morphology. High power jets remain stable as they cross the cores, break out and accelerate to large distances, appearing as FRII jets. Thus magnetic kink instability can account for both the magnetic energy dissipation and the population dichotomy in radio galaxy jets.

  2. Temperature and density structure of a recurring active region jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulay, Sargam M.; Zanna, Giulio Del; Mason, Helen

    2017-02-01

    Aims: We present a study of a recurring jet observed on October 31, 2011 by the Atmosphereic Imaging Assembly (AIA) on board the Solar Dynamic Observatory, the X-ray Telescope (XRT) and EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) on board Hinode. We discuss the physical parameters of the jet that are obtained using imaging and spectroscopic observations, such as density, differential emission measure, peak temperature, velocity, and filling factor. Methods: A differential emission measure (DEM) analysis was performed at the region of the jet spire and the footpoint using EIS observations and also by combining AIA and XRT observations. The resulting EIS DEM curves were compared to those obtained with AIA-XRT. The DEM curves were used to create synthetic spectra with the CHIANTI atomic database. The predicted total count rates for each AIA channel were compared with the observed count rates. The effects of varying elemental abundances and the temperature range for the DEM inversion were investigated. Spectroscopic diagnostics were used to obtain an electron number density distribution for the jet spire and the jet footpoint. Results: The plasma along the line of sight in the jet spire and jet footpoint was found to be peak at 2.0 MK (log T [K] = 6.3). We calculated electron densities using the Fe XII (λ186/λ195) line ratio in the region of the spire (Ne = 7.6 × 1010 cm-3) and the footpoint (1.1 × 1011 cm-3). The plane-of-sky velocity of the jet is found to be 524 km s-1. The resulting EIS DEM values are in good agreement with those obtained from AIA-XRT. The synthetic spectra contributing to each AIA channel confirms the multi-thermal nature of the AIA channels in both regions. There is no indication of high temperatures, such as emission from Fe XVII (λ254.87) (log T [K] = 6.75) seen in the jet spire. In the case of the jet footpoint, synthetic spectra predict weak contributions from Ca XVII (λ192.85) and Fe XVII (λ254.87). With further investigation, we confirmed

  3. Subchronic Exposure to Arsenic Represses the TH/TRβ1-CaMK IV Signaling Pathway in Mouse Cerebellum

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Huai; Li, Shuangyue; Guo, Yanjie; Liu, Xiaofeng; Yang, Yi; Guo, Jinqiu; Li, Sheng; Zhang, Cong; Shang, Lixin; Piao, Fengyuan

    2016-01-01

    We previously reported that arsenic (As) impaired learning and memory by down-regulating calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV (CaMK IV) in mouse cerebellum. It has been documented that the thyroid hormone receptor (TR)/retinoid X receptor (RXR) heterodimer and thyroid hormone (TH) may be involved in the regulation of CaMK IV. To investigate whether As affects the TR/RXR heterodimer and TH, we determined As concentration in serum and cerebellum, 3,5,3’-triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxin (T4) levels in serum, and expression of CaMK IV, TR and RXR in cerebellum of mice exposed to As. Cognition function was examined by the step-down passive avoidance task and Morris water maze (MWM) tests. Morphology of the cerebellum was observed by Hematoxylin-Eosin staining under light microscope. Our results showed that the concentrations of As in the serum and cerebellum of mice both increased with increasing As-exposure level. A significant positive correlation was found between the two processes. Adeficit in learning and memory was found in the exposed mice. Abnormal morphologic changes of Purkinje cells were observed in cerebellum of the exposed mice. Moreover, the cerebellar expressions of CaMK IV protein and the TRβ gene, and TRβ1 protein were significantly lower in As-exposed mice than those in controls. Subchronic exposure to As appears to increase its level in serum and cerebella of mice, impairing learning and memory and down-regulating expression of TRβ1 as well as down-stream CaMK IV. It is also suggested that the increased As may be responsible for down-regulation of TRβ1 and CaMK IV in cerebellum and that the down-regulated TRβ1 may be involved in As-induced impairment of learning and memory via inhibiting CaMK IV and its down-stream pathway. PMID:26821021

  4. Subchronic Exposure to Arsenic Represses the TH/TRβ1-CaMK IV Signaling Pathway in Mouse Cerebellum.

    PubMed

    Guan, Huai; Li, Shuangyue; Guo, Yanjie; Liu, Xiaofeng; Yang, Yi; Guo, Jinqiu; Li, Sheng; Zhang, Cong; Shang, Lixin; Piao, Fengyuan

    2016-01-26

    We previously reported that arsenic (As) impaired learning and memory by down-regulating calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV (CaMK IV) in mouse cerebellum. It has been documented that the thyroid hormone receptor (TR)/retinoid X receptor (RXR) heterodimer and thyroid hormone (TH) may be involved in the regulation of CaMK IV. To investigate whether As affects the TR/RXR heterodimer and TH, we determined As concentration in serum and cerebellum, 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxin (T4) levels in serum, and expression of CaMK IV, TR and RXR in cerebellum of mice exposed to As. Cognition function was examined by the step-down passive avoidance task and Morris water maze (MWM) tests. Morphology of the cerebellum was observed by Hematoxylin-Eosin staining under light microscope. Our results showed that the concentrations of As in the serum and cerebellum of mice both increased with increasing As-exposure level. A significant positive correlation was found between the two processes. Adeficit in learning and memory was found in the exposed mice. Abnormal morphologic changes of Purkinje cells were observed in cerebellum of the exposed mice. Moreover, the cerebellar expressions of CaMK IV protein and the TRβ gene, and TRβ1 protein were significantly lower in As-exposed mice than those in controls. Subchronic exposure to As appears to increase its level in serum and cerebella of mice, impairing learning and memory and down-regulating expression of TRβ1 as well as down-stream CaMK IV. It is also suggested that the increased As may be responsible for down-regulation of TRβ1 and CaMK IV in cerebellum and that the down-regulated TRβ1 may be involved in As-induced impairment of learning and memory via inhibiting CaMK IV and its down-stream pathway.

  5. Inclusive jet production using the k_t algorithm at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Lefevre, R.; /Barcelona, IFAE

    2006-11-01

    This contribution presents preliminary results on the inclusive jet production in p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV. The measurements are carried out using the longitudinally invariant k{sub T} algorithm. The inclusive jet cross sections are measured as a function of the jet transverse momentum in five jet rapidity regions for jets in the ranges 54 < p{sub T}{sup jet} < 700 GeV/c and |y{sup jet}| < 2.1. The results are based on 1.0 fb{sup -1} of data collected at CDF during the Run II of the Tevatron. They are in good agreement with next-to-leading order perturbative QCD predictions after including the non-perturbative corrections necessary to account for underlying event and hadronization effects.

  6. Principles of free jets

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, D.R.

    1995-03-01

    The principles of the free jet expansion are well established and only a brief tutorial overview of selected concepts is presented below. Almost every important theoretical and/or experimental aspect of the free jet related to molecular beam sampling has appeared in one of the 19 International Symposium on Rarefied Gas Dynamics and many detailed reviews exist. The first stage of pressure reduction in a mass spectrometer sampling system is often simply an aperture or short capillary tube across which a significant pressure ratio is maintained. When this pressure ratio between the system being sampled and the first vacuum stage exceeds about two then the gas flow reaches sonic conditions at the exit, Mach number M = 1, and the exiting flow is known as {open_quotes}choked{close_quotes} flow. It is called choked because for fixed source conditions the mass flux out of the aperture will not exceed this M = 1 condition regardless of how low the exit chamber pressure is taken, ie how much pumping is added. Beyond the exit the gas expands in a supersonic free jet expansion as it adjusts to the low pressure in the exit chamber. The expansion is called a free jet because there are no diverging nozzle walls to constrain the flow, which would lead to viscous boundary layers and a much smaller rate of expansion. Diverging nozzle walls are used in rockets to direct the exiting flows along the axis for better forward thrust, and researchers use them to slow the rate of expansion to, for example, grow clusters or study fast kinetics. Only the free jet is dealt with here. The free jet nozzle only consists of the subsonic nozzle geometry. The nozzle exit to be referred to here is then just the aperture or capillary exit, and the free jet expansion is the unconstrained subsequent supersonic flow downstream of this nozzle exit.

