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Sample records for jidoka robot ka

  1. Robotics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waddell, Steve; Doty, Keith L.

    1999-01-01

    "Why Teach Robotics?" (Waddell) suggests that the United States lags behind Europe and Japan in use of robotics in industry and teaching. "Creating a Course in Mobile Robotics" (Doty) outlines course elements of the Intelligent Machines Design Lab. (SK)

  2. Robotics

    SciTech Connect

    Scheide, A.W.

    1983-11-01

    This article reviews some of the technical areas and history associated with robotics, provides information relative to the formation of a Robotics Industry Committee within the Industry Applications Society (IAS), and describes how all activities relating to robotics will be coordinated within the IEEE. Industrial robots are being used for material handling, processes such as coating and arc welding, and some mechanical and electronics assembly. An industrial robot is defined as a programmable, multifunctional manipulator designed to move material, parts, tools, or specialized devices through variable programmed motions for a variety of tasks. The initial focus of the Robotics Industry Committee will be on the application of robotics systems to the various industries that are represented within the IAS.

  3. Robotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    An overview of research being done into the use of robotic devices in space by MSFC is discussed. The video includes footage and explanations of robots being used to blast layers of thermal coating from the Space Shuttle's external tanks, the Shuttle's Remote Manipulator Arm, and animations of an Orbiting Maneuvering Vehicle to retrieve and repair satellites.

  4. Robotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ambrose, Robert O.

    2007-01-01

    Lunar robotic functions include: 1. Transport of crew and payloads on the surface of the moon; 2. Offloading payloads from a lunar lander; 3. Handling the deployment of surface systems; with 4. Human commanding of these functions from inside a lunar vehicle, habitat, or extravehicular (space walk), with Earth-based supervision. The systems that will perform these functions may not look like robots from science fiction. In fact, robotic functions may be automated trucks, cranes and winches. Use of this equipment prior to the crew s arrival or in the potentially long periods without crews on the surface, will require that these systems be computer controlled machines. The public release of NASA's Exploration plans at the 2nd Space Exploration Conference (Houston, December 2006) included a lunar outpost with as many as four unique mobility chassis designs. The sequence of lander offloading tasks involved as many as ten payloads, each with a unique set of geometry, mass and interface requirements. This plan was refined during a second phase study concluded in August 2007. Among the many improvements to the exploration plan were a reduction in the number of unique mobility chassis designs and a reduction in unique payload specifications. As the lunar surface system payloads have matured, so have the mobility and offloading functional requirements. While the architecture work continues, the community can expect to see functional requirements in the areas of surface mobility, surface handling, and human-systems interaction as follows: Surface Mobility 1. Transport crew on the lunar surface, accelerating construction tasks, expanding the crew s sphere of influence for scientific exploration, and providing a rapid return to an ascent module in an emergency. The crew transport can be with an un-pressurized rover, a small pressurized rover, or a larger mobile habitat. 2. Transport Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA) equipment and construction payloads. 3. Transport habitats and

  5. Robotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothschild, Lynn J.

    2012-01-01

    Earth's upper atmosphere is an extreme environment: dry, cold, and irradiated. It is unknown whether our aerobiosphere is limited to the transport of life, or there exist organisms that grow and reproduce while airborne (aerophiles); the microenvironments of suspended particles may harbor life at otherwise uninhabited altitudes[2]. The existence of aerophiles would significantly expand the range of planets considered candidates for life by, for example, including the cooler clouds of a hot Venus-like planet. The X project is an effort to engineer a robotic exploration and biosampling payload for a comprehensive survey of Earth's aerobiology. While many one-shot samples have been retrieved from above 15 km, their results are primarily qualitative; variations in method confound comparisons, leaving such major gaps in our knowledge of aerobiology as quantification of populations at different strata and relative species counts[1]. These challenges and X's preliminary solutions are explicated below. X's primary balloon payload is undergoing a series of calibrations before beginning flights in Spring 2012. A suborbital launch is currently planned for Summer 2012. A series of ground samples taken in Winter 2011 is being used to establish baseline counts and identify likely background contaminants.

  6. Exploratorium: Robots.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brand, Judith, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This issue of Exploratorium Magazine focuses on the topic robotics. It explains how to make a vibrating robotic bug and features articles on robots. Contents include: (1) "Where Robot Mice and Robot Men Run Round in Robot Towns" (Ray Bradbury); (2) "Robots at Work" (Jake Widman); (3) "Make a Vibrating Robotic Bug" (Modesto Tamez); (4) "The Robot…

  7. Robotic surgery

    MedlinePlus

    Robot-assisted surgery; Robotic-assisted laparoscopic surgery; Laparoscopic surgery with robotic assistance ... computer station and directs the movements of a robot. Small surgical tools are attached to the robot's ...

  8. Ka-band study: 1988

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Layland, J. W.; Horttor, R. L.; Clauss, R. C.; Wilcher, J. H.; Wallace, R. J.; Mudgway, D. J.

    1989-01-01

    The Ka-band study team was chartered in late 1987 to bring together all the planning elements for establishing 32 GHz (Ka-band) as the primary downlink frequency for deep-space operation, and to provide a stable baseline from which to pursue that development. This article summarizes the results of that study at its conclusion in mid-1988, and corresponds to material presented to NASA's Office of Space Operations on July 14, 1988. For a variety of reasons, Ka-band is the right next major step in deep-space communications. It offers improved radio metric accuracy through reduced plasma sensitivity and increased bandwidth. Because of these improvements, it offers the opportunity to reduce costs in the flight radio system or in the DSN by allocating part of the overall benefits of Ka-band to this cost reduction. A mission scenario is being planned that can drive at least two and possibly all three of the DSN subnets to provide a Ka-band downlink capability by the turn of the century. The implementation scenario devised by the study team is believed to be feasible within reasonable resource expectations, and capable of providing the needed upgrade as a natural follow-on to the technology development which is already underway.

  9. Robot and robot system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behar, Alberto E. (Inventor); Marzwell, Neville I. (Inventor); Wall, Jonathan N. (Inventor); Poole, Michael D. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A robot and robot system that are capable of functioning in a zero-gravity environment are provided. The robot can include a body having a longitudinal axis and having a control unit and a power source. The robot can include a first leg pair including a first leg and a second leg. Each leg of the first leg pair can be pivotally attached to the body and constrained to pivot in a first leg pair plane that is substantially perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the body.

  10. Benchmarking pKa prediction

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Matthew N; Toseland, Christopher P; Moss, David S; Flower, Darren R

    2006-01-01

    Background pKa values are a measure of the protonation of ionizable groups in proteins. Ionizable groups are involved in intra-protein, protein-solvent and protein-ligand interactions as well as solubility, protein folding and catalytic activity. The pKa shift of a group from its intrinsic value is determined by the perturbation of the residue by the environment and can be calculated from three-dimensional structural data. Results Here we use a large dataset of experimentally-determined pKas to analyse the performance of different prediction techniques. Our work provides a benchmark of available software implementations: MCCE, MEAD, PROPKA and UHBD. Combinatorial and regression analysis is also used in an attempt to find a consensus approach towards pKa prediction. The tendency of individual programs to over- or underpredict the pKa value is related to the underlying methodology of the individual programs. Conclusion Overall, PROPKA is more accurate than the other three programs. Key to developing accurate predictive software will be a complete sampling of conformations accessible to protein structures. PMID:16749919

  11. Ka-band MMIC subarray technology program (Ka-Mist)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pottenger, Warren

    1995-01-01

    The broad objective of this program was to demonstrate a proof of concept insertion of Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit (MMIC) device technology into an innovative (tile architecture) active phased array antenna application supporting advanced EHF communication systems. Ka-band MMIC arrays have long been considered as having high potential for increasing the capability of space, aircraft, and land mobile communication systems in terms of scan performance, data rate, link margin, and flexibility while offering a significant reduction in size, weight, and power consumption. Insertion of MMIC technology into antenna systems, particularly at millimeter wave frequencies using low power and low noise amplifiers in close proximity to the radiating elements, offers a significant improvement in the array transmit efficiency, receive system noise figure, and overall array reliability. Application of active array technology also leads to the use of advanced beamforming techniques that can improve beam agility, diversity, and adaptivity to complex signal environments.

  12. Ka-band MMIC subarray technology program (Ka-Mist)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pottenger, Warren

    1995-06-01

    The broad objective of this program was to demonstrate a proof of concept insertion of Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit (MMIC) device technology into an innovative (tile architecture) active phased array antenna application supporting advanced EHF communication systems. Ka-band MMIC arrays have long been considered as having high potential for increasing the capability of space, aircraft, and land mobile communication systems in terms of scan performance, data rate, link margin, and flexibility while offering a significant reduction in size, weight, and power consumption. Insertion of MMIC technology into antenna systems, particularly at millimeter wave frequencies using low power and low noise amplifiers in close proximity to the radiating elements, offers a significant improvement in the array transmit efficiency, receive system noise figure, and overall array reliability. Application of active array technology also leads to the use of advanced beamforming techniques that can improve beam agility, diversity, and adaptivity to complex signal environments.

  13. CASSY Robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pittman, Anna; Wright, Ann; Rice, Aaron; Shyaka, Claude

    2014-03-01

    The CASSY Robot project involved two square robots coded in RobotC. The goal was to code a robot to do a certain set of tasks autonomously. To begin with, our task was to code the robot so that it would roam a certain area, marked off by black tape. When the robot hit the black tape, it knew to back up and turn around. It was able to do this thanks to the light sensor that was attached to the bottom of the robot. Also, whenever the robot hit an obstacle, it knew to stop, back up, and turn around. This was primarily to prevent the robot from hurting itself if it hit an obstacle. This was accomplished by using touch sensors set up as bumpers. Once that was accomplished, we attached sonar sensors and created code so that one robot was able to find and track the other robot in a sort of intruder/police scenario. The overall goal of this project was to code the robot so that we can test it against a robot coded exactly the same, but using Layered Mode Selection Logic. Professor.

  14. KaVA ESTEMA project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyadomari, Miyako; Imai, Hiroshi; Cho, Se-Hyung; Asaki, Yoshiharu; Choi, Yoon-Kyong; Kim, Jaeheon; Yun, Youngjoo; Matsumoto, Naoko; Min, Cheul-Hong; Oyama, Tomoaki; Yoon, Sung-Chul; Yoon, Dong-Hwan; Kim, Dong-Jin; Dodson, Richard; Rioja, Maria; Burns, Ross; Orosz, Gabor; Nakagawa, Akiharu; Chibueze O, James; Nakashima, Jun-ichi; Sobolev, Andrey

    2016-07-01

    The ESTEMA (Expanded Study on Stellar Masers) project is one of three Large Programs of the KaVA (the combined array of the Korean VLBI Network and Japanese VLBI Exploration of Radio Astrometry), and conducted in 2015-2016. It aims to publish a database of the largest sample of VLBI images of circumstellar water (H2O) and silicon-monoxide (SiO) maser sources towards circumstellar envelopes (CSEs) of 80 evolved stars in late AGB to early post-AGB phase. Here we present the specifications of the ESTEMA observations and the planned scientific goals in order to share the basic information of the ESTEMA with astronomical community and encourage future collaborations with the ESTEMA and future follow-up observations for the targeted stars.

  15. Army Robotics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-07

    Army Robotics 07 October 2009 Dr. Grant Gerhart, Senior Research Scientist Bernard Theisen, Joint Center for Robotics DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A... Robots 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Grant Gerhart; Bernard Theisen 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK...CBRNE • IED Defeat Systems • Disarm / Disrupt • Reconnaissance • Investigation • Explosive Sniffer • Common Robotic Kit • EOD • Convoy • Log

  16. Space Robotics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-08-01

    ACCESSION NO 3. RECIPIENTS CATALOG NUIA3.R CMU-RI-TR-82-10 I4 1 (. 4. ;,;-LL (and Sublitle) S. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD CovEREO SPACE ROBOTICS Interim... Robotics Institute Pittsburgh, PA. 15213 It. CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME AND ADDRESS 12. REPORT DATE Office of Naval Research -August 1982 Arlington, VA 22217...SXnet.eE . Space Robotics Richard E. Korf Department of Computer Science and The Robotics Institute Carnegie-Mellon University Pittsburgh, Oetusylvania

  17. TARDEC Robotics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-12

    unclassified TARDEC Robotics Dr. James L. Overholt Director, Joint Center for Robotics US Army TARDEC Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No...COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE TARDEC Robotics 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) James L. Overholt... Robotics , Network and Control Components with a Focus on Customer Driven Requirements to Provide Full System Solutions to the War Fighter Technology

  18. (Robotic hands)

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, R.C.

    1988-09-23

    The traveler attended the International Workshop on Robot Hands at the Palace Hotel in Dubrovnik, Yugoslavia. The traveler presented a lecture on An integrated sensor system for the ORNL mobile robot.'' The traveler obtained important information on current R D efforts in multi-fingered robot hands and object recognition using touch sensing.

  19. Basic Robotics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullen, Frank

    This curriculum outline consists of instructional materials and information concerning resources for use in teaching a course in robotics. Addressed in the individual sections of the outline are the following topics: the nature of an industrial robot; the parts of an industrial robot (the manipulator, the power structure, and the control system);…

  20. Industrial Robots.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Dean; Harden, Thomas K.

    Robots are mechanical devices that can be programmed to perform some task of manipulation or locomotion under automatic control. This paper discusses: (1) early developments of the robotics industry in the United States; (2) the present structure of the industry; (3) noneconomic factors related to the use of robots; (4) labor considerations…

  1. SARAL/AltiKa Project Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picot, Nicolas; Sengenes, Pierre; Lambin, Juliette; Noubel, Jocelyne; Mazeau, Sophie; Verron, Jacques

    2015-04-01

    The SARAL-AltiKa satellite mission is an India-France ISRO-CNES joint project. The satellite has been put into orbit by a PSLV vehicle supplied by ISRO, and launched from Sriharikota, the main ISRO launch base, on Feb. 25, 2013. The SARAL (Satellite for ARgos and ALtika) payload consists of an ARGOS instrument, and an altimetry payload including the AltiKa radiometer-altimeter. SARAL/AltiKa is intended to be a gap filler mission between the RA-2 on-board ENVISAT and Sentinel-3. As such, SARAL/AltiKa is flying on the same orbit as ENVISAT. The special feature of SARAL/AltiKa is mainly related to a wideband Ka-band altimeter (35.75 GHz, 500 MHz), which is the very first satellite altimeter dedicated to oceanography to operate at such a high frequency. The AltiKa instrument consists in a Ka-band altimeter based on already developed subsystems inherited from Siral (CRYOSAT) and Poseidon-3 (JASON-2) in particular, and an embedded dual frequency radiometer. The altimeter and the radiometer share the same antenna. Due to the single frequency Ka-band altimeter, the enhanced bandwidth leads to a better vertical resolution. The spatial resolution is also improved, thanks to the Ka-band smaller footprint and the increased PRF. This talk will present the main characteristics of the mission and the main outcome regarding the data availability and overall quality after 2 years of mission. In particular, we will focus on the main advantages and/or drawbacks of the Ka band frequency compared to the classical Ku band used on other missions like Jason-2. A specific point will be performed on the rain attenuation and corresponding impacts on the altimeter data quality.

  2. Ka-Band MMIC Subarray Technology Program (Ka-Mist)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pottinger, W.

    1995-01-01

    Ka-band monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) arrays have been considered as having high potential for increasing the capability of space, aircraft, and land mobile communication systems in terms of scan performance, data rate, link margin, and flexibility while offering a significant reduction in size, weight, and power consumption. Insertion of MMIC technology into antenna systems, particularly at millimeter wave frequencies using low power and low noise amplifiers in closed proximity to the radiating elements, offers a significant improvement in the array transmit efficiency, receive system noise figure, and overall array reliability. Application of active array technology also leads to the use of advanced beamforming techniques that can improve beam agility, diversity, and adaptivity to complex signal environments. The objective of this program was to demonstrate the technical feasibility of the 'tile' array packaging architecture at EHF via the insertion of 1990 MMIC technology into a functional tile array or subarray module. The means test of this objective was to demonstrate and deliver to NASA a minimum of two 4 x 4 (16 radiating element) subarray modules operating in a transmit mode at 29.6 GHz. Available (1990) MMIC technology was chosen to focus the program effort on the novel interconnect schemes and packaging requirements rather than focusing on MMIC development. Major technical achievements of this program include the successful integration of two 4 x 4 subarray modules into a single antenna array. This 32 element array demonstrates a transmit EIRP of over 300 watts yielding an effective directive power gain in excess of 55 dB at 29.63 GHz. The array has been actively used as the transmit link in airborne/terrestrial mobile communication experiments accomplished via the ACTS satellite launched in August 1993.

  3. Ka-band MMIC subarray technology program (Ka-Mist)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pottinger, W.

    1995-09-01

    Ka-band monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) arrays have been considered as having high potential for increasing the capability of space, aircraft, and land mobile communication systems in terms of scan performance, data rate, link margin, and flexibility while offering a significant reduction in size, weight, and power consumption. Insertion of MMIC technology into antenna systems, particularly at millimeter wave frequencies using low power and low noise amplifiers in closed proximity to the radiating elements, offers a significant improvement in the array transmit efficiency, receive system noise figure, and overall array reliability. Application of active array technology also leads to the use of advanced beamforming techniques that can improve beam agility, diversity, and adaptivity to complex signal environments. The objective of this program was to demonstrate the technical feasibility of the 'tile' array packaging architecture at EHF via the insertion of 1990 MMIC technology into a functional tile array or subarray module. The means test of this objective was to demonstrate and deliver to NASA a minimum of two 4 x 4 (16 radiating element) subarray modules operating in a transmit mode at 29.6 GHz. Available (1990) MMIC technology was chosen to focus the program effort on the novel interconnect schemes and packaging requirements rather than focusing on MMIC development. Major technical achievements of this program include the successful integration of two 4 x 4 subarray modules into a single antenna array. This 32 element array demonstrates a transmit EIRP of over 300 watts yielding an effective directive power gain in excess of 55 dB at 29.63 GHz. The array has been actively used as the transmit link in airborne/terrestrial mobile communication experiments accomplished via the ACTS satellite launched in August 1993.

  4. The Asteroid 2015 KA122

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vodniza, Alberto Quijano; Pereira, Mario Rojas

    2015-11-01

    The Asteroid “2015 KA122” was discovered on May 25/2015 by the Catalina Sky Survey. This object is not well known. Its absolute magnitude, of 23.2, indicates a diameter of about 70 meters. The asteroid was at aproximately 3.3 lunar distances from the Earth, on June 6/2015. It has an orbital period of 2.11 years. From our Observatory, located in Pasto-Colombia, we captured several pictures, videos and astrometry data during three days. Our data was published by the Minor Planet Center (MPC) and also appears at the web page of NEODyS. Our observatory’s code at the MPC is “H78”. Pictures of the asteroid were captured with the following equipment: 14” LX200 GPS MEADE (f/10 Schmidt-Cassegrain Telescope) and STL-1001 SBIG camera. Astrometry was carried out, and we calculated the orbital elements. We obtained the following orbital parameters: eccentricity = 0.4089630 +/- 0.00189, semi-major axis = 1.64254884 +/- 0.00505 A.U, orbital inclination = 12.68490 +/- 0.039 deg, longitude of the ascending node = 73.14715 +/- 0.0013 deg, argument of perihelion = 214.82393 +/- 0.007 deg, orbital period = 2.11 years (768.90 days), mean motion = 0.46819485 +/- 0.00216 deg/d, perihelion distance = 0.97080706 +/- 0.000119 A.U, aphelion distance = 2.31429061 +/- 0.0103 A.U. The parameters were calculated based on 81 observations (2015 June 3-5) with mean residual = 0.343 arcseconds. Our videos appear in the following links:http://spaceweathergallery.com/indiv_upload.php?upload_id=113197http://spaceweathergallery.com/indiv_upload.php?upload_id=113238&PHPSESSID=f2lkigjogsfgcmi1rscc9jil36http://spaceweathergallery.com/indiv_upload.php?upload_id=113257

  5. TARDEC Robotics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    TARDEC Robotics Dr. Greg Hudas Greg.hudas@us.army.mil UNCLASSIFIED: Dist A. Approved for public release Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB...COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE TARDEC Robotics 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Dr. Greg Hudas...ANSI Std Z39-18 Excellence in Robotics Outreach & University Shaping Requirements Building Modeling & Simulation Component Development International

  6. ROBOT WRITING,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Technical writers who are hypnotized by the mechanical metaphor inevitably produce robot writing - a separate language, distantly related to the...prose of Darwin, Huxley, Jeans, and Einstein. Where they were clear, fresh, and graceful, the robot writer is hard, dull, and clumsy. Where they were...merely human, the robot writer is infallible, prefabricated, impersonal, and irresponsible. These four characteristics are interlinked. An example of one usually illustrates the other three.

  7. Robot Programming.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-12-01

    8217AD-A127 233 ROBOT PROGRRMMING(U) MASSACHUSETTS INST OFGTECHi/ CAMBRIDGE ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE LAB T LOZANO-PEREZ UNCLASSIFIED DC8 AI-9 N884...CATALOG NUMBER * a ~AIM 698 R a is 4. TITLE (and Subtitle) S. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED Robot Programming Memorandum 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT...34R Distribution is Unlimted .. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES None 1. KEY WORDS (Continue on r verea aide ii neeaortm and Identify by block number) *Q. Robotics

  8. Robotics research

    SciTech Connect

    Brady, M.; Paul, R.

    1984-01-01

    Organized around a view of robotics as ''the intelligent connection of perception to action,'' the fifty-three contributions collected in this book present leading current research in one of the fastest moving fields of artificial intelligence. Readings Include: Hand-Eye Coordination in Rope Handling; 3-D Balance Using 2-D algorithms. A Model Driven Visual Inspection Module: Stereo Vision: Complexity and Constraints; Interpretation of Contact Geometers from Force Measurement; The Utah MIT Dextrous Hand: Work in Progress; Hierarchical Nonlinear Control for Robots; VAL-11; A Robot Programming Language and Control System; Technological Barriers in Robotics: A Perspective from Industry.

  9. Hopping robot

    DOEpatents

    Spletzer, Barry L.; Fischer, Gary J.; Marron, Lisa C.; Martinez, Michael A.; Kuehl, Michael A.; Feddema, John T.

    2001-01-01

    The present invention provides a hopping robot that includes a misfire tolerant linear actuator suitable for long trips, low energy steering and control, reliable low energy righting, miniature low energy fuel control. The present invention provides a robot with hopping mobility, capable of traversing obstacles significant in size relative to the robot and capable of operation on unpredictable terrain over long range. The present invention further provides a hopping robot with misfire-tolerant combustion actuation, and with combustion actuation suitable for use in oxygen-poor environments.

  10. Robotics 101

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sultan, Alan

    2011-01-01

    Robots are used in all kinds of industrial settings. They are used to rivet bolts to cars, to move items from one conveyor belt to another, to gather information from other planets, and even to perform some very delicate types of surgery. Anyone who has watched a robot perform its tasks cannot help but be impressed by how it works. This article…

  11. AltiKa in-flight performances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boy, Francois; Desjonquères, Jean-Damien; Steunou, Nathalie

    2015-04-01

    The SARAL/AltiKa satellite has been launched the 25th of February 2013 from the launch pad of Sriharikota (India). Since this date, AltiKa provides measurements and affords the first altimetry results in Ka band. This paper recalls the instrument design and assesses the in-flight performance. The SARAL/AltiKa mission has been developed in the frame of a cooperation between CNES (French Space Agency) and ISRO (Indian Space Research Organization). AltiKa is a single frequency Ka-band altimeter with a bi-frequency radiometer embedded. Both altimeter and radiometer share the same antenna. Altimeter expertise and routine calibrations performed during assessment phase demonstrate the stability of the instrument. Moreover the performance assessed over ocean are noteworthy such as 0.9 cm on epoch 1 Hz noise for 2 m of SWH, which is fully consistent with simulations and ground pre-flight tests results. The data availability is also very good and very few altimeter measurements are lost due to rain attenuation. Radiometer data analysis shows that the instrument is very stable and its performances are consistent with pre-flight tests results.

  12. Popularization of Astronomy Through Robotic Telescopes and Virtual Observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleksic, J.; Tomic, Z.

    2013-05-01

    Robotic telescopes and virtual observatories have great impact on popularization of astronomy. In this paper we will present several web services and observatories that allow remote control over their equipment, which have great contribution in astronomy promotion. In addition, the first Serbian amateur robotic observatory will be presented (Night Hawk, Bačka Palanka). Finally, an economic review of this concept is done to consider its attainability to the general audience.

  13. Robotic Surgery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The Automated Endoscopic System for Optimal Positioning, or AESOP, was developed by Computer Motion, Inc. under a SBIR contract from the Jet Propulsion Lab. AESOP is a robotic endoscopic positioning system used to control the motion of a camera during endoscopic surgery. The camera, which is mounted at the end of a robotic arm, previously had to be held in place by the surgical staff. With AESOP the robotic arm can make more precise and consistent movements. AESOP is also voice controlled by the surgeon. It is hoped that this technology can be used in space repair missions which require precision beyond human dexterity. A new generation of the same technology entitled the ZEUS Robotic Surgical System can make endoscopic procedures even more successful. ZEUS allows the surgeon control various instruments in its robotic arms, allowing for the precision the procedure requires.

  14. Robot Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Martin Marietta Aero and Naval Systems has advanced the CAD art to a very high level at its Robotics Laboratory. One of the company's major projects is construction of a huge Field Material Handling Robot for the Army's Human Engineering Lab. Design of FMR, intended to move heavy and dangerous material such as ammunition, was a triumph in CAD Engineering. Separate computer problems modeled the robot's kinematics and dynamics, yielding such parameters as the strength of materials required for each component, the length of the arms, their degree of freedom and power of hydraulic system needed. The Robotics Lab went a step further and added data enabling computer simulation and animation of the robot's total operational capability under various loading and unloading conditions. NASA computer program (IAC), integrated Analysis Capability Engineering Database was used. Program contains a series of modules that can stand alone or be integrated with data from sensors or software tools.

  15. Robotic transportation.

    PubMed

    Lob, W S

    1990-09-01

    Mobile robots perform fetch-and-carry tasks autonomously. An intelligent, sensor-equipped mobile robot does not require dedicated pathways or extensive facility modification. In the hospital, mobile robots can be used to carry specimens, pharmaceuticals, meals, etc. between supply centers, patient areas, and laboratories. The HelpMate (Transitions Research Corp.) mobile robot was developed specifically for hospital environments. To reach a desired destination, Help-Mate navigates with an on-board computer that continuously polls a suite of sensors, matches the sensor data against a pre-programmed map of the environment, and issues drive commands and path corrections. A sender operates the robot with a user-friendly menu that prompts for payload insertion and desired destination(s). Upon arrival at its selected destination, the robot prompts the recipient for a security code or physical key and awaits acknowledgement of payload removal. In the future, the integration of HelpMate with robot manipulators, test equipment, and central institutional information systems will open new applications in more localized areas and should help overcome difficulties in filling transport staff positions.

  16. [Robotic surgery].

    PubMed

    Sándor, József; Haidegger, Tamás; Kormos, Katalin; Ferencz, Andrea; Csukás, Domokos; Bráth, Endre; Szabó, Györgyi; Wéber, György

    2013-10-01

    Due to the fast spread of laparoscopic cholecystectomy, surgical procedures have been changed essentially. The new techniques applied for both abdominal and thoracic procedures provided the possibility for minimally invasive access with all its advantages. Robots - originally developed for industrial applications - were retrofitted for laparoscopic procedures. The currently prevailing robot-assisted surgery is ergonomically more advantageous for the surgeon, as well as for the patient through the more precise preparative activity thanks to the regained 3D vision. The gradual decrease of costs of robotic surgical systems and development of new generations of minimally invasive devices may lead to substantial changes in routine surgical procedures.

  17. Subsumption Robotics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-01-01

    Subsumption Robotics Christopher K. DeBolt Naval EOD Technology Division 2008 Stump Neck Road Indian Head, MD 20640-5070 phone: (301) 744-6850, Ext...eodmgate.navsea.navy.mil; nguyent.eodtc@eodmgate.navsea.navy.mil Helen Greiner and Polly K. Pook I.S. Robotics phone: (617) 629-0055 e-mail: helen@isr.com , pook...408) 656-3462 e-mail: healey@me.nps.navy.mil LONG-TERM GOALS Through the use of subsumption architectures, low cost, simple robots can be developed

  18. Arginine: Its pKa value revisited

    PubMed Central

    Fitch, Carolyn A; Platzer, Gerald; Okon, Mark; Garcia-Moreno E, Bertrand; McIntosh, Lawrence P

    2015-01-01

    Using complementary approaches of potentiometry and NMR spectroscopy, we have determined that the equilibrium acid dissociation constant (pKa value) of the arginine guanidinium group is 13.8 ± 0.1. This is substantially higher than that of ∼12 often used in structure-based electrostatics calculations and cited in biochemistry textbooks. The revised intrinsic pKa value helps explains why arginine side chains in proteins are always predominantly charged, even at pH values as great as 10. The high pKa value also reinforces the observation that arginine side chains are invariably protonated under physiological conditions of near neutral pH. This occurs even when the guanidinium moiety is buried in a hydrophobic micro-environment, such as that inside a protein or a lipid membrane, thought to be incompatible with the presence of a charged group. PMID:25808204

  19. Arginine: Its pKa value revisited.

    PubMed

    Fitch, Carolyn A; Platzer, Gerald; Okon, Mark; Garcia-Moreno, Bertrand E; McIntosh, Lawrence P

    2015-05-01

    Using complementary approaches of potentiometry and NMR spectroscopy, we have determined that the equilibrium acid dissociation constant (pKa value) of the arginine guanidinium group is 13.8 ± 0.1. This is substantially higher than that of ∼ 12 often used in structure-based electrostatics calculations and cited in biochemistry textbooks. The revised intrinsic pKa value helps explains why arginine side chains in proteins are always predominantly charged, even at pH values as great as 10. The high pKa value also reinforces the observation that arginine side chains are invariably protonated under physiological conditions of near neutral pH. This occurs even when the guanidinium moiety is buried in a hydrophobic micro-environment, such as that inside a protein or a lipid membrane, thought to be incompatible with the presence of a charged group.

  20. Robotic arm

    DOEpatents

    Kwech, Horst

    1989-04-18

    A robotic arm positionable within a nuclear vessel by access through a small diameter opening and having a mounting tube supported within the vessel and mounting a plurality of arm sections for movement lengthwise of the mounting tube as well as for movement out of a window provided in the wall of the mounting tube. An end effector, such as a grinding head or welding element, at an operating end of the robotic arm, can be located and operated within the nuclear vessel through movement derived from six different axes of motion provided by mounting and drive connections between arm sections of the robotic arm. The movements are achieved by operation of remotely-controllable servo motors, all of which are mounted at a control end of the robotic arm to be outside the nuclear vessel.

  1. Robotic vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Box, W.D.

    1998-08-11

    A robotic vehicle is described for travel through a conduit. The robotic vehicle includes forward and rear housings each having a hub portion, and each being provided with surface engaging mechanisms for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit such that the housings can be selectively held in stationary positions within the conduit. The surface engaging mechanisms of each housing includes a plurality of extendible appendages, each of which is radially extendible relative to the operatively associated hub portion between a retracted position and a radially extended position. The robotic vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendible members extending between the forward and rear housings, for selectively changing the distance between the forward and rear housings to effect movement of the robotic vehicle. 20 figs.

  2. Robotic vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Box, W.D.

    1997-02-11

    A robotic vehicle is described for travel through a conduit. The robotic vehicle includes forward and rear housings each having a hub portion, and each being provided with surface engaging mechanisms for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit such that the housings can be selectively held in stationary positions within the conduit. The surface engaging mechanisms of each housing includes a plurality of extendable appendages, each of which is radially extendable relative to the operatively associated hub portion between a retracted position and a radially extended position. The robotic vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendable members extending between the forward and rear housings, for selectively changing the distance between the forward and rear housings to effect movement of the robotic vehicle. 20 figs.

  3. Robotic vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Box, W. Donald

    1998-01-01

    A robotic vehicle for travel through a conduit. The robotic vehicle includes forward and rear housings each having a hub portion, and each being provided with surface engaging mechanisms for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit such that the housings can be selectively held in stationary positions within the conduit. The surface engaging mechanisms of each housing includes a plurality of extendable appendages, each of which is radially extendable relative to the operatively associated hub portion between a retracted position and a radially extended position. The robotic vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendable members extending between the forward and rear housings, for selectively changing the distance between the forward and rear housings to effect movement of the robotic vehicle.

  4. Robotic vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Box, W. Donald

    1997-01-01

    A robotic vehicle for travel through a conduit. The robotic vehicle includes forward and rear housings each having a hub portion, and each being provided with surface engaging mechanisms for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit such that the housings can be selectively held in stationary positions within the conduit. The surface engaging mechanisms of each housing includes a plurality of extendable appendages, each of which is radially extendable relative to the operatively associated hub portion between a retracted position and a radially extended position. The robotic vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendable members extending between the forward and rear housings, for selectively changing the distance between the forward and rear housings to effect movement of the robotic vehicle.

  5. Robot Rescue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morring, Frank, Jr.

    2004-01-01

    Tests with robots and the high-fidelity Hubble Space Telescope mockup astronauts use to train for servicing missions have convinced NASA managers it may be possible to maintain and upgrade the orbiting observatory without sending a space shuttle to do the job. In a formal request last week, the agency gave bidders until July 16 to sub-mit proposals for a robotic mission to the space telescope before the end of 2007. At a minimum, the mission would attach a rocket motor to deorbit the telescope safely when its service life ends. In the best case, it would use state-of-the- art robotics to prolong its life on orbit and install new instruments. With the space shuttle off-limits for the job under strict post-Columbia safety policies set by Administrator Sean O'Keefe, NASA has designed a "straw- man" robotic mission that would use an Atlas V or Delta N to launch a 20,ooO-lb. "Hubble Robotic Vehicle" to service the telescope. There, a robotic arm would grapple it, much as the shuttle does.

  6. Handbook of industrial robotics

    SciTech Connect

    Nof, S.Y.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents papers on the application of artificial intelligence to robots used in industrial plants. Topics considered include vision systems, elements of industrial robot software, robot teaching, the off-line programming of robots, a structured programming robot language, task-level manipulator programming, expert systems, and the role of the computer in robot intelligence.

  7. Tutorial on robotics

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, C.S.G.; Gonzalez, R.C.; Fu, K.S.

    1986-01-01

    Basic fundamentals in robotics are presented in this tutorial. Topics covered are as follows: robot arm kinematics; robot arm dynamics; planning or manipulator trajectories; servo control for manipulators; force sensing and control; robot vision systems; robot programming languages; and machine intelligence and robot planning.

  8. An Ka Bamanankan Kalan: Intermediate Bambara.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bird, Charles; Kante, Mamadou

    This textbook follows the third edition of "Introductory Bambara: An Ka Bamanankan Kalan", and is designed so that Bambara can be used almost exclusively in the classroom. Each of the twenty lessons has a culturally oriented topic and consists of a reading selection, drills on grammar and vocabulary list. The grammar notes are not…

  9. Medical robotics.

    PubMed

    Ferrigno, Giancarlo; Baroni, Guido; Casolo, Federico; De Momi, Elena; Gini, Giuseppina; Matteucci, Matteo; Pedrocchi, Alessandra

    2011-01-01

    Information and communication technology (ICT) and mechatronics play a basic role in medical robotics and computer-aided therapy. In the last three decades, in fact, ICT technology has strongly entered the health-care field, bringing in new techniques to support therapy and rehabilitation. In this frame, medical robotics is an expansion of the service and professional robotics as well as other technologies, as surgical navigation has been introduced especially in minimally invasive surgery. Localization systems also provide treatments in radiotherapy and radiosurgery with high precision. Virtual or augmented reality plays a role for both surgical training and planning and for safe rehabilitation in the first stage of the recovery from neurological diseases. Also, in the chronic phase of motor diseases, robotics helps with special assistive devices and prostheses. Although, in the past, the actual need and advantage of navigation, localization, and robotics in surgery and therapy has been in doubt, today, the availability of better hardware (e.g., microrobots) and more sophisticated algorithms(e.g., machine learning and other cognitive approaches)has largely increased the field of applications of these technologies,making it more likely that, in the near future, their presence will be dramatically increased, taking advantage of the generational change of the end users and the increasing request of quality in health-care delivery and management.

  10. Rehabilitation robotics.

    PubMed

    Krebs, H I; Volpe, B T

    2013-01-01

    This chapter focuses on rehabilitation robotics which can be used to augment the clinician's toolbox in order to deliver meaningful restorative therapy for an aging population, as well as on advances in orthotics to augment an individual's functional abilities beyond neurorestoration potential. The interest in rehabilitation robotics and orthotics is increasing steadily with marked growth in the last 10 years. This growth is understandable in view of the increased demand for caregivers and rehabilitation services escalating apace with the graying of the population. We provide an overview on improving function in people with a weak limb due to a neurological disorder who cannot properly control it to interact with the environment (orthotics); we then focus on tools to assist the clinician in promoting rehabilitation of an individual so that s/he can interact with the environment unassisted (rehabilitation robotics). We present a few clinical results occurring immediately poststroke as well as during the chronic phase that demonstrate superior gains for the upper extremity when employing rehabilitation robotics instead of usual care. These include the landmark VA-ROBOTICS multisite, randomized clinical study which demonstrates clinical gains for chronic stroke that go beyond usual care at no additional cost.

  11. Rehabilitation robotics

    PubMed Central

    KREBS, H.I.; VOLPE, B.T.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter focuses on rehabilitation robotics which can be used to augment the clinician’s toolbox in order to deliver meaningful restorative therapy for an aging population, as well as on advances in orthotics to augment an individual’s functional abilities beyond neurorestoration potential. The interest in rehabilitation robotics and orthotics is increasing steadily with marked growth in the last 10 years. This growth is understandable in view of the increased demand for caregivers and rehabilitation services escalating apace with the graying of the population. We will provide an overview on improving function in people with a weak limb due to a neurological disorder who cannot properly control it to interact with the environment (orthotics); we will then focus on tools to assist the clinician in promoting rehabilitation of an individual so that s/he can interact with the environment unassisted (rehabilitation robotics). We will present a few clinical results occurring immediately poststroke as well as during the chronic phase that demonstrate superior gains for the upper extremity when employing rehabilitation robotics instead of usual care. These include the landmark VA-ROBOTICS multisite, randomized clinical study which demonstrates clinical gains for chronic stroke that go beyond usual care at no additional cost. PMID:23312648

  12. Generic robot architecture

    DOEpatents

    Bruemmer, David J [Idaho Falls, ID; Few, Douglas A [Idaho Falls, ID

    2010-09-21

    The present invention provides methods, computer readable media, and apparatuses for a generic robot architecture providing a framework that is easily portable to a variety of robot platforms and is configured to provide hardware abstractions, abstractions for generic robot attributes, environment abstractions, and robot behaviors. The generic robot architecture includes a hardware abstraction level and a robot abstraction level. The hardware abstraction level is configured for developing hardware abstractions that define, monitor, and control hardware modules available on a robot platform. The robot abstraction level is configured for defining robot attributes and provides a software framework for building robot behaviors from the robot attributes. Each of the robot attributes includes hardware information from at least one hardware abstraction. In addition, each robot attribute is configured to substantially isolate the robot behaviors from the at least one hardware abstraction.

  13. Cooperating mobile robots

    DOEpatents

    Harrington, John J.; Eskridge, Steven E.; Hurtado, John E.; Byrne, Raymond H.

    2004-02-03

    A miniature mobile robot provides a relatively inexpensive mobile robot. A mobile robot for searching an area provides a way for multiple mobile robots in cooperating teams. A robotic system with a team of mobile robots communicating information among each other provides a way to locate a source in cooperation. A mobile robot with a sensor, a communication system, and a processor, provides a way to execute a strategy for searching an area.

  14. The Mars Global Surveyor Ka-Band Link Experiment (MGS/KaBLE-II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morabito, D.; Butman, S.; Shambayati, S.

    1999-01-01

    The Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft, launched on November 7, 1996, carries an experimental space-to-ground telecommunications link at Ka-band (32 GHz) along with the primary X-band (8.4-GHz) downlink. The signals are simultaneously transmitted from a 1.5-m-diameter parabolic antenna on MGS and received by a beam-waveguide (BWG) research and development (R&D) 34-meter a ntenna located in NASA's Goldstone Deep Space Network (DSN) complex near Barstow, California. This Ka-band link experiment (KaBLE-II) allows the performances of the Ka-band and X-band signals to be compared under nearly identical conditions. The two signals have been regularly tracked during the past 2 years. This article presents carrier-signal-level data (P_c/N_o) for both X-band and Ka-band acquired over a wide range of station elevation angles, weather conditions, and solar elongation angles. The cruise phase of the mission covered the period from launch (November 7, 1996) to Mars orbit capture (September 12, 1997). Since September 12, 1997, MGS has been in orbit around Mars. The measurements confirm that Ka-band could increase data capacity by at least a factor of three (5 dB) as compared with X-band. During May 1998, the solar corona experiment, in which the effects of solar plasma on the X-band and Ka-band links were studied, was conducted. In addition, frequency and difference frequency (f_x - f_(Ka)/3.8), ranging, and telemetry data results are presented. MGS/KaBLE-II measured signal strengths (for 54 percent of the experiments conducted) that were in reasonable agreement with predicted values based on preflight knowledge, and frequency residuals that agreed between bands and whose statistics were consistent with expected noise sources. For passes in which measured signal strengths disagreed with predicted values, the problems were traced to known deficiencies, for example, equipment operating under certain conditions, such as a cold Ka-band solid-state power amplifier (SSPA

  15. Robotic Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    A commercially available ANDROS Mark V-A robot was used by Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) as the departure point in the development of the HAZBOT III, a prototype teleoperated mobile robot designed for response to emergencies. Teleoperated robots contribute significantly to reducing human injury levels by performing tasks too hazardous for humans. ANDROS' manufacturer, REMOTEC, Inc., in turn, adopted some of the JPL concepts, particularly the control panel. HAZBOT III has exceptional mobility, employs solid state electronics and brushless DC motors for safer operation, and is designed so combustible gases cannot penetrate areas containing electronics and motors. Other features include the six-degree-of-freedom manipulator, the 30-pound squeeze force parallel jaw gripper and two video cameras, one for general viewing and navigation and the other for manipulation/grasping.

  16. Robot Swarms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morring, Frank, Jr.

    2005-01-01

    Engineers and interns at this NASA field center are building the prototype of a robotic rover that could go where no wheeled rover has gone before-into the dark cold craters at the lunar poles and across the Moon s rugged highlands-like a walking tetrahedron. With NASA pushing to meet President Bush's new exploration objectives, the robots taking shape here today could be on the Moon in a decade. In the longer term, the concept could lead to shape-shifting robot swarms designed to explore distant planetary surfaces in advance of humans. "If you look at all of NASA s projections of the future, anyone s projections of the space program, they re all rigid-body architecture," says Steven Curtis, principal investigator on the effort. "This is not rigid-body. The whole key here is flexibility and reconfigurability with a capital R."

  17. Robot Manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Space Shuttle's Remote Manipulator System (Canadarm) is a 50 foot robot arm used to deploy, retrieve or repair satellites in orbit. Initial spinoff version is designed to remove, inspect and replace large components of Ontario Hydro's CANDU nuclear reactors, which supply 50 percent of Ontario Hydro's total power reduction. CANDU robot is the first of SPAR's Remote Manipulator Systems intended for remote materials handling operations in nuclear servicing, chemical processing, smelting and manufacturing. Inco Limited used remote manipulator for remote control mining equipment to enhance safety and productivity of Inco's hardrock mining operations. System not only improves safety in a hazardous operation that costs more than a score of lives annually, it also increases productivity fourfold. Remote Manipulator System Division is also manufacturing a line of industrial robots and developing additional system for nuclear servicing, mining, defense and space operations.

  18. Robot Hand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Robots are limited only by the dexterity of the hand. Dr. Salisbury, in conjunction with Stanford, Caltech and Jet Propulsion Laboratory, developed the Salisbury Hand which has three, three-jointed human-like fingers. The tips are covered with a resilient, high friction material for gripping. The robot hand can manipulate objects by finger motion, and adapts to different aims. Advanced software allows the hand to interpret information from fingertip sensors. Further development is expected. A company has been formed to reproduce the device; copies have been delivered to several laboratories.

  19. Robot Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Mecanotron, now division of Robotics and Automation Corporation, developed a quick-change welding method called the Automatic Robotics Tool-change System (ARTS) under Marshall Space Flight Center and Rockwell International contracts. The ARTS system has six tool positions ranging from coarse sanding disks and abrasive wheels to cloth polishing wheels with motors of various horsepower. The system is used by fabricators of plastic body parts for the auto industry, by Texas Instruments for making radar domes, and for advanced composites at Aerospatiale in France.

  20. Robot gripper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webb, Winston S. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    An electronic force-detecting robot gripper for gripping objects and attaching to an external robot arm is disclosed. The gripper comprises motor apparatus, gripper jaws, and electrical circuits for driving the gripper motor and sensing the amount of force applied by the jaws. The force applied by the jaws is proportional to a threshold value of the motor current. When the motor current exceeds the threshold value, the electrical circuits supply a feedback signal to the electrical control circuit which, in turn, stops the gripper motor.

  1. Robotics Challenge: Cognitive Robot for General Missions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    ROBOTICS CHALLENGE: COGNITIVE ROBOT FOR GENERAL MISSIONS UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS JANUARY 2015 FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT... ROBOTICS CHALLENGE: COGNITIVE ROBOT FOR GENERAL MISSIONS 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA8750-12-1-0302 5b. GRANT NUMBER N/A 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 62702E...a complicated environment, a robotic system requires both high-level command facilities and low- level sensing/control mechanisms. This report

  2. Modulation transfer functions at Ka band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hesany, Vahid; Sistani, Bita; Salam, Asif; Haimov, Samuel; Gogineni, Prasad; Moore, Richard K.

    The modulation transfer function (MTF) is often used to describe the modulation of the radar signal by the long waves. MTFs were measured at 35 GHz (Ka band) with a switched-beam vector slope gauge/scatterometer on the research platform NORDSEE as part of the SAXON-FPN experiment. Three independent measurements of the scattering were available for each height measurement. This provided the opportunity to average the time series to reduce the effects of fading noise and sea spikes, or, alternatively, to append the time series to achieve more degrees of freedom in the spectral estimates. For upwind measurements, the phase of the VV-polarized Ka-band MTF was always positive, which implies that the maximum of the radar return originates from the forward face of the long-scale waves. This phase increases with increasing wind speed. The magnitude of the MTF decreases with increasing wind speed.

