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Sample records for jet opening angles

  1. OPENING ANGLES OF COLLAPSAR JETS

    SciTech Connect

    Mizuta, Akira; Ioka, Kunihito

    2013-11-10

    We investigate the jet propagation and breakout from the stellar progenitor for gamma-ray burst (GRB) collapsars by performing two-dimensional relativistic hydrodynamic simulations and analytical modeling. We find that the jet opening angle is given by θ{sub j} ∼ 1/5Γ{sub 0} and infer the initial Lorentz factor of the jet at the central engine, Γ{sub 0}, is a few for existing observations of θ{sub j}. The jet keeps the Lorentz factor low inside the star by converging cylindrically via collimation shocks under the cocoon pressure and accelerates at jet breakout before the free expansion to a hollow-cone structure. In this new picture, the GRB duration is determined by the sound crossing time of the cocoon, after which the opening angle widens, reducing the apparent luminosity. Some bursts violating the maximum opening angle θ{sub j,{sub max}} ∼ 1/5 ∼ 12° imply the existence of a baryon-rich sheath or a long-acting jet. We can explain the slopes in both Amati and Yonetoku spectral relations using an off-centered photosphere model, if we make only one assumption that the total jet luminosity is proportional to the initial Lorentz factor of the jet. We also numerically calibrate the pre-breakout model (Bromberg et al.) for later use.

  2. MOJAVE - XIV. Shapes and opening angles of AGN jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pushkarev, A. B.; Kovalev, Y. Y.; Lister, M. L.; Savolainen, T.

    2017-07-01

    We present 15 GHz stacked VLBA images of 373 jets associated with active galactic nuclei (AGNs) having at least five observing epochs within a 20 yr time interval 1994-2015 from the Monitoring Of Jets in Active galactic nuclei with VLBA Experiments (MOJAVE) programme and/or its precursor, the 2-cm VLBA Survey. These data are supplemented by 1.4 GHz single-epoch VLBA observations of 135 MOJAVE AGNs to probe larger scale jet structures. The typical jet geometry is found to be close to conical on scales from hundreds to thousands of parsecs, while a number of galaxies show quasi-parabolic streamlines on smaller scales. A true jet geometry in a considerable fraction of AGNs appears only after stacking epochs over several years. The jets with significant radial accelerated motion undergo more active collimation. We have analysed total intensity jet profiles transverse to the local jet ridgeline and derived both apparent and intrinsic opening angles of the flows, with medians of 21.5° and 1.3°, respectively. The Fermi LAT-detected gamma-ray AGNs in our sample have, on average, wider apparent and narrower intrinsic opening angle, and smaller viewing angle than non-LAT-detected AGNs. We have established a highly significant correlation between the apparent opening angle and gamma-ray luminosity, driven by Doppler beaming and projection effects.

  3. On the evolution of jet energy and opening angle in strongly coupled plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Chesler, Paul M.; Rajagopal, Krishna

    2016-05-17

    We calculate how the energy and the opening angle of jets in N = 4SYM theory evolve as they propagate through the strongly coupled plasma of that theory. We define the rate of energy loss dEjet/dx and the jet opening angle in a straightforward fashion directly in the gauge theory before calculating both holographically, in the dual gravitational description. In this way, we rederive the previously known result for dEjet/dx without the need to introduce a finite slab of plasma. We obtain a striking relationship between the initial opening angle of the jet, which is to say the opening angle that it would have had if it had found itself in vacuum instead of in plasma, and the thermalization distance of the jet. Via this relationship, we show that N = 4SYM jets with any initial energy that have the same initial opening angle and the same trajectory through the plasma experience the same fractional energy loss. We also provide an expansion that describes how the opening angle of the N = 4SYM jets increases slowly as they lose energy, over the fraction of their lifetime when their fractional energy loss is not yet large. In conclusion, we close by looking ahead toward potential qualitative lessons from our results for QCD jets produced in heavy collisions and propagating through quark-gluon plasma.

  4. On the evolution of jet energy and opening angle in strongly coupled plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chesler, Paul M.; Rajagopal, Krishna

    2016-05-01

    We calculate how the energy and the opening angle of jets in {N} = 4 SYM theory evolve as they propagate through the strongly coupled plasma of that theory. We define the rate of energy loss dE jet /dx and the jet opening angle in a straightforward fashion directly in the gauge theory before calculating both holographically, in the dual gravitational description. In this way, we rederive the previously known result for dE jet /dx without the need to introduce a finite slab of plasma. We obtain a striking relationship between the initial opening angle of the jet, which is to say the opening angle that it would have had if it had found itself in vacuum instead of in plasma, and the thermalization distance of the jet. Via this relationship, we show that {N} = 4 SYM jets with any initial energy that have the same initial opening angle and the same trajectory through the plasma experience the same fractional energy loss. We also provide an expansion that describes how the opening angle of the {N} = 4 SYM jets increases slowly as they lose energy, over the fraction of their lifetime when their fractional energy loss is not yet large. We close by looking ahead toward potential qualitative lessons from our results for QCD jets produced in heavy collisions and propagating through quark-gluon plasma.

  5. ESTIMATING LONG GRB JET OPENING ANGLES AND REST-FRAME ENERGETICS

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, Adam; Briggs, Michael S.; Burns, Eric

    2016-02-10

    We present a method to estimate the jet opening angles of long duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) using the prompt gamma-ray energetics and an inversion of the Ghirlanda relation, which is a correlation between the time-integrated peak energy of the GRB prompt spectrum and the collimation-corrected energy in gamma-rays. The derived jet opening angles using this method and detailed assumptions match well with the corresponding inferred jet opening angles obtained when a break in the afterglow is observed. Furthermore, using a model of the predicted long GRB redshift probability distribution observable by the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM), we estimate the probability distributions for the jet opening angle and rest-frame energetics for a large sample of GBM GRBs for which the redshifts have not been observed. Previous studies have only used a handful of GRBs to estimate these properties due to the paucity of observed afterglow jet breaks, spectroscopic redshifts, and comprehensive prompt gamma-ray observations, and we potentially expand the number of GRBs that can be used in this analysis by more than an order of magnitude. In this analysis, we also present an inferred distribution of jet breaks which indicates that a large fraction of jet breaks are not observable with current instrumentation and observing strategies. We present simple parameterizations for the jet angle, energetics, and jet break distributions so that they may be used in future studies.

  6. On the evolution of jet energy and opening angle in strongly coupled plasma

    DOE PAGES

    Chesler, Paul M.; Rajagopal, Krishna

    2016-05-17

    We calculate how the energy and the opening angle of jets in N = 4SYM theory evolve as they propagate through the strongly coupled plasma of that theory. We define the rate of energy loss dEjet/dx and the jet opening angle in a straightforward fashion directly in the gauge theory before calculating both holographically, in the dual gravitational description. In this way, we rederive the previously known result for dEjet/dx without the need to introduce a finite slab of plasma. We obtain a striking relationship between the initial opening angle of the jet, which is to say the opening anglemore » that it would have had if it had found itself in vacuum instead of in plasma, and the thermalization distance of the jet. Via this relationship, we show that N = 4SYM jets with any initial energy that have the same initial opening angle and the same trajectory through the plasma experience the same fractional energy loss. We also provide an expansion that describes how the opening angle of the N = 4SYM jets increases slowly as they lose energy, over the fraction of their lifetime when their fractional energy loss is not yet large. In conclusion, we close by looking ahead toward potential qualitative lessons from our results for QCD jets produced in heavy collisions and propagating through quark-gluon plasma.« less

  7. The faster the narrower: characteristic bulk velocities and jet opening angles of gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghirlanda, G.; Ghisellini, G.; Salvaterra, R.; Nava, L.; Burlon, D.; Tagliaferri, G.; Campana, S.; D'Avanzo, P.; Melandri, A.

    2013-01-01

    The jet opening angle θjet and the bulk Lorentz factor Γ0 are crucial parameters for the computation of the energetics of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). From the ˜30 GRBs with measured θjet or Γ0 it is known that (i) the real energetic Eγ, obtained by correcting the isotropic equivalent energy Eiso for the collimation factor ˜ θ2jet, is clustered around 1050-1051 erg and it is correlated with the peak energy Ep of the prompt emission and (ii) the comoving frame E'p and E'γ are clustered around typical values. Current estimates of Γ0 and θjet are based on incomplete data samples and their observed distributions could be subject to biases. Through a population synthesis code we investigate whether different assumed intrinsic distributions of Γ0 and θjet can reproduce a set of observational constraints. Assuming that all bursts have the same E'p and E'γ in the comoving frame, we find that Γ0 and θjet cannot be distributed as single power laws. The best agreement between our simulation and the available data is obtained assuming (a) log-normal distributions for θjet and Γ0 and (b) an intrinsic relation between the peak values of their distributions, i.e. θjet2.5Γ0 = const. On average, larger values of Γ0 (i.e. the `faster' bursts) correspond to smaller values of θjet (i.e. the `narrower'). We predict that ˜6 per cent of the bursts that point to us should not show any jet break in their afterglow light curve since they have sin θjet < 1/Γ0. Finally, we estimate that the local rate of GRBs is ˜0.3 per cent of all local Type Ib/c supernova (SNIb/c) and ˜4.3 per cent of local hypernovae, i.e. SNIb/c with broad lines.

  8. Selection Effects on the Observed Redshift Dependence of Gamma-Ray Burst Jet Opening Angles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Rui-Jing; Wei, Jun-Jie; Qin, Shu-Fu; Liang, En-Wei

    2012-02-01

    An apparent redshift dependence of the jet opening angles (θj) of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) is observed from the current GRB sample. We investigate whether this dependence can be explained with instrumental selection effects and observational biases by a bootstrapping method. Assuming that (1) the GRB rate follows the star formation history and the cosmic metallicity history and (2) the intrinsic distributions of the jet-corrected luminosity (L γ) and θj are a Gaussian or a power-law function, we generate a mock Swift/Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) sample by considering various instrumental selection effects, including the flux threshold and the trigger probability of BAT, the probabilities of a GRB jet pointing to the instrument solid angle, and the probability of redshift measurement. Our results reproduce the observed θj - z dependence well. We find that in the case of L γvpropθ2 j good consistency between the mock and observed samples can be obtained, indicating that both L γ and θj are degenerate for a flux-limited sample. The parameter set (L γ, θj) = (4.9 × 1049 erg s-1, 0.054 rad) gives the best consistency for the current Swift GRB sample. Considering the beaming effect, the derived intrinsic local GRB rate is accordingly 2.85 × 102 Gpc-3 yr-1, inferring that ~0.59% of Type Ib/c supernovae may be accompanied by a GRB.

  9. Physics and evolution of constant opening angle jets using a quasi-one-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koupelis, Theodoros

    1994-01-01

    We discuss the significance of the assumptions of infinite conductivity and time independence in the context of an ideal MHD model for constant opening angle jets. The model is developed by projecting the MHD equations onto the jet axis. We find that for initially sub-Alfvenic flows (i.e., flows emanating from active galactic nuclei and neutron stars) wind-type solutions exist only when the field lines at the origin are wound up in a direction opposite to the direction of rotation of the compact source. We discuss the possibility that the time evolution of these outflows may be a cycle between breeze- and wind-type solutions as a result of continuous changes in the boundary conditions at the origin due to accretion. We propose that such cycles may explain the apparent one-sideness of some jets, especially the ones for which we cannot use arguments of relativistic beaming. We examine the dependence of the wind-type solutions on the following parameters describing the outflow at the origin: the degree of winding of the field lines, the value of the gas pressure, the polytropic index, the strength of the magnetic field, the value of the rotational velocity, the gravitational potential of the compact object, and the injection velocity. We compare results with results obtained previously, and discuss briefly the qualitative features and physical interpretation of the solutions for outflows emanating from neutron stars and protostars.

  10. SELECTION EFFECTS ON THE OBSERVED REDSHIFT DEPENDENCE OF GAMMA-RAY BURST JET OPENING ANGLES

    SciTech Connect

    Lu Ruijing; Wei Junjie; Liang Enwei; Qin Shufu

    2012-02-01

    An apparent redshift dependence of the jet opening angles ({theta}{sub j}) of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) is observed from the current GRB sample. We investigate whether this dependence can be explained with instrumental selection effects and observational biases by a bootstrapping method. Assuming that (1) the GRB rate follows the star formation history and the cosmic metallicity history and (2) the intrinsic distributions of the jet-corrected luminosity (L{sub {gamma}}) and {theta}{sub j} are a Gaussian or a power-law function, we generate a mock Swift/Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) sample by considering various instrumental selection effects, including the flux threshold and the trigger probability of BAT, the probabilities of a GRB jet pointing to the instrument solid angle, and the probability of redshift measurement. Our results reproduce the observed {theta}{sub j} - z dependence well. We find that in the case of L{sub {gamma}}{proportional_to}{theta}{sup 2}{sub j} good consistency between the mock and observed samples can be obtained, indicating that both L{sub {gamma}} and {theta}{sub j} are degenerate for a flux-limited sample. The parameter set (L{sub {gamma}}, {theta}{sub j}) = (4.9 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 49} erg s{sup -1}, 0.054 rad) gives the best consistency for the current Swift GRB sample. Considering the beaming effect, the derived intrinsic local GRB rate is accordingly 2.85 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 2} Gpc{sup -3} yr{sup -1}, inferring that {approx}0.59% of Type Ib/c supernovae may be accompanied by a GRB.

  11. A Decade of Short-duration Gamma-Ray Burst Broadband Afterglows: Energetics, Circumburst Densities, and Jet Opening Angles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fong, W.; Berger, E.; Margutti, R.; Zauderer, B. A.

    2015-12-01

    We present a comprehensive catalog and analysis of broadband afterglow observations for 103 short-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), comprised of all short GRBs from 2004 November to 2015 March with prompt follow-up observations in the X-ray, optical, near-infrared (NIR), and/or radio bands. These afterglow observations have uncovered 71 X-ray detections, 30 optical/NIR detections, and 4 radio detections. Employing the standard afterglow synchrotron model, we perform joint probability analyses for a subset of 38 short GRBs with well-sampled light curves to infer the burst isotropic-equivalent energies and circumburst densities. For this subset, we find median isotropic-equivalent γ-ray and kinetic energies of Eγ,iso ≈ 2 × 1051 erg, and EK,iso ≈ (1-3) × 1051 erg, respectively, depending on the values of the model input parameters. We further find that short GRBs occur in low-density environments, with a median density of n ≈ (3-15) × 10-3 cm-3, and that ≈80%-95% of bursts have densities of n ≲ 1 cm-3. We investigate trends between the circumburst densities and host galaxy properties, and find that events located at large projected offsets of ≳10 effective radii from their hosts exhibit particularly low densities of n ≲ 10-4 cm-3, consistent with an intergalactic medium-like environment. Using late-time afterglow data for 11 events, we find a median jet opening angle of θj = 16 ± 10°. We also calculate a median beaming factor of fb ≈ 0.04, leading to a beaming-corrected total energy release of Etrue ≈ 1.6 × 1050 erg. Furthermore, we calculate a beaming-corrected event rate of {{R}}{{true}}={270}-180+1580 Gpc-3 yr-1, or ≈ {8}-5+47 yr-1 within a 200 Mpc volume, the Advanced LIGO/Virgo typical detection distance for NS-NS binaries.

  12. Distinguishing features of shallow angle plunging jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deshpande, Suraj S.; Trujillo, Mario F.

    2013-08-01

    Numerical simulations employing an algebraic volume-of-fluid methodology are used to study the air entrainment characteristics of a water jet plunging into a quiescent water pool at angles ranging from θ = 10° to θ = 90° measured from the horizontal. Our previous study of shallow angled jets [S. S. Deshpande, M. F. Trujillo, X. Wu, and G. L. Chahine, "Computational and experimental characterization of a liquid jet plunging into a quiescent pool at shallow inclination," Int. J. Heat Fluid Flow 34, 1-14 (2012)], 10.1016/j.ijheatfluidflow.2012.01.011 revealed the existence of a clearly discernible frequency of ingestion of large air cavities. This is in contrast with chaotic entrainment of small air pockets reported in the literature in case of steeper or vertically plunging jets. In the present work, the differences are addressed by first quantifying the cavity size and entrained air volumes for different impingement angles. The results support the expected trend - reduction in cavity size (D43) as θ is increased. Time histories of cavity volumes in the vicinity of the impingement region confirm the visual observations pertaining to a near-periodic ingestion of large air volumes for shallow jets (10°, 12°), and also show that such cavities are not formed for steep or vertical jets. Each large cavity (defined as Dc/Dj ≳ 3) exists in close association with a stagnation point flow. A local mass and momentum balance shows that the high stagnation pressure causes a radial redirection of the jet, resulting in a flow that resembles the initial impact of a jet on the pool. In fact, for these large cavities, their speed matches closely Uimpact/2, which coincides with initial cavity propagation for sufficiently high Froude numbers. Furthermore, it is shown that the approximate periodicity of air entrainment scales linearly with Froude number. This finding is confirmed by a number of simulations at θ = 12°. Qualitatively, for steeper jets, such large stagnation

  13. Influence of the opening angle of a conical supersonic nozzle on the structure of initial interval of non-isobaric jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vetlutsky, V. N.; Ganimedov, V. L.; Muchnaya, M. I.

    2008-06-01

    The ideal gas exhaustion from an infinite volume into a gas at rest through a supersonic conical Laval nozzle is considered. The problem was solved numerically by steadying in time in a unified formulation for the regions inside the nozzle and in the ambient environment. In such a statement, the nozzle outlet section is no internal boundary of the region under consideration, and there is no need of specifying the boundary conditions here. Local subsonic zones arising in the flow lie inside the region under consideration, which eliminates the possibility of using a marching technique along one of the coordinates. The numerical solution is constructed by a unified algorithm for the entire flow region, which gives a possibility of obtaining a higher accuracy. The computations are carried out in the jet initial interval, where, according to monograph [1], the wave phenomena predominate over the viscous effects. The exhaustion process is described by the system of gas dynamics equations. Their solution is constructed with the aid of a finite difference Harten’s TVD (Total Variation Diminishing) scheme [2], which has the second approximation order in space. The second approximation order in time is achieved with the aid of a five-stage Runge-Kutta method. The solution algorithm has been parallelized in space and implemented on the multi-processor computer systems of the ITAM SB RAS and the MVS-128 of the Siberian Supercomputer Center of SB RAS. The influence of the semi-apex angle of the nozzle supersonic part and the pressure jump between the nozzle outlet section and the ambient environment on the flow in the initial interval of a non-isobaric jet is investigated in the work. A comparison with experimental data is presented. The computations are carried out for the semi-apex angles of the nozzle supersonic part from 0 (parallel flow) to 20 degrees. For all considered nozzles, the Mach number in the nozzle outlet section, which was computed from the one

  14. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Jet angles and gamma-ray energetics estimations (Goldstein+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldstein, A.; Connaughton, V.; Briggs, M. S.; Burns, E.

    2016-04-01

    We present a method to estimate the jet opening angles of long duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) using the prompt gamma-ray energetics and an inversion of the Ghirlanda relation, which is a correlation between the time-integrated peak energy of the GRB prompt spectrum and the collimation-corrected energy in gamma-rays. The derived jet opening angles using this method and detailed assumptions match well with the corresponding inferred jet opening angles obtained when a break in the afterglow is observed. Furthermore, using a model of the predicted long GRB redshift probability distribution observable by the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM), we estimate the probability distributions for the jet opening angle and rest-frame energetics for a large sample of GBM GRBs for which the redshifts have not been observed. Previous studies have only used a handful of GRBs to estimate these properties due to the paucity of observed afterglow jet breaks, spectroscopic redshifts, and comprehensive prompt gamma-ray observations, and we potentially expand the number of GRBs that can be used in this analysis by more than an order of magnitude. In this analysis, we also present an inferred distribution of jet breaks which indicates that a large fraction of jet breaks are not observable with current instrumentation and observing strategies. We present simple parameterizations for the jet angle, energetics, and jet break distributions so that they may be used in future studies. (1 data file).

  15. Primary open-angle glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Weinreb, Robert N; Khaw, Peng Tee

    2004-05-22

    Primary open-angle glaucoma is a progressive optic neuropathy and, perhaps, the most common form of glaucoma. Because the disease is treatable, and because the visual impairment caused by glaucoma is irreversible, early detection is essential. Early diagnosis depends on examination of the optic disc, retinal nerve fibre layer, and visual field. New imaging and psychophysical tests can improve both detection and monitoring of the progression of the disease. Recently completed long-term clinical trials provide convincing evidence that lowering intraocular pressure prevents progression at both the early and late stages of the disease. The degree of protection is related to the degree to which intraocular pressure is lowered. Improvements in therapy consist of more effective and better-tolerated drugs to lower intraocular pressure, and more effective surgical procedures. New treatments to directly treat and protect the retinal ganglion cells that are damaged in glaucoma are also in development.

  16. Entrainment Characteristics for variable-angle plunging liquid jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deshpande, Suraj; Trujillo, Mario

    2013-11-01

    Simulations based on an algebraic VoF method are used to study the entrainment characteristics of a water jet plunging into a quiescent pool at angles ranging from 10 to 90 deg. with pool. Our previous study of shallow plunging jets (Deshpande et al. 2012) revealed a discernible frequency in the formation of large air cavities. This contrasts the well-documented chaotic entrainment at steeper inclinations, suggesting a different entrainment mechanism exists for shallow angles. Quantitatively, it is found that larger cavities and greater volume of entrained air occur at shallower angles (10, 12 deg.). A precursor to the formation of these large cavities is the presence of a stagnation region in the zone of impingement. Using a local mass and momentum balance, we show that this stagnation region deflects the incoming jet at wide angles producing large air cavities. Entrainment in shallow jets is similar to the initial impact of the jet with a pool, but it occurs periodically. The recurrence is a consequence of jet disruption by traveling waves on the pool. Qualitative analysis, supported with simulations, demonstrates linear scaling of entrainment period with Froude number.

  17. Magnetic Resonance Velocimetry analysis of an angled impinging jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irhoud, Alexandre; Benson, Michael; Verhulst, Claire; van Poppel, Bret; Elkins, Chris; Helmer, David

    2016-11-01

    Impinging jets are used to achieve high heat transfer rates in applications ranging from gas turbine engines to electronics. Despite the importance and relative simplicity of the geometry, simulations historically fail to accurately predict the flow behavior in the vicinity of the flow impingement. In this work, we present results from a novel experimental technique, Magnetic Resonance Velocimetry (MRV), which measures three-dimensional time-averaged velocity without the need for optical access. The geometry considered in this study is a circular jet angled at 45 degrees and impinging on a flat plate, with a separation of approximately seven jet diameters between the jet exit and the impingement location. Two flow conditions are considered, with Reynolds numbers of roughly 800 and 14,000. Measurements from the MRV experiment are compared to predictions from Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) simulations, thus demonstrating the utility of MRV for validation of numerical analyses of impinging jet flow.

  18. Measurements in a large angle oblique jet impingement flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foss, J. F.

    1978-01-01

    The flow field associated with the oblique impingement of an axisymmetric jet was investigated in the externally blown flap configuration for the STOL aircraft. The passive and active spreading characteristics of the shallow angle (a greater than or = approximately to 15 degrees) oblique impingement flow, the role of the initially azimuthal vorticity field, and the stagnation point region were studied, and compared to the large ( a = 45 degres) oblique jet impingement flow. A description of the characteristics of the large angle impingement flow is presented: A flow field near the plate as showing two distinct patterns, one near the location of the maximum surface pressure, and another about the geometric intersection of the jet axis with the plate; and turbulence in the region above the plate which is greater than the one accounted for by the convection of turbulence energy by the mean motion.

  19. Linkage studies in primary open angle glaucoma

    SciTech Connect

    Avramopoulos, D.; Grigoriadu, M.; Kitsos, G.

    1994-09-01

    Glaucoma is a leading cause of blindness worldwide. The majority of glaucoma is associated with an open, normal appearing anterior chamber angle and is termed primary open angle glaucoma (POAG, MIM 137760). It is characterized by elevated intraocular pressure and onset in middle age or later. A subset of POAG with juvenile onset has recently been linked to chromosome 1q in two families with autosomal dominant inheritance. Eleven pedigrees with autosomal dominant POG (non-juvenile-onset) have been identified in Epirus, Greece. In the present study DNA samples have been collected from 50 individuals from one large pedigree, including 12 affected individuals. Preliminary results of linkage analysis with chromosome 1 microsatellites using the computer program package LINKAGE Version 5.1 showed no linkage with the markers previously linked to juvenile-onset POAG. Further linkage analysis is being pursued, and the results will be presented.

  20. Novel therapies for open-angle glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Wentz, Scott M.; Kim, Nathaniel J.; Wang, Jenny; Amireskandari, Annahita; Siesky, Brent

    2014-01-01

    Open-angle glaucoma is a multifactorial optic neuropathy characterized by progressive loss of retinal ganglion cells and their axons. It is an irreversible disease with no established cure. The only currently approved treatment is aimed at lowering intraocular pressure, the most significant risk factor known to date. However, it is now clear that there are other risk factors involved in glaucoma's pathophysiology. To achieve future improvements in glaucoma management, new approaches to therapies and novel targets must be developed. Such therapies may include new tissue targets for lowering intraocular pressure, molecules influencing ocular hemodynamics, and treatments providing neuroprotection of retinal ganglion cells. Furthermore, novel drug delivery systems are in development that may improve patient compliance, increase bioavailability, and decrease adverse side effects. PMID:25580256

  1. Sound Radiation from a Supersonic Jet Passing Through a Partially Open Exhaust Duct

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kandula, Max

    2011-01-01

    The radiation of sound from a perfectly expanded Mach 2.5 cold supersonic jet of 25.4 mm exit diameter flowing through a partially open rigid-walled duct with an upstream i-deflector has been studied experimentally. In the experiments, the nozzle is mounted vertically, with the nozzle exit plane at a height of 73 jet diameters above ground level. Relative to the nozzle exit plane (NEP), the location of the duct inlet is varied at 10, 5, and -1 jet diameters. Far-field sound pressure levels were obtained at 54 jet diameters above ground with the aid of acoustic sensors equally spaced around a circular arc of radius equal to 80 jet diameters from the jet axis. Data on the jet acoustic field for the partially open duct were obtained and compared with those with a free jet and with a closed duct. The results suggest that for the partially open duct the overall sound pressure level (OASPL) decreases as the distance between the NEP and the duct inlet plane decreases, while the opposite trend is observed for the closed duct. It is also concluded that the observed peak frequency in the partially open duct increases above the free jet value as the angle from the duct axis is increased, and as the duct inlet plane becomes closer to the NEP.

  2. Experimental Determination of Jet Boundary Corrections for Airfoil Tests in Four Open Wind Tunnel Jets of Different Shapes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, Montgomery; Harris, Thomas A

    1931-01-01

    This experimental investigation was conducted primarily for the purpose of obtaining a method of correcting to free air conditions the results of airfoil force tests in four open wind tunnel jets of different shapes. Tests were also made to determine whether the jet boundaries had any appreciable effect on the pitching moments of a complete airplane model. Satisfactory corrections for the effect of the boundaries of the various jets were obtained for all the airfoils tested, the span of the largest being 0.75 of the jet width. The corrections for angle of attack were, in general, larger than those for drag. The boundaries had no appreciable effect on the pitching moments of either the airfoils or the complete airplane model. Increasing turbulence appeared to increase the minimum drag and maximum lift and to decrease the pitching moment.

  3. Open cycle OTEC system with falling jet evaporator and condenser

    SciTech Connect

    Kogan, A.; Johnson, D. H.; Green, H. J.; Olson, D. A.

    1980-07-01

    A configuration for the open cycle (OC) Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) system is presented incorporating a countercurrent falling jet evaporator and a concurrent falling jet condenser. The parameters governing performance of the proposed configuration are discussed and the sizing of equipment for a 100-MWe net power output OC OTEC plant is performed, based on recent experimental falling jet heat and mass transfer results. The performance of an OC OTEC plant with falling jet evaporator-condenser is compared with the Westinghouse conceptual design that uses an open-channel evaporator and a surface condenser. Preliminary calculations indicate that falling jet heat and mass transfer, when applied in the proposed configuration, leads to a very simple and compact plant assembly resulting in substantial capital cost savings.

  4. Removal of Machine Oil from Metal Surface by Mesoplasma Jet under Open Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Haruki; Shiki, Hajime; Tsujii, Kenichi; Oke, Shinichiro; Suda, Yoshiyuki; Takikawa, Hirofumi; Okawa, Takashi; Yamanaka, Shigenobu

    2009-08-01

    An attempt was made to employ the plasma-energized jet (PEN-jet) generated by pulsed arc discharge, one of the atmospheric-pressure mesoplasmas, for removal of machine oil from the surface of electrically-grounded aluminum (Al) alloy substrate under open atmosphere. Three types of nozzle configurations were examined; a metal nozzle, ceramic nozzle, and electrically-floated metal nozzle. Electric input power to the pulsed arc plasma discharge was 700 W constant. First, free-burning of the PEN-jet was observed as a function of air gas flow. When the PEN-jets were irradiated to the clean substrate, the PEN-jet with the metal nozzle caused substrate damage by the arc spot due to transferring arc discharge. Then the PEN-jet with the ceramic nozzle was irradiated to the oily substrate. The adhesion strength of sealant and water contact angle of the treated surface were then measured. As a result, these values of the oily substrate treated by the PEN-jet were almost the same as those of clean substrate. The treated surface was analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and reflectance spectroscopy. Their spectral profiles clearly indicated oil removal from the surface by PEN-jet.

  5. Open Rotor: New Option for Jet Engines

    NASA Image and Video Library

    NASA's Dale Van Zante describes how the open rotor propulsion system will be tested in a wind tunnel at NASA's Glenn Research Center. Open rotor aircraft engines use high-speed propellers and are c...

  6. Effect of Jet Injection Angle and Number of Jets on Mixing and Emissions From a Reacting Crossflow at Atmospheric Pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St.John, D.; Samuelsen, G. S.

    2000-01-01

    The mixing of air jets into hot, fuel-rich products of a gas turbine primary zone is an important step in staged combustion. Often referred to as "quick quench," the mixing occurs with chemical conversion and substantial heat release. An experiment has been designed to simulate and study this process, and the effect of varying the entry angle (0 deg, 22.5 deg and 45 deg from normal) and number of the air jets (7, 9, and 11) into the main flow, while holding the jet-to-crossflow mass-low ratio, MR, and momentum-flux ratio, J, constant (MR = 2.5;J = 25). The geometry is a crossflow confined in a cylindrical duct with side-wall injection of jets issuing from orifices equally spaced around the perimeter. A specially designed reactor, operating on propane, presents a uniform mixture to a module containing air jet injection tubes that can be changed to vary orifice geometry. Species concentrations of O2, CO, CO2, NO(x) and HC were obtained one duct diameter upstream (in the rich zone), and primarily one duct radius downstream. From this information, penetration of the jet, the spatial extent of chemical reaction, mixing, and the optimum jet injection angle and number of jets can be deduced.

  7. Large optical field enhancement for nanotips with large opening angles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Sebastian; Wachter, Georg; Lemell, Christoph; Burgdörfer, Joachim; Hommelhoff, Peter

    2015-06-01

    We theoretically investigate the dependence of the enhancement of optical near-fields at nanometric tips on the shape, size, and material of the tip. We confirm the strong dependence of the field enhancement factor on the radius of curvature. In addition, we find a surprisingly strong increase of field enhancement with increasing opening angle of the nanotips. For gold and tungsten nanotips in the experimentally relevant parameter range (radius of curvature ≥slant 5 nm at 800 nm laser wavelength), we obtain field enhancement factors of up to ∼ 35 for Au and ∼ 12 for W for large opening angles. We confirm this strong dependence on the opening angle for many other materials featuring a wide variety in their dielectric response. For dielectrics, the opening angle dependence is traced back to the electrostatic force of the induced surface charge at the tip shank. For metals, the plasmonic response strongly increases the field enhancement and shifts the maximum field enhancement to smaller opening angles.

  8. [The visual evoked potentials in open angle glaucoma].

    PubMed

    Damian, Carmen; Iancău, Maria; Costache, Doina

    2004-01-01

    The study purpose to analyse the variations of Visual Evoked Potentials on a group of patients with Open Angle Glaucoma. It was performed the Visual Evoked Potential recordings on a number of patients with Open Angle Glaucoma in different stages of evolutions. Some of the patients were monitored by the Visual Evoked Potentials recordings in a dynamic way, before and after the law pressure treatment. The type of Visual Evoked Potentials recording was pattern reversal with vertical bars. In incipient stage of Open Angle Glaucoma the alteration of the tract was minimal with inconstant presence of the N75 and N135 waves and just a few variation of the delay of P100. In advanced stages of Open Angle Glaucoma the alterations of the tract were important: the delay of P100 wave. In absolute stage the tract was null. The alterations of Visual Evoked Potentials tract was influenced by the different stages of evolution of Open Angle Glaucoma. The gradual alteration of the Visual Evoked Potential tract represents a prognosis of the disease.

  9. Contact Angle Influence on Geysering Jets in Microgravity Investigated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chato, David J.

    2004-01-01

    Microgravity poses many challenges to the designer of spacecraft tanks. Chief among these are the lack of phase separation and the need to supply vapor-free liquid or liquid-free vapor to the spacecraft processes that require fluid. One of the principal problems of phase separation is the creation of liquid jets. A jet can be created by liquid filling, settling of the fluid to one end of the tank, or even closing a valve to stop the liquid flow. Anyone who has seen a fountain knows that jets occur in normal gravity also. However, in normal gravity, the gravity controls and restricts the jet flow. In microgravity, with gravity largely absent, surface tension forces must be used to contain jets. To model this phenomenon, a numerical method that tracks the fluid motion and the surface tension forces is required. Jacqmin has developed a phase model that converts the discrete surface tension force into a barrier function that peaks at the free surface and decays rapidly away. Previous attempts at this formulation were criticized for smearing the interface. This can be overcome by sharpening the phase function, double gridding the fluid function, and using a higher-order solution for the fluid function. The solution of this equation can be rewritten as two coupled Poisson equations that also include the velocity.

  10. Asymptotic Opening Angles for Colliding-Wind Bow Shocks: The Characteristic-Angle Approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gayley, Kenneth G.

    2009-09-01

    By considering the advection and interaction of the vector momentum flux in highly supersonic spherically diverging winds, we derive a simple analytic description of the asymptotic opening angle of a wind-collision shock cone, in the approximation that the shocked gas is contained in a cone streaming out along a single characteristic opening angle. Both highly radiative and highly adiabatic limits are treated, and their comparison is the novel result. Analytic closed-form expressions are obtained for the inferred wind momentum ratios as a function of the observed shock opening angle, allowing the conspicuous shape of the asymptotic bow shock to be used as a preliminary constraint on more detailed modeling of the colliding winds. In the process, we explore from a general perspective the limitations in applying to the global shock geometry the so-called Dyson approximation, which asserts a local balance in the perpendicular ram pressure across the shock.

  11. Velocity field of a round jet in a cross flow for various jet injection angles and velocity ratios. [Langley V/STOL tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fearn, R. L.; Weston, R. P.

    1979-01-01

    A subsonic round jet injected from a flat plate into a subsonic crosswind of the same temperature was investigated. Velocity and pressure measurements in planes perpendicular to the path of the jet were made for nominal jet injection angles of 45 deg, 60 deg, 75 deg, 90 deg, and 105 deg and for jet/cross flow velocity ratios of four and eight. The velocity measurements were obtained to infer the properties of the vortex pair associated with a jet in a cross flow. Jet centerline and vortex trajectories were determined and fit with an empirical equation that includes the effects of jet injection angle, jet core length, and jet/cross flow velocity ratios.

  12. Canaloplasty versus Viscocanalostomy in Primary Open Angle Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Wagdy, Faried Mohammed

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of canaloplasty versus viscocanalostomy in management of uncontrolled primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) with medication. Methods Canaloplasty surgery was applied for thirty eyes of thirty patients (45–55 years) with a mean age of 48 years (Group A) and viscocanalostomy surgery was applied also for thirty eyes of thirty patients (43–54 years) with a mean age of 46 years (group B). All patients were with uncontrolled primary open angle glaucoma by maximally tolerated medical therapy. Results Intraocular pressure (IOP) in both surgeries was significantly reduced through follow up period (p < 0.0.001). Complete success was 86.6% in group A and 80% in group B. Visual field deterioration was in 2 cases (6%) in group A and in 4 cases (13%) in group B. Low incidence of postoperative complications was reported as Descemet’s membrane detachment (3% in group A and 8% in group B), ocular hypotony (2% in group A and 4% in group B) and hyphema (3% in group A and 5% in group B). Conclusion Canaloplasty was more effective and safer than viscocanalostomy in management of uncontrolled primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) with medication. PMID:28243422

  13. PULSAR BINARY BIRTHRATES WITH SPIN-OPENING ANGLE CORRELATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    O'Shaughnessy, Richard; Kim, Chunglee E-mail: ckim@astro.lu.s

    2010-05-20

    One ingredient in an empirical birthrate estimate for pulsar binaries is the fraction of sky subtended by the pulsar beam: the pulsar beaming fraction. This fraction depends on both the pulsar's opening angle and the misalignment angle between its spin and magnetic axes. The current estimates for pulsar binary birthrates are based on an average value of beaming fractions for only two pulsars, i.e., PSRs B1913+16 and B1534+12. In this paper, we revisit the observed pulsar binaries to examine the sensitivity of birthrate predictions to different assumptions regarding opening angle and alignment. Based on empirical estimates for the relative likelihood of different beam half-opening angles and misalignment angles between the pulsar rotation and magnetic axes, we calculate an effective beaming correction factor, f{sub b,eff}, whose reciprocal is equivalent to the average fraction of all randomly selected pulsars that point toward us. For those pulsars without any direct beam geometry constraints, we find that f{sub b,eff} is likely to be smaller than 6, a canonically adopted value when calculating birthrates of Galactic pulsar binaries. We calculate f{sub b,eff} for PSRs J0737-3039A and J1141-6545, applying the currently available constraints for their beam geometry. As in previous estimates of the posterior probability density function P(R) for pulsar binary birthrates R, PSRs J0737-3039A and J1141-6545 still significantly contribute to, if not dominate, the Galactic birthrate of tight pulsar-neutron star (NS) and pulsar-white dwarf (WD) binaries, respectively. Our median posterior present-day birthrate predictions for tight PSR-NS binaries, wide PSR-NS binaries, and tight PSR-WD binaries given a preferred pulsar population model and beaming geometry are 89 Myr{sup -1}, 0.5 Myr{sup -1}, and 34 Myr{sup -1}, respectively. For long-lived PSR-NS binaries, these estimates include a weak (x1.6) correction for slowly decaying star formation in the galactic disk. For pulsars

  14. Measurements in a large angle oblique jet impingement flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foss, J. F.

    1974-01-01

    Velocity and surface pressure measurements, in the flow field of an obliquely impinging jet, and their interpretation as regards the governing mechanics and the aerodynamic noise generation characteristics of such a flow are reported. A computer controlled probe positioning mechanism allowed the measurement of the velocity magnitude and direction in the plane parallel to the plate. The mean velocity and Reynolds stress components were recorded. Measures of the terms in the momentum equation reveal the character of the pressure gradients in the neighborhood of the stagnation point. The effects of the stagnation streamline location on the vorticity field and the vortex sound considerations are discussed in relationship to the aerodynamic noise generation effects of this flow.

  15. Numerical investigation on properties of attack angle for an opposing jet thermal protection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Hai-Bo; Liu, Wei-Qiang

    2012-08-01

    The three-dimensional Navier—Stokes equation and the k-in viscous model are used to simulate the attack angle characteristics of a hemisphere nose-tip with an opposing jet thermal protection system in supersonic flow conditions. The numerical method is validated by the relevant experiment. The flow field parameters, aerodynamic forces, and surface heat flux distributions for attack angles of 0°, 2°, 5°, 7°, and 10° are obtained. The detailed numerical results show that the cruise attack angle has a great influence on the flow field parameters, aerodynamic force, and surface heat flux distribution of the supersonic vehicle nose-tip with an opposing jet thermal protection system. When the attack angle reaches 10°, the heat flux on the windward generatrix is close to the maximal heat flux on the wall surface of the nose-tip without thermal protection system, thus the thermal protection has failed.

  16. JETS AND WIDE-ANGLE OUTFLOWS IN CEPHEUS E: NEW EVIDENCE FROM SPITZER

    SciTech Connect

    Velusamy, T.; Langer, W. D.; Kumar, M. S. N.; Grave, J. M. C. E-mail: William.D.Langer@jpl.nasa.gov E-mail: jgrave@astro.up.pt

    2011-11-01

    Outflows and jets are believed to play a crucial role in determining the mass of the central protostar and its planet-forming disk by virtue of their ability to transport energy, mass, and momentum of the surrounding material, and thus terminate the infall stage in star and disk formation. In some protostellar objects both wide-angle outflows and collimated jets are seen, while in others only one is observed. Spitzer provides unprecedented sensitivity in the infrared to study both the jet and outflow features. Here, we use HiRes deconvolution to improve the visualization of spatial morphology by enhancing resolution (to subarcsecond levels in the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) bands) and removing the contaminating sidelobes from bright sources. We apply this approach to study the jet and outflow features in Cep E, a young, energetic Class 0 protostar. In the reprocessed images we detect (1) wide-angle outflow seen in scattered light, (2) morphological details on at least 29 jet-driven bow shocks and jet heads or knots, (3) three compact features in 24 {mu}m continuum image as atomic/ionic line emission coincident with the jet heads, and (4) a flattened {approx}35'' size protostellar envelope seen against the interstellar background polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission as an absorption band across the protostar at 8 {mu}m. By separating the protostellar photospheric scattered emission in the wide-angle cavity from the jet emission we show that we can study directly the scattered light spectrum. We present the H{sub 2} emission line spectra, as observed in all IRAC bands, for 29 knots in the jets and bow shocks and use them in the IRAC color-color space as a diagnostic of the thermal gas in the shocks driven by the jets. The data presented here will enable detailed modeling of the individual shocks retracing the history of the episodic jet activity and the associated accretion on to the protostar. The Spitzer data analysis presented here shows the richness of its

  17. Radio jet propagation and wide-angle tailed radio sources in merging galaxy cluster environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loken, Chris; Roettiger, Kurt; Burns, Jack O.; Norman, Michael

    1995-01-01

    The intracluster medium (ICM) within merging clusters of galaxies is likely to be in a violent or turbulent dynamical state which may have a significant effect on the evolution of cluster radio sources. We present results from a recent gas + N-body simulation of a cluster merger, suggesting that mergers can result in long-lived, supersonic bulk flows, as well as shocks, within a few hundred kiloparsecs of the core of the dominant cluster. These results have motivated our new two-dimensional and three-dimensional simulations of jet propagation in such environments. The first set of simulations models the ISM/ICM transition as a contact discontinuity with a strong velocity shear. A supersonic (M(sub j) = 6) jet crossing this discontinuity into an ICM with a transverse, supersonic wind bends continuously, becomes 'naked' on the upwind side, and forms a distended cocoon on the downwind side. In the case of a mildly supersonic jet (M(sub j) = 3), however, a shock is driven into the ISM and ISM material is pulled along with the jet into the ICM. Instabilities excited at the ISM/ICM interface result in the jet repeatedly pinching off and reestablishing itself in a series of 'disconnection events.' The second set of simulations deals with a jet encountering a shock in the merging cluster environment. A series of relatively high-resolution two-dimensional calculations is used to confirm earlier analysis predicting that the jet will not disrupt when the jet Mach number is greater than the shock Mach number. A jet which survives the encounter with the shock will decrease in radius and disrupt shortly thereafter as a result of the growth of Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities. We also find, in disagreement with predictions, that the jet flaring angle decreases with increasing jet density. Finally, a three-dimensional simulation of a jet crossing an oblique shock gives rise to a morphology which resembles a wide-angle tailed radio source with the jet flaring at the shock and

  18. Radio jet propagation and wide-angle tailed radio sources in merging galaxy cluster environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loken, Chris; Roettiger, Kurt; Burns, Jack O.; Norman, Michael

    1995-01-01

    The intracluster medium (ICM) within merging clusters of galaxies is likely to be in a violent or turbulent dynamical state which may have a significant effect on the evolution of cluster radio sources. We present results from a recent gas + N-body simulation of a cluster merger, suggesting that mergers can result in long-lived, supersonic bulk flows, as well as shocks, within a few hundred kiloparsecs of the core of the dominant cluster. These results have motivated our new two-dimensional and three-dimensional simulations of jet propagation in such environments. The first set of simulations models the ISM/ICM transition as a contact discontinuity with a strong velocity shear. A supersonic (M(sub j) = 6) jet crossing this discontinuity into an ICM with a transverse, supersonic wind bends continuously, becomes 'naked' on the upwind side, and forms a distended cocoon on the downwind side. In the case of a mildly supersonic jet (M(sub j) = 3), however, a shock is driven into the ISM and ISM material is pulled along with the jet into the ICM. Instabilities excited at the ISM/ICM interface result in the jet repeatedly pinching off and reestablishing itself in a series of 'disconnection events.' The second set of simulations deals with a jet encountering a shock in the merging cluster environment. A series of relatively high-resolution two-dimensional calculations is used to confirm earlier analysis predicting that the jet will not disrupt when the jet Mach number is greater than the shock Mach number. A jet which survives the encounter with the shock will decrease in radius and disrupt shortly thereafter as a result of the growth of Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities. We also find, in disagreement with predictions, that the jet flaring angle decreases with increasing jet density. Finally, a three-dimensional simulation of a jet crossing an oblique shock gives rise to a morphology which resembles a wide-angle tailed radio source with the jet flaring at the shock and

  19. Mixing Characteristics of Turbulent Twin Impinging Axisymmetric Jets at Various Impingement Angles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landers, Brian Donn

    An experimental study is first presented on the comparison between two commonly used velocity measurement techniques applied in experimental fluid dynamics: Constant Temperature Anemometry (CTA) and Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). The comparison is performed in the near-field region of an axisymmetric circular turbulent jet where the flow field contains large scale turbulent structures. The comparison was performed for five Reynolds numbers, based on diameter, between 5,000 and 25,000. The Reynolds numbers selected cover the critical Reynolds number range, 10,000 to 20,000 where the characteristics of the flow transition to a fully developed turbulent mixing layer. A comparison between these two measurement techniques was performed in order to determine the differences between an intrusive (CTA) and non-intrusive (PIV) method when applied to a practical application. The results and observations obtained from the comparison between the two techniques were applied to better characterize the time-averaged characteristics of a single axisymmetric turbulent jet with a Reynolds number of 7,500. The mean and fluctuating velocities, turbulent kinetic energy (TKE), and vorticity were measured as a baseline case. Additionally, smoke visualization was utilized to determine the mixing characteristics of the transient start of an axisymmetric turbulent jet. The shedding frequencies, also known as, the `preferred mode were investigated for a single jet. Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) was also utilized to characterize the pre-and post-regions of the interaction region of two axisymmetric, incompressible turbulent jets at included angles: 30, 45, and 60 degrees. The Reynolds number selected (7,500) was within the range of critical Reynolds numbers and the geometrical distance to twin jet impingement, X0, remained constant at 10.33D for each impingement angle. The mean and fluctuating velocities, vorticity, and turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) were measured. Smoke Visualization

  20. CFD study of Jet Impingement Test erosion using Ansys Fluent® and OpenFOAM®

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, Alejandro; Nicholls, William; Stickland, Matthew T.; Dempster, William M.

    2015-12-01

    The initial aim of this study was to compare OpenFoam and Ansys Fluent in order to verify OpenFoam's Lagrangian Library and erosion capabilities. However, it was found that previous versions of Fluent have been providing wrong results for the discrete phase and the differences with the latest version (Ansys Fluent 15) are shown. A Submerged Jet Impingement Test is an effective method for studying erosion created by solid particles entrained in a liquid. When considering low particle concentrations a Lagrangian modeling of the particulate phase is a reasonable approach. Proper linkage between OpenFOAM's Lagrangian library and the solver pimpleFoam for incompressible transient flows allows two-phase simulations to be undertaken for comparison with Ansys Fluent with the aim of verifying OpenFoam's accuracy. Steady state convergence for the fluid flow is first accomplished and the results are compared, confirming a good agreement between the two packages. A transient simulation was then set up and spherical particles incorporated into the fluid flow. An assessment of the two codes' discrete phase models was carried out, focusing on the differences between impact angles and velocities yielded at the impingement plate's surface employing a similar strategy to that outlined first by Hattori et al. (2008) and later by Gnanavelu et al. (2009, 2011). In the comparison of OpenFoam with the latest version of Fluent, the main differences between the injection models are highlighted and the coupling possibilities between phases are taken into consideration. Agreement between trends for both impact angles and velocities is satisfactory when the last version of the commercial package is considered and the average discrepancy between numerical values is very low, verifying OpenFoam's Lagrangian library. Two different Jet Impingement Test configurations are also compared and the differences highlighted.

  1. Beta adrenergic blocking agents for open-angle glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Lee, M E

    1988-07-01

    Beta adrenergic blocking agents have gained wide acceptance among practitioners and patients alike as extremely useful drugs for the treatment of open-angle glaucoma. This new class of antiglaucoma agents usually is effective in reducing elevated intraocular pressure and is generally well tolerated. This paper is intended to provide an understanding of the ophthalmic beta adrenergic blocking agents to optometrists who are actively involved in the treatment of glaucoma and/or in the monitoring of glaucoma patients. The clinical pharmacology of the three FDA-approved beta blockers -- timolol, levobunolol, and betaxolol, is evaluated and the drugs are compared.

  2. Blindness following bleb-related infection in open angle glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Hiroki; Sawada, Akira; Kuwayama, Yasuaki; Yamamoto, Tetsuya

    2014-11-01

    To estimate the risk of blindness following bleb-related infection after trabeculectomy with mitomycin C in open angle glaucoma, utilizing data obtained from two prospective multicenter studies. The incidence of bleb-related infection in open angle glaucoma after the first or second glaucoma surgery was calculated using a Kaplan-Meier analysis and data from the Collaborative Bleb-related Infection Incidence and Treatment Study (CBIITS). The rate of blindness following bleb-related infection was calculated using data from the Japan Glaucoma Society Survey of Bleb-related Infection (JGSSBI). Finally, the rate of blindness following bleb-related infection after filtering surgery was estimated based on the above two data sets. Blindness was defined as an eye with a visual acuity of 0.04 or less. The incidences of development of bleb-related infection at 5 years were 2.6 ± 0.7 % (calculated cumulative incidence ± standard error) for all infections and 0.9 ± 0.4 % for endophthalmitis in all cases in the CBIITS data. The rates of blindness in the JGSSBI data were 14 % for the total cases with bleb-related infection and 30 % for the endophthalmitis subgroup. The rate of blindness developing within 5 years following trabeculectomy was estimated to be approximately 0.24-0.36 %. The rate of blindness following bleb-related infection within 5 years after trabeculectomy is considerable and thus careful consideration must be given to the indication for trabeculectomy and the selection of surgical techniques.

  3. Jet azimuthal angle correlations in the production of a Higgs boson pair plus two jets at hadron colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Junya; Baglio, Julien

    2017-01-01

    Azimuthal angle correlations of two jets in the process pp→ HHjj are studied. The loop induced O(α _s^4 α _{}^2) gluon fusion (GF) sub-process and the O(α _{}^4) weak boson fusion (WBF) sub-process are considered. The GF sub-process exhibits strong correlations in the azimuthal angles φ _{1,2}^{} of the two jets measured from the production plane of the Higgs boson pair and the difference between these two angles φ _1^{}-φ _2^{}, and a very small correlation in their sum φ _1^{}+φ _2^{}. Using a finite value for the mass of the loop running top quark in the amplitude is crucial for the correlations. The impact of a non-standard value for the triple Higgs self-coupling on the correlations is found small. The peak shifts of the azimuthal angle distributions reflect the magnitude of parity violation in the gg→ HH amplitude and the dependence of the distributions on parity violating phases is analytically clarified. The normalised distributions and the peak positions of the correlations are stable against the variation of factorisation and renormalisation scales. The WBF sub-process also produces correlated distributions and it is found that they are not induced by the quantum effect of the intermediate weak bosons but mainly by a kinematic effect. This kinematic effect is a characteristic feature of the WBF sub-process and is not observed in the GF sub-process. It is found that the correlations are different in the GF and in the WBF sub-processes. As part of the process dependent information, they will be helpful in the analyses of the process pp→ HHjj at the LHC.

  4. The inheritance of juvenile onset primary open angle glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Gupta, V; Somarajan, B I; Gupta, S; Chaurasia, A K; Kumar, S; Dutta, P; Gupta, V; Sharma, A; Tayo, B O; Nischal, K

    2016-10-25

    Juvenile onset open angle glaucoma (JOAG) affects patients before 40 years of age, who present with high intraocular pressure and deep steep cupping of the optic nerve head. While it was considered to be inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion, recent studies have shown an autosomal recessive pattern as well as sporadic occurrence of the disease in several families. In this review, we analyze the genetic basis of the disease along with common mutations and their association with JOAG. We also analyzed the inheritance patterns in a large group of unrelated JOAG patients (n = 336) from Northern India wherein the prevalence of familial occurrence was assessed and segregation analysis performed, to determine the mode of inheritance.

  5. Optical layouts for large infrared beamline opening angles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, Th; Westfahl, H.; de Oliveira Freitas, R.; Petroff, Y.; Dumas, P.

    2013-03-01

    The number of infrared beamlines at synchrotron facilities is expending worldwide. Due to the long wavelength of the radiation in the infrared region, the optimum collection of the emitted photons requires large opening angles, both vertically and horizontally (order of few tens of mrad). Most of the infrared beamlines use toroid shaped mirrors, or elliptical mirror to conjointly focus both the vertical and the horizontal source emission. However, such optical set ups produce distorted images due to the optical aberrations produced by the depth and the circular shape of the source. In this article, we propose a new optical layout consisting in two optimized shape mirrors, focusing independently the vertical and the horizontal source emission, and providing low aberration beams for large horizontal apertures. The setup has been used to design the new LNLS Brazilian synchrotron Infrared beamline.

  6. Outcome of Trabeculectomy Surgery in Primary Open Angle Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Bhatia, Jagdish

    2008-01-01

    Objectives Retrospective study to evaluate the short term outcome and contributing prognostic factors of trabeculectomy in terms of intraocular pressure in Omani patients of South Batinah region with primary open-angle glaucoma. Methods This study involved retrospective evaluation of 18 patients (22 eyes) with primary open angle glaucoma who underwent primary trabeculectomy between February 2005 and February 2008. All patients were aged over 40 years and were Omani. Follow-up for all subjects lasted at least 6 months or more [Average follow up 388 days with standard deviation of 182]. Successful control of Intraocular pressure (IOP) was defined as achieving IOP of 21 mmHg or less without medication (complete success). Results The results are presented with particular emphasis being placed only on intraocular pressure (IOP) control. The tonometric success rate of trabeculectomy in controlling the IOP at 21mmHg or less without any medication was 46% [complete successes], 18% had qualified success [Post operative IOP 21 mm Hg or less with one topical medication], while 36% trabeculectomies failed to show desired results. Conclusion The results of this retrospective study underline that the procedure of trabeculectomy has moderate success in controlling the intra ocular pressure in the study population. The procedure failed to show the desired result in almost one third of the patients (36%) and topical medical treatment was reinstated in these patients with either two or three drugs. However these results lead to the following question: Should trabeculectomy be the therapy of first choice in the early stage of glaucoma? PMID:22379543

  7. Numerical simulations of the bending of narrow-angle-tail radio jets by ram pressure or pressure gradients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soker, Noam; Sarazin, Craig L.; O'Dea, Christopher P.

    1988-01-01

    Three-dimensional numerical hydrodynamic simulations are used to study the bending of radio jets. The simulations are compared with observations of jets in narrow-angle-tail radio sources. Two mechanisms for the observed bending are considered: direct bending of quasi-continuous jets by ram pressure from intergalactic gas and bending by pressure gradients in the interstellar gas of the host galaxy, the pressure gradients themselves being the result of ram pressure by intergalactic gas. It is shown that the pressure gradients are much less effective in bending jets, implying that the jets have roughly 30 times lower momentum fluxes if they are bent by this mechanism. Ram-pressure bending produces jets with 'kidney-shaped' cross sections; when observed from the side, these jets appear to have diffuse extensions on the downstream side. On the other hand, pressure-gradient bending causes the jets to be densest near their upstream side.

  8. Highly Collimated Jets and Wide-angle Outflows in HH 46/47: New Evidence from Spitzer Infrared Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Velusamy, T.; Langer, William D.; Marsh, Kenneth. A.

    2007-01-01

    We present new details of the structure and morphology of the jets and outflows in HH 46/47 as seen in Spitzer infrared images from IRAC and MIPS, reprocessed using the 'HiRes' deconvolution technique. HiRes improves the visualization of spatial morphology by enhancing resolution (to subarcsecond levels in IRAC bands) and removing the contaminating side lobes from bright sources. In addition to sharper views of previously reported bow shocks, we have detected (1) the sharply delineated cavity walls of the wide-angle biconical outflow, seen in scattered light on both sides of the protostar, (2) several very narrow jet features at distances approximately 400 AU to approximately 0.1 pc from the star, and (3) compact emissions at MIPS 24 m with the jet heads, tracing the hottest atomic/ionic gas in the bow shocks. Together the IRAC and MIPS images provide a more complete picture of the bow shocks, tracing both the molecular and atomic/ionic gases, respectively. The narrow width and alignment of all jet-related features indicate a high degree of jet collimation and low divergence (width of approximately 400 AU increasing by only a factor of 2.3 over 0.2 pc). The morphology of this jet, bow shocks, wide-angle outflows, and the fact that the jet is nonprecessing and episodic, constrain the mechanisms for producing the jet's entrained molecular gas, and origins of the fast jet, and slower wide-angle outflow.

  9. Oxidative stress in primary open-angle glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Zanon-Moreno, Vicente; Marco-Ventura, Pilar; Lleo-Perez, Antonio; Pons-Vazquez, Sheila; Garcia-Medina, Jose J; Vinuesa-Silva, Ignacio; Moreno-Nadal, Maria A; Pinazo-Duran, Maria Dolores

    2008-01-01

    To analyze oxidative stress in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). A case-control study including 90 eyes of 90 patients who needed antiglaucomatous surgery in the course of POAG (glaucoma group, n=50) and from patients who were operated of nonpathologic cataracts (cataract group, n=40). Free radical formation via lipid peroxidation by malondialdehyde-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (MDA-TBARS) test and total antioxidant status in the aqueous humor samples of both groups were determined. Statistical analyses were carried out in relation to MDA-TBARS and total antioxidant status and their correlations with glaucoma risk factors. Significantly higher MDA-TBARS were detected in the POAG with respect to the comparative group of cataract subjects (P<0.001). Antioxidant activity was significantly lower in the POAG than in the cataract group (P<0.001). Aqueous humor samples may be used for determining oxidative and antioxidant status in pathologic processes. Glaucomatous eyes had a significant increase in oxidative status and decreased antioxidant activity in the aqueous humor than the cataract eyes. Oxidative stress may play a pathogenical role in the POAG.

  10. Mediterranean diet adherence by patients with primary open angle glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Abreu-Reyes, J A; Álvarez-Luis, D; Arteaga-Hernández, V; Sánchez-Mendez, M; Abreu-González, R

    2017-08-01

    To study the adherence to the Mediterranean diet in patients affected by primary open angle glaucoma (POAG). An observational study was conducted to assess the adherence to the Mediterranean diet in patients affected by POAG, and who attended the Ophthalmology Department of the Canary Islands University Hospital. The study included completing a 14-item questionnaire validated by the PREDIMED Study, in person or by telephone. A total of 100 questionnaires were completed successfully by 50 males and 50 females. The mean age was 69.58 years for the males and 67.42 years for women. The men had more comorbidities than women (tobacco 14 vs. 3%), arterial hypertension, and diabetes (30 vs. 28%, and 16 vs. 6%, respectively). Adherence to the Mediterranean diet in males, was low in 9 patients (18%), moderate in 37 (74%), and high in 4 (8%) cases. In women adherence was low in 14 patients (28%), moderate in 34 (68%), and high in 2 (6%) cases. The overall adhesion to the Mediterranean diet is low in 23%, moderate in 71% and high in 6% of the cases. Patients who are affected by POAG have moderate adherence to the Mediterranean diet. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Current primary open-angle glaucoma treatments and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Beidoe, Gabriel; Mousa, Shaker A

    2012-01-01

    Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) is a leading cause of blindness with no known cure. Management of the disease focuses on lowering intraocular pressure (IOP) with current classes of drugs like prostaglandin analogs, beta-blockers, alpha-agonists, and carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. These treatments have not helped all patients. Some patients continue to experience deterioration in the optic nerve even though their IOPs are within the normal range. New views have surfaced about other pathophysiological processes (such as oxidative stress, vascular dysfunction, and retinal cell apoptosis) being involved in POAG progression, and adjunctive treatments with drugs like memantine, bis(7)-tacrine, nimodipine, and mirtogenol are advocated. This review examines the current and proposed treatments for POAG. Some of the proposed drugs (bis(7)-tacrine, nimodipine, vitamin E, and others) have shown good promise, mostly as monotherapy in various clinical trials. It is recommended that both the current and proposed drugs be put through further robust trials in concurrent administration and evaluated. PMID:23118520

  12. Race, ethnicity and prevalence of primary open-angle glaucoma.

    PubMed Central

    Kosoko-Lasaki, Omofolasade; Gong, Gordon; Haynatzki, Gleb; Wilson, M. Roy

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recently, some authors pooled data from studies on the Dutch, Australians and Americans of European origin in an attempt to predict the prevalence of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) in the United States. PURPOSE: To examine potential ethnic diversity in the prevalence of POAG among populations of the "same race." Methods: Medical literature was searched, and 11 population-based studies on populations of African origin and five on populations of European origin were identified. RESULTS: The prevalence of POAG was significantly higher in white Australians than in the Dutch (p<0.001) and was significantly lower (p<0.001) among black populations in South Africa, Nigeria, Tanzania and the United States than in Ghana, St. Lucia or Barbados. Notably, the prevalence was significantly lower in Afro Caribbeans living in London than in St. Lucia or Barbados (p<0.001). There was, however, inconsistency in the definition of POAG among the different studies. CONCLUSIONS: There is a wide range in the prevalence of POAG among populations of the same "race," which might be attributed to the different methodology and definition of POAG; potential difference in social, behavioral and environmental factors; and/or genetic predisposition. Scrutiny is warranted when pooling data from different ethnic groups of the "same race" in meta-analyses. PMID:17052053

  13. Metabolome-Wide Association Study of Primary Open Angle Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Burgess, L. Goodwin; Uppal, Karan; Walker, Douglas I.; Roberson, Rachel M.; Tran, ViLinh; Parks, Megan B.; Wade, Emily A.; May, Alexandra T.; Umfress, Allison C.; Jarrell, Kelli L.; Stanley, Brooklyn O. C.; Kuchtey, John; Kuchtey, Rachel W.; Jones, Dean P.; Brantley, Milam A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To determine if primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) patients can be differentiated from controls based on metabolic characteristics. Methods We used ultra-high resolution mass spectrometry with C18 liquid chromatography for metabolomic analysis on frozen plasma samples from 72 POAG patients and 72 controls. Metabolome-wide Spearman correlation was performed to select differentially expressed metabolites (DEM) correlated with POAG. We corrected P values for multiple testing using Benjamini and Hochberg false discovery rate (FDR). Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) was used to depict the relationship between participants and DEM. Differentially expressed metabolites were matched to the METLIN metabolomics database; both DEM and metabolites significantly correlating with DEM were analyzed using MetaboAnalyst to identify metabolic pathways altered in POAG. Results Of the 2440 m/z (mass/charge) features recovered after filtering, 41 differed between POAG cases and controls at FDR = 0.05. Hierarchical cluster analysis revealed these DEM to associate into eight clusters; three of these clusters contained the majority of the DEM and included palmitoylcarnitine, hydroxyergocalciferol, and high-resolution METLIN matches to sphingolipids, other vitamin D-related metabolites, and terpenes. MetaboAnalyst also indicated likely alteration in steroid biosynthesis pathways. Conclusions Global ultrahigh resolution metabolomics emphasized the importance of altered lipid metabolism in POAG. The results suggest specific metabolic processes, such as those involving palmitoylcarnitine, sphingolipids, vitamin D-related compounds, and steroid precursors, may contribute to POAG status and merit more detailed study with targeted methods. PMID:26230767

  14. Vascular and Autonomic Dysregulation in Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Pasquale, Louis R.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of the review To discuss whether vascular dysfunction and autonomic dysfunction are related to primary open-angle glaucoma stratified by the intraocular pressure (IOP) level (the high tension glaucoma and normal tension glaucoma subtypes). Recent findings Patients with POAG across the spectrum of IOP exhibit a variety of ocular and non-ocular vascular abnormalities. Interestingly common genetic variation in NOS3 and the CAV1/CAV2 genomic regions, which code for proteins involved in setting vascular tone, are associated with POAG. These markers seem to stratify with POAG subtypes by sex or pattern of initial visual field loss. Overall it is clear that there is also cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction in HTG and NTG but it is unclear if this dysfunction is more common in NTG compared to HTG. Summary Overall POAG is likely a heterogeneous disease but stratifying cases by IOP level associated with initial optic nerve damage may be less useful than using other endophenotype approaches. Embracing the evidence suggesting systemic endothelial and autonomic dysfunction are operative in POAG will help move beyond an IOP-centric view of the disease and facilitate “tearing down the wall” that divides treating physicians and a better understanding of POAG pathogenesis. PMID:26720776

  15. Choroidal thickness change after water drinking is greater in angle closure than in open angle eyes.

    PubMed

    Arora, Karun S; Jefferys, Joan L; Maul, Eugenio A; Quigley, Harry A

    2012-09-21

    To study change in choroidal thickness (CT) after water drinking test (WDT), comparing angle closure (AC) to open angle (OA) eyes. Before and 30 minutes after drinking 1 L of water, 88 glaucoma subjects underwent measurements of CT by spectral domain-optical coherence tomography, IOP, blood pressure (BP), axial length (AL), and anterior chamber depth (ACD). Baseline CT was significantly greater in AC than in OA eyes (P = 0.002). After WDT, BP, IOP, and AL increased significantly (all P ≤ 0.0001). Mean CT increased significantly in the AC group (5.6 μm, P = 0.04, n = 40) and among 80 subjects whose IOP rose > 2 mm Hg (responders; 3.2 μm, P = 0.048), but not in the OA group or among all subjects (2.5 μm increase overall, <1% of baseline CT, P = 0.10). ACD decreased in AC (-18 μm, P = 0.07), but not in OA eyes (+3 μm, P = 0.74). AC eyes had a significantly greater IOP increase after WDT than OA eyes (P = 0.002, multivariate regression). Among responders, CT increased more in those with larger diastolic perfusion pressure increase and in AC compared to OA eyes (P = 0.04 and P = 0.053, respectively, multivariate regression). A significant increase in CT and a decrease in ACD after WDT were observed in AC but not in OA eyes, and IOP increased significantly more in AC than in OA eyes, suggesting that the dynamic behavior of the choroid may play a role in the AC process. IOP increase after the WDT was not fully explained by CT increase.

  16. Central Corneal Thickness in Primary Angle Closure and Open Angle Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Moghimi, Sasan; Torabi, Hamidreza; Hashemian, Hesam; Amini, Heydar; Lin, Shan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To quantitatively analyze central corneal thickness (CCT) in patients with primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG) and primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), and to evaluate its correlation with severity of glaucoma. Methods: In this retrospective study, records of patients with previously diagnosed POAG or PACG at a tertiary glaucoma service were reviewed. CCT was measured by ultrasound pachymetry. Mean deviation (MD) on visual field (VF) testing was recorded for glaucoma severity determination. CCT and age- and sex-adjusted CCT were compared among the study groups using Student's t-test and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), respectively. Univariate and multivariate regression models were used for correlation of age, MD and CCT. Results: A total of 115 patients with PACG, 215 with POAG, and 100 normal controls were included with mean age of 64.1 ± 10.4, 59.9 ± 10.5, and 62.04 ± 10.80 years, respectively. CCT was thicker in PACG eyes (545.5 ± 46.1 μm) as compared to POAG eyes (531.7 ± 37.3 μm) and controls (531.0 ± 38.3 μm) even after age and gender adjustment (ANCOVA, P = 0.05). CCT was found to decrease with increasing age only in the POAG group (β = -0.57, P = 0.01). Disease severity (MD of VF) was significantly and inversely correlated with CCT in both POAG and PACG eyes (β = 1.89, P = 0.02; and β = 1.38, P = 0.04, respectively) after age and sex correction. Conclusion: PACG eyes had thicker CCT as compared to POAG and normal healthy eyes in Iranian subjects. Severity of the disease was inversely correlated with CCT in eyes with both POAG and PACG. PMID:25709768

  17. Evaluation of primary open-angle glaucoma clinical practice guidelines.

    PubMed

    Wu, Annie M; Wu, Connie M; Young, Benjamin K; Wu, Dominic J; Chen, Allison; Margo, Curtis E; Greenberg, Paul B

    2015-06-01

    To evaluate the methodologic quality of 3 primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) clinical practice guidelines (CPGs). The CPGs were assessed with the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation (AGREE) II instrument. Four authors (A.M.W., C.M.W., B.K.Y., D.J.W.) performed independent assessments of POAG CPGs. POAG CPGs published by the American Academy of Ophthalmology (AAO), Canadian Ophthalmological Society (COS), and National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) were appraised using the AGREE II instrument's 6 domains (Scope and Purpose, Stakeholder Involvement, Rigor of Development, Clarity of Presentation, Applicability, and Editorial Independence) and Overall Assessment score summarizing guideline quality across all domains. Scores ranged from 28% to 85% for the AAO CPG, 51% to 96% for the COS CPG, and 55% to 97% for the NICE CPG. Intraclass correlation coefficients for the reliability of mean scores for the AAO, COS, and NICE CPGs were 0.89, 0.86, and 0.74; 95% CIs were 0.80 to 0.95, 0.74 to 0.93, and 0.51 to 0.87, respectively. The strongest domains were Scope and Purpose (AAO, COS, NICE) and Clarity of Presentation (COS, NICE). The weakest domains were Stakeholder Involvement (AAO, COS) and Editorial Independence (AAO, COS, NICE). Future POAG CPGs can be improved by addressing potential conflicts of interest within the development group, ensuring transparency of guideline development methodology, and involving all relevant stakeholders in guideline development and review. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Screening of candidate genes for primary open angle glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ting; Xie, Lin; Ye, Jian; Liu, Yuewuyang

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) is one of the leading causes of irreversible blindness in the world. To make progress in understanding POAG, it is necessary to identify more POAG-causing genes. Methods Using haplotype analysis, we found that mutational region is located on chromosome 2 in two families. Furthermore, we screened 11 candidate genes on chromosome 2 by protein–protein interaction (PPI) analysis, including mutS homolog 6 (MSH6), mutS homolog 2 (MSH2), v-rel reticuloendotheliosis viral oncogene homolog (REL), endothelial PAS domain protein 1 (EPAS1), vaccinia related kinase 2 (VRK2), F-box protein 11 (FBXO11), EGF containing fibulin-like extracellular matrix protein 1 (EFEMP1), reticulon 4 (RTN4), RAB1A, member RAS oncogene family (RAB1A), ARP2 actin-related protein 2 homolog (ACTR2), and calmodulin 2 (phosphorylase kinase, delta; CALM2). These 11 genes are all predicted to be related to trabecular meshwork changes and progressive loss of retinal ganglion cells in POAG patients. Results According to our study, FBXO11 and VRK2 may interact with tumor protein p53 to regulate mitochondrial membrane permeability, mitochondrial membrane organization, and apoptosis. MSH2 is responsible for repairing DNA mismatches and RTN4 is for neuronal regeneration. Therefore, they are supposed to play a negative role in cellular process in POAG. CALM2 may be involved in retinal ganglion cell death and oxidative damage to cell communication. Conclusions The results demonstrate that the genes above may be associated with pathogenesis of POAG. PMID:22876139

  19. Lifetime risk of blindness in open-angle glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Peters, Dorothea; Bengtsson, Boel; Heijl, Anders

    2013-10-01

    To determine the lifetime risk and duration of blindness in patients with manifest open-angle glaucoma (OAG). Retrospective chart review. We studied glaucoma patients who died between January 2006 and June 2010. Most glaucoma patients living in the catchment area (city of Malmö; n = 305 000) are managed at the Department of Ophthalmology at Skåne University Hospital in Malmö. From the patient records we extracted visual field status, visual acuity, and low vision or blindness as defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria and caused by glaucoma at the time of diagnosis and during follow-up. We also noted age at diagnosis and death and when low vision or blindness occurred. Five hundred and ninety-two patients were included. At the time of the last visit 250 patients (42.2%) had at least 1 blind eye because of glaucoma, while 97 patients (16.4%) were bilaterally blind, and 12 patients (0.5%) had low vision. Median time with a glaucoma diagnosis was 12 years (<1-29), median age when developing bilateral blindness was 86 years, and median duration of bilateral blindness was 2 years (<1-13). The cumulative incidences of blindness in at least 1 eye and bilateral blindness from glaucoma were 26.5% and 5.5%, respectively, after 10 years, and 38.1% and 13.5% at 20 years. Approximately 1 out of 6 glaucoma patients was bilaterally blind from glaucoma at the last visit. Median duration of bilateral blindness was 2 years. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Antithrombotic medication and incident open-angle glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Marcus, Michael W; Müskens, Rogier P H M; Ramdas, Wishal D; Wolfs, Roger C W; de Jong, Paulus T V M; Vingerling, Johannes R; Hofman, Albert; Stricker, Bruno H C; Jansonius, Nomdo M

    2012-06-20

    To determine the associations between the use of antithrombotic drugs and incident open-angle glaucoma (OAG). Ophthalmic examinations including measurements of the IOP and perimetry were performed at baseline and follow-up in 3939 participants of the prospective population-based Rotterdam Study who did not have OAG at baseline. The use of antithrombotic drugs was monitored continuously during follow-up. Antithrombotic drugs were stratified into anticoagulants and platelet aggregation inhibitors. Associations between incident OAG and the use of antithrombotic drugs were assessed using Cox regression; the model was adjusted for age, sex, baseline IOP and IOP-lowering treatment, family history of glaucoma, and myopia. Associations between antithrombotic drugs and IOP at follow-up were analyzed with multiple linear regression. During a mean follow-up of 9.8 years, 108 participants (2.7%) developed OAG. The hazard ratio for anticoagulant use was 0.90 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.55-1.48; P = 0.69) and for platelet aggregation inhibitors 0.80 (0.53-1.21; P = 0.28). There was no trend towards a reduced or increased risk of incident OAG with prolonged anticoagulant use (P value for trend 0.84) or platelet aggregation inhibitor use (0.59). There was a significant IOP-lowering effect of anticoagulants (-0.31 mm Hg; 95% CI, -0.58 to -0.04 mm Hg; P = 0.025) but not of platelet aggregation inhibitors (P = 0.06). The IOP-lowering effect of anticoagulants disappeared after additional adjustment for the use of systemic beta-blockers. Use of anticoagulants or platelet aggregation inhibitors appears not to be associated with incident OAG.

  1. Clinical results of Trabectome surgery for open-angle glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Mizoguchi, Takanori; Nishigaki, Shiro; Sato, Tomoki; Wakiyama, Harumi; Ogino, Nobuchika

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to determine outcomes when using Trabectome surgery and to evaluate factors associated with its effects in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and exfoliation glaucoma (EXG). Methods This was a prospective, non-randomized, observational, comparative cohort study in which Trabectome surgery was used alone in patients with POAG or EXG. Trabectome surgery was considered to have failed when at least one of the following three criteria was fulfilled: intraocular pressure (IOP) ≥21 mmHg and a <20% reduction below the baseline IOP on two consecutive follow-up visits 3 months or more after surgery; need for additional glaucoma surgery; and an increase in number of medications compared with baseline. Results The subjects were 32 males (34 eyes) and 46 females (48 eyes). POAG was observed in 43 eyes and EXG in 39 eyes. IOP after Trabectome surgery decreased significantly from 22.3±6.8 mmHg at baseline to 14.0±3.9 mmHg (23.0% reduction) at month 24 in all cases (P<0.0000). The success rate at 2 years was 51.2% for all cases (POAG, 50.9%; EXG, 49.2%). There was no significant difference in success rate between POAG and EXG (P=0.91). Preoperative IOP (P=0.033) and number of medications (P=0.041) were significant factors for surgical success/failure in multivariate logistic regression. No serious complications were observed. Conclusion Trabectome surgery achieved favorable IOP control and was equally effective in patients with POAG and those with EXG. Its effects were influenced by preoperative IOP and number of preoperative medications. PMID:26487799

  2. Retinal oximetry in primary open-angle glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Olafsdottir, Olof Birna; Hardarson, Sveinn Hakon; Gottfredsdottir, Maria Soffia; Harris, Alon; Stefánsson, Einar

    2011-08-16

    PURPOSE. To determine whether retinal vessel oxygen saturation is affected in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) patients. METHODS. Retinal oxygen saturation in patients with POAG was measured in retinal vessels with a spectrophotometric retinal oximeter in darkness, and visual fields were obtained. Oxygen tension (Po(2)) was calculated from oxygen saturation values. Statistical analysis was performed using Pearson's correlation and Student's t-test. RESULTS. Mean oxygen saturation in venules was higher in persons with poor visual fields (68% ± 4%, mean ± SD) than in those with good visual fields (62% ± 3%; P = 0.0018). The mean arteriovenous difference in oxygen saturation was lower in persons with poor visual fields (30% ± 4%, n = 9) than in those with good visual fields (37% ± 4%; P = 0.0003; n = 12). No correlation was found between saturation in retinal arterioles and visual field mean defect (n = 31; r = -0.16; P = 0.38). Oxygen saturation in retinal venules correlated positively with worsening visual field mean defect (r = 0.43; P = 0.015). Arteriovenous difference in oxygen saturation decreased significantly as the visual field mean defect worsened (r = -0.55; P = 0.0013). Mean Po(2) in venules was 38 ± 3 mm Hg. It was significantly higher in persons with poor visual field fields (40 ± 3 mm Hg) than in those with good visual fields (36 ± 2 mm Hg; P = 0.0016). CONCLUSIONS. Deeper glaucomatous visual field defects are associated with increased oxygen saturation in venules and decreased arteriovenous difference in retinal oxygen saturation. The data suggest that oxygen metabolism is affected in the glaucomatous retina, possibly related to tissue atrophy.

