Science.gov

Sample records for jimma zone ethiopia

  1. Food Insecurity and Its Association With School Absenteeism Among Rural School Adolescents in Jimma Zone, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Tamiru, Dessalegn; Melaku, Yabsira; Belachew, Tefera

    2017-03-01

    Studies showed that poor health and nutrition among school adolescents are major barriers to educational access and achievements in low-income countries. This school-based study was aimed to assess the association of school absenteeism and food insecurity among rural school adolescents from grades 5 to 8 in Jimma zone, Ethiopia. Regression analyses were used to see the strength of association between dependent and independent variables using odds ratio and 95% confidence intervals. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to identify the predictor of school absenteeism. Validated tools are used to collect household food insecurity data. Results showed that school absenteeism is significantly high among adolescents from food insecure households when compared to adolescents from food secure households ( P <.001). School absenteeism was negatively associated with male sex (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = -0.91, 95% CI -1.85 to -0.03), household food security (adjusted odds ratio = -1.85, 95% CI -3.11 to -0.59), being an elder sibling (AOR = -0.37, 95% CI, -0.62 to -0.12), and mother involvement in decision making (AOR = -0.68, 95% CI, -1.33 to -0.03) while male-headed household was positively associated (AOR = 2.46, 95% CI, 1.37 to 4.56). Generally, this study showed that household food insecurity has significant contribution to school absenteeism among rural adolescents. Therefore, efforts should be made to improve household income earning capacity to reduce the prevalence of school absenteeism among rural school adolescents.

  2. Dual Burden of Malnutrition Among Adolescents of Smallholder Coffee Farming Households of Jimma Zone, Southwest Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Hassen, Kalkidan; Gizaw, Getu; Belachew, Tefera

    2017-06-01

    Substantial evidence is emerging on the coexistence of double burden of malnutrition on adolescents of low-income countries, shaping the health challenges of the upcoming adult generation for the worst. Whether nutritional status markers of adolescents in the cash crop setting are on par with economic gains remains uncertain. Thus, we investigated the nutritional outcomes of adolescents and their determinants in coffee farming households. The survey was carried out in 3 top coffee-producing districts of Jimma Zone, Ethiopia. Five hundred fifty mothers/caregivers and their respective adolescents were selected using multistage random sampling. Anthropometric data were converted into height-for-age and body-mass-index-for-age Z scores using WHO Anthroplus software and analyzed by SPSS for windows. Prevalence of thinness, stunting, and overweight/obesity were 11.6%, 15.6%, and 7.1%, respectively. The odds of stunting among adolescents in households in the lowest wealth tertile was nearly 6-fold higher compared to the highest tertile (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 5.6 [2.6-12]). Conversely, the odds of overweight/obesity was higher among adolescents in the households in the middle wealth tertile (AOR = 2.72 [1.08-6.86]) compared to the highest tertile. Adolescents living in households with low-dependent age-groups were more than twice likely to be overweight/obese (AOR = 2.58 [1.06-6.24]). The current study revealed the presence of substantial dual burden of malnutrition. In such a setting, it is critical to draw a fine line and trade-off for eliminating morbidity and mortality of undernutrition, without triggering the risk of overweight/obesity.

  3. Quality of family planning services in primary health centers of Jimma Zone, Southwest Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Tafese, Fikru; Woldie, Mirkuzie; Megerssa, Berhane

    2013-11-01

    Good quality of care in family planning (FP) services help individuals and couples to meet their reproductive health needs safely and effectively. Therefore, assessment and improvement of the quality of family planning services could enhance family planning services utilization. This study was thus conducted to assess the quality of family planning services in primary health centers of Jimma Zone, Southwest Ethiopia. A cross-sectional facility based study was conducted from March 1(st)-25(th), 2011 among family planning clients of government primary health care centers in southwest Ethiopia. Exit interview of 301 family planning clients identified through systematic random sampling technique was carried out using a pre-tested structured questionnaire. Availability of resources was checked using provider interview and inventory checklist. Moreover, a total of 150 consultation sessions were observed using checklist. Descriptive statistics and linear regression coefficients were generated to meet the objective of the study. There was a shortage of some medical equipment, trained staffs, and information education and communication materials (IEC) in all of the family planning clinics. The mean waiting time at the service delivery points and consultation duration were 16.4 and 10.5 minutes, respectively. The providers used at least one information education and communication material in 33.3% of the consultation sessions. The overall satisfaction score was 8.64. Clients' perception on adequacy of information during consultation (β=0.24; ( 95%CI=0.02-0.16) ease of getting the clinic site, short waiting time (β=0.17; 95%CI=0.15-029) and educational level (β=0.09; 95%CI =0.09-0.29) were significantly associated with overall satisfaction. The findings of this study showed that there was lack of critical resources for the provision of quality family planning services in all of the primary health care centers included in the study. This has affected important aspects of

  4. Food insecurity and linear growth of adolescents in Jimma Zone, Southwest Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Belachew, Tefera; Lindstrom, David; Hadley, Craig; Gebremariam, Abebe; Kasahun, Wondwosen; Kolsteren, Patrick

    2013-05-02

    Although many studies showed that adolescent food insecurity is a pervasive phenomenon in Southwest Ethiopia, its effect on the linear growth of adolescents has not been documented so far. This study therefore aimed to longitudinally examine the association between food insecurity and linear growth among adolescents. Data for this study were obtained from a longitudinal survey of adolescents conducted in Jimma Zone, which followed an initial sample of 2084 randomly selected adolescents aged 13-17 years. We used linear mixed effects model for 1431 adolescents who were interviewed in three survey rounds one year apart to compare the effect of food insecurity on linear growth of adolescents. Overall, 15.9% of the girls and 12.2% of the boys (P=0.018) were food insecure both at baseline and on the year 1 survey, while 5.5% of the girls and 4.4% of the boys (P=0.331) were food insecure in all the three rounds of the survey. In general, a significantly higher proportion of girls (40%) experienced food insecurity at least in one of the survey rounds compared with boys (36.6%) (P=0.045).The trend of food insecurity showed a very sharp increase over the follow period from the baseline 20.5% to 48.4% on the year 1 survey, which again came down to 27.1% during the year 2 survey.In the linear mixed effects model, after adjusting for other covariates, the mean height of food insecure girls was shorter by 0.87 cm (P<0.001) compared with food secure girls at baseline. However, during the follow up period on average, the heights of food insecure girls increased by 0.38 cm more per year compared with food secure girls (P<0.066). However, the mean height of food insecure boys was not significantly different from food secure boys both at baseline and over the follow up period. Over the follow-up period, adolescents who live in rural and semi-urban areas grew significantly more per year than those who live in the urban areas both for girls (P<0.01) and for boys (P<0.01). Food

  5. Household food insecurity and its association with morbidity report among school adolescent in Jimma zone, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Tamiru, Dessalegn; Belachew, Tefera

    2018-01-13

    Background Household food insecurity has a substantial contribution to poor health outcomes among young children and adolescents. Food insecurity also affects optimal cognitive development and physiological function of these vulnerable groups. There is a gap of documented data regarding the association of food insecurity and morbidity among school adolescents in Ethiopia. Objective The aim of this study is to assess the interrelationship of household food insecurity and morbidity report among school adolescent in Jimma zone, Ethiopia. Methods A community based cross-sectional study was done from October to November, 2013. Data were gathered using structured questionnaires through interview of students and their caregivers. A total of 1000 students were selected by using simple random sampling methods using their rosters as a frame. Data were also checked for missing values and outliers, and analyzed using SPSS version 16.0. Regression analyses were used to see the strength of association between independent and dependent variables using odds ratios and 95% of confidence intervals. Results Adolescents from food insecure households had more reported illness (39.3%) than adolescents from food secure households (24.7%) (p < 0.001). Adolescents from food insecure households were two times more exposed to morbidity [AOR = 2.04(1.32, 3.14)] than adolescents from food secure households. This study also showed that males had 48% less reported illness [AOR = 0.52(0.01, 0.23)] than females. Adolescents who had attended health education had less reported illness [AOR = 0.57(0.38, 0.86)] than those who did not ever attend. This study also showed that having a farmer [AOR = 0.46(0.28, 0.74)] and government employee [AOR = 0.33 (0.17, 0.64)] father were inversely associated with adolescent morbidity. Conclusion The findings of this study showed that household food insecurity, female gender and lack of attending health education had a significant contribution to adolescent

  6. Perceptions and experiences related to health and health inequality among rural communities in Jimma Zone, Ethiopia: a rapid qualitative assessment.

    PubMed

    Bergen, Nicole; Mamo, Abebe; Asfaw, Shifera; Abebe, Lakew; Kurji, Jaameeta; Kiros, Getachew; Abera, Muluemebet; Bulcha Duguma, Gebeyehu; Haji Bedru, Kunuz; Kulkarni, Manisha A; Labonté, Ronald; Morankar, Sudhakar

    2018-06-18

    The Safe Motherhood Research Project studies the implementation and scale-up of maternal, newborn and child health (MNCH) initiatives in Jimma Zone, Ethiopia. This qualitative rapid assessment study was undertaken to explore community perceptions and experiences related to health, health inequality and other MNCH themes. We conducted 12 focus group discussions and 24 in-depth interviews with community stakeholder groups (female and male community members, Health Extension Workers, members of the Women Development Army and Male Development Army, and religious leaders) across six rural sites in Jimma Zone. Data were analyzed through thematic coding and the preparation of content summaries by theme. Participants described being healthy as being disease free, being able to perform daily activities and being able to pursue broad aspirations. Health inequalities were viewed as community issues, primarily emanating from a lack of knowledge or social exclusion. Poverty was raised as a possible contributor to poor health, however, participants felt this could be overcome through community-level responses. Participants described formal and informal mechanisms for supporting the disadvantaged, which served as a type of safety net, providing information as well as emotional, financial and social support. Understanding community perceptions of health and health inequality can serve as an evidence base for community-level initiatives, including MNCH promotion. The findings of this study enable the development of audience-centered MNCH promotion activities that closely align with community priorities and experiences. This research demonstrates the application of rapid qualitative assessment methods to explore the context for MNCH promotion activities.

  7. Job related stress among nurses working in Jimma Zone public hospitals, South West Ethiopia: a cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Dagget, Tadesse; Molla, Ashagre; Belachew, Tefera

    2016-01-01

    Occupational stress exists in every profession, nevertheless, the nursing profession appears to experience more stress at work compared to other health care workers. Unmanaged stress leads to high levels of employee dissatisfaction, illness, absenteeism, high turnover, and decreased productivity that compromise provision of quality service to clients. However, there is a scarcity of information about nurses' job stress in Jimma zone public hospital nurses. The aim of the present study was to assess job related stress and its predictors among nurses working in Jimma Zone public hospitals, South-West Ethiopia in 2014. An institution based cross sectional study was conducted from March 10 to April 10, 2014 through a census of nurses who are working in Jimma Zone public hospitals using a structured self-administered questionnaire. SPSS Statistics Version 20 used. For the outcome variable: overall job related stress, the participant's responses on each item score summed: a stress score ranging from a minimum of 26 and maximum score of 116. The higher the sum the more the stressed the nurse. The level of stress calculated through tertial the lower to low stress, the middle to moderate & the higher to high stress. Moreover, bivariate and multivariable linear regressions done to see the association between the predictor (sex, age, mutual understanding at work, Job satisfaction and working unit/department) and the outcome variable (Job related stress). A total of 341 nurses working in Jimma Zone public hospitals were given the questionnaire, and the response rate was 92.3 % (315). This study indicated an average overall job related stress level of 58.46 ± 12.62. The highest level of job related stress was on the sub scale of dealing with death & dying mean score of 62.94 % followed by uncertainty regarding patient treatment 57.72 % and workload 57.6 %. While job related stress from sexual harassment had the lowest mean score of 46.19 %. Overall job related stress varies

  8. Coverage and equitability of interventions to prevent child mortality in rural Jimma and West Hararghe Zones, Oromia Region, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Miller, Nathan P; Degefie, Tedbabe; Hazel, Elizabeth; Legesse, Hailemariam; Tolera, Taye; Amouzou, Agbessi

    2014-10-01

    Interventions to prevent childhood illnesses are important components of the Ethiopian Health Extension Program (HEP). Although the HEP was designed to reduce inequities in access to health care, there is little evidence on equitability of preventive interventions in Ethiopia. This article describes coverage of preventive interventions and how many interventions individual children received We also examined which factors were associated with the number of preventive interventions received, and assessed the extent to which interventions were equitably distributed. We conducted a cross-sectional survey in 3,200 randomly selected households in the rural Jimma and West Hararghe Zones of Ethiopia's Oromia Region. We calculated coverage of 10 preventive interventions and a composite of eight interventions (co-coverage) representing the number of interventions received by children. Mul- tiple linear regressions were used to assess associations between co-coverage and explanatory variables. Finally, we assessed the equitability of preventive interventions by comparing coverage among children in the poorest and the least poor wealth quintiles. Coverage was less than 50% for six of the 10 interventions. Children received on average only three of the eight interventions included in the co-coverage calculation. Zone, gender, caretaker age, religion, and household wealth were all significantly associated with co-coverage, controlling for key covariates. Exclusive breastfeeding, vaccine uptake, and vitamin A supplementation were all relatively equitable. On the other hand, coverage of insecticide-treated nets or indoor residual spraying (ITN/IRS) and access to safe water were significantly higher among the least poor children compared to children in the poorest quintile. Coverage of key interventions to prevent childhood illnesses is generally low in Jimma and West Hararghe. Although a number of interventions were equitably distributed, there were marked wealth-based inequities

  9. Physico-chemical and bacteriological quality of drinking water of different sources, Jimma zone, Southwest Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Yasin, Mohammed; Ketema, Tsige; Bacha, Ketema

    2015-10-05

    The quality of drinking water has always been a major health concern, especially in developing countries, where 80% of the disease cases are attributed to inadequate sanitation and use of polluted water. The inaccessibility of potable water to large segment of a population in the rural communities is the major health concern in most part of developing countries. This study was designed to evaluate the physico-chemical and bacteriological qualities of drinking water of different sources in the study area. The study was conducted at Serbo town and selected kebeles around the same town in Kersa district of Jimma Zone, southwest Ethiopia. Socio-demographic characteristics of the study populations were gathered using structured and pre-tested questionnaires. Standard microbiological methods were employed for determination of bacterial load and detection of coliforms. Physico-chemical analyses [including total dissolved substances (TDS), total suspended substances (TSS), biological oxygen demand (BOD), nitrate and phosphate concentrations, turbidity and electrical conductivities] were conducted following guidelines of American Public Health Association and WHO. Correlations among measured parameters of water samples collected from different water sources were computed using SPSS software (version 20). Only 18.1% (43/237) of the study population had access to tap water in the study area. More than 50% of the community relies on open field waste disposal. Members of the family Enterobacteriaceae, Bacillus and Pseudomonas were among dominant bacterial isolates in the water samples. All water samples collected from unprotected water sources were positive for total coliforms and fecal coliforms (FC). Accordingly, FC were detected in 80% of the total samples with counts ranging between 0.67 and 266.67 CFU/100 ml although 66.67% of tap water samples were negative for FC. The recorded temperature and pH ranged between 20.1-29.90 °C and 5.64-8.14, respectively. The lowest and

  10. Seroprevalence and risk factors for brucellosis in cattle in selected districts of Jimma zone, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Dirar, Bashahun Gebremichael; Nasinyama, George William; Gelalcha, Benti Deresa

    2015-12-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out in Jimma town and Chora Botor district of Jimma zone from February 2014 to May 2014 to determine seroprevalence and risk factors of brucellosis in cattle. A total of 348 blood samples (174 each from zebu and crossbreed) were collected. The sera were separated and screened by Rose Bengal plate test (RBPT), and positive sera were retested by complement fixation test (CFT) for confirmation. The overall seroprevalence of bovine brucellosis was 1.4 and 0.3 % as tested by RBPT and CFT, respectively. The seroprevalence of bovine brucellosis in indigenous and crossbreed cattle was 1.1 and 0.6 % and 1.7 and 0 % using RBPT and CFT, respectively. Retained fetal membrane was the only risk factor found to be significantly associated with seropositivity of brucellosis in this study (p = 0.019). The overall seroprevalence of brucellosis was very low. However, due to the zoonotic and economic importance of the disease, prevention and control measures are required to stop further spread of the disease. To effectively implement this, the One Health (OH) is the most constructive approach we recommend.

  11. Spousal discordance on fertility preference and its effect on contraceptive practice among married couples in Jimma zone, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Tilahun, Tizta; Coene, Gily; Temmerman, Marleen; Degomme, Olivier

    2014-04-04

    To assess spousal agreement levels regarding fertility preference and spousal communication, and to look at how it affects contraceptive use by couples. We conducted a cross-sectional study to collect quantitative data from March to May 2010 in Jimma zone, Ethiopia, using a multistage sampling design covering six districts. In each of the 811 couples included in the survey, both spouses were interviewed. Concordance between the husband and wife was assessed using different statistics and tests including concordance rates, ANOVA, Cohen's Κ and McNemar's test for paired samples. Multivariate analysis was computed to ascertain factors associated with contraceptive use. Over half of the couples wanted more children and 27.8% of the spouses differed about the desire for more children. In terms of sex preference, there was a 48.7% discord in couples who wanted to have more children. At large, spousal concordance on the importance of family planning was positive. However, it was the husband's favourable attitude towards family planning that determined a couple's use of contraception. Overall, contraceptive prevalence was 42.9%. Among the groups with the highest level of contraceptive users, were couples where the husband does not want any more children. Spousal communication about the decision to use contraception showed a positive association with a couple's contraceptive prevalence. Family planning programs aiming to increase contraceptive uptake could benefit from findings on spousal agreement regarding fertility desire, because the characteristics of each spouse influences the couple's fertility level. Disparities between husband and wife about the desire for more children sustain the need for male consideration while analysing the unmet need for contraception. Moreover, men play a significant role in the decision making concerning contraceptive use. Accordingly, involving men in family planning programs could increase a couple's contraceptive practice in the future.

  12. Differentials in measures of dietary quality among adolescents in Jimma zone, Southwest Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Belachew, Tefera; Hadley, Craig; Lindstrom, David

    2008-04-01

    nutritionally adequate, safe and good quality diet is essential for human health, school performance, and employment output. Dietary diversity, consumption of animal source food and food variety score are commonly used measures of dietary quality. This study aimed to assess gender & sociodemographic differentials in measures of dietary quality among male and female adolescents. As part of the Jimma Family Longitudinal Study of Youth households with a youth between 13-17 years were randomly sampled from Jimma Town, the small towns and nearby rural Kebeles. Dietary diversity was assessed by asking youth about the consumption of 32 different food items included in the survey, which were regrouped into four major food groups. The four groups included animal source foods (10 items), fruits-vegetables (11 items), cereals (7 items) and legumes-nuts (2 items). From these food groups, measures of dietary diversity, food variety score, and animal source food consumption were calculated Logistic regression model was done using SPSS for windows version 12.0.1 to determine the odds ratios and predicted probabilities of consuming diversified diet. Overall, 826 (39.7%), 819 (39.4%) and 955 (45.9%) of adolescents had low quality diet as measured by dietary diversity, consumption of animal source food and food variety score, respectively. Predictors of a diversi-fied diet consumption were male gender, (1.3 OR, 95% CI 1.1, 1, 5), living in small towns (1.7 OR (95% 1.3, 2.1) and being a member of household in the high-income quartile (2.1 OR 95% CI 1.5, 2.8). Intake of animal source foods was associated with the highest level of education achieved in the household (1.4 OR 95% CI: 1.1, 1.8), being male (1.3 OR 95% CI: 1.1, 1.5), being in a households with highest income quartile (2.3 OR 95% CI: 1.6, 3.1). Adolescents who lived in households with the highest income quartile and those who lived in the small towns were 1.6 and 1.4 times more likely to have high food variety score. Large

  13. Couple based family planning education: changes in male involvement and contraceptive use among married couples in Jimma Zone, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Tilahun, Tizta; Coene, Gily; Temmerman, Marleen; Degomme, Olivier

    2015-07-21

    Family planning contributes substantially in achieving the Millennium Development Goals. Recently, male involvement has gained considerable attention in family planning programs but the implementation thereof remains a challenge. In that context, our study aimed at measuring the effect of a six-month-long family planning education program on male involvement in family planning, as well as on couples' contraceptive practice. We conducted a quasi-experimental research among 811 married couples in Jimma Zone, southwest Ethiopia. Our study consisted of an intervention and a control group for comparative purpose; and surveyed before and after the implementation of the intervention. The intervention consisted of family planning education, given to both men and women at the household level in the intervention arm, in addition to monthly community gatherings. During the intervention period, households in the control group were not subject to particular activities but had access to routine health care services. We obtained follow-up data from 760 out of 786 (96.7%) couples who were originally enrolled in the survey. Findings were compared within and between groups before and after intervention surveys. At the baseline, contraceptive use in both control and intervention households were similar. After the intervention, we observed among men in the intervention arm a significantly higher level of willingness to be actively involved in family planning compared to the men in the control arm (p < 0.001). In addition, the difference between spouses that discussed family planning issues was less reported within the control group, both in the case of men and women ((p = 0.031) and (p < 0.001)) respectively. In general, a significant, positive difference in male involvement was observed. Concerning contraceptive use, there was change observed among the intervention group who were not using contraception at baseline. This study showed that family planning educational

  14. Satisfaction with emergency obstetric and new born care services among clients using public health facilities in Jimma Zone, Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia; a cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Kumsa, Alemayehu; Tura, Gurmessa; Nigusse, Aderajew; Kebede, Getahun

    2016-04-25

    The 2005 report of United Nations Millennium Project of Transforming Health Systems for women and children concluded that universal access to Emergency Obstetric and New born Care could reduce maternal deaths by 74%. Even though some studies investigated quality of Emergency Obstetric and New born Care in different parts of the world, there is scarcity of data regarding this issue in Ethiopia, particularly in Jimma zone. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess satisfaction with Emergency Obstetric and new born Care services among clients using public health facilities in Jimma zone, Southwest Ethiopia. A facility-based cross sectional study was conducted in Jimma Zone from April 01-30, 2014. The data were collected by interviewing 403 clients, who gave birth in the past 12 months prior to data collection in 34 randomly selected public health facilities. The collected data were entered by using Epi-info version 3.5.4 and analysed using SPSS version 20.0. Linear regression analysis was done to ascertain the association between covariates and the outcome variable, and finally the results were presented using frequency distribution tables, graphs and texts. The overall mean client satisfaction with Emergency Obstetric and New born Care services in this study was 79.4%; 95% CI (75%, 83%). The result of linear regression analysis revealed that a unit decrease in satisfaction to availability of drugs and equipment, decreased overall clients' satisfaction by 0.23 unit 95% CI (0.15, 0.31). The level of clients' satisfaction with Emergency Obstetric and New born Care services was low in the study area. Factors such as availability of essential equipment and drugs, health workers' communication, health care provided, and attitude of health workers had positive association with client satisfaction with Emergency Obstetric and New born Care services. This in turn could affect utilization of Emergency Obstetric and New born Care services and play a role in contribution to

  15. Perceived Nurse—Physician Communication in Patient Care and Associated Factors in Public Hospitals of Jimma Zone, South West Ethiopia: Cross Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Hailu, Fikadu Balcha; Kassahun, Chanyalew Worku; Kerie, Mirkuzie Woldie

    2016-01-01

    Background Nurse–physician communication has been shown to have a significant impact on the job satisfaction and retention of staff. In areas where it has been studied, communication failure between nurses and physicians was found to be one of the leading causes of preventable patient injuries, complications, death and medical malpractice claims. Objective The objective of this study is to determine perception of nurses and physicians towards nurse-physician communication in patient care and associated factors in public hospitals of Jimma zone, southwest Ethiopia. Methods Institution based cross-sectional survey was conducted from March 10 to April 16, 2014 among 341 nurses and 168 physicians working in public hospitals in Jimma zone. Data was collected using a pre-tested self-administered questionnaire; entered into EpiData version 3.1 and exported to Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 16.0 for analysis. Factor analysis was carried out. Descriptive statistics, independent sample t-test, linear regression and one way analysis of variance were used. Variables with P-value < 0.05 were considered as statistically significant. Results The response rate of the study was 91.55%. The mean perceived nurse-physician communication scores were 50.88±19.7% for perceived professional respect and satisfaction, and 48.52±19.7% for perceived openness and sharing of patient information on nurse-physician communication. Age, salary and organizational factors were statistically significant predictors for perceived respect and satisfaction. Whereas sex, working hospital, work attitude individual factors and organizational factors were significant predictors of perceived openness and sharing of patient information in nurse-physician communication during patient care. Conclusion Perceived level of nurse-physician communication mean score was low among nurses than physicians and it is attention seeking gap. Hence, the finding of our study suggests the need for

  16. Perceived Nurse-Physician Communication in Patient Care and Associated Factors in Public Hospitals of Jimma Zone, South West Ethiopia: Cross Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Hailu, Fikadu Balcha; Kassahun, Chanyalew Worku; Kerie, Mirkuzie Woldie

    2016-01-01

    Nurse-physician communication has been shown to have a significant impact on the job satisfaction and retention of staff. In areas where it has been studied, communication failure between nurses and physicians was found to be one of the leading causes of preventable patient injuries, complications, death and medical malpractice claims. The objective of this study is to determine perception of nurses and physicians towards nurse-physician communication in patient care and associated factors in public hospitals of Jimma zone, southwest Ethiopia. Institution based cross-sectional survey was conducted from March 10 to April 16, 2014 among 341 nurses and 168 physicians working in public hospitals in Jimma zone. Data was collected using a pre-tested self-administered questionnaire; entered into EpiData version 3.1 and exported to Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 16.0 for analysis. Factor analysis was carried out. Descriptive statistics, independent sample t-test, linear regression and one way analysis of variance were used. Variables with P-value < 0.05 were considered as statistically significant. The response rate of the study was 91.55%. The mean perceived nurse-physician communication scores were 50.88±19.7% for perceived professional respect and satisfaction, and 48.52±19.7% for perceived openness and sharing of patient information on nurse-physician communication. Age, salary and organizational factors were statistically significant predictors for perceived respect and satisfaction. Whereas sex, working hospital, work attitude individual factors and organizational factors were significant predictors of perceived openness and sharing of patient information in nurse-physician communication during patient care. Perceived level of nurse-physician communication mean score was low among nurses than physicians and it is attention seeking gap. Hence, the finding of our study suggests the need for developing and implementing nurse

  17. Psychopathological correlates of child sexual abuse: the case of female students in Jimma zone, South West Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Haileye, Alemayehu

    2013-03-01

    Arguably, the sexual abuse of children raises a number of important questions for researchers at different times. Thus, the present study was aimed to examine psychopathological correlates of child sexual abuse. This cross-sectional survey study compared the degree of vulnerability to psychopathological variables among respondents with a history of sexual abuse and their unabused counter parts in Jimma Zone. To this end, 400 female students were selected from five high schools as the sample population using multi-stage sampling procedure. Data were gathered using Reynold's Adolescent Depression Scale (RADS), Adolescent Panic Anxiety Scale, and Posttraumatic stress disorder test. The collected data via self-administered questionnaire were analyzed through the two sample t-test statistical procedure. The study revealed a result of t=3.83 for depression, t=2.46 for panic episode, and t=4.23 for PTSD score, whereas, the critical value of all the three psychopathological variables showed t (52) =1.676 at P=0.05. Results illustrate the presence of statistically significant differences in the mean scores of the above mentioned psychopathologies between females with history of sexual abuse and females who were not victims of this sexual attack at df =52 and P=0.05. The findings of the present study indicate that history of childhood sexual abuse has adverse consequences on the future psychological wellbeing of females. Specifically, females with experience of sexual abuse were found to be more susceptible to develop depression, panic anxiety, and post-traumatic stress disorders than unabused females. Thus, parents, and teachers should give the necessary care and protection to female children. Primary bio-psychosocial care services need to be established in the school system, and both the Ministry of Health and the Ministry of Education should work together against sexual exploitation of female children.

  18. Household food insecurity and its association with school absenteeism among primary school adolescents in Jimma zone, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Tamiru, Dessalegn; Argaw, Alemayehu; Gerbaba, Mulusew; Ayana, Girmay; Nigussie, Aderajew; Belachew, Tefera

    2016-08-17

    Household food insecurity and lack of education are two of the most remarkable deprivations which developing countries are currently experiencing. Evidences from different studies showed that health and nutrition problems are major barriers to educational access and achievement in low-income countries which poses a serious challenge on effort towards the achieving Sustainable Development Goals. Evidence on the link between food security and school attendance is very important to address this challenge. This study aimed to assess to what extent food insecurity affects school absenteeism among primary school adolescents. A school based cross-sectional study was conducted among primary school adolescents in Jimma zone from October-November, 2013. Structured questionnaire was used to collect data on the household food security and socio-demographic variables. Data were analyzed using SPSS for windows version 16.0 after checking for missing values and outliers. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to determine the association of school absenteeism and food insecurity with independent variables using odds ratio and 95 % of confidence intervals. Variables with p ≤ 0.25 in the bivariate analyses were entered into a multivariable regression analysis to control for associations among the independent variables. The frequency of adolescent school absenteeism was significantly high (50.20 %) among food insecure households (P < 0.001) compared to their peers whose households were food secure (37.89 %). Findings of multivariable logistic regression analysis also showed that household food insecurity [AOR = 2.81 (1.70, 4.76)] was positively associated with poor school attendance while female-headed household [AOR = 0.23 (0.07, 0.72)], urban residence [AOR = 0.52 (0.36, 0.81)] and male-gender [AOR = 0.64 (0.54, 0.74)] were inversely associated with school absenteeism. Household food insecurity was positively associated with lack of

  19. Pesticide residue evaluation in major staple food items of Ethiopia using the QuEChERS method: a case study from the Jimma Zone.

    PubMed

    Mekonen, Seblework; Ambelu, Argaw; Spanoghe, Pieter

    2014-06-01

    Samples of maize, teff, red pepper, and coffee (green bean and coffee bean with pulp) were collected from a local market in the Jimma Zone, Ethiopia. Samples were analyzed for the occurrence of cypermethrin, permethrin, deltamethrin, chlorpyrifos ethyl, DTT and its metabolites, and endosulfan (α, β). In the analytical procedure, the QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe) extraction methodology with dispersive solid phase extraction clean up (d-SPE) technique was applied. Validation of the QuEChERS method was satisfactory. Recovery percentages of most pesticides were in the range of 70% to 120%, with good repeatability (%relative standard deviation < 20). The limit of detection and limit of quantification varied between 0.001 µg/g and 0.092 µg/g and between 0.002 µg/g and 0.307 µg/g, respectively. The main pesticides detected were DDT, endosulfan, cypermethrin, and permethrin. All of the pesticides analyzed were detected in red pepper and green coffee bean. Residues of DDT in coffee pulp significantly differed (p < 0.01) from other food items except for red pepper. The concentration of pesticides in the food items varied from 0.011 mg/kg to 1.115 mg/kg. All food items contained 1 or more pesticides. Two-thirds of the samples had residues below corresponding maximum residue limits, and the remaining one-third of samples were above the maximum residue limits. These results indicate the need for a good pesticide monitoring program to evaluate consumer risk for the Ethiopian people. © 2014 SETAC.

  20. Patient safety culture and associated factors: A quantitative and qualitative study of healthcare workers' view in Jimma zone Hospitals, Southwest Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Wami, Sintayehu Daba; Demssie, Amsalu Feleke; Wassie, Molla Mesele; Ahmed, Ansha Nega

    2016-09-20

    Patient safety culture is an important aspect for quality healthcare delivery and is an issue of high concern globally. In Ethiopia health system little is known and information is limited in scope about patient safety culture. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the level of patient safety culture and associated factors in Jimma zone Hospitals, southwest Ethiopia. Facility based cross sectional quantitative study triangulated with qualitative approaches was employed from March to April 30/2015. Stratified sampling technique was used to select 637 study participants among 4 hospitals. The standardized tool which measures 12 patient safety culture composites was used for data collection. Bivariate and multivariate linear regression analyses were performed using SPSS version 20. Significance level was obtained at 95 % CI and p-value < 0.05. Semi structured guide in depth interview was used to collect the qualitative data. Content analysis of the interview was performed. The overall level of patient safety culture was 46.7 % (95 % CI: 43.0, 51.2). Hours worked per week (β =-0.06, 95 % CI:-0.12,-0.001), reporting adverse event (β = 3.34, 95 % CI: 2.12, 4.57), good communication (β = 2.78, 95 % CI: 2.29, 3.28), teamwork within hospital (β = 1.91, 95 % CI: 1.37, 2.46), level of staffing (β = 1.32, 95 % CI: 0.89, 1.75), exchange of feedback about error (β = 1.37, 95 % CI: 0.91, 1.83) and participation in patient safety program (β = 1.3, 95 % CI: 0.57, 2.03) were factors significantly associated with the patient safety culture. The in depth interview indicated incident reporting, resources, healthcare worker attitude and patient involvement as important factors that influence patient safety culture. The overall level of patient safety culture was low. Working hours, level of staffing, teamwork, communications openness, reporting an event and exchange of feedback about error were associated with patient safety

  1. Food insecurity, school absenteeism and educational attainment of adolescents in Jimma Zone Southwest Ethiopia: a longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Food insecurity not only affects physical growth and health of children but also their intellectual development, school attendance and academic performance. However, most evidences are based on studies in high income countries. Although food insecurity is common in Ethiopia, to what extent it affects school attendance and educational attainment of adolescents is not explored. We hypothesized that food insecure adolescents would be more likely to be absent from school and have lower grades attained after 1 year compared to their food secure peers. Methods We used data from 2009 adolescents in the age group of 13-17 years from two consecutive surveys of a five year longitudinal family study in Southwest Ethiopia. A stratified random sampling was used to select participants. Regression analyses were used to compare school absenteeism and the highest grade attained after 1 year of follow-up in food secure and insecure adolescents. The analysis was adjusted for demographic factors, reported illness and workload. Results Significantly more (33.0%) food insecure adolescents were absent from school compared with their food secure peers (17.8%, P < 0.001). Multivariable logistic regression analyses showed that after adjusting for gender, place of residence and gender of the household head, adolescent food insecurity [OR 1.77 (1.34-2.33)], severe household food insecurity [OR 1.62 (1.27-2.06)], illness during the past one month before the survey [OR 2.26 (1.68-3.06)], the highest grade aspired to be completed by the adolescent [OR 0.92 (0.88-0.96)], and the number of days that the adolescent had to work per week [OR 1.16 (1.07-1.26)] were independent predictors of school absenteeism. Similarly after controlling for household income and gender of the household head, adolescent food insecurity(P < 0.001), severe household food insecurity(P < 0.001), illness during the last month(P < 0.001) and rural residence(P < 0.001) were inversely associated with highest grade

  2. Food insecurity, school absenteeism and educational attainment of adolescents in Jimma Zone Southwest Ethiopia: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Belachew, Tefera; Hadley, Craig; Lindstrom, David; Gebremariam, Abebe; Lachat, Carl; Kolsteren, Patrick

    2011-04-10

    Food insecurity not only affects physical growth and health of children but also their intellectual development, school attendance and academic performance. However, most evidences are based on studies in high income countries. Although food insecurity is common in Ethiopia, to what extent it affects school attendance and educational attainment of adolescents is not explored. We hypothesized that food insecure adolescents would be more likely to be absent from school and have lower grades attained after 1 year compared to their food secure peers. We used data from 2009 adolescents in the age group of 13-17 years from two consecutive surveys of a five year longitudinal family study in Southwest Ethiopia. A stratified random sampling was used to select participants. Regression analyses were used to compare school absenteeism and the highest grade attained after 1 year of follow-up in food secure and insecure adolescents. The analysis was adjusted for demographic factors, reported illness and workload. Significantly more (33.0%) food insecure adolescents were absent from school compared with their food secure peers (17.8%, P < 0.001). Multivariable logistic regression analyses showed that after adjusting for gender, place of residence and gender of the household head, adolescent food insecurity [OR 1.77 (1.34-2.33)], severe household food insecurity [OR 1.62 (1.27-2.06)], illness during the past one month before the survey [OR 2.26 (1.68-3.06)], the highest grade aspired to be completed by the adolescent [OR 0.92 (0.88-0.96)], and the number of days that the adolescent had to work per week [OR 1.16 (1.07-1.26)] were independent predictors of school absenteeism. Similarly after controlling for household income and gender of the household head, adolescent food insecurity(P < 0.001), severe household food insecurity(P < 0.001), illness during the last month(P < 0.001) and rural residence(P < 0.001) were inversely associated with highest grade attained, while age of the

  3. The assessment and the farmers' perceived ranking of feed resources and coping strategies with feed scarcity in smallholder dairy farming in selected district towns of Jimma Zone, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Duguma, Belay; Dermauw, Veronique; Janssens, Geert

    2017-06-01

    Inadequate quantity and quality of feed resources are major constraints limiting milk production and reproductive performance of dairy cattle in Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to assess dairy cattle feed resources, feeding practices, the farmers' perceived ranking of feed resources, causes of feed shortage, and coping strategies to feed scarcity in smallholder dairy system in selected district towns of Jimma Zone, Ethiopia. Data were obtained by interviewing 52 randomly selected smallholder dairy farmers using structured questionnaires and through direct observations. Results showed that 20 main feed types used by dairy farmers were identified and categorized into natural pastures, crop residues, green feeds, hay, agro-industrial by-products, concentrate mix, and non-conventional feeds. Overall, natural pasture (mean rank = 0.453), non-conventional feeds (0.307), cut green feeds (0.086), conserved hay (0.076), crop residues (0.049), and concentrate feeds (0.029) were ranked as the main feed resources in decreasing order of importance. Natural pasture grazing (92.2% of the respondents), hay (35.6%), and green feeds (29.4%) were the most important conventional basal feeds used. Wheat bran (11.7% of the respondents) followed by commercial concentrate mix (9.4%), Noug seedcake (8.3%), grain (7.8%), and molasses (6.1%) were the concentrate supplements used. Overall, bulule-flour mill leftovers (67.2% of the farmers), bean and pea hulls (57.2%) and atella-local brew by-product (37.2%), enset (Ensete ventricosum, 34.4%), and sugarcane top (32.2%) were the non-conventional feeds available and used during feed scarcity. Barley and teff (Eragrostis teff) straws and maize and sorghum stovers were the main crop residues used in the dry seasons. Overall, 73.9, 12.2, 12.2, and 1.7% of the respondents practiced free grazing, zero grazing, semi-zero, and a combination of zero- and free-grazing systems, respectively. Over 84% of the respondents in the dry season and 50% in

  4. Food insecurity and age at menarche among adolescent girls in Jimma Zone Southwest Ethiopia: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Belachew, Tefera; Hadley, Craig; Lindstrom, David; Getachew, Yehenew; Duchateau, Luc; Kolsteren, Patrick

    2011-09-13

    Age at menarche is the reflection of cumulative pre-adolescent exposure of girls to either adverse environment such as food insecurity or affluent living conditions. Food insecurity could result in inadequate nutrient intake and stress, both of which are hypothesized to have opposing effects on the timing of menarche through divergent pathways. It is not known whether food insecure girls have delayed menarche or early menarche compared with their food secure peers. In this study we test the competing hypothesis of the relationship between food insecurity and age at menarche among adolescent girls in the Southwest Ethiopia. We report on 900 girls who were investigated in the first two rounds of the five year longitudinal survey. The semi-parametric frailty model was fitted to determine the effect of adolescent food insecurity on time to menarche after adjusting for socio-demographic and economic variables. Food insecure girls have menarche one year later than their food secure peer (median age of 15 years vs 14 years). The hazard of menarche showed a significant decline (P = 0.019) as severity of food insecurity level increased, the hazard ratio (HR) for mild food insecurity and moderate/severe food insecurity were 0.936 and 0.496, respectively compared to food secure girls. Stunted girls had menarche nearly one year later than their non-stunted peers (HR = 0.551, P < 0.001). Food insecurity is associated with delay of age at menarche by one year among girls in the study area. Stunted girls had menarche one year later than their non-stunted peers. Age at menarche reflects the development of girls including the timing of sexual maturation, nutritional status and trajectory of growth during the pre-pubertal periods. The findings reflect the consequence of chronic food insecurity on the development and well-being of girls in the study area.

  5. Ethnoveterinary medicines in four districts of Jimma zone, Ethiopia: cross sectional survey for plant species and mode of use

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Traditional medicines have been used for nearly 90% of livestock populations in Ethiopia where complimentary remedies are required to the modern health care system. All plants with pharmacological activity complimentarily prescribed as best choice against livestock diseases. A community based cross - sectional survey was conducted to investigate ethno-veterinary knowledge and practices of study area by purposive sampling techniques. The data from respondents were collected through face-to face interview using pre-tested semi-structured questionnaires, which was further accompanied by field observations of the medicinal plants. The vast majority of the statistics were analyzed descriptively by SPSS 16 Windows version to extrapolate our findings in ethno-botanical knowledge. Results In the study, a total of 74 species of ethnoveterinary medicinal plant species from 31 families have been identified for treating 22 different livestock ailments. The three families: Asteraceae, Cucurbitaceae and Solanaceae make up larger proportion of reported medicinal plants which accounted for 10.41%, 8.33% and 6.25%, respectively. Of reported medicinal plants, 16.7% informant consensus was recorded for the species Croton macrostachyus Del., 10.7% for Nicotiana tabacum L. and 9.5% for Olea capensis L.Subsp. macrocarpa (C.H. Wright) I.Verd. in treatment of one or more veterinary ailments. The greater varieties of medicinal plant species that accounted for 28.2% were used against management of blackleg which was common livestock diseases in the study area. The findings showed, trees accounted for 43.24%, followed by shrubs (33.78%) and herbs (14.86%). Eighty one percent of medicinal plants reported by respondents were collected from wild habitats, and leaves reported to be used by 68% of the informants for ethnoveterinary medicines preparations. The preparations were applied through different routes of administration; oral administration accounted for (76.2%), followed by

  6. Risky sexual behaviors and associated factors among male and female students in Jimma Zone preparatory schools, South West Ethiopia: comparative study.