  3. Robotics in Construction.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-01-01

    MICROCOPY RESOLUTION TEST CHART NATIONAL BUREAU OF STANDARDS 1963 A 0 ROBOTICS IN CONSTRUCTIONt 10 BY MICHAEL R. BROZZO A REPORT PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE... ROBOTS AND ROBOTICS ---------------------------- 3 2.1 HISTORY ------------------------------------------- 3 CHAPTER THREE - BASIC ROBOT MOVEMENTS...CHAPTER FOUR - BASIC ROBOT COMPONENTS ------------------------ 8 4.1 GENERAL ------------------------------------------- 8 4.1.1 Manipulator

  4. Beyond Robotics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tally, Beth; Laverdure, Nate

    2006-01-01

    Chantilly High School Academy Robotics Team Number 612 from Chantilly, Virginia, is an award-winning team of high school students actively involved with FIRST (For Inspiration and Recognition of Science and Technology), a multinational nonprofit organization that inspires students to transform culture--making science, math, engineering and…

  5. Robotic Surgery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Childress, Vincent W.

    2007-01-01

    The medical field has many uses for automated and remote-controlled technology. For example, if a tissue sample is only handled in the laboratory by a robotic handling system, then it will never come into contact with a human. Such a system not only helps to automate the medical testing process, but it also helps to reduce the chances of…

  6. Validation of GPM Ka-Radar Algorithm Using a Ground-based Ka-Radar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Kenji; Kaneko, Yuki; Nakagawa, Katsuhiro; Furukawa, Kinji; Suzuki, Kenji

    2016-04-01

    GPM led by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration of US (NASA) aims to observe global precipitation. The core satellite is equipped with a microwave radiometer (GMI) and a dual-frequency radar (DPR) which is the first spaceborne Ku/Ka-band dual-wavelength radar dedicated for precipitation measurement. In the DPR algorithm, measured radar reflectivity is converted to effective radar reflectivity by estimating the rain attenuation. Here, the scattering/attenuation characteristics of Ka-band radiowaves are crucial, particularly for wet snow. A melting layer observation using a dual Ka-band radar system developed by JAXA was conducted along the slope of Mt. Zao in Yamagata Prefecture, Japan. The dual Ka-band radar system consists of two nearly identical Ka-band FM-CW radars, and the precipitation systems between two radars were observed in opposite directions. From this experiment, equivalent radar reflectivity (Ze) and specific attenuation (k) were obtained. The experiments were conducted for two winter seasons. During the data analyses, it was found that k estimate easily fluctuates because the estimate is based on double difference calculation. With much temporal and spatial averaging, k-Ze relationship was obtained for melting layers. One of the results is that the height of the peak of k seems slightly higher than that of Ze. The results are compared with in-situ precipitation particle measurements.

  7. Tandem mobile robot system

    DOEpatents

    Buttz, James H.; Shirey, David L.; Hayward, David R.

    2003-01-01

    A robotic vehicle system for terrain navigation mobility provides a way to climb stairs, cross crevices, and navigate across difficult terrain by coupling two or more mobile robots with a coupling device and controlling the robots cooperatively in tandem.

  8. Robotic System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    A complicated design project, successfully carried out by New York manufacturing consultant with help from NERAC, Inc., resulted in new type robotic system being marketed for industrial use. Consultant Robert Price, operating at E.S.I, Inc. in Albany, NY, sought help from NERAC to develop an automated tool for deburring the inside of 8 inch breech ring assemblies for howitzers produced by Watervliet Arsenal. NERAC conducted a search of the NASA data base and six others. From information supplied, Price designed a system consisting of a standard industrial robot arm, with a specially engineered six-axis deburring tool fitted to it. A microcomputer and computer program direct the tool on its path through the breech ring. E.S.I. markets the system to aerospace and metal cutting industries for deburring, drilling, routing and refining machined parts.

  9. Climbing robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerley, James J.; May, Edward L.; Ecklund, Wayne D.

    1993-11-01

    A mobile robot for traversing any surface consisting of a number of interconnected segments, each interconnected segment having an upper 'U' frame member, a lower 'U' frame member, a compliant joint between the upper 'U' frame member and the lower 'U' frame member, a number of linear actuators between the two frame members acting to provide relative displacement between the frame members, a foot attached to the lower 'U' frame member for adherence of the segment to the surface, an inter-segment attachment attached to the upper 'U' frame member for interconnecting the segments, a power source connected to the linear actuator, and a computer/controller for independently controlling each linear actuator in each interconnected segment such that the mobile robot moves in a caterpillar like fashion.

  10. High-power Ka-band amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cormier, R.

    1993-01-01

    Development of a high-power tube suitable to power a Ka-band (34.5-GHz) antenna transmitter located at the Goldstone, California, tracking station is continuing. The University of Maryland Laboratory for Plasma Research and JPL are conducting a joint effort to test the feasibility of phase locking a second-harmonic gyrotron both by direct injection at the output cavity and by using a priming cavity to bunch the electrons in the beam. This article describes several design options and the results of computer simulation testing.

  11. Robot environment expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potter, J. L.

    1985-01-01

    The Robot Environment Expert System uses a hexidecimal tree data structure to model a complex robot environment where not only the robot arm moves, but also the robot itself and other objects may move. The hextree model allows dynamic updating, collision avoidance and path planning over time, to avoid moving objects.

  12. Robots and manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heer, E.

    1981-01-01

    Robots are defined and described for various applications. The key feature of robots is programmability, which allows teleoperation, repair work in hazardous situations, and unsupervised operation in industrial functions. Two types of robots now exist: special purpose, with equipment for a specific task; and general purpose, which include nonservo-controlled robots, servo-controlled robots, and sensory control robots. Sensory robots are the most sophisticated, and are equipped with both internal control sensors and external sensors such as TV cameras, pressure detectors, laser range finders, etc. Sensory feedback to a central computer enables the robots to make appropriate modifications to the control program to adapt to new situations. Pattern recognition and scans for size are features of the TV sensors, and programs to develop a universal effector (hand) are outlined. Finally, robot programming in terms of manual, walkthrough, and textual methods are described, and the potential uses of robots for space and undersea construction and repair are discussed.

  13. Robotic Telesurgery Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    dexterous workspace, as in the NB2.1 [5]. This robotic platform is designed specifically for Laparoendoscopic Single - Site Surgery (LESS), and consists...Laparoendoscopic Single - Site Surgery using a Multi-Functional Miniature In Vivo Robot,” The International Journal of Medical Robotics and Computer Assisted...Farritor, S.M., Oleynikov, D. “Laparoendoscopic Single - Site Surgery using a Multi-Functional Miniature In Vivo Robot,” Minimally Invasive Robotic

  14. Collaborative Robotics Design Considerations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-05-06

    I~D~·L Paper Number Collaborative Robotics Design Considerations ABSTRACT As research advances individual robot capabilities, a logical...progression is the use of multiple robots to complete a task more effectively. Mission performance can be improved by the ability to allocate robots with...diverse capabilities to perform different parts of a complex task. To paraphrase [[10], there are many advantages to enabling robotic collaborative

  15. Robotic Vision for Welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, R. W.

    1986-01-01

    Vision system for robotic welder looks at weld along axis of welding electrode. Gives robot view of most of weld area, including yet-unwelded joint, weld pool, and completed weld bead. Protected within welding-torch body, lens and fiber bundle give robot closeup view of weld in progress. Relayed to video camera on robot manipulator frame, weld image provides data for automatic control of robot motion and welding parameters.

  16. p Ka calculation of poliprotic acid: histamine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Abreu, Heitor A.; De Almeida, Wagner B.; Duarte, Hélio A.

    2004-01-01

    Various theoretical studies have been reported addressing the performance of solvation models available to estimate p Ka values. However, no attention has been paid so far to the role played by the electronic, thermal and solvation energy individual contributions to the Gibbs free energy of the deprotonation process. In this work, we decompose the total Gibbs free energy into three distinct terms and then evaluate the dependence of each contribution on the level of theory employed for its determination using different levels of theory. The three possible p Kas of histamine have been estimated and compared with available experimental data. We found that the electronic energy term is sensitive to the level of theory and basis set, and, therefore, could be also a source of error in the theoretical calculation of p Kas.

  17. Aeronautical applications of steerable K/Ka-band antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmken, Henry; Prather, Horton

    1995-01-01

    The expected growth of wideband data and video transmission via satellite will press existing satellite Ku-band services and push development of the Ka-band region. Isolated ground based K/Ka-band terminals can experience severe fading due to rain and weather phenomena. However, since aircraft generally fly above the severe weather, they are attractive platforms for developing commercial K/Ka-band communication links.

  18. Robotic vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Box, W.D.

    1994-03-15

    A robotic vehicle is described for travel through an enclosed or partially enclosed conduit or pipe including vertical and/or horizontal conduit or pipe. The robotic vehicle comprises forward and rear housings each provided with a surface engaging mechanism for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit through which the vehicle is travelling, whereby the housings are selectively held in a stationary position within the conduit. The vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendable members, each of which defines a cavity therein. The forward end portion of each extendable member is secured to the forward housing and the rear end portion of each housing is secured to the rear housing. Each of the extendable members is independently extendable from a retracted position to an extended position upon the injection of a gas under pressure into the cavity of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing and the rear housing can be selectively increased. Further, each of the extendable members is independently retractable from the extended position to the retracted position upon the application of a vacuum to the cavity of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing and the rear housing can be selectively decreased. 11 figures.

  19. Robotic vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Box, W.D.

    1996-03-12

    A robotic vehicle is described for travel through an enclosed or partially enclosed conduit or pipe including vertical and/or horizontal conduit or pipe. The robotic vehicle comprises forward and rear housings each provided with a surface engaging mechanism for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit through which the vehicle is travelling, whereby the housings are selectively held in a stationary position within the conduit. The vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendable members, each of which defines a cavity therein. The forward end portion of each extendable member is secured to the forward housing and the rear end portion of each housing is secured to the rear housing. Each of the extendable members is independently extendable from a retracted position to an extended position upon the injection of a gas under pressure into the cavity of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing and the rear housing can be selectively increased. Further, each of the extendable members is independently retractable from the extended position to the retracted position upon the application of a vacuum to the cavity of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing and the rear housing can be selectively decreased. 14 figs.

  20. Robotic vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Box, W. Donald

    1996-01-01

    A robotic vehicle (10) for travel through an enclosed or partially enclosed conduit or pipe including vertical and/or horizontal conduit or pipe. The robotic vehicle (10) comprises forward and rear housings (32 and 12) each provided with a surface engaging mechanism for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit through which the vehicle is travelling, whereby the housings (32 and 12) are selectively held in a stationary position within the conduit. The vehicle (10) also includes at least three selectively extendable members (46), each of which defines a cavity (56) therein. The forward end portion (50) of each extendable member (46) is secured to the forward housing (32) and the rear end portion (48) of each housing is secured to the rear housing (12). Each of the extendable members (46) is independently extendable from a retracted position to an extended position upon the injection of a gas under pressure into the cavity (56) of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing (32 ) and the rear housing (12) can be selectively increased. Further, each of the extendable members (46) is independently retractable from the extended position to the retracted position upon the application of a vacuum to the cavity (56) of the extendable member (46) such that the distance between the forward housing (32) and the rear housing (12) can be selectively decreased.

  1. Robotic vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Box, W. Donald

    1994-01-01

    A robotic vehicle (10) for travel through an enclosed or partially enclosed conduit or pipe including vertical and/or horizontal conduit or pipe. The robotic vehicle (10) comprises forward and rear housings (32 and 12) each provided with a surface engaging mechanism for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit through which the vehicle is travelling, whereby the housings (32 and 12) are selectively held in a stationary position within the conduit. The vehicle (10) also includes at least three selectively extendable members (46), each of which defines a cavity (56) therein. The forward end portion (50) of each extendable member (46) is secured to the forward housing (32) and the rear end portion (48) of each housing is secured to the rear housing (12). Each of the extendable members (46) is independently extendable from a retracted position to an extended position upon the injection of a gas under pressure into the cavity (56) of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing (32 ) and the rear housing (12) can be selectively increased. Further, each of the extendable members (46) is independently retractable from the extended position to the retracted position upon the application of a vacuum to the cavity (56) of the extendable member (46) such that the distance between the forward housing (32) and the rear housing (12) can be selectively decreased.

  2. Elucidating the Conformational Dependence of Calculated pKa Values.

    PubMed

    Livesay, Dennis R; Jacobs, Donald J; Kanjanapangka, Julie; Chea, Eric; Cortez, Hector; Garcia, Jorge; Kidd, Patrick; Marquez, Mario Pulido; Pande, Swati; Yang, David

    2006-07-01

    The variability within calculated protein residue pKa values calculated using Poisson-Boltzmann continuum theory with respect to small conformational fluctuations is investigated. As a general rule, sites buried in the protein core have the largest pKa fluctuations but the least amount of conformational variability; conversely, sites on the protein surface generally have large conformational fluctuations but very small pKa fluctuations. These results occur because of the heterogeneous or uniform nature of the electrostatic microenvironments at the protein core or surface, respectively. Atypical surface sites with large pKa fluctuations occur at the interfaces between significant anionic and cationic potentials.

  3. Study of sea ice regions using AltiKa measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poisson, Jean-Christophe; Thibaut, Pierre; Hoang, Duc; Boy, François; Guillot, Amandine; Picot, Nicolas

    2015-04-01

    Since the launch of the SARAL/AltiKa mission on February 25th, 2013, altimeter measurements of excellent quality are acquired all over the globe for the first time in Ka-band. One of the main benefits of the Ka-band is to have a very low penetration length in the ice (unlike the Ku-band historically used by previous altimetry missions), which allows to significantly reduce measurements uncertainties of the sea ice topography. Flying on the Envisat orbit and providing measurements at 40 Hz, the exploitation of AltiKa waveforms on sea ice is of great interest. Sea ice covered regions are characterized by a large number of different surfaces with a multitude of backscattering properties rapidly evolving with time. Thanks to the high resolution and precision of the AltiKa measurements, backscattering properties from each of these surfaces (first year ice, multiyear ice, fast ice, leads, polynyas, etc. …) can be observed through rapid changes of the returned echo shape. In the framework of the PEACHI project (Prototype for Expertise on AltiKa, for Coastal, Hydrology and Ice funded by CNES) which aims at analyzing and improving AltiKa measurements, a waveform processing based on an altimeter echo classification is developed and performed on all available AltiKa data in the Arctic ocean. Through this processing a study is conducted on the the evolution of the sea ice cover observed in Ka-band.

  4. Hexapod Robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Begody, Ericka

    2016-01-01

    The project I am working on at NASA-Johnson Space Center in Houston, TX is a hexapod robot. This project was started by various engineers at the Trick Lab. The goal of this project is to have the hexapod track a yellow ball or possibly another object from left to right and up/down. The purpose is to have it track an object like a real creature. The project will consist of using software and hardware. This project started with a hexapod robot which uses a senor bar to track a yellow ball but with a limited field of vision. The sensor bar acts as the robots "head." Two servos will be added to the hexapod to create flexion and extension of the head. The neck and head servos will have to be programmed to be added to the original memory map of the existing servos. I will be using preexisting code. The main programming language that will be used to add to the preexisting code is C++. The trick modeling and simulation software will also be used in the process to improve its tracking and movement. This project will use a trial and error approach, basically seeing what works and what does not. The first step is to initially understand how the hexapod works. To get a general understanding of how the hexapod maneuvers and plan on how to had a neck and head servo which works with the rest of the body. The second step would be configuring the head and neck servos with the leg servos. During this step, limits will be programmed specifically for the each servo. By doing this, the servo is limited to how far it can rotate both clockwise and counterclockwise and this is to prevent hardware damage. The hexapod will have two modes in which it works in. The first mode will be if the sensor bar does not detect an object. If the object it is programmed to look for is not in its view it will automatically scan from left to right 3 times then up and down once. The second mode will be if the sensor bar does detect the object. In this mode the hexapod will track the object from left to

  5. DARHT 2 kA Cathode Development

    SciTech Connect

    Henestroza, E.; Houck, T.; Kwan, J.W.; Leitner, M.; Miram, G.; Prichard, B.; Roy, P.K.; Waldron, W.; Westenskow, G.; Yu, S.; Bieniosek, F.M.

    2009-03-09

    In the campaign to achieve 2 kA of electron beam current, we have made several changes to the DARHT-II injector during 2006-2007. These changes resulted in a significant increase in the beam current, achieving the 2 kA milestone. Until recently (before 2007), the maximum beam current that was produced from the 6.5-inch diameter (612M) cathode was about 1300 A when the cathode was operating at a maximum temperature of 1140 C. At this temperature level, the heat loss was dominated by radiation which is proportional to temperature to the fourth power. The maximum operating temperature was limited by the damage threshold of the potted filament and the capacity of the filament heater power supply, as well as the shortening of the cathode life time. There were also signs of overheating at other components in the cathode assembly. Thus it was clear that our approach to increase beam current could not be simply trying to run at a higher temperature and the preferred way was to operate with a cathode that has a lower work function. The dispenser cathode initially used was the type 612M made by SpectraMat. According to the manufacturer's bulletin, this cathode should be able to produce more than 10 A/cm{sup 2} of current density (corresponding to 2 kA of total beam current) at our operating conditions. Instead the measured emission (space charge limited) was 6 A/cm{sup 2}. The result was similar even after we had revised the activation and handling procedures to adhere more closely to the recommend steps (taking longer time and nonstop to do the out-gassing). Vacuum was a major concern in considering the cathode's performance. Although the vacuum gauges at the injector vessel indicated 10{sup -8} Torr, the actual vacuum condition near the cathode in the central region of the vessel, where there might be significant out-gassing from the heater region, was never determined. Poor vacuum at the surface of the cathode degraded the emission (by raising the work function value). We

  6. Robotic intelligence kernel

    DOEpatents

    Bruemmer, David J.

    2009-11-17

    A robot platform includes perceptors, locomotors, and a system controller. The system controller executes a robot intelligence kernel (RIK) that includes a multi-level architecture and a dynamic autonomy structure. The multi-level architecture includes a robot behavior level for defining robot behaviors, that incorporate robot attributes and a cognitive level for defining conduct modules that blend an adaptive interaction between predefined decision functions and the robot behaviors. The dynamic autonomy structure is configured for modifying a transaction capacity between an operator intervention and a robot initiative and may include multiple levels with at least a teleoperation mode configured to maximize the operator intervention and minimize the robot initiative and an autonomous mode configured to minimize the operator intervention and maximize the robot initiative. Within the RIK at least the cognitive level includes the dynamic autonomy structure.

  7. Intelligent robots and computer vision

    SciTech Connect

    Casasent, D.P.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a conference which examined artificial intelligence and image processing in relation to robotics. Topics considered at the conference included feature extraction and pattern recognition for computer vision, image processing for intelligent robotics, robot sensors, image understanding and artificial intelligence, optical processing techniques in robotic applications, robot languages and programming, processor architectures for computer vision, mobile robots, multisensor fusion, three-dimensional modeling and recognition, intelligent robots applications, and intelligent robot systems.

  8. Humanoid Robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linn, Douglas M. (Inventor); Ambrose, Robert O. (Inventor); Diftler, Myron A. (Inventor); Askew, Scott R. (Inventor); Platt, Robert (Inventor); Mehling, Joshua S. (Inventor); Radford, Nicolaus A. (Inventor); Strawser, Phillip A. (Inventor); Bridgwater, Lyndon (Inventor); Wampler, II, Charles W. (Inventor); Abdallah, Muhammad E. (Inventor); Ihrke, Chris A. (Inventor); Reiland, Matthew J. (Inventor); Sanders, Adam M. (Inventor); Reich, David M. (Inventor); Hargrave, Brian (Inventor); Parsons, Adam H. (Inventor); Permenter, Frank N. (Inventor); Davis, Donald R. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A humanoid robot includes a torso, a pair of arms, two hands, a neck, and a head. The torso extends along a primary axis and presents a pair of shoulders. The pair of arms movably extend from a respective one of the pair of shoulders. Each of the arms has a plurality of arm joints. The neck movably extends from the torso along the primary axis. The neck has at least one neck joint. The head movably extends from the neck along the primary axis. The head has at least one head joint. The shoulders are canted toward one another at a shrug angle that is defined between each of the shoulders such that a workspace is defined between the shoulders.

  9. Robotics for Human Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fong, Terrence; Deans, Mathew; Bualat, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Robots can do a variety of work to increase the productivity of human explorers. Robots can perform tasks that are tedious, highly repetitive or long-duration. Robots can perform precursor tasks, such as reconnaissance, which help prepare for future human activity. Robots can work in support of astronauts, assisting or performing tasks in parallel. Robots can also perform "follow-up" work, completing tasks designated or started by humans. In this paper, we summarize the development and testing of robots designed to improve future human exploration of space.

  10. Assigning the pKa's of Polyprotic Acids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodner, George M.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses (1) polyproptic acids for which the difference between K-a's is large; (2) the Henderson-Hasselbach equation; (3) polyprotic acids for which the difference between K-a's is small; (4) analysis of microscopic dissociation constants for cysteine; and (5) analysis of pK-a data. (JN)

  11. Competencies Identification for Robotics Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Le D.

    A study focused on the task of identifying competencies for robotics training. The level of robotics training was limited to that of robot technicians. Study objectives were to obtain a list of occupational competencies; to rank their order of importance; and to compare opinions from robot manufacturers, robot users, and robotics educators…

  12. Robot strings: Long, thin continuum robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, I. D.

    We describe and discuss the development of long, thin, continuous “ string-like” robots aimed at Space exploration missions. These continuous backbone “ continuum” robots are inspired by numerous biological structures, particularly vines, worms, and the tongues of animals such as the anteater. The key novelty is the high length-to-diameter ratio of the robots. This morphology offers penetration into, and exploration of, significantly narrower and deeper environments than accessible using current robot technology. In this paper, we introduce new design alternatives for long thin continuum robots, based on an analysis and extension of three core existing continuum robot design types. The designs are evaluated based on their mechanical feasibility, structural properties, kinematic simplicity, and degrees of freedom.

  13. Dating loess up to 800 ka by thermoluminescence

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, G.W. ); Pillans, B.J. ); Palmer, A.S. )

    1992-05-01

    Thermoluminescence (TL) ages agreeing with expected ages have been obtained for 13 loess samples spanning the age range from 20 to 800 ka. The authors samples are from Alaska and North Island, New Zealand, and are unusual in TL dating studies of loess older than 80-100 ka by having independent age assignments that are generally well constrained, from ages of associated tephra beds. With the polymineral fine-silt-sized (4-11 {mu}m) grains the partial-bleach TL technique yielded expected ages up to about 350 ka, whereas the total-bleach method gave accurate ages in the range 100 to 800 ka. Thus, the much disputed upper age limit of 100-150 ka for the TL dating of loess now appears to be sample and worker dependent, rather than a global property of the TL signals in the TL-dominant feldspars.

  14. Ka-Band Autonomous Formation Flying Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tien, Jeffrey; Purcell, George, Jr.; Srinivasan, Jeffrey; Ciminera, Michael; Srinivasan, Meera; Meehan, Thomas; Young, Lawrence; Aung, MiMi; Amaro, Luis; Chong, Yong; Quirk, Kevin

    2004-01-01

    Ka-band integrated range and bearing-angle formation sensor called the Autonomous Formation Flying (AFF) Sensor has been developed to enable deep-space formation flying of multiple spacecraft. The AFF Sensor concept is similar to that of the Global Positioning System (GPS), but the AFF Sensor would not use the GPS. The AFF Sensor would reside in radio transceivers and signal-processing subsystems aboard the formation-flying spacecraft. A version of the AFF Sensor has been developed for initial application to the two-spacecraft StarLight optical-interferometry mission, and several design investigations have been performed. From the prototype development, it has been concluded that the AFF Sensor can be expected to measure distances and directions with standard deviations of 2 cm and 1 arc minute, respectively, for spacecraft separations ranging up to about 1 km. It has also been concluded that it is necessary to optimize performance of the overall mission through design trade-offs among the performance of the AFF Sensor, the field of view of the AFF Sensor, the designs of the spacecraft and the scientific instruments that they will carry, the spacecraft maneuvers required for formation flying, and the design of a formation-control system.

  15. Robotic Lander Prototype

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA engineers successfully integrated and completed system testing on a new robotic lander recently at Teledyne Brown Engineering’s facility in Huntsville in support of the Robotic Lunar Lander ...

  16. Robotic Lander Development Project

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Robotic Lander Development Project at the Marshall Center is testing a prototype lander that will aid in the design and development of a new generation of small, smart, versatile robotic lander...

  17. Robotic Intelligence Kernel: Communications

    SciTech Connect

    Walton, Mike C.

    2009-09-16

    The INL Robotic Intelligence Kernel-Comms is the communication server that transmits information between one or more robots using the RIK and one or more user interfaces. It supports event handling and multiple hardware communication protocols.

  18. Robots and the Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albus, James S.

    1984-01-01

    Spectacular advances in microcomputers are forging new technological frontiers in robotics. For example, many factories will be totally automated. Economic implications of the new technology of robotics for the future are examined. (RM)

  19. Robotic Surveying

    SciTech Connect

    Suzy Cantor-McKinney; Michael Kruzic

    2007-03-01

    ZAPATA ENGINEERING challenged our engineers and scientists, which included robotics expertise from Carnegie Mellon University, to design a solution to meet our client's requirements for rapid digital geophysical and radiological data collection of a munitions test range with no down-range personnel. A prime concern of the project was to minimize exposure of personnel to unexploded ordnance and radiation. The field season was limited by extreme heat, cold and snow. Geographical Information System (GIS) tools were used throughout this project to accurately define the limits of mapped areas, build a common mapping platform from various client products, track production progress, allocate resources and relate subsurface geophysical information to geographical features for use in rapidly reacquiring targets for investigation. We were hopeful that our platform could meet the proposed 35 acres per day, towing both a geophysical package and a radiological monitoring trailer. We held our breath and crossed our fingers as the autonomous Speedrower began to crawl across the playa lakebed. We met our proposed production rate, and we averaged just less than 50 acres per 12-hour day using the autonomous platform with a path tracking error of less than +/- 4 inches. Our project team mapped over 1,800 acres in an 8-week (4 days per week) timeframe. The expertise of our partner, Carnegie Mellon University, was recently demonstrated when their two autonomous vehicle entries finished second and third at the 2005 Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) Grand Challenge. 'The Grand Challenge program was established to help foster the development of autonomous vehicle technology that will some day help save the lives of Americans who are protecting our country on the battlefield', said DARPA Grand Challenge Program Manager, Ron Kurjanowicz. Our autonomous remote-controlled vehicle (ARCV) was a modified New Holland 2550 Speedrower retrofitted to allow the machine

  20. RHOBOT: Radiation hardened robotics

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, P.C.; Posey, L.D.

    1997-10-01

    A survey of robotic applications in radioactive environments has been conducted, and analysis of robotic system components and their response to the varying types and strengths of radiation has been completed. Two specific robotic systems for accident recovery and nuclear fuel movement have been analyzed in detail for radiation hardness. Finally, a general design approach for radiation-hardened robotics systems has been developed and is presented. This report completes this project which was funded under the Laboratory Directed Research and Development program.

  1. Tool Changer For Robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voellmer, George M.

    1992-01-01

    Mechanism enables robot to change tools on end of arm. Actuated by motion of robot: requires no additional electrical or pneumatic energy to make or break connection between tool and wrist at end of arm. Includes three basic subassemblies: wrist interface plate attached to robot arm at wrist, tool interface plate attached to tool, and holster. Separate tool interface plate and holster provided for each tool robot uses.

  2. Robotics Research for Cybersecurity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-24

    Wei-Min Shen 1/24/12 Page 1 of 3 Robotics Research for Cybersecurity Wei-Min Shen Polymorphic Robotics Laboratory USC/ISI, 4676 Admiralty Way...Marina del Rey, CA 90292 Phone: 310-448-8710, Fax: 310-822-0751 Email: shen@isi.edu, Web: http://www.isi.edu/ robots / Executive Summary This...project is to conduct a comprehensive study of robotics research in the context of cybersecurity. Specifically, 1) Create a realistic cybersecurity test

  3. Towards Pervasive Robotics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    Towards Pervasive Robotics Artur M. Arsenio Artificial Intelligence Lab - Massachusetts Institute of Technology 545 Technology Square, Room NE43-936...MA 02139 arsenio@ai.mit.edu Abstract Pervasive robotics will require, in a near future, small, light and cheap robots that exhibit complex behaviors...These demands led to the development of the M2-M4 Macaco project - a robotic active vi- sion head. Macaco is a portable system, capable of emulating

  4. Ground Vehicle Robotics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-20

    Ground Vehicle Robotics Jim Parker Associate Director, Ground Vehicle Robotics UNCLASSIFIED: Distribution Statement A. Approved for public...DATE 20 AUG 2013 2. REPORT TYPE Briefing Charts 3. DATES COVERED 09-05-2013 to 15-08-2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Ground Vehicle Robotics 5a...Willing to take Risk on technology -User Evaluated -Contested Environments -Operational Data Applied Robotics for Installation & Base Ops -Low Risk

  5. Telepresence and Intervention Robotics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-11-01

    UNCLASSIFIED Defense Technical Information Center Compilation Part Notice ADPO10628 TITLE: Telepresence and Intervention Robotics DISTRIBUTION...comprise the compilation report: ADPO10609 thru ADP010633 UNCLASSIFIED 20-1 TELEPRESENCE AND INTERVENTION ROBOTICS Nathalie Cislo Laboratoire de...Robotique de Paris 10-12, Avenue de 1’Europe 78140 VWlizy-Villacoublay, FRANCE cislo@robot.uvsq.fr ABSTRACT In the field of Mobile Robotics applications

  6. Robotics of human movements.

    PubMed

    van der Smagt, Patrick; Grebenstein, Markus; Urbanek, Holger; Fligge, Nadine; Strohmayr, Michael; Stillfried, Georg; Parrish, Jonathon; Gustus, Agneta

    2009-01-01

    The construction of robotic systems that can move the way humans do, with respect to agility, stability and precision, is a necessary prerequisite for the successful integration of robotic systems in human environments. We explain human-centered views on robotics, based on the three basic ingredients (1) actuation; (2) sensing; and (3) control, and formulate detailed examples thereof.

  7. Building a Better Robot

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navah, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Kids love to build robots, letting their imaginations run wild with thoughts of what they might look like and what they could be programmed to do. Yet when students use cereal boxes and found objects to make robots, often the projects look too similar and tend to fall apart. This alternative allows students to "build" robots in a different way,…

  8. Robotics development programs overview

    SciTech Connect

    Heckendorn, F.M.

    1990-11-01

    This paper discusses the applications of robotics at the Westinghouse Savannah River Site. The Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) continues to provide support to the Savannah River Site (SRS) in many areas of Robotics and Remote Vision. An overview of the current and near term future developments are presented. The driving forces for Robotics and Vision developments at SRS include the classic reasons for industrial robotics installation (i.e. repetitive and undesirable jobs) and those reasons related to radioactive environments. Protection of personnel from both radiation and radioactive contamination benefit greatly from both Robotics and Telerobotics. Additionally, the quality of information available from remote locations benefits greatly from the ability to visually monitor and remotely sense. The systems discussed include a glovebox waste handling and bagout robot, a shielded cells robot for radioactive waste sample transfer, waste handling gantry robots, a two armed master/slave manipulator as an attachment to a gantry robot, navigation robot research/testing, demonstration of the mobile underwater remote cleaning and inspection device, a camera deployment robot to support remote crane operations and for deployment of radiation sensors directly over a hazardous site, and demonstration of a large mobile robot for high radiation environments. Development of specialized and limited life vision/viewing systems for hazardous environments is also discussed.

  9. Networking a mobile robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKee, Gerard T.

    1994-10-01

    Conventional mobile robotic systems are `stand alone'. Program development involves loading programs into the mobile, via an umbilical. Autonomous operation, in this context, means `isolation': the user cannot interact with the program as the robot is moving around. Recent research in `swarm robotics' has exploited wireless networks as a means of providing inter- robot communication, but the population is still isolated from the human user. In this paper we report on research we are conducting into the provision of mobile robots as resources on a local area computer network, and thus breaking the isolation barrier. We are making use of new multimedia workstation and wireless networking technology to link the robots to the network in order to provide a new type of resource for the user. We model the robot as a set of resources and propose a client-server architecture as the basis for providing user access to the robots. We describe the types of resources each robot can provide and we outline the potential for cooperative robotics, human-robot cooperation, and teleoperation and autonomous robot behavior within this context.

  10. Robotic Telesurgery Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-10-01

    concepts have been pursued to provide imaging capabilities for use in robotic surgery . The first concept involves developing a camera system that...Oleynikov, D. Project Title: CAESAR: Computer Automated Enhanced Support and Analysis for Robotic Surgery Source of Support: Intelligent Automation, Inc...successful autonomous robotic surgery . REFERENCES Dolghi, O., Strabala, K., Wortman, T., Goede, M., Farritor, S., & Oleynikov. (2010). Miniature

  11. Mobile robot knowledge base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heath Pastore, Tracy; Barnes, Mitchell; Hallman, Rory

    2005-05-01

    Robot technology is developing at a rapid rate for both commercial and Department of Defense (DOD) applications. As a result, the task of managing both technology and experience information is growing. In the not-to-distant past, tracking development efforts of robot platforms, subsystems and components was not too difficult, expensive, or time consuming. To do the same today is a significant undertaking. The Mobile Robot Knowledge Base (MRKB) provides the robotics community with a web-accessible, centralized resource for sharing information, experience, and technology to more efficiently and effectively meet the needs of the robot system user. The resource includes searchable information on robot components, subsystems, mission payloads, platforms, and DOD robotics programs. In addition, the MRKB website provides a forum for technology and information transfer within the DOD robotics community and an interface for the Robotic Systems Pool (RSP). The RSP manages a collection of small teleoperated and semi-autonomous robotic platforms, available for loan to DOD and other qualified entities. The objective is to put robots in the hands of users and use the test data and fielding experience to improve robot systems.

  12. Total portal robotic pneumonectomy.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Jose R

    2013-09-01

    Robotic pulmonary lobectomies have been reported to be technically and oncologically achievable; however, only three robotic pneumonectomy cases have been described. Two of them used a mini thoracotomy. We describe one case of a total portal robotic pneumonectomy without utility incision. We describe the step-by-step process.

  13. Inertially Aided Robotics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-31

    0031 dis~bti:,1 is uitsnjt( Deczmllcr 31: 1989 92-05530 2:.-: 3o : T >VE?-A ~ : Inertially Aided Robotics FINAL REPORT for Contract No. DAAHO1 -88-D-0057...1 2 Advantages of Inertially Aided Robotics ...86 iii List of Figures Figure 1 - Robot Manipulator having Joint Sensor Based Control ..................... 2

  14. Robotic Intelligence Kernel: Visualization

    SciTech Connect

    2009-09-16

    The INL Robotic Intelligence Kernel-Visualization is the software that supports the user interface. It uses the RIK-C software to communicate information to and from the robot. The RIK-V illustrates the data in a 3D display and provides an operating picture wherein the user can task the robot.

  15. Robotic Follow Algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    2005-03-30

    The Robotic Follow Algorithm enables allows any robotic vehicle to follow a moving target while reactively choosing a route around nearby obstacles. The robotic follow behavior can be used with different camera systems and can be used with thermal or visual tracking as well as other tracking methods such as radio frequency tags.

  16. Modular robot

    DOEpatents

    Ferrante, T.A.

    1997-11-11

    A modular robot may comprise a main body having a structure defined by a plurality of stackable modules. The stackable modules may comprise a manifold, a valve module, and a control module. The manifold may comprise a top surface and a bottom surface having a plurality of fluid passages contained therein, at least one of the plurality of fluid passages terminating in a valve port located on the bottom surface of the manifold. The valve module is removably connected to the manifold and selectively fluidically connects the plurality of fluid passages contained in the manifold to a supply of pressurized fluid and to a vent. The control module is removably connected to the valve module and actuates the valve module to selectively control a flow of pressurized fluid through different ones of the plurality of fluid passages in the manifold. The manifold, valve module, and control module are mounted together in a sandwich-like manner and comprise a main body. A plurality of leg assemblies are removably connected to the main body and are removably fluidically connected to the fluid passages in the manifold so that each of the leg assemblies can be selectively actuated by the flow of pressurized fluid in different ones of the plurality of fluid passages in the manifold. 12 figs.

  17. Modular robot

    DOEpatents

    Ferrante, Todd A.

    1997-01-01

    A modular robot may comprise a main body having a structure defined by a plurality of stackable modules. The stackable modules may comprise a manifold, a valve module, and a control module. The manifold may comprise a top surface and a bottom surface having a plurality of fluid passages contained therein, at least one of the plurality of fluid passages terminating in a valve port located on the bottom surface of the manifold. The valve module is removably connected to the manifold and selectively fluidically connects the plurality of fluid passages contained in the manifold to a supply of pressurized fluid and to a vent. The control module is removably connected to the valve module and actuates the valve module to selectively control a flow of pressurized fluid through different ones of the plurality of fluid passages in the manifold. The manifold, valve module, and control module are mounted together in a sandwich-like manner and comprise a main body. A plurality of leg assemblies are removably connected to the main body and are removably fluidically connected to the fluid passages in the manifold so that each of the leg assemblies can be selectively actuated by the flow of pressurized fluid in different ones of the plurality of fluid passages in the manifold.

  18. On the development of protein pKa calculation algorithms

    SciTech Connect

    Carstensen, Tommy; Farrell, Damien; Huang, Yong; Baker, Nathan A.; Nielsen, Jens E.

    2011-12-01

    Protein pKa calculation algorithms are typically developed to reproduce experimental pKa values and provide us with a better understanding of the fundamental importance of electrostatics for protein structure and function. However, the approximations and adjustable parameters employed in almost all pKa calculation methods means that there is the risk that pKa calculation algorithms are 'over-fitted' to the available datasets, and that these methods therefore do not model protein physics realistically. We employ simulations of the protein pKa calculation algorithm development process to show that careful optimization procedures and non-biased experimental datasets must be applied to ensure a realistic description of the underlying physical terms. We furthermore investigate the effect of experimental noise and find a significant effect on the pKa calculation algorithm optimization landscape. Finally, we comment on strategies for ensuring the physical realism of protein pKa calculation algorithms and we assess the overall state of the field with a view to predicting future directions of development.

  19. NASA SCaN Overview and Ka-Band Actvities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stegeman, James D.; Midon, Marco Mario; Davarian, Faramaz; Geldzahler, Barry

    2014-01-01

    The Ka- and Broadband Communications Conference is an international forum attended by worldwide experts in the area of Ka-Band Propagation and satellite communications. Since its inception, NASA has taken the initiative of organizing and leading technical sections on RF Propagation and satellite communications, solidifying its worldwide leadership in the aforementioned areas. Consequently, participation in this conference through the contributions described below will maintain NASA leadership in Ka- and above RF Propagation as it relates to enhancing current and future satellite communication systems supporting space exploration.

  20. Intelligent robots and computer vision

    SciTech Connect

    Casasent, D.P.

    1986-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a conference on artificial intelligence and robot vision. Topics considered at the conference included pattern recognition, image processing for intelligent robotics, three-dimensional vision (depth and motion), vision modeling and shape estimation, spatial reasoning, the symbolic processing visual information, robotic sensors and applications, intelligent control architectures for robot systems, robot languages and programming, human-machine interfaces, robotics applications, and architectures of robotics.

  1. Onboard Interferometric SAR Processor for the Ka-Band Radar Interferometer (KaRIn)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esteban-Fernandez, Daniel; Rodriquez, Ernesto; Peral, Eva; Clark, Duane I.; Wu, Xiaoqing

    2011-01-01

    An interferometric synthetic aperture radar (SAR) onboard processor concept and algorithm has been developed for the Ka-band radar interferometer (KaRIn) instrument on the Surface and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission. This is a mission- critical subsystem that will perform interferometric SAR processing and multi-look averaging over the oceans to decrease the data rate by three orders of magnitude, and therefore enable the downlink of the radar data to the ground. The onboard processor performs demodulation, range compression, coregistration, and re-sampling, and forms nine azimuth squinted beams. For each of them, an interferogram is generated, including common-band spectral filtering to improve correlation, followed by averaging to the final 1 1-km ground resolution pixel. The onboard processor has been prototyped on a custom FPGA-based cPCI board, which will be part of the radar s digital subsystem. The level of complexity of this technology, dictated by the implementation of interferometric SAR processing at high resolution, the extremely tight level of accuracy required, and its implementation on FPGAs are unprecedented at the time of this reporting for an onboard processor for flight applications.

  2. [Robotics in pediatric surgery].

    PubMed

    Camps, J I

    2011-10-01

    Despite the extensive use of robotics in the adult population, the use of robotics in pediatrics has not been well accepted. There is still a lack of awareness from pediatric surgeons on how to use the robotic equipment, its advantages and indications. Benefit is still controversial. Dexterity and better visualization of the surgical field are one of the strong values. Conversely, cost and a lack of small instruments prevent the use of robotics in the smaller patients. The aim of this manuscript is to present the controversies about the use of robotics in pediatric surgery.

  3. Miniaturized autonomous robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishihara, Hidenori; Fukuda, Toshio

    1998-01-01

    Many projects developing the miniaturized autonomous robot have been carried out in the whole world. This paper deals with our challenges developing a miniaturized autonomous robot. The miniaturized autonomous robot is defined as the miniaturized closed-loop system with micro processor, microactuators and microsensors. We have developed the micro autonomous robotic system (MARS) consisting of the microprocessor, microsensors, microactuators, communication units and batteries. The MARS controls itself by the downloaded program supplied through the IR communication system. In this paper, we demonstrate several performance of the MARS, and discuss the properties of the miniaturized autonomous robot.

  4. Robotic technology in urology

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, D; Challacombe, B; Khan, M S; Dasgupta, P

    2006-01-01

    Urology has increasingly become a technology‐driven specialty. The advent of robotic surgical systems in the past 10 years has led to urologists becoming the world leaders in the use of such technology. In this paper, we review the history and current status of robotic technology in urology. From the earliest uses of robots for transurethral resection of the prostate, to robotic devices for manipulating laparoscopes and to the current crop of master–slave devices for robotic‐assisted laparoscopic surgery, the evolution of robotics in the urology operating theatre is presented. Future possibilities, including the prospects for nanotechnology in urology, are awaited. PMID:17099094

  5. Robotics Technical Note 102.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-01

    IAfl-AIBZ 4U2 AIR FORCE BUSINESS RESEARCH MANAGEMENT CENTER WRIGHT-ETC F/6 13/8 I ROBOTICS TECHNIICAL NOTE 102.(U) JUN Al B M BLABIERSALL UNCLASSIFE...CATALOG uME 1T4.T7- Subtitle S. TYPE OF REPOR & PERIOO COVERED Technical Note 102 Robotics 𔄁 FInal r ---- 6. PERFORMING O1G. REPORT NUMBER C 7. A tNORa B...Identify by block number) Robotics Manufacturing Industrial Robots Robot Technology SRobotics Application BQ~.STRACT (Continue on revere* side It

  6. Space robotics in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whittaker, William; Lowrie, James W.; McCain, Harry; Bejczy, Antal; Sheridan, Tom; Kanade, Takeo; Allen, Peter

    1994-03-01

    Japan has been one of the most successful countries in the world in the realm of terrestrial robot applications. The panel found that Japan has in place a broad base of robotics research and development, ranging from components to working systems for manufacturing, construction, and human service industries. From this base, Japan looks to the use of robotics in space applications and has funded work in space robotics since the mid-1980's. The Japanese are focusing on a clear image of what they hope to achieve through three objectives for the 1990's: developing long-reach manipulation for tending experiments on Space Station Freedom, capturing satellites using a free-flying manipulator, and surveying part of the moon with a mobile robot. This focus and a sound robotics infrastructure is enabling the young Japanese space program to develop relevant systems for extraterrestrial robotics applications.

  7. Space robotics in Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whittaker, William; Lowrie, James W.; Mccain, Harry; Bejczy, Antal; Sheridan, Tom; Kanade, Takeo; Allen, Peter

    1994-01-01

    Japan has been one of the most successful countries in the world in the realm of terrestrial robot applications. The panel found that Japan has in place a broad base of robotics research and development, ranging from components to working systems for manufacturing, construction, and human service industries. From this base, Japan looks to the use of robotics in space applications and has funded work in space robotics since the mid-1980's. The Japanese are focusing on a clear image of what they hope to achieve through three objectives for the 1990's: developing long-reach manipulation for tending experiments on Space Station Freedom, capturing satellites using a free-flying manipulator, and surveying part of the moon with a mobile robot. This focus and a sound robotics infrastructure is enabling the young Japanese space program to develop relevant systems for extraterrestrial robotics applications.

  8. Mars Telecommunications Orbiter Ka-band system design and operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noreen, Gary; Komarek, Tomas; Diehl, Roger; Shambayati, Shervin; Breidenthal, Julian; Lopez, Saturnino; Jordan, Frank

    2003-01-01

    NASA's Mars Telecommunications Orbiter (MTO) will relay broadband communications from landers, rovers and spacecraft in the vicinity of Mars to Earth. This paper describes the MTO communications system and how the MTO Ka-band system will be operated.

  9. The Mars Observer Ka-band link experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rebold, T. A.; Kwok, A.; Wood, G. E.; Butman, S.

    1994-01-01

    The Ka-Band Link Experiment was the first demonstration of a deep-space communications link in the 32- to 35-GHz band (Ka-band). It was carried out using the Mars Observer spacecraft while the spacecraft was in the cruise phase of its mission and using a 34-meter beam-waveguide research and development antenna at the Goldstone complex of the DSN. The DSN has been investigating the performance benefits of a shift from X-band (8.4 GHz) to Ka-band (32 GHz) for deep-space communications. The fourfold increase in frequency is expected to offer a factor of 3 to 10 improvement (5 to 10 dB) in signal strength for a given spacecraft transmitter power and antenna size. Until recently, the expected benefits were based on performance studies, with an eye to implementing such a link, but theory was transformed to reality when a 33.7-GHz Ka-band signal was received from the spacecraft by DSS 13. This article describes the design and implementation of the Ka-Band Link Experiment from the spacecraft to the DSS-13 system, as well as results from the Ka-band telemetry demonstration, ranging demonstration, and long-term tracking experiment. Finally, a preliminary analysis of comparative X- and Ka-band tracking results is included. These results show a 4- to 7-dB advantage for Ka-band using the system at DSS 13, assuming such obstacles as antenna pointing loss and power conversion loss are overcome.

  10. Marsupial robots for law enforcement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Robin R.

    2001-02-01

    Marsupial robots are a type of heterogeneous mobile robot team. A mother robot transports, supports, and recovers one or more daughter robots. This paper will cover the marsupial robot concept, the application of law enforcement, and recent results in collaborative teleoperation for the related task of urban search and rescue.