  3. Medical interventions for primary open angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension.

    PubMed

    Vass, C; Hirn, C; Sycha, T; Findl, O; Bauer, P; Schmetterer, L

    2007-10-17

    Primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) is a progressive optic neuropathy with an elevated intraocular pressure (IOP), where the optic nerve head becomes pathologically excavated and the visual field (VF) is characteristically altered. Ocular hypertension (OHT) is a condition with elevated IOP but without discernible pathology of the optic nerve head or the VF. It is a major risk factor for development of POAG. To assess and compare the effectiveness of topical pharmacological treatment for POAG or OHT to prevent progression or onset of glaucomatous optic neuropathy. We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE and EMBASE in May 2007. We searched the bibliographies of identified articles and contacted experts, investigators and pharmaceutical companies for additional published and unpublished studies. Randomised controlled trials comparing topical pharmacological treatment to placebo, no treatment or other treatment for specified endpoints which included people with POAG or OHT, and with duration of treatment of at least one year. Two authors independently extracted data and assessed trial quality. Where appropriate, we summarised data using Peto odds ratio and mean difference after testing for heterogeneity between studies. We included 26 trials, which randomised 4979 participants, in this review. Meta-analysis of 10 trials clearly demonstrated reduction of onset of VF defects in treated OHT (OR 0.62, 95% CI 0.47 to 0.81). No single drug showed a significant VF protection compared to placebo or untreated controls. We did identify some border line evidence for a positive influence of treatment on VF prognosis (OR 0.67, 95% CI 0.45 to 1.00) for the beta-blockers . The results of this review support the current practice of IOP lowering treatment of OHT. A visual field protective effect has been clearly demonstrated for medical IOP lowering treatment. Positive but weak evidence for a beneficial effect of the class of beta-blockers has been shown. Direct comparisons of prostaglandins or

  4. Feedback by AGN Jets and Wide-angle Winds on a Galactic Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dugan, Zachary; Gaibler, Volker; Silk, Joseph

    2017-07-01

    To investigate the differences in mechanical feedback from radio-loud and radio-quiet active galactic nuclei on the host galaxy, we perform 3D AMR hydrodynamic simulations of wide-angle, radio-quiet winds with different inclinations on a single, massive, gas-rich disk galaxy at a redshift of 2-3. We compare our results to hydrodynamic simulations of the same galaxy but with a jet. The jet has an inclination of 0° (perpendicular to the galactic plane), and the winds have inclinations of 0°, 45°, and 90°. We analyze the impact on the host’s gas, star formation, and circumgalactic medium. We find that jet feedback is energy-driven and wind feedback is momentum-driven. In all the simulations, the jet or wind creates a cavity mostly devoid of dense gas in the nuclear region where star formation is then quenched, but we find strong positive feedback in all the simulations at radii greater than 3 kpc. All four simulations have similar SFRs and stellar velocities with large radial and vertical components. However, the wind at an inclination of 90° creates the highest density regions through ram pressure and generates the highest rates of star formation due to its ongoing strong interaction with the dense gas of the galactic plane. With increased wind inclination, we find greater asymmetry in gas distribution and resulting star formation. Our model generates an expanding ring of triggered star formation with typical velocities of the order of 1/3 of the circular velocity, superimposed on the older stellar population. This should result in a potentially detectable blue asymmetry in stellar absorption features at kiloparsec scales.

  5. Using Digital Technology to See Angles from Different Angles. Part 2: Openings and Turns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Host, Erin; Baynham, Emily; McMaster, Heather

    2015-01-01

    Ever wondered how to use technology to teach angles? This article follows on from an earlier article published last year, providing a range of ideas for integrating technology and concrete materials with the teaching of angle concepts. The authors also provide a comprehensive list of free online games and learning objects that can be used to teach…

  6. Using Digital Technology to See Angles from Different Angles. Part 2: Openings and Turns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Host, Erin; Baynham, Emily; McMaster, Heather

    2015-01-01

    Ever wondered how to use technology to teach angles? This article follows on from an earlier article published last year, providing a range of ideas for integrating technology and concrete materials with the teaching of angle concepts. The authors also provide a comprehensive list of free online games and learning objects that can be used to teach…

  7. Air jet erosion test on plasma sprayed surface by varying erodent impingement pressure and impingement angle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behera, Ajit; Behera, Asit; Mishra, S. C.; Pani, S.; Parida, P.

    2015-02-01

    Fly-ash premixed with quartz and illmenite powder in different weight proportions are thermal sprayed on mild steel and copper substrates at various input power levels of the plasma torch ranging from 11 kW to 21 kW DC. The erosion test has done using Air Jet erosion test Reg (As per ASTM G76) with silica erodent typically 150-250 pm in size. Multiple tests were performed at increasing the time duration from 60 sec to 180 sec with increasing pressure (from 1 bar to 2.5 bar) and angle (60° & 90°). This study reveals that the impact velocity and impact angle are two most significant parameters among various factors influencing the wear rate of these coatings. The mechanisms and microstructural changes that arise during erosion wear are studied by using SEM. It is found that, when erodent are impacting the fresh un-eroded surface, material removal occurs by the continuous evolution of craters on the surface. Upper layer splats are removed out after 60 sec and second layer splat erosion starts. Based on these observations Physical models are developed. Some graphs plotted between mass loss-rate versus time period/impact Pressure/impact Angle gives good correlation with surface features observed.

  8. Correlations between Preoperative Angle Parameters and Postoperative Unpredicted Refractive Errors after Cataract Surgery in Open Angle Glaucoma (AOD 500)

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Wonseok; Bae, Hyoung Won; Lee, Si Hyung; Kim, Chan Yun

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To assess the accuracy of intraocular lens (IOL) power prediction for cataract surgery with open angle glaucoma (OAG) and to identify preoperative angle parameters correlated with postoperative unpredicted refractive errors. Materials and Methods This study comprised 45 eyes from 45 OAG subjects and 63 eyes from 63 non-glaucomatous cataract subjects (controls). We investigated differences in preoperative predicted refractive errors and postoperative refractive errors for each group. Preoperative predicted refractive errors were obtained by biometry (IOL-master) and compared to postoperative refractive errors measured by auto-refractometer 2 months postoperatively. Anterior angle parameters were determined using swept source optical coherence tomography. We investigated correlations between preoperative angle parameters [angle open distance (AOD); trabecular iris surface area (TISA); angle recess area (ARA); trabecular iris angle (TIA)] and postoperative unpredicted refractive errors. Results In patients with OAG, significant differences were noted between preoperative predicted and postoperative real refractive errors, with more myopia than predicted. No significant differences were recorded in controls. Angle parameters (AOD, ARA, TISA, and TIA) at the superior and inferior quadrant were significantly correlated with differences between predicted and postoperative refractive errors in OAG patients (-0.321 to -0.408, p<0.05). Superior quadrant AOD 500 was significantly correlated with postoperative refractive differences in multivariate linear regression analysis (β=-2.925, R2=0.404). Conclusion Clinically unpredicted refractive errors after cataract surgery were more common in OAG than in controls. Certain preoperative angle parameters, especially AOD 500 at the superior quadrant, were significantly correlated with these unpredicted errors. PMID:28120576

  9. Evidence of melt in {open_quotes}soft{close_quotes} recovered copper jets

    SciTech Connect

    Lassila, D.H.; Nikkel, D.J. Jr.; Kershaw, R.P.

    1995-08-01

    A shaped charge (81 mm, 42{degrees}, OFHC copper cone) was fired into a {open_quotes}soft{close_quotes} recovery bunker to allow metallurgical examination of recovered jet particles and the slug. The initial weight of the copper liner was 245 gm, of which 184 gm was recovered. The number of jet particles recovered was 37 (approximately 63% of the particles formed by the charge). Extensive metallurgical analyses were performed on the recovered slug and jet particles. The microstructural features associated with voids, e.g. dendritic grain growth, clearly indicate that the regions in the vicinity of the centerline of the slug and jet particles were melted. In this work we present calculations of jet temperature as a function of constitutive behavior. In order to predict melt in the center region of the jet we find it necessary to scale flow stress with a pressure dependent shear modulus.

  10. Association between choroidal thickness and anterior chamber segment in eyes with narrow or open-angle

    PubMed Central

    Li, Song-Feng; Wu, Ge-Wei; Chen, Chang-Xi; Shen, Ling; Zhang, Zhi-Bao; Gao, Fei; Wang, Ning-Li

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate the relationship between choroidal thickness and anterior chamber segment in subjects with eyes with narrow or open-angle. METHODS The subfoveal choroidal thickness was measured with enhanced depth-imaging optical coherence tomography and anterior chamber parameters were measured with ultrasound biomicroscopy in one eye of 23 subjects with open-angle eyes and 38 subjects with narrow-angle eyes. The mean age was 59.52±7.04y for narrow-angle subjects and 60.76±7.23y for open-angle subjects (P=0.514). Multivariate linear regression analysis was performed to assess the association between choroidal thickness and narrow-angle parameters. RESULTS There were no differences in subfoveal choroidal thickness between open- and narrow-angle subjects (P=0.231). Anterior chamber parameters, including central anterior chamber depth, trabecular iris angle, iris thickness 500 µm from the scleral spur (IT500), and ciliary body thickness at 1 mm and 2 mm from the scleral spur (CBT1, CBT2) showed significant differences between the two groups (P<0.05). Subfoveal choroidal thickness showed negative correlation (β=-0.496, P=0.016) only with anterior chamber depth in the open-angle group and with age (β=-0.442, P=0.003) and IT500 (β=-0.399, P=0.008) in the narrow-angle group. However, subfoveal choroidal thickness was not correlated with trabecular iris angle, anterior chamber depth, ciliary body thickness, or central corneal thickness in the narrow-angle group. CONCLUSION Choroidal thickness does not differ in the two groups and has not correlated with anterior chamber parameters in narrow-angle subjects, suggesting a lack of relationship between choroidal thickness and primary angle-closure glaucoma. PMID:27588269

  11. Modeling of the ITER-like wide-angle infrared thermography view of JET

    SciTech Connect

    Aumeunier, M.-H.; Firdaouss, M.; Travere, J.-M.; Loarer, T.; Gauthier, E.; Martin, V.; Chabaud, D.; Humbert, E.; Collaboration: JET-EFDA Contributors

    2012-10-15

    Infrared (IR) thermography systems are mandatory to ensure safe plasma operation in fusion devices. However, IR measurements are made much more complicated in metallic environment because of the spurious contributions of the reflected fluxes. This paper presents a full predictive photonic simulation able to assess accurately the surface temperature measurement with classical IR thermography from a given plasma scenario and by taking into account the optical properties of PFCs materials. This simulation has been carried out the ITER-like wide angle infrared camera view of JET in comparing with experimental data. The consequences and the effects of the low emissivity and the bidirectional reflectivity distribution function used in the model for the metallic PFCs on the contribution of the reflected flux in the analysis are discussed.

  12. Modeling of the ITER-like wide-angle infrared thermography view of JET.

    PubMed

    Aumeunier, M-H; Firdaouss, M; Travère, J-M; Loarer, T; Gauthier, E; Martin, V; Chabaud, D; Humbert, E

    2012-10-01

    Infrared (IR) thermography systems are mandatory to ensure safe plasma operation in fusion devices. However, IR measurements are made much more complicated in metallic environment because of the spurious contributions of the reflected fluxes. This paper presents a full predictive photonic simulation able to assess accurately the surface temperature measurement with classical IR thermography from a given plasma scenario and by taking into account the optical properties of PFCs materials. This simulation has been carried out the ITER-like wide angle infrared camera view of JET in comparing with experimental data. The consequences and the effects of the low emissivity and the bidirectional reflectivity distribution function used in the model for the metallic PFCs on the contribution of the reflected flux in the analysis are discussed.

  13. Simultaneous Cotton-Mouton and Faraday rotation angle measurements on JET

    SciTech Connect

    Boboc, A.; Zabeo, L.; Murari, A.

    2006-10-15

    The change in the ellipticity of a laser beam that passes through plasma due to the Cotton-Mouton effect can provide additional information on the plasma density. This approach, complementary to the more traditional interferometric methods, has been implemented recently using the JET interferometer-polarimeter with a new setup. Routine Cotton-Mouton phase shift measurements are made on the vertical central chords simultaneously with the Faraday rotation angle data. These new data are used to provide robust line-integrated density measurements in difficult plasma scenarios, with strong Edge Localized Modes (ELMs) or pellets. These always affect interferometry, causing fringe jumps and preventing good control of the plasma density. A comparison of line-integrated density from polarimetry and interferometry measurements shows an agreement within 10%. Moreover, in JET the measurements can be performed close to a reactor relevant range of parameters, in particular, at high densities and temperatures. This provides a unique opportunity to assess the quality of the Faraday rotation and Cotton-Mouton phase shift measurements where both effects are strong and mutual nonlinear interaction between the two effects takes place.

  14. Experimental and Computational Induced Aerodynamics from Missile Jet Reaction Controls at Angles of Attack to 75 Degrees

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Capone, Francis J.; Ashbury, Scott C.; Deere, Karen A.

    1996-01-01

    An investigation was conducted in the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel to determine induced aerodynamic effects from jet reaction controls of an advanced air-to-air missile concept. The 75-percent scale model featured independently controlled reaction jets located near the nose and tail of the model. Aerodynamic control was provided by four fins located near the tail of the model. This investigation was conducted at Mach numbers of 0.35 and 0.60, at angles of attack up to 75 deg and at nozzle pressure ratios up to 90. Jet-reaction thrust forces were not measured by the force balance but jet-induced forces were. In addition, a multiblock three-dimensional Navier-Stokes method was used to calculate the flowfield of the missile at angles of attack up to 40 deg. Results indicate that large interference effects on pitching moment were induced from operating the nose jets with the the off. Excellent correlation between experimental and computational pressure distributions and pitching moment were obtained a a Mach number of 0.35 and at angles of attack up to 40 deg.

  15. Effect of jet convergence angle on the performance of annular nozzles with semitoroidal concave plugs at Mach numbers up to 1.82

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mercer, C. E.

    1972-01-01

    Results of an investigation at static conditions and at Mach numbers up to 1.82 are presented for 12 nozzle configurations which have jet convergence angle and jet throat area as geometric parameters. The variation of jet convergence angle from 15 to 40 deg had little effect on the performance of the nozzles having the large value of primary throat area; however, increasing jet convergence angle generally had an adverse effect on performance of the nozzles having the smaller value of primary throat area. The performance of the nozzle configurations with the larger primary throat area is competitive with nozzles designed for operation over the Mach number range.

  16. Background noise measurements from jet exit vanes designed to reduced flow pulsations in an open-jet wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoad, D. R.; Martin, R. M.

    1985-01-01

    Many open jet wind tunnels experience pulsations of the flow which are typically characterized by periodic low frequency velocity and pressure variations. One method of reducing these fluctuations is to install vanes around the perimeter of the jet exit to protrude into the flow. Although these vanes were shown to be effective in reducing the fluctuation content, they can also increase the test section background noise level. The results of an experimental acoustic program in the Langley 4- by 7-Meter Tunnel is presented which evaluates the effect on tunnel background noise of such modifications to the jet exit nozzle. Noise levels for the baseline tunnel configuration are compared with those for three jet exit nozzle modifications, including an enhanced noise reduction configuration that minimizes the effect of the vanes on the background noise. Although the noise levels for this modified vane configuration were comparable to baseline tunnel background noise levels in this facility, installation of these modified vanes in an acoustic tunnel may be of concern because the noise levels for the vanes could be well above background noise levels in a quiet facility.

  17. Thorough small-angle X-ray scattering analysis of the instability of liquid micro-jets in air.

    PubMed

    Marmiroli, Benedetta; Cacho-Nerin, Fernando; Sartori, Barbara; Pérez, Javier; Amenitsch, Heinz

    2014-01-01

    Liquid jets are of interest, both for their industrial relevance and for scientific applications (more important, in particular for X-rays, after the advent of free-electron lasers that require liquid jets as sample carrier). Instability mechanisms have been described theoretically and by numerical simulation, but confirmed by few experimental techniques. In fact, these are mainly based on cameras, which is limited by the imaging resolution, and on light scattering, which is hindered by absorption, reflection, Mie scattering and multiple scattering due to complex air/liquid interfaces during jet break-up. In this communication it is demonstrated that synchrotron small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) can give quantitative information on liquid jet dynamics at the nanoscale, by detecting time-dependent morphology and break-up length. Jets ejected from circular tubes of different diameters (100-450 µm) and speeds (0.7-21 m s(-1)) have been explored to cover the Rayleigh and first wind-induced regimes. Various solvents (water, ethanol, 2-propanol) and their mixtures have been examined. The determination of the liquid jet behaviour becomes essential, as it provides background data in subsequent studies of chemical and biological reactions using SAXS or X-ray diffraction based on synchrotron radiation and free-electron lasers.

  18. Measurement of colour flow with the jet pull angle in tt-bar events using the ATLAS detector at √s = 8 TeV

    DOE PAGES

    Aad, G.

    2015-09-26

    The distribution and orientation of energy inside jets is predicted to be an experimental handle on colour connections between the hard-scatter quarks and gluons initiating the jets. This Letter presents a measurement of the distribution of one such variable, the jet pull angle. The pull angle is measured for jets produced in tt-bar events with one W boson decaying leptonically and the other decaying to jets using 20.3 fb–1 of data recorded with the ATLAS detector at a centre-of-mass energy of √s=8 TeV at the LHC. The jet pull angle distribution is corrected for detector resolution and acceptance effects andmore » is compared to various models.« less

  19. Measurement of colour flow with the jet pull angle in t t bar events using the ATLAS detector at √{ s} = 8 TeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdinov, O.; Aben, R.; Abolins, M.; AbouZeid, O. S.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Abreu, R.; Abulaiti, Y.; Acharya, B. S.; Adamczyk, L.; Adams, D. L.; Adelman, J.; Adomeit, S.; Adye, T.; Affolder, A. A.; Agatonovic-Jovin, T.; Agricola, J.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J. A.; Ahlen, S. P.; Ahmadov, F.; Aielli, G.; Akerstedt, H.; Åkesson, T. P. A.; Akimov, A. V.; Alberghi, G. L.; Albert, J.; Albrand, S.; Alconada Verzini, M. J.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I. N.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alio, L.; Alison, J.; Alkire, S. P.; Allbrooke, B. M. M.; Allport, P. P.; Aloisio, A.; Alonso, A.; Alonso, F.; Alpigiani, C.; Altheimer, A.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Álvarez Piqueras, D.; Alviggi, M. G.; Amadio, B. T.; Amako, K.; Amaral Coutinho, Y.; Amelung, C.; Amidei, D.; Amor Dos Santos, S. P.; Amorim, A.; Amoroso, S.; Amram, N.; Amundsen, G.; Anastopoulos, C.; Ancu, L. S.; Andari, N.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C. F.; Anders, G.; Anders, J. K.; Anderson, K. J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Angelidakis, S.; Angelozzi, I.; Anger, P.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anisenkov, A. V.; Anjos, N.; Annovi, A.; Antonelli, M.; Antonov, A.; Antos, J.; Anulli, F.; Aoki, M.; Aperio Bella, L.; Arabidze, G.; Arai, Y.; Araque, J. P.; Arce, A. T. H.; Arduh, F. A.; Arguin, J.-F.; Argyropoulos, S.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A. J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnal, V.; Arnold, H.; Arratia, M.; Arslan, O.; Artamonov, A.; Artoni, G.; Asai, S.; Asbah, N.; Ashkenazi, A.; Åsman, B.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astalos, R.; Atkinson, M.; Atlay, N. B.; Auerbach, B.; Augsten, K.; Aurousseau, M.; Avolio, G.; Axen, B.; Ayoub, M. K.; Azuelos, G.; Baak, M. A.; Baas, A. E.; Baca, M. J.; Bacci, C.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Backes, M.; Backhaus, M.; Bagiacchi, P.; Bagnaia, P.; Bai, Y.; Bain, T.; Baines, J. T.; Baker, O. K.; Baldin, E. M.; Balek, P.; Balestri, T.; Balli, F.; Banas, E.; Banerjee, Sw.; Bannoura, A. A. E.; Bansil, H. S.; Barak, L.; Barberio, E. L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Barillari, T.; Barisonzi, M.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnes, S. L.; Barnett, B. M.; Barnett, R. M.; Barnovska, Z.; Baroncelli, A.; Barone, G.; Barr, A. J.; Barreiro, F.; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, J.; Bartoldus, R.; Barton, A. E.; Bartos, P.; Basalaev, A.; Bassalat, A.; Basye, A.; Bates, R. L.; Batista, S. J.; Batley, J. R.; Battaglia, M.; Bauce, M.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H. S.; Beacham, J. B.; Beattie, M. D.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P. H.; Beccherle, R.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, H. P.; Becker, K.; Becker, M.; Becker, S.; Beckingham, M.; Becot, C.; Beddall, A. J.; Beddall, A.; Bednyakov, V. A.; Bee, C. P.; Beemster, L. J.; Beermann, T. A.; Begel, M.; Behr, J. K.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bell, W. H.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellerive, A.; Bellomo, M.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Bender, M.; Bendtz, K.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Benhar Noccioli, E.; Benitez Garcia, J. A.; Benjamin, D. P.; Bensinger, J. R.; Bentvelsen, S.; Beresford, L.; Beretta, M.; Berge, D.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E.; Berger, N.; Berghaus, F.; Beringer, J.; Bernard, C.; Bernard, N. R.; Bernius, C.; Bernlochner, F. U.; Berry, T.; Berta, P.; Bertella, C.; Bertoli, G.; Bertolucci, F.; Bertsche, C.; Bertsche, D.; Besana, M. I.; Besjes, G. J.; Bessidskaia Bylund, O.; Bessner, M.; Besson, N.; Betancourt, C.; Bethke, S.; Bevan, A. J.; Bhimji, W.; Bianchi, R. M.; Bianchini, L.; Bianco, M.; Biebel, O.; Biedermann, D.; Bieniek, S. P.; Biglietti, M.; Bilbao De Mendizabal, J.; Bilokon, H.; Bindi, M.; Binet, S.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Biondi, S.; Black, C. W.; Black, J. E.; Black, K. M.; Blackburn, D.; Blair, R. E.; Blanchard, J.-B.; Blanco, J. E.; Blazek, T.; Bloch, I.; Blocker, C.; Blum, W.; Blumenschein, U.; Bobbink, G. J.; Bobrovnikov, V. S.; Bocchetta, S. S.; Bocci, A.; Bock, C.; Boehler, M.; Bogaerts, J. A.; Bogavac, D.; Bogdanchikov, A. G.; Bohm, C.; Boisvert, V.; Bold, T.; Boldea, V.; Boldyrev, A. S.; Bomben, M.; Bona, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Borisov, A.; Borissov, G.; Borroni, S.; Bortfeldt, J.; Bortolotto, V.; Bos, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bosman, M.; Boudreau, J.; Bouffard, J.; Bouhova-Thacker, E. V.; Boumediene, D.; Bourdarios, C.; Bousson, N.; Boveia, A.; Boyd, J.; Boyko, I. R.; Bozic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, G.; Brandt, O.; Bratzler, U.; Brau, B.; Brau, J. E.; Braun, H. M.; Brazzale, S. F.; Breaden Madden, W. D.; Brendlinger, K.; Brennan, A. J.; Brenner, L.; Brenner, R.; Bressler, S.; Bristow, K.; Bristow, T. M.; Britton, D.; Britzger, D.; Brochu, F. M.; Brock, I.; Brock, R.; Bronner, J.; Brooijmans, G.; Brooks, T.; Brooks, W. K.; Brosamer, J.; Brost, E.; Brown, J.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P. A.; Bruncko, D.; Bruneliere, R.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Bruschi, M.; Bruscino, N.; Bryngemark, L.; Buanes, T.; Buat, Q.; Buchholz, P.; Buckley, A. G.; Buda, S. I.; Budagov, I. A.; Buehrer, F.; Bugge, L.; Bugge, M. K.; Bulekov, O.; Bullock, D.; Burckhart, H.; Burdin, S.; Burghgrave, B.; Burke, S.; Burmeister, I.; Busato, E.; Büscher, D.; Büscher, V.; Bussey, P.; Butler, J. M.; Butt, A. I.; Buttar, C. M.; Butterworth, J. M.; Butti, P.; Buttinger, W.; Buzatu, A.; Buzykaev, A. R.; Cabrera Urbán, S.; Caforio, D.; Cairo, V. M.; Cakir, O.; Calace, N.; Calafiura, P.; Calandri, A.; Calderini, G.; Calfayan, P.; Caloba, L. P.; Calvet, D.; Calvet, S.; Camacho Toro, R.; Camarda, S.; Camarri, P.; Cameron, D.; Caminal Armadans, R.; Campana, S.; Campanelli, M.; Campoverde, A.; Canale, V.; Canepa, A.; Cano Bret, M.; Cantero, J.; Cantrill, R.; Cao, T.; Capeans Garrido, M. D. M.; Caprini, I.; Caprini, M.; Capua, M.; Caputo, R.; Cardarelli, R.; Cardillo, F.; Carli, T.; Carlino, G.; Carminati, L.; Caron, S.; Carquin, E.; Carrillo-Montoya, G. D.; Carter, J. R.; Carvalho, J.; Casadei, D.; Casado, M. P.; Casolino, M.; Castaneda-Miranda, E.; Castelli, A.; Castillo Gimenez, V.; Castro, N. F.; Catastini, P.; Catinaccio, A.; Catmore, J. R.; Cattai, A.; Caudron, J.; Cavaliere, V.; Cavalli, D.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Cavasinni, V.; Ceradini, F.; Cerio, B. C.; Cerny, K.; Cerqueira, A. S.; Cerri, A.; Cerrito, L.; Cerutti, F.; Cerv, M.; Cervelli, A.; Cetin, S. A.; Chafaq, A.; Chakraborty, D.; Chalupkova, I.; Chang, P.; Chapman, J. D.; Charlton, D. G.; Chau, C. C.; Chavez Barajas, C. A.; Cheatham, S.; Chegwidden, A.; Chekanov, S.; Chekulaev, S. V.; Chelkov, G. A.; Chelstowska, M. A.; Chen, C.; Chen, H.; Chen, K.; Chen, L.; Chen, S.; Chen, X.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, H. C.; Cheng, Y.; Cheplakov, A.; Cheremushkina, E.; Cherkaoui El Moursli, R.; Chernyatin, V.; Cheu, E.; Chevalier, L.; Chiarella, V.; Chiarelli, G.; Childers, J. T.; Chiodini, G.; Chisholm, A. S.; Chislett, R. T.; Chitan, A.; Chizhov, M. V.; Choi, K.; Chouridou, S.; Chow, B. K. B.; Christodoulou, V.; Chromek-Burckhart, D.; Chudoba, J.; Chuinard, A. J.; Chwastowski, J. J.; Chytka, L.; Ciapetti, G.; Ciftci, A. K.; Cinca, D.; Cindro, V.; Cioara, I. A.; Ciocio, A.; Citron, Z. H.; Ciubancan, M.; Clark, A.; Clark, B. L.; Clark, P. J.; Clarke, R. N.; Cleland, W.; Clement, C.; Coadou, Y.; Cobal, M.; Coccaro, A.; Cochran, J.; Coffey, L.; Cogan, J. G.; Colasurdo, L.; Cole, B.; Cole, S.; Colijn, A. P.; Collot, J.; Colombo, T.; Compostella, G.; Conde Muiño, P.; Coniavitis, E.; Connell, S. H.; Connelly, I. A.; Consonni, S. M.; Consorti, V.; Constantinescu, S.; Conta, C.; Conti, G.; Conventi, F.; Cooke, M.; Cooper, B. D.; Cooper-Sarkar, A. M.; Cornelissen, T.; Corradi, M.; Corriveau, F.; Corso-Radu, A.; Cortes-Gonzalez, A.; Cortiana, G.; Costa, G.; Costa, M. J.; Costanzo, D.; Côté, D.; Cottin, G.; Cowan, G.; Cox, B. E.; Cranmer, K.; Cree, G.; Crépé-Renaudin, S.; Crescioli, F.; Cribbs, W. A.; Crispin Ortuzar, M.; Cristinziani, M.; Croft, V.; Crosetti, G.; Cuhadar Donszelmann, T.; Cummings, J.; Curatolo, M.; Cuthbert, C.; Czirr, H.; Czodrowski, P.; D'Auria, S.; D'Onofrio, M.; Da Cunha Sargedas De Sousa, M. J.; Da Via, C.; Dabrowski, W.; Dafinca, A.; Dai, T.; Dale, O.; Dallaire, F.; Dallapiccola, C.; Dam, M.; Dandoy, J. R.; Dang, N. P.; Daniells, A. C.; Danninger, M.; Dano Hoffmann, M.; Dao, V.; Darbo, G.; Darmora, S.; Dassoulas, J.; Dattagupta, A.; Davey, W.; David, C.; Davidek, T.; Davies, E.; Davies, M.; Davison, P.; Davygora, Y.; Dawe, E.; Dawson, I.; Daya-Ishmukhametova, R. K.; De, K.; de Asmundis, R.; De Castro, S.; De Cecco, S.; De Groot, N.; de Jong, P.; De la Torre, H.; De Lorenzi, F.; De Nooij, L.; De Pedis, D.; De Salvo, A.; De Sanctis, U.; De Santo, A.; De Vivie De Regie, J. B.; Dearnaley, W. J.; Debbe, R.; Debenedetti, C.; Dedovich, D. V.; Deigaard, I.; Del Peso, J.; Del Prete, T.; Delgove, D.; Deliot, F.; Delitzsch, C. M.; Deliyergiyev, M.; Dell'Acqua, A.; Dell'Asta, L.; Dell'Orso, M.; Della Pietra, M.; della Volpe, D.; Delmastro, M.; Delsart, P. A.; Deluca, C.; DeMarco, D. A.; Demers, S.; Demichev, M.; Demilly, A.; Denisov, S. P.; Derendarz, D.; Derkaoui, J. E.; Derue, F.; Dervan, P.; Desch, K.; Deterre, C.; Deviveiros, P. O.; Dewhurst, A.; Dhaliwal, S.; Di Ciaccio, A.; Di Ciaccio, L.; Di Domenico, A.; Di Donato, C.; Di Girolamo, A.; Di Girolamo, B.; Di Mattia, A.; Di Micco, B.; Di Nardo, R.; Di Simone, A.; Di Sipio, R.; Di Valentino, D.; Diaconu, C.; Diamond, M.; Dias, F. A.; Diaz, M. A.; Diehl, E. B.; Dietrich, J.; Diglio, S.; Dimitrievska, A.; Dingfelder, J.; Dita, P.; Dita, S.; Dittus, F.; Djama, F.; Djobava, T.; Djuvsland, J. I.; do Vale, M. A. B.; Dobos, D.; Dobre, M.; Doglioni, C.; Dohmae, T.; Dolejsi, J.; Dolezal, Z.; Dolgoshein, B. A.; Donadelli, M.; Donati, S.; Dondero, P.; Donini, J.; Dopke, J.; Doria, A.; Dova, M. T.; Doyle, A. T.; Drechsler, E.; Dris, M.; Dubreuil, E.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Ducu, O. A.; Duda, D.; Dudarev, A.; Duflot, L.; Duguid, L.; Dührssen, M.; Dunford, M.; Duran Yildiz, H.; Düren, M.; Durglishvili, A.; Duschinger, D.; Dyndal, M.; Eckardt, C.; Ecker, K. M.; Edgar, R. C.; Edson, W.; Edwards, N. C.; Ehrenfeld, W.; Eifert, T.; Eigen, G.; Einsweiler, K.; Ekelof, T.; El Kacimi, M.; Ellert, M.; Elles, S.; Ellinghaus, F.; Elliot, A. A.; Ellis, N.; Elmsheuser, J.; Elsing, M.; Emeliyanov, D.; Enari, Y.; Endner, O. C.; Endo, M.; Erdmann, J.; Ereditato, A.; Ernis, G.; Ernst, J.; Ernst, M.; Errede, S.; Ertel, E.; Escalier, M.; Esch, H.; Escobar, C.; Esposito, B.; Etienvre, A. I.; Etzion, E.; Evans, H.; Ezhilov, A.; Fabbri, L.; Facini, G.; Fakhrutdinov, R. M.; Falciano, S.; Falla, R. J.; Faltova, J.; Fang, Y.; Fanti, M.; Farbin, A.; Farilla, A.; Farooque, T.; Farrell, S.; Farrington, S. M.; Farthouat, P.; Fassi, F.; Fassnacht, P.; Fassouliotis, D.; Faucci Giannelli, M.; Favareto, A.; Fayard, L.; Federic, P.; Fedin, O. L.; Fedorko, W.; Feigl, S.; Feligioni, L.; Feng, C.; Feng, E. J.; Feng, H.; Fenyuk, A. B.; Feremenga, L.; Fernandez Martinez, P.; Fernandez Perez, S.; Ferrando, J.; Ferrari, A.; Ferrari, P.; Ferrari, R.; Ferreira de Lima, D. E.; Ferrer, A.; Ferrere, D.; Ferretti, C.; Ferretto Parodi, A.; Fiascaris, M.; Fiedler, F.; Filipčič, A.; Filipuzzi, M.; Filthaut, F.; Fincke-Keeler, M.; Finelli, K. D.; Fiolhais, M. C. N.; Fiorini, L.; Firan, A.; Fischer, A.; Fischer, C.; Fischer, J.; Fisher, W. C.; Fitzgerald, E. A.; Flaschel, N.; Fleck, I.; Fleischmann, P.; Fleischmann, S.; Fletcher, G. T.; Fletcher, G.; Fletcher, R. R. M.; Flick, T.; Floderus, A.; Flores Castillo, L. R.; Flowerdew, M. J.; Formica, A.; Forti, A.; Fournier, D.; Fox, H.; Fracchia, S.; Francavilla, P.; Franchini, M.; Francis, D.; Franconi, L.; Franklin, M.; Frate, M.; Fraternali, M.; Freeborn, D.; French, S. T.; Friedrich, F.; Froidevaux, D.; Frost, J. A.; Fukunaga, C.; Fullana Torregrosa, E.; Fulsom, B. G.; Fusayasu, T.; Fuster, J.; Gabaldon, C.; Gabizon, O.; Gabrielli, A.; Gabrielli, A.; Gach, G. P.; Gadatsch, S.; Gadomski, S.; Gagliardi, G.; Gagnon, P.; Galea, C.; Galhardo, B.; Gallas, E. J.; Gallop, B. J.; Gallus, P.; Galster, G.; Gan, K. K.; Gao, J.; Gao, Y.; Gao, Y. S.; Garay Walls, F. M.; Garberson, F.; García, C.; García Navarro, J. E.; Garcia-Sciveres, M.; Gardner, R. W.; Garelli, N.; Garonne, V.; Gatti, C.; Gaudiello, A.; Gaudio, G.; Gaur, B.; Gauthier, L.; Gauzzi, P.; Gavrilenko, I. L.; Gay, C.; Gaycken, G.; Gazis, E. N.; Ge, P.; Gecse, Z.; Gee, C. N. P.; Geerts, D. A. A.; Geich-Gimbel, Ch.; Geisler, M. P.; Gemme, C.; Genest, M. H.; Gentile, S.; George, M.; George, S.; Gerbaudo, D.; Gershon, A.; Ghasemi, S.; Ghazlane, H.; Giacobbe, B.; Giagu, S.; Giangiobbe, V.; Giannetti, P.; Gibbard, B.; Gibson, S. M.; Gilchriese, M.; Gillam, T. P. S.; Gillberg, D.; Gilles, G.; Gingrich, D. M.; Giokaris, N.; Giordani, M. P.; Giorgi, F. M.; Giorgi, F. M.; Giraud, P. F.; Giromini, P.; Giugni, D.; Giuliani, C.; Giulini, M.; Gjelsten, B. K.; Gkaitatzis, S.; Gkialas, I.; Gkougkousis, E. L.; Gladilin, L. K.; Glasman, C.; Glatzer, J.; Glaysher, P. C. F.; Glazov, A.; Goblirsch-Kolb, M.; Goddard, J. R.; Godlewski, J.; Goldfarb, S.; Golling, T.; Golubkov, D.; Gomes, A.; Gonçalo, R.; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, J.; Gonella, L.; González de la Hoz, S.; Gonzalez Parra, G.; Gonzalez-Sevilla, S.; Goossens, L.; Gorbounov, P. A.; Gordon, H. A.; Gorelov, I.; Gorini, B.; Gorini, E.; Gorišek, A.; Gornicki, E.; Goshaw, A. T.; Gössling, C.; Gostkin, M. I.; Goujdami, D.; Goussiou, A. G.; Govender, N.; Gozani, E.; Grabas, H. M. 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C.; Petit, E.; Petridis, A.; Petridou, C.; Petroff, P.; Petrolo, E.; Petrucci, F.; Pettersson, N. E.; Pezoa, R.; Phillips, P. W.; Piacquadio, G.; Pianori, E.; Picazio, A.; Piccaro, E.; Piccinini, M.; Pickering, M. A.; Piegaia, R.; Pignotti, D. T.; Pilcher, J. E.; Pilkington, A. D.; Pina, J.; Pinamonti, M.; Pinfold, J. L.; Pingel, A.; Pinto, B.; Pires, S.; Pirumov, H.; Pitt, M.; Pizio, C.; Plazak, L.; Pleier, M.-A.; Pleskot, V.; Plotnikova, E.; Plucinski, P.; Pluth, D.; Poettgen, R.; Poggioli, L.; Pohl, D.; Polesello, G.; Poley, A.; Policicchio, A.; Polifka, R.; Polini, A.; Pollard, C. S.; Polychronakos, V.; Pommès, K.; Pontecorvo, L.; Pope, B. G.; Popeneciu, G. A.; Popovic, D. S.; Poppleton, A.; Pospisil, S.; Potamianos, K.; Potrap, I. N.; Potter, C. J.; Potter, C. T.; Poulard, G.; Poveda, J.; Pozdnyakov, V.; Pralavorio, P.; Pranko, A.; Prasad, S.; Prell, S.; Price, D.; Price, L. E.; Primavera, M.; Prince, S.; Proissl, M.; Prokofiev, K.; Prokoshin, F.; Protopapadaki, E.; Protopopescu, S.; Proudfoot, J.; Przybycien, M.; Ptacek, E.; Puddu, D.; Pueschel, E.; Puldon, D.; Purohit, M.; Puzo, P.; Qian, J.; Qin, G.; Qin, Y.; Quadt, A.; Quarrie, D. R.; Quayle, W. B.; Queitsch-Maitland, M.; Quilty, D.; Raddum, S.; Radeka, V.; Radescu, V.; Radhakrishnan, S. K.; Radloff, P.; Rados, P.; Ragusa, F.; Rahal, G.; Rajagopalan, S.; Rammensee, M.; Rangel-Smith, C.; Rauscher, F.; Rave, S.; Ravenscroft, T.; Raymond, M.; Read, A. L.; Readioff, N. P.; Rebuzzi, D. M.; Redelbach, A.; Redlinger, G.; Reece, R.; Reeves, K.; Rehnisch, L.; Reisin, H.; Relich, M.; Rembser, C.; Ren, H.; Renaud, A.; Rescigno, M.; Resconi, S.; Rezanova, O. L.; Reznicek, P.; Rezvani, R.; Richter, R.; Richter, S.; Richter-Was, E.; Ricken, O.; Ridel, M.; Rieck, P.; Riegel, C. J.; Rieger, J.; Rijssenbeek, M.; Rimoldi, A.; Rinaldi, L.; Ristić, B.; Ritsch, E.; Riu, I.; Rizatdinova, F.; Rizvi, E.; Robertson, S. H.; Robichaud-Veronneau, A.; Robinson, D.; Robinson, J. E. M.; Robson, A.; Roda, C.; Roe, S.; Røhne, O.; Rolli, S.; Romaniouk, A.; Romano, M.; Romano Saez, S. M.; Romero Adam, E.; Rompotis, N.; Ronzani, M.; Roos, L.; Ros, E.; Rosati, S.; Rosbach, K.; Rose, P.; Rosendahl, P. L.; Rosenthal, O.; Rossetti, V.; Rossi, E.; Rossi, L. P.; Rosten, R.; Rotaru, M.; Roth, I.; Rothberg, J.; Rousseau, D.; Royon, C. R.; Rozanov, A.; Rozen, Y.; Ruan, X.; Rubbo, F.; Rubinskiy, I.; Rud, V. I.; Rudolph, C.; Rudolph, M. S.; Rühr, F.; Ruiz-Martinez, A.; Rurikova, Z.; Rusakovich, N. A.; Ruschke, A.; Russell, H. L.; Rutherfoord, J. P.; Ruthmann, N.; Ryabov, Y. F.; Rybar, M.; Rybkin, G.; Ryder, N. C.; Saavedra, A. F.; Sabato, G.; Sacerdoti, S.; Saddique, A.; Sadrozinski, H. F.-W.; Sadykov, R.; Safai Tehrani, F.; Saimpert, M.; Saito, T.; Sakamoto, H.; Sakurai, Y.; Salamanna, G.; Salamon, A.; Saleem, M.; Salek, D.; Sales De Bruin, P. H.; Salihagic, D.; Salnikov, A.; Salt, J.; Salvatore, D.; Salvatore, F.; Salvucci, A.; Salzburger, A.; Sampsonidis, D.; Sanchez, A.; Sánchez, J.; Sanchez Martinez, V.; Sandaker, H.; Sandbach, R. L.; Sander, H. G.; Sanders, M. P.; Sandhoff, M.; Sandoval, C.; Sandstroem, R.; Sankey, D. P. C.; Sannino, M.; Sansoni, A.; Santoni, C.; Santonico, R.; Santos, H.; Santoyo Castillo, I.; Sapp, K.; Sapronov, A.; Saraiva, J. G.; Sarrazin, B.; Sasaki, O.; Sasaki, Y.; Sato, K.; Sauvage, G.; Sauvan, E.; Savage, G.; Savard, P.; Sawyer, C.; Sawyer, L.; Saxon, J.; Sbarra, C.; Sbrizzi, A.; Scanlon, T.; Scannicchio, D. A.; Scarcella, M.; Scarfone, V.; Schaarschmidt, J.; Schacht, P.; Schaefer, D.; Schaefer, R.; Schaeffer, J.; Schaepe, S.; Schaetzel, S.; Schäfer, U.; Schaffer, A. C.; Schaile, D.; Schamberger, R. D.; Scharf, V.; Schegelsky, V. A.; Scheirich, D.; Schernau, M.; Schiavi, C.; Schillo, C.; Schioppa, M.; Schlenker, S.; Schmidt, E.; Schmieden, K.; Schmitt, C.; Schmitt, S.; Schmitt, S.; Schneider, B.; Schnellbach, Y. J.; Schnoor, U.; Schoeffel, L.; Schoening, A.; Schoenrock, B. D.; Schopf, E.; Schorlemmer, A. L. S.; Schott, M.; Schouten, D.; Schovancova, J.; Schramm, S.; Schreyer, M.; Schroeder, C.; Schuh, N.; Schultens, M. J.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-C.; Schulz, H.; Schumacher, M.; Schumm, B. A.; Schune, Ph.; Schwanenberger, C.; Schwartz, M.; Schwartzman, A.; Schwarz, T. A.; Schwegler, Ph.; Schweiger, H.; Schwemling, Ph.; Schwienhorst, R.; Schwindling, J.; Schwindt, T.; Sciacca, F. G.; Scifo, E.; Sciolla, G.; Scuri, F.; Scutti, F.; Searcy, J.; Sedov, G.; Sedykh, E.; Seema, P.; Seidel, S. C.; Seiden, A.; Seifert, F.; Seixas, J. M.; Sekhniaidze, G.; Sekhon, K.; Sekula, S. J.; Seliverstov, D. M.; Semprini-Cesari, N.; Serfon, C.; Serin, L.; Serkin, L.; Serre, T.; Sessa, M.; Seuster, R.; Severini, H.; Sfiligoj, T.; Sforza, F.; Sfyrla, A.; Shabalina, E.; Shamim, M.; Shan, L. Y.; Shang, R.; Shank, J. T.; Shapiro, M.; Shatalov, P. B.; Shaw, K.; Shaw, S. M.; Shcherbakova, A.; Shehu, C. Y.; Sherwood, P.; Shi, L.; Shimizu, S.; Shimmin, C. O.; Shimojima, M.; Shiyakova, M.; Shmeleva, A.; Shoaleh Saadi, D.; Shochet, M. J.; Shojaii, S.; Shrestha, S.; Shulga, E.; Shupe, M. A.; Shushkevich, S.; Sicho, P.; Sidebo, P. E.; Sidiropoulou, O.; Sidorov, D.; Sidoti, A.; Siegert, F.; Sijacki, Dj.; Silva, J.; Silver, Y.; Silverstein, S. B.; Simak, V.; Simard, O.; Simic, Lj.; Simion, S.; Simioni, E.; Simmons, B.; Simon, D.; Simoniello, R.; Sinervo, P.; Sinev, N. B.; Sioli, M.; Siragusa, G.; Sisakyan, A. N.; Sivoklokov, S. Yu.; Sjölin, J.; Sjursen, T. B.; Skinner, M. B.; Skottowe, H. P.; Skubic, P.; Slater, M.; Slavicek, T.; Slawinska, M.; Sliwa, K.; Smakhtin, V.; Smart, B. H.; Smestad, L.; Smirnov, S. Yu.; Smirnov, Y.; Smirnova, L. N.; Smirnova, O.; Smith, M. N. K.; Smith, R. W.; Smizanska, M.; Smolek, K.; Snesarev, A. A.; Snidero, G.; Snyder, S.; Sobie, R.; Socher, F.; Soffer, A.; Soh, D. A.; Solans, C. A.; Solar, M.; Solc, J.; Soldatov, E. Yu.; Soldevila, U.; Solodkov, A. A.; Soloshenko, A.; Solovyanov, O. V.; Solovyev, V.; Sommer, P.; Song, H. Y.; Soni, N.; Sood, A.; Sopczak, A.; Sopko, B.; Sopko, V.; Sorin, V.; Sosa, D.; Sosebee, M.; Sotiropoulou, C. L.; Soualah, R.; Soukharev, A. M.; South, D.; Sowden, B. C.; Spagnolo, S.; Spalla, M.; Spanò, F.; Spearman, W. R.; Sperlich, D.; Spettel, F.; Spighi, R.; Spigo, G.; Spiller, L. A.; Spousta, M.; Spreitzer, T.; St. Denis, R. D.; Staerz, S.; Stahlman, J.; Stamen, R.; Stamm, S.; Stanecka, E.; Stanescu, C.; Stanescu-Bellu, M.; Stanitzki, M. M.; Stapnes, S.; Starchenko, E. A.; Stark, J.; Staroba, P.; Starovoitov, P.; Staszewski, R.; Stavina, P.; Steinberg, P.; Stelzer, B.; Stelzer, H. J.; Stelzer-Chilton, O.; Stenzel, H.; Stewart, G. A.; Stillings, J. A.; Stockton, M. C.; Stoebe, M.; Stoicea, G.; Stolte, P.; Stonjek, S.; Stradling, A. R.; Straessner, A.; Stramaglia, M. E.; Strandberg, J.; Strandberg, S.; Strandlie, A.; Strauss, E.; Strauss, M.; Strizenec, P.; Ströhmer, R.; Strom, D. M.; Stroynowski, R.; Strubig, A.; Stucci, S. A.; Stugu, B.; Styles, N. A.; Su, D.; Su, J.; Subramaniam, R.; Succurro, A.; Sugaya, Y.; Suhr, C.; Suk, M.; Sulin, V. V.; Sultansoy, S.; Sumida, T.; Sun, S.; Sun, X.; Sundermann, J. E.; Suruliz, K.; Susinno, G.; Sutton, M. R.; Suzuki, S.; Svatos, M.; Swedish, S.; Swiatlowski, M.; Sykora, I.; Sykora, T.; Ta, D.; Taccini, C.; Tackmann, K.; Taenzer, J.; Taffard, A.; Tafirout, R.; Taiblum, N.; Takai, H.; Takashima, R.; Takeda, H.; Takeshita, T.; Takubo, Y.; Talby, M.; Talyshev, A. A.; Tam, J. Y. C.; Tan, K. G.; Tanaka, J.; Tanaka, R.; Tanaka, S.; Tannenwald, B. B.; Tannoury, N.; Tapprogge, S.; Tarem, S.; Tarrade, F.; Tartarelli, G. F.; Tas, P.; Tasevsky, M.; Tashiro, T.; Tassi, E.; Tavares Delgado, A.; Tayalati, Y.; Taylor, F. E.; Taylor, G. N.; Taylor, W.; Teischinger, F. A.; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, M.; Teixeira-Dias, P.; Temming, K. K.; Ten Kate, H.; Teng, P. K.; Teoh, J. J.; Tepel, F.; Terada, S.; Terashi, K.; Terron, J.; Terzo, S.; Testa, M.; Teuscher, R. J.; Theveneaux-Pelzer, T.; Thomas, J. P.; Thomas-Wilsker, J.; Thompson, E. N.; Thompson, P. D.; Thompson, R. J.; Thompson, A. S.; Thomsen, L. A.; Thomson, E.; Thomson, M.; Thun, R. P.; Tibbetts, M. J.; Ticse Torres, R. E.; Tikhomirov, V. O.; Tikhonov, Yu. A.; Timoshenko, S.; Tiouchichine, E.; Tipton, P.; Tisserant, S.; Todome, K.; Todorov, T.; Todorova-Nova, S.; Tojo, J.; Tokár, S.; Tokushuku, K.; Tollefson, K.; Tolley, E.; Tomlinson, L.; Tomoto, M.; Tompkins, L.; Toms, K.; Torrence, E.; Torres, H.; Torró Pastor, E.; Toth, J.; Touchard, F.; Tovey, D. R.; Trefzger, T.; Tremblet, L.; Tricoli, A.; Trigger, I. M.; Trincaz-Duvoid, S.; Tripiana, M. F.; Trischuk, W.; Trocmé, B.; Troncon, C.; Trottier-McDonald, M.; Trovatelli, M.; True, P.; Truong, L.; Trzebinski, M.; Trzupek, A.; Tsarouchas, C.; Tseng, J. C.-L.; Tsiareshka, P. V.; Tsionou, D.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsirintanis, N.; Tsiskaridze, S.; Tsiskaridze, V.; Tskhadadze, E. G.; Tsukerman, I. I.; Tsulaia, V.; Tsuno, S.; Tsybychev, D.; Tudorache, A.; Tudorache, V.; Tuna, A. N.; Tupputi, S. A.; Turchikhin, S.; Turecek, D.; Turra, R.; Turvey, A. J.; Tuts, P. M.; Tykhonov, A.; Tylmad, M.; Tyndel, M.; Ueda, I.; Ueno, R.; Ughetto, M.; Ugland, M.; Uhlenbrock, M.; Ukegawa, F.; Unal, G.; Undrus, A.; Unel, G.; Ungaro, F. C.; Unno, Y.; Unverdorben, C.; Urban, J.; Urquijo, P.; Urrejola, P.; Usai, G.; Usanova, A.; Vacavant, L.; Vacek, V.; Vachon, B.; Valderanis, C.; Valencic, N.; Valentinetti, S.; Valero, A.; Valery, L.; Valkar, S.; Valladolid Gallego, E.; Vallecorsa, S.; Valls Ferrer, J. A.; Van Den Wollenberg, W.; Van Der Deijl, P. C.; van der Geer, R.; van der Graaf, H.; Van Der Leeuw, R.; van Eldik, N.; van Gemmeren, P.; Van Nieuwkoop, J.; van Vulpen, I.; van Woerden, M. C.; Vanadia, M.; Vandelli, W.; Vanguri, R.; Vaniachine, A.; Vannucci, F.; Vardanyan, G.; Vari, R.; Varnes, E. W.; Varol, T.; Varouchas, D.; Vartapetian, A.; Varvell, K. E.; Vazeille, F.; Vazquez Schroeder, T.; Veatch, J.; Veloce, L. M.; Veloso, F.; Velz, T.; Veneziano, S.; Ventura, A.; Ventura, D.; Venturi, M.; Venturi, N.; Venturini, A.; Vercesi, V.; Verducci, M.; Verkerke, W.; Vermeulen, J. C.; Vest, A.; Vetterli, M. C.; Viazlo, O.; Vichou, I.; Vickey, T.; Vickey Boeriu, O. E.; Viehhauser, G. H. A.; Viel, S.; Vigne, R.; Villa, M.; Villaplana Perez, M.; Vilucchi, E.; Vincter, M. G.; Vinogradov, V. B.; Vivarelli, I.; Vives Vaque, F.; Vlachos, S.; Vladoiu, D.; Vlasak, M.; Vogel, M.; Vokac, P.; Volpi, G.; Volpi, M.; von der Schmitt, H.; von Radziewski, H.; von Toerne, E.; Vorobel, V.; Vorobev, K.; Vos, M.; Voss, R.; Vossebeld, J. H.; Vranjes, N.; Vranjes Milosavljevic, M.; Vrba, V.; Vreeswijk, M.; Vuillermet, R.; Vukotic, I.; Vykydal, Z.; Wagner, P.; Wagner, W.; Wahlberg, H.; Wahrmund, S.; Wakabayashi, J.; Walder, J.; Walker, R.; Walkowiak, W.; Wang, C.; Wang, F.; Wang, H.; Wang, H.; Wang, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, K.; Wang, R.; Wang, S. M.; Wang, T.; Wang, X.; Wanotayaroj, C.; Warburton, A.; Ward, C. P.; Wardrope, D. R.; Warsinsky, M.; Washbrook, A.; Wasicki, C.; Watkins, P. M.; Watson, A. T.; Watson, I. J.; Watson, M. F.; Watts, G.; Watts, S.; Waugh, B. M.; Webb, S.; Weber, M. S.; Weber, S. W.; Webster, J. S.; Weidberg, A. R.; Weinert, B.; Weingarten, J.; Weiser, C.; Weits, H.; Wells, P. S.; Wenaus, T.; Wengler, T.; Wenig, S.; Wermes, N.; Werner, M.; Werner, P.; Wessels, M.; Wetter, J.; Whalen, K.; Wharton, A. M.; White, A.; White, M. J.; White, R.; White, S.; Whiteson, D.; Wickens, F. J.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wielers, M.; Wienemann, P.; Wiglesworth, C.; Wiik-Fuchs, L. A. M.; Wildauer, A.; Wilkens, H. G.; Williams, H. H.; Williams, S.; Willis, C.; Willocq, S.; Wilson, A.; Wilson, J. A.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Winklmeier, F.; Winter, B. T.; Wittgen, M.; Wittkowski, J.; Wollstadt, S. J.; Wolter, M. W.; Wolters, H.; Wosiek, B. K.; Wotschack, J.; Woudstra, M. J.; Wozniak, K. W.; Wu, M.; Wu, M.; Wu, S. L.; Wu, X.; Wu, Y.; Wyatt, T. R.; Wynne, B. M.; Xella, S.; Xu, D.; Xu, L.; Yabsley, B.; Yacoob, S.; Yakabe, R.; Yamada, M.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Yamamoto, A.; Yamamoto, S.; Yamanaka, T.; Yamauchi, K.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yan, Z.; Yang, H.; Yang, H.; Yang, Y.; Yao, W.-M.; Yasu, Y.; Yatsenko, E.; Yau Wong, K. H.; Ye, J.; Ye, S.; Yeletskikh, I.; Yen, A. L.; Yildirim, E.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, R.; Yoshihara, K.; Young, C.; Young, C. J. S.; Youssef, S.; Yu, D. R.; Yu, J.; Yu, J. M.; Yu, J.; Yuan, L.; Yuen, S. P. Y.; Yurkewicz, A.; Yusuff, I.; Zabinski, B.; Zaidan, R.; Zaitsev, A. M.; Zalieckas, J.; Zaman, A.; Zambito, S.; Zanello, L.; Zanzi, D.; Zeitnitz, C.; Zeman, M.; Zemla, A.; Zengel, K.; Zenin, O.; Ženiš, T.; Zerwas, D.; Zhang, D.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, R.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Z.; Zhao, X.; Zhao, Y.; Zhao, Z.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zhong, J.; Zhou, B.; Zhou, C.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, N.; Zhu, C. G.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zhuang, X.; Zhukov, K.; Zibell, A.; Zieminska, D.; Zimine, N. I.; Zimmermann, C.; Zimmermann, S.; Zinonos, Z.; Zinser, M.; Ziolkowski, M.; Živković, L.; Zobernig, G.; Zoccoli, A.; zur Nedden, M.; Zurzolo, G.; Zwalinski, L.

    2015-11-01

    The distribution and orientation of energy inside jets is predicted to be an experimental handle on colour connections between the hard-scatter quarks and gluons initiating the jets. This Letter presents a measurement of the distribution of one such variable, the jet pull angle. The pull angle is measured for jets produced in t t bar events with one W boson decaying leptonically and the other decaying to jets using 20.3 fb-1 of data recorded with the ATLAS detector at a centre-of-mass energy of √{ s} = 8 TeV at the LHC. The jet pull angle distribution is corrected for detector resolution and acceptance effects and is compared to various models.

  20. The distinction between juvenile and adult-onset primary open-angle glaucoma

    SciTech Connect

    Wiggs, J.L.; Haines, J.L.; Damji, K.F.

    1996-01-01

    Because of the significant differences between the juvenile and adult forms of open-angle glaucoma, especially with regard to inheritance, prevalence, severity, and age of onset, we read with interest the recent publication by Morissette et al., describing a pedigree with a phenotype that overlaps the distinctive features of juvenile-onset open-angle glaucoma (JOAG) and adult-onset primary open-angle glaucoma (usually abbreviated as POAG or COAG). These authors conclude that a gene mapped to human chromosome 1q21-q31 (GLC1A) can be responsible for both juvenile and adult forms of open-angle glaucoma. The implications of such a result could be extremely important, in light of the high prevalence of the adult form of the disease. However, while the data presented in this report suggest that variable expressivity of the GLC1A gene may lead to a broader range of onset for this form of juvenile glaucoma, these data do not identify the GLC1A gene as an important cause of POAG. To prevent misleading interpretations of this and similar studies, we wish to clarify the distinction between the juvenile and adult forms of open-angle glaucoma. 8 refs.

  1. Narrow- and open-angle measurements with anterior-segment optical coherence tomography and Pentacam™.

    PubMed

    Mou, Dapeng; Fu, Jing; Li, Shuning; Wang, Lan; Wang, Xiaozhen; Wu, Gewei; Qing, Guoping; Peng, Yi; Wang, Ningli

    2010-01-01

    To assess the agreement of the Pentacam (Oculus, Wetzlar, Germany) and anterior-segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) in measuring open and narrow angles. Prospective observational case series in which 39 healthy normal subjects (39 eyes) and 25 patients with narrow angles (37 eyes) were enrolled between May and September 2008. The anterior chamber measurements were performed by AS-OCT and the Pentacam. There was no significant difference in the open-angle measurements between the Pentacam and AS-OCT (P > .05). However, in patients with narrow angles, the average values of nasal and temporal anterior chamber angles taken by the Pentacam were larger than those of AS-OCT (25.5° ± 5.66° and 25.77° ± 5.15° vs 13.40° ± 6.81° and 12.13° ± 6.47°; P < .001). Both AS-OCT and the Pentacam can reliably measure anterior chamber angles in healthy normal subjects. The difference in measuring narrow angles by the two instruments was due to inability to view the angle recess or the scleral spur with the Pentacam. Copyright 2010, SLACK Incorporated.

  2. [Morphological alterations of the trabecular meshwork in primary open angle glaucoma].

    PubMed

    Potau, J M; Canals, M; Costa, J; Merindano, M D; Ruano, D

    2000-03-01

    In the present essay we have compared the morphology and structure of normal trabecular meshworks and glaucomatous trabecular meshworks with the purpose of obtaining information about the etiopathogeny of primary open angle glaucoma. We have observed by conventional light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy a total amount of 20 trabecular meshworks from non-glaucomatous patients and 35 trabecular meshworks from surgical pieces of trabeculectomy performed in patients diagnosed of primary open angle glaucoma. We have observed that glaucomatous trabecular meshworks show morphological and structural alterations of their trabecular beams, as their enlarging, collapse, the partial loss of endothelial cells and the existence of plenty of material accumulated on them, like pigment granules and calcium precipitates. Glaucomatous trabecular meshworks present morphological and structural alterations which can be related to etiopathogeny of primary open angle glaucoma since they modify the normal conditions of drainage of aqueous humour to Schlemm's channel.

  3. Slugs and Snails and Puppy Dog Tails: jets from an unconventional angle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, D. E.

    2015-03-01

    We discuss some aspects of extragalactic jets originating from super massive black holes in the centres of active galaxies (and quasars). We start with a short review of sizes and flavors and then argue that the emission we detect across the electromagnetic spectrum does not come from the essence of the jet, but is rather a product of the jet. We go on to discuss some topics concerning synchrotron emission from jets, mainly aspects of knots. Finally we discuss the emission processes for the X-rays and describe a current experiment with LOFAR designed to test a requirement of inverse Compton models.

  4. Strategies for Choosing Descent Flight-Path Angles for Small Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Minghong Gilbert; Green, Steven M.

    2012-01-01

    Three candidate strategies for choosing the descent flight path angle (FPA) for small jets are proposed, analyzed, and compared for fuel efficiency under arrival metering conditions. The strategies vary in operational complexity from a universally fixed FPA, or FPA function that varies with descent speed for improved fuel efficiency, to the minimum-fuel FPA computed for each flight based on winds, route, and speed profile. Methodologies for selecting the parameter for the first two strategies are described. The differences in fuel burn are analyzed over a year s worth of arrival traffic and atmospheric conditions recorded for the Dallas/Fort Worth (DFW) Airport during 2011. The results show that the universally fixed FPA strategy (same FPA for all flights, all year) burns on average 26 lbs more fuel per flight as compared to the minimum-fuel solution. This FPA is adapted to the arrival gate (direction of entry to the terminal) and various timespans (season, month and day) to improve fuel efficiency. Compared to a typical FPA of approximately 3 degrees the adapted FPAs vary significantly, up to 1.3 from one arrival gate to another or up to 1.4 from one day to another. Adapting the universally fixed FPA strategy to the arrival gate or to each day reduces the extra fuel burn relative to the minimum-fuel solution by 27% and 34%, respectively. The adaptations to gate and time combined shows up to 57% reduction of the extra fuel burn. The second strategy, an FPA function, contributes a 17% reduction in the 26 lbs of extra fuel burn over the universally fixed FPA strategy. Compared to the corresponding adaptations of the universally fixed FPA, adaptations of the FPA function reduce the extra fuel burn anywhere from 15-23% depending on the extent of adaptation. The combined effect of the FPA function strategy with both directional and temporal adaptation recovers 67% of the extra fuel relative to the minimum-fuel solution.

  5. Effect of lamina open angles in expansion open-door laminoplasty on the clinical results in treating cervical spondylotic myelopathy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hang; Lu, Shouliang; Sun, Tianwei; Yadav, Sandip K

    2015-04-01

    A retrospective study. To evaluate and compare the relation of the efficacy and clinical results of expansion open-door laminoplasty (EOLP) with different angles in lamina open-door. EOLP is currently the most widely adopted surgical treatment for cervical spondylotic myelopathy. Although many long-term clinical follow-up studies have reported that most patients recover satisfactorily after EOLP, there have been numerous reports regarding postoperative complications, such as stubborn axial symptoms (AS) and C5 palsy. The lamina open-door angles in EOLP play a decisive role in determining the openness of the door that affects clinical outcomes. Nonetheless, no thorough studies on different angles in EOLP have been published. A total of 198 cervical spondylotic myelopathy patients who underwent posterior cervical EOLP and at least 24 months follow-up treatment between July 2006 and January 2009 were selected as case studies. Among the 198 cases used, there were 39 double-segment cases with the location being C3-C5 in 11 cases and C4-C6 in 28 cases, 97 three-segments (C4-C7) and 62 four segments (C3-C7). All of the patients underwent x-ray, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging images for evaluation of the cervical spine. According to different opening angles, measured by computed tomography scan after operation 1 week, the patients were divided into 2 groups, group A (>30 degrees, 76 patients including 44 males and 32 females) and group B (15-30 degrees, 122 patients including 71 males and 51 females). All patients were followed up for over 24 months, clinical results including operative duration, intraoperative bleeding volume, postoperative complications, C2-C7 Cobb angle, cervical curvature index (CI), range of motion (ROM), and values after the spinal cord backward shift were analyzed statistically, evaluating the neurological function at final follow-up and calculating the improvement rate of nerve function recovery. There was no statistically

  6. Electromagnetically driven, fast opening and closing gas jet valve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnan, Mahadevan; Elliott, Kristi Wilson; Geddes, C. G. R.; van Mourik, R. A.; Leemans, W. P.; Murphy, H.; Clover, M.

    2011-03-01

    The design and performance are presented of an electromagnetically driven gas valve [M. Krishnan, J. Wright, and T. Ma, Proceedings of the 13th Advanced Accelerator Concepts Workshop, Santa Cruz, CA, AIP Conf. Proc. No. 1086 (AIP, New York, 2008)] that opens in <100μs, closes in <500μs, and can operate at pressures of ˜1000psia to drive supersonic nozzles. Such a valve has applications to laser-plasma accelerators, where the fast opening and closing would allow sharper edges to the flow and also allow higher rep-rate operation without loading the vacuum chamber. The valve action is effected by a flyer plate accelerated by the electromagnetic impulse of a low inductance, spiral wound, strip-line coil driven by a capacitor. Gas flows out of the valve when the seal between this flyer plate and the valve seat is broken. The electromagnetic force greatly exceeds the restoring forces provided by a spring and the gas pressure against the valve seat. Piezoresistive sensor and laser interferometer measurements of flow show that the valve opens in ˜100μs for all pressures up to 800 psia. The closing time is 500μs, set by the spring constant and mass. The prototype valve has been operated with helium at 0.5 Hz and at 500 psia for ˜1 hour at a time with no cooling.

  7. A Generalized Maxwell Model for Creep Behavior of Artery Opening Angle

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, W.; Guo, X.; Kassab, G. S.

    2009-01-01

    An artery ring springs open into a sector after a radial cut. The opening angle characterizes the residual strain in the unloaded state, which is fundamental to understanding stress and strain in the vessel wall. A recent study revealed that the opening angle decreases with time if the artery is cut from the loaded state, while it increases if the cut is made from the no-load state due to viscoelasticity. In both cases, the opening angle approaches the same value in 3 hours. This implies that the characteristic relaxation time is about 10,000 sec. Here, the creep function of a generalized Maxwell model (a spring in series with six Voigt bodies) is used to predict the temporal change of opening angle in multiple time scales. It is demonstrated that the theoretical model captures the salient features of the experimental results. The proposed creep function may be extended to study the viscoelastic response of blood vessels under various loading conditions. PMID:19045526

  8. Development of microprocessor-based laser velocimeter and its application to measurement of jet exhausts and flows over missiles at high angles of attack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harwell, K. E.; Farmer, W. M.; Hornkohl, J. O.; Stallings, E.

    1981-03-01

    During the past three years, personnel have developed a unique three-component laser velocimeter for the in situ measurement of particle and/or gas velocities in flow fields produced behind bodies at high angles of attack and in jet exhaust plumes. This report describes the development of the laser velocimeter and its subsequent application of the measurement of the velocity distribution and vortex structure in free jets and in flows over missiles at high angles of attack.

  9. Combination medical treatment for primary open angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension: a network meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Michelessi, Manuele; Lindsley, Kristina; Yu, Tsung; Li, Tianjing

    2014-01-01

    This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: The objectives of this review are to examine the comparative effectiveness and safety of different glaucoma fixed combination therapies and monotherapies in eyes with primary open angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension and to provide relative rankings of these treatments. PMID:25774087

  10. Laser trabeculoplasty for open-angle glaucoma: a report by the american academy of ophthalmology.

    PubMed

    Samples, John R; Singh, Kuldev; Lin, Shan C; Francis, Brian A; Hodapp, Elizabeth; Jampel, Henry D; Smith, Scott D

    2011-11-01

    To provide an evidence-based summary of the outcomes, repeatability, and safety of laser trabeculoplasty for open-angle glaucoma. A search of the peer-reviewed literature in the PubMed and the Cochrane Library databases was conducted in June 2008 and was last repeated in March 2010 with no date or language restrictions. The search yielded 637 unique citations, of which 145 were considered to be of possible clinical relevance for further review and were included in the evidence analysis. Level I evidence indicates an acceptable long-term efficacy of initial argon laser trabeculoplasty for open-angle glaucoma compared with initial medical treatment. Among the remaining studies, level II evidence supports the efficacy of selective laser trabeculoplasty for lowering intraocular pressure for patients with open-angle glaucoma. Level III evidence supports the efficacy of repeat use of laser trabeculoplasty. Laser trabeculoplasty is successful in lowering intraocular pressure for patients with open-angle glaucoma. At this time, there is no literature establishing the superiority of any particular form of laser trabeculoplasty. The theories of action of laser trabeculoplasty are not elucidated fully. Further research into the differences among the lasers used in trabeculoplasty, the repeatability of the procedure, and techniques of treatment is necessary. Proprietary or commercial disclosure may be found after the references. Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Changing Concepts of Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma and Early Detection

    PubMed Central

    Battista, Renaldo N.; Huston, Patricia; Davis, M. William L.

    1986-01-01

    The understanding of primary open-angle glaucoma has changed over the past 20 years and recommendations on early detection are being revised. In this paper the use of Shiotz tonometry is critically examined, and the problems encountered in instituting alternative screening techniques are reviewed. ImagesFigure 3c PMID:21267099

  12. Impaired ocular blood flow regulation in patients with open-angle glaucoma and diabetes.

    PubMed

    Shoshani, Yochai; Harris, Alon; Shoja, Mohammadali M; Arieli, Yoel; Ehrlich, Rita; Primus, Sally; Ciulla, Thomas; Cantor, Adam; Wirostko, Barbara; Siesky, Brent A

    2012-01-01

      To elucidate the potential impact of diabetes mellitus on primary open-angle glaucoma pathology through vascular deficiency.   Cross-section analysis from a longitudinal, prospective study.   Eighty-four open-angle glaucoma patients (20 diabetic open-angle glaucoma patients and 64 non-diabetic open-angle glaucoma patients)   Patients were analyzed for ocular structure, ocular perfusion pressure (OPP), retrobulbar blood flow and retinal capillary perfusion. Statistical analysis was performed by SPSS version 18.0. Comparisons between groups were made as well as multivariate linear regression analysis.   Retrobulbar blood flow and the retinal microcirculation.   Central retinal artery peak systolic velocity was 13.5% lower in diabetic patients (P = 0.007). In diabetic open-angle glaucoma patients, ocular perfusion pressure positively correlated with central retinal artery and temporal posterior ciliary artery peak systolic velocity (R = 0.476, P = 0.039 and R = 0.529, P = 0.02, respectively), and with central retinal artery and nasal posterior ciliary artery resistance index (R = 0.537, P = 0.018 and R = 0.566, P = 0.012 respectively). Average retinal nerve fibre layer positively correlated with central retinal artery peak systolic velocity and temporal posterior ciliary artery end diastolic velocity (R = 0.501, P = 0.029 and R = 0.553, P = 0.019, respectively), and negatively correlated with superior and inferior retinal avascular space in the diabetic group (R = -0.498, P = 0.030 and R = -0.700, P = 0.001, respectively); no correlations were found in the non-diabetic group. Negative correlations between retrobulbar and retinal circulations were only found in the diabetic open-angle glaucoma patients, whereas positive correlations between retinal flow and non-flow were only found in non-diabetic open-angle glaucoma patients.   Diabetes may interfere with normal vascular regulation and

  13. Efficacy and Safety of Trabectome Surgery in Chinese Open-Angle Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jacky W.Y.; Yick, Doris W.F.; Tsang, Susanna; Yuen, Can Y.F.; Lai, Jimmy S.M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To investigate the clinical outcome of the Trabectome in Chinese open-angle glaucoma (OAG). This prospective case series recruited pseudophakic glaucoma subjects with open-angle configuration. Trabeculectomy ab interno was performed using the Trabectome to 120° of the trabecular meshwork. Intraocular pressure (IOP) and medications were recorded preoperatively and every 3 months postoperatively. Visual acuity was measured preoperatively and at 1 and 6 months postoperatively. One-way ANOVA with Tukey Multiple Comparison Test were used to measure the pre and postoperative parameters. In 19 eyes of 19 Chinese subjects, 26.3% were uveitic, 68.4% were primary open-angle glaucoma, and 5.3% had a history of chronic angle-closure glaucoma with open-angles after cataract extraction. The subjects’ mean age was 67.5 ± 14.4 years, with 4 females and 15 males. Two patients required secondary filtration procedure. At 6 months, the IOP reduced by 34.8% (24.4 ± 4.4 mm Hg to 15.9 ± 5.1 mm Hg, P < 0.0001). The number of types of antiglaucoma medications was reduced by 28.2% (3.9 ± 0.8–2.8 ± 1.6, P < 0.0001). The visual acuity was static at 1 and 6 months postoperatively (P = 0.4). There were no intraoperative complications. 26.3% of subjects had a transient IOP spike > 21 mm Hg, 1 had hyphema requiring washout, and 1 had reactivation of herpetic keratitis. The success rate at 6 months was 89.5%. Trabectome achieved a modest reduction in IOP and medications in the majority of pseudophakic Chinese OAG eyes. PMID:27082559

  14. The jet ski open-book pelvic fracture: diagnosis with multidetector CT.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Andy; Rhea, James T; Novelline, Robert A

    2003-10-01

    A 10-year-old girl sustained a traumatic open-book pelvic fracture from a straddle injury in a jet ski accident. Plain films and computed tomography both demonstrated diastasis of the symphysis pubis and bilateral widening of the sacroiliac joints. The open-book fracture resulted from the patient's striking the steering column of the watercraft during a deceleration accident. The unusual cause of this injury is of clinical interest because with increasing popularity of personal watercraft and changes in the design of these vehicles, the incidence and prevalence of this type of injury may increase in the future.

  15. Jets.

    PubMed

    Rhines, Peter B.

    1994-06-01

    This is a discussion of concentrated large-scale flows in planetary atmospheres and oceans, argued from the viewpoint of basic geophysical fluid dynamics. We give several elementary examples in which these flows form jets on rotating spheres. Jet formation occurs under a variety of circumstances: when flows driven by external stress have a rigid boundary which can balance the Coriolis force, and at which further concentration can be caused by the beta effect; when there are singular lines like the line of vanishing windstress or windstress-curl, or the Equator; when compact sources of momentum, heat or mass radiate jet-like beta plumes along latitude circles; when random external stirring of the fluid becomes organized by the beta effect into jets; when internal instability of the mass field generates zonal flow which then is concentrated into jets; when bottom topographic obstacles radiate jets, and when frontogenesis leads to shallow jet formation. Essential to the process of jet formation in stratified fluids is the baroclinic life cycle described in geostrophic turbulence studies; there, conversion from potential to kinetic energy generates eddy motions, and these convert to quasibarotropic motions which then radiate and induce jet-like large-scale circulation. Ideas of potential vorticity stirring by eddies generalize the notion of Rossby-wave radiation, showing how jets embedded in an ambient potential vorticity gradient (typically due to the spherical geometry of the rotating planet) gain eastward momentum while promoting broader, weaker westward circulation. Homogenization of potential vorticity is an important limit point, which many geophysical circulations achieve. This well-mixed state is found in subdomains of the terrestrial midlatitude oceans, the high-latitude circumpolar ocean, and episodically in the middle atmosphere. Homogenization expels potential vorticity gradients vertically to the top and bottom of the fluid, and sideways to the edges of

  16. Flow Field Characterization of an Angled Supersonic Jet Near a Bluff Body

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolter, John D.; Childs, Robert; Wernet, Mark P.; Shestopalov, Andrea; Melton, John E.

    2011-01-01

    An experiment was performed to acquire data from a hot supersonic jet in cross flow for the purpose of validating computational fluid dynamics (CFD) turbulence modeling relevant to the Orion Launch Abort System. Hot jet conditions were at the highest temperature and pressure that could be acquired in the test facility. The nozzle pressure ratio was 28.5, and the nozzle temperature ratio was 3. These conditions are different from those of the flight vehicle, but sufficiently high to model the observed turbulence features. Stereo Particle Image Velocimetry (SPIV) data and capsule pressure data are presented. Features of the flow field are presented and discussed

  17. Structure-function correlations using scanning laser polarimetry in primary angle-closure glaucoma and primary open-angle glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Lee, Pei-Jung; Liu, Catherine Jui-Ling; Wojciechowski, Robert; Bailey-Wilson, Joan E; Cheng, Ching-Yu

    2010-05-01

    To assess the correlations between retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness measured with scanning laser polarimetry and visual field (VF) sensitivity in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG). Prospective, comparative, observational cases series. Fifty patients with POAG and 56 patients with PACG were examined using scanning laser polarimetry with variable corneal compensation (GDx VCC; Laser Diagnostic Technologies, Inc.) and Humphrey VF analyzer (Carl Zeiss Meditec, Inc.) between August 2005 and July 2006 at Taipei Veterans General Hospital. Correlations between RNFL thickness and VF sensitivity, expressed as mean sensitivity in both decibel and 1/Lambert scales, were estimated by the Spearman rank correlation coefficient (r(s)) and multivariate median regression models (pseudo R(2)). The correlations were determined globally and for 6 RNFL sectors and their corresponding VF regions. The correlation between RNFL thickness and mean sensitivity (in decibels) was weaker in the PACG group (r(s) = 0.38; P = .004; pseudo R(2) = 0.17) than in the POAG group (r(s) = 0.51; P < .001; pseudo R(2) = .31), but the difference in the magnitude of correlation was not significant (P = .42). With Bonferroni correction, the structure-function correlation was significant in the superotemporal (r(s) = 0.62), superonasal (r(s) = 0.56), inferonasal (r(s) = 0.53), and inferotemporal (r(s) = 0.50) sectors in the POAG group (all P < .001), whereas it was significant only in the superotemporal (r(s) = 0.53) and inferotemporal (r(s) = 0.48) sectors in the PACG group (both P < .001). The results were similar when mean sensitivity was expressed as 1/Lambert scale. Both POAG and PACG eyes had moderate structure-function correlations using scanning laser polarimetry. Compared with eyes with POAG, fewer RNFL sectors have significant structure-function correlations in eyes with PACG. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Structure-Function Correlations using Scanning Laser Polarimetry in Primary Angle-Closure Glaucoma and Primary Open Angle Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Pei-Jung; Liu, Catherine Jui-Ling.; Wojciechowski, Robert; Bailey-Wilson, Joan E.; Cheng, Ching-Yu

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To assess the correlations between retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness measured with scanning laser polarimetry (SLP) and visual field (VF) sensitivity in primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) and primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG). Design Prospective, comparative, observational cases series Methods Fifty patients with POAG and 56 with PACG were examined using SLP with variable corneal compensation (GDx VCC) and Humphrey VF analyzer between August 2005 and July 2006 at Taipei Veterans General Hospital. Correlations between RNFL thickness and VF sensitivity, expressed as mean sensitivity (MS) in both decibel (dB) and 1/Lambert (L) scales, were estimated by Spearman's rank correlation coefficient (rs) and multivariate median regression models (pseudo R2). The correlations were determined globally and for six RNFL sectors and their corresponding VF regions. Results The correlation between RNFL thickness and MS (in dB) was weaker in the PACG group (rs = 0.38, P = 0.004, pseudo R2 = 0.17) than in the POAG group (rs = 0.51, P <0.001, pseudo R2 = 0.31), but the difference in the magnitude of correlation was not significant (P = 0.42).With Bonferroni correction, the structure-function correlation was significant in the superotemporal (rs = 0.62), superonasal (rs = 0.56), inferonasal (rs = 0.53), and inferotemporal (rs = 0.50) sectors in the POAG group (all P <0.001), while it was significant only in the superotemporal (rs = 0.53) and inferotemporal (rs = 0.48) sectors in the PACG group (both P <0.001). The results were similar when MS was expressed as 1/L scale. Conclusions Both POAG and PACG eyes had moderate structure-function correlations using SLP. Compared to eyes with POAG, fewer RNFL sectors have significant structure-function correlations in eyes with PACG. PMID:20202618

  19. Intraocular pressure fluctuation after water drinking test in primary angle-closure glaucoma and primary open-angle glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Poon, Yi-Chieh; Teng, Mei-Ching; Lin, Pei-Wen; Tsai, Jen-Chia; Lai, Ing-Chou

    2016-12-01

    Only a few studies have assessed intraocular pressure (IOP) changes during the water drinking test (WDT) in patients with primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG). The aim of this study is to investigate IOP changes during WDT in patients with PACG versus primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). This was a prospective and single tertiary center study. PACG and POAG patients (n = 15 each) without prior glaucoma surgery were enrolled and subjected to WDT, wherein they consumed an amount of water proportional to their body weight within 10 min. IOP was measured at baseline and every 15 min for 1 h after water intake. Intergroup comparisons were performed using Mann-Whitney U-test for continuous variables and Chi-square test for categorical variables. Wilcoxon signed-ranks test was used for comparisons of IOP before and after water intake in the two groups. Regression analysis was used to determine factors associated with IOP fluctuations during WDT. IOP changes over 1 h after water intake showed no significant differences between groups. The mean maximum fluctuation from baseline was 3.61 ± 2.49 and 3.79 ± 1.91 mmHg, respectively, in the PACG and POAG groups. The mean peak IOP was 19.17 ± 4.32 and 19.87 ± 3.44 mmHg in the PACG and PAOG groups, respectively. The axial length and anterior chamber depth showed no correlations with IOP fluctuations. We found similar IOP fluctuation curves and peak IOP values in both PACG and POAG patients subjected to WDT. These findings suggest that WDT is a useful test to induce IOP peaks in both POAG and PACG patients.