    PubMed

    Fentahun, Netsanet; Mamo, Abebe

    2014-01-01

    Youth engage in risk sexual behavior due to insufficient knowledge of reproductive health and family planning. Youth sexual behavior is important not only because of the possible reproductive outcomes, but also because of sexually transmitted infections. The level of risks and sexual behaviors are different between male and female youth due to sexual exposure and socio-cultural factors. The aim of this study was to compare risky sexual behaviors and associated factors among male and female preparatory school (grades 11 and 12) students in Jimma Zone. A comparative cross-sectional study was conducted in 5 randomly selected preparatory schools of Jimma Zone. A total of 520 students were selected using simple random sampling technique. A structured, pretested and self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data. Both descriptive analysis and binary logistic regressions were performed on the data to understand risky sexual behaviors among students. Twenty-two (25.9%) of male and 25(21.6%) of female students had two or more sexual partners in the last six months. Eighty-three (32.3%), 113(43.5%) male and female students were sexually at risk in the last six months. Only 8(9.4%) of the male and 10(8.6%) of the female students used condom consistently in the last six months. Female students living away from their parents were 3 times more likely to be at risk than students living with their parents (OR 95%CI 3.0(1.48-6.34)). Female students who consumed alcohol were 7 times more likely to be at risk than those who did not consume alcohol (OR 95%CI 7.27(3.36-15.7)). Male students who consumed alcohol were 2.8 times more likely to be at risk than those who did not consumed alcohol (OR 95%CI, 2.81(1.3-6.06)). Male students who chewed khat were 4.6 times more likely to be at risk than students who did not chew khat (OR 95%CI, 4.58(1.95-10.76). Living arrangement, educational status of parents, family connectedness, alcohol consumption and khat-chewing were the major

  7. Women's autonomy and men's involvement in child care and feeding as predictors of infant and young child anthropometric indices in coffee farming households of Jimma Zone, South West of Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Abate, Kalkidan Hassen; Belachew, Tefera

    2017-01-01

    Most of child mortality and under nutrition in developing world were attributed to suboptimal childcare and feeding, which needs detailed investigation beyond the proximal factors. This study was conducted with the aim of assessing associations of women's autonomy and men's involvement with child anthropometric indices in cash crop livelihood areas of South West Ethiopia. Multi-stage stratified sampling was used to select 749 farming households living in three coffee producing sub-districts of Jimma zone, Ethiopia. Domains of women's Autonomy were measured by a tool adapted from demographic health survey. A model for determination of paternal involvement in childcare was employed. Caring practices were assessed through the WHO Infant and young child feeding practice core indicators. Length and weight measurements were taken in duplicate using standard techniques. Data were analyzed using SPSS for windows version 21. A multivariable linear regression was used to predict weight for height Z-scores and length for age Z-scores after adjusting for various factors. The mean (sd) scores of weight for age (WAZ), height for age (HAZ), weight for height (WHZ) and BMI for age (BAZ) was -0.52(1.26), -0.73(1.43), -0.13(1.34) and -0.1(1.39) respectively. The results of multi variable linear regression analyses showed that WHZ scores of children of mothers who had autonomy of conducting big purchase were higher by 0.42 compared to children's whose mothers had not. In addition, a child whose father was involved in childcare and feeding had higher HAZ score by 0.1. Regarding age, as for every month increase in age of child, a 0.04 point decrease in HAZ score and a 0.01 point decrease in WHZ were noted. Similarly, a child living in food insecure households had lower HAZ score by 0.29 compared to child of food secured households. As family size increased by a person a WHZ score of a child is decreased by 0.08. WHZ and HAZ scores of male child was found lower by 0.25 and 0

  8. Women’s autonomy and men's involvement in child care and feeding as predictors of infant and young child anthropometric indices in coffee farming households of Jimma Zone, South West of Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Abate, Kalkidan Hassen; Belachew, Tefera

    2017-01-01

    Background Most of child mortality and under nutrition in developing world were attributed to suboptimal childcare and feeding, which needs detailed investigation beyond the proximal factors. This study was conducted with the aim of assessing associations of women’s autonomy and men’s involvement with child anthropometric indices in cash crop livelihood areas of South West Ethiopia. Methods Multi-stage stratified sampling was used to select 749 farming households living in three coffee producing sub-districts of Jimma zone, Ethiopia. Domains of women’s Autonomy were measured by a tool adapted from demographic health survey. A model for determination of paternal involvement in childcare was employed. Caring practices were assessed through the WHO Infant and young child feeding practice core indicators. Length and weight measurements were taken in duplicate using standard techniques. Data were analyzed using SPSS for windows version 21. A multivariable linear regression was used to predict weight for height Z-scores and length for age Z-scores after adjusting for various factors. Results The mean (sd) scores of weight for age (WAZ), height for age (HAZ), weight for height (WHZ) and BMI for age (BAZ) was -0.52(1.26), -0.73(1.43), -0.13(1.34) and -0.1(1.39) respectively. The results of multi variable linear regression analyses showed that WHZ scores of children of mothers who had autonomy of conducting big purchase were higher by 0.42 compared to children's whose mothers had not. In addition, a child whose father was involved in childcare and feeding had higher HAZ score by 0.1. Regarding age, as for every month increase in age of child, a 0.04 point decrease in HAZ score and a 0.01 point decrease in WHZ were noted. Similarly, a child living in food insecure households had lower HAZ score by 0.29 compared to child of food secured households. As family size increased by a person a WHZ score of a child is decreased by 0.08. WHZ and HAZ scores of male child was

  9. Cluster Supervision Practices in Primary School of Jimma Zone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afework, E. A.; Frew, A. T.; Abeya, G. G.

    2017-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to assess the supervisory practice of cluster resource centre (CRC) supervisors in Jimma Zone primary schools. To achieve this purpose, the descriptive survey design was employed. Data were collected from 238 randomly selected teachers, and 60 school principals with a response rate of 98.6%. Moreover, 12 CRC…

  10. Khat Use and Its Impact on Academic Performance: The Case of Jimma University, Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abafita, Jemal; Chala, Badassa Wolteji; Eba, Kasahun; Kim, Kyung-Ryang; Kim, Chang-Soo

    2015-01-01

    The use or misuse of addictive substances like khat has become widespread among the youths especially in countries where the substance is produced and/or consumed. In this paper, we examine whether khat use has any impact on the academic achievement of university students with particular reference to undergraduates in Jimma University, Ethiopia.…

  11. Quality of anthelminthic medicines available in Jimma Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Belew, Sileshi; Suleman, Sultan; Wynendaele, Evelien; D'Hondt, Matthias; Kosgei, Anne; Duchateau, Luc; De Spiegeleer, Bart

    2018-01-01

    Soil-transmitted helminthiasis and schistosomiasis are major public health problems in Ethiopia. Mass deworming of at-risk population using a single dose administration of 400mg albendazole (ABZ) or 500mg mebendazole (MBZ) for treatment of common intestinal worms and 40mg of praziquantel (PZQ) per kg body weight for treatment of schistosomiasis is one of the strategies recommended by World Health Organization (WHO) in order to control the morbidity of soil-transmitted helminthiasis and schistosomiasis. Since storage condition, climate, way of transportation and distribution route could all affect the quality of medicines, regular assessment by surveys is very critical to ensure the therapeutic outcome, to minimize risk of toxicity to the patient and resistance of parasites. Therefore, this study was conducted to assess the pharmaceutical quality of ABZ, MBZ and PZQ tablet brands commonly available in Jimma town (south west Ethiopia). Retail pharmacies (n=10) operating in Jimma town were selected using simple random sampling method. Samples of anthelminthic medicines available in the selected pharmacies were collected. Sample information was recorded and encompassed trade name, active ingredient name, manufacturer's name and full address, labeled medicine strength, dosage form, number of units per container, dosage statement, batch/lot number, manufacturing and expiry dates, storage information and presence of leaflets/package insert. Moreover, a first visual inspection was performed encompassing uniformity of color, uniformity of size, breaks, cracks, splits, embedded surface spots or visual contaminations. Finally, physico-chemical quality attributes investigated encompassed mass uniformity, quantity of active pharmaceutical ingredient (API), disintegration and dissolution, all following Pharmacopoeial test methods The physical characteristics of dosage form, packaging and labeling information of all samples complied with criteria given in the WHO checklists. The

  12. Invasive Bacterial Pathogens and their Antibiotic Susceptibility Patterns in Jimma University Specialized Hospital, Jimma, Southwest Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Zenebe, Tizazu; Kannan, Subbaram; Yilma, Daniel; Beyene, Getenet

    2011-03-01

    Presence of microorganisms in the circulating blood whether continuously or intermittently is a threat to every organ in the body. Approximately 200,000 cases of bacteraemia occur annually with mortality rates ranging from 20-50%. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment of these infections can make the difference between life and death. The aim of the present study was to determine the bacterial flora of the blood stream infections and their antibiotic susceptibility pattern. A cross sectional study was conducted on 260 adult febrile patients in Jimma University Specialized Hospital from 27 October 2009 to 26 March 2010. The positive blood cultures were examined and the organisms were identified as per standard procedures. Antimicrobial testing was performed for all isolates by disk diffusion techniques, according to Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute guide lines. The data was analyzed using SPSS for windows version 16 and Microsoft Office Excel. From the total of two hundred sixty blood specimens only 23(8.8%) were positive to seven different types of bacteria. The isolated bacteria were: Coagulase negative staphylococci 6(26.1%), S. aureus 5 (21.7%), S. pyogens 3 (13.0%), E. coli 4(17.4%), K. pneumoniae 3(13.0%), Salmonella spp. 1(4.3%), and Citrobacter spp. 1(4.3%). The isolates showed high rates of resistance to most antibiotics tested. The range of resistance for gram positive bacteria were 0% to 85.7%, and for gram negative from 0% to 100%. None of the isolates were resistance to ciprofloxacin and ceftriaxone. Our study result showed the presence of invasive bacterial pathogens with high rate of resistance to most commonly used antibiotics used to treat bacterial infections. Therefore, timely investigation of bacterial flora of the blood stream infections and monitoring of their antibiotic resistance pattern plays an important role in reduction of the incidence of blood stream infections.

  13. Status of intestinal parasitic infections among residents of Jimma Town, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Jejaw, Ayalew; Zeynudin, Ahmed; Zemene, Endalew; Belay, Tariku

    2014-08-07

    Intestinal parasites cause considerable morbidity and mortality in the world, especially in developing countries like Ethiopia. Both urban and rural inhabitants are vulnerable to infection with intestinal parasites in developing countries. The aim of this study was to determine the status of intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs) among residents of Jimma Town, seven years after high prevalence was reported. Four hundred and thirty four residents of Jimma Town were included in this study. By the cross-sectional survey, the overall prevalence of intestinal parasites was 209 (48.2%). Nine species of intestinal parasites were isolated, Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura being the most predominant. Residence in Hermata Mentina kebele, Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR), 3.0, 95% CI, 1.71-5.39), age less than 10 years (AOR, 3.7, 95% CI, 1.33-10.36), illiteracy (AOR, 3.2, 95% CI, 1.64-6.19), estimated monthly family income of less than 500 Ethiopian Birr (AOR, 2.9, 95% CI, 1.32-4.90) and irregular washing hands before meal (AOR, 5.3, 95% CI, 1.36-21.07) were predictors of IPI in this study. The retrospective study revealed a significant decrease (P = 0.037) in the proportion of patients infected with intestinal parasites out of those who requested stool examination over the six-year period. This study confirms that IPIs are still common among residents of Jimma Town. Nearly half of the study participants were infected with at least one intestinal parasite. Public health interventions targeting prevention of IPIs should be strengthened in Jimma Town.

  14. Elevated blood lead levels among unskilled construction workers in Jimma, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Gebrie, Higemengist A; Tessema, Dejene A; Ambelu, Argaw

    2014-03-19

    No study has been carried out to assess the blood lead levels of workers or the contribution of common workplace practices to lead exposure in Ethiopia. This study was carried out to assess the blood lead levels of female and male laborers in the construction sector in Jimma town, Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study on the blood lead levels of 45 construction workers was carried out in the town of Jimma. The t-test, analysis of variance, the Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney and odds ratio tests were used to compare mean blood lead levels and to investigate the associations between specific job type, use of self-protection device, sex, service years and occurrence of non-specific symptoms with BLLs. The mean blood lead level of the exposed group (40.03 ± 10.41 μg/dL) was found to be significantly greater than that of the unexposed group (29.81 ± 10.21 μg/dL), p = 0.05. Among the exposed group female workers were found to have higher mean blood lead level (42.04 ± 4.11 μg/dL) than their male colleagues (33.99 ± 3.28 μg/dL). Laborers who were regularly using self-protection devices were found to have significantly lower blood lead levels than those who were not using. The blood lead levels of construction workers in Jimma town are considerably high with a range of 20.46 - 70.46 μg/dL and the workers are in danger of imminent lead toxicity. More endangered are female construction workers who are bearers of the future children of the country and the issue requires urgent attention.

  15. Pelvic organ prolapse in jimma university specialized hospital, southwest ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Akmel, Menur; Segni, Hailemariam

    2012-07-01

    Pelvic organ prolapse is the down ward descent of female organs including the bladder, small and large bowel resulting in protrusion of the vagina, uterus or both. It is a disorder exclusive to women and one of the most common indications for gynecologic surgery. This hospital based retrospective descriptive study was conducted to assess the magnitude of pelvic organ prolapse and risk factors for it. All cases of pelvic organ prolapse admitted and treated in Jimma University Specialized Hospital from July 1, 2008 to June 30, 2011 were included. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS computer software version 16.0. Chi-square test was used and was considered to be significant when p<0.05. Pelvic organ prolapse accounted for 40.7% of major gynecologic operations. Mean age of patients was 42.43 ± 10.4 years and there was a significant association between prolapse and age of patients (p <0.05). Mean parity of patients was 6.5± 2.64 with a significant association between prolapse and parity (p < 0.05). Majority of them (80.6%) lived in rural area and there was a significant association between prolapse and residence area. Farmers accounted for 68.2% of the patients and there was a significant association between prolapse and occupation (p < 0.05). Risk factors identified were chronic cough (20.9%), constipation (30.2%) with some having more than one risk factor while none was identified in 59.7%. Prolapse is common among rural, farmer, parous and older women where most of them delivered at home with prolonged labor. Age, parity and occupation were associated with the stage of prolapse. Awareness creation on risk factors of pelvic organ prolapse and use of contraception to reduce parity is recommended. Health institution delivery should be advocated to minimize the rate of home deliveries and hence of prolonged labor.

  16. Job satisfaction of nurses in Jimma University Specialized Teaching Hospital, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Negussie, Nebiat

    2016-03-01

    In Ethiopia nurses have played a very important role in providing timely and quality health service in healthcare organizations. However, there is a limited literature in the area of nurses' job satisfaction in Ethiopian public hospitals. The objective of this research is to measure job satisfaction of nurses in Jimma University Specialized Teaching Hospital and to determine the influencing factors. A cross-sectional survey was conducted from January 2012 to June 2012 in Jimma University Specialized Teaching Hospital. All full-time nurses with nonsupervisory management position and more than 1 year of work experience were invited to participate in the study. Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire was used to collect the data. A total of 175 copies of the questionnaires were returned out of 186 copies distributed to the respondents. The results indicated that nurses were not satisfied by their job (mean=2.21, SD=0.52). Remuneration (r=0.71, P<0.01) and job advancement (r=0.69, P<0.01) were statically significant and strongly correlated with nurses' job satisfaction. Job security was associated with highest satisfaction (r=0.41, P<0.05) CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS: Remuneration and job advancement were the most important factors for nurses' job satisfaction. Hospital administrators as well as health policy makers need to address the two major identified sources of nurses' job dissatisfaction in the study (i.e. remuneration and narrow opportunity of job advancement) and take appropriate measures to overcome their consequences.

  17. Occupational lead exposure among automotive garage workers – a case study for Jimma town, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In Ethiopia, although there are numerous small-scale and medium industries which use lead-based raw materials that may pose health risks to workers, there are no workplace regulations for lead exposure. Moreover, there are no studies carried out on the blood lead levels (BLLs) of workers or on the contribution of common workplace practices to lead poisoning. Method A cross-sectional study on the BLLs of 45 automotive garage workers and 40 non-garage workers was carried out in the town of Jimma, Ethiopia. In addition to BLL analysis, data on some risk factors such as smoking, and chewing ‘khat’ (the leaves of Catha adulis) were gathered through structured questionnaires and interviews and data analysis was performed using SPSS (version 16). The t-test was used to compare mean BLLs of study groups. The analysis of variance (ANOVA), Kruskal-Wallis, Pearson chi-square and odds ratio tests were used to investigate the associations between specific job type, smoking and/or ‘khat’ chewing, service years and occurrence of non-specific symptoms with BLLs. Results The mean BLL of the automotive-garage workers was found to be significantly greater than that of the controls. The BLLs of all the lead-exposed individuals were found to be over 10 μg/dL, and 53% of them had BLLs ranging 12 – 20 μg/dL, with the remaining 47% having over 20 μg/dL. The BLL of the workers increased with the duration of working in an automotive garage. Individuals involved in manual car painting comprise a larger percentage (58%) of those with the highest BLLs (≥ 20 μg/dL). Lead accumulation in individuals who chew ‘khat’ in the work place was found to be faster than in those who are not used to chewing ‘khat’. ‘Khat’ is an evergreen shrub native to tropical East Africa, with dark green opposite leaves which are chewed when fresh for their stimulating effects. Conclusion The findings of the study have clearly demonstrated that the BLLs of automotive

  18. Prevalence of intestinal parasite, Shigella and Salmonella species among diarrheal children in Jimma health center, Jimma southwest Ethiopia: a cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Beyene, Getenet; Tasew, Haimanot

    2014-02-05

    Diarrheal disease continues to be an important cause of morbidity and mortality among young children in developing countries including Ethiopia. Globally, intestinal parasite, Shigella and Salmonella species remain major contributors to acute enteric infections. The study was aimed at determining the frequency of intestinal parasite, Shigella and Salmonella species identified from diarrheic children at Jimma Health Centre, Jimma south west Ethiopia. A health institution based cross sectional study was conducted from March to November 2012. A structured questionnaire was used for collection of data on socio- demographic characteristics. Parasite and bacteria identification as well as susceptibility testing was done using standard parasitological and bacteriological procedures. A total of 260 diarrheal children were included in the study. A total of 129 (49.6%) samples were positive for intestinal parasite, Shigella and Salmonella species. Of these, 107 (41.1%), 6 (2.3%) and 16 (6.2%) samples were positive for intestinal parasite, Shigella and Salmonella species respectively. The dominant isolated parasite was G. lamblia with prevalence of 13.5% followed by A. lumbricoides (11.5%). The least identified parasites were Schistosoma mansoni and Taenia species accounting 0.4% each. Multiple parasitic infections were observed in 19 (7.3%) patients. Shigella species showed hundred percent resistances to ampicillin, amoxacillin, and cotrimoxazole. All Salmonella isolates were resistant against amoxicillin. All Shigella and Salmonella species were susceptible to ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin and gentamycin. The presence of reasonably high amount of intestinal parasite and Salmonella and Shigella species that are drug resistance to the commonly prescribed drugs is a treat to the children and community at large. Therefore, measures including health education, improvement of safe water supply, sanitation facilities and continuous monitoring of microbiological and antimicrobial

  19. Prevalence, withdrawal symptoms and associated factors of khat chewing among students at Jimma University in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Abdeta, Tilahun; Tolessa, Daniel; Adorjan, Kristina; Abera, Mubarek

    2017-04-17

    Recently, khat chewing has become a common practice among high school, college, and university students. Regular khat chewing is thought to be a predisposing factor for different physical and mental health problems. It can lead to absenteeism from work and classes. In Ethiopia, to our knowledge no published study has investigated khat withdrawal symptoms. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the prevalence, withdrawal symptoms, and associated factors of khat chewing among regular undergraduate students on the main campus of Jimma University in Ethiopia. The institution-based, cross-sectional study was conducted in January 2016. Data were collected from 651 main campus regular undergraduate students with a structured, self-administered questionnaire, entered into Epidata 3.1 and exported to SPSS version 20 for Windows. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions were used to explore associations and identify variables independently associated with khat chewing. The study found that the lifetime and current prevalence of khat chewing among students were 26.3% (95% CI: 24.3, 28.3) and 23.9% (95% CI: 21.94, 25.86), respectively. About 25.7% of students started chewing after joining university, and 60.5% of these students started during their first year. The main reason given for starting khat chewing was for study purposes (54.6%), followed by socialization purposes (42.3%). Among current khat chewers, 72.9% reported that they had chewed khat for 1 year or more and 68.2% reported that they had experienced various withdrawal symptoms. The most frequently reported withdrawal symptoms were feeling depressed, craving, and feeling fatigued. Being male, attending a place of worship daily/2-3 times per week, cannabis use, smoking cigarettes, and having family members currently chewing khat were independently associated with khat chewing. This study found that large numbers of university students were currently chewing khat. In this study withdrawal symptoms

  20. Prevalence of opportunistic intestinal parasitic infection among HIV infected patients who are taking antiretroviral treatment at Jimma Health Center, Jimma, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Zeynudin, A; Hemalatha, K; Kannan, S

    2013-02-01

    One of the major health problems among HIV sero-positive patients are superimposed infections due to the deficient immunity. Furthermore, intestinal parasitic (IP) infections, which are also one of the basic health problems in tropical regions, are common in these patients. Infection by opportunistic pathogens, including various forms of intestinal parasites has been the hall mark of HIV since the beginning of the epidemic. To study the prevalence of opportunistic intestinal parasitic infection among HIV patients who are taking antiretroviral treatment (ART) in Jimma, Ethiopia. Patient samples were diagnosed by examination of single stool specimen which was examined as fresh wet mounts, formal-ether concentration technique and modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining technique. Data was obtained from 91 study subjects selected by convenience sampling method. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections was found to be 39.56%. Eight types of intestinal parasites was identified, the most dominant being, Ascaris lumbricoides, 21.67%, Entamoeba histolytica, 15% and Cryptosporidium parvum 13.33%. The prevalence of opportunistic parasite was 15.38%, the prevalence of non-opportunistic parasite was 20.87% and the prevalence of both opportunistic and non opportunistic was 3.29%. The study indicated that intestinal parasites were still a problem in the study area. Data also showed that among the predisposing factors, habit of hand washing before meal, usage of latrine and duration after treatment was statistically associated with intestinal parasitic infections.

  1. Antenatal care strengthening for improved health behaviours in Jimma, Ethiopia, 2009-2011: An effectiveness study.

    PubMed

    Villadsen, Sarah Fredsted; Negussie, Dereje; GebreMariam, Abebe; Tilahun, Abebech; Girma, Tsinuel; Friis, Henrik; Rasch, Vibeke

    2016-09-01

    health systems in low-income settings are not sufficiently reaching the poor, and global disparities in reproductive health persist. The frequency and quality of health education during antenatal care is often low. Further studies are needed on how to improve the performance of health systems in low income settings to improve maternal and child health. to assess the effectiveness of a participatory antenatal care intervention on health behaviours and to illuminate how the different socioeconomic groups responded to the intervention in Jimma, Ethiopia. SETTING, INTERVENTION AND MEASUREMENTS: an intervention was designed participatorily and comprised trainings, supervisions, equipment, health education material, and adaption of guidelines. It was implemented at public facilities. Household surveys, before (2008) and after (2010) intervention, were conducted amongst all women who had given birth within the previous 12 months. The effect of the intervention was assessed by comparing the change in health behaviours (number of antenatal visits, health facility delivery, breast feeding, preventive infant health check, and infant immunisation) from before to after the intervention period at intervention sites, relative to control sites, using logistic mixed effect regression. on the basis of 1357 women included before and 2262 after the intervention, there were positive effects of the intervention on breast feeding practices (OR 3.0, 95% CI: 1.4; 3.6) and preventive infant health check (OR 2.4, 95% CI: 1.5; 3.5). There was no effect on infant immunisation coverage and negative effect on number of antenatal visits. The effect on various outcomes was modified by maternal education, and results indicate increased health facility delivery (OR 2.4, 95% CI: 0.8; 6.9) and breast feeding practices (OR 18.2, 95% CI: 5.2;63.6) among women with no education. the facility based intervention improved some, but not all health behaviours. The improvements indicated amongst the most

  2. Antenatal care strengthening for improved quality of care in Jimma, Ethiopia: an effectiveness study.

    PubMed

    Villadsen, Sarah Fredsted; Negussie, Dereje; GebreMariam, Abebe; Tilahun, Abebech; Friis, Henrik; Rasch, Vibeke

    2015-04-11

    Interventions for curing most diseases and save lives of pregnant and delivering women exist, yet the power of health systems to deliver them to those in most need is not sufficient. The aims of this study were to design a participatory antenatal care (ANC) strengthening intervention and assess the implementation process and effectiveness on quality of ANC in Jimma, Ethiopia. The intervention comprised trainings, supervisions, equipment, development of health education material, and adaption of guidelines. It was implemented at public facilities and control sites were included in the evaluation. Improved content of care (physical examinations, laboratory testing, tetanus toxoid (TT)-immunization, health education, conduct of health professionals, and waiting time) were defined as proximal project outcomes and increased quality of care (better identification of health problems and increased overall user satisfaction with ANC) were distal project outcomes. The process of implementation was documented in monthly supervision reports. Household surveys, before (2008) and after (2010) intervention, were conducted amongst all women who had given birth within the previous 12 months. The effect of the intervention was assessed by comparing the change in quality of care from before to after the intervention period at intervention sites, relative to control sites, using logistic mixed effect regression. The continued attention to the ANC provision during implementation stimulated increased priority of ANC among health care providers. The organizational structure of the facilities and lack of continuity in care provision turned out to be a major challenge for implementation. There was a positive effect of the intervention on health education on danger signs during pregnancy (OR: 3.9, 95% CI: 2.6;5.7), laboratory testing (OR for blood tests other than HIV 2.9, 95% CI: 1.9;4.5), health problem identification (OR 1.8, 95% CI: 1.1;3.1), and satisfaction with the service (OR: 0

  3. Municipal solid waste generation in growing urban areas in Africa: current practices and relation to socioeconomic factors in Jimma, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Getahun, T; Mengistie, E; Haddis, A; Wasie, F; Alemayehu, E; Dadi, D; Van Gerven, T; Van der Bruggen, B

    2012-10-01

    As one of cities in the developing countries, a rapid population growth and industrial activities pose many environmental challenges for Jimma city, Ethiopia. One aspect of urban growth posing a threat on sustainable development is poor solid waste management, which results in environmental pollution. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the quantity, composition, sources of waste generated, their current disposal practices, and to recommend appropriate management technologies. The total waste generated daily in Jimma city was ca. 88,000 kg, and the average per capita generation rate was 0.55 ± 0.17 kg/capita/day. Eighty-seven percent of the waste was produced by households and 13% by institutions, and a negligible fraction (0.1%) was generated by street sweepings. During the rainy season, 40% more waste was generated than in the dry season because of the increased availability of agricultural food product. Further analysis showed that biodegradable organic waste constitutes 54% by weight with an average moisture content of 60% that falls within the required limits for composting. The nonbiodegradable components constitute 46% of which 30% of it was nonrecyclable material. Only 25% of the community uses municipal containers for disposal at the selected landfill site. Fifty-one percent of the households disposed their waste in individually chosen spots, whereas 22% burned their waste. Finally 2% of households use private waste collectors. The socioeconomic analysis showed that higher family income and educational status is associated more with private or municipal waste collection and less with the application of backyard or open dumping. These insights into generated waste and management practice in Jimma city allow making suggestions for improved collection, treatment, and disposal methods. A primary conclusion is that the biodegradable waste is a major fraction having suitable properties for recycling. As such an economic benefit can be obtained from

  4. Making strides in women’s mental health care delivery in rural Ethiopia: demographics of a female outpatient psychiatric cohort at Jimma University Specialized Hospital (2006–2008)

    PubMed Central

    Chemali, Zeina N; Borba, Christina PC; Henderson, Tanya E; Tesfaye, Markos

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the delivery of mental health care to a sample of women living in Jimma, rural Ethiopia, and their access to mental health services. A total of 226 psychiatric charts were reviewed for women seen at Jimma University Specialized Hospital. The mental health charts included documentation ranging from one paragraph to a full note. No psychiatric chart recorded medication status, detailed substance abuse history, or a history of violence. Rendering appropriate mental health care for women requires concerted efforts by multiple stake holders. Using our results, we advance concrete and practical suggestions for improving women’s mental health in rural Ethiopia. We point out that the health care system needs to be responsive, allowing for change starting with gender rights, so that rural women have access to basic mental health services. PMID:23901297

  5. GOJJAM ZONE, WESTERN AMHARA, ETHIOPIA.

    PubMed

    Andualem, Mulusew

    2016-07-01

    Female genital mutilation is one of the harmful traditional practices among women and girls. More than 130 million girls and women live today who have undergone female genital mutilation. In Ethiopia, a high prevalence (74.3% national and 68.5% in Amhara region) has been reported. This study was aimed to identify determinant factors of female genital mutilation practices in East Gojjam Zone, Western Amhara, Ethiopia community based cross sectional study was conducted among 730 women aged 15-49 years and having children < 5 years old in September, 2014. Data were collected using a pretested interviewer administered questionnaire. Descriptive statistics were used to describe study objectives, and bivariate and multivariate analysis to identify determinant factors to female genital mutilation. 718 women and 805 daughters participated in the study. FGM prevalence was 689 (96%) and 403 (49%) among women and daughters< 5 years of age, respectively. Type1 and type 2 FGMs were common and daughters <1 years of age exhibited 91% female genital mutilation. Daughters' age, parent education level, residence, women circumcision history, culture, health education, frequent health extension workers follow up and participation in anti FGM interventions were risk factors to female genital mutilation practice. Female genital mutilation practices continues to be a major problem to women and daughter <5 years of age in the study area. A number of factors were associated with FGM practices including daughters’ age, parent education level, residence, health education, culture, mothers circumcision history, frequent health extensions workers follow up and participation in anti FGM interventions were determinants to higher FGM practices.

  6. Isolation of Intestinal Parasites of Public Health Importance from Cockroaches (Blattella germanica) in Jimma Town, Southwestern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Hamu, Haji; Debalke, Serkadis; Zemene, Endalew; Birlie, Belay; Mekonnen, Zeleke; Yewhalaw, Delenasaw

    2014-01-01

    Cockroaches are claimed to be mechanical transmitters of disease causing microorganisms such as intestinal parasites, bacteria, fungi, and viruses. This study assessed the potential of the German cockroach Blattella germanica in the mechanical transmission of intestinal parasites of public health importance. A total of 2010 cockroaches were collected from 404 households in Jimma Town, southwestern Ethiopia. All the collected cockroaches were identified to species as B. germanica. The contents of their gut and external body parts were examined for the presence of intestinal parasites. Overall, 152 (75.6%) of the 210 batches were found to harbor at least one species of human intestinal parasite. Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Taenia spp, Strongyloides-like parasite, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar/moshkovski, Giardia duodenalis and Balantidium coli were detected from gut contents. Moreover, parasites were also isolated from the external surface in 22 (10.95%) of the batches. There was significant difference in parasite carriage rate of the cockroaches among the study sites (P = 0.013). In conclusion, B. germanica was found to harbor intestinal parasites of public health importance. Hence, awareness on the potential role of cockroaches in the mechanical transmission of human intestinal parasites needs to be created. Moreover, further identification of the Strongyloides-like worm is required using molecular diagnostics.

  7. Are Cosmetics Used in Developing Countries Safe? Use and Dermal Irritation of Body Care Products in Jimma Town, Southwestern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Amasa, Wayessa; Santiago, Dante; Mekonen, Seblework; Ambelu, Argaw

    2012-01-01

    Background. Rabbit skin model was used to test skin irritation of the most commonly used cosmetic products in Jimma town, southwestern Ethiopia. The most commonly used cosmetics were Dove, Glysolid, College, Top Society, Fair and Lovely, Nivea, Lux, Magic fruit world, Solea, Body talk, Kris, Holly, Victoria, and Sweet Heart. Methods. Intact and abraded rabbit skins were tested for erythema and edema under shade and under sun exposure. Draize Primary Irritation Index (PII) was used to calculate skin irritation of each cosmetic. Cosmetic ingredients were analyzed from the labels. Results and Discussion. Only Dove cream caused no skin irritation except for an abraded skin under sun exposure for five consecutive days. It has been identified that application of cosmetics on abraded skin under sunny condition worsens the irritation. Cosmetic labels revealed that most ingredients used in all products were those restricted chemicals due to their adverse health effects. Conclusion. This study has concluded that use of cosmetics under sunshine and also on abraded skin increases skin irritation. Hence, those users who have abraded skin are advised not to apply those cosmetics on continuous basis specifically under sun exposure. PMID:23209460

  8. Public Stigma against People with Mental Illness in Jimma Town, Southwest Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Reta, Yared; Tesfaye, Markos; Girma, Eshetu; Dehning, Sandra; Adorjan, Kristina

    2016-01-01

    Stigma towards people with mental illness (PWMI) can result in low self-esteem and isolation and threaten employment. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the magnitude of public stigma against PWMI and factors associated with it among Jimma town residents. A community-based, cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted in adult residents of Jimma town. Data were collected among 820 randomly selected residents with the interviewer-administered Community Attitudes toward the Mentally Ill (CAMI) scale. Linear regression analyses were performed to identify predictors of stigma against PWMI. A total of 444 (54%) of the 820 respondents were females, and the mean (SD) age was 35 (8.5) years. The minimum and maximum possible values on each CAMI subscale were 10 and 50, respectively. The respondents had high scores for a stigmatizing attitude towards PWMI across all the subscales, as indicated by the mean (SD) scores: authoritarianism, 27.17 (4.96); social restrictiveness, 32.41 (4.20); benevolence, 35.34 (4.42); and community-based mental health ideology, 33.95 (5.82). Compared to housewives, private organization employees showed more autocratic and socially restrictive views (std. β = 1.12, P<0.01). Single people had a lower social restrictiveness stigma score than married people (std. β = -0.20, P<0.001), and participants' academic levels correlated inversely with the stigma score (std. β = -0.12, P<0.001). A higher benevolence stigma score was observed among participants with no relationship with PWMI than among those with PWMI in their neighborhood (std. β = 0.08, P< 0.046). The study revealed that a negative attitude towards PWMI is widespread. Therefore, there is a need to develop strategies to fight the stigma attached to PWMI at the community level.

  9. Public Stigma against People with Mental Illness in Jimma Town, Southwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Stigma towards people with mental illness (PWMI) can result in low self-esteem and isolation and threaten employment. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the magnitude of public stigma against PWMI and factors associated with it among Jimma town residents. Methods A community-based, cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted in adult residents of Jimma town. Data were collected among 820 randomly selected residents with the interviewer-administered Community Attitudes toward the Mentally Ill (CAMI) scale. Linear regression analyses were performed to identify predictors of stigma against PWMI. Result A total of 444 (54%) of the 820 respondents were females, and the mean (SD) age was 35 (8.5) years. The minimum and maximum possible values on each CAMI subscale were 10 and 50, respectively. The respondents had high scores for a stigmatizing attitude towards PWMI across all the subscales, as indicated by the mean (SD) scores: authoritarianism, 27.17 (4.96); social restrictiveness, 32.41 (4.20); benevolence, 35.34 (4.42); and community-based mental health ideology, 33.95 (5.82). Compared to housewives, private organization employees showed more autocratic and socially restrictive views (std. β = 1.12, P<0.01). Single people had a lower social restrictiveness stigma score than married people (std. β = -0.20, P<0.001), and participants’ academic levels correlated inversely with the stigma score (std. β = -0.12, P<0.001). A higher benevolence stigma score was observed among participants with no relationship with PWMI than among those with PWMI in their neighborhood (std. β = 0.08, P< 0.046). Conclusion The study revealed that a negative attitude towards PWMI is widespread. Therefore, there is a need to develop strategies to fight the stigma attached to PWMI at the community level. PMID:27893745

  10. Reasons and outcomes of admissions to the medical wards of jimma university specialized hospital, southwest ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Ali, Elias; Woldie, Mirkuzie

    2010-07-01

    Non-communicable diseases are the main reasons for admission to the medical wards in high-income countries. While in low and middle income countries communicable diseases are the main reasons for admission to the medical wards. However, in some low and middle income countries the reasons for admission are changing from communicable diseases to non-communicable diseases. But, data on reasons for admission to the medical wards of low income countries is scarce. Therefore, this study takes one year data from a low income country referral hospital aiming at describing the recent reasons and outcomes of medical admissions to see whether there is a change in reasons for admission and the outcome. A retrospective study examined patient case notes and ward registration books of medical admissions at Jimma University Specialized Hospital from January 1, 2008 to December 31, 2008. Socio-demographic variables, reasons and outcomes of admission were some of the variables recorded during the data collection. The International Statistical Classification of Disease was used for sorting and categorizing the diagnosis. The data was then analyzed using SPSS windows version 13.0. A total of 610 patient case notes were reviewed. The mean age of the patients was 36 years (SD ± 15.75). The highest number of admissions 218 (35.7%) was among the age groups 21 to 30 years. Communicable diseases; namely severe community acquired pneumonia 139(22.8%), all infectious and parasitic diseases category 100 (16.4%), and pyogenic as well as chronic meningitis 80(13.1%) were the most common reasons for admission. The death rate among patients admitted to the medical wards was 12.6%. Communicable diseases were still the common reasons for medical admissions at Jimma University Specialized Hospital. The outcome of medical admissions has not changed over sixteen years.

  11. Predictors of preoperative anxiety among surgical patients in Jimma University Specialized Teaching Hospital, South Western Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Hospitalization and surgery are critical negative life events that lead to the experience of considerable anxiety in patients. Patients may perceive the day of surgery as the biggest and the most threatening day in their lives. There is paucity of information on predictors of anxiety in the current study area. The main objective of this study is to assess predictors of preoperative anxiety among patients scheduled for surgery in Jimma University Specialized Teaching Hospital. Methods A facility based cross-sectional study was conducted using quantitative data collection technique in Jimma University Specialized Teaching Hospital from February 13 to April 13, 2012 on 239 patients scheduled for surgery. The data were collected by five trained diploma nurses using structured interviewer administered questionnaires that were prepared based on state trait anxiety inventory measurement scale. The quantitative data were entered into SPSS for windows version 16. 0 and descriptive, simple and multiple linear regression analyses were performed. Results A total of 239 patients were enrolled in the study with a response rate of 93.0%. Their mean age was 42.7 ± 1.8 years (range 16 to 85 years). Nearly over half 53.6% were females, while 48.1% illiterate, 72.4% Oromo and 56.5% were Muslim followers. Significant preoperative anxiety was seen in 70.3% patients. The most common factors that lead to anxiety were fear of death 38.1% and fear of unknown origin 24.3% and the most common strategy mentioned by patient in reducing anxiety were talking to other patient 79.8% and religious belief. Conclusions In the present study, two third 70.3% of preoperative patients had anxiety. Factors which were positively correlated with anxiety were trait anxiety, single and divorced, time of operation and income. Factors which were shown to reduce anxiety were preoperative anxiety related information provision and afternoon operation. Health professionals working in the hospital

  12. Metabolic syndrome and associated factors among psychiatric patients in Jimma University Specialized Hospital, South West Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Asaye, Sintayehu; Bekele, Shiferaw; Tolessa, Daniel; Cheneke, Waqtola

    2018-04-24

    Metabolic syndrome is a multisystem disorder which coined to describe the recognized clustering of metabolic and cardiovascular abnormalities including obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and abnormalities of glucose homeostasis. To assess the prevalence and associated factors of metabolic syndrome among psychiatric patients in Jimma University Specialized Hospital. This study was conducted at Jimma University Specialized hospital psychiatric ward from May 15 to July 16, 2015. A cross-sectional study design and consecutive sampling technique were used. A single population proportion formula was used to include a total of 360 psychiatric patients. An interview administered structured questionnaire was used to collect socio-demographic and some clinical data. Anthropometric data were collected based on standard guild line for anthropometric measurement. Five milliliter of venous blood was collected from ante-cubital fossa after overnight fasting for 8 h. Semi-automated clinical chemistry analyzer (Temis Linear) was used for biochemical laboratory analysis. Data analysis was performed by using SPSS version-20 software. Binary and multiple logistic regressions were used to identify the association between dependent and independent variables. P value less than 0.05 was taken as statistically significant association. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome among psychiatric patients was 28.9%. Age greater than 30 years old (AOR: 5.2, CI: 2.3, 11.8, P. value < 0.05); being female (AOR: 7.1, CI: 3.3, 15.2, P. value < 0.05); regularly eating high protein and fat (AOR: 3.3, CI: 1.3, 8.2, P. value < 0.056) were independent determinant variables for high prevalence of metabolic syndrome among diabetic patients in the study area. The other independent variables such as family history of hypertension, chewing chat, Psychotropic drugs, duration of treatment, regularly eating fruits and vegetables had no statistically significant association with metabolic syndrome (P

  13. Microbial load and safety of paper currencies from some food vendors in Jimma Town, Southwest Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Girma, Gosa; Ketema, Tsige; Bacha, Ketema

    2014-11-25

    Paper currency is used for every type of commerce and plays an important role in the life of human beings. However, the combination of its widespread use and constant exchange make paper currency a likely agent for disease transmission. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the microbial load and safety of Ethiopian paper currencies collected from some food vendors in Jimma town. Standard microbiological methods were used for the enumeration of various microbial groups, isolation and characterization of pathogenic bacteria and their growth potential in selected weaning foods. A total of 100 samples of Ethiopian paper currencies, consisting of five denominations, from street food venders, hotels and cafeterias in Jimma town were collected aseptically. Sterile cotton swabs moistened with buffered peptone water solution were used for swabbing and the swabs were separately soaked into 10 ml sterile buffered peptone water solution. Mean microbial counts of Aerobic mesophilic bacteria, Staphylococci, Enterobacteriaceae, coliforms and Aerobic bacterial spores were (log CFU/cm2) 6.32, 4.43, 3.14, 2.98 and 3.78, respectively. However, mean counts of Yeasts and Moulds were below detectable levels. There was statistically significant variation (p<0.05) among the mean counts of microbes isolated from samples of paper currencies. The predominantly isolated microbial groups were Staphylococcus spp. (34.06%) followed by Bacillus spp. (31.88%), Enterobacteraceae (13.39%), Micrococcus spp. (9.55%) and Streptococcus spp. (9.03%). Overall, 25% and 10% of the samples were positive for S. aureus and Salmonella spp, respectively. In challenge study, Salmonella spp. and S. aureus reached the infective dose within 12 to 18 hours of inoculation. Thus, paper currencies could be considered as one of the possible vehicles for transmission of disease causing microorganisms. Poor handling practices and personal hygiene of the food vendors could contribute to the observed microbial counts

  14. Knowledge, attitude and practice of emergency contraceptive among women who seek abortion care at Jimma University specialized hospital, southwest Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Tesfaye, Tatek; Tilahun, Tizta; Girma, Eshetu

    2012-03-12

    In Ethiopia maternal mortality rate is very high more than one in five women die from pregnancy or pregnancy related causes. The use of contraceptives to prevent unwanted pregnancies and unsafe abortion is an important strategy to minimize maternal mortality rate. Among various forms of contraception, emergency contraceptives are the only one that can be used after sexual intercourse offering chance to prevent unwanted pregnancy. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of emergency contraceptive among women who seek abortion care at Jimma University specialized hospital (JUSH). Institution base cross-sectional study on knowledge, attitude and practice of emergency contraceptive was conducted at JUSH from April to June, 2011 Data was collected using structured questionnaire and analyzed using SPSS version 17.0. In this study 89 women were interviewed. More than half of them (48) were from urban area and 41 were from rural area.46 (51.7%) of them were single. Of all the respondents only nine women had awareness about emergency contraceptive. Seven of the women mentioned pills as emergency contraception and only two of them mentioned both pills and injectable as emergency contraception. All of them have positive attitude towards emergency contraception but none of them have ever used emergency contraceptives. The finding revealed pregnancy among women of 15-19 years was very common. The knowledge and practice of emergency contraception is very low. But there is high positive attitude towards emergency contraceptives. Since there is much deficit on knowledge of women on emergency contraceptives, in addition to making them accessible; programs targeted at promotion and education of emergency contraceptives is helpful to prevent unwanted pregnancy.