  7. Luminescence of the disturbed upper atmosphere in the visible and infrared spectral ranges in the conditions of injection of a high-velocity plasma jet: II. Theoretical interpretation of the luminescence in the visible spectral range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlov, S. I.; Smirnova, N. V.; Loseva, T. V.; Lyakhov, A. N.; Kosarev, I. B.

    2008-12-01

    A theoretical interpretation is given to the experimental data on the luminescence in the visible spectral region of the disturbed upper atmosphere in the conditions of injection of a high-velocity aluminum plasma jet (the “Fluxus” experiment). Mathematical models of optical effects are presented. It is demonstrated that the results of the calculations and the experimental data agree satisfactorily. The principal physical and chemical processes responsible for the observed luminescence are determined.

  8. W/Z+ jets and Z p_t measurements at Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Y.S.; /Rochester U.

    2006-10-01

    The authors present a measurement of W/Z boson + jets production and Z p{sub T} measurement in the p{bar p} collisions at the Tevatron Collider at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV. The CDF II measures W + jets production based on 320 pb{sup -1} and the D0 Run II measures Z + jets with 950 pb{sup -1} data. The measurement of Z p{sub T} is performed with D0 Run II data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 960 pb{sup -1}. The measurement of W + jets is compared to the Leading Order Alpgen + Pythia prediction and the Z + jets is compared to Sherpa and Pythia Monte Carlo. The Z p{sub T} measurement is also compared to Resbos + Photos predictions.

  9. Impulsively started incompressible turbulent jet

    SciTech Connect

    Witze, P O

    1980-10-01

    Hot-film anemometer measurements are presented for the centerline velocity of a suddenly started jet of air. The tip penetration of the jet is shown to be proportional to the square-root of time. A theoretical model is developed that assumes the transient jet can be characterized as a spherical vortex interacting with a steady-state jet. The model demonstrates that the ratio of nozzle radius to jet velocity defines a time constant that uniquely characterizes the behavior and similarity of impulsively started incompressible turbulent jets.

  10. MK-801 is neuroprotective but does not improve survival in severe forebrain ischemia.

    PubMed

    Von Lubitz, D K; McKenzie, R J; Lin, R C; Devlin, T M; Skolnick, P

    1993-03-16

    The effects of MK-801 on postischemic recovery, survival and neuronal preservation in the cortex, hippocampus and striatum were studied in Mongolian gerbils. The drug was administered 30 min prior to 20 of min forebrain ischemia induced by bilateral ligation of the carotids. Neurological recovery and survival were monitored for 7 days. At the end of the monitoring period neuronal damage was analyzed in the brains of the survivors in both groups. Treatment with MK-801 did not improve either neurological recovery or end-point survival. However, significant (P < 0.01) neuronal protection was observed in the hippocampi and striata of the drug treated animals while cortical neurons were not significantly protected. These findings demonstrate that protection against ischemic neuronal damage can be observed without concomitant improvement in either postischemic neurological recovery or survival. Protection of selectively vulnerable brain regions, often used as the predictor of the therapeutic potential of an agent, does not appear to correlate well with postischemic survival in this animal model of ischemia.

  11. Gray Box Optimization for Mk Landscapes (NK Landscapes and MAX-kSAT).

    PubMed

    Whitley, L Darrell; Chicano, Francisco; Goldman, Brian W

    2016-01-01

    This article investigates Gray Box Optimization for pseudo-Boolean optimization problems composed of M subfunctions, where each subfunction accepts at most k variables. We will refer to these as Mk Landscapes. In Gray Box Optimization, the optimizer is given access to the set of M subfunctions. We prove Gray Box Optimization can efficiently compute hyperplane averages to solve non-deceptive problems in [Formula: see text] time. Bounded separable problems are also solved in [Formula: see text] time. As a result, Gray Box Optimization is able to solve many commonly used problems from the evolutional computation literature in [Formula: see text] evaluations. We also introduce a more general class of Mk Landscapes that can be solved using dynamic programming and discuss properties of these functions. For certain type of problems Gray Box Optimization makes it possible to enumerate all local optima faster than brute force methods. We also provide evidence that randomly generated test problems are far less structured than those found in real-world problems.

  12. ACTH4 -10, Substance P, and Dizolcipine (Mk-801) Accelerate Functional Recovery After Hemilabyrinthectomy in Goldfish

    PubMed Central

    Mattioli, R.; Huston, J. P.; Spieler, R. E.

    2000-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the goldfish model of hemilabyrinthectomy for investigating potential recovery-promoting drugs. In this lesion model, the unilateral removal of the labyrinth induces a postural imbalance in response to light (Dorsal Light Reflex), from which the animals can recover over time. The behavioral effects of two neuropeptides were tested–namely, of substance P and ACTH4-10, both of which are known to promote functional recovery in several other lesion models. Furthermore, the effect of MK- 801, an antagonist of the glutamatergic NMDAreceptor subtype, was tested because this substance has also been shown to exert a neuroprotective effect. After lesion of the right labyrinth, the animals (n=12) were treated intraperitoneally daily either with vehicle (n=12), substance P (n=11), ACTH4-10 (n=12), or MK- 801 (n=12). Another group (n=11), which served as a non-lesion control, did not receive hemilabyrinthectomy or systemic injections. The lesion group, treated post-operatively with vehicle, did not recover from the postural deviation over the 24-d testing period. In contrast, all three test substances accelerated the functional recovery after unilateral labyrinthectomy. The decrease of the dorsal light reflex persisted even after cessation of drug treatment after 20d. The results indicate that using the dorsal light reflex in the model of hemilabyrinthectomy in goldfish provides a useful approach to studying the ability of potential new neurotrophic or neuroprotective drugs to promote functional recovery. PMID:11486488

  13. The MPIR 100mK bolometer array for 2mm continuum observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichertz, L. A.; Esch, W.; Gemünd, H.-P.; Gromke, J.; Kreysa, E.

    2000-04-01

    We are developing bolometer arrays for continuum detection in millimeter and submillimeter astronomy [1]. For the 2mm atmospheric window, where the transmission is comparatively high, a bolometer temperature of about 100mK is necessary in order to avoid being limited by the system noise. Our new 2mm array is cooled by a 3He/4He-dilution refrigerator with a base temperature of 30mK. The substrate for the 19 channel bolometer array consists of a single-crystal silicon wafer with silicon-nitride membranes. Radiation is collected by a single-mode horn array in front of the wafer and coupled into efficient absorbers in the center of the membranes. Resulting temperature changes of the absorbers are measured with NTD-germanium thermistors. In the first stage of the read out electronics, we use JFETs working at 150K. Cold RF-filters prevent RF interference from entering the bolometer array cavity. The combination of several mesh filters and a short piece of cylindrical waveguide at the end of each horn defines the bandpass for the incoming radiation, which is matched to the 2mm atmospheric window.

  14. Models comparison for JET polarimeter data

    SciTech Connect

    Mazzotta, C.; Orsitto, F. P.; Giovannozzi, E.; Boboc, A.; Tudisco, O.; Zabeo, L.; Brombin, M.; Murari, A.