  20. Intraocular pressure fluctuation after water drinking test in primary angle-closure glaucoma and primary open-angle glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Poon, Yi-Chieh; Teng, Mei-Ching; Lin, Pei-Wen; Tsai, Jen-Chia; Lai, Ing-Chou

    2016-01-01

    Context: Only a few studies have assessed intraocular pressure (IOP) changes during the water drinking test (WDT) in patients with primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG). Aims: The aim of this study is to investigate IOP changes during WDT in patients with PACG versus primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). Settings and Design: This was a prospective and single tertiary center study. Materials and Methods: PACG and POAG patients (n = 15 each) without prior glaucoma surgery were enrolled and subjected to WDT, wherein they consumed an amount of water proportional to their body weight within 10 min. IOP was measured at baseline and every 15 min for 1 h after water intake. Statistical Analysis Used: Intergroup comparisons were performed using Mann–Whitney U-test for continuous variables and Chi-square test for categorical variables. Wilcoxon signed-ranks test was used for comparisons of IOP before and after water intake in the two groups. Regression analysis was used to determine factors associated with IOP fluctuations during WDT. Results: IOP changes over 1 h after water intake showed no significant differences between groups. The mean maximum fluctuation from baseline was 3.61 ± 2.49 and 3.79 ± 1.91 mmHg, respectively, in the PACG and POAG groups. The mean peak IOP was 19.17 ± 4.32 and 19.87 ± 3.44 mmHg in the PACG and PAOG groups, respectively. The axial length and anterior chamber depth showed no correlations with IOP fluctuations. Conclusions: We found similar IOP fluctuation curves and peak IOP values in both PACG and POAG patients subjected to WDT. These findings suggest that WDT is a useful test to induce IOP peaks in both POAG and PACG patients. PMID:28112134

  1. Evaluation of the Faraday angle by numerical methods and comparison with the Tore Supra and JET polarimeter electronics

    SciTech Connect

    Brault, C.; Gil, C.; Spuig, P.; Boboc, A.; Collaboration: JET-EFDA Contributors

    2011-04-15

    On the Tore Supra tokamak, a far infrared polarimeter diagnostic has been routinely used for diagnosing the current density by measuring the Faraday rotation angle. A high precision of measurement is needed to correctly reconstruct the current profile. To reach this precision, electronics used to compute the phase and the amplitude of the detected signals must have a good resilience to the noise in the measurement. In this article, the analogue card's response to the noise coming from the detectors and their impact on the Faraday angle measurements are analyzed, and we present numerical methods to calculate the phase and the amplitude. These validations have been done using real signals acquired by Tore Supra and JET experiments. These methods have been developed to be used in real-time in the future numerical cards that will replace the Tore Supra present analogue ones.

  2. Evaluation of the Faraday angle by numerical methods and comparison with the Tore Supra and JET polarimeter electronics.

    PubMed

    Brault, C; Gil, C; Boboc, A; Spuig, P

    2011-04-01

    On the Tore Supra tokamak, a far infrared polarimeter diagnostic has been routinely used for diagnosing the current density by measuring the Faraday rotation angle. A high precision of measurement is needed to correctly reconstruct the current profile. To reach this precision, electronics used to compute the phase and the amplitude of the detected signals must have a good resilience to the noise in the measurement. In this article, the analogue card's response to the noise coming from the detectors and their impact on the Faraday angle measurements are analyzed, and we present numerical methods to calculate the phase and the amplitude. These validations have been done using real signals acquired by Tore Supra and JET experiments. These methods have been developed to be used in real-time in the future numerical cards that will replace the Tore Supra present analogue ones.

  3. Investigation of Blade Angle of an Open Cross-Flow Runner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katayama, Yusuke; Iio, Shouichiro; Veerapun, Salisa; Uchiyama, Tomomi

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a nano-hydraulic turbine utilizing drop structure in irrigation channels or industrial waterways. This study was focused on an open-type cross-flow turbine without any attached equipment for cost reduction and easy maintenance. In this study, the authors used an artificial indoor waterfall as lab model. Test runner which is a simple structure of 20 circular arc-shaped blades sandwiched by two circular plates was used The optimum inlet blade angle and the relationship between the power performance and the flow rate approaching theoretically and experimentally were investigated. As a result, the optimum inlet blade angle due to the flow rate was changed. Additionally, allocation rate of power output in 1st stage and 2nd stage is changed by the blade inlet angle.

  4. Simplified analytical model for open-phase operating mode of thyristor-controlled phase angle regulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astashev, M. G.; Novikov, M. A.; Panfilov, D. I.; Rashitov, P. A.; Fedorova, M. I.

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, an approach to the development of a simplified analytical model for the analysis of electromagnetic processes of a thyristor-controlled phase angle regulator with an individual phase-controlled thyristor switch is considered. The analytical expressions for the calculation of electrical parameters in symmetrical and open-phase operating mode are obtained. With a concrete example, the verification of the developed analytical model is carried out. It is accomplished by means of comparison between current and voltage calculation results when the thyristor-controlled phase angle regulator is in an open-phase operating mode with the simulation results in the MatLab software environment. Adequacy check of the obtained analytical model is carried out by comparison between the analytical calculation and experimental data received from the actual physical model.

  5. New drugs and preparations for open-angle glaucoma in adults.

    PubMed

    2015-12-01

    Primary (or chronic) open-angle glaucoma (POAG or COAG) may be asymptomatic but causes progressive optic nerve damage with significant loss of visual field. Treatments aim to lower intraocular pressure (IOP) by reducing the production of aqueous humour and/or increasing its drainage. Here we update our previous articles to reflect new drugs, preservative-free preparations and fixed-dose drug combinations for POAG.

  6. Edge contact angle and modified Kelvin equation for condensation in open pores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malijevský, Alexandr; Parry, Andrew O.; Pospíšil, Martin

    2017-08-01

    We consider capillary condensation transitions occurring in open slits of width L and finite height H immersed in a reservoir of vapor. In this case the pressure at which condensation occurs is closer to saturation compared to that occurring in an infinite slit (H =∞ ) due to the presence of two menisci that are pinned near the open ends. Using macroscopic arguments, we derive a modified Kelvin equation for the pressure pc c(L ;H ) at which condensation occurs and show that the two menisci are characterized by an edge contact angle θe that is always larger than the equilibrium contact angle θ , only equal to it in the limit of macroscopic H . For walls that are completely wet (θ =0 ) the edge contact angle depends only on the aspect ratio of the capillary and is well described by θe≈√{π L /2 H } for large H . Similar results apply for condensation in cylindrical pores of finite length. We test these predictions against numerical results obtained using a microscopic density-functional model where the presence of an edge contact angle characterizing the shape of the menisci is clearly visible from the density profiles. Below the wetting temperature Tw we find very good agreement for slit pores of widths of just a few tens of molecular diameters, while above Tw the modified Kelvin equation only becomes accurate for much larger systems.

  7. Macular Thickness Variability in Primary Open Angle Glaucoma Patients using Optical Coherence Tomography.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Anjali; Agarwal, Prakashchand; Sathyan, P; Saini, V K

    2014-01-01

    To compare the difference of retinal macular thickness and macular volume using optical coherence tomography (OCT) in primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) patients with the normal subjects. This observational case control study included primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) patients (n = 124 eyes) and healthy subjects in the control group (n = 124 eyes). All subjects underwent detailed history, general and systemic exami -nation. Complete ocular examination included best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), slit lamp examination, intraocular pressure (IOP), central corneal thickness, gonioscopy, dilated fundus biomicroscopy. Field analysis was done by white on white Humphrey Field Analyzer (Carl Zeiss). Optical coherence tomography imaging of macular area was performed using Stratus OCT (OCT 3, Version 4, Carl Zeiss Inc, Dublin, California, USA). In both these groups, parameters analyzed were macular thickness, inner macular thicknesses (IMT), outer macular thicknesses (OMT), central macular thick ness (CMT) and total macular volume (TMV). The POAG group had significantly decreased values of TMV, OMT and IMT, compared to control group, while there was no difference in CMT, presumably due to absence of ganglion cells in the central part. Thus, macular thickness and volume parameters may be used for making the diagnosis of glaucoma especially in patients with abnormalities of disc. Macular thickness parameters correlated well with the diagnosis of glaucoma. How to cite this article: Sharma A, Agarwal P, Sathyan P, Saini VK. Macular Thickness Variability in Primary Open Angle Glaucoma Patients using Optical Coherence Tomography. J Current Glau Prac 2014;8(1):10-14.

  8. Refractory open-angle glaucoma after neodymium-yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser lysis of vitreous floaters.

    PubMed

    Cowan, Lisa A; Khine, Kay T; Chopra, Vikas; Fazio, Doreen T; Francis, Brian A

    2015-01-01

    To illustrate 3 cases of chronic open-angle glaucoma secondary to the neodymium-yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Nd:YAG) laser vitreolysis procedure for symptomatic vitreous floaters. Observational case series. Location of the study was the Doheny Eye Institute. Three eyes of 2 patients who developed chronic open-angle glaucoma after Nd:YAG vitreolysis for symptomatic floaters presenting with very high intraocular pressure (IOP >40 mm Hg) were selected. The time from the laser treatment to the onset of elevated pressure ranges from 1 week to 8 months. There was no associated inflammation, steroid use, or other identifiable cause of chronic IOP elevation. All eyes were treated initially with glaucoma medication, followed by selective laser trabeculoplasty (SLT) and eventually glaucoma surgery (Trabectome) in 2 eyes for disease management. In all eyes, intraocular pressures were eventually stabilized within a normal pressure range from 18 to 38 months following Nd:YAG vitreolysis. At the latest follow-up post surgery, all eyes had intraocular pressures of 22 mm Hg or less with or without medications. Secondary open-angle glaucoma is a complication of Nd:YAG vitreolysis for symptomatic floaters that may present with an increase in intraocular pressure immediately, or many months after the surgery. Furthermore this complication may be permanent and require chronic medical therapy or glaucoma surgery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The use of water-jet dissection in open and laparoscopic liver resection

    PubMed Central

    Duessel, A. P.; Wurzbacher, S.

    2008-01-01

    Background. We intend to give an overview of our experiences with the implementation of a new dissection technique in open and laparoscopic surgery. Methods. Our database comprises a total of 950 patients who underwent liver resection. Three hundred and fifty of them were performed exceptionally with the water-jet dissector. Forty-one laparoscopic partial liver resections were accomplished. Results. Using the water-jet dissection technique it was possible to reduce the blood loss, the Pringle- and resection time in comparison to CUSA® and blunt dissection. In the last five years we could reduce the Pringle-rate from 48 to 6% and the last 110 liver resections were performed without any Pringle's manoeuvre. At the same time, the transfusion-rate decreased from 1.86 to 0.46 EC/patient. In oncological resections, the used dissection technique had no influence on long-time survival. Conclusions. The water-jet dissection technique is fast, feasible, oncologically safe and can be used in open and in laparoscopic liver surgery. PMID:18773110

  10. The use of water-jet dissection in open and laparoscopic liver resection.

    PubMed

    Rau, H G; Duessel, A P; Wurzbacher, S

    2008-01-01

    We intend to give an overview of our experiences with the implementation of a new dissection technique in open and laparoscopic surgery. Our database comprises a total of 950 patients who underwent liver resection. Three hundred and fifty of them were performed exceptionally with the water-jet dissector. Forty-one laparoscopic partial liver resections were accomplished. Using the water-jet dissection technique it was possible to reduce the blood loss, the Pringle- and resection time in comparison to CUSA and blunt dissection. In the last five years we could reduce the Pringle-rate from 48 to 6% and the last 110 liver resections were performed without any Pringle's manoeuvre. At the same time, the transfusion-rate decreased from 1.86 to 0.46 EC/patient. In oncological resections, the used dissection technique had no influence on long-time survival. The water-jet dissection technique is fast, feasible, oncologically safe and can be used in open and in laparoscopic liver surgery.

  11. VLBI observations of J0253+3835: A right-angle bent jet quasar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krzyzewski, S. P.; Stockdale, C. J.; Homan, D.; Cowan, J. J.

    2005-12-01

    We present the results of a high-resolution radio observation of J0253+3835 at 18cm and 13cm using the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) in August 2003. First observed in September 1999 as a VLBA calibrator, an apparent 90 degree bend in the jet was observed. We present results regarding the proper motion, the spectral index structure, and the flux density evolution of the central engine and the jet structure. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc. SPK is an undergraduate at Marquette University. CJS and DH are Cottrell Scholars sponsored by Research Corporation. JJC is supported by NSF grant # AST-0307279.

  12. OVERFLOW Validation for Predicting Plume Impingement of Underexpanded Axisymmetric Jets onto Angled Flat Plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Henry C.; Klopfer, Goetz

    2011-01-01

    This report documents how OVERFLOW, a computational fluid dynamics code, predicts plume impingement of underexpanded axisymmetric jets onto both perpendicular and inclined flat plates. The effects of the plume impinging on a range of plate inclinations varying from 90deg to 30deg are investigated and compared to the experimental results in Reference 1 and 2. The flow fields are extremely complex due to the interaction between the shock waves from the free jet and those deflected by the plate. Additionally, complex mixing effects create very intricate structures in the flow. The experimental data is very limited, so these validation studies will focus only on cold plume impingement on flat and inclined plates. This validation study will help quantify the error in the OVERFLOW simulation when applied to stage separation scenarios.

  13. [Basic and clinical studies of pressure-independent damaging factors of open angle glaucoma].

    PubMed

    Araie, Makoto

    2011-03-01

    Pathogenesis of open-angle glaucoma involves both pressure-dependent damaging factors and pressure-independent damaging factors. The high prevalence of open-angle glaucoma with normal pressure (normal-tension glaucoma) in Japan implies that treatment of pressure-independent damaging factors in Japanese open-angle glaucoma patients is of importance. In an attempt to investigate the roles of pressure-independent damaging factors in open-angle glaucoma, we carried out basic and clinical studies and obtained the following results. 1. The rate of deterioration of visual field after trabeculectomy in normal tension glaucoma patients with post-operative intraocular pressure (IOP) of 10 mmHg was found to be -0.25 dB/year of mean deviation (MD), suggesting that contribution of pressure-independent damaging factors to the deterioration of MD in open-angle glaucoma is around -0.25 dB/year of mean deviation (MD). 2. Experiments using isolated purified cultured retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) indicated that calcium-channel blockers and some of antiglaucoma drugs showed neuroprotective effects on RGCs at concentrations of 0.01 microM or higher. 3. In mice, damage to RGCs resulted in secondary degeneration of neurons and activation of glial cells in the lateral geniculate nucleous (LGN) and superior colliculus, and these secondary changes in the central nervous system (CNS) due to RGC damage was partly ameliorated by systemic administration of memantine. 4. Mice experimental high IOP glaucoma models could be established using laser irradiation of the limbal area, and the usefulness of Tonolab in IOP measurements of mice eye was confirmed. 5. Monkey experimental high IOP glaucoma models revealed that in the glaucomatous optic nerve head vaso-constrictive reactions to an alpha-1 agonist was abolished, while vasodilative reaction to a prostaglandin FP receptor agonist was retained. 6. In monkeys with experimental high IOP glaucoma, secondary damage to neurons in the LGN and the glial

  14. Effect of collector configuration on test section turbulence levels in an open-jet wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manuel, G. S.; Molloy, John K.; Barna, P. Stephen

    1992-01-01

    Flow quality studies in the Langley 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel indicated periodic flow pulsation at discrete frequencies in the test section when the tunnel operated in an open-jet configuration. To alleviate this problem, experiments were conducted in a 1/24-scale model of the full-scale tunnel to evaluate the turbulence reduction potential of six collector configurations. As a result of these studies, the original bell-mouth collector of the 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel was replaced by a collector with straight walls, and a slot was incorporated between the trailing edge of the collector and the entrance of the diffuser.

  15. Open-Angle Glaucoma: Drug Development Pipeline during the Last 20 Years (1995-2015).

    PubMed

    Vicente, André; Prud'homme, Sylvie; Ferreira, Joana; Abegão Pinto, Luís; Stalmans, Ingeborg

    2017-01-01

    To analyse drug development for open-angle glaucoma during the last 20 years. Research was performed by referring to clinical trials registered at the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP). A search for the condition "open-angle glaucoma" with the intervention "drug" was performed. We included trials registered from 01/01/1995 to 01/01/2015, only involving studies in phases 1, 2, and 3. Only studies resorting to novel treatment strategies (either novel drugs or yet-untested fixed associations of approved medication) were considered. We recorded 158 studies for the condition of open-angle glaucoma with a drug-based intervention; 65 of the studies reported phase 2 trials and 74 reported phase 3 trials. Pharmaceutical companies were the primary sponsors of 95.3% of the trials. Most of the studies (66.5%, n = 105) involved a new drug, and the remainder (33.5%, n = 53) tested fixed drug associations. The bulk of the trials (n = 99, 62.7%) involved the use of prostaglandin analogues, either as a comparator or a study drug. In descending order of frequency, the studies conducted involved Rho-kinase inhibitors (n = 15), carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (n = 14), β-blockers (n = 7), angiostatic steroids (n = 6), α2-adrenergic agonists (n = 4), 5-HT2A receptor agonists (n = 4), and NMDA receptor antagonists (n = 2). A cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, an LIM-domain kinase 2 inhibitor, an A1 adenosine receptor agonist, catechin, macrolide, saffron, and seawater were each tested in 1 clinical trial. Research into the medical treatment of glaucoma indicates the use of prostaglandin analogues. However, there are a significant number of trials testing other drug classes, particularly Rho-kinase inhibitors. This new focus could lead to a potential increase in the number of therapeutical options for the management of glaucoma in the future. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Cosmic Ray Energy Determination by the Reduced-Opening Angle Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Arthur E.; Gregory, John C.

    1998-01-01

    Accurate measurement of the primary galactic cosmic ray species energy dependence in the regime beyond approx. 500 GeV/a is difficult due to the low flux and the limitations of energy measurement techniques. However, such observations are essential to resolve several questions of current interest such as: Is the enrichment of heavy species (Z greater that or equal to 6) cosmic rays first reported at higher energies by the proton satellite' and then later at lower energies real? The results from a previous deployment of the reduced opening angle technique are inconclusive but the authors do point to limitations in the previous techniques. Another intriguing puzzle is the energy dependence of silicon cosmic rays. Two independent experiments using different experimental techniques indicate that silicon is under-abundant. At present the observation is limited by statistics; it could still be a three sigma fluctuation. However, if confirmed the current models of acceleration and propagation which are species independent are seriously inadequate. To progress further the species and energy dependence must be accurately measured in a manner that is free from systematic uncertainty. In this report we show that the reduced opening angle method offers a simple and relatively inexpensive method to answer these questions. First we present the physics of the reduced opening angle and indicate the expected energy and charge resolution. The proposed detector design is then presented followed by the expected performance. Where ever possible simple phenomenological expressions that allow 'back of the envelope' estimates are given. More details are presented in the appendices. The limit of the energy resolution and the expected event rates for iron cosmic rays are calculated. Salient points are summarized in the conclusions.

  17. Pit-like changes of the optic nerve head in open-angle glaucoma.

    PubMed Central

    Radius, R. L.; Maumenee, A. E.; Green, W. R.

    1978-01-01

    Six patients with open-angle glaucoma and acquired pit-like changes in the optic nerve head are presented. In 1 patient evolution of the pit-like defect is documented. In all 6 patients progression of associated visual field deficits is described. It is suggested that such pit-like changes in selected patients with glaucoma may not represent congenital lesions but rather local, progressive nerve head disease, occurring particularly in response to raised intraocular pressure. The management of patients with optic nerve head pitting and the pathogenesis of glaucomatous optic neuropathy are discussed with respect to this observation. Images PMID:666988

  18. Jet maximization, axis minimization, and stable cone finding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thaler, Jesse

    2015-10-01

    Jet finding is a type of optimization problem, where hadrons from a high-energy collision event are grouped into jets based on a clustering criterion. As three interesting examples, one can form a jet cluster that (i) optimizes the overall jet four-vector, (ii) optimizes the jet axis, or (iii) aligns the jet axis with the jet four-vector. In this paper, we show that these three approaches to jet finding, despite being philosophically quite different, can be regarded as descendants of a mother optimization problem. For the special case of finding a single cone jet of fixed opening angle, the three approaches are genuinely identical when defined appropriately, and the result is a stable cone jet with the largest value of a quantity J . This relationship is only approximate for cone jets in the rapidity-azimuth plane, as used at the Large Hadron Collider, though the differences are mild for small radius jets.

  19. Measure of electron cyclotron emission at multiple angles in high T{sub e} plasmas of JET

    SciTech Connect

    Figini, L.; Garavaglia, S.; Farina, D.; Platania, P.; Simonetto, A.; Sozzi, C.; De La Luna, E.; Collaboration: JET-EFDA Contributors

    2010-10-15

    The oblique electron cyclotron emission (ECE) diagnostic installed at JET allows simultaneous analysis of the ECE spectra along three lines of sight (with toroidal angles of 0 deg., {approx}10 deg., and {approx}20 deg.) and two linear polarizations for each oblique line of sight. The diagnostic is capable of measuring EC emission over the band of 75-800 GHz with 5 ms time resolution and 7.5 GHz spectral resolution, and it is designed to investigate the features of ECE spectra related to electron distribution in the thermal velocity range. Instrumental accuracy was assessed using sources at different temperatures (77-900 K) and with plasma emission. ECE from high temperature plasmas and in the presence of fast ions has been compared to simulations performed with the modeling code SPECE, setting an upper limit to possible discrepancies from thermal emission.

  20. HIGH-EFFICIENCY PHOTOSPHERIC EMISSION OF LONG-DURATION GAMMA-RAY BURST JETS: THE EFFECT OF THE VIEWING ANGLE

    SciTech Connect

    Lazzati, Davide; Morsony, Brian J.; Begelman, Mitchell C.

    2011-05-01

    We present the results of a numerical investigation of the spectra and light curves of the emission from the photospheres of long-duration gamma-ray burst jets. We confirm that the photospheric emission has high efficiency and show that the efficiency increases slightly with the off-axis angle. We show that the peak frequency of the observed spectrum is proportional to the square root of the photosphere's luminosity, in agreement with the Amati relation. However, a quantitative comparison reveals that the thermal peak frequency is too small for the corresponding total luminosity. As a consequence, the radiation must be out of thermal equilibrium with the baryons in order to reproduce the observations. Finally, we show that the spectrum integrated over the emitting surface is virtually indistinguishable from a Planck law, and therefore an additional mechanism has to be identified to explain the non-thermal behavior of the observed spectra at both high and low frequencies.

  1. Effect of Wedge Insertion Angle on Posterior Tibial Slope in Medial Opening Wedge High Tibial Osteotomy

    PubMed Central

    Ogawa, Hiroyasu; Matsumoto, Kazu; Ogawa, Takahiro; Takeuchi, Kentaro; Akiyama, Haruhiko

    2016-01-01

    Background: Medial opening wedge high tibial osteotomy (HTO) is a well-established surgery for medial compartment knee osteoarthritis (OA) wherein the lower extremity is realigned to shift the load distribution from the medial compartment of the knee to the lateral compartment. However, this surgery is known to affect the posterior tibial slope angle (PTSA), which could lead to abnormal knee kinematics and instability, and eventually to knee OA. Although PTSA control is as important as coronal realignment, few appropriate measurements for this parameter have been reported. The placement of a wedge spacer might have an effect on PTSA. Purpose: To elucidate the relationship between the PTSA and the direction of insertion of a wedge spacer. Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: This study assessed 43 knees from 34 patients who underwent medial opening wedge HTO for knee OA. Pre- and postoperative lateral radiographs of the knee as well as postoperative computed tomography scans were performed to evaluate the relationship among PTSA, wedge insertion angle (WIA), and opening gap ratio (distance of the anterior opening gap/distance of the posterior opening gap at the osteotomy site). Results: The PTSA significantly increased from 9.0° ± 2.8° preoperatively to 13.2° ± 4.1° postoperatively (P < .001), resulting in a mean ΔPTSA of 4.7° ± 4.5°. The mean opening gap ratio was 0.86 ± 0.11, and the mean WIA was 25.9° ± 8.4°. The WIA and opening gap ratio were both highly correlated with ΔPTSA (r = 0.71 and 0.72, respectively), implying that a smaller WIA or smaller gap ratio leads to less increase in posterior slope. Conclusion: The direction of wedge insertion is highly correlated with PTSA increase, which suggests that the PTSA can be controlled for by adjusting the direction of wedge insertion during surgery. Clinical Relevance: Study results suggest that it is possible to adjust the PTSA by controlling the WIA during surgery. Proper

  2. Aeroacoustic Simulation of a Nose Landing Gear in an Open Jet Facility Using FUN3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vatsa, Veer N.; Lockhard, David P.; Khorrami, Mehdi R.; Carlson, Jan-Renee

    2012-01-01

    Numerical simulations have been performed for a partially-dressed, cavity-closed nose landing gear configuration that was tested in NASA Langley s closed-wall Basic Aerodynamic Research Tunnel (BART) and in the University of Florida s open-jet acoustic facility known as UFAFF. The unstructured-grid flow solver, FUN3D, developed at NASA Langley Research center is used to compute the unsteady flow field for this configuration. A hybrid Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes/large eddy simulation (RANS/LES) turbulence model is used for these computations. Time-averaged and instantaneous solutions compare favorably with the measured data. Unsteady flowfield data obtained from the FUN3D code are used as input to a Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings noise propagation code to compute the sound pressure levels at microphones placed in the farfield. Significant improvement in predicted noise levels is obtained when the flowfield data from the open jet UFAFF simulations is used as compared to the case using flowfield data from the closed-wall BART configuration.

  3. [The effect of crystalline lens extraction on intraocular pressure in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma].

    PubMed

    Macarie, S; Macarie, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    This issue presents the results of a study on patients with cataract and primary open angle glaucoma who suffered lens extraction for cataract. We analise the effects of the lens extraction on the level of intraocular pressure at this patients.

  4. iStent trabecular micro-bypass stent for open-angle glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Le, Kim; Saheb, Hady

    2014-01-01

    Trabecular micro-bypass stents, commonly known as iStents, are micro-invasive glaucoma surgery (MIGS) devices used to treat open-angle glaucoma. Like other MIGS procedures that enhance trabecular outflow, the iStent lowers intraocular pressure (IOP) by creating a direct channel between the anterior chamber and Schlemm’s canal. iStents are typically implanted at the time of phacoemulsification for patients with open-angle glaucoma and visually significant cataracts. This review summarizes the published data regarding the efficacy, safety, and cost considerations of trabecular micro-bypass stents. Most studies found statistically significant reductions in mean IOP and ocular medication use after combined phacoemulsification with single or double iStent implantation. The devices were found to be very safe, with a safety profile similar to that of cataract surgery. Complications were infrequent, with the most common complications being temporary stent obstruction or malposition, which resolved with observation or secondary procedures. Future studies are needed to evaluate long-term outcomes, patient satisfaction, cost effectiveness, and expanded indications. PMID:25284980

  5. Abnormal interhemispheric resting-state functional connectivity in primary open-angle glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Peng Zhou; Jieqiong Wang; Ting Li; Ningli Wang; Junfang Xian; Huiguang He

    2016-08-01

    Glaucoma is the second leading cause of blindness and it has been the topic of massive studies to explore the underlying mechanisms of the disease. Resting-state neuroimaging studies have been widely applied to investigate the functional damage of the brain, but little is known about the alterations of the interhemispheric resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). In the present study, we used a newly developed voxel-mirrored homotopic connectivity (VMHC) method to explore the interhemispheric RSFC of the brain in POAG patients. The result showed decreased VMHC in the precuneus and the occipital lobe including calcarine and cuneus, as well as increased VMHC in the lingual gyrus, insula, supramarginal gyrus, and frontal gyrus. Meanwhile, we found the mean VMHC in precuneus was negatively correlated (r=-0.551, P=0.041) with Cup-to-disk Ratio. Significant differences between POAG patients and normal controls reveal the altered brain regions and the functional damage, strengthening the understanding of the primary open-angle glaucoma.

  6. Novel Pharmacologic Candidates for Treatment of Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Louise J.; Tsai, James C.; Liu, Ji

    2017-01-01

    Primary open-angle glaucoma (OAG) affects approximately 45 million people worldwide and more than 2.5 million people aged 40 years or older in the United States. Pharmacologic treatment for glaucoma is directed towards lowering intraocular pressure (IOP) to slow disease progression and delay visual field loss. Current medical treatment options for the lowering of IOP include the following classes of topical medications: beta-adrenergic antagonists, alpha-adrenergic agonists, cholinergic agonists, carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, and prostaglandin analogs. Issues with existing drugs include failure to achieve target IOP with monotherapy, drug-related side effects, and low patient compliance with multiple daily administration of eye drops. In recent years, the scientific and medical community has seen encouraging development of novel classes of drugs for primary OAG, the majority of which lower IOP by targeting the trabecular meshwork outflow pathway to increase aqueous humor outflow. Among the most promising new pharmacologic candidates are rho kinase inhibitors including ripasudil (K-115), netarsudil (AR-13324), and AMA0076; adenosine receptor agonists including trabodenoson (INO-8875); and modified prostaglandin analogs including latanoprostene bunod (LBN, BOL-303259-X) and ONO-9054. This study aims to systematically review and summarize the most recent developments in clinical trials for new pharmacologic options for the treatment of primary open-angle glaucoma. PMID:28356898

  7. Is nail fold capillaroscopy useful in normotensive and primary open angle glaucoma? A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Božić, Marija; Senćanić, Paraskeva-Hentova; Spahić, Goran; Kontić, Dorđe; Marković, Vujica; Marjanović, Ivan; Stojkovic, Milenko; Dorđević-Jocić, Jasmina

    2010-12-01

    Vascular dysregulation is deemed a significant risk factor in glaucoma occurrence and progression. Capillaroscopy of the blood vessels on the finger nail-fold is a method that can provide information regarding the state of the vascular system at the capillary level. The aim of this pilot study was to determine whether there are significant differences in the morphological characteristics of the peripheral blood vessels in normotensive glaucoma and primary open angle glaucoma. An ophthalmological and capillaroscopic examination was conducted on 30 normotensive glaucoma patients and 30 primary open angle glaucoma patients. The capillaroscopic characteristics described were as follows: capillary row density, capillary diameter, number of spirally formed capillaries, permeability of the loop, and loop resistance. Statistically, significantly more intensively spiraled capillaries were found in normotensive glaucoma patients (χ(2) test, p < 0.05). Results confirm the thesis that vascular factors play a significant role in the pathogenesis of the glaucoma, especially in cases where the level of intraocular pressure cannot be deemed responsible for the present damage of the optical nerve. Despite the newer, technologically more developed methods for diagnostics and monitoring glaucoma, it is often not easy to establish the right diagnosis and determine further the course of the illness, since the role the intraocular pressure (IOP) plays compared to the role of vascular factors is unknown; hence, capillaroscopy as a complementary diagnostic procedure can be of help.

  8. Question on clinical efficiency and principles of diode laser radiation activity at a primary open-angle glaucoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolshunov, A. V.; Litvinova, G. G.; Ilyina, O. S.; Easakiva, A. L.; Fyodorov, A. A.; Poleva, R. P.

    1999-07-01

    The efficiency of a diode laser with a wavelength 0,81 microns in treatment of an open-angle glaucoma is investigated. The diode LTP is a pathogenesis oriented method of treatment of an open angle glaucoma: it gives in improvement of outflow of an intraocular fluid, stabilization and improvement of visual functions for patients with initial and developed stages of disease at term of observation up to 12 months.

  9. Latanoprost for open-angle glaucoma (UKGTS): a randomised, multicentre, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Garway-Heath, David F; Crabb, David P; Bunce, Catey; Lascaratos, Gerassimos; Amalfitano, Francesca; Anand, Nitin; Azuara-Blanco, Augusto; Bourne, Rupert R; Broadway, David C; Cunliffe, Ian A; Diamond, Jeremy P; Fraser, Scott G; Ho, Tuan A; Martin, Keith R; McNaught, Andrew I; Negi, Anil; Patel, Krishna; Russell, Richard A; Shah, Ameet; Spry, Paul G; Suzuki, Katsuyoshi; White, Edward T; Wormald, Richard P; Xing, Wen; Zeyen, Thierry G

    2015-04-04

    Treatments for open-angle glaucoma aim to prevent vision loss through lowering of intraocular pressure, but to our knowledge no placebo-controlled trials have assessed visual function preservation, and the observation periods of previous (unmasked) trials have typically been at least 5 years. We assessed vision preservation in patients given latanoprost compared with those given placebo. In this randomised, triple-masked, placebo-controlled trial, we enrolled patients with newly diagnosed open-angle glaucoma at ten UK centres (tertiary referral centres, teaching hospitals, and district general hospitals). Eligible patients were randomly allocated (1:1) with a website-generated randomisation schedule, stratified by centre and with a permuted block design, to receive either latanoprost 0·005% (intervention group) or placebo (control group) eye drops. Drops were administered from identical bottles, once a day, to both eyes. The primary outcome was time to visual field deterioration within 24 months. Analyses were done in all individuals with follow-up data. The Data and Safety Monitoring Committee (DSMC) recommended stopping the trial on Jan 6, 2011 (last patient visit July, 2011), after an interim analysis, and suggested a change in primary outcome from the difference in proportions of patients with incident progression between groups to time to visual field deterioration within 24 months. This trial is registered, number ISRCTN96423140. We enrolled 516 individuals between Dec 1, 2006, and March 16, 2010. Baseline mean intraocular pressure was 19·6 mm Hg (SD 4·6) in 258 patients in the latanoprost group and 20·1 mm Hg (4·8) in 258 controls. At 24 months, mean reduction in intraocular pressure was 3·8 mm Hg (4·0) in 231 patients assessed in the latanoprost group and 0·9 mm Hg (3·8) in 230 patients assessed in the placebo group. Visual field preservation was significantly longer in the latanoprost group than in the placebo group: adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 0

  10. A study of the discharge coefficient of jets from angled slots and conical orifices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linfield, Kevin William

    2000-10-01

    Non-ideal flows through angled orifices occur often in engineering applications such as mass flow meters, blast-wave simulators, gas propulsion devices and projectile launchers. For such flows, a correction factor in the form of a discharge coefficient is required to facilitate good design and efficient operation. The discharge coefficient depends on many parameters including atmospheric to stagnation pressure ratio, gas specific heat ratio, exit to channel area ratio, orifice shape, wall angle and orifice edge rounding. The dependence on these parameters (except edge rounding) was studied numerically by developing a two-dimensional finite-difference computer program that solves the subsonic flowfield in the hodograph plane by a relaxation method and the attached supersonic flowfield, if present, in the physical plane by a method of characteristics, joined together at the sonic surface by matching stream function values. The discharge coefficient was also studied experimentally by developing and testing an experimental facility using a new technique based on the partial blowdown of a pressurized vessel through a short pipe ending with conical orifices of different area ratios, wall angles and orifice edge roundings. Numerical and experimental data from these studies and also from the literature are compared and discussed. A software package called the " Cd Algorithm" was developed to reproduce quickly the combined numerical and experimental discharge coefficients for the entire set of parameters, and it outperforms previous algorithms in accuracy, efficiency and comprehensiveness. This Cd Algorithm uses analytical, numerical and experimental results at the limits for incompressible, critical and choked flows, and other Cd values between these limits are reproduced by using piecewise cubic polynomial splines.

  11. Linear theory of boundary effects in open wind tunnels with finite jet lengths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katzoff, S; Gardner, Clifford S; Diesendruck, Leo; Eisenstadt, Bertram J

    1950-01-01

    In the first part, the boundary conditions for an open wind tunnel (incompressible flow) are examined with special reference to the effects of the closed entrance and exit sections. Basic conditions are that the velocity must be continuous at the entrance lip and that the velocities in the upstream and downstream closed portions must be equal. In the second part, solutions are derived for four types of two-dimensional open tunnels, including one in which the pressures on the two free surfaces are not equal. Numerical results are given for every case. In general, if the lifting element is more than half the tunnel height from the inlet, the boundary effect at the lifting element is the same as for an infinitely long open tunnel. In the third part, a general method is given for calculating the boundary effect in an open circular wind tunnel of finite jet length. Numerical results are given for a lifting element concentrate at a point on the axis.

  12. High-energy-density electron jet generation from an opening gold cone filled with near-critical-density plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, T. P. Shao, F. Q.; Zou, D. B.; Ge, Z. Y.; Zhang, G. B.; Wang, W. Q.; Li, X. H.; Liu, J. X.; Ouyang, J. M.; Yu, W.; Luan, S. X.; Wang, J. W.; Wong, A. Y.

    2015-01-14

    By using two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations, we propose a scheme for strong coupling of a petawatt laser with an opening gold cone filled with near-critical-density plasmas. When relevant parameters are properly chosen, most laser energy can be fully deposited inside the cone with only 10% leaving the tip opening. Due to the asymmetric ponderomotive acceleration by the strongly decayed laser pulse, high-energy-density electrons with net laser energy gain are accumulated inside the cone, which then stream out of the tip opening continuously, like a jet. The jet electrons are fully relativistic, with speeds around 0.98−0.998 c and densities at 10{sup 20}/cm{sup 3} level. The jet can keep for a long time over 200 fs, which may have diverse applications in practice.

  13. Relativistic Jets and Collapsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, W.; Woosley, S. E.

    2001-05-01

    In order to study the relativistic jets from collapsars, we have developed a special relativistic multiple-dimensional hydrodynamics code similar to the GENESIS code (Aloy et al., ApJS, 122, 151). The code is based on the PPM interpolation algorithm and Marquina's Riemann solver. Using this code, we have simulated the propagation of axisymmetric jets along the rotational axis of collapsed rotating stars (collapsars). Using the progenitors of MacFadyen, Woosley, and Heger, a relativistic jet is injected at a given inner boundary radius. This radius, the opening angle of the jet, its Lorentz factor, and its total energy are parameters of the problem. A highly collimated, relativistic outflow is observed at the surface of the star several seconds later. We will discuss the hydrodynamical focusing of the jet, it's break out properties, time evolution, and sensitivity to the adopted parameters.

  14. Shorter Scleral Spur in Eyes With Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Swain, David L.; Ho, Joseph; Lai, Julia; Gong, Haiyan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. We determined whether the scleral spur is shorter in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) eyes compared to age-matched normal eyes and whether the collapse of Schlemm's canal (SC) is more prevalent in eyes with a shorter scleral spur. Methods. The anterior segments of normal (n = 20) and POAG eyes (n = 20) were fixed and processed for light microscopy. The scleral spur length, ratio of posterior trabecular meshwork (TM) insertion into the scleral spur to the posterior TM height, and the percentage of SC collapse were measured. Analysis using an existing mathematical model was conducted to estimate the distances that the scleral spur theoretically would move in vivo and to determine if these distances would be sufficient to keep SC open in POAG compared to normal eyes. Results. The mean scleral spur length was significantly shorter in POAG eyes compared to normal eyes (P < 0.0001). A higher mean percentage of SC collapse was found in POAG eyes than in normal eyes (P < 0.0001). Estimated posterior movement of scleral spur in POAG eyes was less than sufficient to prevent the collapse of SC. A significant negative correlation was found between the posterior scleral spur movement and percent collapse of SC (P < 0.0001). Conclusions. A shorter scleral spur found in POAG eyes was associated with a higher percent of SC collapse. Our data suggest that a shorter scleral spur may be a risk factor in the development of POAG by being insufficient to hold SC open. PMID:25670488

  15. Technique of goniocurettage: a potential treatment for advanced chronic open angle glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Jacobi, P.; Dietlein, T.; Krieglstein, G.

    1997-01-01

    AIM—To introduce a new concept of anterior chamber angle microsurgery, designed to scrape pathologically altered trabecular meshwork from the scleral sulcus as a potential treatment in primary open angle glaucoma.
METHODS—Gonioscopically controlled ab interno abrasion of the trabecular meshwork was performed on six human eye banking eyes for morphological analysis. Thereafter, four eyes suffering from terminal glaucomatous optic nerve atrophy as a result of medically uncontrolled intraocular pressure were also treated by `goniocurettage'. The newly designed instrument resembles a modified cyclodialysis spatula with a bowl-shaped tip, 300 µm in diameter, and with its edges sharpened. The treatment zone comprised 4-5 clock hours of the chamber angle circumference.
RESULTS—Microscopic examination of the treatment zone revealed that in addition to a complete disruption of the trabecular meshwork and internal wall of Schlemm's canal goniocurettage also caused damage to intracanalicular septa. A splitting along the posterior wall of Schlemm's canal was also noted in one specimen. The clinical data of goniocurettage also showed some promising results. Mean pretreatment IOP averaged 40.7 (SD 8.8) mm Hg (range 32-51 mm Hg) and was significantly (p<0.04) reduced to 18.0 (4.2) mm Hg (12-22 mm Hg) after 6 months, representing an absolute decrease in IOP of 22.7 mm Hg and a mean decrease in IOP of 56%. Clinically significant hyphaema occurred in one eye, caused by iatrogenic trauma to a prominent chamber angle vessel. In three eyes a minor reflux of blood occurred at the treatment site. However, no hypotony, choroidal effusion, flattened anterior chamber, or cyclodialysis were observed in these patients.
CONCLUSION—Morphological analysis of treated postmortem eyes confirmed that goniocurettage completely removed the trabecular meshwork and opened Schlemm's canal, ensuring direct access into the anterior chamber. In a small number of patients over a limited

  16. Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and the Risk of Open-angle Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Chopra, Vikas; Varma, Rohit; Francis, Brian A.; Wu, Joanne; Torres, Mina; Azen, Stanley P.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To examine the relationship between type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and the risk of having open-angle glaucoma (OAG) in an adult Latino population. Design Population-based cross-sectional study. Participants Latinos 40 years and older (n = 5894) from 6 census tracts in Los Angeles, California. Methods Participants from the Los Angeles Latino Eye Study (LALES), a large population-based study of self-identified adult Latinos, answered an interviewer-administered questionnaire and underwent a clinical and complete ocular examination, including visual field (VF) testing and stereo fundus photography. A participant was defined as having diabetes mellitus (DM) if she or he had a history of being treated for DM, the participant’s glycosylated hemoglobin was measured at 7.0% or higher, or the participant had random blood glucose of 200 mg% or higher. Type 2 DM was defined if the participant was 30 years or older when diagnosed with DM. Open-angle glaucoma was defined as the presence of an open angle and a glaucomatous VF abnormality and/or evidence of glaucomatous optic disc damage in at least one eye. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify the risk of having OAG in persons with T2DM. Main Outcome Measure Prevalence of OAG. Results Of the 5894 participants with complete data, 1157 (19.6%) had T2DM and 288 (4.9%) had OAG. The prevalence of OAG was 40% higher in participants with T2DM than in those without T2DM (age/gender/intraocular pressure–adjusted odds ratio, 1.4; 95% confidence interval, 1.03–1.8; P = 0.03). Trend analysis revealed that a longer duration of T2DM (stratified into 5-year increments) was associated with a higher prevalence of OAG (P<0.0001). Conclusion The presence of T2DM and a longer duration of T2DM were independently associated with a higher risk of having OAG in the LALES cohort. The high prevalences of T2DM and OAG and their association in this fastest growing segment of the United States population have significant

  17. Adherence to treatment in patients with open-angle glaucoma and its related factors

    PubMed Central

    Movahedinejad, Tayebeh; Adib-Hajbaghery, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Lack of adherence to medical treatments typically lead to burdensome consequences such as progressive visual impairment, blindness, and disabilities. This study aimed to determine the adherence to medication in patients with open-angle glaucoma and related factors in patients referred to the Matini Ophthalmology Hospital in Kashan, Iran. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted from 23 July 2015 to 20 January 2016 on all patients with open-angle glaucoma referred to the Matini Ophthalmology Hospital in Kashan, Iran. A questionnaire was used to gather data about patients’ demographics and factors affecting adherence to medical treatments. The Morisky Medication Adherence Scale was used to evaluate the adherence to glaucoma medication. Results were analyzed using SPSS version 13. Descriptive statistics, chi-square, and logistic regression analysis were used. Results In total, 130 patients with a mean age of 55.36 ± 15.54 were studied. Only 34.6% of patients completely adhered to glaucoma medications. The chi-square test showed that age (p=0.007), education (p=0.01), life entourage (p=0.04), place of residence (p=0.06), average monthly income (p=0.005), the interval between medical visits (p=0.007), problem in scheduling the medical visits (p<0.001), number of medications (p<0.001), lifelong using and side-effects of medications (p<0.001), answers of the physician to the patient’s questions (p<0.001), financial and traveling problems (p<0.001), lack of skill in using eye drops (p<0.001), lack of awareness of glaucoma complications and symptoms (p<0.001), forgetting, fatigue, impatience, believing in uselessness of medications, and lack of support from family (p<0.001) were associated with patients’ adherence. Logistic regression showed that 89% of variance of patients’ adherence to glaucoma medications can be predicted by seven factors: problems in traveling and scheduling medical visits, the large number and side effects of medications

  18. Interaction of a wall jet with wake behind a bluff body in an open channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singha, Arindam; Balachandar, Ram

    2009-11-01

    Junction flow around a bluff body mounted in bed has been the subject of investigation for decades because of the unique phenomenon associated with the generation and dynamics of the horseshoe vortices. However, a more interesting flow could be the case where a small bleed flow in the form of a wall jet is allowed to pass beneath the bluff body and let interact with the horseshoe vortex. If this flow is strong, it can completely detoriates the effect of the horseshoe vortex and may result into a complex three-dimensional flow. To explore the characteristics of this kind of flow a sharp-edged bluff body was mounted in an open channel flow of nominal flow depth of 100 mm. Three flow configurations were examined: a) the body was mounted firmly on the floor, b) the body was lifted 5 mm from the bed and c) the body was lifted 10 mm from the bed. Particle image velocimetry measurement was performed at three horizontal planes, at y/H = 0.10, 0.50 and 0.80, respectively, where H is the nominal depth of flow. Time-averaged flow parameters were examined at selected streamwise locations at different vertical elevations to examine the effect of wall jet to change the characteristics of the wake.

  19. Mapping a gene for adult-onset primary open-angle glaucoma to chromosome 3q

    SciTech Connect

    Wirtz, M.K.; Samples, J.R.; Kramer, P.L.

    1997-02-01

    Glaucoma is the third-leading cause of blindness in the world, affecting >13.5 million people. Adult-on-set primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) is the most common form of glaucoma in the United States. We present a family in which adult-onset POAG is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait. Twelve affected family members were identified from 44 at-risk individuals. The disease-causing gene was mapped to chromosome 3q21-24, with analysis of recombinant haplotypes suggesting a total inclusion region of 11.1 cM between markers D3S3637 and D3S1744. This is the first report of mapping of an adult-onset POAG gene to chromosome 3q, gene symbol GLC1C. 57 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Bilateral juvenile onset primary open-angle glaucoma among keratoconus patients.

    PubMed

    Goel, Sahil; Ganger, Anita; Gupta, Viney

    2015-01-01

    To report the occurrence of juvenile open-angle glaucoma (JOAG) in patients with keratoconus. In this observational case series we report 6 eyes of 3 patients with keratoconus who had concomitant JOAG. Corneal topography, intraocular pressure, gonioscopic, and fundus findings were recorded for all the eyes. All 3 patients presented with corneal ectasia, high intraocular pressure, and advanced glaucomatous damage and had no family history of glaucoma or keratoconus. Two of the 3 patients needed collagen cross-linking with riboflavin for progression of keratoconus and trabeculectomy for control of intraocular pressure. One of the patients also underwent a lamellar keratoplasty for keratoconus. This is the first case series pointing toward a possible association of JOAG with keratoconus and highlights the importance of a thorough workup of glaucoma in patients with keratoconus.

  1. Effect of betaxolol on primary open-angle glaucoma and normal-tension glaucoma patients.

    PubMed

    Saccà, S C; Macrì, A; Rolando, M; Ciurlo, G

    1998-06-01

    This study is aimed at establishing the efficacy of the therapeutic agent, betaxolol, in diurnal control of IOP (intraocular pressure). Therapy was performed on 32 eyes affected by POAG (primary open-angle glaucoma) and 16 eyes affected by NTG (normal-tension glaucoma). Two preparations of betaxolol were utilized: betaxolol hydrochloride 0.50% (Betoptic) was administered to 15 POAG and 7 NTG eyes; betaxolol hydrochloride 0.25% ophthalmic suspension (Betoptic S) was administered to 17 POAG and 9 NTG eyes. IOP measurements were taken every two hours from 8 a.m. to 8 p.m. IOP was measured before therapy and at 12 hours, 30 days, and 3 months of therapy. Betaxolol hydrochloride 0.50% was more effective at lowering IOP during the day. Diurnal pressure peaks, which are a risk factor concerning the maintenance of visual field in glaucoma patients, were also reduced using 0.50% betaxolol hydrochloride.

  2. A Relationship Between Constraint and the Critical Crack Tip Opening Angle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, William M.; James, Mark A.

    2009-01-01

    Of the various approaches used to model and predict fracture, the Crack Tip Opening Angle (CTOA) fracture criterion has been successfully used for a wide range of two-dimensional thin-sheet and thin plate applications. As thicker structure is considered, modeling the full three-dimensional fracture process will become essential. This paper investigates relationships between the local CTOA evaluated along a three-dimensional crack front and the corresponding local constraint. Previously reported tunneling crack front shapes were measured during fracture by pausing each test and fatigue cycling the specimens to mark the crack surface. Finite element analyses were run to model the tunneling shape during fracture, with the analysis loading conditions duplicating those tests. The results show an inverse relationship between the critical fracture value and constraint which is valid both before maximum load and after maximum load.

  3. Mapping a gene for adult-onset primary open-angle glaucoma to chromosome 3q.

    PubMed Central

    Wirtz, M K; Samples, J R; Kramer, P L; Rust, K; Topinka, J R; Yount, J; Koler, R D; Acott, T S

    1997-01-01

    Glaucoma is the third-leading cause of blindness in the world, affecting >13.5 million people. Adult-onset primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) is the most common form of glaucoma in the United States. We present a family in which adult-onset POAG is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait. Twelve affected family members were identified from 44 at-risk individuals. The disease-causing gene was mapped to chromosome 3q21-24, with analysis of recombinant haplotypes suggesting a total inclusion region of 11.1 cM between markers D3S3637 and D3S1744. This is the first report of mapping of an adult-onset POAG gene to chromosome 3q, gene symbol GLC1C. PMID:9012402

  4. A comparison of betaxolol and timolol in open angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension.

    PubMed

    Feghali, J G; Kaufman, P L; Radius, R L; Mandell, A I

    1988-04-01

    In a randomized, double-masked study, 41 patients with primary open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension were treated with betaxolol 0.5% or timolol 0.5% drops for 26 weeks. The average decrease in intraocular pressure (IOP) over the total study period was significant with both betaxolol (-6.3 mmHg) and timolol (-7.2 mmHg) in patients receiving no adjunctive therapy. There was no difference between betaxolol and timolol with respect to changes from baseline IOP. Significantly decreased mean brachial arterial pressure (MAP) was seen only with timolol, although the difference between the two groups was not significant. Pulse, pupil size, and basal tear secretion were unchanged in both groups. Burning upon instillation of the drops was more frequent with betaxolol.

  5. Molecular biomarkers in primary open-angle glaucoma: from noninvasive to invasive.

    PubMed

    Agnifili, Luca; Pieragostino, Damiana; Mastropasqua, Alessandra; Fasanella, Vincenzo; Brescia, Lorenza; Tosi, Gian Marco; Sacchetta, Paolo; Mastropasqua, Leonardo

    2015-01-01

    Glaucoma, the first cause of irreversible blindness worldwide, is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by the progressive loss of retinal ganglion cells. There are different subtypes of glaucoma, all expression of a common optic neuropathy; primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) is the most diffuse subtype in western countries. To date, unfortunately, several questions still remain unsolved in the glaucoma management, such as the availability of powerful methods for screening high-risk populations, early diagnosis, timely detection of damage progression, and prediction of response to therapy. Over the last years, biomarkers have gained immense scientific and clinical interest to solve these issues, with countless molecules that have been candidate as potential biomarkers. In the present review, we summarize the current knowledge about the most robust molecular biomarkers proposed in POAG, distinguishing noninvasive from minimally invasive, and invasive biomarkers, according to the procedure adopted to collect fluid samples.

  6. Modern Concepts of the Diagnosis and Treatment of Chronic Open-Angle Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Mikelberg, Frederick S.

    1986-01-01

    Chronic open-angle glaucoma is an important cause of blindness in North America. It consists of the triad of elevated intraocular pressure, pathological cupping of the optic nerve head, and visual field loss. Sophisticated techniques have been developed to determine more accurately the health of the optic nerve head and the status of the visual field. Therapy is aimed at lowering intraocular pressure. This includes topical and systemic therapy followed by laser therapy if necessary. Surgery is indicated if laser and medical treatment fail. The family practitioner has an important role to play in screening individuals to detect this disease. The family practitioner should be aware of the systemic and topical side effects of anti-glaucoma medications. ImagesFigure 1Figure 3 PMID:21267101

  7. Visual impairment in an optineurin mouse model of primary open-angle glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Henry C; Riday, Thorfinn T; McKee, Celia; Braine, Catherine E; Bomze, Howard; Barak, Ian; Marean-Reardon, Carrie; John, Simon W M; Philpot, Benjamin D; Ehlers, Michael D

    2015-06-01

    Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) is characterized by progressive neurodegeneration of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Why RGCs degenerate in low-pressure POAG remains poorly understood. To gain mechanistic insights, we developed a novel mouse model based on a mutation in human optineurin associated with hereditary, low-pressure POAG. This mouse improves the design and phenotype of currently available optineurin mice, which showed high global overexpression. Although both 18-month-old optineurin and nontransgenic control mice showed an age-related decrease in healthy axons and RGCs, the expression of mutant optineurin enhanced axonal degeneration and decreased RGC survival. Mouse visual function was determined using visual evoked potentials, which revealed specific visual impairment in contrast sensitivity. The E50K optineurin transgenic mouse described here exhibited clinical features of POAG and may be useful for mechanistic dissection of POAG and therapeutic development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. CRACK TIP OPENING DISPLACEMENT AND ANGLE FOR A GROWING CRACK IN CARBON STEEL

    SciTech Connect

    LAM, POH-SANG

    2005-01-18

    The crack tip opening displacements and angles (CTOD/CTOA) are calculated with finite element method based on the test data of a set of constraint-dependent J-R curves for A285 carbon steel. The values of the CTOD/CTOA are initially high at initiation, but rapidly decrease to a nearly constant value. When the common practice is adopted by using only the constant part of CTOD/CTOA as the fracture criterion, the crack growth behavior is shown to be severely underestimated. However, with a bilinear form of CTOD/CTOA fracture criterion which approximates the initial non-constant portion, the experimental load vs. crack extension curves can be closely predicted. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that the CTOD/CTOA is crack tip constraint dependent. The values of CTOD/CTOA for specimens with various ratios of crack length to specimen width (a/W) are reflected by the J-R curves and their slopes.

  9. Genes, pathways, and animal models in primary open-angle glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Iglesias, A I; Springelkamp, H; Ramdas, W D; Klaver, C C W; Willemsen, R; van Duijn, C M

    2015-01-01

    Glaucoma is an optic neuropathy characterized by loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and consequently visual field loss. It is a complex and heterogeneous disease in which both environmental and genetic factors play a role. With the advent of genome-wide association studies (GWASs), the number of loci associated with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) have increased greatly. There has also been major progress in understanding the genes determining the vertical cup–disc ratio (VCDR), disc area (DA), cup area (CA), intraocular pressure (IOP), and central corneal thickness (CCT). In this review, we will update and summarize the genetic loci associated so far with POAG, VCDR, DA, CA, IOP, and CCT. We will describe the pathways revealed and supported by genetic association studies, integrating current knowledge from human and experimental data. Finally, we will discuss approaches for functional genomics and clinical translation. PMID:26315706

  10. MYOCILIN LEVELS IN PRIMARY OPEN-ANGLE GLAUCOMA AND PSEUDOEXFOLIATION GLAUCOMA HUMAN AQUEOUS HUMOR

    PubMed Central

    Howell, Kyle G.; Vrabel, Anne M.; Chowdhury, Uttio Roy; Stamer, W. Daniel; Fautsch, Michael P.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To determine the concentration of myocilin in primary open-angle and pseudoexfoliation glaucoma aqueous humor. Methods Aqueous humor was collected during surgery from patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), pseudoexfoliation glaucoma (PEXG), and elective cataract removal (control). Volume-equivalent aqueous samples were separated on SDS-PAGE gradient gels. Quantification of myocilin levels was performed using Western blots probed with two independent N-terminal polyclonal anti-myocilin antibodies (AB1 and AB2) followed by densitometry. Myocilin levels in aqueous humor were quantified by plotting the densitometry readings of the aqueous samples against a recombinant myocilin standard curve. Total protein concentration was determined by Bradford protein assay. Transforming growth factor beta 2 (TGFβ2) levels were assessed by ELISA. Results Myocilin levels are significantly elevated in human POAG aqueous humor when compared to control aqueous humor (AB1: 0.66 ± 0.53 ng/μl vs. 0.23 ± 0.20 ng/μl, p<0.001; AB2: 0.98 ± 0.59 ng/μl vs. 0.65 ± 0.5 ng/μl, p<0.03; mean ± SD). Myocilin makes up a larger percent of the total protein in POAG aqueous humor compared to control aqueous (AB1: 0.26 ± 0.20% vs. 0.10 ± 0.20%, p<0.001; AB2: 0.43 ± 0.32% vs. 0.28 ± 0.18%, p<0.05). In contrast to POAG, myocilin levels were not elevated in PEXG aqueous humor when compared to control aqueous humor. No correlation between myocilin and TGFβ2 levels was observed. Conclusions Myocilin is elevated in POAG, but not PEXG aqueous humor. PMID:20179615

  11. Single nucleotide polymorphisms of metabolic syndrome-related genes in primary open angle glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Gang; Liu, Bin

    2010-01-01

    AIM To analyze single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) of primary open angle glaucoma- and metabolic syndrome-related genes in primary open angle glaucoma (POAG), in order to elucidate the roles of metabolic syndrome as a risk factor in POAG progress. METHODS SNP genotypes and alleles of interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-6 receptor (IL-6R), dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2), beta-fibrinogen (FGB), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ2 (PPARG), transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), E-selectin (E-Sel), apolipoprotein A-5 (APOA5), C-reactive protein (CRP), ectonueleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 1 (ENPP1), hepatic lipase (LIPC), adiponectin (ADIPOQ), paraoxonase 1 (PON1) and serine protease inhibitor E (SERPINE1) genes in POAG (n=37) and normal control (n=100) groups were measured with ABI Prism 7900HT Fluorescence Quantitative PCR and TaqMan SNP Genotyping fluorescence probe kit. RESULTS Genotypes and allele frequencies of IL-6R, IL-6, FGB, CRP, ENPP1, LIPC, ADIPOQ, PON1, and SERPINE1 in total POAG group were significantly different compared to the control group. CONCLUSION Metabolic syndrome as a risk factor for POAG may be associated with genotypes and allele frequencies of the related genes. The corresponding gene expression and function can affect POAG progress, including roles of SERPINE1 in extracellular matrix, ENPP1 in insulin inhibition, IL-6 in endogenous neuroprotection, IL-6, IL-6R and E-Sel in autoimmune response, LIPC and FGB in blood hyperviscosity syndrome, ADIPOQ in NOS/NO production, PON1 in vascular endothelial protection. PMID:22553514

  12. Effect of topical Beta blocker (Timolol maleate 0.5%) in primary open angle glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Khan, N; Khaleque, M A; Islam, M S; Begum, R A; Uddin, M S; Hossain, M M; Ali, M

    2012-10-01

    The study was undertaken to measure the effects of Beta blocker (Timolol maleate 0.5%) in moderate and advanced stage of primary open angle glaucoma by controlling intra-ocular pressure (IOP) and assessing the visual acuity (VA) and mean sensitivity (MS) of visual field. Study was done in the department of Ophthalmology, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University, Shahbagh, Dhaka from January 2002 to December 2005. It was a Prospective and interventional study. Thirty patients of bilateral primary open angle glaucoma were treated medically by B-blocker (Timolol maleate 0.5%) two times daily. Follow up were done after 7 days, 1 month, 3 months and 6 months. Before treatment Intra ocular pressure (IOP) range was 22-30 mm of Hg (mean 23.40 ± 2.04). After beta-blockers IOP reduced to the range of 10-20mm of Hg (mean 13.12 ± 2.01) which was statistically significant (p>0.02) in moderate stage & 8-18 mm Hg (mean 13.50 ± 2.0) in advance stage which was also statistically significant (p<0.02). VA and MS also improved in 15 eyes (50%), remained unchanged in 9 eyes (30%) and deteriorated in 6 eyes (20%) in moderate stage and also improved in 15 eyes (50%), remained unchanged in 6 eyes (20%) and deteriorated in 9 eyes (30%) in advanced stage. Success rate was 80% in moderate (p>0.02) & 70% in advanced stage (p<0.02) and which was statistically significant.

  13. The Association Between Primary Open Angle Glaucoma and Clustered Components of Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Rasoulinejad, Seyed Ahmad; Kasiri, Ali; Montazeri, Mahdi; Rashidi, Negin; Montazeri, Maryam; Montazeri, Mohammad; Hedayati, Hesam

    2015-01-01

    Purpose : There is conflicting evidence whether components of metabolic syndrome (MetS) increase or decrease the risk of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). The aim of the present study was to determine the association between metabolic syndrome and primary open-angle glaucoma. Methods : A total of 200 participants comprising 100 controls and 100 patients with POAG documented by clinical tests and examined by an experienced ophthalmologist using standard ophthalmologic equipment were included in the study. MetS was defined and based on ATP III criteria and POAG was defined by the criteria of the International Society of Geographic and Epidemiological Ophthalmology (ISGEO). The data were entered into the SPSS software and analyzed. Results : The prevalence of MetS in the glaucoma group was 53% in comparison to 38% in the control group (p=0.037). MetS was associated with an increased odds ratio for an IOP higher than 21 mmHg (OR: 1.72; 95% CI 1.03-2.79; p=0.034). The mean IOP was 24.91±4.29 mmHg in the patients without MetS, and 27.23±4.81 mmHg in those with MetS (p=0.027). The mean values of CCT were 603.64±63.16 µm in MetS patients and 579.27±72.87 µm in controls (p=0.018). Conclusion : Data showed an increased prevalence of components of metabolic syndrome in patients with glaucoma. The mechanisms underlying these associations need to be established in future studies. Our results support the recommendation that patients with metabolic syndrome undergo regular ophthalmological exams to monitor for the onset or progression of glaucoma. PMID:26535072

  14. A cohort study of duplex Doppler examinations of the carotid artery in primary open angle glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Marmion, Vincent J; Aldoori, Munther I; Woodcock, John P

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To explore the possibility of pathological change in the common carotid artery at the bifurcation and in the internal carotid artery beyond the bifurcation which could contribute to a reduced diastolic pressure as observed in primary open angle glaucoma. Design Duplex ultrasonic examinations of carotid bifurcations were conducted on 80 patients. Carotid artery defects were allocated into three types: no demonstrable flow defects, internal carotid artery abnormalities and disease in the carotid bulb. Setting Bristol Royal Infirmary Vascular Laboratory. Participants Eighty patients (mean age 69.6 years) providing a total of 160 sides to the analysis. Main outcome measures An estimated central retinal artery pressure, intraocular pressure and field loss were recorded for each side measured. Results Doppler investigations revealed significant levels of pathological change in the internal carotid distinct from changes at the carotid bulb. The disease revealed in the internal carotid artery was significantly associated with intraocular pressure (p = 0.032), with an effect small to medium in magnitude. The Q2 measure, derived from mean arterial pressure and intraocular pressure, was also substantively associated with disease in the internal carotid artery. Both intraocular pressure and the Q2 measure effectively discriminated between groups, with field loss providing rather less discriminating capability. There was a strong trend towards a higher intraocular pressures and a greater visual field loss with internal carotid artery disease. Conclusions Pathological changes in the extra cranial carotid artery in primary open angle glaucoma exceed those in the arteries classified as normal. The presence of disease specifically in the internal carotid artery emphasised the need for a mechanism for the evaluation of the internal carotid apart from the carotid bulb. A basis for clarifying the presence of an ischaemic zone is proposed. PMID:25289141

  15. Torque Enhancement, Spin Equilibrium, and Jet Power from Disk-Induced Opening of Pulsar Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parfrey, Kyle; Spitkovsky, Anatoly; Beloborodov, Andrei M.

    2016-05-01

    The interaction of a rotating star’s magnetic field with a surrounding plasma disk lies at the heart of many questions posed by neutron stars in X-ray binaries. We consider the opening of stellar magnetic flux due to differential rotation along field lines coupling the star and disk, using a simple model for the disk-opened flux, the torques exerted on the star by the magnetosphere, and the power extracted by the electromagnetic wind. We examine the conditions under which the system enters an equilibrium spin state, in which the accretion torque is instantaneously balanced by the pulsar wind torque alone. For magnetic moments, spin frequencies, and accretion rates relevant to accreting millisecond pulsars, the spin-down torque from this enhanced pulsar wind can be substantially larger than that predicted by existing models of the disk-magnetosphere interaction, and is in principle capable of maintaining spin equilibrium at frequencies less than 1 kHz. We speculate that this mechanism may account for the non-detection of frequency increases during outbursts of SAX J1808.4-3658 and XTE J1814-338, and may be generally responsible for preventing spin-up to sub-millisecond periods. If the pulsar wind is collimated by the surrounding environment, the resulting jet can satisfy the power requirements of the highly relativistic outflows from Cir X-1 and Sco X-1. In this framework, the jet power scales relatively weakly with accretion rate, {L}{{j}}\\propto {\\dot{M}}4/7, and would be suppressed at high accretion rates only if the stellar magnetic moment is sufficiently low.

  16. Airborne Multi-Angle Hyper-Spectral Measurements of White Caps on the Open Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laveigne, J.; Cairns, B.; Diner, D. J.

    2004-05-01

    The influence of whitecaps on the atmospheric correction of ocean color measurements is highly dependent on the spectral variation of albedo that is assumed for the whitecaps. Field measurements of breaking waves in the surf zone indicate a strong spectral variation in whitecap reflectance with the reflectance at 1650 nm nm decreasing by 95% relative to that at 440 nm. The cause of this spectral variation is thought to be the strong absorption by water at longer wavelengths that attenuates light reflected from submerged bubbles. Measurements made during an ocean cruise suggest that the magnitude of this decrease is typically less in the open ocean where the wave breaking is less violent and bubbles are not injected as deep into the water. Nonetheless, even in the open ocean, when whitecaps are large and bright similar decreases in reflectance from 440 nm to 860 nm to those observed in the surf zone are seen. Unfortunately, although measurements in the vicinity of 1600 and 2200 nm are important for remote sensing of aerosols and the atmospheric correction of ocean color measurements, the longest wavelength used for the open ocean measurements was 860 nm. Information about typical reflectance decreases from 440 nm to these longer wavelengths is therefore missing. One approach to remedying this absence of information about the spectral variation of white cap albedo across the solar spectrum is to use an airborne imaging spectrometer. However, a significant difficulty in using airborne, or ship-borne, instrumentation to measure the spectral albedo of whitecaps is the contamination of data by sun glitter. It is usually much more difficult than anticipated to filter data to reject glitter, even for ship-borne measurements with a television camera that provides a visual reference. This means that most data that is reported is obtained under overcast conditions. One approach to alleviating the problems caused by sun glitter is to using multi-angle remote sensing. If

  17. Tank-Binding Kinase 1 (TBK1) Gene and Open-Angle Glaucomas (An American Ophthalmological Society Thesis).

    PubMed

    Fingert, John H; Robin, Alan L; Scheetz, Todd E; Kwon, Young H; Liebmann, Jeffrey M; Ritch, Robert; Alward, Wallace L M

    2016-08-01

    To investigate the role of TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1) gene copy-number variations (ie, gene duplications and triplications) in the pathophysiology of various open-angle glaucomas. In previous studies, we discovered that copy-number variations in the TBK1 gene are associated with normal-tension glaucoma. Here, we investigated the prevalence of copy-number variations in cohorts of patients with other open-angle glaucomas-juvenile-onset open-angle glaucoma (n=30), pigmentary glaucoma (n=209), exfoliation glaucoma (n=225), and steroid-induced glaucoma (n=79)-using a quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay. No TBK1 gene copy-number variations were detected in patients with juvenile-onset open-angle glaucoma, pigmentary glaucoma, or steroid-induced glaucoma. A TBK1 gene duplication was detected in one (0.44%) of the 225 exfoliation glaucoma patients. TBK1 gene copy-number variations (gene duplications and triplications) have been previously associated with normal-tension glaucoma. An exploration of other open-angle glaucomas detected a TBK1 copy-number variation in a patient with exfoliation glaucoma, which is the first example of a TBK1 mutation in a glaucoma patient with a diagnosis other than normal-tension glaucoma. A broader phenotypic range may be associated with TBK1 copy-number variations, although mutations in this gene are most often detected in patients with normal-tension glaucoma.

  18. Tank-Binding Kinase 1 (TBK1) Gene and Open-Angle Glaucomas (An American Ophthalmological Society Thesis)

    PubMed Central

    Fingert, John H.; Robin, Alan L.; Scheetz, Todd E.; Kwon, Young H.; Liebmann, Jeffrey M.; Ritch, Robert; Alward, Wallace L.M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the role of TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1) gene copy-number variations (ie, gene duplications and triplications) in the pathophysiology of various open-angle glaucomas. Methods In previous studies, we discovered that copy-number variations in the TBK1 gene are associated with normal-tension glaucoma. Here, we investigated the prevalence of copy-number variations in cohorts of patients with other open-angle glaucomas—juvenile-onset open-angle glaucoma (n=30), pigmentary glaucoma (n=209), exfoliation glaucoma (n=225), and steroid-induced glaucoma (n=79)—using a quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay. Results No TBK1 gene copy-number variations were detected in patients with juvenile-onset open-angle glaucoma, pigmentary glaucoma, or steroid-induced glaucoma. A TBK1 gene duplication was detected in one (0.44%) of the 225 exfoliation glaucoma patients. Conclusions TBK1 gene copy-number variations (gene duplications and triplications) have been previously associated with normal-tension glaucoma. An exploration of other open-angle glaucomas detected a TBK1 copy-number variation in a patient with exfoliation glaucoma, which is the first example of a TBK1 mutation in a glaucoma patient with a diagnosis other than normal-tension glaucoma. A broader phenotypic range may be associated with TBK1 copy-number variations, although mutations in this gene are most often detected in patients with normal-tension glaucoma. PMID:27881886

  19. Analysis of the qualitative dermatoglyphics of the digito-palmar complex in patients with primary open angle glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Novak-Laus, Katia; Milicić, Jasna; Tedeschi-Reiner, Eugenia; Iveković, Renata; Korsić, Jadranka; Zrinsćak, Ognjen; Mandić, Zdravko

    2006-03-01

    The primary open-angle glaucomas are a group of diseases that have in common characteristic morphological changes at the optic nerve head and retinal nerve fiber layer, progressive retinal ganglion cells death and characteristic visual field loss. The risk for primary open angle glaucoma rises continuously with the level of the intraocular pressure. The disease advances slowly and there are no symptoms. Primary open angle glaucoma is caused by abnormal aqueous humour outflow in the trabecular meshwork in the open angle. Etiopathogenesis of primary open angle glaucoma is unclear. The increased risk of glaucoma in relatives has long been recognized. Frequency for manifestation of the disease is 10-30% in family members. The discovery of the specific gene loci responsible for the manifestation of glaucoma has helped us to understand its mechanism of origin and definitely confirmed the hereditary nature of this disease. Digito-palmar dermatoglyphs were already used to determine hereditary base of many diseases and it was the reason for investigation of their qualitative patterns in patients with glaucoma (22 males and 23 females), their immediate relatives (19 males and 23 females) in comparison to a group of phenotypically healthy population (52 males and 56 females). The results pointed a connection with the dermatoglyphic traits of the digito-palmar complex between patients with glaucoma and their immediate relatives. There is a possible discrimination of patients and their immediate relatives from phenotypically healthy population, too.

  20. The jet-disk symbiosis without maximal jets: 1D hydrodynamical jets revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crumley, Patrick; Ceccobello, Chiara; Connors, Riley M. T.; Cavecchi, Yuri

    2017-05-01

    In this work we discuss the recent criticism by Zdziarski (2016, A&A, 586, A18) of the maximal jet model derived in Falcke & Biermann (1995, A&A, 293, 665). We agree with Zdziarski that in general a jet's internal energy is not bounded by its rest-mass energy density. We describe the effects of the mistake on conclusions that have been made using the maximal jet model and show when a maximal jet is an appropriate assumption. The maximal jet model was used to derive a 1D hydrodynamical model of jets in agnjet, a model that does multiwavelength fitting of quiescent/hard state X-ray binaries and low-luminosity active galactic nuclei. We correct algebraic mistakes made in the derivation of the 1D Euler equation and relax the maximal jet assumption. We show that the corrections cause minor differences as long as the jet has a small opening angle and a small terminal Lorentz factor. We find that the major conclusion from the maximal jet model, the jet-disk symbiosis, can be generally applied to astrophysical jets. We also show that isothermal jets are required to match the flat radio spectra seen in low-luminosity X-ray binaries and active galactic nuclei, in agreement with other works.

  1. What can we learn about extragalactic jets from galactic jets?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiseman, Jennifer; Biretta, John

    2002-05-01

    Jets are powerful features of extragalactic radio sources; yet jets are also seen in young stellar objects and X-ray binaries within our own galaxy. These occupy a very different parameter space from the extragalactic jets, and yet many are similar in appearance and nature to their powerful extragalactic cousins. In many cases far more information is available for the galactic jets, due to, e.g., rapid evolution and knowledge of emission line ratios and Doppler velocities. We review properties of galactic jets and speculate at implications they have for extragalactic ones. Specifically we consider central engine mass, jet opening angle and Mach number, the nature of the emission knots, the symmetry of the ejection process, and the source history.

  2. The Influence of Structure Heights and Opening Angles of Micro- and Nanocones on the Macroscopic Surface Wetting Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Ling; Laustsen, Milan; Mandsberg, Nikolaj; Taboryski, Rafael

    2016-02-01

    We discuss the influence of surface structure, namely the height and opening angles of nano- and microcones on the surface wettability. We show experimental evidence that the opening angle of the cones is the critical parameter on sample superhydrophobicity, namely static contact angles and roll-off angles. The textured surfaces are fabricated on silicon wafers by using a simple one-step method of reactive ion etching at different processing time and gas flow rates. By using hydrophobic coating or hydrophilic surface treatment, we are able to switch the surface wettability from superhydrophilic to superhydrophobic without altering surface structures. In addition, we show examples of polymer replicas (polypropylene and poly(methyl methacrylate) with different wettability, fabricated by injection moulding using templates of the silicon cone-structures.

  3. The Influence of Structure Heights and Opening Angles of Micro- and Nanocones on the Macroscopic Surface Wetting Properties.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Ling; Laustsen, Milan; Mandsberg, Nikolaj; Taboryski, Rafael

    2016-02-19

    We discuss the influence of surface structure, namely the height and opening angles of nano- and microcones on the surface wettability. We show experimental evidence that the opening angle of the cones is the critical parameter on sample superhydrophobicity, namely static contact angles and roll-off angles. The textured surfaces are fabricated on silicon wafers by using a simple one-step method of reactive ion etching at different processing time and gas flow rates. By using hydrophobic coating or hydrophilic surface treatment, we are able to switch the surface wettability from superhydrophilic to superhydrophobic without altering surface structures. In addition, we show examples of polymer replicas (polypropylene and poly(methyl methacrylate) with different wettability, fabricated by injection moulding using templates of the silicon cone-structures.

  4. The Influence of Structure Heights and Opening Angles of Micro- and Nanocones on the Macroscopic Surface Wetting Properties

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Ling; Laustsen, Milan; Mandsberg, Nikolaj; Taboryski, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the influence of surface structure, namely the height and opening angles of nano- and microcones on the surface wettability. We show experimental evidence that the opening angle of the cones is the critical parameter on sample superhydrophobicity, namely static contact angles and roll-off angles. The textured surfaces are fabricated on silicon wafers by using a simple one-step method of reactive ion etching at different processing time and gas flow rates. By using hydrophobic coating or hydrophilic surface treatment, we are able to switch the surface wettability from superhydrophilic to superhydrophobic without altering surface structures. In addition, we show examples of polymer replicas (polypropylene and poly(methyl methacrylate) with different wettability, fabricated by injection moulding using templates of the silicon cone-structures. PMID:26892169

  5. Quantitative analysis of the variation in angles of the carpal arch after open and endoscopic carpal tunnel release. Clinical article.