  15. Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices of Animal Bite Victims Attending an Anti-rabies Health Center in Jimma Town, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Kabeta, Tadele; Deresa, Benti; Tigre, Worku; Ward, Michael P; Mor, Siobhan M

    2015-01-01

    Rabies is an important but preventable cause of death in Ethiopia. We assessed the knowledge, attitudes and practices of animal bite victims attending an anti-rabies health center in Jimma Town, Ethiopia. Between July 2012 and March 2013 a cross-sectional questionnaire was administered to 384 bite victims or their guardians in the case of minors (aged <15 years). Factors associated with knowledge, attitudes and practices were evaluated using generalized linear models. Almost all participants (99%) were aware that rabies was transmitted by the bite or lick of a rabid dog, however only 20.1% identified "germs" as the cause of disease. A majority of participants stated rabies could be prevented by avoiding dog bites (64.6%) and confining dogs (53.9%); fewer (41.7%) recognized vaccination of dogs/cats as an important preventive strategy. Regarding attitudes, most (91.1%) agreed that medical evaluation should be sought as soon as possible. However, most (75.0%) also believed that traditional healers could cure rabies. Rural residence (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 2.1, p = 0.015) and Protestant religion (OR = 2.4, p = 0.041) were independently associated with this belief. Among 186 participants who owned dogs, only 9 (4.8%) had ever vaccinated their dog and more than 90% of respondents indicated that their dog was free-roaming or cohabitated with the family. Only 7.0% of participants applied correct first aid following exposure, and the majority (47.7%) reported that the animal was killed by the community following the incident. Female sex and Muslim religion were independently associated with higher and lower practices scores, respectively, due largely to differences in animal management practices following the incident. Although respondents demonstrated reasonably sound knowledge of rabies and its transmission, attitudes and practices were inconsistent with rabies prevention. Culturally- and gender-sensitive activities that promote proper first aid and healthcare seeking

  16. Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices of Animal Bite Victims Attending an Anti-rabies Health Center in Jimma Town, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Kabeta, Tadele; Deresa, Benti; Tigre, Worku; Ward, Michael P.; Mor, Siobhan M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Rabies is an important but preventable cause of death in Ethiopia. We assessed the knowledge, attitudes and practices of animal bite victims attending an anti-rabies health center in Jimma Town, Ethiopia. Methodology/Principal Findings Between July 2012 and March 2013 a cross-sectional questionnaire was administered to 384 bite victims or their guardians in the case of minors (aged <15 years). Factors associated with knowledge, attitudes and practices were evaluated using generalized linear models. Almost all participants (99%) were aware that rabies was transmitted by the bite or lick of a rabid dog, however only 20.1% identified “germs” as the cause of disease. A majority of participants stated rabies could be prevented by avoiding dog bites (64.6%) and confining dogs (53.9%); fewer (41.7%) recognized vaccination of dogs/cats as an important preventive strategy. Regarding attitudes, most (91.1%) agreed that medical evaluation should be sought as soon as possible. However, most (75.0%) also believed that traditional healers could cure rabies. Rural residence (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 2.1, p = 0.015) and Protestant religion (OR = 2.4, p = 0.041) were independently associated with this belief. Among 186 participants who owned dogs, only 9 (4.8%) had ever vaccinated their dog and more than 90% of respondents indicated that their dog was free-roaming or cohabitated with the family. Only 7.0% of participants applied correct first aid following exposure, and the majority (47.7%) reported that the animal was killed by the community following the incident. Female sex and Muslim religion were independently associated with higher and lower practices scores, respectively, due largely to differences in animal management practices following the incident. Conclusions/Significance Although respondents demonstrated reasonably sound knowledge of rabies and its transmission, attitudes and practices were inconsistent with rabies prevention. Culturally- and gender

  17. Prevalence and intensity of soil transmitted helminths among school children of Mendera Elementary School, Jimma, Southwest Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Tefera, Ephrem; Belay, Tariku; Mekonnen, Seleshi Kebede; Zeynudin, Ahmed; Belachew, Tefera

    2017-01-01

    Soil transmitted helminths are wide spread in developing countries and in Ethiopia the prevalence of STHs varies in different parts of the country. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and intensity of soil transmitted helminths among school children of Mendera Elementary School Jimma town, Southwestern Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was conducted between March 29 and April 9, 2010 to determine the prevalence and intensity of soil transmitted helminths among elementary school children. The study participants were randomly selected from class enrollment list after proportional allocation of the total sample size to each grade. Data about the background characteristics were collected using structured questionnaire. The stool samples were examined by McMaster method for the egg count which was used to determine intensity of infection. Data were analyzed using SPSS for windows version 16 and p-value less than 5% was considered as statistically significant. Of the total 715 stool specimens examined, 346 were positive for at least one intestinal parasite making the prevalence 48.4%. The most prevalent parasites were Ascaris lumbricoides 169 (23.6%) and Trichuris trichiura 165 (23.1%). The prevalence of soil transmitted helminth in this study was 45.6% (326/715). There was statistically significant difference in the prevalence of Trichuriasis between those who use latrine always and who use sometimes (p = 0.010). Females are two times more likely to be positive for Ascaris than males (p = 0.039). Majority of the students had light infection of soil transmitted helminths and none of them had heavy intensity of infection of Trichuriasis and hookworms. Nearly half of the school children were infected with at least one STHs and majority of the students had light infection of soil transmitted helminths. Students who did not wash their hands after defecation were three times more likely to be positive for Ascaris infection than those who washed their hands

  18. Prevalence and intensity of soil transmitted helminths among school children of Mendera Elementary School, Jimma, Southwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Tefera, Ephrem; Belay, Tariku; Mekonnen, Seleshi Kebede; Zeynudin, Ahmed; Belachew, Tefera

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Soil transmitted helminths are wide spread in developing countries and in Ethiopia the prevalence of STHs varies in different parts of the country. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and intensity of soil transmitted helminths among school children of Mendera Elementary School Jimma town, Southwestern Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted between March 29 and April 9, 2010 to determine the prevalence and intensity of soil transmitted helminths among elementary school children. The study participants were randomly selected from class enrollment list after proportional allocation of the total sample size to each grade. Data about the background characteristics were collected using structured questionnaire. The stool samples were examined by McMaster method for the egg count which was used to determine intensity of infection. Data were analyzed using SPSS for windows version 16 and p-value less than 5% was considered as statistically significant. Results Of the total 715 stool specimens examined, 346 were positive for at least one intestinal parasite making the prevalence 48.4%. The most prevalent parasites were Ascaris lumbricoides 169 (23.6%) and Trichuris trichiura 165 (23.1%). The prevalence of soil transmitted helminth in this study was 45.6% (326/715). There was statistically significant difference in the prevalence of Trichuriasis between those who use latrine always and who use sometimes (p = 0.010). Females are two times more likely to be positive for Ascaris than males (p = 0.039). Majority of the students had light infection of soil transmitted helminths and none of them had heavy intensity of infection of Trichuriasis and hookworms. Conclusion Nearly half of the school children were infected with at least one STHs and majority of the students had light infection of soil transmitted helminths. Students who did not wash their hands after defecation were three times more likely to be positive for Ascaris

  19. Attitude of Medical Students towards Psychiatry: The case of Jimma University, Southwest Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Hailesilassie, Hailemariam; Kerebih, Habtamu; Negash, Alemayehu; Girma, Eshetu; Siebeck, Mathias; Tesfaye, Markos

    2017-05-01

    The inability to attract medical graduates to specialize in psychiatry has always been a serious challenge to psychiatry training programs. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the attitude of medical students towards psychiatry. A comparative cross-sectional survey was conducted among 122 fourth year medical students of Jimma University. The attitude of medical students towards psychiatry was measured by Attitude toward Psychiatry - 30 (ATP-30). The collected Data were analyzed by SPSS version-20 using independent samples t-test plus bivariate and multivariate logistic regression. The level of significance was determined at 95% confidence interval. Medical students who did not take psychiatry clinical rotation had a higher ATP-30 mean score 55.52(±15.2) indicating positive attitude towards psychiatry than those who completed psychiatry clinical rotation (mean= 49.75 ±10.67). Female medical students had significantly more positive attitude towards psychiatry than males (OR=9.23, 95% CI: 2.32; 36.76). Medical students who did not take psychiatry clinical rotation had more positive attitude towards psychiatry than students who completed the psychiatry clinical rotation (OR=7.58, 95% CI: 2.02; 28.37). Subjective experience of mental illness and reported family history of mental illness significantly predicted positive attitude toward psychiatry. The findings suggest that doing psychiatry rotation might have affected the attitude of medical students towards psychiatry. Future research should assess the experiential factors during psychiatry training of medical students that affect their attitudes. Also, future research needs to evaluate the attitudes of fourth year medical students before and after their psychiatry clinical rotation.

  20. Visual impairment and road traffic accidents among drivers in Jimma Town, Southwest Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Biza, Mohamed; Mossie, Andualem; Woldemichael, Kifle; Gelaw, Yeshigeta

    2013-04-01

    Vision play a vital role in driving where good and efficient visual functioning of the driver is essential. Any significant loss of visual function will diminish a driver's ability to operate a motor vehicle safely and will thus contribute to road traffic injury. However, there is little evidence indicating that defects of vision alone cause road traffic accidents. To determine the impact of visual impairment and other factors on road traffic accident among vehicle drivers. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted on 249 sampled drivers in Southwest Ethiopia. A pretested interviewer led questionnaire was used for interview and vision tests were done using Snellen's acuity chart and Ishihara pseudo-isochromatic plates. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS version 16.0. The mean age of drivers was 33.6 years (SD +/- 10.3). The relative frequency of self reported road traffic accident was 15.3%. The prevalence of uncorrected binocular visual impairment was 1.6% and there was a significant association between visual impairment and road traffic accident (P < 0.05). Uncorrected refractive error was seen in 7.6% and 8.8% of drivers in the right and left eyes respectively, and 3.2% of them had vision less than what is required to obtain driving license (visual acuity of 6/12). None of the drivers with refractive errors were wearing appropriate corrections. Color vision impairment was seen in 1.6% of the drivers. A significant proportion (9.6%) of the drivers did not have eye exam for their driving license. Uncorrected binocular visual impairment was strongly associated with road traffic accident. There is need for consistent inspection and screening, strict rules and regulations of licensing and health education for drivers to minimize road traffic accident.

  1. Prevalence and phenotypic characterization of Enterococcus species isolated from clinical samples of pediatric patients in Jimma University Specialized Hospital, south west Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Toru, Milkiyas; Beyene, Getnet; Kassa, Tesfaye; Gizachew, Zeleke; Howe, Rawleigh; Yeshitila, Biruk

    2018-05-08

    This study was done to determine the prevalence and phenotypic characterization of Enterococcus species isolated from clinical samples of pediatric patients in Jimma University Specialized Hospital, Southwest Ethiopia. The overall prevalence of Enterococci species was 5.5% (22/403). Five (22.7%) of Enterococci species were vancomycin resistant. Haemolysin, gelatinase and biofilm production was seen among 45.5, 68.2 and 77.3% of isolates respectively. The overall rate of antibiotic resistance was 95.5% (21/22). High resistance was observed against norfloxacin (87.5%), and tetracycline (77.3%). Whereas, low resistance (36.5%) was observed against ciprofloxacin and eighteen (80.8%) of the isolates were multi-drug resistant.

  2. Mean Normal Portal Vein Diameter Using Sonography among Clients Coming to Radiology Department of Jimma University Hospital, Southwest Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Geleto, Gemechu; Getnet, Wondim; Tewelde, Tsegaye

    2016-05-01

    Mean portal vein diameter is considered as the best indicator for portal hypertension. However, the cutoff point differs from study to study (above 10-15 mm) despite the existence of normal mean portal vein diameter between 10-15 mm in different settings.This implies the existence of limited evidence on normal portal vein diameter for all populations in all countries prior to setting the cutoff points. Therefore, the aim of this study was sonographic assessment of normal mean portal vein diameter among patients referred to The Department of Radiology in Jimma University Hospital. A facility based cross-sectional study was conducted from November to December 2014 at Jimma University Hospital on a total of 195 clients. Data about portal vein diameter for eligible clients were collected by radiologists using Sonography. Data were edited manually, entered and analyzed using SPSS version 16. Data were collected from a total of 195 participants. Among these, 121(62.1%) were males and the median age of the participants was 35 years. The study revealed a normal mean portal vein diameter of 10.6 mm ±1.8 SD with a respirophasic variation of 25.6%. Likewise, the normal mean portal vein diameter seemed to have varied significantly by age and sex. The study revealed a normal mean portal vein diameter ranging below 13 mm. Hence, decisions made in clinical settings should base on these findings. Besides, there is a need for large scale study to determine portal vein diameter variation by age and sex, controlling other confounders.

  3. Therapeutic efficacy of different brands of albendazole against soil transmitted helminths among students of Mendera Elementary School, Jimma, Southwest Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Tefera, Ephrem; Belay, Tariku; Mekonnen, Seleshi Kebede; Zeynudin, Ahmed; Belachew, Tefera

    2015-01-01

    Different brands Albendazole are commercially available and the efficacious brand/s is/are required for effective control of STHs infection. Thus, this study is aimed at determining the therapeutic efficacy of different brands of albendazole against soil transmitted helminths among school children of Jimma town. A cross sectional survey for prevalence of geohelminths and a randomized trial for efficacy study of different brands of albendazole was conducted among students Mendera Elementary School from March 29 to April 29, 2010. Positive subjects were randomized into three treatment arms using lottery method. The collected stool samples were examined by the McMaster method. CRs were calculated using SPSS windows version 16 and ERRs were calculated using appropriate formula. Of the 715 school children who had their stools examined, 326 were positive for STHs with a prevalence rate of 45.6%. The cure rates (CR) for A. lumbricoides, T. trichiura and Hookworm were 99.4, 59.9 and 93.7%, respectively. Similarly, the egg reduction rates (ERR) were 97, 99.9 and 99.9% respectively. A statistical significant mean STH egg count difference were observed between pre and post-intervention study (p <0.001). But no statistical significant curing effect difference were observed among the three brands used against the three STHs (p >0.05). All the three brands of Albendazole tested regardless of the brand type were therapeutically efficacious for Ascariasis, Trichuriasis and Hookworm infections irrespective of the infection status whether it was single or multiple.

  4. Assessment of Efficacy and Quality of Two Albendazole Brands Commonly Used against Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infections in School Children in Jimma Town, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Belew, Sileshi; Getachew, Mestawet; Suleman, Sultan; Mohammed, Tesfaye; Deti, Habetewold; D'Hondt, Matthias; Wynendaele, Evelien; Mekonnen, Zeleke; Vercruysse, Jozef; Duchateau, Luc; De Spiegeleer, Bart; Levecke, Bruno

    2015-09-01

    There is a worldwide upscale in mass drug administration (MDA) programs to control the morbidity caused by soil-transmitted helminths (STHs): Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworm. Although anthelminthic drugs which are used for MDA are supplied by two pharmaceutical companies through donation, there is a wide range of brands available on local markets for which the efficacy against STHs and quality remain poorly explored. In the present study, we evaluated the drug efficacy and quality of two albendazole brands (Bendex and Ovis) available on the local market in Ethiopia. A randomized clinical trial was conducted according to the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines to assess drug efficacy, by means of egg reduction rate (ERR), of Bendex and Ovis against STH infections in school children in Jimma, Ethiopia. In addition, the chemical and physicochemical quality of the drugs was assessed according to the United States and European Pharmacopoeia, encompassing mass uniformity of the tablets, amount of active compound and dissolution profile. Both drugs were highly efficacious against A. lumbricoides (>97%), but showed poor efficacy against T. trichiura (~20%). For hookworms, Ovis was significantly (p < 0.05) more efficacious compared to Bendex (98.1% vs. 88.7%). Assessment of the physicochemical quality of the drugs revealed a significant difference in dissolution profile, with Bendex having a slower dissolution than Ovis. The study revealed that differences in efficacy between the two brands of albendazole (ABZ) tablets against hookworm are linked to the differences in the in-vitro drug release profile. Differences in uptake and metabolism of this benzimidazole drug among different helminth species may explain that this efficacy difference was only observed in hookworms and not in the two other species. The results of the present study underscore the importance of assessing the chemical and physicochemical quality of drugs before conducting

  5. Assessment of Efficacy and Quality of Two Albendazole Brands Commonly Used against Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infections in School Children in Jimma Town, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Suleman, Sultan; Mohammed, Tesfaye; Deti, Habetewold; D'Hondt, Matthias; Wynendaele, Evelien; Mekonnen, Zeleke; Vercruysse, Jozef; Duchateau, Luc; De Spiegeleer, Bart; Levecke, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Background There is a worldwide upscale in mass drug administration (MDA) programs to control the morbidity caused by soil-transmitted helminths (STHs): Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworm. Although anthelminthic drugs which are used for MDA are supplied by two pharmaceutical companies through donation, there is a wide range of brands available on local markets for which the efficacy against STHs and quality remain poorly explored. In the present study, we evaluated the drug efficacy and quality of two albendazole brands (Bendex and Ovis) available on the local market in Ethiopia. Methodology/Principal Findings A randomized clinical trial was conducted according to the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines to assess drug efficacy, by means of egg reduction rate (ERR), of Bendex and Ovis against STH infections in school children in Jimma, Ethiopia. In addition, the chemical and physicochemical quality of the drugs was assessed according to the United States and European Pharmacopoeia, encompassing mass uniformity of the tablets, amount of active compound and dissolution profile. Both drugs were highly efficacious against A. lumbricoides (>97%), but showed poor efficacy against T. trichiura (~20%). For hookworms, Ovis was significantly (p < 0.05) more efficacious compared to Bendex (98.1% vs. 88.7%). Assessment of the physicochemical quality of the drugs revealed a significant difference in dissolution profile, with Bendex having a slower dissolution than Ovis. Conclusion/Significance The study revealed that differences in efficacy between the two brands of albendazole (ABZ) tablets against hookworm are linked to the differences in the in-vitro drug release profile. Differences in uptake and metabolism of this benzimidazole drug among different helminth species may explain that this efficacy difference was only observed in hookworms and not in the two other species. The results of the present study underscore the importance of assessing the

  6. Prevalence of Malnutrition and Associated Factors among Hospitalized Patients with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome in Jimma University Specialized Hospital, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Mulu, Habtamu; Hamza, Leja; Alemseged, Fesehaye

    2016-05-01

    HIV/AIDS predisposes to malnutrition. Malnutrition exacerbates HIV/AIDS progression resulting in increased morbidity and mortality. The magnitude of malnutrition in HIV/AIDS patients has not been well studied in Ethiopian setup. Our objective was to assess the prevalence of malnutrition and associated factors among HIV/AIDS patients admitted to Jimma University Specialized Hospital (JUSH). A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the nutritional status of 109 HIV/AIDS patients admitted from November 2013 to July 2014. Cohort design was also used for outcome assessment. Serum levels of hemoglobin, albumin and CD4 counts were determined. Data were organized, coded, cleaned, entered into a computer and analyzed using SPSS version 16.0. Descriptive analysis was done initially. Those variables in the bivariate analysis with P-value < 0.25 were then considered as candidates to be included in the multivariable logistic regression model. A P-vale of < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. The mean age of the patients was 32.7±8.12 with male to female ratio of 1:1.9. Patients were in either clinical stage, 3(46.8%), or stage, 4(53.2%). Forty nine (45%) of the respondents had a CD4 count of < 200 cells/µL. The overall prevalence of malnutrition was 46.8% (BMI<18.5kg/m2) and 44.1% (MUAC≤ 20cm). Eighty four (77.1%) of the patients had a serum albumin level of ≤3.5g/dl while 76 (69.6%) of the patients had anemia (Hg<12g/dl). The prevalence of malnutrition was found to be high. WHO Stage 4 disease and CD4 count <200cells/µl were independent predictors of malnutrition.

  7. Therapeutic efficacy of different brands of albendazole against soil transmitted helminths among students of Mendera Elementary School, Jimma, Southwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Tefera, Ephrem; Belay, Tariku; Mekonnen, Seleshi Kebede; Zeynudin, Ahmed; Belachew, Tefera

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Different brands Albendazole are commercially available and the efficacious brand/s is/are required for effective control of STHs infection. Thus, this study is aimed at determining the therapeutic efficacy of different brands of albendazole against soil transmitted helminths among school children of Jimma town. Methods A cross sectional survey for prevalence of geohelminths and a randomized trial for efficacy study of different brands of albendazole was conducted among students Mendera Elementary School from March 29 to April 29, 2010. Positive subjects were randomized into three treatment arms using lottery method. The collected stool samples were examined by the McMaster method. CRs were calculated using SPSS windows version 16 and ERRs were calculated using appropriate formula. Results Of the 715 school children who had their stools examined, 326 were positive for STHs with a prevalence rate of 45.6%. The cure rates (CR) for A. lumbricoides, T. trichiura and Hookworm were 99.4, 59.9 and 93.7%, respectively. Similarly, the egg reduction rates (ERR) were 97, 99.9 and 99.9% respectively. A statistical significant mean STH egg count difference were observed between pre and post-intervention study (p <0.001). But no statistical significant curing effect difference were observed among the three brands used against the three STHs (p >0.05). Conclusion All the three brands of Albendazole tested regardless of the brand type were therapeutically efficacious for Ascariasis, Trichuriasis and Hookworm infections irrespective of the infection status whether it was single or multiple. PMID:26958115

  8. Pathogen group specific risk factors for clinical mastitis, intramammary infection and blind quarters at the herd, cow and quarter level in smallholder dairy farms in Jimma, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Tolosa, T; Verbeke, J; Ayana, Z; Piepers, S; Supré, K; De Vliegher, S

    2015-07-01

    A cross-sectional study on clinical mastitis, intramammary infection (IMI) and blind quarters was conducted on 50 smallholder dairy farms in Jimma, Ethiopia. A questionnaire was performed, and quarters of 211 cows were sampled and bacteriologically cultured. Risk factors at the herd, cow, and quarter level for clinical mastitis and (pathogen-specific) intramammary infection were studied using multilevel modeling. As well, factors associated with quarters being blind were studied. Eleven percent of the cows and 4% of the quarters had clinical mastitis whereas 85% of the cows and 51% of the quarters were infected. Eighteen percent of the cows had one or more blind quarter(s), whereas 6% of the quarters was blind. Non-aureus staphylococci were the most frequently isolated pathogens in both clinical mastitis cases and IMI. The odds of clinical mastitis was lower in herds where heifers were purchased in the last year [odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval: 0.11 (0.01-0.90)], old cows (>4 years) [OR: 0.45 (0.18-1.14)], and quarters not showing teat injury [OR: 0.23 (0.07-0.77)]. The odds of IMI caused by any pathogen was higher in herds not practicing teat drying before milking (opposed to drying teats with 1 towel per cow) [OR: 1.68 (1.05-2.69)], cows in later lactation (>180 DIM opposed to ≤90 DIM) [OR: 1.81 (1.14-2.88)], cows with a high (>3) body condition score (BCS) [OR: 1.57 (1.06-2.31)], right quarters (opposed to a left quarter position) [OR: 1.47 (1.10-1.98)], and quarters showing teat injury [OR: 2.30 (0.97-5.43)]. Quarters of cows in herds practicing bucket-fed calf feeding (opposed to suckling) had higher odds of IMI caused by Staphylococcus aureus [OR: 6.05 (1.31-27.90)]. Except for BCS, IMI caused by non-aureus staphylococci was associated with the same risk factors as IMI caused by any pathogen. No access to feed and water immediately after milking [OR: 2.41 (1.26-4.60)], higher parity [OR: 3.60 (1.20-10.82)] and tick infestation [OR: 2.42 (1

  9. Periocular cutaneous anthrax in Jimma Zone, Southwest Ethiopia: a case series

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Anthrax is a zoonotic disease caused by Bacillus anthracis. Naturally occurring human infection is rare and is generally the result of contact with anthrax-infected animals or animal products. Case presentation We examined three patients who had contact with presumed anthrax-infected animal and/or its product and presented with preseptal cellulitis with a localized itchy erythematous papule of the eyelid and non-pitting periorbital edema, followed by ulceration and dark eschar formation. All the three patients responded to intravenous antibiotics, and the lesion resolved leaving scars which caused cicatricial ectropion in all cases. Conclusion Anthrax is a rare disease but should be considered in the differential diagnosis of ulcerative (and eschar forming) preseptal cellulitis with a history of contact with anthrax-infected animals or animal products. Furthermore, cicatrization of the eyelids, one of the sequelae of periocular cutaneous anthrax, should be addressed. Urgent case report to the local zoonotic disease and infection control body and other responsible authorities is recommended. PMID:23924443

  10. The effect of isoniazid preventive therapy on incidence of tuberculosis among HIV-infected clients under pre-ART care, Jimma, Ethiopia: a retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Assebe, Lelisa Fekadu; Reda, Hailemariam Lemma; Wubeneh, Alem Desta; Lerebo, Wondwossen Terefe; Lambert, Saba Maria

    2015-04-10

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a major public health problem that accounts for almost half a million human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) associated deaths. Provision of isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) is one of the public health interventions for the prevention of TB in HIV infected individuals. However, in Ethiopia, the coverage and implementation of IPT is limited. The objective of this study is to compare the incidence rate of TB, TB-free survival time and identify factors associated with development TB among HIV-infected individuals on pre-ART follow up. A retrospective cohort study was conducted from January, 2008 to February 31, 2012 in Jimma hospital. Kaplan-Meier survival plots were used to calculate the crude effect in both groups on TB-free survival probabilities and compared using the log rank test. A Cox proportional hazard model was used to identify predictors of TB. A total of 588 patients on pre-ART care (294 IPT and 294 non-IPT group) were followed retrospectively for a median duration of 24.1 months. The median CD4 (+) cell count was 422 cells/μl (IQR 344-589). During the follow up period, 49 individuals were diagnosed with tuberculosis, giving an overall incidence of 3.78 cases per 100 person year (PY). The incidence rate of TB was 5.06 per 100 PY in non-IPT group and 2.22 per 100 PY in IPT user group. Predictors of higher TB risk were: being on clinical WHO stage III/IV (adjusted hazard ratio (AHR = 3.05, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.61, 5.81); non-IPT user (AHR = 2.02, 95% CI: 1.04, 3.92); having CD4 (+) cell count less than 350 cells/μl (AHR = 3.16, 95% CI: 1.04, 3.92) and between 350-499 cells/μl, (AHR = 2.87; 95% CI: 1.37-6.03) and having episode of opportunistic infection (OI) in the past (AHR = 2.41, 95% CI: 1.33-4.34). IPT use was associated with fifty percent reduction in new cases of tuberculosis and probability of developing TB was higher in non-IPT group. Implementing the widespread use of IPT has the potential to

  11. Indoor air bacterial load and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of isolates in operating rooms and surgical wards at jimma university specialized hospital, southwest ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Genet, Chalachew; Kibru, Gebre; Tsegaye, Wondewosen

    2011-03-01

    Surgical site infection is the second most common health care associated infection. One of the risk factors for such infection is bacterial contamination of operating rooms' and surgical wards' indoor air. In view of that, the microbiological quality of air can be considered as a mirror of the hygienic condition of these rooms. Thus, the objective of this study was to determine the bacterial load and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of isolates in operating rooms' and surgical wards' indoor air of Jimma University Specialized Hospital. A cross sectional study was conducted to measure indoor air microbial quality of operating rooms and surgical wards from October to January 2009/2010 on 108 indoor air samples collected in twelve rounds using purposive sampling technique by Settle Plate Method (Passive Air Sampling following 1/1/1 Schedule). Sample processing and antimicrobial susceptibility testing were done following standard bacteriological techniques. The data was analyzed using SPSS version 16 and interpreted according to scientifically determined baseline values initially suggested by Fisher. The mean aerobic colony counts obtained in OR-1(46cfu/hr) and OR-2(28cfu/hr) was far beyond the set 5-8cfu/hr acceptable standards for passive room. Similarly the highest mean aerobic colony counts of 465cfu/hr and 461cfu/hr were observed in Female room-1 and room-2 respectively when compared to the acceptable range of 250-450cfu/hr. In this study only 3 isolates of S. pyogenes and 48 isolates of S. aureus were identified. Over 66% of S. aureus was identified in Critical Zone of Operating rooms. All isolates of S. aureus showed 100% and 82.8% resistance to methicillin and ampicillin respectively. Higher degree of aerobic bacterial load was measured from operating rooms' and surgical wards' indoor air. Reducing foot trafficking, improving the ventilation system and routine cleaning has to be made to maintain the aerobic bacteria load with in optimal level.

  12. Comparison of Kato-Katz thick-smear and McMaster egg counting method for the assessment of drug efficacy against soil-transmitted helminthiasis in school children in Jimma Town, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Bekana, Teshome; Mekonnen, Zeleke; Zeynudin, Ahmed; Ayana, Mio; Getachew, Mestawet; Vercruysse, Jozef; Levecke, Bruno

    2015-10-01

    There is a paucity of studies that compare efficacy of drugs obtained by different diagnostic methods. We compared the efficacy of a single oral dose albendazole (400 mg), measured as egg reduction rate, against soil-transmitted helminth infections in 210 school children (Jimma Town, Ethiopia) using both Kato-Katz thick smear and McMaster egg counting method. Our results indicate that differences in sensitivity and faecal egg counts did not imply a significant difference in egg reduction rate estimates. The choice of a diagnostic method to assess drug efficacy should not be based on sensitivity and faecal egg counts only. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Podoconiosis in East and West Gojam Zones, Northern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Molla, Yordanos B.; Tomczyk, Sara; Amberbir, Tsige; Tamiru, Abreham; Davey, Gail

    2012-01-01

    Background Podoconiosis is a neglected tropical disease (NTD) that is prevalent in red clay soil-covered highlands of tropical Africa, Central and South America, and northern India. It is estimated that up to one million cases exist in Ethiopia. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of podoconiosis in East and West Gojam Zones of Amhara Region in northern Ethiopia. Methodology/Principal Findings A cross-sectional household survey was conducted in Debre Eliyas and Dembecha woredas (districts) in East and West Gojam Zones, respectively. The survey covered all 17,553 households in 20 kebeles (administrative subunits) randomly selected from the two woredas. A detailed structured interview was conducted on 1,704 cases of podoconiosis identified in the survey. Results The prevalence of podoconiosis in the population aged 15 years and above was found to be 3.3% (95% CI, 3.2% to 3.6%). 87% of cases were in the economically active age group (15–64 years). On average, patients sought treatment five years after the start of the leg swelling. Most subjects had second (42.7%) or third (36.1%) clinical stage disease, 97.9% had mossy lesions, and 53% had open wounds. On average, patients had five episodes of acute adenolymphangitis (ALA) per year and spent a total of 90 days per year with ALA. The median age of first use of shoes and socks were 22 and 23 years, respectively. More men than women owned more than one pair of shoes (61.1% vs. 50.5%; χ2 = 11.6 p = 0.001). At the time of interview, 23.6% of the respondents were barefoot, of whom about two-thirds were women. Conclusions This study showed high prevalence of podoconiosis and associated morbidities such as ALA, mossy lesions and open wounds in northern Ethiopia. Predominance of cases at early clinical stage of podoconiosis indicates the potential for reversing the swelling and calls for disease prevention interventions. PMID:22816005

  14. HIV positive sero-status disclosure and its determinants among people living with HIV /AIDS following ART clinic in Jimma University Specialized Hospital, Southwest Ethiopia: a facility- based cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Tesfaye, Tamiru; Darega, Jiregna; Belachew, Tefera; Abera, Abebe

    2018-01-01

    Even though, the disclosure of HIV sero- status to sexual partners, friends or relatives is the main tool for prevention and care strategies, most of the HIV/AIDS patients do not inform their close friends. The most common reasons for not disclosure of their status to the community were majorly fear of social rejection and discriminations. Therefore, this study assessed the HIV positive sero-status disclosure and its determinants among People Living with HIV /AIDS (PLWH/A) followed by the Antiretroviral therapy (ART) Clinic in Jimma University Specialized Hospital, Southwest Ethiopia. A facility based cross-sectional study design was used among 351 ART patients that selected by systematic random sampling from ART clinic of Jimma University Specialized Hospital in March-2014. Data were collected through interviewer-administered questionnaires and analyzed using SPSS version 20.0 software. In a descriptive analysis frequency, mean and percentage were calculated. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were used to identify associated factors and the association between the explanatory and dependent variables was estimated. Only 37.6% ( n  = 132) were revealed their HIV positive status to anyone. Disclosure was done towards the sexual partners (88.6%), close family (72.7%) and a larger population (18.2%). Age ≤ 39 years (AOR = 0.014 [95%, CI = 0.005, 0.037]),Male sex (AOR = 3.039, [95% CI = 1.164, 7.935]), WHO stage III - IV at ART start(AOR = 2.766, [95%, CI = 1.321, 5.791]), presence of comorbidity (AOR = 2.500, [95%, CI = 1.483, 4.214]), having any clinical symptoms for HIV(AOR = 2.98, [95%, CI = 1.724, 5.152]),Low physical domain related quality of life (AOR = 3.83, [95%, CI = 2.008, 7.315]) and high social domain related quality of life (AOR = 0.053, [95%, CI = 0.022, 0.125]) were statistically significant association with their HIV sero-status disclosure. Findings of this study indicated, the

  15. Predictors of refusal of provider initiated HIV testing among clients visiting adult outpatient departments in Jimma town, Oromia Region, Ethiopia: unmatched case control study

    PubMed Central

    Lemu, Yohannes Kebede; Koricha, Zewdie Birhanu; Gebretsadik, Lakew Abebe; Roro, Ameyu Godesso

    2012-01-01

    Background Currently, provider-initiated human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing (PIHT) in health facilities is one of the strategies to advance HIV testing and related services. However, many HIV infected clients are missing the opportunities. This study intends to identify predictors of refusal of PIHT among clients visiting adult outpatient departments (OPDs) in Jimma town. Methods An unmatched case control study was conducted among 296 clients: 149 cases refusing HIV testing and 147 controls accepting HIV testing. The study recruited clients from OPDs of four public health facilities between March 6 and April 8, 2011 using consecutive sampling. The study instrument was adapted mainly considering health belief model (HBM). Jimma University ethical committee reviewed the study protocol. Data were collected by face-to-face interview and analyzed using SPSS Statistics (IBM Corporation, Somers, NY) software, version 16.0. Data were subjected to factor and reliability analysis. For prediction analysis, the study used logistic regression and odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI). To see the effects among HBM constructs, the study used standardized beta (β) coefficients at P < 0.05. Results The study findings showed adjusted protective effects on refusal of PIHT for residence outside study town [adjusted OR (AOR) (95% CI) = 0.41 (0.22–0.79)] and higher scores of perceived benefit of early testing [AOR (95% CI)] = 0.86 (0.69–0.99)], self efficacy to live with HIV [AOR (95% CI) = 0.79 (0.66–0.93)], nondisclosure agreement [AOR (95% CI) = 0.74 (0.58–0.93)], perceived explicitness of opt-out right during initiation [AOR (95% CI) = 0.74 (0.56–0.98)] and clients’ perceptions of selective initiation of HIV suspected [AOR (95% CI) = 0.54 (0.41–0.73)]. On the other hand, report of recent testing [AOR (95% CI) = 3.82 (1.71–8.55)] and perceived unpreparedness for testing [AOR (95% CI) = 1.86 (1.57–2.21)] aggravated refusal of PIHT. Exposure to

  16. Association between khat chewing and intestinal parasitic infestations: a community based, cross-sectional study done in Jimma Town, Southwest Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Mossie, Andualem; Kebedez, Seleshi; Gobena, Teshome

    2013-07-01

    Khat (Catha edulis Forsk), is the psychostimulant herb cultivated in East Africa. Khat chewing could have health damaging effect. The aim of the present study was to determine the association between khat chewing and intestinal parasitic infestation. A cross sectional study was conducted in Jimma Town in July 2010. Structured questionnaire was administered to 991 individuals selected by a systematic sampling method. Stool samples were collected for the diagnosis of intestinal parasitic infestation. Data analysis was done using SPSS Version 16.0 for Windows. Among 991 respondents, 638 (64.4%) were females, 502 (50.7%) were Oromos, 486 (49%) were Orthodox and 475 (47.9%) of them were in the age group of 18-24 years old. The current prevalence of khat chewing was found to be 52.7%. The prevalence of single to multiple parasitic infestations was 33.4%. Negative association (p = 0.000) was recorded between the habit of khat chewing and intestinal parasitosis. Non-chewers were more affected than chewers. Higher proportion of non chewers was infested with parasites than chewers, suggesting that khat chewing might have a protective role against parasitic infestation. Further investigation on the effect of khat extract in in vitro and in vivo is recommended to disclose detail mechanisms.

  17. Ethiopia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semaan, Leslie

    This document is a text dealing mainly with Ethiopia's rich cultural heritage and current lifestyles. It gives students the opportunity to go beyond the media coverage that has led to the perception of the whole of Ethiopia as a famine stricken land, and to discover the realities of this new nation, that about 15 percent of the population, mainly…

  18. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Sleep Quality among Adults in Jimma Town, Southwest Ethiopia: A Community-Based Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Geleta, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    Background An estimated 150 million people worldwide and nearly 17% of the populations in the developing nations are currently suffering from sleep problems. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence and associated factors of sleep quality among adults in Ethiopia. Method A cross-sectional study was conducted on 422 randomly selected adults using validated and pretested Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Data were entered into EpiData and analyzed using SPSS version 20 considering bivariable (P value < 0.25) and multivariable (P < 0.05) logistic regression procedures at 95% confidence interval. Result The overall prevalence of poor sleep quality (PSQI score > 5) was 65.4% with higher proportion among males (79 (63.0%)) and age group of 40–49 years (174 (28.6%)). A multivariable logistic regression analysis indicated that age category of 40–49 years (AOR = 2 [95% CI (1.1, 3.6)]) (P = 0.03), monthly income ≤ 1000 ETB (AOR = 2.2 [95% CI (14, 3.5)]) (P = 0.01), current khat chewing (AOR = 1.8 [95% CI (1.1, 3.1)]) (P = 0.03), daily khat chewing (AOR = 3.4 [95% CI (1.2, 11.1)]) (P = 0.04), and obesity (AOR = 1.2 [95% CI (1.3, 2.5)]) (P = 0.03) were identified as risk factors of poor sleep quality. Conclusion The current study is informative for government to work on poverty reduction, create awareness for weight reduction, and develop legislation for khat control to prevent poor sleep quality. PMID:29850261

  19. Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    1988-07-01

    Ethiopia lies in the Horn of Africa at the southern end of the Red Sea. It has the distinction of being the oldest independent country in Africa. In 1936, fascist Italy invaded and occupied Ethiopia, but Ethiopia regained its independence 5 years later with the help of colonial British forces. In 1974, civil unrest led to a coup and the armed forces deposed Emperor Haile Selassie. Today, the socialist government has a national legislature and a new constitution, both of which were created 13 years after the revolution. This government is faced with armed separatist movements in the autonomous regions of Eritrea and Tigre and also with periodic border conflicts with Somali forces. These conflicts combined with a massive drought in 1983-1985 and another in 1987 led to widespread famine in which an estimated 7.9 million people faced starvation and up to 1 million people died. Ethiopia has the potential for self-sufficiency in grains, livestock, vegetables, and fruits. Yet it's agriculture has been plagued not only with drought; but also soil degradation caused by overgrazing, deforestation, and high population density; dislocation due to the economy's rapid centralization; and government policies that do not provide incentives to producers. Still agriculture provides the basis of the nation's economy. Ethiopia has good relations with the Soviet Union, and the foreign policy of Ethiopia generally supports and parallels that of the USSR. After the revolution, the United States' relationship with Ethiopia has cooled because of differences over human rights. The US does assist with drought relief, however.

  20. Evaluative Research of the Mentoring Process of the PGDT, with Particular Reference to Cluster Centers under Jimma University Facilitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tegegne, Worku Fentie; Gelaneh, Alebachew Hailu

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the study is to evaluate the mentoring process of the PGDT program which was under the supervision of Jimma University in the regional states of Oromia and SNNP, Ethiopia. The overall intention was to see whether the program was being underway as expected. Because, there was uncertainty regarding the proper running of it as it was…

  1. Measles outbreak investigation in Guji zone of Oromia Region, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Belda, Ketema; Tegegne, Ayesheshem Ademe; Mersha, Amare Mengistu; Bayenessagne, Mekonnen Getahun; Hussein, Ibrahim; Bezabeh, Belay

    2017-01-01

    Despite the increase of immunization coverage (administrative) of measles in the country, there are widespread outbreaks of measles. In this respect, we investigated one of the outbreaks that occurred in hard to reach kebeles of Guji Zone, Oromia region, to identify the contributing factors that lead to the protracted outbreak of measles. We used a cross-sectional study design to investigate a measles outbreak in Guji zone, Oromia region. Data entry and analysis was performed using EPI-Info version 7.1.0.6 and MS-Microsoft Excel. In three months' time a total of 1059 suspected cases and two deaths were reported from 9 woredas affected by a measles outbreak in Guji zone. The cumulative attack rate of 81/100,000 population and case fatality ratio of 0.2% was recorded. Of these, 821 (77.5%) cases were < 15 years of age, and 742 (70%) were zero doses of measles vaccine. Although, all age groups were affected under five years old were more affected 495 (48%) than any other age groups. In response to the outbreak, an outbreak response immunization was organized at the 11th week of the epidemic, when the epidemic curve started to decline. 6 months to14 years old were targeted for outbreak response immunization and the overall coverage was 97 % (range: 90-103%). Case management with vitamin A supplementation, active case search, and health education was some of the activities carried out to curb the outbreak. We conclude that low routine immunization coverage in conjunction with low access to routine immunization in hard to reach areas, low community awareness in utilization of immunization service, inadequate cold chain management and delivery of a potent vaccine in hard to reach woredas/kebeles were likely contributed to the outbreak that's triggered a broad spread epidemic affecting mostly children without any vaccination. We also figured that the case-based surveillance lacks sensitivity and timely confirmation of the outbreak, which as a result outbreak response

  2. Geospatial Water Quality Analysis of Dilla Town, Gadeo Zone, Ethiopia - A Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pakhale, G. K.; Wakeyo, T. B.

    2015-12-01

    Dilla is a socio-economically important town in Ethiopia, established on the international highway joining capital cities of Ethiopia and Kenya. It serves as an administrative center of the Gedeo Zone in SNNPR region of Ethiopia accommodating around 65000 inhabitants and also as an important trade centre for coffee. Due to the recent developments and urbanization in town and surrounding area, waste and sewage discharge has been raised significantly into the water resources. Also frequent rainfall in the region worsens the problem of water quality. In this view, present study aims to analyze water quality profile of Dilla town using 12 physico-chemical parameters. 15 Sampling stations are identified amongst the open wells, bore wells and from surface water, which are being extensively used for drinking and other domestic purposes. Spectrophotometer is used to analyze data and Gaussian process regression is used to interpolate the same in GIS environment to represent spatial distribution of parameters. Based on observed and desirable values of parameters, water quality index (WQI); an indicator of weighted estimate of the quantities of various parameters ranging from 1 to 100, is developed in GIS. Higher value of WQI indicates better while low value indicates poor water quality. This geospatial analysis is carried out before and after rainfall to understand temporal variation with reference to rainfall which facilitates in identifying the potential zones of drinking water. WQI indicated that 8 out of 15 locations come under acceptable category indicating the suitability of water for human use, however remaining locations are unfit. For example: the water sample at main_campus_ustream_1 (site name) site has very low WQI after rainfall, making it unfit for human usage. This suggests undertaking of certain measures in town to enhance the water quality. These results are useful for town authorities to take corrective measures and ameliorate the water quality for human

  3. Induced abortion and associated factors in health facilities of Guraghe zone, southern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Tesfaye, Gezahegn; Hambisa, Mitiku Teshome; Semahegn, Agumasie

    2014-01-01

    Unsafe abortion is one of the major medical and public health problems in developing countries including Ethiopia. However, there is a lack of up-to-date and reliable information on induced abortion distribution and its determinant factors in the country. This study was intended to assess induced abortion and associated factors in health facilities of Guraghe zone, Southern Ethiopia. Institution based cross-sectional study was conducted in eight health facilities in Guraghe zone. Client exit interview was conducted on 400 patients using a structured questionnaire. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors associated with induced abortion. Out of 400 women, 75.5% responded that the current pregnancy that ended in abortion is unwanted. However, only 12.3% of the respondents have admitted interference to the current pregnancy. Having more than four pregnancies (AOR = 4.28, CI: (1.24-14.71)), age of 30-34 years (AOR = 0.15, CI: (0.04-0.55)), primary education (AOR = 0.26, CI: (0.13-0.88)), and wanted pregnancy (AOR = 0.44, CI: (0.14-0.65)) were found to have association with induced abortion. The study revealed high level of induced abortion which is underpinned by high magnitude of unwanted pregnancy. There is requirement for widespread expansion of increased access to high quality family planning service and post-abortion care.