    2008-03-12

    A complete comparison between the theory and the measurements in polarimetry was done by using the Far Infrared Polarimeter at JET. More than 300 shots were analyzed, including a wide spectrum of JET scenarios in all critical conditions for polarimetry: high density, high and very low fields, high temperatures.This work is aimed at the demonstration of the robustness of the theoretical models for the JET polarimeter measurements in the perspective of using these models for ITER like plasma scenarios . In this context, an assessment was performed on how the line-integrated plasma density along the central vertical chord of FIR polarimeter could be evaluated using the Cotton-Mouton effect and its possible concrete use to correct fringe jumps of the interferometer.The models considered are: i) the rigorous numerical solution of the Stokes propagation equations, using dielectric tensor evaluated from JET equilibrium and Thomson scattering [1,2]; ii) two types of approximated solutions [2,3] and iii) the Guenther empirical model [4] that considers the mutual effect between Cotton-Mouton and Faraday rotation angle. The model calculations have been compared with polarimeter measurements for the Cotton-Mouton phase shift.The agreement with theory is satisfactory within the limits of experimental errors [3].

  15. Ram-jet Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cervenko, A. J.; Friedman, R.

    1956-01-01

    The ram jet is basically one of the most dimple types of aircraft engine. It consists only of an inlet diffuser, a combustion system, and an exit nozzle. A typical ram-jet configuration is shown in figure 128. The engine operates on the Brayton cycle, and ideal cycle efficiency depends only on the ratio of engine to ambient pressure. The increased, engine pressures are obtained by ram action alone, and for this reason the ram jet has zero thrust at zero speed. Therefore, ram-jet-powered aircraft must be boosted to flight speeds close to a Mach number of 1.0 before appreciable thrust is generated by the engine. Since pressure increases are obtained by ram action alone, combustor-inlet pressures and temperatures are controlled by the flight speed, the ambient atmospheric condition, and by the efficiency of the inlet diffuser. These pressures and temperatures, as functions of flight speed and altitude, are shown in figure 129 for the NACA standard atmosphere and for practical values of diffuser efficiency. It can be seen that very wide ranges of combustor-inlet temperatures and pressures may be encountered over the ranges of flight velocity and altitude at which ram jets may be operated. Combustor-inlet temperatures from 500 degrees to 1500 degrees R and inlet pressures from 5 to 100 pounds per square inch absolute represent the approximate ranges of interest in current combustor development work. Since the ram jet has no moving parts in the combustor outlet, higher exhaust-gas temperatures than those used in current turbojets are permissible. Therefore, fuel-air ratios equivalent to maximum rates of air specific impulse or heat release can be used, and, for hydrocarbon fuels, this weight ratio is about 0.070. Lower fuel-air ratios down to about 0.015 may also be required to permit efficient cruise operation. This fuel-air-ratio range of 0.015 to 0.070 used in ram jets can be compared with the fuel-air ratios up to 0.025 encountered in current turbojets. Ram-jet

  16. 18F-MK-9470 PET imaging of the type 1 cannabinoid receptor in prostate carcinoma: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Preclinical and histological data show overexpression of the type 1 cannabinoid receptor (CB1R) in prostate carcinoma (PCa). In a prospective study, the feasibility of 18F-MK-9470 positron emission tomography (PET) imaging in patients with primary and metastatic PCa was evaluated. Methods Eight patients were included and underwent 18F-MK-9470 PET/CT imaging. For five patients with primary PCa, dynamic PET/CT imaging was performed over three acquisition intervals (0 to 30, 60 to 90 and 120 to 150 min post-injection). In malignant and benign prostate tissue regions, time activity curves of the mean standardized uptake value (SUVmean) were determined as well as the corresponding area under the curve to compare 18F-MK-9470 uptake over time. Muscle uptake of 18F-MK-9470 was used as reference for non-specific binding. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used as anatomical reference and for delineating intraprostatic tumours. Histological and immunohistochemical (IHC) examination was performed on the whole-mount histopathology sections of four patients who underwent radical prostatectomy to assess the MRI-based tumour versus benign tissue classification. For three patients with proven advanced metastatic disease, two static PET/CTs were performed 1 and 3 h post-injection. 18F-MK-9470 uptake was evaluated in bone lesions of metastatic PCa by comparing SUVmean values of metastases with these of the contralateral bone tissue. Results 18F-MK-9470 uptake was significantly higher in benign and malignant prostate tissue compared to muscle, but it did not differ between both prostate tissue compartments. IHC findings of corresponding prostatic histopathological sections indicated weak CB1R expression in locally confined PCa, which was not visualized with 18F-MK-9470 PET. Metastases in the axial skeleton could not be detected while some metastases in the appendicular skeleton showed higher 18F-MK-9470 uptake as compared to the uptake in contralateral normal bone

  17. Jet engine testing apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Zweifel, T.L.

    1987-03-24

    An apparatus is described for testing jet engines mounted on an aircraft, the jet engines of the type having a high speed rotor and a low speed rotor, comprising: representative signal means for providing first representative signals representative of rotation rates of the low speed rotor in the jet engines and second representative signals representative of rotation rates of the high speed rotor in the jet engines; equivalent signal means coupled to receive the second representative signals for deriving equivalent signals representative of low speed rotor rotation rates of normally operating jet engines having high speed rotor rotation rates represented by the second representative signals; first difference signal means coupled to receive the first representative signals and the equivalent signals for providing first difference signals representative of differences between the first representative signals and the equivalent signals; means for providing threshold signals; first detector means coupled to the threshold signal means and the first difference signal means for comparing the threshold signals and the first difference signals to provide first detected signals representative of values of the first difference signals relative to the threshold signals; and engine failure indicator means coupled to receive the detected signals for determination of engine failures.

  18. The Twin Jet Nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    M2-9 is a striking example of a 'butterfly' or a bipolar planetary nebula. Another more revealing name might be the 'Twin Jet Nebula.' If the nebula is sliced across the star, each side of it appears much like a pair of exhausts from jet engines. Indeed, because of the nebula's shape and the measured velocity of the gas, in excess of 200 miles per second, astronomers believe that the description as a super-super-sonic jet exhaust is quite apt. This is much the same process that takes place in a jet engine: The burning and expanding gases are deflected by the engine walls through a nozzle to form long, collimated jets of hot air at high speeds. M2-9 is 2,100 light-years away in the constellation Ophiucus. The observation was taken Aug. 2, 1997 by the Hubble telescope's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2. In this image, neutral oxygen is shown in red, once-ionized nitrogen in green, and twice-ionized oxygen in blue.

  19. Jet propulsion without inertia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spagnolie, Saverio E.; Lauga, Eric

    2010-08-01

    A body immersed in a highly viscous fluid can locomote by drawing in and expelling fluid through pores at its surface. We consider this mechanism of jet propulsion without inertia in the case of spheroidal bodies and derive both the swimming velocity and the hydrodynamic efficiency. Elementary examples are presented and exact axisymmetric solutions for spherical, prolate spheroidal, and oblate spheroidal body shapes are provided. In each case, entirely and partially porous (i.e., jetting) surfaces are considered and the optimal jetting flow profiles at the surface for maximizing the hydrodynamic efficiency are determined computationally. The maximal efficiency which may be achieved by a sphere using such jet propulsion is 12.5%, a significant improvement upon traditional flagella-based means of locomotion at zero Reynolds number, which corresponds to the potential flow created by a source dipole at the sphere center. Unlike other swimming mechanisms which rely on the presentation of a small cross section in the direction of motion, the efficiency of a jetting body at low Reynolds number increases as the body becomes more oblate and limits to approximately 162% in the case of a flat plate swimming along its axis of symmetry. Our results are discussed in the light of slime extrusion mechanisms occurring in many cyanobacteria.

  20. Sweeping Jet Optimization Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melton, LaTunia Pack; Koklu, Mehti; Andino, Marlyn; Lin, John C.; Edelman, Louis

    2016-01-01

    Progress on experimental efforts to optimize sweeping jet actuators for active flow control (AFC) applications with large adverse pressure gradients is reported. Three sweeping jet actuator configurations, with the same orifice size but di?erent internal geometries, were installed on the flap shoulder of an unswept, NACA 0015 semi-span wing to investigate how the output produced by a sweeping jet interacts with the separated flow and the mechanisms by which the flow separation is controlled. For this experiment, the flow separation was generated by deflecting the wing's 30% chord trailing edge flap to produce an adverse pressure gradient. Steady and unsteady pressure data, Particle Image Velocimetry data, and force and moment data were acquired to assess the performance of the three actuator configurations. The actuator with the largest jet deflection angle, at the pressure ratios investigated, was the most efficient at controlling flow separation on the flap of the model. Oil flow visualization studies revealed that the flow field controlled by the sweeping jets was more three-dimensional than expected. The results presented also show that the actuator spacing was appropriate for the pressure ratios examined.