  11. Evolution of robotic arms.

    PubMed

    Moran, Michael E

    2007-01-01

    The foundation of surgical robotics is in the development of the robotic arm. This is a thorough review of the literature on the nature and development of this device with emphasis on surgical applications. We have reviewed the published literature and classified robotic arms by their application: show, industrial application, medical application, etc. There is a definite trend in the manufacture of robotic arms toward more dextrous devices, more degrees-of-freedom, and capabilities beyond the human arm. da Vinci designed the first sophisticated robotic arm in 1495 with four degrees-of-freedom and an analog on-board controller supplying power and programmability. von Kemplen's chess-playing automaton left arm was quite sophisticated. Unimate introduced the first industrial robotic arm in 1961, it has subsequently evolved into the PUMA arm. In 1963 the Rancho arm was designed; Minsky's Tentacle arm appeared in 1968, Scheinman's Stanford arm in 1969, and MIT's Silver arm in 1974. Aird became the first cyborg human with a robotic arm in 1993. In 2000 Miguel Nicolalis redefined possible man-machine capacity in his work on cerebral implantation in owl-monkeys directly interfacing with robotic arms both locally and at a distance. The robotic arm is the end-effector of robotic systems and currently is the hallmark feature of the da Vinci Surgical System making its entrance into surgical application. But, despite the potential advantages of this computer-controlled master-slave system, robotic arms have definite limitations. Ongoing work in robotics has many potential solutions to the drawbacks of current robotic surgical systems.

  12. GRACE and GEORGE: Autonomous Robots for the AAAI Robot Challenge

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-01-01

    GRACE and GEORGE: Autonomous Robots for the AAAI Robot Challenge Reid Simmons, Allison Bruce, Dani Goldberg, Adam Goode, Michael Montemerlo, Nicholas...2004 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE GRACE and GEORGE: Autonomous Robots for the AAAI Robot Challenge 5a. CONTRACT...Simmons. “A Social Robot that Stands in Line.” Autonomous Robots , 12:3 pp.313-324, May 2002. [Ortony, 1988] A. Ortony, G. L. Clore, and A. Collins

  13. An 85-ka Paleoclimate Record From Lowland Central America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escobar, J.; Hodell, D. A.; Anselmetti, F. S.; Ariztegui, D.; Brenner, M.; Curtis, J. H.; Gilli, A.; Grzesik, D. A.; Guilderson, T. J.; Müller, A. D.; Bush, M. B.; Correa-Metrio, A.; Kutterolf, S.

    2008-05-01

    Lake sediment cores recovered at seven sites in Lake Peten Itza, northern Guatemala, contain a record of climate change from lowland Central America extending back to ~200 ka. Drill cores at site PI-6 contain a high- resolution record (1 m/ka) for the last ~85 ka. Peten climate generally varied between wetter conditions during interstadials and a drier state during stadials of Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 3. The most arid periods coincided with Heinrich Events in the North Atlantic and reductions in the strength of meridional overturning circulation. The pattern of clay-gypsum (wet-dry) oscillations during MIS 3 closely resembles the temperature record from Greenland ice cores and North Atlantic marine sediment cores and precipitation proxies from the Cariaco Basin. Previous studies suggested that cool, dry conditions prevailed in the region during the last glacial maximum (LGM) chronozone, ~23 to 18 ka BP. Sedimentologic and palynologic data support a moist climate in the Peten lowlands during this period whenvegetation consisted of a temperate pine-oak forest. This finding contradicts the previous inferences. At the end of the LGM, Peten climate switched abruptly from moist to arid conditions during the so-called "Mystery Period" from 18 to 14.9 ka. Moister conditions prevailed during the warmer Bolling-Allerod (14.7 to 12.8 ka), with the exception of a drier climate, with greater δ18O values between ca. 14.5 and 13.5 ka BP. This drier period in Central America coincided with Meltwater Pulse 1A (14.1- 13.5 ka) (Fairbanks et al., 2005) when a substantial volume of glacial meltwater was introduced to the Gulf of Mexico (e.g. Flower et al., 2004). The greatest δ18O values in Peten Itza occurred at 13.7 ka coinciding with the greatest rate of sea level rise (4.3 cm yr-1) at 13.9 ka. In contrast, sea surface temperature (SST) reconstructions (Lea et al., 2003), color reflectance, and elemental (Fe, Ti) data (Peterson et al., 2000) from Cariaco Basin cores, north of

  14. Humanlike Robots - The Upcoming Revolution in Robotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2009-01-01

    Humans have always sought to imitate the human appearance, functions and intelligence. Human-like robots, which for many years have been a science fiction, are increasingly becoming an engineering reality resulting from the many advances in biologically inspired technologies. These biomimetic technologies include artificial intelligence, artificial vision and hearing as well as artificial muscles, also known as electroactive polymers (EAP). Robots, such as the vacuum cleaner Rumba and the robotic lawnmower, that don't have human shape, are already finding growing use in homes worldwide. As opposed to other human-made machines and devices, this technology raises also various questions and concerns and they need to be addressed as the technology advances. These include the need to prevent accidents, deliberate harm, or their use in crime. In this paper the state-of-the-art of the ultimate goal of biomimetics, the development of humanlike robots, the potentials and the challenges are reviewed.

  15. Humanlike robots: the upcoming revolution in robotics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2009-08-01

    Humans have always sought to imitate the human appearance, functions and intelligence. Human-like robots, which for many years have been a science fiction, are increasingly becoming an engineering reality resulting from the many advances in biologically inspired technologies. These biomimetic technologies include artificial intelligence, artificial vision and hearing as well as artificial muscles, also known as electroactive polymers (EAP). Robots, such as the vacuum cleaner Rumba and the robotic lawnmower, that don't have human shape, are already finding growing use in homes worldwide. As opposed to other human-made machines and devices, this technology raises also various questions and concerns and they need to be addressed as the technology advances. These include the need to prevent accidents, deliberate harm, or their use in crime. In this paper the state-of-the-art of the ultimate goal of biomimetics, the development of humanlike robots, the potentials and the challenges are reviewed.

  16. INL Multi-Robot Control Interface

    SciTech Connect

    2005-03-30

    The INL Multi-Robot Control Interface controls many robots through a single user interface. The interface includes a robot display window for each robot showing the robot’s condition. More than one window can be used depending on the number of robots. The user interface also includes a robot control window configured to receive commands for sending to the respective robot and a multi-robot common window showing information received from each robot.

  17. Applying robotics to HAZMAT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, Richard V.; Edmonds, Gary O.

    1994-01-01

    The use of robotics in situations involving hazardous materials can significantly reduce the risk of human injuries. The Emergency Response Robotics Project, which began in October 1990 at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, is developing a teleoperated mobile robot allowing HAZMAT (hazardous materials) teams to remotely respond to incidents involving hazardous materials. The current robot, called HAZBOT III, can assist in locating characterizing, identifying, and mitigating hazardous material incidents without risking entry team personnel. The active involvement of the JPL Fire Department HAZMAT team has been vital in developing a robotic system which enables them to perform remote reconnaissance of a HAZMAT incident site. This paper provides a brief review of the history of the project, discusses the current system in detail, and presents other areas in which robotics can be applied removing people from hazardous environments/operations.

  18. Robots in modern industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heer, E.

    1981-01-01

    A survey is presented of robotic device types and capabilities, and an assessment is made of the relative benefits they confer in present and planned numbers on such industrial countries as Japan, the U.S., and West Germany. Attention is also given to possible social impacts of large-scale implementation, and the need for close consultation between management and labor is stressed. It is reported that, while the hourly cost of robot labor remained at between $4.00 and $4.60 over the period 1960-present, human hourly labor costs (including fringe benefits) have risen from less than $4.00 to nearly $17.00. Among the types of devices described are: (1) remotely controlled manipulator vehicles; (2) undersea robotic craft; (3) servo-controlled robots; and (4) articulated robots. Also covered are robot programming languages derived from such standard languages as ALGOL, FORTRAN, and BASIC.

  19. ROBOTIC SURGERY: BIOETHICAL ASPECTS

    PubMed Central

    SIQUEIRA-BATISTA, Rodrigo; SOUZA, Camila Ribeiro; MAIA, Polyana Mendes; SIQUEIRA, Sávio Lana

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: The use of robots in surgery has been increasingly common today, allowing the emergence of numerous bioethical issues in this area. Objective: To present review of the ethical aspects of robot use in surgery. Method: Search in Pubmed, SciELO and Lilacs crossing the headings "bioethics", "surgery", "ethics", "laparoscopy" and "robotic". Results: Of the citations obtained, were selected 17 articles, which were used for the preparation of the article. It contains brief presentation on robotics, its inclusion in health and bioethical aspects, and the use of robots in surgery. Conclusion: Robotic surgery is a reality today in many hospitals, which makes essential bioethical reflection on the relationship between health professionals, automata and patients. PMID:28076489

  20. Robotic surgical simulation.

    PubMed

    Liss, Michael A; McDougall, Elspeth M

    2013-01-01

    Robotic surgery has undergone exponential growth and has ever developing utilization. The explosion of new technologies and regulation have led to challenges in training surgeons who desire this skill set. We review the current state of robotic simulation and incorporation of simulation into surgical training curricula. In addition to the literature review, results of a questionnaire survey study of 21 expert and novice surgeons attending a Urologic Robotic Oncology conference using 3 different robotic skill simulation devices are discussed. An increasing number of robotic surgery simulators have had some degree of validation study of their use in surgical education curricula and proficiency testing. Although simulators are advantageous, confirmation of construct and predictive validity of robotic simulators and their reliability as a training tool will be necessary before they are integrated into the surgical credentialing process.

  1. Survival of falling robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cameron, Jonathan M.; Arkin, Ronald C.

    1992-02-01

    As mobile robots are used in more uncertain and dangerous environments, it will become important to design them so that they can survive falls. In this paper, we examine a number of mechanisms and strategies that animals use to withstand these potentially catastrophic events and extend them to the design of robots. A brief survey of several aspects of how common cats survive falls provides an understanding of the issues involved in preventing traumatic injury during a falling event. After outlining situations in which robots might fall, a number of factors affecting their survival are described. From this background, several robot design guidelines are derived. These include recommendations for the physical structure of the robot as well as requirements for the robot control architecture. A control architecture is proposed based on reactive control techniques and action-oriented perception that is geared to support this form of survival behavior.

  2. Survival of falling robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cameron, Jonathan M.; Arkin, Ronald C.

    1992-01-01

    As mobile robots are used in more uncertain and dangerous environments, it will become important to design them so that they can survive falls. In this paper, we examine a number of mechanisms and strategies that animals use to withstand these potentially catastrophic events and extend them to the design of robots. A brief survey of several aspects of how common cats survive falls provides an understanding of the issues involved in preventing traumatic injury during a falling event. After outlining situations in which robots might fall, a number of factors affecting their survival are described. From this background, several robot design guidelines are derived. These include recommendations for the physical structure of the robot as well as requirements for the robot control architecture. A control architecture is proposed based on reactive control techniques and action-oriented perception that is geared to support this form of survival behavior.

  3. Robotics and expert systems

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    This volume contains papers presented at ROBEXS' 86, the Second Annual Workshop on Robotics and Expert Systems. Many diverse perspectives on automation problems, and on the merging of robotics and expert systems technology with conventional systems, are contained in this book. The contents include: Integrated Expert Systems Applications; Expert Systems Theory and Applications, Robotics, Intelligent Control, CAD/CAE/CAM, AI Tools, Human Factors, and intelligent Interfaces.

  4. Robotic liver surgery

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Universe

    2014-01-01

    Robotic surgery is an evolving technology that has been successfully applied to a number of surgical specialties, but its use in liver surgery has so far been limited. In this review article we discuss the challenges of minimally invasive liver surgery, the pros and cons of robotics, the evolution of medical robots, and the potentials in applying this technology to liver surgery. The current data in the literature are also presented. PMID:25392840

  5. NASA Robot Brain Surgeon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Mechanical Engineer Michael Guerrero works on the Robot Brain Surgeon testbed in the NeuroEngineering Group at the Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California. Principal investigator Dr. Robert W. Mah states that potentially the simple robot will be able to feel brain structures better than any human surgeon, making slow, very precise movements during an operation. The brain surgery robot that may give surgeons finer control of surgical instruments during delicate brain operations is still under development.

  6. TARDEC Ground Vehicle Robotics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-30

    TARDEC Ground Vehicle Robotics Mr. Jim Parker, Associate Director Dr. Greg Hudas, Chief Engineer UNCLASSIFIED: Distribution Statement A (OPSEC...TARDEC Ground Vehicle Robotics 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Jim Parker; Greg Hudas 5d. PROJECT...Provide Transition-Ready, Cost-Effective, and Innovative Robotics and Control System Solutions for Manned, Optionally-Manned, and Unmanned Ground Vehicles

  7. A Modular Robotic Architecture

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-11-01

    DATES COVERED AD-A232 007 Januar 1991 professional paper5 FUNOING NUMBERS A MODULAR ROBOTIC ARCHITECTURE PR: ZE92 WU: DN300029 PE: 0602936N - S. AUTHOR...mobile robots will help alleviate these problems, and, if made widely available, will promote standardization and compatibility among systems throughout...the industry. The Modular Robotic Architecture (MRA) is a generic control system that meets the above needs by providing developers with a standard set

  8. Ground Vehicle Robotics Presentation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-14

    Mr. Jim Parker Associate Director Ground Vehicle Robotics Distribution Statement A. Approved for public release Report Documentation Page...Briefing 3. DATES COVERED 01-07-2012 to 01-08-2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Ground Vehicle Robotics Presentation 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT...ABSTRACT Provide Transition-Ready, Cost-Effective, and Innovative Robotics and Control System Solutions for Manned, Optionally-Manned, and Unmanned

  9. Robotic Security Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-12-01

    robotic security platforms that automatically respond in an adaptive fashion to potential disturbances reported by a broad-area field of fixed unattended...sensors represents a powerful new defensive tool for mitigating the terrorist threat. Background The primary purpose of any robotic system is to...mobile robots , the predominant challenge is one of perception, in that the very nature of mobility introduces a never-ending sequence of dynamically

  10. Army Medical Robotics Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    Army Medical Robotics Research Gary Gilbert, Ph.D., U.S. Army TATRC, Ph: (301) 619-4043, Fax: (301) 619-2518 gilbert@tatrc.org, www.tatrc.org...politically sensitive low intensity combat in urban terrain. Research progress has been made in the areas of robotics ; artificial intelligence...institutions have demonstrated intelligent robots that execute functions ranging from performing mechanical repairs to playing soccer. The military has

  11. Robotics Strategy White Paper

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-19

    VIRGINIA 23651-1087 REPlY TO A1Tl!NTlON OF ATFC-DS 19 MEMORANDUM FOR SEE DISTRIBUTION SUBJECT: Robotics Strategy White Paper 1. The enclosed... Robotics Strategy White Paper is the result of a collaborative effort between the U.S. Anny Training and Doctrine Command (TRADOC) and the Tank-Automotive...Research, Development and Engineering Center (TARDEC). This paper builds on a confederated Anny robotics "strategy" that is described by senior leader

  12. AMAS Robotics Seminar Brief

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-19

    Unclassified Unclassified 19 July 2011 AMAS ROBOTICS SEMINAR BRIEF Aaron Hart, Product Integrator, RS JPO DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for...19-07-2011 to 19-07-2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE robotics seminar brief 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...12. DISTRIBUTION/AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for public release; distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES AMAS ROBOTICS SEMINAR BRIEF 14

  13. Artificial Intelligence and Robotics.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-02-01

    D-Ai42 488 ARTIFICIAL INEELLIGENCE AND ROBOTICS (U) MASSACHUSETTS i/1 INST OF TECH CAMBRIDGE ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE LAB M BRADY FEB 84 AI-M-756...Subtile) S. TYPE OF REPORT A PERIOD COVERED Artificial Intelligence and Robotics 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHOR(*) S. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER...Identify by block niiniber) -. Since Robotics is the field concerned with the connection of perception to action, Artificial Intelligence must have a

  14. Compliant Robotic Structures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-08-01

    robotic structure is one or more continuously flexible arms -hat can be controlled to manipulate objects. A typical arm is comprised of ... of ideas for the design of versatile, strong robotic manipulators. In this paper a mathematical model of an elephant trunk lifting a weight is...Results may be used for the design of robotic actuators driven by internal pressure. I,g or 67 I* .,.. INTRODUCTION Improvement in the

  15. Industrial robots: Handbook

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozyrev, Iu. G.

    Topics covered include terms, definitions, and classification; operator-directed manipulators; autooperators as used in automated pressure casting; construction and application of industrial robots; and the operating bases of automated systems. Attention is given to adaptive and interactive robots; gripping mechanisms; applications to foundary production, press-forging plants, heat treatment, welding, and assembly operations. A review of design recommendations includes a determination of fundamental structural and technological indicators for industrial robots and a consideration of drive mechanisms.

  16. Asteroid Redirect Mission: Robotic Segment

    NASA Video Gallery

    This concept animation illustrates the robotic segment of NASA's Asteroid Redirect Mission. The Asteroid Redirect Vehicle, powered by solar electric propulsion, travels to a large asteroid to robot...

  17. Children's Perception and Interpretation of Robots and Robot Behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhamjee, Sajida; Griffiths, Frances; Palmer, Julie

    Technology is advancing rapidly; especially in the field of robotics. The purpose of this study was to examine children's perception and interpretation of robots and robot behaviour. The study was divided into two phases: phase one involved 144 children (aged 7-8) from two primary schools drawing a picture of a robot and then writing a story about the robot that they had drawn. In phase two, in small groups, 90 children observed four e-puck robots interacting within an arena. The children were asked three questions during the observation: 'What do you think the robots are doing?', 'Why are they doing these things?' and 'What is going on inside the robot?' The results indicated that children can hold multiple understandings of robots simultaneously. Children tend to attribute animate characteristics to robots. Although this may be explained by their stage of development, it may also influence how their generation integrates robots into society.

  18. Hopping Robot with Wheels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barlow, Edward; Marzwell, Nevellie; Fuller, Sawyer; Fionni, Paolo; Tretton, Andy; Burdick, Joel; Schell, Steve

    2003-01-01

    A small prototype mobile robot is capable of (1) hopping to move rapidly or avoid obstacles and then (2) moving relatively slowly and precisely on the ground by use of wheels in the manner of previously reported exploratory robots of the "rover" type. This robot is a descendant of a more primitive hopping robot described in "Minimally Actuated Hopping Robot" (NPO- 20911), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 26, No. 11 (November 2002), page 50. There are many potential applications for robots with hopping and wheeled-locomotion (roving) capabilities in diverse fields of endeavor, including agriculture, search-and-rescue operations, general military operations, removal or safe detonation of land mines, inspection, law enforcement, and scientific exploration on Earth and remote planets. The combination of hopping and roving enables this robot to move rapidly over very rugged terrain, to overcome obstacles several times its height, and then to position itself precisely next to a desired target. Before a long hop, the robot aims itself in the desired hopping azimuth and at a desired takeoff angle above horizontal. The robot approaches the target through a series of hops and short driving operations utilizing the steering wheels for precise positioning.

  19. Human-Robot Interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandor, Aniko; Cross, E. Vincent, II; Chang, Mai Lee

    2015-01-01

    Human-robot interaction (HRI) is a discipline investigating the factors affecting the interactions between humans and robots. It is important to evaluate how the design of interfaces affect the human's ability to perform tasks effectively and efficiently when working with a robot. By understanding the effects of interface design on human performance, workload, and situation awareness, interfaces can be developed to appropriately support the human in performing tasks with minimal errors and with appropriate interaction time and effort. Thus, the results of research on human-robot interfaces have direct implications for the design of robotic systems. For efficient and effective remote navigation of a rover, a human operator needs to be aware of the robot's environment. However, during teleoperation, operators may get information about the environment only through a robot's front-mounted camera causing a keyhole effect. The keyhole effect reduces situation awareness which may manifest in navigation issues such as higher number of collisions, missing critical aspects of the environment, or reduced speed. One way to compensate for the keyhole effect and the ambiguities operators experience when they teleoperate a robot is adding multiple cameras and including the robot chassis in the camera view. Augmented reality, such as overlays, can also enhance the way a person sees objects in the environment or in camera views by making them more visible. Scenes can be augmented with integrated telemetry, procedures, or map information. Furthermore, the addition of an exocentric (i.e., third-person) field of view from a camera placed in the robot's environment may provide operators with the additional information needed to gain spatial awareness of the robot. Two research studies investigated possible mitigation approaches to address the keyhole effect: 1) combining the inclusion of the robot chassis in the camera view with augmented reality overlays, and 2) modifying the camera

  20. [Robots and intellectual property].

    PubMed

    Larrieu, Jacques

    2013-12-01

    This topic is part of the global issue concerning the necessity to adapt intellectual property law to constant changes in technology. The relationship between robots and IP is dual. On one hand, the robots may be regarded as objects of intellectual property. A robot, like any new machine, could qualify for a protection by a patent. A copyright may protect its appearance if it is original. Its memory, like a database, could be covered by a sui generis right. On the other hand, the question of the protection of the outputs of the robot must be raised. The robots, as the physical embodiment of artificial intelligence, are becoming more and more autonomous. Robot-generated works include less and less human inputs. Are these objects created or invented by a robot copyrightable or patentable? To whom the ownership of these IP rights will be allocated? To the person who manufactured the machine ? To the user of the robot? To the robot itself? All these questions are worth discussing.

  1. Robotics for welding research

    SciTech Connect

    Braun, G.; Jones, J.

    1984-09-01

    The welding metallurgy research and education program at Colorado School of Mines (CSM) is helping industries make the transition toward automation by training students in robotics. Industry's interest is primarily in pick and place operations, although robotics can increase efficiency in areas other than production. Training students to develop fully automated robotic welding systems will usher in new curriculum requirements in the area of computers and microprocessors. The Puma 560 robot is CSM's newest acquisition for welding research 5 references, 2 figures, 1 table.

  2. [Robotic surgery in gynecology].

    PubMed

    Csorba, Roland

    2012-06-24

    Minimally invasive surgery has revolutionized gynecological interventions over the past 30 years. The introduction of the da Vinci robotic surgery in 2005 has resulted in large changes in surgical management. The robotic platform allows less experienced laparoscopic surgeons to perform more complex procedures. It can be utilized mainly in general gynecology and reproductive gynecology. The robot is being increasingly used for procedures such as hysterectomy, myomectomy, adnexal surgery, and tubal anastomosis. In urogynecology, the robot is being utilized for sacrocolopexy as well. In the field of gynecologic oncology, the robot is being increasingly used for hysterectomy and lymphadenectomy in oncologic diseases. Despite the rapid and widespread adaption of robotic surgery in gynecology, there are no randomized trials comparing its efficacy and safety to other traditional surgical approaches. This article presents the development, technical aspects and indications of robotic surgery in gynecology, based on the previously published reviews. Robotic surgery can be highly advantageous with the right amount of training, along with appropriate patient selection. Patients will have less blood loss, less post-operative pain, faster recovery, and fewer complications compared to open surgery and laparoscopy. However, until larger randomized control trials are completed which report long-term outcomes, robotic surgery cannot be stated to have priority over other surgical methods.

  3. Advanced robot locomotion.

    SciTech Connect

    Neely, Jason C.; Sturgis, Beverly Rainwater; Byrne, Raymond Harry; Feddema, John Todd; Spletzer, Barry Louis; Rose, Scott E.; Novick, David Keith; Wilson, David Gerald; Buerger, Stephen P.

    2007-01-01

    This report contains the results of a research effort on advanced robot locomotion. The majority of this work focuses on walking robots. Walking robot applications include delivery of special payloads to unique locations that require human locomotion to exo-skeleton human assistance applications. A walking robot could step over obstacles and move through narrow openings that a wheeled or tracked vehicle could not overcome. It could pick up and manipulate objects in ways that a standard robot gripper could not. Most importantly, a walking robot would be able to rapidly perform these tasks through an intuitive user interface that mimics natural human motion. The largest obstacle arises in emulating stability and balance control naturally present in humans but needed for bipedal locomotion in a robot. A tracked robot is bulky and limited, but a wide wheel base assures passive stability. Human bipedal motion is so common that it is taken for granted, but bipedal motion requires active balance and stability control for which the analysis is non-trivial. This report contains an extensive literature study on the state-of-the-art of legged robotics, and it additionally provides the analysis, simulation, and hardware verification of two variants of a proto-type leg design.

  4. Robotic Thumb Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ihrke, Chris A. (Inventor); Bridgwater, Lyndon (Inventor); Platt, Robert (Inventor); Wampler, II, Charles W. (Inventor); Goza, S. Michael (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    An improved robotic thumb for a robotic hand assembly is provided. According to one aspect of the disclosure, improved tendon routing in the robotic thumb provides control of four degrees of freedom with only five tendons. According to another aspect of the disclosure, one of the five degrees of freedom of a human thumb is replaced in the robotic thumb with a permanent twist in the shape of a phalange. According to yet another aspect of the disclosure, a position sensor includes a magnet having two portions shaped as circle segments with different center points. The magnet provides a linearized output from a Hall effect sensor.

  5. Experiments in autonomous robotics

    SciTech Connect

    Hamel, W.R.

    1987-01-01

    The Center for Engineering Systems Advanced Research (CESAR) is performing basic research in autonomous robotics for energy-related applications in hazardous environments. The CESAR research agenda includes a strong experimental component to assure practical evaluation of new concepts and theories. An evolutionary sequence of mobile research robots has been planned to support research in robot navigation, world sensing, and object manipulation. A number of experiments have been performed in studying robot navigation and path planning with planar sonar sensing. Future experiments will address more complex tasks involving three-dimensional sensing, dexterous manipulation, and human-scale operations.

  6. Hazardous Environment Robotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) developed video overlay calibration and demonstration techniques for ground-based telerobotics. Through a technology sharing agreement with JPL, Deneb Robotics added this as an option to its robotics software, TELEGRIP. The software is used for remotely operating robots in nuclear and hazardous environments in industries including automotive and medical. The option allows the operator to utilize video to calibrate 3-D computer models with the actual environment, and thus plan and optimize robot trajectories before the program is automatically generated.

  7. Xen clusters in the alpha cages of zeolite KA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jameson, Cynthia J.; Jameson, A. Keith; Gerald, Rex E., II; Lim, Hyung-Mi

    1995-11-01

    We have observed the individual signals of the Xen clusters (n=1-5) trapped in the alpha cages of zeolite KA. The 129Xe NMR chemical shift of each cluster in zeolite KA is larger than that of the corresponding Xen cluster in zeolite NaA. The temperature dependence of the chemical shifts of the clusters vary systematically with cluster size as they do in NaA, but the change of the temperature coefficients with n is somewhat more pronounced for Xen in the cages of KA than in NaA. The Xen chemical shifts and their variation with temperature are reproduced by the grand canonical Monte Carlo (GCMC) simulations. GCMC simulations of the distribution of the Xe atoms among the alpha cages in KA provide the fractions of cages containing n Xe atoms which agree reasonably well with the observed equilibrium distributions. The characteristics of Xe distribution and chemical shifts in KA are compared with that in NaA.

  8. Ku/Ka band observations over polar ice sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thibaut, Pierre; Lasne, Yannick; Guillot, Amandine; Picot, Nicolas; Rémy, Frédérique

    2015-04-01

    For the first time, comparisons between Ku and Ka altimeter measurements are possible thanks to the new AltiKa instrument embarked onboard the Saral mission launched on February 25, 2013. This comparison is of particular interest when dealing with ice sheet observations because both frequencies have different penetration characteristics. We propose in this paper to revisit the estimation of the ice sheet topography (and other related parameters) with altimeter systems and to present illustrations of the differences observed in Ku and Ka bands using AltiKa, Envisat/RA-2 but also Cryosat-2 measurements. Working on AltiKa waveforms in the frame of the PEACHI project has allowed us to better understand the impact of the penetration depth on the echo shape, to improve the estimation algorithm and to compare its output with historical results obtained on Envisat and ERS missions. In particular, analyses at cross-overs of the Cryosat-2 and Saral data will be presented. Sentinel-3 mission should be launch during 2015. Operating in Ku band and in delay/doppler mode, it will be crucial to account for penetration effects in order to accurately derive the ice sheet heights and trends. The results of the work presented here, will benefit to the Sentinel-3 mission.

  9. Sea surface temperatures in the North Atlantic Ocean from 30ka to 10ka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrack, Kerr; Greenop, Rosanna; Burke, Andrea; Barker, Stephen; Chalk, Thomas; Crocker, Anya

    2016-04-01

    Some of the most striking features of the Late Pleistocene interval are the rapid changes in climate between warmer interstadial and cold stadial periods which, when coupled, are termed Dansgaard-Oeschger (D-O) events. This shift between warm and cold climates has been interpreted to result from changes in the thermohaline circulation (Broecker et al., 1985) triggered by, for instance, freshwater input from the collapse of the Laurentide ice sheet (Zahn et al., 1997). However, a recent study suggests that major ice rafting events cannot be the 'trigger' for the centennial to millennial scale cooling events identified over the past 500kyr (Barker at al., 2015). Polar planktic foraminiferal and lithogenic/terrigenous grain counts reveal that the southward migration of the polar front occurs before the deposition of ice rafted debris and therefore the rafting of ice during stadial periods. Based upon this evidence, Barker et al. suggest that the transition to a stadial state is a non-linear response to gradual cooling in the region. In order to test this hypothesis, our study reconstructs sea surface temperature across D-O events and the deglaciation in the North Atlantic between 30ka and 10ka using Mg/ Ca paleothermometry in Globigerina bulloides at ODP Sites 980 and 983 (the same sites as used in Barker et al., 2015) with an average sampling resolution of 300 years. With our new record we evaluate the timing of surface ocean temperature change, frontal shift movement, and ice rafting to investigate variations in the temperature gradient across the polar front over D-O events. References: Barker, S., Chen, J., Gong, X., Jonkers, L., Knorr, G., Thornalley, D., 2015. Icebergs not the trigger for North Atlantic cold events. Nature, 520(7547), pp.333-336. Broecker, W.S., Peteer, D.M., Rind, D., 1985. Does the ocean-atmosphere system have more than one stable mode of operation? Nature, 315 (6014), pp.21-26. Zahn, R., Schönfeld, J., Kudrass, H.-R., Park, M

  10. Multi-robot control interface

    DOEpatents

    Bruemmer, David J [Idaho Falls, ID; Walton, Miles C [Idaho Falls, ID

    2011-12-06

    Methods and systems for controlling a plurality of robots through a single user interface include at least one robot display window for each of the plurality of robots with the at least one robot display window illustrating one or more conditions of a respective one of the plurality of robots. The user interface further includes at least one robot control window for each of the plurality of robots with the at least one robot control window configured to receive one or more commands for sending to the respective one of the plurality of robots. The user interface further includes a multi-robot common window comprised of information received from each of the plurality of robots.

  11. Ka-band MMIC microstrip array for high rate communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, R. Q.; Raquet, C. A.; Tolleson, J. B.; Sanzgiri, S. M.

    1991-01-01

    In a recent technology assessment of alternative communication systems for the space exploration initiative (SEI), Ka-band (18 to 40 GHz) communication technology was identified to meet the mission requirements of telecommunication, navigation, and information management. Compared to the lower frequency bands, Ka-band antennas offer higher gain and broader bandwidths; thus, they are more suitable for high data rate communications. Over the years, NASA has played an important role in monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) phased array technology development, and currently, has an ongoing contract with Texas Instrument (TI) to develop a modular Ka-band MMIC microstrip subarray (NAS3-25718). The TI contract emphasizes MMIC integration technology development and stipulates using existing MMIC devices to minimize the array development cost. The objective of this paper is to present array component technologies and integration techniques used to construct the subarray modules.

  12. Canadian space robotic activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sallaberger, Christian; Space Plan Task Force, Canadian Space Agency

    The Canadian Space Agency has chosen space robotics as one of its key niche areas, and is currently preparing to deliver the first flight elements for the main robotic system of the international space station. The Mobile Servicing System (MSS) is the Canadian contribution to the international space station. It consists of three main elements. The Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS) is a 7-metre, 7-dof, robotic arm. The Special Purpose Dextrous Manipulator (SPDM), a smaller 2-metre, 7-dof, robotic arm can be used independently, or attached to the end of the SSRMS. The Mobile Base System (MBS) will be used as a support platform and will also provide power and data links for both the SSRMS and the SPDM. A Space Vision System (SVS) has been tested on Shuttle flights, and is being further developed to enhance the autonomous capabilities of the MSS. The CSA also has a Strategic Technologies in Automation and Robotics Program which is developing new technologies to fulfill future robotic space mission needs. This program is currently developing in industry technological capabilities in the areas of automation of operations, autonomous robotics, vision systems, trajectory planning and object avoidance, tactile and proximity sensors, and ground control of space robots. Within the CSA, a robotic testbed and several research programs are also advancing technologies such as haptic devices, control via head-mounted displays, predictive and preview displays, and the dynamic characterization of robotic arms. Canada is also now developing its next Long Term Space Plan. In this context, a planetary exploration program is being considered, which would utilize Canadian space robotic technologies in this new arena.

  13. X-/Ka-Band Dichroic Plate Noise Temperature Reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veruttipong, W.; Lee, P.

    1994-07-01

    The X-/Ka-band (8.4-GHz/32.0-GHz) dichroic plate installed at DSS 13 contributes an estimated 3 K to the system noise temperature at 32.0 GHz. Approximately 1 percent of the Ka-band incident field is reflected by the plate into the 300-K environment of the DSS-13 pedestal room. A low-cost, easily implemented method of reducing the noise temperature is presented. Using a curved reflector, the reflected field can be refocused into an 80-K cold load, reducing the noise temperature contribution of the dichroic plate by about 2 K.

  14. X-/Ka-band dichroic plate noise temperature reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veruttipong, W.; Lee, P.

    1994-11-01

    The X-/Ka-band (8.4 GHz/32.0 GHz) dichroic plate installed as DSS 13 contributes an estimated 3 K to the system noise temperature at 32.0 GHz. Approximately 1 percent of the Ka-band incident field is reflected by the plate into the 300-K environment of the DSS-13 pedestal room. A low-cost, easily implemented method of reducing the noise temperature is presented. Using a curved reflector, the reflected field can be re-focused into an 80-K cold load, reducing the noise temperature contribution of the dichroic plate by about 2 K.

  15. X-/Ka-band dichroic plate noise temperature reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veruttipong, W.; Lee, P.

    1994-01-01

    The X-/Ka-band (8.4 GHz/32.0 GHz) dichroic plate installed as DSS 13 contributes an estimated 3 K to the system noise temperature at 32.0 GHz. Approximately 1 percent of the Ka-band incident field is reflected by the plate into the 300-K environment of the DSS-13 pedestal room. A low-cost, easily implemented method of reducing the noise temperature is presented. Using a curved reflector, the reflected field can be re-focused into an 80-K cold load, reducing the noise temperature contribution of the dichroic plate by about 2 K.

  16. Screening and Isolation of Penicillinase Inhibitor, KA-107

    PubMed Central

    Iwai, Y.; Ohno, H.; Takeshima, H.; Yamaguchi, N.; Ōmura, S.; Hata, T.

    1973-01-01

    It is known that penicillin resistance of bacteria is mainly caused by the inactivation of penicillin by penicillinase derived from such strains. We have developed a screening procedure for penicillinase inhibitors. Several microorganisms were found to produce such inhibitors, and from the culture filtrate of Streptomyces gedanensis ATCC 4880 a penicillinase inhibitor, named KA-107, was isolated. The characteristics of this inhibitor were revealed by an in vitro test by using penicillinase derived from penicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus, FS-1277. When KA-107 was used in combination with penicillin-G, ampicillin, d- or l-phenethicillin, the growth inhibitory activity of these penicillins was maintained. PMID:4202340

  17. Pollen-climate relationships in time (9 ka, 6 ka, 0 ka) and space (upland vs. lowland) in eastern continental Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Fang; Cao, Xianyong; Dallmeyer, Anne; Zhao, Yan; Ni, Jian; Herzschuh, Ulrike

    2017-01-01

    Temporal and spatial stability of the vegetation-climate relationship is a basic ecological assumption for pollen-based quantitative inferences of past climate change and for predicting future vegetation. We explore this assumption for the Holocene in eastern continental Asia (China, Mongolia). Boosted regression trees (BRT) between fossil pollen taxa percentages (Abies, Artemisia, Betula, Chenopodiaceae, Cyperaceae, Ephedra, Picea, Pinus, Poaceae and Quercus) and climate model outputs of mean annual precipitation (Pann) and mean temperature of the warmest month (Mtwa) for 9 and 6 ka (ka = thousand years before present) were set up and results compared to those obtained from relating modern pollen to modern climate. Overall, our results reveal only slight temporal differences in the pollen-climate relationships. Our analyses suggest that the importance of Pann compared with Mtwa for taxa distribution is higher today than it was at 6 ka and 9 ka. In particular, the relevance of Pann for Picea and Pinus increases and has become the main determinant. This change in the climate-tree pollen relationship parallels a widespread tree pollen decrease in north-central China and the eastern Tibetan Plateau. We assume that this is at least partly related to vegetation-climate disequilibrium originating from human impact. Increased atmospheric CO2 concentration may have permitted the expansion of moisture-loving herb taxa (Cyperaceae and Poaceae) during the late Holocene into arid/semi-arid areas. We furthermore find that the pollen-climate relationship between north-central China and the eastern Tibetan Plateau is generally similar, but that regional differences are larger than temporal differences. In summary, vegetation-climate relationships in China are generally stable in space and time, and pollen-based climate reconstructions can be applied to the Holocene. Regional differences imply the calibration-set should be restricted spatially.

  18. Robotic Intelligence Kernel: Architecture

    SciTech Connect

    2009-09-16

    The INL Robotic Intelligence Kernel Architecture (RIK-A) is a multi-level architecture that supports a dynamic autonomy structure. The RIK-A is used to coalesce hardware for sensing and action as well as software components for perception, communication, behavior and world modeling into a framework that can be used to create behaviors for humans to interact with the robot.

  19. Robot Rodeo 2013

    ScienceCinema

    Deuel, Jake

    2016-07-12

    Sandia National Laboratories hosted the seventh annual Western National Robot Rodeo and Capability Exercise in June 2013. The five-day event is a lively and challenging competition that draws civilian and military bomb squad teams from across the country to see who can most effectively defuse dangerous situations with the help of robots.

  20. Robot Rodeo 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Deuel, Jake

    2013-08-27

    Sandia National Laboratories hosted the seventh annual Western National Robot Rodeo and Capability Exercise in June 2013. The five-day event is a lively and challenging competition that draws civilian and military bomb squad teams from across the country to see who can most effectively defuse dangerous situations with the help of robots.

  1. Next generation space robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iwata, Tsutomu; Oda, Mitsushige; Imai, Ryoichi

    1989-01-01

    The recent research effort on the next generation space robots is presented. The goals of this research are to develop the fundamental technologies and to acquire the design parameters of the next generation space robot. Visual sensing and perception, dexterous manipulation, man machine interface and artificial intelligence techniques such as task planning are identified as the key technologies.

  2. Real World Robotics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Lisa J.

    2002-01-01

    Introduces a project for elementary school students in which students build a robot by following instructions and then write a computer program to run their robot by using LabView graphical development software. Uses ROBOLAB curriculum which is designed for grade levels K-12. (YDS)

  3. Robotics technology discipline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montemerlo, Melvin D.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on robotics technology discipline for Space Station Freedom are presented. Topics covered include: mechanisms; sensors; systems engineering processes for integrated robotics; man/machine cooperative control; 3D-real-time machine perception; multiple arm redundancy control; manipulator control from a movable base; multi-agent reasoning; and surfacing evolution technologies.

  4. Motivating Students with Robotics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brand, Brenda; Collver, Michael; Kasarda, Mary

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, the need to advance the number of individuals pursuing science, technology, engineering, and mathematics fields has gained much attention. The Montgomery County/Virginia Tech Robotics Collaborative (MCVTRC), a yearlong high school robotics program housed in an educational shop facility in Montgomery County, Virginia, seeks to…

  5. Robotics in medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, D. N.; Syryamkin, V. I.

    2015-11-01

    Modern technologies play a very important role in our lives. It is hard to imagine how people can get along without personal computers, and companies - without powerful computer centers. Nowadays, many devices make modern medicine more effective. Medicine is developing constantly, so introduction of robots in this sector is a very promising activity. Advances in technology have influenced medicine greatly. Robotic surgery is now actively developing worldwide. Scientists have been carrying out research and practical attempts to create robotic surgeons for more than 20 years, since the mid-80s of the last century. Robotic assistants play an important role in modern medicine. This industry is new enough and is at the early stage of development; despite this, some developments already have worldwide application; they function successfully and bring invaluable help to employees of medical institutions. Today, doctors can perform operations that seemed impossible a few years ago. Such progress in medicine is due to many factors. First, modern operating rooms are equipped with up-to-date equipment, allowing doctors to make operations more accurately and with less risk to the patient. Second, technology has enabled to improve the quality of doctors' training. Various types of robots exist now: assistants, military robots, space, household and medical, of course. Further, we should make a detailed analysis of existing types of robots and their application. The purpose of the article is to illustrate the most popular types of robots used in medicine.

  6. The Uranus Mobile Robot

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-09-01

    Schematics 26 Wi List of Figures 1 Neptune and Pluto .. .. .. .. .. ... .. ... ... ... ... .... 2 2 Uranus...began building our first mobile robot, Pluto (see Figure 1 a). We envisioned Pluto as the ultimate indoor robot within the grasp of current technology...smooth arced trajectory while rotating about its center. This omni-directionality combined with very precise positioning would allow Pluto to easily

  7. Neurotechnology for Biomimetic Robots

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    This award funded in part, the travel of three investigators to the international conference on Neurotechnology for Biomimetic Robots. The three...investigators participated in a conference held at Northeastern University May 14-16 on the subject of ’ Neurotechnology for Biomimetic Robots’. Each

  8. Concurrent programming and robotics

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, I.J.; Gehani, N.H.

    1989-04-01

    Many current robot systems exhibit a significant degree of concurrency, doing many activities in parallel. Future sensor-based robots are expected to exhibit even more concurrency. Programs to control such robots are characterized by the need to wait for external events and/or handle interrupts, deal with concurrent activities, synchronize actions with external events, and communicate with other robots and processes. In this paper, the authors focus on the advantages of concurrent programming for robotics and suggest that a general-purpose language with the right facilities is a good vehicle for robot programming. In this context they discuss Concurrent C, an upward-compatible extension of the C language that provides high-level concurrent programming facilities. They give an historical perspective of concurrent programming followed by a brief description of Concurrent C and how Concurrent C programs communicate with robots and devices. They show by examples how Concurrent C simplifies writing robot programs. Of specific interest are the process interaction and related interrupt handling facilities.

  9. Going Green Robots

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Jacqueline M.

    2011-01-01

    In looking at the interesting shapes and sizes of old computer parts, creating robots quickly came to the author's mind. In this article, she describes how computer parts can be used creatively. Students will surely enjoy creating their very own robots while learning about the importance of recycling in the society. (Contains 1 online resource.)

  10. Robotics and Industrial Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmison, Glenn A.; And Others

    Robots are becoming increasingly common in American industry. By l990, they will revolutionize the way industry functions, replacing hundreds of workers and doing hot, dirty jobs better and more quickly than the workers could have done them. Robotics should be taught in high school industrial arts programs as a major curriculum component. The…

  11. INL Generic Robot Architecture

    SciTech Connect

    2005-03-30

    The INL Generic Robot Architecture is a generic, extensible software framework that can be applied across a variety of different robot geometries, sensor suites and low-level proprietary control application programming interfaces (e.g. mobility, aria, aware, player, etc.).

  12. Robot Vision Library

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Andrew B.; Ansar, Adnan I.; Litwin, Todd E.; Goldberg, Steven B.

    2009-01-01

    The JPL Robot Vision Library (JPLV) provides real-time robot vision algorithms for developers who are not vision specialists. The package includes algorithms for stereo ranging, visual odometry and unsurveyed camera calibration, and has unique support for very wideangle lenses

  13. Honda humanoid robots development.

    PubMed

    Hirose, Masato; Ogawa, Kenichi

    2007-01-15

    Honda has been doing research on robotics since 1986 with a focus upon bipedal walking technology. The research started with straight and static walking of the first prototype two-legged robot. Now, the continuous transition from walking in a straight line to making a turn has been achieved with the latest humanoid robot ASIMO. ASIMO is the most advanced robot of Honda so far in the mechanism and the control system. ASIMO's configuration allows it to operate freely in the human living space. It could be of practical help to humans with its ability of five-finger arms as well as its walking function. The target of further development of ASIMO is to develop a robot to improve life in human society. Much development work will be continued both mechanically and electronically, staying true to Honda's 'challenging spirit'.

  14. Intelligent Articulated Robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyein, Aung Kyaw; Thu, Theint Theint

    2008-10-01

    In this paper, an articulated type of industrial used robot is discussed. The robot is mainly intended to be used in pick and place operation. It will sense the object at the specified place and move it to a desired location. A peripheral interface controller (PIC16F84A) is used as the main controller of the robot. Infrared LED and IR receiver unit for object detection and 4-bit bidirectional universal shift registers (74LS194) and high current and high voltage Darlington transistors arrays (ULN2003) for driving the arms' motors are used in this robot. The amount of rotation for each arm is regulated by the limit switches. The operation of the robot is very simple but it has the ability of to overcome resetting position after power failure. It can continue its work from the last position before the power is failed without needing to come back to home position.

  15. [The robotic surgeon training].

    PubMed

    Crestani, Alessandro; Rossanese, Marta; Abbinante, Maria; Calandriello, Mattia; Kungulli, Afrovita; Giannarini, Gianluca; Ficarra, Vincenzo

    2015-10-01

    The widespread robotic surgery in the world highlighted the relevance of the training programs for young urologists and residents. In the last years, urologic societies and some independent robotic surgeons strongly worked to standardize some general and specific training modules. Theoretical and practical sections of robotic training programs have been recently specified. The role of simulators, dry and wet laboratories, bedside assistance, and modular (step-by-step) training at console represent the most relevant elements of robotic surgeon training. Ideally, these didactic tools should be available in modern training centers. The development of structured robotic training programs should be considered as one of the priorities that the urologic community must take into account in the near future.