    PubMed

    Flores, Leandro Pretto; Cavalcante, Thiago F P; Neto, Oswaldo R M; Alcântara, Fabiano S

    2009-08-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that the volume of the carpal canal increases after open and endoscopic surgery in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome. There is some controversy regarding the contribution of the post operative widening of the carpal arch to the increment in carpal canal volume. The objectives of this study were to: 1) evaluate the degree of variation in the angles formed by the borders of the carpal arch following the surgical division of the transverse carpal ligament; and 2) determine if there are differences in the variation of these angles after the classical open surgery versus endoscopic carpal tunnel release.Methods. The authors prospectively studied 20 patients undergoing carpal tunnel syndrome surgery: 10 patients were treated via the standard open technique, and 10 underwent endoscopic carpal tunnel release. The angles of the carpal arch were measured on CT scans of the affected hand obtained before and immediately after the surgical procedures.Measurements were performed at the level of the pisiform-scaphoid hiatus and at the level of the hook of the hamate-trapezium hiatus. There was widening of the postoperative angles of the carpal arch after open and endoscopic division of the flexor retinaculum; however, the difference between pre- and postoperative angulations reached statistical significance only in those patients treated by means of the open procedure. The mean (+/- SD) values for the postoperative increase in the angles at the level of the pisiform-scaphoid hiatus were 5.1 +/- 0.4 degrees after open surgery and 2.5 +/- 0.3 degrees after the endoscopically assisted procedure (p < 0.05). At the level of the hook of the hamate-trapezium hiatus, the mean values for the widening of the angles were 6.2 +/- 0.6 degrees for the open surgery group and 1.2 +/- 0.4 degrees for those patients treated by means of the endoscopic technique (p < 0.05). The widening of the postoperative angles of the carpal arch is a phenomenon observed at

  6. Boundary interference assessment and correction for open jet wind tunnels using panel methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mokhtar, Wael Ahmed

    The presence of nearby boundaries in a wind tunnel can lead to aerodynamic measurements on a model in the wind tunnel that differ from those that would be made when the boundaries of the moving fluid were infinitely far away. The differences, referred to as boundary interference or wall interference, can be quite large, such as when testing aircraft models developing high lift forces, or whose wingspan is a large fraction of the wind tunnel width, or high drag models whose frontal area is a large fraction of the tunnel cross section. Correction techniques for closed test section (solid walled) wind tunnels are fairly well developed, but relatively little recent work has addressed the case of open jet tunnels specifically for aeronautical applications. A method to assess the boundary interferences for open jet test sections is introduced. The main objective is to overcome some of the limitations in the classical and currently used methods for aeronautical and automotive wind tunnels, particularly where the levels of interference are large and distortion of the jet boundary becomes significant. The starting point is to take advantage of two well-developed approaches used in closed wall test sections, namely the boundary measurement approach and adaptive wall wind tunnels. A low-order panel code is developed because it offers a relatively efficient approach from the computational point of view, within the required accuracy. It also gives the method more flexibility to deal with more complex model geometries and test section cross sections. The method is first compared to the method of images. Several lifting and non-lifting model representations are used for both two- and three-dimensional studies. Then the method is applied to results of a test of a full-scale Wright Flyer replica inside the Langley Full Scale Tunnel. The study is extended to include the effect of model representation and the test section boundaries (closed, open and 3/4 open) on the interference

  7. [Study of novel mutation of OPTN gene in two primary open angle glaucoma families in northeast China].

    PubMed

    Yuan, Hui-Ping; Xiao, Zheng; Xu, Na; Yang, Bin-Bin; Meng, Qing-Feng; Li, Yuan-Yuan

    2008-02-01

    To identify the mutation gene of two Chinese families with primary open angle glaucoma. It was a case control study. Clinical observation and pedigree analysis were undertaken in two families with primary open angle glaucoma. Venous blood were drawn from 6 affected and 6 unaffected subjects in family L, and from 4 affected and 4 unaffected subjects in family C. Genomic DNA was extracted. Linkage to OPTN gene locus was determined. Mutation of this gene was screened by PCR of OPTN gene exons and direct sequencing. A missense mutation A1274G in exon 10 of OPTN gene was identified in affected members of family L. The corresponding amino acid change was Lys322Glu. This mutation was not found in unaffected family members of family L, all members of family C and 87 unrelated normal controls. A novel mutation of OPTN gene with Lys322Glu change is responsible for the occurrence of primary open angle glaucoma in a Chinese family.

  8. Clinical results with the Trabectome, a novel surgical device for treatment of open-angle glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Minckler, Don; Baerveldt, George; Ramirez, Marina Alfaro; Mosaed, Sameh; Wilson, Richard; Shaarawy, Tarek; Zack, Barend; Dustin, Laurie; Francis, Brian

    2006-01-01

    To describe treatment outcomes after Trabectome surgery in an initial series of 101 patients with open-angle glaucoma. A 19-gauge microelectrosurgical device enabled ab interno removal of a strip of trabecular meshwork and inner wall of Schlemm's canal under gonioscopic control with continual infusion and foot-pedal control of aspiration and electrosurgery. A smooth, pointed ceramic-coated insulating footplate was inserted into Schlemm's canal to act as a guide within the canal and to protect adjacent structures from mechanical or heat injury during ablation of a 30- to 90-degree arc of angle tissue. Mean preoperative intraocular pressure (IOP) in the initial 101 patients was 27.6 +/- 7.2 mm Hg. Thirty months postoperatively, mean IOP was 16.3 +/- 3.3 mm Hg (n = 11). The mean percentage drop over the whole course of follow-up was 40%. At all times postoperatively, the absolute and percent decrease in IOP from preoperative levels were statistically significant (paired t test, P < .0001). Overall success (IOP

  9. CLINICAL RESULTS WITH THE TRABECTOME, A NOVEL SURGICAL DEVICE FOR TREATMENT OF OPEN-ANGLE GLAUCOMA

    PubMed Central

    Minckler, Don; Baerveldt, George; Ramirez, Marina Alfaro; Mosaed, Sameh; Wilson, Richard; Shaarawy, Tarek; Zack, Barend; Dustin, Laurie; Francis, Brian

    2006-01-01

    Purpose To describe treatment outcomes after Trabectome surgery in an initial series of 101 patients with open-angle glaucoma. Methods A 19-gauge microelectrosurgical device enabled ab interno removal of a strip of trabecular meshwork and inner wall of Schlemm’s canal under gonioscopic control with continual infusion and foot-pedal control of aspiration and electrosurgery. A smooth, pointed ceramic-coated insulating footplate was inserted into Schlemm’s canal to act as a guide within the canal and to protect adjacent structures from mechanical or heat injury during ablation of a 30- to 90-degree arc of angle tissue. Results Mean preoperative intraocular pressure (IOP) in the initial 101 patients was 27.6 ± 7.2 mm Hg. Thirty months postoperatively, mean IOP was 16.3 ± 3.3 mm Hg (n = 11). The mean percentage drop over the whole course of follow-up was 40%. At all times postoperatively, the absolute and percent decrease in IOP from preoperative levels were statistically significant (paired t test, P < .0001). Overall success (IOP ≤ 21 mm Hg with or without medications and no subsequent surgery) was 84%. Nine eyes subsequently underwent trabeculectomy, two others had IOP greater than 21 mm Hg in spite of resuming topical medications, and the rest of the patients either refused to resume medications or were still in the 1-month postoperative period without medications (total failure rate including trabeculectomies, 16/101 = 16%). Intraoperative reflux bleeding occurred in 100% of cases. Complications have been minimal and not vision-threatening. Conclusions The Trabectome facilitates minimally invasive and effective glaucoma surgery, which spares the conjunctiva and does not preclude subsequent standard filtering procedures. PMID:17471324

  10. Ocular safety of propiverine hydrochloride in elderly patients with primary open- and narrow-angle glaucoma
.

    PubMed

    Gatchev, Emil; Petkova, Natalia; Braeter, Manfred; de Mey, Christian

    2016-12-01

    Propiverine hydrochloride (P4) is an antimuscarinic drug used in overactive bladder syndrome. Two studies were performed: one in 24 patients with open-angle glaucoma (OAG) treated with topical β-blockers, one in 24 patients with narrow-angle glaucoma (NAG) treated with pilocarpine ± topical β-blockers. Patients were treated in randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind parallel-group fashion (15 : 9 attribution to P4 vs. placebo (PL)). Single-blind PL dose in the morning of day 1 for baseline; double-blind 15 mg P4 or matched placebo t.i.d. from the afternoon of day 1 until the morning of day 7. In the morning of day 7, trough mean serum P4 concentrations were 169.4 ng/mL (CV (coefficient of variation): 0.55) and 140.7 ng/mL (CV: 0.56) in OAG and NAG; at 3:15 hours after dosing: 237.4 ng/mL (CV: 0.47) and 212.4 ng/mL P4 (CV: 0.38), respectively. P4-treatment led to a prompt (OAG) or more gradient (NAG) increase in pupil diameter (PUD), with a maximum difference from PL of 0.97 mm (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.67 - 1.27) and 0.87 mm (95% CI: 0.36 - 1.39) in OAG and NAG, respectively. However, there was no average increase in intraocular pressure (IOP) or increase in noteworthy safety-relevant individual IOP values (or changes thereof). There was no effect on visual acuity or accommodation. 1-week treatment with P4 appeared to be safe 1) in OAG patients treated with topical β-blockers and 2) in NAG patients treated with topical pilocarpine ± β-blockers, irrespective of whether the eyes had previously been treated with glaucoma surgery or laser therapy.
.

  11. Trabecular-iris circumference volume in open angle eyes using swept-source fourier domain anterior segment optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Rigi, Mohammed; Blieden, Lauren S; Nguyen, Donna; Chuang, Alice Z; Baker, Laura A; Bell, Nicholas P; Lee, David A; Mankiewicz, Kimberly A; Feldman, Robert M

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To introduce a new anterior segment optical coherence tomography parameter, trabecular-iris circumference volume (TICV), which measures the integrated volume of the peripheral angle, and establish a reference range in normal, open angle eyes. Methods. One eye of each participant with open angles and a normal anterior segment was imaged using 3D mode by the CASIA SS-1000 (Tomey, Nagoya, Japan). Trabecular-iris space area (TISA) and TICV at 500 and 750 µm were calculated. Analysis of covariance was performed to examine the effect of age and its interaction with spherical equivalent. Results. The study included 100 participants with a mean age of 50 (±15) years (range 20-79). TICV showed a normal distribution with a mean (±SD) value of 4.75 µL (±2.30) for TICV500 and a mean (±SD) value of 8.90 µL (±3.88) for TICV750. Overall, TICV showed an age-related reduction (P = 0.035). In addition, angle volume increased with increased myopia for all age groups, except for those older than 65 years. Conclusions. This study introduces a new parameter to measure peripheral angle volume, TICV, with age-adjusted normal ranges for open angle eyes. Further investigation is warranted to determine the clinical utility of this new parameter.

  12. The Primary Open-Angle African-American Glaucoma Genetics (POAAGG) Study: Baseline Demographics

    PubMed Central

    Charlson, Emily S.; Sankar, Prithvi S.; Miller-Ellis, Eydie; Regina, Meredith; Fertig, Raymond; Salinas, Julia; Pistilli, Maxwell; Salowe, Rebecca J.; Rhodes, Allison L.; Merritt, William T.; Chua, Michael; Trachtman, Benjamin T.; Gudiseva, Harini V.; Collins, David W.; Chavali, Venkata Ramana Murthy; Nichols, Charles; Henderer, Jeffrey; Ying, Gui-shuang; Varma, Rohit; Jorgenson, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Objective To describe the baseline characteristics of the Primary Open-Angle African-American Glaucoma Genetics (POAAGG) study cohort, the largest African-American primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) population recruited at a single institution (University of Pennsylvania, Department of Ophthalmology, Scheie Eye Institute) to date. Design Population-based, cross-sectional, case-control study. Participants 2,520 African-American subjects 35 years and older, recruited from the greater Philadelphia, Pennsylvania area. Methods Each subject underwent a detailed interview and eye examination. The interview assessed demographic, behavioral, medical, and ocular risk factors. Current zip codes surrounding the University of Pennsylvania were recorded and United States census data were queried to infer socioeconomic status. The eye exam included measurement of visual acuity and intraocular pressure, a detailed anterior and posterior segment examination including gonioscopy, dilated fundus and optic disc examination, visual fields, stereo disc photography, optical coherence tomography imaging, and measurement of central corneal thickness. Main Outcome Measures The baseline characteristics of gender, age, and glaucoma diagnosis were collected. Body mass index (BMI), hypertension, diabetes, and alcohol and tobacco use, as well as ocular conditions including blindness, cataract, non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration, and use of ocular medication and surgery, were examined. Median population density, income, education level, and other socioeconomic measures were determined for the study cohort. Results Of the 2,520 African-Americans recruited to the POAAGG study to date, 2,067 (82.0%) including 807 controls and 1,260 POAG cases met all inclusion criteria and completed the detailed clinical ocular exam. Cases were more likely to have a lower BMI (p<0.01) and report a history of blindness (visual acuity of 20/200 or worse, p<0.001), while controls

  13. Anti-Neurotrophic Effects from Autoantibodies in Adult Diabetes Having Primary Open Angle Glaucoma or Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Zimering, Mark B.; Moritz, Thomas E.; Donnelly, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To test for anti-endothelial and anti-neurotrophic effects from autoantibodies in subsets of diabetes having open-angle glaucoma, dementia, or control subjects. Methods: Protein-A eluates from plasma of 20 diabetic subjects having glaucoma or suspects and 34 age-matched controls were tested for effects on neurite outgrowth in rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells or endothelial cell survival. The mechanism of the diabetic glaucoma autoantibodies’ neurite-inhibitory effect was investigated in co-incubations with the selective Rho kinase inhibitor Y27632 or the sulfated proteoglycan synthesis inhibitor sodium chlorate. Stored protein-A eluates from certain diabetic glaucoma or dementia subjects which contained long-lasting, highly stable cell inhibitory substances were characterized using mass spectrometry and amino acid sequencing. Results: Diabetic primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) or suspects (n = 20) or diabetic dementia (n = 3) autoantibodies caused significantly greater mean inhibition of neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells (p < 0.0001) compared to autoantibodies in control diabetic (n = 24) or non-diabetic (n = 10) subjects without glaucoma (p < 0.01). Neurite inhibition by the diabetic glaucoma autoantibodies was completely abolished by 10 μM concentrations of Y27632 (n = 4). It was substantially reduced by 30 mM concentrations of sodium chlorate (n = 4). Peak, long-lasting activity survived storage ×5 years at 0–4°C and was associated with a restricted subtype of Ig kappa light chain. Diabetic glaucoma or dementia autoantibodies (n = 5) caused contraction and process retraction in quiescent cerebral cortical astrocytes effects which were blocked by 5 μM concentrations of Y27632. Conclusion: These data suggest that autoantibodies in subsets of adult diabetes having POAG (glaucoma suspects) and/or dementia inhibit neurite outgrowth and promote a reactive astrocyte morphology by a mechanism which may involve

  14. [Psychosomatic symptoms in somatic diseases - open-angle glaucoma for example].

    PubMed

    Emmerich, G M

    2010-08-01

    Psychological aspects exist in somatic diseases like tumours and even fractures, not only in the beginning but also in the management of disease. Somatic diseases give rise to signs of a special constellation of life and management of these diseases is important for the psychological constellation of the individual. Studies on open-angle glaucoma have shown that many patients suffering from this disease are anxious, hypochondric, perfectionist and emotional instable. Chronic diseases are demanding processes of flexibility and defense, and define how the individual can deal with the diseases and what place in life the disease will occupy in the future. In the holistic view of medicine even psychological conflicts should be treated. In many situations, these conflicts are not consciously experienced by the individual. Therapeutically, 2 different tools can be used: symbolic stories can bring forces to manage the conflict and to solve the conflict (2 examples in the text). The method of positive psychotherapy describes the reasons for psychosomatic diseases in three parts: psychosomatic in the traditional understanding, in further and comprehensive understanding. Especially the psychosomatic effects in comprehensive understanding are embedded in the individual's sociocultural environment and provide tips on reasons for the diseases in those parts of life. The "positive balance model" gives an example of life-management and conflict-therapy. In ophthalmology, fear is often more important for the patient than pain. To avoid this, the patients develop techniques to deny, to cover or to suppress the fear. In the article questions are presented like those the ophthalmologist should be able to ask patients in the office concerning open-angle glaucoma. Tips for the therapy and management for neurotic stress are offered and some special anamnestic questions for the ophthalmologist are presented. Unsolved conflicts and denied desires as neurotic symptoms can be focused in

  15. Effect of caffeine on the intraocular pressure in patients with primary open angle glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Peeyush; Gaur, Ajit; Varma, Shambhu

    2011-01-01

    Coffee and tea are very common nonalcoholic beverages. However, their intake, particularly that of coffee, has been suggested to increase intraocular pressure (IOP) in patients with open angle glaucoma/ocular hypertension. The causative agent has been suggested to be their caffeine content. The objective of this study was to determine if this represents a direct caffeine effect. This study was therefore done using pure caffeine applied directly to the eyes. The study was conducted with five human volunteers with open angle glaucoma/ ocular hypertension. IOP was measured using a Perkins applanation tonometer. Eye drops of 1% caffeine were prepared in-home. Following the initial (basal) measurement of the IOP, 50 μL of the eye drop preparation was instilled in the eye at 0-, 4-, and 6-hour intervals. IOPs were measured 30 minutes after each instillation. A second study was also undertaken following the first. In this study, the same patients instilled the eye drops three times per day for 1 week at home and then returned to the clinic on day 7. They were then again treated with caffeine eye drops as above and IOPs measured. In the 1-day study, the mean basal IOP was 23.6 ± 2.80 mmHg. Thirty minutes after instillation of the drops as described, the pressures were 23.2 ± 1.93, 22.2 ± 1.99, and 22.6 ± 2.31. The basal reading was taken at 10 am and another reading was then taken at 10.30 am. Additional eye drops were instilled at 2 and 8 pm and readings taken 30 minutes after each instillation. In the 1 week study, the basal value was 22.6 ± 2.32. After instillation of the drops as above the values were 23 ± 2.16, 22.4 ± 2.27, and 23 ± 1.94. Administration of caffeine into the eyes of patients did not have any effect on IOP and it remained relatively unchanged. This was true in the 1-day study as well as in the 1-week study. A cumulative effect was not visible. The results therefore demonstrate that caffeine has no significant effect on IOP in patients with

  16. Simulation analysis of the effects of an initial cone position and opening angle on a cone-guided implosion

    SciTech Connect

    Yanagawa, T.; Sakagami, H.; Nagatomo, H.

    2013-10-15

    In inertial confinement fusion, the implosion process is important in forming a high-density plasma core. In the case of a fast ignition scheme using a cone-guided target, the fuel target is imploded with a cone inserted. This scheme is advantageous for efficiently heating the imploded fuel core; however, asymmetric implosion is essentially inevitable. Moreover, the effect of cone position and opening angle on implosion also becomes critical. Focusing on these problems, the effect of the asymmetric implosion, the initial position, and the opening angle on the compression rate of the fuel is investigated using a three-dimensional pure hydrodynamic code.

  17. [Magnetotherapy designed to affect cervical sympathetic ganglia for the treatment of patients with primary open-angle glaucoma].

    PubMed

    Veselova, E V; Kamenskikh, T G; Raĭgorodkiĭ, Iu M; Kolbenev, I O; Myshkina, E S

    2010-01-01

    The traveling magnetic field was used to treat primary open-angle glaucoma. The field was applied to the projection of cervical sympathetic ganglia of the patients. Hemodynamic parameters of posterior short ciliary arteries and central retinal artery were analysed along with visual evoked potentials, visual field limits, and visual acuity. It was shown that magnetotherapy with the use of an AMO-ATOS apparatus produces better clinical results in patients with stage I and II primary open-angle glaucoma compared with medicamentous therapy (intake of trental tablets).

  18. Numerical study of pressure fluctuations in different guide vanes' opening angle in pump mode of a pump turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Y. K.; Zuo, Z. G.; Liu, S. H.; Liu, J. T.; Wu, Y. L.

    2012-11-01

    A numerical model based on a pumped storage power station was built to develop the numerical simulation, to analyze the pressure fluctuations in a pump turbine in different guide vanes' opening angle. The different guide vanes' opening angles were simulated using the SST k-ω turbulence model and SIMPLEC Pressure-Velocity coupling scheme. The pressure sensor were placed in mainly three positions, they are: bottom ring between runner and the wicket gates, downstream and left side in the draft tube cone below the runner. All the peak to peak values of pressure fluctuation meet signal probability of 97%. The frequency is gained by Fast Fourier Transform. The pressure fluctuations in different positions of the model in pump condition were showed when the guide vanes' opening angels were different. The simulation results confirmed the results gained in model tests. The results show that pressure fluctuations in design opening angle were much lower than those in off design opening angle. The main source of pressure fluctuations between runner and guide vanes is rotor stator interaction. While a lower frequency is the main frequency of the pressure fluctuation in draft tube.

  19. Effect of nozzle lateral spacing, engine interfairing shape, and angle of attack on the performance of a twin-jet afterbody model with cone plug nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berrier, B. L.

    1973-01-01

    Twin-jet afterbody models were investigated by using two balances to measure separately the thrust minus total axial force and the afterbody drag at Mach numbers from 0 to 1.3. Angle of attack was varied from minus 2 deg to 8.5 deg. Translating shroud cone plug nozzles were tested at dry-power and maximum-afterburning-power settings with a high-pressure air system used to provide jet total-pressure ratios up to 9.0. Two nozzle lateral spacings were studied by using afterbodies with several interfairing shapes. The close- and wide-spaced afterbodies had identical cross-sectional area distributions when similar interfairings were installed on each. The results show that the highest overall performance was obtained with the close-spaced afterbody and basic interfairings. Increasing angle of attack decreased performance for all configurations and conditions investigated.

  20. Real-time data processing and magnetic field pitch angle estimation of the JET motional Stark effect diagnostic based on Kalman filtering

    SciTech Connect

    Coelho, R.; Alves, D. [Instituto de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear, Associacao Euratom Hawkes, N.; Brix, M. [Euratom Collaboration: JET EFDA Contributors

    2009-06-15

    A novel technique for the real-time measurement of the magnetic field pitch angle in JET discharges using the motional Stark effect diagnostic is presented. Kalman filtering techniques are adopted to estimate the amplitude of the avalanche photodiode signals' harmonics that are relevant for the pitch angle calculation. The proposed technique {l_brace}for extended technical details of the generic algorithm see [R. Coelho and D. Alves, IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 37, 164 (2009)]{r_brace} is shown to be much more robust and provides less noisy estimates than an equivalent lock-in amplifier scheme, in particular when dealing with edge localized modes.

  1. Real-time data processing and magnetic field pitch angle estimation of the JET motional Stark effect diagnostic based on Kalman filtering.

    PubMed

    Coelho, R; Alves, D; Hawkes, N; Brix, M

    2009-06-01

    A novel technique for the real-time measurement of the magnetic field pitch angle in JET discharges using the motional Stark effect diagnostic is presented. Kalman filtering techniques are adopted to estimate the amplitude of the avalanche photodiode signals' harmonics that are relevant for the pitch angle calculation. The proposed technique {for extended technical details of the generic algorithm see [R. Coelho and D. Alves, IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 37, 164 (2009)]} is shown to be much more robust and provides less noisy estimates than an equivalent lock-in amplifier scheme, in particular when dealing with edge localized modes.

  2. Extracting Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma from Electronic Medical Records for Genetic Association Studies

    PubMed Central

    Restrepo, Nicole A.; Farber-Eger, Eric; Goodloe, Robert; Haines, Jonathan L.; Crawford, Dana C.

    2015-01-01

    Electronic medical records (EMRs) are being widely implemented for use in genetic and genomic studies. As a phenotypic rich resource, EMRs provide researchers with the opportunity to identify disease cohorts and perform genotype-phenotype association studies. The Epidemiologic Architecture for Genes Linked to Environment (EAGLE) study, as part of the Population Architecture using Genomics and Epidemiology (PAGE) I study, has genotyped more than 15,000 individuals of diverse genetic ancestry in BioVU, the Vanderbilt University Medical Center’s biorepository linked to a de-identified version of the EMR (EAGLE BioVU). Here we develop and deploy an algorithm utilizing data mining techniques to identify primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) in African Americans from EAGLE BioVU for genetic association studies. The algorithm described here was designed using a combination of diagnostic codes, current procedural terminology billing codes, and free text searches to identify POAG status in situations where gold-standard digital photography cannot be accessed. The case algorithm identified 267 potential POAG subjects but underperformed after manual review with a positive predictive value of 51.6% and an accuracy of 76.3%. The control algorithm identified controls with a negative predictive value of 98.3%. Although the case algorithm requires more downstream manual review for use in large-scale studies, it provides a basis by which to extract a specific clinical subtype of glaucoma from EMRs in the absence of digital photographs. PMID:26061293

  3. Structural brain alterations in primary open angle glaucoma: a 3T MRI study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jieqiong; Li, Ting; Sabel, Bernhard A.; Chen, Zhiqiang; Wen, Hongwei; Li, Jianhong; Xie, Xiaobin; Yang, Diya; Chen, Weiwei; Wang, Ningli; Xian, Junfang; He, Huiguang

    2016-01-01

    Glaucoma is not only an eye disease but is also associated with degeneration of brain structures. We now investigated the pattern of visual and non-visual brain structural changes in 25 primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) patients and 25 age-gender-matched normal controls using T1-weighted imaging. MRI images were subjected to volume-based analysis (VBA) and surface-based analysis (SBA) in the whole brain as well as ROI-based analysis of the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN), visual cortex (V1/2), amygdala and hippocampus. While VBA showed no significant differences in the gray matter volumes of patients, SBA revealed significantly reduced cortical thickness in the right frontal pole and ROI-based analysis volume shrinkage in LGN bilaterally, right V1 and left amygdala. Structural abnormalities were correlated with clinical parameters in a subset of the patients revealing that the left LGN volume was negatively correlated with bilateral cup-to-disk ratio (CDR), the right LGN volume was positively correlated with the mean deviation of the right visual hemifield, and the right V1 cortical thickness was negatively correlated with the right CDR in glaucoma. These results demonstrate that POAG affects both vision-related structures and non-visual cortical regions. Moreover, alterations of the brain visual structures reflect the clinical severity of glaucoma. PMID:26743811

  4. Structural brain alterations in primary open angle glaucoma: a 3T MRI study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jieqiong; Li, Ting; Sabel, Bernhard A; Chen, Zhiqiang; Wen, Hongwei; Li, Jianhong; Xie, Xiaobin; Yang, Diya; Chen, Weiwei; Wang, Ningli; Xian, Junfang; He, Huiguang

    2016-01-08

    Glaucoma is not only an eye disease but is also associated with degeneration of brain structures. We now investigated the pattern of visual and non-visual brain structural changes in 25 primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) patients and 25 age-gender-matched normal controls using T1-weighted imaging. MRI images were subjected to volume-based analysis (VBA) and surface-based analysis (SBA) in the whole brain as well as ROI-based analysis of the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN), visual cortex (V1/2), amygdala and hippocampus. While VBA showed no significant differences in the gray matter volumes of patients, SBA revealed significantly reduced cortical thickness in the right frontal pole and ROI-based analysis volume shrinkage in LGN bilaterally, right V1 and left amygdala. Structural abnormalities were correlated with clinical parameters in a subset of the patients revealing that the left LGN volume was negatively correlated with bilateral cup-to-disk ratio (CDR), the right LGN volume was positively correlated with the mean deviation of the right visual hemifield, and the right V1 cortical thickness was negatively correlated with the right CDR in glaucoma. These results demonstrate that POAG affects both vision-related structures and non-visual cortical regions. Moreover, alterations of the brain visual structures reflect the clinical severity of glaucoma.

  5. Cosmic Ray Energy Determination by the Reduced-Opening Angle Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, John C.

    1998-01-01

    The reduced opening angle technique offers a simple way with minimal model dependence to measure cosmic ray energies over a broad range with out any normalization uncertainties. The emulsion film and CR39 detectors proposed are well established techniques and should perform adequately. The analysis method depends on accurate automatic scanning of the CR39 plates. UAH have developed such a capability. With the proposed geometry energy measurements to approx. 5 TeV/a can be made. The expected iron event rate (E greater than or equal to 500 GeV/a) is 10/sq m day. The expected energy resolution, from accelerator calibrations at 200 GeV/a, is -50% to +80%. Since the absolute flux has some sensitivity to the assumed power law index it is essential that good energy resolution is obtained. The expected charge resolution is approx. 0.3 charge units for the CNO group falling to approx. 1 charge unit for the iron group. A suitable event trigger would be a measurable (greater than 2 micrometer) deflected heavy (Z greater than 2) fragment. One potential background is electromagnetic dissociation that predominantly couples to individual protons or alphas. Although the cross- sections can be appreciable such events will not pass the event trigger.

  6. Aging changes of the optic nerve head in relation to open angle glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Garway-Heath, D; Wollstein, G; Hitchings, R

    1997-01-01

    AIMS—To determine the age related changes in optic nerve head structure in a group of normal subjects and assess the significance of any changes in relation to those found in open angle glaucoma.
METHODS—A group of 88 white volunteers and friends and spouses of patients with a normal visual field and normal intraocular pressure was studied. Two different imaging and measurement devices were used (computer assisted planimetry and scanning laser ophthalmoscopy), and the results from each were compared. Measurements were made of the optic disc, optic cup, and neuroretinal rim areas, and the vertical optic disc diameter and cup/disc diameter ratio.
RESULTS—Neuroretinal rim area declined at the rate of between 0.28% and 0.39% per year. Vertical optic cup diameter and optic cup area increased with age. The mean cup/disc diameter ratio increased by about 0.1 between the ages of 30 and 70 years.
CONCLUSIONS—Age related changes are significant and measurable, and should be taken into account when assessing the glaucoma suspect, and when estimating the rate of progression of glaucomatous optic neuropathy in patients with established disease.

 PMID:9486023

  7. Little evidence for association of the glaucoma gene MYOC with open-angle glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Sohn, Seongsoo; Hur, Wonhee; Choi, Young Ran; Chung, Yun Shin; Ki, Chang-Seok

    2010-01-01

    Background/aim To determine if overexpression of the glaucoma gene MYOC is involved in the development of open-angle glaucoma (OAG) and if its promoter variants are associated with glaucoma in the Korean population. Methods Human trabecular meshwork cells were cultured in the presence of ophthalmic steroids such as fluorometholone, fluorometholone acetate, dexamethasone, prednisolone acetate and rimexolone. The cells were cultured at a hydrostatic pressure of 32 mm Hg above atmospheric pressure and induction of MYOC was evaluated by northern blot analysis. Genomic DNA was extracted from blood samples obtained from 74 normal controls and 168 unrelated Korean patients with OAG, including primary OAG, normal tension glaucoma and steroid-induced glaucoma. A 461 base pair (bp) DNA fragment of the MYOC promoter region was amplified using PCR and its genotype was analysed by directly sequencing the product. Results The potencies of steroid eye drops in MYOC induction in vitro was the same regardless of their potential for elevating intraocular pressure in vivo. Hydrostatic pressure had no effect on MYOC induction. A dinucleotide repeat polymorphism and three single nucleotide polymorphisms were identified, but no obvious differences in the genotype distribution and allele frequency of the variants between the control group and any type of OAG were observed. Conclusion Our data suggest that MYOC overexpression is not a cause or an effect of intraocular pressure elevation and that MYOC itself is not associated with OAG. PMID:20447966

  8. An Updated Review on the Genetics of Primary Open Angle Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Abu-Amero, Khaled; Kondkar, Altaf A.; Chalam, Kakarla V.

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that by 2020 the prevalence of primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) is estimated to increase to 76.0 million, and to 111.8 million by 2040 globally due to the population aging. The prevalence of POAG is the highest among those of African descent, followed by Asians, and the lowest in Europeans. POAG is a genetically complex trait with a substantial fraction exhibiting a significant heritability. Less than 10% of POAG cases in the general population are caused by specific gene mutations and the remaining cases are polygenic. Quantitative traits related to POAG pathogenesis such as intra-ocular pressure (IOP), vertical cup/disc ratio (VCDR), optic disc area, and central corneal thickness (CCT) are highly heritable, and likely to be influenced at least in part by genes and show substantial variation in human populations. Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at different loci including CAV1/CAV2, TMCO1, CDKN2B-AS1, CDC7-TGFBR3, SIX1/SIX6, GAS7 and ATOH7 to be associated with POAG and its related quantitative traits (endophenotypes). The chapter provides a brief overview on the different GWAS and SNP association studies and their correlation with various clinical parameters important for POAG in the population worldwide, including the Middle East. PMID:26690118

  9. Influence of topical betaxolol and timolol on visual field in Japanese open-angle glaucoma patients.

    PubMed

    Araie, Makoto; Azuma, Ikuo; Kitazawa, Yoshiaki

    2003-01-01

    To assess the effects of topical betaxolol and timolol on the visual field in Japanese open-angle glaucoma (OAG) patients. This study was a multicenter, 2-year, prospective, randomized and double-masked study. Tests using the Humphrey 30-2 perimeter program were conducted every 6 months and the data of 95 patients were analyzed using regression analysis. Estimated regression coefficients for mean deviation (MD), corrected pattern standard deviation (CPSD), and total deviation (TD) values clustered into 15 sectors were obtained for each treatment group. Estimated slopes (dB/year) for MD and CPSD showed no significant difference from zero in either group. However, in the betaxolol group, estimated slopes (dB/year) for two adjacent sectors in the inferior arcuate area were significantly positive (P =.0135,.0116) while in the timolol group, no significant difference from zero was seen in any of the sectors. IOP changes from baseline in the timolol group were greater than in the betaxolol group, although no statistical significance was seen at any of the examination times. MD and CPSD showed no significant change in either group. In the betaxolol group, however, a significant trend in improvement of visual field performance was seen in the inferior arcuate subfield. Timolol reduced IOP more effectively than betaxolol in OAG patients.

  10. Genetic screening in a large family with juvenile onset primary open angle glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Booth, A.; Anwar, R.; Chen, H.; Churchill, A.; Jay, J.; Polansky, J.; Nguyen, T.; Markham, A.

    2000-01-01

    AIMS—A number of genetic loci have been implicated in the pathogenesis of primary open angle glaucoma (POAG). The aim of this study was to identify the genetic cause of POAG in a large Scottish family and, if possible, offer genetic screening and advice to family members.
METHODS—Family members were examined to determine their disease status. Base excision sequence scanning was carried out in order to test for the presence of a POAG causing mutation at known genetic loci. Direct DNA sequencing was performed in order to determine the mutation sequence.
RESULTS—All family members of known affected disease status and two family members of unknown disease status were found to have a mutation in the TIGR gene. The mutation resulted in the substitution of a glycine residue with an arginine residue at codon 252 (Gly252Arg). No other sequence variations were present in any members of the family.
CONCLUSION—The Gly252Arg mutation in the TIGR gene results in the development of POAG in this family. It was possible to identify younger, currently unaffected, members of the family who carry the mutation and who are therefore at a very high risk of developing POAG themselves. This is the first demonstration that Gly252Arg can be a disease causing mutation rather than a benign polymorphism. The possible pathogenic mechanisms and wider implications of the mutation are considered.

 PMID:10873982

  11. Fascicular Visual Field Defects in Open-Angle Glaucoma: Evaluation with Microperimetry

    PubMed Central

    Fratipietro, Manuela; Malagola, Romualdo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. Use of microperimetry (Mp-1), correlating with Humphrey perimetry (30-2 program), in patients affected by primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) with perimetric defects, in order to obtain an evaluation of the accuracy of the results obtained by Mp-1. Materials and Methods. In this study 40 eyes of 25 patients affected by POAG with perimetric defects were included. All patients underwent microperimetry test by Nidek Mp-1 (NAVIS software version 1.7.2, Nidek Technologies). Mean sensitivity values expressed in decibel (dB) of all tested dots and mean values for each quadrant obtained by microperimetric test were correlated with corresponding quadrants obtained by static perimetry analysis. Data were analyzed by Pearson's correlation and Bland-Altman analysis. Results. Interpolated data showed that mean sensitivity values in all spots tested by Mp-1 (11.98 dB, SD 4.31) may be significantly correlated with mean total values obtained by Humphrey 30-2 perimetry (17.95, SD 4.32), with correlation coefficient of 0.556. Conclusions. Topographic visualization of the perimetric alteration by microperimetry allows retesting areas with reduced sensitivity which are topographically visualized and displayable on the ocular fundus examination, avoiding worsening of the functional defect by better modulation of the antiglaucoma therapy and therefore it allows better monitoring of the pathologic functional damage. PMID:27366329

  12. Open angle glaucoma in a case of Type IV Ehler Danlos syndrome: a rarely reported association.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Arijit; Ramakrishnan, R; Kader, Mohideen Abdul

    2014-08-01

    A 26-year-old male presented to us with defective vision in the left eye. He had best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) of hand movement (HM) in right eye and 6/9 in left eye. He had ptosis with ectropion in both eyes and relative afferent pupillary defect (RAPD) in right eye. Intraocular pressure (IOP) was 46 and 44 mmHg in right and left eye, respectively. Fundus showed glaucomatous optic atrophy (GOA) in right eye and cup disc ratio (CDR) of 0.75 with bipolar rim thinning in left eye. Systemic examination showed hyperextensible skin and joints, acrogeria, hypodontia, high arched palate, and varicose veins. He gave history of easy bruising and tendency to fall and history of intestinal rupture 5 years ago for which he had undergone surgery. He was diagnosed as a case of Type IV Ehler-Danlos syndrome (EDS) with open angle glaucoma. He underwent trabeculectomy in both eyes. This is a rare case that shows glaucoma in a patient of EDS Type IV. Very few such cases have been reported in literature.

  13. Open angle glaucoma in a case of Type IV Ehler Danlos syndrome: A rarely reported association

    PubMed Central

    Mitra, Arijit; Ramakrishnan, R.; Kader, Mohideen Abdul

    2014-01-01

    A 26-year-old male presented to us with defective vision in the left eye. He had best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) of hand movement (HM) in right eye and 6/9 in left eye. He had ptosis with ectropion in both eyes and relative afferent pupillary defect (RAPD) in right eye. Intraocular pressure (IOP) was 46 and 44 mmHg in right and left eye, respectively. Fundus showed glaucomatous optic atrophy (GOA) in right eye and cup disc ratio (CDR) of 0.75 with bipolar rim thinning in left eye. Systemic examination showed hyperextensible skin and joints, acrogeria, hypodontia, high arched palate, and varicose veins. He gave history of easy bruising and tendency to fall and history of intestinal rupture 5 years ago for which he had undergone surgery. He was diagnosed as a case of Type IV Ehler-Danlos syndrome (EDS) with open angle glaucoma. He underwent trabeculectomy in both eyes. This is a rare case that shows glaucoma in a patient of EDS Type IV. Very few such cases have been reported in literature. PMID:25230966

  14. A common variant near TGFBR3 is associated with primary open angle glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zheng; Allingham, R. Rand; Nakano, Masakazu; Jia, Liyun; Chen, Yuhong; Ikeda, Yoko; Mani, Baskaran; Chen, Li-Jia; Kee, Changwon; Garway-Heath, David F.; Sripriya, Sarangapani; Fuse, Nobuo; Abu-Amero, Khaled K.; Huang, Chukai; Namburi, Prasanthi; Burdon, Kathryn; Perera, Shamira A.; Gharahkhani, Puya; Lin, Ying; Ueno, Morio; Ozaki, Mineo; Mizoguchi, Takanori; Krishnadas, Subbiah Ramasamy; Osman, Essam A.; Lee, Mei Chin; Chan, Anita S.Y.; Tajudin, Liza-Sharmini A.; Do, Tan; Goncalves, Aurelien; Reynier, Pascal; Zhang, Hong; Bourne, Rupert; Goh, David; Broadway, David; Husain, Rahat; Negi, Anil K.; Su, Daniel H; Ho, Ching-Lin; Blanco, Augusto Azuara; Leung, Christopher K.S.; Wong, Tina T.; Yakub, Azhany; Liu, Yutao; Nongpiur, Monisha E.; Han, Jong Chul; Hon, Do Nhu; Shantha, Balekudaru; Zhao, Bowen; Sang, Jinghong; Zhang, NiHong; Sato, Ryuichi; Yoshii, Kengo; Panda-Jonas, Songhomita; Ashley Koch, Allison E.; Herndon, Leon W.; Moroi, Sayoko E.; Challa, Pratap; Foo, Jia Nee; Bei, Jin-Xin; Zeng, Yi-Xin; Simmons, Cameron P.; Bich Chau, Tran Nguyen; Sharmila, Philomenadin Ferdinamarie; Chew, Merwyn; Lim, Blanche; Tam, Pansy O.S.; Chua, Elaine; Ng, Xiao Yu; Yong, Victor H.K.; Chong, Yaan Fun; Meah, Wee Yang; Vijayan, Saravanan; Seongsoo, Sohn; Xu, Wang; Teo, Yik Ying; Cooke Bailey, Jessica N.; Kang, Jae H.; Haines, Jonathan L.; Cheng, Ching Yu; Saw, Seang-Mei; Tai, E-Shyong; Richards, Julia E.; Ritch, Robert; Gaasterland, Douglas E.; Pasquale, Louis R.; Liu, Jianjun; Jonas, Jost B.; Milea, Dan; George, Ronnie; Al-Obeidan, Saleh A.; Mori, Kazuhiko; Macgregor, Stuart; Hewitt, Alex W.; Girkin, Christopher A.; Zhang, Mingzhi; Sundaresan, Periasamy; Vijaya, Lingam; Mackey, David A.; Wong, Tien Yin; Craig, Jamie E.; Sun, Xinghuai; Kinoshita, Shigeru; Wiggs, Janey L.; Khor, Chiea-Chuen; Yang, Zhenglin; Pang, Chi Pui; Wang, Ningli; Hauser, Michael A.; Tashiro, Kei; Aung, Tin; Vithana, Eranga N.

    2015-01-01

    Primary open angle glaucoma (POAG), a major cause of blindness worldwide, is a complex disease with a significant genetic contribution. We performed Exome Array (Illumina) analysis on 3504 POAG cases and 9746 controls with replication of the most significant findings in 9173 POAG cases and 26 780 controls across 18 collections of Asian, African and European descent. Apart from confirming strong evidence of association at CDKN2B-AS1 (rs2157719 [G], odds ratio [OR] = 0.71, P = 2.81 × 10−33), we observed one SNP showing significant association to POAG (CDC7–TGFBR3 rs1192415, ORG-allele = 1.13, Pmeta = 1.60 × 10−8). This particular SNP has previously been shown to be strongly associated with optic disc area and vertical cup-to-disc ratio, which are regarded as glaucoma-related quantitative traits. Our study now extends this by directly implicating it in POAG disease pathogenesis. PMID:25861811

  15. Intraocular Pressure, Axial Length, and Refractive Changes after Phacoemulsification and Trabeculectomy for Open-Angle Glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Popa-Cherecheanu, Alina; Iancu, Raluca Claudia; Schmetterer, Leopold; Pirvulescu, Ruxandra; Coviltir, Valeria

    2017-01-01

    To compare changes in intraocular pressure (IOP), axial eye length (AEL), and refractive outcome in primary open-angle glaucoma patients undergoing cataract surgery and trabeculectomy in dependence of the sequence of surgeries. We retrospectively analysed 48 eyes. The changes in refraction, intraocular pressure, and axial eye length were analysed after surgery. In group A (21 subjects), phacoemulsification was performed before trabeculectomy, and in group B (27 subjects), trabeculectomy was performed before phacoemulsification with a minimum time span between interventions of 6 months. The reduction in IOP and the decrease in AEL after trabeculectomy were significant after 6 and 12 months postsurgery (p < 0.001 each). The decrease in AEL was 0.42 ± 0.11% at 6 months after surgery and 0.40 ± 0.13% after 12 months from surgery; this decrease in AEL was comparable between the groups. The refractive outcome was significantly different between the groups (group A: 0.35 ± 0.75 dpt, group B: -0.05 ± 0.36 dpt, p = 0.018); in group A, trabeculectomy caused a hyperopic shift of 0.34 ± 0.44 dpt (p = 0.002) at 12 months postsurgery. IOP reduction after trabeculectomy causes AEL shortening. The effect on refractive outcome depends on the sequence of surgeries. Better refractive outcome is achieved if phacoemulsification is performed after trabeculectomy.

  16. RAND-like appropriateness methodology consensus for primary open-angle glaucoma in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Lerner, S Fabian; Singh, Kuldev; Susanna, Remo; Wilson, M Roy; Lee, Brian L; Maul, Eugenio

    2012-09-01

    To report the results of a Latin American consensus panel regarding the diagnosis and management of primary open-angle glaucoma and to compare these results with those from a similar panel in the United States. A RAND-like (Research and Development) appropriateness methodology was used to assess glaucoma practice in Latin America. The 148 polling statements created for the RAND- like analysis in the United States and 10 additional statements specific to glaucoma care in Latin America were presented to a panel of Latin American glaucoma experts. Panelists were polled in private using the RAND- like methodology before and after the panel meeting. Consensus agreement or disagreement among Latin American experts was reached for 51.3% of statements before the meeting and increased to 66.5% in the private, anonymous meeting after polling (79.0% agreement, 21.0% disagreement). Although there was a high degree of concordance (111 of 148 statements; 75%) between the results of this Latin American panel and the United States panel, there were some notable exceptions relating to diagnostic and therapeutic decision making. This RAND-like consensus methodology provides a perspective of how Latin American glaucoma practitioners view many aspects of glaucoma and compares these results with those obtained using a similar methodology from practitioners in the United States. These findings may be helpful to ophthalmologists providing glaucoma care in Latin America and in other regions of the world. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Primary Open Angle Glaucoma is Associated with MR Biomarkers of Cerebral Small Vessel Disease.

    PubMed

    Mercieca, Karl; Cain, John; Hansen, Thomas; Steeples, Laura; Watkins, Amy; Spencer, Fiona; Jackson, Alan

    2016-02-29

    This prospective study tests the hypotheses that: 1) glaucoma is associated with evidence of cerebral small vessel disease; 2) that imaging biomarkers of cerebral small vessel disease in POAG and NTG will show different characteristics. 12 normal controls, 7 patients with primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) and 9 patients with normal tension glaucoma (NTG) were recruited. Ophthalmological clinical assessment and MR imaging of the brain were performed. MR imaging was used to quantify white matter lesion load, frequency of dilated perivascular spaces (PVS) and abnormalities in cerebral hydrodynamics. Patients with POAG had significantly greater white matter lesion load (p < 0.05), more PVS in the centrum semiovale (p < 0.05) and had higher overall PVS scores than controls (p < 0.05). In the POAG group, optic cup-to-disc ratio (CDR) was positively correlated with deep white matter hyperintensities (R(2) = 0.928, p < 0.01). Mean deviation on the Humphrey visual field assessment was negatively correlated with deep white matter lesion load (R(2) = -0.840, p < 0.01), total white matter lesion load (R(2) = -0.928, p < 0.01) and total PVS (R(2) = -0.820, p < 0.01). MR evidence of cerebral small vessel disease is strongly associated with a diagnosis of POAG and with the severity of abnormalities in CDR and visual field.

  18. Electrophysiological and psychophysical flicker sensitivity in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension.

    PubMed

    Holopigian, K; Seiple, W; Mayron, C; Koty, R; Lorenzo, M

    1990-09-01

    Temporal sensitivity was assessed in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and ocular hypertension (OHT). Three measures of flicker sensitivity were obtained: psychophysical modulation thresholds, visual-evoked potentials (VEPs), and focal electroretinograms (FERGs). We found elevated psychophysical thresholds at higher temporal frequencies (30-50 Hz) in patients with POAG, relative to thresholds for age-matched controls. The OHT patients had elevated psychophysical thresholds only at 50 Hz. On the other hand, VEP amplitudes in POAG patients were reduced at all temporal frequencies, with the magnitude of the loss increasing with temporal frequency. The OHT patients, however, showed no reductions in VEP amplitude at any temporal frequency. Finally, POAG patients' FERG amplitudes were reduced at 30-50 Hz; whereas FERG amplitudes in the OHT patients were normal at all temporal frequencies. These results indicate that OHT patients can exhibit psychophysical threshold losses at high temporal frequencies which are not observed in the suprathreshold electrophysiological amplitude measures. On the other hand, patients with POAG show both psychophysical and VEP losses across a range of temporal frequencies. In addition, the decreases in FERG amplitudes in POAG patients suggest changes in the functioning of the outer retina in this disease.

  19. Tag SNPs detect association of the CYP1B1 gene with primary open angle glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Burdon, Kathryn P; Hewitt, Alex W; Mackey, David A; Mitchell, Paul; Craig, Jamie E

    2010-11-04

    The cytochrome p450 family 1 subfamily B (CYP1B1) gene is a well known cause of autosomal recessive primary congenital glaucoma. It has also been postulated as a modifier of disease severity in primary open angle glaucoma (POAG), particularly in juvenile onset families. However, the role of common variation in the gene in relation to POAG has not been thoroughly explored. Seven tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), including two coding variants (L432V and N543S), were genotyped in 860 POAG cases and 898 examined normal controls. Each SNP and haplotype was assessed for association with disease. In addition, a subset of 396 severe cases and 452 elderly controls were analyzed separately. There was no association of any individual SNP in the full data set. Two SNPs (rs162562 and rs10916) were nominally associated under a dominant model in the severe cases (p<0.05). A common haplotype (AGCAGCC) was also found to be nominally associated in both the full data set (p=0.048, OR [95%CI]=0.83 [0.69-0.90]) and more significantly in the severe cases (p=0.004, OR [95%CI]=0.68 [0.52-0.89]) which survives correction for multiple testing. Although no major effect of common variation at the CYP1B1 locus on POAG was found, there could be an effect of SNPs tagged by rs162562 and represented on the AGCAGCC haplotype.

  20. Lack of association between polymorphism rs540782 and primary open angle glaucoma in Saudi patients.

    PubMed

    Kondkar, Altaf A; Edward, Nikhil B; Kalantan, Hatem; Al-Kharashi, Abdullah S; Altuwaijri, Saleh; Mohamed, Gamal; Sultan, Tahira; Azad, Taif A; Abu-Amero, Khaled K

    2017-02-02

    To investigate whether polymorphism rs540782 on chromsome 1, in close proximity to the Zona Pellucida Glycoprotein 4 (ZP4) gene, is a risk factor for primary open angle glaucoma (POAG). The study genotyped 92 unrelated POAG cases and 95 control subjects from Saudi Arabia using Taq-Man® assay. The genotype frequency distribution did not deviate significantly from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (p > 0.05). Overall, both the genotype and allele frequencies were not significantly different between cases and controls. The minor 'C' allele frequency was 49.4%, which was comparable to the Japanese population and higher than the Indian and Afro-Caribbean populations. Similarly, no significant association was found between genotypes and systemic diseases and health awareness/behavior domain variables. Importantly, glaucoma specific indices, such as intraocular pressure, cup/disc ratio and number of anti-glaucoma medication, also showed no statistically significant effect of genotypes within POAG cases. Polymorphism rs540782 is not a risk factor for POAG in the Saudi cohort.

  1. Vessel Caliber in Normal Tension and Primary Open Angle Glaucoma Eyes With Hemifield Damage.

    PubMed

    Rao, Aparna; Agarwal, Komal; Mudunuri, Harika; Padhy, Debananda; Roy, Avik K; Mukherjee, Sujoy

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate retinal vessel diameter in age-matched normal tension glaucoma (NTG) and primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) eyes with hemifield involvement. Fundus photographs of patients with hemifield defect, good visibility of retinal nerve fiber layer defect, and vessels were compared with 30 controls. One eye of each patient (28 NTG and 30 POAG) was randomly chosen for analysis using Image J software by different clinicians at 2 levels. The structural parameters analyzed included retinal nerve fiber layer defect width, diameter of vessels (superotemporal or inferotemporal artery and superotemporal or inferotemporal vein). The average superotemporal artery diameter was similar in NTG (71±16.8 µm), POAG (79±26.6 µm), and controls (82±14.1 µm), P=0.2 with similar pattern seen for other vessels. The affected quadrant in all eyes and those with disc hemorrhage (n=8) did not have significantly different arteries and veins diameter as compared with the unaffected quadrant in that eye. No relation of artery or vein diameter with retinal nerve fiber layer defect width or clinical variables in NTG or POAG eyes was seen on multivariate regression analysis. The vessel diameter was not significantly different in the affected and unaffected quadrants of age and severity-matched NTG and POAG eyes with hemifield structural and functional defect as reported in earlier studies. These results point toward the possibility that vascular diameter changes may not be the cause for glaucomatous changes.

  2. Cytokine biomarkers in tear film for primary open-angle glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Divakar; Wen, Joanne C; Huebner, Janet L; Stinnett, Sandra; Kraus, Virginia B; Tseng, Henry C; Walsh, Molly

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To determine the utility of tear film cytokines as biomarkers for early primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). Methods Patients without POAG and eye drop-naïve patients with newly diagnosed POAG were recruited from an academic hospital-based glaucoma practice. Tear films of recruited patients were obtained and analyzed using a multiplex, high-sensitivity electrochemiluminescent enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for proinflammatory cytokines (IFNγ, IL-10, IL-12p70, IL-13, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, and TNFα). Results Mean concentrations of tear film cytokines were lower in the glaucoma group for 8 of 10 cytokines tested. IL-12p70 (3.94±2.19 pg/mL in control vs 2.31±1.156 pg/mL in POAG; P=0.035) was significantly lower in the tear film of patients with newly diagnosed POAG. Conclusion Proinflammatory cytokines were lower in eye drop-naïve newly diagnosed glaucoma patients. Tear film cytokine profiles may be used as biomarkers of early POAG. PMID:28260854

  3. Clinical profiles of primary open angle glaucoma versus normal tension glaucoma patients: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Asrani, Sanjay; Samuels, Brian; Thakur, Mugdha; Santiago, Cecilia; Kuchibhatla, Maragatha

    2011-05-01

    To study the health profiles and behavioral differences between primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) and normal tension glaucoma (NTG) patients. Confidential mail survey of ICD-9 defined POAG (n = 277) and NTG (n = 116) patients was carried out to collect information regarding age, gender, height, weight, waist circumference, blood pressure (BP), medications [prescription (Rx) and over the counter (OTC)], education, and the Short Health Anxiety Inventory (SHAI). NTG patients (59/116) were significantly more likely to respond to the survey than POAG patients (43/277), p = 0.0001, and to have obtained college level education (70% vs. 42%), p = 0.003. Body weight, waist circumference, body mass index, systolic BP, pulse pressure, and ratio of prescription medications to OTC medications were significantly lower in the NTG group (p < 0.0001). The SHAI score, mean age, and diastolic BP were not different between the two groups. A subgroup analysis of college-educated patients in both groups revealed persisting significant differences in waist circumference, systolic BP, and ratio of Rx to OTC medications. NTG patients do not have significantly greater health anxiety than POAG patients. NTG patients are more likely to have lower BMI, systolic BP, and ratio of Rx to OTC medications than POAG patients. The pilot nature of this study limits generalizability of these findings. Larger studies confirming these findings and elucidating the role of refractive error and medical history on such differences are needed.

  4. [Effect of physical and psychological stress on the course of primary open angle glaucoma].

    PubMed

    Marc, Alexandra; Stan, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Analyzing how mutch mental or physical stress influences the elevation of intraocular pressure (lOP) and therefore the influence of stress over the progress of primary open angle glaucoma (POAG), monitoring the changes of the glaucoma parameters that occur either under stress or under normal life conditions. Observational analytical prospective nonexposed-exposed study that took place over a period of 18 months and reviewed 151 patients. Of the 64 patients that had mental stress before presenting to the doctor, in 47 (73%) of them, were foud increased lOP and visual field changes at regular consultation and 17 (27%) have experienced mental stress without increasing lOP values or any visual field change. Of the 69 patients that reported insomnia, 47 (68%) had elevated lOP, while 22 (32%) had unchanged IOP values. Of the 42 patients that had an increased stress score due to physical fatigue, 22 (52%) had increased lOP and visual field changes (CV) and 20 (48%) had no change in lOP or visual field. The presence of mental stress in a glaucomatous patient increases lOP values and leads to the worsening of the disease, while insomnia represents only a potential risk factor for POAG and physical exercise might even have a beneficial effect.

  5. Literature review and meta-analysis of translaminar pressure difference in open-angle glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Siaudvytyte, L; Januleviciene, I; Daveckaite, A; Ragauskas, A; Bartusis, L; Kucinoviene, J; Siesky, B; Harris, A

    2015-10-01

    There is increasing evidence in the literature regarding translaminar pressure difference's (TPD) role in the pathophysiology of glaucoma. The optic nerve is exposed not only to intraocular pressure in the eye, but also to intracranial pressure (ICP), as it is surrounded by cerebrospinal fluid in the subarachnoid space. Although pilot studies have identified the potential importance of TPD in glaucoma, limited available data currently prevent a comprehensive description of the role that TPD may have in glaucomatous pathophysiology. In this review, we present all available qualified data from a systematic review of the literature of the role of TPD in open-angle glaucoma (OAG). PubMed (Medline), OVID Medline, ScienceDirect, SpringerLink, and all available library databases were reviewed and subsequent meta-analysis of pooled mean differences are presented where appropriate. Five papers including 396 patients met criteria for inclusion to the analysis. Importantly, we included all observational studies despite differences in ICP measurement methods, as there is no consensus regarding best-practice ICP measurements in glaucoma. Our results show that not only TPD is higher in glaucoma patients compared with healthy subjects, it is related to structural glaucomatous changes of the optic disc. Our analysis suggests further longitudinal prospective studies are needed to investigate the influence of TPD in OAG, with a goal of overcoming methodological weaknesses of previous studies.

  6. Literature review and meta-analysis of translaminar pressure difference in open-angle glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Siaudvytyte, L; Januleviciene, I; Daveckaite, A; Ragauskas, A; Bartusis, L; Kucinoviene, J; Siesky, B; Harris, A

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing evidence in the literature regarding translaminar pressure difference's (TPD) role in the pathophysiology of glaucoma. The optic nerve is exposed not only to intraocular pressure in the eye, but also to intracranial pressure (ICP), as it is surrounded by cerebrospinal fluid in the subarachnoid space. Although pilot studies have identified the potential importance of TPD in glaucoma, limited available data currently prevent a comprehensive description of the role that TPD may have in glaucomatous pathophysiology. In this review, we present all available qualified data from a systematic review of the literature of the role of TPD in open-angle glaucoma (OAG). PubMed (Medline), OVID Medline, ScienceDirect, SpringerLink, and all available library databases were reviewed and subsequent meta-analysis of pooled mean differences are presented where appropriate. Five papers including 396 patients met criteria for inclusion to the analysis. Importantly, we included all observational studies despite differences in ICP measurement methods, as there is no consensus regarding best-practice ICP measurements in glaucoma. Our results show that not only TPD is higher in glaucoma patients compared with healthy subjects, it is related to structural glaucomatous changes of the optic disc. Our analysis suggests further longitudinal prospective studies are needed to investigate the influence of TPD in OAG, with a goal of overcoming methodological weaknesses of previous studies. PMID:26183286

  7. Short-term effects of relaxation music on patients suffering from primary open-angle glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Bertelmann, Thomas; Strempel, Ilse

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate whether additive relaxation music (RM) has an adjuvant short-term effect on physiological and psychological parameters in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma. Methods Prospective, randomized clinical trial. Patients in the therapy group (TG) received a 30-minute RM via headphones, whereas members of the control group (CG) did not. Best corrected visual acuity, intraocular pressure, visual field testing, short- and long-term mental states, and blood levels of different stress hormones were analyzed and compared. Results A total of 25 (61%)/16 (39%) patients were assigned to the TG/CG. Best corrected visual acuity, daily intraocular pressure, and short-term mental state (KAB) development were significantly better in the TG in comparison to controls. Visual field testing, long-term mental well-being (profile of mood states), and adrenalin, cortisol, and endothelin-I blood levels did not differ significantly between both groups. Conclusion Additive RM applied on a daily basis can positively impact various physiological and psychological parameters in the short term. PMID:26543350

  8. A common variant near TGFBR3 is associated with primary open angle glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Li, Zheng; Allingham, R Rand; Nakano, Masakazu; Jia, Liyun; Chen, Yuhong; Ikeda, Yoko; Mani, Baskaran; Chen, Li-Jia; Kee, Changwon; Garway-Heath, David F; Sripriya, Sarangapani; Fuse, Nobuo; Abu-Amero, Khaled K; Huang, Chukai; Namburi, Prasanthi; Burdon, Kathryn; Perera, Shamira A; Gharahkhani, Puya; Lin, Ying; Ueno, Morio; Ozaki, Mineo; Mizoguchi, Takanori; Krishnadas, Subbiah Ramasamy; Osman, Essam A; Lee, Mei Chin; Chan, Anita S Y; Tajudin, Liza-Sharmini A; Do, Tan; Goncalves, Aurelien; Reynier, Pascal; Zhang, Hong; Bourne, Rupert; Goh, David; Broadway, David; Husain, Rahat; Negi, Anil K; Su, Daniel H; Ho, Ching-Lin; Blanco, Augusto Azuara; Leung, Christopher K S; Wong, Tina T; Yakub, Azhany; Liu, Yutao; Nongpiur, Monisha E; Han, Jong Chul; Hon, Do Nhu; Shantha, Balekudaru; Zhao, Bowen; Sang, Jinghong; Zhang, NiHong; Sato, Ryuichi; Yoshii, Kengo; Panda-Jonas, Songhomita; Ashley Koch, Allison E; Herndon, Leon W; Moroi, Sayoko E; Challa, Pratap; Foo, Jia Nee; Bei, Jin-Xin; Zeng, Yi-Xin; Simmons, Cameron P; Bich Chau, Tran Nguyen; Sharmila, Philomenadin Ferdinamarie; Chew, Merwyn; Lim, Blanche; Tam, Pansy O S; Chua, Elaine; Ng, Xiao Yu; Yong, Victor H K; Chong, Yaan Fun; Meah, Wee Yang; Vijayan, Saravanan; Seongsoo, Sohn; Xu, Wang; Teo, Yik Ying; Cooke Bailey, Jessica N; Kang, Jae H; Haines, Jonathan L; Cheng, Ching Yu; Saw, Seang-Mei; Tai, E-Shyong; Richards, Julia E; Ritch, Robert; Gaasterland, Douglas E; Pasquale, Louis R; Liu, Jianjun; Jonas, Jost B; Milea, Dan; George, Ronnie; Al-Obeidan, Saleh A; Mori, Kazuhiko; Macgregor, Stuart; Hewitt, Alex W; Girkin, Christopher A; Zhang, Mingzhi; Sundaresan, Periasamy; Vijaya, Lingam; Mackey, David A; Wong, Tien Yin; Craig, Jamie E; Sun, Xinghuai; Kinoshita, Shigeru; Wiggs, Janey L; Khor, Chiea-Chuen; Yang, Zhenglin; Pang, Chi Pui; Wang, Ningli; Hauser, Michael A; Tashiro, Kei; Aung, Tin; Vithana, Eranga N

    2015-07-01

    Primary open angle glaucoma (POAG), a major cause of blindness worldwide, is a complex disease with a significant genetic contribution. We performed Exome Array (Illumina) analysis on 3504 POAG cases and 9746 controls with replication of the most significant findings in 9173 POAG cases and 26 780 controls across 18 collections of Asian, African and European descent. Apart from confirming strong evidence of association at CDKN2B-AS1 (rs2157719 [G], odds ratio [OR] = 0.71, P = 2.81 × 10(-33)), we observed one SNP showing significant association to POAG (CDC7-TGFBR3 rs1192415, ORG-allele = 1.13, Pmeta = 1.60 × 10(-8)). This particular SNP has previously been shown to be strongly associated with optic disc area and vertical cup-to-disc ratio, which are regarded as glaucoma-related quantitative traits. Our study now extends this by directly implicating it in POAG disease pathogenesis. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  9. Evaluation of brimonidine-timolol fixed combination in patients of primary open-angle glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Sachin R; Akat, Pramod B; Ramanand, Jaiprakash B; Ramanand, Sunita J; Karande, Vitthal B; Jain, Suyog S

    2013-12-01

    The aim of present study was to compare the efficacy and safety of fixed combination of brimonidine and timolol with individual components used as monotherapy in patients of primary open angle glaucoma. Patients were randomly assigned to receive brimonidine or timolol or brimonidine-timolol fixed combination, with 30 patients in each group. The mean reduction in intraocular pressure in brimonidine, timolol, and brimonidine-timolol group were 4.29 ± 1.97 mm Hg, 4.34 ± 1.21 mm Hg, and 5.54 ± 1.87 mm Hg respectively at 2 weeks and 4.86 ± 1.16 mm Hg, 5.42 ± 1.50 mm Hg, and 7.36 ± 2.58 mm Hg respectively at 6 weeks. When values of mean reduction in intraocular pressure were compared between brimonidine-timolol fixed combination with brimonidine and timolol, it was found to be statistically significant ( P < 0.05) at 2 weeks and highly significant (0.001) at 6 weeks. The overall frequency of adverse effects was similar in all three groups.

  10. Corneal biomechanical properties affect Goldmann applanation tonometry in primary open-angle glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Costin, Bryan R; Fleming, Gloria P; Weber, Paul A; Mahmoud, Ashraf M; Roberts, Cynthia J

    2014-02-01

    To study differences in corneal biomechanical properties between primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and central corneal thickness (CCT)-matched control subjects and their effect on intraocular pressure (IOP) measurement. Thirteen eyes of 13 POAG subjects and 15 eyes of 15 normal subjects underwent corneal topography; IOP using Goldmann applanation tonometry (GAT), dynamic contour tonometry (DCT), and corneal compensated IOP (IOPcc) using the Reichert ocular response analyzer (ORA); corneal hysteresis; and CCT. Results from POAG and control eyes were then compared using t tests. Ages in the POAG group were slightly greater than that in the control group. CCT was closely matched between groups. Significant differences were found between GAT versus DCT and GAT versus IOPcc within both groups: Mean GAT IOP was not significantly different between POAG and controls, whereas mean DCT IOP did show a significant difference between groups as did mean IOPcc. The delta differences, GATΔDCT and GATΔIOPcc, were of greater magnitude in POAG subjects when compared with controls. Corneal hysteresis was significantly lower in POAG subjects. The delta differences between GAT and newer measures of IOP are greater in magnitude in patients with POAG than in the normal controls, independent of CCT. This is likely due to differences in the corneal biomechanical properties with POAG corneas being softer than healthy corneas, which causes greater underestimation of IOP by GAT in POAG than controls. Underestimation of IOP could affect treatment decisions and outcomes in POAG.

  11. Evaluation of Contrast Sensitivity, Chromatic Vision, and Reading Ability in Patients with Primary Open Angle Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Güerri, Noemi; Cameo, Beatriz; Polo, Vicente; Larrosa, Jose M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To compare contrast sensitivity, acquired color vision deficiency, and reading ability in patients with glaucoma at different stages of the disease and to establish correlations between visual field parameters and visual function scores. Methods. This prospective cross-sectional study included 121 glaucoma patients. Subjects with a diagnosis of chronic open angle glaucoma were recruited and classified according to Hodapp-Parrish-Anderson criteria. Patients with severe visual field defects were excluded because they were older, which could bias the interpretation of visual function tests. Contrast sensitivity was measured using the Pelli-Robson Chart and the CSV1000E test. Chromatic vision was evaluated using the Farnsworth-panel D15 and the L'Anthony D15 tests of Vision Color Recorder software. Reading ability was measured using Radner-Vissum test. Results. Contrast sensitivity (with photopic and mesopic luminance with glare) differed significantly between patients with early and moderate visual field defects (p < 0.05). Reading ability scores and results of the chromatic vision tests did not differ significantly between the two groups. Significant and moderate Spearman correlations between visual field indexes and contrast sensitivity tests were detected. Conclusions. Contrast sensitivity was significantly worse in patients with moderate glaucoma compared to those with early-stage glaucoma. Evaluation of visual function in clinical practice provides important information to address a glaucoma patient's vision complaints. PMID:27872754

  12. Role of cholesterol 24S-hydroxylase gene polymorphism (rs754203) in primary open angle glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Weger, Martin; Faschinger, Christoph; Schmut, Otto; Renner, Wilfried; Wedrich, Andreas; Zimmermann, Christina; El-Shabrawi, Yosuf

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The enzyme cholesterol 24S-hydroxylase (Cyp46A1) is responsible for the conversion of cholesterol to its more polar metabolite 24S-hydroxycholesterol, thereby enabling the intracerebral elimination of cholesterol. An intronic single nucleotide polymorphism in the gene CYP46A1 (IVS2 −150 T>C; rs754203) has recently been associated with primary open angle glaucoma (POAG). This association, however, lacks confirmation in other studies. The purpose of the present study was to investigate a hypothesized association between rs754203 and the presence of POAG in a Central European population of Caucasian descent. Methods The present institutional study comprised a total of 581 unrelated subjects: 330 patients with POAG, and 251 control subjects. Main outcome measures are genotype distributions and allelic frequencies determined by polymerase chain reaction. Results No significant differences in either genotype distribution or allelic frequencies were found between patients with POAG and control subjects (p>0.05). The presence of the rs754203 T-allele was associated with a nonsignificant odds ratio of 0.81 (95% CI: 0.63–1.04; p=0.11) for POAG. Conclusions Our data suggest that the rs754203 polymorphism itself is unlikely a genetic risk factor for POAG in Caucasian individuals. PMID:21386929

  13. Optineurin coding variants in Ghanaian patients with primary open-angle glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yutao; Akafo, Stephen; Santiago-Turla, Cecile; Cohen, Claudia S.; LaRocque-Abramson, Karen R.; Qin, Xuejun; Herndon, Leon W.; Challa, Pratap; Schmidt, Silke; Hauser, Michael A.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose Coding variants in the optineurin gene (OPTN, GLC1E) have been reported to play a role in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) in various populations. This study investigated the role of OPTN sequence variants in patients with POAG in Ghana (West Africa). Methods This is a case-control study of unrelated Ghanaian POAG cases and non-glaucomatous controls. Ascertainment criteria for POAG included the presence of glaucomatous optic nerve neuropathy, associated visual field loss, and elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) in both eyes, all in the absence of secondary causes of glaucoma. Controls had normal optic nerves, visual fields, and IOP. All the coding exons of OPTN were polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplified and sequenced in all 140 cases and 130 controls using an ABI 3730 DNA analyzer. Results All the coding exons of OPTN were sequenced in 140 POAG patients and 130 controls. Several coding variants were identified including M98K, A134A, V147L, P292P, A301G, S321S, and E322K. Three coding variants (V147L, P292P, and A301G) have not been reported previously. There were no significant differences on the frequencies of all the identified variants between POAG cases and controls in this population. Conclusions This is the first comprehensive study of OPTN in a single West African population. Our results suggest that coding variants in OPTN may not contribute to the risk for POAG in persons of West African descent. PMID:19096531

  14. Comparison of canaloplasty and trabeculectomy for open angle glaucoma: a Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Zhong-Jing; Xu, Shuo; Huang, Shou-Yue; Zhang, Xiao-Bin; Zhong, Yi-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the advantage of canaloplasty compared to trabeculectomy for patients with open angle glaucoma. METHODS Potentially relevant studies were systematically searched using various databases from inception until December 2015. The outcome analyses performed automatically using Revman 5.3 included intraocular pressure reduction (IOPR), postoperative success rate, anti-glaucoma medications reduction and the incidence of adverse events. RESULTS We included four qualified studies incorporating a total of 215 eyes for quantitative synthesis. The weighted mean difference (WMD) of IOPR between canaloplasty and trabeculectomy from baseline to 12mo was -2.33 (95%CI: -4.00, -0.66). There was not significant improvement in the complete or qualified success rate (OR: 0.58, 95%CI: 0.26, 1.31; OR: 0.50, 95%CI: 0.10, 2.44, respectively). Similarly, no statistically significance was observed in anti-glaucoma mediations reduction (WMD: -0.54, 95%CI: -1.18, 0.09). Sensitivity analysis of the primary outcome estimate confirmed the stability of the Meta-analysis result. CONCLUSION Trabeculectomy seems to be more effective in lowering IOP up to 12mo when comparing with canaloplasty. Canaloplasty does not seem to be inferior to trabeculectomy considering the postoperative success rate or the number of postoperative anti-glaucoma medications. Meanwhile, it has an advantage of less bleb related complications. PMID:28003985

  15. Targeting relatives of patients with primary open angle glaucoma: the help the family glaucoma project.

    PubMed

    Okeke, Constance Nduaguba; Friedman, David S; Jampel, Henry D; Congdon, Nathan G; Levin, Lisa; Lai, Hong; Quigley, Harry A

    2007-09-01

    To assess the knowledge of patients with open angle glaucoma (OAG) and their family members about OAG risk factors and to study the referral of family members for eye examinations. Cross-sectional survey and prospective cohort study. We interviewed OAG patients (probands) at the Wilmer Eye Institute and their biologically related parents, siblings, and children about their knowledge of OAG risk factors. Qualified family members were offered an eye examination through the EyeCare America program. Three months after initial contact, a follow-up telephone questionnaire determined the outcome of the referral. Among 102 probands and 100 (of 230 eligible) family members who were interviewed, there was high awareness that OAG is related to older age (85% both groups). More probands knew of the association with higher intraocular pressure (95%) compared with family (78%). Yet, 21% of both groups were not aware that OAG is hereditary, and only 53% of probands and 30% of family members knew that OAG is more common in certain ethnic groups. Only two-thirds of probands had suggested that family members have an eye examination. Eighty percent of family members had had an eye examination within the last year; of 21 with no recent examination, 66% (13/21) accepted referral. The Help the Family Glaucoma project developed a novel approach to identify those at high-risk for OAG. Screening of relatives of OAG patients deserves further study in a more representative selection of the general population.

  16. Applying the recent clinical trials on primary open angle glaucoma: the developing world perspective.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Ravi; Kumar, Rajesh S; Chandrasekhar, G; Parikh, Rajul

    2005-08-01

    Recent clinical trials have provided scientific guidelines for the treatment of ocular hypertension and primary open angle glaucoma. The developing world need to apply these trials in a sensible and cost effective manner. The number needed to treat (NNT) attempts to tailor treatment to the individual patient. The NNT for the average ocular hypertensive is 20. Those with intraocular pressure > or =26 mm Hg have an NNT of 6. Restricting treatment to those with lower central corneal thickness and or high cup disc ratios can further lower NNT and make treatment more cost effective. The NNT for the average patient with early POAG is 5. Targeting those at higher risk for progression, (bilateral POAG, higher IOP and or pseudo-exfoliation) can further reduce NNT. As far as the modality of treatment is concerned, provided quality can be ensured, collaborative initial glaucoma treatment study (CIGTS) could be interpreted to justify primary surgery in the developing world context. Population attributable risk percentage (PAR), a measure that reflects the public health importance of a disease was used to extrapolate results to the overall population. Ocular hypertension has an "effective" PAR of 8.5%, a value not considered high enough to warrant public health intervention. POAG had an "effective" PAR of 16%, perhaps high enough to be considered a public health problem and justify inclusion as a target disease in the Vision 2020 program. However the logistics and opportunity costs of diagnosis and treatment would probably prevent inclusion of POAG in public health budgets of most developing countries.

  17. Assessment of polygenic effects links primary open-angle glaucoma and age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Cuellar-Partida, Gabriel; Craig, Jamie E; Burdon, Kathryn P; Wang, Jie Jin; Vote, Brendan J; Souzeau, Emmanuelle; McAllister, Ian L; Isaacs, Timothy; Lake, Stewart; Mackey, David A; Constable, Ian J; Mitchell, Paul; Hewitt, Alex W; MacGregor, Stuart

    2016-05-31

    Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) are leading causes of irreversible blindness. Several loci have been mapped using genome-wide association studies. Until very recently, there was no recognized overlap in the genetic contribution to AMD and POAG. At genome-wide significance level, only ABCA1 harbors associations to both diseases. Here, we investigated the genetic architecture of POAG and AMD using genome-wide array data. We estimated the heritability for POAG (h(2)g = 0.42 ± 0.09) and AMD (h(2)g = 0.71 ± 0.08). Removing known loci for POAG and AMD decreased the h(2)g estimates to 0.36 and 0.24, respectively. There was evidence for a positive genetic correlation between POAG and AMD (rg = 0.47 ± 0.25) which remained after removing known loci (rg = 0.64 ± 0.31). We also found that the genetic correlation between sexes for POAG was likely to be less than 1 (rg = 0.33 ± 0.24), suggesting that differences of prevalence among genders may be partly due to heritable factors.

  18. Common Genetic Determinants of Intraocular Pressure and Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Ikram, M. Kamran; Jansonius, Nomdo M.; Pasutto, Francesca; Hysi, Pirro G.; Macgregor, Stuart; Janssen, Sarah F.; Hewitt, Alex W.; Viswanathan, Ananth C.; ten Brink, Jacoline B.; Hosseini, S. Mohsen; Amin, Najaf; Despriet, Dominiek D. G.; Willemse-Assink, Jacqueline J. M.; Kramer, Rogier; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Struchalin, Maksim; Aulchenko, Yurii S.; Weisschuh, Nicole; Zenkel, Matthias; Mardin, Christian Y.; Gramer, Eugen; Welge-Lüssen, Ulrich; Montgomery, Grant W.; Carbonaro, Francis; Young, Terri L.; Bellenguez, Céline; McGuffin, Peter; Foster, Paul J.; Topouzis, Fotis; Mitchell, Paul; Wang, Jie Jin; Wong, Tien Y.; Czudowska, Monika A.; Hofman, Albert; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Wolfs, Roger C. W.; de Jong, Paulus T. V. M.; Oostra, Ben A.; Paterson, Andrew D.; Mackey, David A.; Bergen, Arthur A. B.; Reis, André; Hammond, Christopher J.; Vingerling, Johannes R.; Lemij, Hans G.; Klaver, Caroline C. W.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.