  4. Induced Abortion and Associated Factors in Health Facilities of Guraghe Zone, Southern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Hambisa, Mitiku Teshome; Semahegn, Agumasie

    2014-01-01

    Unsafe abortion is one of the major medical and public health problems in developing countries including Ethiopia. However, there is a lack of up-to-date and reliable information on induced abortion distribution and its determinant factors in the country. This study was intended to assess induced abortion and associated factors in health facilities of Guraghe zone, Southern Ethiopia. Institution based cross-sectional study was conducted in eight health facilities in Guraghe zone. Client exit interview was conducted on 400 patients using a structured questionnaire. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors associated with induced abortion. Out of 400 women, 75.5% responded that the current pregnancy that ended in abortion is unwanted. However, only 12.3% of the respondents have admitted interference to the current pregnancy. Having more than four pregnancies (AOR = 4.28, CI: (1.24–14.71)), age of 30–34 years (AOR = 0.15, CI: (0.04–0.55)), primary education (AOR = 0.26, CI: (0.13–0.88)), and wanted pregnancy (AOR = 0.44, CI: (0.14–0.65)) were found to have association with induced abortion. The study revealed high level of induced abortion which is underpinned by high magnitude of unwanted pregnancy. There is requirement for widespread expansion of increased access to high quality family planning service and post-abortion care. PMID:24800079

  5. Botanical ethnoveterinary therapies used by agro-pastoralists of Fafan zone, Eastern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Feyera, Teka; Mekonnen, Endalkachew; Wakayo, Befekadu Urga; Assefa, Solomon

    2017-08-09

    In Ethiopia, plant based remedies are still the most important and sometimes the only source of therapeutics in the management of livestock diseases. However, documentation of this indigenous knowledge of therapeutic system still remains at a minimum level. The aim of this study was, thus, to document the traditional knowledge of botanical ethnoveterinary therapies in the agro-pastoral communities of Fafan Zone, Eastern Ethiopia. The study employed a cross-sectional participatory survey. Purposive sampling technique was applied to select key respondents with desired knowledge in traditional animal health care system. Data were gathered from a total of 24 (22 males and 2 females) ethnoveterinary practitioners and herbalists using an in-depth-interview complemented with group discussion and field observation. The current ethnobotanical survey indicated that botanical ethnoveterinary therapies are the mainstay of livestock health care system in the studied communities. A total of 49 medicinal plants belonging to 21 families, which are used by traditional healers and livestock raisers for the treatment of 29 types of livestock ailments/health problems, were identified in the study area. The major plant parts used were leaves (43%) followed by roots (35%). In most cases, traditional plant remedies were prepared by pounding the remedial plant part and mixing it with water at room temperature. The various types of identified medicinal plants and their application in ethnoveternary practice of Fafan zone agro pastoralists indicate the depth of indigenous knowledge in ethnobotanical therapy. The identified medicinal plants could be potentially useful for future phytochemical and pharmacological studies.

  6. Pesticide residues in drinking water and associated risk to consumers in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Mekonen, Seblework; Argaw, Roba; Simanesew, Aklilu; Houbraken, Michael; Senaeve, David; Ambelu, Argaw; Spanoghe, Pieter

    2016-11-01

    Access to safe and reliable drinking water is vital for a healthy population. However, surface water may be contaminated with pesticides because of the nearby agricultural areas as well as from household application. Water samples were collected from water sources in Jimma zone and Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The extraction and clean up of the samples were undertaken using liquid-solid and liquid-liquid methods. Human exposure was assessed by calculating the estimated daily intake (EDI) of pesticides in water and compared with the acceptable daily intake (ADI) and the acute reference dose (ARfD). The mean concentrations of 2,4-D, malathion, diazinon and fenpropimorph were 1.59-13.90 μg/l and 0.11-138 µg/l in Jimma and Addis Ababa water sources, respectively. The residue level of some of the pesticides were above the European drinking water guide line values, which is an indication of an illegal use of pesticides in the study areas. Concerning human health risk estimation, there was no acute risk (EDI < ARfD). However, chronic risks to human health were observed from exposure to diazinon and fenpropimorph (EDI > ADI) for Jimma and Addis Ababa populations, respectively. A comprehensive monitoring is required to reduce the level of pesticide residues in the water and to minimize particularly the long term human health risks. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The Relationship between Teachers Commitment and Female Students Academic Achievements in Some Selected Secondary School in Wolaita Zone, Southern Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bibiso, Abyot; Olango, Menna; Bibiso, Mesfin

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between teacher's commitment and female students academic achievement in selected secondary school of Wolaita zone, Southern Ethiopia. The research method employed was survey study and the sampling techniques were purposive, simple random and stratified random sampling. Questionnaire…

  8. Transition zone structure beneath Ethiopia from 3-D fast marching pseudo-migration stacking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benoit, M. H.; Lopez, A.; Levin, V.

    2008-12-01

    Several models for the origin of the Afar hotspot have been put forth over the last decade, but much ambiguity remains as to whether the hotspot tectonism found there is due to a shallow or deeply seated feature. Additionally, there has been much debate as to whether the hotspot owes its existence to a 'classic' mantle plume feature or if it is part of the African Superplume complex. To further understand the origin of the hotspot, we employ a new receiver function stacking method that incorporates a fast-marching three- dimensional ray tracing algorithm to improve upon existing studies of the mantle transition zone structure. Using teleseismic data from the Ethiopia Broadband Seismic Experiment and the EAGLE (Ethiopia Afar Grand Lithospheric Experiment) experiment, we stack receiver functions using a three-dimensional pseudo- migration technique to examine topography on the 410 and 660 km discontinuities. Previous methods of receiver function pseudo-migration incorporated ray tracing methods that were not able to ray trace through highly complicated 3-D structure, or the ray tracing techniques only produced 3-D time perturbations associated 1-D rays in a 3-D velocity medium. These previous techniques yielded confusing and incomplete results for when applied to the exceedingly complicated mantle structure beneath Ethiopia. Indeed, comparisons of the 1-D versus 3-D ray tracing techniques show that the 1-D technique mislocated structure laterally in the mantle by over 100 km. Preliminary results using our new technique show a shallower then average 410 km discontinuity and a deeper than average 660 km discontinuity over much of the region, suggested that the hotspot has a deep seated origin.

  9. Insulin-requiring diabetes in rural Ethiopia: should we reopen the case for malnutrition-related diabetes?

    PubMed

    Alemu, S; Dessie, A; Seid, E; Bard, E; Lee, P T; Trimble, E R; Phillips, D I W; Parry, E H O

    2009-09-01

    We evaluated the incidence of insulin-requiring diabetes in a rural area of sub-Saharan Africa. Health surveillance data from a chronic disease programme in two zones of Ethiopia, Gondar and Jimma, were studied. The two zones have a population of more than 5,000,000 people. In Gondar Zone (1995-2008) and Jimma Zone (2002-2008) 2,280 patients presented with diabetes, of whom 1,029 (45%) required insulin for glycaemic control at diagnosis. The annual incidence of insulin-requiring diabetes was 2.1 (95% CI 2.0-2.2) per 100,000 and was twice as high in men (2.9 per 100,000) as in women (1.4 per 100,000). In both sexes incidence rates peaked at the age of 25 to 29 years. Incidence rates in the urban areas of Gondar and Jimma were five times higher than in the surrounding rural areas. Patients with insulin-requiring diabetes from rural and urban areas had a very low BMI and most were subsistence farmers or unemployed. The typical patient with diabetes in rural Ethiopia is an impoverished, young adult male with severe symptoms requiring insulin for glycaemic control. The low incidence rates in rural compared with urban areas suggest that many cases of this disease remain undiagnosed. The disease phenotype encountered in this area of Africa is very different from the classical type 1 diabetes seen in the West and most closely resembles previous descriptions of malnutrition-related diabetes, a category not recognised in the current WHO Diabetes Classification. We believe that the case for this condition should be reopened.

  10. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Tuberculosis in Prisons Settings of East Gojjam Zone, Northwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Hunegnaw, Emirie; Tiruneh, Moges

    2017-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis, mainly in prisoners, is a major public health problem in Ethiopia where there is no medical screening during prison admission. This creates scarcity of TB data in such settings. Objective To determine prevalence and associated factors of TB in prisons in East Gojjam Zone, Northwest Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted from February to May 2016 among 265 prisoners in three prison sites. Sputum was processed using GeneXpert MTB/RIF. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20.0. Multivariable logistic regression was used; p values = 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results Of 265 prisoners, 9 (3.4%) were TB positive (males); 77.8%, 55.6%, and 55.6% of cases were rural dwellers, married, and farmers, respectively. Seven (2.6%) prisoners were HIV positive, and 3 (1.13%) had TB/HIV coinfection. One (0.4%) TB case was rifampicin resistant. Marriage (AOR = 1.5; 95% CI: 1.7, 13.03), HIV (AOR = 0.14; 95% CI: 0.001, 0.17), and sharing of rooms (AOR = 1.62; 95% CI: 2.6, 10.20) were predictors for TB. Conclusion Nine prisoners were TB positive. One case showed rifampicin resistance and three had TB/HIV coinfection. Marriage, HIV, and sharing of rooms were predictors for TB. Prevention/control and monitoring are mandatory in such settings. PMID:29226216

  11. Diversity and habitat association of small mammals in Aridtsy forest, Awi Zone, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Bantihun, Getachew; Bekele, Afework

    2015-03-18

    Here, we conducted a survey to examine the diversity, distribution and habitat association of small mammals from August 2011 to February 2012 incorporating both wet and dry seasons in Aridtsy forest, Awi Zone, Ethiopia. Using Sherman live traps and snap traps in four randomly selected trapping grids, namely, natural forest, bushland, grassland and farmland, a total of 468 individuals comprising eight species of small mammals (live traps) and 89 rodents of six species (snap traps) were trapped in 2352 and 1200 trap nights, respectively. The trapped small mammals included seven rodents and one insectivore: Lophuromys flavopuntatus (30.6%), Arvicanthis dembeensis (25.8%), Stenocephalemys albipes (20%), Mastomys natalensis (11.6%), Pelomys harringtoni (6.4%), Acomys cahirinus (4.3%), Lemniscomys zebra (0.2%) and the greater red musk shrew (Crocidura flavescens, 1.1%). Analysis showed statistically significant variations in the abundance and habitat preferences of small mammals between habitats during wet and dry seasons.

  12. Spatial and space-time clustering of tuberculosis in Gurage Zone, Southern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Tadesse, Sebsibe; Enqueselassie, Fikre; Hagos, Seifu

    2018-01-01

    Spatial targeting is advocated as an effective method that contributes for achieving tuberculosis control in high-burden countries. However, there is a paucity of studies clarifying the spatial nature of the disease in these countries. This study aims to identify the location, size and risk of purely spatial and space-time clusters for high occurrence of tuberculosis in Gurage Zone, Southern Ethiopia during 2007 to 2016. A total of 15,805 patient data that were retrieved from unit TB registers were included in the final analyses. The spatial and space-time cluster analyses were performed using the global Moran's I, Getis-Ord [Formula: see text] and Kulldorff's scan statistics. Eleven purely spatial and three space-time clusters were detected (P <0.001).The clusters were concentrated in border areas of the Gurage Zone. There were considerable spatial variations in the risk of tuberculosis by year during the study period. This study showed that tuberculosis clusters were mainly concentrated at border areas of the Gurage Zone during the study period, suggesting that there has been sustained transmission of the disease within these locations. The findings may help intensify the implementation of tuberculosis control activities in these locations. Further study is warranted to explore the roles of various ecological factors on the observed spatial distribution of tuberculosis.

  13. Utilization of institutional delivery service and associated factors in Bench Maji zone, Southwest Ethiopia: community based, cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Tadele, Niguse; Lamaro, Tafesse

    2017-02-01

    At the end of Millennium development goals, Ethiopia was included among 10 countries which constitutes about 59% of maternal deaths due to complications of pregnancy and/or childbirth every year globally. Institutional delivery, which is believed to contribute in reduction of maternal mortality is still low. Hence this study was conducted in order to assess utilization of institutional delivery and related factors in Bench Maji zone, Southwest Ethiopia. Cross sectional study was employed from September 1st - 30th, 2015 in Bench Maji Zone, Southwest Ethiopia where 765 mothers who deliver 2 years preceding the study provided data for this research. Data were collected by enumerators who were trained. In addition to descriptive statistics, binary and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed. Statistical significance was considered at a p-value < 0.05. Strength of association was also assessed using odds ratios with a 95% confidence intervals. About 800 mothers were approached but 765 of them who gave birth 2 years preceding the survey participated and gave consent to the data included in the analysis. About 78.30% delivered their last child in health institution while rest gave birth at home. Factors such as maternal age, religion, occupation, availability of information source as TV/Radio, income quartile, residence, knowledge of problems during labor and antenatal follow up had association with institutional delivery which was significant. In Bench Maji Zone institutional delivery was shown to be comparatively good compared to other studies in the region and in Ethiopia in general even though it is below the health sector transformation plan of Ethiopia which aimed to increase deliveries attended by skilled health personnel to 95%. Empowering women, increasing awareness about institutional delivery and proper scaling up of antenatal care services which is an entry point for institutional delivery are recommended.

  14. Prevalence of camel trypanosomosis (surra) and associated risk factors in Borena zone, southern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Olani, Abebe; Habtamu, Yitbarek; Wegayehu, Teklu; Anberber, Manyazewal

    2016-03-01

    A study was made to determine the prevalence of camel trypanosomosis (surra) and its associated risk factors in Borena zone, southern Ethiopia during 2013-2014. A total of 2400 blood samples were collected and examined by the buffy coat and thin blood film laboratory methods, and data were analyzed using the SPSS statistical software. The overall prevalence of camel trypanosomosis in the area was found to be 2.33 %. Prevalence was significantly different among the surveyed districts (P = 0.000), the pastoral associations (F = 6.408, P = 0.000), altitudinal divisions (P = 0.000), age groups (P = 0.034), and between animals possessing packed cell volume (PCV) values greater than 25 % and less than 25 % (P = 0.000); whereas, prevalence of the disease was not statistically significantly different between the sexes (P = 0.311) and among the body condition score groups (P = 0.739). The PCV of trypanosome positive and trypanosome negative camels differ significantly (P = 0.001), and prevalence of trypanosomosis was seen to be negatively correlated with packed cell volume (r = -0.069, P = 0.000) revealing the effect of camel trypanosomosis on anemia state of parasitized animals. In conclusion, camel trypanosomosis is a serious and economically important disease hampering camel production and productivity in southern Ethiopia. Further studies involving more sensitive molecular techniques to reveal the precise magnitude of the disease and to identify the vector species of the parasite are recommended.

  15. Economic costs of endemic non-filarial elephantiasis in Wolaita Zone, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Tekola, Fasil; Mariam, Damen H; Davey, Gail

    2006-07-01

    Endemic non-filarial elephantiasis or podoconiosis is a chronic and debilitating geochemical disease occurring in individuals exposed to red clay soil derived from alkalic volcanic rock. It is a major public health problem in countries in tropical Africa, Central America and North India. To estimate the direct and the average productivity cost attributable to podoconiosis, and to compare the average productivity time of podoconiosis patients with non-patients. Matched comparative cross sectional survey involving 702 study subjects (patients and non-patients) supplemented by interviews with key informants in Wolaita Zone, southern Ethiopia. Total direct costs of podoconiosis amounted to the equivalent of US$ 143 per patient per year. The total productivity loss for a patient amounted to 45% of the total working days per year, causing a monetary loss equivalent to US$ 63. In Wolaita zone, the overall cost of podoconiosis exceeds US$ 16 million per year. Podoconiosis has enormous economic impact in affected areas. Simple preventive measures (such as use of robust footwear) must be promoted by health policy makers.

  16. Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Smear-Positive Tuberculosis in the Sidama Zone, Southern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Dangisso, Mesay Hailu; Datiko, Daniel Gemechu; Lindtjørn, Bernt

    2015-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease of public health concern, with a varying distribution across settings depending on socio-economic status, HIV burden, availability and performance of the health system. Ethiopia is a country with a high burden of TB, with regional variations in TB case notification rates (CNRs). However, TB program reports are often compiled and reported at higher administrative units that do not show the burden at lower units, so there is limited information about the spatial distribution of the disease. We therefore aim to assess the spatial distribution and presence of the spatio-temporal clustering of the disease in different geographic settings over 10 years in the Sidama Zone in southern Ethiopia. Methods A retrospective space–time and spatial analysis were carried out at the kebele level (the lowest administrative unit within a district) to identify spatial and space-time clusters of smear-positive pulmonary TB (PTB). Scan statistics, Global Moran’s I, and Getis and Ordi (Gi*) statistics were all used to help analyze the spatial distribution and clusters of the disease across settings. Results A total of 22,545 smear-positive PTB cases notified over 10 years were used for spatial analysis. In a purely spatial analysis, we identified the most likely cluster of smear-positive PTB in 192 kebeles in eight districts (RR= 2, p<0.001), with 12,155 observed and 8,668 expected cases. The Gi* statistic also identified the clusters in the same areas, and the spatial clusters showed stability in most areas in each year during the study period. The space-time analysis also detected the most likely cluster in 193 kebeles in the same eight districts (RR= 1.92, p<0.001), with 7,584 observed and 4,738 expected cases in 2003-2012. Conclusion The study found variations in CNRs and significant spatio-temporal clusters of smear-positive PTB in the Sidama Zone. The findings can be used to guide TB control programs to devise effective TB control

  17. Factors associated with safe delivery service utilization among women in Sheka zone, southwest Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Asres, Abyot; Davey, Gail

    2015-04-01

    Attempts to predict pregnancy and childbirth complications before they occur have not been successful. Provision of safe delivery service for all births is considered to be a critical intervention for ensuring safe motherhood. Hence the aim of the study was to assess factors associated with safe delivery service utilization among women in Sheka Zone South West Ethiopia. A community based comparative cross sectional survey was conducted among 554 women in Sheka Zone from February to March 2008. Data were collected through structured pre-tested questionnaire and entered into Epinfo version 3.3. Analyses were done with SPSS version 13 computer software with which bivariate and multiple logistic regressions were carried out. Mothers who completed at least secondary school were more likely to give birth at health facility than those uneducated (AOR = 3.26, 95 % CI 1.51-7.06). Women with birth order above four were less likely to give birth in a health facility than those with first order births (AOR = 0.21, 95 %CI 0.10-0.43). Women who had encountered problems in their immediate birth and received prenatal care were more likely to give birth at health facilities AOR = 33.78 95 % CI 16.44-69.39) and (AOR = 2.55, 95 % CI 1.05-6.21) respectively. Factors associated with safe delivery service utilization are related to the women's socioeconomic status and obstetric experiences. Consequently promotion of maternal education, prenatal care utilization, information education and communication on obstetric risks and general health service expansion are needed to ensure safe delivery service.

  18. Determinants of use of health facility for childbirth in rural Hadiya zone, Southern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Asseffa, Netsanet Abera; Bukola, Fawole; Ayodele, Arowojolu

    2016-11-16

    Maternal mortality remains a major global public health concern despite many international efforts. Facility-based childbirth increases access to appropriate skilled attendance and emergency obstetric care services as the vast majority of obstetric complications occur during delivery. The purpose of the study was to determine the proportion of facility delivery and assess factors influencing utilization of health facility for childbirth. A cross-sectional study was conducted in two rural districts of Hadiya zone, southern Ethiopia. Participants who delivered within three years of the survey were selected by stratified random sampling. Trained interviewers administered a pre-tested semi-structured questionnaire. We employed bivariate analysis and logistic regression to identify determinants of facility-based delivery. Data from 751 participants showed that 26.9% of deliveries were attended in health facilities. In bivariate analysis, maternal age, education, husband's level of education, possession of radio, antenatal care, place of recent ANC attended, planned pregnancy, wealth quintile, parity, birth preparedness and complication readiness, being a model family and distance from the nearest health facility were associated with facility delivery. On multiple logistic regression, age, educational status, antenatal care, distance from the nearest health facility, wealth quintile, being a model family, planned pregnancy and place of recent ANC attended were the determinants of facility-based childbirth. Efforts to improve institutional deliveries in the region must strengthen initiatives that promote female education, opportunities for wealth creation, female empowerment and increased uptake of family planning among others. Service related barriers and cultural influences on the use of health facility for childbirth require further evaluation.

  19. Mites of sheep and goats in Oromia Zone of Amhara Region, North Eastern Ethiopia: species, prevalence and farmers awareness.

    PubMed

    Yasine, Ahmed; Kumsa, Bersissa; Hailu, Yacob; Ayana, Dinka

    2015-05-24

    Mites are one of the most common and widely distributed ectoparasites of small ruminants in Ethiopia, contributing to major hindrances in livestock productivity in the country. Despite of this fact, specific study was not conducted on mites of small ruminants in Ethiopia. Therefore, the present study was performed from October 2009 to May 2010 to determine the prevalence and species composition of mites in three agroecological zones in north eastern Ethiopia. In addition, a questionnaire survey on mites was conducted to assess the control practices and awareness of farmers in the study areas. Out of a total of 1280 sheep and 1264 goats examined, 97(7.6 %) of sheep and 174(13.8 %) goats were infested with one or more species of mites. In goats an overall prevalence of 10.3 % Sarcoptes, 2.8 % Demodex and 0.6 % Psoroptes were recorded whereas in sheep an overall prevalence of 3.5 % Sarcoptes, 2.1 % Demodex and 1.6 % Psoroptes were observed. Sarcoptes (P = 0.03; OR = 2.1) and Demodex (OR = 3.25; p = 0.004) were significantly more common in young than in adult sheep. Demodectic mange was significantly higher in young (4.1 %) compared to adult (2.3 %) goats (OR = 2.2; P = 0.02). Significantly higher (P < 0.01) overall prevalence of sarcoptic and demodectic mites in both sheep and goats with poor than with good body condition was recorded. Results of the questionnaire survey supported results of our cross-sectional study. This study demonstrates high prevalence of mange mites in sheep and goats of the study area. The study revealed that Sarcoptes is the predominant mite in both sheep and goats. Animal owners and veterinarians should consider mite control in small ruminants as part of the routine ectoparasite control in Ethiopia.

  20. Treatment of malaria and related symptoms using traditional herbal medicine in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Suleman, Sultan; Beyene Tufa, Takele; Kebebe, Dereje; Belew, Sileshi; Mekonnen, Yimer; Gashe, Fanta; Mussa, Seid; Wynendaele, Evelien; Duchateau, Luc; De Spiegeleer, Bart

    2018-03-01

    Medicinal plants have always been an integral part of different cultures in Ethiopia in the treatment of different illnesses including malaria and related symptoms. However, due to lack of proper documentation, urbanization, drought, acculturation and deforestation, there is an increased risk of losing this traditional knowledge. Hence, the use of the indigenous knowledge should be well documented and validated for potential future use. To gather and document information on medicinal plants which are used in the traditional treatment of malaria and related symptoms in Ethiopia. First, an ethnomedicinal survey of plants was conducted in 17 districts of Jimma zone, the Oromia national regional state of Ethiopia. Jimma zone is malarious and rich in natural flora. A total of 115 traditional healers were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire containing personal data of the respondents, and information on medicinal plants used to treat malaria and related symptoms. In addition, a literature search using Medline/PubMed, Google Scholar, ScienceDirect and HINARI was conducted on the indigenous use, in-vitro/in-vivo anti-malarial activity reports, and the chemical characterization of medicinal plants of Ethiopia used against malaria. From ethnomedicinal survey, a total of 28 species of plants used in the traditional treatment of malaria and related symptoms in Jimma Zone were collected, identified and documented. In addition, the literature search revealed that 124 medicinal plant species were reported to be traditionally used in the treatment of malaria in Ethiopia. From both ethnomedicinal survey and the literature search, Asteraceae and Fabaceae were the most represented families and Allium sativum L., Carica papaya L., Vernonia amygdalina Del., Lepidium sativum L. and Croton macrostachyus Del. were the most frequently reported plant species for their anti-malarial use. The dominant plant parts used in the preparation of remedies were leaves. About 54% of the

  1. Predictors of safe delivery service utilization in arsi zone, South-East ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Abera, Mulumebet; Gebremariam, Abebe; Belachew, Tefera

    2011-08-01

    Evidence show that lack of access to and use of, essential obstetric care services to be a crucial factor that contributes to the high maternal morbidity and mortality. Skilled attendance during labor, delivery and early post-partum period could reduce deaths due to obstructed labor, hemorrhage, sepsis and eclampsia. There is limited information on the mothers' use of skilled delivery services in the study area. This study assessed the predictors of safe delivery service utilization in Arsi Zone, Southeast Ethiopia. A cross- sectional community based study using quantitative and qualitative methods was conducted from February 15(th) to March 15(th) 2006. A total of 1089 women who had at least one birth one year prior to the study were involved in the study from nine rural and four urban kebeles in three Woredas (Districts) selected using a systematic sampling method from all households in the study area. A pre-tested structured interviewer administered questionnaire was used to collect data. Information on the utilization of safe delivery service and socio-demographic, individual and institutional factors and past obstetric history were collected. Focus Group Discussion guide was used for qualitative data collection. The data were edited, cleaned, and entered into a computer and analyzed using SPSS for windows version 12.0. One thousand seventy four women who had at least one birth were interviewed making a response rate 98.6%. Two hundred seventy one (75.0%) of urban and 373(52.0%) rural women received antenatal care from skilled health professional at least once during their last pregnancy. Thirty-one (4.3%) of rural and 145 (40.4%) of urban women delivered in health institution. In multivariate analysis showed that residential area OR= 8.5, 95%CI; (5.1,13.9), parity OR=0.18, 95%CI; (0.08, 0.42), and ANC service use OR= 4.5, 95%CI; (2.2,8.9), and maternal education OR=4.6, 95%CI; (1.7,12.8), were most significant predictors of safe delivery service use by mothers

  2. Toxoplasmosis in camels (Camelus dromedarius) of Borana zone, Oromia region, Ethiopia: seroprevalence and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Gebremedhin, Endrias Zewdu; Dima, Nura; Beyi, Ashenafi Feyisa; Dawo, Fufa; Feyissa, Negassa; Jorga, Edilu; Di Marco, Vincenzo; Vitale, Maria

    2016-12-01

    Toxoplasmosis is one of the most prevalent parasitic infections of medical and veterinary importance. A cross-sectional study was conducted from November 2013 to January 2014 to estimate the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in camels from four districts of Borana zone, Southern Oromia, Ethiopia. In addition, a questionnaire survey was administered to 124 pastoralists to identify possible risk factors and to assess the awareness level of pastoral communities about toxoplasmosis. A total of 396 serum samples were examined for anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibodies using the direct agglutination test (DAT). Fisher's exact test and logistic regression were used for data analysis. An overall seroprevalence of 8.33 % (95 % confidence interval [CI] 5.60 %, 11.07 %) at animal-level and 37.5 % (95 % CI: 20.1 %, 57.4 %) at herd-level was found. The seroprevalence was significantly high in Moyale district (23.07 %) followed by Yabello (7.20 %), Dirre (3.77 %), and Arero (0.0 %) districts (P < 0.001). Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that the likelihood of acquiring T. gondii infection was significantly higher in camels of Moyale district (adjusted OR = 5.89, 95 % CI 2.15, 16.12; P = 0.001) than Dirre district, in camels of >8 years old (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 4.95, 95 % CI 1.68, 14.55; P = 0.004) than camels of ≤4 years old. There was no significant association between herd-level seroprevalence of T. gondii infection and abortion history, herd size, and presence of domestic cats and wild felids (P > 0.05). The majority of interviewees were uneducated (82.25 %), and all had no knowledge of toxoplasmosis. All camel herders drink raw camel milk but consume cooked meat (90.32 %). Of the interviewees, 93.06 % are aware about soil-eating habit of camels and provide salt supplement for their camels. Majority of the respondents practice improper disposal of aborted materials (throw along the way) (88.70 %), and

  3. Prevalence and associated factors of occupational injuries among municipal solid waste collectors in four zones of Amhara region, Northwest Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Eskezia, Debassu; Aderaw, Zewdie; Ahmed, Kedir Y; Tadese, Fentaw

    2016-08-24

    Refuse collectors are at a high risk for fatal and non-fatal occupational accidents. This is more intensified in developing countries, like Ethiopia, due to physically demanding nature of the job. However, information on occupational injuries and related factors are almost non-existent in Ethiopia. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of occupational injuries and its associated factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted among municipal solid waste collectors in four zones of Amhara region from February to May 2015. Computer generated simple random sampling technique was used to select the samples. Interviewer administrated questionnaires were used for the data collection process. Binary logistic regression was used to assess the association between outcome variables and explanatory variables. In this study, the annual prevalence of at least one occupational injury among solid waste workers was 34.3 % (95 % CI: 29.52, 39.10). Of these, 50.7 % of them were visited health facility to receive health care. The independent predictors of at least one occupational injury were shorter service years, low monthly salary, history of job related stress, and sleeping disturbance related to the job. Being illiterate, having lower monthly income, and those who reported sleeping disturbance were significantly and positively associated with severe occupational injuries of solid waste collectors. The magnitude of occupational injuries among municipal solid waste collectors is lower than other similar studies conducted in Ethiopia. Based on the finding of this and other studies, job rotation among work components, improvement of employees' income, job specific guideline regarding maximum production limits, and replacement of bags and bins with wheeled containers are an interventions expected to cope with the problem. There is also a need of specific periodic health surveillance (PHS) for refuse collectors to detect early signs of work related complaints and

  4. Prevalence of refractive error and visual impairment among rural school-age children of Goro District, Gurage Zone, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Kedir, Jafer; Girma, Abonesh

    2014-10-01

    Refractive error is one of the major causes of blindness and visual impairment in children; but community based studies are scarce especially in rural parts of Ethiopia. So, this study aims to assess the prevalence of refractive error and its magnitude as a cause of visual impairment among school-age children of rural community. This community-based cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted from March 1 to April 30, 2009 in rural villages of Goro district of Gurage Zone, found south west of Addis Ababa, the capital of Ethiopia. A multistage cluster sampling method was used with simple random selection of representative villages in the district. Chi-Square and t-tests were used in the data analysis. A total of 570 school-age children (age 7-15) were evaluated, 54% boys and 46% girls. The prevalence of refractive error was 3.5% (myopia 2.6% and hyperopia 0.9%). Refractive error was the major cause of visual impairment accounting for 54% of all causes in the study group. No child was found wearing corrective spectacles during the study period. Refractive error was the commonest cause of visual impairment in children of the district, but no measures were taken to reduce the burden in the community. So, large scale community level screening for refractive error should be conducted and integrated with regular school eye screening programs. Effective strategies need to be devised to provide low cost corrective spectacles in the rural community.

  5. Survey of Medicinal Plants Used to Treat Malaria by Sidama People of Boricha District, Sidama Zone, South Region of Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Asnake, Solomon; Teklehaymanot, Tilahun; Hymete, Ariaya; Erko, Berhanu; Giday, Mirutse

    2016-01-01

    In Ethiopia, malaria control has been complicated due to resistance of the parasite to the current drugs. Thus, new drugs are required against drug-resistant Plasmodium strains. Historically, many of the present antimalarial drugs were discovered from plants. This study was, therefore, conducted to document antimalarial plants utilized by Sidama people of Boricha District, Sidama Zone, South Region of Ethiopia. An ethnobotanical survey was carried out from September 2011 to February 2012. Data were collected through semistructured interview and field and market observations. Relative frequency of citation (RFC) was calculated and preference ranking exercises were conducted to estimate the importance of the reported medicinal plants in Boricha District. A total of 42 antimalarial plants belonging to 27 families were recorded in the study area. Leaf was the dominant plant part (59.0%) used in the preparation of remedies and oral (97.4%) was the major route of administration. Ajuga integrifolia scored the highest RFC value (0.80). The results of this study revealed the existence of rich knowledge on the use of medicinal plants in the study area to treat malaria. Thus, an attempt should be made to conserve and evaluate the claimed antimalarial medicinal plants with priority given to those that scored the highest RFC values. PMID:26989429

  6. Upper mantle and transition zone structure beneath Ethiopia: Regional evidence for the African Superplume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benoit, M. H.; Nyblade, A. A.; Pasyanos, M.; Owens, T. J.

    2005-12-01

    Throughout much of the Cenozoic, Ethiopia has undergone extensive tectonism, including rifting, volcanism and uplift, and the origin of this tectonism remains enigmatic. While the cause of the tectonism has often been attributed to one or more mantle plumes, recent global tomographic studies suggest that the African Superplume, a broad, through-going mantle upwelling, may be related to the tectonism. To further understand the origin of the tectonism in Ethiopia, we employ a variety of methods, including an S wave travel time body wave tomography, receiver function analysis of the 410 and 660 km discontinuities, and surface wave tomography. Using data from the Ethiopia Broadband Seismic Experiment [2000-2002], we computed new S wave models of the upper mantle seismic velocity structure from 150 - 400 km depth. The S wave model revealed an elongated low wave speed region that is deep (> 300 km) and wide (> 500 km). The location of the low wave speed anomaly aligns with the Afar Depression and Main Ethiopian Rift in the uppermost mantle, but the center of the anomaly shifts to the west with depth. Results from receiver function stacking of the 410 and 660 km discontinuities show a shallow 660 beneath most of Ethiopia, implying that the low wave speed anomaly found in the S wave model likely extends to at least 660 km depth. This result suggests that the low velocity anomaly may be related to the African Superplume. A group velocity surface wave tomographic study of East Africa was also computed using data from permanent and temporary stations from Africa and Arabia. Results of this study reveal low Sn velocities beneath much of the region, and suggest that low elevations found in the region between the Ethiopian and East African Plateaus likely reflect an isostatic response to crustal thinning. If the crust in this region had not been thinned by approximately 10 - 15 km, then it is likely that the high elevation of the Ethiopian and East African Plateaus would be

  7. Substance use and associated factors among preparatory school students in Bale Zone, Oromia Regional State, Southeast Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Dida, Nagasa; Kassa, Yibeltal; Sirak, Teshome; Zerga, Ephrem; Dessalegn, Tariku

    2014-08-09

    The use of cigarettes, alcohol, khat, and other substances is a worldwide threat which especially affects young people and which is also common among the youth of Ethiopia. However, its prevalence and associated factors have not been addressed well yet. Thus, this study aimed to assess the prevalence and associated factors of substance use among preparatory school students in Bale Zone, Oromia Regional State, Southeast Ethiopia. An institutional-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 603 randomly selected students from five of eight preparatory schools of Bale Zone, Oromia Regional State, Southeast Ethiopia, in March 2013. The sample size was calculated by a single population proportion formula and allocated proportionally for the schools based on the number of students. A pretested structured questionnaire was used to collect the data. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 16.0. Descriptive, bivariate, and multivariate logistic regressions were employed to identify the predictors of substance use. The overall current prevalence of substance use among the respondents was 34.8% (210). Specifically, 23.6% (102) and 4.6% (28) of the respondents chewed khat and smoked cigarette, respectively. Sex, age, and substance use status of the respondents' father, mother, siblings, and best friend had an association with substance use. Male respondents were about ten times more at risk of practicing substance use compared to female respondents [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 11.37, 95% confidence interval (CI) 4.42-29.23]. Respondents whose sibling(s) smokes cigarette were four times more likely to use substance (AOR 4.44, 95% CI 1.11-17.79). Respondents whose best friend chews khat were 11 times more likely to use substance when compared with those whose best friend does not practice the given factor (AOR 11.15, 95% CI 4.43-28.07). Respondents whose family uses one or more substances were more likely use substance(s). Respondents whose best friend uses substance(s) were

  8. Prevalence of khat chewing and its effect on academic performance in Sidama zone, Southern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Kassa, Andargachew; Loha, Eskindir; Esaiyas, Atkilt

    2017-03-01

    Khat use is a well-established public health problem in Yemen, Arabian Peninsula, and Ethiopia. Along with its large scale production, the magnitude of khat use is increasing among students. This study was intended to assess the prevalence, determinants, and effect of khat use on academic performance of high school students in Sidama Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was conducted from April to June 2015. We used a stratified sampling technique to draw a total of 1,577 students. The data was collected using self-administered questionnaires and analyzed using SPSS version 20. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression models were used to determine the prevalence, effects, and predictors of khat use. The life time and current prevalence of khat use were 14.6% and 13%, respectively. Smoking cigarette (AOR=5.1, 95% C.I: 2.3-14.3), drinking alcohol (AOR=3.0, 95% C.I: 1.4-6.3), having a family growing khat (AOR=2.0, 95% C.I: 1.1-2.5), having friend chewing khat (AOR=3. 95% C.I: 2.0-4.6), were some of factors that increased the odds of students' khat use. Student's khat use increased the odds of student's poor academic performance (AOR=2.1, 95% C.I: 1.1-3.9). The prevalence of khat use in high khat producing districts of Sidama and its contribution to poor academic performance demand prompt intervention.

  9. Epidemiology of intestinal helminthiasis among school children with emphasis on Schistosoma mansoni infection in Wolaita zone, Southern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Alemayehu, Bereket; Tomass, Zewdneh; Wadilo, Fiseha; Leja, Dawit; Liang, Song; Erko, Berhanu

    2017-06-20

    Intestinal helminth infections are major parasitic diseases causing public health problems in Ethiopia. Although the epidemiology of these infections are well documented in Ethiopia, new transmission foci for schistosomiasis are being reported in different parts of the country. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni and other intestinal helminth infections among school children and determine the endemicity of schistosomiasis in Wolaita Zone, southern Ethiopia. Cross-sectional parasitological and malacological surveys were conducted by collecting stool samples for microscopic examination and snails for intermediate host identification. Stool samples were collected from 503 children and processed for microscopic examination using Kato-Katz and formalin-ether concentration methods. Snails collected from aquatic environments in the study area were identified to species level and Biomphalaria pfeifferi snails, the intermediate host of S. mansoni,, were individually exposed to artificial light in order to induce cercariae shedding. Cercariae shed from snails were used to infect laboratory-bred Swiss albino mice in order to identify the schistosome to species level. The overall prevalence of intestinal helminth infections was 72.2% among school children. S. mansoni infection prevalence was 58.6%. The prevalence and intensity of S. mansoni infections varied among schools and sex of children. Swimming was the only factor reported to be significantly associated with S. mansoni infection (AOR = 2.954, 95% CI:1.962-4.449). Other intestinal helminth species identified were hookworms (27.6%), Ascaris lumbricoides (8.7%), E. vermicularis (2.8%), Taenia species (2.6%), T. trichiura (1.2%) and H. nana (0.6%). Only B. pfeifferi snails collected from streams shed schistosome cercariae and 792 adult S. mansoni worms were harvested from mice exposed to cercariae shed from B. pfeifferi on the 6th week post-exposure. The present study found high

  10. First report of Phakopsora pachyrhizi causing rust on soybean in Ethiopia

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soybean rust, caused by the fungal pathogen P. pachyrhizi, has been reported in 10 African countries since the first report in Uganda in 1996. In 2016, a severe epidemic caused “clouds” of urediniospores to be observed when walking through fields in mid-October 2016 in Jimma Ethiopia. In the first ...

  11. Prevalence, risk factors, and major bacterial causes of camel mastitis in Borana Zone, Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Regassa, Alemayehu; Golicha, Gelma; Tesfaye, Dawit; Abunna, Fufa; Megersa, Bekele

    2013-10-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out from November 2010 up to April 2011 to estimate mastitis prevalence and associated risk factors and to assess its bacterial causes in traditionally managed camels in Borana Zone, Southern Ethiopia. Thus, 348 lactating camels were examined clinically, and subclinical cases were checked with California mastitis test (CMT). The overall prevalence of mastitis was 44.8 % (156/348), comprising clinical (19, 5.4 %) and subclinical (137, 39.4 %) cases. The quarter level prevalence of mastitis was 24.0 % (334/1,392). Of the total 1,392 examined teats, 30 were blind, and hence, from the 1,362 non-blind CMT-examined teats, 22.3 % (304/1,362) were CMT positive. Of the 304 CMT-positive samples, 264 were culture positive (197 Gram-positive, 41 Gram-negative, and 26 mixed isolates), and 40 were culture negative. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was found to be the highest at both the animal (12.8 %, 39/304) and quarter level (2.9 %, 39/1,362). Regression analysis revealed higher likelihood of mastitis occurrence among camels from Dharito (OR = 3.4, 95 % confidence interval (CI) = 1.8, 6.4), Gagna (OR = 3.4, 95 % CI = 1.8, 6.5), and Haro Bake (OR = 2.6, 95 % CI = 1.3, 5.1) than camels from Surupha. Likewise, there was higher chance of mastitis occurrence among camels at the early lactation stage (OR = 2.3, 95 % CI = 1.1, 4.6) and camels with udder/teat lesions (OR = 13.7, 95 % CI = 1.7, 109.4) than among camels at late lactation stage and camels with healthy udder/teats, respectively. In conclusion, this study reveals the current status of camel mastitis in Southern Ethiopia.

  12. Factors Influencing Job Satisfaction and Anticipated Turnover among Nurses in Sidama Zone Public Health Facilities, South Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Belachew, Tefera; Yimam, Ebrahim

    2014-01-01

    Background. Workplace turnover is destructive to nursing and patient outcomes as it leads to losing competent and qualified nurses. However, developments of coping strategies demand a clear understanding of workplace variables that either motivate nurses to remain employed or lead them to leave their current jobs. Objective. This study was designed toassess factors influencing job satisfaction and intention to turnover among nurses in Sidama zone public health facilities, in Southern Ethiopia. Method. Cross-sectional study design was carried out on 278 nurses using both qualitative and quantitative data collection methods from May 12 to June 05, 2010. Result. A total of 242 nurses were interviewed giving a response rate of 87%. Nearly two-third (68.6%) of the participants were female, and the mean age was 28 (±6.27) years for both sexes. All job satisfaction subscale except benefit and salary subscale were significant predictors of overall job satisfaction. Satisfactions with work environment and group cohesion (AOR: 0.25 [95% CI: 0.12, 0.51]), single cohesion (AOR: 2.56 [95% CI: 1.27, 5.13]), and working in hospital (AOR: 2.19 [95% CI: 1.12, 4.30]) were the final significant predictors of anticipated turnover of Sidama zone nurses. Conclusions. More than any factors managers should consider the modification of working environment and group cohesions rather than trying to modify nurses to retain and maintain more experienced nurses for the organizations. PMID:24707397

  13. Sexual practices and their development pattern among jimma university students.

    PubMed

    Ambaw, Fentie; Mossie, Andualem; Gobena, Teshome

    2010-11-01

    Traditional views of sexual behaviors are frequently changing as the factors influencing them are changing. Therefore, assessing sexual practices that are not part of the tradition would be necessary. The objective of this study was to identify the types of sexual practices, their development pattern and how these development patterns expose students to sexually transmitted infections and unplanned pregnancy. A cross-sectional survey was conducted on a sample of 1986 (1612 males, 365 females, and with 9 subjects' gender not indicated) Jimma university students in August 2009 with their age ranging from 17-45 years (median = 20). Quantitative data was collected using a piloted, precoded questionnaire and qualitative data was collected from six focus group discussions. Logistic regression and descriptive statistics were computed and qualitative findings were triangulated with quantitative findings. P-value less than 0.05 was considered significant. Practice of penile to vaginal intercourse, masturbation, kissing, oral sex, and anal sex were reported by 567 (28.9%), 688 (36.7%), 840 (42.4%), 179 (9.2%) and 83 (4.3%) of the respondents, respectively. Respondents had two years (one year with and one year without condom) of sexual experience before marriage. Sixty percent of those who had sexual experience were exposed to sexually transmitted infections and 46.6% were exposed to both unplanned pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. Forty seven percent of those who practiced oral sex and 29% of those who practiced anal sex did not consider their acts as sexual intercourse. University students are high risk groups that need more focused research and concerted health care. The term 'sexual intercourse' should be consciously defined for its future use in Ethiopia. Furthermore, Service providers and researchers should address all types of sexual practices.

  14. A survey on Integrated Management of Neonatal and Childhood Illness implementation by nurses in four districts of West Arsi zone of Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Seid, Sheka Shemsi; Sendo, Endalew Gemechu

    2018-01-01

    In Ethiopia, one in 17 children dies before 1 year of age and one in 11 children dies before 5 years. Research that examines the factors influencing the implementation of the Integrated Management of Neonatal and Childhood Illnesses (IMNCI) strategy in Ethiopia is limited. This study aimed to identify the factors compelling the execution of IMNCI by nurses in four districts of West Arsi zone of Ethiopia. A mixed-method cross-sectional study was conducted from February to March 2016 in West Arsi zone of Oromia regional state, Ethiopia. A total of 185 Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI)-trained registered nurses working at Under-Five Clinic were purposively chosen for the study among 291 registered nurses based at health centers and hospitals in the Arsi zone. The study was complemented by a qualitative method. More than half (57.8%) of the nurses interviewed had been trained (51.35% of them attended in-service training). The most common issues encountered in the implementation of IMCI were: lack of trained staff (56.2%), lack of essential drugs and supplies (37.3%), and irregular supportive supervision (89.2%). The qualitative data supplemented the factors that influence IMNCI implementation, including drug unavailability, lack of human resources, and lack of effective supportive supervision and follow-up visits. Therefore, interventions aiming at training nurses, with emphasis on performing supportive consistent supervision and supporting the system of health care by enhancing admittance to indispensable drugs and supplies, are recommended to help IMCI implementation.