  16. Utilizing Robot Operating System (ROS) in Robot Vision and Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    OPERATING SYSTEM (ROS) IN ROBOT VISION AND CONTROL by Joshua S. Lum September 2015 Thesis Advisor: Xiaoping Yun Co-Advisor: Zac Staples...Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE UTILIZING ROBOT OPERATING SYSTEM (ROS) IN ROBOT VISION AND CONTROL 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Lum, Joshua S...release; distribution is unlimited UTILIZING ROBOT OPERATING SYSTEM (ROS) IN ROBOT VISION AND CONTROL Joshua S. Lum Captain, United States

  17. Expanding Frontiers of Humanoid Robotics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-08-01

    From the IEEE Intelligent Systems Special Issue on Humanoid Robotics , July/August 2000 GUEST EDITORS’ Expanding Frontiers of Humanoid Robotics ...Mark L. Swinson, DARPA David J. Bruemmer, Strategic Analysis Mobile robots pose a unique set of challenges to artificial intelligence researchers...the constraints of logical correctness but also some assortment of crosscutting, physical constraints. Particularly interesting among these robots

  18. Robots in Space -Psychological Aspects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sipes, Walter E.

    2006-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on the psychological aspects of developing robots to perform routine operations associated with monitoring, inspection, maintenance and repair in space is shown. The topics include: 1) Purpose; 2) Vision; 3) Current Robots in Space; 4) Ground Based Robots; 5) AERCam; 6) Rotating Bladder Robot (ROBLR); 7) DART; 8) Robonaut; 9) Full Immersion Telepresence Testbed; 10) ERA; and 11) Psychological Aspects

  19. [Application of robots in stomatology].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Meng-Qi; Zhang, Jin-Ning; Hong, Jin

    2016-10-01

    Recently, the robot technology has been developed rapidly and the medical robot has been used in many clinical areas, especially in the field of stomatology. The application of robot in stomatology will break the traditional mode of treatment and bring a new technological revolution. This paper introduced the advantages, the current situation and the development prospect of applying robot in stomatology.

  20. Multi-Step Ka/Ka Dichroic Plate with Rounded Corners for NASA's 34m Beam Waveguide Antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veruttipong, Watt; Khayatian, Behrouz; Hoppe, Daniel; Long, Ezra

    2013-01-01

    A multi-step Ka/Ka dichroic plate Frequency Selective Surface (FSS structure) is designed, manufactured and tested for use in NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN) 34m Beam Waveguide (BWG) antennas. The proposed design allows ease of manufacturing and ability to handle the increased transmit power (reflected off the FSS) of the DSN BWG antennas from 20kW to 100 kW. The dichroic is designed using HFSS and results agree well with measured data considering the manufacturing tolerances that could be achieved on the dichroic.

  1. A Survey of Space Robotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pedersen, L.; Kortenkamp, D.; Wettergreen, D.; Nourbakhsh, I.; Korsmeyer, David (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we summarize a survey conducted by NASA to determine the state-of-the-art in space robotics and to predict future robotic capabilities under either nominal and intensive development effort. The space robotics assessment study examined both in-space operations including assembly, inspection, and maintenance and planetary surface operations like mobility and exploration. Applications of robotic autonomy and human-robot cooperation were considered. The study group devised a decomposition of robotic capabilities and then suggested metrics to specify the technical challenges associated with each. The conclusion of this paper identifies possible areas in which investment in space robotics could lead to significant advances of important technologies.

  2. Robotic Surgery for Thoracic Disease.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Shin-Ichi; Yoshida, Yasuhiro; Iwasaki, Akinori

    2016-01-01

    Robotic surgeries have developed in the general thoracic field over the past decade, and publications on robotic surgery outcomes have accumulated. However, controversy remains about the application of robotic surgery, with a lack of well-established evidence. Robotic surgery has several advantages such as natural movement of the surgeon's hands when manipulating the robotic arms and instruments controlled by computer-assisted systems. Most studies have reported the feasibility and safety of robotic surgery based on acceptable morbidity and mortality compared to open or video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS). Furthermore, there are accumulated data to indicate longer operation times and shorter hospital stay in robotic surgery. However, randomized controlled trials between robotic and open or VATS procedures are needed to clarify the advantage of robotic surgery. In this review, we focused the literature about robotic surgery used to treat lung cancer and mediastinal tumor.

  3. Anatomically modern human in Southeast Asia (Laos) by 46 ka

    PubMed Central

    Demeter, Fabrice; Shackelford, Laura L.; Bacon, Anne-Marie; Duringer, Philippe; Westaway, Kira; Sayavongkhamdy, Thongsa; Braga, José; Sichanthongtip, Phonephanh; Khamdalavong, Phimmasaeng; Ponche, Jean-Luc; Wang, Hong; Lundstrom, Craig; Patole-Edoumba, Elise; Karpoff, Anne-Marie

    2012-01-01

    Uncertainties surround the timing of modern human emergence and occupation in East and Southeast Asia. Although genetic and archeological data indicate a rapid migration out of Africa and into Southeast Asia by at least 60 ka, mainland Southeast Asia is notable for its absence of fossil evidence for early modern human occupation. Here we report on a modern human cranium from Tam Pa Ling, Laos, which was recovered from a secure stratigraphic context. Radiocarbon and luminescence dating of the surrounding sediments provide a minimum age of 51–46 ka, and direct U-dating of the bone indicates a maximum age of ∼63 ka. The cranium has a derived modern human morphology in features of the frontal, occipital, maxillae, and dentition. It is also differentiated from western Eurasian archaic humans in aspects of its temporal, occipital, and dental morphology. In the context of an increasingly documented archaic–modern morphological mosaic among the earliest modern humans in western Eurasia, Tam Pa Ling establishes a definitively modern population in Southeast Asia at ∼50 ka cal BP. As such, it provides the earliest skeletal evidence for fully modern humans in mainland Southeast Asia. PMID:22908291

  4. Marine04 Marine radiocarbon age calibration, 26 ? 0 ka BP

    SciTech Connect

    Hughen, K; Baille, M; Bard, E; Beck, J; Bertrand, C; Blackwell, P; Buck, C; Burr, G; Cutler, K; Damon, P; Edwards, R; Fairbanks, R; Friedrich, M; Guilderson, T; Kromer, B; McCormac, F; Manning, S; Bronk-Ramsey, C; Reimer, P; Reimer, R; Remmele, S; Southon, J; Stuiver, M; Talamo, S; Taylor, F; der Plicht, J v; Weyhenmeyer, C

    2004-11-01

    New radiocarbon calibration curves, IntCal04 and Marine04, have been constructed and internationally ratified to replace the terrestrial and marine components of IntCal98. The new calibration datasets extend an additional 2000 years, from 0-26 ka cal BP (Before Present, 0 cal BP = AD 1950), and provide much higher resolution, greater precision and more detailed structure than IntCal98. For the Marine04 curve, dendrochronologically dated tree-ring samples, converted with a box-diffusion model to marine mixed-layer ages, cover the period from 0-10.5 ka cal BP. Beyond 10.5 ka cal BP, high-resolution marine data become available from foraminifera in varved sediments and U/Th-dated corals. The marine records are corrected with site-specific {sup 14}C reservoir age information to provide a single global marine mixed-layer calibration from 10.5-26.0 ka cal BP. A substantial enhancement relative to IntCal98 is the introduction of a random walk model, which takes into account the uncertainty in both the calendar age and the radiocarbon age to calculate the underlying calibration curve. The marine datasets and calibration curve for marine samples from the surface mixed layer (Marine04) are discussed here. The tree-ring datasets, sources of uncertainty, and regional offsets are presented in detail in a companion paper by Reimer et al.

  5. Cassini Downlink Ka-Band Carrier Signal Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morabito, D. D.; Kahan, D.; Oudrhiri, K.; Lee, C.-A.

    2017-02-01

    Lower frequency telemetry bands are becoming more limited in bandwidth with more competition between flight projects and other entities. Higher frequency bands offer significantly more bandwidth and hence the prospect of much higher data rates. Future or prospective flight projects considering Ka-band (32-GHz) telemetry data links are interested in past flight experience with received Ka-band data. Over 10 years of Cassini closed-loop received Ka-band carrier data involving over 2 million individual measurements were acquired at all three Deep Space Network (DSN) sites. We analyzed these data to characterize link performance over a wide range of weather conditions and as a function of elevation angle. Based on this analysis, we have derived a recommendation for telecommunications link margin for preflight planning purposes. These results suggest that a 4-dB margin will ensure a 94 percent data return at a minimum 20-deg elevation angle under 90 percent weather conditions at 32 GHz (Ka-band).

  6. Mars Global Surveyor Ka-Band Frequency Data Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morabito, D.; Butman, S.; Shambayati, S.

    2000-01-01

    The Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft, launched on November 7, 1996, carries an experimental space-to-ground telecommunications link at Ka-band (32 GHz) along with the primary X-band (8.4 GHz) downlink. The signals are simultaneously transmitted from a 1.5-in diameter parabolic high gain antenna (HGA) on MGS and received by a beam-waveguide (BWG) R&D 34-meter antenna located in NASA's Goldstone Deep Space Network (DSN) complex near Barstow, California. The projected 5-dB link advantage of Ka-band relative to X-band was confirmed in previous reports using measurements of MGS signal strength data acquired during the first two years of the link experiment from December 1996 to December 1998. Analysis of X-band and Ka-band frequency data and difference frequency (f(sub x)-f(sub ka)/3.8) data will be presented here. On board the spacecraft, a low-power sample of the X-band downlink from the transponder is upconverted to 32 GHz, the Ka-band frequency, amplified to I-W using a Solid State Power Amplifier, and radiated from the dual X/Ka HGA. The X-band signal is amplified by one of two 25 W TWTAs. An upconverter first downconverts the 8.42 GHz X-band signal to 8 GHz and then multiplies using a X4 multiplier producing the 32 GHz Ka-band frequency. The frequency source selection is performed by an RF switch which can be commanded to select a VCO (Voltage Controlled Oscillator) or USO (Ultra-Stable Oscillator) reference. The Ka-band frequency can be either coherent with the X-band downlink reference or a hybrid combination of the USO and VCO derived frequencies. The data in this study were chosen such that the Ka-band signal is purely coherent with the X-band signal, that is the downconverter is driven by the same frequency source as the X-band downlink). The ground station used to acquire the data is DSS-13, a 34-meter BWG antenna which incorporates a series of mirrors inside beam waveguide tubes which guide the energy to a subterranean pedestal room, providing a stable

  7. Experimental radio frequency link for Ka-band communications applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fujikawa, Gene; Conray, Martin J.; Saunders, Alan L.; Pope, Dale E.

    1988-01-01

    An experimental radio frequency link has been demonstrated to provide two-way communication between a remote user ground terminal and a ground-based Ka-band transponder. Bit-error-rate performance and radio frequency characteristics of the communication link were investigated.

  8. Anatomically modern human in Southeast Asia (Laos) by 46 ka.

    PubMed

    Demeter, Fabrice; Shackelford, Laura L; Bacon, Anne-Marie; Duringer, Philippe; Westaway, Kira; Sayavongkhamdy, Thongsa; Braga, José; Sichanthongtip, Phonephanh; Khamdalavong, Phimmasaeng; Ponche, Jean-Luc; Wang, Hong; Lundstrom, Craig; Patole-Edoumba, Elise; Karpoff, Anne-Marie

    2012-09-04

    Uncertainties surround the timing of modern human emergence and occupation in East and Southeast Asia. Although genetic and archeological data indicate a rapid migration out of Africa and into Southeast Asia by at least 60 ka, mainland Southeast Asia is notable for its absence of fossil evidence for early modern human occupation. Here we report on a modern human cranium from Tam Pa Ling, Laos, which was recovered from a secure stratigraphic context. Radiocarbon and luminescence dating of the surrounding sediments provide a minimum age of 51-46 ka, and direct U-dating of the bone indicates a maximum age of ~63 ka. The cranium has a derived modern human morphology in features of the frontal, occipital, maxillae, and dentition. It is also differentiated from western Eurasian archaic humans in aspects of its temporal, occipital, and dental morphology. In the context of an increasingly documented archaic-modern morphological mosaic among the earliest modern humans in western Eurasia, Tam Pa Ling establishes a definitively modern population in Southeast Asia at ~50 ka cal BP. As such, it provides the earliest skeletal evidence for fully modern humans in mainland Southeast Asia.

  9. Partner Ballroom Dance Robot -PBDR-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosuge, Kazuhiro; Takeda, Takahiro; Hirata, Yasuhisa; Endo, Mitsuru; Nomura, Minoru; Sakai, Kazuhisa; Koizumi, Mizuo; Oconogi, Tatsuya

    In this research, we have developed a dance partner robot, which has been developed as a platform for realizing the effective human-robot coordination with physical interaction. The robot could estimate the next dance step intended by a human and dance the step with the human. This paper introduce the robot referred to as PBDR (Partner Ballroom Dance Robot), which has performed graceful dancing with the human in EXPO 2005, Aichi, Japan.

  10. Guarded Motion for Mobile Robots

    SciTech Connect

    2005-03-30

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has created codes that ensure that a robot will come to a stop at a precise, specified distance from any obstacle regardless of the robot's initial speed, its physical characteristics, and the responsiveness of the low-level motor control schema. This Guarded Motion for Mobile Robots system iteratively adjusts the robot's action in response to information about the robot's environment.

  11. Micro autonomous robotic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishihara, Hidenori; Fukuda, Toshio

    1995-12-01

    This paper deals with the structural proposal of the micro autonomous robotic system, and shows the design of the prototype. We aim at developing the micro robot, which autonomously acts based on its detection, in order to propose a solution to constitute the micro autonomous robotic system. However, as miniaturizing the size, the number of the sensors gets restricted and the information from them becomes lack. Lack of the information makes it difficult to realize an intelligence of quality. Because of that, the micro robotic system needs to develop the simple algorithm. In this paper, we propose the simply logical algorithms to control the actuator, and show the performance of the micro robot controlled by them, and design the Micro Line Trace Robot, which dimension is about 1 cm cube and which moves along the black line on the white-colored ground, and the programmable micro autonomous robot, which dimension is about 2 cm cube and which performs according to the program optionally.

  12. Future of robotic surgery.

    PubMed

    Lendvay, Thomas Sean; Hannaford, Blake; Satava, Richard M

    2013-01-01

    In just over a decade, robotic surgery has penetrated almost every surgical subspecialty and has even replaced some of the most commonly performed open oncologic procedures. The initial reports on patient outcomes yielded mixed results, but as more medical centers develop high-volume robotics programs, outcomes appear comparable if not improved for some applications. There are limitations to the current commercially available system, and new robotic platforms, some designed to compete in the current market and some to address niche surgical considerations, are being developed that will change the robotic landscape in the next decade. Adoption of these new systems will be dependent on overcoming barriers to true telesurgery that range from legal to logistical. As additional surgical disciplines embrace robotics and open surgery continues to be replaced by robotic approaches, it will be imperative that adequate education and training keep pace with technology. Methods to enhance surgical performance in robotics through the use of simulation and telementoring promise to accelerate learning curves and perhaps even improve surgical readiness through brief virtual-reality warm-ups and presurgical rehearsal. All these advances will need to be carefully and rigorously validated through not only patient outcomes, but also cost efficiency.

  13. Robotic comfort zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Likhachev, Maxim; Arkin, Ronald C.

    2000-10-01

    The paper investigates how the psychological notion of comfort can be useful in the design of robotic systems. A review of the existing study of human comfort, especially regarding its presence in infants, is conducted with the goal being to determine the relevant characteristics for mapping it onto the robotics domain. Focus is place on the identification of the salient features in the environment that affect the comfort level. Factors involved include current state familiarity, working conditions, the amount and location of available resources, etc. As part of our newly developed comfort function theory, the notion of an object as a psychological attachment for a robot is also introduced, as espoused in Bowlby's theory of attachment. The output space of the comfort function and its dependency on the comfort level are analyzed. The results of the derivation of this comfort function are then presented in terms of the impact they have on robotic behavior. Justification for the use of the comfort function are then presented in terms of the impact they have on robotic behavior. Justification for the use of the comfort function in the domain of robotics is presented with relevance for real-world operations. Also, a transformation of the theoretical discussion into a mathematical framework suitable for implementation within a behavior-based control system is presented. The paper concludes with results of simulation studies and real robot experiments using the derived comfort function.

  14. Autonomous mobile robot

    SciTech Connect

    Mattaboni, P.J.

    1987-01-20

    This patent describes a mobile robot of the type having (a) a vision system, (b) memory means for storing data derived from the robot vision system, and (c) a computer for processing data derived from the robot's vision system, the improvement wherein the robot's vision system comprises (i) a first array of ranging transducers for obtaining data on the position and distance of far objects in a volume of space, the transducers of the first array being symmetrically disposed on the mobile robot with respect to an axis of symmetry within the mobile robot. Each transducer of the first array is fixed in position with respect to that axis of symmetry and sees a portion of the volume of space seen by its entire array; (ii) a second array of ranging transducers for obtaining data of the position and distance of near objects in the same or an overlapping volume of space, the transducers of the second array being symmetrically disposed on the mobile robot with respect to the axis of symmetry. Each transducer of the second array is fixed in position with respect to the axis of symmetry and sees a portion of the volume of space seen by its entire array, the angle of view of the transducers of the second array being different from the angle of view of the transducers of the first array with respect to the same object in space; and (iii) means for polling the ranging transducers in sequences determined by the computer.

  15. Toward cognitive robotics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laird, John E.

    2009-05-01

    Our long-term goal is to develop autonomous robotic systems that have the cognitive abilities of humans, including communication, coordination, adapting to novel situations, and learning through experience. Our approach rests on the recent integration of the Soar cognitive architecture with both virtual and physical robotic systems. Soar has been used to develop a wide variety of knowledge-rich agents for complex virtual environments, including distributed training environments and interactive computer games. For development and testing in robotic virtual environments, Soar interfaces to a variety of robotic simulators and a simple mobile robot. We have recently made significant extensions to Soar that add new memories and new non-symbolic reasoning to Soar's original symbolic processing, which should significantly improve Soar abilities for control of robots. These extensions include episodic memory, semantic memory, reinforcement learning, and mental imagery. Episodic memory and semantic memory support the learning and recalling of prior events and situations as well as facts about the world. Reinforcement learning provides the ability of the system to tune its procedural knowledge - knowledge about how to do things. Mental imagery supports the use of diagrammatic and visual representations that are critical to support spatial reasoning. We speculate on the future of unmanned systems and the need for cognitive robotics to support dynamic instruction and taskability.

  16. Door breaching robotic manipulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoenfeld, Erik; Parrington, Lawrence; von Muehlen, Stephan

    2008-04-01

    As unmanned systems become more commonplace in military, police, and other security forces, they are tasked to perform missions that the original hardware was not designed for. Current military robots are built for rough outdoor conditions and have strong inflexible manipulators designed to handle a wide range of operations. However, these manipulators are not well suited for some essential indoor tasks, including opening doors. This is a complicated kinematic task that places prohibitively difficult control challenges on the robot and the operator. Honeybee and iRobot have designed a modular door-breaching manipulator that mechanically simplifies the demands upon operator and robot. The manipulator connects to the existing robotic arm of the iRobot PackBot EOD. The gripper is optimized for grasping a variety of door knobs, levers, and car-door handles. It works in conjunction with a compliant wrist and magnetic lock-out mechanism that allows the wrist to remain rigid until the gripper has a firm grasp of the handle and then bend with its rotation and the swing of the door. Once the door is unlatched, the operator simply drives the robot through the doorway while the wrist compensates for the complex, multiple degree-of-freedom motion of the door. Once in the doorway the operator releases the handle, the wrist pops back into place, and the robot is ready for the next door. The new manipulator dramatically improves a robot's ability to non-destructively breach doors and perform an inspection of a room's content, a capability that was previously out of reach of unmanned systems.

  17. Soft Robotics: New Perspectives for Robot Bodyware and Control

    PubMed Central

    Laschi, Cecilia; Cianchetti, Matteo

    2014-01-01

    The remarkable advances of robotics in the last 50 years, which represent an incredible wealth of knowledge, are based on the fundamental assumption that robots are chains of rigid links. The use of soft materials in robotics, driven not only by new scientific paradigms (biomimetics, morphological computation, and others), but also by many applications (biomedical, service, rescue robots, and many more), is going to overcome these basic assumptions and makes the well-known theories and techniques poorly applicable, opening new perspectives for robot design and control. The current examples of soft robots represent a variety of solutions for actuation and control. Though very first steps, they have the potential for a radical technological change. Soft robotics is not just a new direction of technological development, but a novel approach to robotics, unhinging its fundamentals, with the potential to produce a new generation of robots, in the support of humans in our natural environments. PMID:25022259

  18. Agile Walking Robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larimer, Stanley J.; Lisec, Thomas R.; Spiessbach, Andrew J.; Waldron, Kenneth J.

    1990-01-01

    Proposed agile walking robot operates over rocky, sandy, and sloping terrain. Offers stability and climbing ability superior to other conceptual mobile robots. Equipped with six articulated legs like those of insect, continually feels ground under leg before applying weight to it. If leg sensed unexpected object or failed to make contact with ground at expected point, seeks alternative position within radius of 20 cm. Failing that, robot halts, examines area around foot in detail with laser ranging imager, and replans entire cycle of steps for all legs before proceeding.

  19. Autonomous mobile robot teams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agah, Arvin; Bekey, George A.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes autonomous mobile robot teams performing tasks in unstructured environments. The behavior and the intelligence of the group is distributed, and the system does not include a central command base or leader. The novel concept of the Tropism-Based Cognitive Architecture is introduced, which is used by the robots in order to produce behavior transforming their sensory information to proper action. The results of a number of simulation experiments are presented. These experiments include worlds where the robot teams must locate, decompose, and gather objects, and defend themselves against hostile predators, while navigating around stationary and mobile obstacles.

  20. Modelling robot construction systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grasso, Chris

    1990-01-01

    TROTER's are small, inexpensive robots that can work together to accomplish sophisticated construction tasks. To understand the issues involved in designing and operating a team of TROTER's, the robots and their components are being modeled. A TROTER system that features standardized component behavior is introduced. An object-oriented model implemented in the Smalltalk programming language is described and the advantages of the object-oriented approach for simulating robot and component interactions are discussed. The presentation includes preliminary results and a discussion of outstanding issues.

  1. Advanced mechanisms for robotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vranish, John M.

    1991-01-01

    An overview of applied research and development at the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) on mechanisms and collision avoidance skin for robots is presented. The work on robot end effectors is outlined, followed by a brief discussion of robot-friendly payload latching mechanisms and compliant joints. This is followed by discussions of the collision avoidance/management skin and the GSFC research on magnetorestrictive direct drive motors. A new project, the artificial muscle, is introduced. Each of the devices is described sufficiently to permit a basic understanding of its purpose, capabilities, and operating fundamentals. The implications for commercialization are discussed.

  2. Robotics in shoulder rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Sicuri, Chiara; Porcellini, Giuseppe; Merolla, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Summary In the last few decades, several researches have been conducted in the field of robotic rehabilitation to meet the intensive, repetitive and task-oriented training, with the goal to recover the motor function. Up to now, robotic rehabilitation studies of the upper extremity have generally focused on stroke survivors leaving less explored the field of orthopaedic shoulder rehabilitation. In this review we analyse the present status of robotic technologies, in order to understand which are the current indications and which may be the future perspective for their application in both neurological and orthopaedic shoulder rehabilitation. PMID:25332937

  3. Robotics: An introduction

    SciTech Connect

    Mc Cloy, D.; Harris, D.

    1986-01-01

    This book is an account encompassing the entire range of disciplines involved in robotics: mechanical, electrical, electronic, and software design, as well as the related technologies of pick-and-place devices, walking machines, teleoperators, and prosthetics. The book explores the evolution of robotics and major trends in the field, and covers an array of robot configurations and mechanisms. It also looks at fundamentals such as actuation, control, measurement, computers, sensing and interaction with the environment, and pattern recognition. Important economic and financial aspects as well as safety and social implications are detailed.

  4. Robots and telechirs

    SciTech Connect

    Thring, M.W.

    1985-01-01

    This volume outlines an engineering approach and includes relevant social aspects of the impact of robotic automation. The book explains the basic principles and theory, discusses design and investigates current methods to produce practical, reliable robots. Specific topics include the theory and practice of mechanical arms, hands and legs. The use of robotics in industry and of telechirs in mines, underwater, and in such dangerous situations as handling explosives are also covered, as are the mechanisms of the human body in doing these tasks.

  5. Joint Robotics Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-04-23

    Åèìáëáíáçå= oÉëÉ~êÅÜ=póãéçëáìã= JOINT ROBOTICS PROGRAM Published: 23 April 2008 by Joel Brown and Paul Varian 5th Annual Acquisition Research...3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2008 to 00-00-2008 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Joint Robotics Program 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...ëóåÉêÖó=Ñçê=áåÑçêãÉÇ=ÅÜ~åÖÉ=======- 464 - = = Joint Robotics Program Presenter: Joel Brown, Defense Acquisition University Author: Paul Varian

  6. Artificial Intelligence and Robotics.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-09-20

    8217’AD-A122 414 ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE AND ROBOTICS (.) ARMY SCIENCE 1/j 13OARD WA SH INGTON Od I C PEDEN ET AL. 20 SEP 82 UNCLASSIFIED F/G 15/3 NL LEE...AND ACQUISITION WASHINGTON, D. C. 20310 A RMY CIENCE BOARD AD HOC SUBGROUP REPORT ON ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE AND ROBOTICS SEPTEMBER 1982 DTIC DEC 1 5...TITLE (aid Subtitle) S TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED Army Science Board AHSG Report Final Artificial Intelligence and Robotics S. PERFORMING ORG

  7. Robots in astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baruch, John E. F.

    A development history and a development trends evaluation are presented for the growth of automation and robotics in industry and in observational astronomy, with a view to the distinctive problems of each field of application. Recent concepts concerning the astronomical use of robots as personal assistants are noted, and an effort is made to discern ways in which technology guides both methods and perceptions. Current programs for robotic and automated telescope development are noted, and it is argued that international standards should soon be formulated for this technology.

  8. MVACS Robotic Arm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonitz, R.; Slostad, J.; Bon, B.; Braun, D.; Brill, R.; Buck, C.; Fleischner, R.; Haldeman, A.; Herman, J.; Hertzel, M.; Noon, D.; Pixler, G.; Schenker, P.; Ton, T.; Tucker, C.; Zimmerman, W.

    2000-01-01

    The primary purpose of the Mars Volatiles and Climate Surveyor (MVACS) Robotic Arm is to support to the other MVACS science instruments by digging trenches in the Martian soil; acquiring and dumping soil samples into the thermal evolved gas analyzer (TEGA); positioning the Soil Temperature Probe (STP) in the soil: positioning the Robotic Arm Air Temperature Sensor (RAATS) at various heights above the surface, and positioning the Robotic Arm Camera (RAC) for taking images of the surface, trench, soil samples, magnetic targets and other objects of scientific interest within its workspace.

  9. Architecture for robot intelligence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, II, Richard Alan (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    An architecture for robot intelligence enables a robot to learn new behaviors and create new behavior sequences autonomously and interact with a dynamically changing environment. Sensory information is mapped onto a Sensory Ego-Sphere (SES) that rapidly identifies important changes in the environment and functions much like short term memory. Behaviors are stored in a DBAM that creates an active map from the robot's current state to a goal state and functions much like long term memory. A dream state converts recent activities stored in the SES and creates or modifies behaviors in the DBAM.

  10. Mars Global Surveyor Ka-Band Frequency Data Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morabito, D.; Butman, S.; Shambayati, S.

    2000-01-01

    The Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft, launched on November 7, 1996, carries an experimental space-to-ground telecommunications link at Ka-band (32 GHz) along with the primary X-band (8.4 GHz) downlink. The signals are simultaneously transmitted from a 1.5-in diameter parabolic high gain antenna (HGA) on MGS and received by a beam-waveguide (BWG) R&D 34-meter antenna located in NASA's Goldstone Deep Space Network (DSN) complex near Barstow, California. The projected 5-dB link advantage of Ka-band relative to X-band was confirmed in previous reports using measurements of MGS signal strength data acquired during the first two years of the link experiment from December 1996 to December 1998. Analysis of X-band and Ka-band frequency data and difference frequency (fx-fka)/3.8 data will be presented here. On board the spacecraft, a low-power sample of the X-band downlink from the transponder is upconverted to 32 GHz, the Ka-band frequency, amplified to I-W using a Solid State Power Amplifier, and radiated from the dual X/Ka HGA. The X-band signal is amplified by one of two 25 W TWTAs. An upconverter first downconverts the 8.42 GHz X-band signal to 8 GHz and then multiplies using a X4 multiplier producing the 32 GHz Ka-band frequency. The frequency source selection is performed by an RF switch which can be commanded to select a VCO (Voltage Controlled Oscillator) or USO (Ultra-Stable Oscillator) reference. The Ka-band frequency can be either coherent with the X-band downlink reference or a hybrid combination of the USO and VCO derived frequencies. The data in this study were chosen such that the Ka-band signal is purely coherent with the X-band signal, that is the downconverter is driven by the same frequency source as the X-band downlink). The ground station used to acquire the data is DSS-13, a 34-meter BWG antenna which incorporates a series of mirrors inside beam waveguide tubes which guide the energy to a subterranean pedestal room, providing a stable environment

  11. Software Architecture for Planetary and Lunar Robotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Utz, Hans; Fong, Teny; Nesnas, Iasa A. D.

    2006-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on the role that software architecture plays in space and lunar robotics is shown. The topics include: 1) The Intelligent Robotics Group; 2) The Lunar Mission; 3) Lunar Robotics; and 4) Software Architecture for Space Robotics.

  12. Miniature in vivo robotics and novel robotic surgical platforms.

    PubMed

    Shah, Bhavin C; Buettner, Shelby L; Lehman, Amy C; Farritor, Shane M; Oleynikov, Dmitry

    2009-05-01

    Robotic surgical systems, such as the da Vinci Surgical System (Intuitive Surgical, Inc., Sunnyvale, California), have revolutionized laparoscopic surgery but are limited by large size, increased costs, and limitations in imaging. Miniature in vivo robots are being developed that are inserted entirely into the peritoneal cavity for laparoscopic and natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgical (NOTES) procedures. In the future, miniature camera robots and microrobots should be able to provide a mobile viewing platform. This article discusses the current state of miniature robotics and novel robotic surgical platforms and the development of future robotic technology for general surgery and urology.

  13. Continuum limbed robots for locomotion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutlu, Alper

    This thesis focuses on continuum robots based on pneumatic muscle technology. We introduce a novel approach to use these muscles as limbs of lightweight legged robots. The flexibility of the continuum legs of these robots offers the potential to perform some duties that are not possible with classical rigid-link robots. Potential applications are as space robots in low gravity, and as cave explorer robots. The thesis covers the fabrication process of continuum pneumatic muscles and limbs. It also provides some new experimental data on this technology. Afterwards, the designs of two different novel continuum robots - one tripod, one quadruped - are introduced. Experimental data from tests using the robots is provided. The experimental results are the first published example of locomotion with tripod and quadruped continuum legged robots. Finally, discussion of the results and how far this technology can go forward is presented.

  14. Robotics and remote systems applications

    SciTech Connect

    Rabold, D.E.

    1996-05-01

    This article is a review of numerous remote inspection techniques in use at the Savannah River (and other) facilities. These include: (1) reactor tank inspection robot, (2) californium waste removal robot, (3) fuel rod lubrication robot, (4) cesium source manipulation robot, (5) tank 13 survey and decontamination robots, (6) hot gang valve corridor decontamination and junction box removal robots, (7) lead removal from deionizer vessels robot, (8) HB line cleanup robot, (9) remote operation of a front end loader at WIPP, (10) remote overhead video extendible robot, (11) semi-intelligent mobile observing navigator, (12) remote camera systems in the SRS canyons, (13) cameras and borescope for the DWPF, (14) Hanford waste tank camera system, (15) in-tank precipitation camera system, (16) F-area retention basin pipe crawler, (17) waste tank wall crawler and annulus camera, (18) duct inspection, and (19) deionizer resin sampling.

  15. Robotic follow system and method

    DOEpatents

    Bruemmer, David J [Idaho Falls, ID; Anderson, Matthew O [Idaho Falls, ID

    2007-05-01

    Robot platforms, methods, and computer media are disclosed. The robot platform includes perceptors, locomotors, and a system controller, which executes instructions for a robot to follow a target in its environment. The method includes receiving a target bearing and sensing whether the robot is blocked front. If the robot is blocked in front, then the robot's motion is adjusted to avoid the nearest obstacle in front. If the robot is not blocked in front, then the method senses whether the robot is blocked toward the target bearing and if so, sets the rotational direction opposite from the target bearing, and adjusts the rotational velocity and translational velocity. If the robot is not blocked toward the target bearing, then the rotational velocity is adjusted proportional to an angle of the target bearing and the translational velocity is adjusted proportional to a distance to the nearest obstacle in front.

  16. Robots on the Roof

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) is one of the first places that scientists turn when volcanoes, wildfires, pollution plumes, dust storms and many other phenomena—both natural and manmade—...

  17. DOE Robotics Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This document provide the bimonthly progress reports on the Department of Energy (DOE) Robotics Project by the University of Michigan. Reports are provided for the time periods of December 90/January 91 through June 91/July 91. (FI)

  18. Biological Soft Robotics.

    PubMed

    Feinberg, Adam W

    2015-01-01

    In nature, nanometer-scale molecular motors are used to generate force within cells for diverse processes from transcription and transport to muscle contraction. This adaptability and scalability across wide temporal, spatial, and force regimes have spurred the development of biological soft robotic systems that seek to mimic and extend these capabilities. This review describes how molecular motors are hierarchically organized into larger-scale structures in order to provide a basic understanding of how these systems work in nature and the complexity and functionality we hope to replicate in biological soft robotics. These span the subcellular scale to macroscale, and this article focuses on the integration of biological components with synthetic materials, coupled with bioinspired robotic design. Key examples include nanoscale molecular motor-powered actuators, microscale bacteria-controlled devices, and macroscale muscle-powered robots that grasp, walk, and swim. Finally, the current challenges and future opportunities in the field are addressed.

  19. Operator roles in robotics

    SciTech Connect

    Lyman, J.; Madni, A.M.

    1984-01-01

    The authors suggest that operator roles in robotics can be classified under the categories of monitor, manager, and maintainer. With increasingly sophisticated applications of machine intelligence, however, these roles will require explicit and continuing reassessment. 5 references.

  20. Microprocessors, Robotics, and Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeVore, Paul W.

    1982-01-01

    The author explores several recent technological developments which will have an impact on future technical education. These developments include the revolution in information services, robotics, job changes and eliminations, changing role of the worker, and quality of life. (CT)

  1. Rolling friction robot fingers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vranish, John M. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A low friction, object guidance, and gripping finger device for a robotic end effector on a robotic arm is disclosed, having a pair of robotic fingers each having a finger shaft slideably located on a gripper housing attached to the end effector. Each of the robotic fingers has a roller housing attached to the finger shaft. The roller housing has a ball bearing mounted centering roller located at the center, and a pair of ball bearing mounted clamping rollers located on either side of the centering roller. The object has a recess to engage the centering roller and a number of seating ramps for engaging the clamping rollers. The centering roller acts to position and hold the object symmetrically about the centering roller with respect to the X axis and the clamping rollers act to position and hold the object with respect to the Y and Z axis.

  2. Robotic aortic surgery.

    PubMed

    Duran, Cassidy; Kashef, Elika; El-Sayed, Hosam F; Bismuth, Jean

    2011-01-01

    Surgical robotics was first utilized to facilitate neurosurgical biopsies in 1985, and it has since found application in orthopedics, urology, gynecology, and cardiothoracic, general, and vascular surgery. Surgical assistance systems provide intelligent, versatile tools that augment the physician's ability to treat patients by eliminating hand tremor and enabling dexterous operation inside the patient's body. Surgical robotics systems have enabled surgeons to treat otherwise untreatable conditions while also reducing morbidity and error rates, shortening operative times, reducing radiation exposure, and improving overall workflow. These capabilities have begun to be realized in two important realms of aortic vascular surgery, namely, flexible robotics for exclusion of complex aortic aneurysms using branched endografts, and robot-assisted laparoscopic aortic surgery for occlusive and aneurysmal disease.

  3. Robotics in urologic oncology

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Saurabh; Gautam, Gagan

    2015-01-01

    Robotic surgery was initially developed to overcome problems faced during conventional laparoscopic surgeries and to perform telesurgery at distant locations. It has now established itself as the epitome of minimally invasive surgery (MIS). It is one of the most significant advances in MIS in recent years and is considered by many as a revolutionary technology, capable of influencing the future of surgery. After its introduction to urology, robotic surgery has redefined the management of urological malignancies. It promises to make difficult urological surgeries easier, safer and more acceptable to both the surgeon and the patient. Robotic surgery is slowly, but surely establishing itself in India. In this article, we provide an overview of the advantages, disadvantages, current status, and future applications of robotic surgery for urologic cancers in the context of the Indian scenario. PMID:25598598

  4. K-10 Robots

    NASA Video Gallery

    Robots, scientists, engineers and flight controllers from NASA's Ames Research Center at Moffett Field, Calif., and NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston, gathered at NASA Ames to perform a series...

  5. Robots in operating theatres.

    PubMed Central

    Buckingham, R. A.; Buckingham, R. O.

    1995-01-01

    Robots designed for surgery have three main advantages over humans. They have greater three dimensional spatial accuracy, are more reliable, and can achieve much greater precision. Although few surgical robots are yet in clinical trials one or two have advanced to the stage of seeking approval from the UK's Medical Devices Agency and the US Federal Drug Administration. Safety is a key concern. A robotic device can be designed in an intrinsically safe way by restricting its range of movement to an area where it can do no damage. Furthermore, safety can be increased by making it passive, guided at all times by a surgeon. Nevertheless, some of the most promising developments may come from robots that are active (monitored rather than controlled by the surgeon) and not limited to intrinsically safe motion. Images Fig 1 Fig 3 Fig 4 PMID:8520340

  6. FIRST Robotics Kickoff

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    NASA engineers Scott Olive (left) and Bo Clarke answer questions during the 2007 FIRST (For Inspiration and Recognition of Science and Technology) Robotics Competition regional kickoff event held Saturday, Jan. 6, 2007, at StenniSphere, the visitor center at NASA Stennis Space Center near Bay St. Louis, Miss. The SSC employees and FIRST Robotics volunteer mentors are standing near a mock-up of the playing field for the FIRST Robotics' 2007 `Rack n' Roll' challenge. Roughly 300 students and adult volunteers - representing 29 high schools from four states - attended the kickoff to hear the rules of `Rack n' Roll.' The teams will spend the next six weeks building and programming robots from parts kits they received Saturday, then battle their creations at regional spring competitions in New Orleans, Houston, Atlanta and other cities around the nation. FIRST aims to inspire students in the pursuit of engineering and technology studies and careers.

  7. Robotics in Colorectal Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, Allison; Steele, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Over the past few decades, robotic surgery has developed from a futuristic dream to a real, widely used technology. Today, robotic platforms are used for a range of procedures and have added a new facet to the development and implementation of minimally invasive surgeries. The potential advantages are enormous, but the current progress is impeded by high costs and limited technology. However, recent advances in haptic feedback systems and single-port surgical techniques demonstrate a clear role for robotics and are likely to improve surgical outcomes. Although robotic surgeries have become the gold standard for a number of procedures, the research in colorectal surgery is not definitive and more work needs to be done to prove its safety and efficacy to both surgeons and patients. PMID:27746895

  8. Wheeled hopping robot

    DOEpatents

    Fischer, Gary J.

    2010-08-17

    The present invention provides robotic vehicles having wheeled and hopping mobilities that are capable of traversing (e.g. by hopping over) obstacles that are large in size relative to the robot and, are capable of operation in unpredictable terrain over long range. The present invention further provides combustion powered linear actuators, which can include latching mechanisms to facilitate pressurized fueling of the actuators, as can be used to provide wheeled vehicles with a hopping mobility.

  9. Military Space Robotics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-04-30

    space will need to be designed for service by autonomous robots. Objects in space will have to be hardened for protection against directed- energy ...weapons, kinetic- energy weapons, and natural radiation. Extraterrestrial m~itrials (ETM) will be preferable as a lower-cost alternative to earth-launched...RESOURCES IN ORBIT ROBOTS IN ORBIT ABILITY TO UTILIZE ETM TO CONSTRUCT ABILITY TO CONSTRUCT LARGE ORBITAL RESOURCES STRUCTURES IN ORBIT . ABILITY TO FORM

  10. Robotics and general surgery.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Brian P; Gagner, Michel

    2003-12-01

    Robotics are now being used in all surgical fields, including general surgery. By increasing intra-abdominal articulations while operating through small incisions, robotics are increasingly being used for a large number of visceral and solid organ operations, including those for the gallbladder, esophagus, stomach, intestines, colon, and rectum, as well as for the endocrine organs. Robotics and general surgery are blending for the first time in history and as a specialty field should continue to grow for many years to come. We continuously demand solutions to questions and limitations that are experienced in our daily work. Laparoscopy is laden with limitations such as fixed axis points at the trocar insertion sites, two-dimensional video monitors, limited dexterity at the instrument tips, lack of haptic sensation, and in some cases poor ergonomics. The creation of a surgical robot system with 3D visual capacity seems to deal with most of these limitations. Although some in the surgical community continue to test the feasibility of these surgical robots and to question the necessity of such an expensive venture, others are already postulating how to improve the next generation of telemanipulators, and in so doing are looking beyond today's horizon to find simpler solutions. As the robotic era enters the world of the general surgeon, more and more complex procedures will be able to be approached through small incisions. As technology catches up with our imaginations, robotic instruments (as opposed to robots) and 3D monitoring will become routine and continue to improve patient care by providing surgeons with the most precise, least traumatic ways of treating surgical disease.

  11. Calibration of the radiocarbon time scale at 37ka BP

    SciTech Connect

    Southon, J.R.; Deino, A.L.; Orsi, G.

    1995-12-01

    Results from radiocarbon and U-Th measurements on corals have provided a radiocarbon calibration beyond the range covered by tree ring series, but the uncertainties in the measurements beyond 20ka BP are very large. We have obtained new calibration data from radiocarbon dates on material associated with the catastrophic Campanian Ignimbrite eruption from the Phlegrean Fields near Naples. The eruption has been well dated by {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar to 37ka BP. Radiocarbon measurements were carried out on charcoal from a carbonized branch exposed within the ignimbrite tuff on the wall of an active quarry. The sample was split and analyzed at both the Naples and Lawrence Livermore AMS facilities. The offset between the Ar-Ar data and the radiocarbon results (recalculated using the true 5730-year half life for {sup 14}C) is consistent with predictions from paleomagnetic data and carbon cycle modeling.

  12. EUReKA! A Conceptual Model of Emotion Understanding.

    PubMed

    Castro, Vanessa L; Cheng, Yanhua; Halberstadt, Amy G; Grühn, Daniel

    2016-07-01

    The field of emotion understanding is replete with measures, yet lacks an integrated conceptual organizing structure. To identify and organize skills associated with the recognition and knowledge of emotions, and to highlight the focus of emotion understanding as localized in the self, in specific others, and in generalized others, we introduce the conceptual framework of Emotion Understanding in Recognition and Knowledge Abilities (EUReKA). We then categorize fifty-six existing methods of emotion understanding within this framework to highlight current gaps and future opportunities in assessing emotion understanding across the lifespan. We hope the EUReKA model provides a systematic and integrated framework for conceptualizing and measuring emotion understanding for future research.

  13. Ka-band MMIC arrays for ACTS Aero Terminal Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raquet, C.; Zakrajsek, R.; Lee, R.; Turtle, J.

    1992-01-01

    An antenna system consisting of three experimental Ka-band active arrays using GaAs MMIC devices at each radiating element for electronic beam steering and distributed power amplification is presented. The MMIC arrays are to be demonstrated in the ACTS Aeronautical Terminal Experiment, planned for early 1994. The experiment is outlined, with emphasis on a description of the antenna system. Attention is given to the way in which proof-of-concept MMIC arrays featuring three different state-of-the-art approaches to Ka-band MMIC insertion are being incorporated into an experimental aircraft terminal for the demonstration of an aircraft-to-satellite link, providing a basis for follow-on MMIC array development.

  14. Modularity in robotic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tesar, Delbert; Butler, Michael S.

    1989-01-01

    Most robotic systems today are designed one at a time, at a high cost of time and money. This wasteful approach has been necessary because the industry has not established a foundation for the continued evolution of intelligent machines. The next generation of robots will have to be generic, versatile machines capable of absorbing new technology rapidly and economically. This approach is demonstrated in the success of the personal computer, which can be upgraded or expanded with new software and hardware at virtually every level. Modularity is perceived as a major opportunity to reduce the 6 to 7 year design cycle time now required for new robotic manipulators, greatly increasing the breadth and speed of diffusion of robotic systems in manufacturing. Modularity and its crucial role in the next generation of intelligent machines are the focus of interest. The main advantages that modularity provides are examined; types of modules needed to create a generic robot are discussed. Structural modules designed by the robotics group at the University of Texas at Austin are examined to demonstrate the advantages of modular design.

  15. Robot goniophotometry at PTB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindemann, M.; Maass, R.; Sauter, G.

    2015-04-01

    The total luminous flux of a light source is the complete integration of its spectral radiance distribution weighted with the photopic observer and taken over all parts of its surface and over the full solid angle of emittance. The spatial distributions are measured with various types of goniophotometers and the PTB robot goniophotometer is a new type with many unique features. It is built as an arrangement of three robots with arms of more than 6 m in length and with 7 degrees of freedom each. The extreme flexibility of the robots allows computer controlled tracks with variable radii and speeds up to 3 m and 1 m s-1, respectively. One robot aligns the light source and the two other robots move photometers and array spectrometers in their hemispheres simultaneously measuring planar illuminance and the related relative spectral distribution. The robot goniophotometer is optimized for the realisation of the luminous flux unit, the lumen and it is completely characterized in this report. The relevant properties and correction factors are explained, as well as the implementation of techniques for synchronisation and stabilisation of spatially resolved or integrated photometric and colorimetric quantities. Finally, all contributions are combined in the model of evaluation for the (total) luminous flux value and the measurement uncertainty associated with that value is evaluated in the presented uncertainty budget. The goniophotometric determination of the values for colorimetric quantities is explained for the total luminous flux and the spatially distributed radiant power.