    2012-01-01

    Intraocular pressure (IOP) is a highly heritable risk factor for primary open-angle glaucoma and is the only target for current glaucoma therapy. The genetic factors which determine IOP are largely unknown. We performed a genome-wide association study for IOP in 11,972 participants from 4 independent population-based studies in The Netherlands. We replicated our findings in 7,482 participants from 4 additional cohorts from the UK, Australia, Canada, and the Wellcome Trust Case-Control Consortium 2/Blue Mountains Eye Study. IOP was significantly associated with rs11656696, located in GAS7 at 17p13.1 (p = 1.4×10−8), and with rs7555523, located in TMCO1 at 1q24.1 (p = 1.6×10−8). In a meta-analysis of 4 case-control studies (total N = 1,432 glaucoma cases), both variants also showed evidence for association with glaucoma (p = 2.4×10−2 for rs11656696 and p = 9.1×10−4 for rs7555523). GAS7 and TMCO1 are highly expressed in the ciliary body and trabecular meshwork as well as in the lamina cribrosa, optic nerve, and retina. Both genes functionally interact with known glaucoma disease genes. These data suggest that we have identified two clinically relevant genes involved in IOP regulation. PMID:22570627

  19. Red blood cell plasmalogens and docosahexaenoic acid are independently reduced in primary open-angle glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Acar, Niyazi; Berdeaux, Olivier; Juaneda, Pierre; Grégoire, Stéphane; Cabaret, Stéphanie; Joffre, Corinne; Creuzot-Garcher, Catherine P; Bretillon, Lionel; Bron, Alain M

    2009-12-01

    Among several theories involved in the pathogenesis of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), the vascular theory considers the disease to be a consequence of reduced ocular blood flow associated with red blood cell abnormalities. Red blood cell membrane structure and function are influenced by their phospholipid composition. We investigated whether specific lipid entities that may affect the membrane physiology, namely, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and plasmalogens, are modified in POAG and whether these potential variations are related to the stage of glaucoma. Blood samples were collected from 31 POAG patients and 10 healthy individuals. The stage of glaucoma was determined according to the Hodapp and Parrish classification. Lipids were extracted from red blood cell membranes and individual phospholipid species were quantified by liquid chromatography combined with mass spectrometry using triple quadrupole technology. POAG patients had reduced erythrocyte levels of phosphatidyl-choline (PC) carrying docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). POAG patients also displayed lower levels of choline plasmalogens (PlsC) carrying PUFAs other than DHA. These differences were greater as the severity of the disease increased. Linear regressions predicted that red blood cell PlsC levels would decrease years before clinical symptoms, whereas the levels of PC carrying DHA were linearly correlated to visual field loss. Our data demonstrate the selective loss of some individual phospholipid species in red blood cell membranes, which may partly explain their loss of flexibility in POAG.

  20. Assessment of polygenic effects links primary open-angle glaucoma and age-related macular degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Cuellar-Partida, Gabriel; Craig, Jamie E.; Burdon, Kathryn P.; Wang, Jie Jin; Vote, Brendan J.; Souzeau, Emmanuelle; McAllister, Ian L.; Isaacs, Timothy; Lake, Stewart; Mackey, David A.; Constable, Ian J.; Mitchell, Paul; Hewitt, Alex W.; MacGregor, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) are leading causes of irreversible blindness. Several loci have been mapped using genome-wide association studies. Until very recently, there was no recognized overlap in the genetic contribution to AMD and POAG. At genome-wide significance level, only ABCA1 harbors associations to both diseases. Here, we investigated the genetic architecture of POAG and AMD using genome-wide array data. We estimated the heritability for POAG (h2g = 0.42 ± 0.09) and AMD (h2g = 0.71 ± 0.08). Removing known loci for POAG and AMD decreased the h2g estimates to 0.36 and 0.24, respectively. There was evidence for a positive genetic correlation between POAG and AMD (rg = 0.47 ± 0.25) which remained after removing known loci (rg = 0.64 ± 0.31). We also found that the genetic correlation between sexes for POAG was likely to be less than 1 (rg = 0.33 ± 0.24), suggesting that differences of prevalence among genders may be partly due to heritable factors. PMID:27241461

  1. A model for analysis of the temperature field downstream of a heated jet injected into an isothermal crossflow at an angle of 90 deg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eriksen, V. L.; Eckert, E. R. G.; Goldstein, R. J.

    1971-01-01

    The temperature distribution downstream of a heated jet entering an isothermal crossflow at an angle of 90 deg is predicted using two conduction models with energy sources above the point of injection, in one case a point source and in the second a line source. The models use effective turbulent diffusivities that are determined empirically from previous measurements. Temperatures predicted by the models are compared to experimental results.

  2. [Effects of nootropic agents on visual functions and lacrimal antioxidative activity in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma].

    PubMed

    Davydova, N G; Kuznetsova, T P; Borisova, S A; Abdulkadyrova, M Zh

    2006-01-01

    The paper presents the results of an investigation of the effect of the nootropic agents pantogam and nooclerine on visual functions in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma. These agents have been found to have a beneficial effect on the functional activity of the retina and optic nerve, light sensitivity, hemo- and hydrodynamics of the eye.

  3. Longitudinal Analysis of Serum Autoantibody-Reactivities in Patients with Primary Open Angle Glaucoma and Optic Disc Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Keilani, Munir M.; Wasielica-Poslednik, Joanna; Pfeiffer, Norbert; Grus, Franz H.

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of our current investigation was to analyze the autoantibody-reactivities of primary open angle glaucoma patients with optic disc hemorrhage as possibly correlated to disease progression by means of a protein microarray approach. Methods Sera of patients with primary open angle glaucoma and optic disc hemorrhage (n = 16) were collected directly after study inclusion (0 weeks) and after 2 weeks, 4 weeks and 12 weeks. As a control group patients with primary open angle glaucoma (n = 18) were used (0 weeks and 12 weeks). Microarrays were incubated and occurring antibody-antigen-reactions were visualized with fluorescence labeled anti-human-IgG secondary antibodies. To detect changes in autoantibodies spot intensities were digitized and compared. Results With respect to the immunoreactivity at 0 weeks level increment of anti-adaptor protein 1 complex subunit mu-1 antibodies and anti-SPRY domain-containing SOCS box protein 3 antibodies in sera of primary open angle patients with optic disc hemorrhage was detected. Linear trend analysis revealed a positive correlation with r ≥ 0.8 between antibody-level and time course. Control group show no relevant changes in the same period. Significant changes were found in time point 4 comparison between patient groups in anti-adaptor protein 1 complex subunit mu-1-level (p = 0.01). No significant changes in visual acuity were found. Conclusion With this approach we were able to detect autoimmune reactivities in sera of patients with primary open angle glaucoma and optic disc hemorrhage compared to patients without optic disc hemorrhage. These antibodies could give further insights into the pathogenesis and the autoimmune component of glaucomatous optic neuropathy. PMID:28030545

  4. Open-loop GPS signal tracking at low elevation angles from a ground-based observation site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyerle, Georg; Zus, Florian

    2017-01-01

    A 1-year data set of ground-based GPS signal observations aiming at geometric elevation angles below +2° is analysed. Within the "GLESER" measurement campaign about 2600 validated setting events were recorded by the "OpenGPS" open-loop tracking receiver at an observation site located at 52.3808° N, 13.0642° E between January and December 2014. The measurements confirm the feasibility of open-loop signal tracking down to geometric elevation angles of -1 to -1.5° extending the corresponding closed-loop tracking range by up to 1°. The study is based on the premise that observations of low-elevation events by a ground-based receiver may serve as test cases for space-based radio occultation measurements, even if the latter proceed at a significantly faster temporal scale. The results support the conclusion that the open-loop Doppler model has negligible influence on the derived carrier frequency profile for strong signal-to-noise density ratios above about 30 dB Hz. At lower signal levels, however, the OpenGPS receiver's dual-channel design, which tracks the same signal using two Doppler models differing by 10 Hz, uncovers a notable bias. The repeat patterns of the GPS orbit traces in terms of azimuth angle reveal characteristic signatures in both signal amplitude and Doppler frequency with respect to the topography close to the observation site. Mean vertical refractivity gradients, extracted from ECMWF meteorological fields, correlate weakly to moderately with observed signal amplitude fluctuations at geometric elevation angles between +1 and +2°. Results from multiple phase screen simulations support the interpretation that these fluctuations are at least partly produced by atmospheric multipath; at negative elevation angles diffraction at the ground surface seems to contribute.

  5. Association of primary open-angle glaucoma with mitochondrial variants and haplogroups common in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Gudiseva, Harini V.; Trachtman, Benjamin; Bowman, Anita S.; Sagaser, Anna; Sankar, Prithvi; Miller-Ellis, Eydie; Lehman, Amanda; Addis, Victoria; O'Brien, Joan M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To estimate the population frequencies of all common mitochondrial variants and ancestral haplogroups among 1,999 subjects recruited for the Primary Open-Angle African American Glaucoma Genetics (POAAGG) Study, including 1,217 primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) cases and 782 controls, and to identify ancestral subpopulations and mitochondrial mutations as potential risk factors for POAG susceptibility. Methods Subject classification by characteristic glaucomatous optic nerve findings and corresponding visual field defects, as defined by enrolling glaucoma specialists, stereo disc photography, phlebotomy, extraction of total DNA from peripheral blood or saliva, DNA quantification and normalization, PCR amplification of whole mitochondrial genomes, Ion Torrent deep semiconductor DNA sequencing on DNA pools (“Pool-seq”), Sanger sequencing of 3,479 individual mitochondrial DNAs, and bioinformatic analysis. Results The distribution of common African haplogroups within the POAAGG study population was broadly similar to prior surveys of African Americans. However, the POAG case population was found to be enriched in L1c2 haplogroups, which are defined in part by missense mutations m.6150G>A (Val83Ile, odds ratio [OR] 1.8, p=0.01), m.6253C>T (Met117Thr, rs200165736, OR 1.6, p=0.04), and m.6480G>A (Val193Ile, rs199476128, OR 4.6, p=0.04) in the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (MT-CO1) gene and by a variant, m.2220A>G (OR 2.0, p=0.01), in MT-RNR2, which encodes the mitochondrial ribosomal 16s RNA gene. L2 haplogroups were predicted to be overrepresented in the POAG case population by Pool-seq, and the difference was confirmed to be significant with Sanger sequencing, that targeted the L2-associated variants m.2416T>C (rs28358580, OR 1.2, p=0.02) and m.2332C>T (OR 1.2, p=.02) in MT-RNR2. Another variant within MT-RNR2, m.3010G>A (rs3928306), previously implicated in sensitivity to the optic neuropathy-associated antibiotic linezolid, and arising on D4 and J1

  6. Topical bimatoprost: a review of its use in open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension.

    PubMed

    Easthope, Stephanie E; Perry, Caroline M

    2002-01-01

    Bimatoprost, a synthetic prostamide analogue, is a new ocular hypotensive agent indicated for the second-line treatment of open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension. The drug is formulated as a 0.03% ophthalmic solution. Bimatoprost lowers intraocular pressure (IOP) by increasing aqueous humour outflow. When applied topically once daily in patients with ocular hypertension or glaucoma, bimatoprost 0.03% significantly reduced IOP. Mean IOP was reduced by approximately 7.5 to 9.2mm Hg 12 hours after drug administration in randomised clinical trials. The reduction in IOP was maintained throughout the 24-hour dosage interval. Once-daily treatment with bimatoprost 0.03% was found to be significantly more effective than timolol 0.5% (administered twice daily as an ophthalmic solution or once daily as a gel-forming solution) in randomised comparative trials in patients with ocular hypertension and glaucoma. Furthermore, after 1 to 6 months' treatment, the percentage of patients reaching a target IOP of < or =17mm Hg was significantly greater in the bimatoprost-treated groups than in those receiving timolol. Bimatoprost 0.03% ophthalmic solution was found to be at least as effective as topical latanoprost 0.005% administered once daily in two clinical trials. Reductions in IOP 16 and 20 hours postdose were greater in patients treated with bimatoprost, indicating superior control of IOP at timepoints throughout the dosage interval. In patients refractory to beta-blocker therapy, treatment with bimatoprost 0.03% produced greater reductions in diurnal IOP measurements than combination therapy with topical dorzolamide 2%/timolol 0.5%; approximately twice as many bimatoprost 0.03% recipients achieved an IOP of < or =16mm Hg. The most commonly reported adverse effect during clinical trials of once-daily bimatoprost 0.03% was conjunctival hyperaemia which occurred in 42 to 46% of patients treated. However, most cases were mild and only 1 to 4% of patients withdrew from

  7. Using the Utah Population Database to assess familial risk of primary open angle glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaolei; Harmon, Jennifer; Zabrieskie, Norman; Chen, Yuhong; Grob, Seanna; Williams, Brice; Lee, Clara; Kasuga, Daniel; Shaw, Peter X; Buehler, Jeanette; Wang, Ningli; Zhang, Kang

    2010-11-23

    Primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) is a leading cause of irreversible blindness in the elderly. Previous epidemiological studies have identified family history, ethnic origin, age, high intraocular pressure and diabetes mellitus as risk factors. However, it is difficult to assess the extent family history plays in this disease process. The Utah Population Database (UPDB), created by the University of Utah, has recently become a resource for which greater than 9 million records are available for use. The UPDB is divided into two major data sets from which family members can be identified, namely 1.6 million genealogy records and 2 million Utah birth certificates. This study utilizes these resources to assess the familial risk of POAG within the Utah Population. The University of Utah's hospital and clinic records were searched for patients with primary and chronic open angle glaucoma (ICD9 codes 365.04 and 365.11) between the years 1995 and 2005. A case-control analysis was then performed with specialized UPDB software that was modified to constrain the control and pedigree populations to over 1 million University of Utah-UPDB linked records. Controls were matched to cases by gender and birth year (±2.5years) with only one control being used per case. Population-attributable risk (PAR) to familial factors and relative risk (RR) were computed using conditional logistic regression (CLR). From the original 1.5 million medical records, 6198 patients with glaucoma were identified. Of these, 3391 met the inclusion criteria, which required patients to have at least one parent or one child in the UPDB. The PAR in this population was found to be 0.20, indicating 20% of the risk for glaucoma is attributable to genetic factors. CLR computations also showed a significantly increased relative risk (p<0.05) in first cousins (RR=1.45 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.16-1.8)), second cousins (RR=1.19 (95% CI 1.08-1.32)), siblings (RR=3.76 (95% CI 2.66-5.31)), parents (RR=6.25 (95

  8. [Computer-assisted multimedia interactive learning program "Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma"].

    PubMed

    Dick, V B; Zenz, H; Eisenmann, D; Tekaat, C J; Wagner, R; Jacobi, K W

    1996-05-01

    Advances in the area of information technology have opened up new possibilities for the use of interactive media in the training of medical students. Classical instructional technologies, such as video, slides, audio cassettes and computer programs with a textbook orientation, have been merged into one multimedia computer system. The medical profession has been increasingly integrating computer-based applications which can be used, for example, for record keeping within a medical practice. The goal of this development is to provide access to all modes of information storage and retrieval as well as documentation and training systems within a specific context. Since the beginning of the winter semester 1995, the Department of Ophthalmology in Giessen has used the learning program "Primary Open Angle Glaucoma" in student instruction. One factor that contributed to the implementation of this project was that actual training using patients within the clinic is difficult to conduct. Media-supported training that can provide a simulation of actual practice offers a suitable substitute. The learning program has been installed on Power PCs (Apple MacIntosh), which make up the technical foundation of our system. The program was developed using Hypercard software, which provides userfriendly graphical work environment. This controls the input and retrieval of data, direct editing of documents, immediate simulation, the creation of on-screen documents and the integration of slides that have been scanned in as well as QuickTime films. All of this can be accomplished without any special knowledge of programming language or operating systems on the part of the user. The glaucoma learning program is structured along the lines of anatomy, including an explanation of the circulation of the aqueous humor, pathology, clinical symptoms and findings, diagnosis and treatment. This structure along with the possibility for creating a list of personal files for the user with a collection

  9. Factors associated with lifetime risk of open-angle glaucoma blindness.

    PubMed

    Peters, Dorothea; Bengtsson, Boel; Heijl, Anders

    2014-08-01

    To investigate factors associated with bilateral glaucoma blindness, particularly factors available at the time of diagnosis. Retrospective chart review of all patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) or pseudoexfoliative glaucoma (PEXG) followed at the Department of Ophthalmology or Low Vision Center of Skåne University Hospital, Malmö, Sweden, who died between January 2006 and June 2010. Disease stage at diagnosis was defined by a simplified version of Mills' glaucoma staging system using perimetric mean deviation (MD) to define six stages of severity. Blindness was defined according to WHO criteria. We used logistic regression analysis to examine the association between risk factors and glaucoma blindness. Four hundred and 23 patients were included; 60% POAG and 40% PEXG. Sixty-four patients (15%) became blind from glaucoma. Blind patients had significantly longer mean duration with diagnosed disease than patients who did not go blind (14.8 years ± 5.8 versus 10.6 years ± 6.5, p < 0.001). The risk of blindness increased with higher intraocular pressure (IOP) (OR 1.08, 95% CI 1.03-1.13) and with each stage of more advanced field loss at time of diagnosis (OR 1.80 95% CI 1.34-2.41). Older age at death was also associated with an increased risk of blindness (OR 1.09 95% CI 1.03-1.14), while age at diagnosis was unimportant. PEXG was not an independent risk factor for blindness. Higher IOP and worse visual field status at baseline were important risk factors, as was older age at death. © 2013 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Comparison of Prelaminar Thickness between Primary Open Angle Glaucoma and Normal Tension Glaucoma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Youn Hea; Park, Hae-Young L.; Jung, Kyoung In; Park, Chan Kee

    2015-01-01

    Main Objective The thinning of prelaminar tissue and prelamina cupping is known to occur by ischemia, as we see in anterior ischemic optic neuropathy. Since normal tension glaucoma (NTG) is thought to be more related to vascular factor than in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), we hypothesized that prelamina thinning may occur prominently in NTG patients. This study investigated the difference in prelaminar tissue thickness between patients with POAG and NTG and verified the factors related to prelaminar thinning. Methods Complete ophthalmic examination including standard automatic perimetry was performed in all patients. The prelaminar tissue thickness was measured in all patients by performing enhanced depth imaging with a Heidelberg Spectralis Optical Coherence Tomography. The retinal nerve fiber layer and optic nerve head parameters were obtained using the Heidelberg Retina Tomography II and Cirrus Optical Coherence Tomography. Various ocular factors and their relationships with prelaminar thickness were analyzed. Results The mean prelaminar tissue thickness was significantly thinner in patients with POAG than in those with NTG. The difference in the prelaminar thickness between patients with POAG and those with NTG was greater in the early field defect group than in the moderate and severe field groups. In multivariate analysis, the mean prelaminar thickness was related to the intraocular pressure, mean deviation, cup-disc ratio, and cup volume. Conclusions The prelaminar tissue was thinner in patients with POAG than in patients with NTG, and intraocular pressure had a strong influence on the prelaminar thickness in both POAG and NTG. This may indicate that mechanical compression is the main pathogenic factor in both POAG and NTG. PMID:25793734

  11. Nailfold Capillary Abnormalities in Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma: A Multisite Study

    PubMed Central

    Pasquale, Louis R.; Hanyuda, Akiko; Ren, Ai; Giovingo, Michael; Greenstein, Scott H.; Cousins, Clara; Patrianakos, Thomas; Tanna, Angelo P.; Wanderling, Christopher; Norkett, William; Wiggs, Janey L.; Green, Kelsey; Kang, Jae H.; Knepper, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose There is considerable evidence for systemic vascular dysfunction in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). We performed nailfold capillary video microscopy to observe directly the nature of nonocular microvasculature abnormalities in POAG. Methods We enrolled 199 POAG patients and 124 control subjects from four sites. We used JH-1004 capillaroscopes to perform nailfold capillary video microscopy on the fourth and fifth digits of each subject's nondominant hand. Videos were evaluated for hemorrhages, dilated capillary loops > 50 μm, and avascular zones > 100 μm by graders masked to case status. Multivariable odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for POAG were obtained by means of logistic regression analyses that were applied to data from all cases and controls. Corresponding estimates of moderate or severe POAG versus mild POAG (based on the Hodapp-Anderson-Parrish scale) were obtained among cases only. Results After controlling for demographic factors, family history of glaucoma, systemic diseases, and use of anticoagulation and antiplatelet therapy, for each 100 nailfold capillaries assessed, all types of microvascular abnormalities were significantly associated with POAG. Specifically, the presence of any dilated capillaries (OR = 2.9; 95% CI, 1.6–5.6), avascular zones (OR = 4.4; 95% CI, 1.7–11.3) and hemorrhages (OR = 12.2; 95% CI, 5.9–25.1) were associated with POAG. Among cases, the frequency of microvascular abnormalities was not associated with glaucoma severity (P ≥ 0.43). Conclusions These data provided support for nonocular capillary bed abnormalities in POAG. Comparable vascular abnormalities in the optic nerve may render it susceptible to glaucomatous damage. PMID:26523386

  12. Hierarchical cluster analysis of progression patterns in open-angle glaucoma patients with medical treatment.

    PubMed

    Bae, Hyoung Won; Rho, Seungsoo; Lee, Hye Sun; Lee, Naeun; Hong, Samin; Seong, Gong Je; Sung, Kyung Rim; Kim, Chan Yun

    2014-04-29

    To classify medically treated open-angle glaucoma (OAG) by the pattern of progression using hierarchical cluster analysis, and to determine OAG progression characteristics by comparing clusters. Ninety-five eyes of 95 OAG patients who received medical treatment, and who had undergone visual field (VF) testing at least once per year for 5 or more years. OAG was classified into subgroups using hierarchical cluster analysis based on the following five variables: baseline mean deviation (MD), baseline visual field index (VFI), MD slope, VFI slope, and Glaucoma Progression Analysis (GPA) printout. After that, other parameters were compared between clusters. Two clusters were made after a hierarchical cluster analysis. Cluster 1 showed -4.06 ± 2.43 dB baseline MD, 92.58% ± 6.27% baseline VFI, -0.28 ± 0.38 dB per year MD slope, -0.52% ± 0.81% per year VFI slope, and all "no progression" cases in GPA printout, whereas cluster 2 showed -8.68 ± 3.81 baseline MD, 77.54 ± 12.98 baseline VFI, -0.72 ± 0.55 MD slope, -2.22 ± 1.89 VFI slope, and seven "possible" and four "likely" progression cases in GPA printout. There were no significant differences in age, sex, mean IOP, central corneal thickness, and axial length between clusters. However, cluster 2 included more high-tension glaucoma patients and used a greater number of antiglaucoma eye drops significantly compared with cluster 1. Hierarchical cluster analysis of progression patterns divided OAG into slow and fast progression groups, evidenced by assessing the parameters of glaucomatous progression in VF testing. In the fast progression group, the prevalence of high-tension glaucoma was greater and the number of antiglaucoma medications administered was increased versus the slow progression group. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  13. DNA copy number variants of known glaucoma genes in relation to primary open-angle glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yutao; Garrett, Melanie E; Yaspan, Brian L; Bailey, Jessica Cooke; Loomis, Stephanie J; Brilliant, Murray; Budenz, Donald L; Christen, William G; Fingert, John H; Gaasterland, Douglas; Gaasterland, Terry; Kang, Jae H; Lee, Richard K; Lichter, Paul; Moroi, Sayoko E; Realini, Anthony; Richards, Julia E; Schuman, Joel S; Scott, William K; Singh, Kuldev; Sit, Arthur J; Vollrath, Douglas; Weinreb, Robert; Wollstein, Gadi; Zack, Donald J; Zhang, Kang; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A; Haines, Jonathan L; Pasquale, Louis R; Wiggs, Janey L; Allingham, R Rand; Ashley-Koch, Allison E; Hauser, Michael A

    2014-11-20

    We examined the role of DNA copy number variants (CNVs) of known glaucoma genes in relation to primary open angle glaucoma (POAG). Our study included DNA samples from two studies (NEIGHBOR and GLAUGEN). All the samples were genotyped with the Illumina Human660W_Quad_v1 BeadChip. After removing non-blood-derived and amplified DNA samples, we applied quality control steps based on the mean Log R Ratio and the mean B allele frequency. Subsequently, data from 3057 DNA samples (1599 cases and 1458 controls) were analyzed with PennCNV software. We defined CNVs as those ≥5 kilobases (kb) in size and interrogated by ≥5 consecutive probes. We further limited our investigation to CNVs in known POAG-related genes, including CDKN2B-AS1, TMCO1, SIX1/SIX6, CAV1/CAV2, the LRP12-ZFPM2 region, GAS7, ATOH7, FNDC3B, CYP1B1, MYOC, OPTN, WDR36, SRBD1, TBK1, and GALC. Genomic duplications of CDKN2B-AS1 and TMCO1 were each found in a single case. Two cases carried duplications in the GAS7 region. Genomic deletions of SIX6 and ATOH7 were each identified in one case. One case carried a TBK1 deletion and another case carried a TBK1 duplication. No controls had duplications or deletions in these six genes. A single control had a duplication in the MYOC region. Deletions of GALC were observed in five cases and two controls. The CNV analysis of a large set of cases and controls revealed the presence of rare CNVs in known POAG susceptibility genes. Our data suggest that these rare CNVs may contribute to POAG pathogenesis and merit functional evaluation. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  14. DNA Copy Number Variants of Known Glaucoma Genes in Relation to Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yutao; Garrett, Melanie E.; Yaspan, Brian L.; Bailey, Jessica Cooke; Loomis, Stephanie J.; Brilliant, Murray; Budenz, Donald L.; Christen, William G.; Fingert, John H.; Gaasterland, Douglas; Gaasterland, Terry; Kang, Jae H.; Lee, Richard K.; Lichter, Paul; Moroi, Sayoko E.; Realini, Anthony; Richards, Julia E.; Schuman, Joel S.; Scott, William K.; Singh, Kuldev; Sit, Arthur J.; Vollrath, Douglas; Weinreb, Robert; Wollstein, Gadi; Zack, Donald J.; Zhang, Kang; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A.; Haines, Jonathan L.; Pasquale, Louis R.; Wiggs, Janey L.; Allingham, R. Rand; Ashley-Koch, Allison E.; Hauser, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. We examined the role of DNA copy number variants (CNVs) of known glaucoma genes in relation to primary open angle glaucoma (POAG). Methods. Our study included DNA samples from two studies (NEIGHBOR and GLAUGEN). All the samples were genotyped with the Illumina Human660W_Quad_v1 BeadChip. After removing non–blood-derived and amplified DNA samples, we applied quality control steps based on the mean Log R Ratio and the mean B allele frequency. Subsequently, data from 3057 DNA samples (1599 cases and 1458 controls) were analyzed with PennCNV software. We defined CNVs as those ≥5 kilobases (kb) in size and interrogated by ≥5 consecutive probes. We further limited our investigation to CNVs in known POAG-related genes, including CDKN2B-AS1, TMCO1, SIX1/SIX6, CAV1/CAV2, the LRP12-ZFPM2 region, GAS7, ATOH7, FNDC3B, CYP1B1, MYOC, OPTN, WDR36, SRBD1, TBK1, and GALC. Results. Genomic duplications of CDKN2B-AS1 and TMCO1 were each found in a single case. Two cases carried duplications in the GAS7 region. Genomic deletions of SIX6 and ATOH7 were each identified in one case. One case carried a TBK1 deletion and another case carried a TBK1 duplication. No controls had duplications or deletions in these six genes. A single control had a duplication in the MYOC region. Deletions of GALC were observed in five cases and two controls. Conclusions. The CNV analysis of a large set of cases and controls revealed the presence of rare CNVs in known POAG susceptibility genes. Our data suggest that these rare CNVs may contribute to POAG pathogenesis and merit functional evaluation. PMID:25414181

  15. Corneal changes after a single session of selective laser trabeculoplasty for open-angle glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Lee, J W Y; Chan, J C H; Chang, R T; Singh, K; Liu, C C L; Gangwani, R; Wong, M O M; Lai, J S M

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the changes in endothelial cell count, central corneal thickness (CCT), and refractive error after a session of selective laser trabeculoplasty (SLT) for open angle glaucoma (OAG). Methods This prospective cohort study recruited 111 eyes of 66 consecutive subjects with OAG. Subjects received SLT to 360° of the trabecular meshwork. Endothelial cell count, CCT, and spherical equivalent were measured at baseline before SLT as well as at 1 week and 1 month post SLT. A repeated measure nested ANOVA with Tukey's multiple comparison test was performed to compare the outcome measures before and after SLT. Results In 111 eyes of 66 subjects, the mean number of laser applications per treatment was 166.9±41.4 with a mean energy level of 1.0±0.07 mJ. The mean endothelial cell count decreased significantly from 2465.0±334.0 cells/mm2 at baseline to 2355.0±387.0 cells/mm2 at 1 week (P=0.0004) but increased to baseline levels at 1 month post SLT (2424.0±379.4 cells/mm2, P=0.3). The CCT, which decreased from a baseline of 549.4±37.6 to 543.9±40.2 μm at 1 week post SLT (P=0.02), also returned to the baseline level by 1 month (P=0.2). The spherical equivalent was static from baseline. A positive correlation was found between total laser energy and CCT at 1 month post treatment (r=0.3, P=0.005). Conclusion The transient reductions in endothelial cell count and CCT following SLT returned to baseline levels 1 month after the procedure. Patients undergoing SLT should be aware of the risk of potential corneal changes. PMID:24136571

  16. Effect of phacoemulsification on intraocular pressure in patients with primary open angle glaucoma and pseudoexfoliation glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Jimenez-Roman, Jesus; Lazcano-Gomez, Gabriel; Martínez-Baez, Karina; Turati, Mauricio; Gulías-Cañizo, Rosario; Hernández-Zimbrón, Luis F.; Ochoa-De la Paz, Lenin; Zamora, Rubén; Gonzalez-Salinas, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    AIM To compare the effect of phacoemulsification on intraocular pressure (IOP) in patients with primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) and pseudoexfoliation glaucoma (PXG). METHODS A retrospective comparative case series conducted at the Glaucoma Department at the Association to Prevent Blindness in Mexico. The study enrolled consecutive patients having phacoemulsification with intraocular lens (IOL) implantation and a diagnosis of POAG or PXG. Data about IOP values and number of glaucoma medications used was collected at baseline, 1, 3, 6 and 12mo postoperatively. RESULTS The study enrolled 88 patients (88 eyes). After phacoemulsification, there was a statistically significant reduction in IOP values and glaucoma medications use compared to baseline in both POAG and PXG patients (P<0.001). In the POAG group, a 20% decrease in IOP values was evidenced, and a 56.5% reduction in the number of medications used at the one-year follow-up. The PXG group showed a 20.39%, and a 34.46% decrease in IOP and number of medications used, respectively. A significant difference in the mean ΔIOP (postoperative changes in IOP) was evidenced between groups (P=0.005). The reduction of the postsurgical IOP mean values in both groups, the POAG group showed a greater reduction in IOP values compared to the PXG group. CONCLUSION In both types of glaucoma, phacoemulsification cataract surgery can result in a significant IOP reduction (20%) over a 12mo follow-up period. The number of medications used is also significantly reduced up to 12mo after surgery, especially in the PXG group. PMID:28944195

  17. Association of open-angle glaucoma loci with incident glaucoma in the Blue Mountains Eye Study.

    PubMed

    Burdon, Kathryn P; Mitchell, Paul; Lee, Anne; Healey, Paul R; White, Andrew J R; Rochtchina, Elena; Thomas, Peter B M; Wang, Jie Jin; Craig, Jamie E

    2015-01-01

    To determine if open-angle glaucoma (OAG)-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are associated with incident glaucoma and if such genetic information is useful in OAG risk prediction. Case-control from within a population-based longitudinal study. study population: Individuals aged over 49 years of age living in the Blue Mountains region west of Sydney and enrolled in the Blue Mountains Eye Study. observation: Cases for this sub-study (n = 67) developed incident OAG between baseline and 10-year visits, in either eye, while controls (n = 1919) had no evidence for OAG at any visit. All participants had an ocular examination and DNA genotyped for reported OAG risk SNPs. main outcome measure: Incident OAG. Two loci also known to be associated with cup-to-disc ratio as well as OAG (9p21 near CDKN2B-AS1 and SIX1/SIX6) were both significantly associated with incident OAG in the Blue Mountains Eye Study cohort (P = .006 and P = .004, respectively). The TMCO1 locus was nominally associated (P = .012), while the CAV1/CAV2 and 8q22 loci were not associated. Multivariate logistic regression and neural network analysis both indicated that the genetic risk factors contributed positively to the predictive models incorporating traditional risk factors. This study shows that previously reported genetic variations related to OAG and cup-to-disc ratio are associated with the onset of OAG and thus may become useful in risk prediction algorithms designed to target early treatment to those most at risk of developing glaucoma. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Dementia is associated with open-angle glaucoma: a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Chung, S-D; Ho, J-D; Chen, C-H; Lin, H-C; Tsai, M-C; Sheu, J-J

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Previous epidemiologic studies that focused on the association between open-angle glaucoma (OAG) and dementia showed inconsistent results. In the present study, we explored the association between OAG and dementia in an ethnic Chinese (ie, Taiwanese) population using a population-based data set. Methods We retrieved data on study subjects for this case-control study from the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2000. We identified 7770 patients who had a diagnosis of dementia as cases, and 7770 subjects matched in terms of sex and age, which were randomly extracted as controls. A conditional logistic regression conditioned on age group, sex, and index year was used to assess the association of dementia with previously diagnosed OAG among the sampled patients. Results Of 15 540 patients, 1.70% had prior OAG, including 2.02% of the dementia group and 1.38% of the controls. After adjusting for patient socioeconomic characteristics and comorbid medical disorders, dementia patients were more likely to have had prior OAG than controls (odds ratio (OR): 1.44; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.12–1.85; P<0.01). In addition, female dementia patients were more likely to have had prior OAG than controls (OR: 1.93; 95% CI: 1.35–2.77; P<0.001), whereas no statistical difference in prior OAG between male dementia patients and controls was found. Conclusions Female dementia patients were associated with a higher proportion of prior OAG than were the controls. PMID:26160529

  19. Learning effect of Humphrey Matrix frequency doubling technology perimetry in patients with open-angle glaucoma.

    PubMed

    De Tarso Pierre-Filho, Paulo; Gomes, Paulo R P; Pierre, Erika T L; Pierre, Leandro M

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the learning effect of frequency doubling technology (FDT) perimetry using the Humphrey Matrix perimeter in patients with open-angle glaucoma with no perimetric experience. One eye each of 30 glaucoma patients who had no history of visual field testing underwent 3 Matrix tests using 24-2 program with full-threshold strategy. The parameters investigated to detect learning effect were test duration, reliability indexes, mean deviation (MD), pattern standard deviation (PSD), and the number of points with a p of <5% and <1% in the total and pattern deviation maps. MD showed a larger defect at the first test (-13.64 +/- 1.63 dB) than at the second (-12.68 +/- 1.45 dB) and third (-11.69 +/- 1.48 dB) tests (p<0.05). A statistically significant reduction (p<0.05) in the number of points with a p <5% and <1% in the total deviation map was observed when repeating the examination. The values of test duration, PSD, fixation losses, false-positive rate, false-negative rate, and number of points with a p <5% and <1% in the pattern deviation map were not changed significantly (p>0.05). Humphrey Matrix FDT perimetry showed a statistically significant learning effect on MD and the number of significantly depressed points of the total deviation map in glaucoma patients with no perimetric experience. It is probably necessary to obtain at least 3 repetitions to rule out the presence of a learning effect in such patients before providing useful results.

  20. Discovery and Functional Annotation of SIX6 Variants in Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Allingham, R. Rand; Whigham, Benjamin T.; Havens, Shane; Garrett, Melanie E.; Qiao, Chunyan; Katsanis, Nicholas; Wiggs, Janey L.; Pasquale, Louis R.; Ashley-Koch, Allison; Oh, Edwin C.; Hauser, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    Glaucoma is a leading cause of blindness worldwide. Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) is the most common subtype and is a complex trait with multigenic inheritance. Genome-wide association studies have previously identified a significant association between POAG and the SIX6 locus (rs10483727, odds ratio (OR) = 1.32, p = 3.87×10−11). SIX6 plays a role in ocular development and has been associated with the morphology of the optic nerve. We sequenced the SIX6 coding and regulatory regions in 262 POAG cases and 256 controls and identified six nonsynonymous coding variants, including five rare and one common variant, Asn141His (rs33912345), which was associated significantly with POAG (OR = 1.27, p = 4.2×10−10) in the NEIGHBOR/GLAUGEN datasets. These variants were tested in an in vivo Danio rerio (zebrafish) complementation assay to evaluate ocular metrics such as eye size and optic nerve structure. Five variants, found primarily in POAG cases, were hypomorphic or null, while the sixth variant, found only in controls, was benign. One variant in the SIX6 enhancer increased expression of SIX6 and disrupted its regulation. Finally, to our knowledge for the first time, we have identified a clinical feature in POAG patients that appears to be dependent upon SIX6 genotype: patients who are homozygous for the SIX6 risk allele (His141) have a statistically thinner retinal nerve fiber layer than patients homozygous for the SIX6 non-risk allele (Asn141). Our results, in combination with previous SIX6 work, lead us to hypothesize that SIX6 risk variants disrupt the development of the neural retina, leading to a reduced number of retinal ganglion cells, thereby increasing the risk of glaucoma-associated vision loss. PMID:24875647

  1. Tag SNPs detect association of the CYP1B1 gene with primary open angle glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Hewitt, Alex W.; Mackey, David A.; Mitchell, Paul; Craig, Jamie E.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose The cytochrome p450 family 1 subfamily B (CYP1B1) gene is a well known cause of autosomal recessive primary congenital glaucoma. It has also been postulated as a modifier of disease severity in primary open angle glaucoma (POAG), particularly in juvenile onset families. However, the role of common variation in the gene in relation to POAG has not been thoroughly explored. Methods Seven tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), including two coding variants (L432V and N543S), were genotyped in 860 POAG cases and 898 examined normal controls. Each SNP and haplotype was assessed for association with disease. In addition, a subset of 396 severe cases and 452 elderly controls were analyzed separately. Results There was no association of any individual SNP in the full data set. Two SNPs (rs162562 and rs10916) were nominally associated under a dominant model in the severe cases (p<0.05). A common haplotype (AGCAGCC) was also found to be nominally associated in both the full data set (p=0.048, OR [95%CI]=0.83 [0.69–0.90]) and more significantly in the severe cases (p=0.004, OR [95%CI]=0.68 [0.52–0.89]) which survives correction for multiple testing. Conclusions Although no major effect of common variation at the CYP1B1 locus on POAG was found, there could be an effect of SNPs tagged by rs162562 and represented on the AGCAGCC haplotype. PMID:21139974

  2. Selective laser trabeculoplasty (SLT): 1-year results in early and advanced open angle glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Schlote, Torsten; Kynigopoulos, Myron

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of selective laser trabeculoplasty (SLT) in eyes with early and more advanced stages of open angle glaucoma within 1 year of follow-up. Retrospective chart review in a consecutive series of patients treated by SLT to reduce intraocular pressure (IOP) or decrease number of topical medications in cases of discomfort and allergy. The cup-to-disc ratio of the optic nerve and the GSS 2 (glaucoma staging system 2) was used to differentiate between early (group 1) and more advanced (group 2) stages of glaucoma. At the time of SLT treatment, no new signs of glaucoma progression were seen. Only the first treated eye of every patient was included in the analysis. In group 1 (early glaucoma), 27 eyes were included. IOP reduction <21 mmHg/>20 % of the preoperative IOP-value and reduction of medication were achieved in 17 eyes (62.96 %). Successful re-treatment was necessary in 2 eyes (7.4 %). In group 2 (advanced glaucoma), 44 eyes underwent SLT. In eight eyes (18.18 %), filtrating surgery was necessary after initial SLT. In the remaining 36 eyes, IOP reduction <21 mmHg/>20 % of the baseline IOP was achieved in 26 eyes (59.09 % of 44 eyes) and IOP reduction <18 mmHg/> 30 % of the baseline IOP in 22 eyes (50 % of 44 eyes). SLT was safe and effective in nearly 2/3 of early glaucoma patients and also in 50 % of advanced glaucoma patients using stronger criteria of success. Failure of SLT in advanced glaucoma should lead to immediate filtrating surgery, which seems not to be associated with higher risk of fibrosis.

  3. Primary Open Angle Glaucoma is Associated with MR Biomarkers of Cerebral Small Vessel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Mercieca, Karl; Cain, John; Hansen, Thomas; Steeples, Laura; Watkins, Amy; Spencer, Fiona; Jackson, Alan

    2016-01-01

    This prospective study tests the hypotheses that: 1) glaucoma is associated with evidence of cerebral small vessel disease; 2) that imaging biomarkers of cerebral small vessel disease in POAG and NTG will show different characteristics. 12 normal controls, 7 patients with primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) and 9 patients with normal tension glaucoma (NTG) were recruited. Ophthalmological clinical assessment and MR imaging of the brain were performed. MR imaging was used to quantify white matter lesion load, frequency of dilated perivascular spaces (PVS) and abnormalities in cerebral hydrodynamics. Patients with POAG had significantly greater white matter lesion load (p < 0.05), more PVS in the centrum semiovale (p < 0.05) and had higher overall PVS scores than controls (p < 0.05). In the POAG group, optic cup-to-disc ratio (CDR) was positively correlated with deep white matter hyperintensities (R2 = 0.928, p < 0.01). Mean deviation on the Humphrey visual field assessment was negatively correlated with deep white matter lesion load (R2 = −0.840, p < 0.01), total white matter lesion load (R2 = −0.928, p < 0.01) and total PVS (R2 = −0.820, p < 0.01). MR evidence of cerebral small vessel disease is strongly associated with a diagnosis of POAG and with the severity of abnormalities in CDR and visual field. PMID:26923106

  4. Differential protein expression in tears of patients with primary open angle and pseudoexfoliative glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Pieragostino, Damiana; Bucci, Sonia; Agnifili, Luca; Fasanella, Vincenzo; D'Aguanno, Simona; Mastropasqua, Alessandra; Ciancaglini, Marco; Mastropasqua, Leonardo; Di Ilio, Carmine; Sacchetta, Paolo; Urbani, Andrea; Del Boccio, Piero

    2012-04-01

    Primary open angle (POAG) and pseudoexfoliative glaucoma (PXG) are the most common primary and secondary forms of glaucoma, respectively. Even though the patho-physiology, aqueous humor composition, risk factors, clinical features, therapy and drug induced ocular surface changes in POAG and PXG have been widely studied, to date information concerning tear protein characterization is lacking. Tears are a source of nourishment for ocular surface tissues and a vehicle to remove local waste products, metabolized drugs and inflammatory mediators produced in several ophthalmic diseases. In glaucoma, the proteomic definition of tears may provide insights concerning patho-physiology of the disease and ocular surface modifications induced by topical therapy. Our study aimed at characterizing protein patterns in tears of patients with medically controlled POAG and PXG. A comparative tears proteomic analysis by label-free LC-MS(E) highlighted differences in the expression of several proteins in the two glaucoma sub-types and control subjects, highlighting inflammation pathways expressed in both diseases. Results were independently reconfirmed by SDS-PAGE and linear MALDI-TOF MS, validating altered levels of Lysozyme C, Lipocalin-1, Protein S100, Immunoglobulins and Prolactin Inducible Protein. Moreover, we found a differential pattern of phosphorylated Cystatin-S that distinguishes the two pathologies. The most relevant results suggest that in both pathologies there may be active inflammation pathways related to the disease and/or induced by therapy. We show, for the first time, tear protein patterns expressed under controlled intraocular pressure conditions in POAG and PXG subjects. These findings could help in the understanding of molecular machinery underlying these ophthalmologic diseases, resulting in early diagnosis and more specific therapy.

  5. Vascular tone pathway polymorphisms in relation to primary open-angle glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Kang, J H; Loomis, S J; Yaspan, B L; Bailey, J C; Weinreb, R N; Lee, R K; Lichter, P R; Budenz, D L; Liu, Y; Realini, T; Gaasterland, D; Gaasterland, T; Friedman, D S; McCarty, C A; Moroi, S E; Olson, L; Schuman, J S; Singh, K; Vollrath, D; Wollstein, G; Zack, D J; Brilliant, M; Sit, A J; Christen, W G; Fingert, J; Forman, J P; Buys, E S; Kraft, P; Zhang, K; Allingham, R R; Pericak-Vance, M A; Richards, J E; Hauser, M A; Haines, J L; Wiggs, J L; Pasquale, L R

    2014-01-01

    Aims Vascular perfusion may be impaired in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG); thus, we evaluated a panel of markers in vascular tone-regulating genes in relation to POAG. Methods We used Illumina 660W-Quad array genotype data and pooled P-values from 3108 POAG cases and 3430 controls from the combined National Eye Institute Glaucoma Human Genetics Collaboration consortium and Glaucoma Genes and Environment studies. Using information from previous literature and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways, we compiled single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 186 vascular tone-regulating genes. We used the ‘Pathway Analysis by Randomization Incorporating Structure' analysis software, which performed 1000 permutations to compare the overall pathway and selected genes with comparable randomly generated pathways and genes in their association with POAG. Results The vascular tone pathway was not associated with POAG overall or POAG subtypes, defined by the type of visual field loss (early paracentral loss (n=224 cases) or only peripheral loss (n=993 cases)) (permuted P≥0.20). In gene-based analyses, eight were associated with POAG overall at permuted P<0.001: PRKAA1, CAV1, ITPR3, EDNRB, GNB2, DNM2, HFE, and MYL9. Notably, six of these eight (the first six listed) code for factors involved in the endothelial nitric oxide synthase activity, and three of these six (CAV1, ITPR3, and EDNRB) were also associated with early paracentral loss at P<0.001, whereas none of the six genes reached P<0.001 for peripheral loss only. Discussion Although the assembled vascular tone SNP set was not associated with POAG, genes that code for local factors involved in setting vascular tone were associated with POAG. PMID:24603425

  6. Axial Myopia Is Associated with Visual Field Prognosis of Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Chen; Qian, Shaohong; Sun, Xinghuai; Zhou, Chuandi; Meng, Fanrong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To identify whether myopia was associated with the visual field (VF) progression of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). Methods A total of 270 eyes of 270 POAG followed up for more than 3 years with ≥9 reliable VFs by Octopus perimetry were retrospectively reviewed. Myopia was divided into: mild myopia (-2.99 diopter [D], 0), moderate myopia (-5.99, 3.00 D), marked myopia (-9.00, -6.00 D) and non-myopia (0 D or more). An annual change in the mean defect (MD) slope >0.22 dB/y and 0.30 dB/y was defined as fast progression, respectively. Logistic regression was performed to determine prognostic factors for VF progression. Results For the cutoff threshold at 0.22 dB/y, logistic regression showed that vertical cup-to-disk ratio (VCDR; p = 0.004) and the extent of myopia (p = 0.002) were statistically significant. When logistic regression was repeated after excluding the extent of myopia, axial length (AL; p = 0.008, odds ratio [OR] = 0.796) reached significance, as did VCDR (p = 0.001). Compared to eyes with AL≤23 mm, the OR values were 0.334 (p = 0.059), 0.309 (p = 0.044), 0.266 (p = 0.019), 0.260 (p = 0.018), respectively, for 23 26 mm. The significance of vertical cup-to-disk ratio of (p = 0.004) and the extent of myopia (p = 0.008) did not change for the cutoff threshold at 0.30dB/y. Conclusions VCDR and myopia were associated with VF prognosis of POAG. Axial myopia may be a protective factor against VF progression. PMID:26214313

  7. Axial Myopia Is Associated with Visual Field Prognosis of Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Chen; Qian, Shaohong; Sun, Xinghuai; Zhou, Chuandi; Meng, Fanrong

    2015-01-01

    To identify whether myopia was associated with the visual field (VF) progression of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). A total of 270 eyes of 270 POAG followed up for more than 3 years with ≥9 reliable VFs by Octopus perimetry were retrospectively reviewed. Myopia was divided into: mild myopia (-2.99 diopter [D], 0), moderate myopia (-5.99, 3.00 D), marked myopia (-9.00, -6.00 D) and non-myopia (0 D or more). An annual change in the mean defect (MD) slope >0.22 dB/y and 0.30 dB/y was defined as fast progression, respectively. Logistic regression was performed to determine prognostic factors for VF progression. For the cutoff threshold at 0.22 dB/y, logistic regression showed that vertical cup-to-disk ratio (VCDR; p = 0.004) and the extent of myopia (p = 0.002) were statistically significant. When logistic regression was repeated after excluding the extent of myopia, axial length (AL; p = 0.008, odds ratio [OR] = 0.796) reached significance, as did VCDR (p = 0.001). Compared to eyes with AL≤23 mm, the OR values were 0.334 (p = 0.059), 0.309 (p = 0.044), 0.266 (p = 0.019), 0.260 (p = 0.018), respectively, for 23 26 mm. The significance of vertical cup-to-disk ratio of (p = 0.004) and the extent of myopia (p = 0.008) did not change for the cutoff threshold at 0.30dB/y. VCDR and myopia were associated with VF prognosis of POAG. Axial myopia may be a protective factor against VF progression.

  8. The mechanical paradox of low-angle normal faults: Current understanding and open questions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collettini, Cristiano

    2011-10-01

    Low-angle normal faults, LANF, (dip < 30°) have been proposed as key-structures for accommodating crustal extension. In contrast, frictional fault reactivation theory predicts that slip on LANF is extremely unlikely: this prediction is consistent with the absence of moderate-to-large earthquakes on normal faults dipping less than 30°. In order to discuss this discrepancy I will analyse and integrate: 1) geological data from 9 LANF, 2) the dip-range of earthquake-ruptures in extensional environments, and 3) frictional fault mechanics. LANF fault zone structure is represented by two end members: a) a thick mylonitic shear zone superposed by cataclastic processes and some localization; 2) a discrete fault core separating hangingwall and footwall blocks affected by brittle processes. LANF act as preferential channels for fluid flow and in some cases they promoted fluid overpressure. Fluid-rock interactions along some detachments favour the development of phyllosilicates that in general are characterised by low frictional strength, μ < 0.4, and inherently stable, velocity-strengthening frictional behaviour. The low friction coefficient of the phyllosilicates can explain movements on LANF and the velocity strengthening behaviour of the phyllosilicates implies fault creep and therefore can be used to explain the absence of moderate-to-large earthquakes on LANF in seismological records. However in my view, the integration of the three datasets does not provide a simple mechanical solution for the LANF paradox since it leaves two important open questions. First a widespread development of phyllosilicates does not seem to be a common feature for most of the exhumed LANF that on the contrary show the typical fault rocks of the brittle and seismogenic crust. Second, although some brittle detachments reactivated pre-existing ductile shear zones, others formed as gently dipping structures within a brittle crust characterised by a vertical σ 1: a well constrained mechanical

  9. The association between primary open-angle glaucoma and fall: an observational study.

    PubMed

    Tanabe, Sachiko; Yuki, Kenya; Ozeki, Naoki; Shiba, Daisuke; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2012-01-01

    Falls are among the most serious public health concerns for the elderly. Information conveyed via the visual sense is relevant to postural balance and movement, and proper visual function is essential to avoid falls. Here we investigated the prevalence of injurious falls among patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) who were more than 45 years old, compared with comparably aged healthy subjects. This is a cross-sectional study. Consecutive patients who visited the Tanabe Eye Clinic, Yamanashi, Japan between January 1 and March 30, 2009 were screened for eligibility by ophthalmic examination. A total of 117 control subjects (77 men, 40 women; aged 60.2 ± 7.5 years) who were free of ocular disease and 101 POAG patients (58 men, 43 women; aged 62.3 ± 8.7 years) were consecutively enrolled. Participants answered a questionnaire on injurious fall experience during the previous 10 years. The prevalence of injurious fall in subjects with POAG versus healthy controls was examined with Fisher's exact test. Adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated with logistic regression models for the subjects with POAG (factors: age, gender, mean deviation in the better eye or worse eye). The self-reported prevalence of injurious fall was 0.9% (1/117) in the control group and 6.9% (7/101) in the POAG group. The association between injurious fall and POAG was statistically significant (P = 0.026, Fisher's exact test). Within the POAG patients, the group reporting falls was significantly older and had a lower BMI, worse BCVA, and worse mean deviation in both the better and worse eye than the group reporting no falls. Worse mean deviation in the eye with the better visual field (odds ratios 0.75; 95% confidence intervals: 0.57 to 0.99; P = 0.036) was a significant risk factor for injurious falls in subjects with POAG. POAG was significantly associated with injurious falls.

  10. Role of MYOC and OPTN sequence variations in Spanish patients with Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    López-Martínez, Francisco; López-Garrido, María-Pilar; Sánchez-Sánchez, Francisco; Campos-Mollo, Ezequiel; Coca-Prados, Miguel

    2007-01-01

    Purpose To retrospectively investigate the contribution of myocilin (MYOC) and optineurin (OPTN) sequence variations to adult-onset ocular hypertension (OHT) and primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) in Spanish patients. Methods The promoter region and the three exons of MYOC were analyzed by direct PCR DNA sequencing in 40 OHT and 110 POAG unrelated patients. We used 98 subjects in whom OHT or glaucoma had been ruled out as controls. We also screened the complete coding region of the OPTN gene (exons 4-16) in all subjects by single-stranded conformational polymorphisms (SSCPs). Results We identified six common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the promoter region of MYOC (-1000C>G, -387C>T, -306G>A, -224T>C, -126T>C and -83G>A) and a polymorphic GT microsatellite (-339(GT)11-19). In addition, we detected four novel, rare DNA polymorphisms. None of these DNA sequence variations were associated with either OHT or POAG. We also found three (2.7%) POAG patients with MYOC pathogenic mutations. Two of these pathogenic mutations (Gln368Stop and Ala445Val) were previously described whereas the third (Tyr479His) was novel. Transient expression of the novel mutation in 293T cells supported its pathogenicity. Only two OPTN polymorphisms, which are not associated with the disease, were detected. Conclusions Overall, our data show that in Spain a minority of adult-onset high-pressure POAG patients carry heterozygous disease-causing mutations in the MYOC gene and that OPTN is not involved in either OHT or POAG. PMID:17615537

  11. Studying the effect of flap angle on the noise of interaction of a high-bypass jet with a swept wing in a co-flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belyaev, I. V.; Zaytsev, M. Yu.; Kopiev, V. F.; Ostrikov, N. N.; Faranosov, G. A.

    2017-01-01

    Jet-flap interaction noise for a small-scale swept wing model of a trendsetter plane has been studied experimentally, with a double-stream nozzle installed nearby. The effect of the flap angle on the noise of jet-wing interaction has been analyzed. It has been discovered that the flap angle considerably affects the interaction noise in a wide frequency range in such a way that the noise intensity in each frequency band grows exponentially as the flap edge approaches the shear-layer boundary (on a logarithmic scale, this corresponds to linear scaling of the spectrum depending on the flap angle). The exponential noise reduction as the flap angle decreases agrees with the known theoretical simplified-configuration models that are based on the effect of interaction of the near field of instability wave with the edge. Not only does this agreement show that noise increase/reduction mechanism may be associated with similar processes, it also provides an effective tool for controlling the interaction noise.

  12. Measurement of Opening and Closing Angles of Aortic Valve Prostheses In Vivo Using Dual-Source Computed Tomography: Comparison with Those of Manufacturers' in 10 Different Types.

    PubMed

    Suh, Young Joo; Kim, Young Jin; Hong, Yoo Jin; Lee, Hye-Jeong; Hur, Jin; Im, Dong Jin; Kim, Yun Jung; Choi, Byoung Wook

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were to compare opening and closing angles of normally functioning mechanical aortic valves measured on dual-source computed tomography (CT) with the manufacturers' values and to compare CT-measured opening angles according to valve function. A total of 140 patients with 10 different types of mechanical aortic valves, who underwent dual-source cardiac CT, were included. Opening and closing angles were measured on CT images. Agreement between angles in normally functioning valves and the manufacturer values was assessed using the interclass coefficient and the Bland-Altman method. CT-measured opening angles were compared between normal functioning valves and suspected dysfunctioning valves. The CT-measured opening angles of normally functioning valves and manufacturers' values showed excellent agreement for seven valve types (intraclass coefficient [ICC], 0.977; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.962-0.987). The mean differences in opening angles between the CT measurements and the manufacturers' values were 1.2° in seven types of valves, 11.0° in On-X valves, and 15.5° in ATS valves. The manufacturers' closing angles and those measured by CT showed excellent agreement for all valve types (ICC, 0.953; 95% CI, 0.920-0.972). Among valves with suspected dysfunction, those with limitation of motion (LOM) and an increased pressure gradient (PG) had smaller opening angles than those with LOM only (p < 0.05). Dual-source cardiac CT accurately measures opening and closing angles in most types of mechanical aortic valves, compared with the manufacturers' values. Opening angles on CT differ according to the type of valve dysfunction and a decreased opening angle may suggest an elevated PG.

  13. Alleviation of Facility/Engine Interactions in an Open-Jet Scramjet Test Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albertson, Cindy W.; Emami, Saied

    2001-01-01

    Results of a series of shakedown tests to eliminate facility/engine interactions in an open-jet scramjet test facility are presented. The tests were conducted with the NASA DFX (Dual-Fuel eXperimental scramjet) engine in the NASA Langley Combustion Heated Scramjet Test Facility (CHSTF) in support of the Hyper-X program, The majority of the tests were conducted at a total enthalpy and pressure corresponding to Mach 5 flight at a dynamic pressure of 734 psf. The DFX is the largest engine ever tested in the CHSTF. Blockage, in terms of the projected engine area relative to the nozzle exit area, is 81% with the engine forebody leading edge aligned with the upper edge of the facility nozzle such that it ingests the nozzle boundary layer. The blockage increases to 95% with the engine forebody leading edge positioned 2 in. down in the core flow. Previous engines successfully tested in the CHSTF have had blockages of no more than 51%. Oil flow studies along with facility and engine pressure measurements were used to define flow behavior. These results guided modifications to existing aeroappliances and the design of new aeroappliances. These changes allowed fueled tests to be conducted without facility interaction effects in the data with the engine forebody leading edge positioned to ingest the facility nozzle boundary layer. Interaction effects were also reduced for tests with the engine forebody leading edge positioned 2 in. into the core flow, however some interaction effects were still evident in the engine data. A new shroud and diffuser have been designed with the goal of allowing fueled tests to be conducted with the engine forebody leading edge positioned in the core without facility interaction effects in the data. Evaluation tests of the new shroud and diffuser will be conducted once ongoing fueled engine tests have been completed.

  14. Anthropometric measures and their relation to incident primary open-angle glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Pasquale, Louis R; Willett, Walter C; Rosner, Bernard A; Kang, Jae Hee

    2010-08-01

    To assess the relation between anthropometric measures and incident primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). Prospective cohort study. Included were 78,777 women in the Nurses' Health Study and 41,352 men in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. Females and male health professionals were followed prospectively from 1980 through 2004 and 1986 through 2004, respectively. Eligible participants were 40 years of age or older, did not have POAG at baseline, and reported undergoing eye examinations during follow-up. Information regarding anthropometric measures, potential confounders, and ophthalmic status was updated using biennial questionnaires. During follow-up, 980 POAG cases were identified. Multivariate rate ratios (MVRR) of POAG and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs). There was no significant relation between cumulatively averaged body mass index (BMI) in kilograms per meter squared and POAG overall (P = 0.06, for trend). However, in relation to POAG with intraocular pressure (IOP) of 22 mmHg or less at diagnosis, each unit increase in BMI was associated with a 6% reduced risk in women (MVRR, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.91-0.98; P = 0.01), but not for men (MVRR, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.96-1.09; P = 0.57); this gender difference was significant (P = 0.03, for heterogeneity). In multivariate analyses to explore the independent effects of height and weight, weight (as height-adjusted weight residuals; P = 0.002, for trend), but not height (P = 0.10, for trend) seemed to account for most of the inverse association between BMI and POAG with IOP of 21 mmHg or less at diagnosis in women. There was no association between BMI and POAG with IOP of more than 21 mmHg at diagnosis for either gender (P> or =0.26, for trend). Among women, analyses found that the relations between anthropometric parameters and both POAG subtypes (POAG with IOP< or =21 mmHg vs. POAG with IOP >21 mmHg when diagnosed) were significantly different (P< or =0.0001). Among women, higher BMI was associated with a lower

  15. [Morphological changes of cerebral cortex in primary open-angle glaucoma patients under magnetic resonance imaging].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuyan; Zhao, Jin; Ning, Li; Zhang, Jinling; Tang, Weijun

    2015-09-08

    To observe the morphology changes of cerebral cortex in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) patients, and to explore the damage mechanism in the central nerve system. 30 patients, 19 males and 11 females (age ranged from 26 to 82 years old), who were diagnosed with POAG in the department of ophthalmology at Huashan Hospital of Fudan University from February 2011 to December 2012 were enrolled. Meanwhile, additional 30 age- and sex- matched patients were collected as controls. All subjects underwent a complete ophthalmic evaluation. As for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), we adopted the scans of T1WI, T2WI and fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) on a Siemens Magneton Verio 3T MRI machine with a 12-channel head coil. Subjects with space occupying or vascular lesion in brain imaging were excluded from the study. The three-dimensional magnetization prepared rapid acquisition gradient echo sequence (3D-MPRAGE) was used to acquire the volume data of whole brain of all subjects. SPM8 and VBM8 toolbox were used to analyze the image data. Voxel-based analysis was done for whole brain grey matter images. Compared with the control group, the volume of grey matter from several brain regions of the POAG patients decreased. These structures included left lingual gyrus (t=3.207, P=0.002), left medial frontal gyrus (t=2.912, P=0.004), right superior frontal gyrus (t=2.745, P=0.005), left middle temporal gyrus (t=2.958, P=0.003), right precuneus (t=3.291, P=0.001), right postcentral gyrus (t=3.306, P=0.001), left inferior parietal lobule(t=2.716, P=0.006), left parahippocampa gyrus (t=2.815, P=0.005). The results were assessed with comparative t-test to perform statistical analysis. When t>2.479, P<0.01, the difference between the two groups was considered statistically significant. The volume of grey matter in POAG patients' brain decreased in several regions. It is illustrated that POAG is a syndrome, which causes damages in the brain of POAG patients at multi-aspects and

  16. Effect of selective laser trabeculoplasty on ocular haemodynamics in primary open-angle glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Pillunat, Karin R; Spoerl, Eberhard; Terai, Naim; Pillunat, Lutz E

    2017-06-01

    Selective laser trabeculoplasty (SLT) is known to reduce intraocular pressure (IOP) effectively. The aim of this study, however, was to evaluate the effect of SLT on ocular haemodynamics. A total of 69 eyes of 69 patients (age 67.8 ± 9.9 years) with already treated primary open-angle glaucoma who were assigned for SLT for further IOP reduction were consecutively enrolled in this prospective interventional case series. Intraocular pressure, the ocular pulse amplitude (OPA), ocular pulse volume (OPV) and pulsatile ocular blood flow (pOBF) were assessed with the Ocular Blood Flow Analyzer prior to and 3 months after SLT. Intraocular pressure was statistically significantly reduced from 16.0 ± 5.4 mmHg to 12.8 ± 4.0 mmHg (p = 0.001). The OPA did not change (p = 0.783) after IOP reduction following SLT. OPV and pOBF increased statistically significantly. OPV increased from 7.33 ± 3.05 to 8.59 ± 3.35 μl (17.2%; p = 0.001) and pOBF from 17.11 ± 5.42 to 19.74 ± 6.59 μl/s (15.4%; p = 0.002). Selective laser trabeculoplasty probably does not induce any pharmacological changes effecting systemic blood pressure or ocular blood flow as topical IOP-lowering medication might do, nor does it change biomechanical properties of the eye as surgery could. Therefore, an increase in ocular blood flow following SLT can only be explained by the reduction in IOP and might be a sign of dysfunctional autoregulation in glaucoma patients. © 2017 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Concordance of diurnal intraocular pressure between fellow eyes in primary open-angle glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Dinn, Robert B; Zimmerman, M Bridget; Shuba, Lesya M; Doan, Andrew P; Maley, Michael K; Greenlee, Emily C; Alward, Wallace L M; Kwon, Young H

    2007-05-01

    To study the concordance of diurnal intraocular pressure (IOP) between fellow eyes in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). Retrospective chart review. Ninety-three POAG patients. Patients who met the definition of POAG and underwent diurnal curve measurement were included. Subjects were excluded if there was a history of surgery, trauma, ocular vascular disease, incomplete diurnal curve, or asymmetric ocular medication use. Patients on symmetric ocular medication were included and analyzed separately. Goldmann applanation tonometry was performed at 10 am, 1 pm, 4 pm, 7 pm, 10 pm, and 7 am (the next day). The following statistical analyses were performed: (1) average Pearson correlation coefficient (r) from individual correlations of right and left eye IOP over the 6 time points for each subject; (2) linear mixed model analysis for repeated measures, with eye (right and left) and time as the within-subject fixed effects, and (3) absolute difference in change in IOP between fellow eyes over each time interval and probability that the difference was within 2 or 3 mmHg. The concordance of the IOP between fellow eyes as measured by absolute difference in change in IOP between fellow eyes and probability of the difference being within 2 or 3 mmHg. Thirty-seven patients were untreated and 56 were treated on symmetric IOP-lowering medications. The diurnal curves of fellow eyes exhibited parallel profiles according to the linear mixed model. The average difference in the change of IOP between fellow eyes over given time intervals ranged from 1.6 to 2.0 mmHg. The estimated probability that the absolute change in IOP between fellow eyes was within 2 mmHg was 68% to 90%, and within 3 mmHg was 78% to 95% for all time intervals. The diurnal variation of IOP in POAG is largely concordant between fellow eyes. For any given time interval, the fellow eye IOPs may fluctuate asymmetrically a minority of the time. Clinicians who utilize the uniocular trial should be aware of the limit

  18. Using Filtered Forecasting Techniques to Determine Personalized Monitoring Schedules for Patients with Open-Angle Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Schell, Greggory J.; Lavieri, Mariel S.; Helm, Jonathan E.; Liu, Xiang; Musch, David C.; Van Oyen, Mark P.; Stein, Joshua D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To determine whether dynamic and personalized schedules of visual field (VF) testing and intraocular pressure (IOP) measurements result in an improvement in disease progression detection compared with fixed interval schedules for performing these tests when evaluating patients with open-angle glaucoma (OAG). Design Secondary analyses using longitudinal data from two randomized controlled trials. Participants 571 participants from Advanced Glaucoma Intervention Study (AGIS) and Collaborative Initial Glaucoma Treatment Study (CIGTS). Methods Perimetric and tonometric data were obtained for AGIS and CIGTS trial participants and used to parameterize and validate a Kalman filter model. The Kalman filter updates knowledge about each participant’s disease dynamics as additional VF tests and IOP measurements are obtained. After incorporating the most recent VF and IOP measurements, the model forecasts each participant’s disease dynamics into the future and characterizes the forecasting error. To determine personalized schedules for future VF tests and IOP measurements, we developed an algorithm by combining the Kalman filter for state estimation with the predictive power of logistic regression to identify OAG progression. The algorithm was compared against 1, 1.5, and 2 year fixed interval schedules of obtaining VF and IOP measurements. Main Outcome Measures Length of diagnostic delay in detecting OAG progression, efficiency of detecting progression, number of VF and IOP measurements needed to assess for progression. Results Participants were followed in the AGIS and CIGTS trials for a mean (standard deviation) of 6.5 (2.8) years. Our forecasting model achieved a 29% increased efficiency in identifying OAG progression (p<0.0001) and detected OAG progression 57% sooner (reduced diagnostic delay) (p= 0.02) than following a fixed yearly monitoring schedule, without increasing the number of VF tests and IOP measurements required. The model performed well on

  19. [A comparison study of pulsitile ocular blood flow in normal eyes and primary open angle glaucoma].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ming-Zhi; Fu, Zhi-Fu; Liu, Xiao-Rui; Zheng, C

    2004-04-01

    To compare pulsatile ocular blood flow (POBF) and intraocular pressure (IOP) in primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) and normal control group matched for age, sex and refraction error, to investigate the rule of hem-dynamics in POAG and to determine the sensitivity and specificity of POBF measurement as a diagnostic test for glaucoma. Prior to the test a questionnaire was completed to determine age, sex, refractive error, family history of glaucoma, history of eye diseases, ocular medication, medical history and using of systemic beta-blockers. Patients of POAG were determined by following diagnostics standards: (1) Three IOP >25 mm Hg in different times of one day. (2) The fluctuate of IOP > 8 mm Hg during 24 hours. (3) Typical glaucoma changes in the visual field. (4) Typical glaucoma changes in optic disc. There were 100 POAG subjects with single eye observed (50 male and 50 female). We picked up 100 eyes randomly (50 male and 50 female) in 534 normal persons who matched for following conditions: (1) Sex. (2) Discrepancy of age less than 5 years. (3) Discrepancy of the refraction error less than +/- 2.00 DS. as the normal comparison group. The tonometer used was the POBF Tonometry. Pulse amplitude of IOP (PA), pulsatile ocular blood flow (POBF), pulse/heart rate (PR), maximum-IOP (max-IOP), minimum-IOP (min-IOP) and average IOP (aver-IOP) were obtained before the medical therapy and 1 or 2 weeks after the operation. The correlation between the POBF & mean value of the perimeter was analyzed. POBF was analyzed to determine the sensitivity and specificity of POBF measurement as a diagnostic test. The value of POBF in POAG and normal control was (9.72 +/- 3.47) microl/s and (12.04 +/- 4.68) microl/s, respectively. POAG patients' POBF, PV, PA, and AVE-IOP were less than those in the normal control, and the difference was statistically significant. There was no statistically significant correlation between the changes of visual field and POBF (r = 0.224, P = 0

  20. Relationship between visual field progression and baseline refraction in primary open-angle glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Naito, Tomoko; Yoshikawa, Keiji; Mizoue, Shiro; Nanno, Mami; Kimura, Tairo; Suzumura, Hirotaka; Umeda, Yuzo; Shiraga, Fumio

    2016-01-01

    To analyze the relationship between visual field (VF) progression and baseline refraction in Japanese patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) including normal-tension glaucoma. In this retrospective study, the subjects were patients with POAG who had undergone VF tests at least ten times with a Humphrey Field Analyzer (Swedish interactive thresholding algorithm standard, Central 30-2 program). VF progression was defined as a significantly negative value of mean deviation (MD) slope at the final VF test. Multivariate logistic regression models were applied to detect an association between MD slope deterioration and baseline refraction. A total of 156 eyes of 156 patients were included in this analysis. Significant deterioration of MD slope was observed in 70 eyes of 70 patients (44.9%), whereas no significant deterioration was evident in 86 eyes of 86 patients (55.1%). The eyes with VF progression had significantly higher baseline refraction compared to those without apparent VF progression (-1.9±3.8 diopter [D] vs -3.5±3.4 D, P=0.0048) (mean ± standard deviation). When subject eyes were classified into four groups by the level of baseline refraction applying spherical equivalent (SE): no myopia (SE > -1D), mild myopia (-1D ≥ SE > -3D), moderate myopia (-3D ≥ SE > -6D), and severe myopia (-6D ≥ SE), the Cochran-Armitage trend analysis showed a decreasing trend in the proportion of MD slope deterioration with increasing severity of myopia (P=0.0002). The multivariate analysis revealed that baseline refraction (P=0.0108, odds ratio [OR]: 1.13, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.03-1.25) and intraocular pressure reduction rate (P=0.0150, OR: 0.97, 95% CI: 0.94-0.99) had a significant association with MD slope deterioration. In the current analysis of Japanese patients with POAG, baseline refraction was a factor significantly associated with MD slope deterioration as well as intraocular pressure reduction rate. When baseline refraction was classified into

  1. A computational study of asymmetric glottal jet deflection during phonation

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, X.; Mittal, R.; Bielamowicz, S.

    2011-01-01

    Two-dimensional numerical simulations are used to explore the mechanism for asymmetric deflection of the glottal jet during phonation. The model employs the full Navier–Stokes equations for the flow but a simple laryngeal geometry and vocal-fold motion. The study focuses on the effect of Reynolds number and glottal opening angle with a particular emphasis on examining the importance of the so-called “Coanda effect” in jet deflection. The study indicates that the glottal opening angle has no substantial effect on glottal jet deflection. Deflection in the glottal jet is always preceded by large-scale asymmetry in the downstream portion of the glottal jet. A detailed analysis of the velocity and vorticity fields shows that these downstream asymmetric vortex structures induce a flow at the glottal exit which is the primary driver for glottal jet deflection. PMID:21476669

  2. A computational study of asymmetric glottal jet deflection during phonation.

    PubMed

    Zheng, X; Mittal, R; Bielamowicz, S

    2011-04-01

    Two-dimensional numerical simulations are used to explore the mechanism for asymmetric deflection of the glottal jet during phonation. The model employs the full Navier-Stokes equations for the flow but a simple laryngeal geometry and vocal-fold motion. The study focuses on the effect of Reynolds number and glottal opening angle with a particular emphasis on examining the importance of the so-called "Coanda effect" in jet deflection. The study indicates that the glottal opening angle has no substantial effect on glottal jet deflection. Deflection in the glottal jet is always preceded by large-scale asymmetry in the downstream portion of the glottal jet. A detailed analysis of the velocity and vorticity fields shows that these downstream asymmetric vortex structures induce a flow at the glottal exit which is the primary driver for glottal jet deflection.

  3. Comparison of Dimensional Accuracy between Open-Tray and Closed-Tray Implant Impression Technique in 15° Angled Implants.

    PubMed

    Balouch, F; Jalalian, E; Nikkheslat, M; Ghavamian, R; Toopchi, Sh; Jallalian, F; Jalalian, S

    2013-09-01

    Various impression techniques have different effects on the accuracy of final cast dimensions. Meanwhile; there are some controversies about the best technique. This study was performed to compare two kinds of implant impression methods (open tray and closed tray) on 15 degree angled implants. In this experimental study, a steel model with 8 cm in diameter and 3 cm in height were produced with 3 holes devised inside to stabilize 3 implants. The central implant was straight and the other two implants were 15° angled. The two angled implants had 5 cm distance from each other and 3.5 cm from the central implant. Dental stone, high strength (type IV) was used for the main casts. Impression trays were filled with poly ether, and then the two impression techniques (open tray and closed tray) were compared. To evaluate positions of the implants, each cast was analyzed by CMM device in 3 dimensions (x,y,z). Differences in the measurements obtained from final casts and laboratory model were analyzed using t-Test. The obtained results indicated that closed tray impression technique was significantly different in dimensional accuracy when compared with open tray method. Dimensional changes were 129 ± 37μ and 143.5 ± 43.67μ in closed tray and open tray, while coefficient of variation in closed- tray and open tray were reported to be 27.2% and 30.4%, respectively. Closed impression technique had less dimensional changes in comparison with open tray method, so this study suggests that closed tray impression technique is more accurate.

  4. Comparison of Dimensional Accuracy between Open-Tray and Closed-Tray Implant Impression Technique in 15° Angled Implants

    PubMed Central

    Balouch, F; Jalalian, E; Nikkheslat, M; Ghavamian, R; Toopchi, Sh; Jallalian, F; Jalalian, S

    2013-01-01

    Statement of Problem: Various impression techniques have different effects on the accuracy of final cast dimensions. Meanwhile; there are some controversies about the best technique. Purpose: This study was performed to compare two kinds of implant impression methods (open tray and closed tray) on 15 degree angled implants. Materials and Method: In this experimental study, a steel model with 8 cm in diameter and 3 cm in height were produced with 3 holes devised inside to stabilize 3 implants. The central implant was straight and the other two implants were 15° angled. The two angled implants had 5 cm distance from each other and 3.5 cm from the central implant. Dental stone, high strength (type IV) was used for the main casts. Impression trays were filled with poly ether, and then the two impression techniques (open tray and closed tray) were compared. To evaluate positions of the implants, each cast was analyzed by CMM device in 3 dimensions (x,y,z). Differences in the measurements obtained from final casts and laboratory model were analyzed using t-Test. Results: The obtained results indicated that closed tray impression technique was significantly different in dimensional accuracy when compared with open tray method. Dimensional changes were 129 ± 37μ and 143.5 ± 43.67μ in closed tray and open tray, while coefficient of variation in closed- tray and open tray were reported to be 27.2% and 30.4%, respectively. Conclusion: Closed impression technique had less dimensional changes in comparison with open tray method, so this study suggests that closed tray impression technique is more accurate. PMID:24724130

  5. Changes in posterior tibial slope angle in patients undergoing open-wedge high tibial osteotomy for varus gonarthrosis.

    PubMed

    Ozel, Omer; Yucel, Bulent; Mutlu, Serhat; Orman, Osman; Mutlu, Harun

    2017-01-01

    In this study, postoperative changes in the posterior tibial slope angle and clinical outcomes following open-wedge high tibial osteotomy were evaluated. This study included 39 knees (18 left, 21 right) of 35 patients (three male, 32 female; median age, 53 years; age range 37-64 years) with symptomatic isolated medial joint osteoarthritis who underwent open-wedge high tibial osteotomy and fixation with a Puddu plate. The patients were clinically assessed according to the Lysholm knee score, a visual analogue pain scale, and a patient satisfaction questionnaire. Radiological assessment was made according to the changes in the posterior tibial slope angle and the correlation between these changes and clinical signs. The median follow-up period was 11 years (range 7-14 years). Significant improvements were observed in the preoperative and postoperative clinical scores of the Lysholm knee scale, visual analogue pain scale, and patient satisfaction questionnaire (p < 0.05). Radiological assessment showed that the posterior tibial slope angle was significantly higher during the postoperative and follow-up periods (p  0.05). There was no correlation between the postoperative Lysholm scores and the increase in the posterior tibial slope angle (p = n.s.). We conclude that both the conventional Puddu plate design and its anteromedial plate placement are what increase the tibial slope after an opening-wedge proximal tibial osteotomy. Therefore, current new plate design may help preserve the posterior tibial slope angle. IV.

  6. Mutations in MYOC gene of Indian primary open angle glaucoma patients.

    PubMed

    Mukhopadhyay, Arijit; Acharya, Moulinath; Mukherjee, Saibal; Ray, Jharna; Choudhury, Sumit; Khan, Mita; Ray, Kunal

    2002-11-15

    Glaucoma is the second leading cause of blindness worldwide after cataract. Defects in the myocilin gene (MYOC) have been shown to be associated with Primary Open Angle Glaucoma (POAG), the most common form of the disease, especially in its juvenile form. Most of the reported mutations in MYOC are in POAG patients of Caucasian origin. A few studies have been reported on Asian patients (such as Chinese, Japanese, and Koreans) but none from the Indian subcontinent. The purpose of this study was to investigate the molecular basis of POAG among Indians, using MYOC as the candidate gene, and broaden our understanding on the pathogenesis caused by MYOC. Fifty-six unrelated POAG patients, comprising 39 sporadic cases and 17 patients having familial history for POAG were enrolled in this study. The coding sequence of the gene was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using genomic DNA from 30 POAG patients, followed by sequencing of the PCR products. Nucleotide changes were detected by identifying double peaks in the chromatogram due to heterozygosity and pairwise BLAST analysis of the sequence output data against the normal copy of the MYOC cDNA. Alteration of restriction sites due to nucleotide changes was identified. Twenty-six patients (not sequenced) and controls were screened for nucleotide changes by allele specific restriction digestion of the PCR products followed by separation of the digested DNA fragments by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. From a pool of 56 unrelated POAG patients two mutations were identified. A putative novel mutation (144 G->T; Gln48His) of a conserved amino acid was detected in the exon 1 of MYOC from three unrelated patients but none in the 51 control samples examined. The other mutation (1109 C->T; Pro370Leu), located in exon 3 and detected in a family affected with POAG, cosegregated with the disease and was not present in control samples. Two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified; one in the promoter region

  7. Comparison of relation between visual function index and retinal nerve fiber layer structure by optical coherence tomography among primary open angle glaucoma and primary angle closure glaucoma eyes.