  15. Antimicrobial activity of traditional medicinal plants from Ankober District, North Shewa Zone, Amhara Region, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Lulekal, E; Rondevaldova, J; Bernaskova, E; Cepkova, J; Asfaw, Z; Kelbessa, E; Kokoska, L; Van Damme, P

    2014-05-01

    Traditional medicinal plants have long been used in Ethiopia to treat human and livestock ailments. Despite a well-documented rich tradition of medicinal plant use in the country, their direct antimicrobial effects are still poorly known. To investigate the antimicrobial activity of 19 medicinal plant species that were selected based on the ethnobotanical information on their traditional use to treat infectious diseases in Ankober District. About 23 different ethanol extracts of plants obtained by maceration of various parts of 19 medicinal plant species were studied for potential antimicrobial activity using a broth microdilution method against Bacillus cereus, Bacteroides fragilis, Candida albicans, Clostridium perfringens, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella enteritidis, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Streptococcus pyogenes. Plant extracts from Embelia schimperi Vatke (Myrsinaceae) showed the strongest antibacterial activity with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value of 64 µg/ml against B. cereus, L. monocytogenes, and S. pyogenes. Growth inhibitory activities were also observed for extracts of Ocimum lamiifolium Hochst. (Lamiaceae) against S. pyogenes, and those of Rubus steudneri Schweinf. (Rosaceae) against S. epidermidis at an MIC value of 128 µg/ml. Generally, 74% of ethanol extracts (17 extracts) showed antimicrobial activity against one or more of the microbial strains tested at an MIC value of 512 µg/ml or below. Results confirm the antimicrobial role of traditional medicinal plants of Ankober and warrant further investigations on promising medicinal plant species so as to isolate and characterise chemicals responsible for the observed strong antimicrobial activities.

  16. Prevalence and Bacterial Isolates of Mastitis in Dairy Farms in Selected Districts of Eastern Harrarghe Zone, Eastern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Abera, Gerema

    2017-01-01

    The study was conducted from November 2015 to April 2016 to estimate the prevalence of clinical and subclinical mastitis in lactating cows, to assess the associated risk factors, and to isolate the major bacterial pathogens in dairy farms in selected district of Eastern Harrarghe Zone, Eastern Ethiopia. The study was carried out in 384 dairy cows based on data collection, farm visit, animal examination, California mastitis test (CMT), and isolation bacterial pathogens using standard techniques. In the present study the overall mastitis at cow level was 247 (64.3%). The prevalence of clinical and subclinical mastitis and quarter level prevalence for clinical and subclinical mastitis were 12.5% and 51.8% at cow level and 10.7% and 46.4% at quarter level, respectively. Clinically, 101 (6.6%) quarters which belong to 75 (19.5%) animals were found to be with blind teat. In the present study prevalence of mastitis was significantly associated with parity and age (p < 0.05). Bacteriological examination of milk sample revealed 187 isolates where coagulase negative Staphylococcus species (CNS) (34.2%) was the predominant species while Streptococcus faecalis (2.1%) was identified as the least bacteria. The present study concluded that prevalence of mastitis particularly the subclinical mastitis was major problem of dairy cows in the area and hence warrants serious attention. PMID:28352648

  17. Household food insecurity and symptoms of neurologic disorder in Ethiopia: an observational analysis.

    PubMed

    El-Sayed, Abdulrahman M; Hadley, Craig; Tessema, Fasil; Tegegn, Ayelew; Cowan, John A; Galea, Sandro

    2010-12-31

    Food insecurity (FI) has been shown to be associated with poor health both in developing and developed countries. Little is known about the relation between FI and neurological disorder. We assessed the relation between FI and risk for neurologic symptoms in southwest Ethiopia. Data about food security, gender, age, household assets, and self-reported neurologic symptoms were collected from a representative, community-based sample of adults (N = 900) in Jimma Zone, Ethiopia. We calculated univariate statistics and used bivariate chi-square tests and multivariate logistic regression models to assess the relation between FI and risk of neurologic symptoms including seizures, extremity weakness, extremity numbness, tremors/ataxia, aphasia, carpal tunnel syndrome, vision dysfunction, and spinal pain. In separate multivariate models by outcome and gender, adjusting for age and household socioeconomic status, severe FI was associated with higher odds of seizures, movement abnormalities, carpal tunnel, vision dysfunction, spinal pain, and comorbid disorders among women. Severe FI was associated with higher odds of seizures, extremity numbness, movement abnormalities, difficulty speaking, carpal tunnel, vision dysfunction, and comorbid disorders among men. We found that FI was associated with symptoms of neurologic disorder. Given the cross-sectional nature of our study, the directionality of these associations is unclear. Future research should assess causal mechanisms relating FI to neurologic symptoms in sub-Saharan Africa.

  18. Impacts and Policy Implications of Metals Effluent Discharge into Rivers within Industrial Zones: A Sub-Saharan Perspective from Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zinabu, E.; Kelderman, P.; van der Kwast, J.; Irvine, K.

    2018-04-01

    Kombolcha, a city in Ethiopia, exemplifies the challenges and problems of the sub-Saharan countries where industrialization is growing fast but monitoring resources are poor and information on pollution unknown. This study monitored metals Cr, Cu, Zn, and Pb concentrations in five factories' effluents, and in the effluent mixing zones of two rivers receiving discharges during the rainy seasons of 2013 and 2014. The results indicate that median concentrations of Cr in the tannery effluents and Zn in the steel processing effluents were as high as 26,600 and 155,750 µg/L, respectively, much exceeding both the USEPA and Ethiopian emission guidelines. Cu concentrations were low in all effluents. Pb concentrations were high in the tannery effluent, but did not exceed emission guidelines. As expected, no metal emission guidelines were exceeded for the brewery, textile and meat processing effluents. Median Cr and Zn concentrations in the Leyole river in the effluent mixing zones downstream of the tannery and steel processing plant increased by factors of 52 (2660 compared with 51 µg Cr/L) and 5 (520 compared with 110 µg Zn/L), respectively, compared with stations further upstream. This poses substantial ecological risks downstream. Comparison with emission guidelines indicates poor environmental management by industries and regulating institutions. Despite appropriate legislation, no clear measures have yet been taken to control industrial discharges, with apparent mismatch between environmental enforcement and investment policies. Effluent management, treatment technologies and operational capacity of environmental institutions were identified as key improvement areas to adopt progressive sustainable development.

  19. Predictors of pediatric tuberculosis in public health facilities of Bale zone, Oromia region, Ethiopia: a case control study.

    PubMed

    Gebremichael, Bereket; Abebaw, Tsega-Ab; Moges, Tsedey; Abaerei, Admas Abera; Worede, Nadia

    2018-06-04

    Tuberculosis is among the top ten cause of death (9th) from a single infectious agent worldwide. It even ranks above HIV/AIDS. It is among the top 10 causes of death among children. Globally there are estimates of one million cases of TB in children, 76% occur in 22 high-burden countries among which Ethiopia ranked 8th. Despite this fact, children with TB are given low priority in most national health programs. Moreover reports on childhood TB and its predictors are very limited. Therefore this study aimed to assess predictors of pediatric Tuberculosis in Public Health Facilities. Unmatched case control study among a total samples of 432 (144 cases and 288 controls) were done from August to December 2016 in Bale zone, South East Ethiopia. Pediatric TB patients who attended health facilities for DOTS and those who attended health facilities providing DOTS service for any health problem except for TB were the study population for cases and controls, respectively. For each case two consecutive controls were sampled systematically. Data were collected using pretested and structured questionnaire through face to face interview with parents. Binary and multivariable logistic regression analyses were employed to identify predictors of Tuberculosis. Among cases there were equal number of male and female 71(50%). However among control 136 (47.9%) were male and the rest were female. The mean (standard deviation) of age among cases was 8.4 (±4.3) and controls were 7.3 (±4.1). The odds of TB were 2 times (AOR, 95% CI = 1.94(1.02-3.77)) more likely among 11-15 age group children when compared with children of age group ≤5. HIV status of the child, children who were fed raw milk and absence of BCG vaccination were the other predictors of pediatric TB with AOR 13.6(3.45-53.69), 4.23(2.26-7.88), and 5.46(1.82-16.32) respectively. Children who were not BCG Vaccinated were at risk of developing TB. Furthermore, HIV status, age of the child and family practice of feeding

  20. Birth preparedness and complication readiness among rural women of reproductive age in Abeshige district, Guraghe zone, SNNPR, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Zepre, Kebebush; Kaba, Mirgissa

    2017-01-01

    Background Birth preparedness and complication readiness (BPCR) is a strategy that helps women to consider all available maternal health care services during pregnancy and prepare for potential complications. Federal Ministry of Health in Ethiopia has taken steps to roll out the strategy at community level. Yet, women in rural communities still do not make use of available services to avoid complications in connection to pregnancy and delivery. Objective This study aims to assess the current BPCR practice and determine associated factors among rural women of reproductive age in Abeshige district, Guraghe zone, SNNPR, Ethiopia. Methods A community-based cross-sectional study was carried out from February to March 2015. A total of 454 women were randomly selected and interviewed using pretested structured questionnaires, while opinion leaders, health extension workers, and selected women in the community were engaged in in-depth interviews and focus group discussions, using checklists prepared to guide the interviews. Data from different sources were analyzed, triangulated, and interpreted to respond to the objectives. Results Thirty-seven percent of the respondents were found to have prepared for birth and its complications. BPCR was higher among women who lived within a 1-hour walk from a health center (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =3.51, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.78, 36.79) and who were aware of the danger signs of pregnancy (AOR =1.72, 95% CI: 1.78, 2.94) and postpartum complications (AOR =2.32, 95% CI: 1.32, 4.21). A major source of information was found to be health extension workers and one-to-five women networks (AOR =2.81, 95% CI: 1.34, 6.21) and (AOR =2.52, 95% CI: 1.17, 5.54), respectively. Qualitative finding revealed that lack of transportation and concern over cost of services are key barriers to BPCR. Conclusion BPCR in Abeshige was found to be relatively low, calling for more interventions beyond mere awareness. Availing transportation services and

  1. Birth preparedness and complication readiness among rural women of reproductive age in Abeshige district, Guraghe zone, SNNPR, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Zepre, Kebebush; Kaba, Mirgissa

    2017-01-01

    Birth preparedness and complication readiness (BPCR) is a strategy that helps women to consider all available maternal health care services during pregnancy and prepare for potential complications. Federal Ministry of Health in Ethiopia has taken steps to roll out the strategy at community level. Yet, women in rural communities still do not make use of available services to avoid complications in connection to pregnancy and delivery. This study aims to assess the current BPCR practice and determine associated factors among rural women of reproductive age in Abeshige district, Guraghe zone, SNNPR, Ethiopia. A community-based cross-sectional study was carried out from February to March 2015. A total of 454 women were randomly selected and interviewed using pretested structured questionnaires, while opinion leaders, health extension workers, and selected women in the community were engaged in in-depth interviews and focus group discussions, using checklists prepared to guide the interviews. Data from different sources were analyzed, triangulated, and interpreted to respond to the objectives. Thirty-seven percent of the respondents were found to have prepared for birth and its complications. BPCR was higher among women who lived within a 1-hour walk from a health center (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =3.51, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.78, 36.79) and who were aware of the danger signs of pregnancy (AOR =1.72, 95% CI: 1.78, 2.94) and postpartum complications (AOR =2.32, 95% CI: 1.32, 4.21). A major source of information was found to be health extension workers and one-to-five women networks (AOR =2.81, 95% CI: 1.34, 6.21) and (AOR =2.52, 95% CI: 1.17, 5.54), respectively. Qualitative finding revealed that lack of transportation and concern over cost of services are key barriers to BPCR. BPCR in Abeshige was found to be relatively low, calling for more interventions beyond mere awareness. Availing transportation services and ensuring services free of charge would help in

  2. Birth preparedness and complication readiness in Robe Woreda, Arsi Zone, Oromia Region, Central Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Globally, an estimated 287 000 maternal deaths occurred in 2010 annually as a result of complications of pregnancy and childbirth. Sub-Saharan Africa and Southern Asia were accounted for 85% of the global burden (245 000 maternal deaths) including Ethiopia. Obstetric related complications cannot be reliably predicted. Hence, insignificant decline of maternal mortality ratio might be due to the non use of birth preparedness and complication readiness strategies. Therefore, this paper aimed to assess knowledge and practices towards birth preparedness and complication readiness and associated factors among women of reproductive age group (15–49) in Robe Woreda, Arsi Zone, Oromia Region, Ethiopia. Method Community-based cross-sectional study supplemented by qualitative design was conducted in January, 2012. A total of 575 women from 5 kebeles were selected after proportionally allocated to population size and interviewed using structured and semi-structured, pre-tested questionnaires. Univariate and bivariate analysis was performed. Multiple logistic regression analysis was also done to control for possible confounding variables. Results Taking into account place of delivery identification, means of transportation, skilled attendant identification and saving money, about 16.5% of the respondents were prepared for birth and its complications. Preparation for birth and its complication was higher among educated mothers (AOR = 6.23, 95% CI = 1.5, 25.87). Monthly income of >716 Ethiopian birr (AOR = 1.94, 95% CI = 1.01, 3.87), ANC visit (AOR = 5.68, 95% CI = 1.27, 25.4), knowledge of obstetric complications (AOR = 2.94, 95% CI = 1.61, 5.37) and those who had given birth at health facility before their last delivery (AOR = 3.9, 95% CI = 2.04, 7.46) were also significantly associated with birth preparedness and complication readiness. Conclusion The study identified very low magnitude of birth preparedness and complication

  3. Predictors of Treatment Failure among Adult Antiretroviral Treatment (ART) Clients in Bale Zone Hospitals, South Eastern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Takele, Abulie; Gashaw, Ketema; Demelash, Habtamu; Nigatu, Dabere

    2016-01-01

    Background Treatment failure defined as progression of disease after initiation of ART or when the anti-HIV medications can’t control the infection. One of the major concerns over the rapid scaling up of ART is the emergence and transmission of HIV drug resistant strains at the population level due to treatment failure. This could lead to the failure of basic ART programs. Thus this study aimed to investigate the predictors of treatment failure among adult ART clients in Bale Zone Hospitals, South east Ethiopia. Methods Retrospective cohort study was employed in four hospitals of Bale zone named Goba, Robe, Ginir and Delomena. A total of 4,809 adult ART clients were included in the analysis from these four hospitals. Adherence was measured by pill count method. The Kaplan Meier (KM) curve was used to describe the survival time of ART patients without treatment failure. Bivariate and multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models were used for identifying associated factors of treatment failure. Result The incidence rate of treatment failure was found 9.38 (95% CI 7.79–11.30) per 1000 person years. Male ART clients were more likely to experience treatment failure as compared to females [AHR = 4.49; 95% CI: (2.61–7.73)].Similarly, lower CD4 count (<100 m3/dl) at initiation of ART was found significantly associated with higher odds of treatment failure [AHR = 3.79; 95% CI: (2.46–5.84).Bedridden [AHR = 5.02; 95% CI: (1.98–12.73)] and ambulatory [AHR = 2.12; 95% CI: (1.08–4.07)] patients were more likely to experience treatment failure as compared to patients with working functional status. TB co-infected clients had also higher odds to experience treatment failure [AHR = 3.06; 95% CI: (1.72–5.44)]. Those patients who had developed TB after ART initiation had higher odds to experience treatment failure as compared to their counter parts [AHR = 4.35; 95% CI: (1.99–9.54]. Having other opportunistic infection during ART initiation was also

  4. Predictors of Treatment Failure among Adult Antiretroviral Treatment (ART) Clients in Bale Zone Hospitals, South Eastern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Haile, Demewoz; Takele, Abulie; Gashaw, Ketema; Demelash, Habtamu; Nigatu, Dabere

    2016-01-01

    Treatment failure defined as progression of disease after initiation of ART or when the anti-HIV medications can't control the infection. One of the major concerns over the rapid scaling up of ART is the emergence and transmission of HIV drug resistant strains at the population level due to treatment failure. This could lead to the failure of basic ART programs. Thus this study aimed to investigate the predictors of treatment failure among adult ART clients in Bale Zone Hospitals, South east Ethiopia. Retrospective cohort study was employed in four hospitals of Bale zone named Goba, Robe, Ginir and Delomena. A total of 4,809 adult ART clients were included in the analysis from these four hospitals. Adherence was measured by pill count method. The Kaplan Meier (KM) curve was used to describe the survival time of ART patients without treatment failure. Bivariate and multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models were used for identifying associated factors of treatment failure. The incidence rate of treatment failure was found 9.38 (95% CI 7.79-11.30) per 1000 person years. Male ART clients were more likely to experience treatment failure as compared to females [AHR = 4.49; 95% CI: (2.61-7.73)].Similarly, lower CD4 count (<100 m3/dl) at initiation of ART was found significantly associated with higher odds of treatment failure [AHR = 3.79; 95% CI: (2.46-5.84).Bedridden [AHR = 5.02; 95% CI: (1.98-12.73)] and ambulatory [AHR = 2.12; 95% CI: (1.08-4.07)] patients were more likely to experience treatment failure as compared to patients with working functional status. TB co-infected clients had also higher odds to experience treatment failure [AHR = 3.06; 95% CI: (1.72-5.44)]. Those patients who had developed TB after ART initiation had higher odds to experience treatment failure as compared to their counter parts [AHR = 4.35; 95% CI: (1.99-9.54]. Having other opportunistic infection during ART initiation was also associated with higher odds of experiencing

  5. Ethnoveterinary plants of Ankober District, North Shewa Zone, Amhara Region, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Traditional herbal preparations for addressing veterinary problems have been applied in Ankober District, Ethiopia, for generations. However, the millennia-old ethnoveterinary knowledge of the community, and the plants are subjected to loss without being scientifically documented due to anthropogenic and environmental threats. Hence, this study aims at providing a comprehensive documentation on ethnoveterinary plant knowledge of the people in order to preserve the fast-eroding knowledge and resources of the area. Methods Semi-structured interviews, focus group discussions, participant observation and walk-in-the-woods methods were used to gather ethnoveterinary data. Informant Consensus Factor (ICF) and Fidelity level (FL) values were calculated using quantitative approaches so as to check the level of informants' agreement on plant use and healing potential of ethnoveterinary medicinal plant species, respectively. Indigenous knowledge on use of medicinal plants for ethnoveterinary purposes among different informant groups was compared using One-way ANOVA and t-tests. Results A total of 51 plant species representing 50 genera and 35 botanical families used in the treatment of 33 different ailments were identified. Medicinal plant species belonging to families Asteraceae, Asclepiadaceae, Euphorbiaceae and Ranunculaceae were reported to be of frequent use in the local ethnoveterinary medical system. Roots (65%, 33 species) were most often utilized for remedy preparation. Highest ICF values were recorded for gastro-intestinal (0.71) ailments depicting best agreement on knowledge of medicinal plants used to treat aliments in this category. Embelia schimperi Vatke showed highest fidelity level value (90%) to treat gastro-intestinal diseases showing conformity of knowledge on this species' healing potential. Significant difference (P<0.05) was observed in average number of therapeutic plants reported by senior members of the community than younger groups

  6. Analysing fault growth at the continental break up zone in Afar, Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, Barbara; Wright, Tim; Rowland, Julie; Hautot, Sophie; Paton, Douglas; Kidane, Tesfaye; Abebe, Bekele

    2010-05-01

    Continental break up, the formation of new oceans still holds many unanswered questions. The continental rift of Afar, Ethiopia is the only place on Earth today where the final stages of continental rupture and the beginning of seafloor spreading are occurring above sea level. In September 2005 a new rifting episode started at the Dabbahu segment with the intrusion of about 2-2.5 km^ 3 of magma into a 60-km-long dyke (Wright et. al., 2006; Grandin et. al., 2009), causing horizontal opening of up to 8m. Faults within the research area show fresh slip of up to 3m along fault segments of about 10km (Rowland et. al., 2007). Since then 13 further dyke intrusions showing surface deformation have been detected and analysed using InSAR data. However, how faults grow remains a key question. To establish fault growth models, distribution of displacement along surface tracks as well as scaling relationships of faults of different order of magnitudes within a similar lithological setting are essential (eg. Walsh and Watterson, 1988; Cowie and Scholz, 1992). Set in Pliocene flood basalts the highly faulted Dabbahu segment forms an ideal study case. We used 6 pairs of SPOT5 images with a pixel size of 2.5m to create a relative DEM of 6m resolution covering the whole of the 60km x 30km Dabbahu segment. By tying the relative DEM to the georeferenced 90m resolution DEM from SRTM data and applying linear and bi-quadratic polynomial transformations we were able to georeference the DEM. During October 2009 a LiDAR survey took place over the central rift segment with additional cross profiles. The additional data has enhanced the DEM spatial resolution to 1m in the centre. Using this large, precise dataset we have developed an automated method to systematically derive the distribution of displacement along the surface expression of the faults. This enables us to determine whether scaling relationships derived in other areas are valid for magmatically-driven faults. Here we present

  7. Health workforce deployment, attrition and density in East wollega zone, Western ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Hailemichael, Yohannes; Jira, Challi; Girma, Belayneh; Tushune, Kora

    2010-03-01

    In East Wollega Zone, despite the success in creating considerable number of health facilities, short-age of health personnel, geographical imbalance and increasing attrition is found to be a persistent barrier to the effectiveness of the health system. However, available data is not rich enough to provide reliable information as to what extent these problems exist in the Zone. Hence, this study was conducted to assess health workforce density, deployment and attrition in East Wollega Zone. A six years retrospective record review from 2000-2005 was conducted between February 1, and March 30, 2006 in eleven randomly selected districts of East Wollega Zone. Data obtained from records and interviews made with selected resource persons were organized by triangulating quantitatively and qualitatively. Quantitative data was analyzed using SPSS 12.01 for windows and thematic frame work analysis was used for qualitative data. Health workforce deployment rate for the years 2000-2005 ranged from 8.2% to 15.4 %. In contrast, attrition rate for the same period ranged from 2.9 % to 8.5 %. Attrition rate for the time after decentralization (2003-2005) was nearly two times greater than before decentralization (OR, 2.04, CI, 1.51, 2.85, P=0.00). Moreover, attrition rate was nearly three times greater for a high level professional when compared to the lower level (OR, 3.15, CI , 2.63, 4.37, P=0.00). Attrition rate for males was two times higher as compared to females (OR, 2.07, CI, 1.67, 3.74, P=0.00). About (26.3%) of all health workers and (36.7%) of nurses and midwives were deployed to the capital town of the zone. Factors identified as most likely cause for the lower deployment and higher attritions were budget related constraints, lack of continuing education opportunity and poor career development. The number of health personnel in East Wollega was low both by international standards and relative to the national density. Moreover, attrition was higher for the time after

  8. Prevalence of Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium species infections among children and cattle in North Shewa Zone, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Wegayehu, Teklu; Adamu, Haileeyesus; Petros, Beyene

    2013-09-08

    Giardia and Cryptosporidium are the most common causes of protozoan diarrhea that lead to significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium species infections among children and cattle, and to assess the potential risk of zoonotic transmission. This cross-sectional study was conducted between January and April 2009 in Girar Jarso and Dera Districts of North Shewa Zone, Oromia Region, Ethiopia. A total of 768 stool specimens were collected and examined for intestinal parasites using direct wet mount with saline and formalin ether concentration methods. The modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining method was used for the detection of Cryptosporidium species. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software version 15. Out of 384 children examined, 53 (13.8%) and 28 (7.3%) were positive for Giardia and Cryptosporidium infections, respectively. Similarly, of the total 384 cattle examined, 9 (2.3%) were positive for Giardia duodenalis and 30 (7.8%) were positive for Cryptosporidium infection. The prevalence of giardiasis was significantly higher among children who had close contact with cattle 33 (18.7%) compared to children who had no contact with cattle 20 (9.6%) (P < 0.05). Higher number of Cryptosporidium infection was also recorded in children who had close contact with cattle 15 (8.5%). Difference in prevalence of giardiasis and cryptosporidiosis among children was not statistically significant between males and females. On the other hand, difference in the prevalence of giardiasis among children was statistically significant between age groups. Higher prevalence of Giardia duodenalis infection detected among children was significantly associated with contact with cattle and manure that the children had. Further analysis using molecular techniques is needed to explain the existence of zoonotic transmission in the study area.

  9. Mantle transition zone structure and upper mantle S velocity variations beneath Ethiopia: Evidence for a broad, deep-seated thermal anomaly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benoit, Margaret H.; Nyblade, Andrew A.; Owens, Thomas J.; Stuart, Graham

    2006-11-01

    Ethiopia has been subjected to widespread Cenozoic volcanism, rifting, and uplift associated with the Afar hot spot. The hot spot tectonism has been attributed to one or more thermal upwellings in the mantle, for example, starting thermal plumes and superplumes. We investigate the origin of the hot spot by imaging the S wave velocity structure of the upper mantle beneath Ethiopia using travel time tomography and by examining relief on transition zone discontinuities using receiver function stacks. The tomographic images reveal an elongated low-velocity region that is wide (>500 km) and extends deep into the upper mantle (>400 km). The anomaly is aligned with the Afar Depression and Main Ethiopian Rift in the uppermost mantle, but its center shifts westward with depth. The 410 km discontinuity is not well imaged, but the 660 km discontinuity is shallower than normal by ˜20-30 km beneath most of Ethiopia, but it is at a normal depth beneath Djibouti and the northwestern edge of the Ethiopian Plateau. The tomographic results combined with a shallow 660 km discontinuity indicate that upper mantle temperatures are elevated by ˜300 K and that the thermal anomaly is broad (>500 km wide) and extends to depths ≥660 km. The dimensions of the thermal anomaly are not consistent with a starting thermal plume but are consistent with a flux of excess heat coming from the lower mantle. Such a broad thermal upwelling could be part of the African Superplume found in the lower mantle beneath southern Africa.

  10. Rate of HIV transmission and associated factors among HIV-exposed infants in selected health facilities of East and West Gojjam Zones, Northwest Ethiopia; retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Moges, Nurilign Abebe; Kassa, Getachew Mullu; Boneya, Dube Jara

    2017-07-06

    In 2014, there were 170,000 new HIV-infected children globally. The rate of HIV transmission from mother to child in Ethiopia was 18%. Though there are a number of HIV-related studies conducted in Ethiopia, there is a scarcity of evidence on the rate of mother to child transmission. So, the aim of this study was to determine the rate of HIV transmission and associated factors among HIV-exposed infants in selected health facilities in East and West Gojjam Zones, Northwest Ethiopia. Retrospective cohort study design was conducted. A total of 305 exposed infant- and mother pairs were included in this study. Data were collected from seven selected health facilities in East and West Gojjam Zone, Northwest Ethiopia. The study included a four-year duration PMTCT data, registered from July/2011 to July/2015. Data was collected using a prepared checklist. Data was entered using EpiData and analyzed using SPSS software. Descriptive, bivariate and multiple variable logistic regression analysis were conducted. A p-value less than 0.05 were used to declare statistical significant association. Three hundred five infants and their mothers were included in this study. The mean age of mothers was 27.4 with a standard deviation of 4.3 years. The majority, 96.4% of infants were on exclusive breastfeeding before six months. The rate of HIV transmission at the end of 24 months were 5.9% (95% CI: 3.9%-7.9%). The number of positive children was reduced from 14 (10.29%) to 4(2.37%) due to the program shift from option A to option B+. Factors which were associated with transmission of HIV from mother to child were; children who were born from older mothers (AOR = 5.4, 95% CI = 1.15, 25.70), and infants whose mother couldn't get PMTCT intervention (AOR = 15.95, 95% CI = 3.35, 75), and mothers who became pregnant after they knew they were HIV positive (AOR = 0.22, 95%CI = 0.049,096). There is significant progress on the reduction of the rate of HIV transmission from mother to

  11. Prevalence of female genital mutilation and its effect on women's health in Bale zone, Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Bogale, Daniel; Markos, Desalegn; Kaso, Muhammedawel

    2014-10-16

    Females' genital mutilation (FGM) is one of the harmful traditional practices affecting the health of women and children. It has a long-term physiological, sexual and psychological effect on women. It remains still a serious problem for large proportion of women in most sub-Saharan Africa countries including Ethiopia. A community based cross sectional study design which is supplemented by qualitative method was conducted in 2014. A total of 634 reproductive age women were involved in the quantitative part of the study. The respondents were drawn from five randomly selected districts of Bale zone. The total sample was allocated proportionally to each district based on the number of reproductive age women it has. Purposive sampling method was used for qualitative study. Then, data were collected using pre-tested and structured questionnaire. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS for windows version 16.0. Multiple logistic regressions were carried out to examine the existence of relationship between FGM and selected determinant factors. Variables significant in the bivariate analysis were then entered into a multiple logistic regression analysis. In this study, 486 (78.5%) of women had undergone some form of FGM with 75% lower and 82% upper confidence interval. To get married, to get social acceptance, to safeguard virginity, to suppress sexual desire and religious recommendations were the main reasons of FGM. The reported immediate complications were excessive bleeding at the time of the procedure, infection, urine retention and swelling of genital organ. Muslim women and women from rural areas were significantly more likely to have undergone the procedure. In addition to these, compared to women 15-20 years old older women were more likely to report themselves having undergone FGM. Although younger women, those from urban residence and some religions are less likely to have had FGM it is still extremely common in this zone. Deep cultural issues and strongly

  12. Magnitude and outcomes of road traffic accidents at Hospitals in Wolaita Zone, SNNPR, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Hailemichael, Feleke; Suleiman, Mohammed; Pauolos, Wondimagegn

    2015-04-09

    A Road traffic accident is an incident on a way or street open to public traffic, resulting in one or more persons being killed or injured, and involving at least one moving vehicle. The aim of this study is to assess magnitude and outcome of road traffic accidents among trauma victims at hospitals in Wolaita zone. A cross sectional hospital based study design using retrospective chart review was conducted from March 5th to March 25th, 2014. Simple random sampling technique was applied to identify sample population. The data was entered in to Epi info version 3.5.1 and transferred to SPSS version 16 for further analysis. A total of 384 trauma victims were incorporated in the study of which 240 (62.5%) were due to road traffic accidents. The majority of patients were male 298 (77.6%) and most commonly aged between 20-29 (35.42%). The principal outcome of injury was more commonly lower extremity (182 patients, 47.4%), compared to upper extremity (126 patients, 32.8%). Of all trauma patient presenting to hospitals (62.5%) are the result of road traffic accident. Hence, the provision of tailored messages to all members of the community regarding knowledge and practices of road safety measures like appropriate use of pavements by pedestrians and avoiding risky driving behaviors. Besides this make use of compulsory motorcycle helmets would appear to be a very important intervention.

  13. Risk of DDT residue in maize consumed by infants as complementary diet in southwest Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Mekonen, Seblework; Lachat, Carl; Ambelu, Argaw; Steurbaut, Walter; Kolsteren, Patrick; Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Wondafrash, Mekitie; Houbraken, Michael; Spanoghe, Pieter

    2015-04-01

    Infants in Ethiopia are consuming food items such as maize as a complementary diet. However, this may expose infants to toxic contaminants like DDT. Maize samples were collected from the households visited during a consumption survey and from markets in Jimma zone, southwestern Ethiopia. The residues of total DDT and its metabolites were analyzed using the Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe (QuEChERS) method combined with dispersive solid phase extraction cleanup (d-SPE). Deterministic and probabilistic methods of analysis were applied to determine the consumer exposure of infants to total DDT. The results from the exposure assessment were compared with the health based guidance value in this case the provisional tolerable daily intake (PTDI). All maize samples (n=127) were contaminated by DDT, with a mean concentration of 1.770 mg/kg, which was far above the maximum residue limit (MRL). The mean and 97.5 percentile (P 97.5) estimated daily intake of total DDT for consumers were respectively 0.011 and 0.309 mg/kg bw/day for deterministic and 0.011 and 0.083 mg/kg bw/day for probabilistic exposure assessment. For total infant population (consumers and non-consumers), the 97.5 percentile estimated daily intake were 0.265 and 0.032 mg/kg bw/day from the deterministic and probabilistic exposure assessments, respectively. Health risk estimation revealed that, the mean and 97.5 percentile for consumers, and 97.5 percentile estimated daily intake of total DDT for total population were above the PTDI. Therefore, in Ethiopia, the use of maize as complementary food for infants may pose a health risk due to DDT residue. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Prevalence of smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis among prisoners in North Gondar Zone Prison, northwest Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Moges, Beyene; Amare, Bemnet; Asfaw, Fanaye; Tesfaye, Wogahta; Tiruneh, Moges; Belyhun, Yeshambel; Mulu, Andargachew; Kassu, Afework

    2012-12-15

    People concentrated in congregated systems, such as prisons, are important but often neglected reservoirs for TB transmission, and threaten those in the outside community. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the prevalence of tuberculosis in a prison system of North Gondar Zone. An active case-finding survey in North Gondar Prison was carried out from March to May 2011. All prison inmates who had history of cough for at least a week were included in the study. Three morning sputum samples were collected from suspected inmates and examined through fluorescence microscopy. Fine needle aspiration cytology was done for those having significant lymphadenopathy. Pre and post HIV test counseling was provided after written consent. Binary logistic and multivariable analysis was performed using SPSS version 16. A total of 250 prisoners were included in the survey. Among these, 26 (10.4%) prisoners were found to have TB giving a point prevalence of 1482.3 per 100,000 populations of smear positive TB among the TB suspects. All the inmates who participated in the study volunteered for HIV testing and a total of 19(7.6%) inmates were found to be reactive for the HIV antibody test amongst of which 9(47.4%) had TB co-infection. The prevalence of HIV infection in the TB infected inmates was found to be 34.6% (9/26). From the 26 TB cases identified 12 (46.2%) were having under nutrition (BMI < 18.5kg/m(2)). There is high prevalence of TB in North Gondar Prison with possible active transmission of TB within the prison. There was a high prevalence of HIV among the TB suspects. Strong cooperation between prison authorities and the national tuberculosis control programmes is urgently required to develop locally appropriate interventions to reduce transmission. The determinants for poor nutrition in the prison need also further investigation.

  15. Clinical chemistry reference intervals of healthy adult populations in Gojjam Zones of Amhara National Regional State, Northwest Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Mekonnen, Zewdie; Amuamuta, Asmare; Mulu, Wondemagegn; Yimer, Mulat; Zenebe, Yohannes; Adem, Yesuf; Abera, Bayeh; Gebeyehu, Wondemu; Gebregziabher, Yakob

    2017-01-01

    Reference interval is crucial for disease screening, diagnosis, monitoring, progression and treatment efficacy. Due to lack of locally derived reference values for the parameters, clinicians use reference intervals derived from western population. But, studies conducted in different African countries have indicated differences between locally and western derived reference values. Different studies also indicated considerable variation in clinical chemistry reference intervals by several variables such as age, sex, geographical location, environment, lifestyle and genetic variation. This study aimed to determine the reference intervals of common clinical chemistry parameters of the community of Gojjam Zones, Northwest Ethiopia. Population based cross-sectional study was conducted from November 2015 to December 2016 in healthy adult populations of Gojjam zone. Data such as, medical history, physical examination and socio-demographic data were collected. In addition, laboratory investigations were undertaken to screen the population. Clinical chemistry parameters were measured using Mindray BS 200 clinical chemistry autoanalyzer as per the manufacturer's instructions. Descriptive statistics was used to calculate mean, median and 95th percentiles. Independent sample T-test and one way ANOVA were used to see association between variables. After careful screening of a total of 799 apparently healthy adults who were consented for this study, complete data from 446 (224 females and 222 males) were included for the analysis. The mean age of both the study participants was 28.8 years. Males had high (P<0.05) mean and 2.5th-97.5th percentile ranges of ALT, AST, ALP, creatinine and direct bilirubin. The reference intervals of amylase, LDH, total protein and total bilirubin were not significantly different between the two sex groups (P>0.05). Mean, median, 95% percentile values of AST, ALP, amylase, LDH, creatinine, total protein, total bilirubin, and direct bilirubin across

  16. Clinical chemistry reference intervals of healthy adult populations in Gojjam Zones of Amhara National Regional State, Northwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Amuamuta, Asmare; Mulu, Wondemagegn; Yimer, Mulat; Zenebe, Yohannes; Adem, Yesuf; Abera, Bayeh; Gebeyehu, Wondemu; Gebregziabher, Yakob

    2017-01-01

    Background Reference interval is crucial for disease screening, diagnosis, monitoring, progression and treatment efficacy. Due to lack of locally derived reference values for the parameters, clinicians use reference intervals derived from western population. But, studies conducted in different African countries have indicated differences between locally and western derived reference values. Different studies also indicated considerable variation in clinical chemistry reference intervals by several variables such as age, sex, geographical location, environment, lifestyle and genetic variation. Objective This study aimed to determine the reference intervals of common clinical chemistry parameters of the community of Gojjam Zones, Northwest Ethiopia. Method Population based cross-sectional study was conducted from November 2015 to December 2016 in healthy adult populations of Gojjam zone. Data such as, medical history, physical examination and socio-demographic data were collected. In addition, laboratory investigations were undertaken to screen the population. Clinical chemistry parameters were measured using Mindray BS 200 clinical chemistry autoanalyzer as per the manufacturer’s instructions. Descriptive statistics was used to calculate mean, median and 95th percentiles. Independent sample T-test and one way ANOVA were used to see association between variables. Results After careful screening of a total of 799 apparently healthy adults who were consented for this study, complete data from 446 (224 females and 222 males) were included for the analysis. The mean age of both the study participants was 28.8 years. Males had high (P<0.05) mean and 2.5th-97.5th percentile ranges of ALT, AST, ALP, creatinine and direct bilirubin. The reference intervals of amylase, LDH, total protein and total bilirubin were not significantly different between the two sex groups (P>0.05). Mean, median, 95% percentile values of AST, ALP, amylase, LDH, creatinine, total protein, total

  17. Patient satisfaction on tuberculosis treatment service and adherence to treatment in public health facilities of Sidama zone, South Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Nezenega, Zekariyas Sahile; Gacho, Yohannes H Michael; Tafere, Tadese Ejigu

    2013-03-22

    Patient compliance is a key factor in treatment success. Satisfied patients are more likely to utilize health services, comply with medical treatment, and continue with the health care providers. Yet, the national tuberculosis control program failed to address some of these aspects in order to achieve the national targets. Hence, this study attempted to investigate patient satisfaction and adherence to tuberculosis treatment in Sidama zone of south Ethiopia. A facility based cross sectional study was conducted using quantitative method of data collection from March to April 2011. A sample of 531 respondents on anti TB treatment from 11 health centers and 1 hospital were included in the study. The sample size to each facility was allocated using probability proportional to size allocation, and study participants for the interview were selected by systematic random sampling. A Pre tested, interviewer administered questionnaire was used to collect the data. Collected data was edited, coded and entered to Epi data version 3.1 and exported to SPSS version 16. Confirmatory factor analysis was done to identify factors that explain most of the variance observed in most of the manifested variables. Bivariate and Multivariate analysis were computed to analyze the data. The study revealed 90% of the study participants were satisfied with TB treatment service. However, 26% of respondents had poor adherence to their TB treatment. Patient perceived on professional care, time spent with health care provider, accessibility, technical competency, convenience (cleanliness) and consultation and relational empathy were independent predictors of overall patient satisfaction (P < 0.05). In addition to this, perceived waiting time was significantly associated with patient satisfaction (Beta = 0.262). In multivariate analysis occupational status, area of residence, perceived time spent with health care provider, perceived accessibility, perceived waiting time, perceived professional care

  18. Knowledge and self-reported practice of the local inhabitants on traditional insect repellent plants in Western Hararghe zone, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Karunamoorthi, Kaliyaperumal; Husen, Ebrahim

    2012-05-07

    This paper reveals the trend of knowledge and self-reported practice of traditional insect repellent plants (TIRPs) and could serve as a baseline data to identify/formulate novel plant-based insect repellents in the near future. Insect repellent plants usage is a long-standing and age old tradition. Thus, the major objective of this survey was to assess the knowledge and self-reported practice of the local inhabitants on TIRPs in Western Hararghe zone, Ethiopia. The ethnobotanical survey was conducted between January and March 2011 via administering pre-tested questionnaire by involving the selected 150 household members in the study area. The survey results clearly reveal that nearly 92.1% [90.1% (99/110) of female and 97.5% (39/40) of male] of the respondents have had adequate awareness on TIRPs. Leaves were the most widely applied plant parts and burning/smoldering the plant materials in order to generate smoke was the most common practice. Chi-square statistical analysis shows that there was no significant difference observed in the knowledge of the repellent plants between the gender (P-value=0.134), average monthly income (P-value=0.529) and educational status (P-value=0.107) but there was a significant association with the age (P-value=0.012) of respondents. However, repellent plants usage custom is significantly associated with gender (P-value=0.021) and educational status (P-value=0.003) of the respondents but, there was such no significant relationship between the age (P-value=0.312) average monthly income (P-value=0.111) and repellent plants usage custom. Conducting more ethnobotanical survey on TIRPs is extremely important in order to generate and maintain the data-base. Besides, identifying the bio-active molecules, which are responsible for the repellent activity and eventually conducting laboratory and field based studies to evaluate their efficacy and safety are extremely imperative to formulate new classes of plant-based insect repellents

  19. Factors affecting prevention and control of malaria among endemic areas of Gurage zone: an implication for malaria elimination in South Ethiopia, 2017.