  16. Robotic surgery in gynecology

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Rooma; Sanjay, Madhumati; Rupa, B.; Kumari, Samita

    2015-01-01

    FDA approved Da Vinci Surgical System in 2005 for gynecological surgery. It has been rapidly adopted and it has already assumed an important position at various centers where this is available. It comprises of three components: A surgeon's console, a patient-side cart with four robotic arms and a high-definition three-dimensional (3D) vision system. In this review we have discussed various robotic-assisted laparoscopic benign gynecological procedures like myomectomy, hysterectomy, endometriosis, tubal anastomosis and sacrocolpopexy. A PubMed search was done and relevant published studies were reviewed. Surgeries that can have future applications are also mentioned. At present most studies do not give significant advantage over conventional laparoscopic surgery in benign gynecological disease. However robotics do give an edge in more complex surgeries. The conversion rate to open surgery is lesser with robotic assistance when compared to laparoscopy. For myomectomy surgery, Endo wrist movement of robotic instrument allows better and precise suturing than conventional straight stick laparoscopy. The robotic platform is a logical step forward to laparoscopy and if cost considerations are addressed may become popular among gynecological surgeons world over. PMID:25598600

  17. Application of robots in space.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnsen, E. G.

    1971-01-01

    Robots are defined as electromechanical systems (with local computers) receiving inputs from sensors, and in turn, controlling motors and effectors to do tasks requiring some measure of intelligence and permitting the whole system to interact with the real world. Robot systems for space applications are categorized into three general groups consisting of roving exploration robots, spacecraft robots, and planet development robots. The functions of systems in each category are defined in terms of intended applications, and requirements for operating and decision making are outlined. Further developments which must be achieved in robot technology are summarized.

  18. Robotic hand with modular extensions

    DOEpatents

    Salisbury, Curt Michael; Quigley, Morgan

    2015-01-20

    A robotic device is described herein. The robotic device includes a frame that comprises a plurality of receiving regions that are configured to receive a respective plurality of modular robotic extensions. The modular robotic extensions are removably attachable to the frame at the respective receiving regions by way of respective mechanical fuses. Each mechanical fuse is configured to trip when a respective modular robotic extension experiences a predefined load condition, such that the respective modular robotic extension detaches from the frame when the load condition is met.

  19. Interim Findings of ACTS Ka-Band Propagation Campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golshan, N.

    1997-01-01

    The ACTS propagation campaign is focusing on two broad areas: 1) Rain/signal attenuation data collection at seven sites in North America, 2) Theoretical and empirical consideratons for a global model to predict first & second order temporal and spatial statistics on attenuation, scintillation, conherence bandwidth, and depolarization due to weather (precipitation and atmospheric including interaction of weather with the antenna) for satellite systems at Ka-band.

  20. Rain Fade Compensation Alternatives for Ka Band Communication Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acosta, Roberto J.

    1997-01-01

    Future satellite communications systems operating in Ka-band frequency band are subject to degradation produced by the troposphere which is much more severe than those found at lower frequency bands. These impairments include signal absorption by rain, clouds and gases, and amplitude scintillation's arising from refractive index irregularities. For example, rain attenuation at 20 GHz is almost three times that at 11 GHz. Although some of these impairments can be overcome by oversizing the ground station antennas and high power amplifiers, the current trend is using small (less than 20 inches apertures), low-cost ground stations (less than $1000) that can be easily deployed at user premises. As a consequence, most Ka-band systems are expected to employ different forms of fade mitigation that can be implemented relatively easily and at modest cost. The rain fade mitigation approaches are defined by three types of Ka-band communications systems - a low service rate (less than 1.5 Mb/s), a moderate service rate (1.5 to 6 Mb/s) system and a high service rate (greater than 43 Mb/s) system. The ACTS VSAT network, which includes an adaptive rain fade technique, is an example of a moderate service rate.

  1. X/Ka Celestial Frame Improvements: Vision to Reality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobs, C. S.; Bagri, D. S.; Britcliffe, M. J.; Clark, J. E.; Franco, M. M.; Garcia-Miro, C.; Goodhart, C. E.; Horiuchi, S.; Lowe, S. T.; Moll, V. E.; Navarro, R.; Rogstad, S. P.; Proctor, R. C.; Sigman, E. H.; Skjerve, L. J.; Soriano, M. A.; Sovers, O. J.; Tucker, B. C.; Wang, D.; White, L. A.

    2010-01-01

    In order to extend the International Celestial Reference Frame from its S/X-band (2.3/8.4 GHz) basis to a complementary frame at X/Ka-band (8.4/32 GHz), we began in mid-2005 an ongoing series of X/Ka observations using NASA s Deep Space Network (DSN) radio telescopes. Over the course of 47 sessions, we have detected 351 extra-galactic radio sources covering the full 24 hours of right ascension and declinations down to -45 degrees. Angular source position accuracy is at the part-per-billion level. We developed an error budget which shows that the main errors arise from limited sensitivity, mismodeling of the troposphere, uncalibrated instrumental effects, and the lack of a southern baseline. Recent work has improved sensitivity by improving pointing calibrations and by increasing the data rate four-fold. Troposphere calibration has been demonstrated at the mm-level. Construction of instrumental phase calibrators and new digital baseband filtering electronics began in recent months. We will discuss the expected effect of these improvements on the X/Ka frame.

  2. X/Ka Celestial Reference Frame Improvements: Vision to Reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Christopher S.; Bagri, D. S.; Brticliffe, M. J.; Clark, J. E.; Franco, M. M.; García-Miró, C.; Goodhart, C. E.; Horiuchi, S.; Lowe, S. T.; Moll, V. E.; Navarro, R.; Rogstad, S. P.; Proctor, R. C.; Skjerve, L. J.; Soriano, M. A.; Sovers, O. J.; Tucker, B. C.; Wang, D.; White, L. A.

    2010-12-01

    In order to extend the International Celestial Reference Frame from its S/X-band (2.3/8.4 GHz) basis to a complementary frame at X/Ka-band (8.4/32 GHz), we began in mid-2005 an ongoing series of X/Ka observations using NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN) radio telescopes. Over the course of 47 sessions, we have detected 351 extra-galactic radio sources covering the full 24 hours of right ascension and declinations down to -45 degrees. Angular source position accuracy is at the part-per-billion level. We developed an error budget which shows that the main errors arise from limited sensitivity, mismodeling of the troposphere, uncalibrated instrumental effects, and the lack of a southern baseline. Recent work has improved sensitivity by improving pointing calibrations and by increasing the data rate four-fold. Troposphere calibration has been demonstrated at the mm-level. Construction of instrumental phase calibrators and new digital baseband filtering electronics began in recent months. We will discuss the expected effect of these improvements on the X/Ka frame.

  3. An overview of artificial intelligence and robotics. Volume 2: Robotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gevarter, W. B.

    1982-01-01

    This report provides an overview of the rapidly changing field of robotics. The report incorporates definitions of the various types of robots, a summary of the basic concepts, utilized in each of the many technical areas, review of the state of the art and statistics of robot manufacture and usage. Particular attention is paid to the status of robot development, the organizations involved, their activities, and their funding.

  4. A history of robots: from science fiction to surgical robotics.

    PubMed

    Hockstein, N G; Gourin, C G; Faust, R A; Terris, D J

    2007-01-01

    Surgical robotics is an evolving field with great advances having been made over the last decade. The origin of robotics was in the science-fiction literature and from there industrial applications, and more recently commercially available, surgical robotic devices have been realized. In this review, we examine the field of robotics from its roots in literature to its development for clinical surgical use. Surgical mills and telerobotic devices are discussed, as are potential future developments.

  5. AltiKa: a Ka-band Altimetry Payload and System for Operational Altimetry during the GMES Period

    PubMed Central

    Vincent, Patrick; Steunou, Nathalie; Caubet, Eric; Phalippou, Laurent; Rey, Laurent; Thouvenot, Eric; Verron, Jacques

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the Ka-band altimetry payload and system that has been studied for several years by CNES, ALCATEL SPACE and some science laboratories. Altimetry is one of the major elements of the ocean observing system to be made sustainable through the GEOSS (Global Earth Observation System of Systems) and GMES (Global Monitoring of the Environment and Security) programs. A short review of some mission objectives to be fulfilled in terms of mesoscale oceanography in the frame of the GEOSS and GMES programs is performed. To answer the corresponding requirements, the approach consisting in a constellation of nadir altimeter is discussed. A coupled Ka-band altimeter-radiometer payload is then described; technical items are detailed to explain how this payload shall meet the science and operational requirements, and expected performances are displayed. The current status of the payload development and flight perspectives are given.

  6. Deployer: A Robot-Deploying Robot

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-04-01

    6: Bandicoot 11 Figure 7: Deployer mast in a.) retracted, b.) extending, and c.) fully extended positions. 13 Figure 8: Wombat climbing stairs with...mast in a.) retracted, b.)extending, and c.) fully extended positions. 13 Deploy er Outfitting - Wombat The second Urban Robot, Wombat (Fig.8), was...equipped with a single, rear-mounted ISIS transceiver and a Swarm Radio to communicate with all of the Joeys. In addition, Wombat was equipped with

  7. Socially intelligent robots: dimensions of human-robot interaction.

    PubMed

    Dautenhahn, Kerstin

    2007-04-29

    Social intelligence in robots has a quite recent history in artificial intelligence and robotics. However, it has become increasingly apparent that social and interactive skills are necessary requirements in many application areas and contexts where robots need to interact and collaborate with other robots or humans. Research on human-robot interaction (HRI) poses many challenges regarding the nature of interactivity and 'social behaviour' in robot and humans. The first part of this paper addresses dimensions of HRI, discussing requirements on social skills for robots and introducing the conceptual space of HRI studies. In order to illustrate these concepts, two examples of HRI research are presented. First, research is surveyed which investigates the development of a cognitive robot companion. The aim of this work is to develop social rules for robot behaviour (a 'robotiquette') that is comfortable and acceptable to humans. Second, robots are discussed as possible educational or therapeutic toys for children with autism. The concept of interactive emergence in human-child interactions is highlighted. Different types of play among children are discussed in the light of their potential investigation in human-robot experiments. The paper concludes by examining different paradigms regarding 'social relationships' of robots and people interacting with them.

  8. Supersmart Robots: The Next Generation of Robots Has Evolutionary Capabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simkins, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Robots that can learn new behaviors. Robots that can reproduce themselves. Science fiction? Not anymore. Roboticists at Cornell's Computational Synthesis Lab have developed just such engineered creatures that offer interesting implications for education. The team, headed by Hod Lipson, was intrigued by the question, "How can you get robots to be…

  9. Robots for Astrobiology!

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boston, Penelope J.

    2016-01-01

    The search for life and its study is known as astrobiology. Conducting that search on other planets in our Solar System is a major goal of NASA and other space agencies, and a driving passion of the community of scientists and engineers around the world. We practice for that search in many ways, from exploring and studying extreme environments on Earth, to developing robots to go to other planets and help us look for any possible life that may be there or may have been there in the past. The unique challenges of space exploration make collaborations between robots and humans essential. The products of those collaborations will be novel and driven by the features of wholly new environments. For space and planetary environments that are intolerable for humans or where humans present an unacceptable risk to possible biologically sensitive sites, autonomous robots or telepresence offer excellent choices. The search for life signs on Mars fits within this category, especially in advance of human landed missions there, but also as assistants and tools once humans reach the Red Planet. For planetary destinations where we do not envision humans ever going in person, like bitterly cold icy moons, or ocean worlds with thick ice roofs that essentially make them planetary-sized ice caves, we will rely on robots alone to visit those environments for us and enable us to explore and understand any life that we may find there. Current generation robots are not quite ready for some of the tasks that we need them to do, so there are many opportunities for roboticists of the future to advance novel types of mobility, autonomy, and bio-inspired robotic designs to help us accomplish our astrobiological goals. We see an exciting partnership between robotics and astrobiology continually strengthening as we jointly pursue the quest to find extraterrestrial life.

  10. ISS Update: Robotic Refueling Mission

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Dan Huot interviews Alex Janas, robotics operator from the Goddard Space Flight Center, about the Robotic Refueling Mission that has been taking place on the space stati...

  11. Artificial intelligence: Robots with instincts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adami, Christoph

    2015-05-01

    An evolutionary algorithm has been developed that allows robots to adapt to unforeseen change. The robots learn behaviours quickly and instinctively by mining the memory of their past achievements. See Letter p.503

  12. Industrial Robots on the Line.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayres, Robert; Miller, Steve

    1982-01-01

    Explores the history of robotics and its effects upon the manufacturing industry. Topics include robots' capabilities and limitations, the factory of the future, displacement of the workforce, and implications for management and labor. (SK)

  13. Basic Operational Robotics Instructional System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Todd, Brian Keith; Fischer, James; Falgout, Jane; Schweers, John

    2013-01-01

    The Basic Operational Robotics Instructional System (BORIS) is a six-degree-of-freedom rotational robotic manipulator system simulation used for training of fundamental robotics concepts, with in-line shoulder, offset elbow, and offset wrist. BORIS is used to provide generic robotics training to aerospace professionals including flight crews, flight controllers, and robotics instructors. It uses forward kinematic and inverse kinematic algorithms to simulate joint and end-effector motion, combined with a multibody dynamics model, moving-object contact model, and X-Windows based graphical user interfaces, coordinated in the Trick Simulation modeling environment. The motivation for development of BORIS was the need for a generic system for basic robotics training. Before BORIS, introductory robotics training was done with either the SRMS (Shuttle Remote Manipulator System) or SSRMS (Space Station Remote Manipulator System) simulations. The unique construction of each of these systems required some specialized training that distracted students from the ideas and goals of the basic robotics instruction.

  14. Robots Aboard International Space Station

    NASA Video Gallery

    Ames Research Center, MIT and Johnson Space Center have two new robotics projects aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Robonaut 2, a two-armed humanoid robot with astronaut-like dexterity,...

  15. Pediatric robotic urologic surgery-2014.

    PubMed

    Kearns, James T; Gundeti, Mohan S

    2014-07-01

    We seek to provide a background of the current state of pediatric urologic surgery including a brief history, procedural outcomes, cost considerations, future directions, and the state of robotic surgery in India. Pediatric robotic urology has been shown to be safe and effective in cases ranging from pyeloplasty to bladder augmentation with continent urinary diversion. Complication rates are in line with other methods of performing the same procedures. The cost of robotic surgery continues to decrease, but setting up pediatric robotic urology programs can be costly in terms of both monetary investment and the training of robotic surgeons. The future directions of robot surgery include instrument and system refinements, augmented reality and haptics, and telesurgery. Given the large number of children in India, there is huge potential for growth of pediatric robotic urology in India. Pediatric robotic urologic surgery has been established as safe and effective, and it will be an important tool in the future of pediatric urologic surgery worldwide.

  16. Remote Education Based on Robot Edutainment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yorita, Akihiro; Hashimoto, Takuya; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Kubota, Naoyuki

    This paper discusses the role of robots in remote education. There are three different aims of robot edutainment, i.e., Learning on Robots, Learning through Robots, and Learning with Robots. The last is to apply human-friendly robots instead of personal computers for computer-assisted instruction. Especially, natural communication capability is required to educational robots in the learning with robots. In this paper, we apply human-friendly robots to remote education and discuss the requirements and specifications of robots for the remote education.

  17. Aerial Explorers and Robotic Ecosystems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Larry A.; Pisanich, Greg

    2004-01-01

    A unique bio-inspired approach to autonomous aerial vehicle, a.k.a. aerial explorer technology is discussed. The work is focused on defining and studying aerial explorer mission concepts, both as an individual robotic system and as a member of a small robotic "ecosystem." Members of this robotic ecosystem include the aerial explorer, air-deployed sensors and robotic symbiotes, and other assets such as rovers, landers, and orbiters.

  18. Cooperative Autonomous Robots for Reconnaissance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-06

    REPORT Cooperative Autonomous Robots for Reconnaissance 14. ABSTRACT 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: Collaborating mobile robots equipped with WiFi ...Cooperative Autonomous Robots for Reconnaissance Report Title ABSTRACT Collaborating mobile robots equipped with WiFi transceivers are configured as a mobile...equipped with WiFi transceivers are configured as a mobile ad-hoc network. Algorithms are developed to take advantage of the distributed processing

  19. Higher Order Languages for Robots,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-10-01

    and procedures for math, I/O, character manipula- 4; tion, robot motion , and line tracking give pre-defined methods for real world control, which...and Shin (5) describe five levels of robot programming: task- " oriented, structured programming, primitive motion , point-to-point, and micro...spray painting robot the programmer (usually a shop floor operator) leads the robot through all of the motions for locating, moving, and orienting the

  20. Teen Sized Humanoid Robot: Archie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baltes, Jacky; Byagowi, Ahmad; Anderson, John; Kopacek, Peter

    This paper describes our first teen sized humanoid robot Archie. This robot has been developed in conjunction with Prof. Kopacek’s lab from the Technical University of Vienna. Archie uses brushless motors and harmonic gears with a novel approach to position encoding. Based on our previous experience with small humanoid robots, we developed software to create, store, and play back motions as well as control methods which automatically balance the robot using feedback from an internal measurement unit (IMU).

  1. Investigating the Implementation of Robotics.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-02-01

    igating the Implementation of Robotics j Linda Argote and Paul S. Goodman I CML-RI-TRS84-9I Investigating the Implementation of Robotics #Linda...Argote and Paul S. Goodman CMU-RI-TR-84-9 The Robotics Institute Carnegie-Mellon University Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 Fecbruary 1984 JUN~jg 4...Copyright ®1984 Carnegie-Mellon UniversityA UA Support for this research was provided by the Graduate School of Industrial Administration, thc Robotics

  2. US Army TARDEC: Robotics Overview

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-25

    unclassified US ARMY TARDEC Robotics Overview Bernard Theisen, Joint Center for Robotics 25 March 2010 Reference herein to any specific commercial...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE US ARMY TARDEC Robotics Overview 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Bernard... Robotics Industry Partnerships Academia PartnershipsGovernment Partnerships TRADOC Community Outreach • S&T Support to the RS-JPO • Develops and Fosters

  3. ICAM Robotics Application Guide (RAG)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-04-01

    ROBOTICS APPLICATION MB GENERAL DYNAMICS CORPORATION FORT WORTH DIVISION FORT WORTH, TEXAS 76101 APRIL 1980 TECHNICAL REPORT AFWAL-TR-80-4042...DOCUMENTATION PAGE AyvJAijfTR-so-AOA^vnntnuFri ’ AT)(-ß05O CTXZ/, l. GOVT ACCESSION NO Ull’i ICAM Robotics Application Guide (RAG) m . vlJ L...Effector Flexible Automation Industrial Robot Manipulator Robotics Work Volume 20. ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse erde II necessary end

  4. Quantum robots plus environments.

    SciTech Connect

    Benioff, P.

    1998-07-23

    A quantum robot is a mobile quantum system, including an on board quantum computer and needed ancillary systems, that interacts with an environment of quantum systems. Quantum robots carry out tasks whose goals include making specified changes in the state of the environment or carrying out measurements on the environment. The environments considered so far, oracles, data bases, and quantum registers, are seen to be special cases of environments considered here. It is also seen that a quantum robot should include a quantum computer and cannot be simply a multistate head. A model of quantum robots and their interactions is discussed in which each task, as a sequence of alternating computation and action phases,is described by a unitary single time step operator T {approx} T{sub a} + T{sub c} (discrete space and time are assumed). The overall system dynamics is described as a sum over paths of completed computation (T{sub c}) and action (T{sub a}) phases. A simple example of a task, measuring the distance between the quantum robot and a particle on a 1D lattice with quantum phase path dispersion present, is analyzed. A decision diagram for the task is presented and analyzed.

  5. Robotics, Ethics, and Nanotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganascia, Jean-Gabriel

    It may seem out of character to find a chapter on robotics in a book about nanotechnology, and even more so a chapter on the application of ethics to robots. Indeed, as we shall see, the questions look quite different in these two fields, i.e., in robotics and nanoscience. In short, in the case of robots, we are dealing with artificial beings endowed with higher cognitive faculties, such as language, reasoning, action, and perception, whereas in the case of nano-objects, we are talking about invisible macromolecules which act, move, and duplicate unseen to us. In one case, we find ourselves confronted by a possibly evil double of ourselves, and in the other, a creeping and intangible nebula assails us from all sides. In one case, we are faced with an alter ego which, although unknown, is clearly perceptible, while in the other, an unspeakable ooze, the notorious grey goo, whose properties are both mysterious and sinister, enters and immerses us. This leads to a shift in the ethical problem situation: the notion of responsibility can no longer be worded in the same terms because, despite its otherness, the robot can always be located somewhere, while in the case of nanotechnologies, myriad nanometric objects permeate everywhere, disseminating uncontrollably.

  6. Robotic microsurgery optimization.

    PubMed

    Brahmbhatt, Jamin V; Gudeloglu, Ahmet; Liverneaux, Philippe; Parekattil, Sijo J

    2014-05-01

    The increased application of the da Vinci robotic platform (Intuitive Surgical Inc.) for microsurgery has led to the development of new adjunctive surgical instrumentation. In microsurgery, the robotic platform can provide high definition 12×-15× digital magnification, broader range of motion, fine instrument handling with decreased tremor, reduced surgeon fatigue, and improved surgical productivity. This paper presents novel adjunctive tools that provide enhanced optical magnification, micro-Doppler sensing of vessels down to a 1-mm size, vein mapping capabilities, hydro-dissection, micro-ablation technology (with minimal thermal spread-CO2 laser technology), and confocal microscopy to provide imaging at a cellular level. Microsurgical outcomes from the use of these tools in the management of patients with infertility and chronic groin and testicular pain are reviewed. All these instruments have been adapted for the robotic console and enhance the robot-assisted microsurgery experience. As the popularity of robot-assisted microsurgery grows, so will its breadth of instrumentation.

  7. Biologically inspired intelligent robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Breazeal, Cynthia

    2003-07-01

    Humans throughout history have always sought to mimic the appearance, mobility, functionality, intelligent operation, and thinking process of biological creatures. This field of biologically inspired technology, having the moniker biomimetics, has evolved from making static copies of human and animals in the form of statues to the emergence of robots that operate with realistic behavior. Imagine a person walking towards you where suddenly you notice something weird about him--he is not real but rather he is a robot. Your reaction would probably be "I can't believe it but this robot looks very real" just as you would react to an artificial flower that is a good imitation. You may even proceed and touch the robot to check if your assessment is correct but, as oppose to the flower case, the robot may be programmed to respond physical and verbally. This science fiction scenario could become a reality as the current trend continues in developing biologically inspired technologies. Technology evolution led to such fields as artificial muscles, artificial intelligence, and artificial vision as well as biomimetic capabilities in materials science, mechanics, electronics, computing science, information technology and many others. This paper will review the state of the art and challenges to biologically-inspired technologies and the role that EAP is expected to play as the technology evolves.

  8. Engineering robust intelligent robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, E. L.; Ali, S. M. Alhaj; Ghaffari, M.; Liao, X.; Cao, M.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the challenge of engineering robust intelligent robots. Robust intelligent robots may be considered as ones that not only work in one environment but rather in all types of situations and conditions. Our past work has described sensors for intelligent robots that permit adaptation to changes in the environment. We have also described the combination of these sensors with a "creative controller" that permits adaptive critic, neural network learning, and a dynamic database that permits task selection and criteria adjustment. However, the emphasis of this paper is on engineering solutions which are designed for robust operations and worst case situations such as day night cameras or rain and snow solutions. This ideal model may be compared to various approaches that have been implemented on "production vehicles and equipment" using Ethernet, CAN Bus and JAUS architectures and to modern, embedded, mobile computing architectures. Many prototype intelligent robots have been developed and demonstrated in terms of scientific feasibility but few have reached the stage of a robust engineering solution. Continual innovation and improvement are still required. The significance of this comparison is that it provides some insights that may be useful in designing future robots for various manufacturing, medical, and defense applications where robust and reliable performance is essential.

  9. Surgery with cooperative robots.

    PubMed

    Lehman, Amy C; Berg, Kyle A; Dumpert, Jason; Wood, Nathan A; Visty, Abigail Q; Rentschler, Mark E; Platt, Stephen R; Farritor, Shane M; Oleynikov, Dmitry

    2008-03-01

    Advances in endoscopic techniques for abdominal procedures continue to reduce the invasiveness of surgery. Gaining access to the peritoneal cavity through small incisions prompted the first significant shift in general surgery. The complete elimination of external incisions through natural orifice access is potentially the next step in reducing patient trauma. While minimally invasive techniques offer significant patient advantages, the procedures are surgically challenging. Robotic surgical systems are being developed that address the visualization and manipulation limitations, but many of these systems remain constrained by the entry incisions. Alternatively, miniature in vivo robots are being developed that are completely inserted into the peritoneal cavity for laparoscopic and natural orifice procedures. These robots can provide vision and task assistance without the constraints of the entry incision, and can reduce the number of incisions required for laparoscopic procedures. In this study, a series of minimally invasive animal-model surgeries were performed using multiple miniature in vivo robots in cooperation with existing laparoscopy and endoscopy tools as well as the da Vinci Surgical System. These procedures demonstrate that miniature in vivo robots can address the visualization constraints of minimally invasive surgery by providing video feedback and task assistance from arbitrary orientations within the peritoneal cavity.

  10. The problem with multiple robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huber, Marcus J.; Kenny, Patrick G.

    1994-01-01

    The issues that can arise in research associated with multiple, robotic agents are discussed. Two particular multi-robot projects are presented as examples. This paper was written in the hope that it might ease the transition from single to multiple robot research.

  11. Robotics and Intelligent Systems Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-06-01

    This report gives brief descriptions of the projects associated with the Robotics and Intelligent Systems Program (RISP). Projects included in the report are (1) Remote Operations Demonstration Facility; (2) M-2 Servomanipulator; (3) The Advanced Servomanipulator; (4) Hostile Environment Robotic Machine Intelligence Experiment Series robots); and (5) Telerobotic Concepts. These devices have application in nuclear industry and space environments. (JDH)

  12. Heterogeneous Multi-Robot Cooperation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-02-01

    the objects the robots manipulate are hazardous waste. I have not actually applied the robots to reA toxic waste spills, since they are simply small...1993] Bruce Randall Donald, James Jennings, and Daniela Rus. To- wards a theory of information invariants for cooperating autonomous mobile robots

  13. Adaptive Language Games with Robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steels, Luc

    2010-11-01

    This paper surveys recent research into language evolution using computer simulations and robotic experiments. This field has made tremendous progress in the past decade going from simple simulations of lexicon formation with animallike cybernetic robots to sophisticated grammatical experiments with humanoid robots.

  14. Humans and Robots. Educational Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    This brief discusses human movement and robotic human movement simulators. The activity for students in grades 5-12 provides a history of robotic movement and includes making an End Effector for the robotic arms used on the Space Shuttle and the International Space Station (ISS). (MVL)

  15. KC-135 materials handling robotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Workman, Gary L.

    1991-01-01

    Robot dynamics and control will become an important issue for implementing productive platforms in space. Robotic operations will become necessary for man-tended stations and for efficient performance of routine operations in a manned platform. The current constraints on the use of robotic devices in a microgravity environment appears to be due to an anticipated increase in acceleration levels due to manipulator motion and for safety concerns. The objective of this study will be to provide baseline data to meet that need. Most texts and papers dealing with the kinematics and dynamics of robots assume that the manipulator is composed of joints separated by rigid links. However, in recent years several groups have begun to study the dynamics of flexible manipulators, primarily for applying robots in space and for improving the efficiency and precision of robotic systems. Robotic systems which are being planned for implementation in space have a number of constraints to overcome. Additional concepts which have to be worked out in any robotic implementation for a space platform include teleoperation and degree of autonomous control. Some significant results in developing a robotic workcell for performing robotics research on the KC-135 aircraft in preperation for space-based robotics applications in the future were generated. In addition, it was shown that TREETOPS can be used to simulate the dynamics of robot manipulators for both space and ground-based applications.

  16. Robotic Design for the Classroom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Culbert, Chris; Burns, Kaylynn

    2001-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the use of robotic design to interest students in science and engineering. It describes one program, BEST, and resources that area available to design and create a robot. BEST is a competition for sixth and seventh graders that is designed to engage gifted and talented students. A couple of scenarios involving the use of a robot are outlined.

  17. Robot Technology: Implications for Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Post, Paul E.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Provides an introduction to robotic technology, and describes current robot models. Three ways of using robots in education are discussed--as exemplars of other processes, as objects of instruction, and as prosthetic aids--and selection criteria are outlined. (17 references) (CLB)

  18. Future perspectives in robotic surgery.

    PubMed

    Wedmid, Alexei; Llukani, Elton; Lee, David I

    2011-09-01

    Robotics of the current day have advanced significantly from early computer-aided design/manufacturing systems to modern master-slave robotic systems that replicate the surgeon's exact movements onto robotic instruments in the patient. • Globally >300,000 robotic procedures were completed in 2010, including ≈98,000 robot-assisted radical prostatectomies. • Broadening applications of robotics for urological procedures are being investigated in both adult and paediatric urology. • The use of the current robotic system continues to be further refined. Increasing experience has optimized port placement reducing arm collisions to allow for more expedient surgery. Improved three-dimensional camera magnification provides improved intraoperative identification of structures. • Robotics has probably improved the learning curve of laparoscopic surgery while still maintaining its patient recovery advantages and outcomes. • The future of robotic surgery will take this current platform forward by improving haptic (touch) feedback, improving vision beyond even the magnified eye, improving robot accessibility with a reduction of entry ports and miniaturizing the slave robot. • Here, we focus on the possible advancements that may change the future landscape of robotic surgery.

  19. Determination of pKa values of organic bases in aqueous acetonitrile solutions using capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Buckenmaier, Stephan M C; McCalley, David V; Euerby, Melvin R

    2003-07-04

    Capillary electrophoresis (CE) was used for the determination of ionisation constants (pKa) of a variety of organic bases in aqueous acetonitrile solutions over the range 0-60% (v/v) acetonitrile. These bases are used as test compounds in HPLC column evaluation, thus knowledge of their pKa in hydro-organic solutions is useful. The base pKa decreased with acetonitrile concentration and significant shifts from the aqueous pKa (up to -0.8) were found using 60% acetonitrile. The CE application was confirmed to be very suitable for fast and accurate pKa measurement in aqueous organic solutions.

  20. Determination of pKa of felodipine using UV-Visible spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, M. M.; Jaipal, A.; Kumar, A.; Malik, R.; Charde, S. Y.

    2013-11-01

    In the present study, for the first time, experimental pKa value of felodipine is reported. Dissociation constant, pKa, is one of the very important physicochemical properties of drugs. It is of paramount significance from the perspective of pharmaceutical analysis and dosage form design. The method used for the pKa determination of felodipine was essentially a UV-Visible spectrophotometric method. The spectrophotometric method for the pKa determination was opted by acknowledging the established fact that spectrophotometric determination of pKa produces most precise values. The pKa of felodipine was found to be 5.07. Furthermore, the ruggedness of the determined value is also validated in this study in order to produce exact pKa of the felodipine.

  1. Human-Robot Interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rochlis-Zumbado, Jennifer; Sandor, Aniko; Ezer, Neta

    2012-01-01

    Risk of Inadequate Design of Human and Automation/Robotic Integration (HARI) is a new Human Research Program (HRP) risk. HRI is a research area that seeks to understand the complex relationship among variables that affect the way humans and robots work together to accomplish goals. The DRP addresses three major HRI study areas that will provide appropriate information for navigation guidance to a teleoperator of a robot system, and contribute to the closure of currently identified HRP gaps: (1) Overlays -- Use of overlays for teleoperation to augment the information available on the video feed (2) Camera views -- Type and arrangement of camera views for better task performance and awareness of surroundings (3) Command modalities -- Development of gesture and voice command vocabularies

  2. Transoral Robotic Surgery.

    PubMed

    Yee, Shokjean

    2017-01-01

    Transoral robotic surgery (TORS) is a technique used to treat oral, throat, and skull base cancers using a minimally invasive robotic approach through the mouth and throat. The TORS procedure allows deeper access and dissection of suspicious lesions and neoplastic growths in the oral cavity and those that extend from the throat to the base of the skull. Robotic surgery allows the surgeon to operate in tight spaces without a large open incision. This article discusses symptoms and risk factors of oral, throat, and skull base cancers; types of procedures that can be performed using the TORS approach; specialized instrumentation; patient selection; surgical advantages and disadvantages; patient benefits; and the role of the surgical team in preparing to intraoperatively care for the TORS patient.

  3. Advanced mechanisms for robotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vranish, John M.

    1992-01-01

    An overview of applied research and development at NASA-Goddard (GSFC) on mechanisms and the collision avoidance skin for robots is presented. First the work on robot end effectors is outlined, followed by a brief discussion on robot-friendly payload latching mechanisms and compliant joints. This, in turn, is followed by the collision avoidance/management skin and the GSFC research on magnetostrictive direct drive motors. Finally, a new project, the artificial muscle, is introduced. Each of the devices is described in sufficient detail to permit a basic understanding of its purpose, fundamental principles of operation, and capabilities. In addition, the development status of each is reported along with descriptions of breadboards and prototypes and their test results. In each case, the implications of the research for commercialization is discussed. The chronology of the presentation will give a clear idea of both the evolution of the R&D in recent years and its likely direction in the future.

  4. The universal robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moravec, Hans

    1993-01-01

    Our artifacts are getting smarter, and a loose parallel with the evolution of animal intelligence suggests one future course for them. Computerless industrial machinery exhibits the behavioral flexibility of single-celled organisms. Today's best computer-controlled robots are like the simpler invertebrates. A thousand-fold increase in computer power in the next decade should make possible machines with reptile-like sensory and motor competence. Properly configured, such robots could do in the physical world what personal computers now do in the world of data - act on our behalf as literal-minded slaves. Growing computer power over the next half-century will allow this reptile stage to be surpassed, in stages producing robots that learn like mammals, model their world like primates, and eventually reason like humans. Depending on your point of view, humanity will then have produced a worthy successor, or transcended some of its inherited limitations and so transformed itself into something quite new.

  5. ISS Robotic Student Programming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barlow, J.; Benavides, J.; Hanson, R.; Cortez, J.; Le Vasseur, D.; Soloway, D.; Oyadomari, K.

    2016-01-01

    The SPHERES facility is a set of three free-flying satellites launched in 2006. In addition to scientists and engineering, middle- and high-school students program the SPHERES during the annual Zero Robotics programming competition. Zero Robotics conducts virtual competitions via simulator and on SPHERES aboard the ISS, with students doing the programming. A web interface allows teams to submit code, receive results, collaborate, and compete in simulator-based initial rounds and semi-final rounds. The final round of each competition is conducted with SPHERES aboard the ISS. At the end of 2017 a new robotic platform called Astrobee will launch, providing new game elements and new ground support for even more student interaction.

  6. The universal robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moravec, Hans

    1993-12-01

    Our artifacts are getting smarter, and a loose parallel with the evolution of animal intelligence suggests one future course for them. Computerless industrial machinery exhibits the behavioral flexibility of single-celled organisms. Today's best computer-controlled robots are like the simpler invertebrates. A thousand-fold increase in computer power in the next decade should make possible machines with reptile-like sensory and motor competence. Properly configured, such robots could do in the physical world what personal computers now do in the world of data - act on our behalf as literal-minded slaves. Growing computer power over the next half-century will allow this reptile stage to be surpassed, in stages producing robots that learn like mammals, model their world like primates, and eventually reason like humans. Depending on your point of view, humanity will then have produced a worthy successor, or transcended some of its inherited limitations and so transformed itself into something quite new.

  7. FIRST robots compete

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    FIRST teams and their robots work to go through the right motions at the FIRST competition. Students from all over the country are at the KSC Visitor Complex for the FIRST (For Inspiration and Recognition of Science and Technology) Southeast Regional competition March 9-11 in the Rocket Garden. Teams of high school students are testing the limits of their imagination using robots they have designed, with the support of business and engineering professionals and corporate sponsors, to compete in a technological battle against other schools' robots. Of the 30 high school teams competing, 16 are Florida teams co-sponsored by NASA and KSC contractors. Local high schools participating are Astronaut, Bayside, Cocoa Beach, Eau Gallie, Melbourne, Melbourne Central Catholic, Palm Bay, Rockledge, Satellite, and Titusville.

  8. Put Your Robot In, Put Your Robot Out: Sequencing through Programming Robots in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazakoff, Elizabeth R.; Bers, Marina Umaschi

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the impact of programming robots on sequencing ability in early childhood. Thirty-four children (ages 4.5-6.5 years) participated in computer programming activities with a developmentally appropriate tool, CHERP, specifically designed to program a robot's behaviors. The children learned to build and program robots over three…

  9. Ka-Band ARM Zenith Radar (KAZR) Instrument Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Widener, K; Bharadwaj, N; Johnson, K

    2012-03-06

    The Ka-band ARM zenith radar (KAZR) is a zenith-pointing Doppler cloud radar operating at approximately 35 GHz. The KAZR is an evolutionary follow-on radar to ARM's widely successful millimeter-wavelength cloud radar (MMCR). The main purpose of the KAZR is to provide vertical profiles of clouds by measuring the first three Doppler moments: reflectivity, radial Doppler velocity, and spectra width. At the sites where the dual-polarization measurements are made, the Doppler moments for the cross-polarization channel are also available. In addition to the moments, velocity spectra are also continuously recorded for each range gate.

  10. Ka- and W-band PM-HFET DRO's

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenger, J.; Guettich, U.

    1993-06-01

    Dielectric resonator stabilized oscillators have been designed, fabricated, and investigated. The oscillators consist of microstrip matching and biasing circuits on alumina substrate, a dielectric resonator puck, and a low-noise quarter-micron InGaAs-GaAs pseudomorphic (PM) HFET as the active device. At 37 GHz and 81 GHz, output powers of 10 dBm and 0 dBm have been measured. The phase noise of the Ka-band and W-band oscillators has been determined to be -97 dBc/Hz at 100 kHz and -90 dBc/Hz at 1 MHz off carrier, respectively.

  11. Four-Way Ka-Band Power Combiner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perez, Raul; Li, Samuel

    2007-01-01

    A waveguide structure for combining the outputs of four amplifiers operating at 35 GHz (Ka band) is based on a similar prior structure used in the X band. The structure is designed to function with low combining loss and low total reflected power at a center frequency of 35 GHz with a 160 MHz bandwidth. The structure (see figure) comprises mainly a junction of five rectangular waveguides in a radial waveguide. The outputs of the four amplifiers can be coupled in through any four of the five waveguide ports. Provided that these four signals are properly phased, they combine and come out through the fifth waveguide port.

  12. Ka-band mobile and personal systems development at JPL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dessouky, K.; Estabrook, P.; Jedrey, T.; Sue, M. K.

    1991-01-01

    Expanding the commercial applications of space is one of the primary goals of NASA. Throughout the eighties NASA has pursued this objective by sponsoring and undertaking the development of system concepts, enabling high risk technologies, and actual proof of concept demonstration hardware. In the mobile and personal arena, or the so-called low data rate applications area, JPL is NASA's lead center. JPL's focus of activities has been the Mobile Satellite-Experiment (MSAT-X) project, which developed mobile communication technologies at L-band, and its present successors, which aim to expand the mobile arena by exploiting Ka-band.

  13. Embedding knowledge in robot controllers

    SciTech Connect

    Puttre, M.

    1994-06-01

    This article reports that finding the right robot for a task and programming it remain key issues facing the industry. Developers, meanwhile, are striving to embed more applications knowledge in robot controllers using high-level languages and autonomy. Although robot components such as motors, arms, and sensors have become highly advanced, the control software and systems integration necessary to support rapidly configurable factory settings have been slow to emerge. The requirements for industrial robots currently are geared more toward performance than autonomy. However, as agile manufacturing issues gain importance, robot flexibility will also become an important requirement.

  14. Robust Software Architecture for Robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aghazanian, Hrand; Baumgartner, Eric; Garrett, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Robust Real-Time Reconfigurable Robotics Software Architecture (R4SA) is the name of both a software architecture and software that embodies the architecture. The architecture was conceived in the spirit of current practice in designing modular, hard, realtime aerospace systems. The architecture facilitates the integration of new sensory, motor, and control software modules into the software of a given robotic system. R4SA was developed for initial application aboard exploratory mobile robots on Mars, but is adaptable to terrestrial robotic systems, real-time embedded computing systems in general, and robotic toys.

  15. Joint service EOD robotics program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hacker, Kurt; Brezina, Byron; DeBolt, Chris

    2006-05-01

    Within the military, the Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD) community has been an early adopter of robotic capabilities. The Joint Service EOD (JSEOD) Program is in the process of fielding its third generation of robotic systems to the EOD technicians. Robots have been an invaluable asset to the EOD technician, and they have been critical to operations in Iraq as we prosecute the IED problem. This paper provides a brief history of past EOD robotic systems, a description of currently fielded and supported systems, and the future of robotic programs within the Joint Service EOD community.

  16. Robot welding process control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romine, Peter L.

    1991-01-01

    This final report documents the development and installation of software and hardware for Robotic Welding Process Control. Primary emphasis is on serial communications between the CYRO 750 robotic welder, Heurikon minicomputer running Hunter & Ready VRTX, and an IBM PC/AT, for offline programming and control and closed-loop welding control. The requirements for completion of the implementation of the Rocketdyne weld tracking control are discussed. The procedure for downloading programs from the Intergraph, over the network, is discussed. Conclusions are made on the results of this task, and recommendations are made for efficient implementation of communications, weld process control development, and advanced process control procedures using the Heurikon.

  17. Robotic component preparation

    SciTech Connect

    Dokos, J.R.

    1986-04-01

    This report provides information on the preparation of robotic components. Component preparation includes pretinning or solder dipping, preforming, and pretrimming of component leads. Since about 70% of all components are axial-leaded resistor-type components, it was decided to begin with them and then later develop capabilities to handle other types. The first workcell is the first phase of an overall system to pretin, preform, and pretrim all components and to feed them to an automatic insertion system. Before use of the robot, a Unimation PUMA Modal 260, pretinning and preforming was done by first hand with a shield and vented booth.

  18. Robotic retroauricular thyroid surgery

    PubMed Central

    Alabbas, Haytham; Bu Ali, Daniah

    2016-01-01

    Surgery is the gold standard treatment for patients with thyroid cancer or nodules suspicious for cancer. Open conventional approach is the standard surgical approach. However, a visible neck incision could be a concern for most young female patients, especially for patients with a history of healing with keloid or hypertrophic scars. Robotic remote access approaches have evolved into a safe and feasible approach in selected patients, providing a hidden scar with good patient satisfaction. This review will focus on the performance and safety of robotic retroauricular thyroid surgery. PMID:28149806

  19. Dextrous robot hands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venkataraman, Subramanian T. (Editor); Iberall, Thea (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    Recent studies of human hand function and their implications for the design of robot hands are discussed in reviews and reports. Topics addressed include human grasp choice and robotic grasp analysis, opposition space and human prehension, coordination in normal and prosthetic reaching, and intelligent exploration by the human hand. Consideration is given to a task-oriented dextrous manipulation architecture, the control architecture for the Belgrade/USC hand, the analysis of multifingered grasping and manipulation, and tactile sensing for shape interpretation. Diagrams, graphs, and photographs are provided.

  20. Transoral robotic thyroid surgery

    PubMed Central

    Clark, James H.; Kim, Hoon Yub

    2015-01-01

    There is currently significant demand for minimally invasive thyroid surgery; however the majority of proposed surgical approaches necessitate a compromise between minimal tissue dissection with a visible cervical scar or extensive tissue dissection with a remote, hidden scar. The development of transoral endoscopic thyroid surgery however provides an approach which is truly minimally invasive, as it conceals the incision within the oral cavity without significantly increasing the amount of required dissection. The transoral endoscopic approach however presents multiple technical challenges, which could be overcome with the incorporation of a robotic operating system. This manuscript summarizes the literature on the feasibility and current clinical experience with transoral robotic thyroid surgery. PMID:26425456

  1. Microwave vision for robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewandowski, Leon; Struckman, Keith

    1994-01-01

    Microwave Vision (MV), a concept originally developed in 1985, could play a significant role in the solution to robotic vision problems. Originally our Microwave Vision concept was based on a pattern matching approach employing computer based stored replica correlation processing. Artificial Neural Network (ANN) processor technology offers an attractive alternative to the correlation processing approach, namely the ability to learn and to adapt to changing environments. This paper describes the Microwave Vision concept, some initial ANN-MV experiments, and the design of an ANN-MV system that has led to a second patent disclosure in the robotic vision field.

  2. Robotic Planetary Drill Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glass, Brian J.; Thompson, S.; Paulsen, G.

    2010-01-01

    Several proposed or planned planetary science missions to Mars and other Solar System bodies over the next decade require subsurface access by drilling. This paper discusses the problems of remote robotic drilling, an automation and control architecture based loosely on observed human behaviors in drilling on Earth, and an overview of robotic drilling field test results using this architecture since 2005. Both rotary-drag and rotary-percussive drills are targeted. A hybrid diagnostic approach incorporates heuristics, model-based reasoning and vibration monitoring with neural nets. Ongoing work leads to flight-ready drilling software.

  3. Open Issues in Evolutionary Robotics.

    PubMed

    Silva, Fernando; Duarte, Miguel; Correia, Luís; Oliveira, Sancho Moura; Christensen, Anders Lyhne

    2016-01-01

    One of the long-term goals in evolutionary robotics is to be able to automatically synthesize controllers for real autonomous robots based only on a task specification. While a number of studies have shown the applicability of evolutionary robotics techniques for the synthesis of behavioral control, researchers have consistently been faced with a number of issues preventing the widespread adoption of evolutionary robotics for engineering purposes. In this article, we review and discuss the open issues in evolutionary robotics. First, we analyze the benefits and challenges of simulation-based evolution and subsequent deployment of controllers versus evolution on real robotic hardware. Second, we discuss specific evolutionary computation issues that have plagued evolutionary robotics: (1) the bootstrap problem, (2) deception, and (3) the role of genomic encoding and genotype-phenotype mapping in the evolution of controllers for complex tasks. Finally, we address the absence of standard research practices in the field. We also discuss promising avenues of research. Our underlying motivation is the reduction of the current gap between evolutionary robotics and mainstream robotics, and the establishment of evolutionary robotics as a canonical approach for the engineering of autonomous robots.

  4. Hiding robot inertia using resonance.

    PubMed

    Vallery, Heike; Duschau-Wicke, Alexander; Riener, Robert

    2010-01-01

    To enable compliant training modes with a rehabilitation robot, an important prerequisite is that any undesired human-robot interaction forces caused by robot dynamics must be avoided, either by an appropriate mechanical design or by compensating control strategies. Our recently proposed control scheme of "Generalized Elasticities" employs potential fields to compensate for robot dynamics, including inertia, beyond what can be done using closed-loop force control. In this paper, we give a simple mechanical equivalent using the example of the gait rehabilitation robot Lokomat. The robot consists of an exoskeleton that is attached to a frame around the patient's pelvis. This frame is suspended by a springloaded parallelogram structure. The mechanism allows vertical displacement while providing almost constant robot gravity compensation. However, inertia of the device when the patient's pelvis moves up and down remains a source of large interaction forces, which are reflected in increased ground reaction forces. Here, we investigate an alternative suspension: To hide not only gravity, but also robot inertia during vertical pelvis motion, we suspend the robot frame by a stiff linear spring that allows the robot to oscillate vertically at an eigenfrequency close to the natural gait frequency. This mechanism reduces human-robot interaction forces, which is demonstrated in pilot experimental results.