  1. B-jets and z + b-jets at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Jeans, Daniel; /Rome U.

    2006-06-01

    The authors present CDF cross-section measurements for the inclusive production of b jets and the production of b jets in association with a Z{sup 0} boson. Both measurements are in reasonable agreement with NLO QCD predictions.

  2. The M87 Jet. "Rosetta Stone" of AGN Jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Masanori; Asada, Keiichi

    2013-12-01

    We investigate the structure and dynamics of the M87 jet based on multi-frequency VLBI observations and MHD jet theories. Millimeter VLBI cores are considered as innermost jet emissions. The jet structure up to ~ 105 rs is described as a parabolic streamline, indicating the lateral expansion under a confinement by the stratified ISM. Thus, the jet collimation maintains in five orders of magnitude in the distance starting from the vicinity of the supermassive black hole (SMBH), less than 10 rs. We here examine the jet parabolic structure in order to identify the property of a bulk acceleration; observed sub-to-superluminal motions indicate an MHD acceleration from non-relativistic to relativistic regimes. We propose that the M87 jet consists of Poynting-flux dominated flows, powered by nonlinear torsional Alfvén waves. Future sub-mm VLBI observations play an important role in resolving the origin of the M87 jets.

  3. Resolving the Nature of the Rosette HH 1 Jet Facing Strong UV Dissipation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jin Zeng; Chu, You-Hua; Gruendl, Robert A.; Bally, John; Su, Wei

    2007-04-01

    The Rosette HH 1 jet is a collimated flow immersed in the strong UV radiation field of the Rosette Nebula. We investigate the physical properties of the Rosette HH 1 jet using high-quality narrowband images and high-dispersion spectroscopy. The new images show that the axis of the jet is not precisely aligned with the star near the base of the jet. The high resolution of the spectra allows us to accurately determine the contributions from the H II region, jet, and star. The approaching and receding sides of the expanding shell of the Rosette Nebula are at heliocentric velocities of 13 and 40 km s-1, while the jet reaches a maximum velocity offset at a heliocentric velocity of -30 km s-1. The [S II] doublet ratios indicate an electron density of ~1000 cm-3 in the jet and <=100 cm-3 in the H II region. With a careful subtraction of the nebular and jet components, we find the stellar Hα line is dominated by a broad absorption profile with little or no emission component, indicating a lack of substantial circumstellar material. The circumstellar material has most likely been photoevaporated by the strong UV radiation field in the Rosette Nebula. The evaporation timescale is 103-10 4 yr. The Rosette HH 1 jet source provides evidence for an accelerated evolution from a CTTS to a WTTS due to the strong UV radiation field; therefore, both CTTSs and WTTSs can be spatially mixed in regions with massive star formation.

  4. Strain and colony differences in the neurotoxic sequelae of MK-801 visualized with the amino-cupric-silver method.

    PubMed

    Bueno, Adrian; de Olmos, Soledad; Manzini, Fernando; Desmond, Nancy L; de Olmos, Jose

    2003-11-01

    The strain and sex of a species under investigation may influence the animal's physiological response to a variety of stimuli. Strain and sex differences are important considerations when evaluating animal models. In the rodent MK-801 model of schizophrenia, degenerative changes occur widely in the main olfactory system and in a number of cortical brain regions. In the present report, we compare the effects of MK-801 neurotoxicity in two strains of female rats and also two lines within each strain. The magnitude and regional extent of the neurodegeneration detected with the amino-cupric-silver method varied markedly both between the Sprague-Dawley and Wistar rat strains and also between two lines derived from each strain. For example, terminal degeneration occurred in layer VI of somatosensory cortex and the central extended amygdala in Sprague-Dawley but not Wistar rats. Moreover, MK-801 treatment led to somatodendritic degeneration in the dentate gyrus of the dorsal hippocampus and basolateral amygdala in Wistar rats from Charles River Laboratories but not those from Ferreyra Institute. There are thus both strain and intrastrain differences in the magnitude of the neurodegenerative response to MK-801 treatment. The differing neurotoxicity of MK-801 between rat strains and between lines within a strain may reflect genetic variation and/or differences in hepatic biotransformation and thus the bioavailability of the drug between strains and lines within a strain.

  5. AC-3933, a benzodiazepine partial inverse agonist, improves memory performance in MK-801-induced amnesia mouse model.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Takashi; Iwamura, Yoshihiro

    2016-05-01

    AC-3933, a novel benzodiazepine receptor partial inverse agonist, is a drug candidate for cognitive disorders including Alzheimer's disease. We have previously reported that AC-3933 enhances acetylcholine release in the rat hippocampus and ameliorates scopolamine-induced memory impairment and age-related cognitive decline in both rats and mice. In this study, we further evaluated the procognitive effect of AC-3933 on memory impairment induced by MK-801, an N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonist, in mice. Unlike the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor donepezil and the benzodiazepine receptor inverse agonist FG-7142, oral administration of AC-3933 significantly ameliorated MK-801-induced memory impairment in the Y-maze test and in the object location test. Interestingly, the procognitive effects of AC-3933 on MK-801-induced memory impairment were not affected by the benzodiazepine receptor antagonist flumazenil, although this was not the case for the beneficial effects of AC-3933 on scopolamine-induced memory deficit. Moreover, the onset of AC-3933 ameliorating effect on scopolamine- or MK-801-induced memory impairment was different in the Y-maze test. Taken together, these results indicate that AC-3933 improves memory deficits caused by both cholinergic and glutamatergic hypofunction and suggest that the ameliorating effect of AC-3933 on MK-801-induced memory impairment is mediated by a mechanism other than inverse activation of the benzodiazepine receptor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Dizocilpine (MK-801) arrests status epilepticus and prevents brain damage induced by Soman. (Reannouncement with new availability information)

    SciTech Connect

    Sparenborg, S.; Brennecke, L.H.; Jaax, N.K.; Braitman, D.J.

    1992-12-31

    The involvement of the NMDA receptor in the neurotoxicity induced by soman, an organophosphorus compound which irreversibly inhibits cholinesterase, was studied in guinea pigs. The drug MK-801 (0.5, 1 or 5 mg/kg, i.p.) was given as a pretreatment before a convulsant dose of soman or as a post treatment (30, 100 or 300 micron g/kg, i.m.) 5 min after the development of soman-induced status epilepticus. Pyridostigmine, atropine and pralidoxime chloride were also given to each subject to counteract the lethality of soman. All subjects that were challenged with soman and given the vehicle for MK-801 (saline) exhibited severe convulsions and electrographic seizure activity. Neuronal necrosis was found in the hippocampus, amygdala, thalamus and the pyriform and cerebral cortices of those subjects surviving for 48 hr. Pretreatment with 0.5 or 1 mg/kg doses of MK-801 did not prevent nor delay the onset of seizure activity but did diminish its intensity and led to its early arrest. At the largest dose (5 mg/kg), MK-801 completely prevented the development of seizure activity and brain damage. Post treatment with MK-801 prevented, arrested or reduced seizure activity, convulsions and neuronal necrosis in a dose-dependent manner. The NMDA receptor may play a more critical role in the spread and maintenance, rather than the initiation of cholinergically-induced seizure activity....Seizure-related brain damage, Organophosphorus compound, Nerve agent, Cholinesterase inhibition, Excitotoxicity, Guinea pig.

  7. Qualification campaign of the 50 mK hybrid sorption-ADR cooler for SPICA/SAFARI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duval, J.-M.; Duband, L.; Attard, A.