    PubMed

    Girum, Tadele; Hailemikael, Gebremariam; Wondimu, Asegedech

    2017-01-01

    Globally malaria remains one of the most severe public health problems resulting in massive morbidity particularly in developing countries. Ethiopia as one of the sub-Saharan country it is highly endemic to malaria. It was noted that early detection and prompt treatment of malaria cases, selective vector control and epidemic prevention and control are the major strategies for malaria prevention and control; So far, a lot have been done and remarkable improvements were seen. However, in what extent the prevention strategy was running in the community and what factors are hindering the prevention strategy at community level was not well known in Ethiopia. Therefore this study aimed to assess measures taken to prevent malaria and associated factors among households in Gurage zone, south Ethiopia. Community based cross- sectional study was conducted in Gurage zone, southern Ethiopia . A total of 817 randomly selected households were included in the study. After checking for completeness the data was entered in to Epi info 7 and analyzed through SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences) version 21. Descriptive summary was computed and presented by tables, graphs and figures. After checking for assumptions Bivariate analysis was run to look for the association between dependent and explanatory variables; and using variables which have p -value ≤0.25 binary logistic regression was fitted. Association was presented in Odds ratio with 95% confidence interval and significance determined at P -value less than 0.05. Goodness of fit of the final model checked by Hosmer and Lemshow test. Overall 496 (62%) of households practiced good measure of malaria prevention and control. Educated households (AOR = 2.15 (95% CI [1.21-4.67]), higher wealth index (AOR = 3.3 (95% CI [2.3-6.2]), iron corrugated house owners (AOR = 2.7 (95% CI [1.7-3.5]), who received ITN from HC (AOR = 3.6 (95% CI [1.7-4.5] and involved in malaria prevention campaign AOR = 2.6, (95% CI

  20. Effectiveness of the population health and environment approach in improving family planning outcomes in the Gurage, Zone South Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Sinaga, Makeda; Mohammed, Ahmed; Teklu, Negash; Stelljes, Kristen; Belachew, Tefera

    2015-11-13

    Family planning is a strategy of balancing population growth with economic development for sustainable use of natural resources. A high population growth induces increased demand for resources and the rate at which these resources are exploited. Population, health and environment are connected inextricably. Population growth unbalanced with economic development leads to food insecurity which exposes households to the consumption of food with reduced quality and quantity leading to increased risk of malnutrition and poor health. Food insecurity again obliges people to encroach into the natural environment leading to a spiraling progress to destitution. A study in the Philippines provided concrete evidence that integrated development programming incorporating population, health, and the environment (PHE) can be more effective in lowering population growth rates and preserving critical coastal ecosystems than single-sector development interventions". Although the PHE approach has been implemented for 5 years (2008-2012) Guraghe Zone of South Ethiopia, its outcomes have not been evaluated. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of PHE approach for achieving family planning (FP) outcomes in Gurage Zone. A comparative cross-sectional study was conducted in October, 2012. A total of 962 married women in the reproductive age group were included in the study. Data were collected using an interviewer administered Amharic version questionnaire. Descriptive statistics and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to compare the PHE and non-PHE Woredas (district) based on family planning parameters adopted from Measure Evaluation Manual. Comparison of non-new family panning acceptor women showed that PHE Woreda had a significantly high CPR compared to non-PHE (78% vs 52%, P < 0.0001). Among these sub-groups, women in the PHE Woreda were over four times more likely to use family planning methods during the study period (P < 0

  1. Seasonal variation in nutritional status and anemia among lactating mothers in two agro-ecological zones of rural Ethiopia: A longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Roba, Kedir Teji; O'Connor, Thomas P; Belachew, Tefera; O'Brien, Nora M

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine seasonal and agro-ecological variations in nutritional status, anemia, and associated factors among lactating women in rural Ethiopia. We conducted a longitudinal study with 216 mothers in pre- and postharvest seasons in two agro-ecological zones of rural Ethiopia. We conducted interviews using a structured questionnaire, anthropometric measurements, and blood tests for anemia. We used multivariable linear regression models to identify independent predictors. The prevalence of anemia increased from postharvest (21.8%) to preharvest seasons (40.9%). Increases were from 8.6% to 34.4% in midland and from 34.2% to 46.3% in lowland agro-ecological zones. Of the mothers, 15% were anemic during both seasons. The prevalence of undernutrition, assessed using body mass index (BMI) < 18.5 kg/m(2), increased from 41.7% to 54.7% between the two seasons. Prevalence of maternal mid upper arm circumferences <22 cm also increased from 43.1% to 55.2% during the preharvest season. The seasonal effect was generally more pronounced in the midland community for all forms of malnutrition. Predictors of anemia were high parity of mother and low dietary diversity. Parity, number of children under the age of 5 y, and regional variation were predictors of low BMI among lactating mothers. The magnitude of malnutrition and anemia was significantly influenced by variations in season and agro-ecological zones. Interventions focused on agro-ecology and seasonal variation should be considered in addition to current strategies to alleviate malnutrition in lactating mothers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Farmers Knowledge, Attitudes, Practices and Health Problems Associated with Pesticide Use in Rural Irrigation Villages, Southwest Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Gesesew, Hailay Abrha; Woldemichael, Kifle; Massa, Desalegn; Mwanri, Lillian

    2016-01-01

    In Ethiopia, pesticides are widely used for a variety of purposes. The occurrence of contamination and poisoning for farmers is highly reported due to unsafe handling practices and their usage. We assessed knowledge, attitudes and experiences of previous pesticide exposure, and related health problems among farmers who use irrigation in Jimma Zone, Southwest Ethiopia. A community based cross-sectional study was conducted among farmers living in the zone. Respondents were 796 irrigation farmers from 20 kebeles (lowest administration unit) in Jimma Zone. Data were collected using a pretested and structured questionnaire via face-to-face interviews. Both descriptive and inferential statistics analysis were performed. A binary logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with attitudes of farmers towards the safe use of pesticides at P value of ≤ 0.05 in the final model. Among the participants, 54.4% (95%CI, 50.7-58%) knew at least one pesticide control method and 53.7% had positive attitudes towards safe use of pesticide. The mean score of attitudes was found to be 3.9(±0.4). Knowledge including each of the following: the names of the pesticides (AOR, 0.41; 95%CI, 0.25-0.67), methods of pest control and the use of gloves during pesticide exposure (AOR, 1.52; 95%CI, 1.07-2.16) was found to be independent predictor of the farmers' attitudes about safe use of pesticides. Past exposure of pesticide was reported by 89.6% of farmers. Participants reported ingestion (88.9%) and inhalation (90.4%) as possible mechanisms of pesticide exposure. Nearly 42% of farmers had never used any personal protective equipment (PPE) to protect themselves against pesticide exposure. Farmers reported several health complications, which were perceived as complications of pesticide exposure, including: headache, nausea and vomiting, skin rash and irritation and abdominal pain. The study exposed the existence of high probability of pesticide exposure, the low safe use of

  3. Farmers Knowledge, Attitudes, Practices and Health Problems Associated with Pesticide Use in Rural Irrigation Villages, Southwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Gesesew, Hailay Abrha; Woldemichael, Kifle; Massa, Desalegn; Mwanri, Lillian

    2016-01-01

    Background In Ethiopia, pesticides are widely used for a variety of purposes. The occurrence of contamination and poisoning for farmers is highly reported due to unsafe handling practices and their usage. We assessed knowledge, attitudes and experiences of previous pesticide exposure, and related health problems among farmers who use irrigation in Jimma Zone, Southwest Ethiopia. Methods A community based cross-sectional study was conducted among farmers living in the zone. Respondents were 796 irrigation farmers from 20 kebeles (lowest administration unit) in Jimma Zone. Data were collected using a pretested and structured questionnaire via face-to-face interviews. Both descriptive and inferential statistics analysis were performed. A binary logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with attitudes of farmers towards the safe use of pesticides at P value of ≤ 0.05 in the final model. Results Among the participants, 54.4% (95%CI, 50.7–58%) knew at least one pesticide control method and 53.7% had positive attitudes towards safe use of pesticide. The mean score of attitudes was found to be 3.9(±0.4). Knowledge including each of the following: the names of the pesticides (AOR, 0.41; 95%CI, 0.25–0.67), methods of pest control and the use of gloves during pesticide exposure (AOR, 1.52; 95%CI, 1.07–2.16) was found to be independent predictor of the farmers’ attitudes about safe use of pesticides. Past exposure of pesticide was reported by 89.6% of farmers. Participants reported ingestion (88.9%) and inhalation (90.4%) as possible mechanisms of pesticide exposure. Nearly 42% of farmers had never used any personal protective equipment (PPE) to protect themselves against pesticide exposure. Farmers reported several health complications, which were perceived as complications of pesticide exposure, including: headache, nausea and vomiting, skin rash and irritation and abdominal pain. Conclusions The study exposed the existence of high probability of

  4. Modeling the probability of giving birth at health institutions among pregnant women attending antenatal care in West Shewa Zone, Oromia, Ethiopia: a cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Dida, Nagasa; Birhanu, Zewdie; Gerbaba, Mulusew; Tilahun, Dejen; Morankar, Sudhakar

    2014-06-01

    Although ante natal care and institutional delivery is effective means for reducing maternal morbidity and mortality, the probability of giving birth at health institutions among ante natal care attendants has not been modeled in Ethiopia. Therefore, the objective of this study was to model predictors of giving birth at health institutions among expectant mothers following antenatal care. Facility based cross sectional study design was conducted among 322 consecutively selected mothers who were following ante natal care in two districts of West Shewa Zone, Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia. Participants were proportionally recruited from six health institutions. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 17.0. Multivariable logistic regression was employed to develop the prediction model. The final regression model had good discrimination power (89.2%), optimum sensitivity (89.0%) and specificity (80.0%) to predict the probability of giving birth at health institutions. Accordingly, self efficacy (beta=0.41), perceived barrier (beta=-0.31) and perceived susceptibility (beta=0.29) were significantly predicted the probability of giving birth at health institutions. The present study showed that logistic regression model has predicted the probability of giving birth at health institutions and identified significant predictors which health care providers should take into account in promotion of institutional delivery.

  5. Factors determining late antenatal care booking and the content of care among pregnant mother attending antenatal care services in East Wollega administrative zone, West Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Ejeta, Eyasu; Dabsu, Regea; Zewdie, Olifan; Merdassa, Elias

    2017-01-01

    Antenatal care (ANC) is important for both maternal and fetal health. However, the existing evidence from developing countries indicates that most pregnant women attending ANC in their late pregnancy. Little is known about the factors determining ANC booking and the content of care among pregnant women in West part of Ethiopia. Therefore, the present study was conducted to identify factors determining late ANC booking and the content of care among pregnant mother attending antenatal care services in East Wollega administrative zone, West Ethiopia. Institutional based cross-sectional study was conducted from July to September, 2014 among 421 pregnant women's attending ANC services in purposively selected health facilities, East Wollega zone, Ethiopia. The pretested-structured questionnaires were used to collect socio-demographic data and predictor factors of late initiation of ANC services. Five trained nurse working at ANC clinic at each health institution administered the questionnaire. The collected data was analysed using SPSS version 20. The prevalence of late ANC booking was 81.5% (343/421) in the study area. Being from Oromo ethnic group (AOR 4.27, (95% CI, 1.48-12.33)), maternal age equal or more than 25 year old (AOR 3.09 (95% CI, 1.53-6.27)), second trimester (AOR 6.05(95% CI, 3.08-11.88)) and third trimester (AOR 7.97 (95% CI, 3.92-16.23)) were main factors identified as contributing (favoring factors) for the likely occurrence of late booking for ANC whereas; monthly income more than and/or equal to 15000 Ethiopian birrs (AOR 0.38 (95% CI, 0.18-084)) were factors compromising (decreasing) the chances for late attendance for the services among the pregnant women. Late ANC initiation is high in the study area despite the services is provided free of charge. Hence, it is important to provide health education on the timing of ANC among women with reproductive age. Community's awareness on importance of receiving early ANC also needs to be promoted.

  6. Routine health information system utilization and factors associated thereof among health workers at government health institutions in East Gojjam Zone, Northwest Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Shiferaw, Atsede Mazengia; Zegeye, Dessalegn Tegabu; Assefa, Solomon; Yenit, Melaku Kindie

    2017-08-07

    Using reliable information from routine health information systems over time is an important aid to improving health outcomes, tackling disparities, enhancing efficiency, and encouraging innovation. In Ethiopia, routine health information utilization for enhancing performance is poor among health workers, especially at the peripheral levels of health facilities. Therefore, this study aimed to assess routine health information system utilization and associated factors among health workers at government health institutions in East Gojjam Zone, Northwest Ethiopia. An institution based cross-sectional study was conducted at government health institutions of East Gojjam Zone, Northwest Ethiopia from April to May, 2013. A total of 668 health workers were selected from government health institutions, using the cluster sampling technique. Data collected using a standard structured and self-administered questionnaire and an observational checklist were cleaned, coded, and entered into Epi-info version 3.5.3, and transferred into SPSS version 20 for further statistical analysis. Variables with a p-value of less than 0.05 at multiple logistic regression analysis were considered statistically significant factors for the utilization of routine health information systems. The study revealed that 45.8% of the health workers had a good level of routine health information utilization. HMIS training [AOR = 2.72, 95% CI: 1.60, 4.62], good data analysis skills [AOR = 6.40, 95%CI: 3.93, 10.37], supervision [AOR = 2.60, 95% CI: 1.42, 4.75], regular feedback [AOR = 2.20, 95% CI: 1.38, 3.51], and favorable attitude towards health information utilization [AOR = 2.85, 95% CI: 1.78, 4.54] were found significantly associated with a good level of routine health information utilization. More than half of the health workers working at government health institutions of East Gojjam were poor health information users compared with the findings of others studies. HMIS training, data

  7. Level and determinants of food insecurity in East and West Gojjam zones of Amhara Region, Ethiopia: a community based comparative cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Motbainor, Achenef; Worku, Alemayehu; Kumie, Abera

    2016-06-11

    Food insecurity remains highly prevalent in developing countries and over the past two decades it has increasingly been recognized as a serious public health problem, including in Ethiopia. An emerging body of literature links food insecurity to a range of negative health outcomes and causes of a decline in productivity. The objectives of the present study were to determine the level of food insecurity in East Gojjam zone where the productive safety net program is available, and in West Gojjam zone where there is no program, and to identify the determinants of food insecurity in both East and West Gojjam zones of Amhara Region, Ethiopia. Community based comparative cross-sectional study design was used from 24 May 2013- 20 July 2013. Multistage sampling technique was implemented. A total of 4110 randomly selected households in two distinct populations were approached to be included in the study. Availability and absence of the productive safety net program between the two study areas was used to categorize them as comparative groups; otherwise the two communities are comparable in many socio-cultural characteristics. The household food security access scale questionnaire, developed by the Food and Nutrition Technical Assistant Project, was used to measure food security level. Socio-demographic and other household level information were collected by using a structured questionnaire. The binary logistic regression model was used to assess factors associated with food insecurity. From the total 4110 households, 3964 (96.45 %) gave complete responses. The total prevalence of food insecurity was 55.3 % (95 % CI: 53.8, 56.8). To compare food insecurity levels between the two zones, nearly sixty percent, 59.2 % (95 % CI: 57 %, 61.4 %) of the East Gojjam and 51.3 % (95 % CI: 49.1 %, 53.5) of West Gojjam households were food insecure. Family size (2-4) (AOR = 0.641, 95 % CI: 0.513, 0.801), non-merchant women (AOR = 1.638, 95 % CI: 1.015, 2

  8. Psychosocial correlates of nutritional status among people living with HIV on antiretroviral therapy: A matched case-control study in Central zone of Tigray, Northern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Weldehaweria, Negassie Berhe; Abreha, Elsa Hagos; Weldu, Meresa Gebremedhin; Misgina, Kebede Haile

    2017-01-01

    Malnutrition hastens progression to Acquired Human Immunodeficiency Syndromes (AIDS) related illnesses; undermines adherence and response to antiretroviral therapy (ART) in resource-poor settings. However, nutritional status of people living with HIV (PLHIV) can be affected by various psychosocial factors which have not been well explored in Ethiopia. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine psychosocial correlates of nutritional status among people living with HIV (PLHIV) on ART in Central zone of Tigray, Northern Ethiopia. A matched case-control study design was conducted to assess psychosocial correlates of nutritional status among PLHIV on ART. Data were collected by an interviewer-administered technique using structured pre-tested questionnaire, record review using a checklist and anthropometric measurements. Cases were selected by simple random sampling and controls purposively to match the selected cases. Conditional logistic regression was used to compute relevant associations by STATA version 12. The psychosocial factors independently associated with malnutrition were ever consuming alcohol after starting ART [AOR = 4.7, 95% CI: 1.8-12.3], ever smoking cigarette after starting ART [AOR = 7.6, 95% CI: 2.3-25.5], depression [AOR = 2.8, 95% CI: 1.3, 6.1], not adhering to ART [AOR = 6.8,95% CI: 2.0-23.0] and being in the second lowest wealth quintile [AOR = 4.3,95% CI: 1.1-17.7]. Ever consuming alcohol and ever smoking cigarette after starting ART, depression, not adhering to ART and being in the second lowest wealth quintile were significantly associated with malnutrition. Therefore; policies, strategies, and programs targeting people living with HIV should consider psychosocial factors that can impact nutritional status of people living with HIV enrolled on ART.

  9. Knowledge about Danger Signs of Obstetric Complications and Associated Factors among Postnatal Mothers of Mechekel District Health Centers, East Gojjam Zone, Northwest Ethiopia, 2014.

    PubMed

    Amenu, Gedefa; Mulaw, Zerfu; Seyoum, Tewodros; Bayu, Hinsermu

    2016-01-01

    Background. Developing countries like Ethiopia contributed highest level of maternal mortality due to obstetric complications. Women awareness of obstetric danger sign to recognize complications to seek medical care early is the first intervention in an effort to decrease maternal death. Objective. To assess knowledge about danger signs of obstetric complications and associated factors among postnatal mothers at Mechekel district health centers, East Gojjam zone, Northwest Ethiopia, 2014. Methods. An institution based cross-sectional study was conducted from August to October, 2014, in Mechekel district health centers. Systematic random sampling was used to select four hundred eleven study participants. A pretested structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Data were entered to Epi Info version 3.5.3 and exported to SPSS 20.0 for further analysis. Descriptive and summary statistics were done. Logistic regression analyses were used to see the association of different variables. Odds ratios and 95% confidence interval were computed to determine the presence and strength of association. Results. According to this study, 55.1% participants were knowledgeable about danger signs of obstetric complications. Maternal and husband educational level ((AOR = 1.977, 95% CI: 1.052, 3.716) and (AOR = 3.163, 95% CI: 1.860, 5.3770), resp.), family monthly income ≥ 1500 (AOR = 2.954, 95% CI: 1.289, 6.770), being multipara (AOR = 7.463, 95% CI: 1.301, 12.800), ANC follow-up during last pregnancy (AOR = 2.184, 95% CI: 1.137, 4.196), and place of last delivery (AOR = 1.955, 95% CI: 1.214, 3.150) were variables found to be significantly associated with women's knowledge on danger signs of obstetric complications. Conclusion. Significant proportion of respondents were not knowledgeable about obstetric danger signs and factors like educational status, place of last delivery, and antenatal follow-up were found to be associated.

  10. Stigma and discrimination against people living with HIV by healthcare providers, Southwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Stigma and discrimination against people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are obstacles in the way of effective responses to HIV. Understanding the extent of stigma / discrimination and the underlying causes is necessary for developing strategies to reduce them. This study was conducted to explore stigma and discrimination against PLHIV amongst healthcare providers in Jimma zone, Southwest Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional study, employing quantitative and qualitative methods, was conducted in 18 healthcare institutions of Jimma zone, during March 14 to April 14, 2011. A total of 255 healthcare providers responded to questionnaires asking about sociodemographic characteristics, HIV knowledge, perceived institutional support and HIV-related stigma and discrimination. Factor analysis was employed to create measurement scales for stigma and factor scores were used in one way analysis of variance (ANOVA), T-tests, Pearson’s correlation and multiple linear regression analyses. Qualitative data collected using key-informant interviews and Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) were employed to triangulate with the findings from the quantitative survey. Results Mean stigma scores (as the percentages of maximum scale scores) were: 66.4 for the extra precaution scale, 52.3 for the fear of work-related HIV transmission, 49.4 for the lack of feelings of safety, 39.0 for the value-driven stigma, 37.4 for unethical treatment of PLHIV, 34.4 for discomfort around PLHIV and 31.1 for unofficial disclosure. Testing and disclosing test results without consent, designating HIV clients and unnecessary referral to other healthcare institutions and refusal to treat clients were identified. Having in-depth HIV knowledge, the perception of institutional support, attending training on stigma and discrimination, educational level of degree or higher, high HIV case loads, the presence of ART service in the healthcare facility and claiming to be non-religious were negative

  11. Predictors of provider- initiated HIV testing and counseling refusal by outpatient department clients in Wolaita zone, Southern Ethiopia: a case control study.

    PubMed

    Facha, Wolde; Kassahun, Wondewosen; Workicho, Abdulhalik

    2016-08-12

    Despite different strategies designed to rapidly identify HIV infected individuals, majority of HIV-infected people are unaware of their sero-status in developing countries. The objective of this study was to assess predictors of provider-initiated HIV testing and counseling (PITC) refusal by outpatient department (OPD) clients in Wolaita zone, Southern Ethiopia. Facility based unmatched case control study was conducted on outpatient department clients in randomly selected seven health facilities in Wolaita zone, Southern Ethiopia in February 2012. A total of 291 participants (97 cases and 194 controls) were included in our study. Cases were patients who refused HIV test while controls were patients who tested for HIV after provider-initiated HIV testing and counseling (PITC) recommendation by outpatient department (OPD) clinicians. We used both quantitative and qualitative methods of data collection. Pretested interviewer administered questionnaires were used to collect quantitative data by trained nurses, and in-depth interview with 14 OPD clinicians was conducted by principal investigator to supplement quantitative findings. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were done to identify independent predictors of provider-initiated HIV testing and counseling refusal by OPD clients. Study participants who had stigmatizing attitude [AOR = 6.09, (95 % CI: 1.70, 21.76)], who had perceived risk for HIV infection [AOR = 5.23, (95 % CI: 2.22, 12.32)], who did not perceive the benefits of provider-initiated HIV testing and counseling [AOR = 4.64, (95 % CI: 1.79, 12.01)], who did not get minimum recommended pretest information from their providers [AOR = 2.98, (95 % CI: 1.06, 8.35)], who ever not heard of provider-initiated HIV testing and counseling service [AOR = 2.41, (95 % CI: 1.14, 5.09)], and who were from urban area [AOR = 2.40, (95 % CI = 1.26, 4.57)] were more likely to refuse provider-initiated HIV testing and counseling service than

  12. Prevalence and determinants of erectile dysfunction among diabetic patients attending in hospitals of central and northwestern zone of Tigray, northern Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Seid, Awole; Gerensea, Hadgu; Tarko, Shambel; Zenebe, Yosef; Mezemir, Rahel

    2017-03-15

    The prevalence of erectile dysfunction among diabetic men varies between 35-90%. Although erectile dysfunction is widespread among men with diabetes, the condition often remains undiagnosed and demands appropriate assessment and prompt treatment. Erectile dysfunction can affect all aspects of a patient's life including physical, emotional, social, sexual, and relationships. The main aim of this study is to determine the prevalence and determinants of erectile dysfunction among diabetic patients attending hospitals in the Central and Northwest zone of Tigray, Ethiopia. A hospital based cross-sectional study was conducted on 249 male diabetic patients attending five hospitals in the Central and Northwestern Zone of Tigray, Ethiopia using systematic random sampling. The data was collected from January 1 - February 30, 2016 and was entered and analyzed using SPSS version 20. Correlation and multivariate logistic regression was employed to test associations between independent and outcome variables. The mean age of study participants was 43.39 years and the mean duration of diabetes diagnosis was 6.22 years. The overall prevalence of erectile dysfunction was 69.9%, with 32.9% suffering from mild, 31.7% moderate, and 5.2% severe erectile dysfunction. Multivariate logistic regression revealed that erective dysfunction was significantly predicted by old age (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR] =15.013, CI:3.212-70.166), longer duration of diabetes (AOR = 3.77, CI:1.291-11.051), and lower monthly income (AOR = 0.285, CI:0.132-0.615). No association was found with body mass index, co-morbidity, glycemic control, and alcohol consumption. The prevalence of erective dysfunction in this study population was very high. Age, income, and duration of diabetes were the independent predictors of erectile dysfunction. Nearly all of the patients in the sample (97%) had not been screened or treated for erectile dysfunction. Assessment and management of erectile dysfunction in the

  13. Trends of Tuberculosis Case Notification and Treatment Outcomes in the Sidama Zone, Southern Ethiopia: Ten-Year Retrospective Trend Analysis in Urban-Rural Settings

    PubMed Central

    Dangisso, Mesay Hailu; Datiko, Daniel Gemechu; Lindtjørn, Bernt

    2014-01-01

    Background Ethiopia is one of the high tuberculosis (TB) burden countries. An analysis of trends and differentials in case notifications and treatment outcomes of TB may help improve our understanding of the performance of TB control services. Methods A retrospective trend analysis of TB cases was conducted in the Sidama Zone in southern Ethiopia. We registered all TB cases diagnosed and treated during 2003–2012 from all health facilities in the Sidama Zone, and analysed trends of TB case notification rates and treatment outcomes. Results The smear positive (PTB+) case notification rate (CNR) increased from 55 (95% CI 52.5–58.4) to 111 (95% CI 107.4–114.4) per 105 people. The CNRs of PTB+ in people older than 45 years increased by fourfold, while the mortality of cases during treatment declined from 11% to 3% for smear negative (PTB-) (X2 trend, P<0.001) and from 5% to 2% for PTB+ (X2 trend, P<0.001). The treatment success was higher in rural areas (AOR 1.11; CI 95%: 1.03–1.2), less for PTB- (AOR 0.86; CI 95%: 0.80–0.92) and higher for extra-pulmonary TB (AOR 1.10; CI 95%: 1.02–1.19) compared to PTB+. A higher lost-to-follow up was observed in men (AOR 1.15; CI 95%: 1.06–1.24) and among PTB- cases (AOR 1.14; CI 95%: 1.03–1.25). More deaths occurred in PTB-cases (AOR 1.65; 95% CI: 1.44–1.90) and among cases older than 65 years (AOR 3.86; CI 95%: 2.94–5.10). Lastly, retreatment cases had a higher mortality than new cases (6% vs 3%). Conclusion Over the past decade TB CNRs and treatment outcomes improved, whereas the disparities of disease burden by gender and place of residence reduced and mortality declined. Strategies should be devised to address higher risk groups for poor treatment outcomes. PMID:25460363

  14. Effect of water, sanitation and hygiene interventions on active trachoma in North and South Wollo zones of Amhara Region, Ethiopia: A Quasi-experimental study.

    PubMed

    Tadesse, Beselam; Worku, Alemayehu; Kumie, Abera; Yimer, Solomon Abebe

    2017-11-01

    Trachoma is chronic kerato conjunctivitis, which is caused by repeated infection with Chlamydia trachomatis bacterium. It is hyper endemic in many rural areas of Ethiopia. The objective of this study was to measure the effect of water, sanitation and hygiene interventions on active trachoma in selected woredas of North and South Wollo zones of Amhara Region, Ethiopia. A community based quasi-experimental study was conducted from October 2014 to December 2015 among children aged 1-8 years at baseline and among one year older same children after intervention. A four-stage random cluster-sampling technique was employed to select study participants. From each selected household, one child was clinically assessed for active trachoma. Structured questionnaire was used to collect socio demographic and behavioral data. MacNemar test was applied to compare the prevalence of active trachoma between baseline and after the intervention period at both intervention and non-intervention study areas. The prevalence of active trachoma was reduced from baseline prevalence of 26% to 18% after one-year intervention period in the intervention woredas (P≤0.001). MacNemar test result showed significant reduction of active trachoma prevalence after the intervention period in the intervention woredas compared to the non-intervention woredas (P≤0.001). Water, sanitation and hygiene related activities were significantly improved after the intervention period in the intervention woredas (P<0.05). There was a significant reduction of active trachoma prevalence between the baseline and after the intervention period in the intervention woredas, but not in the non-intervention ones. Improved water, sanitation and hygiene interventions contributed to the reduction of active trachoma. However, the magnitude of active trachoma prevalence observed after the intervention is still very high in the studied areas of North and South Wollo Zones communities. To achieve the global trachoma elimination

  15. Seroepidemiological study of ovine toxoplasmosis in East and West Shewa Zones of Oromia Regional State, Central Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Toxoplasmosis is a globally distributed zoonosis. Consumption of raw or undercooked meat, which is among the main risk factors for acquiring human infection, is a popular tradition in Ethiopia. However, studies on toxoplasmosis in food animals used for human consumption in Ethiopia are very scarce. Thus, the objectives of the present study were to estimate the seroprevalence and the risk factors of T. gondii infection in sheep in Ambo, Ada’a-Liben and Fentale districts of Central Ethiopia. Sera from 1130 sheep were analyzed for Toxoplasma gondii specific IgG antibodies using an indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with the P30 antigen. A questionnaire was administered to assess potential risk factors for T. gondii seropositivity. Association of seroprevalence with potential risk factors related to altitude, host and farm characteristics were analyzed by univariable and multivariable logistic regression. Results Overall flock and animal level seroprevalences were 70.48% (160/227; 95% CI: 64.51, 76.46) and 31.59% (357/1130; 95% CI: 28.88, 34.31), respectively. The multivariable logistic regression model indicated that the probability of acquiring T. gondii was higher in sheep from highland (2300 – 3200 meters above sea level) [Odds ratio (OR) = 4.11, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.65, 6.36; P < 0.001] and midland (OR = 4.54, 95% CI: 2.76, 7.49; P < 0.001) than from lowland (<1500 meters above sea level), in females than in males (OR = 1.60, 95% CI: 1.04, 2.43, P = 0.033), in adult than in young animals (OR = 2.93, 95% CI: 1.97, 4.35, P < 0.001), in small than in large flocks (OR = 3.34, 95% CI: 1.26, 8.86, P = 0.016), and in sheep that were given tap water (OR = 4.07, 95% CI: 1.07, 15.42, P = 0.039) and river water (OR = 4.18, 95% CI: 1.54, 11.35, P = 0.005) than in those that drunk water from mixed sources (i.e., river, well, lake and pond). Conclusions The high flock and animal

  16. Use and Conservation of Medicinal Plants by Indigenous People of Gozamin Wereda, East Gojjam Zone of Amhara Region, Ethiopia: An Ethnobotanical Approach

    PubMed Central

    Fentahun, Mulugeta; Alemayehu, Addisu; Amsalu, Gashaw

    2018-01-01

    An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants (MPs) used by the local community has been carried out from January 5, 2014, to February 15, 2015, in Gozamin Wereda of East Gojjam Zone, Ethiopia. The purpose of this study was to identify and document the use and conservation of MPs, along with indigenous knowledge of Gozamin community. Data were collected using semistructured interview, field observation, and focus group discussions. The collected data were assessed quantitatively using fidelity level, Jaccard's Coefficient of Similarity, paired comparisons, direct matrix, and preference rankings. In total 93 MPs distributed under 51 families and 87 genera were identified and for each taxon a local name (Amharic) was documented. Asteraceae with 9 (9.68%) species and Solanaceae with 7 (7.53%) species were families represented by more species in the study area. Out of these MPs collected, 80 plant species were used for the treatment of human ailments, 24 species were used against livestock diseases, and 11 common plant species were listed in both cases. The most frequently used plant parts were the leaves followed by the roots. The major threats to MPs in the study area were agricultural expansion, overgrazing, fire wood collection, mining, and cutting down trees for construction and furniture. Therefore, there is a need for appropriate in situ and ex situ conservation measures. PMID:29743921

  17. Understanding Resilience Dimensions and Adaptive Strategies to the Impact of Recurrent Droughts in Borana Zone, Oromia Region, Ethiopia: A Grounded Theory Approach

    PubMed Central

    Birhanu, Zewdie; Ambelu, Argaw; Berhanu, Negalign; Tesfaye, Abraraw; Woldemichael, Kifle

    2017-01-01

    Recurrent shocks and stresses are increasingly deteriorating pastoralist communities’ resilience capacities in many aspects. A context specific resilience framework is essential to strengthen pastoralist community’s resilience capacity towards the impact of recurrent drought. Hence, the present study was aimed to develop a context specific and data driven resilience building framework towards impacts of recurrent droughts in the case of Borana pastoralists in Ethiopia. Qualitative grounded theory approach was employed to guide the study process. The data were collected through focus group discussions and in-depth interviews in two drought affected districts of Borana Zone during October 2013. The analysis was assisted by ATLAS. ti 7.1.4. The analysis provided a context specific resilience building conceptual tool, which consists of, closely interconnected, eight dimensions operating at multiple capacities and levels: environment (underlying vulnerability factor); livestock, infrastructures/social services, and wealth (immediate causes and effects); community network/social capital, as well as governance, peace and security (support and enabling factors oriented), psychosocial, and human capital (as eventual outcomes and impacts). The resilience capacities of these pastoralist communities have been eroded, leaving them without sufficient and effective adaptive strategies. The emergent resilience framework can serve as a useful guidance to design context-specific interventions that makes the people and the system resilient to the impacts of recurrent droughts. PMID:28134771

  18. Use and Conservation of Medicinal Plants by Indigenous People of Gozamin Wereda, East Gojjam Zone of Amhara Region, Ethiopia: An Ethnobotanical Approach.

    PubMed

    Amsalu, Nigussie; Bezie, Yilkal; Fentahun, Mulugeta; Alemayehu, Addisu; Amsalu, Gashaw

    2018-01-01

    An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants (MPs) used by the local community has been carried out from January 5, 2014, to February 15, 2015, in Gozamin Wereda of East Gojjam Zone, Ethiopia. The purpose of this study was to identify and document the use and conservation of MPs, along with indigenous knowledge of Gozamin community. Data were collected using semistructured interview, field observation, and focus group discussions. The collected data were assessed quantitatively using fidelity level, Jaccard's Coefficient of Similarity, paired comparisons, direct matrix, and preference rankings. In total 93 MPs distributed under 51 families and 87 genera were identified and for each taxon a local name (Amharic) was documented. Asteraceae with 9 (9.68%) species and Solanaceae with 7 (7.53%) species were families represented by more species in the study area. Out of these MPs collected, 80 plant species were used for the treatment of human ailments, 24 species were used against livestock diseases, and 11 common plant species were listed in both cases. The most frequently used plant parts were the leaves followed by the roots. The major threats to MPs in the study area were agricultural expansion, overgrazing, fire wood collection, mining, and cutting down trees for construction and furniture. Therefore, there is a need for appropriate in situ and ex situ conservation measures.

  19. Understanding Resilience Dimensions and Adaptive Strategies to the Impact of Recurrent Droughts in Borana Zone, Oromia Region, Ethiopia: A Grounded Theory Approach.

    PubMed

    Birhanu, Zewdie; Ambelu, Argaw; Berhanu, Negalign; Tesfaye, Abraraw; Woldemichael, Kifle

    2017-01-26

    Recurrent shocks and stresses are increasingly deteriorating pastoralist communities' resilience capacities in many aspects. A context specific resilience framework is essential to strengthen pastoralist community's resilience capacity towards the impact of recurrent drought. Hence, the present study was aimed to develop a context specific and data driven resilience building framework towards impacts of recurrent droughts in the case of Borana pastoralists in Ethiopia. Qualitative grounded theory approach was employed to guide the study process. The data were collected through focus group discussions and in-depth interviews in two drought affected districts of Borana Zone during October 2013. The analysis was assisted by ATLAS. ti 7.1.4. The analysis provided a context specific resilience building conceptual tool, which consists of, closely interconnected, eight dimensions operating at multiple capacities and levels: environment (underlying vulnerability factor); livestock, infrastructures/social services, and wealth (immediate causes and effects); community network/social capital, as well as governance, peace and security (support and enabling factors oriented), psychosocial, and human capital (as eventual outcomes and impacts). The resilience capacities of these pastoralist communities have been eroded, leaving them without sufficient and effective adaptive strategies. The emergent resilience framework can serve as a useful guidance to design context-specific interventions that makes the people and the system resilient to the impacts of recurrent droughts.

  20. Stability of infant and child feeding index over time and its association with nutritional status of HIV exposed infants in Sidama Zone, Southern Ethiopia: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Haile, Demewoz; Belachew, Tefera; Berhanu, Getenesh; Setegn, Tesfaye; Biadgilign, Sibhatu

    2014-12-01

    Even though many studies showed that infant and child feeding index has a statistically significant association with nutritional status, there is paucity of studies on stability of infant and child feeding index over time and its association with nutritional status of HIV exposed infants. This study aimed to investigate the stability of infant and child feeding index over time that is developed based on the current recommendations and its association with nutritional status of HIV exposed infants in Sidama Zone, Southern Ethiopia. A panel study design was conducted in health institutions in Sidama Zone from February to July, 2012. Three repeated measurements of data were collected from each HIV exposed infant aged 6-17 months over the 6 month follow-up period approximately per 2 month interval. The cross-sectional index was found stable overtime with the repeatability coefficient of 0.802 which differed significantly from zero (95% CI: 0.75-0.85). A longitudinal infant and child feeding index (L-ICFI) has a statistically significant association with length for age Z scores (LAZ) and weight for age Z scores (WAZ) at visit three (β=0.262, p=0.007; β=0.226, p=0.017), respectively. But the longitudinal index has no statistically significant association with WLZ score (p=0.552). There was no significant difference in change of LAZ and WAZ over time between L-ICFI tertiles for both female and male HIV exposed infants. The index is stable overtime at individual level even though one third of the index components were not stable. The L-CFI was associated with LAZ and WAZ but not with WLZ. However there was no significant difference in change of HAZ and WAZ over time between L-ICFI tertiles for both female and male HIV exposed infants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The health performance of imported Boer goat (Capra hircus) and their crosses with Woito-guji goat breeds in South Omo Zone, South-Western Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Molla, Bereket

    2016-04-01

    Goat production in Ethiopia is constrained by various bottlenecks and low genetic performance of local breeds is among them. Southern Agricultural Research Institute had introduced Boer goats, for crossing, evaluate and distribute to users. This research was conducted to assess the survivability and productive and reproductive performance of Boers and its crosses, on animals managed in on-station, Jinka Research Center and Key-afer Goat Research Station from January 2011 to March 2014. The diseases affecting the imported flock were heart water, pyogenic infections/caseous lymphadenitis, and wart/orf diseases with crude mortality rate of 47.6% and case fatality rates of 40.7, 2.4, and 4.7%, respectively. Heart water was responsible for 85% of the overall deaths. The twining percentage of Boer goats was found to be 36.3%, which was by far superior to that of Woito-guji breeds. The mortality rate in 50% crosses was found to be 35.2%; 54.5 and 20.6% in Jinka and Key-afer, respectively. The survival rate of 50% cross kids was found to be associated with birth weight and location. The average birth weight and 1 month weight of 75% crosses was found to be 3.25 ± 0.43 and 7.12 ± 1.57 kg, respectively. The 75% crosses survival rate up to weaning was found to be 100%. Despite improvement in productive and reproductive performance through increased exotic blood level, the survivability was strangely questioned for pure and higher blood levels in South Omo Zone. Pure Boer and 75% crosses could better adapt and perform in intensive and semi-intensive production systems. Small holder and pastoral livestock production systems, like South Omo Zone area, should focus on managing 50 % cross sires and rearing 25% crosses for market.

  2. Insecticide-Treated Nets Utilization and Associated Factors among under-5 Years Old Children in Mirab-Abaya District, Gamo-Gofa Zone, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Admasie, Amha; Zemba, Amanuel; Paulos, Wondimagegn

    2018-01-01

    Malaria can be prevented using cost-effective interventions. It can be prevented at large via the use of insecticide-treated mosquito nets (ITNs). The use of ITNs decreases malaria mortality rates by 55% in under-5 years old children in Africa, Ethiopia, realizing the effectiveness, scaling up distribution and utilization of ITNs to cover 100% of children less than 5 years of age. However, little is known about ITNs utilization and factors associated with the utilization in under-5 years old children in the study area yet. The purpose of this study was to assess the level and associated factors of ITNs utilization in under-5 years old children among households with under-5 years old children of Mirab Abaya District, Gamo Gofa Zone, Ethiopia. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted during August-September, 2016. Six study Kebeles were identified by simple random sampling technique and 398 households with at least one under-5 years old children were selected by random sampling technique using computer generated random numbers from health post family folders. Structured, interviewer questionnaire was administered to mothers or care givers of the children. Data were entered to Epi Info Version 3.5 and analyzed in SPSS version 21 statistical software. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was done. P -value <0.05 and odds ratio with 95% confidence interval were used for the determination of associations between dependent and predictor variables. Results were presented in narrations, tables, and graph. Among 398 under-5 years old children assessed, the majority, 362 (91.0%) of them had access to ITN, but only 137 (37.2%) of the child had ITNs utilization during the previous night prior to the survey. Households with age of mothers or caretakers 31-44 years, AOR = 0.03, 95% CI (0.01-0.07) and ≥45 years of age; AOR = 0.05, 95% CI (0.01-0.58); households with family size ≤5 members, AOR = 11.23, 95% CI (4

  3. Non-prescribed antimicrobial use and associated factors among customers in drug retail outlet in Central Zone of Tigray, northern Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Gebrekirstos, Negash Hadera; Workneh, Birhanu Demeke; Gebregiorgis, Yosef Sibhatu; Misgina, Kebede Haile; Weldehaweria, Negassie Berhe; Weldu, Meresa Gebremedhin; Belay, Hailay Siyum

    2017-01-01

    Non-prescribed antimicrobial use and their resistance are among the main public health problems, worldwide. In Ethiopia, particularly in the northern part, the magnitude of non-prescribed antimicrobial use and its major determinants is not yet well known. Thus, this study was done to assess the magnitude of non-prescribed anti-microbial use and associated factors among customers in drug retail outlet in Central Zone, Tigray, Ethiopia. A drug retail outlet based cross-sectional study was conducted among adults aged 18 years and above. A multistage sampling procedure was used to select study participants. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire by druggists under the supervision of pharmacists. Data were entered into EpiInfo software version 3.5.4. Binary logistic regression was used to identify independently associated variables in bivariate and multivariable analyses using SPSS version 21. Odds Ratios with 95% confidence intervals were estimated. From 829 study samples, a total of 780 respondents participated in this study with a response rate of 94.1%. Of 367 respondents who received non-prescribed antimicrobial, 249 (67.8%), 121 (33%), and 94 (25.6%) of them were males, secondary school and paid employed respectively. The magnitude of non-prescribed antimicrobial use was 47.1% (95% CI: 43.8, 50.5). The factors which were independently associated with non-prescribed antimicrobial use were male sex [AOR = 1.72, 95% CI = 1.21, 2.44], seeking modern health care in private/Non-Governmental Organization (NGO) [AOR =0.47, 95% CI; 0.23, 0.98], moderate waiting time in health care facilities [AOR = 1.92, 95% CI; 1.20, 3.09], delayed waiting time in health care facilities [AOR = 1.56, 95% CI; 1.03, 2.38], ever received antimicrobial [AOR = 3.51, 95% CI; 2.45, 5.02], and frequency of purchasing non-prescribed antimicrobial (1-3 times and 4 times, [AOR = 2.04, 95% CI; 1.36, 3.06] and [AOR = 2.66, 95% CI; 1.24, 5.68] respectively). The magnitude of

  4. Prevalence and factors associated with trachoma among children aged 1-9 years in Zala district, Gamo Gofa Zone, Southern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Mengistu, Kassahun; Shegaze, Mulugeta; Woldemichael, Kifle; Gesesew, Hailay; Markos, Yohannes

    2016-01-01

    Trachoma is the leading cause of preventable blindness worldwide. It is common in areas where people are socioeconomically deprived. Globally, approximately 1.2 billion people live in trachoma-endemic areas, in which, 40.6 million individuals have active trachoma and 8.2 million have trichiasis. According to the World Health Organization's 2007 report, globally close to 1.3 million people are blind due to trachoma, while approximately 84 million suffer from active trachoma. The National Survey (2007) of Ethiopia showed a prevalence of 40.1% active trachoma among children aged 1-9 years. Trachoma is still endemic in most parts of Ethiopia. To assess prevalence of trachoma and factors associated with it among children aged 1-9 years in Zala district, Gamo Gofa Zone, Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples' Region. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Zala district from February 28 to March 26, 2014. A total of 611 children were examined for trachoma based on the simplified World Health Organization 1983 classification. A multistage stratified sampling technique with a systematic random sampling technique was used to select study participants. Data were collected by using a semistructured pretested questionnaire and clinical eye examination. The data were entered using EpiData version 3.1 and analyzed using SPSS version 16. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to identify independently associated factors. The overall prevalence of active trachoma cases was 224 (36.7%) consisting of 207 (92.4%) trachomatous follicles, eight (3.6%) trachomatous intense, and nine (4.0%) combination of trachomatous follicle and trachomatous intense. Inadequate knowledge of family head about trachoma (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =2.8 [95% CI: 1.9, 4.2]); ≤10 m latrine distance (AOR =1.6 [95% confidence interval {CI}: 1.09, 2.4]); presence of above two preschool children (AOR =2.2 [95% CI: 1.3, 3.7]), flies on the face (AOR =6.3 [95% CI: 2.7, 14

  5. Does Anaemia Have Major Public Health Importance in Children Aged 6-59 Months in the Duggina Fanigo District of Wolaita Zone, Southern Ethiopia?