  5. UROLOGIC ROBOTS AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS

    PubMed Central

    Mozer, Pierre; Troccaz, Jocelyne; Stoianovici, Dan

    2009-01-01

    Purpose of review Robot-assisted laparoscopic surgery in urology has gained immense popularity with the Da Vinci system but a lot of research teams are working on new robots. The purpose of this paper is to review current urologic robots and present future developments directions. Recent findings Future systems are expected to advance in two directions: improvements of remote manipulation robots and developments of image-guided robots. Summary The final goal of robots is to allow safer and more homogeneous outcomes with less variability of surgeon performance, as well as new tools to perform tasks based on medical transcutaneous imaging, in a less invasive way, at lower costs. It is expected that improvements for remote system could be augmented reality, haptic feed back, size reduction and development of new tools for NOTES surgery. The paradigm of image-guided robots is close to a clinical availability and the most advanced robots are presented with end-user technical assessments. It is also notable that the potential of robots lies much further ahead than the accomplishments of the daVinci system. The integration of imaging with robotics holds a substantial promise, because this can accomplish tasks otherwise impossible. Image guided robots have the potential to offer a paradigm shift. PMID:19057227

  6. A bioinspired modular aquatic robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tallapragada, Phanindra; Pollard, Beau

    2016-11-01

    Several bio inspired swimming robots exist which seek to emulate the morphology of fish and the flapping motion of the tail and fins or other appendages and body of aquatic creatures. The locomotion of such robots and the aquatic animals that they seek to emulate is determined to a large degree by the changes in the shape of the body, which produce periodic changes in the momentum of the body and the creation and interaction of the vorticity field in the fluid with the body. We demonstrate an underactuated robot which swims due to the periodic changes in the angular momentum of the robot effected by the motion of an internal rotor. The robot is modular, unactuated tail like segments can be easily added to the robot. These segments modulate the interaction of the body with the fluid to produce a variety of passive shape changes that can allow the robot to swim in different modes.

  7. Robots in industry: an overview.

    PubMed

    Edwards, M

    1984-03-01

    Although the introduction of robots into manufacturing technology is a relatively recent phenomenon, there are indications that a rapid increase in the numbers of robots employed in industry is already taking place. Robots may be found in a wide variety of settings, performing a wide range of functions. These functions may be characterised in terms of whether the robot manipulates a tool or handles a workpiece. The human tasks associated with all robot installations are programming and maintenance. Other tasks vary depending on the particular robot application but are likely to fall into one of four categories. The use of robots has implications for safety and it is apparent that greater emphasis than hitherto must be laid on the design and implementation of procedures to ensure safety.

  8. Reinforcement learning for robot control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smart, William D.; Pack Kaelbling, Leslie

    2002-02-01

    Writing control code for mobile robots can be a very time-consuming process. Even for apparently simple tasks, it is often difficult to specify in detail how the robot should accomplish them. Robot control code is typically full of magic numbers that must be painstakingly set for each environment that the robot must operate in. The idea of having a robot learn how to accomplish a task, rather than being told explicitly is an appealing one. It seems easier and much more intuitive for the programmer to specify what the robot should be doing, and let it learn the fine details of how to do it. In this paper, we describe JAQL, a framework for efficient learning on mobile robots, and present the results of using it to learn control policies for simple tasks.

  9. Robotic servicing of EOS instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Razzaghi, Andrea I.; Juberts, Maris

    1990-01-01

    This paper addresses robotic servicing of the Earth Observing Satellite (EOS) instruments. The goals of implementing a robotic servicing system on EOS would be to maintain the instruments throughout the required mission life and minimize life-cycle costs. To address robot servicing, an initial design concept has been developed which will be applied to a representative EOS instrument. This instrument will be used as a model for determining the most practical level of servicing of its parts, and how to design these parts for robot servicing. Using this representative EOS instrument as a model, a generic design scheme will be developed that can be applied to all EOS instruments. The first task is to determine how to identify which parts must be designed for robot servicing. Next, the requirements imposed on the instruments and the servicing robot when designing for robot serviceability must be examined.

  10. Intelligent Robots for Factory Automation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, E. L.; Oh, S. J.

    1985-04-01

    Industrial robots are now proven technology in a variety of applications including welding, materials handling, spray painting, machine loading and assembly. However, to fully realize the potential of these universal manipulators , "intelligence" needs to be added to the industrial robot. This involves adding sensory capability and machine intelligence to the controls. The "intelligence" may be added externally or as integral components of the robot. These new "intelligent robots" promise to greatly enhance the versatility of the robot for factory applications. The purpose of this paper is to present a brief review of the techniques and applications of intelligent robots for factory automation and to suggest possible designs for the intelligent robot of the future.

  11. [Robotic surgery in gynecology].

    PubMed

    Hibner, Michał; Marianowski, Piotr; Szymusik, Iwona; Wielgós, Mirosław

    2012-12-01

    Introduction of robotic surgery in the first decade of the 21 century was one of the biggest breakthroughs in surgery since the introduction of anesthesia. For the first time in history the surgeon was placed remotely from the patient and was able to operate with the device that has more degrees of freedom than human hand. Initially developed for the US Military in order to allow surgeons to be removed from the battlefield, surgical robots quickly made a leap to the mainstream medicine. One of the first surgical uses for the robot was cardiac surgery but it is urology and prostate surgery that gave it a widespread popularity Gynecologic surgeons caught on very quickly and it is estimated that 31% of hysterectomies done in the United States in 2012 will be done robotically. With over half a million hysterectomies done each year in the US alone, gynecologic surgery is one of the main driving forces behind the growth of robotic surgery Other applications in gynecology include myomectomy oophorectomy and ovarian cystectomy resection of endometriosis and lymphadenectomy Advantages of the surgical robot are clearly seen in myomectomy The wrist motion allows for better more precise suturing than conventional "straight stick" laparoscopy The strength of the arms allow for better pulling of the suture and the third arm for holding the suture on tension. Other advantage of the robot is scaling of the movements when big movement on the outside translates to very fine movement on the inside. This enables much more precise surgery and may be important in the procedures like tubal anastomosis and implantation of the ureter Three-dimensional vision provides excellent depth of field perception. It is important for surgeons who are switching from open surgeries and preliminary evidence shows that it may allow for better identification of lesions like endometriosis. Another big advantage of robotics is that the surgeon sits comfortably with his/her arms and head supported. This

  12. K/Ka-band channel characterization for mobile satellite systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinck, Deborah S.; Rice, Michael D.

    1995-01-01

    Mobile satellite systems allow truly ubiquitous wireless communications to users anywhere and anytime. NASA's Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) provides an ideal space-based platform for the measurement of K/Ka band propagation characteristics in a land mobile satellite application. Field tests conducted in Southern California during the first seven months of 1994 using JPL's ACTS Mobile Terminal (AMT) provided channel characterization data for the K/Ka-band link. A pilot tone was transmitted from a fixed station in Cleveland, Ohio through the satellite and downlinked at 20 GHz in the Southern California spot beam. The AMT was equipped with a narrow beam, high gain antenna which tracked the satellite in azimuth for a fixed elevation angle (46 degrees for this case). The field tests were conducted in three basic environments: clear line-of-sight (LOS) highways, lightly shadowed suburban, and heavily shadowed suburban. Preliminary results of these field tests indicate very little multipath for rural environments and for clear LOS links (as expected with a narrow beam antenna). Deep fades were experienced in shadowed areas, especially those where tree canopies covered the road.

  13. Ka-Band, Multi-Gigabit-Per-Second Transceiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simons, Rainee N.; Wintucky, Edwin G.; Smith, Francis J.; Harris, Johnny M.; Landon, David G.; Haddadin, Osama S.; McIntire, William K.; Sun, June Y.

    2011-01-01

    A document discusses a multi-Gigabit-per-second, Ka-band transceiver with a software-defined modem (SDM) capable of digitally encoding/decoding data and compensating for linear and nonlinear distortions in the end-to-end system, including the traveling-wave tube amplifier (TWTA). This innovation can increase data rates of space-to-ground communication links, and has potential application to NASA s future spacebased Earth observation system. The SDM incorporates an extended version of the industry-standard DVB-S2, and LDPC rate 9/10 FEC codec. The SDM supports a suite of waveforms, including QPSK, 8-PSK, 16-APSK, 32- APSK, 64-APSK, and 128-QAM. The Ka-band and TWTA deliver an output power on the order of 200 W with efficiency greater than 60%, and a passband of at least 3 GHz. The modem and the TWTA together enable a data rate of 20 Gbps with a low bit error rate (BER). The payload data rates for spacecraft in NASA s integrated space communications network can be increased by an order of magnitude (>10 ) over current state-of-practice. This innovation enhances the data rate by using bandwidth-efficient modulation techniques, which transmit a higher number of bits per Hertz of bandwidth than the currently used quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK) waveforms.

  14. Stability measurements on the 50 kA SMES conductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfotenhauer, M. J.

    Stability measurements have been made on a large aluminium stabilized conductor designed for use in a superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) coil. The conductor has been built to carry 50 kA at 1.8 K and in 4.6 T field. It consists of a 25.4 mm diameter, high purity aluminium stabilizer with eight superconducting strands of 2.8 mm diameter each, composed of 60% Cu, 40% NbTi. The strands are set in eight helical grooves, evenly spaced around the outer diameter of the aluminium. The conductor is designed for use in full scale SMES units and has been tested in the 1 m diameter, three-turn test coil of the University of Wisconsin proof of principle experiment (POPE). The POPE facility includes the test coil, a 4 T background magnet, a dewar for a 1.8 K, 1 atm environment and a 100 kA d.c. power supply. Test results demonstrate good agreement with a new dynamic stability model. The balance of time-dependent heat generation during current diffusion and time-dependent cooling to the helium produces three new features of stability: 1, a threshold current for propagation; 2, large propagation velocities; and 3, a finite length travelling normal zone. POPE measurements verify all three features of the dynamic stability model.

  15. ITIL and Grid services at GridKa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marten, H.; Koenig, T.

    2010-04-01

    The Steinbuch Centre for Computing (SCC) is a new organizational unit of the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT). Founded in February 2008 as a merger of the previous Institute for Scientific Computing of Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe and the Computing Centre of the Technical University Karlsruhe, SCC provides a broad spectrum of IT services for 8.000 employees and 18.000 students and carries out research and development in key areas of information technology under the same roof. SCC is also known to host the German WLCG [1] Tier-1 centre GridKa. In order to accompany the merging of the two existing computing centres located at a distance of about 10 km and to provide common first class services for science, SCC has selected the IT service management according to the industrial quasi-standard "IT Infrastructure Library (ITIL)" [3] as a strategic element. The paper discusses the implementation of a few ITIL key components from the perspective of a Scientific Computing Centre using examples of Grid services at GridKa.

  16. Cooperative robotics: bringing autonomy to explosive ordnance disposal robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Signore, Michael J.; Czop, Andrew; Hacker, Kurt

    2008-04-01

    An ongoing effort within the US Naval EOD Technology Division (NAVEODTECHDIV) is exploring the integration of autonomous robotic technologies onto current and future Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD) robot platforms. The Cooperative Robotics program, though the support of the Joint Ground Robotics Enterprise (JGRE), has identified several autonomous robotic technologies useful to the EOD operator, and with the collaboration of academia and industry is in the process of bringing these technologies to EOD robot operators in the field. Initiated in January 2007, the Cooperative Robotics program includes the demonstration of various autonomous technologies to the EOD user community, and the optimization of these technologies for use on small EOD Unmanned Ground Vehicles (UGVs) in relevant environments. Through close interaction with actual EOD operators, these autonomous behaviors will be designed to work within the bounds of current EOD Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures (TTP). This paper will detail the ongoing and future efforts encompassing the Cooperative Robotics program including: technology demonstrations of autonomous robotic capabilities, development of autonomous capability requirements based on user focus groups, optimization of autonomous UGV behaviors to enable use in relevant environments based on current EOD TTP, and finally the transition of these technologies to current and future EOD robotic systems.

  17. New frontiers for psychology and education: robotics.

    PubMed

    Caci, Barbara; D'Amico, Antonella; Cardaci, Maurizio

    2004-06-01

    The paper reviews the first attempts to study the educational and psychological usefulness of robotics: (1) the social and cooperative dimensions involved in the robot-building activities; (2) the reasoning strategies implied in building and programming robots; (3) the influences of robotics on mathematical and scientific achievement; (4) the use of robotics in modification of social skills of autistic children.

  18. Savannah River Site Robotics

    SciTech Connect

    2010-01-01

    Meet Sandmantis and Frankie, two advanced robotic devices that are key to cleanup at Savannah River Site. Sandmantis cleans hard, residual waste off huge underground storage tanks. Frankie is equipped with unique satellite capabilities and sensing abilties that can determine what chemicals still reside in the tanks in a cost effective manner.

  19. MRV - Modular Robotic Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ridley, Justin; Bluethmann, Bill

    2015-01-01

    The Modular Robotic Vehicle, or MRV, completed in 2013, was developed at the Johnson Space Center in order to advance technologies which have applications for future vehicles both in space and on Earth. With seating for two people, MRV is a fully electric vehicle modeled as a "city car", suited for busy urban environments.

  20. Savannah River Site Robotics

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Meet Sandmantis and Frankie, two advanced robotic devices that are key to cleanup at Savannah River Site. Sandmantis cleans hard, residual waste off huge underground storage tanks. Frankie is equipped with unique satellite capabilities and sensing abilties that can determine what chemicals still reside in the tanks in a cost effective manner.

  1. Artificial intelligence and robotics

    SciTech Connect

    Peden, I.C.; Braddock, J.V.; Brown, W.; Langendorf, R.M.

    1982-09-01

    This report examines the state-of-the-art in artificial intelligence and robotics technologies and their potential in terms of Army needs. Assessment includes battlefield technology, research and technology insertions, management considerations and recommendations related to research and development personnel, and recommendations regarding the Army's involvement in the automated plant.

  2. Brain controlled robots.

    PubMed

    Kawato, Mitsuo

    2008-06-01

    In January 2008, Duke University and the Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST) publicized their successful control of a brain-machine interface for a humanoid robot by a monkey brain across the Pacific Ocean. The activities of a few hundred neurons were recorded from a monkey's motor cortex in Miguel Nicolelis's lab at Duke University, and the kinematic features of monkey locomotion on a treadmill were decoded from neural firing rates in real time. The decoded information was sent to a humanoid robot, CB-i, in ATR Computational Neuroscience Laboratories located in Kyoto, Japan. This robot was developed by the JST International Collaborative Research Project (ICORP) as the "Computational Brain Project." CB-i's locomotion-like movement was video-recorded and projected on a screen in front of the monkey. Although the bidirectional communication used a conventional Internet connection, its delay was suppressed below one over several seconds, partly due to a video-streaming technique, and this encouraged the monkey's voluntary locomotion and influenced its brain activity. This commentary introduces the background and future directions of the brain-controlled robot.

  3. Information Robots and Manipulators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katys, G. P.; And Others

    In the modern concept a robot is a complex automatic cybernetics system capable of executing various operations in the sphere of human activity and in various respects combining the imitative capacity of the physical and mental activity of man. They are a class of automatic information systems intended for search, collection, processing, and…

  4. Space robot simulator vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cannon, R. H., Jr.; Alexander, H.

    1985-01-01

    A Space Robot Simulator Vehicle (SRSV) was constructed to model a free-flying robot capable of doing construction, manipulation and repair work in space. The SRSV is intended as a test bed for development of dynamic and static control methods for space robots. The vehicle is built around a two-foot-diameter air-cushion vehicle that carries batteries, power supplies, gas tanks, computer, reaction jets and radio equipment. It is fitted with one or two two-link manipulators, which may be of many possible designs, including flexible-link versions. Both the vehicle body and its first arm are nearly complete. Inverse dynamic control of the robot's manipulator has been successfully simulated using equations generated by the dynamic simulation package SDEXACT. In this mode, the position of the manipulator tip is controlled not by fixing the vehicle base through thruster operation, but by controlling the manipulator joint torques to achieve the desired tip motion, while allowing for the free motion of the vehicle base. One of the primary goals is to minimize use of the thrusters in favor of intelligent control of the manipulator. Ways to reduce the computational burden of control are described.

  5. Robot Serviced Space Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Purves, Lloyd R. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A robot serviced space facility includes multiple modules which are identical in physical structure, but selectively differing in function. and purpose. Each module includes multiple like attachment points which are identically placed on each module so as to permit interconnection with immediately adjacent modules. Connection is made through like outwardly extending flange assemblies having identical male and female configurations for interconnecting to and locking to a complementary side of another flange. Multiple rows of interconnected modules permit force, fluid, data and power transfer to be accomplished by redundant circuit paths. Redundant modules of critical subsystems are included. Redundancy of modules and of interconnections results in a space complex with any module being removable upon demand, either for module replacement or facility reconfiguration. without eliminating any vital functions of the complex. Module replacement and facility assembly or reconfiguration are accomplished by a computer controlled articulated walker type robotic manipulator arm assembly having two identical end-effectors in the form of male configurations which are identical to those on module flanges and which interconnect to female configurations on other flanges. The robotic arm assembly moves along a connected set or modules by successively disconnecting, moving and reconnecting alternate ends of itself to a succession of flanges in a walking type maneuver. To transport a module, the robot keeps the transported module attached to one of its end-effectors and uses another flange male configuration of the attached module as a substitute end-effector during walking.

  6. [Radical prostatectomy - pro robotic].

    PubMed

    Gillitzer, R

    2012-05-01

    Anatomical radical prostatectomy was introduced in the early 1980s by Walsh and Donker. Elucidation of key anatomical structures led to a significant reduction in the morbidity of this procedure. The strive to achieve similar oncological and functional results to this gold standard open procedure but with further reduction of morbidity through a minimally invasive access led to the establishment of laparoscopic prostatectomy. However, this procedure is complex and difficult and is associated with a long learning curve. The technical advantages of robotically assisted surgery coupled with the intuitive handling of the device led to increased precision and shortening of the learning curve. These main advantages, together with a massive internet presence and aggressive marketing, have resulted in a rapid dissemination of robotic radical prostatectomy and an increasing patient demand. However, superiority of robotic radical prostatectomy in comparison to the other surgical therapeutic options has not yet been proven on a scientific basis. Currently robotic-assisted surgery is an established technique and future technical improvements will certainly further define its role in urological surgery. In the end this technical innovation will have to be balanced against the very high purchase and running costs, which remain the main limitation of this technology.

  7. Autonomous Robot Skill Acquisition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-01

    Research. ix ABSTRACT AUTONOMOUS ROBOT SKILL ACQUISITION MAY 2011 GEORGE DIMITRI KONIDARIS B.Sc., UNIVERSITY OF THE WITWATERSRAND B.Sc. Hons., UNIVERSITY...OF THE WITWATERSRAND M.Sc., UNIVERSITY OF EDINBURGH Ph.D., UNIVERSITY OF MASSACHUSETTS AMHERST Directed by: Professor Andrew G. Barto Among the most

  8. Robots in the Kindergarten.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Joan; Shanahan, Dolores

    1983-01-01

    Describes work with kindergarten children to improve their development of estimation, decision making, divergent thinking, directionality, numerical concepts, and creative problem solving skills through learning to program and control the robot Big Trak, a truck which moves along the floor in response to their commands. (EAO)

  9. Robotic surgery in gynecology.

    PubMed

    Alkatout, Ibrahim; Mettler, Liselotte; Maass, Nicolai; Ackermann, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Robotic surgery is the most dynamic development in the sector of minimally invasive operations currently. It should not be viewed as an alternative to laparoscopy, but as the next step in a process of technological evolution. The advancement of robotic surgery, in terms of the introduction of the Da Vinci Xi, permits the variable use of optical devices in all four trocars. Due to the new geometry of the "patient cart," an operation can be performed in all spatial directions without re-docking. Longer instruments and the markedly narrower mechanical elements of the "patient cart" provide greater flexibility as well as access similar to those of traditional laparoscopy. Currently, robotic surgery is used for a variety of indications in the treatment of benign gynecological diseases as well as malignant ones. Interdisciplinary cooperation and cooperation over large geographical distances have been rendered possible by telemedicine, and will ensure comprehensive patient care in the future by highly specialized surgery teams. In addition, the second operation console and the operation simulator constitute a new dimension in advanced surgical training. The disadvantages of robotic surgery remain the high costs of acquisition and maintenance as well as the laborious training of medical personnel before they are confident with using the technology.

  10. Robot Manipulator Control.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-03-07

    This report presents a synthetic approach for calculating the control of robot manipulators. The initial control problem is broken down into linear ... control and modelling problems. The approach allows derivation of numerous schemes (adaptive or not) of control proposed in the literature and suggests

  11. Emotions in robot psychology.

    PubMed

    Nitsch, V; Popp, M

    2014-10-01

    In his famous thought experiments on synthetic vehicles, Valentino Braitenberg stipulated that simple stimulus-response reactions in an organism could evoke the appearance of complex behavior, which, to the unsuspecting human observer, may even appear to be driven by emotions such as fear, aggression, and even love (Braitenberg, Vehikel. Experimente mit künstlichen Wesen, Lit Verlag, 2004). In fact, humans appear to have a strong propensity to anthropomorphize, driven by our inherent desire for predictability that will quickly lead us to discern patterns, cause-and-effect relationships, and yes, emotions, in animated entities, be they natural or artificial. But might there be reasons, that we should intentionally "implement" emotions into artificial entities, such as robots? How would we proceed in creating robot emotions? And what, if any, are the ethical implications of creating "emotional" robots? The following article aims to shed some light on these questions with a multi-disciplinary review of recent empirical investigations into the various facets of emotions in robot psychology.

  12. Robotic and Survey Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woźniak, Przemysław

    Robotic telescopes are revolutionizing the way astronomers collect their dataand conduct sky surveys. This chapter begins with a discussion of principles thatguide the process of designing, constructing, and operating telescopes andobservatories that offer a varying degree of automation, from instruments remotelycontrolled by observers to fully autonomous systems requiring no humansupervision during their normal operations. Emphasis is placed on designtrade-offs involved in building end-to-end systems intended for a wide range ofscience applications. The second part of the chapter contains descriptions ofseveral projects and instruments, both existing and currently under development.It is an attempt to provide a representative selection of actual systems thatillustrates state of the art in technology, as well as important ideas and milestonesin the development of the field. The list of presented instruments spans the fullrange in size starting from small all-sky monitors, through midrange robotic andsurvey telescopes, and finishing with large robotic instruments and surveys.Explosive growth of telescope networking is enabling entirely new modesof interaction between the survey and follow-up observing. Increasingimportance of standardized communication protocols and software is stressed.These developments are driven by the fusion of robotic telescope hardware,massive storage and databases, real-time knowledge extraction, and datacross-correlation on a global scale. The chapter concludes with examplesof major science results enabled by these new technologies and futureprospects.

  13. Industrial robot's vision systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iureva, Radda A.; Raskin, Evgeni O.; Komarov, Igor I.; Maltseva, Nadezhda K.; Fedosovsky, Michael E.

    2016-03-01

    Due to the improved economic situation in the high technology sectors, work on the creation of industrial robots and special mobile robotic systems are resumed. Despite this, the robotic control systems mostly remained unchanged. Hence one can see all advantages and disadvantages of these systems. This is due to lack of funds, which could greatly facilitate the work of the operator, and in some cases, completely replace it. The paper is concerned with the complex machine vision of robotic system for monitoring of underground pipelines, which collects and analyzes up to 90% of the necessary information. Vision Systems are used to identify obstacles to the process of movement on a trajectory to determine their origin, dimensions and character. The object is illuminated in a structured light, TV camera records projected structure. Distortions of the structure uniquely determine the shape of the object in view of the camera. The reference illumination is synchronized with the camera. The main parameters of the system are the basic distance between the generator and the lights and the camera parallax angle (the angle between the optical axes of the projection unit and camera).

  14. Linearization of Robot Manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kreutz, Kenneth

    1987-01-01

    Four nonlinear control schemes equivalent. Report discusses theory of nonlinear feedback control of robot manipulator, emphasis on control schemes making manipulator input and output behave like decoupled linear system. Approach, called "exact external linearization," contributes efforts to control end-effector trajectories, positions, and orientations.

  15. Robotic surgery in gynecology

    PubMed Central

    Alkatout, Ibrahim; Mettler, Liselotte; Maass, Nicolai; Ackermann, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Robotic surgery is the most dynamic development in the sector of minimally invasive operations currently. It should not be viewed as an alternative to laparoscopy, but as the next step in a process of technological evolution. The advancement of robotic surgery, in terms of the introduction of the Da Vinci Xi, permits the variable use of optical devices in all four trocars. Due to the new geometry of the “patient cart,” an operation can be performed in all spatial directions without re-docking. Longer instruments and the markedly narrower mechanical elements of the “patient cart” provide greater flexibility as well as access similar to those of traditional laparoscopy. Currently, robotic surgery is used for a variety of indications in the treatment of benign gynecological diseases as well as malignant ones. Interdisciplinary cooperation and cooperation over large geographical distances have been rendered possible by telemedicine, and will ensure comprehensive patient care in the future by highly specialized surgery teams. In addition, the second operation console and the operation simulator constitute a new dimension in advanced surgical training. The disadvantages of robotic surgery remain the high costs of acquisition and maintenance as well as the laborious training of medical personnel before they are confident with using the technology. PMID:27990092

  16. Mathematics and "Lego" Robots

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Janus Halkier; Traeholt, Rune

    2007-01-01

    For the last four years, Soenderholm School, near the town of Aalborg, Northjutland, Denmark, has had an optional subject in the seventh grade called First "Lego" League (FLL). FLL is an international contest which aims to advance pupils' scientific interest. The task is for participants to build and program a "Lego" robot able…

  17. Robotic Water Blast Cleaner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharpe, M. H.; Roberts, M. L.; Hill, W. E.; Jackson, C. H.

    1983-01-01

    Water blasting system under development removes hard, dense, extraneous material from surfaces. High pressure pump forces water at supersonic speed through nozzle manipulated by robot. Impact of water blasts away unwanted material from workpiece rotated on air bearing turntable. Designed for removing thermal-protection material, system is adaptable to such industrial processes as cleaning iron or steel castings.

  18. Robotic Firefighting Technologies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-01

    designed to strap to the firefighter’s waist line; the ergonomic fit provides comfort to the operator during use of the Fire Defender UFV. Robotic...5 3.2. Technical Design Approach .................................................................................................7...3.2.1. System Design Modification................................................................................................7 3.3. System

  19. Soldier universal robot controller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyams, Jeffrey; Batavia, Parag; Liao, Elizabeth; Somerville, Andrew

    2008-04-01

    The Soldier Universal Robot Controller (SURC) is a modular OCU designed for simultaneous control of heterogeneous unmanned vehicles. It has a well defined, published API., defined using XML schemas, that allows other potential users of the system to develop their own modules for rapid integration with SURC. The SURC architecture is broken down into three layers: User Interface, Core Functions, and Transport. The User Interface layer is the front end module which provides the human computer interface for user control of robots. The Core layer is further divided into the following modules: Capabilities, Tactical, Mobility, and World Model. The Capabilities module keeps track of the known robots and provides a list of specifications and services. The Mobility module provides path planning via D*, while the Tactical module provides higher level mission planning (multi-agent/multi-mission) capabilities for collaborative operations. The World Model module is a relational database which stores world model objects. Finally, a Transport module provides translation from the SURC architecture to the robot specific messaging protocols (such as JAUS). This allows fast integration of new robot protocols into an existing SURC implementation to enable a new system to rapidly leverage existing SURC capabilities. The communication between different modules within the SURC architecture is done via XML. This gives developers and users the flexibility to extend existing messages without breaking backwards compatibility. The modularity of SURC offers users and developers alike the capability to create custom modules and plug them into place, as long as they follow the pre defined messaging API for that module.

  20. Robotic Rock Classification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hebert, Martial

    1999-01-01

    This report describes a three-month research program undertook jointly by the Robotics Institute at Carnegie Mellon University and Ames Research Center as part of the Ames' Joint Research Initiative (JRI.) The work was conducted at the Ames Research Center by Mr. Liam Pedersen, a graduate student in the CMU Ph.D. program in Robotics under the supervision Dr. Ted Roush at the Space Science Division of the Ames Research Center from May 15 1999 to August 15, 1999. Dr. Martial Hebert is Mr. Pedersen's research adviser at CMU and is Principal Investigator of this Grant. The goal of this project is to investigate and implement methods suitable for a robotic rover to autonomously identify rocks and minerals in its vicinity, and to statistically characterize the local geological environment. Although primary sensors for these tasks are a reflection spectrometer and color camera, the goal is to create a framework under which data from multiple sensors, and multiple readings on the same object, can be combined in a principled manner. Furthermore, it is envisioned that knowledge of the local area, either a priori or gathered by the robot, will be used to improve classification accuracy. The key results obtained during this project are: The continuation of the development of a rock classifier; development of theoretical statistical methods; development of methods for evaluating and selecting sensors; and experimentation with data mining techniques on the Ames spectral library. The results of this work are being applied at CMU, in particular in the context of the Winter 99 Antarctica expedition in which the classification techniques will be used on the Nomad robot. Conversely, the software developed based on those techniques will continue to be made available to NASA Ames and the data collected from the Nomad experiments will also be made available.

  1. Malama I Ka `Aina: Fostering the Culture-Science connection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruno, B.; Chinn, P.

    2005-12-01

    The Malama I Ka `Aina Project (Caring for the land, or sustainability) aims to improve and expand the education of Hawai`i's children by developing and disseminating standards-based, culturally relevant science curricular materials based on an understanding and appreciation of the ways in which traditional Hawaiians interacted with their environment for sustainability. Key concepts include the role of water and the ahupua`a (traditional Hawaiian system of land management), and a culture-based sense of place that includes knowledge of and connection to the land. Elementary, middle, high school and University of Hawai`i teachers work together to develop and implement curricula that are especially relevant to a particular school's science program and issues, e.g., invasive species, students, community and/or geographical location. Participants (typically a mix of teachers, education majors and science majors) enroll in Malama I Ka `Aina, a three-credit course offered through the University of Hawai`i`s Dept. of Curriculum Studies and applicable toward a Bachelor's or Master's degree. This course (team taught by scientists, cultural experts and educational professionals) enables participants to: (1) Study Hawai`i`s unique geology, geography and environmental issues in the context of Hawaiian culture and post Western contact; (2) Use course knowledge to develop, teach and assess Hawaii-oriented, project-based, inquiry activities that address the Hawaii Science Content Standards; (3) Gain an appreciation for the scientific method, and the curiosity that drives science (4) Use educational technology such as PowerPoint, graphing packages and web authoring software to develop electronic resources for educational activities. A sample of the lessons developed by course participants can be found on http://malama.hawaii.edu/schools/index2.html. This project is based at the University of Hawai`i College of Education and funded by an award to P. Chinn by the US Department of

  2. The 8.2 ka event in the northern Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luetscher, M.; Hoffmann, D. L.; Müller, W.; Spötl, C.

    2012-04-01

    The 8.2 ka event has been identified as a widespread climate excursion affecting most of the Northern Hemisphere. High-resolution records from ice cores and speleothems constrain the chronology of this event to between 8.21±0.02 and 8.08±0.03 ka BP (Vinther et al. 2006, Cheng et al. 2009). A distinctive asymmetrical pattern in d18O is consistent with modelling results suggesting rapid input of freshwater into the northern Atlantic due to catastrophic drainage of ice-marginal lakes (LeGrande et al., 2008). Despite an increasing amount of data, the regional expression of this event is still poorly understood. Here, we present a new speleothem record from Gasselhöhle in the Northern Calcareous Alps, Austria. The 205 mm-long GAS19 stalagmite was analysed at high resolution for stable isotopes (100 µm) and trace elements (~10-15 µm; continuous LA-ICPMS profiles). Twelve individual MC-ICP-MS U/Th ages underline an annual growth rate of ca. 60 µm during the Early Holocene. The d18O averages -8.9‰, only slightly more depleted than modern carbonate precipitates from the same cave chamber. The 8.2 ka event is marked in GAS19 by a ca. 1‰ excursion with a minimum value of -9.9‰. Largely invariant trace element concentrations (e.g. Mg, U, Sr, Ba) indicate essentially no changes in the local hydrological regime and therefore support the hypothesis of a temperature-dominated signal. The proximity to the lacustrine isotope record from Mondsee (eg. Lauterbach et al. 2011) opens new perspectives for the interpretation of the oxygen isotope signal using two archives at different elevations. Moreover, several coeval speleothem records are available across the Eastern Alps fostering a spatial comparison of the proxy signals associated with this event. Cheng, H. et al. (2009), Geology, 37, 1007-1010 Lauterbach, S. et al. (2011), JQS, 26, 253-267 LeGrande, A.N., Schmidt, G.A. (2008), Paleoceanography, 23, doi: 10.1029/2008PA001610 Vinther, B. et al. (2006), JGR, 111, D13103

  3. Ka-Band Multibeam Aperture Phased Array Being Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinhart, Richard C.; Kacpura, Thomas J.

    2004-01-01

    Phased-array antenna systems offer many advantages to low-Earth-orbiting satellite systems. Their large scan angles and multibeam capabilities allow for vibration-free, rapid beam scanning and graceful degradation operation for high rate downlink of data to users on the ground. Technology advancements continue to reduce the power, weight, and cost of these systems to make phased arrays a competitive alternative in comparison to the gimbled reflector system commonly used in science missions. One effort to reduce the cost of phased arrays is the development of a Ka-band multibeam aperture (MBA) phased array by Boeing Corporation under a contract jointly by the NASA Glenn Research Center and the Office of Naval Research. The objective is to develop and demonstrate a space-qualifiable dual-beam Ka-band (26.5-GHz) phased-array antenna. The goals are to advance the state of the art in Ka-band active phased-array antennas and to develop and demonstrate multibeam transmission technology compatible with spacecraft in low Earth orbit to reduce the cost of future missions by retiring certain development risks. The frequency chosen is suitable for space-to-space and space-to-ground communication links. The phased-array antenna has a radiation pattern designed by combining a set of individual radiating elements, optimized with the type of radiating elements used, their positions in space, and the amplitude and phase of the currents feeding the elements. This arrangement produces a directional radiation pattern that is proportional to the number of individual radiating elements. The arrays of interest here can scan the main beam electronically with a computerized algorithm. The antenna is constructed using electronic components with no mechanical parts, and the steering is performed electronically, without any resulting vibration. The speed of the scanning is limited primarily by the control electronics. The radiation performance degrades gracefully if a portion of the elements

  4. Biorelevant pKa (37°C) predicted from the 2D structure of the molecule and its pKa at 25°C

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Na; Avdeef, Alex

    2011-01-01

    Values of the ionization constants at 37°C, which are scarcely reported, are more meaningful for interpreting mechanisms of cellular transport by ionizable molecules and in mechanistic dissolution studies, which are often performed at the biorelevant temperature. An equation was developed where the pKa values of drug-like molecules determined at 25°C can be simply converted to values at 37°C, without additional measurement. The differences between the values, ΔpKa = pKa37 − pKa25, were linearly fitted to a function of pKa25 and the standard entropy of ionization, ΔSo, where the latter term was approximated by the five Abraham linear free energy solvation descriptors using multiple linear regression. The Abraham descriptors (H-bond donor and acceptor strengths, dipolar solute-solvent interactions potential, the pi- and n-electrons dispersion force, and molar volume) were determined from the 2-dimensional structure of the molecules. A total of 143 mostly drug-like molecules (207 pKa values at 25°C and at 37°C) were chosen for the study. The pKa values of many were determined here for the first time. Included were 34 weak acids, 85 weak bases, and 24 amphoteric compounds (6 ordinary ampholytes, 18 zwitterions). PMID:21652160

  5. Robots hooked on drugs. Robotic automation expands pharmacy services.

    PubMed

    Marietti, C

    1997-11-01

    Hospitals are not known for automating labor-intensive tasks but robots are just beginning to make inroads in health-care. The first--and still only--robot grew from a class assignment to use an established technology in a new growth industry. The established technology was bar coding; the industry health-care; and the result a robotic device for the hospital pharmacy.

  6. Coordinated Control Of Mobile Robotic Manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seraji, Homayoun

    1995-01-01

    Computationally efficient scheme developed for on-line coordinated control of both manipulation and mobility of robots that include manipulator arms mounted on mobile bases. Applicable to variety of mobile robotic manipulators, including robots that move along tracks (typically, painting and welding robots), robots mounted on gantries and capable of moving in all three dimensions, wheeled robots, and compound robots (consisting of robots mounted on other robots). Theoretical basis discussed in several prior articles in NASA Tech Briefs, including "Increasing the Dexterity of Redundant Robots" (NPO-17801), "Redundant Robot Can Avoid Obstacles" (NPO-17852), "Configuration-Control Scheme Copes With Singularities" (NPO-18556), "More Uses for Configuration Control of Robots" (NPO-18607/NPO-18608).

  7. A Ka-band GaAs monolithic phase shifter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sokolov, V.; Geddes, J. J.; Contolatis, A.; Bauhahn, P. E.; Chao, C.

    1983-01-01

    The design and performance of a GaAs monolithic 180-degree one-bit switched line phase shifter test circuit for Ka-band operation is presented. A self-aligned gate (SAG) fabrication technique is also described that reduces resistive parasitics in the switching FET's. Over the 27.5-30 GHz band, typical measured differential insertion phase is within 10-20 deg of the ideal time delay characteristic. Over the same band, the insertion loss for the SAG phase shifter is about 2.5-3 dB per bit. The SAG fabrication technique holds promise in reducing phase shifter insertion loss to about 1.5 dB/bit for 30-GHz operation.

  8. Advanced Ka-Band Transceiver With Monopulse Tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khan, Abdur; Hoppe, Dan; Epp, Larry; Perez, Raul

    2006-01-01

    A proposed Ka-band transmitting/ receiving system would embody a unique combination of established and semi-proven design features. The proposed system (see figure) would include a monopulse receiving feedback loop and a mirror that could be moved by piezoelectric actuators in the feedback loop to adjust the aim of the transmitted and received radio beams. Unlike in a phased-array tracking system, phase shifters (which can be complex and expensive) would not be needed in this monopulse tracking system. Moreover, the monopulse-tracking loop could be combined with other subsystems used in established subreflector and antenna designs. The final transmitter power amplifier in the proposed system would be a quasi-optical power amplifier (QOPA) -- a combination of a planar array of 25 amplifiers and corresponding planar arrays of antenna elements, such that free-space power combining would take place at the output.

  9. Explicit solvent models in protein pKa calculations.

    PubMed

    Gibas, C J; Subramaniam, S

    1996-07-01

    Continuum methods for calculation of protein electrostatics treat buried and ordered water molecules by one of two approximations; either the dielectric constant of regions containing ordered water molecules is equal to the bulk solvent dielectric constant, or it is equal to the protein dielectric constant though no fixed atoms are used to represent water molecules. A method for calculating the titration behavior of individual residues in proteins has been tested on models of hen egg white lysozyme containing various numbers of explicit water molecules. Water molecules were included based on hydrogen bonding, solvent accessibility, and/or proximity to titrating groups in the protein. Inclusion of water molecules significantly alters the calculated titration behavior of individual titrating sites, shifting calculated pKa values by up to 0.5 pH unit. Our results suggest that approximately one water molecule within hydrogen-bonding distance of each charged group should be included in protein electrostatics calculations.

  10. A personal communications network using a Ka-band satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, Larry C.; Laborde, Enrique; Stern, Alan; Sohn, Philip Y.

    1992-01-01

    The feasibility of a personal communications network using portable terminals that can provide 4.8-kb/s voice communications to a hub station via a Ka-band geosynchronous satellite has been investigated. Tradeoffs are examined so that the combined system of hub and gateway earth stations, the satellite, and the personal terminals can provide a competitive service in terms of cost, availability, and quality. A baseline system that uses a spacecraft with approximately 140 spot beams to cover the contiguous US (CONUS) and 5-W power amplifiers in each beam is described. Satellite access in both the forward and return directions uses frequency-division multiple-access/code-division multiple-access (FDMA/CDMA) with a chip rate of 2.5 Mchip/s.

  11. A personal communications network using a Ka-band satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, L. C.; Stern, A.; Sohn, P. Y.

    1991-01-01

    The feasibility of portable communications terminals that can provide 4.8-kbps voice communications to a hub station via a Ka-band geosynchronous satellite was investigated. Tradeoffs are examined so that the combined system of the hub and gateway earth stations, the satellite, and the personal terminals can provide a competitive service in terms of cost, availability, and quality. A baseline system is described using a spacecraft with approximately 140 spot beams that cover CONUS with 5-watt power amplifiers in each beam. Satellite access in both the forward and return directions uses Frequency Division Multiple Access/Code Division Multiple Access (FDMA/CDMA) with a chip rate of 2.5 Mchip/sec. An experiment is recommended using the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) to demonstrate some of the features of the portable terminal concept.

  12. Miniaturized Ka-Band Dual-Channel Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, James P.; Moussessian, Alina; Jenabi, Masud; Custodero, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Smaller (volume, mass, power) electronics for a Ka-band (36 GHz) radar interferometer were required. To reduce size and achieve better control over RFphase versus temperature, fully hybrid electronics were developed for the RF portion of the radar s two-channel receiver and single-channel transmitter. In this context, fully hybrid means that every active RF device was an open die, and all passives were directly attached to the subcarrier. Attachments were made using wire and ribbon bonding. In this way, every component, even small passives, was selected for the fabrication of the two radar receivers, and the devices were mounted relative to each other in order to make complementary components isothermal and to isolate other components from potential temperature gradients. This is critical for developing receivers that can track each other s phase over temperature, which is a key mission driver for obtaining ocean surface height. Fully hybrid, Ka-band (36 GHz) radar transmitter and dual-channel receiver were developed for spaceborne radar interferometry. The fully hybrid fabrication enables control over every aspect of the component selection, placement, and connection. Since the two receiver channels must track each other to better than 100 millidegrees of RF phase over several minutes, the hardware in the two receivers must be "identical," routed the same (same line lengths), and as isothermal as possible. This level of design freedom is not possible with packaged components, which include many internal passive, unknown internal connection lengths/types, and often a single orientation of inputs and outputs.

  13. Interactive autonomy and robotic skills

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kellner, A.; Maediger, B.

    1994-01-01

    Current concepts of robot-supported operations for space laboratories (payload servicing, inspection, repair, and ORU exchange) are mainly based on the concept of 'interactive autonomy' which implies autonomous behavior of the robot according to predefined timelines, predefined sequences of elementary robot operations and within predefined world models supplying geometrical and other information for parameter instantiation on the one hand, and the ability to override and change the predefined course of activities by human intervention on the other hand. Although in principle a very powerful and useful concept, in practice the confinement of the robot to the abstract world models and predefined activities appears to reduce the robot's stability within real world uncertainties and its applicability to non-predefined parts of the world, calling for frequent corrective interaction by the operator, which in itself may be tedious and time-consuming. Methods are presented to improve this situation by incorporating 'robotic skills' into the concept of interactive autonomy.

  14. Survey of robot lawn mowers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hicks, Rob W., II; Hall, Ernest L.

    2000-10-01

    Lawn mowing is considered by many to be one of the most boring and tiring routine household tasks. It is also one of the most promising personal robot applications. Several devices have not been invented and some manufactured products are available for lawn mowing. The purpose of this paper is to survey the state of the art in robotic lawn mowers to highlight the requirements and capabilities of current devices. A brief survey of available robot products, typical patents and some test bed prototypes are presented. Some enabling technologies which could make the devices more capable are also suggested. Some predictions indicate that the robot lawn mower will be the breakthrough device in robotics. The significance of this research lies in the presentation of an overview of a potential major market for personal robots.

  15. Virtual robotics laboratory for research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKee, Gerard T.

    1995-09-01

    We report on work currently underway to put a robotics laboratory onto the Internet in support of teaching and research in robotics and artificial intelligence in higher education institutions in the UK. The project is called Netrolab. The robotics laboratory comprises a set of robotics resources including a manipulator, a mobile robot with an on-board monocular active vision head and a set of sonar sensing modules, and a set of laboratory cameras to allow the user to see into the laboratory. The paper will report on key aspect of the project aimed at using multimedia tools and object-oriented techniques to network the robotics resources and to allow them to be configured into complex teaching and experimental modules. The paper will outline both the current developments of Netrolab and provide a perspective on the future development of networked virtual laboratories for research.

  16. Robotic Surgery in Gynecologic Oncology

    PubMed Central

    DeBernardo, Robert; Starks, David; Barker, Nichole; Armstrong, Amy; Kunos, Charles A.

    2011-01-01

    Robotic surgery for the management of gynecologic cancers allows for minimally invasive surgical removal of cancer-bearing organs and tissues using sophisticated surgeon-manipulated, robotic surgical instrumentation. Early on, gynecologic oncologists recognized that minimally invasive surgery was associated with less surgical morbidity and that it shortened postoperative recovery. Now, robotic surgery represents an effective alternative to conventional laparotomy. Since its widespread adoption, minimally invasive surgery has become an option not only for the morbidly obese but for women with gynecologic malignancy where conventional laparotomy has been associated with significant morbidity. As such, this paper considers indications for robotic surgery, reflects on outcomes from initial robotic surgical outcomes data, reviews cost efficacy and implications in surgical training, and discusses new roles for robotic surgery in gynecologic cancer management. PMID:22190946

  17. Robot computer problem solving system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merriam, E. W.; Becker, J. D.

    1973-01-01

    A robot computer problem solving system which represents a robot exploration vehicle in a simulated Mars environment is described. The model exhibits changes and improvements made on a previously designed robot in a city environment. The Martian environment is modeled in Cartesian coordinates; objects are scattered about a plane; arbitrary restrictions on the robot's vision have been removed; and the robot's path contains arbitrary curves. New environmental features, particularly the visual occlusion of objects by other objects, were added to the model. Two different algorithms were developed for computing occlusion. Movement and vision capabilities of the robot were established in the Mars environment, using LISP/FORTRAN interface for computational efficiency. The graphical display program was redesigned to reflect the change to the Mars-like environment.