    2015-12-01

    SAFARI (SpicA FAR-infrared Instrument) is an infrared instrument planned to be part of the SPICA (SPace Infrared telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics) Satellite. It will offer high spectral resolution in the 30 - 210 μm frequency range. SAFARI will benefit from the cold telescope of SPICA and to obtain the required detectors sensitivity, a temperature of 50 mK is required. This temperature is reached thanks to the use of a hybrid sorption - ADR (Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerator) cooler presented here. This cooler provides respectively 14 μW and 0.4 μW of cooling power at 300 mK and 50 mK. The cooler is planned to advantageously use two thermal interfaces of the instrument at 1.8 and 4.9 K. One of the challenges discussed in this paper is the low power available at each intercept. A dedicated laboratory electronic is being designed based on previous development with a particular focus on the 50 mK readout. Temperature regulation at 50 mK is also discussed. This cooler has been designed following flight constraints and will reach a high TRL, including mechanical and environmental tests at the end of the on-going qualification campaign.

  8. The FvMK1 mitogen-activated protein kinase gene regulates conidiation, pathogenesis, and fumonisin production in Fusarium verticillioides.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yueping; Choi, Yoon-E; Zou, Xuexiao; Xu, Jin-Rong

    2011-02-01

    Fusarium verticillioides is one of the most important fungal pathogens to cause destructive diseases of maize worldwide. Fumonisins produced by the fungus are harmful to human and animal health. To date, our understanding of the molecular mechanisms associated with pathogenicity and fumonisin biosynthesis in F. verticillioides is limited. Because MAP kinase pathways have been implicated in regulating diverse processes important for plant infection in phytopathogenic fungi, in this study we identified and functionally characterized the FvMK1 gene in F. verticillioides. FvMK1 is orthologous to FMK1 in F. oxysporum and GPMK1 in F. graminearum. The Fvmk1 deletion mutant was reduced in vegetative growth and production of microconidia. However, it was normal in sexual reproduction and increased in the production of macroconidia. In infection assays with developing corn kernels, the Fvmk1 mutant was non-pathogenic and failed to colonize through wounding sites. It also failed to cause stalk rot symptoms beyond the inoculation sites on corn stalks, indicating that FvMK1 is essential for plant infection. Furthermore, the Fvmk1 mutant was significantly reduced in fumonisin production and expression levels of FUM1 and FUM8, two genes involved in fumonisin biosynthesis. The defects of the Fvmk1 mutant were fully complemented by re-introducing the wild type FvMK1 allele. These results demonstrate that FvMK1 plays critical roles in the regulation of vegetative growth, asexual reproduction, fumonisin biosynthesis, and pathogenicity.

  9. Aeroacoustic Experiments with Twin Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozak, Richard F.; Henderson, Brenda S.

    2012-01-01

    While the noise produced by a single jet is azimuthally symmetric, multiple jets produce azimuthally varying far-field noise. The ability of one jet to shield another reduces the noise radiated in the plane of the jets, while often increasing the noise radiated out of the plane containing the jets. The present study investigates the shielding potential of twin jet configurations over subsonic and over-expanded supersonic jet conditions with simulated forward flight. The experiments were conducted with 2 in. throat diameter nozzles at four jet spacings from 2.6d to 5.5d in center-to-center distance, where d is the nozzle throat diameter. The current study found a maximum of 3 dB reduction in overall sound pressure level relative to two incoherent jets in the peak jet noise direction in the plane containing the jets. However, an increase of 3 dB was found perpendicular to the plane containing the jets. In the sideline direction, shielding is observed for all jet spacings in this study.

  10. Behavioural motor effects of MK-801 and DNQX parenteral administration in adult cats: dose-response analysis. Modulatory role of dopaminergic D1 and D2 antagonists on MK-801 induced motor behaviours.

    PubMed

    Motles, E; Infante, C; Gonzalez, M

    2000-04-01

    1. Administration of MK-801 a selective antagonist of the NMDA receptors (50, 100 and 150 micrograms/kg, s.c.) elicited in adult cats ataxia and loss of equilibrium. A dose-response effect was observed. 2. Administration of DNQX, a selective antagonist of the non-NMDA receptors, even with doses 20 times higher than those employed with MK-801, did not produce any behavioural disturbances. 3. Previous injection of SCH 23390, a selective parenteral antagonist of dopamine D1 receptor, reduced significantly the intense ataxic effects of MK-801, while sulpiride only increased the latency of the symptoms. 4. The results are discussed considering the reported interactions between the dopaminergic and glutamatergic systems.

  11. Renewable jet fuel.

    PubMed

    Kallio, Pauli; Pásztor, András; Akhtar, M Kalim; Jones, Patrik R

    2014-04-01

    Novel strategies for sustainable replacement of finite fossil fuels are intensely pursued in fundamental research, applied science and industry. In the case of jet fuels used in gas-turbine engine aircrafts, the production and use of synthetic bio-derived kerosenes are advancing rapidly. Microbial biotechnology could potentially also be used to complement the renewable production of jet fuel, as demonstrated by the production of bioethanol and biodiesel for piston engine vehicles. Engineered microbial biosynthesis of medium chain length alkanes, which constitute the major fraction of petroleum-based jet fuels, was recently demonstrated. Although efficiencies currently are far from that needed for commercial application, this discovery has spurred research towards future production platforms using both fermentative and direct photobiological routes.

  12. The Bionic Clicker Mark I & II.

    PubMed

    Magee, Elliott G; Ourselin, S; Nikitichev, Daniil; Vercauteren, T; Vanhoestenberghe, Anne

    2017-08-14

    In this manuscript, we present two 'Bionic Clicker' systems, the first designed to demonstrate electromyography (EMG) based control systems for educational purposes and the second for research purposes. EMG based control systems pick up electrical signals generated by muscle activation and use these as inputs for controllers. EMG controllers are widely used in prosthetics to control limbs. The Mark I (MK I) clicker allows the wearer to change the slide of a presentation by raising their index finger. It is built around a microcontroller and a bio-signals shield. It generated a lot of interest from both the public and research community. The Mark II (MK II) device presented here was designed to be a cheaper, sleeker, and more customizable system that can be easily modified and directly transmit EMG data. It is built using a wireless capable microcontroller and a muscle sensor.

  13. Gamma-ray burst jets: uniform or structured?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salafia, O. S.; Pescalli, A.; Nappo, F.; Ghisellini, G.; Ghirlanda, G.; Salvaterra, R.; Tagliaferri, G.

    The structure of Gamma-Ray Burst (GRB) jets impacts on their prompt and afterglow emission properties. Insights into the still unknown structure of GRBs can be achieved by studying how different structures impact on the luminosity function (LF): i) we show that low ($10^{46} < L_{\\rm iso} < 10^{48}$ erg/s) and high (i.e. with $L_{\\rm iso} > 10^{50}$ erg/s) luminosity GRBs can be described by a unique LF; ii) we find that a uniform jet (seen on- and off-axis) as well as a very steep structured jet (i.e. $\\epsilon(\\theta) \\propto \\theta^{-s}$ with $s > 4$) can reproduce the current LF data; iii) taking into account the emission from the whole jet (i.e. including contributions from mildly relativistic, off-axis jet elements) we find that $E_{\\rm iso}(\\theta_{\\rm v})$ (we dub this quantity "apparent structure") can be very different from the intrinsic structure $\\epsilon(\\theta)$: in particular, a jet with a Gaussian intrinsic structure has an apparent structure which is more similar to a power law. This opens a new viewpoint on the quasi-universal structured jet hypothesis.

  14. Evidence from IRIS that Sunspot Large Penumbral Jets Spin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, Sanjiv K.; Moore, Ronald L.; De Pontieu, Bart; Tarbell, Theodore D.; Panesar, Navdeep K.; Winebarger, Amy; Sterling, Alphonse C.