    PubMed

    Rao, Aparna

    2014-01-01

    To compare the visual field index (VFI) in primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) and primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG) eyes, and to study the correlation with disc variables on optical coherence tomography (OCT) in all stages of severity. Thirty POAG and PACG underwent Humphrey visual field 24-2 along with detailed examination. They also underwent stratus OCT imaging of the optic nerve and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL). The correlation of VFI with RNFL thickness was compared in POAG and PACG. The VFI significantly differed between POAG and PACG, with POAG eyes apparently having a better VFI at all severities of glaucoma. There were statistically significant differences in the superior max (Smax) and inferior max (Imax) in early and moderate POAG and PACG eyes. In early and moderate glaucoma, multivariate regression showed that maximum correlation of the VFI was seen with the mean deviation (b = 1.7, P < 0.001), average and superior RNFL thickness (b = 2.1, P < 0.001 and b = 1.8, P = 0.03, respectively), and age (b = 0.7, P = 0.04); while no correlation was seen with intraocular pressure (IOP), axial length, sex, or other clinical variables. VFI did not correlate well with RNFL thickness or other disc variables on OCT in severe glaucoma. VFI may not serve as a useful indicator of visual function in severe glaucoma. More useful indicators are required to monitor glaucoma patients with severe damage.

  8. [A study on the association of apolipoprotein E genotypes with primary open-angle glaucoma and primary angle-closure glaucoma in northeast of China].

    PubMed

    Yuan, Hui-ping; Xiao, Zheng; Yang, Bin-bin

    2007-05-01

    To analysis the association of apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG) in northeast of China. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) technique were used to detect the distribution of genotype and gene frequency of APOE alleles in 36 patients with POAG, 69 with PACG and 57 healthy subjects as control. The frequency of APOE epsilon 3/epsilon 4 genotype in POAG group (41.7%)and epsilon 2/epsilon 4 in PACG group (43.5%) was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than that in control group (14.0% and 21.1%, respectively). The frequency of APOE epsilon 4 allele in both of POAG (37.5%) and PACG group (39.2%) was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than that in control group (17.5%), whereas the frequency of APOE epsilon 2 allele in POAG group (8.3%) was significantly (P < 0.05) lower than that in control group (15.8%). APOE epsilon 4 allele may be a latent risk factor in the development of primary glaucoma, but APOE epsilon 2 allele may play a protective role in POAG and warrant further investigation.

  9. A model function for jet noise events at aft angles and what it says about the statistical relationships of the events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kearney-Fischer, M.

    2015-03-01

    Previous works have shown that subsonic jet noise radiating to aft angles can be described as a succession of independent large fluctuations (i.e. events). Building on these previous works, a model function is found that can accurately reproduce the observed spectra for jets whose aft angle noise is well described the Large-scale Similarity Spectrum (LSS). The selection of the model function is informed by the LSS and autocorrelation analysis of experimental data. It is determined that the model function should be a bipolar pulse with zero mean in order to reproduce the LSS over low to midrange frequencies (i.e. frequencies much higher than the spectral peak frequency are not considered). It is also found that, without sacrificing much fidelity in terms of the resulting spectrum, the model function can be antisymmetric leading to a compact analytical expression with a minimal number of parameters. Along with the statistical parameters and distributions extracted from the data, it is shown that this model function for the events can reproduce the measured spectral characteristics quite well. The model function is then used to explore the link between the event distributions and parameters and the resulting spectrum.

  10. Still water: dead zones and collimated ejecta from the impact of granular jets.

    PubMed

    Ellowitz, Jake; Turlier, Hervé; Guttenberg, Nicholas; Zhang, Wendy W; Nagel, Sidney R

    2013-10-18

    When a dense granular jet hits a target, it forms a large dead zone and ejects a highly collimated conical sheet with a well-defined opening angle. Using experiments, simulations, and continuum modeling, we find that this opening angle is insensitive to the precise target shape and the dissipation mechanisms in the flow. We show that this surprising insensitivity arises because dense granular jet impact, though highly dissipative, is nonetheless controlled by the limit of perfect fluid flow.

  11. Comparison of self-measured diurnal intraocular pressure profiles using rebound tonometry between primary angle closure glaucoma and primary open angle glaucoma patients

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Shaoying; Baig, Nafees; Hansapinyo, Linda; Jhanji, Vishal; Wei, Shihui; Tham, Clement C.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To document the diurnal intraocular pressure (IOP) profile with rebound tonometry performed by primary glaucoma patients in non-clinic environment. Patients and methods Fifty-three medically-treated eyes of 31 primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG) and 22 primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) patients with no previous eye surgery were recruited. Diurnal IOP was measured 5 times per day at four-hourly intervals from 08:00 to 24:00 for 1 week in patients’ study eye using rebound tonometry in a non-clinic environment. The diurnal IOP profiles were compared between PACG and POAG eyes. Results For both PACG and POAG eyes, mean patient-measured IOP was highest in the morning, gradually decreased over the course of a day, and was lowest by midnight (p < 0.001). The diurnal IOP fluctuation ± 1 standard deviation (SD), as documented by SD in daily IOP values, was lower in PACG group (1.6 ± 1.1 mmHg) than in POAG group (2.0 ± 1.2 mmHg; p = 0.049). The mean trough IOP ± 1 SD was higher in PACG group (12.9 ± 2.8 mmHg), compared to POAG group (11.5 ± 3.8 mmHg; p = 0.041). The mean IOP level at midnight ± 1 SD in PACG group (14.0 ± 3.2 mmHg) was higher than that in POAG group (12.1 ± 3.7 mmHg; p = 0.013). Conclusions IOP in primary glaucoma patients was highest in the morning, and decreased over the course of a day in non-clinic environment. Treated diurnal IOP fluctuation seemed to be greater in POAG than PACG eyes. PMID:28333942

  12. Patient-Reported Vision-Related Quality-of-Life Differences between Primary Angle-Closure Glaucoma and Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Chao-Yu; Chen, Yu-Jing; Chen, Mei-Ju; Ko, Yu-Chieh; Huang, Nicole; Liu, Catherine Jui-ling

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the different impacts on patient-reported vision-related quality of life (pVRQOL) outcomes in patients with primary angle-closure glaucoma(PACG) and primary open-angle glaucoma(POAG). Methods Prospective cross-sectional study. PACG and POAG patients who had a best-corrected visual acuity(BCVA) in the better eye equal to or better than 20/60, intraocular pressure controlled at or below 25 mmHg and reliable visual field test were invited to participate. The control group included patients with BCVA in the better eye equal to or better than 20/60 and who did not have major eye disease. A validated Taiwanese version of the 25-item National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire (NEI VFQ-25(T)) was performed to assess pVRQOL. The association between each domain of NEI VFQ-25(T) among 3 groups was determined using multivariable linear regression analysis. Results A total of 106 PACG, 186 POAG, and 95 controls were enrolled. In multivariable regression analysis of all three groups(PACG/POAG/controls), compared to POAG, PACG showed a weakly positive association with social functioning (R2 = 0.13, β = 0.22, P = 0.04). PACG showed no significantly negative impact on pVRQOL compared to controls. Taking only glaucoma patients into consideration, PACG patients had a higher score on social functioning compared to POAG (R2 = 0.16, β = 0.27, P = 0.01). The results of other domains of NEI VFQ-25(T) between the two groups did not differ significantly(p>0.05). Conclusions In patients with controlled disease, the impact of PACG and POAG on most domains of NEI VFQ-25(T) were similar, except for better social functioning in PACG compared to POAG. PMID:27690232

  13. A common gene for juvenile and adult-onset primary open-angle glaucomas confined on chromosome 1q

    SciTech Connect

    Morissette, J.; Plante, M.; Raymond, V.

    1995-06-01

    Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), which causes progressive loss of the visual fields, was subdivided into two groups according to age at onset: (1) chronic open-angle glaucoma (COAG) diagnosed after 40 years and (2) juvenile open-angle glaucoma (JOAG) diagnosed between 3 years of age and early adulthood. A JOAG gene (GLC1A) was recently mapped to chromosome 1q. We studied 142 members of a huge multigenerational French Canadian family affected with autosomal dominant POAG. Either JOAG or COAG was diagnosed with ocular hypertension (OHT), which may lead to POAG. To localize a common disease gene that might be responsible for both glaucoma subsets, we performed linkage analysis considering JOAG and COAG under the same phenotypic category. JOAG/COAG was tightly linked to seven microsatellite markers on chromosome 1q23-q25; a maximum lod score of 6.62 was obtained with AF-M278ye5. To refine the disease locus, we exploited a recombination mapping strategy based on a unique founder effect. The same characteristic haplotype, composed of 14 markers spanning 12 cM between loci D1S196 and D1S212, was recognized in all persons affected by JOAG, COAG, or OHT, but it did not occur in unaffected spouses and in normal family members >35 years of age, except for three obligatory carriers. Key combination events confined the disease region within a 9-cM interval between loci D1S445 and D1S416/D1S480. These observations demonstrate that the GLC1A gene is responsible for both adult-onset and juvenile glaucomas and suggest that the JOAG and COAG categories within this family may be part of a clinical continuum artificially divided at age 40 years. 49 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Lens Position Parameters as Predictors of Intraocular Pressure Reduction After Cataract Surgery in Nonglaucomatous Patients With Open Angles

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Chi-Hsin; Kakigi, Caitlin L.; Lin, Shuai-Chun; Wang, Yuan-Hung; Porco, Travis; Lin, Shan C.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the relationship between lens position parameters and intraocular pressure (IOP) reduction after cataract surgery in nonglaucomatous eyes with open angles. Methods The main outcome of the prospective study was percentage of IOP change, which was calculated using the preoperative IOP and the IOP 4 months after cataract surgery in nonglaucomatous eyes with open angles. Lens position (LP), defined as anterior chamber depth (ACD) + 1/2 lens thickness (LT), was assessed preoperatively using parameters from optical biometry. Preoperative IOP, central corneal thickness, ACD, LT, axial length (AXL), and the ratio of preoperative IOP to ACD (PD ratio) were also evaluated as potential predictors of percentage of IOP change. The predictive values of the parameters we found to be associated with the primary outcome were compared. Results Four months after cataract surgery, the average IOP reduction was 2.03 ± 2.42 mm Hg, a 12.74% reduction from the preoperative mean of 14.5 ± 3.05 mm Hg. Lens position was correlated with IOP reduction percentage after adjusting for confounders (P = 0.002). Higher preoperative IOP, shallower ACD, shorter AXL, and thicker LT were significantly associated with percentage of IOP decrease. Although not statistically significant, LP was a better predictor of percentage of IOP change compared to PD ratio, preoperative IOP, and ACD. Conclusions The percentage of IOP reduction after cataract surgery in nonglaucomatous eyes with open angles is greater in more anteriorly positioned lenses. Lens position, which is convenient to compute by basic ocular biometric data, is an accessible predictor with considerable predictive value for postoperative IOP change. PMID:26650901

  15. Integral indicatrix of light scattering from {open_quotes}soft{close_quotes} spherical particles in the region of small angles

    SciTech Connect

    Lopatin, V.N.; Shapovalov, K.A.

    1995-05-01

    The integral indicatrix of light scattering from a {open_quotes}soft{close_quotes} spherical particle is studied as a function of the phase shift. It is shown analytically in the WKB approximation and numerically on the basis of the Mie theory and the WKB approximation that the dependence of the integral indicatrix on the phase shift is similar to that for the factor of light scattering efficiency. Asymptotic expressions for the integral indicatrix are obtained for large diffraction parameters in the limiting cases of small and large phase shifts in the region of small angles. 8 refs., 3 figs.

  16. Identification of a novel MYOC mutation, p.(Trp373), in a family with open angle glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Crawford, April; Souzeau, Emmanuelle; Agar, Ashish; Ridge, Bronwyn; Dubowsky, Andrew; Burdon, Kathryn P; Craig, Jamie E

    2014-07-25

    MYOC gene variants are associated with autosomal dominant primary open angle glaucoma (POAG). In this study, we describe a previously unreported MYOC variant segregating with a POAG phenotype in an Australian family. Two individuals affected with POAG and three unaffected individuals from the same family were recruited through the Australian and New Zealand Registry of Advanced Glaucoma (ANZRAG). Direct sequencing of all MYOC coding exons identified the novel heterozygous single nucleotide transition MYOC:c.1119G>A, p.(Trp373), predicted to encode an aberrant truncated MYOC protein in two affected siblings. Two unaffected siblings and an unaffected niece were negative for the MYOC sequence variant.

  17. Role of the beta-adrenergic receptor-binding agent 'timolol' in the treatment of open-angle glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Strempel, I

    1982-01-01

    A follow-up study was performed on 54 eyes with chronic open-angle glaucoma treated with timolol maleate. It was carried out as an open clinical trial with a selected group of eyes. During 2 years of application the effect of timolol under normal conditions as well as under stress tests (darkness test, water-, coffee- or tea-drinking test, early morning measurements) was observed. Until now 40% of patients were regulated with 0.25% timolol twice daily. Another 50% obtained good pressure values under 0.5% timolol therapy and the rest with 0.5% timolol and 2% pilocarpine twice daily. Early morning measurement was shown to be the most important indicator of intraocular pressure regulation by beta-blocking agents. While timolol is usually very effective in reducing the intraocular pressure during daytime, several patients showed unattended high morning pressure values. Up to now, no severe side-effects of timolol therapy have been observed.

  18. Anisotropy of partially self-absorbed jets and the jet of Cyg X-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zdziarski, Andrzej A.; Paul, Debdutta; Osborne, Ruaraidh; Rao, A. R.

    2016-12-01

    We study the angular dependence of the flux from partially synchrotron self-absorbed conical jets (proposed by Blandford & Königl). We consider the jet viewed from either a side or close to on axis, and in the latter case, either from the jet top or bottom. We derive analytical formulae for the flux in each of these cases, and find the exact solution for an arbitrary angle numerically. We find that the maximum of the emission occurs when the jet is viewed from top on-axis, which is contrast to a previous result, which found the maximum at some intermediate angle and null emission on-axis. We then calculate the ratio of the jet-to-counterjet emission for this model, which depends on the viewing angle and the index of power-law electrons. We apply our results to the black hole binary Cyg X-1. Given the jet-to-counterjet flux ratio of ≳ 50 found observationally and the current estimates of the inclination, we find the jet velocity to be ≳0.8c. We also point out that when the projection effect is taken into account, the radio observations imply the jet half-opening angle of ≲ 1°, a half of the value given before. When combined with the existing estimates of Γj, the jet half-opening angle is low, ≪1/Γj, and much lower than values observed in blazars, unless Γj is much higher than currently estimated.

  19. Inner jet kinematics and the viewing angle towards the γ-ray narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxy 1H 0323+342

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuhrmann, Lars; Karamanavis, Vassilis; Komossa, Stefanie; Angelakis, Emmanouil; Krichbaum, Thomas P.; Schulz, Robert; Kreikenbohm, Annika; Kadler, Matthias; Myserlis, Ioannis; Ros, Eduardo; Nestoras, Ioannis; Zensus, J. Anton

    2016-11-01

    Near-Eddington accretion rates onto low-mass black holes are thought to be a prime driver of the multi-wavelength properties of the narrow-line Seyfert 1 (NLS1) population of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Orientation effects have repeatedly been considered as another important factor involved, but detailed studies have been hampered by the lack of measured viewing angles towards this type of AGN. Here we present multi-epoch, 15 GHz VLBA images (MOJAVE program) of the radio-loud and Fermi/LAT-detected NLS1 galaxy 1H 0323+342. These are combined with single-dish, multi-frequency radio monitoring of the source's variability, obtained with the Effelsberg 100-m and IRAM 30-m telescopes, in the course of the F-GAMMA program. The VLBA images reveal six components with apparent speeds of ˜ 1-7 c, and one quasi-stationary feature. Combining the obtained apparent jet speed (β app) and variability Doppler factor (D var) estimates together with other methods, we constrain the viewing angle θ towards 1H 0323+342 to θ ≤ 4°-13°. Using literature values of βapp and D var, we also deduce a viewing angle of ≤ 8°-9° towards another radio- and γ-ray-loud NLS1, namely SBS 0846+513.

  20. Analysis of the quantitative dermatoglyphic traits of the digito-palmar complex in patients with primary open angle glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Novak-Laus, Katia; Milicić, Jasna; Tedeschi-Reiner, Eugenia; Iveković, Renata; Mijić, Vesna; Masnec-Paskvalin, Sanja; Zrinsćak, Ognjen; Mandić, Zdravko

    2005-12-01

    Patient with primary open angle glaucoma (PAOG), which is known to have a genetic predisposition, and their immediate relatives unaffected with PAOG, may have some changes in dermatoglyphic traits of the digito-palmar complex, since the trabecular meshwork develops at the same time and with the same hereditary base like dermatoglyphs, which have high genetic transmission. The objective of this study is to determine whether differences in quantitative dermatoglyphic traits of the digito-palmar complex exist between patients with glaucoma and the phenotipically healthy population and whether their family members have the same dermatoglyphic changes. The quantitative dermatoglyphic traits in patients suffering from glaucoma, first-degree members of their family and the phenotypically healthy population have been screened in this study. Descriptive statistics, univariate analysis of variance (ANOVA) and post hoc (Tukey HSD) method have been used. The results have shown that there is a link between the quantitative dermatoglyphic traits of the digito-palmar complex in patients affected by glaucoma and a first-degree healthy member of their family, as well as the difference between patients with glaucoma and their first-degree relatives, which may discriminate them from the phenotypically healthy population. The results of the study mostly affirm the existence of genetic predisposition for the development of primary open-angle glaucoma, thus emphasizing the relevance of hereditary factors in the etiopathogenesis of this disease.

  1. [Analysis of the effectiveness of beta-blockers for intraocular pressure and visual field in primary open-angle glaucoma].

    PubMed

    Dobre, Xenia

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was the evaluation of beta-blockers efficiency (as a monotherapy) in the lowering of IOP and the evolution of the visual field. An observational clinical study was carried out over a determined period of time (January 2005-January 2007) on a number of 73 eyes with primary open-angle glaucoma in which one parameter was observed: IOP; on a number of 77 eyes with primary open-angle glaucoma the evolution of the visual field, while receiving specific treatment, was observed. Pressure release situated at 21.65%, with initial medium IOP at 23.95, and a final value of 17.51; p <0.0001. The aspect of the visual field suffered no negative transformations and no improvements either. The MD and PD parameters were recorded. CONCLUSIONS Beta-blockers can be efficient in monotherapy by offering the reduction and stabilisation of IOP. No problems with regard to tolerability in the eyes observed; no negative side effects emerged because it was not administered to patients which suffered from heart diseases or bronchial asthma. However, patient satisfaction is reduced by an administration of twice a day.

  2. Effects of self-relaxation methods and visual imagery on IOP in patients with open-angle glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Kaluza, G; Strempel, I

    1995-01-01

    In this study, the effects of a training in relaxation and visual imagery on the intra-ocular pressure (IOP) of patients with primary open-angle glaucoma were investigated. Twenty-three patients, aged 24-69 years, were assigned either to a training group or to a waiting-list control group. The intervention included a basic programme (BP) of standard autogenic relaxation exercises and an advanced programme (AP) in which special exercises in ocular relaxation and imagination of aqueous humour drainage were conducted. IOP was measured before and after each training session. Twenty-four-hour IOP profiles were ascertained, and the water drinking test to provoke maximum IOP levels was performed during clinical assessments prior to the training, between the BP and the AP and after termination of the training. Results indicate only slight short-term changes of IOP levels immediately after each training session. However, during the course of the BP as well as of the AP a relevant decrease in IOP could be measured. Twenty-four-hour IOP profiles as well as the water drinking test also showed significant reductions of IOP during time. Medication could be reduced for 56% of the initially treated patients. The findings suggest that relaxation and visual imagery techniques can be beneficial in reducing elevated IOP levels in patients with open-angle glaucoma though the conclusiveness of the data is limited due to methodological shortcomings.

  3. Evaluation of the intraocular pressure-reducing effect of latanoprost as monotherapy in open-angle glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Mandić, Z; Bojić, L; Novak-Laus, K; Sarić, D

    2002-12-01

    Objective of this study was to evaluate the intraocular pressure-reducing effect of latanoprost as monotherapy after replacing current dual therapy in glaucoma patients. The 6-months study comprised 189 patients with primary open angle glaucoma who were treated at least 6 months with two different kind of topical medications (beta-blockers, pilocarpine, dorzolamide and brimonidine). Due to local side effects, multiple dosing regime and inadequately controlled intraocular pressure (IOP), they where switched to latanoprost 0.005% monotherapy. After switched to latanoprost, mean (IOP) was measured at baseline, after 15 days, 2 and 6 months of treatment. After six-months 178 patients had completed the study. These analyses enrolled all patients (n = 189), thus, the Intention-To-Treat (ITT) results were shown instead of the results of the reduced population. IOP was clinically importantly reduced from baseline level. Five patients had uncontrolled IOP. The difference between IOP before (21.9 +/- 2.4) and after 15 days (17.4 +/- 1.7), 2 months (16.7 +/- 1.8) and 6 months (16.6 +/- 1.4) was statistically significant (p < 0.001). 90% patients has reached target IOP < or = 18 mm. A conjunctional hyperaemia in 18 (9%), stinging and itching in 7 (4%) patients was reported. Increased iris pigmentation was seen in 3 (2%) patients. The results of this study indicate that dual therapy in open-angle glaucoma can effectively be replaced by latanoprost monotherapy in many patients.

  4. Soluble Guanylate Cyclase α1–Deficient Mice: A Novel Murine Model for Primary Open Angle Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Buys, Emmanuel S.; Ko, Yu-Chieh; Alt, Clemens; Hayton, Sarah R.; Jones, Alexander; Tainsh, Laurel T.; Ren, Ruiyi; Giani, Andrea; Clerté, Maeva; Abernathy, Emma; Tainsh, Robert E. T.; Oh, Dong-Jin; Malhotra, Rajeev; Arora, Pankaj; de Waard, Nadine; Yu, Binglan; Turcotte, Raphael; Nathan, Daniel; Scherrer-Crosbie, Marielle; Loomis, Stephanie J.; Kang, Jae H.; Lin, Charles P.; Gong, Haiyan; Rhee, Douglas J.; Brouckaert, Peter; Wiggs, Janey L.; Gregory, Meredith S.; Pasquale, Louis R.; Bloch, Kenneth D.; Ksander, Bruce R.

    2013-01-01

    Primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) is a leading cause of blindness worldwide. The molecular signaling involved in the pathogenesis of POAG remains unknown. Here, we report that mice lacking the α1 subunit of the nitric oxide receptor soluble guanylate cyclase represent a novel and translatable animal model of POAG, characterized by thinning of the retinal nerve fiber layer and loss of optic nerve axons in the context of an open iridocorneal angle. The optic neuropathy associated with soluble guanylate cyclase α1–deficiency was accompanied by modestly increased intraocular pressure and retinal vascular dysfunction. Moreover, data from a candidate gene association study suggests that a variant in the locus containing the genes encoding for the α1 and β1 subunits of soluble guanylate cyclase is associated with POAG in patients presenting with initial paracentral vision loss, a disease subtype thought to be associated with vascular dysregulation. These findings provide new insights into the pathogenesis and genetics of POAG and suggest new therapeutic strategies for POAG. PMID:23527308

  5. Brinzolamide/brimonidine: a review of its use in patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension.

    PubMed

    Greig, Sarah L; Deeks, Emma D

    2015-03-01

    Brinzolamide 1 %/brimonidine 0.2 % ophthalmic suspension (Simbrinza(®)) is a fixed-combination of a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor and an α2-adrenergic receptor agonist that is indicated for the reduction of elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) in patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension in both the USA and EU (with the EU indication restricted to patients for whom monotherapy provides insufficient IOP reduction). In phase III randomized trials, both three-times-daily and twice-daily administration of brinzolamide/brimonidine provided significantly greater IOP-lowering efficacy over 3-6 months than either of its individual components alone, and twice-daily brinzolamide/brimonidine was noninferior to concomitant administration of brinzolamide plus brimonidine over 6 months in this regard. Brinzolamide/brimonidine was generally well tolerated, with a tolerability profile that was consistent with its individual components and with no unexpected safety findings. Therefore, brinzolamide/brimonidine is an effective treatment option for patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension, providing a convenient alternative for those patients who require multiple IOP-lowering medications. Brinzolamide/brimonidine is the first available fixed-combination that does not contain timolol, and maybe particularly suited to patients with comorbidities that restrict treatment with β-adrenergic receptor antagonists.

  6. Particle multiplicity in jets and subjets with jet axis from color current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ochs, Wolfgang; Ramos, Redamy Pérez

    2008-08-01

    We study the particle multiplicity in a jet or subjet as derived from an energy-multiplicity 2-particle correlation. This definition avoids the notion of a globally fixed jet axis and allows for the study of smaller jet cone openings in a more stable way. The results are sensitive to the mean color current ⟨C⟩A0 in the jet from primary parton A0, which takes into account intermediate partonic processes in the subjet production where CF<⟨C⟩A0jet axis definition is computed for multiplicities in subjets with different opening angles and energies by including contributions from the modified LLA and next-to-modified LLA to the leading order QCD results.

  7. Open-loop GPS signal tracking at low elevation angles from a ground-based observation site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyerle, Georg; Zus, Florian

    2016-04-01

    For more than a decade space-based global navigation satellite system (GNSS) radio occultation (RO) observations are used by meteorological services world-wide for their numerical weather prediction models. In addition, climate studies increasingly rely on validated GNSS-RO data sets of atmospheric parameters. GNSS-RO profiles typically cover an altitude range from the boundary layer up to the upper stratosphere; their highest accuracy and precision, however, are attained at the tropopause level. In the lower troposphere, multipath ray propagation tend to induce signal amplitude and frequency fluctuations which lead to the development and implementation of open-loop signal tracking methods in GNSS-RO receiver firmwares. In open-loop mode the feed-back values for the carrier tracking loop are derived not from measured data, but from a Doppler frequency model which usually is extracted from an atmospheric climatology. In order to ensure that this receiver-internal parameter set, does not bias the carrier phase path observables, dual-channel open-loop GNSS-RO signal tracking was suggested. Following this proposal the ground-based "GLESER" (GPS low-elevation setting event recorder) campaign was established. Its objective was to disproof the existence of model-induced frequency biases using ground-based GPS observations at very low elevation angles. Between January and December 2014 about 2600 validated setting events, starting at geometric elevation angles of +2° and extending to -1°… - 1.5°, were recorded by the single frequency "OpenGPS" GPS receiver at a measurement site located close to Potsdam, Germany (52.3808°N, 13.0642°E). The study is based on the assumption that these ground-based observations may be used as proxies for space-based RO measurements, even if the latter occur on a one order of magnitude faster temporal scale. The "GLESER" data analysis shows that the open-loop Doppler model has negligible influence on the derived frequency profile

  8. Characteristics of a Direct Current-driven plasma jet operated in open air

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xuechen; Bao, Wenting; Di, Cong; Jia, Pengying

    2013-09-30

    A DC-driven plasma jet has been developed to generate a diffuse plasma plume by blowing argon into the ambient air. The plasma plume, showing a cup shape with a diameter of several centimeters at a higher voltage, is a pulsed discharge despite a DC voltage is applied. The pulse frequency is investigated as a function of the voltage under different gap widths and gas flow rates. Results show that plasma bullets propagate from the hollow needle to the plate electrode by spatially resolved measurement. A supposition about non-electroneutral trail of the streamer is proposed to interpret these experimental phenomena.

  9. Characteristics of a Direct Current-driven plasma jet operated in open air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xuechen; Di, Cong; Jia, Pengying; Bao, Wenting

    2013-09-01

    A DC-driven plasma jet has been developed to generate a diffuse plasma plume by blowing argon into the ambient air. The plasma plume, showing a cup shape with a diameter of several centimeters at a higher voltage, is a pulsed discharge despite a DC voltage is applied. The pulse frequency is investigated as a function of the voltage under different gap widths and gas flow rates. Results show that plasma bullets propagate from the hollow needle to the plate electrode by spatially resolved measurement. A supposition about non-electroneutral trail of the streamer is proposed to interpret these experimental phenomena.

  10. OpenFOAM investigations of cavitation in a flushed water-jet inlet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gattoronchieri, A.; Bensow, R.

    2015-12-01

    The cavitation on the lip of a flushed water-jet inlet has been simulated with a transient RANS model and the results has been validated against experiments. The k-ω SST turbulence model has been adopted together with the cavitation correction proposed by Reboud. The defined setup shows promising results and the vortex shedding has been qualitatively predicted. Moreover, the importance of the sufficient spatial resolution to capture the cavity closure and its extension has been studied and proved to be crucial.

  11. On the mechanics of low-angle normal faults: interdisciplinary observations and open questions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collettini, C.

    2016-12-01

    "Standard" frictional fault reactivation predicts that in an extending crust normal faults should cease to slip at dips of 30°. This mechanical prediction is consistent with the absence on continental low-angle normal faults, LANF, of moderate-to-large earthquakes where the rupture plane is unambiguously discriminated. In marked contrast, widespread geological data and seismic reflection profiles show that LANF have played a key-role in crustal extension. In the last 15 years we have tried to address this LANF paradox focusing on the Northern Apennines of Italy by comparing active with ancient-exhumed LANFs of the same fault system. In the active (3 mm/yr) extending area geophysical data define a regional LANF characterized by locked and creeping (1.7 mm/yr) portions with interspersed microseismicity (about 3 events per day, ML < 2.3). In the hanging-wall block high angle normal faults host the larger earthquakes and accommodate extension in a stress field characterized by a vertical maximum principal stress, S1. Field and microstructural studies along an ancient exhumed LANF show that one of the main deformation mechanisms is fluid-assisted dissolution of the protolith and precipitation of phyllosilicates (talc and smectite). This deformation favors the development of a phyllosilicate-rich foliation and the attainment of local fluid overpressure. Laboratory friction experiments show that the foliated surfaces are weak and velocity strengthening. The low friction coefficient of the phyllosilicates coupled with fluid overpressure can explain movements on LANF and the velocity strengthening behaviour of the phyllosilicates implies fault creep and therefore can be used to explain the absence of moderate-to-large earthquakes on LANF on the seismological records. Although the above conditions can be invoked to explain some aspects of LANF mechanics, they do not represent the solution of the LANF paradox. First, a widespread development of phyllosilicates does not seem

  12. Measurement of the azimuthal angle dependence of inclusive jet yields in Pb+Pb collisions at √(sNN)=2.76 TeV with the ATLAS detector.

    PubMed

    Aad, G; Abajyan, T; Abbott, B; Abdallah, J; Abdel Khalek, S; Abdinov, O; Aben, R; Abi, B; Abolins, M; AbouZeid, O S; Abramowicz, H; Abreu, H; Abulaiti, Y; Acharya, B S; Adamczyk, L; Adams, D L; Addy, T N; Adelman, J; Adomeit, S; Adye, T; Aefsky, S; Agatonovic-Jovin, T; Aguilar-Saavedra, J A; Agustoni, M; Ahlen, S P; Ahmad, A; Ahsan, M; Aielli, G; Akesson, T P A; Akimoto, G; Akimov, A V; Alam, M A; Albert, J; Albrand, S; Alconada Verzini, M J; Aleksa, M; Aleksandrov, I N; Alessandria, F; Alexa, C; Alexander, G; Alexandre, G; Alexopoulos, T; Alhroob, M; Aliev, M; Alimonti, G; Alio, L; Alison, J; Allbrooke, B M M; Allison, L J; Allport, P P; Allwood-Spiers, S E; Almond, J; Aloisio, A; Alon, R; Alonso, A; Alonso, F; Altheimer, A; Alvarez Gonzalez, B; Alviggi, M G; Amako, K; Amaral Coutinho, Y; Amelung, C; Ammosov, V V; Amor Dos Santos, S P; Amorim, A; Amoroso, S; Amram, N; Anastopoulos, C; Ancu, L S; Andari, N; Andeen, T; Anders, C F; Anders, G; Anderson, K J; Andreazza, A; Andrei, V; Anduaga, X S; Angelidakis, S; Anger, P; Angerami, A; Anghinolfi, F; Anisenkov, A V; Anjos, N; Annovi, A; Antonaki, A; Antonelli, M; Antonov, A; Antos, J; Anulli, F; Aoki, M; Aperio Bella, L; Apolle, R; Arabidze, G; Aracena, I; Arai, Y; Arce, A T H; Arfaoui, S; Arguin, J-F; Argyropoulos, S; Arik, E; Arik, M; Armbruster, A J; Arnaez, O; Arnal, V; Artamonov, A; Artoni, G; Arutinov, D; Asai, S; Asbah, N; Ask, S; Åsman, B; Asquith, L; Assamagan, K; Astalos, R; Astbury, A; Atkinson, M; Atlay, N B; Auerbach, B; Auge, E; Augsten, K; Aurousseau, M; Avolio, G; Axen, D; Azuelos, G; Azuma, Y; Baak, M A; Bacci, C; Bach, A M; Bachacou, H; Bachas, K; Backes, M; Backhaus, M; Backus Mayes, J; Badescu, E; Bagiacchi, P; Bagnaia, P; Bai, Y; Bailey, D C; Bain, T; Baines, J T; Baker, O K; Baker, S; Balek, P; Balli, F; Banas, E; Banerjee, Sw; Banfi, D; Bangert, A; Bansal, V; Bansil, H S; Barak, L; Baranov, S P; Barber, T; Barberio, E L; Barberis, D; Barbero, M; Bardin, D Y; Barillari, T; Barisonzi, M; Barklow, T; Barlow, N; Barnett, B M; Barnett, R M; Baroncelli, A; Barone, G; Barr, A J; Barreiro, F; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, J; Bartoldus, R; Barton, A E; Bartsch, V; Basye, A; Bates, R L; Batkova, L; Batley, J R; Battistin, M; Bauer, F; Bawa, H S; Beale, S; Beau, T; Beauchemin, P H; Beccherle, R; Bechtle, P; Beck, H P; Becker, K; Becker, S; Beckingham, M; Becks, K H; Beddall, A J; Beddall, A; Bedikian, S; Bednyakov, V A; Bee, C P; Beemster, L J; Beermann, T A; Begel, M; Belanger-Champagne, C; Bell, P J; Bell, W H; Bella, G; Bellagamba, L; Bellerive, A; Bellomo, M; Belloni, A; Beloborodova, O L; Belotskiy, K; Beltramello, O; Benary, O; Benchekroun, D; Bendtz, K; Benekos, N; Benhammou, Y; Benhar Noccioli, E; Benitez Garcia, J A; Benjamin, D P; Bensinger, J R; Benslama, K; Bentvelsen, S; Berge, D; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E; Berger, N; Berghaus, F; Berglund, E; Beringer, J; Bernard, C; Bernat, P; Bernhard, R; Bernius, C; Bernlochner, F U; Berry, T; Bertella, C; Bertolucci, F; Besana, M I; Besjes, G J; Bessidskaia, O; Besson, N; Bethke, S; Bhimji, W; Bianchi, R M; Bianchini, L; Bianco, M; Biebel, O; Bieniek, S P; Bierwagen, K; Biesiada, J; Biglietti, M; Bilbao De Mendizabal, J; Bilokon, H; Bindi, M; Binet, S; Bingul, A; Bini, C; Bittner, B; Black, C W; Black, J E; Black, K M; Blackburn, D; Blair, R E; Blanchard, J-B; Blazek, T; Bloch, I; Blocker, C; Blocki, J; Blum, W; Blumenschein, U; Bobbink, G J; Bobrovnikov, V S; Bocchetta, S S; Bocci, A; Boddy, C R; Boehler, M; Boek, J; Boek, T T; Boelaert, N; Bogaerts, J A; Bogdanchikov, A G; Bogouch, A; Bohm, C; Bohm, J; Boisvert, V; Bold, T; Boldea, V; Bolnet, N M; Bomben, M; Bona, M; Boonekamp, M; Bordoni, S; Borer, C; Borisov, A; Borissov, G; Borri, M; Borroni, S; Bortfeldt, J; Bortolotto, V; Bos, K; Boscherini, D; Bosman, M; Boterenbrood, H; Bouchami, J; Boudreau, J; Bouhova-Thacker, E V; Boumediene, D; Bourdarios, C; Bousson, N; Boutouil, S; Boveia, A; Boyd, J; Boyko, I R; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I; Bracinik, J; Branchini, P; Brandt, A; Brandt, G; 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Wrona, B; Wu, S L; Wu, X; Wu, Y; Wulf, E; Wynne, B M; Xella, S; Xiao, M; Xu, C; Xu, D; Xu, L; Yabsley, B; Yacoob, S; Yamada, M; Yamaguchi, H; Yamaguchi, Y; Yamamoto, A; Yamamoto, K; Yamamoto, S; Yamamura, T; Yamanaka, T; Yamauchi, K; Yamazaki, Y; Yan, Z; Yang, H; Yang, H; Yang, U K; Yang, Y; Yang, Z; Yanush, S; Yao, L; Yasu, Y; Yatsenko, E; Yau Wong, K H; Ye, J; Ye, S; Yen, A L; Yildirim, E; Yilmaz, M; Yoosoofmiya, R; Yorita, K; Yoshida, R; Yoshihara, K; Young, C; Young, C J S; Youssef, S; Yu, D R; Yu, J; Yu, J; Yuan, L; Yurkewicz, A; Zabinski, B; Zaidan, R; Zaitsev, A M; Zambito, S; Zanello, L; Zanzi, D; Zaytsev, A; Zeitnitz, C; Zeman, M; Zemla, A; Zenin, O; Zeniš, T; Zerwas, D; Zevi della Porta, G; Zhang, D; Zhang, H; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhang, X; Zhang, Z; Zhao, Z; Zhemchugov, A; Zhong, J; Zhou, B; Zhou, N; Zhu, C G; Zhu, H; Zhu, J; Zhu, Y; Zhuang, X; Zibell, A; Zieminska, D; Zimin, N I; Zimmermann, C; Zimmermann, R; Zimmermann, S; Zimmermann, S; Zinonos, Z; Ziolkowski, M; Zitoun, R; Zivković, L; Zobernig, G; Zoccoli, A; zur Nedden, M; Zutshi, V; Zwalinski, L

    2013-10-11

    Measurements of the variation of inclusive jet suppression as a function of relative azimuthal angle, Δφ, with respect to the elliptic event plane provide insight into the path-length dependence of jet quenching. ATLAS has measured the Δφ dependence of jet yields in 0.14 nb(-1) of √(s(NN))=2.76 TeV Pb+Pb collisions at the LHC for jet transverse momenta p(T)>45 GeV in different collision centrality bins using an underlying event subtraction procedure that accounts for elliptic flow. The variation of the jet yield with Δφ was characterized by the parameter, v(2)(jet), and the ratio of out-of-plane (Δφ~π/2) to in-plane (Δφ~0) yields. Nonzero v(2)(jet) values were measured in all centrality bins for p(T)<160 GeV. The jet yields are observed to vary by as much as 20% between in-plane and out-of-plane directions.

  13. Phene Synergism between Root Hair Length and Basal Root Growth Angle for Phosphorus Acquisition1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Miguel, Magalhaes Amade

    2015-01-01

    Shallow basal root growth angle (BRGA) increases phosphorus acquisition efficiency by enhancing topsoil foraging because in most soils, phosphorus is concentrated in the topsoil. Root hair length and density (RHL/D) increase phosphorus acquisition by expanding the soil volume subject to phosphorus depletion through diffusion. We hypothesized that shallow BRGA and large RHL/D are synergetic for phosphorus acquisition, meaning that their combined effect is greater than the sum of their individual effects. To evaluate this hypothesis, phosphorus acquisition in the field in Mozambique was compared among recombinant inbred lines of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) having four distinct root phenotypes: long root hairs and shallow basal roots, long root hairs and deep basal roots, short root hairs and shallow basal roots, and short root hairs and deep basal roots. The results revealed substantial synergism between BRGA and RHL/D. Compared with short-haired, deep-rooted phenotypes, long root hairs increased shoot biomass under phosphorus stress by 89%, while shallow roots increased shoot biomass by 58%. Genotypes with both long root hairs and shallow roots had 298% greater biomass accumulation than short-haired, deep-rooted phenotypes. Therefore, the utility of shallow basal roots and long root hairs for phosphorus acquisition in combination is twice as large as their additive effects. We conclude that the anatomical phene of long, dense root hairs and the architectural phene of shallower basal root growth are synergetic for phosphorus acquisition. Phene synergism may be common in plant biology and can have substantial importance for plant fitness, as shown here. PMID:25699587

  14. Acoustic-seismic coupling for a wide range of angles of incidence and frequencies using signals of jet-aircraft overflights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liebsch, Mattes; Altmann, Jürgen

    2016-12-01

    We present the excitation of soil vibration at the surface and at depths to 0.6 m caused by the sound of jet-aircraft overflights. By evaluating a multitude of overflight events we show that the coupling coefficient between soil velocity and sound pressure is only dependent on the angle of incidence of the acoustic wave and the frequency and thus can be averaged over the events. While previous publications presented only pointwise measurements we present signals for a wide range of angles of incidence and frequencies. In the seismic signal we found frequency bands of increased and decreased soil velocity caused by interference of the directly excited seismic wave with waves propagating in the ground and reflected at an underground boundary and at the surface. We use this seismic response to the broadband acoustic excitation to estimate soil characteristics e.g. P-wave velocity and depth of the boundary. The behaviour at depths > 0 m can be explained by an additional reflection at the surface. Here the reflection coefficient from theory was used successfully. The reflection coefficient of the P wave at that boundary - where insufficient information is available for its derivation from theory - was estimated from amplitude ratios at the surface.

  15. Mapping of a gene for autosomal dominant juvenile-onset open-angle glaucoma to chromosome 1 q

    SciTech Connect

    Richards, J.E.; Lichter, P.R.; Torrez, D.; Wong, D.; Johnson, A.T.; Boehnke, M.; Uro, J.L.A. )

    1994-01-01

    A large Caucasian family is presented, in which a juvenile-onset form of open-angle glaucoma is transmitted in an autosomal dominant fashion. Sixteen affected family members were identified from 31 at-risk individuals descended from the affected founder. Affected patients developed high intraocular pressures (sometimes >40 mm Hg) within the first 2 decades of life. Linkage analysis between the disease phenotype and 12 microsatellite repeat markers located on chromosome 1 q gave a maximum lod score of 8.38 at a recombination fraction of zero for marker D1S210. Analysis of recombinant haplotypes suggests a total inclusion region of about 14 cM between markers D1S194 and D1S218 at 1q21-q31. This represents the second juvenile-glaucoma family, in which the disease has been mapped to the long arm of chromosome 1. 57 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. [The effect of parenteral citicoline on visual functions and life quality of patients with primary open-angle glaucoma].

    PubMed

    Frolov, M A; Gonchar, P A; Barashkov, V I; Kumar, V; Morozova, N S; Frolov, A M; Kazakova, K A

    2011-01-01

    The effect of nootropic drug citicoline on visual functions, perimetric indexes of static automated perimetry, morphometric characteristics of retinal tomography and life quality of patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) stage I-III and normalized intraocular pressure (IOP) was studied. 40 patients aged 46-78 years old with POAG stage I-III and normalized IOP were treated with citicoline. Among them there were 24 female and 16 male. The patients were divided into 2 equal groups--experimental and control. Patients of both groups were treated with intravenous citicoline for 10 days. The dose of citicoline in experimental group was 1000 mg/day, in control--500 mg/day. After treatment in both groups visual functions, perimetric indexes of static automated perimetry, morphometric characteristics of retinal tomography and life quality showed improvement. Citicoline has significant neuroprotective effect preventing apoptosis.

  17. Selective laser trabeculoplasty compared with medical treatment for the initial management of open angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Efraín; Rada, Gabriel; Maul, Eugenio

    2015-12-16

    Selective laser trabeculoplasty is a relatively new therapeutic alternative for the management of open angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension. On the other hand, medical treatment has robust data supporting its efficacy and has progressed in last decades with the introduction of prostaglandin analogues. To compare these two therapies, we searched Epistemonikos database, which is maintained by screening 30 databases, and identified four systematic reviews including four randomized and one non-randomized clinical trial. We combined the evidence using meta-analysis and generated a summary of findings table following the GRADE approach. We concluded that selective laser trabeculoplasty leads to a smaller absolute intraocular pressure reduction than medical treatment. However, it is not clear if there are differences in treatment success rate or need of additional antiglaucomatous interventions, because the quality of the evidence is low.

  18. Safety and efficacy of bimatoprost/timolol fixed combination in Chinese patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension.

    PubMed

    Ling, Zhihong; Zhang, Mingchang; Hu, Yizhen; Yin, Zhengqin; Xing, Yiqiao; Fang, Aiwu; Ye, Jian; Chen, Xiaoming; Liu, Dachuan; Wang, Yusheng; Sun, Wei; Dong, Yangceng; Sun, Xinghuai

    2014-01-01

    Lowering intraocular pressure (IOP) is currently the only therapeutic approach in primary open-angle glaucoma. and the fixed-combination medications are needed to achieve sufficiently low target IOP. A multicenter prospective study in the Chinese population was needed to confirm the safety and efficacy of Bimatoprost/Timolol Fixed Combination Eye Drop in China. In this study, we evaluated the safety and efficacy of Bimatoprost/Timolol Fixed Combination with concurrent administration of its components in Chinese patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension. In this multicenter, randomized, double-masked, parallel controlled study, patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension who were insufficiently responsive to monotherapy with either topical β-blockers or prostaglandin analogues were randomized to one of two active treatment groups in a 1:1 ratio at 11 Chinese ophthalmic departments. Bimatoprost/timolol fixed combination treatment was a fixed combination of 0.03% bimatoprost and 0.5% timolol (followed by vehicle for masking) once daily at 19:00 P.M. and concurrent treatment was 0.03% bimatoprost followed by 0.5% timolol once daily at 19:00 P.M. The primary efficacy variable was change from baseline in mean diurnal intraocular pressure (IOP) at week 4 visit in the intent-to-treat (ITT) population. Primary analysis evaluated the non-inferiority of bimatoprost/ timolol fixed combination to concurrent with respect to the primary variable using a confidence interval (CI) approach. Bimatoprost/timolol fixed combination was to be considered non-inferior to concurrent if the upper limit of the 95% CI for the between-treatment (bimatoprost/timolol fixed combination minus concurrent) difference was ≤ 1.5 mmHg. Adverse events were collected and slit-lamp examinations were performed to assess safety. Between-group comparisons of the incidence of adverse events were performed using the Pearson chi-square test or Fisher's exact test. Of the enrolled

  19. [The effect of chronic beta-blocker treatment on the evolution of primary open-angle glaucoma].

    PubMed

    Chiselita, D; Vancea, P P; Poiata, I

    1998-01-01

    Comparative analysis of the results of the trabeculectomy in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) when it was chosen as a primary treatment and when was preceded by chronic use of topic beta-blockers. Retrospective study of 59 patients (group A) with primary trabeculectomy and 42 patients (group B) with topic beta-blockers treatment for at least 3 years subsequent to trabeculectomy was performed. The average postoperative follow-up period was 3 years and 5 months. Postoperative IOP lowering was similar in both groups; There are no statistical differences between group A and B concerning stationary cases (76.27% in group A and 75.4% in group B), regressive cases (6.8% and 7.14% respectively) and progressive cases (18.6% and 17.9% respectively); Preoperative and postoperative complication rates were similar in the 2 groups. The chronic beta-blockers use does not influence the evolution of operated POAG.

  20. Recent Developments in Understanding the Role of Aqueous Humor Outflow in Normal and Primary Open Angle Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Hann, Cheryl R.; Fautsch, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    Primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) is the second leading cause of blindness in the world's rapidly aging population. POAG is characterized by progressive degeneration of neural structures in the posterior segment, often associated with a concomitant elevation of intraocular pressure. Changes in IOP are believed to be caused by a disruption in the normal outflow of aqueous humor. This article reviews recent research associated with normal and POAG aqueous humor outflow. Novel findings elucidating biochemical and pathological changes in the ocular tissues affected in POAG are presented. Stem cell research, identification of lymphatic markers, and increased use of mouse models give researchers exciting new tools to understand aqueous humor outflow, changes associated with POAG and identify underlying causes of the disease. PMID:26236568

  1. Association of Myopic Deformation of Optic Disc with Visual Field Progression in Paired Eyes with Open-Angle Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Hangai, Masanori; Ishikawa, Makoto; Yoshitomi, Takeshi

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The influence of myopia on glaucoma progression remains unknown, possibly because of the multifactorial nature of glaucoma and difficulty in assessing a solo contribution of myopia. The purpose of this study is to investigate the association of myopia with visual field (VF) progression in glaucoma using a paired-eye design to minimize the influence of confounding systemic factors that are diverse among individuals. Methods This retrospective study evaluated 144 eyes of 72 subjects with open-angle glaucoma, with similar intra-ocular pressure between paired eyes, spherical equivalent (SE) ≤ -2 diopter (D), and axial length ≥ 24 mm. Paired eyes with faster and slower VF progression were grouped separately, according to the global VF progression rate assessed by automated pointwise linear regression analysis. The SE, axial length, tilt ratio and torsion angle of optic discs, Bruch’s membrane (BM) opening area, and gamma zone parapapillary atrophy (PPA) width were compared between the two groups. Factors associated with faster VF progression were determined by logistic regression analysis. Results The mean follow-up duration was 8.9 ± 4.4 years. The mean value of SE and axial length were -6.31 ± 1.88 D and 26.05 ± 1.12 mm, respectively. The mean global visual field progression rate was -0.32 ± 0.38 dB/y. Tilt ratio, BM opening area, and gamma zone PPA width were significantly greater in the eyes with faster VF progression than those with slower progression. In multivariate analysis, these factors were significantly associated with faster VF progression (all P < 0.05), while SE and axial length were not associated with it. Conclusion In myopic glaucoma subjects, tilt of the optic disc and temporal shifting and enlargement of the BM opening were associated with faster rate of VF progression between paired eyes. This suggests that myopia influences VF progression in glaucomatous eyes via optic disc deformations rather than via refractive error itself

  2. Ocular characteristics associated with the location of focal lamina cribrosa defects in open-angle glaucoma patients.

    PubMed

    Park, H-Yl; Hwang, Y S; Park, C K

    2017-04-01

    PurposeTo investigate the clinical characteristics according to the location of focal lamina cribrosa (LC) defects and its associated ocular features.Patients and methodsA total of 139 open-angle glaucoma patients underwent Spectralis optical coherence tomography (OCT) with enhanced depth imaging. Alterations in the contour of the LC were investigated to find focal LC defects. The location of the visible LC defect from the neural canal wall (far-peripheral and mid-peripheral) and clock-hour position (superotemporal, temporal and inferotemporal) were classified. Disc ovality ratio and disc-foveal angle were measured from disc and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) photographs. The disc tilt degree was measured using a Heidelberg Retina Tomograph (HRT) III system. The en face OCT image of the disc scans was registered to the disc and RNFL photographs, to determine whether the focal LC defects corresponded spatially to the glaucomatous damage location.ResultsEyes with far-peripheral LC defects were significantly myopic and had a higher disc ovality ratio. The disc tilt degree obtained by HRT revealed significant temporal disc tilt in eyes with temporal LC defects (P<0.001). Eyes with inferotemporal LC defects had a significantly larger disc-foveal angle (P=0.027). The inferotemporal LC defects corresponded to the location of glaucomatous damage in 81.6%; however, only 46.2% of eyes with a superotemporal LC defect and 3.2% of eyes with a temporal LC defect corresponded spatially with the glaucomatous damage location.ConclusionsThe clinical characteristics and association with glaucomatous damage location were different according to the location of focal LC defect.

  3. Risk Factors Associated with Progression to Blindness from Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma in an African-American Population.

    PubMed

    Pleet, Alexander; Sulewski, Melanie; Salowe, Rebecca J; Fertig, Raymond; Salinas, Julia; Rhodes, Allison; Merritt Iii, William; Natesh, Vikas; Huang, Jiayan; Gudiseva, Harini V; Collins, David W; Chavali, Venkata Ramana Murthy; Tapino, Paul; Lehman, Amanda; Regina-Gigiliotti, Meredith; Miller-Ellis, Eydie; Sankar, Prithvi; Ying, Gui-Shuang; O'Brien, Joan M

    2016-08-01

    To determine the risk factors associated with progression to blindness from primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) in an African-American population. This study examined 2119 patients enrolled in the Primary Open-Angle African-American Glaucoma Genetics (POAAGG) study. A total of 59 eyes were identified as legally blind as a result of POAG (cases) and were age-and sex-matched to 59 non-blind eyes with glaucoma (controls). Chart reviews were performed to record known and suspected risk factors. Cases were diagnosed with POAG at an earlier age than controls (p = 0.005). Of the 59 eyes of cases, 16 eyes (27.1%) presented with blindness at diagnosis. Cases had worse visual acuity (VA) at diagnosis (p < 0.0001), with VA worse than 20/40 conferring a 27 times higher risk of progression to blindness (p = 0.0005). Blind eyes also demonstrated more visual field defects (p = 0.01), higher pre-treatment intraocular pressure (IOP; p < 0.0001), and higher cup-to-disc ratio (p = 0.006) at diagnosis. IOP was less controlled in cases, and those with IOP ≥21 mmHg at more than 20% of follow-up visits were 73 times more likely to become blind (p < 0.0001). Cases missed a greater number of appointments per year (p = 0.003) and had non-adherence issues noted in their charts more often than controls (p = 0.03). However, other compliance data did not significantly differ between groups. Access to care, initial VA worse than 20/40, and poor control of IOP were the major risk factors associated with blindness from POAG. Future studies should examine earlier, more effective approaches to glaucoma screening as well as the role of genetics in these significantly younger patients who progress to blindness.

  4. Assessing the Association of Mitochondrial Genetic Variation With Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma Using Gene-Set Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Khawaja, Anthony P.; Cooke Bailey, Jessica N.; Kang, Jae Hee; Allingham, R. Rand; Hauser, Michael A.; Brilliant, Murray; Budenz, Donald L.; Christen, William G.; Fingert, John; Gaasterland, Douglas; Gaasterland, Terry; Kraft, Peter; Lee, Richard K.; Lichter, Paul R.; Liu, Yutao; Medeiros, Felipe; Moroi, Syoko E.; Richards, Julia E.; Realini, Tony; Ritch, Robert; Schuman, Joel S.; Scott, William K.; Singh, Kuldev; Sit, Arthur J.; Vollrath, Douglas; Wollstein, Gadi; Zack, Donald J.; Zhang, Kang; Pericak-Vance, Margaret; Weinreb, Robert N.; Haines, Jonathan L.; Pasquale, Louis R.; Wiggs, Janey L.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Recent studies indicate that mitochondrial proteins may contribute to the pathogenesis of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). In this study, we examined the association between POAG and common variations in gene-encoding mitochondrial proteins. Methods We examined genetic data from 3430 POAG cases and 3108 controls derived from the combination of the GLAUGEN and NEIGHBOR studies. We constructed biological-system coherent mitochondrial nuclear-encoded protein gene-sets by intersecting the MitoCarta database with the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database. We examined the mitochondrial gene-sets for association with POAG and with normal-tension glaucoma (NTG) and high-tension glaucoma (HTG) subsets using Pathway Analysis by Randomization Incorporating Structure. Results We identified 22 KEGG pathways with significant mitochondrial protein-encoding gene enrichment, belonging to six general biological classes. Among the pathway classes, mitochondrial lipid metabolism was associated with POAG overall (P = 0.013) and with NTG (P = 0.0006), and mitochondrial carbohydrate metabolism was associated with NTG (P = 0.030). Examining the individual KEGG pathway mitochondrial gene-sets, fatty acid elongation and synthesis and degradation of ketone bodies, both lipid metabolism pathways, were significantly associated with POAG (P = 0.005 and P = 0.002, respectively) and NTG (P = 0.0004 and P < 0.0001, respectively). Butanoate metabolism, a carbohydrate metabolism pathway, was significantly associated with POAG (P = 0.004), NTG (P = 0.001), and HTG (P = 0.010). Conclusions We present an effective approach for assessing the contributions of mitochondrial genetic variation to open-angle glaucoma. Our findings support a role for mitochondria in POAG pathogenesis and specifically point to lipid and carbohydrate metabolism pathways as being important. PMID:27661856

  5. Novel and known MYOC exon 3 mutations in an admixed Peruvian primary open-angle glaucoma population

    PubMed Central

    Mendoza-Reinoso, Veronica; Guevara-Fujita, Maria L.; Fernández, Silvia; Vargas, Enrique; Castillo-Herrera, Wilder; Perez-Grossmann, Rodolfo; Lizaraso-Caparó, Frank; Richards, Julia E.; Fujita, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to characterize a representative sample of the Peruvian population suffering open-angle glaucoma (OAG) with respect to the myocilin gene (MYOC) mutations, glaucoma phenotype, and ancestry for future glaucoma risk assessment. Methods DNA samples from 414 unrelated Peruvian subjects, including 205 open-angle glaucoma cases (10 juvenile glaucoma [JOAG], 19 normal-tension glaucoma [NTG], and 176 POAG) and 209 randomly sampled controls, were screened for nucleotide changes in MYOC exon 3 by conformational sensitive gel electrophoresis (CSGE) and mutation screening. Results We identified a probable causative novel MYOC missense mutation, Gly326Ser, in one POAG case and found a consistent genotype-phenotype correlation in eight of his relatives. We also found the known causative MYOC mutation Trp286Arg in one JOAG case and one POAG case. A known causative single base MYOC deletion, T1357, was found in one POAG case. Two previously reported silent polymorphisms, Thr325Thr and Tyr347Tyr, were found in both the case and the control populations. A novel missense variant, Met476Arg, was identified in two unrelated controls. Conclusions The screening of exon 3 of MYOC in a representative sample of 205 independent POAG patients from Peru and 209 matched controls identified novel and previously reported mutations (both pathogenic and nonpathogenic) from other global regions. These results reflect the complex admixture of Amerindian and Old World ancestry in urban populations of Latin America, in general, and in Peru, in particular. It will be important to gather information about the ancestral origin of MYOC and other POAG gene mutations to develop screening panels and risk assessment for POAG in Peru. PMID:22879734

  6. The measurement of opening angle and orifice area of a bileaflet mechanical valve using multidetector computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong-Hyeon; Youn, Ho-Joong; Shim, Sung-Bo; Lee, Sun-Hee; Jung, Jung-Im; Jung, Seung-Eun; Choi, Yun-Seok; Park, Chul-Soo; Oh, Yong-Seog; Chung, Wook-Sung; Kim, Jae-Hyung

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess mechanical valve function using 64-slice multidetector computed tomography (MDCT). In 20 patients (mean age, 50+/-12 years; male-to-female ratio, 10:10), 30 St. Jude bileaflet mechanical valves (15 aortic and 15 mitral valves) were evaluated using MDCT. We selected images vertical and parallel to the mechanical valve. The valve orifice area (OA) and valve length were determined by manual tracing and the opening and closing angles were measured using a protractor. The OA and length of the mechanical valves were compared with the manufacturer's values. The geometric orifice areas (GOAs) based on the manufacturer's values and the OAs determined by MDCT were 3.4+/-0.2 cm(2) and 3.4+/-0.3 cm(2) for the mitral valves and 2.1+/-0.3 cm(2) and 2.1+/-0.4 cm(2) for the aortic valves, respectively. The correlation coefficients between the OA measures were 0.433 for the mitral valves and 0.874 for the aortic valves (both p<0.001). The lengths based on the manufacturer's values and determined by MDCT were 29.3+/-1.99 mm and 29.6+/-1.65 mm for the mitral valves and 21.5+/-2.1 mm and 20.7+/-2.3 mm for the aortic valves, respectively. The correlation coefficients between the measures were 0.651 for the mitral valve and 0.846 for the aortic valve (both p<0.001). The opening and closing angles determined by MDCT were 10.9+/-0.6 degrees and 131.1+/-3.2 degrees for the mitral valves and 11.1+/-0.9 degrees and 120.6+/-1.7 degrees for the aortic valves, respectively. MDCT is an accurate modality with which to assess the function and morphology of bileaflet mechanical valves.

  7. Assessing the Association of Mitochondrial Genetic Variation With Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma Using Gene-Set Analyses.

    PubMed

    Khawaja, Anthony P; Cooke Bailey, Jessica N; Kang, Jae Hee; Allingham, R Rand; Hauser, Michael A; Brilliant, Murray; Budenz, Donald L; Christen, William G; Fingert, John; Gaasterland, Douglas; Gaasterland, Terry; Kraft, Peter; Lee, Richard K; Lichter, Paul R; Liu, Yutao; Medeiros, Felipe; Moroi, Syoko E; Richards, Julia E; Realini, Tony; Ritch, Robert; Schuman, Joel S; Scott, William K; Singh, Kuldev; Sit, Arthur J; Vollrath, Douglas; Wollstein, Gadi; Zack, Donald J; Zhang, Kang; Pericak-Vance, Margaret; Weinreb, Robert N; Haines, Jonathan L; Pasquale, Louis R; Wiggs, Janey L

    2016-09-01

    Recent studies indicate that mitochondrial proteins may contribute to the pathogenesis of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). In this study, we examined the association between POAG and common variations in gene-encoding mitochondrial proteins. We examined genetic data from 3430 POAG cases and 3108 controls derived from the combination of the GLAUGEN and NEIGHBOR studies. We constructed biological-system coherent mitochondrial nuclear-encoded protein gene-sets by intersecting the MitoCarta database with the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database. We examined the mitochondrial gene-sets for association with POAG and with normal-tension glaucoma (NTG) and high-tension glaucoma (HTG) subsets using Pathway Analysis by Randomization Incorporating Structure. We identified 22 KEGG pathways with significant mitochondrial protein-encoding gene enrichment, belonging to six general biological classes. Among the pathway classes, mitochondrial lipid metabolism was associated with POAG overall (P = 0.013) and with NTG (P = 0.0006), and mitochondrial carbohydrate metabolism was associated with NTG (P = 0.030). Examining the individual KEGG pathway mitochondrial gene-sets, fatty acid elongation and synthesis and degradation of ketone bodies, both lipid metabolism pathways, were significantly associated with POAG (P = 0.005 and P = 0.002, respectively) and NTG (P = 0.0004 and P < 0.0001, respectively). Butanoate metabolism, a carbohydrate metabolism pathway, was significantly associated with POAG (P = 0.004), NTG (P = 0.001), and HTG (P = 0.010). We present an effective approach for assessing the contributions of mitochondrial genetic variation to open-angle glaucoma. Our findings support a role for mitochondria in POAG pathogenesis and specifically point to lipid and carbohydrate metabolism pathways as being important.

  8. Constraining the Lifetime and Opening Angle of Quasars using Fluorescent Lyman α Emission: The Case of Q0420-388

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisova, Elena; Lilly, Simon J.; Cantalupo, Sebastiano; Prochaska, J. Xavier; Rakic, Olivera; Worseck, Gabor

    2016-10-01

    A toy model is developed to understand how the spatial distribution of fluorescent emitters in the vicinity of bright quasars could be affected by the geometry of the quasar bi-conical radiation field and by its lifetime. The model is then applied to the distribution of high-equivalent-width Lyα emitters (with rest-frame equivalent widths above 100 Å, threshold used in, e.g., Trainor & Steidel) identified in a deep narrow-band 36 × 36 arcmin2 image centered on the luminous quasar Q0420-388. These emitters are found near the edge of the field and show some evidence of an azimuthal asymmetry on the sky of the type expected if the quasar is radiating in a bipolar cone. If these sources are being fluorescently illuminated by the quasar, the two most distant objects require a lifetime of at least 15 Myr for an opening angle of 60° or more, increasing to more than 40 Myr if the opening angle is reduced to a minimum of 30°. However, some other expected signatures of boosted fluorescence are not seen at the current survey limits, e.g., a fall off in Lyα brightness, or equivalent width, with distance. Furthermore, to have most of the Lyα emission of the two distant sources to be fluorescently boosted would require the quasar to have been significantly brighter in the past. This suggests that these particular sources may not be fluorescent, invalidating the above lifetime constraints. This would cast doubt on the use of this relatively low equivalent width threshold and thus also on the lifetime analysis in Trainor and Steidel.

  9. Bouncing Jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wadhwa, Navish; Vlachos, Pavlos; Jung, Sunghwan

    2011-11-01

    Contrary to common intuition, free jets of fluid can ``bounce'' off each other on collision in mid-air, through the effect of a lubricating air film that separates the jets. We have developed a simple experimental setup to stably demonstrate and study the non-coalescence of jets on collision. We present the results of an experimental investigation of oblique collision between two silicone oil jets, supported by a simple analytical explanation. Our focus is on elucidating the role of various physical forces at play such as viscous stresses, capillary force and inertia. A parametric study conducted by varying the nozzle diameter, jet velocity, angle of inclination and fluid viscosity reveals the scaling laws for the quantities involved such as contact time. We observed a transition from bouncing to coalescence with an increase in jet velocity and inclination angle. We propose that a balance between the contact time of jets and the time required for drainage of the trapped air film can provide a criterion for transition from non-coalescence to coalescence.

  10. Whipping of electrified liquid jets.

    PubMed

    Guerrero, Josefa; Rivero, Javier; Gundabala, Venkata R; Perez-Saborid, Miguel; Fernandez-Nieves, Alberto

    2014-09-23

    We apply an electric field to a moderately conducting liquid surrounded by another coflowing liquid, all inside a glass-based microfluidic device, to study nonaxisymmetric instabilities. We find that the bending of the electrified jet results in a steady-state, helicoidal structure with a constant opening angle. Remarkably, the characteristic phase speed of the helicoidal wave only depends on the charge carried by the jet in the helicoidal region and its stability critically depends on the properties of the coflowing liquid. In fact, the steady-state helical structure becomes chaotic when the longest characteristic time is that of the inner liquid rather than that of the outer coflowing liquid. We also perform a numerical analysis to show that the natural preference of the jet is to adopt the conical helix structure observed experimentally.

  11. Whipping of electrified liquid jets

    PubMed Central

    Guerrero, Josefa; Rivero, Javier; Gundabala, Venkata R.; Perez-Saborid, Miguel; Fernandez-Nieves, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    We apply an electric field to a moderately conducting liquid surrounded by another coflowing liquid, all inside a glass-based microfluidic device, to study nonaxisymmetric instabilities. We find that the bending of the electrified jet results in a steady-state, helicoidal structure with a constant opening angle. Remarkably, the characteristic phase speed of the helicoidal wave only depends on the charge carried by the jet in the helicoidal region and its stability critically depends on the properties of the coflowing liquid. In fact, the steady-state helical structure becomes chaotic when the longest characteristic time is that of the inner liquid rather than that of the outer coflowing liquid. We also perform a numerical analysis to show that the natural preference of the jet is to adopt the conical helix structure observed experimentally. PMID:25201984

  12. Glaucoma, Open-Angle

    MedlinePlus

    ... visual function, preservation of sight, and the special health problems and requirements of the blind.” News & Events Events Calendar NEI Press Releases News from NEI Grantees Spokesperson bios Statistics and ... Frequently asked questions Clinical Studies Publications Catalog ...

  13. Phacoemulsification combined with deep sclerectomy augmented with mitomycin and amniotic membrane implantation in chronic primary open angle glaucoma with cataract

    PubMed Central

    Helmy, Hazem

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to determine the safety and efficacy of combined phacoemulsification plus Intraocular lens (IOL) implantation with deep sclerectomy augmented with mitomycin C (MMC) and sub-flap implantation of amniotic membrane for the management of uncontrolled, chronic, primary open-angle glaucoma patients. Methods This prospective study included 41 patients with chronic, primary, open-angle glaucoma and cataract uncontrolled with medical treatment who underwent combined phacoemulsification augmented with mitomycin C (MMC) application and amniotic membrane implantation under the scleral flap. Intraocular pressure (IOP), visual acuity, glaucoma medications, stabilization of visual field, complications, and viability of the success rate were assessed a 36-month follow-up period. Results The mean age of cases was 54.8 ± 5.3 years. Sixty-one percent of cases were males, and 39% were females. The mean IOP decreased from 23.8 ± 1.8 mmHg preoperatively to 16.8 ± 2.3 mmHg postoperatively. The overall success rate was 97.5, 95, and 92.7% in the first, second, and third year, respectively. The overall success rate was 90% in the first year, but that decreased to 85.3 and 78% in the second and third year, respectively. Qualified success was 7.5, 10, and 14.7% in the first, second, and third year, respectively. Failure was recorded as 2.5, 5, and 7.3% in the first, second, and third year, respectively. IOP reduction was sustained through the follow-up period. Visual acuity improved from 0.13 ± 0.06 to 0.9 ± 0.07 (p < 0.001). The visual field improved significantly in the first assessment, from 14.0 ± 2.7 preoperatively to 12.6 ± 2.6 at three months postoperatively (p < 0.001), after which it became stable for the remainder of the follow-up period. One hundred percent of cases were on three anti-glaucoma drugs preoperatively, while postoperatively, 12.2% were on three drugs, 4.2% were on two drugs, and 82.9% were controlled without anti

  14. Investigation of blood flow regulation and oxygen saturation of the retinal vessels in primary open-angle glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Ramm, L; Jentsch, S; Peters, S; Augsten, R; Hammer, M

    2014-11-01

    To examine the supply of oxygen to the retina in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). Forty-one patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (mean age 64.1 ± 12.9 years) and 40 healthy subjects (63.6 ± 14.1 years) were included. Fundus images, centered at the optic disc, were taken using the Retinal Vessel Analyzer (RVA). The vessel diameters were calculated as central retinal artery (CRAE) and vein equivalent (CRVE) from diameter measurements in the peripapillary vessels. The oxygen saturation of the arteries and veins was investigated employing a two-wavelengths technique. After the measurement at baseline, the vascular response to flicker light exposure was measured. In glaucoma patients the mean oxygen saturation of the retinal veins at baseline was higher than in the healthy controls (64.36 ± 7.11 vs. 59.78 ± 8.47, p = 0.01), whereas the mean arteriovenous oxygen saturation difference was lower (33.07 ± 5.24 vs. 37.53 ± 6.95, p = 0.002). The arterial oxygen saturation as well as the arterial and venous diameters showed no difference between the groups. The increase of the CRVE during flicker light stimulation (3.72 ± 3.29 % vs. 5.43 ± 4.04, p = 0.039), as well as the change of the venous oxygen saturation (2.08 ± 3.74 % vs. 4.18 ± 3.88 %, p = 0.016) and the arteriovenous saturation difference (-2.1 ± 3.31 % vs. -4.43 ± 3.6 %, p = 0.003) were smaller in POAG patients than in the healthy group. The reduction in the arteriovenous difference in oxygen saturation in POAG patients might show a decreased oxygen demand of the retina caused by the glaucomatous loss of neuroretinal tissue. The lower extent of the flicker light-induced change of the diameter of retinal veins and the venous oxygen saturation could indicate an impairment of blood flow regulation.

  15. Resident compliance with the american academy of ophthalmology preferred practice pattern guidelines for primary open-angle glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Ong, Sally S; Sanka, Krishna; Mettu, Priyatham S; Brosnan, Thomas M; Stinnett, Sandra S; Lee, Paul P; Challa, Pratap

    2013-12-01

    To examine resident adherence to preferred practice pattern (PPP) guidelines set up by the American Academy of Ophthalmology for follow-up care of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) patients. Retrospective chart review. One hundred three charts were selected for analysis from all patients with an International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, code of open-angle glaucoma or its related entities who underwent a follow-up evaluation between July 2, 2003, and December 15, 2004, at the resident ophthalmology clinic in the Durham Veteran Affairs Medical Center. Follow-up visits of POAG patients were evaluated for documentation of 19 elements in accordance to PPP guidelines. Compliance rates for the 19 elements of PPP guidelines first were averaged in all charts, and then were averaged per resident and were compared among 8 residents between their first and second years of residency. The overall mean compliance rate for all 19 elements was 82.6% for all charts (n = 103), 78.8% for first-year residents, and 81.7% for second-year residents. The increase from first to second year of residency was not significant (P>0.05). Documentation rates were high (>90%) for 14 elements, including all components of the physical examination and follow-up as well as most components of the examination history and management plan. Residents documented adjusting target intraocular pressure downward, local or systemic problems with medications, and impact of visual function on daily living approximately 50% to 80% of the time. Documentation rates for components of patient education were the lowest, between 5% and 16% in all charts. Residents' compliance with PPP guidelines for a POAG follow-up visit was very high for most elements, but documentation rates for components of patient education were poor. Adherence rates to PPP guidelines can be used as a tool to evaluate and improve resident performance during training. However, further studies are needed to establish the advantages of

  16. Prospective evaluation of microinvasive glaucoma surgery with trabecular microbypass stents and prostaglandin in open-angle glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Iqbal Ike K; Katz, L Jay; Chang, David F; Donnenfeld, Eric D; Solomon, Kerry D; Voskanyan, Lilit; Samuelson, Thomas W

    2014-08-01

    To evaluate the intraocular pressure (IOP) lowering effect of 2 trabecular microbypass stents and postoperative travoprost in patients with open-angle glaucoma (OAG) not controlled on 2 medications preoperatively. S.V. Malayan Ophthalmology Centre, Yerevan, Armenia. Prospective open-label nonrandomized study. This prospective pilot study involved 39 qualified phakic patients with OAG, medicated IOP between 18 mm Hg and 30 mm Hg, and unmedicated baseline (after washout) IOP between 22 mm Hg and 38 mm Hg. Patients received 2 stents (iStent) through a clear corneal incision and were prescribed travoprost starting the night of postoperative day 1. Intraocular pressure, complications, and various safety measures were assessed at examinations through 18 months and planned for every 6 months thereafter until month 60. A washout of medications was performed 13 months postoperatively. All patients achieved an IOP reduction of 20% or more from baseline to 12 months with reduction of 1 medication and with IOP 18 mm Hg or less. Follow-up through 18 months showed that medicated IOP decreased from 22.2 mm Hg ± 2.0 (SD) on 2 medications preoperatively to 14 mm Hg or less on 1 medication at the postoperative visits. The mean unmedicated IOP decreased from 25.3 ± 1.8 mm Hg preoperatively to 17.1 ± 2.2 mm Hg 13 months postoperatively. No intraoperative or serious device-related adverse events occurred. Patients with OAG treated with 2 trabecular microbypass stents and 1 presumptive postoperative medication achieved a significant and sustained reduction in IOP and medication through 18 months. Dr. Katz served as the medical monitor for this study. All authors are consultants to Glaukos Corp. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Bimatoprost/timolol fixed combination (BTFC) in patients with primary open angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension in Greece

    PubMed Central

    Rotsos, Tryfon G.; Kliafa, Vasso G.; Asher, Kevin J.; Papaconstantinou, Dimitrios

    2016-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of the fixed combination of bimatoprost 0.03% and timolol 0.5% (BTFC) in patients in Greece with primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) or ocular hypertension (OHT) whose previous therapy provided insufficient lowering of intraocular pressure (IOP). METHODS A multicenter, prospective, open-label, non-interventional, observational study of the use of BTFC in clinical practice was conducted at 41 sites in Greece. The primary endpoint was the reduction in IOP from baseline at study end, approximately 12wk after initiation of BTFC therapy. RESULTS A total of 785 eligible patients were enrolled in the study and 97.6% completed the study. The mean±SD IOP reduction from baseline at 12wk after initiation of BTFC was 6.3±2.8 mm Hg (n=764; P<0.001). In patients (n=680) who replaced their previous IOP-lowering monotherapy (a single drug, or a fixed combination of 2 drugs in a single ophthalmic drop) with once-daily BTFC, the mean±SD IOP reduction from baseline at 12wk was 6.2±2.8 mm Hg (P<0.001). IOP was reduced from baseline in 99.2% of patients, and 58.0% of patients reached or exceeded their target IOP. Substantial mean IOP reductions were observed regardless of the previous therapy. BTFC was well tolerated, with 96.0% of patients who completed the study rating the tolerability of BTFC as “good” or “very good.” Adverse events were reported in 8.3% of patients; only 0.6% of patients discontinued the study due to adverse events. CONCLUSION In clinical practice in Greece, BTFC is well tolerated and effectively lower the IOP in patients with POAG or OHT who requires additional IOP lowering on their previous therapy. PMID:26949613

  18. A 7 year prospective comparative study of three topical beta blockers in the management of primary open angle glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Watson, P G; Barnett, M F; Parker, V; Haybittle, J

    2001-08-01

    To determine the long term efficacy of monotherapy with topically applied beta blocking agents and to determine whether selective beta blockers were able to preserve the visual field more effectively than non-selective agents. A prospective randomised, open, comparative study of three topically applied beta blockers-timolol, betaxolol, and carteolol-was carried out on 153 patients (280 eyes) with newly diagnosed open angle glaucoma. Those patients who were not withdrawn were followed by the same observers for a minimum of 2 years and a maximum of 7 years, with clinical observations, Goldmann tonometry and 24.2 Humphrey visual field analysis. All three drugs lowered the IOP significantly from untreated levels but betaxolol took up to 12 months in some instances to reach the maximum pressure reduction. After 7 years only 43% of the eyes begun on timolol, 34% of those started on carteolol, and 29% of those on betaxolol were still being treated with these medications alone. Visual fields were analysed throughout the trial by CPSD and MD and at the end by linear regression analysis (PROGRESSOR). The visual fields remained the same without apparent improvement or deterioration throughout the period of follow up. Eight patients (11 eyes) were withdrawn because of continuing field loss in spite of reduction in IOP (six using carteolol and five using betaxolol). Analysis shows that less than half the eyes initially treated with topical beta blockers might be expected to still be being treated with their original medication after 5 years. The rest required either additional medication or trabeculectomy. There was no statistically significant improvement or deterioration in the visual fields over a 7 year period. On the evidence of this trial there are no particular advantages in using selective beta blockers.