  18. 2013 Robotics Science & Systems Conference Travel Support

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-21

    SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: The 2013 Robotics : Science and Systems Conference will bring together researchers working on algorithmic or mathematical...foundations of robotics , robotics applications, and analysis of robotic systems. High quality, original papers are solicited in all areas of robotics ...conference will be single track to allow attendees an opportunity to experience the best research in all areas of robotics . The program will include

  19. Study Tour of Industrial Robots in Japan.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-08-01

    robots in Japanese manufacturing industry. Visits to fourteen organizations are described of which some seven were engaged in the design and manufacture of... robots as well as in their application. The majority of robots seen were engaged in spot-welding and arc-welding applications, although it was...these appear to be classified as robots when statistics are presented in Japan. No intelligent robots were seen, and very few programmable numerically controlled robot controllers were in evidence. (Author)

  20. State Estimation for Humanoid Robots

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-01

    natural for a controller to produce force commands to the robot using inverse dynamics. Model based control and state estimation relies on the accuracy of...produce force commands to the robot using inverse dynamics. Model based control and state estimation relies on the accuracy of the model. We address the...natural for a controller to produce force commands to the robot using inverse dynamics. Model based control and state estimation relies on the accuracy of

  1. Task-Level Robot Learning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-08-01

    Massachusetts Institute of Techonology 1988 Accession For *JTIS GRA&I DTIC TAB Unanlounced fl Just ificatlon By _, Dntribut Ion/- Ava il.,blity Codes Avail...Cartesian coordinates to the sensor system. In a different context, the stereo vision model of a mobile robot [Brooks, Flynn, and Marill 1987] is...A.M. Flynn, and T. Marill, "Self-Calibration of Motion and Stereo Vision for Mobile Robots", Fourth Intl. Symposium on Robotics Research, (Santa Cruz

  2. Evaluating Autonomous Ground-Robots

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-14

    executed o Time taken for computation of hazard detection (did robots ‘stop to think ’) o Number and nature of obstacles detected, avoided, etc o...Evaluating Autonomous Ground- Robots Anthony Finn 1 , Adam Jacoff 2 , Mike Del Rose 3 , Bob Kania 3 , Udam Silva 4 and Jon Bornstein 5...Abstract The robotics community benefits from common test methods and metrics of performance to focus their research. As a result, many performance

  3. Joint Center for Robotics (JCR)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-04-15

    Unclassified 1 Joint Center for Robotics (JCR) Dr. Jim Overholt 15 April 2008 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is...REPORT DATE APR 2008 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Joint Center for Robotics (JCR) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT...ANSI Std Z39-18 Unclassified 2 TARDEC JCR Robotics CAST Projects & Cells “White Hat” Organization - Understand the needs of the user and create

  4. Perception and Perspective in Robotics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    Perception and Perspective in Robotics Paul Fitzpatrick (paulfitz@ai.mit.edu) MIT Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA...Abstract To a robot , the world is a sea of ambiguity, in which it will -t;. sink or swim depending on the robustness of its percep- 4Ey (1 Fa_0 tual...abilities. But robust machine perception has proven (3 Dx•) (IS DOF9) difficult to achieve. This paper argues that robots must be given not just particular

  5. Military Robotics and Collateral Damage

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-06-01

    Applications and Operations Military Robotics and Collateral Damage Robert Douglass (Primary POC) SET Associates 3811 N. Fairfax...2004 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Military Robotics and Collateral Damage 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S...Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 Abstract We explore a concept of a combined force of air and ground combat robots

  6. Autonomous Realtime Threat-Hunting Robot (ARTHR

    ScienceCinema

    INL

    2016-07-12

    Idaho National Laboratory researchers developed an intelligent plug-and-play robot payload that transforms commercial robots into effective first responders for deadly chemical, radiological and explosive threats.

  7. Autonomous Realtime Threat-Hunting Robot (ARTHR

    SciTech Connect

    INL

    2008-05-29

    Idaho National Laboratory researchers developed an intelligent plug-and-play robot payload that transforms commercial robots into effective first responders for deadly chemical, radiological and explosive threats.

  8. Students Learn About Station Robotics

    NASA Video Gallery

    From NASA's International Space Station Mission Control Center, Robotics Systems Flight Controller Jason Dyer participates in a Digital Learning Network (DLN) event with students at East Stroudsber...

  9. Robotic Booking Of Coolant Tubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, Garret E.; Gutow, David A.; Gilbert, Jeffrey L.; Deily, David C.

    1994-01-01

    Robotic tube-booking subsystem proposed for use in automated manufacturing cell described in "Robotic Processing of Rocket-Engine Nozzles" (MFS-29927). Includes electric or pneumatic end effector that inspects gaps under guidance of control processor connected to robotic vision subsystem. After inspecting each gap, end effector books tubes in vicinity, then reinspects to ensure attainment of desired gap. Makes entire tube-gap area brazeable, without damage to tubes, with consistent results. In addition, robotic booking takes less time and costs less than manual booking.

  10. Utility robotic planning: case studies

    SciTech Connect

    Roman, H.T.; Travato, S.A.; Irving, T.L.; Patnaude, L.G.

    1986-03-01

    Currently, the utility use of robotic devices is most appropriate in nuclear power plants. Four utilities are currently approaching the task of robotic applications. The planning program of each of the utilities is discussed. The following similarities of approach are noted: Plant operating personnel are surveyed for application ideas, and a company task force is established involving these personnel to determine specific application needs and cost-benefit. The state-of-the-art of various robotic devices is evaluated and selected equipment is tested in existing plants. The robotic experience gained from nuclear plant applications is extended to other non-nuclear areas. 2 figures, 1 table.

  11. ARIES NDA Robot operators` manual

    SciTech Connect

    Scheer, N.L.; Nelson, D.C.

    1998-05-01

    The ARIES NDA Robot is an automation device for servicing the material movements for a suite of Non-destructive assay (NDA) instruments. This suite of instruments includes a calorimeter, a gamma isotopic system, a segmented gamma scanner (SGS), and a neutron coincidence counter (NCC). Objects moved by the robot include sample cans, standard cans, and instrument plugs. The robot computer has an RS-232 connection with the NDA Host computer, which coordinates robot movements and instrument measurements. The instruments are expected to perform measurements under the direction of the Host without operator intervention. This user`s manual describes system startup, using the main menu, manual operation, and error recovery.

  12. Robot Would Reconfigure Modular Equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Purves, Lloyd R.

    1993-01-01

    Special-purpose sets of equipment, packaged in identical modules with identical interconnecting mechanisms, attached to or detached from each other by specially designed robot, according to proposal. Two-arm walking robot connects and disconnects modules, operating either autonomously or under remote supervision. Robot walks along row of connected modules by grasping successive attachment subassemblies in hand-over-hand motion. Intended application for facility or station in outer space; robot reconfiguration scheme makes it unnecessary for astronauts to venture outside spacecraft or space station. Concept proves useful on Earth in assembly, disassembly, or reconfiguration of equipment in such hostile environments as underwater, near active volcanoes, or in industrial process streams.

  13. Robotic systems in spine surgery.

    PubMed

    Onen, Mehmet Resid; Naderi, Sait

    2014-01-01

    Surgical robotic systems have been available for almost twenty years. The first surgical robotic systems were designed as supportive systems for laparoscopic approaches in general surgery (the first procedure was a cholecystectomy in 1987). The da Vinci Robotic System is the most common system used for robotic surgery today. This system is widely used in urology, gynecology and other surgical disciplines, and recently there have been initial reports of its use in spine surgery, for transoral access and anterior approaches for lumbar inter-body fusion interventions. SpineAssist, which is widely used in spine surgery, and Renaissance Robotic Systems, which are considered the next generation of robotic systems, are now FDA approved. These robotic systems are designed for use as guidance systems in spine instrumentation, cement augmentations and biopsies. The aim is to increase surgical accuracy while reducing the intra-operative exposure to harmful radiation to the patient and operating team personnel during the intervention. We offer a review of the published literature related to the use of robotic systems in spine surgery and provide information on using robotic systems.

  14. Affective robot for elderly assistance.

    PubMed

    Carelli, Laura; Gaggioli, Andrea; Pioggia, Giovanni; De Rossi, Federico; Riva, Giuseppe

    2009-01-01

    Recently, several robotic solutions for the elderly have been proposed. However, to date, the diffusion of these devices has been limited: available robots are too cumbersome, awkward, and expensive to become widely adopted. Another key issue which reduces the appeal of assistive robots is the lack of socio-emotional interaction: affective interchanges represent key requirements to create sustainable relationships between elderly and robots. In this paper, we propose a new approach to enhance the acceptability of robotic systems, based on the introduction of affective dimensions in human-robot interaction. This strategy is aimed at designing a new generation of relational and cognitive robots fusing information from embodied unobtrusive sensory interfaces. The final objective is to develop embodied interfaces, which are able to learn and adapt their affective responses to the user's behavior. User and robot will engage in natural interactions, involving verbal and non-verbal communication, improving empathic exchange of moods and feelings. Relevant independent living and quality of life related issues will be addressed: on-going monitoring of health parameters, assistance in everyday's activities, social support and cognitive/physical exercises. We expect that the proposed strategy will enhance the user's acceptance and adoption of the assistive robotic system.

  15. NASA Robotics for Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischer, RIchard T.

    2007-01-01

    This presentation focuses on NASA's use of robotics in support of space exploration. The content was taken from public available websites in an effort to minimize any ITAR or EAR issues. The agenda starts with an introduction to NASA and the "Vision for Space Exploration" followed by NASA's major areas of robotic use: Robotic Explorers, Astronaut Assistants, Space Vehicle, Processing, and In-Space Workhorse (space infrastructure). Pictorials and movies of NASA robots in use by the major NASA programs: Space Shuttle, International Space Station, current Solar Systems Exploration and Mars Exploration, and future Lunar Exploration are throughout the presentation.

  16. Robotic technology evolution and transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marzwell, Neville I.

    1992-01-01

    A report concerning technology transfer in the area of robotics is presented in vugraph form. The following topics are discussed: definition of technology innovation and tech-transfer; concepts relevant for understanding tech-transfer; models advanced to portray tech-transfer process; factors identified as promoting tech-transfer; factors identified as impeding tech-transfer; what important roles do individuals fulfill in tech-transfer; federal infrastructure for promoting tech-transfer; federal infrastructure for promoting tech-transfer; robotic technology evolution; robotic technology transferred; and recommendations for successful robotics tech-transfer.

  17. Sensory Interactive Teleoperator Robotic Grasping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alark, Keli; Lumia, Ron

    1997-01-01

    As the technological world strives for efficiency, the need for economical equipment that increases operator proficiency in minimal time is fundamental. This system links a CCD camera, a controller and a robotic arm to a computer vision system to provide an alternative method of image analysis. The machine vision system which was employed possesses software tools for acquiring and analyzing images which are received through a CCD camera. After feature extraction on the object in the image was performed, information about the object's location, orientation and distance from the robotic gripper is sent to the robot controller so that the robot can manipulate the object.

  18. 3D light robotics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glückstad, Jesper; Palima, Darwin; Villangca, Mark; Banas, Andrew

    2016-04-01

    As celebrated by the Nobel Prize 2014 in Chemistry light-based technologies can now overcome the diffraction barrier for imaging with nanoscopic resolution by so-called super-resolution microscopy1. However, interactive investigations coupled with advanced imaging modalities at these small scale domains gradually demand the development of a new generation of disruptive tools, not only for passively observing at nanoscopic scales, but also for actively reaching into and effectively handling constituents in this size domain. This intriguing mindset has recently led to the emergence of a novel research discipline that could potentially be able to offer the full packet needed for true "active nanoscopy" by use of so-called light-driven micro-robotics or Light Robotics in short.

  19. Robot arm apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Nachbar, Henry D.

    1992-12-01

    A robot arm apparatus is provided for inspecting and/or maintaining an interior of a steam generator which has an outside wall and a port for accessing the interior of the steam generator. The robot arm apparatus includes a flexible movable conduit for conveying inspection and/or maintenance apparatus from outside the steam generator to the interior of the steam generator. The flexible conduit has a terminal working end which is translated into and around the interior of the steam generator. Three motors located outside the steam generator are employed for moving the terminal working end inside the steam generator in "x", "y", and "z" directions, respectively. Commonly conducted inspection and maintenance operations include visual inspection for damaged areas, water jet lancing for cleaning sludge deposits, core boring for obtaining sludge deposits, and scrubbing of internal parts.

  20. Robot arm apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Nachbar, Henry D.

    1992-01-01

    A robot arm apparatus is provided for inspecting and/or maintaining an interior of a steam generator which has an outside wall and a port for accessing the interior of the steam generator. The robot arm apparatus includes a flexible movable conduit for conveying inspection and/or maintenance apparatus from outside the steam generator to the interior of the steam generator. The flexible conduit has a terminal working end which is translated into and around the interior of the steam generator. Three motors located outside the steam generator are employed for moving the terminal working end inside the steam generator in "x", "y", and "z" directions, respectively. Commonly conducted inspection and maintenance operations include visual inspection for damaged areas, water jet lancing for cleaning sludge deposits, core boring for obtaining sludge deposits, and scrubbing of internal parts.

  1. Robot arm apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Nachbar, H.D.

    1990-12-31

    A robot arm apparatus is provided for inspecting and/or maintaining an interior of a steam generator which has an outside wall and a port for accessing the interior of the steam generator. The robot arm apparatus includes a flexible movable conduit for conveying inspection and/or maintenance apparatus from outside the steam generator to the interior of the steam generator. The flexible conduit has a terminal working end which is translated into and around the interior of the steam generator. Three motors located outside the steam generator are employed for moving the terminal working end inside the steam generator in ``x,`` ``y,`` and ``z`` directions, respectively. Commonly conducted inspection and maintenance operations include visual inspection for damaged areas, water jet lancing for cleaning sludge deposits, core boring for obtaining sludge deposits, and scrubbing of internal parts.

  2. Simulation of robot manipulators

    SciTech Connect

    Kress, R.L.; Babcock, S.M.; Bills, K.C.; Kwon, D.S.; Schoenwald, D.A.

    1995-03-01

    This paper describes Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s development of an environment for the simulation of robotic manipulators. Simulation includes the modeling of kinematics, dynamics, sensors, actuators, control systems, operators, and environments. Models will be used for manipulator design, proposal evaluation, control system design and analysis, graphical preview of proposed motions, safety system development, and training. Of particular interest is the development of models for robotic manipulators having at least one flexible link. As a first application, models have been developed for the Pacific Northwest Laboratories` Flexible Beam Testbed which is a one-Degree-Of-Freedom, flexible arm with a hydraulic base actuator. Initial results show good agreement between model and experiment.

  3. Climbing robot. [caterpillar design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerley, James J. (Inventor); May, Edward L. (Inventor); Ecklund, Wayne D. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A mobile robot for traversing any surface consisting of a number of interconnected segments, each interconnected segment having an upper 'U' frame member, a lower 'U' frame member, a compliant joint between the upper 'U' frame member and the lower 'U' frame member, a number of linear actuators between the two frame members acting to provide relative displacement between the frame members, a foot attached to the lower 'U' frame member for adherence of the segment to the surface, an inter-segment attachment attached to the upper 'U' frame member for interconnecting the segments, a power source connected to the linear actuator, and a computer/controller for independently controlling each linear actuator in each interconnected segment such that the mobile robot moves in a caterpillar like fashion.

  4. Dating North European mammoths (Mammuthus primigenius Blum.): a nearly continuous record from 53 ka to 11 ka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ukkonen, P.; Aaris-Sørensen, K.; Arppe, L.; Clark, P. U.; Daugnora, L.; Lister, A.; Lõugas, L.; Seppä, H. A.; Stuart, A. J.; Wojtal, P.; Zupins, I.

    2010-05-01

    nearly continuously from 53 ka to 11 ka, completely disappearing from the area only during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). From the northern parts of the study area, mammoths disappeared ca. 27 ka ago. In the south they survived until the LGM, and occupied the area again during deglaciation. Mammoths survived in the eastern part of the study area until the end of Younger Dryas. References Weninger, B., Jöris, O., 2008. A 14C age calibration curve for the last 60 ka: the Greenland-Hulu U/Th timescale and its impact on understanding the Middle to Upper Paleolithic transition in Western Eurasia. Journal of Human Evolution 55,772-781. Weninger, B., Jöris, O., Danzeglocke, U., 2008. CalPal-2007. Cologne Radiocarbon Calibration & Palaeoclimate Research Package. http://www.calpal.de/ [2008-09-18].

  5. Increasing Diversity in STEM through Ka Hikina O Ka Lā Summer Bridge Program for Native Hawaiian Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coopersmith, A.; Cie, D. K.; Calder, S.; Naho`olewa, D.; Rai, B.

    2014-12-01

    The Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST) Mitigation Initiative and the Kahikina O Ka Lā Program are NSF-funded projects at the University of Hawai`i Maui College. These projects offer instruction and activities intended to increase diversity in STEM careers. Ke Alahaka, the 2014 summer bridge program, was offered to Native Hawaiian high-school students who indicated an interest in STEM areas. Content workshops were offered in Marine Science, Physics, Biotechnology, and Computer Science and Engineering as well as a Hawaiian Studies course designed to provide a cultural context for the STEM instruction. Focus groups and other program assessments indicate that 50% of the students attending the workshops intend to pursue a STEM major during their undergraduate studies.

  6. Robotic Intelligence Kernel: Driver

    SciTech Connect

    2009-09-16

    The INL Robotic Intelligence Kernel-Driver is built on top of the RIK-A and implements a dynamic autonomy structure. The RIK-D is used to orchestrate hardware for sensing and action as well as software components for perception, communication, behavior and world modeling into a single cognitive behavior kernel that provides intrinsic intelligence for a wide variety of unmanned ground vehicle systems.

  7. Robots: Fantasy and Reality

    SciTech Connect

    Calder, Neil

    2007-04-27

    A irreverent non-technical review of the history of surprisingly animate machines, from ancient Egypt to current times. Areas include teleoperators for hazardous environments, assembly systems, medical applications, entertainment, and science fiction. The talk has over 100 slides, covering such varied topics as Memnon son of Dawn, Droz's automata, Vaucanson's duck, cathedral clocks, Von Kempelen's chess player, household robots, Asimov's laws, Disneyland, dinosaurs, and movie droids and cyborgs.

  8. BioComponent Robots

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-02-13

    sterile water. Culture medium was prepared with 70% Leibovitz’s L15 medium, 18% Grace’s Insect Medium, 12% fetal bovine serum (FBS), 3.4 mg/mL yeast...SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: The project goal was to exploit insect cell culture and tissue engineering approaches to generate biological actuators...utilizing the unique hardiness and longevity of insect cell sources for device applications for robotics. In contrast to mammalian cells and tissues

  9. 2000 FIRST Robotics Competition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Purman, Richard

    2000-01-01

    The New Horizons Regional Education Center (NHREC) in Hampton, VA sought and received NASA funding to support its participation in the 2000 FIRST Robotics competition. FIRST, Inc. (For Inspiration and Recognition of Science and Technology) is an organization which encourages the application of creative science, math, and computer science principles to solve real-world engineering problems. The FIRST competition is an international engineering contest featuring high school, government, and business partnerships.

  10. Robotic tele-existence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tachi, Susumu; Arai, Hirohiko; Maeda, Taro

    1989-01-01

    Tele-existence is an advanced type of teleoperation system that enables a human operator at the controls to perform remote manipulation tasks dexterously with the feeling that he or she exists in the remote anthropomorphic robot in the remote environment. The concept of a tele-existence is presented, the principle of the tele-existence display method is explained, some of the prototype systems are described, and its space application is discussed.

  11. The flight robotics laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tobbe, Patrick A.; Williamson, Marlin J.; Glaese, John R.

    1988-01-01

    The Flight Robotics Laboratory of the Marshall Space Flight Center is described in detail. This facility, containing an eight degree of freedom manipulator, precision air bearing floor, teleoperated motion base, reconfigurable operator's console, and VAX 11/750 computer system, provides simulation capability to study human/system interactions of remote systems. The facility hardware, software and subsequent integration of these components into a real time man-in-the-loop simulation for the evaluation of spacecraft contact proximity and dynamics are described.

  12. The Virtual Robotics Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Kress, R.L.; Love, L.J.

    1999-09-01

    The growth of the Internet has provided a unique opportunity to expand research collaborations between industry, universities, and the national laboratories. The Virtual Robotics Laboratory (VRL) is an innovative program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) that is focusing on the issues related to collaborative research through controlled access of laboratory equipment using the World Wide Web. The VRL will provide different levels of access to selected ORNL laboratory secondary education programs. In the past, the ORNL Robotics and Process Systems Division has developed state-of-the-art robotic systems for the Army, NASA, Department of Energy, Department of Defense, as well as many other clients. After proof of concept, many of these systems sit dormant in the laboratories. This is not out of completion of all possible research topics. but from completion of contracts and generation of new programs. In the past, a number of visiting professors have used this equipment for their own research. However, this requires that the professor, and possibly his/her students, spend extended periods at the laboratory facility. In addition, only a very exclusive group of faculty can gain access to the laboratory and hardware. The VRL is a tool that enables extended collaborative efforts without regard to geographic limitations.

  13. ROBOT TASK SCENE ANALYZER

    SciTech Connect

    William R. Hamel; Steven Everett

    2000-08-01

    Environmental restoration and waste management (ER and WM) challenges in the United States Department of Energy (DOE), and around the world, involve radiation or other hazards which will necessitate the use of remote operations to protect human workers from dangerous exposures. Remote operations carry the implication of greater costs since remote work systems are inherently less productive than contact human work due to the inefficiencies/complexities of teleoperation. To reduce costs and improve quality, much attention has been focused on methods to improve the productivity of combined human operator/remote equipment systems; the achievements to date are modest at best. The most promising avenue in the near term is to supplement conventional remote work systems with robotic planning and control techniques borrowed from manufacturing and other domains where robotic automation has been used. Practical combinations of teleoperation and robotic control will yield telerobotic work systems that outperform currently available remote equipment. It is believed that practical telerobotic systems may increase remote work efficiencies significantly. Increases of 30% to 50% have been conservatively estimated for typical remote operations. It is important to recognize that the basic hardware and software features of most modern remote manipulation systems can readily accommodate the functionality required for telerobotics. Further, several of the additional system ingredients necessary to implement telerobotic control--machine vision, 3D object and workspace modeling, automatic tool path generation and collision-free trajectory planning--are existent.

  14. Goddard Robotic Telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Sakamoto, Takanori; Donato, Davide; Gehrels, Neil; Okajima, Takashi; Ukwatta, Tilan N.

    2009-05-25

    We are constructing the 14'' fully automated optical robotic telescope, Goddard Robotic Telescope (GRT), at the Goddard Geophysical and Astronomical Observatory. The aims of our robotic telescope are 1) to follow-up the Swift/Fermi Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) and 2) to perform the coordinated optical observations of the Fermi/Large Area Telescope (LAT) Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN). Our telescope system consists of the 14'' Celestron Optical Telescope Assembly (OTA), the Astro-Physics 1200GTO mount, the Apogee U47 CCD camera, the JMI's electronic focuser, and the Finger Lake Instrumentation's color filter wheel with U, B, V, R and I filters. With the focal reducer, 20'x20' field of view has been achieved. The observatory dome is the Astro Haven's 7 ft clam-shell dome. We started the scientific observations on mid-November 2008. While not observing our primary targets (GRBs and AGNs), we are planning to open our telescope time to the public for having a wider use of our telescope in both a different research field and an educational purpose.

  15. Robotics for port security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smuda, William; Freiburger, Lonnie A.; Gerhart, Grant R.; Mallon, Lawrence

    2004-09-01

    The capacity through the use of robots with on board visual, NBC and HAZMAT sensors to rapidly and continuously screen convoys and staged exposed assets would be a force multiplier and measurably improve base and force protection at both inbound and outbound DOD and commercial facilities. This paper chronicles our experiment with the ODIS robot at the Ports of Los Angeles (POLA) and Long Beach (POLB) in July of 2003. POLA & POLB are responsible for moving over 30% of the United States trade goods. Queues of 54" container trucks routinely exceed 100 trucks, extending for over a mile from the port entrances. Spotted equipment and convoys at staging areas are a high visibility and value assets to a terrorist incident. The POLA/POLB scenario is also representative of TRANSCOM operations at the port of Basra during current operation in Iraq. The California Highway Patrol is responsible for physically inspecting these vehicles for roadworthiness and contraband, a dangerous and dirty job. We will also discuss the use of ODIS robots for this task.

  16. The Virtual Robotics Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Kress, R.L.; Love, L.J.

    1997-03-01

    The growth of the Internet has provided a unique opportunity to expand research collaborations between industry, universities, and the national laboratories. The Virtual Robotics Laboratory (VRL) is an innovative program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) that is focusing on the issues related to collaborative research through controlled access of laboratory equipment using the World Wide Web. The VRL will provide different levels of access to selected ORNL laboratory equipment to outside universities, industrial researchers, and elementary and secondary education programs. In the past, the ORNL Robotics and Process Systems Division (RPSD) has developed state-of-the-art robotic systems for the Army, NASA, Department of Energy, Department of Defense, as well as many other clients. After proof of concept, many of these systems sit dormant in the laboratories. This is not out of completion of all possible research topics, but from completion of contracts and generation of new programs. In the past, a number of visiting professors have used this equipment for their own research. However, this requires that the professor, and possibly his students, spend extended periods at the laboratory facility. In addition, only a very exclusive group of faculty can gain access to the laboratory and hardware. The VRL is a tool that enables extended collaborative efforts without regard to geographic limitations.

  17. The walking robot project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, P.; Sagraniching, E.; Bennett, M.; Singh, R.

    1991-01-01

    A walking robot was designed, analyzed, and tested as an intelligent, mobile, and a terrain adaptive system. The robot's design was an application of existing technologies. The design of the six legs modified and combines well understood mechanisms and was optimized for performance, flexibility, and simplicity. The body design incorporated two tripods for walking stability and ease of turning. The electrical hardware design used modularity and distributed processing to drive the motors. The software design used feedback to coordinate the system and simple keystrokes to give commands. The walking machine can be easily adapted to hostile environments such as high radiation zones and alien terrain. The primary goal of the leg design was to create a leg capable of supporting a robot's body and electrical hardware while walking or performing desired tasks, namely those required for planetary exploration. The leg designers intent was to study the maximum amount of flexibility and maneuverability achievable by the simplest and lightest leg design. The main constraints for the leg design were leg kinematics, ease of assembly, degrees of freedom, number of motors, overall size, and weight.

  18. Mobile robot sense net

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konolige, Kurt G.; Gutmann, Steffen; Guzzoni, Didier; Ficklin, Robert W.; Nicewarner, Keith E.

    1999-08-01

    Mobile robot hardware and software is developing to the point where interesting applications for groups of such robots can be contemplated. We envision a set of mobots acting to map and perform surveillance or other task within an indoor environment (the Sense Net). A typical application of the Sense Net would be to detect survivors in buildings damaged by earthquake or other disaster, where human searchers would be put a risk. As a team, the Sense Net could reconnoiter a set of buildings faster, more reliably, and more comprehensibly than an individual mobot. The team, for example, could dynamically form subteams to perform task that cannot be done by individual robots, such as measuring the range to a distant object by forming a long baseline stereo sensor form a pari of mobots. In addition, the team could automatically reconfigure itself to handle contingencies such as disabled mobots. This paper is a report of our current progress in developing the Sense Net, after the first year of a two-year project. In our approach, each mobot has sufficient autonomy to perform several tasks, such as mapping unknown areas, navigating to specific positions, and detecting, tracking, characterizing, and classifying human and vehicular activity. We detail how some of these tasks are accomplished, and how the mobot group is tasked.

  19. New insights on water level variability for Lake Turkana for the past 15 ka and at 150 ka from relict beaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forman, S. L.; Wright, D.

    2015-12-01

    Relict beaches adjacent to Lake Turkana provide a record of water level variability for the Late Quaternary. This study focused on deciphering the geomorphology, sedimentology, stratigraphy and 14C chronology of strand plain sequences in the Kalokol and Lothagam areas. Nine >30 m oscillations in water level were documented between ca. 15 and 4 ka. The earliest oscillation between ca. 14.5 and 13 ka is not well constrained with water level to at least 70 m above the present surface and subsequently fell to at least 50 m. Lake level increased to ~ 90 m between ca. 11.2 and 10.4 ka, post Younger Dryas cooling. Water level fell by >30 m by 10.2 ka, with another potential rise at ca. 8.5 ka to >70 m above current level. Lake level regressed by > 40 m at 8.2 ka coincident with cooling in the equatorial Eastern Atlantic Ocean. Two major >70 m lake level oscillations centered at 6.6 and 5.2 ka may reflect enhanced convection with warmer sea surface temperatures in the Western Indian Ocean. The end of the African Humid Period occurred from ca. 8.0 to 4.5 ka and was characterized by variable lake level (± > 40 m), rather than one monotonic fall in water level. This lake level variability reflects a complex response to variations in the extent and intensity of the East and West African Monsoons near geographic and topographic limits within the catchment of Lake Turkana. Also, for this closed lake basin excess and deficits in water input are amplified with a cascading lake effect in the East Rift Valley and through the Chew Bahir Basin. The final regression from a high stand of > 90 m began at. 5.2 ka and water level was below 20 m by 4.5 ka; and for the remainder of the Holocene. This sustained low stand is associated with weakening of the West African Monsoon, a shift of the mean position of Congo Air Boundary west of the Lake Turkana catchment and with meter-scale variability in lake level linked to Walker circulation across the Indian Ocean. A surprising observation is

  20. Exploring TeleRobotics: A Radio-Controlled Robot

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deal, Walter F., III; Hsiung, Steve C.

    2007-01-01

    Robotics is a rich and exciting multidisciplinary area to study and learn about electronics and control technology. The interest in robotic devices and systems provides the technology teacher with an excellent opportunity to make many concrete connections between electronics, control technology, and computers and science, engineering, and…

  1. GRACE: An Autonomous Robot for the AAAI Robot Challenge

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    robot interaction (aside from the speech recognition) worked relatively well, there were areas for improvement. For instance, gesture recognition , which...and tracking, people following, gesture recognition , nametag reading, and face recognition. We plan to incorporate capabilities for the robot to

  2. Highly Efficient Amplifier for Ka-Band Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    An amplifier developed under a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract will have applications for both satellite and terrestrial communications. This power amplifier uses an innovative series bias arrangement of active devices to achieve over 40-percent efficiency at Ka-band frequencies with an output power of 0.66 W. The amplifier is fabricated on a 2.0- by 3.8-square millimeter chip through the use of Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit (MMIC) technology, and it uses state-of-the-art, Pseudomorphic High-Electron-Mobility Transistor (PHEMT) devices. Although the performance of the MMIC chip depends on these high-performance devices, the real innovations here are a unique series bias scheme, which results in a high-voltage chip supply, and careful design of the on-chip planar output stage combiner. This design concept has ramifications beyond the chip itself because it opens up the possibility of operation directly from a satellite power bus (usually 28 V) without a dc-dc converter. This will dramatically increase the overall system efficiency. Conventional microwave power amplifier designs utilize many devices all connected in parallel from the bias supply. This results in a low-bias voltage, typically 5 V, and a high bias current. With this configuration, substantial I(sup 2) R losses (current squared times resistance) may arise in the system bias-distribution network. By placing the devices in a series bias configuration, the total current is reduced, leading to reduced distribution losses. Careful design of the on-chip planar output stage power combiner is also important in minimizing losses. Using these concepts, a two-stage amplifier was designed for operation at 33 GHz and fabricated in a standard MMIC foundry process with 0.20-m PHEMT devices. Using a 20-V bias supply, the amplifier achieved efficiencies of over 40 percent with an output power of 0.66 W and a 16-dB gain over a 2-GHz bandwidth centered at 33 GHz. With a 28-V bias, a power

  3. Autonomous Navigation for Mobile Robots with Human-Robot Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballantyne, James; Johns, Edward; Valibeik, Salman; Wong, Charence; Yang, Guang-Zhong

    Dynamic and complex indoor environments present a challenge for mobile robot navigation. The robot must be able to simultaneously map the environment, which often has repetitive features, whilst keep track of its pose and location. This chapter introduces some of the key considerations for human guided navigation. Rather than letting the robot explore the environment fully autonomously, we consider the use of human guidance for progressively building up the environment map and establishing scene association, learning, as well as navigation and planning. After the guide has taken the robot through the environment and indicated the points of interest via hand gestures, the robot is then able to use the geometric map and scene descriptors captured during the tour to create a high-level plan for subsequent autonomous navigation within the environment. Issues related to gesture recognition, multi-cue integration, tracking, target pursuing, scene association and navigation planning are discussed.

  4. The Deep Space Network's X/X/Ka Feed: Modifications for 100 kW CW Uplink Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoppe, Daniel J.; Khayatian, Behrouz; Sosnowski, John B.

    2010-01-01

    The Deep Space Network, which provides communication services for NASA's robotic missions, consists of a number of 34m beam waveguide antennas and conventional 70m dual-reflector antennas located around the globe, [1]. The 34m beam waveguide antennas employ a three-band feed covering the deep space uplink band near 7.2 GHz, and downlink bands at 8.45 and 32 GHz. Simultaneous uplink commanding at 25 kW CW and ultra low noise reception in both bands is supported along with monopulse tracking at 32 GHz, [2]. An existing uplink capability of 25 kW is also available on the 70m antennas using a more conventional X/X diplexing feed. In order to provide an equivalent uplink capability with the 34m antennas the X/X/Ka feed is currently being modified for 100 kW CW operation, [3]. Here we will discuss both the existing feed and the 100 kW modifications which are underway.

  5. Ka Hana `Imi Na`auao: A Science Curriculum Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Napeahi, K.; Roberts, K. D.; Galloway, L. M.; Stodden, R. A.; Akuna, J.; Bruno, B.

    2005-12-01

    In antiquity, the first people to step foot on what are now known as the Hawaiian islands skillfully traversed the Pacific Ocean using celestial navigation and learned observations of scientific phenomena. Long before the Western world ventured beyond the horizon, Hawaiians had invented the chronometer, built aqueduct systems (awai) that continue to amaze modern engineers, and had preventive health systems as well as a comprehensive knowledge of medicinal plants (including antivirals) which only now are working their way through trials for use in modern pharmacopia. Yet, today, Native Hawaiians are severely underrepresented in science-related fields, reflecting (in part) a failure of the Western educational system to nurture the potential of these resourceful students, particularly the many "at-risk" students who are presently over-represented in special education. A curriculum which draws from and incorporates traditional Hawaiian values and knowledge is needed to reinforce links to the inquiry process which nurtured creative thinking during the renaissance of Polynesian history. The primary goal of the Ka Hana `Imi Na`auao Project (translation: `science` or `work in which you seek enlightenment, knowledge or wisdom`) is to increase the number of Native Hawaiian adults in science-related postsecondary education and employment fields. Working closely with Native Hawaiian cultural experts and our high school partners, we will develop and implement a culturally responsive 11th and 12th grade high school science curriculum, infused with math, literacy and technology readiness skills. Software and assistive technology will be used to adapt instruction to individual learners` reading levels, specific disabilities and learning styles. To ease the transition from secondary to post-secondary education, selected grade 12 students will participate in planned project activities that link high school experiences with college science-related programs of study. Ka Hana `Imi Na

  6. Radiocarbon dating from 40 to 60 ka BP at Border Cave, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bird, M. I.; Fifield, L. K.; Santos, G. M.; Beaumont, P. B.; Zhou, Y.; di Tada, M. L.; Hausladen, P. A.

    2003-04-01

    We present 21 radiocarbon dates on 19 charcoal samples from the sedimentary sequence preserved in Border Cave, South Africa. The background radiocarbon activity for charcoal from the cave was determined to be 0.050±0.018 percent modern carbon, from the analysis of a radiocarbon-dead sample from unit 5WA. Radiocarbon ages for individual samples ranged from 25.2 to >58.2 ka BP. The error-weighted mean ages for successively older strata are 38.5+0.85/-0.95 ka BP for unit 1WA, 50.2+1.1/-1.0 ka BP for units 2BS.LR.A and 2BS.LR.B, 56.5+2.7/-2.0 ka BP for unit 2BS.LR.C and 59.2+3.4/-2.4 ka BP for unit 2WA. This radiocarbon chronology is consistent with independent chronologies derived from electron spin resonance and amino acid racemization dating. The results therefore provide further evidence that radiocarbon dating of charcoal by the ABOX-SC technique can yield reliable radiocarbon ages beyond 40 ka BP. They also imply that Border Cave 5, a modern human mandible, predates >58.2 ka BP and that the Middle Stone Age (Mode 3)—Later Stone Age (Mode 5) transition of Border Cave was largely effected between ˜56.5 and ˜41.6 ka ago.

  7. X/X/Ka-band prime focus feed antenna for the Mars Observer beacon spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanton, P.; Reilly, H.; Esquivel, M.

    1988-01-01

    The results of an X/X/Ka-band feed design concept demonstration are presented. The purpose is to show the feasibility of adding a Ka-band beacon to the Mars Observer spacecraft. Scale model radiation patterns were made and analyzed.

  8. Electrostatic forces in two lysozymes: calculations and measurements of histidine pKa values.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, T; Nakamura, H; Wada, A

    1992-08-01

    In order to examine the electrostatic forces in globular proteins, pKa values and their ionic strength dependence of His residues of hen egg white lysozyme (HEWL) and human lysozyme (HUML) were measured, and they were compared with those calculated numerically. pKa values of His residues in HEWL, HUML, and short oligopeptides were determined from chemical shift changes of His side chains by 1H-nmr measurements. The associated changes in pKa values in HEWL and HUML were calculated by solving the Poisson-Boltzmann equations numerically for macroscopic dielectric models. The calculated pKa changes and their ionic strength dependence agreed fairly well with the observed ones. The contribution from each residue of each alpha-helix dipole to the pKa values and their ionic strength dependence was analyzed using Green's reciprocity theorem. The results indicate that (1) the pKa of His residues are largely affected by surrounding ionized and polar groups; (2) the ionic strength dependence of the pKa values is determined by the overall charge distributions and their accessibilities to solvent; and (3) alpha-helix dipoles make a significant contribution to the pKa, when the His residue is close to the helix terminus and not fully exposed to the solvent.

  9. A View from the Cocoon--Space Categorization in the Korean Verb [na-ka-ta].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Alan Hyun-Oak

    1996-01-01

    Analysis of the Korean verb "na-ka-ta" ("to get out, exit") focuses on why an expression such as "kyengkicang-ey na-ka-ta" ("someone goes out/in to the sports arena") is acceptable only in the context that the person's entering the arena is for the purpose of a contest, while it becomes semantically…

  10. Rotorcraft and Enabling Robotic Rescue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Larry A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines some of the issues underlying potential robotic rescue devices (RRD) in the context where autonomous or manned rotorcraft deployment of such robotic systems is a crucial attribute for their success in supporting future disaster relief and emergency response (DRER) missions. As a part of this discussion, work related to proof-of-concept prototyping of two notional RRD systems is summarized.

  11. Resources for Underwater Robotics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Michael L.; Freitas, William M.

    2016-01-01

    4-H clubs can build and program underwater robots from raw materials. An annotated resource list for engaging youth in building underwater remotely operated vehicles (ROVs) is provided. This article is a companion piece to the Research in Brief article "Building Teen Futures with Underwater Robotics" in this issue of the "Journal of…

  12. Robot computer problem solving system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, J. D.; Merriam, E. W.

    1974-01-01

    The conceptual, experimental, and practical aspects of the development of a robot computer problem solving system were investigated. The distinctive characteristics were formulated of the approach taken in relation to various studies of cognition and robotics. Vehicle and eye control systems were structured, and the information to be generated by the visual system is defined.

  13. Robotic Laser Coating Removal System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-07-01

    large off- aircraft components. Additionally, this enclosure was equipped with an overhead gantry crane that is suitable for lifting of the off...52    ii LIST OF TABLES Table 2-1: Gantry Robot Work Envelope...Figure 2-3: PaR XR125 Gantry Robot.................................................................................6  Figure 2-4: Contour Following

  14. Robotics as an Educational Tool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miglino, Orazio; Lund, Henrik Hautop; Cardaci, Maurizio

    1999-01-01

    Explores a new educational application of Piaget's theories of cognitive development: the use, as a teaching tool, of physical robots conceived as artificial organisms. Reviews educational projects using real robots. Shows that the use of intelligent systems to enlarge the view of biological reality could become an integral part of curricula in…

  15. Proximity Sensors Make Robot Dexterous

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hess, Cliff; Li, Larry C. H.

    1990-01-01

    Control system enables robot hand to grasp objects of varied shapes. Key features of system: reflective proximity sensors furnishing data on position, orientation, and distance of object and software protocol controlling sequence of operations in approaching and grasping objects. Reflected-beam sensing concept applied to simple opposed-jaw industrial grippers as well as to dexterous robot hands.

  16. Robot Forearm and Dexterous Hand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lovchik, Christopher S.

    2005-01-01

    An electromechanical hand-and-forearm assembly has been developed for incorporation into an anthropomorphic robot that would be used in outer space. The assembly is designed to offer manual dexterity comparable to that of a hand inside an astronaut s suit; thus, the assembly may also be useful as a prosthesis or as an end effector on an industrial robot.

  17. Special-Purpose Robotic Welder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcferrin, David C.; Coby, J. Ben, Jr.; Gangl, Kenneth J.; Hoffman, David S.; Dawson, Sidney G.

    1995-01-01

    Robotic-welding apparatus developed for use in repairing main combustion chamber of rocket engine. Design features beneficial in other robotic-welding applications; for example, manufacture and repair of pressure vessels, chemical-processing vessels, etc. Design problem solved by iterative application of computer-aided techniques.

  18. Robotic Welding Of Injector Manifold

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, Jeffrey L.; Shelley, D. Mark

    1992-01-01

    Brief report presents history, up through October 1990, of continuing efforts to convert from manual to robotic gas/tungsten arc welding in fabrication of main injector inlet manifold of main engine of Space Shuttle. Includes photographs of welding machinery, welds, and weld preparations. Of interest to engineers considering establishment of robotic-welding facilities.

  19. Human Resource Implications of Robotics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, H. Allan; Hunt, Timothy L.

    A study examined the job creation and job displacement potential of industrial robots in the United States and specifically, in Michigan, by 1990. To complete an analysis of the impact of robotics on the American labor force, researchers combined data from previous forecasts of future unit and dollar sales projections and from interviews with…

  20. Robot computer problem solving system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, J. D.; Merriam, E. W.

    1974-01-01

    The conceptual, experimental, and practical phases of developing a robot computer problem solving system are outlined. Robot intelligence, conversion of the programming language SAIL to run under the THNEX monitor, and the use of the network to run several cooperating jobs at different sites are discussed.

  1. Robotic joint experiments under ultravacuum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borrien, A.; Petitjean, L.

    1988-01-01

    First, various aspects of a robotic joint development program, including gearbox technology, electromechanical components, lubrication, and test results, are discussed. Secondly, a test prototype of the joint allowing simulation of robotic arm dynamic effects is presented. This prototype is tested under vacuum with different types of motors and sensors to characterize the functional parameters: angular position error, mechanical backlash, gearbox efficiency, and lifetime.

  2. Space Robotics: AWIMR an Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, Rick

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the usages of Autonomous Walking Inspection and Maintenance Robots (AWIMR) in space. Some of the uses that these robots in support of space exploration can have are: inspection of a space craft, cleaning, astronaut assistance, assembly of a structure, repair of structures, and replenishment of supplies.

  3. Students Compete at Robotics Competition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technology Teacher, 2005

    2005-01-01

    July 22-23, 2005 the Indiana Robotics Invitational (IRI) was held at Lawrence North High school in Indianapolis. The IRI began in Indiana in May 2000 with 20 teams. The first invitational was nicknamed the "Hoosier Havoc." The event was coordinated by FIRST robotics team #45 (the Techno-Kats) from Kokomo, Indiana. Today, the former…

  4. Robotic Welding and Inspection System

    SciTech Connect

    H. B. Smartt; D. P. Pace; E. D. Larsen; T. R. McJunkin; C. I. Nichol; D. E. Clark; K. L. Skinner; M. L. Clark; T. G. Kaser; C. R. Tolle

    2008-06-01

    This paper presents a robotic system for GTA welding of lids on cylindrical vessels. The system consists of an articulated robot arm, a rotating positioner, end effectors for welding, grinding, ultrasonic and eddy current inspection. Features include weld viewing cameras, modular software, and text-based procedural files for process and motion trajectories.

  5. Children, Humanoid Robots and Caregivers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-01-01

    therefore be placed on social learning along a child’s first-person perspectives of the world: the robot physical topological spaces , as shown in...be described along tion of the child from his mother as a different three different topological spaces : 1) the robot’s personal individual. However

  6. Robotics: Past, Present, and Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunne, Maurice J.

    Robots are finally receiving wide-spread attention as a means to realize the goal of automating factories. In the 1960's robot use was limited by unfavorable acquisition and operating costs and the affordable control technology limiting applications to relatively simple jobs. During the 1970's productivity of manufacturing organizations declined…

  7. Automatic Robot Safety Shutdown System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lirette, M.

    1985-01-01

    Robot turned off if acceleration exceeds preset value. Signals from accelerometer on robot arm pass through filter and amplifier, eliminating high-frequency noise and hydraulic-pump pulsations. Data digitized and processed in computer. Unit controls other machines that perform repetitive movements, including rotary tables, tracked vehicles, conveyor lines, and elevators.

  8. Detecting small seamounts in AltiKa repeat cycle data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marks, K. M.; Smith, W. H. F.

    2016-12-01

    We present a technique of stacking repeat cycles of satellite altimeter sea surface height profiles that lowers the noise and improves the resolution of small seamounts. Our approach differs from other studies because it uses the median (not the mean) of the stacks, which suppresses outliers. Seamounts as small as 720 m tall are easily detected in stacked 40 Hz AltiKa data profiles, and a 500 m tall seamount is perceptible. Noise variance decreases with an increase in the number of cycles stacked, and RMS noise dips below 2 cm when 11 or more cycles are stacked. Coherence analyses between geoid height and bathymetry show that full wavelengths down to about 10 km can be resolved. Comparisons of study areas with and without seamounts find that signal from small seamounts lies in the 10-28 km waveband. A simple Gaussian band-pass filter based on the seamount waveband passes signals that can be used in seamount detection studies. Such studies may find seamounts <2 km tall that are predicted to be abundant on the ocean floor.

  9. A transportable 50 kA dual mode lightning simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salisbury, K.; Lloyd, S.; Chen, Y. G.

    1991-01-01

    A transportable lightning simulator was designed, built and tested, which is capable of delivering more than 50 kA to an 8 micro-H test object. The simulator was designed to be a versatile device in the lightning laboratory while meeting the requirements of MIL-STD-1757A for component E current waveforms. The system is capable of operating in either a ringing mode with a Q greater than 5 and a nominal frequency of 160 kHz, or a unipolar mode with no hardware configuration changes. The ringing mode is obtained by the LCR series circuit formed by the pulse generator and test object. The unipolar mode is obtained by closing an electrically triggered crowbar switch at peak current. The simulator exceeds the peak current requirement and rate of rise requirements for MIL-STD-1757A in both the ringing and unipolar modes. The pulse half width in the unipolar mode is in excess of 50 microsec and the action is in excess of 10(exp 5) A(exp 2)s. The design, component values, and test results are presented.