    2017-08-01

    Recent observations from {\\it Hinode} (SOT/FG) revealed the presence of large penumbral jets (widths $\\ge$500 km, larger than normal penumbral microjets, which have widths $<$ 400 km) repeatedly occurring at the same locations in a sunspot penumbra, at the tail of a filament or where the tails of several penumbral filaments apparently converge (Tiwari et al. 2016, ApJ). These locations were observed to have mixed-polarity flux in Stokes-V images from SOT/FG. Large penumbral jets displayed direct signatures in AIA 1600, 304, 171, and 193 channels; thus they were heated to at least transition region temperatures. Because large jets could not be detected in AIA 94 \\AA, whether they had any coronal-temperature plasma remains unclear. In the present work, for another sunspot, we use IRIS Mg II k 2796 Å slit jaw images and spectra and magnetograms from Hinode SOT/FG and SOT/SP to examine: whether penumbral jets spin, similar to spicules and coronal jets in the quiet Sun and coronal holes; whether they stem from mixed-polarity flux; and whether they produce discernible coronal emission, especially in AIA 94 Å images. The few large penumbral jets for which we have IRIS spectra show evidence of spin. If these have mixed-polarity at their base, then they might be driven the same way as coronal jets and CMEs.

  15. Evidence from IRIS that Sunspot Large Penumbral Jets Spin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tiwari, Sanjiv K.; Moore, Ronald L.; De Pontieu, Bart; Tarbell, Theodore D.; Panesar, Navdeep K.; Winebarger, Amy R.; Sterling, Alphonse C.

    2017-01-01

    Recent observations from Hinode (SOT/FG) revealed the presence of large penumbral jets (widths = 500 km, larger than normal penumbral microjets, which have widths < 400 km) repeatedly occurring at the same locations in a sunspot penumbra, at the tail of a filament or where the tails of several penumbral filaments apparently converge (Tiwari et al. 2016, ApJ). These locations were observed to have mixed-polarity flux in Stokes-V images from SOT/FG. Large penumbral jets displayed direct signatures in AIA 1600, 304, 171, and 193 channels; thus they were heated to at least transition region temperatures. Because large jets could not be detected in AIA 94 Å, whether they had any coronal-temperature plasma remains unclear. In the present work, for another sunspot, we use IRIS Mg II k 2796 Å slit jaw images and spectra and magnetograms from Hinode SOT/FG and SOT/SP to examine: whether penumbral jets spin, similar to spicules and coronal jets in the quiet Sun and coronal holes; whether they stem from mixed-polarity flux; and whether they produce discernible coronal emission, especially in AIA 94 Å images. The few large penumbral jets for which we have IRIS spectra show evidence of spin. If these have mixed-polarity at their base, then they might be driven the same way as coronal jets and CMEs.

  16. Jet Shockwaves Produce Gamma Rays

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Theorists believe that GRB jets produce gamma rays by two processes involving shock waves. Shells of material within the jet move at different speeds and collide, generating internal shock waves th...

  17. Resolving boosted jets with XCone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thaler, Jesse; Wilkason, Thomas F.

    2015-12-01

    We show how the recently proposed XCone jet algorithm [1] smoothly interpolates between resolved and boosted kinematics. When using standard jet algorithms to reconstruct the decays of hadronic resonances like top quarks and Higgs bosons, one typically needs separate analysis strategies to handle the resolved regime of well-separated jets and the boosted regime of fat jets with substructure. XCone, by contrast, is an exclusive cone jet algorithm that always returns a fixed number of jets, so jet regions remain resolved even when (sub)jets are overlapping in the boosted regime. In this paper, we perform three LHC case studies — dijet resonances, Higgs decays to bottom quarks, and all-hadronic top pairs — that demonstrate the physics applications of XCone over a wide kinematic range.

  18. The combination of MK-5172, peginterferon, and ribavirin is effective in treatment-naive patients with hepatitis C virus genotype 1 infection without cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Manns, Michael P; Vierling, John M; Bacon, Bruce R; Bruno, Savino; Shibolet, Oren; Baruch, Yaacov; Marcellin, Patrick; Caro, Luzelena; Howe, Anita Y M; Fandozzi, Christine; Gress, Jacqueline; Gilbert, Christopher L; Shaw, Peter M; Cooreman, Michael P; Robertson, Michael N; Hwang, Peggy; Dutko, Frank J; Wahl, Janice; Mobashery, Niloufar

    2014-08-01

    MK-5172 is an inhibitor of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) nonstructural protein 3/4A protease; MK-5172 is taken once daily and has a higher potency and barrier to resistance than licensed protease inhibitors. We investigated the efficacy and tolerability of MK-5172 with peginterferon and ribavirin (PR) in treatment-naive patients with chronic HCV genotype 1 infection without cirrhosis. We performed a multicenter, double-blind, randomized, active-controlled, dose-ranging, response-guided therapy study. A total of 332 patients received MK-5172 (100, 200, 400, or 800 mg) once daily for 12 weeks in combination with PR. Patients in the MK-5172 groups received PR for an additional 12 or 36 weeks, based on response at week 4. Patients in the control group (n = 66) received a combination of boceprevir and PR, dosed in accordance with boceprevir's US product circular. At 24 weeks after the end of therapy, sustained virologic responses were achieved in 89%, 93%, 91%, and 86% of the patients in the groups given the combination of PR and MK-5172 (100, 200, 400, or 800 mg), respectively, vs 61% of controls. In the MK-5172 group receiving 100 mg, 91% of patients had undetectable levels of HCV RNA at week 4 and qualified for the short duration of therapy. The combination of MK-5172 and PR generally was well tolerated. Transient increases in transaminase levels were noted in the MK-5172 groups given 400 and 800 mg, at higher frequencies than in the MK-5172 groups given 100 or 200 mg, or control groups. Once-daily MK-5172 (100 mg) with PR for 24 or 48 weeks was highly effective and well tolerated among treatment-naive patients with HCV genotype 1 infection without cirrhosis. Studies are underway to evaluate interferon-free MK-5172-based regimens. ClinicalTrials.gov number: NCT01353911. Copyright © 2014 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Control of Asymmetric Jet

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-06-30

    with 5hciir Irycr frequencies arnd miodfy th-e preferied mode. Perforte~d steel plateCs "-leed with tempcratuze-resistatr: mnsulativ- mineral wool reduce...Insulation of the Jet facility was initially ... ovid. d 6y ibuiglass, then mineral wool and at the present there is none for health concerns. The...imerior of the jet’s anechoic chamber was also insulated with mineral wool to foitify acoustic damping, however this too has been removed due to portions

  20. Jet pump assisted artery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A procedure for priming an arterial heat pump is reported; the procedure also has a means for maintaining the pump in a primed state. This concept utilizes a capillary driven jet pump to create the necessary suction to fill the artery. Basically, the jet pump consists of a venturi or nozzle-diffuser type constriction in the vapor passage. The throat of this venturi is connected to the artery. Thus vapor, gas, liquid, or a combination of the above is pumped continuously out of the artery. As a result, the artery is always filled with liquid and an adequate supply of working fluid is provided to the evaporator of the heat pipe.

  1. Helical magnetic field models for parsec-scale radio jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papageorgiou, A.