    PubMed

    Tiku, Yohannes Samuel; Mekonnen, Tefera Chane; Workie, Shimelash Bitew; Amare, Endale

    2018-01-01

    Globally, a large number of children aged 6-59 months are affected by anaemia. In Ethiopia, like other developing countries, more than 40% of children under 5 years are affected by anaemia. Anaemia during infancy and childhood period is associated with poor health and impaired cognitive development, leading to reduced academic achievement and earning potential in their adult life. The aim of this research was to assess whether anaemia remained a major public health problem among children aged 6-59 months or not in Duggina Fanigo District of Wolaita Zone, South Ethiopia in 2016. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted from February to March 2016, on 404 mothers with children aged 6-59 months who were selected through the systematic sampling method. Socio-demographic and other data on associated factors was collected using a pre-tested questionnaire. Capillary blood was taken from the fingertip of each child and hemoglobin was measured using Haemo-Cue digital photometer. All the necessary safety measures were taken during blood collection. Data analysis was made using SPSS version 21. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to assess the association of independent variables with outcome variables and to control the possible confounding factors. The overall prevalence of anaemia was 51.4%. Anaemia was common among young children as compared to older children. After controlling the effect of confounding and adjusting for age, gender and altitude, explanatory variables like low dietary diversity (AOR = 3.24; 95% CI [1.68-6.23]), food insecurity (AOR = 3.63; 95% CI [2.18-6.04]), stunting (AOR = 2.60; 95% CI [1.56-4.35]), underweight (AOR = 2.46; 95% CI [1.29-4.67]) and fever within 2 weeks (AOR = 2.49; 95% CI [1.29-4.81]) prior to the survey were significantly associated with anaemia. In conclusion, the overall prevalence of anaemia among children aged 6-59 months has remained a major public health importance in the study area. Integrated

  6. Effect of late HIV diagnosis on HIV-related mortality among adults in general hospitals of Central Zone Tigray, northern Ethiopia: a retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Belay, Hadera; Alemseged, Fessahaye; Angesom, Teklit; Hintsa, Solomon; Abay, Mebrahtu

    2017-01-01

    The global incidence of HIV infection is not significantly decreasing, especially in sub-Saharan African countries, including Ethiopia. Though there is availability and accessibility of free HIV services, people are not being diagnosed early for HIV, and hence patients are still dying of HIV-related causes. This research is aimed at verifying the effect of late diagnosis of HIV on HIV-related mortality in Central Zone Tigray, Ethiopia. A retrospective cohort study among adult (≥15 years old) HIV patients in three general hospitals of Tigray was conducted. Record reviews were carried out retrospectively from 2010 to 2015. Sample size was determined using stpower Cox in Stata software. Data were entered into EpiData version 3.1 software and transferred to Stata version 12 for analysis. Both bivariable and multivariable analyses were performed using Cox regression model to compare the HIV-related mortality of exposed (cluster of differentiation 4 cells count <350 cells/mm 3 ) and nonexposed (≥350 cells/mm 3 ) patients using adjusted hazard ratio (AHR) at 95% confidence interval (CI). In all, 638 HIV patients were analyzed, contributing 2,105.6 person-years. Forty-eight (7.5%) patients died of HIV-related causes with a mortality rate of 2.28 per 100 person-years. In the multivariable Cox regression model, patients with late diagnosis of HIV had a higher risk of mortality (AHR =3.22, 95% CI: 1.17-8.82) than patients with early diagnosis of HIV. Rural residence (AHR =1.96, 95% CI: 1.05-3.68), unemployment (AHR =2.70, 95% CI: 1.03-7.08), bedridden patients (AHR =2.98, 95% CI: 1.45-6.13), ambulatory patients (AHR =2.54, 95% CI: 1.05-6.15), and baseline hemoglobin level of <11 mg/dL (AHR =3.06, 95% CI: 1.51-6.23) were other independent predictors of mortality. Late diagnosis of HIV increased HIV-related mortality. Rural residence, unemployment, bedridden and ambulatory patients, and baseline hemoglobin level <11 mg/dL were also independent predictors of HIV

  7. Prevalence and factors associated with trachoma among children aged 1–9 years in Zala district, Gamo Gofa Zone, Southern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Mengistu, Kassahun; Shegaze, Mulugeta; Woldemichael, Kifle; Gesesew, Hailay; Markos, Yohannes

    2016-01-01

    Background Trachoma is the leading cause of preventable blindness worldwide. It is common in areas where people are socioeconomically deprived. Globally, approximately 1.2 billion people live in trachoma-endemic areas, in which, 40.6 million individuals have active trachoma and 8.2 million have trichiasis. According to the World Health Organization’s 2007 report, globally close to 1.3 million people are blind due to trachoma, while approximately 84 million suffer from active trachoma. The National Survey (2007) of Ethiopia showed a prevalence of 40.1% active trachoma among children aged 1–9 years. Trachoma is still endemic in most parts of Ethiopia. Objective To assess prevalence of trachoma and factors associated with it among children aged 1–9 years in Zala district, Gamo Gofa Zone, Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ Region. Methods A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Zala district from February 28 to March 26, 2014. A total of 611 children were examined for trachoma based on the simplified World Health Organization 1983 classification. A multistage stratified sampling technique with a systematic random sampling technique was used to select study participants. Data were collected by using a semistructured pretested questionnaire and clinical eye examination. The data were entered using EpiData version 3.1 and analyzed using SPSS version 16. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to identify independently associated factors. Results The overall prevalence of active trachoma cases was 224 (36.7%) consisting of 207 (92.4%) trachomatous follicles, eight (3.6%) trachomatous intense, and nine (4.0%) combination of trachomatous follicle and trachomatous intense. Inadequate knowledge of family head about trachoma (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =2.8 [95% CI: 1.9, 4.2]); ≤10 m latrine distance (AOR =1.6 [95% confidence interval {CI}: 1.09, 2.4]); presence of above two preschool children (AOR =2.2 [95% CI: 1.3, 3.7]), flies

  8. Reproductive health service utilization and associated factors: the case of north Shewa zone youth, Amhara region, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Negash, Wassie; Dessalegn, Muluken; Yitayew, Berhanu; Demsie, Mohammed; Wagnew, Maereg; Nyagero, Josephat

    2016-01-01

    Many youth are less informed, less experienced and less comfortable in utilizing reproductive health services. In the Sub-Saharan region the adolescents account for a higher proportion of new HIV infections and unmet need for reproductive health (RH) services. This study assessed reproductive health service utilization and associated factors among the youth in Amhara Region, Ethiopia. A community based cross-sectional study was conducted from June 15-July 30, 2014. Three hundred ninety one youth were selected by systematic random sampling technique and interviewed using structured questionnaire. Data were anlyzed using SPSS windows version 20. Multiple logistic regression was done to control potential confounding variables. P-values <0.05 were considered statistically significant. Three hundred and nighty one in-school and out-of-school youth were interviewed; 256 (65.5%) participants were in school and 209 (53.5%) were males. Almost all respondents (93.9%) had heard about reproductive health services and a third 129 (33%) had ever practiced sexual intercourse and 54.7% of them had utilized at least one reproductive health services. Never had sexual intercourse (AOR=3.693, 95%CI: 1.266, 10.775), families that asked their children about friends (parental monitoring) (AOR=1.892, 95%CI: 1.026, 3.491), know where service provided (AOR=3.273, 95%CI: 1.158, 9.247), youths who reads newspaper readers (AOR=3.787, 95%CI: 1.849were independent predictors of youth reproductive service utilization at 95 % CI and p-value <0.05%. Even though the youth have information about reproductive health services, youth reproductive health services utilization is very low. Therefore, building life skill, facilitating parent to child communication, establishing and strengthening of youth centres and increasing awareness for youth about those services are important steps to improve adolescents' reproductive health (RH) service utilization.

  9. Reproductive health service utilization and associated factors: the case of north Shewa zone youth, Amhara region, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Negash, Wassie; Dessalegn, Muluken; Yitayew, Berhanu; Demsie, Mohammed; Wagnew, Maereg; Nyagero, Josephat

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Many youth are less informed, less experienced and less comfortable in utilizing reproductive health services. In the Sub-Saharan region the adolescents account for a higher proportion of new HIV infections and unmet need for reproductive health (RH) services. This study assessed reproductive health service utilization and associated factors among the youth in Amhara Region, Ethiopia. Methods A community based cross-sectional study was conducted from June 15-July 30, 2014. Three hundred ninety one youth were selected by systematic random sampling technique and interviewed using structured questionnaire. Data were anlyzed using SPSS windows version 20. Multiple logistic regression was done to control potential confounding variables. P-values <0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results Three hundred and nighty one in-school and out-of-school youth were interviewed; 256 (65.5%) participants were in school and 209 (53.5%) were males. Almost all respondents (93.9%) had heard about reproductive health services and a third 129 (33%) had ever practiced sexual intercourse and 54.7% of them had utilized at least one reproductive health services. Never had sexual intercourse (AOR=3.693, 95%CI: 1.266, 10.775), families that asked their children about friends (parental monitoring) (AOR=1.892, 95%CI: 1.026, 3.491), know where service provided (AOR=3.273, 95%CI: 1.158, 9.247), youths who reads newspaper readers (AOR=3.787, 95%CI: 1.849were independent predictors of youth reproductive service utilization at 95 % CI and p-value <0.05%. Conclusion Even though the youth have information about reproductive health services, youth reproductive health services utilization is very low. Therefore, building life skill, facilitating parent to child communication, establishing and strengthening of youth centres and increasing awareness for youth about those services are important steps to improve adolescents' reproductive health (RH) service utilization. PMID

  10. An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants in Wayu Tuka District, East Welega Zone of Oromia Regional State, West Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This paper reports an ethnobotanical study that focused on the traditional medicinal plants used by local communities to treat human and livestock ailments. A cross-sectional study was undertaken from September 2009 to June 2010 in Wayu Tuka District of Oromia Region, Ethiopia. The aim of the study is to document medicinal plants used by local people of the study area and the threats currently affecting medicinal plants. Methods Ethnobotanical data were collected using semi-structured interviews, field observations and group discussion in which 63 (41 men & 22 women) randomly selected informants participated. Of which, 11 (10 male and 1 female) were local healers. Paired comparison method, direct matrix ranking and Informant consensus factors (ICF) were used to analyze the importance of some plant species. Results A total of 126 medicinal plant species, distributed in 108 genera and 56 families, were collected together with their medicinal uses. Of the 126 species of medicinal plants collected from the study area, eighty six (68%) were obtained from the wild whereas thirty three (26%) were from homegardens. The Fabaceae came out as a leading family with 15 medicinal species while the Solanaceae followed with eight species. Seventy eight (62%) of the medicinal plants were reported as being used for treating human ailments, 23 (18.2%) for the treatment of livestock ailments and 25 (20%) for both. The most frequently used plant parts were leaves (43%), followed by roots (18.5%) while crushing, which accounted for (29%) and powdering (28%) were the widely used methods of preparation of traditional herbal medicines. Conclusion The number of reported medicinal plants and their uses by the local people of the District indicate the depth of the local indigenous knowledge on medicinal plants and their application. The documented medicinal plants can serve as a basis for future investigation of modern drug. PMID:24295044

  11. Determinants of modern contraceptive utilization among married women of reproductive age group in North Shoa Zone, Amhara Region, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Abdurahman; Woldeyohannes, Desalegn; Feleke, Amsalu; Megabiaw, Berihun

    2014-02-03

    Ethiopia is the second most populous country in Africa with high fertility and fast population growth rate. It is also one of the countries with high maternal and child mortality rate in sub-Saharan Africa Family planning is a crucial strategy to halt the fast population growth, to reduce child mortality and improve maternal health (Millennium Development Goal 4 and 5). Therefore, this study aimed to assess the prevalence and determinants of modern contraceptive utilization among married women of reproductive age group. A community based cross-sectional study was conducted from August 15 to September 1, 2010 among married women aged 15-49 years in Debre Birhan District. Multistage sampling technique was used to select a total of 851 study participants. A pre-tested structured questionnaire was used for gathering data. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed using SPSS version 16.0 statistical package. Modern contraceptive prevalence rate among currently married women was 46.9%. Injectable contraceptives were the most frequently used methods (62.9%), followed by intrauterine device (16.8%), pills (14%), norplant (4.3%), male condom (1.2%) and female sterilization (0.8%). Multiple logistic regression model revealed that the need for more children (AOR 9.27, 95% CI 5.43-15.84), husband approve (AOR 2.82, 95% CI 1.67-4.80), couple's discussion about family planning issues (AOR 7.32, 95% CI 3.60-14.86). Similarly, monthly family income and number of living children were significantly associated with the use of modern contraceptives. Modern contraceptive use was high in the district. Couple's discussion and husband approval of contraceptives use were significantly associated with the use of modern contraceptives. Therefore, district health office and concerned stakeholders should focus on couples to encourage communication and male involvement for family planning.

  12. Determinants of modern contraceptive utilization among married women of reproductive age group in North Shoa Zone, Amhara Region, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Ethiopia is the second most populous country in Africa with high fertility and fast population growth rate. It is also one of the countries with high maternal and child mortality rate in sub-Saharan Africa Family planning is a crucial strategy to halt the fast population growth, to reduce child mortality and improve maternal health (Millennium Development Goal 4 and 5). Therefore, this study aimed to assess the prevalence and determinants of modern contraceptive utilization among married women of reproductive age group. Methods A community based cross-sectional study was conducted from August 15 to September 1, 2010 among married women aged 15–49 years in Debre Birhan District. Multistage sampling technique was used to select a total of 851 study participants. A pre-tested structured questionnaire was used for gathering data. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed using SPSS version 16.0 statistical package. Results Modern contraceptive prevalence rate among currently married women was 46.9%. Injectable contraceptives were the most frequently used methods (62.9%), followed by intrauterine device (16.8%), pills (14%), norplant (4.3%), male condom (1.2%) and female sterilization (0.8%). Multiple logistic regression model revealed that the need for more children (AOR 9.27, 95% CI 5.43-15.84), husband approve (AOR 2.82, 95% CI 1.67-4.80), couple’s discussion about family planning issues (AOR 7.32, 95% CI 3.60-14.86). Similarly, monthly family income and number of living children were significantly associated with the use of modern contraceptives. Conclusion Modern contraceptive use was high in the district. Couple’s discussion and husband approval of contraceptives use were significantly associated with the use of modern contraceptives. Therefore, district health office and concerned stakeholders should focus on couples to encourage communication and male involvement for family planning. PMID:24490810

  13. Prevalence and genetic characterization of Cryptosporidium species and Giardia duodenalis in lambs in Oromia Special Zone, Central Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Wegayehu, Teklu; Karim, Md Robiul; Li, Junqiang; Adamu, Haileeyesus; Erko, Berhanu; Zhang, Longxian; Tilahun, Getachew

    2017-01-17

    Cryptosporidium and Giardia duodenalis are gastro-intestinal parasites that infect human and animals worldwide. Both parasites share a broad host range and are believed to be zoonosis. The aim of this study was to identify the species of Cryptosporidium and assemblages of G. duodenalis in lambs and to elucidate their role in zoonotic transmission. A total of 389 fecal samples were collected from lambs and screened by microscopy and nested PCR targeting the small-subunit ribosomal RNA for Cryptosporidium; and the small-subunit ribosomal RNA, triose phosphate isomerase, β-giardin, and glutamate dehydrogenase genes for G. duodenalis. The prevalence of Cryptosporidium and G. duodenalis was 2.1% (8/389) and 2.6% (10/389), respectively. The infection rate at the three study sites ranged from 1.3 to 3.1% for Cryptosporidium and 1.6 to 3.9% for G. duodenalis; but variation was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). The finding also showed that there is no sex and age group associated difference in the occurrence of Cryptosporidium and G. duodenalis infections in lambs. Sequence analysis revealed that lambs were mono-infection with C. ubiquitum and G. duodenalis assemblage E. The analysis also indicated the presence of genetic variation within isolates of assemblage E; with 4 of them are novel genotypes at the small-subunit ribosomal RNA, β-giardin, and glutamate dehydrogenase genes. The findings of the current study showed that lambs are capable of harboring C. ubiquitum and G. duodenalis assemblage E. This finding suggests that lambs might be sources for potentially zoonotic Cryptosporidium species. This was first molecular study in lambs and contributes to a better understanding of the epidemiology of Cryptosporidium and G. duodenalis in central Ethiopia.

  14. The impact of traditional coffee processing on river water quality in Ethiopia and the urgency of adopting sound environmental practices.

    PubMed

    Beyene, Abebe; Kassahun, Yared; Addis, Taffere; Assefa, Fassil; Amsalu, Aklilu; Legesse, Worku; Kloos, Helmut; Triest, Ludwig

    2012-11-01

    Although waste from coffee processing is a valuable resource to make biogas, compost, and nutrient-rich animal food, it is usually dumped into nearby water courses. We carried out water quality assessment at 44 sampling sites along 18 rivers that receive untreated waste from 23 coffee pulping and processing plants in Jimma Zone, Ethiopia. Twenty upstream sampling sites free from coffee waste impact served as control, and 24 downstream sampling sites affected by coffee waste were selected for comparison. Physicochemical and biological results revealed a significant river water quality deterioration as a result of disposing untreated coffee waste into running water courses. During coffee-processing (wet) season, the highest organic load (1,900 mg/l), measured as biochemical oxygen demand, depleted dissolved oxygen (DO) to a level less than 0.01 mg/l, and thus curtailed nitrification. During off season, oxygen started to recuperate and augmented nitrification. The shift from significantly elevated organic load and reduced DO in the wet season to increased nitrate in the off season was found to be the determining factor for the difference in macroinvertebrate community structure as verified by ordination analysis. Macroinvertebrate diversity was significantly reduced in impacted sites during the wet season contrary to the off season. However, there was a significant difference in the ratio of sensitive to pollution-tolerant taxa in the off season, which remained depreciated in the longer term. This study highlights the urgency of research exploring on the feasibility of adopting appropriate pollution abatement technologies to implement ecologically sound coffee-processing systems in coffee-growing regions of Ethiopia.

  15. Assessing the Dimensionality and Reliability of Teachers' Performance Evaluation in Eastern Zone High Schools, Tigrai National Regional State, Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Embiza, Samuel; Hadush, Selamawit

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the dimensionality and reliability of Teachers Evaluation Questionnaire in Eastern Zone high school; Tigrai National Regional State which was filled by school principal. To this end: 9 high schools in 7 woredas were selected using the lottery method, in which 459 teachers' rate forms were collected. All…

  16. The Status of Secondary School Science Laboratory Activities for Quality Education in Case of Wolaita Zone, Southern Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zengele, Ashebir Gogile; Alemayehu, Bereket

    2016-01-01

    A high quality science education in primary and secondary schools contributes to developing scientific literacy and would be expected to predispose students to study the enabling sciences at university. The major purpose of this study was to assess the practice and problems in science laboratory activities in the secondary school of Wolaita Zone,…

  17. Conflict Management and Resolution Strategies between Teachers and School Leaders in Primary Schools of Wolaita Zone, Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanka, Engdawork Birhanu; Thuo, Mary

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate various strategies used to manage and resolve conflict between teachers and school leaders in government primary schools of Wolaita zone. The study employed a descriptive survey design where both quantitative and qualitative approaches were used to correct and analyze data, concurrently. From six…

  18. Premarital sexual practices and its predictors among in-school youths of shendi town, west Gojjam zone, North Western Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Youth who begin early pre-marital sexual activity are more likely to be engaged in unsafe sex. Early sexual debut puts them at increased risk for acquiring or transmitting sexually transmitted infections, including HIV; and makes them highly vulnerable to unwanted pregnancy and its consequences. This study was conducted to assess premarital sexual practices and its predictors among in-school youths in North West Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried among 826 in school youths from December; 2011 to January; 2012 in Shendi town. A multistage sampling technique was used to select the study participants. Binary and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the relationship between premarital sexual practices and selected exposure variables. Results Nearly one fifth 157 (19%) of the participants reported having had premarital sexual intercourse, of which 91 (22.7%) were males and 66 (15.5%) were females. The mean (SD) age at first sexual intercourse was 16 .48 (1.59) for males and 15.89 (1.68) for females. More than three - fourth of sexually active in-school youths engaged in premarital sexual relationship before celebrating their 18th birthday. Being greater than 20 years (AOR = 3.67; 95% CI = 1.98, 6.82), living with friends or relatives (AOR = 2.47; 95% CI = 1.46, 4.16), living alone (without parental control (AOR = 2.51; 95% CI = 1.38, 4.55) and watching pornographic movies (AOR = 1.73; 95% CI = 1.18, 2.53) were found to be significantly associated with premarital sexual practices. Conclusion A significant number of in-school youths had started premarital sexual activity that might predispose them to different sexual and reproductive health risks. Therefore, various efforts need to be initiated through school-based information, education, and behavioral change communication, interventions, such as life skills education and negotiation. PMID:24961239

  19. Modern contraceptive utilization and associated factors among married pastoralist women in Bale eco-region, Bale Zone, South East Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Belda, Semere Sileshi; Haile, Mekonnen Tegegne; Melku, Abulie Takele; Tololu, Abdurehaman Kalu

    2017-03-14

    Women who live in remote rural areas encounter different challenges against contraception and often deny the use of modern contraceptive methods. The predictors of modern contraceptive utilization by pastoralist women in the Bale eco-region could be specific and are not well known. Therefore, this study aims to assess modern contraceptive utilization and its determinants among married pastoralist women in Bale eco-region, Oromia regional state, South East Ethiopia. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted from 20th November 2015 to 30th February 2016. A structured questionnaire was used to interview 549 married pastoralist women who were selected by multistage sampling technique. The data were analyzed by SPSS - 21 software, multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify predictors of modern contraceptive use at (P-value <0.05), and odds ratios with 95% confidence interval were used to assess the strength of associations between variables. The current modern contraceptive method use by married pastoralist women was (20.8%). Among the total users, (78.1%) use the injectable method. The common reasons for non-use of modern contraceptive methods includes: religious-opposition (55.9%), desire for more children (28.3%), fear of side effects (25.5%), and husband's opposition (17.5%). Couple discussion (AOR = 4.63, 95%CI: 2.15, 9.98), perceived husband's approval (AOR = 8.00, 95% CI: 3.52, 18.19), discussion with health extension worker (AOR = 5.99, 95% CI: 1.81, 19.85), and perceived cultural acceptability (AOR = 2.10, 95% CI: 1.09, 4.03) were the independent predictors of modern contraceptive use by married pastoralist women in Bale eco-region. The study identified lower modern contraceptive method utilization by pastoralist women, and the majority of the contraceptive users rely on short- acting contraceptive methods. The uncomplimentary perceptions towards religious and cultural acceptability of modern contraceptive method

  20. Premarital sexual practices and its predictors among in-school youths of Shendi town, west Gojjam zone, North Western Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Bogale, Alemayehu; Seme, Assefa

    2014-06-25

    Youth who begin early pre-marital sexual activity are more likely to be engaged in unsafe sex. Early sexual debut puts them at increased risk for acquiring or transmitting sexually transmitted infections, including HIV; and makes them highly vulnerable to unwanted pregnancy and its consequences. This study was conducted to assess premarital sexual practices and its predictors among in-school youths in North West Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was carried among 826 in school youths from December; 2011 to January; 2012 in Shendi town. A multistage sampling technique was used to select the study participants. Binary and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the relationship between premarital sexual practices and selected exposure variables. Nearly one fifth 157 (19%) of the participants reported having had premarital sexual intercourse, of which 91 (22.7%) were males and 66 (15.5%) were females. The mean (SD) age at first sexual intercourse was 16 .48 (1.59) for males and 15.89 (1.68) for females. More than three - fourth of sexually active in-school youths engaged in premarital sexual relationship before celebrating their 18th birthday. Being greater than 20 years (AOR = 3.67; 95% CI = 1.98, 6.82), living with friends or relatives (AOR = 2.47; 95% CI = 1.46, 4.16), living alone (without parental control (AOR = 2.51; 95% CI = 1.38, 4.55) and watching pornographic movies (AOR = 1.73; 95% CI = 1.18, 2.53) were found to be significantly associated with premarital sexual practices. A significant number of in-school youths had started premarital sexual activity that might predispose them to different sexual and reproductive health risks. Therefore, various efforts need to be initiated through school-based information, education, and behavioral change communication, interventions, such as life skills education and negotiation.

  1. Parent-young people communication about sexual and reproductive health in E/Wollega zone, West Ethiopia: Implications for interventions

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Objectives This study aims at examining parent-young people communication about sexual and reproductive health related topics and factors associated with it from both young people’s and parents’ perspectives. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 2,269 young people aged 10–24 years in Nekemte town and semi urban areas, western Ethiopia. Chi-square and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted using SPSS for windows version 16. The qualitative data was coded, and categorized in to emerging themes using the open code software version 3.4. Result About a third of young people-32.5% (32.4% of females and 32.7% males) engaged in conversation about sexual and reproductive health topics with their parents/parent figures during the last six months. In logistic regression analyses, young people who were aged 15–19 years were more likely to report parent-communication compared to the other age groups (AOR = 1.57; 95%CI = 1.26-1.97). Female young people are more likely to discuss with their mothers, (AOR = 1.89, 95% CI = 1.13-3.2), sister (AOR = 2.16, 95% CI = 1.19-3.9) and female friends (AOR = 11.7, 95% CI = 7.36-18.7) while males are more likely to discuss with male friends (AOR = 17.3, 95%CI = 10-4-28.6). Educated young people were more likely to parent-communicate(AOR = 1.70, 95%CI = 1.30-2.24). Fear of parent, cultural taboos attached to sex, embarrassments, and parents’ lack of knowledge related to sexual and reproductive health were found to be barriers for parent communication. Parent-communication takes place not only infrequently but also in warning, & threatening way. Conclusion Parent-young people communication about sexual health is occurring rarely in the family and bounded by certain barriers. Programmes/policies related to young people’s reproductive health should address not only individual or behavioral factors but also cultural and social factors that negatively

  2. Generalized psychological distress among HIV-infected patients enrolled in antiretroviral treatment in Dilla University Hospital, Gedeo zone, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Tesfaye, Solomon H.; Bune, Girma T.

    2014-01-01

    Background Psychological disorders like depression and anxiety are potentially dangerous conditions. In the context of HIV/AIDS, this can influence health-seeking behavior or uptake of diagnosis and treatment for HIV/AIDS, add to the burden of disease for HIV patients, create difficulty in adherence to treatment, and increase the risk of mortality and morbidity. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence and correlates of generalized psychological distress among HIV-infected subjects on antiretroviral treatment (ART). Design An institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted. Interviews were conducted with 500 patients initiating ART at Dilla Referral Hospital. Generalized psychological distress was measured using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). A cutoff score ≥19 was used to identify possible cases of patients with generalized psychological distress. Multivariable logistic regression analysis using SPSS Version 20 was performed to identify factors associated with psychological distress. Results The prevalence of generalized psychological distress among the population of this study was 11.2% (HADS≥19). Factors independently associated with generalized psychological distress were moderate stress (OR=6.87, 95% CI 2.27–20.81), low social support (OR=10.17, 95% CI 2.85–36.29), number of negative life events of six and above (OR=3.99, 95% CI 1.77–8.99), not disclosing HIV status (OR=5.24, 95% CI 1.33–20.62), and CD4 cell count of <200 cells/mm3 (OR=1.98, 95% CI 0.45–0.83) and 200–499 cells/mm3 (OR=3.53, 95% CI 1.62–7.73). Conclusions This study provides prevalence of psychological distress lower than the prevalence of common mental disorders in Ethiopia and comparable to some other studies in sub-Saharan Africa. The findings are important in terms of their relevance to identifying high-risk groups for generalized psychological distress and preventing distress through integrating mental health services with HIV

  3. Generalized psychological distress among HIV-infected patients enrolled in antiretroviral treatment in Dilla University Hospital, Gedeo zone, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Tesfaye, Solomon H; Bune, Girma T

    2014-01-01

    Psychological disorders like depression and anxiety are potentially dangerous conditions. In the context of HIV/AIDS, this can influence health-seeking behavior or uptake of diagnosis and treatment for HIV/AIDS, add to the burden of disease for HIV patients, create difficulty in adherence to treatment, and increase the risk of mortality and morbidity. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence and correlates of generalized psychological distress among HIV-infected subjects on antiretroviral treatment (ART). An institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted. Interviews were conducted with 500 patients initiating ART at Dilla Referral Hospital. Generalized psychological distress was measured using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). A cutoff score ≥19 was used to identify possible cases of patients with generalized psychological distress. Multivariable logistic regression analysis using SPSS Version 20 was performed to identify factors associated with psychological distress. The prevalence of generalized psychological distress among the population of this study was 11.2% (HADS≥19). Factors independently associated with generalized psychological distress were moderate stress (OR=6.87, 95% CI 2.27-20.81), low social support (OR=10.17, 95% CI 2.85-36.29), number of negative life events of six and above (OR=3.99, 95% CI 1.77-8.99), not disclosing HIV status (OR=5.24, 95% CI 1.33-20.62), and CD4 cell count of <200 cells/mm(3) (OR=1.98, 95% CI 0.45-0.83) and 200-499 cells/mm(3) (OR=3.53, 95% CI 1.62-7.73). This study provides prevalence of psychological distress lower than the prevalence of common mental disorders in Ethiopia and comparable to some other studies in sub-Saharan Africa. The findings are important in terms of their relevance to identifying high-risk groups for generalized psychological distress and preventing distress through integrating mental health services with HIV/AIDS care and support program.

  4. Feeding practices, nutritional status and associated factors of lactating women in Samre Woreda, South Eastern Zone of Tigray, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Lactating mothers from low-income settings are considered as a nutritionally vulnerable group. Due to the nursing process, mothers are subjected to nutritional stresses. Frequent pregnancies followed by lactation increase the health risk of mothers resulting in a high maternal mortality. Objective To assess the feeding practices, nutritional status and associated factors of lactating women from Samre Woreda, South Eastern Tigray, Ethiopia. Design Community based cross-sectional survey Setting Four kebeles of Samre Woreda (2 urban & 2 rural kebeles) Methods Four hundred lactating mothers were recruited from 400 randomly selected households. Data on socio-demographic characteristics, maternal characteristics, feeding practices, frequency of foods eaten and dietary diversity was collected using a pre-tested and structured questionnaire. Anthropometric measurements were taken from each mother using calibrated equipments and standardized techniques. A one-day weighed food record was also collected from randomly selected sub sample (n=60) of mothers. The nutrient and energy content of foods consumed by the mothers was calculated by using ESHA Food Processor and the Ethiopian Food Composition Tables. To investigate the socio-economic and demographic factors affecting the nutritional status of the women, logistic regression was used. ANOVA and t-test were also used to see if there was a mean difference in nutritional status among the lactating mothers. Results Majority (71.2%) of the participants did not take additional meals during lactation. The median dietary diversity score of the study participants was 5 out of 14 food groups. The prevalence of underweight, chronic energy deficiency and stunting were 31%, 25% and 2.2% respectively. Using logistic regression model, factors significantly associated with the nutritional status of the study participants (as determined by BMI and MUAC) were size of farm land, length of years of marriage, maize cultivation

  5. Coverage, social mobilization and challenges of mass Zithromax administration campaign in South and South East zones of Tigray, Northern Ethiopia: A cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Mulugeta, Afework; Gebregergs, Gebremedhin Berhe; Asfaw, Selamawit; Yemane, Dejen; Mitiku, Mengistu; Meresa, Beyene; Gigar, Goitom; Kidane, Amanuel

    2018-02-01

    The antibiotic treatment of people with trachoma helps to prevent transmission the disease in a community. Currently, Zithromax is the drug recommended for mass drug administration (MDA). MDA should be carried out annually for three to five years in trachoma endemic areas. Coverage survey is essential to track progress towards program goals and to identify communities with poor coverage in order to permit timely and appropriate actions. We assessed mass Zithromax administration coverage, social mobilization and campaign challenges in south and southeast zones of Tigray, Ethiopia. We conducted a survey in community in Southern and South East zones of Tigray region from August 15 to August 31, 2016. The survey included nine Woredas. It was supported by qualitative methods. A total of 3741 individuals were enrolled from 933 households using multistage sampling. We used structured questionnaire. In-depth interview and focus group discussion were also applied. Descriptive statistics was performed using SPSS version 20.We thematically analyzed the qualitative data using Atlas 7. The overall coverage of Zithromax MDA was 93.3%. It ranges from 90.0% in Seharti Samre to 97.9% in Endamokoni. The coverage was 93.4% for males and 93.1% for females. A higher proportion (98.3%) of children aged 5 to 15 years and 409 (87.8%) under five children took Zithromax. The coverage was 94% in rural and 91.2% in urban. Women development army (43.3%) and health extension workers (32.5%) were the main source of information. Frequent occurrence of drug side effects, rumors, lack of community and leaders' engagement in the campaign, fasting, shortage of human power and short term unavailability of supplies were barriers during the campaign. The Zithromax MDA coverage in the study zones was higher than the minimum WHO set criteria of 80%. There was a wide difference in coverage among Woredas and Kebeles. The MDA coverage was lower in urban than rural. Misconceptions and poor mobilization were

  6. Seroepidemiology and associated risk factors of Toxoplasma gondii in sheep and goats in Southwestern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Tegegne, Dechassa; Kelifa, Amin; Abdurahaman, Mukarim; Yohannes, Moti

    2016-12-09

    T.gondii is a global zoonotic disease and is considered as the most neglected tropical disease in sub-Saharan countries. The exact seroepidemiological distribution and risk factors for the infection of food animals and humans in Ethiopia was less studied although, such studies are important. The objective of the current study was to determine the seroprevalence and potential risk factors of T. gondii infection in sheep and goats in Southwestern Ethiopia. Cross sectional study was conducted from November 2014 to March 2015 in South west Ethiopia in four selected districts of Jimma zone (n = 368). Slide agglutination test (Toxo-latex) was used to detect anti-T.gondii antibodies. Logistic regression was used to determine potential risk factors. An overall seroprevalence of 57.60% (212/368; 95% CI: 52.55-62.6) was detected. 58.18% (148/252; 95% CI: 52.75-64.88) and 55.18% (64/116; 95% CI: 46.13-64.23) sero prevalence was found in sheep and goats respectively. Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that the risk of T. gondii infection was significantly higher in adult sheep and goats [(sheep: Odds Ratio (OR) = 2.5, confidence interval (CI): 1.19-5.23; p = 0.015), (goats: OR = 3.9, confidence interval (CI):1.64-9.41: p = 0.002)] than in young sheep and goats, in female [(sheep: OR = 1.93, CI: 1.11-3.36, p = 0.018, (goats: OR = 2.9, CI: 121-6.93, p = 0.002)] than in males sheep and goats, in Highland [(sheep: OR = 4.57, CI: 1.75-12.66, P = 0.000, (goats: OR = 4.4, CI: 1.75-13.66, p = 0.004)] than sheep and goats from lowland. This study indicates that seroprevalence of latent toxoplasmosis in small ruminants is high, therefore, it is decidedly indispensable to minimize risk factors exposing to the infection like consumption of raw meat as source of infection for humans.

  7. Obstetric care providers' knowledge, practice and associated factors towards active management of third stage of labor in Sidama Zone, South Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Tenaw, Zelalem; Yohannes, Zemenu; Amano, Abdela

    2017-09-07

    Active management of third stage of labor played a great role to prevent child birth related hemorrhage. However, maternal morbidity and mortality related to hemorrhage is high due to lack of knowledge and skill of obstetric care providers 'on active management of third stage of labor. Our study was aimed to assess knowledge, practice and associated factors of obstetric care providers (Midwives, Nurses and Health officers) on active management of third stage of labor in Sidama Zone, South Ethiopia. An institution based cross sectional study design was conducted from December 1-30 /2015 among midwives, nurses and health officers. Simple random sampling technique was used to get the total of 528 participants. Data entry was done using EPI Info 3.5.1 and exported to SPSS version 20.0 software package for analysis. The presence of association between independent and dependent variables was assessed using odds ratio with 97% confidence interval by applying logistic regression model. Of the 528 obstetric care providers 37.7% and 32.8% were knowledgeable and skilled to manage third stage of labor respectively. After controlling for possible confounding factors, the result showed that pre/in service training, being midwife and graduation year were found to be the major predictors of proper active management of third stage of labor. The knowledge and practice of obstetric care providers towards active management of third stage of labor can be improved with appropriate interventions like in-service trainings. This study also clearly showed that the level of knowledge and practice of obstetric care providers to wards active management of third stage of labor needs immediate attention of Universities and health science colleges better to revise their obstetrics course contents, health institutions and zonal health bureau should arrange trainings for their obstetrics care providers to enhance skill.

  8. Timely initiation of breastfeeding and associated factors among mothers of infants under 12 months in South Gondar zone, Amhara regional state, Ethiopia; 2013.

    PubMed

    Mekonen, Liyew; Seifu, Wubareg; Shiferaw, Zemenu

    2018-01-01

    Timely initiation of breastfeeding is defined as putting the newborn to the breast within one hour of birth. Significant benefits in reducing neonatal mortality and morbidity can be attained with effective promotion of timely initiation of breastfeeding and exclusive breastfeeding during the first months of life. Therefore, this study was conducted to assess timely initiation of breastfeeding and associated factors among mothers in South Gondar, Amhara regional state, Northern Ethiopia. A community based cross-sectional study was employed. A multistage stratified sampling technique was used to select the sample of 845 mothers with 97.4% response rate. Moreover, data were collected by face to face interview using a semi structured questionnaire. The prevalence of timely initiation of breastfeeding was 48.7% (54.7% in urban and 25.1% in rural areas). The odds of initiation of breastfeeding within one hour was higher for urban mothers (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR] 2.1; 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 1.4, 3.3), multiparous mothers (AOR 2.8; 95% CI 2.0, 3.8), mothers who had antenatal care (AOR 3.2; 95% CI 2.0, 5.2), mothers delivered in health institution (AOR 3.1; 95% CI 2.2, 4.6) and mothers delivered vaginally (AOR 4.1; 95% CI 1.7, 9.8) than their respective counterparts. This study depicts the rate of timely initiation of breastfeeding was low in south Gondar zone. Factors which were positively associated with timely initiation of breastfeeding include urban residence, multiparity, having antenatal care, mother deliver in health institution and vaginal mode of delivery. Therefore, South Gondar health office and healthcare providers have to provide breastfeeding information during antenatal care by giving special emphasis to rural and primiparous mothers in which timely initiation of breastfeeding is poorly practiced. Further study is needed to assess the implementation of policies on timely initiation of breastfeeding.

  9. A refinement of the chronology of rift-related faulting in the Broadly Rifted Zone, southern Ethiopia, through apatite fission-track analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balestrieri, Maria Laura; Bonini, Marco; Corti, Giacomo; Sani, Federico; Philippon, Melody

    2016-03-01

    To reconstruct the timing of rift inception in the Broadly Rifted Zone in southern Ethiopia, we applied the fission-track method to basement rocks collected along the scarp of the main normal faults bounding (i) the Amaro Horst in the southern Main Ethiopian Rift and (ii) the Beto Basin in the Gofa Province. At the Amaro Horst, a vertical traverse along the major eastern scarp yielded pre-rift ages ranging between 121.4 ± 15.3 Ma and 69.5 ± 7.2 Ma, similarly to two other samples, one from the western scarp and one at the southern termination of the horst (103.4 ± 24.5 Ma and 65.5 ± 4.2 Ma, respectively). More interestingly, a second traverse at the Amaro northeastern terminus released rift-related ages spanning between 12.3 ± 2.7 and 6.8 ± 0.7 Ma. In the Beto Basin, the ages determined along the base of the main (northwestern) fault scarp vary between 22.8 ± 3.3 Ma and 7.0 ± 0.7 Ma. We ascertain through thermal modeling that rift-related exhumation along the northwestern fault scarp of the Beto Basin started at 12 ± 2 Ma while in the eastern margin of the Amaro Horst faulting took place later than 10 Ma, possibly at about 8 Ma. These results suggest a reconsideration of previous models on timing of rift activation in the different sectors of the Ethiopian Rift. Extensional basin formation initiated more or less contemporaneously in the Gofa Province (~ 12 Ma) and Northern Main Ethiopian Rift (~ 10-12 Ma) at the time of a major reorganization of the Nubia-Somalia plate boundary (i.e., 11 ± 2 Ma). Afterwards, rift-related faulting involved the Southern MER (Amaro Horst) at ~ 8 Ma, and only later rifting seemingly affected the Central MER (after ~ 7 Ma).

  10. Prevalence of smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis and associated risk factors among prisoners in Hadiya Zone prison, Southern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Fuge, Terefe G; Ayanto, Samuel Y

    2016-04-02

    People concentrated in congregated systems such as prisons, are important but often neglected reservoirs for tuberculosis transmission, and threaten those in the outside community. The condition is more serious in Africa particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) due to its poor living conditions and ineffective health services. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis and associated risk factors among prisoners in Hadiya Zone prison. A cross-sectional survey was carried out from May to June 2013 in Hadiya Zone prison. Prison inmates who had history of cough for at least a week were included in the study. Three morning sputum samples were collected from suspected inmates and examined through compound light microscopy. The data obtained was analyzed using statistical software like Epidata and STATA. A total of 164 prisoners were included in the survey using active screening strategy and the point prevalence of smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in the prison was 349.2 per 100,000 populations; about three times higher than its prevalence in the general population. Even though lack of visit from family was the only variable identified as a risk factor for PTB (P = 0.029), almost all of the PTB positive cases were rural residents, farmers, male youngsters and those who shared cell with TB patients and chronically coughing persons as well as those who stayed in a cell that contains >100 inmates. There is high prevalence of TB in Hadiya Zone prison with possible active transmission of TB within the prison. The study also documented a number of factors which may facilitate exposures to TB though most of them are not significantly associated. Therefore, strong cooperation between prison authorities and the national tuberculosis control programmes is urgently required to develop locally appropriate interventions to reduce transmission.