  19. Micro-Bypass Implantation for Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma Combined with Phacoemulsification: 4-Year Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Fea, Antonio Maria; Consolandi, Giulia; Zola, Marta; Pignata, Giulia; Cannizzo, Paola; Lavia, Carlo; Rolle, Teresa; Grignolo, Federico Maria

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To report the long-term follow-up results in patients with cataract and primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) randomly assigned to cataract surgery combined with micro-bypass stent implantation or phacoemulsification alone. Methods. 36 subjects with cataract and POAG were randomized in a 1 : 2 ratio to either iStent implantation and cataract surgery (combined group) or cataract surgery alone (control group). 24 subjects agreed to be evaluated again 48 months after surgery. Patients returned one month later for unmedicated washout assessment. Results. At the long-term follow-up visit we reported a mean IOP of 15,9 ± 2,3 mmHg in the iStent group and 17 ± 2,5 mmHg in the control group (p = NS). After washout, a 14,2% between group difference in favour of the combined group was statistically significant (p = 0,02) for mean IOP reduction. A significant reduction in the mean number of medications was observed in both groups compared to baseline values (p = 0,005 in the combined group and p = 0,01 in the control group). Conclusion. Patients in the combined group maintained low IOP levels after long-term follow-up. Cataract surgery alone showed a loss of efficacy in controlling IOP over time. Both treatments reduced the number of ocular hypotensive medications prescribed. This trial is registered with: NCT00847158. PMID:26587282

  20. Common variants near ABCA1, AFAP1 and GMDS confer risk of primary open-angle glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Fogarty, Rhys; Sharma, Shiwani; Hewitt, Alex W.; Martin, Sarah; Law, Matthew H.; Cremin, Katie; Bailey, Jessica N. Cooke; Loomis, Stephanie J.; Pasquale, Louis R.; Haines, Jonathan L.; Hauser, Michael A.; Viswanathan, Ananth C.; McGuffin, Peter; Topouzis, Fotis; Foster, Paul J.; Graham, Stuart L; Casson, Robert J; Chehade, Mark; White, Andrew J; Zhou, Tiger; Souzeau, Emmanuelle; Landers, John; Fitzgerald, Jude T; Klebe, Sonja; Ruddle, Jonathan B; Goldberg, Ivan; Healey, Paul R; Mills, Richard A.; Wang, Jie Jin; Montgomery, Grant W.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Radford-Smith, Graham; Whiteman, David C.; Brown, Matthew A.; Wiggs, Janey L.; Mackey, David A; Mitchell, Paul; MacGregor, Stuart; Craig, Jamie E.

    2014-01-01

    Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) is a major cause of irreversible blindness worldwide. We performed a genome-wide association study in an Australian discovery cohort comprising 1,155 advanced POAG cases and 1,992 controls. Association of the top SNPs from the discovery stage was investigated in two Australian replication cohorts (total 932 cases, 6,862 controls) and two US replication cohorts (total 2,616 cases, 2,634 controls). Meta-analysis of all cohorts revealed three novel loci associated with development of POAG. These loci are located upstream of ABCA1 (rs2472493 [G] OR=1.31, P= 2.1 × 10−19), within AFAP1 (rs4619890 [G] OR=1.20, P= 7.0 × 10−10) and within GMDS (rs11969985 [G] OR=1.31, and P= 7.7 × 10−10). Using RT-PCR and immunolabelling, we also showed that these genes are expressed within human retina, optic nerve and trabecular meshwork and that ABCA1 and AFAP1 are also expressed in retinal ganglion cells. PMID:25173105

  1. Association of Common Variants in eNOS Gene with Primary Open Angle Glaucoma: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Yang; Dong, Yi; Li, Xuan; Tang, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To clarify the association of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) polymorphisms and primary open angle glaucoma (POAG). Methods. After a systematic literature search in the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and ISI Web of Science databases, all relevant studies evaluating the association between the polymorphisms (rs2070744 and rs1799983) of eNOS gene and POAG were screened and included. The pooled odds ratios (ORs) and the 95% confidence interval (CI) of each single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in five genetic models were estimated using fixed-effect model if I2 < 50% in the test for heterogeneity; otherwise the random-effects model was used. Results. Thirty-one records were obtained, with five being suitable for meta-analysis. The overall results showed that both TT genotype in rs2070744 and GG genotype in rs1799983 are associated with decreased risk of POAG susceptibility. Stratified analysis based on ethnicity showed that the association of rs2070744 with POAG remained only in Caucasians. Results of subgroup analysis by sex indicated association between both polymorphisms and POAG in female group, but not in male group. Conclusions. TT genotype and/or T-allele in rs2070744, as well as GG genotype and/or G-allele in rs1799983, was associated with decreased risk for POAG overall and in female group. PMID:27242919

  2. Primary open-angle glaucoma patients characterized by ocular vasospasm demonstrate a different ocular vascular response to timolol versus betaxolol.

    PubMed

    Evans, D W; Harris, A; Cantor, L B

    1999-12-01

    We evaluated the retrobulbar response to a selective versus nonselective beta blocker in a subgroup of primary open-angle glaucoma patients (POAG) characterized by ocular vasospasm. Eleven patients who exhibited ocular vasospasm (i.e. a significant increase in ophthalmic artery blood flow velocity or a significant decrease in ophthalmic artery resistance index during hypercapnia) underwent medication washout for 4 weeks and were enrolled in a double-masked cross-over study (betaxolol versus timolol). Patients were evaluated for blood flow velocity of the retrobulbar vessels using color Doppler imaging, intraocular pressure, visual field sensitivity and contrast sensitivity at the beginning and end of each 4 week treatment period. Timolol treatment caused a significant reduction in IOP (p = .007), but no change in retrobulbar hemodynamics or visual function. After betaxolol treatment, resistance index fell significantly (p = .040) in the ophthalmic artery and increased significantly in both the central retinal (p = .003) and temporal posterior ciliary arteries (p = .030). Also following betaxolol treatment, contrast sensitivity improved significantly (p = .006), and a significant positive correlation was shown between change in contrast sensitivity and change in resistance index (r = .70; p = .015) of the ciliary arteries. POAG patients characterized by ocular vasospasm display a significant hemodynamic response to betaxolol, but not to timolol.

  3. Long-term efficacy and safety of ExPress implantation for treatment of open angle glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Geun Young; Lee, Chong Eun; Lee, Kyoo Won; Seo, Sam

    2017-01-01

    AIM To compare the long-term efficacy and safety of ExPress implantation and standard trabeculectomy in patients with primary open angle glaucoma (POAG). METHODS In this retrospective study, we compared 17 eyes treated by ExPress implantation with 23 eyes treated by trabeculectomy. Efficacy was assessed according to the relevant intraocular pressure (IOP) values and success rates during the first year of follow-up. Postoperative corneal endothelial cell loss was also compared. RESULTS The number of antiglaucoma medications and the IOP reduction were similar between the 2 groups during the follow-up period. Although the mean IOP was similar, the IOP-fluctuation rate during the early postoperative period was significantly lower in the ExPress group than in the trabeculectomy group (P=0.038). A Kaplan-Meier survival curve analysis showed no significant success-rate difference between the groups (P=0.810). The corneal endothelial cell loss rate, moreover, was significantly lower in the ExPress group (P=0.05). CONCLUSION ExPress implantation compared with trabeculectomy showed similar IOP-reduction and success rates along with lower IOP fluctuation and endothelial cell loss rates. For this reason, it can be considered to be the treatment of choice for patients with advanced glaucoma or low corneal endothelial cell density. PMID:28944196

  4. Predicting Clinical Binary Outcome Using Multivariate Longitudinal Data: Application to Patients with Newly Diagnosed Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Gao, Feng; Miller, J Philip; Beiser, Julia A; Xiong, Chengjie; Gordon, Mae O

    2015-10-01

    Primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) is a chronic, progressive, irreversible, and potentially blinding optic neuropathy. The risk of blindness due to progressive visual field (VF) loss varies substantially from patient to patient. Early identification of those patients destined to rapid progressive visual loss is crucial to prevent further damage. In this article, a latent class growth model (LCGM) was developed to predict the binary outcome of VF progression using longitudinal mean deviation (MD) and pattern standard deviation (PSD). Specifically, the trajectories of MD and PSD were summarized by a functional principal component (FPC) analysis, and the estimated FPC scores were used to identify subgroups (latent classes) of individuals with distinct patterns of MD and PSD trajectories. Probability of VF progression for an individual was then estimated as weighted average across latent classes, weighted by posterior probability of class membership given baseline covariates and longitudinal MD/PSD series. The model was applied to the participants with newly diagnosed POAG from the Ocular Hypertension Treatment Study (OHTS), and the OHTS data was best fit by a model with 4 latent classes. Using the resultant optimal LCGM, the OHTS participants with and without VF progression could be accurately differentiated by incorporating longitudinal MD and PSD.

  5. Fluctuation in systolic blood pressure is a major systemic risk factor for development of primary open-angle glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Na Young; Jung, Younhea; Han, Kyungdo; Park, Chan Kee

    2017-01-01

    We evaluated the risk of development of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) in terms of variability in BP using a nationwide, population-based, 11-year longitudinal study using the Korean National Health Insurance Research Database. We included patients who underwent health care examinations more than twice between January 2002 and December 2006. We divided all subjects by the quartiles of variability in systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and the difference between SBP and DBP. Of the total of 80,021 included subjects, 910 were diagnosed with POAG between January 2007 and December 2013. Both the Kaplan-Meier survival curves and log-rank test data indicated that patients with higher-level BP variability developed POAG significantly more frequently than did patients with lower-level variability (P < 0.001). On multivariate Cox’s regression modeling including gender, age, sex, household income, smoking status, level of alcohol intake, extent of exercise, diabetes mellitus status, dyslipidemia status, SBP, and DBP; the hazard ratios among the highest and lowest quartiles of SD SBP and CV SBP were 1.256 and 1.238, respectively. Our findings suggest that subjects in the highest quartile of SBP variability were significantly more likely to develop POAG in our population-based sample of Korean adults. PMID:28262703

  6. Medical management of primary open-angle glaucoma: Best practices associated with enhanced patient compliance and persistency

    PubMed Central

    Kulkarni, Sadhana V; Damji, Karim F; Buys, Yvonne M

    2008-01-01

    Primary open angle glaucoma is a chronic optic neuropathy often requiring lifelong treatment. Patient compliance, adherence and persistence with therapy play a vital role in improved outcomes by reducing morbidity and the economic consequences that are associated with disease progression. A literature review including searches of The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, PubMed, conference proceedings, and bibliographies of identified articles reveals the enormous public health burden in various populations due to the impact of glaucoma associated visual impairment on the overall quality of life eg, fear of blindness, inability to work in certain occupations, driving restrictions, motor vehicle accidents, falls, and general health status. Providing specific definitions for the frequently misunderstood terms “compliance, persistence and adherence” with reference to medication use is central not only for monitoring patients’ drug dosing histories and clinical outcomes but also for subsequent research. In this review article, a summary of the advantages/disadvantages including cost-effectiveness of various medical approaches to glaucoma treatment, techniques employed for measuring patient compliance and actual patient preferences for therapy are outlined. We conclude by identifying the key barriers to ongoing treatment and suggest some best practices to enhance compliance and persistence. PMID:19920977

  7. CYP1B1 Mutations are a Major Contributor to Juvenile-Onset Open Angle Glaucoma in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Abu-Amero, Khaled K; Morales, Jose; Aljasim, Leyla A; Edward, Deepak P

    2015-06-01

    To describe the genotype and phenotype in 14 unrelated Saudis with juvenile open angle glaucoma (JOAG). Detailed clinical examination was carried out and we sequenced cytochrome P450, family 1, subfamily B (CYP1B1), Myocilin (MYOC) and latent-transforming growth factor beta-binding protein 2 (LTBP2) genes. Twelve (85.7%) patients had apparent sporadic inheritance and 2 (14.3%) presented with a family history of glaucoma. Overall, 12 patients (85.7%) had CYP1B1 mutation. Nine patients had CYP1B1 mutations in a homozygous status. Eight of these had homozygous p.G61E mutation and one had a silent (no amino acid change) sequence change. Two patients had p.G61E mutation in a compound heterozygous status with another CYP1B1 mutation (p.L432V). Two patients had p.G61E in a heterozygous status with no other mutation, while one patient had no mutation(s). None of the patients had any mutation(s) in the MYOC or LTBP2 genes. JOAG associated with CYP1B1 mutations occurs at a high rate in the Saudi population. A specific genotype-phenotype relationship was not demonstrated.

  8. Optic nerve head slope-based quantitative parameters for identifying open-angle glaucoma on SPECTRALIS OCT images.

    PubMed

    Al-Hinnawi, Abdel-Razzak M; Al-Naami, Bassam O; Al-Latayfeh, Motasem M

    2017-08-01

    To investigate monitoring slope-based features of the optic nerve head (ONH) cup as open-angle glaucoma (OAG) occurs. A dataset of 46 retrospective OCT cases was acquired from the SPECTRALIS Heidelberg Engineering OCT device. A set of five parameters, which are based on the ONH cup-incline, are measured on the OAG and normal subjects in the dataset. Then, three new ONH cup-shape indices were deduced. The ONH cup-incline parameters and ONH cup-shape indices are analyzed to estimate their clinical value. The statistical difference between measurements on normal and glaucoma eyes was remarkably significant for all of the analyzed parameters and indices (p value < 0.001). The geometric shape of the ONH cup can be transferred to numerical parameters and indices. The proposed ONH cup-incline parameters and ONH cup-shape indices have shown suggestive clinical value to identify the development of OAG. As OAG appears, the top ONH cup-incline parameters decrease while the bottom ONH cup-incline parameters increase. The ONH cup-shape indices suggest capability to discriminate OAG from normal eyes.

  9. Intraocular Pressure, Central Corneal Thickness, and Prevalence of Open-Angle Glaucoma: The Los Angeles Latino Eye Study

    PubMed Central

    Francis, Brian A.; Varma, Rohit; Chopra, Vikas; Lai, Mei-Ying; Shtir, Corina; Azen, Stanley P.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To examine the relationship between the prevalence of open-angle glaucoma (OAG) and intraocular pressure (IOP) and the impact of central corneal thickness (CCT) on this relationship. Design Population based cross-sectional study. Methods The study cohort consisted of 5970 participants from the Los Angeles Latino Eye Study (LALES) with no history of glaucoma treatment and with complete ophthalmic examination data. The relationship between the prevalence of OAG and IOP was contrasted across persons with CCT designated as thin, normal or thick. Results Prevalence of OAG was exponentially related to IOP. When stratified by CCT, persons with thin CCT had a significantly higher prevalence of OAG than did those with normal or thick CCT’s at all levels of IOP. Adjusting each IOP individually for CCT did not impact significantly the relationship between the prevalence of OAG and IOP. Conclusions These findings suggest that adjusting for the impact of CCT on IOP by correction algorithms is not necessary in a population analysis of glaucoma prevalence; CCT and other associated corneal properties, however, are important independent risk factors for the prevalence of OAG. PMID:18672218

  10. Elevated Plasma Endothelin-1 Levels in Normal Tension Glaucoma and Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shengjie; Zhang, Aiping

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. The aim of this meta-analysis was to clarify the association between the plasma endothelin-1 level and the risks of normal tension glaucoma (NTG) and primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). Methods. Relevant publications were collected from three databases including PubMed, EMBASE, and the Web of Science through December 31, 2015. In this study, the terms “(endothelin OR ET) AND glaucoma” were searched. Review Manager 5.2 was used to process the data. Results. Seven studies (212 cases, 164 controls) were included for the NTG analysis. The mean plasma endothelin-1 level in the NTG subjects was 0.60 pg/mL (p = 0.02, 95% CI: 0.17–1.04) higher than that of the healthy controls. Six studies (160 cases, 174 controls) were included for the POAG analysis, and the endothelin-1 level was 0.63 pg/mL (p = 0.007, 95% CI: 0.12–1.15) higher in the POAG subjects than in the healthy controls. Additionally, two studies influenced the meta-analysis results regarding the association of plasma endothelin-1 with POAG by sensitivity analysis, and the probability of publication bias was low. Conclusions. The observation that NTG and POAG subjects showed significantly elevated endothelin-1 plasma concentrations suggests that a higher plasma level of endothelin-1 might increase the risk of NTG and POAG development. PMID:27965889

  11. Cost Effectiveness of Medications Compared with Laser Trabeculoplasty in Patients with Newly-Diagnosed Open-Angle Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Joshua D.; Kim, David D.; Peck, Will W.; Giannetti, Steven M.; Hutton, David W.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine the most cost-effective treatment option for patients with newly-diagnosed mild open-angle glaucoma (OAG): observation only, treatment with generic topical prostaglandin analogs (PGAs) or treatment with laser trabeculoplasty (LTP) Methods Using a Markov model with a 25 year time horizon, we compared the incremental cost effectiveness of treating newly-diagnosed mild OAG with PGAs, LTP, or observation only. Results The incremental cost effectiveness of LTP over no treatment is $16824/ quality-adjusted life year (QALY). By comparison, the incremental cost effectiveness of PGAs over no treatment is $14179/QALY and it provides greater health-related quality of life relative to LTP. If PGAs are 25% less effective due to poor patient adherence, LTP can confer greater value. Conclusion PGAs and LTP are both cost-effective options for the management of newly-diagnosed mild OAG. Assuming optimal medication adherence, PGAs confer greater value compared with LTP. However, when assuming more realistic levels of medication adherence (making them 25% less effective than the documented effectiveness reported in clinical trials), at today's prices for PGAs, LTP may be a more cost effective alternative. PMID:22332202

  12. Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Restore Function in a Human Cell Loss Model of Open-Angle Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Abu-Hassan, Diala W; Li, Xinbo; Ryan, Eileen I; Acott, Ted S; Kelley, Mary J

    2015-01-01

    Normally, trabecular meshwork (TM) and Schlemm's canal inner wall endothelial cells within the aqueous humor outflow pathway maintain intraocular pressure within a narrow safe range. Elevation in intraocular pressure, because of the loss of homeostatic regulation by these outflow pathway cells, is the primary risk factor for vision loss due to glaucomatous optic neuropathy. A notable feature associated with glaucoma is outflow pathway cell loss. Using controlled cell loss in ex vivo perfused human outflow pathway organ culture, we developed compelling experimental evidence that this level of cell loss compromises intraocular pressure homeostatic function. This function was restored by repopulation of the model with fresh TM cells. We then differentiated induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and used them to repopulate this cell depletion model. These differentiated cells (TM-like iPSCs) became similar to TM cells in both morphology and expression patterns. When transplanted, they were able to fully restore intraocular pressure homeostatic function. This successful transplantation of TM-like iPSCs establishes the conceptual feasibility of using autologous stem cells to restore intraocular pressure regulatory function in open-angle glaucoma patients, providing a novel alternative treatment option. Stem Cells 2015;33:751–761 PMID:25377070

  13. Genome-Wide Linkage Scan for Primary Open Angle Glaucoma: Influences of Ancestry and Age at Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Xuejun; Liu, Yutao; Gibson, Jason R.; Santiago-Turla, Cecilia; Larocque-Abramson, Karen R.; Del Bono, Elizabeth; Challa, Pratap; Herndon, Leon W.; Akafo, Stephen; Wiggs, Janey L.; Schmidt, Silke; Hauser, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) is the most common form of glaucoma and one of the leading causes of vision loss worldwide. The genetic etiology of POAG is complex and poorly understood. The purpose of this work is to identify genomic regions of interest linked to POAG. This study is the largest genetic linkage study of POAG performed to date: genomic DNA samples from 786 subjects (538 Caucasian ancestry, 248 African ancestry) were genotyped using either the Illumina GoldenGate Linkage 4 Panel or the Illumina Infinium Human Linkage-12 Panel. A total of 5233 SNPs was analyzed in 134 multiplex POAG families (89 Caucasian ancestry, 45 African ancestry). Parametric and non-parametric linkage analyses were performed on the overall dataset and within race-specific datasets (Caucasian ancestry and African ancestry). Ordered subset analysis was used to stratify the data on the basis of age of glaucoma diagnosis. Novel linkage regions were identified on chromosomes 1 and 20, and two previously described loci—GLC1D on chromosome 8 and GLC1I on chromosome 15—were replicated. These data will prove valuable in the context of interpreting results from genome-wide association studies for POAG. PMID:21765929

  14. [TNF-alfa (-857C/T) polymorphism in open angle glaucoma in Romania -- results of a pilot study].

    PubMed

    Simionescu, Ruxandra; Voinea, Liliana; Cornăţeanu, Roxana Sfrenţ

    2013-01-01

    Primary open angle glaucoma is a progressive optic neuropathy with multiple causative factors including genetic immune disregulation. TNF-alfa has pro-apoptotic effects on the retinal ganglion cells, thus being directly involved in the neurodegeneration of the optic nerve head. Our purpose was to investigate the influence on susceptibility and/or clinical and characteristics of TNF-alfa promoter polymorphism -857 C/T in Romanian patients diagnosed with POAG. We assessed 159 Romanian subjects, 61 diagnosed with glaucoma (F/M 39/22) and 98 healthy unrelated matched controls-HC for the polymorphism -857 C/T, genotyped by Real Time PCR (Taqman SNP Genotyping Assay C_2215707_10, Applied Biosystems, USA). The diagnosis and the staging of the disease in the POAG group were assessed using the current guidelines. Association tests for the SNP were performed using SPSS 11.2 (Fisher test) and p values < or = 0.05 were considered significant. The Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium assessed using Chi-square test was respected in both studied groups- POAG and HC (p = 0.000009 and respectively p = 0.04771). There was no association found between the frequencies of alleles between studied groups (CC/CT/TT= 0.81/0.09/0.08 respectively 0.70/0.23/0.06). TNF-alfa promoter polymorphism -857 C/T doesn't seem to influence the susceptibility to POAG and the results should be confirmed on larger cohorts.

  15. Differential Association of Metabolic Risk Factors with Open Angle Glaucoma according to Obesity in a Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun-Ah; Han, Kyungdo; Lee, Yun-Ah; Choi, Jin A; Park, Yong-Moon

    2016-01-01

    The associations of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) with intraocular pressure and primary open angle glaucoma (OAG) have been reported. This study aimed to determine whether a difference in association exists between OAG and metabolic risk factors according to obesity status among Korean adults. A total of 8,816 participants (≥40 years) in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were classified into obese, body mass index (BMI) ≥ 25 kg/m2 and non-obese, BMI < 25 kg/m2. The prevalence of MetS was 40.1% in non-obese OAG and 66.0% in obese OAG. The prevalence of OAG increased with increasing number components for MetS in total population and in non-obese subjects (P < 0.001, respectively), while the prevalence of OAG was not associated with number of components for MetS in obese subjects (P = 0.14). In non-obese individuals, subjects with high triglycerides, high blood pressure (BP), and MetS were more likely to have OAG compared with those without high triglycerides, high BP, and MetS after adjusting for potential confounders. However, MetS or its components exhibited no significant association with glaucoma status in obese individuals. Our study provides understanding on the differences in association of OAG with MetS and its components according to obesity status. PMID:28004731

  16. Induced pluripotent stem cells restore function in a human cell loss model of open-angle glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Abu-Hassan, Diala W; Li, Xinbo; Ryan, Eileen I; Acott, Ted S; Kelley, Mary J

    2015-03-01

    Normally, trabecular meshwork (TM) and Schlemm's canal inner wall endothelial cells within the aqueous humor outflow pathway maintain intraocular pressure within a narrow safe range. Elevation in intraocular pressure, because of the loss of homeostatic regulation by these outflow pathway cells, is the primary risk factor for vision loss due to glaucomatous optic neuropathy. A notable feature associated with glaucoma is outflow pathway cell loss. Using controlled cell loss in ex vivo perfused human outflow pathway organ culture, we developed compelling experimental evidence that this level of cell loss compromises intraocular pressure homeostatic function. This function was restored by repopulation of the model with fresh TM cells. We then differentiated induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and used them to repopulate this cell depletion model. These differentiated cells (TM-like iPSCs) became similar to TM cells in both morphology and expression patterns. When transplanted, they were able to fully restore intraocular pressure homeostatic function. This successful transplantation of TM-like iPSCs establishes the conceptual feasibility of using autologous stem cells to restore intraocular pressure regulatory function in open-angle glaucoma patients, providing a novel alternative treatment option. © 2014 The Authors. STEM CELLS Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of AlphaMed Press.

  17. Effect of Different Head Positions in Lateral Decubitus Posture on Intraocular Pressure in Treated Patients With Open-Angle Glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tae-Eun; Yoo, Chungkwon; Lin, Shan C; Kim, Yong Yeon

    2015-11-01

    To investigate the effects of different head positions in the lateral decubitus posture on intraocular pressure (IOP) in medically treated patients with open-angle glaucoma (OAG). Prospective observational study. setting: Institutional. Twenty patients with bilateral OAG who received only latanoprost as treatment. IOP was measured using an ICare Pro tonometer in the sitting, supine, right, and left lateral decubitus posture. In lateral decubitus posture, IOP measurements were taken with 3 different head positions (30 degrees higher than, 30 degrees lower than, and parallel to the center of the thoracic vertebra) in a randomized sequence. Comparison of the IOPs between the dependent (lower-sided) and nondependent eyes in the lateral decubitus postures with different head positions. We also analyzed the differences in IOPs between the better and worse eyes. IOP was higher in the dependent eyes than in the nondependent eyes in lateral decubitus posture, regardless of the head position (all P < .05). Lower head position increased the IOP of dependent eyes, compared with the neutral or higher head position. However, the amounts of IOP elevation seen during the changes of body posture or head position were not significantly different between the better and worse eyes. Low head position elevates IOP of the dependent eyes of medically treated OAG patients compared with neutral head position in the lateral decubitus posture. Adjustment of the height of a pillow may help mitigate IOP elevations resulting from lying on the side with a low or no pillow in glaucoma patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. An evaluation of ocular elasticity using real-time ultrasound elastography in primary open-angle glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Agladioglu, Kadir; Pekel, Gökhan; Altintas Kasikci, Seher; Yagci, Ramazan; Kiroglu, Yilmaz

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare sonoelastographic findings in the retina-choroid-sclera (RCS) complex and vitreous in glaucomatous and healthy eyes. For this cross-sectional comparative study, 20 patients with primary open-angle glaucoma and 20 healthy volunteers were recruited. Ultrasound elastography measurements were taken with a sonographic scanner of the RCS complex, anterior vitreous (AV), posterior vitreous (PV), retrobulbar fat tissue (RFT), optic disc (OD) and optic nerve (ON) in each eye. The elasticity index of the RCS complex, RFT, OD, ON, AV and PV was similar in both groups (p  >  0.05), although the AV/PV strain ratio in the group of patients with glaucoma was significantly higher (p  =  0.04). Glaucoma increases the AV/PV strain ratio. In providing reproducible and consistent values, the real-time elastography (RTE) technique may be helpful in elucidating the mechanisms of glaucoma in some aspects. This study can help to evaluate the elasticity of the RCS complex and vitreous in glaucomatous eyes with RTE.

  19. Prediction of stable tearing of 2024-T3 aluminum alloy using the crack-tip opening angle approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bakuckas, J. G., Jr.; Newman, J. C., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    In this study, the crack-tip opening angle (CTOA) approach was incorporated into a damage growth finite element program, MADGIC (Micromechanics Analysis and Damage Growth in Composites), and was used to predict stable tearing in a middle-crack tension 2024-T3 aluminum alloy specimen. The MADGIC code is a displacement based finite element program implemented with an incremental elastic-plastic algorithm used to model elastic-plastic behavior and a nodal splitting and nodal force relaxation algorithm used to generate crack surfaces. Predictions of the applied stress as a function of crack extension and applied stress as a function of load-line displacement were in good agreement with experiments and with similar predictions made using an existing finite element program, ZIP2D. In addition, path integrals, namely, the J-integral and T*-integral, were also evaluated and compared with the CTOA approach. There appears to be a weak relationship between the CTOA and the T*-integral evaluated on a specific integration path during crack extension beyond maximum applied stress. This study further verifies that the CTOA can be used as an effective elastic-plastic fracture mechanics parameter to predict crack growth.

  20. Comparison of Newly Diagnosed Ocular Hypertension and Open-Angle Glaucoma: Ocular Variables, Risk Factors, and Disease Severity

    PubMed Central

    Buys, Yvonne M.; Harasymowycz, Paul; Gaspo, Rania; Kwok, Kenneth; Hutnik, Cindy M. L.; Blondeau, Pierre; Birt, Catherine M.; Piemontesi, Robert L. G.; Gould, Lisa F.; Lesk, Mark R.; Ahmed, Iqbal K.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. To describe the distribution of ocular variables, risk factors, and disease severity in newly diagnosed ocular hypertension (OH) or open-angle glaucoma (OAG). Methods. Eligible subjects underwent a complete history and examination. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) obtained from multiple logistic regression models were used to compare OAG to OH and advanced to early/moderate OAG. Results. 405 subjects were enrolled: 292 (72.1%) with OAG and 113 (27.9%) with OH. 51.7% had early, 27.1% moderate, and 20.9% advanced OAG. The OR for OAG versus OH was 8.19 (P < 0.0001) for disc notch, 5.36 (P < 0.0001) for abnormal visual field, 1.45 (P = 0.001) for worsening mean deviation, 1.91 (P < 0.0001) for increased cupping, 1.03 for increased age (P = 0.030), and 0.36 (P = 0.010) for smoking. Conclusions. Increased age was a risk for OAG, and smoking decreased the risk of OAG compared to OH. Almost half of the OAG subjects had moderate/advanced disease at diagnosis. PMID:21869921

  1. Highly efficient photocatalytic TiO2 coatings deposited by open air atmospheric pressure plasma jet with aerosolized TTIP precursor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fakhouri, H.; Ben Salem, D.; Carton, O.; Pulpytel, J.; Arefi-Khonsari, F.

    2014-07-01

    A simple method to deposit photocatalytic TiO2 coatings, at a high rate (20-40 µm s-1), and with a high porosity, is reported in this paper. This method, which allows the treatment of membranes (with an 800 nm pore size), is based on the introduction of a liquid precursor sprayed into an open-air atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ). The photocatalytic activity of the TiO2 thin films prepared by APPJ have been compared with our best N-doped TiO2 thin films, deposited by reactive radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering, previously reported in the literature. The morphology, chemical composition, photoelectrochemical, and photocatalytic properties of the coatings have been studied in this paper. Significant control of the porosity and crystallinity was achieved by varying the deposition parameters and the annealing temperature. Under optimized conditions, the TiO2 coatings deposited by APPJ are characterized by a higher photocatalytic activity as compared to the optimized thin films deposited by RF sputtering. This difference can be explained by the higher specific surface of the APPJ coatings. Finally, the most interesting characteristic of this APPJ-liquid spray process is its capacity to treat membranes without blocking the pores, and to produce photocatalytic membranes which can efficiently combine filtration and photocatalysis for water treatment.

  2. PRE-OPERATIVE PLANNING AND SURGICAL TECHNIQUE OF THE OPEN WEDGE SUPRACONDYLAR OSTEOTOMY FOR CORRECTION OF VALGUS KNEE AND FIXATION WITH A FIXED-ANGLE IMPLANT

    PubMed Central

    Paccola, Cleber Antonio Jansen

    2015-01-01

    The step-by-step preoperative planning for supracondylar opening wedge osteotomy of the femur for precise correction of the load axis of the lower limb using a fixed-angle implant (95° AO blade plate) is presented. The surgical technique and the use of a bone graft from the same site for filling in the defect are also presented. PMID:27026976

  3. The effects of the stellar wind and orbital motion on the jets of high-mass microquasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosch-Ramon, V.; Barkov, M. V.

    2016-05-01

    Context. High-mass microquasar jets propagate under the effect of the wind from the companion star, and the orbital motion of the binary system. The stellar wind and the orbit may be dominant factors determining the jet properties beyond the binary scales. Aims: This is an analytical study, performed to characterise the effects of the stellar wind and the orbital motion on the jet properties. Methods: Accounting for the wind thrust transferred to the jet, we derive analytical estimates to characterise the jet evolution under the impact of the stellar wind. We include the Coriolis force effect, induced by orbital motion and enhanced by the wind's presence. Large-scale evolution of the jet is sketched, accounting for wind-to-jet thrust transfer, total energy conservation, and wind-jet flow mixing. Results: If the angle of the wind-induced jet bending is larger than its half-opening angle, the following is expected: (i) a strong recollimation shock; (ii) bending against orbital motion, caused by Coriolis forces and enhanced by the wind presence; and (iii) non-ballistic helical propagation further away. Even if disrupted, the jet can re-accelerate due to ambient pressure gradients, but wind entrainment can weaken this acceleration. On large scales, the opening angle of the helical structure is determined by the wind-jet thrust relation, and the wind-loaded jet flow can be rather slow. Conclusions: The impact of stellar winds on high-mass microquasar jets can yield non-ballistic helical jet trajectories, jet partial disruption and wind mixing, shocks, and possibly non-thermal emission. Among other observational diagnostics, such as radiation variability at any band, the radio morphology on milliarcsecond scales can be informative on the wind-jet interaction.

  4. The Relationship between Central Visual Field Damage and Motor Vehicle Collisions in Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Yuki, Kenya; Asaoka, Ryo; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the relationship between visual field (VF) damage and history of motor vehicle collisions (MVCs) in subjects with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). Methods MVC history and driving habits were recorded using patient questionnaires in 247 POAG patients. Patients' driving attitudes (carefulness) were estimated using Rasch analysis. The relationship between MVC outcomes and 52 total deviation (TD) values of integrated binocular VF (IVF), better and worse visual acuities (VAs), age and gender was analyzed using principal component analysis and logistic regression. Results 51 patients had the history of MVCs. Significant difference was observed between patients with and without history of MVCs only for: better VA, a single TD value in the superior-right VF, and the typical distance driven in a week (unpaired t-test, p = 0.002, 0.015 and 0.006, respectively). There was not a significant relationship between MVCs and mean deviation (MD) of IVF (p = 0.41, logistic regression). None of the principal components were significantly correlated with MVC outcome (p>0.05, polynomial logistic regression analysis). There was a significant relationship between IVF MD and Rasch derived Person parameter (R2 = 0.023, p = 0.0095). There was also a significant positive relationship between MVCs and the distance driven in a week (p = 0.005, logistic regression). Conclusions In this study of POAG patients, MVCs were not related to central binocular VF damage. These results suggest the relationship between visual function and driving is not straightforward, and careful consideration should be given when predicting patients' driving ability using their VF. PMID:25545660

  5. Oxygen saturation measurements of the retinal vasculature in treated asymmetrical primary open-angle glaucoma using hyperspectral imaging

    PubMed Central

    Mordant, D J; Al-Abboud, I; Muyo, G; Gorman, A; Harvey, A R; McNaught, A I

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To determine whether there are differences in retinal vascular oxygen saturation measurements, estimated using a hyperspectral fundus camera, between normal eyes and treated eyes of subjects with asymmetrical primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). Methods A noninvasive hyperspectral fundus camera was used to acquire spectral images of the retina at wavelengths between 556 and 650 nm in 2-nm increments. In total, 14 normal eyes and both eyes of 11 treated POAG subjects were imaged and analyzed using algorithms that use the spectral variation of the optical densities of blood vessels to estimate the oxygen saturation of blood within the retinal vasculature. In the treated POAG group, each of the eyes were categorized, based on the mean deviation of the Humphrey visual-field analyzer result, as either more-advanced or less-advanced, glaucomatous eyes. Unpaired t-tests (two-tailed) with Welch's correction were used to compare the mean oxygen saturation between the normal subjects and the treated POAG subgroups. Results In less-advanced and more-advanced-treated POAG eyes, mean retinal venular oxygen saturations (48.2±21.6% and 42.6±18.8%, respectively) were significantly higher than in normal eyes (27.9±9.9% P=0.03 and 0.01, respectively). Arteriolar oxygen saturation was not significantly different between normal eyes and treated POAG eyes. Conclusions The increased oxygen saturation of the retinal venules in advanced-treated POAG eyes may indicate reduced metabolic consumption of oxygen in the inner retinal tissues. PMID:25060843

  6. Color Doppler Imaging Analysis of Retrobulbar Blood Flow Velocities in Primary Open-Angle Glaucomatous Eyes: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Nana; Zhang, Ping; Huang, Huadong; Ma, Jinlan; Zhang, Yue; Li, Hao; Qu, Yi

    2013-01-01

    Background To analyze the diagnostic value of color Doppler imaging (CDI) of blood flow in the retrobulbar vessels of eyes with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). Methods Pertinent publications were retrieved from the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, PubMed and the ISI Web of Knowledge up to October 2012. Changes in peak systolic velocity (PSV), end diastolic velocity (EDV) and resistive index (RI) of the ophthalmic artery (OA), central retinal artery (CRA) and short posterior ciliary artery (SPCA) of POAG eyes and normal controls were evaluated by CDI. Subgroup analyses were conducted according to whether patients received IOP-lowering drugs treatment and were defined as treated and untreated. Results PSV and EDV were statistically significantly reduced in the OA of POAG eyes (P = 0.0002; P<0.00001; respectively), with significant heterogeneity (Pheterogeneity<0.00001, I2 = 94%; Pheterogeneity<0.00001, I2 = 85%; respectively). Similar results were demonstrated for the CRA (P<0.00001; respectively) and SPCA (P = 0.005; P<0.00001; respectively), with significant heterogeneities for both the CRA (Pheterogeneity<0.00001, I2 = 81%; Pheterogeneity<0.00001, I2 = 98%; respectively) and the SPCA (Pheterogeneity<0.00001, I2 = 96%; Pheterogeneity<0.00001, I2 = 93%; respectively). Significant increases in RI were found in all retrobulbar vessels (P<0.00001; respectively), with significant heterogeneities (Pheterogeneity<0.00001, I2 = 95%; Pheterogeneity<0.00001, I2 = 94%; Pheterogeneity<0.00001, I2 = 97%; respectively). Conclusions This meta-analysis suggests that CDI is a potential diagnostic tool for POAG. PMID:23675419

  7. Correlation of endothelin-1 concentration in aqueous humor with intraocular pressure in primary open angle and pseudoexfoliation glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Choritz, Lars; Machert, Maren; Thieme, Hagen

    2012-10-23

    Endothelin-1 (ET-1) has been found in elevated concentrations in the aqueous humor of glaucoma patients. Indirect evidence from animal studies suggests that ET-1 might directly influence intraocular pressure (IOP). The aim of this study was to determine whether ET-1 concentrations in aqueous humor of cataract and glaucoma patients correlate with IOP. Aqueous humor and blood samples from patients with either cataract (control, n = 38), primary open angle glaucoma (POAG, n = 35), or pseudoexfoliation glaucoma (PEXG, n = 21), without other ocular or systemic disease, were collected during routine cataract surgery or trabeculectomy. ET-1 concentration was determined by an ET-1 ELISA kit. IOP was measured preoperatively by standard Goldmann applanation tonometry. All statistical analysis was performed using commercial predictive analytics software. Both IOP and ET-1 concentration in aqueous humor were significantly increased in POAG (23.4 ± 6.8 mm Hg, 5.9 ± 2.9 pg/mL) and PEXG (24.3 ± 8.8 mm Hg, 7.7 ± 2.1 pg/mL) compared with control (15.0 ± 2.9 mm Hg, 4.3 ± 2.4 pg/mL). No difference was detected for plasma ET-1 concentrations. IOP and ET-1 in the aqueous humor were significantly correlated (R = 0.394, R² = 0.155, P < 0.001), although no correlation was found between IOP and ET-1 in blood plasma or between ET-1 in aqueous humor and ET-1 in plasma. In this study, a small but highly significant correlation between IOP and the ET-1 concentration in the aqueous humor was found. Although no causative relationship can be deduced from this, ocular ET-1 effects on IOP control may merit further investigation.

  8. Preservative-free latanoprost eye drops in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma/ocular hypertension.

    PubMed

    Sanford, Mark

    2014-07-01

    Latanoprost is an ester prodrug prostaglandin F2α analogue that is a selective agonist of endogenous prostanoid FP receptors and that reduces intraocular pressure (IOP) by increasing the uveoscleral outflow of aqueous humour. Preservative-free (PF) latanoprost [Monoprost(®)] is a new formulation of latanoprost that is approved for use in the EU in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG)/ocular hypertension. This article reviews the clinical pharmacology of this new formulation, focussing on its efficacy and tolerability in this indication. PF latanoprost was efficacious in reducing IOP in a randomized, investigator-masked, multinational trial in patients with POAG/ocular hypertension (n = 404). At days 15, 42 and 84 of follow-up, PF latanoprost was noninferior to benzalkonium chloride-preserved (BAK) latanoprost in terms of reductions in IOP. In this trial, at days 42 and 84 the proportions of patients with conjunctival hyperaemia were significantly lower with PF latanoprost than with BAK latanoprost. Patient subjective ratings of ocular symptoms were also significantly lower with PF latanoprost than with BAK latanoprost. In the absence of head-to-head comparisons with other anti-glaucoma drugs, an adjusted, indirect comparison meta-analysis was performed using data from 21 randomized clinical trials in patients with POAG/ocular hypertension. Based on this analysis, PF latanoprost had similar efficacy to different formulations of three comparator prostaglandin analogues in reducing the patient's IOP and was associated with a significantly lower risk of developing hyperaemia/ocular redness than these comparators. PF latanoprost offers a useful alternative to the available preserved prostaglandin analogues for the treatment of POAG/ocular hypertension.

  9. [Effectiveness of 3-hydroxypyridine and succinic acid derivatives in complex treatment of primary open-angle glaucoma].

    PubMed

    Volchegorskiĭ, I A; Tur, E V; Soliannikova, O V; Rykun, V S; Sumina, M S; Dmitrienko, V N; Berdnikova, E V

    2012-01-01

    Prospective, placebo-controlled, single-blind, randomized clinical investigation of the influence of domestic 3-hydroxypyridine and succinic acid derivatives (emoxipin, reamberin, mexidol) on the effectiveness of a complex treatment of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) has been performed in a group of patients. It is established that intravenous infusion of 3-hydroxypyridine derivatives (emoxipin and mexidol) for two weeks, beginning 14 days after the start of POAG treatment, produced a retinoprotective action, with three months postponed changes in the central retinal artery (CRA) blood velocity. The retinoprotective effect of emoxipin (single dose, 150 mg) was manifested by reduction in the horizontal size of blind spot in two weeks, with the subsequent reduction of the CRA end-diastolic blood velocity observed three months after finish of the infusion therapy. The administration of mexidol (single dose, 300 mg) after 14 days of treatment led to widening of the summarized field of vision (test-object square, 16 mm), accompanied by a decrease in the electrosensitivity threshold of the optic nerve and the intensity of POAG-associated hypothymia. All indices of CRA blood velocity increased three months after termination of mexidol infusions. Reamberin (single dose, 400 ml 1,5% solution of reamberine, containing polyelectrolyte and meglumine succinate mixture) did not show retinoprotective action, but caused proatherogenic changes of blood lipids and 3 months postponed CRA end-diastolic blood velocity increase. The effect of mexidol (which is a derivative of both 3- hydroxypyridine and succinic acid) exceeds that of separate 3-hydroxypyridine (emoxipin) and succinic acid (reamberin) derivatives in the degree of retinoprotection and positive effect on the optic nerve condition and mood of POAG patients.

  10. Predictive factors for open-angle glaucoma among patients with ocular hypertension in the European Glaucoma Prevention Study.

    PubMed

    Miglior, Stefano; Pfeiffer, Norbert; Torri, Valter; Zeyen, Thierry; Cunha-Vaz, Jose; Adamsons, Ingrid

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate the predictive factors of open-angle glaucoma (OAG) in patients affected by ocular hypertension enrolled in the European Glaucoma Prevention Study (EGPS). Randomized, double-masked, controlled clinical trial. One thousand seventy-seven patients, > or =30 years old, were enrolled at 18 European centers. The patients met inclusion criteria: intraocular pressure, 22 to 29 mmHg; 2 normal and reliable visual fields (VFs) (on the basis of mean deviation and corrected pattern standard deviation [PSD]); and a normal optic disc, as determined by an optic disc reading center. Treatment with dorzolamide or a placebo (the vehicle of dorzolamide) in one or both eyes. Efficacy end points were VF and/or optic disc changes. Baseline demographic and clinical data were collected before randomization, except for corneal thickness measurements, which were determined during follow-up. Proportional hazards models were used to identify factors that predicted which participants in the EGPS had developed OAG. In multivariate analyses, factors that predicted the development of OAG included older age (hazard ratio [HR], 1.32; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04-1.69), larger vertical cup-to-disc (C/D) ratio (HR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.14-1.58), larger vertical C/D ratio asymmetry (HR, 1.46; 95% CI, 1.11-1.93), higher PSD (HR, 1.66; 95% CI, 1.15-2.38), and lesser central corneal thickness (HR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.05-1.67). Baseline age, vertical C/D ratio, vertical C/D ratio asymmetry, and PSD were good predictors of the onset of OAG in the EGPS. Central corneal thickness was found to be a powerful predictor of the development of OAG. The EGPS results agree with the findings of the Ocular Hypertension Treatment Study and support the need for a thorough evaluation of patients with ocular hypertension.

  11. Estrogen pathway polymorphisms in relation to primary open angle glaucoma: An analysis accounting for gender from the United States

    PubMed Central

    Loomis, Stephanie J.; Weinreb, Robert N.; Kang, Jae H.; Yaspan, Brian L.; Bailey, Jessica Cooke; Gaasterland, Douglas; Gaasterland, Terry; Lee, Richard K.; Scott, William K.; Lichter, Paul R.; Budenz, Donald L.; Liu, Yutao; Realini, Tony; Friedman, David S.; McCarty, Catherine A.; Moroi, Sayoko E.; Olson, Lana; Schuman, Joel S.; Singh, Kuldev; Vollrath, Douglas; Wollstein, Gadi; Zack, Donald J.; Brilliant, Murray; Sit, Arthur J.; Christen, William G.; Fingert, John; Kraft, Peter; Zhang, Kang; Allingham, R. Rand; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A.; Richards, Julia E.; Hauser, Michael A.; Haines, Jonathan L.; Wiggs, Janey L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Circulating estrogen levels are relevant in glaucoma phenotypic traits. We assessed the association between an estrogen metabolism single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) panel in relation to primary open angle glaucoma (POAG), accounting for gender. Methods We included 3,108 POAG cases and 3,430 controls of both genders from the Glaucoma Genes and Environment (GLAUGEN) study and the National Eye Institute Glaucoma Human Genetics Collaboration (NEIGHBOR) consortium genotyped on the Illumina 660W-Quad platform. We assessed the relation between the SNP panels representative of estrogen metabolism and POAG using pathway- and gene-based approaches with the Pathway Analysis by Randomization Incorporating Structure (PARIS) software. PARIS executes a permutation algorithm to assess statistical significance relative to the pathways and genes of comparable genetic architecture. These analyses were performed using the meta-analyzed results from the GLAUGEN and NEIGHBOR data sets. We evaluated POAG overall as well as two subtypes of POAG defined as intraocular pressure (IOP) ≥22 mmHg (high-pressure glaucoma [HPG]) or IOP <22 mmHg (normal pressure glaucoma [NPG]) at diagnosis. We conducted these analyses for each gender separately and then jointly in men and women. Results Among women, the estrogen SNP pathway was associated with POAG overall (permuted p=0.006) and HPG (permuted p<0.001) but not NPG (permuted p=0.09). Interestingly, there was no relation between the estrogen SNP pathway and POAG when men were considered alone (permuted p>0.99). Among women, gene-based analyses revealed that the catechol-O-methyltransferase gene showed strong associations with HTG (permuted gene p≤0.001) and NPG (permuted gene p=0.01). Conclusions The estrogen SNP pathway was associated with POAG among women. PMID:23869166

  12. Associations between obstructive sleep apnoea, primary open angle glaucoma and age-related macular degeneration: record linkage study.

    PubMed

    Keenan, Tiarnan D L; Goldacre, Raph; Goldacre, Michael J

    2017-02-01

    Primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) is thought to be associated with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) but previous studies are conflicting and have methodological limitations. This potential relationship has implications for investigation and treatment strategies, and may provide insights into disease pathogenesis. The relationship between OSA and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is unknown. A sleep apnoea cohort of 67 786 people was constructed from linked English hospital episode statistics (1999-2011). We compared this cohort with a reference cohort (2 684 131 people) for rates of subsequent POAG and AMD. A POAG cohort (comprising 87 435 people) and an AMD cohort (248 408 people) were also constructed and compared with the reference cohort for rates of subsequent sleep apnoea. All analyses were restricted to people aged 55 and over and, within this age range, were age standardised using 5-year age groups. Risk of POAG following sleep apnoea was not elevated: the rate ratio for POAG was 1.01 (95% CI 0.85 to 1.19). Similarly, the risk of sleep apnoea following POAG was not elevated: the rate ratio was 1.00 (0.86 to 1.17). These findings held true across subgroup analysis according to sex and age group. By contrast, the risk of AMD following sleep apnoea was significantly elevated, with rate ratio 1.44 (1.32 to 1.57). Although plausible mechanisms exist to consider a link between OSA and POAG, the two conditions are not positively associated. This holds true in either temporal direction. By contrast, OSA is positively associated with AMD. While potential confounding factors may contribute, obesity does not appear sufficient to explain this association. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  13. Examining the wake structure in Saturn's rings from microwave observations over varying ring opening angles and wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunn, David E.; de Pater, Imke; Molnar, Lawrence A.

    2007-12-01

    Over the last 15 to 20 years several high quality, high resolution data have been taken with the very large array (VLA). These data exhibit a wide range of ring opening angles ( |B|=0 to 26°) and wavelengths ( λ=0.7 to 20 cm). At these wavelengths the primary flux from the rings is scattered saturnian thermal emission, with a small contribution coming from the ring particles' own thermal emission. Much of the data do show signs of asymmetries due to wakes either on the ansae or the portion of the rings which occult the planet. As in previous work, we use our Monte Carlo radiative transfer code including idealized wakes [Dunn, D.E., Molnar, L.A., Fix, J.D., 2002. Icarus 160, 132-160; Dunn, D.E., Molnar, L.A., Niehof, J.T., de Pater, I., Lissauer, J.L., 2004. Icarus 171, 183-198] to model the relative contributions of the scattered and thermal radiation emanating from the rings and compare the results to that seen in the data. Although the models do give satisfactory fits to all of our data, we find that no single model can simulate the data at all different |B| and λ. We find that one model works best for moderate and low |B| and another one at higher |B|. The main difference between these models is the ratio of the wake width to their separation. We similarly find that the 2 cm data require higher density wakes than the longer wavelength data, perhaps caused by a preponderance of somewhat smaller ring material in the wakes. We further find evidence for an increase in the physical temperature of the rings with increasing |B|. Continuous observations are required to determine whether the above results regarding variations in wake parameters with |B| and λ are indeed caused by these parameters, or instead by changes over time.

  14. Age-based analysis of choroidal thickness and choroidal vessel diameter in primary open-angle glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Toprak, Ibrahim; Yaylalı, Volkan; Yildirim, Cem

    2016-04-01

    We aimed to assess choroidal thickness and vessel diameter in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) using enhanced depth imaging (EDI) optical coherence tomography (OCT) with age-based analysis. Fifty-four patients with a confirmed diagnosis of POAG and 44 age-sex matched healthy subjects were included into the study. A masked physician performed measurements of largest choroidal vessel diameter and choroidal thicknesses (subfoveal, nasal, and temporal) using EDI OCT. Subgroup analyses were performed to compare choroidal measurements based on age (with a cut point of 70 years). The study cohort comprised 54 patients with POAG (mean age of 63.2 ± 8.8 years) and 44 healthy control subjects (mean age of 62.9 ± 8.5 years) (P = 0.870). We found no significant differences in terms of choroidal measurements (P > 0.05) between the glaucoma and control groups. However, in the glaucoma group, patients with an age ≥70 years had significantly thinner subfoveal and nasal choroid compared to those of the patients with <70 years of age (P = 0.017, 0.002 respectively). In the control group, choroidal thickness and vessel measurements showed no significant difference when the subjects were subgrouped according to the age cut point (P > 0.05). Choroidal thickness and vessel caliber seem not to differ between patients with POAG and healthy controls. However, an age ≥70 years might be associated with thinning in subfoveal and nasal choroid in patients with POAG. Further studies are needed to elucidate whether choroidal thinning is a cause or result in POAG.

  15. Linkage analysis of primary open-angle glaucoma excludes the juvenile glaucoma region on chromosome 1q

    SciTech Connect

    Wirtz, M.K.; Acott, T.S.; Samples, J.R. |

    1994-09-01

    The gene for one form of juvenile glaucoma has been mapped to chromosome 1q21-q31. This raises the possibility of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) also mapping to this region if the same defective gene causes both diseases. To ask this question linkage analysis was performed on a large POAG kindred. Blood samples or skin biopsies were obtained from 40 members of this family. Individuals were diagnosed as having POAG if they met two or more of the following criteria: (1) Visual field defects compatible with glaucoma on automated perimetry; (2) Optic nerve head and/or nerve fiber layer analysis compatible with glaucomatous damage; (3) high intraocular pressures (> 20 mm Hg). Patients were considered glaucoma suspects if they only met one criterion. These individuals were excluded from the analysis. Of the 40 members, seven were diagnosed with POAG; four were termed suspects. The earliest age of onset was 38 years old, while the average age of onset was 65 years old. We performed two-point and multipoint linkage analysis, using five markers which encompass the region 1q21-q31; specifically, D1S194, D1S210, D1S212, D1S191 and LAMB2. Two-point lod scores excluded tight linkage with all markers except D1S212 (maximum lod score of 1.07 at theta = 0.0). In the multipoint analysis, including D1S210-D1S212-LAMB2 and POAG, the entire 11 cM region spanned by these markers was excluded for linkage with POAG; that is, lod scores were < -2.0. In conclusion, POAG in this family does not map to chromosome 1q21-q31 and, thus, they carry a gene that is distinct from the juvenile glaucoma gene.

  16. Genetic African Ancestry Is Associated With Central Corneal Thickness and Intraocular Pressure in Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Bonnemaijer, Pieter W M; Cook, Colin; Nag, Abhishek; Hammond, Christopher J; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Lemij, Hans G; Klaver, Caroline C W; Thiadens, Alberta A H J

    2017-06-01

    To unravel the relationship between African ancestry, central corneal thickness (CCT), and intraocular pressure (IOP) by estimating the genetic African ancestry (GAA) proportion in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) patients and controls from an admixed South African Colored (SAC) and a South African Black (SAB) population. In this case-control study, 268 POAG patients and 137 controls were recruited from a university clinic in Cape Town, South Africa. All participants were genotyped on the Illumina HumanOmniExpress beadchip or HumanOmni2.5Exome beadchip. ADMIXTURE was used to infer participant's GAA among 86,632 SNPs. Linear and logistic regression models were used to assess the relation between GAA, POAG, CCT, and IOP. The median proportion of GAA was 60% in the study population. GAA was significantly associated with thinner CCT (P < 0.001) and IOP (P = 0.034) in POAG patients. The effect of GAA on CCT was marginally different among POAG patients versus controls (P = 0.066). In POAG patients, the CCT was significantly thinner compared to controls after adjusting for age and sex (P = 0.016). In a stratified analysis in participants with >60% GAA, CCT was not associated with POAG (P = 0.550). This study demonstrated that a higher proportion of GAA was associated with a thinner CCT and a higher IOP in POAG patients. Remarkably, at higher proportions of GAA, the difference in CCT between POAG and controls was reduced. This suggests that thinner CCT is not associated with POAG in Africans.

  17. Investigation of known genetic risk factors for primary open angle glaucoma in two populations of African ancestry.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yutao; Hauser, Michael A; Akafo, Stephen K; Qin, Xuejun; Miura, Shiroh; Gibson, Jason R; Wheeler, Joshua; Gaasterland, Douglas E; Challa, Pratap; Herndon, Leon W; Ritch, Robert; Moroi, Sayoko E; Pasquale, Louis R; Girkin, Christopher A; Budenz, Donald L; Wiggs, Janey L; Richards, Julia E; Ashley-Koch, Allison E; Allingham, R Rand

    2013-09-17

    Multiple genes have been associated with primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) in Caucasian populations. We now examine the association of these loci in populations of African ancestry, populations at particularly high risk for POAG. We genotyped DNA samples from two populations: African American (1150 cases and 999 controls) and those from Ghana, West Africa (483 cases and 593 controls). Our analysis included 57 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in five loci previously associated with POAG at the genome-wide level, including CDKN2B-AS1, TMCO1, CAV1/CAV2, chromosome 8q22 intergenic region, and SIX1/SIX6. We evaluated association in the full datasets, as well as subgroups with normal pressure glaucoma (NPG, maximum IOP ≤21 mm Hg) and high pressure glaucoma (HPG, IOP >21 mm Hg). In African Americans, we identified an association of rs10120688 in the CDNK2B-AS1 region with POAG (P = 0.0020). Several other SNPs were nominally associated, but did not survive correction for multiple testing. In the subgroup analyses, significant associations were identified for rs10965245 (P = 0.0005) in the CDKN2B-AS1 region with HPG and rs11849906 in the SIX1/SIX6 region with NPG (P = 0.006). No significant association was identified with any loci in the Ghanaian samples. POAG genetic susceptibility alleles associated in Caucasians appear to play a greatly reduced role in populations of African ancestry. Thus, the major genetic components of POAG of African origin remain to be identified. This finding underscores the critical need to pursue large-scale genome-wide association studies in this understudied, yet disproportionately affected population.

  18. Estimated Cerebrospina Fluid Pressure and the 5-Year Incidence of Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma in a Chinese Population

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Hua; Tao, Yijin; Yuan, Yuansheng; Pan, Chen-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We aim to assess the longitudinal association between baseline estimated cerebrospinal fluid pressure (CSFP) and 5-year incident primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) in a population-based sample of Bai Chinese living in rural China. Methods Among the 2133 Bai Chinese aged 50 years or older who had participated in the baseline examination of the Yunnan Minority Eye Study, 1520 (71.3%) attended the follow-up examination after five years and 1485 were at risk of developing POAG. Participants underwent comprehensive ophthalmic examinations at both baseline and follow-up surveys. CSFP in mmHg was estimated as 0.55 × body mass index (kg/m2) + 0.16 × diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)-0.18 × age (years)-1.91. Glaucoma was defined using the International Society of Geographical and Epidemiological Ophthalmology Classification criteria. Multivariate logistic regression models were established to determine the association between baseline CSFP and incident POAG. Results After a mean follow-up time of 5 years, 19 new cases of POAG were detected, with an incidence rate of 1.3% (95% confidence interval, 0.7–1.9%). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, after adjusting for age, gender, education, intraocular pressure, central corneal thickness, hypertension and diabetes, no significant associations, nor any trends, were evident between baseline estimated CSFP and incident POAG. The association between estimated CSFP per mmHg increase in baseline and 5-year incidence of POAG was also non-significant, with adjusted relative risk of 0.96 (P = 0.11) in multivariate analysis. Conclusions This longitudinal cohort study does not support previously observed cross-sectional association between estimated CSFP and POAG in population-based studies. PMID:27611879

  19. Comparison of Pattern Electroretinography and Optical Coherence Tomography Parameters in Patients with Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma and Ocular Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Tiryaki Demir, Semra; Oba, Mehmet Ersin; Erdoğan, Ezgi Tuna; Odabaşı, Mahmut; Dirim, Ayşe Burcu; Demir, Mehmet; Can, Efe; Kara, Orhan; Yekta Şendül, Selam

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the correlation of visual field (VF), pattern electroretinography (PERG) and Fourier domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT) results in patients with ocular hypertension (OHT) and early primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). Materials and Methods: The study included 72 eyes of 37 patients with early POAG, 76 eyes of 38 patients with OHT, and 60 eyes of 30 controls. All subjects underwent full ophthalmologic examination, VF assessment with 24-2 Humphrey standard automated perimetry (Swedish Interactive Thresholding Algorithm (SITA)-Standard), retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and ganglion cell complex (GCC) thickness measurement with FD-OCT, and PERG P50 and N95 wave latency and amplitude measurements with electroretinography (Nihon Kohden). Results: With the exception of the nasal quadrant, all GCC parameters and RNFL results were significantly lower in the POAG group compared to the OHT and control groups. There was no statistically significant difference between the OHT and control group. PERG amplitudes were lower in the POAG and OHT groups than in the control group. Reduction in N95 amplitude was greater than that of P50 amplitude. No difference was detected in PERG latencies among groups. GCC was significantly correlated with VF and RNFL in the POAG group. Conclusion: Significant thinning of the GCC and RNFL occurs in addition to VF pathologies in patients with early POAG, and these examinations should be concomitantly evaluated. During diagnostic assessment of patients with early POAG, GCC and RNFL analysis by FD-OCT are highly effective. GCC is as reliable as RNLF in the early diagnosis of glaucoma and there is a highly significant correlation between them. Dysfunction of ganglion cells in patients with OHT may be detected earlier using PERG amplitude analysis. PMID:27800239

  20. Early Postoperative Effects of Cataract Surgery on Anterior Segment Parameters in Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma and Pseudoexfoliation Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Elgin, Ufuk; Şen, Emine; Şimşek, Tülay; Tekin, Kemal; Yılmazbaş, Pelin

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To compare the effect of cataract surgery on anterior segment parameters measured by optical biometry in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and pseudoexfoliation glaucoma (PXG). Materials and Methods: Twenty-five eyes of 25 patients with POAG and 29 eyes of 29 patients with PXG who had uncomplicated phacoemulsification and posterior chamber intraocular lens implantation surgery were included to our prospective study. Central corneal thickness (CCT), anterior chamber depth (ACD) and axial length (AL) were measured with an optical biometer preoperatively and at 1 month postoperatively. The pre- and postoperative values of intraocular pressure (IOP) and the anterior segment parameters and the differences between POAG and PXG were compared statistically by paired t, independent t and chi-square tests. Results: The mean values of preoperative CCT (p=0.042) and ACD (p=0.012) were significantly lower in the PXG than in the POAG group. In the PXG group, IOP decreased (p=0.001) but CCT (p=0.03) and ACD (p=0.001) increased significantly postoperatively; AL did not change significantly. In the POAG group, IOP decreased (p=0.01) and ACD (p=0.004) increased significantly postoperatively, while AL and CCT did not change significantly. There were no significant differences in the pre- to postoperative changes in IOP (p=0.76), AL (p=0.44) and CCT (p=0.52) values between the two groups. However, the postoperative increase in ACD was larger in the PXG group (p=0.03). Conclusion: Cataract surgery may cause some changes in IOP and anterior segment parameters like ACD and CCT postoperatively in eyes with POAG and PXG, and these changes may differ between eyes with PXG and POAG. PMID:27800269

  1. Brinzolamide ophthalmic suspension: a review of its pharmacology and use in the treatment of open angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension.

    PubMed

    Iester, Michele

    2008-09-01

    Brinzolamide is a white powder commercially formulated as a 1% ophthalmic suspension to reduce intraocular pressure (IOP). Pharmacologically, brinzolamide is a highly specific, non-competitive, reversible, and effective inhibitor of carbonic anhydrase II (CA-II), able to suppress formation of aqueous humor in the eye and thus to decrease IOP. Several clinical trials have evaluated its safety and the most commonly ocular adverse events are blurred vision (3%-8%), ocular discomfort (1.8%-5.9%), and eye pain (0.7%-4.0%). Brinzolamide has been introduced to treat ocular hypertension and primary open-angle glaucoma. In some clinical studies it has been estimated that brinzolamide reduced IOP by was about 18%. Brinzolamide can be added to beta-blockers and prostaglandins. In the latter combination, because prostaglandin derivatives improve the uveoscleral outflow but also increase the activity of CA in ciliary epithelium with a secondary increase in aqueous humor secretion, and slightly reduce the efficacy of prostaglandin analogues, theoretically topical CA inhibitors (CAI) decrease IOP by inhibiting CA-II, thus improving prostaglandin efficacy as well as lowering IOP. Brinzolamide could have a secondary possible effect on ocular flow too. Some clinical studies showed a mild improvement of ocular blood flow. Theoretically, CAI could give rise to metabolic acidosis, with secondary vasodilatation and improvement of blood flow. Systemic acidosis can occur in the setting of oral CAI therapy, and local acidosis within ocular tissues is theoretically possible with topical CAI therapy, with the potential for a local increase in ocular blood flow. In conclusion, topical CAI treatment has efficacy in IOP-lowering ranging from 15% to 20%. From published data, brinzolamide can be used as first-line medication, even if other medications have a higher efficacy, with few side effects and it is a good adjunctive treatment. In some type of glaucoma patients with a vascular

  2. Optic disc topography in Malay patients with normal-tension glaucoma and primary open-angle glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Adlina, Abdul Rahim; Alisa-Victoria, Koh; Shatriah, Ismail; Liza-Sharmini, Ahmad Tajudin; Ahmad, Mt Saad

    2014-01-01

    There are limited data concerning the optic disc topography in normal-tension glaucoma (NTG) and primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) patients living in Southeast Asian countries. This study aims to compare optic disc parameters in patients with NTG and POAG in Malaysia and to discuss the results in comparison with studies of NTG and POAG in other Asian countries. This prospective cross-sectional study was performed in two hospitals with glaucoma service in Malaysia from 2010 to 2012. Seventy-seven patients of Malay ethnicity were enrolled in this study, including 32 NTG patients and 45 POAG patients. Using the Heidelberg Retinal Tomograph III, we measured optic disc area, cup area, rim area, cup volume, rim volume, cup-to-disc area ratio, mean cup depth, maximum cup depth, cup shape measure, height variation contour, mean retinal nerve fiber layer thickness, and retinal nerve fiber layer cross-sectional area. The eyes for NTG patients had significantly larger optic disc areas (2.65 [standard deviation, 0.41] vs 2.40 [standard deviation, 0.36] mm(2), respectively; P=0.006) and cup areas (1.54 [standard deviation, 0.43] vs 1.32 [standard deviation, 0.40] mm(2), respectively; P=0.027) compared with the eyes of POAG patients. Comparison of the other parameters between the two groups revealed no significant difference (P>0.050). The moderate and severe NTG patients showed significantly deeper cups and larger disc and cup areas when compared with the moderate and severe POAG patients (P<0.050). The NTG patients in this study have notably larger optic disc and cup areas than the POAG patients. Our observations are consistent with those reported in studies of NTG and POAG patients in Korea. The deeper cups and larger disc and cup areas may serve as indicators of severity when comparing NTG with POAG. However, these findings require verification with IOP and visual field results.

  3. Enhanced depth imaging detects lamina cribrosa thickness differences in normal tension glaucoma and primary open-angle glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Park, Hae-Young Lopilly; Jeon, So Hee; Park, Chan Kee

    2012-01-01

    To confirm the advantages of the enhanced depth imaging (EDI) mode over the standard mode of the Heidelberg Spectralis spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) for imaging of the lamina cribrosa, and to compare laminar thicknesses of various glaucoma types with or without disc hemorrhage in a similar state of visual field loss. Cross-sectional, case-control design. We included 137 glaucoma patients and 49 healthy controls. Optic nerve head B-scans were obtained by both the standard and EDI modes of the Spectralis OCT. Laminar thickness was measured at the center of mid-superior, central, and mid-inferior horizontal B-scans. Laminar thickness in patients with normal tension glaucoma (NTG) was compared with that in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). To verify the reproducibility of EDI imaging, intraclass correlation coefficients and test-retest variability were calculated from selected B-scans. Laminar thickness and mean deviation values on standard automatic perimetry. The EDI OCT imaging showed significantly better intraobserver, interobserver, intravisit, and intervisit reproducibility than those by standard imaging. Laminar thickness in mid-superior, central, and mid-inferior regions was thinner in the POAG and NTG groups than in the normal control group (P<0.001). The mid-superior, central, and mid-inferior regions of the lamina were also significantly thinner in patients with NTG and disc hemorrhage than in those with NTG but no disc hemorrhage. The EDI mode of the Heidelberg Spectralis SD-OCT detected differences in the lamina cribrosa by glaucoma type. The lamina cribrosa was thinner in NTG eyes and in NTG eyes with disc hemorrhage. The authors have no proprietary or commercial interest in any of the materials discussed in this article. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Conjunctival inflammatory cells and their predictive role for deep sclerectomy in primary open-angle glaucoma and exfoliation glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Helin, Minna; Rönkkö, Seppo; Puustjärvi, Tuomo; Teräsvirta, Markku; Ollikainen, Minna; Uusitalo, Hannu

    2011-03-01

    To investigate the conjunctival inflammatory alterations of patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and exfoliation glaucoma (ExG) and correlate the findings with the success of deep sclerectomy (DS) surgery and with the patients' medical history. Altogether 25 POAG and ExG patients of the prospective DS study were divided, based on the diagnosis and success of the operation, into 4 groups, POAG S (success), POAG F (failure), ExG S, and ExG F. Controls were obtained from other ophthalmologic surgery patients who did not have glaucoma, and their conjunctiva was examined to be normal. Inflammatory cell subtypes in the conjunctiva were identified and quantified by using immunohistochemistry and monoclonal antibodies: CD3 (T-lymphocyte marker), CD4 (T-helper lymphocyte marker), CD8 (T-cytotoxic lymphocyte marker), CD20 (pan-B cell marker), CD38 (plasma cell marker), CD45RA (naïve T-cell marker), and CD68 (macrophage marker). Higher numbers of inflammatory cells were found in the conjunctiva of the glaucoma patients on medical treatment compared with the normal conjunctiva of the controls. Moreover, T-lymphocytes, T-helper lymphocytes, T-cytotoxic lymphocytes, B cells, plasma cells, and macrophages were found in significantly higher numbers in patients in whom DS failed during the follow-up period of 2.5 years than those with surgical success. High numbers of cytotoxic and helper T-lymphocytes, plasma cells, and macrophages indicate a chronic inflammatory reaction in the conjunctiva of glaucoma patients. The chronic inflammation is most probably owing to the chronic topical treatment of the patients and seems to be a significant risk factor for DS surgery failure.

  5. Genetic correlations between intraocular pressure, blood pressure and primary open-angle glaucoma: a multi-cohort analysis.

    PubMed

    Aschard, Hugues; Kang, Jae H; Iglesias, Adriana I; Hysi, Pirro; Cooke Bailey, Jessica N; Khawaja, Anthony P; Allingham, R Rand; Ashley-Koch, Allison; Lee, Richard K; Moroi, Sayoko E; Brilliant, Murray H; Wollstein, Gadi; Schuman, Joel S; Fingert, John H; Budenz, Donald L; Realini, Tony; Gaasterland, Terry; Scott, William K; Singh, Kuldev; Sit, Arthur J; Igo, Robert P; Song, Yeunjoo E; Hark, Lisa; Ritch, Robert; Rhee, Douglas J; Gulati, Vikas; Haven, Shane; Vollrath, Douglas; Zack, Donald J; Medeiros, Felipe; Weinreb, Robert N; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Chasman, Daniel I; Christen, William G; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A; Liu, Yutao; Kraft, Peter; Richards, Julia E; Rosner, Bernard A; Hauser, Michael A; Klaver, Caroline C W; vanDuijn, Cornelia M; Haines, Jonathan; Wiggs, Janey L; Pasquale, Louis R

    2017-08-30

    Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) is the most common chronic optic neuropathy worldwide. Epidemiological studies show a robust positive relation between intraocular pressure (IOP) and POAG and modest positive association between IOP and blood pressure (BP), while the relation between BP and POAG is controversial. The International Glaucoma Genetics Consortium (n=27 558), the International Consortium on Blood Pressure (n=69 395), and the National Eye Institute Glaucoma Human Genetics Collaboration Heritable Overall Operational Database (n=37 333), represent genome-wide data sets for IOP, BP traits and POAG, respectively. We formed genome-wide significant variant panels for IOP and diastolic BP and found a strong relation with POAG (odds ratio and 95% confidence interval: 1.18 (1.14-1.21), P=1.8 × 10(-27)) for the former trait but no association for the latter (P=0.93). Next, we used linkage disequilibrium (LD) score regression, to provide genome-wide estimates of correlation between traits without the need for additional phenotyping. We also compared our genome-wide estimate of heritability between IOP and BP to an estimate based solely on direct measures of these traits in the Erasmus Rucphen Family (ERF; n=2519) study using Sequential Oligogenic Linkage Analysis Routines (SOLAR). LD score regression revealed high genetic correlation between IOP and POAG (48.5%, P=2.1 × 10(-5)); however, genetic correlation between IOP and diastolic BP (P=0.86) and between diastolic BP and POAG (P=0.42) were negligible. Using SOLAR in the ERF study, we confirmed the minimal heritability between IOP and diastolic BP (P=0.63). Overall, IOP shares genetic basis with POAG, whereas BP has limited shared genetic correlation with IOP or POAG.European Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 30 August 2017; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2017.136.

  6. Clinical evaluation of a trabecular microbypass stent with phacoemulsification in patients with open-angle glaucoma and cataract

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Tanner J; Berdahl, John P; Schweitzer, Justin A; Sudhagoni, Ramu G

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the safety and efficacy of the iStent trabecular microbypass stent in combination with cataract surgery in patients with open-angle glaucoma (OAG). Methods Retrospective, consecutive case series from October 2012 to December 2015 with no exclusion criteria. The series comprised of 350 eyes with OAG and cataract. Data were collected both preoperatively and postoperatively at day 1 week 1, months 1, 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24. Data included intraocular pressure (IOP), number of glaucoma medications, visual acuity, the incidence of postoperative IOP pressure spikes of greater than ≥15 mmHg at any time point, and need for additional surgery. Results The mean preoperative IOP was 19.13±6.34 mmHg. At 2 years postoperation, mean IOP was 15.17±3.53 mmHg (P<0.0001). The mean number of glaucoma medications was 1.19±1.00 preoperatively and 0.61±0.96 (P<0.0001) at 2 years postoperation. At 1 day postoperatively, 31 eyes (12.4%) experienced an IOP increase of 15 mmHg above their baseline IOP that responded to topical therapy. Two patients required additional tube shunt surgery. Conclusion The insertion of the iStent trabecular microbypass stent in combination with cataract surgery effectively lowers IOP in OAG patients. The magnitude of IOP reduction was more significant in patients with higher preoperative pressure. Medication use was also significantly reduced postoperatively. The safety profile appears favorable with a low rate of IOP spikes and only two eyes (<1%) requiring additional surgery. PMID:27695280

  7. Steroid-induced glaucoma treated with trabecular ablation in a matched comparison with primary open-angle glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Dang, Yalong; Kaplowitz, Kevin; Parikh, Hardik A; Roy, Pritha; Loewen, Ralitsa T; Francis, Brian A; Loewen, Nils A

    2016-12-01

    To evaluate the outcomes of trabectome-mediated ab interno trabeculectomy in patients with steroid-induced glaucoma (SIG). A retrospective, observational cohort study performed in the Department of Ophthalmology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center. The data of 60 patients with SIG and 484 controls with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) matched by age, gender and glaucoma index were collected from the Trabectome Study Group database. Reduction of intraocular pressure (IOP) and medications were compared between POAG and SIG by multivariate regression. Kaplan-Meier was used for survival analysis. Success was defined as IOP ≤21 mmHg and at least 20% IOP reduction from baseline for any two consecutive visits after 3 months without secondary glaucoma surgery. Postoperative IOP and number of medications were compared with baseline in the SIG subgroups by the Wilcoxon test. Intraocular pressure reduction and 1-year success rate. Patients with SIG had a higher baseline IOP (31.4 ± 10.4 vs. 24.1 ± 7.6 mmHg, P < 0.01) and obtained a greater IOP reduction than controls with POAG (48.4% vs. 31.5%, P < 0.01). Multivariate regression showed that patients with SIG had an IOP reduction of 6.7 ± 1.1 mmHg more than those with POAG. Survival rates at 12 months were comparable at 86% in the SIG group and 85% in the POAG group (P = 0.47). Patients with SIG with a high baseline IOP, younger age and advanced glaucoma experienced a larger IOP drop. Trabectome appears to be an effective surgical treatment in reducing IOP for patients with SIG. © 2016 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  8. Optic Disc Perfusion in Primary Open Angle and Normal Tension Glaucoma Eyes Using Optical Coherence Tomography-Based Microangiography

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Joanne C.; Zhang, Qinqin; Xin, Chen; Gupta, Divakar; Mudumbai, Raghu C.; Johnstone, Murray A.; Wang, Ruikang K.; Chen, Philip P.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate optic disc perfusion differences in normal, primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), and normal tension glaucoma (NTG) eyes using optical microangiography (OMAG) based optical coherence tomography (OCT) angiography technique. Design Cross-sectional, observational study. Subjects Twenty-eight normal, 30 POAG, and 31 NTG subjects. Methods One eye from each subject was scanned with a 68 kHz Cirrus HD-OCT 5,000-based OMAG prototype system centered at the optic nerve head (ONH) (Carl Zeiss Meditec Inc, Dublin, CA). Microvascular images were generated from the OMAG dataset by detecting the differences in OCT signal between consecutive B-scans. The pre-laminar layer (preLC) was isolated by a semi-automatic segmentation program. Main Outcome Measures Optic disc perfusion, quantified as flux, vessel area density, and normalized flux (flux normalized by the vessel area) within the ONH. Results Glaucomatous eyes had significantly lower optic disc perfusion in preLC in all three perfusion metrics (p<0.0001) compared to normal eyes. The visual field (VF) mean deviation (MD) and pattern standard deviation (PSD) were similar between the POAG and NTG groups, and no differences in optic disc perfusion were observed between POAG and NTG. Univariate analysis revealed significant correlation between optic disc perfusion and VF MD, VF PSD, and rim area in both POAG and NTG groups (p≤0.0288). However, normalized optic disc perfusion was correlated with some structural measures (retinal nerve fiber layer thickness and ONH cup/disc ratio) only in POAG eyes. Conclusions Optic disc perfusion detected with OMAG was significantly reduced in POAG and NTG groups compared to normal controls, but no difference was seen between POAG and NTG groups with similar levels of VF damage. Disc perfusion was significantly correlated with VF MD, VF PSD, and rim area in glaucomatous eyes. Vascular changes at the optic disc as measured using OMAG may provide useful information for

  9. A novel MYOC heterozygous mutation identified in a Chinese Uygur pedigree with primary open-angle glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Cai, Su-ping; Muhemaiti, Paerheti; Yin, Yan; Cheng, Hongbo; Di Ya, A; Keyimu, Maliyamu; Cao, Xu; Fan, Ning; Jiang, Liqiong; Yan, Naihong; Zhou, Xiaomin; Wang, Yun; Liu, Xuyang

    2012-01-01

    To characterize the clinical features of a Chinese Uygur pedigree with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and to identify mutations in two candidate genes, trabecular meshwork inducible glucocorticoid response (MYOC/TIGR) and human dioxin-inducible cytochrome P450 (CYP1B1). Twenty one members from a Chinese Uygur family of four generations were included in the study. All participants underwent complete ophthalmologic examinations. Five were diagnosed as POAG, four as glaucoma suspects, and the rest were asymptomatic. Molecular genetic analysis was performed on all subjects included in the study. All exons of CYP1B1 and MYOC were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), sequenced and compared with a reference database. The variations detected were evaluated in available family members as well as 102 normal controls. Possible changes in structure and function of the protein induced by amino acid variance were predicted by bioinformatics analysis. Elevated intraocular pressure and late-stage glaucomatous cupping of the optic disc were found in five patients of this family. A novel heterozygous missense mutation c.1151 A>G in exon 3 of MYOC was found in all five patients diagnosed as POAG and four glaucoma suspects, but not in the rest of the family members and 102 normal controls. This mutation caused an amino acid substitution of aspartic acid to glycine at position 384 (p. D384G) of the MYOC protein. This substitution may cause structural and functional changes of the protein based on bioinformatics analysis. No mutations were found in CYP1B1. Our study suggests that the novel mutation D384G of MYOC is likely responsible for the pathogenesis of POAG in this pedigree.