  10. Ka-Band Transponder for Deep-Space Radio Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennis, Matthew S.; Mysoor, Narayan R.; Folkner, William M.; Mendoza, Ricardo; Venkatesan, Jaikrishna

    2008-01-01

    A one-page document describes a Ka-band transponder being developed for use in deep-space radio science. The transponder receives in the Deep Space Network (DSN) uplink frequency band of 34.2 to 34.7 GHz, transmits in the 31.8- to 32.3 GHz DSN downlink band, and performs regenerative ranging on a DSN standard 4-MHz ranging tone subcarrier phase-modulated onto the uplink carrier signal. A primary consideration in this development is reduction in size, relative to other such transponders. The transponder design is all-analog, chosen to minimize not only the size but also the number of parts and the design time and, thus, the cost. The receiver features two stages of frequency down-conversion. The receiver locks onto the uplink carrier signal. The exciter signal for the transmitter is derived from the same source as that used to generate the first-stage local-oscillator signal. The ranging-tone subcarrier is down-converted along with the carrier to the second intermediate frequency, where the 4-MHz tone is demodulated from the composite signal and fed into a ranging-tone-tracking loop, which regenerates the tone. The regenerated tone is linearly phase-modulated onto the downlink carrier.

  11. Thomson Scattering on exploding wires at 800 kA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenly, John; Seyler, Charles; Banasek, Jacob; Potter, William

    2016-10-01

    Laser Thomson scattering measurements have been carried out on a single 0.25 mm diameter Al wire load driven with an 800 kA, 100 ns risetime pulse on the COBRA pulsed power facility. The 527 nm, 10 J, 5 ns laser is brought to a line focus on a chord across the unstable, roughly cylindrical plasma column of the wire, which reaches 8mm outer diameter at 100 ns. The laser path is either on axis or 2mm or 4mm off axis. Scattered signals are collected on a fiber array yielding data across the laser path through the plasma. The scattered light is easily visible over the wire plasma self-emission. The scattered spectra have highly complex structures comprised of as many as four distinct spectral peaks spread over 1 nm in wavelength, both red-and blue-shifted. On axis, the laser does not reach the far side of the plasma, being totally absorbed and/or refracted out of its path. 2 mm off-axis the beam is severely refracted, probably from near the critical surface in the plasma, appearing in images taken with cameras 45 degrees off its entering path. The scattering should be in the collective regime, and analysis is underway to extract information on flow velocities and temperatures within the volume, of 0.5mm radius, imaged by each fiber. Work supported by US DOE NNSA Grant DE-NA0001855.

  12. Absolute paleointensity from Hawaiian lavas younger than 35 ka

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Valet, J.-P.; Tric, E.; Herrero-Bervera, E.; Meynadier, L.; Lockwood, J.P.

    1998-01-01

    Paleointensity studies have been conducted in air and in argon atmosphere on nine lava flows with radiocarbon ages distributed between 3.3 and 28.2 ka from the Mauna Loa volcano in the big island of Hawaii. Determinations of paleointensity obtained at eight sites depict the same overall pattern as the previous results for the same period in Hawaii, although the overall average field intensity appears to be lower. Since the present results were determined at higher temperatures than in the previous studies, this discrepancy raises questions regarding the selection of low versus high-temperature segments that are usually made for absolute paleointensity. The virtual dipole moments are similar to those displayed by the worldwide data set obtained from dated lava flows. When averaged within finite time intervals, the worldwide values match nicely the variations of the Sint-200 synthetic record of relative paleointensity and confirm the overall decrease of the dipole field intensity during most of this period. The convergence between the existing records at Hawaii and the rest of the world does not favour the presence of persistent strong non-dipole components beneath Hawaii for this period.

  13. Rain Fade Compensation for Ka-Band Communications Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, W. Carl; Nguyen, Lan; Dissanayake, Asoka; Markey, Brian; Le, Anh

    1997-01-01

    This report provides a review and evaluation of rain fade measurement and compensation techniques for Ka-band satellite systems. This report includes a description of and cost estimates for performing three rain fade measurement and compensation experiments. The first experiment deals with rain fade measurement techniques while the second one covers the rain fade compensation techniques. The third experiment addresses a feedback flow control technique for the ABR service (for ATM-based traffic). The following conclusions were observed in this report; a sufficient system signal margin should be allocated for all carriers in a network, that is a fixed clear-sky margin should be typically in the range of 4-5 dB and should be more like 15 dB in the up link for moderate and heavy rain zones; to obtain a higher system margin it is desirable to combine the uplink power control technique with the technique that implements the source information rate and FEC code rate changes resulting in a 4-5 dB increase in the dynamic part of the system margin. The experiments would assess the feasibility of the fade measurements and compensation techniques, and ABR feedback control technique.

  14. Robotic control and inspection verification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Virgil Leon

    1991-01-01

    Three areas of possible commercialization involving robots at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) are discussed: a six degree-of-freedom target tracking system for remote umbilical operations; an intelligent torque sensing end effector for operating hand valves in hazardous locations; and an automatic radiator inspection device, a 13 by 65 foot robotic mechanism involving completely redundant motors, drives, and controls. Aspects concerning the first two innovations can be integrated to enable robots or teleoperators to perform tasks involving orientation and panal actuation operations that can be done with existing technology rather than waiting for telerobots to incorporate artificial intelligence (AI) to perform 'smart' autonomous operations. The third robot involves the application of complete control hardware redundancy to enable performance of work over and near expensive Space Shuttle hardware. The consumer marketplace may wish to explore commercialization of similiar component redundancy techniques for applications when a robot would not normally be used because of reliability concerns.

  15. Robotic Surgery for Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ambrogi, Marcello C; Fanucchi, Olivia; Melfi, Franco; Mussi, Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    During the last decade the role of minimally invasive surgery has been increased, especially with the introduction of the robotic system in the surgical field. The most important advantages of robotic system are represented by the wristed instrumentation and the depth perception, which can overcome the limitation of traditional thoracoscopy. However, some data still exist in literature with regard to robotic lobectomy. The majority of papers are focused on its safety and feasibility, but further studies with long follow-ups are necessary in order to assess the oncologic outcomes. We reviewed the literature on robotic lobectomy, with the main aim to better define the role of robotic system in the clinical practice. PMID:25207216

  16. Robot control with biological cells.

    PubMed

    Tsuda, Soichiro; Zauner, Klaus-Peter; Gunji, Yukio-Pegio

    2007-02-01

    At present there exists a large gap in size, performance, adaptability and robustness between natural and artificial information processors for performing coherent perception-action tasks under real-time constraints. Even the simplest organisms have an enviable capability of coping with an unknown dynamic environment. Robots, in contrast, are still clumsy if confronted with such complexity. This paper presents a bio-hybrid architecture developed for exploring an alternate approach to the control of autonomous robots. Circuits prepared from amoeboid plasmodia of the slime mold Physarum polycephalum are interfaced with an omnidirectional hexapod robot. Sensory signals from the macro-physical environment of the robot are transduced to cellular scale and processed using the unique micro-physical features of intracellular information processing. Conversely, the response form the cellular computation is amplified to yield a macroscopic output action in the environment mediated through the robot's actuators.

  17. Robotic surgery - advance or gimmick?

    PubMed

    De Wilde, Rudy L; Herrmann, Anja

    2013-06-01

    Robotic surgery is increasingly implemented as a minimally invasive approach to a variety of gynaecological procedures. The use of conventional laparoscopy by a broad range of surgeons, especially in complex procedures, is hampered by several drawbacks. Robotic surgery was created with the aim of overcoming some of the limitations. Although robotic surgery has many advantages, it is also associated with clear disadvantages. At present, the proof of superiority over access by laparotomy or laparoscopy through large randomised- controlled trials is still lacking. Until results of such trials are present, a firm conclusion about the usefulness of robotic surgery cannot be drawn. Robotic surgery is promising, making the advantages of minimally invasive surgery potentially available to a large number of surgeons and patients in the future.

  18. Anaesthesia for robotic gynaecological surgery.

    PubMed

    Gupta, K; Mehta, Y; Sarin Jolly, A; Khanna, S

    2012-07-01

    Robotic surgery is gaining widespread popularity due to advantages such as reduced blood loss, reduced postoperative pain, shorter hospital stay and better visualisation of fine structures. Robots are being used in urological, cardiac, thoracic, orthopaedic, gynaecological and general surgery. Robotic surgery received US Food and Drug Administration approval for use in gynaecological surgery in 2005. The various gynaecological robotic operations being performed are myomectomy, total and supracervical hysterectomy, ovarian cystectomy, sacral colpopexy, tubal reanastomosis, lymph node dissection, surgery of retroperitoneal ectopic pregnancy, Moskowitz procedure and endometriosis surgery. The anaesthetic considerations include difficult access to the patient intraoperatively, steep Trendelenburg position, long surgical duration and the impact of pneumoperitoneum. We highlight the complications encountered in these surgeries and methods to prevent these complications. Robotic gynaecological surgery can be safely performed after considering the physiological effects of the steep Trendelenburg position and of pneumoperitoneum. The benefits of the surgical procedure should be weighed against the risks in patients with underlying cardiorespiratory problems.

  19. Clean-room robot implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Comeau, J.L.

    1982-07-14

    A robot has been incorporated in a clean room operation in which vacuum tube parts are cleaned just prior to final assembly with a 60 lb/in/sup 2/ blast of argon gas. The robot is programmed to pick up the parts, manipulate/rotate them as necessary in the jet pattern and deposit them in a tray precleaned by the robot. A carefully studied implementation plan was followed in the procurement, installation, modification and programming of the robot facility. An unusual configuration of one tube part required a unique gripper design. A study indicated that the tube parts processed by the robot are 12% cleaner than those manually cleaned by an experienced operator.

  20. Odor sensing for robot guidance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deveza, Reimundo; Thiel, David; Russell, Andrew; Mackay-Sim, Alan

    1994-06-01

    There is no generally applicable technique for finding the position of an autonomous mobile robot operating in an unstructured or varying environment. This article describes a project to investigate the use of short-lived navigational markers consisting of olfactory chemicals to guide mobile robots and to help them search and explore efficiently. Such a method of laying a trail to mark the path of a robot provides differential navigational information relative to the starting point and starting direction. Many insects employ olfactory cues as navigation aids and to improve their efficiency when searching for food. Three scenarios are proposed in which navigational markers can be of assistance to a mobile robot. The design and characteristics of an adsorbed mass olfactory sensor are described. This sensor was designed to be mounted on a mobile robot and is suitable for detecting and tracking olfactory chemicals. The performance of this sensor is described together with preliminary results of using it to track an odor trail.

  1. Robotic systems for homeland security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esser, Brian; Miller, Jon; Huston, Dryver R.; Bourn, Phil

    2004-07-01

    This paper will present the concept of utilizing various mobile robotic platforms for homeland security. Highly specialized mobile robots equipped with the proper sensors and data processing capabilities have the ability to provide security and surveillance for a wide variety of applications. Large infrastructure components, such as bridges, pipelines, dams, and electrical power grids pose severe challenges for monitoring, surveillance, and protection against man-made and natural hazards. The structures are enormous, often with awkward and dangerous configurations that make it difficult, if not impossible, for continuous human surveillance. Properly outfitted robots have the potential to provide long-term surveillance without requiring continuous human supervision. Furthermore, these robotic platforms can have disaster mitigation capabilities such as evaluation of infrastructure integrity at the disaster site. The results presented will include proof-of-concept robotic platforms equipped with various sensor arrays, as well as discussion of design criteria for numerous homeland security applications.

  2. Teleautonomous guidance for mobile robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borenstein, J.; Koren, Y.

    1990-01-01

    Teleautonomous guidance (TG), a technique for the remote guidance of fast mobile robots, has been developed and implemented. With TG, the mobile robot follows the general direction prescribed by an operator. However, if the robot encounters an obstacle, it autonomously avoids collision with that obstacle while trying to match the prescribed direction as closely as possible. This type of shared control is completely transparent and transfers control between teleoperation and autonomous obstacle avoidance gradually. TG allows the operator to steer vehicles and robots at high speeds and in cluttered environments, even without visual contact. TG is based on the virtual force field (VFF) method, which was developed earlier for autonomous obstacle avoidance. The VFF method is especially suited to the accommodation of inaccurate sensor data (such as that produced by ultrasonic sensors) and sensor fusion, and allows the mobile robot to travel quickly without stopping for obstacles.

  3. Safety design for medical robots.

    PubMed

    Kazanzides, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The use of robots in medicine is increasing, leading to the call for specific safety standards. This is a challenging endeavor, however, because the patient must usually be placed in the robot's workspace and the medical staff must frequently interact with the robot. Although specific safety standards for medical robots do not yet exist, there are several medical device standards and well-established principles of risk analysis and safety design that can and should be applied. This paper presents a tutorial overview of safety design for medical robots, starting with a discussion of high-level safety requirements, followed by methods for risk assessment (or hazard analysis) and a brief discussion of some sample safety strategies.

  4. Preparedness in robotically assisted interventions.

    PubMed

    Coste-Manière, Eve; Adhami, Louaï; Antiphon, Patrick; Abbou, Clément-Claude

    2003-04-01

    For many years, robots have been used in manufacturing to perform a variety of delicate tasks. Their use is now being generalized to other fields, such as biology, domestic applications, and especially medicine, in which they are poised to make a significant contribution. This evolution comes from the progress made in the field of robotics and from recent changes in medical and surgical techniques, namely, developments in medical imaging and a new desire for minimally invasive interventions. This emerging combination of high-precision robotic manipulators, new medical diagnostic techniques, and efficient minimally invasive surgery has not yet been perfected. After a brief discussion of state-of-the-art robotic systems used in urology, this article discusses new challenges presented by robotic minimally invasive surgery. A computer-integrated approach aimed at increasing the efficiency of such interventions through better preparedness is presented. This approach is illustrated by a case study in human nephrectomy and a cardiac animal experiment.

  5. A Mini-Curriculum for Robotics Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Preston K.

    This practicum report documents the development of a four-lesson multimedia program for robotics instruction for fourth and seventh grade students. The commercial film "Robot Revolution" and the videocassette tape "Robotics" were used, along with two author-developed slide/audiotape presentations and 14 overhead transparency foils. Two robots,…

  6. Robotic System For Greenhouse Or Nursery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gill, Paul; Montgomery, Jim; Silver, John; Heffelfinger, Neil; Simonton, Ward; Pease, Jim

    1993-01-01

    Report presents additional information about robotic system described in "Robotic Gripper With Force Control And Optical Sensors" (MFS-28537). "Flexible Agricultural Robotics Manipulator System" (FARMS) serves as prototype of robotic systems intended to enhance productivities of agricultural assembly-line-type facilities in large commercial greenhouses and nurseries.

  7. MRH-5 Robot/Student Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox Valley Technical Coll., Appleton, WI.

    This student manual for the Miller MRH-5 welding robot contains nine modules on how to: safely operate the MRH-5 robot; recognize different types of data; weld a part programming the MRH-5; re-teach an already taught program; weld various joints with the MRH-5 robot; weld a desk plaque with the MRH-5 robot; perform editing functions; check/edit…

  8. Design-Oriented Enhanced Robotics Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yilmaz, M.; Ozcelik, S.; Yilmazer, N.; Nekovei, R.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an innovative two-course, laboratory-based, and design-oriented robotics educational model. The robotics curriculum exposed senior-level undergraduate students to major robotics concepts, and enhanced the student learning experience in hybrid learning environments by incorporating the IEEE Region-5 annual robotics competition…

  9. Direct Adaptive Control Of An Industrial Robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seraji, Homayoun; Lee, Thomas; Delpech, Michel

    1992-01-01

    Decentralized direct adaptive control scheme for six-jointed industrial robot eliminates part of overall computational burden imposed by centralized controller and degrades performance of robot by reducing sampling rate. Control and controller-adaptation laws based on observed performance of manipulator: no need to model dynamics of robot. Adaptive controllers cope with uncertainties and variations in robot and payload.

  10. Coordinated Research in Robotics and Integrated Manufacturing.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-07-31

    of top rate senior people. Dur- ing the first annual contract period eight new faculty were brought to the College in robotics and manufacturing ...The University of Michigan College of Engineering COORDINATED RESEARCH IN ROBOTICS AND INTEGRATED MANUFACTURING FIRST...ANNUAL REPORT ON COORDINATED RESEARCH IN ROBOTICS AND INTEGRATED MANUFACTURING THE UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN Background The Center for Robotics and

  11. Megasessions for Robotic Hair Restoration.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Joa O Carlos; Pereira Filho, Joa O Carlos; Cabrera Pereira, Joa O Pedro

    2016-11-01

    A robotic system can select and remove individual hair follicles from the donor area with great precision and without fatigue. This report describes the use of the robotic system in a megasession for hair restoration. Patients were instructed to cut their hair to 1.0 to 1.2 mm before surgery. The robot selected and removed 600 to 800 grafts per hour so the follicular units (FU)s could be transplanted manually to recipient sites. The robot arm consists of a sharp inner punch and a blunt outer punch which together separate FUs from the sur- rounding tissue. Stereoscopic cameras controlled by image processing software allow the system to identify the angle and direction of hair growth. The physician and one assistant control the harvesting with a hand-held remote control and computer monitor while the patient is positioned in an adjustable chair. When the robot has harvested all the FUs they are removed by technicians with small forceps. Hairline design, creation of recipient sites, and graft placement are performed manually by the physician. Clinical photographs before and after surgery show that patients experience excellent outcomes with the robotic megasession. Phy- sician fatigue during graft extraction is reduced because the robot performs the repetitive movements without fatigue. Variability of graft extraction is minimized because the robot's optical system can be programmed to choose the best FUs. The transection rate is reduced because the robot's graft extraction system uses two needles, a sharp one to piece the skin and a blunt needle to dissect the root without trauma. A robotic megasession for hair restoration is minimally invasive, does not result in linear scars in the donor area, and is associated with minimal fatigue and discomfort for both patient and physician. Healing is rapid and patients experience a high level of satisfaction with the results. J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(11):1407-1412..

  12. Robotic Laparoscopic Pyeloplasty

    PubMed Central

    Mitre, Anuar I.; Hubert, Nicolas; Egrot, Christophe; Hubert, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives: We aimed to assess the feasibility and outcomes of complex ureteropelvic junction obstruction cases submitted to robotic-assisted laparoscopic pyeloplasty. Methods: The records of 131 consecutive patients who underwent robotic-assisted laparoscopic pyeloplasty were reviewed. Of this initial population of cases, 17 were considered complex, consisting of either atypical anatomy (horseshoe kidneys in 3 patients) or previous ureteropelvic junction obstruction management (14 patients). The patients were divided into 2 groups: primary pyeloplasty (group 1) and complex cases (group 2). Results: The mean operative time was 117.3 ± 33.5 minutes in group 1 and 153.5 ± 31.1 minutes in group 2 (P = .002). The median hospital stay was 5.19 ± 1.66 days in group 1 and 5.90 ± 2.33 days in group 2 (P = .326). The surgical findings included 53 crossing vessels in group 1 and 5 in group 2. One patient in group 1 required conversion to open surgery because of technical difficulties. One patient in group 2, with a history of hemorrhagic rectocolitis, presented with peritonitis postoperatively due to a small colonic injury. A secondary procedure was performed after the patient had an uneventful recovery. At 3 months, significant improvement (clinical and radiologic) was present in 93% of cases in group 1 and 88.2% in group 2. At 1 year, all patients in group 2 showed satisfactory results. At a late follow-up visit, 1 patient in group 1 presented with a recurrent obstruction. Conclusions: Robotic pyeloplasty appear to be feasible and effective, showing a consistent success rate even in complex situations. Particular care should be observed during the colon dissection in patients with previous colonic pathology. PMID:24680152

  13. Robotic Arm Unwrapped

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image, taken shortly after NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander touched down on the surface of Mars, shows the spacecraft's robotic arm in its stowed configuration, with its biobarrier successfully unpeeled. The 'elbow' of the arm can be seen at the top center of the picture, and the biobarrier is the shiny film seen to the left of the arm.

    The biobarrier is an extra precautionary measure for protecting Mars from contamination with any bacteria from Earth. While the whole spacecraft was decontaminated through cleaning, filters and heat, the robotic arm was given additional protection because it is the only spacecraft part that will directly touch the ice below the surface of Mars.

    Before the arm was heated, it was sealed in the biobarrier, which is made of a trademarked film called Tedlar that holds up to baking like a turkey-basting bag. This ensures that any new bacterial spores that might have appeared during the final steps before launch and during the journey to Mars will not contact the robotic arm.

    After Phoenix landed, springs were used to pop back the barrier, giving it room to deploy.

    The base of the lander's Meteorological Station can be seen in this picture on the upper left. Because only the base of the station is showing, this image tells engineers that the instrument deployed successfully.

    The image was taken on landing day, May 25, 2008, by the spacecraft's Surface Stereo Imager.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  14. [Mobile autonomous robots-Possibilities and limits].

    PubMed

    Maehle, E; Brockmann, W; Walthelm, A

    2002-02-01

    Besides industrial robots, which today are firmly established in production processes, service robots are becoming more and more important. They shall provide services for humans in different areas of their professional and everyday environment including medicine. Most of these service robots are mobile which requires an intelligent autonomous behaviour. After characterising the different kinds of robots the relevant paradigms of intelligent autonomous behaviour for mobile robots are critically discussed in this paper and illustrated by three concrete examples of robots realized in Lübeck. In addition a short survey of actual kinds of surgical robots as well as an outlook to future developments is given.

  15. Robot-aided neurorehabilitation: a robot for wrist rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Krebs, Hermano Igo; Volpe, Bruce T; Williams, Dustin; Celestino, James; Charles, Steven K; Lynch, Daniel; Hogan, Neville

    2007-09-01

    In 1991, a novel robot, MIT-MANUS, was introduced to study the potential that robots might assist in and quantify the neuro-rehabilitation of motor function. MIT-MANUS proved an excellent tool for shoulder and elbow rehabilitation in stroke patients, showing in clinical trials a reduction of impairment in movements confined to the exercised joints. This successful proof of principle as to additional targeted and intensive movement treatment prompted a test of robot training examining other limb segments. This paper focuses on a robot for wrist rehabilitation designed to provide three rotational degrees-of-freedom. The first clinical trial of the device will enroll 200 stroke survivors. Ultimately 160 stroke survivors will train with both the proximal shoulder and elbow MIT-MANUS robot, as well as with the novel distal wrist robot, in addition to 40 stroke survivor controls. So far 52 stroke patients have completed the robot training (ongoing protocol). Here, we report on the initial results on 36 of these volunteers. These results demonstrate that further improvement should be expected by adding additional training to other limb segments.

  16. Compliant Joints For Robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerley, James J., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Compliant joints devised to accommodate misalignments of tools and/or workpieces with respect to robotic manipulators. Has characteristics and appearance of both universal-joint and cable-spring-type flexible shaft coupling. Compliance derived from elastic properties of short pieces of cable. Compliance of joint determined by lengths, distances between, relative orientations, thickness of strands, number of strands, material, amount of pretwist, and number of short pieces of cable. Worm-drive mechanism used to adjust lengths to vary compliance as needed during operation.

  17. Hazardous-Materials Robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, Henry W.; Edmonds, Gary O.

    1995-01-01

    Remotely controlled mobile robot used to locate, characterize, identify, and eventually mitigate incidents involving hazardous-materials spills/releases. Possesses number of innovative features, allowing it to perform mission-critical functions such as opening and unlocking doors and sensing for hazardous materials. Provides safe means for locating and identifying spills and eliminates risks of injury associated with use of manned entry teams. Current version of vehicle, called HAZBOT III, also features unique mechanical and electrical design enabling vehicle to operate safely within combustible atmosphere.

  18. Rugged Walking Robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larimer, Stanley J.; Lisec, Thomas R.; Spiessbach, Andrew J.

    1990-01-01

    Proposed walking-beam robot simpler and more rugged than articulated-leg walkers. Requires less data processing, and uses power more efficiently. Includes pair of tripods, one nested in other. Inner tripod holds power supplies, communication equipment, computers, instrumentation, sampling arms, and articulated sensor turrets. Outer tripod holds mast on which antennas for communication with remote control site and video cameras for viewing local and distant terrain mounted. Propels itself by raising, translating, and lowering tripods in alternation. Steers itself by rotating raised tripod on turntable.

  19. Robotic Finger Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ihrke, Chris A. (Inventor); Bridgwater, Lyndon (Inventor); Diftler, Myron A. (Inventor); Linn, Douglas M. (Inventor); Platt, Robert (Inventor); Hargrave, Brian (Inventor); Askew, Scott R. (Inventor); Valvo, Michael C. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A robotic hand includes a finger with first, second, and third phalanges. A first joint rotatably connects the first phalange to a base structure. A second joint rotatably connects the first phalange to the second phalange. A third joint rotatably connects the third phalange to the second phalange. The second joint and the third joint are kinematically linked such that the position of the third phalange with respect to the second phalange is determined by the position of the second phalange with respect to the first phalange.

  20. Robotic Finger Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ihrke, Chris A. (Inventor); Bridgwater, Lyndon (Inventor); Diftler, Myron A. (Inventor); Linn, Douglas Martin (Inventor); Platt, Robert J., Jr. (Inventor); Hargrave, Brian (Inventor); Askew, Scott R. (Inventor); Valvo, Michael C. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A robotic hand includes a finger with first, second, and third phalanges. A first joint rotatably connects the first phalange to a base structure. A second joint rotatably connects the first phalange to the second phalange. A third joint rotatably connects the third phalange to the second phalange. The second joint and the third joint are kinematically linked such that the position of the third phalange with respect to the second phalange is determined by the position of the second phalange with respect to the first phalange.

  1. Phoenix Robotic Arm Rasp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This photograph shows the rasp protruding from the back of the scoop on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Robotic Arm engineering model in the Payload Interoperability Testbed at the University of Arizona, Tucson.

    This is the position the rasp will assume when it drills into the Martian soil to acquire an icy soil sample for analysis.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is led by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  2. Remote robotic countermine systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wells, Peter

    2010-04-01

    QinetiQ North America (QNA) has approximately 27 years experience in the mine/countermine mission area. Our expertise covers mine development, detection, and neutralization and has always been intertwined with deployment of remote robotic systems. Our countermine payload systems have been used to detect limpet mines on ship hulls, antiassault mines in shallow water and littoral zones and currently for clearance and render safe of land-based routes. In our talk, we will address the challenges encountered in addressing the ongoing countermine mission over a diverse range of operational scenarios, environmental conditions and strategic priorities.

  3. Survey of Mobile Robots.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-12-01

    STANDARDS-1963-A IMY Techical Report ND. 450-90G-1R-ODWa p. 00 SURVEY OF MOBLE ROBOTS ’ Anita N& Flym Research Scientist !; "IT Artificlal Intelligence...case of an attempt at system building before the technology for the components was available. 1.3 The Stanford Cart 1973-1981 From 1973 to 1981, work...autonomous and yet still exhibit a high level of sophistication. Rapidly changing technology , including both the advent of the home computer and

  4. Precision Robotic Assembly Machine

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    The world's largest laser system is the National Ignition Facility (NIF), located at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. NIF's 192 laser beams are amplified to extremely high energy, and then focused onto a tiny target about the size of a BB, containing frozen hydrogen gas. The target must be perfectly machined to incredibly demanding specifications. The Laboratory's scientists and engineers have developed a device called the "Precision Robotic Assembly Machine" for this purpose. Its unique design won a prestigious R&D-100 award from R&D Magazine.

  5. Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter Ka-band (32 GHz) Demonstration: Cruise Phase Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shambayati, Shervin; Morabito, David; Border, James S.; Davarian, Faramaz; Lee, Dennis; Mendoza, Ricardo; Britcliffe, Michael; Weinreb, Sander

    2006-01-01

    The X-band (8.41 GHz) frequency currently used for deep space telecommunications is too narrow (50 MHz) to support future high rate missions. Because of this NASA has decided to transition to Ka-band (32 GHz) frequencies. As weather effects cause much larger fluctuations on Ka-band than on X-band, the traditional method of using a few dBs of margin to cover these fluctuations is wasteful of power for Ka-band; therefore, a different operations concept is needed for Ka-band links. As part of the development of the operations concept for Ka-band, NASA has implemented a fully functioning Ka-band communications suite on its Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO). This suite will be used during the primary science phase to develop and refine the Ka-band operations concept for deep space missions. In order to test the functional readiness of the spacecraft and the Deep Space Network's (DSN) readiness to support the demonstration activities a series of passes over DSN 34-m Beam Waveguide (BWG) antennas were scheduled during the cruise phase of the mission. MRO was launched on August 12, 2005 from Kennedy Space Center, Cape Canaveral, Florida, USA and went into Mars Orbit on March 10, 2006. A total of ten telemetry demonstration and one high gain antenna (HGA) calibration passes were allocated to the Ka-band demonstration. Furthermore, a number of "shadow" passes were also scheduled where, during a regular MRO track over a Ka-band capable antenna, Ka-band was identically configured as the X-band and tracked by the station. In addition, nine Ka-band delta differential one way ranging ((delta)DOR) passes were scheduled. During these passes, the spacecraft and the ground system were put through their respective paces. Among the highlights of these was setting a single day record for data return from a deep space spacecraft (133 Gbits) achieved during one 10-hour pass; achieving the highest data rate ever from a planetary mission (6 Mbps) and successfully demonstrating Ka-band DDOR

  6. The rise and fall of Lake Bonneville between 45 and 10.5 ka

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benson, L.V.; Lund, S.P.; Smoot, J.P.; Rhode, D.E.; Spencer, R.J.; Verosub, K.L.; Louderback, L.A.; Johnson, C.A.; Rye, R.O.; Negrini, R.M.

    2011-01-01

    A sediment core taken from the western edge of the Bonneville Basin has provided high-resolution proxy records of relative lake-size change for the period 45.1-10.5 calendar ka (hereafter ka). Age control was provided by a paleomagnetic secular variation (PSV)-based age model for Blue Lake core BL04-4. Continuous records of ??18O and total inorganic carbon (TIC) generally match an earlier lake-level envelope based on outcrops and geomorphic features, but with differences in the timing of some hydrologic events/states. The Stansbury Oscillation was found to consist of two oscillations centered on 25 and 24 ka. Lake Bonneville appears to have reached its geomorphic highstand and began spilling at 18.5 ka. The fall from the highstand to the Provo level occurred at 17.0 ka and the lake intermittently overflowed at the Provo level until 15.2 ka, at which time the lake fell again, bottoming out at ~14.7 ka. The lake also fell briefly below the Provo level at ~15.9 ka. Carbonate and ??18O data indicate that between 14.7 and 13.1 ka the lake slowly rose to the Gilbert shoreline and remained at about that elevation until 11.6 ka, when it fell again. Chemical and sedimentological data indicate that a marsh formed in the Blue Lake area at 10.5 ka.Relatively dry periods in the BL04-4 records are associated with Heinrich events H1-H4, suggesting that either the warming that closely followed a Heinrich event increased the evaporation rate in the Bonneville Basin and (or) that the core of the polar jet stream (PJS) shifted north of the Bonneville Basin in response to massive losses of ice from the Laurentide Ice Sheet (LIS) during the Heinrich event. The second Stansbury Oscillation occurred during Heinrich event H2, and the Gilbert wet event occurred during the Younger Dryas cold interval. Several relatively wet events in BL04-4 occur during Dansgaard-Oeschger (DO) warm events.The growth of the Bear River glacier between 32 and 17 ka paralleled changes in the values of proxy

  7. A power autonomous monopedal robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krupp, Benjamin T.; Pratt, Jerry E.

    2006-05-01

    We present the design and initial results of a power-autonomous planar monopedal robot. The robot is a gasoline powered, two degree of freedom robot that runs in a circle, constrained by a boom. The robot uses hydraulic Series Elastic Actuators, force-controllable actuators which provide high force fidelity, moderate bandwidth, and low impedance. The actuators are mounted in the body of the robot, with cable drives transmitting power to the hip and knee joints of the leg. A two-stroke, gasoline engine drives a constant displacement pump which pressurizes an accumulator. Absolute position and spring deflection of each of the Series Elastic Actuators are measured using linear encoders. The spring deflection is translated into force output and compared to desired force in a closed loop force-control algorithm implemented in software. The output signal of each force controller drives high performance servo valves which control flow to each of the pistons of the actuators. In designing the robot, we used a simulation-based iterative design approach. Preliminary estimates of the robot's physical parameters were based on past experience and used to create a physically realistic simulation model of the robot. Next, a control algorithm was implemented in simulation to produce planar hopping. Using the joint power requirements and range of motions from simulation, we worked backward specifying pulley diameter, piston diameter and stroke, hydraulic pressure and flow, servo valve flow and bandwidth, gear pump flow, and engine power requirements. Components that meet or exceed these specifications were chosen and integrated into the robot design. Using CAD software, we calculated the physical parameters of the robot design, replaced the original estimates with the CAD estimates, and produced new joint power requirements. We iterated on this process, resulting in a design which was prototyped and tested. The Monopod currently runs at approximately 1.2 m/s with the weight of all

  8. Semiautonomous navigation of mobile robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forsberg, Johan; Hogstrom, Thomas; Wernersson, Ake V.

    1995-01-01

    The paper is on operations for semi-autonomous mobile robots. The robot is assumed to be remotely controlled by an operator. It is difficult for an operator to directly control the robot, especially over a communication link with low bandwidth and/or time delays. Therefore it is necessary to close the control loop in the robot with the operator giving high level commands. The operator is still needed as the fully autonomous robot does not exist today, except for limited scenarios. The scene around the robot is sensed using a scanning range measuring laser and a camera. The high level scene interpretation is done by the operator who also does the high level planning. Which operations the robot are to perform is indicated by pointing in the images or in a map created by the robot. Operations are functions that the robot can perform autonomously. They can be simple, like `Travel 2 m ahead', or more advanced, like `Follow the corridor and take the first door to the right'. Some typical operations are: (1) Lock the heading of the robot when driving on a `straight' line and preprogrammed 90 and 180 turns. (2) Automatically enter a camera defined line; the direction of the camera is used to drop a new coordinate frame at any time (using a knob on the keyboard). The robot will automatically enter this new line and also compensate for the overshoot. (3) Travelling along corridors. The operation is both robust and precise. The precision is about 1 cm at 1 m/s and the robot is not disturbed by people passing it in the corridor. (4) Command for passage through a door works within 1 cm and 0.5 degrees at a speed of 0.5 m/s. The range weighted Hough Transform on laser measurements extracts the walls in an indoor environment. This is used to create an internal map in the robot which is used for operations like corridor following or passing through doors. The map is also useful when presenting information to the operator.

  9. The Summer Robotic Autonomy Course

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nourbakhsh, Illah R.

    2002-01-01

    We offered a first Robotic Autonomy course this summer, located at NASA/Ames' new NASA Research Park, for approximately 30 high school students. In this 7-week course, students worked in ten teams to build then program advanced autonomous robots capable of visual processing and high-speed wireless communication. The course made use of challenge-based curricula, culminating each week with a Wednesday Challenge Day and a Friday Exhibition and Contest Day. Robotic Autonomy provided a comprehensive grounding in elementary robotics, including basic electronics, electronics evaluation, microprocessor programming, real-time control, and robot mechanics and kinematics. Our course then continued the educational process by introducing higher-level perception, action and autonomy topics, including teleoperation, visual servoing, intelligent scheduling and planning and cooperative problem-solving. We were able to deliver such a comprehensive, high-level education in robotic autonomy for two reasons. First, the content resulted from close collaboration between the CMU Robotics Institute and researchers in the Information Sciences and Technology Directorate and various education program/project managers at NASA/Ames. This collaboration produced not only educational content, but will also be focal to the conduct of formative and summative evaluations of the course for further refinement. Second, CMU rapid prototyping skills as well as the PI's low-overhead perception and locomotion research projects enabled design and delivery of affordable robot kits with unprecedented sensory- locomotory capability. Each Trikebot robot was capable of both indoor locomotion and high-speed outdoor motion and was equipped with a high-speed vision system coupled to a low-cost pan/tilt head. As planned, follow the completion of Robotic Autonomy, each student took home an autonomous, competent robot. This robot is the student's to keep, as she explores robotics with an extremely capable tool in the

  10. Boudreaux the Robot (a.k.a. EVA Robotic Assistant)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shillcutt, Kimberly; Burridge, Robert; Graham, Jeffrey

    2002-01-01

    The EVA Robotic Assistant is a prototype for an autonomous rover designed to assist human astronauts. The primary focus of the research is to explore the interaction between humans and robots, particularly in extreme environments, and to develop a software infrastructure that could be applied to any type of assistant robot, whether for planetary exploration or orbital missions. This paper describes the background and current status of the project, the types of scenarios addressed in field demonstrations, the hardware and software that comprise the current prototype, and future research plans.

  11. Application of robotics In the clinical laboratory

    PubMed Central

    Bunce, R. A.; Broughton, P. M. G.; Browning, D. M.; Gibbons, J. E. C.; Kricka, L. J.

    1989-01-01

    The basic types of robot are explained, and the performances and costs of some commercial examples are given. The potential advantages and problems of introducing robots into clinical laboratories are identified and the specifcation of a suitable robot is developed. None of the commercially available robots meets all aspects of the specificalion, and currently the purchase of a robot is considered premature for most clinical laboratories. PMID:18925236

  12. The Human-Robot Interaction Operating System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fong, Terrence; Kunz, Clayton; Hiatt, Laura M.; Bugajska, Magda

    2006-01-01

    In order for humans and robots to work effectively together, they need to be able to converse about abilities, goals and achievements. Thus, we are developing an interaction infrastructure called the "Human-Robot Interaction Operating System" (HRI/OS). The HRI/OS provides a structured software framework for building human-robot teams, supports a variety of user interfaces, enables humans and robots to engage in task-oriented dialogue, and facilitates integration of robots through an extensible API.

  13. Computing Relative Joint Positions of Robot Arms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, L. K.

    1986-01-01

    Vector-algebra method developed for extracting Denavit-Hartenberg parameters for any assembled robot arm. Method for extracting relative joint geometry of robot arms useful to researchers who need data for existing robot arms for either validation of mathematical models or for studies involving actual control of these devices. Method, does not require robot arm to be disassembled, also useful in recalibration of misalined or bent robot arm and becomes useful industrial procedure. Merit of method is errors not propagated.

  14. Development of Inspection Robots for Bridge Cables

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Se-Hoon; Lee, Jong-Jae

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the bridge cable inspection robot developed in Korea. Two types of the cable inspection robots were developed for cable-suspension bridges and cable-stayed bridge. The design of the robot system and performance of the NDT techniques associated with the cable inspection robot are discussed. A review on recent advances in emerging robot-based inspection technologies for bridge cables and current bridge cable inspection methods is also presented. PMID:24459453

  15. An Advanced Telereflexive Tactical Response Robot

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-01-01

    Autonomous Robots 1 1 ,3947 ,2001 @ 2001 Kluwer Academic Publishers. Manufactured in The Netherlands. An Advanced Telereflexive Tactical Response... Robot H.R. EVERETT, G.A. GILBREATH AND D.A. CICCIMARO SPAWAR Systems Center*, San Diego, Code D371, 53406 Woodward Road, San Diego, CA 92152-7383...centered mapping” strategy. Keywords: robotic sensors, tactical response robot robotics , teleoperated, telereflexive, non-lethal response, world modeling

  16. The climbing crawling robot (a unique cable robot for space and Earth)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerley, James J.; May, Edward; Eklund, Wayne

    1991-01-01

    Some of the greatest concerns in robotic designs have been the high center of gravity of the robot, the irregular or flat surface that the robot has to work on, the weight of the robot that has to handle heavy weights or use heavy forces, and the ability of the robot to climb straight up in the air. This climbing crawling robot handles these problems well with magnets, suction cups, or actuators. The cables give body to the robot and it performs very similar to a caterpillar. The computer program is simple and inexpensive as is the robot. One of the important features of this system is that the robot can work in pairs or triplets to handle jobs that would be extremely difficult for single robots. The light weight of the robot allows it to handle quite heavy weights. The number of feet give the robot many roots where a simple set of feet would give it trouble.

  17. Cyclone Xaver seen by SARAL/AltiKa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scharroo, Remko; Fenoglio, Luciana; Annunziato, Alessandro

    2014-05-01

    During the first week of December 2013, Cyclone Xaver pounded the coasts and the North Sea. On 6 December, all along the Wadden Sea, the barrier islands along the north of the Netherlands and the northwest of Germany experienced record storm surges. We show a comparison of the storm surge measured by the radar altimeter AltiKa on-board the SARAL satellite and various types of in-situ data and models. Two tide gauges along the German North Sea coast, one in the southern harbour of the island of Helgoland and one on an offshore lighthouse Alte Weser, confirmed that the storm drove sea level to about three meters above the normal tide level. Loading effects during the storm are also detected by the GPS measurements at several tide gauge stations. The altimeter in the mean time shows that the storm surge was noticeable as far as 400 km from the coast. The altimeter measured wind speeds of 20 m/s nearly monotonically throughout the North Sea. An offshore anemometer near the island of Borkum corroborated this value. A buoy near the FINO1 offshore platform measured wave heights of 8 m, matching quite well the measurements from the altimeter, ranging from 6 m near the German coast to 12 m further out into the North Sea. Furthermore we compare the altimeter-derived and in-situ sea level, wave height and wind speed products with outputs from the Operation Circulation and Forecast model of the Bundesamt für Seeschifffahrt und Hydrographie (BSH) and with a global storm surge forecast and inundation model of the Joint Research Centre (JRC) of the European Commission. The Operational circulation model of BSH (BSHcmod) and its component, the surge model (BSHsmod), perform daily predictions for the next 72 hours based on the meteorological model of the Deutsche Wetterdienst (DWD). The JRC Storm Surge Calculation System is a new development that has been established at the JRC in the framework of the Global Disasters Alerts and Coordination System (GDACS). The system uses

  18. A 75 ka Stalagmite Paleoclimate Record from Northern Venezuela

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Retrum, J. B.; Gonzalez, L. A.; Edwards, R.; Tincher, S. M.; Cheng, H.; Urbani, F.

    2011-12-01

    A stalagmite collected from Cueva Zarraga in the northern Venezuelan Andes was analyzed to determine local paleoclimatic history and help examine climate change in the Caribbean. Ages were determined by U/Th disequilibrium and the stalagmite shows a nearly complete record for ~ 75 ka. Two significant periods of non-deposition have been identified. The first period ranges between the Last Glacial Maximum at 19,820 ± 149 cal yr BP and a brief resumption of stalagmite growth at 15,409 ± 747 cal yr BP, likely representing the Bølling-Allerød interstadial. After the brief period of deposition, growth does not resume unil the Holocene at 10,408 ± 78 cal yr BP. Carbon and oxygen isotopes show a major depletion shift from the last glacial period to the Holocene, suggesting warmer and wetter conditions during the Holocene. The oxygen isotope depletion shift is also seen in the Cariaco Basin foraminifera record off the northern coast of Venezuela. While tempting to attribute δ13C depletion to decrease of the C4 plant contribution, there is no evidence that the area experience major vegetation changes. We attribute the δ13C depletion to enhanced recycling of soil CO2 resulting from canopy effects. Today, Cueva Zarraga is at the northern extent of the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). The cooler and drier conditions of the last glacial period suggest a southern displacement of the ITCZ. The close proximity of Cueva Zarraga to Cariaco Basin may allow for a high resolution tropical terrestrial and oceanic climatic response comparison.

  19. KA-SB: from data integration to large scale reasoning

    PubMed Central

    Roldán-García, María del Mar; Navas-Delgado, Ismael; Kerzazi, Amine; Chniber, Othmane; Molina-Castro, Joaquín; Aldana-Montes, José F

    2009-01-01

    Background The analysis of information in the biological domain is usually focused on the analysis of data from single on-line data sources. Unfortunately, studying a biological process requires having access to disperse, heterogeneous, autonomous data sources. In this context, an analysis of the information is not possible without the integration of such data. Methods KA-SB is a querying and analysis system for final users based on combining a data integration solution with a reasoner. Thus, the tool has been created with a process divided into two steps: 1) KOMF, the Khaos Ontology-based Mediator Framework, is used to retrieve information from heterogeneous and distributed databases; 2) the integrated information is crystallized in a (persistent and high performance) reasoner (DBOWL). This information could be further analyzed later (by means of querying and reasoning). Results In this paper we present a novel system that combines the use of a mediation system with the reasoning capabilities of a large scale reasoner to provide a way of finding new knowledge and of analyzing the integrated information from different databases, which is retrieved as a set of ontology instances. This tool uses a graphical query interface to build user queries easily, which shows a graphical representation of the ontology and allows users o build queries by clicking on the ontology concepts. Conclusion These kinds of systems (based on KOMF) will provide users with very large amounts of information (interpreted as ontology instances once retrieved), which cannot be managed using traditional main memory-based reasoners. We propose a process for creating persistent and scalable knowledgebases from sets of OWL instances obtained by integrating heterogeneous data sources with KOMF. This process has been applied to develop a demo tool , which uses the BioPax Level 3 ontology as the integration schema, and integrates UNIPROT, KEGG, CHEBI, BRENDA and SABIORK databases. PMID:19796402

  20. Resilient FTS3 service at GridKa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, T.; Bubeliene, J.; Hoeft, B.; Obholz, L.; Petzold, A.; Wisniewski, K.

    2015-12-01

    The FTS (File Transfer Service) service provides a transfer job scheduler to distribute and replicate vast amounts of data over the heterogeneous WLCG infrastructures. Compared to the channel model of the previous versions, the most recent version of FTS simplifies and improves the flexibility of the service while reducing the load to the service components. The improvements allow to handle a higher number of transfers with a single FTS3 setup. Covering now continent-wide transfers compared to the previous version, whose installations handled only transfers within specific clouds, a resilient system becomes even more necessary with the increased number of depending users. Having set up a FTS3 services at the German T1 site GridKa at KIT in Karlsruhe, we present our experiences on the preparations for a high-availability FTS3 service. Trying to avoid single points of failure, we rely on a database cluster as fault tolerant data back-end and the FTS3 service deployed on an own cluster setup to provide a resilient infrastructure for the users. With the database cluster providing a basic resilience for the data back-end, we ensure on the FTS3 service level a consistent and reliable database access through a proxy solution. On each FTS3 node a HAproxy instance is monitoring the integrity of each database node and distributes database queries over the whole cluster for load balancing during normal operations; in case of a broken database node, the proxy excludes it transparently to the local FTS3 service. The FTS3 service itself consists of a main and a backup instance, which takes over the identity of the main instance, i.e., IP, in case of an error using a CTDB (Cluster Trivial Database) infrastructure offering clients a consistent service.