    2006-10-01

    Total intensity and polarization structure of extragalactic radio jets are presented in support of models that jets are threaded by helical magnetic fields. Helical magnetic field models predict the following features i) asymmetric distribution in both or either the total and polarized intensity across the jet, ii)displacement between the maxima of total and polarized intensity distributions, iii) abrupt rotation (90 degrees) of the magnetic field position angle (MVPA) and iv) edge brightening in polarization and total intensity. VLBI observations of parsec-scale jets are presented, showing examples of the above predicted features; in one case all four predicted features are present in one source (1055+018).%T GPS studies during the ENIGMA era

  2. Measurement of b-jet shapes in inclusive jet production in p pmacr collisions at s=1.96TeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aaltonen, T.; Adelman, J.; Akimoto, T.; Albrow, M. G.; González, B. Álvarez; Amerio, S.; Amidei, D.; Anastassov, A.; Annovi, A.; Antos, J.; Apollinari, G.; Apresyan, A.; Arisawa, T.; Artikov, A.; Ashmanskas, W.; Attal, A.; Aurisano, A.; Azfar, F.; Azzurri, P.; Badgett, W.; Barbaro-Galtieri, A.; Barnes, V. E.; Barnett, B. A.; Bartsch, V.; Bauer, G.; Beauchemin, P.-H.; Bedeschi, F.; Bednar, P.; Beecher, D.; Behari, S.; Bellettini, G.; Bellinger, J.; Benjamin, D.; Beretvas, A.; Beringer, J.; Bhatti, A.; Binkley, M.; Bisello, D.; Bizjak, I.; Blair, R. E.; Blocker, C.; Blumenfeld, B.; Bocci, A.; Bodek, A.; Boisvert, V.; Bolla, G.; Bortoletto, D.; Boudreau, J.; Boveia, A.; Brau, B.; Bridgeman, A.; Brigliadori, L.; Bromberg, C.; Brubaker, E.; Budagov, J.; Budd, H. S.; Budd, S.; Burkett, K.; Busetto, G.; Bussey, P.; Buzatu, A.; Byrum, K. L.; Cabrera, S.; Calancha, C.; Campanelli, M.; Campbell, M.; Canelli, F.; Canepa, A.; Carlsmith, D.; Carosi, R.; Carrillo, S.; Carron, S.; Casal, B.; Casarsa, M.; Castro, A.; Catastini, P.; Cauz, D.; Cavaliere, V.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Cerri, A.; Cerrito, L.; Chang, S. H.; Chen, Y. C.; Chertok, M.; Chiarelli, G.; Chlachidze, G.; Chlebana, F.; Cho, K.; Chokheli, D.; Chou, J. P.; Choudalakis, G.; Chuang, S. H.; Chung, K.; Chung, W. H.; Chung, Y. S.; Ciobanu, C. I.; Ciocci, M. A.; Clark, A.; Clark, D.; Compostella, G.; Convery, M. E.; Conway, J.; Copic, K.; Cordelli, M.; Cortiana, G.; Cox, D. J.; Crescioli, F.; Almenar, C. Cuenca; Cuevas, J.; Culbertson, R.; Cully, J. C.; Dagenhart, D.; Datta, M.; Davies, T.; de Barbaro, P.; de Cecco, S.; Deisher, A.; de Lorenzo, G.; Dell'Orso, M.; Deluca, C.; Demortier, L.; Deng, J.; Deninno, M.; Derwent, P. F.; di Giovanni, G. P.; Dionisi, C.; di Ruzza, B.; Dittmann, J. R.; D'Onofrio, M.; Donati, S.; Dong, P.; Donini, J.; Dorigo, T.; Dube, S.; Efron, J.; Elagin, A.; Erbacher, R.; Errede, D.; Errede, S.; Eusebi, R.; Fang, H. C.; Farrington, S.; Fedorko, W. T.; Feild, R. G.; Feindt, M.; Fernandez, J. P.; Ferrazza, C.; Field, R.; Flanagan, G.; Forrest, R.; Franklin, M.; Freeman, J. C.; Furic, I.; Gallinaro, M.; Galyardt, J.; Garberson, F.; Garcia, J. E.; Garfinkel, A. F.; Genser, K.; Gerberich, H.; Gerdes, D.; Gessler, A.; Giagu, S.; Giakoumopoulou, V.; Giannetti, P.; Gibson, K.; Gimmell, J. L.; Ginsburg, C. M.; Giokaris, N.; Giordani, M.; Giromini, P.; Giunta, M.; Giurgiu, G.; Glagolev, V.; Glenzinski, D.; Gold, M.; Goldschmidt, N.; Golossanov, A.; Gomez, G.; Gomez-Ceballos, G.; Goncharov, M.; González, O.; Gorelov, I.; Goshaw, A. T.; Goulianos, K.; Gresele, A.; Grinstein, S.; Grosso-Pilcher, C.; Group, R. C.; Grundler, U.; da Costa, J. Guimaraes; Gunay-Unalan, Z.; Haber, C.; Hahn, K.; Hahn, S. R.; Halkiadakis, E.; Han, B.-Y.; Han, J. Y.; Handler, R.; Happacher, F.; Hara, K.; Hare, D.; Hare, M.; Harper, S.; Harr, R. F.; Harris, R. M.; Hartz, M.; Hatakeyama, K.; Hauser, J.; Hays, C.; Heck, M.; Heijboer, A.; Heinemann, B.; Heinrich, J.; Henderson, C.; Herndon, M.; Heuser, J.; Hewamanage, S.; Hidas, D.; Hill, C. S.; Hirschbuehl, D.; Hocker, A.; Hou, S.; Houlden, M.; Hsu, S.-C.; Huffman, B. T.; Hughes, R. E.; Husemann, U.; Huston, J.; Incandela, J.; Introzzi, G.; Iori, M.; Ivanov, A.; James, E.; Jayatilaka, B.; Jeon, E. J.; Jha, M. K.; Jindariani, S.; Johnson, W.; Jones, M.; Joo, K. K.; Jun, S. Y.; Jung, J. E.; Junk, T. R.; Kamon, T.; Kar, D.; Karchin, P. E.; Kato, Y.; Kephart, R.; Keung, J.; Khotilovich, V.; Kilminster, B.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, H. S.; Kim, J. E.; Kim, M. J.; Kim, S. B.; Kim, S. H.; Kim, Y. K.; Kimura, N.; Kirsch, L.; Klimenko, S.; Knuteson, B.; Ko, B. R.; Koay, S. A.; Kondo, K.; Kong, D. J.; Konigsberg, J.; Korytov, A.; Kotwal, A. V.; Kreps, M.; Kroll, J.; Krop, D.; Krumnack, N.; Kruse, M.; Krutelyov, V.; Kubo, T.; Kuhr, T.; Kulkarni, N. P.; Kurata, M.; Kusakabe, Y.; Kwang, S.; Laasanen, A. T.; Lami, S.; Lammel, S.; Lancaster, M.; Lander, R. L.; Lannon, K.; Lath, A.; Latino, G.; Lazzizzera, I.; Lecompte, T.; Lee, E.; Lee, S. W.; Leone, S.; Lewis, J. D.; Lin, C. S.; Linacre, J.; Lindgren, M.; Lipeles, E.; Lister, A.; Litvintsev, D. O.; Liu, C.; Liu, T.; Lockyer, N. S.; Loginov, A.; Loreti, M.; Lovas, L.; Lu, R.-S.; Lucchesi, D.; Lueck, J.; Luci, C.; Lujan, P.; Lukens, P.; Lungu, G.; Lyons, L.; Lys, J.; Lysak, R.; Lytken, E.; Mack, P.; MacQueen, D.; Madrak, R.; Maeshima, K.; Makhoul, K.; Maki, T.; Maksimovic, P.; Malde, S.; Malik, S.; Manca, G.; Manousakis-Katsikakis, A.; Margaroli, F.; Marino, C.; Marino, C. P.; Martin, A.; Martin, V.; Martínez, M.; Martínez-Ballarín, R.; Maruyama, T.; Mastrandrea, P.; Masubuchi, T.; Mattson, M. E.; Mazzanti, P.; McFarland, K. S.; McIntyre, P.; McNulty, R.; Mehta, A.; Mehtala, P.; Menzione, A.; Merkel, P.; Mesropian, C.; Miao, T.; Miladinovic, N.; Miller, R.; Mills, C.; Milnik, M.; Mitra, A.; Mitselmakher, G.; Miyake, H.; Moggi, N.; Moon, C. S.; Moore, R.; Morello, M. J.; Morlok, J.; Fernandez, P. Movilla; Mülmenstädt, J.; Mukherjee, A.; Muller, Th.; Mumford, R.; Murat, P.; Mussini, M.; Nachtman, J.; Nagai, Y.; Nagano, A.; Naganoma, J.; Nakamura, K.; Nakano, I.; Napier, A.; Necula, V.; Neu, C.; Neubauer, M. S.; Nielsen, J.; Nodulman, L.; Norman, M.; Norniella, O.; Nurse, E.; Oakes, L.; Oh, S. H.; Oh, Y. D.; Oksuzian, I.; Okusawa, T.; Orava, R.; Osterberg, K.; Griso, S. Pagan; Pagliarone, C.; Palencia, E.; Papadimitriou, V.; Papaikonomou, A.; Paramonov, A. A.; Parks, B.; Pashapour, S.; Patrick, J.; Pauletta, G.; Paulini, M.; Paus, C.; Pellett, D. E.; Penzo, A.; Phillips, T. J.; Piacentino, G.; Pianori, E.; Pinera, L.; Pitts, K.; Plager, C.; Pondrom, L.; Poukhov, O.; Pounder, N.; Prakoshyn, F.; Pronko, A.; Proudfoot, J.; Ptohos, F.; Pueschel, E.; Punzi, G.; Pursley, J.; Rademacker, J.; Rahaman, A.; Ramakrishnan, V.; Ranjan, N.; Redondo, I.; Reisert, B.; Rekovic, V.; Renton, P.; Rescigno, M.; Richter, S.; Rimondi, F.; Ristori, L.; Robson, A.; Rodrigo, T.; Rodriguez, T.; Rogers, E.; Rolli, S.; Roser, R.; Rossi, M.; Rossin, R.; Roy, P.; Ruiz, A.; Russ, J.; Rusu, V.; Saarikko, H.; Safonov, A.; Sakumoto, W. K.; Saltó, O.; Santi, L.; Sarkar, S.; Sartori, L.; Sato, K.; Savoy-Navarro, A.; Scheidle, T.; Schlabach, P.; Schmidt, A.; Schmidt, E. E.; Schmidt, M. A.; Schmidt, M. P.; Schmitt, M.; Schwarz, T.; Scodellaro, L.; Scott, A. L.; Scribano, A.; Scuri, F.; Sedov, A.; Seidel, S.; Seiya, Y.; Semenov, A.; Sexton-Kennedy, L.; Sfyrla, A.; Shalhout, S. Z.; Shears, T.; Shepard, P. F.; Sherman, D.; Shimojima, M.; Shiraishi, S.; Shochet, M.; Shon, Y.; Shreyber, I.; Sidoti, A.; Sinervo, P.; Sisakyan, A.; Slaughter, A. J.; Slaunwhite, J.; Sliwa, K.; Smith, J. R.; Snider, F. D.; Snihur, R.; Soha, A.; Somalwar, S.; Sorin, V.; Spalding, J.; Spreitzer, T.; Squillacioti, P.; Stanitzki, M.; Denis, R. St.; Stelzer, B.; Stelzer-Chilton, O.; Stentz, D.; Strologas, J.; Stuart, D.; Suh, J. S.; Sukhanov, A.; Suslov, I.; Suzuki, T.; Taffard, A.; Takashima, R.; Takeuchi, Y.; Tanaka, R.; Tecchio, M.; Teng, P. K.; Terashi, K.; Thom, J.; Thompson, A. S.; Thompson, G. A.; Thomson, E.; Tipton, P.; Tiwari, V.; Tkaczyk, S.; Toback, D.; Tokar, S.; Tollefson, K.; Tomura, T.; Tonelli, D.; Torre, S.; Torretta, D.; Totaro, P.; Tourneur, S.; Tu, Y.; Turini, N.; Ukegawa, F.; Vallecorsa, S.; van Remortel, N.; Varganov, A.; Vataga, E.; Vázquez, F.; Velev, G.; Vellidis, C.; Veszpremi, V.; Vidal, M.; Vidal, R.; Vila, I.; Vilar, R.; Vine, T.; Vogel, M.; Volobouev, I.; Volpi, G.; Würthwein, F.; Wagner, P.; Wagner, R. G.; Wagner, R. L.; Wagner-Kuhr, J.; Wagner, W.; Wakisaka, T.; Wallny, R.; Wang, S. M.; Warburton, A.; Waters, D.; Weinberger, M.; Wester, W. C., III; Whitehouse, B.; Whiteson, D.; Wicklund, A. B.; Wicklund, E.; Williams, G.; Williams, H. H.; Wilson, P.; Winer, B. L.; Wittich, P.; Wolbers, S.; Wolfe, C.; Wright, T.; Wu, X.; Wynne, S. M.; Yagil, A.; Yamamoto, K.; Yamaoka, J.; Yang, U. K.; Yang, Y. C.; Yao, W. M.; Yeh, G. P.; Yoh, J.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, T.; Yu, G. B.; Yu, I.; Yu, S. S.; Yun, J. C.; Zanello, L.; Zanetti, A.; Zaw, I.; Zhang, X.; Zheng, Y.; Zucchelli, S.