  10. Measurement of Systemic Mitochondrial Function in Advanced Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma and Leber Hereditary Optic Neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Van Bergen, Nicole J; Crowston, Jonathan G; Craig, Jamie E; Burdon, Kathryn P; Kearns, Lisa S; Sharma, Shiwani; Hewitt, Alex W; Mackey, David A; Trounce, Ian A

    2015-01-01

    Primary Open Angle Glaucoma (POAG) is a common neurodegenerative disease characterized by the selective and gradual loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Aging and increased intraocular pressure (IOP) are glaucoma risk factors; nevertheless patients deteriorate at all levels of IOP, implying other causative factors. Recent evidence presents mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) complex-I impairments in POAG. Leber Hereditary Optic Neuropathy (LHON) patients suffer specific and rapid loss of RGCs, predominantly in young adult males, due to complex-I mutations in the mitochondrial genome. This study directly compares the degree of OXPHOS impairment in POAG and LHON patients, testing the hypothesis that the milder clinical disease in POAG is due to a milder complex-I impairment. To assess overall mitochondrial capacity, cells can be forced to produce ATP primarily from mitochondrial OXPHOS by switching the media carbon source to galactose. Under these conditions POAG lymphoblasts grew 1.47 times slower than controls, whilst LHON lymphoblasts demonstrated a greater degree of growth impairment (2.35 times slower). Complex-I enzyme specific activity was reduced by 18% in POAG lymphoblasts and by 29% in LHON lymphoblasts. We also assessed complex-I ATP synthesis, which was 19% decreased in POAG patients and 17% decreased in LHON patients. This study demonstrates both POAG and LHON lymphoblasts have impaired complex-I, and in the majority of aspects the functional defects in POAG were milder than LHON, which could reflect the milder disease development of POAG. This new evidence places POAG in the spectrum of mitochondrial optic neuropathies and raises the possibility for new therapeutic targets aimed at improving mitochondrial function.

  11. Correlations between corneal and optic nerve head variables in healthy subjects and patients with primary open angle glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Saenz-Frances, Federico; Jañez, Luis; Borrego-Sanz, Lara; Berrozpe-Villabona, Clara; Martinez-de-la-Casa, Jose Maria; Morales-Fernandez, Laura; Garcia-Sanchez, Julian; Santos-Bueso, Enrique; Garcia-Feijoo, Julian

    2015-01-01

    AIM To correlate corneal variables (determined using the Pentacam) with optic nerve head (ONH) variables determined using the Heidelberg retina tomograph (HRT) in healthy subjects and patients diagnosed with primary open angle glaucoma (POAG). METHODS Measurements were made in 75 healthy eyes and 73 eyes with POAG and correlations examined through Pearson correlation coefficients between the two sets of variables in the two subject groups. The corneal variables determined were corneal volume (CVol), central corneal thickness (CCT), overall corneal thickness (OvCT), the mean thickness of a circular zone centered at the corneal apex of 1 mm radius (zone I) and the mean thickness of several concentric rings, also centered at the apex until the limbus, each of 1 mm width (zones II to VI respectively). The ONH variables were determined using the HRT. RESULTS The following pairs of variables were correlated in the control group: CCT-disc area (DAr) (-0.48; P<0.0001), Zone I-DAr (-0.503; P<0.0001) and Zone II-DAr (-0.443; P<0.0001); and in the POAG group: CCT-cup-to-disc area ratio (CDRa) (-0.402; P<0.0001), Zone I-CDRa (-0.418; P<0.0001), Zone II-CDRa (-0.405; P=0.006), Zone I-cup shape measure (CSM) (-0.415; P=0.002), Zone II-CSM (-0.405; P=0.001), Zone IV-height variation contour (HVC) (0.378; P=0.002); Zone V-HVC (0.388, P<0.0001). CONCLUSIONS In the healthy subjects, significant negative correlation was detected between central and paracentral corneal thickness and optic disc area. In contrast, the POAG patients showed significant negative correlation between central and paracentral corneal thickness and the cup-disc ratio and CSM, and positive correlation between peripheral corneal thickness and HVC. PMID:26682165

  12. Crack-tip-opening angle measurements and crack tunneling under stable tearing in thin sheet 2024-T3 aluminum alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawicke, D. S.; Sutton, M. A.

    1993-01-01

    The stable tearing behavior of thin sheets 2024-T3 aluminum alloy was studied for middle crack tension specimens having initial cracks that were: flat cracks (low fatigue stress) and 45 degrees through-thickness slant cracks (high fatigue stress). The critical crack-tip-opening angle (CTOA) values during stable tearing were measured by two independent methods, optical microscopy and digital image correlation. Results from the two methods agreed well. The CTOA measurements and observations of the fracture surfaces showed that the initial stable tearing behavior of low and high fatigue stress tests is significantly different. The cracks in the low fatigue stress tests underwent a transition from flat-to-slant crack growth, during which the CTOA values were high and significant crack tunneling occurred. After crack growth equal to about the thickness, CTOA reached a constant value of 6 deg and after crack growth equal to about twice the thickness, crack tunneling stabilized. The initial high CTOA values, in the low fatigue crack tests, coincided with large three-dimensional crack front shape changes due to a variation in the through-thickness crack tip constraint. The cracks in the high fatigue stress tests reach the same constant CTOA value after crack growth equal to about the thickness, but produced only a slightly higher CTOA value during initial crack growth. For crack growth on the 45 degree slant, the crack front and local field variables are still highly three-dimensional. However, the constant CTOA values and stable crack front shape may allow the process to be approximated with two-dimensional models.

  13. Albuminuria Is Associated with Open-Angle Glaucoma in Nondiabetic Korean Subjects: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Gyu Ah; Park, Se Hee; Ko, Jaesang; Lee, Si Hyung; Bae, Hyoung Won; Seong, Gong Je; Kim, Chan Yun

    2016-01-01

    Objective Systemic vascular dysfunction has been suggested to contribute to glaucomatous damage. Albuminuria is a surrogate marker of endothelial injury, including vessels. However, their relationship is not well understood. This study aimed to investigate the association between albuminuria and the prevalence of open-angle glaucoma (OAG) in nondiabetic subjects. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study of 4186 nondiabetic participants aged 19 years or older from the 2011–2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. OAG was defined based on the criteria of the International Society for Geographic and Epidemiologic Ophthalmology. Urinary albumin excretion was assessed by the urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR). A multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate the relationship between albuminuria and OAG. Results Among the subjects, 124 had OAG. The weighted prevalences of microalbuminuria (UACR of 30–299 mg/g creatinine [Cr]) and macroalbuminuria (UACR ≥ 300 mg/g Cr) were 3.2 ± 0.3% and 0.4 ± 0.1%, respectively. The percentages of OAG increased in accordance with increasing UACR tertiles. Compared with subjects in the lower UACR tertile, those in the upper tertile showed an increased prevalence of OAG (odds ratio, 1.963; 95% confidence interval 1.072–3.595, P = 0.029) after adjusting for demographic factors, laboratory parameters, kidney function, and intraocular pressure. Furthermore, even after excluding 155 subjects with microalbuminuria and 19 subjects with macroalbuminuria, a positive association persisted between the upper UACR tertile (low-grade albuminuria) and an increased prevalence of OAG (odds ratio, 2.170; 95% confidence interval, 1.174–4.010, P = 0.014). Conclusion Albuminuria, even low-grade, was significantly associated with OAG in nondiabetic subjects. This result implies the role of vascular endothelial dysfunction in the pathogenic mechanism of OAG and suggests that careful monitoring of

  14. Expression profile of the matricellular protein osteopontin in primary open-angle glaucoma and the normal human eye.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Uttio Roy; Jea, Seung-Youn; Oh, Dong-Jin; Rhee, Douglas J; Fautsch, Michael P

    2011-08-16

    PURPOSE. To characterize the role of osteopontin (OPN) in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and normal eyes. METHODS. OPN quantification was performed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in aqueous humor (AH) obtained from human donor eyes (POAG and normal) and surgical samples (POAG and elective cataract removal). OPN expression and localization in whole eye tissue sections and primary normal human trabecular meshwork (NTM) cells were studied by Western blot and immunohistochemistry. Latanoprost-free acid (LFA)-treated NTM cells were analyzed for OPN gene and protein expression. Intraocular pressure was measured by tonometry, and central corneal thickness was measured by optical coherence tomography in young OPN(-/-) and wild-type mice. RESULTS. OPN levels were significantly reduced in donor POAG AH compared with normal AH (0.54 ± 0.18 ng/μg [n = 8] vs. 0.77 ± 0.23 ng/μg [n = 9]; P = 0.039). A similar trend was observed in surgical AH (1.05 ± 0.31 ng/μg [n = 20] vs. 1.43 ± 0.88 ng/μg [n = 20]; P = 0.083). OPN was present in the trabecular meshwork, corneal epithelium and endothelium, iris, ciliary body, retina, vitreous humor, and optic nerve. LFA increased OPN gene expression, but minimal change in OPN protein expression was observed. No difference in intraocular pressure (17.5 ± 2.0 mm Hg [n = 56] vs. 17.3 ± 1.9 mm Hg [n = 68]) but thinner central corneal thickness (91.7 ± 3.6 μm [n = 50] vs. 99.2 ± 5.5 μm [n = 70]) was noted between OPN(-/-) and wild-type mice. CONCLUSIONS. OPN is widely distributed in the human eye and was found in lower concentrations in POAG AH. Reduction of OPN in young mice does not affect IOP.

  15. Modeling a decrease in hydraulic losses during turbulent flow in a U-bend channel with a circular cavern with a large opening angle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isaev, S. A.; Kalinin, E. I.; Tereshkin, A. A.; Usachov, A. E.

    2015-03-01

    The Reynolds equations for incompressible viscous fluid, closed using the Menter shear-stress-transfer model modified with allowance for the curvature of flow lines, have been numerically solved using multiblock computational technologies. The obtained solution has been used to calculate the turbulent flow in a U-bend channel containing a circular cavern with a variable opening angle. Predictions based on the results of numerical simulations agree well with the experimental data of Savelsberg and Castro at moderate cavern opening angles. It is established that hydraulic losses in a U-bend channel with completely open cavern are significantly (by ˜25%) decreased as compared to those in a smooth channel at Re = 105.

  16. Jet outflow and open field line measurements on the C-2U advanced beam-driven field-reversed configuration plasma experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Sheftman, D. Gupta, D.; Roche, T.; Thompson, M. C.; Giammanco, F.; Conti, F.; Marsili, P.; Moreno, C. D.

    2016-11-15

    Knowledge and control of the axial outflow of plasma particles and energy along open-magnetic-field lines are of crucial importance to the stability and longevity of the advanced beam-driven field-reversed configuration plasma. An overview of the diagnostic methods used to perform measurements on the open field line plasma on C-2U is presented, including passive Doppler impurity spectroscopy, microwave interferometry, and triple Langmuir probe measurements. Results of these measurements provide the jet ion temperature and axial velocity, electron density, and high frequency density fluctuations.

  17. Jet outflow and open field line measurements on the C-2U advanced beam-driven field-reversed configuration plasma experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheftman, D.; Gupta, D.; Roche, T.; Thompson, M. C.; Giammanco, F.; Conti, F.; Marsili, P.; Moreno, C. D.

    2016-11-01

    Knowledge and control of the axial outflow of plasma particles and energy along open-magnetic-field lines are of crucial importance to the stability and longevity of the advanced beam-driven field-reversed configuration plasma. An overview of the diagnostic methods used to perform measurements on the open field line plasma on C-2U is presented, including passive Doppler impurity spectroscopy, microwave interferometry, and triple Langmuir probe measurements. Results of these measurements provide the jet ion temperature and axial velocity, electron density, and high frequency density fluctuations.

  18. High frequency jet ventilation and intermittent positive pressure ventilation. Effect of cerebral blood flow in patients after open heart surgery

    SciTech Connect

    Pittet, J.F.; Forster, A.; Suter, P.M. )

    1990-02-01

    Attenuation of ventilator-synchronous pressure fluctuations of intracranial pressure has been demonstrated during high frequency ventilation in animal and human studies, but the consequences of this effect on cerebral blood flow have not been investigated in man. We compared the effects of high frequency jet ventilation and intermittent positive pressure ventilation on CBF in 24 patients investigated three hours after completion of open-heart surgery. The patients were investigated during three consecutive periods with standard sedation (morphine, pancuronium): a. IPPV; b. HFJV; c. IPPV. Partial pressure of arterial CO{sub 2} (PaCO{sub 2}: 4.5-5.5 kPa) and rectal temperature (35.5 to 37.5{degree}C) were maintained constant during the study. The CBF was measured by intravenous {sup 133}Xe washout technique. The following variables were derived from the cerebral clearance of {sup 133}Xe: the rapid compartment flow, the initial slope index, ie, a combination of the rapid and the slow compartment flows, and the ratio of fast compartment flow over total CBF (FF). Compared to IPPV, HFJV applied to result in the same mean airway pressure did not produce any change in pulmonary gas exchange, mean systemic arterial pressure, and cardiac index. Similarly, CBF was not significantly altered by HFJV. However, important variations of CBF values were observed in three patients, although the classic main determinants of CBF (PaCO{sub 2}, cerebral perfusion pressure, Paw, temperature) remained unchanged. Our results suggest that in patients with normal systemic hemodynamics, the effects of HFJV and IPPV on CBF are comparable at identical levels of mean airway pressure.

  19. Dichotomy of Solar Coronal Jets: Standard Jets and Blowout Jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Ronald L.; Cirtain, Jonathan W.; Sterling, Alphonse C.; Falconer, David A.

    2010-09-01

    By examining many X-ray jets in Hinode/X-Ray Telescope coronal X-ray movies of the polar coronal holes, we found that there is a dichotomy of polar X-ray jets. About two thirds fit the standard reconnection picture for coronal jets, and about one third are another type. We present observations indicating that the non-standard jets are counterparts of erupting-loop Hα macrospicules, jets in which the jet-base magnetic arch undergoes a miniature version of the blowout eruptions that produce major coronal mass ejections. From the coronal X-ray movies we present in detail two typical standard X-ray jets and two typical blowout X-ray jets that were also caught in He II 304 Å snapshots from STEREO/EUVI. The distinguishing features of blowout X-ray jets are (1) X-ray brightening inside the base arch in addition to the outside bright point that standard jets have, (2) blowout eruption of the base arch's core field, often carrying a filament of cool (T ~ 104 - 105 K) plasma, and (3) an extra jet-spire strand rooted close to the bright point. We present cartoons showing how reconnection during blowout eruption of the base arch could produce the observed features of blowout X-ray jets. We infer that (1) the standard-jet/blowout-jet dichotomy of coronal jets results from the dichotomy of base arches that do not have and base arches that do have enough shear and twist to erupt open, and (2) there is a large class of spicules that are standard jets and a comparably large class of spicules that are blowout jets.

  20. DICHOTOMY OF SOLAR CORONAL JETS: STANDARD JETS AND BLOWOUT JETS

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, Ronald L.; Cirtain, Jonathan W.; Sterling, Alphonse C.; Falconer, David A.

    2010-09-01

    By examining many X-ray jets in Hinode/X-Ray Telescope coronal X-ray movies of the polar coronal holes, we found that there is a dichotomy of polar X-ray jets. About two thirds fit the standard reconnection picture for coronal jets, and about one third are another type. We present observations indicating that the non-standard jets are counterparts of erupting-loop H{alpha} macrospicules, jets in which the jet-base magnetic arch undergoes a miniature version of the blowout eruptions that produce major coronal mass ejections. From the coronal X-ray movies we present in detail two typical standard X-ray jets and two typical blowout X-ray jets that were also caught in He II 304 A snapshots from STEREO/EUVI. The distinguishing features of blowout X-ray jets are (1) X-ray brightening inside the base arch in addition to the outside bright point that standard jets have, (2) blowout eruption of the base arch's core field, often carrying a filament of cool (T {approx} 10{sup 4} - 10{sup 5} K) plasma, and (3) an extra jet-spire strand rooted close to the bright point. We present cartoons showing how reconnection during blowout eruption of the base arch could produce the observed features of blowout X-ray jets. We infer that (1) the standard-jet/blowout-jet dichotomy of coronal jets results from the dichotomy of base arches that do not have and base arches that do have enough shear and twist to erupt open, and (2) there is a large class of spicules that are standard jets and a comparably large class of spicules that are blowout jets.

  1. Dichotomy of Solar Coronal Jets: Standard Jets and Blowout Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, R. L.; Cirtain, J. W.; Sterling, A. C.; Falconer, D. A.

    2010-01-01

    By examining many X-ray jets in Hinode/XRT coronal X-ray movies of the polar coronal holes, we found that there is a dichotomy of polar X-ray jets. About two thirds fit the standard reconnection picture for coronal jets, and about one third are another type. We present observations indicating that the non-standard jets are counterparts of erupting-loop H alpha macrospicules, jets in which the jet-base magnetic arch undergoes a miniature version of the blowout eruptions that produce major CMEs. From the coronal X-ray movies we present in detail two typical standard X-ray jets and two typical blowout X-ray jets that were also caught in He II 304 Angstrom snapshots from STEREO/EUVI. The distinguishing features of blowout X-ray jets are (1) X-ray brightening inside the base arch in addition to the outside bright point that standard jets have, (2) blowout eruption of the base arch's core field, often carrying a filament of cool (T 10(exp 4) - 10(exp 5) K) plasma, and (3) an extra jet-spire strand rooted close to the bright point. We present cartoons showing how reconnection during blowout eruption of the base arch could produce the observed features of blowout X-ray jets. We infer that (1) the standard-jet/blowout-jet dichotomy of coronal jets results from the dichotomy of base arches that do not have and base arches that do have enough shear and twist to erupt open, and (2) there is a large class of spicules that are standard jets and a comparably large class of spicules that are blowout jets.

  2. A Randomized Trial of a Schlemm's Canal Microstent with Phacoemulsification for Reducing Intraocular Pressure in Open-Angle Glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, Norbert; Garcia-Feijoo, Julian; Martinez-de-la-Casa, Jose M; Larrosa, Jose M; Fea, Antonio; Lemij, Hans; Gandolfi, Stefano; Schwenn, Oliver; Lorenz, Katrin; Samuelson, Thomas W

    2015-07-01

    To assess the safety and effectiveness of the Hydrus Microstent (Ivantis, Inc, Irvine, CA) with concurrent cataract surgery (CS) for reducing intraocular pressure (IOP) in open-angle glaucoma (OAG). Prospective, multicenter, randomized, single-masked, controlled clinical trial. One hundred eyes from 100 patients 21 to 80 years of age with OAG and cataract with IOP of 24 mmHg or less with 4 or fewer hypotensive medications and a washed-out diurnal IOP (DIOP) of 21 to 36 mmHg. On the day of surgery, patients were randomized 1:1 to undergo CS with the microstent or CS alone. Postoperative follow-up was at 1 day, 1 week, and 1, 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. Washout of hypotensive medications was repeated at 12 and 24 months. Response to treatment was defined as a 20% or more decrease in washed out DIOP at 12 and 24 months of follow-up compared with baseline. Mean DIOP at 12 and 24 months, the proportion of subjects requiring medications at follow-up, and the mean number of medications were analyzed. Safety measures included change in visual acuity, slit-lamp observations, and adverse events. The proportion of patients with a 20% reduction in washed out DIOP was significantly higher in the Hydrus plus CS group at 24 months compared with the CS group (80% vs. 46%; P = 0.0008). Washed out mean DIOP in the Hydrus plus CS group was significantly lower at 24 months compared with the CS group (16.9±3.3 mmHg vs. 19.2±4.7 mmHg; P = 0.0093), and the proportion of patients using no hypotensive medications was significantly higher at 24 months in the Hydrus plus CS group (73% vs. 38%; P = 0.0008). There were no differences in follow-up visual acuity between groups. The only notable device-related adverse event was focal peripheral anterior synechiae (1-2 mm in length). Otherwise, adverse event frequency was similar in the 2 groups. Intraocular pressure was clinically and statistically significantly lower at 2 years in the Hydrus plus CS group compared with the CS alone group

  3. Association of Geroprotective Effects of Metformin and Risk of Open-Angle Glaucoma in Persons With Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hsien-Chang; Stein, Joshua D; Nan, Bin; Childers, David; Newman-Casey, Paula Anne; Thompson, Debra A; Richards, Julia E

    2015-08-01

    Caloric restriction mimetic drugs have geroprotective effects that delay or reduce risks for a variety of age-associated systemic diseases, suggesting that such drugs might also have the potential to reduce risks of blinding ophthalmologic conditions for which age is a major risk factor. To determine whether the caloric restriction mimetic drug metformin hydrochloride is associated with reduced risk of open-angle glaucoma (OAG) in persons with diabetes mellitus. Retrospective cohort study of patients aged 40 years or older with diabetes mellitus and no preexisting record of OAG in a large US managed care network from January 1, 2001, through December 31, 2010. Quantity of metformin and other prescribed diabetes medications as captured from outpatient pharmacy records. Risk of developing OAG. Of 150 016 patients with diabetes mellitus, 5893 (3.9%) developed OAG. After adjusting for confounding factors, those prescribed the highest quartile of metformin hydrochloride (>1110 g in 2 years) had a 25% reduced OAG risk relative to those who took no metformin (hazard ratio = 0.75; 95% CI, 0.59-0.95; P = .02). Every 1-g increase in metformin hydrochloride use was associated with a 0.16% reduction in OAG risk (adjusted hazard ratio = 0.99984; 95% CI, 0.99969-0.99999; P = .04), which predicts that taking a standard dose of 2 g of metformin hydrochloride per day for 2 years would result in a 20.8% reduction in risk of OAG. After accounting for potential confounders, including metformin and diabetic medications, the risk of developing OAG was increased by 8% (hazard ratio = 1.08; 95% CI, 1.03-1.13; P = .003) for each unit of increase in glycated hemoglobin level. Metformin use is associated with reduction in risk of developing OAG, and risk is reduced even when accounting for glycemic control in the form of glycated hemoglobin level. Other diabetes medications did not confer a similar OAG risk reduction. This study suggests that metformin may be

  4. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Optic Nerve Traction During Adduction in Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma With Normal Intraocular Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Demer, Joseph L.; Clark, Robert A.; Suh, Soh Youn; Giaconi, JoAnn A.; Nouri-Mahdavi, Kouros; Law, Simon K.; Bonelli, Laura; Coleman, Anne L.; Caprioli, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    Purpose We used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to ascertain effects of optic nerve (ON) traction in adduction, a phenomenon proposed as neuropathic in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). Methods Seventeen patients with POAG and maximal IOP ≤ 20 mm Hg, and 31 controls underwent MRI in central gaze and 20° to 30° abduction and adduction. Optic nerve and sheath area centroids permitted computation of midorbital lengths versus minimum paths. Results Average mean deviation (±SEM) was −8.2 ± 1.2 dB in the 15 patients with POAG having interpretable perimetry. In central gaze, ON path length in POAG was significantly more redundant (104.5 ± 0.4% of geometric minimum) than in controls (102.9 ± 0.4%, P = 2.96 × 10−4). In both groups the ON became significantly straighter in adduction (28.6 ± 0.8° in POAG, 26.8 ± 1.1° in controls) than central gaze and abduction. In adduction, the ON in POAG straightened to 102.0% ± 0.2% of minimum path length versus 104.5% ± 0.4% in central gaze (P = 5.7 × 10−7), compared with controls who straightened to 101.6% ± 0.1% from 102.9% ± 0.3% in central gaze (P = 8.7 × 10−6); and globes retracted 0.73 ± 0.09 mm in POAG, but only 0.07 ± 0.08 mm in controls (P = 8.8 × 10−7). Both effects were confirmed in age-matched controls, and remained significant after correction for significant effects of age and axial globe length (P = 0.005). Conclusions Although tethering and elongation of ON and sheath are normal in adduction, adduction is associated with abnormally great globe retraction in POAG without elevated IOP. Traction in adduction may cause mechanical overloading of the ON head and peripapillary sclera, thus contributing to or resulting from the optic neuropathy of glaucoma independent of IOP. PMID:28829843

  5. The Accuracy and Clinical Application of Predictive Models for Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma in Ocular Hypertensive Individuals

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Objective This report compares the accuracy of three prediction models for the development of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). The models differ primarily in their handling of these eye-specific variables: intraocular pressure (IOP), central corneal thickness (CCT), vertical cup-to-disc ratio (VCD) and visual field pattern standard deviation (PSD). 1). The “means” model includes age and the means of right and left eyes, 2). The “means plus asymmetry” model includes age, the means of right and left eyes as well as the absolute difference between eyes for eye-specific variables, 3). The “worse” eye model includes age and values from the eye at higher risk for developing POAG. Design This report uses data from the observation group of the Ocular Hypertension Treatment Study (OHTS) and the placebo group of the European Glaucoma Prevention Study (EGPS) who have complete data on both eyes at baseline. Performance of the prediction models is assessed using the c-statistic, calibration chi-square and Pearson correlation coefficient. Participants The OHTS observation group (n=717, 6.7 years median follow-up) and the EGPS placebo group (n=324, 4.9 years median follow-up). Testing Baseline data included demographic characteristics, medical history, ocular examination, visual fields and optic disc photographs. Main Outcome Measures Development of reproducible visual field abnormality or optic disc deterioration as determined by masked readers and attributed to POAG by a masked endpoint committee. Results Baseline factors that were statistically significant in all predictive models were-age, IOP, CCT, VCD and PSD. Also, statistically significant were baseline asymmetry in IOP and asymmetry in VCD. The c-statistics for the “means” model, “means plus asymmetry” model and “worse” eye model were 0.74, 0.77 and 0.75 respectively. The calibration chi-squares were 7.32, 11.19 and 1.81 respectively. Correlation coefficients between risk estimates calculated

  6. A Validated Prediction Model for the Development of Primary Open Angle Glaucoma in Individuals with Ocular Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    Objective To test the validity and generalizability of the Ocular Hypertension Treatment Study (OHTS) prediction model for the development of primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) in a large independent sample of untreated ocular hypertensive individuals. To develop a quantitative calculator to estimate the 5-year risk that an individual with ocular hypertension will develop POAG. Design A prediction model was developed from the observation group of the OHTS and then tested on the placebo group of the European Glaucoma Prevention Study (EGPS) using a z-statistic to compare hazard ratios, a c-statistic for discrimination and a calibration chi-square for systematic over/under estimation of predicted risk. The two study samples were pooled to increase precision and generalizability of a 5-year predictive model for developing POAG. Participants The OHTS observation group (n=819, 6.6 years median follow-up) and the EGPS placebo group (n=500, 4.8 years median follow-up). Testing Data were collected on demographic characteristics, medical history, ocular examination visual fields and optic disc photographs. Main Outcome Measures Development of reproducible visual field abnormality or optic disc progression as determined by masked readers and attributed to POAG by a masked endpoint committee. Results The same predictors for the development of POAG were independently identified in both the OHTS observation group and the EGPS placebo group - baseline age, intraocular pressure (IOP), central corneal thickness, vertical cup/disc ratio, and Humphrey visual field pattern standard deviation. The pooled multivariate model for the development of POAG had good discrimination (c-statistic 0.74) and accurate estimation of POAG risk (calibration chi-square 7.05). Conclusions The OHTS prediction model was validated in the EGPS placebo group. A calculator to estimate the 5-year risk of developing POAG, based on the pooled OHTS-EGPS predictive model, has high precision and will be useful to

  7. Minimally-invasive glaucoma surgeries (MIGS) for open angle glaucoma: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Maule, Milena; Ceccarelli, Manuela; Fea, Antonio Maria

    2017-01-01

    Background MIGS have been developed as a surgical alternative for glaucomatous patients. Purpose To analyze the change in intraocular pressure (IOP) and glaucoma medications using different MIGS devices (Trabectome, iStent, Excimer Laser Trabeculotomy (ELT), iStent Supra, CyPass, XEN, Hydrus, Fugo Blade, Ab interno canaloplasty, Goniscopy-assisted transluminal trabeculotomy) as a solo procedure or in association with phacoemulsification. Methods Randomized control trials (RCT) and non-RCT (non randomized comparative studies, NRS, and before-after studies) were included. Studies with at least one year of follow-up in patients affected by primary open angle glaucoma, pseudoexfoliative glaucoma or pigmentary glaucoma were considered. Risk of Bias assessment was performed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias and the ROBINS-I tools. The main outcome was the effect of MIGS devices compared to medical therapy, cataract surgery, other glaucoma surgeries and other MIGS on both IOP and use of glaucoma medications 12 months after surgery. Outcomes measures were the mean difference in the change of IOP and glaucoma medication compared to baseline at one and two years and all ocular adverse events. The current meta-analysis is registered on PROSPERO (reference n° CRD42016037280). Results Over a total of 3,069 studies, nine RCT and 21 case series with a total of 2.928 eyes were included. Main concerns about risk of bias in RCTs were lack of blinding, allocation concealment and attrition bias while in non-RCTs they were represented by patients’ selection, masking of participants and co-intervention management. Limited evidence was found based on both RCTs and non RCTs that compared MIGS surgery with medical therapy or other MIGS. In before-after series, MIGS surgery seemed effective in lowering both IOP and glaucoma drug use. MIGS showed a good safety profile: IOP spikes were the most frequent complications and no cases of infection or BCVA loss due to glaucoma were reported

  8. Prospective, unmasked evaluation of the iStent® inject system for open-angle glaucoma: synergy trial.

    PubMed

    Voskanyan, Lilit; García-Feijoó, Julián; Belda, Jose I; Fea, Antonio; Jünemann, Anselm; Baudouin, Christophe

    2014-02-01

    Micro-invasive glaucoma surgical implantation of trabecular micro-bypass stents, previously shown to be safe and effective for open-angle glaucoma (OAG) subjects during cataract surgery, was considered for evaluation as a sole procedure. The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and intraocular pressure (IOP)-lowering efficacy after ab interno implantation of two Glaukos Trabecular Micro-Bypass iStent inject second generation devices in subjects with OAG. This study was performed at sites in France, Germany, Italy, Republic of Armenia, and Spain. In this pan-European, multi-center prospective, post-market, unmasked study, 99 patients with OAG on at least two topical ocular hypotensive medications who required additional IOP lowering to control glaucoma disease underwent implantation of two GTS400 stents in a stand-alone procedure. Patients were qualified if they presented with preoperative mean IOP between 22 and 38 mmHg after medication washout. Postoperatively, subjects were assessed at Day 1, Months 1, 3, 6, 7, 9, and 12. IOP, medication use and safety were assessed at each visit. Sixty-six percent of subjects achieved IOP ≤18 mmHg at 12 months without medication, and 81% of subjects achieved Month 12 IOP ≤ 18 mmHg with either a single medication or no medication. Mean baseline washout IOP values decreased by 10.2 mmHg or 39.7% from 26.3 (SD 3.5) mmHg to 15.7 (SD 3.7) mmHg at Month 12. Mean IOP at 12 months was 14.7 (SD 3.1) mmHg in subjects not using ocular hypotensive medications. Reduction from preoperative medication burden was achieved in 86.9% of patients, including 15.2% with reduction of one medication and 71.7% with reduction of two or more medications. Postoperative complications occurred at a low rate and resolved without persistent effects. In this series, implantation of two trabecular micro-bypass second generation stents in subjects with OAG resulted in IOP and medication reduction and favorable safety outcomes.

  9. Minimally-invasive glaucoma surgeries (MIGS) for open angle glaucoma: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Lavia, Carlo; Dallorto, Laura; Maule, Milena; Ceccarelli, Manuela; Fea, Antonio Maria

    2017-01-01

    MIGS have been developed as a surgical alternative for glaucomatous patients. To analyze the change in intraocular pressure (IOP) and glaucoma medications using different MIGS devices (Trabectome, iStent, Excimer Laser Trabeculotomy (ELT), iStent Supra, CyPass, XEN, Hydrus, Fugo Blade, Ab interno canaloplasty, Goniscopy-assisted transluminal trabeculotomy) as a solo procedure or in association with phacoemulsification. Randomized control trials (RCT) and non-RCT (non randomized comparative studies, NRS, and before-after studies) were included. Studies with at least one year of follow-up in patients affected by primary open angle glaucoma, pseudoexfoliative glaucoma or pigmentary glaucoma were considered. Risk of Bias assessment was performed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias and the ROBINS-I tools. The main outcome was the effect of MIGS devices compared to medical therapy, cataract surgery, other glaucoma surgeries and other MIGS on both IOP and use of glaucoma medications 12 months after surgery. Outcomes measures were the mean difference in the change of IOP and glaucoma medication compared to baseline at one and two years and all ocular adverse events. The current meta-analysis is registered on PROSPERO (reference n° CRD42016037280). Over a total of 3,069 studies, nine RCT and 21 case series with a total of 2.928 eyes were included. Main concerns about risk of bias in RCTs were lack of blinding, allocation concealment and attrition bias while in non-RCTs they were represented by patients' selection, masking of participants and co-intervention management. Limited evidence was found based on both RCTs and non RCTs that compared MIGS surgery with medical therapy or other MIGS. In before-after series, MIGS surgery seemed effective in lowering both IOP and glaucoma drug use. MIGS showed a good safety profile: IOP spikes were the most frequent complications and no cases of infection or BCVA loss due to glaucoma were reported. Although MIGS seem efficient in the

  10. Bupropion Use and Risk of Open-Angle Glaucoma among Enrollees in a Large U.S. Managed Care Network

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Joshua D.; Talwar, Nidhi; Kang, Jae H.; Okereke, Olivia I.; Wiggs, Janey L.; Pasquale, Louis R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) mediates retinal ganglion cell death in glaucoma. Anti-TNF drugs are neuroprotective in an animal model of glaucoma. It is unclear whether medications with anti-TNF properties such as bupropion have an impact on the risk of developing open-angle glaucoma (OAG) in humans. The purpose of this study is to determine whether bupropion use alters the risk of developing OAG. Methods Claims data for beneficiaries age ≥35 years with no pre-existing OAG enrolled in a large nationwide U.S. managed care network continuously for ≥4 years between 2001-2011 was analyzed to identify patients who had been newly-diagnosed with OAG. The amount of bupropion use as captured from outpatient pharmacy claims over a four-year period was also quantified for each beneficiary. Multivariable Cox regression modeling assessed the impact of bupropion and other antidepressant medications on the risk of developing OAG with adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics of the enrollees along with medical and ocular comorbidities. Results Of 638,481 eligible enrollees, 15,292 (2.4%) developed OAG. After adjustment for confounding factors including use of other antidepressant medication classes, each additional month of bupropion use was associated with a 0.6% reduced risk of OAG (HR = 0.994, (95% CI: 0.989-0.998), p = 0.007). Compared to nonusers, those with 24-48 months of bupropion use had a 21% reduced hazard (HR=0.79, (CI: 0.65-0.94), p = 0.0099) of OAG. This association did not differ among persons taking bupropion for depression or for other reasons (p-interaction = 0.82). There was no significant association between use of tricyclic antidepressants (HR = 1.000, (CI: 0.997-1.004), p = 0.95) or selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (HR = 0.999, (CI: 0.997-1.001), p = 0.39) and development of OAG. Conclusion These findings suggest bupropion use may be beneficial in reducing the risk of OAG. If prospective studies confirm the findings of this analysis

  11. Effects of betaxolol and latanoprost on ocular blood flow and visual fields in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Erkin, E F; Tarhan, S; Kayikçioğlu, O R; Deveci, H; Güler, C; Göktan, C

    2004-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of betaxolol and latanoprost on ocular blood flow and visual fields in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) by means of an observer-masked, prospective clinical study. Thirty-two patients with newly diagnosed POAG were included in the study. The patients were randomized into two groups. The first group was treated with betaxolol 0.50% twice daily and the second group with latanoprost 0.005% once daily. Baseline and posttreatment examinations on the first and third months of treatment included intraocular pressure (IOP) measurement, automated visual field testing, and ocular blood flow assessment. For evaluation of visual fields, mean defect and pattern standard deviation indices were used. Ocular blood flow was assessed by means of color Doppler imaging of the central retinal artery (CRA) and the temporal short posterior ciliary artery (PCA). For each vessel, peak systolic (PSV) and end-diastolic (EDV) blood flow velocities were measured and resistivity index (RI) calculated. After exclusion of one noncompliant patient, the study was completed with 31 eyes of 31 patients. Both drugs significantly reduced IOP (p<0.05). The mean IOP lowering effect of latanoprost was significantly higher than that of betaxolol (p=0.03). Visual field indices exhibited no significant changes in either group (p>0.05). There were no significant changes in PSV or EDV measurements of CRA or PCA in either group (p>0.05). RI decreased in both CRA and PCA with both drugs. The mean changes between baseline and 3 month blood flow measurements were not significantly different between betaxolol and latanoprost (p>0.05). Over a treatment period of 3 months, both betaxolol and latanoprost tended to improve ocular blood flow without one of them being superior to the other. The results suggest that the direct (non IOP-dependent) influence on ocular circulation is better for betaxolol than for latanoprost. In addition, neither drug caused significant generalized

  12. A Common Variant in MIR182 Is Associated With Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma in the NEIGHBORHOOD Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yutao; Bailey, Jessica Cooke; Helwa, Inas; Dismuke, W. Michael; Cai, Jingwen; Drewry, Michelle; Brilliant, Murray H.; Budenz, Donald L.; Christen, William G.; Chasman, Daniel I.; Fingert, John H.; Gaasterland, Douglas; Gaasterland, Terry; Gordon, Mae O.; Igo, Robert P.; Kang, Jae H.; Kass, Michael A.; Kraft, Peter; Lee, Richard K.; Lichter, Paul; Moroi, Sayoko E.; Realini, Anthony; Richards, Julia E.; Ritch, Robert; Schuman, Joel S.; Scott, William K.; Singh, Kuldev; Sit, Arthur J.; Song, Yeunjoo E.; Vollrath, Douglas; Weinreb, Robert; Medeiros, Felipe; Wollstein, Gadi; Zack, Donald J.; Zhang, Kang; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A.; Gonzalez, Pedro; Stamer, W. Daniel; Kuchtey, John; Kuchtey, Rachel W.; Allingham, R. Rand; Hauser, Michael A.; Pasquale, Louis R.; Haines, Jonathan L.; Wiggs, Janey L.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Noncoding microRNAs (miRNAs) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of glaucoma. We aimed to identify common variants in miRNA coding genes (MIR) associated with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). Methods Using the NEIGHBORHOOD data set (3853 cases/33,480 controls with European ancestry), we first assessed the relation between 85 variants in 76 MIR genes and overall POAG. Subtype-specific analyses were performed in high-tension glaucoma (HTG) and normal-tension glaucoma subsets. Second, we examined the expression of miR-182, which was associated with POAG, in postmortem human ocular tissues (ciliary body, cornea, retina, and trabecular meshwork [TM]), using miRNA sequencing (miRNA-Seq) and droplet digital PCR (ddPCR). Third, miR-182 expression was also examined in human aqueous humor (AH) by using miRNA-Seq. Fourth, exosomes secreted from primary human TM cells were examined for miR-182 expression by using miRNA-Seq. Fifth, using ddPCR we compared miR-182 expression in AH between five HTG cases and five controls. Results Only rs76481776 in MIR182 gene was associated with POAG after adjustment for multiple comparisons (odds ratio [OR] = 1.23, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.11–1.42, P = 0.0002). Subtype analysis indicated that the association was primarily in the HTG subset (OR = 1.26, 95% CI: 1.08–1.47, P = 0.004). The risk allele T has been associated with elevated miR-182 expression in vitro. Data from ddPCR and miRNA-Seq confirmed miR-182 expression in all examined ocular tissues and TM-derived exosomes. Interestingly, miR-182 expression in AH was 2-fold higher in HTG patients than nonglaucoma controls (P = 0.03) without controlling for medication treatment. Conclusions Our integrative study is the first to associate rs76481776 with POAG via elevated miR-182 expression. PMID:27537254

  13. A Common Variant in MIR182 Is Associated With Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma in the NEIGHBORHOOD Consortium.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yutao; Bailey, Jessica Cooke; Helwa, Inas; Dismuke, W Michael; Cai, Jingwen; Drewry, Michelle; Brilliant, Murray H; Budenz, Donald L; Christen, William G; Chasman, Daniel I; Fingert, John H; Gaasterland, Douglas; Gaasterland, Terry; Gordon, Mae O; Igo, Robert P; Kang, Jae H; Kass, Michael A; Kraft, Peter; Lee, Richard K; Lichter, Paul; Moroi, Sayoko E; Realini, Anthony; Richards, Julia E; Ritch, Robert; Schuman, Joel S; Scott, William K; Singh, Kuldev; Sit, Arthur J; Song, Yeunjoo E; Vollrath, Douglas; Weinreb, Robert; Medeiros, Felipe; Wollstein, Gadi; Zack, Donald J; Zhang, Kang; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A; Gonzalez, Pedro; Stamer, W Daniel; Kuchtey, John; Kuchtey, Rachel W; Allingham, R Rand; Hauser, Michael A; Pasquale, Louis R; Haines, Jonathan L; Wiggs, Janey L

    2016-08-01

    Noncoding microRNAs (miRNAs) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of glaucoma. We aimed to identify common variants in miRNA coding genes (MIR) associated with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). Using the NEIGHBORHOOD data set (3853 cases/33,480 controls with European ancestry), we first assessed the relation between 85 variants in 76 MIR genes and overall POAG. Subtype-specific analyses were performed in high-tension glaucoma (HTG) and normal-tension glaucoma subsets. Second, we examined the expression of miR-182, which was associated with POAG, in postmortem human ocular tissues (ciliary body, cornea, retina, and trabecular meshwork [TM]), using miRNA sequencing (miRNA-Seq) and droplet digital PCR (ddPCR). Third, miR-182 expression was also examined in human aqueous humor (AH) by using miRNA-Seq. Fourth, exosomes secreted from primary human TM cells were examined for miR-182 expression by using miRNA-Seq. Fifth, using ddPCR we compared miR-182 expression in AH between five HTG cases and five controls. Only rs76481776 in MIR182 gene was associated with POAG after adjustment for multiple comparisons (odds ratio [OR] = 1.23, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.11-1.42, P = 0.0002). Subtype analysis indicated that the association was primarily in the HTG subset (OR = 1.26, 95% CI: 1.08-1.47, P = 0.004). The risk allele T has been associated with elevated miR-182 expression in vitro. Data from ddPCR and miRNA-Seq confirmed miR-182 expression in all examined ocular tissues and TM-derived exosomes. Interestingly, miR-182 expression in AH was 2-fold higher in HTG patients than nonglaucoma controls (P = 0.03) without controlling for medication treatment. Our integrative study is the first to associate rs76481776 with POAG via elevated miR-182 expression.

  14. Retinal and choroidal oxygen saturation of the optic nerve head in open-angle glaucoma subjects by multispectral imaging

    PubMed Central

    Li, Gai-yun; Al-wesabi, Samer abdo; Zhang, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to determine whether differences exist in oxygen supply to the optic nerve head (ONH) from the retinal and choroidal vascular layers in patients with primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) using multispectral imaging (MSI).This ia an observational, cross-sectional study. Multispectral images were acquired from 38 eyes of 19 patients with POAG, and 42 healthy eyes from 21 matched volunteers with Annidis’ RHA multispectral digital ophthalmoscopy. Superficial and deeper oxygen saturation of the optic disc was represented by the mean gray scale values on the retinal and choroidal oxy-deoxy maps, respectively. Statistical analysis was performed to detect differences in ONH oxygen saturation between the 2 groups. Oxygen saturation levels in the eyes of POAG patients with severe glaucoma were compared to those of fellow eyes from the same subjects. Linear correlation analysis was performed to assess the association between ONH oxygen saturation and systemic and ocular parameters. No statistical difference was found in retinal and choroidal oxygen saturation between the POAG and control groups. In the glaucoma patients, retinal oxygen saturation was lower for eyes with worse visual fields than in those with good visual fields (t = 4.009, P = 0.001). In POAG patients, retinal oxygen saturation was dependent on mean defect of visual field and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT) (r = 0.511, 0.504, P = 0.001, 0.001, respectively), whereas the choroid vasculature oxygen saturation was inversely related to RNFLT (r = −0.391, P = 0.015). An age-dependent increase in retinal oxygen saturation was found for both the POAG and control groups (r = 0.473, 0.410, P = 0.007, 0.003, respectively). MSI revealed a significant correlation between functional and structural impairments in glaucoma and retinal oxygen saturation. MSI could provide objective assessments of perfusion impairments of the glaucomatous ONH

  15. Trends in Utilization of Ancillary Glaucoma Tests for Patients with Open-Angle Glaucoma from 2001 to 2009

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Joshua D.; Talwar, Nidhi; Laverne, Alejandra; Nan, Bin; Lichter, Paul R.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To assess trends in the use of ancillary diagnostic tests in the evaluation of patients with open-angle glaucoma (OAG) and glaucoma suspects over the past decade. Design Retrospective longitudinal cohort analysis. Participants 169,917 individuals with OAG and 395,721 with suspected glaucoma age ≥40 enrolled in a national United States managed care network between 2001–2009. Methods Claims data were analyzed to assess trends in visual field (VF) testing, fundus photography (FP), and other ocular imaging (OOI) testing for patients with OAG or suspected glaucoma in 2001–2009. Repeated measures logistic regression was performed to identify differences in the odds of undergoing these procedures in 2001, 2005, and 2009 and whether differences exist for patients under the exclusive care of optometrists versus ophthalmologists. Main Outcome Measures Odds and annual probabilities of undergoing VF testing, FP, and OOI for OAG from 2001–2009. Results For patients with OAG, the odds of undergoing VF testing decreased by 36% from 2001 to 2005, 12% from 2005 to 2009, and 44% from 2001 to 2009. By comparison, the odds of having OOI increased by 100% from 2001 to 2005, 24% from 2005 to 2009, and 147% from 2001 to 2009. Probabilities of undergoing FP were relatively low (13–25%) for both provider types and remained fairly steady over the decade. For patients cared for exclusively by optometrists, the probability of VF testing decreased from 66% in 2001 to 44% in 2009. Among those seen exclusively by ophthalmologists, the probability of VF testing decreased from 65% in 2001 to 51% in 2009. The probability of undergoing OOI increased from 26% in 2001 to 47% in 2009 for patients of optometrists and from 30% in 2001 to 46% in 2009 for patients of ophthalmologists. By 2008, patients with OAG receiving care exclusively by optometrists had a higher probability of undergoing OOI than VF testing. Conclusion During 2001–2009 OOI rose dramatically whereas VF testing

  16. Assessment of SNPs associated with the human glucocorticoid receptor in primary open-angle glaucoma and steroid responders.

    PubMed

    Fingert, John H; Alward, Wallace L; Wang, Kai; Yorio, Thomas; Clark, Abbot F

    2010-04-03

    While chronic glucocorticoid (GC) therapy leads to ocular hypertension in about one third of individuals, almost all primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) patients show this response and are called "steroid responders." Two differentially spliced isoforms of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), GRalpha and GRbeta, regulate GC responsiveness in trabecular meshwork (TM) cells. GRbeta acts as a dominant negative regulator of GC activity and is expressed at lower levels in glaucomatous TM cells, making them more sensitive to GCs. Several arginine/serine-rich splicing factor (SR) proteins have been implicated in alternative splicing of the GR. We have previously demonstrated that immunophilins FKBP5 and FKBP4 are required for GRalpha and GRbeta translocation into the nucleus, which is essential for their biologic activity. The purpose of the present study was to use single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping to determine whether there are any allele frequency differences in GR, FKBP4/5, or SR genes between normal control, POAG, and steroid responder populations. Clinically characterized individuals (400 normal controls, 197 POAG, and 107 steroid responders) were recruited from the U. Iowa Ophthalmology Clinics after IRB approved consent. Genotyping of DNA samples for 48 SNPs in SFRS3, SFRS5, SFRS9, FKBP4, FKBP5, and NR3C1 was done at GeneSeek using a mass spectroscopy based system. All 48 SNPs displayed high call rates (99%). There were no significant differences in allele frequencies or genotypes in SNPs for SFRS5, SFRS9, FKBP4, FKBP5, and NR3C1 between the 3 groups. Up to three SNPs in SFRS3 had p-values <0.05 when comparing controls to POAG or steroid responders, but this statistical significance was lost when the p values were adjusted for multiple measures. Although these 6 genes may be involved in the pathogenesis of GC-induced ocular hypertension, it does not appear that major heritable risk alleles in these genes are responsible for the development of GC

  17. Risk Factors for Motor Vehicle Collisions in Patients with Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma: A Multicenter Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Yuki, Kenya; Awano-Tanabe, Sachiko; Ono, Takeshi; Shiba, Daisuke; Murata, Hiroshi; Asaoka, Ryo; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To identify the incidence rate of motor vehicle collisions (MVCs) in patients with no ocular pathology other than primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and determine the putative risk factors for MVCs in this group of patients. Methods We designed a prospective cohort study across three centers utilizing a consecutive sampling method to identify all patients with POAG between the ages of 40 and 80 years old. Patients with glaucoma were consecutively screened for eligibility. All study participants answered a questionnaire about motor vehicle collisions at baseline, and answered the questionnaire again every 12 months (± 1 month) after baseline for three years. A binocular integrated visual field was calculated for each patient by merging a patient’s monocular Humphrey Field Analyzer (HFA) visual fields (VFs), using the ‘best sensitivity’ method. Patients with incident MVCs were defined as the “MVC+” group and patients without incident MVCs were defined as the “MVC-" group. Adjusted odds ratios for the incidence of MVCs were estimated with a logistic regression model. Results One hundred and ninety-one Japanese POAG patients were analyzed in this study. The age of the participants was 63.7 ± 10.2 [mean ± standard deviation]. A total of 28 participants experienced a MVC during the follow up period of three years (4.9% per year). Ten patients (5.2%) experienced a MVC in the first year, 13 patients (6.8%) in the second year, and 11 patients (5.8%) in the third year (some patients experienced multiple MVCs over different years). Best corrected visual acuity in the worst eye was significantly worse in the MVC+ group (0.03 ± 0.01, mean ± standard deviation, LogMar) compared with the MVC- group (0.01 ± 0.003, p = 0.01), and was the only variable identified as a significant predictor of future MVCs in the multiple logistic regression model [odds ratio: 1.2, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.1 to 1.4]. Conclusion Deterioration in visual acuity in the

  18. Distribution of ocular perfusion pressure and its relationship with open-angle glaucoma: the singapore malay eye study.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yingfeng; Wong, Tien Y; Mitchell, Paul; Friedman, David S; He, Mingguang; Aung, Tin

    2010-07-01

    PURPOSE. To describe the distribution of ocular perfusion pressure and its relationship with open-angle glaucoma (OAG) in a Malay population. METHODS. This was a population-based, cross-sectional study comprising 3280 (78.7% response) ethnic Malays. Intraocular pressure (IOP) was measured with Goldmann applanation tonometry. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP) was measured with a digital automatic blood pressure monitor. Mean ocular perfusion pressure (MOPP) = (2/3)(mean arterial pressure - IOP), where mean arterial pressure (MAP) = DBP + (1/3)(SBP - DBP), systolic perfusion pressure (SPP) = SBP - IOP, and diastolic perfusion pressure (DPP) = DBP - IOP, was calculated. The diagnosis of OAG was based on International Society for Geographical and Epidemiologic Ophthalmology criteria. RESULTS. A total of 3261 persons (mean age, 58.7 +/- 11 years, including 131 [4.0%] cases of OAG) were available for analyses. Among persons without glaucoma, the mean +/- SD IOP, MOPP, SPP, and DPP were 15.3 +/- 3.5, 52.8 +/- 9.3, 131.5 +/- 23.3, and 64.5 +/- 11.3 mm Hg, respectively. Among persons with OAG, the corresponding values were 16.8 +/- 5.9, 51.6 +/- 10.2, 134.5 +/- 24.6, and 61.4 +/- 11.5 mm Hg, respectively. In multiple logistic regression models adjusting for IOP, age, sex, and IOP- and BP-lowering treatments, OAG risk was significantly higher in participants with DBP, MOPP, or DPP in the lowest quartile (Q1) than in participants in the highest quartile (Q4) (Q1 vs. Q4: odds ratio [OR], 1.71 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.04-2.96] for DBP; OR, 1.73 [95% CI, 1.05-3.15] for MOPP; OR, 1.75 [95% CI, 1.02-3.01] for DPP). CONCLUSIONS. Low DBP, low MOPP, and low DPP are independent risk factors for OAG in ethnic Malays, providing further evidence of a vascular mechanism in glaucoma pathogenesis across different populations.

  19. Bupropion use and risk of open-angle glaucoma among enrollees in a large U.S. managed care network.

    PubMed

    Stein, Joshua D; Talwar, Nidhi; Kang, Jae H; Okereke, Olivia I; Wiggs, Janey L; Pasquale, Louis R

    2015-01-01

    Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) mediates retinal ganglion cell death in glaucoma. Anti-TNF drugs are neuroprotective in an animal model of glaucoma. It is unclear whether medications with anti-TNF properties such as bupropion have an impact on the risk of developing open-angle glaucoma (OAG) in humans. The purpose of this study is to determine whether bupropion use alters the risk of developing OAG. Claims data for beneficiaries age ≥35 years with no pre-existing OAG enrolled in a large nationwide U.S. managed care network continuously for ≥4 years between 2001-2011 was analyzed to identify patients who had been newly-diagnosed with OAG. The amount of bupropion use as captured from outpatient pharmacy claims over a four-year period was also quantified for each beneficiary. Multivariable Cox regression modeling assessed the impact of bupropion and other antidepressant medications on the risk of developing OAG with adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics of the enrollees along with medical and ocular comorbidities. Of 638,481 eligible enrollees, 15,292 (2.4%) developed OAG. After adjustment for confounding factors including use of other antidepressant medication classes, each additional month of bupropion use was associated with a 0.6% reduced risk of OAG (HR = 0.994, (95% CI: 0.989-0.998), p = 0.007). Compared to nonusers, those with 24-48 months of bupropion use had a 21% reduced hazard (HR=0.79, (CI: 0.65-0.94), p = 0.0099) of OAG. This association did not differ among persons taking bupropion for depression or for other reasons (p-interaction = 0.82). There was no significant association between use of tricyclic antidepressants (HR = 1.000, (CI: 0.997-1.004), p = 0.95) or selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (HR = 0.999, (CI: 0.997-1.001), p = 0.39) and development of OAG. These findings suggest bupropion use may be beneficial in reducing the risk of OAG. If prospective studies confirm the findings of this analysis, this may identify a novel

  20. Ab-interno goniotrabeculotomy versus mitomycin C trabeculectomy for adult open-angle glaucoma: a 2-year randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Quaranta, L; Hitchings, R A; Quaranta, C A

    1999-07-01

    To evaluate the effect of ab-interno goniotrabeculotomy (AIGT) on the intraocular pressure (IOP) in adult patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), compared with the effects of mitomycin C trabeculectomy (MT). Prospective, randomized, clinical trial. Thirty-two eyes of 32 patients with medically uncontrolled POAG. Standard limbus-based trabeculectomy with adjunct mitomycin C (0.3 mg/mL for 3 minutes) in 16 eyes of 16 patients; AIGT was performed in 16 eyes of 16 patients. The groups were matched for age, preoperative IOP, duration of preoperative antiglaucoma treatment, use of preoperative beta-blockers and parasympathomimetics, and use of beta-blockers in the fellow eye. The IOP (average of the two highest values measured in the diurnal curve, from 8 AM to 6 PM, every 2 hours) and complications were recorded 1, 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months after surgery. Identification of complications and IOP. All patients were followed up for 24 months. More postoperative complications occurred in the MT group during the 2-year follow-up. One month after surgery, IOP was 10 +/- 1.46 mmHg (range, 8-13) in the MT group and 12.12 +/- 1.63 mmHg (range, 8-14) in the AIGT group (Student's t test, P = 0.001). Three months after surgery, IOP was 11.5 +/- 1.59 mmHg (range, 8-14) and 12.75 +/- 1.57 mmHg (range, 10-16) in the MT and AIGT groups, respectively (Student's t test, P = 0.033). From the 6th to the 24th postoperative month, no statistically significant difference in IOP was found between the two groups. At the end of follow-up, 14 of 16 eyes (87.5%) of the AIGT group and 13 of the 16 eyes (81.25%) of the MT group showed an IOP < or = 14 mmHg. Ab-interno goniotrabeculotomy appears to be a viable and safe surgical treatment for adult POAG. More extended follow-up, however, and a larger series of patients are needed to ascertain the actual effectiveness of this procedure in adult POAG.

  1. A survey of preoperative blood tests in primary open-angle glaucoma patients versus cataract surgery patients

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Laura P.; Wong, Jessica; Jiwani, Aliya Z.; Greenstein, Scott H.; Brauner, Stacey C.; Chen, Sherleen C.; Turalba, Angela V.; Chen, Teresa C.; Shen, Lucy; Rhee, Douglas J.; Wiggs, Janey L.; Kang, Jae Hee; Loomis, Stephanie; Pasquale, Louis R.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To investigate biomarker differences in routine preoperative blood tests performed on primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) case and control patients presenting for anterior segment eye surgery. Methods POAG cases and age-related cataract surgery patients (controls) who underwent anterior segment surgery at Massachusetts Eye and Ear from January 2009 through March 2012 were identified by retrospective record review. Patients with diabetes mellitus, secondary glaucoma, and cataract due to trauma or steroid exposure were excluded. Data on demographic features, preoperative ophthalmological and medical diagnosis, blood pressure, anthropometric measures, basic metabolic panel, and complete blood count were extracted from the medical records. Univariate differences in lab values between POAG cases and controls were assessed using unpaired t tests. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was completed to determine the independent associations of biomarkers with POAG. Results A total of 150 cases and 150 age-related controls were included. In multivariate analysis, higher AG was inversely associated with POAG (odds ratio [OR] = 0.90; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.80–1.00), and higher Cl− level was positively associated with POAG (OR = 1.15; 95% CI, 1.02–1.29). The lower AG in POAG patients could be explained by higher IgG levels as the available data in post hoc analysis showed a nonsignificant trend toward higher IgG in cases compared to controls (17 vs 23; 1142 ± 284 mg/dl vs 1028 ± 291 mg/dl; P = 0.22). Furthermore, in multivariable analysis, a higher red blood cell count was also associated with POAG (OR = 1.91; 95% CI, 1.11–3.28). Conclusions Patients with POAG presenting for anterior segment surgery had a lower AG compared to age-related cataract surgery patients. The etiology of this reduced gap is unclear but the possible contribution of IgG warrants further exploration. The etiology of higher red blood cell counts in POAG cases is unknown and

  2. Retinal and choroidal oxygen saturation of the optic nerve head in open-angle glaucoma subjects by multispectral imaging.

    PubMed

    Li, Gai-Yun; Al-Wesabi, Samer Abdo; Zhang, Hong

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether differences exist in oxygen supply to the optic nerve head (ONH) from the retinal and choroidal vascular layers in patients with primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) using multispectral imaging (MSI).This ia an observational, cross-sectional study.Multispectral images were acquired from 38 eyes of 19 patients with POAG, and 42 healthy eyes from 21 matched volunteers with Annidis' RHA multispectral digital ophthalmoscopy. Superficial and deeper oxygen saturation of the optic disc was represented by the mean gray scale values on the retinal and choroidal oxy-deoxy maps, respectively. Statistical analysis was performed to detect differences in ONH oxygen saturation between the 2 groups. Oxygen saturation levels in the eyes of POAG patients with severe glaucoma were compared to those of fellow eyes from the same subjects. Linear correlation analysis was performed to assess the association between ONH oxygen saturation and systemic and ocular parameters.No statistical difference was found in retinal and choroidal oxygen saturation between the POAG and control groups. In the glaucoma patients, retinal oxygen saturation was lower for eyes with worse visual fields than in those with good visual fields (t = 4.009, P = 0.001). In POAG patients, retinal oxygen saturation was dependent on mean defect of visual field and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT) (r = 0.511, 0.504, P = 0.001, 0.001, respectively), whereas the choroid vasculature oxygen saturation was inversely related to RNFLT (r = -0.391, P = 0.015). An age-dependent increase in retinal oxygen saturation was found for both the POAG and control groups (r = 0.473, 0.410, P = 0.007, 0.003, respectively).MSI revealed a significant correlation between functional and structural impairments in glaucoma and retinal oxygen saturation. MSI could provide objective assessments of perfusion impairments of the glaucomatous ONH. This is a

  3. Risk factors for open-angle glaucoma in Nigeria: results from the Nigeria National Blindness and Visual Impairment Survey.

    PubMed

    Kyari, Fatima; Abdull, Mohammed M; Wormald, Richard; Evans, Jennifer R; Nolan, Winifred; Murthy, Gudlavelleti V S; Gilbert, Clare E

    2016-06-07

    The glaucoma-specific blindness prevalence in Nigeria (0.7 %, 95 % CI 0.6-0.9 %) among those aged ≥40 years is one of the highest ever reported. This study determined the risk factors for open-angle glaucoma (OAG) in adults examined in the Nigeria National Blindness and Visual Impairment Survey. A nationally representative sample of 13,591 people aged ≥40 years in 305 clusters in Nigeria were examined (response rate 90.4 %) between January 2005 to June 2007. Everyone had logMAR visual acuity measurement, Frequency Doubling Technology (FDT) visual field testing, autorefraction, A-scan biometry and optic disc assessment. Full ocular examination (n = 6397), included Goldmann applanation tonometry. Values for defining glaucoma using International Society of Geographical and Epidemiological Ophthalmology criteria were derived from the study population. Disc images were graded by Moorfields Eye Hospital Reading Centre. Socio-demographic factors (age, gender, ethnicity, literacy and place of residence), ocular parameters (intraocular pressure [IOP], axial length and mean ocular perfusion pressure [MOPP]) and systemic parameters (blood pressure, blood glucose and body mass index [BMI]) were assessed for association with OAG. Thirteen thousand eighty-one (96 %) of 13,591 participants had vertical cup:disc ratio measured in at least one eye. 682 eyes of 462 participants were classified as OAG, with 12,738 controls. In univariate analyses the following were associated with OAG: increasing age, male gender, Igbo and Yoruba ethnic groups, illiteracy, longer axial length, higher IOP, lower MOPP, greater severity of hypertension and low BMI (underweight). In multivariate analysis, increasing age (odds ratio [OR] 1.04, 95 % CI 1.03-1.05), higher IOP (OR 1.22, 95 % CI 1.18-1.25) and Igbo ethnicity (OR 1.73, 95 % CI 1.18-2.56) were independent risk factors for OAG. Case detection strategies for OAG should be improved for those aged ≥40 years and for ethnic groups

  4. Associations of sleep duration with open angle glaucoma in the Korea national health and nutrition examination survey

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jin-Ah; Han, Kyungdo; Min, Jung Ah; Choi, Jin A

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between sleep duration and glaucoma, stratified by obesity status. This study was conducted using data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey V 2010 to 2012. Open-angle glaucoma was diagnosed according to the International Society of Geographical and Epidemiological Ophthalmology criteria. Subjects were divided into subgroups based on those who were overweight (body mass index ≥25 kg/m2 or <25 kg/m2) or with abdominal obesity (based on waist circumference). Multiple logistic regression analysis was done to estimate the magnitude of the association between sleep duration (<7 h, 7–<9, or ≥9 hours) and prevalence of glaucoma in the total population and in the subgroups. Individuals who slept <5 hours per night had the highest prevalence of glaucoma (5.55 ± 1.09%), followed by those who slept ≥9 hours per night (4.56 ± 0.10%), and then by those who slept 5 to <6 hours per night (4.15 ± 0.68%), which revealed a U-shaped pattern (P for trend = 0.072). Among overweight individuals, subjects who slept <7 hours and those who slept ≥9 hours were significantly more likely to have glaucoma compared with subjects who slept 7 to <9 hours after adjusting for survey year, age, sex, smoking, drinking, exercise, education level, household income, hypertension, intraocular pressure, stress, and depression (odds ratio, 2.41; 95% confidence interval, 1.14–5.03). Unlike for overweight individuals, sleep duration in nonoverweight individuals was not statistically significantly associated with glaucoma. Our results reveal a U-shaped association between sleep duration and the prevalence of glaucoma. An effect of sleep duration on glaucoma was present in the subgroup of overweight patients. PMID:28033268

  5. A prospective 3-year follow-up trial of implantation of two trabecular microbypass stents in open-angle glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Donnenfeld, Eric D; Solomon, Kerry D; Voskanyan, Lilit; Chang, David F; Samuelson, Thomas W; Ahmed, Iqbal Ike K; Katz, L Jay

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate 3-year safety and intraocular pressure (IOP) following two trabecular microbypass stents in phakic and pseudophakic subjects with open-angle glaucoma (OAG) not controlled on preoperative medication. Patients and methods In this prospective pilot study, phakic or pseudophakic subjects with OAG and IOP between 18 mmHg and 30 mmHg on one preoperative topical ocular hypotensive medication underwent medication washout. Thirty-nine qualified subjects with preoperative unmedicated IOP ≥22 mmHg and ≤38 mmHg received two stents. Postoperative examinations were scheduled at Day 1, Week 1, Months 1, 3, 6, and 12, and semiannually through Month 60. Ocular hypotensive medication was considered if postoperative IOP exceeded 21 mmHg. IOP, medication use, and safety were assessed at each visit. Subject follow-up through Month 36 was completed. Results Thirty-six eyes (92.3%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 79.1%, 98.4%) achieved the primary efficacy end point of Month 12 reduction in IOP ≥20% from baseline (unmedicated IOP) without ocular hypotensive medication. Four subjects required medication during the Month 36 follow-up period. Mean IOP at 36 months for subjects not taking medication was 15.2 mmHg. At 36 months, subjects sustained mean IOP decrease of 9.1±2.7 mmHg (95% CI 8.0 mmHg, 10.14 mmHg), or 37% IOP reduction, from unmedicated baseline IOP. Compared to preoperative medicated IOP, subjects had mean reduction at Month 36 of 5.5±2.7 mmHg (95% CI 4.5 mmHg, 6.6 mmHg), or 26% reduction. Both measures of IOP reduction were highly significant (P<0.001). Other than one case of early postoperative hyphema that resolved at 1 week, no postoperative adverse events were attributed to stent implantation. Conclusion In a pilot study, two trabecular microbypass stents to treat OAG subjects on one preoperative medication provided statistically significant, sustained, and safe reduction of IOP to ≤15 mmHg without medication through 36 months. PMID:26604675

  6. Topical Ocular Sodium 4-Phenylbutyrate Rescues Glaucoma in a Myocilin Mouse Model of Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Zode, Gulab S.; Bugge, Kevin E.; Mohan, Kabhilan; Grozdanic, Sinisa D.; Peters, Joseph C.; Koehn, Demelza R.; Anderson, Michael G.; Kardon, Randy H.; Stone, Edwin M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. Mutations in the myocilin gene (MYOC) are the most common known genetic cause of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). The purpose of this study was to determine whether topical ocular sodium 4-phenylbutyrate (PBA) treatment rescues glaucoma phenotypes in a mouse model of myocilin-associated glaucoma (Tg-MYOCY437H mice). Methods. Tg-MYOCY437H mice were treated with PBA eye drops (n = 10) or sterile PBS (n = 8) twice daily for 5 months. Long-term safety and effectiveness of topical PBA (0.2%) on glaucoma phenotypes were examined by measuring intraocular pressure (IOP) and pattern ERG (PERG), performing slit lamp evaluation of the anterior chamber, analyzing histologic sections of the anterior segment, and comparing myocilin levels in the aqueous humor and trabecular meshwork of Tg-MYOCY437H mice. Results. Tg-MYOCY437H mice developed elevated IOP at 3 months of age when compared with wild-type (WT) littermates (n = 24; P < 0.0001). Topical PBA did not alter IOP in WT mice. However, it significantly reduced elevated IOP in Tg-MYOCY437H mice to the level of WT mice. Topical PBA-treated Tg-MYOCY437H mice also preserved PERG amplitudes compared with vehicle-treated Tg-MYOCY437H mice. No structural abnormalities were observed in the anterior chamber of PBA-treated WT and Tg-MYOCY437H mice. Analysis of the myocilin in the aqueous humor and TM revealed that PBA significantly improved the secretion of myocilin and reduced myocilin accumulation as well as endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in the TM of Tg-MYOCY437H mice. Furthermore, topical PBA reduced IOP elevated by induction of ER stress via tunicamycin injections in WT mice. Conclusions. Topical ocular PBA reduces glaucomatous phenotypes in Tg-MYOCY437H mice, most likely by reducing myocilin accumulation and ER stress in the TM. Topical ocular PBA could become a novel treatment for POAG patients with myocilin mutations. PMID:22328638

  7. Usefulness of frequency-doubling technology for perimetrically normal eyes of open-angle glaucoma patients with unilateral field loss.

    PubMed

    Fan, Xiang; Wu, Ling-Ling; Ma, Zhi-Zhong; Xiao, Ge-Ge; Liu, Feng

    2010-08-01

    To determine whether frequency-doubling technology (FDT) perimetry detects visual field loss in perimetrically normal eyes of patients with open-angle glaucoma (OAG) and whether these visual field defects subsequently are detected by standard automated perimetry (SAP), and to explore the relating factors of the progression from abnormalities based on FDT to visual field loss based on SAP. Prospective cohort study. Sixty-eight OAG patients with unilateral field loss detected by SAP (Octopus, G2 program; Interzeig, Schlieren, Switzerland). Perimetrically normal eyes of participants were examined with the FDT N-30 threshold program (Humphrey Instruments, Welch-Allyn, Skaneateles, NY). The visual field examination was followed by a series of SAP examinations administered over 3 years. The relationship between FDT and subsequent SAP results in perimetrically normal eyes was analyzed. Glaucomatous optic neuropathy (GON), visual field indices, intraocular pressure (IOP), and central corneal thickness (CCT) were compared between converters (eyes with subsequent SAP abnormality) and nonconverters within perimetrically normal eyes with abnormal FDT results. Finally, the SAP test points were matched to the abnormal FDT sectors. The relative risk (RR) of subsequent SAP abnormality corresponding to FDT abnormal sectors was calculated. Sixty perimetrically normal eyes of 60 participants had complete data and a qualifying follow-up. Baseline FDT results were abnormal in 65%. Of the eyes with abnormal FDT results, 51% developed abnormal SAP results after 4 to 27 months, whereas none of the eyes with normal FDT results developed abnormal SAP results (P<0.05). In perimetrically normal eyes with abnormal FDT results, converters had a greater cup-to-disc ratio, more eyes with GON, larger and deeper cups, and worse FDT mean deviation than nonconverters (P<0.05). The IOP and CCT did not differ between the 2 groups. The RR of subsequent SAP abnormality corresponding to abnormal FDT

  8. Ocular rigidity, outflow facility, ocular pulse amplitude, and pulsatile ocular blood flow in open-angle glaucoma: a manometric study.

    PubMed

    Dastiridou, Anna I; Tsironi, Evangelia E; Tsilimbaris, Miltiadis K; Ginis, Harilaos; Karyotakis, Nikos; Cholevas, Pierros; Androudi, Sofia; Pallikaris, Ioannis G

    2013-07-10

    To compare ocular rigidity (OR) and outflow facility (C) coefficients in medically treated open-angle glaucoma (OAG) patients and controls, and to investigate differences in ocular pulse amplitude (OPA) and pulsatile ocular blood flow (POBF) between the two groups. Twenty-one OAG patients and 21 controls undergoing cataract surgery were enrolled. Patients with early or moderate primary or pseudoexfoliative OAG participated in the glaucoma group. A computer-controlled system, consisting of a pressure transducer and a microstepping device was employed intraoperatively. After cannulation of the anterior chamber, IOP was increased by infusing the eye with microvolumes of saline solution. IOP was recorded after each infusion step. At an IOP of 40 mm Hg, an IOP decay curve was recorded for 4 minutes. OR coefficients, C, OPA, and POBF were estimated from IOP and volume recordings. There were no differences in age or axial length in the two groups. The OR coefficient was 0.0220 ± 0.0053 μl(-1) in the OAG and 0.0222 ± 0.0039 μl(-1) in the control group (P = 0.868). C was 0.092 ± 0.082 μL/min/mm Hg in the glaucoma group compared with 0.149 ± 0.085 μL/min/mm Hg in the control group at an IOP of 35 mm Hg (P < 0.001) and 0.178 ± 0.133 μL/min/mm Hg vs. 0.292 ± 0.166 μL/min/mm Hg, respectively, at an IOP of 25 mm Hg (P < 0.001). There were no differences in OPA or POBF between the two groups in baseline and increased levels of IOP (P > 0.05). Manometric data reveal lower C in OAG patients and increased C with increasing IOP. There were no differences in the OR coefficient, OPA, and POBF between medically treated OAG patients and controls, failing to provide evidence of altered scleral distensibility and choroidal blood flow in OAG.

  9. Associations of sleep duration with open angle glaucoma in the Korea national health and nutrition examination survey.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jin-Ah; Han, Kyungdo; Min, Jung Ah; Choi, Jin A

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between sleep duration and glaucoma, stratified by obesity status.This study was conducted using data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey V 2010 to 2012. Open-angle glaucoma was diagnosed according to the International Society of Geographical and Epidemiological Ophthalmology criteria. Subjects were divided into subgroups based on those who were overweight (body mass index ≥25 kg/m or <25 kg/m) or with abdominal obesity (based on waist circumference). Multiple logistic regression analysis was done to estimate the magnitude of the association between sleep duration (<7 h, 7-<9, or ≥9 hours) and prevalence of glaucoma in the total population and in the subgroups.Individuals who slept <5 hours per night had the highest prevalence of glaucoma (5.55 ± 1.09%), followed by those who slept ≥9 hours per night (4.56 ± 0.10%), and then by those who slept 5 to <6 hours per night (4.15 ± 0.68%), which revealed a U-shaped pattern (P for trend = 0.072). Among overweight individuals, subjects who slept <7 hours and those who slept ≥9 hours were significantly more likely to have glaucoma compared with subjects who slept 7 to <9 hours after adjusting for survey year, age, sex, smoking, drinking, exercise, education level, household income, hypertension, intraocular pressure, stress, and depression (odds ratio, 2.41; 95% confidence interval, 1.14-5.03). Unlike for overweight individuals, sleep duration in nonoverweight individuals was not statistically significantly associated with glaucoma.Our results reveal a U-shaped association between sleep duration and the prevalence of glaucoma. An effect of sleep duration on glaucoma was present in the subgroup of overweight patients.

  10. Risk Factors for Motor Vehicle Collisions in Patients with Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma: A Multicenter Prospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Yuki, Kenya; Awano-Tanabe, Sachiko; Ono, Takeshi; Shiba, Daisuke; Murata, Hiroshi; Asaoka, Ryo; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    To identify the incidence rate of motor vehicle collisions (MVCs) in patients with no ocular pathology other than primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and determine the putative risk factors for MVCs in this group of patients. We designed a prospective cohort study across three centers utilizing a consecutive sampling method to identify all patients with POAG between the ages of 40 and 80 years old. Patients with glaucoma were consecutively screened for eligibility. All study participants answered a questionnaire about motor vehicle collisions at baseline, and answered the questionnaire again every 12 months (± 1 month) after baseline for three years. A binocular integrated visual field was calculated for each patient by merging a patient's monocular Humphrey Field Analyzer (HFA) visual fields (VFs), using the 'best sensitivity' method. Patients with incident MVCs were defined as the "MVC+" group and patients without incident MVCs were defined as the "MVC-" group. Adjusted odds ratios for the incidence of MVCs were estimated with a logistic regression model. One hundred and ninety-one Japanese POAG patients were analyzed in this study. The age of the participants was 63.7 ± 10.2 [mean ± standard deviation]. A total of 28 participants experienced a MVC during the follow up period of three years (4.9% per year). Ten patients (5.2%) experienced a MVC in the first year, 13 patients (6.8%) in the second year, and 11 patients (5.8%) in the third year (some patients experienced multiple MVCs over different years). Best corrected visual acuity in the worst eye was significantly worse in the MVC+ group (0.03 ± 0.01, mean ± standard deviation, LogMar) compared with the MVC- group (0.01 ± 0.003, p = 0.01), and was the only variable identified as a significant predictor of future MVCs in the multiple logistic regression model [odds ratio: 1.2, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.1 to 1.4]. Deterioration in visual acuity in the worst eye is a risk factor for future MVCs in

  11. Jets of incipient liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reshetnikov, A. V.; Mazheiko, N. A.; Skripov, V. P.

    2000-05-01

    Jets of incipient water escaping into the atmosphere through a short channel are photographed. In some experiments. complete disintegration of the jet is observed. The relationship of this phenomenon with intense volume incipience is considered. The role of the Coanda effect upon complete opening of the jet is revealed. Measurement results of the recoil force R of the jets of incipient liquids are presented. Cases of negative thrust caused by the Coanda effect are noted. Generalization of experimental data is proposed.

  12. The Georgi algorithms of jet clustering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Shao-Feng

    2015-05-01

    We reveal the direct link between the jet clustering algorithms recently proposed by Howard Georgi and parton shower kinematics, providing firm foundation from the theoretical side. The kinematics of this class of elegant algorithms is explored systematically for partons with arbitrary masses and the jet function is generalized to J {/β ( n)} with a jet function index n in order to achieve more degrees of freedom. Based on three basic requirements that, the result of jet clustering is process-independent and hence logically consistent, for softer subjets the inclusion cone is larger to conform with the fact that parton shower tends to emit softer partons at earlier stage with larger opening angle, and that the cone size cannot be too large in order to avoid mixing up neighbor jets, we derive constraints on the jet function parameter β and index n which are closely related to cone size cutoff. Finally, we discuss how jet function values can be made invariant under Lorentz boost.

  13. Association between primary open angle glaucoma and genetic polymorphisms GSTM1/GSTT1 in patients from Goiânia Central-West Region of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, C T X; Costa, N B; Silva, K S F; Silva, R E; Moura, K K V O

    2014-10-31

    In this study, we evaluated the genotype profile of GSTM1 and GSTT1 polymorphisms in patient carriers of primary open-angle glaucoma in the population of Goiânia, GO, Brazil. This case-control study included 100 Brazilian patients with glaucoma and 53 patients without glaucoma. Blood samples were genotyped for polymorphisms in GST genes using polymerase chain reaction-based methods. Polymorphism frequencies were compared using the X(2) test and odds ratio (α = 0.05). The GSTM1-present genotype was 40% in the glaucoma group and 71.6% in the control group, while the GSTM1 null genotype was 60 and 28.3% in the same groups, respectively. The GSTT1-present genotype was 52% in the primary open-angle glaucoma group and 66% in the control group; the null genotype was 48% in the case group and 34% in the control group. The GSTM1 null genotype was more frequent in the glaucoma group than in the control group (P = 0.0004; odds ratio = 6.7; 95% confidence interval = 2.7- 20.3). The combined GSTM1 null and GSTT1-present genotypes were more