    2008-10-01

    We present a measurement of the shapes of b-jets using 300pb-1 of data obtained with the upgraded Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF II) in p pmacr collisions at center-of-mass energy s=1.96TeV. This measurement covers a wide transverse momentum range, from 52 to 300GeV/c. Samples of heavy-flavor enhanced jets together with inclusive jets are used to extract the average shapes of b-jets. The b-jets are expected to be broader than inclusive jets. Moreover, b-jets containing a single b-quark are expected to be narrower than those containing a b bmacr pair from gluon splitting. The measured b-jet shapes are found to be significantly broader than expected from the pythia and herwig Monte Carlo simulations. This effect may arise from an underestimation of the fraction of b-jets originating from gluon splitting in these simulations. The jet shape distributions provided in this paper could be compared to any full Monte Carlo simulation and could be used to further constrain the various parameters.

  3. High resolution spectroscopy over lambda lambda 8500-8750 Å for GAIA. IV. Extending the cool MK stars sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marrese, P. M.; Boschi, F.; Munari, U.

    2003-08-01

    A library of high resolution spectra of MK standard and reference stars, observed in support to the GAIA mission, is presented. The aim of this paper is to integrate the MK mapping of Paper I of this series as well as to consider stars over a wider range of metallicities. Radial velocities are measured for all the target stars. The spectra are available in electronic form (ASCII format) at CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/406/995 and from the web page http://ulisse.pd.astro.it/MoreMK/, where further bibliographical information for the target stars is given.

  4. 'Photonic jets' from dielectric microaxicons

    SciTech Connect

    Geints, Yu E; Zemlyanov, A A; Panina, E K

    2015-08-31

    We consider a specific spatially localised light structure, namely, a 'photonic jet' formed in the near field upon scattering of an optical wave in a dielectric micron particle. Dimensional parameters and intensity of a photonic jet from microaxicons of different spatial orientation are studied theoretically. It is found for the first time that an axicon-generated photonic jet has in this case a substantially larger length compared with the case of a jet formed on a spherical particle. (scattering of light)

  5. Cooperative Investigation of Jet Flows.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-06-01

    high and low Reynolds number jets. Controlling the jet with pure tone excitation, that enhances the helical mode of its instability, resulted in a... helical modes and upstream influence appear to be key mechanisms in our findings 3.- -- - Disatributio~n/ Availit- UNCLASSIFIED 89CUMIIY CLAWIPCAT OF...and low Reynolds number*’ jets. Controlling the jet with pure tone excitation, that enhances the helical mode of its instability, resulted in a

  6. Study of the heavy flavour fractions in z+jets events from $p\\bar{p}$ collisions at energy √s = 1.96 TeV with the CDF II detector at the Tevatron collider

    SciTech Connect

    Mastrandrea, Paolo

    2008-06-01

    to provide collisions for the experiments at the end of 2008. In the meanwhile the only running accelerator able to provide collisions suitable for the search of the Higgs boson is the Tevatron at Fermilab, a proton-antiproton collider with a center of mass energy of 1.96 TeV working at 3 • 1032cm-2s-1 peak luminosity. These features make the Tevatron able for the direct search of the Higgs boson in the 115-200 GeV mass range. Since the coupling of the Higgs boson is proportional to the masses of the particles in