  11. Application of Nursing Process and Its Affecting Factors among Nurses Working in Mekelle Zone Hospitals, Northern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Hagos, Fisseha; Alemseged, Fessehaye; Balcha, Fikadu; Berhe, Semarya; Aregay, Alemseged

    2014-01-01

    Background. Nursing process is considered as appropriate method to explain the nursing essence, its scientific bases, technologies and humanist assumptions that encourage critical thinking and creativity, and permits solving problems in professional practice. Objective. To assess the application of nursing process and it's affecting factors in Mekelle Zone Hospitals. Methods. A cross sectional design employing quantitative and qualitative methods was conducted in Mekelle zone hospitals March 2011. Qualitative data was collected from14 head nurses of six hospitals and quantitative was collected from 200 nurses selected by simple random sampling technique from the six hospitals proportional to their size. SPSS version 16.1 and thematic analysis was used for quantitative and qualitative data respectively. Results. Majority 180 (90%) of the respondents have poor knowledge and 99.5% of the respondents have a positive attitude towards the nursing process. All of the respondents said that they did not use the nursing process during provision of care to their patients at the time of the study. Majority (75%) of the respondent said that the nurse to patient ratio was not optimal to apply the nursing process. Conclusion and Recommendation. The nursing process is not yet applied in all of the six hospitals. The finding revealed that the knowledge of nurses on the nursing process is not adequate to put it in to practice and high patient nurse ratio affects its application. The studied hospitals should consider the application of the nursing process critically by motivating nurses and monitor and evaluate its progress. PMID:24649360

  12. Knowledge, attitude, practices and their associated factors towards diabetes mellitus among non diabetes community members of Bale Zone administrative towns, South East Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Kassahun, Chanyalew Worku; Mekonen, Alemayehu Gonie

    2017-01-01

    Diabetes kills more than 4.9 million adults per year. It becomes rapidly increasing, non-communicable disease-a major threat to global public health particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa. Though previous studies among diabetic patients were focused in health institution, limited knowledge, attitude and practice were seen. There is no study conducted about diabetes related to knowledge, attitudes, practice and associated factors in the community level. The study assessed knowledge, attitude, practices, and its associated factors towards diabetes mellitus among non diabetic community members of Bale Zone, Ethiopia. Community based cross-sectional study was conducted from November 15 to December 15, 2015 among 605 non diabetic community members of Bale Zone administrative towns. Data was collected using pretested structured face-to-face interview after taking informed written consent. Respondents were selected by systematic random sampling. The data was entered into EPI data version 3.1 and analyzed using Statistical package for social sciences version 20. Odds ratio and 95% confidence interval were calculated and P<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Finally, multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to indicate the independent predictors of knowledge, attitude and practice. Response rate of the study was 98.2%. About 52.5% of participants were knowledgeable, 55.9% and 56.6% had good attitude and practice respectively. Earning average monthly family income of ≤500 Ethiopian birr (AOR = 0.4, CI = 0.2, 0.6) and 501-1000 (AOR = 0.4, CI = 0.2, 0.7), heard about diabetes (AOR = 4.4, CI = 1.9, 10.2), had diabetes health education exposure (AOR = 5, CI = 2.5, 9.7) resulted to have good diabetes knowledge. Student, (AOR = 5.1, CI = 2.1,12), government/private employee (AOR = 3,CI = 1.4,6.7), merchant (AOR = 2,CI = 1.1,3.6) and Knowledgeable (AOR = 3, CI = 2.1, 4.7) subjects had positive attitude towards diabetes. Having college and above educational

  13. The relationship between sexual violence and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among women using voluntary counseling and testing services in South Wollo Zone, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Gender based violence affects the health and wellbeing of women across the world on an epidemic scale. While women remain more vulnerable to both sexual violence and risk of HIV infection, they are less able to access health and other welfare services than men. These vulnerabilities are further compounded by social factors, including the low status of women in many communities and their lack of decision-making power, both within the household and in wider society. The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between sexual violence and HIV infection among clients of voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) services in South Wollo Zone, Ethiopia. Methodology A facility based cross sectional study was conducted using quantitative methods on a sample of 647 people living in seven selected districts of South Wollo Zone, Amhara Regional State. Results The study revealed that sexual violence is significantly associated with the risk of HIV infection. The prevalence of lifetime sexual violence, lifetime partner violence, and last 12 months partner violence were 34.6%, 32.3% and 10.5% respectively. Both partner violence and lifetime sexual violence by another perpetrator were associated with HIV. The overall prevalence of HIV among VCT users was 21.5%. Both before (crude analysis) and after the results were adjusted for selected variables, women who experienced sexual violence in the last 12 months by their intimate partner or by another perpetrator is significantly associated with their HIV status. The chances of having HIV was 1.97 times higher among women victims who have a history of lifetime partner violence when compared with women who are not victims; crude odds ratio (COR) = 1.97, 95% Confidence Interval (CI), (1.34 - 2.90). Conclusion The study revealed that sexual violence is significantly associated with the risk of HIV infection. Empowerment of women can be used as an important tool to reduce both sexual violence and HIV. More importantly

  14. Knowledge, attitude, practices and their associated factors towards diabetes mellitus among non diabetes community members of Bale Zone administrative towns, South East Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Kassahun, Chanyalew Worku; Mekonen, Alemayehu Gonie

    2017-01-01

    Background Diabetes kills more than 4.9 million adults per year. It becomes rapidly increasing, non-communicable disease—a major threat to global public health particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa. Though previous studies among diabetic patients were focused in health institution, limited knowledge, attitude and practice were seen. There is no study conducted about diabetes related to knowledge, attitudes, practice and associated factors in the community level. Objective of the study The study assessed knowledge, attitude, practices, and its associated factors towards diabetes mellitus among non diabetic community members of Bale Zone, Ethiopia. Methods Community based cross-sectional study was conducted from November 15 to December 15, 2015 among 605 non diabetic community members of Bale Zone administrative towns. Data was collected using pretested structured face-to-face interview after taking informed written consent. Respondents were selected by systematic random sampling. The data was entered into EPI data version 3.1 and analyzed using Statistical package for social sciences version 20. Odds ratio and 95% confidence interval were calculated and P<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Finally, multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to indicate the independent predictors of knowledge, attitude and practice. Result Response rate of the study was 98.2%. About 52.5% of participants were knowledgeable, 55.9% and 56.6% had good attitude and practice respectively. Earning average monthly family income of ≤500 Ethiopian birr (AOR = 0.4, CI = 0.2, 0.6) and 501–1000 (AOR = 0.4, CI = 0.2, 0.7), heard about diabetes (AOR = 4.4, CI = 1.9, 10.2), had diabetes health education exposure (AOR = 5, CI = 2.5, 9.7) resulted to have good diabetes knowledge. Student, (AOR = 5.1, CI = 2.1,12), government/private employee (AOR = 3,CI = 1.4,6.7), merchant (AOR = 2,CI = 1.1,3.6) and Knowledgeable (AOR = 3, CI = 2.1, 4.7) subjects had positive attitude

  15. Prevalence of hookworm infection and its association with anemia among patients visiting Fenan Medical Center, East Wollega Zone, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Dori, Geme Urge; Tullu, Kassu Desta; Ali, Ibrahim; Hirko, Abera; Mekuria, Getahun

    2011-07-01

    Data was obtained from all study subjects and blood and fecal specimen were collected from all subjects who apparently volunteer to take part in the study. To determine prevalence of hookworm infection and its association with anemia. METHODS.: A cross-sectional study was conducted from February to April 2007 in Diga District, East Wollega Zone. Hematocrit test was done on all blood samples. All stool specimens were processed with a Kato-thick method and examined for parasites and the density of parasites was determined as eggs per gram of stool (epg). Frequencies and proportions were used for the descriptive analysis of the data and Pearson Chi-square test was used to assess the associations between the demographic characteristics of the study subjects and the findings of the test samples. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites was 64.9% Hookworm was the predominant (49.7%) intestinal parasite identified among the study participants. The density of hookworm egg ranged from 48 epg to 11,520 epg with mean and median values of 685 and 288 epg respectively. The observed result for hematocrit ranged from 12% to 50% with mean (SD) and median values of 34.6% (4.7) and 36% respectively. The prevalence of anemia is 65.5% among study participants. Among those subjects with hookworm, 83.9% were anemic. On the contrary only 41 (22.5%) study subjects who appeared negative for hookworm on stool examination were anemic. The prevalence of hookworm is higher and it is associated with anemia in East Wollega zone. Therefore intervention strategies should consider the concomitance of hookworm and anemia in the implementations of appropriate prevention and control strategies.

  16. Factors Affecting Utilization of Voluntary HIV Counseling and Testing Services among Teachers in Awi Zone, Northwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Bizuneh, Kelemu Dessie

    2017-01-01

    HIV/AIDS affects the basic educational sector which is the most productive segment of the population and vital to the creation of human capital. The loss of skilled and experienced teachers due to the problem is increasingly compromising the provision of quality education in most African countries. The study was proposed to determine the magnitude of VCT utilization and assess contributing factors that affect VCT service utilization among secondary school teachers in Awi Zone. A cross-sectional study design was conducted among 588 participants in 2014. Self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 16, presented as frequencies and summary statistics, and tested for presence of significant association with odds ratio at 95% CI. More than half (53.6%) of study participants were tested for HIV. Those who had sexual intercourse, had good knowledge about VCT, were divorced/widowed, were in the age group of 20–29 years, and were married utilized VCT services two, three, four, three, and two times better than their counterparts, respectively. Actions targeting unmarried status, increase of educational level, and teachers with age groups above 30 years are necessary to follow their counterparts to utilize VCT service in order to save loss of teachers. PMID:28512582

  17. Bovine tuberculosis and brucellosis prevalence in cattle from selected milk cooperatives in Arsi zone, Oromia region, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Tschopp, Rea; Abera, Birhanu; Sourou, Sabi Yao; Guerne-Bleich, Emmanuelle; Aseffa, Abraham; Wubete, Alehegne; Zinsstag, Jakob; Young, Douglas

    2013-08-13

    Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) and bovine brucellosis are two important milk-borne zoonoses that have been shown to be prevalent to various degrees in Ethiopian cattle. The study was carried out in four Woredas (districts) around Asella town, Arsi Zone between October 2011 and March 2012 and included 318 small-holders in 13 dairy cooperatives that marketed the delivered milk. The aims of the study were i) to assess the prevalence of the two diseases in cattle in a cross-sectional study, ii) to assess potential risk factors of BTB and brucellosis to humans as well as the knowledge-attitude-practice (KAP) among these farmers towards these diseases. BTB testing using the comparative intradermal skin test (CIDT) was done on 584 milking cows, out of which 417 were serologically tested for brucellosis using the Rose Bengal Plate Test and reactors confirmed with an indirect ELISA test (PrioCHECK®). The individual animal prevalence was 0.3% (95% CI 0.1% to 1.3%) for BTB, 1.7% (95% CI 0.8% to 3.5%) for brucellosis and 8.9% (95% CI 6.8% to 11.5%) for MAC (Mycobacterium avium complex). Of the 13 milk cooperatives, two had at least one positive BTB reactor and five had animals positive for brucellosis. Cross-breeds accounted for 100% and 71.4% of the BTB and brucellosis reactors respectively. For both diseases, there were prevalence variations depending on Woreda. No animal was concomitant reactor for BTB and brucellosis. Raw milk was consumed by 55.4% of the respondents. 79.2% of the respondents reported touching the afterbirth with bare hands. The latter was fed to dogs in 83% of the households. One cow among the herds of the 130 interviewees had aborted in the last 12 months. Among the interviewees, 77% stated knowing tuberculosis in general but 42 out of the 130 respondents (32.3%) did not know that BTB was transmitted by livestock. Less than half (47.7%) of the respondents knew about brucellosis. Low prevalence of both diseases reflected the potential for the area to compete

  18. Bovine tuberculosis and brucellosis prevalence in cattle from selected milk cooperatives in Arsi zone, Oromia region, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) and bovine brucellosis are two important milk-borne zoonoses that have been shown to be prevalent to various degrees in Ethiopian cattle. The study was carried out in four Woredas (districts) around Asella town, Arsi Zone between October 2011 and March 2012 and included 318 small-holders in 13 dairy cooperatives that marketed the delivered milk. The aims of the study were i) to assess the prevalence of the two diseases in cattle in a cross-sectional study, ii) to assess potential risk factors of BTB and brucellosis to humans as well as the knowledge-attitude-practice (KAP) among these farmers towards these diseases. Results BTB testing using the comparative intradermal skin test (CIDT) was done on 584 milking cows, out of which 417 were serologically tested for brucellosis using the Rose Bengal Plate Test and reactors confirmed with an indirect ELISA test (PrioCHECK®). The individual animal prevalence was 0.3% (95% CI 0.1% to 1.3%) for BTB, 1.7% (95% CI 0.8% to 3.5%) for brucellosis and 8.9% (95% CI 6.8% to 11.5%) for MAC (Mycobacterium avium complex). Of the 13 milk cooperatives, two had at least one positive BTB reactor and five had animals positive for brucellosis. Cross-breeds accounted for 100% and 71.4% of the BTB and brucellosis reactors respectively. For both diseases, there were prevalence variations depending on Woreda. No animal was concomitant reactor for BTB and brucellosis. Raw milk was consumed by 55.4% of the respondents. 79.2% of the respondents reported touching the afterbirth with bare hands. The latter was fed to dogs in 83% of the households. One cow among the herds of the 130 interviewees had aborted in the last 12 months. Among the interviewees, 77% stated knowing tuberculosis in general but 42 out of the 130 respondents (32.3%) did not know that BTB was transmitted by livestock. Less than half (47.7%) of the respondents knew about brucellosis. Conclusions Low prevalence of both diseases reflected the

  19. Prevalence of Anemia and Associated Factors among Pregnant Women in North Western Zone of Tigray, Northern Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Gebre, Abel; Mulugeta, Afework

    2015-01-01

    Background. Anemia affects the lives of more than 2 billion people globally, accounting for over 30% of the world's population. Anemia is a global public health problem occurring at all stages of the life cycle but the burden of the problem is higher in pregnant women particularly in developing countries. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of anemia and associated factors among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in north western zone of Tigray, northern Ethiopia. Methods. A facility based cross-sectional study was employed. A systematic random sampling procedure was employed to select 714 pregnant women who were attending antenatal clinics in health facilities found in the study area from April to May 2014. The data was entered and analyzed using Epi-info version 3.5.1 and SPSS version 20.0 statistical software, respectively. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with anemia among the study participants. All tests were two-sided and p value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results. The overall prevalence of anemia (hemoglobin < 11 g/dL) among the pregnant women was 36.1% (95% CI = 32.7%-39.7%) of which 58.5% were mildly, 35.7% moderately, and 5.8% severely anemic. In pregnant women, rural residence (AOR = 1.75, 95% CI = 1.01-3.04), no education/being illiterate (AOR = 1.56, 95% CI = 1.03-2.37), absence of iron supplementation during pregnancy (AOR = 2.76, 95% CI = 1.92-5.37), and meal frequency of less than two times per day (AOR = 2.28, 95% CI = 1.06-4.91) were the independent predictors for increased anemia among the pregnant women. Conclusions. Anemia was found to be moderate public health problem in the study area. Residence, educational status, iron supplementation during pregnancy, and meal frequency per day were statistically associated with anemia among the pregnant women. Awareness creation and nutrition education on the importance of taking iron supplementation and nutritional

  20. A cross sectional study on nursing process implementation and associated factors among nurses working in selected hospitals of Central and Northwest zones, Tigray Region, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Baraki, Zeray; Girmay, Fiseha; Kidanu, Kalayou; Gerensea, Hadgu; Gezehgne, Dejen; Teklay, Hafte

    2017-01-01

    The nursing process is a systematic method of planning, delivering, and evaluating individualized care for clients in any state of health or illness. Many countries have adopted the nursing process as the standard of care to guide nursing practice; however, the problem is its implementation. If nurses fail to carry out the necessary nursing care through the nursing process; the effectiveness of patient progress may be compromised and can lead to preventable adverse events. This study was aimed to assess the implementation of nursing process and associated factors among nurses working in selected hospitals of central and northwest zones of Tigray, Ethiopia, 2015. A cross sectional observational study design was utilized. Data was collected from 200 participants using structured self-administered questionnaire which was contextually adapted from standardized, reliable and validated measures. The data were entered using Epi Info version 7 and analyzed using SPSS version 20 software. Data were summarized and described using descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression was used to determine the relationship of independent and dependent variable. Then, finally, data were presented in tables, graphs, frequency percentage of different variables. Seventy (35%) of participants have implemented nursing process. Different factors showed significant association. Nurses who worked in a stressful atmosphere of the workplace were 99% less likely to implement the nursing process than nurses who worked at a very good atmosphere. The nurses with an educational level of BSc. Degree were 6.972 times more likely to implement the nursing process than those who were diploma qualified. Nurses with no consistent material supply to use the nursing process were 95.1% less likely to implement the nursing process than nurses with consistent material supply. The majority of the participants were not implementing the nursing process properly. There are many factors that hinder them

  1. Prevalence of Anemia and Associated Factors among Pregnant Women in North Western Zone of Tigray, Northern Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Gebre, Abel; Mulugeta, Afework

    2015-01-01

    Background. Anemia affects the lives of more than 2 billion people globally, accounting for over 30% of the world's population. Anemia is a global public health problem occurring at all stages of the life cycle but the burden of the problem is higher in pregnant women particularly in developing countries. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of anemia and associated factors among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in north western zone of Tigray, northern Ethiopia. Methods. A facility based cross-sectional study was employed. A systematic random sampling procedure was employed to select 714 pregnant women who were attending antenatal clinics in health facilities found in the study area from April to May 2014. The data was entered and analyzed using Epi-info version 3.5.1 and SPSS version 20.0 statistical software, respectively. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with anemia among the study participants. All tests were two-sided and p value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results. The overall prevalence of anemia (hemoglobin < 11 g/dL) among the pregnant women was 36.1% (95% CI = 32.7%–39.7%) of which 58.5% were mildly, 35.7% moderately, and 5.8% severely anemic. In pregnant women, rural residence (AOR = 1.75, 95% CI = 1.01–3.04), no education/being illiterate (AOR = 1.56, 95% CI = 1.03–2.37), absence of iron supplementation during pregnancy (AOR = 2.76, 95% CI = 1.92–5.37), and meal frequency of less than two times per day (AOR = 2.28, 95% CI = 1.06–4.91) were the independent predictors for increased anemia among the pregnant women. Conclusions. Anemia was found to be moderate public health problem in the study area. Residence, educational status, iron supplementation during pregnancy, and meal frequency per day were statistically associated with anemia among the pregnant women. Awareness creation and nutrition education on the importance of taking iron supplementation and

  2. Treatment outcomes of severe acute malnutrition in children treated within Outpatient Therapeutic Program (OTP) at Wolaita Zone, Southern Ethiopia: retrospective cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Kabalo, Mulugeta Yohannis; Seifu, Canaan Negash

    2017-03-09

    Children in third world countries suffer from severe acute malnutrition (SAM) in an extent of public health important. SAM management protocol available this time brought the approach from facility-based to community-based by Outpatient Therapeutic Program (OTP). But, little was known about the treatment outcomes of the program in Ethiopia. Thus, this study was aimed to assess treatment outcomes of SAM and identify factors associated among children treated at OTP in Wolaita Zone. A retrospective facility-based cross-sectional study was conducted in OTP records of 794 children, treated at 24 health posts retrieved from January to December 2014. Population proportion to size (PPS) was used to allocate sample for each selected district and OTP sites within district. Individual cards of children were selected by systematic random sampling. Data were entered, thoroughly cleaned, and analyzed in SPSS version 20. The recovery rate was revealed as 64.9% at 95% CI (61, 68). Death rate, default rate, weight gain, and length of stay were 1.2%, 2.2%, 4.2 g/kg/day, and 6.8 weeks respectively. Children living in <25 min were with 1.53 times higher odds of recovery than children residing in ≥25 min (AOR = 1.53 at 95% CI (1.11, 2.12)). The likelihood of recovery was 2.6 times higher for children with kwashiorkor than for those with marasmus (AOR = 2.62 at 95% CI (1.77, 3.89)). Likewise, children provided with amoxicillin were 1.52 times more likely to recover compared to their counterparts (AOR = 1.52 at 95% CI (1.09, 2.11)). The recovery rate and weight gain were lower than sphere standard. Distance from OTP, provision of amoxicillin, and type of malnutrition were factors identified as significantly associated with treatment outcome of SAM. Building capacity of OTP service providers and regular monitoring of service provision based on the management protocol were recommended.

  3. Tuberculosis infection control practices and associated factors among health care workers in health centers of West Gojjam zone, Northwest Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Tamir, Kassahun; Wasie, Belaynew; Azage, Muluken

    2016-08-08

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major global health problem. The emerging epidemic of multi- and extensively drug-resistant (M/XDR) TB further imperils health workers, patients and public health. Health facilities with inadequate infection control are risky environments for the emergence and transmission of TB. There was no study that presented data on infection control practices of health care workers. This study aimed to assess tuberculosis infection control practices and associated factors among health care workers in West Gojjam Zone, Northwest Ethiopia. Institution based quantitative cross-sectional study triangulated with qualitative observation and key informant interview was conducted. Six hundred sixty two health care workers were selected by multistage random sampling method. Self-administered structured questionnaire was used to collect quantitative data. Observation checklists and key informant interview guides were used to collect qualitative data. Quantitative data were entered in to Epi Info version 3.5.3 and analyzed using SPSS version 20. Odds ratio with 95 % confidence interval was used to identify factors associated with TB infection control practice of health care workers. Qualitative data were translated, transcribed, analyzed and triangulated with the quantitative findings. The proportion of proper TB infection control (TBIC) practices was 38 %. Qualitative data showed that administrative, environmental and personal respiratory protection control measures were not practiced well. Knowledge on the presence of TBIC plan [AOR = 4.25, 95 % CI: 2.46 - 7.35], knowledge on the presence of national guideline [AOR = 8.95, 95 % CI: 4.35 - 18.40] and working department of the health care workers were independent predictors of TBIC practices. The proportion of proper TBIC practices of health care workers was low. TBIC practices were determined by knowing the presence of TBIC plan and national guideline and working department. Hence, supportive

  4. Access to integrated community case management of childhood illnesses services in rural Ethiopia: a qualitative study of the perspectives and experiences of caregivers

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Bryan; Amouzou, Agbessi; Miller, Nathan P; Tafesse, Mengistu; Bryce, Jennifer; Surkan, Pamela J

    2016-01-01

    Background: In 2010, Ethiopia began scaling up the integrated community case management (iCCM) of childhood illness strategy throughout the country allowing health extension workers (HEWs) to treat children in rural health posts. After 2 years of iCCM scale up, utilization of HEWs remains low. Little is known about factors related to the use of health services in this setting. This research aimed to elicit perceptions and experiences of caregivers to better understand reasons for low utilization of iCCM services. Methods: A rapid ethnographic assessment was conducted in eight rural health post catchment areas in two zones: Jimma and West Hararghe. In total, 16 focus group discussions and 78 in-depth interviews were completed with mothers, fathers, HEWs and community health volunteers. Results: In spite of the HEW being a core component of iCCM, we found that the lack of availability of HEWs at the health post was one of the most common barriers to the utilization of iCCM services mentioned by caregivers. Financial and geographic challenges continue to influence caregiver decisions despite extension of free child health services in communities. Acceptability of HEWs was often low due to a perceived lack of sensitivity of HEWs and concerns about medicines given at the health post. Social networks acted both to facilitate and hinder use of HEWs. Many mothers stated a preference for using the health post, but some were unable to do so due to objections or alternative care-seeking preferences of gatekeepers, often mothers-in-law and husbands. Conclusion: Caregivers in Ethiopia face many challenges in using HEWs at the health post, potentially resulting in low demand for iCCM services. Efforts to minimize barriers to care seeking and to improve demand should be incorporated into the iCCM strategy in order to achieve reductions in child mortality and promote equity in access and child health outcomes. PMID:26608585

  5. Perceived challenges and opportunities arising from integration of mental health into primary care: a cross-sectional survey of primary health care workers in south-west Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Abera, Mubarek; Tesfaye, Markos; Belachew, Tefera; Hanlon, Charlotte

    2014-03-06

    The WHO's mental health Gap Action Programme seeks to narrow the treatment gap for mental disorders by advocating integration of mental health into primary health care (PHC). This study aimed to assess the challenges and opportunities of this approach from the perspective of PHC workers in a sub-Saharan African country. A facility-based cross-sectional survey of 151 PHC workers was conducted from 1st to 30th November 2011 in Jimma zone, south-west Ethiopia. A structured questionnaire was used to ask about past training and mental health experience, knowledge and attitudes towards mental disorders and provision of mental health care in PHC. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with 12 heads of health facilities for more in-depth understanding. Almost all PHC workers (96.0%) reported that mental health care was important in Ethiopia and the majority (66.9%) expressed interest in actually delivering mental health care. Higher levels of general health training (degree vs. diploma) and pre-service clinical exposure to mental health care were associated with more favourable attitudes. Knowledge about mental disorder diagnoses, symptoms and treatments was low. Almost half (45.0%) of PHC workers reported that supernatural factors were important causes of mental disorders. Health system and structural issues, such as poor medication supply, lack of rooms, time constraints, absence of specialist supervision and lack of treatment guidelines, were identified as challenges. Almost all PHC workers (96.7%) reported a need for more training, including a clinical attachment, in order to be able to deliver mental health care competently. Despite acceptability to PHC workers, the feasibility of integrating mental health into PHC in this sub-Saharan African setting is limited by important gaps in PHC worker knowledge and expectations regarding mental health care, coupled with health system constraints. In addition to clinically-based refresher mental health training, expansion

  6. Food Insecurity, Nutritional Status, and Factors Associated with Malnutrition among People Living with HIV/AIDS Attending Antiretroviral Therapy at Public Health Facilities in West Shewa Zone, Central Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Gebremichael, Delelegn Yilma; Hadush, Kokeb Tesfamariam; Kebede, Ermiyas Mulu; Zegeye, Robel Tezera

    2018-01-01

    In resource limited settings, HIV/AIDS patients lack access to sufficient nutritious foods, which poses challenges to the success of antiretroviral therapy. HIV/AIDS and malnutrition are still major public health problems in Ethiopia. Though measuring nutritional status is an essential part of ART program, little evidence exists on food insecurity and nutritional status of HIV/AIDS patients in Ethiopia. Hence, the study aimed to determine food insecurity and nutritional status and contextual determinants of malnutrition among HIV/AIDS patients in West Shewa Zone, Ethiopia. Institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted among HIV/ADIS patients who have been attending antiretroviral therapy at public health facilities in West Shewa Zone from April to May 2016, Ethiopia. The sample size was 512 and study participants were selected from each facilities using systematic random sampling method. Data were collected using pretested questionnaire by trained data collectors. Data were entered to Epi-Info 3.5.1 for Windows and analyzed using SPSS version 22. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine independent factors associated with malnutrition. Prevalence of malnutrition was 23.6% (95% CI: 19.7%-27.4%) and prevalence of household food insecurity was 35.2% (95% CI: 31.1%-39.0%). Factors significantly associated with malnutrition among HIV/AIDS patients were unemployment (AOR = 3.4; 95% CI: 1.8-5.3), WHO clinical stages III/IV (AOR = 3.3; 95% CI: 1.8-6.5), CD4 count less than 350 cells/ μ l (AOR = 2.0; 95% CI: 1.8-4.2), tuberculosis (AOR = 2.3; 95% CI: 1.3-4.9), duration on antiretroviral therapy (AOR = 1.8; 95% CI: 1.2-2.9), and household food insecurity (AOR = 5.3; 95% CI: 2.5-8.3). The findings revealed high prevalence of malnutrition and household food insecurity among HIV/AIDS patients attended ART. The negative interactive effects of undernutrition, inadequate food consumption, and HIV infection demand effective cross-sectorial integrated

  7. Factors That Influences Students Academic Performance: A Case of Rift Valley University, Jimma, Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akessa, Geremew Muleta; Dhufera, Abdissa Gurmesa

    2015-01-01

    University is one of the places where a systematically organized and scientifically oriented education is offered. It is through such an organized manner that the knowledge, skill and desired attitude of the learner develop, but in a given class it is sometimes seen that there is a difference in achievement as a result of different factors that…

  8. Exposure to DDT and its metabolites from khat (Catha edulis) chewing: Consumers risk assessment from southwestern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Mekonen, Seblework; Ambelu, Argaw; Negassa, Belay; Spanoghe, Pieter

    2017-07-01

    Khat (Catha edulis) is one of the most consumed plant in the horn of African countries. However, it is a stimulant plant that has several side effects on the health of consumers. On top of that, the khat leaves used for human consumption are often contain contaminants such as pesticide residues. The present study aims to investigate the level of DDT residue and its metabolites (p'p-DDE, p'p-DDD, o'p-DDT and p'p-DDT) in khat samples and to undertake exposure assessment to consumers. The khat samples were collected from local markets in southwestern Ethiopia. Consumption survey was undertaken using 24 h recall method for both male and female khat consumers. The finding showed that 80% of the khat samples contained DDT and its metabolites. Some of the residues were above the maximum residue limit (MRL) set by Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO). The concentration of p'p-DDE and p'p-DDT in khat were in the range of 0.033-0.113 and 0.010-0.026 mg/kg, respectively. High concentration of the metabolite (p'p-DDE) compared to the parent compound (p'p-DDT) revealed the historical use of DDT in the study area. Probabilistic exposure analysis indicated that the mean and 97.5 percentile (P97.5), of the estimated daily intake of total DDT were 0.002 and 0.006 mg/kg bw/day, respectively. The study concluded that khat consumers are exposed to the stimulant effect of the plant as well as DDT and its metabolites in Jimma zone. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Magnitude and factors associated with institutional delivery service utilization among childbearing mothers in Cheha district, Gurage zone, SNNPR, Ethiopia: a community based cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Habte, Feleke; Demissie, Meaza

    2015-11-17

    Ethiopia is one of the six countries that contributes' to more than 50 % of worldwide maternal deaths. While it is revealed that delivery attended by skilled provider at health facility reduced maternal deaths, more than half of all births in Ethiopia takes place at home. According to EDHS 2011 report nine women in every ten deliver at home in Ethiopia. The situation is much worse in southern region. The aim of our study is to measure the prevalence and to identify factors associated with institutional delivery service utilization among childbearing mothers in Cheha District, SNNPR, Ethiopia. A community based cross sectional survey was conducted in Cheha District from Dec 22, 2012 to Jan 11, 2013. Multistage sampling method was employed and 816 women who gave birth within the past 2 years and lived in Cheha district for minimum of one year prior to the survey were involved in the study. Data was entered and analyzed using Epi Info Version 7 and SPSS Version 16. Frequencies and binary logistic regression were done. Factors affecting institutional delivery were determined using multivariate logistic regression. A total of 31 % of women gave birth to their last child at health facility. Place of residence, ability to afford for the whole process to get delivery service at health facility, traveling time that takes to reach to health institution which provides delivery service, husband's attitude towards institutional delivery, counseling about where to deliver during ANC visit and place of birth of the 2(nd) youngest child were found to have statistically significant association with institutional delivery. Institutional delivery is low in the study area. Access to health service was found to be the most important predictor of institutional delivery among others. Accessing health facility within reasonable travel time; providing health education and BCC services to husbands and the community at large on importance of using health institution for delivery service

  10. Malaria and water resource development: the case of Gilgel-Gibe hydroelectric dam in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Yewhalaw, Delenasaw; Legesse, Worku; Van Bortel, Wim; Gebre-Selassie, Solomon; Kloos, Helmut; Duchateau, Luc; Speybroeck, Niko

    2009-01-29

    Ethiopia plans to increase its electricity power supply by five-fold over the next five years to fulfill the needs of its people and support the economic growth based on large hydropower dams. Building large dams for hydropower generation may increase the transmission of malaria since they transform ecosystems and create new vector breeding habitats. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of Gilgel-Gibe hydroelectric dam in Ethiopia on malaria transmission and changing levels of prevalence in children. A cross-sectional, community-based study was carried out between October and December 2005 in Jimma Zone, south-western Ethiopia, among children under 10 years of age living in three 'at-risk' villages (within 3 km from dam) and three 'control' villages (5 to 8 km from dam). The man-made Gilgel-Gibe dam is operating since 2004. Households with children less than 10 years of age were selected and children from the selected households were sampled from all the six villages. This included 1,081 children from 'at-risk' villages and 774 children from 'control' villages. Blood samples collected from children using finger prick were examined microscopically to determine malaria prevalence, density of parasitaemia and identify malarial parasite species. Overall 1,855 children (905 girls and 950 boys) were surveyed. A total of 194 (10.5%) children were positive for malaria, of which, 117 (60.3%) for Plasmodium vivax, 76 (39.2%) for Plasmodium falciparum and one (0.5%) for both P. vivax and P. falciparum. A multivariate design-based analysis indicated that, while controlling for age, sex and time of data collection, children who resided in 'at-risk' villages close to the dam were more likely to have P. vivax infection than children who resided farther away (odds ratio (OR) = 1.63, 95% CI = 1.15, 2.32) and showed a higher OR to have P. falciparum infection than children who resided in 'control' villages, but this was not significant (OR = 2.40, 95% CI = 0.84, 6.88). A

  11. Malaria and water resource development: the case of Gilgel-Gibe hydroelectric dam in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Yewhalaw, Delenasaw; Legesse, Worku; Van Bortel, Wim; Gebre-Selassie, Solomon; Kloos, Helmut; Duchateau, Luc; Speybroeck, Niko

    2009-01-01

    Background Ethiopia plans to increase its electricity power supply by five-fold over the next five years to fulfill the needs of its people and support the economic growth based on large hydropower dams. Building large dams for hydropower generation may increase the transmission of malaria since they transform ecosystems and create new vector breeding habitats. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of Gilgel-Gibe hydroelectric dam in Ethiopia on malaria transmission and changing levels of prevalence in children. Methods A cross-sectional, community-based study was carried out between October and December 2005 in Jimma Zone, south-western Ethiopia, among children under 10 years of age living in three 'at-risk' villages (within 3 km from dam) and three 'control' villages (5 to 8 km from dam). The man-made Gilgel-Gibe dam is operating since 2004. Households with children less than 10 years of age were selected and children from the selected households were sampled from all the six villages. This included 1,081 children from 'at-risk' villages and 774 children from 'control' villages. Blood samples collected from children using finger prick were examined microscopically to determine malaria prevalence, density of parasitaemia and identify malarial parasite species. Results Overall 1,855 children (905 girls and 950 boys) were surveyed. A total of 194 (10.5%) children were positive for malaria, of which, 117 (60.3%) for Plasmodium vivax, 76 (39.2%) for Plasmodium falciparum and one (0.5%) for both P. vivax and P. falciparum. A multivariate design-based analysis indicated that, while controlling for age, sex and time of data collection, children who resided in 'at-risk' villages close to the dam were more likely to have P. vivax infection than children who resided farther away (odds ratio (OR) = 1.63, 95% CI = 1.15, 2.32) and showed a higher OR to have P. falciparum infection than children who resided in 'control' villages, but this was not significant (OR = 2

  12. The Current Status and Factors Associated With Implanon Service Provision by the Health Extension Workers at the Health Post Level, Wolaita Zone, Southern Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Desalegn, Ketsela; Loha, Eskindir; Meskele, Mengistu

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Family Planning is often taken as one of the “Magic Bullet” interventions owing to its high impact and wide reaching nature in achieving multiple goals. This study aimed to assess the current status and the factors associated with health post level Implanon service provision through trained health extension workers in Wolaita zone, southern Ethiopia. Materials and methods: A cross sectional study was conducted among trained health extension workers in Wolaita zone in February 2013. A simple random sampling technique was used to identify a total of 285 trained HEWs. First bivariate, then multivariate logistic regression model along with 95% confidence interval was used to see the independent effect of factors associated with current Implanon service provision by the health extension workers. Results: Currently, the number of Implaon providing trained health extension workers in Wolaita was 264(45.8%). Distance of health post from district health offices and health center, turnover of trained health extension workers in the health post, interest of trained health extension workers in providing Implanon and their job satisfaction to serve as a health extension workers and availability of service delivery guidelines and teaching aids were associated with the current provision of Implanon by health extension workers. Conclusion: Implanon provision among trained health extension workers was affected by different factors. Hence, improving the working conditions of trained health extension workers, regular and periodic facilitative supervision, availing service delivery guidelines and improvement of health management information system are recommended. PMID:29114263

  13. Participatory study of medicinal plants used in the control of gastrointestinal parasites in donkeys in Eastern Shewa and Arsi zones of Oromia region, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Scantlebury, Claire E; Peachey, Laura; Hodgkinson, Jane; Matthews, Jacqui B; Trawford, Andrew; Mulugeta, Getachew; Tefera, Gebre; Pinchbeck, Gina L

    2013-09-11

    Gastrointestinal nematode infections constitute a threat to the health and welfare of donkeys worldwide. Their primary means of control is via anthelmintic treatments; however, use of these drugs has constraints in developing countries, including cost, limited availability, access to cheaper generic forms of variable quality and potential anthelmintic resistance. As an alternative, bioactive plants have been proposed as an option to treat and control gastrointestinal helminths in donkeys. This study aimed to use participatory methodology to explore donkey owner knowledge, attitudes and beliefs relating to the use of plant-based treatments for gastrointestinal parasites of donkeys in Ethiopia. In focus groups, 22/29 groups stated they knew of plants used for the treatment of gastrointestinal parasites in donkeys. All groups volunteered plants that were used in cattle and/or small ruminants. In total, 21 plants were named by participants. 'Koso' (Hagenia abyssinica) 'Grawa' (Vernonia amygdalina) and a mixed roots and leaves preparation were the most frequently named plant preparations. 'Enkoko' (Embelia shimperi) and 'a mixture of roots and leaves' were ranked highly for effectiveness in donkeys. However, 'Grawa' and 'Koso' were the highest ranked when taking into account both the rank position and the number of groups ranking the plant.Thematic analysis of participants' current attitudes and beliefs surrounding traditional plant-based remedies for gastrointestinal parasites revealed that anthelmintics obtained from clinics were generally favoured due to their ease of administration and perceived higher effectiveness. There was doubt surrounding the effectiveness of some plant-based treatments, but there were also perceived advantages including their low cost, ease of cultivation and availability. However, plant-based treatments were considered a "past trend" and people favoured "modern" medicine, particularly among the younger generation. There was extensive

  14. Participatory study of medicinal plants used in the control of gastrointestinal parasites in donkeys in Eastern Shewa and Arsi zones of Oromia region, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Gastrointestinal nematode infections constitute a threat to the health and welfare of donkeys worldwide. Their primary means of control is via anthelmintic treatments; however, use of these drugs has constraints in developing countries, including cost, limited availability, access to cheaper generic forms of variable quality and potential anthelmintic resistance. As an alternative, bioactive plants have been proposed as an option to treat and control gastrointestinal helminths in donkeys. This study aimed to use participatory methodology to explore donkey owner knowledge, attitudes and beliefs relating to the use of plant-based treatments for gastrointestinal parasites of donkeys in Ethiopia. Results In focus groups, 22/29 groups stated they knew of plants used for the treatment of gastrointestinal parasites in donkeys. All groups volunteered plants that were used in cattle and/or small ruminants. In total, 21 plants were named by participants. ‘Koso’ (Hagenia abyssinica) ‘Grawa’ (Vernonia amygdalina) and a mixed roots and leaves preparation were the most frequently named plant preparations. ‘Enkoko’ (Embelia shimperi) and ‘a mixture of roots and leaves’ were ranked highly for effectiveness in donkeys. However, ‘Grawa’ and ‘Koso’ were the highest ranked when taking into account both the rank position and the number of groups ranking the plant. Thematic analysis of participants’ current attitudes and beliefs surrounding traditional plant-based remedies for gastrointestinal parasites revealed that anthelmintics obtained from clinics were generally favoured due to their ease of administration and perceived higher effectiveness. There was doubt surrounding the effectiveness of some plant-based treatments, but there were also perceived advantages including their low cost, ease of cultivation and availability. However, plant-based treatments were considered a “past trend” and people favoured “modern” medicine, particularly

  15. Factors associated with minimal meal frequency and dietary diversity practices among infants and young children in the predominantly agrarian society of Bale zone, Southeast Ethiopia: a community based cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Tegegne, Mekonnen; Sileshi, Semere; Benti, Tomas; Teshome, Mulusew; Woldie, Haile

    2017-01-01

    Poor infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices in the first 2 years of age are among major causes of childhood malnutrition, in developing countries including Ethiopia. It results in irreversible outcomes of stunting, poor cognitive development, and significantly increases risks of many chronic and infectious diseases. This study was intended to assess factors associated with minimum meal frequency and minimum dietary diversity practice among children aged 6-23 months in the predominantly agrarian society of Bale zone, Southeast Ethiopia. A community based cross sectional study was employed from January to June 2016. An interviewer administered, pretested and structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Multi-stage sampling followed by a systematic random sampling technique was used to include study subjects. Data was entered using Epi info version 3.5.3 and analyzed by SPSS version 20. In the logistic regression, both bivariate and multivariate analyses were carried out to identify factors associated with minimum meal frequency and minimum dietary diversity scores. All variables with P -values of <0.2 in the bivariate were earmarked for the multivariate analysis. Both Crude Odds Ratio (COR) and Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) were computed at 95% Confidence Interval (CI) to determine the strength of associations. In the multivariate analysis, variables at P-Values of <0.05 were considered as statistically significant with minimum meal frequency and dietary diversity practice. A total of 801 infants and young children aged 6-23 months and their mothers participated in the study. The overall prevalence of minimum meal frequency and minimum dietary diversity practice was 68.4% [95% CI: 0.652, 0.716] and 28.5% [95% CI: 0.254, 0.316], respectively. Child age (AOR = 0.29; 95% CI: 0.28, 0.94) and parity of mother (AOR = 2.8; 95% CI: 1.11, 7.50) were independently associated with minimal meal frequency. On the other hand, mothers educational level (AOR = 0

  16. Iron deficiency was not the major cause of anemia in rural women of reproductive age in Sidama zone, southern Ethiopia: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Gebreegziabher, Tafere; Stoecker, Barbara J.

    2017-01-01

    Background Anemia, which has many etiologies, is a moderate/severe public health problem in young children and women of reproductive age in many developing countries. The aim of this study was to investigate prevalence of iron deficiency, anemia, and iron deficiency anemia using multiple biomarkers and to evaluate their association with food insecurity and food consumption patterns in non-pregnant women from a rural area of southern Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in 202 rural women of reproductive age in southern Ethiopia. Anthropometrics and socio-demographic data were collected. A venipuncture blood sample was analyzed for hemoglobin (Hb) and for biomarkers of iron status. Biomarkers were skewed and were log transformed before analysis. Mean, median, Pearson’s correlations and ordinary least-squares regressions were calculated. Results Median (IQR) Hb was 138 (127, 151) g/L. Based on an altitude-adjusted (1708 m) cutoff of 125 g/L for Hb, 21.3% were anemic. Plasma ferritin was <15 μg/L in 18.6% of the women. Only one woman had α-1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) >1.0 g/L; four women (2%) had > 5 mg/L of C-reactive protein (CRP). Of the 43 women who were anemic, 23.3% (10 women) had depleted iron stores based on plasma ferritin. Three of these had elevated soluble transferrin receptors (sTfR). Hemoglobin (Hb) concentration was negatively correlated with sTfR (r = -0.24, p = 0.001), and positively correlated with ferritin (r = 0.17, p = 0.018), plasma iron (r = 0.15, p = 0.046), transferrin saturation (TfS) (r = 0.15, p = 0.04) and body iron (r = 0.14, p = 0.05). Overall prevalence of iron deficiency anemia was only 5%. Conclusion Iron deficiency anemia was not prevalent in the study population, despite the fact that anemia would be classified as a moderate public health problem. PMID:28898272

  17. Iron deficiency was not the major cause of anemia in rural women of reproductive age in Sidama zone, southern Ethiopia: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Gebreegziabher, Tafere; Stoecker, Barbara J

    2017-01-01

    Anemia, which has many etiologies, is a moderate/severe public health problem in young children and women of reproductive age in many developing countries. The aim of this study was to investigate prevalence of iron deficiency, anemia, and iron deficiency anemia using multiple biomarkers and to evaluate their association with food insecurity and food consumption patterns in non-pregnant women from a rural area of southern Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 202 rural women of reproductive age in southern Ethiopia. Anthropometrics and socio-demographic data were collected. A venipuncture blood sample was analyzed for hemoglobin (Hb) and for biomarkers of iron status. Biomarkers were skewed and were log transformed before analysis. Mean, median, Pearson's correlations and ordinary least-squares regressions were calculated. Median (IQR) Hb was 138 (127, 151) g/L. Based on an altitude-adjusted (1708 m) cutoff of 125 g/L for Hb, 21.3% were anemic. Plasma ferritin was <15 μg/L in 18.6% of the women. Only one woman had α-1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) >1.0 g/L; four women (2%) had > 5 mg/L of C-reactive protein (CRP). Of the 43 women who were anemic, 23.3% (10 women) had depleted iron stores based on plasma ferritin. Three of these had elevated soluble transferrin receptors (sTfR). Hemoglobin (Hb) concentration was negatively correlated with sTfR (r = -0.24, p = 0.001), and positively correlated with ferritin (r = 0.17, p = 0.018), plasma iron (r = 0.15, p = 0.046), transferrin saturation (TfS) (r = 0.15, p = 0.04) and body iron (r = 0.14, p = 0.05). Overall prevalence of iron deficiency anemia was only 5%. Iron deficiency anemia was not prevalent in the study population, despite the fact that anemia would be classified as a moderate public health problem.

  18. Assessment of Child Immunization Coverage and Associated Factors with Full Vaccination among Children Aged 12–23 Months at Mizan Aman Town, Bench Maji Zone, Southwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Geremew, Mesfin; Birhanu, Frehiwot

    2017-01-01

    Immunization remains one of the most important and cost-effective public health interventions to reduce child mortality and morbidity. Globally, it is estimated to avert between 2 and 3 million deaths each year. In Ethiopia, immunization coverage rates stagnated and remained very low for many years. Thus, this study was aimed to assess child immunization coverage and factors associated with full vaccination among children aged 12–23 months in Mizan Aman town. The study design was community-based cross-sectional survey. Data was collected by using pretested structured questionnaire. A total of 322 mothers/caretakers were interviewed. Based on vaccination card and mothers/caretakers' recall, 295 (91.6%) of the children took at least a single dose of vaccine. From total children, 27 (8.4%) were not immunized at all, 159 (49.4%) were partially immunized, and 136 (42.2%) were fully immunized. Mothers/caretakers educational level, fathers' educational level, place of delivery, maternal health care utilization, and mothers/caretakers knowledge about vaccine and vaccine-preventable disease showed significant association with full child immunization. The finding from this study revealed that child immunization coverage in the studied area was low. Thus the town health office and concerned stakeholders need to work more to improve performance of the expanded program on immunization in this area. PMID:29434643

  19. Determinant of Implanon Discontinuation among Women Who Ever Used Implanon in Diguna Fango District, Wolayita Zone, Southern Ethiopia: A Community Based Case Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Kondale, Mekides; Boti, Negussie; Oumer, Bilcha

    2017-01-01

    Background A significant number of women make Implanon their first choice of contraception. However, they discontinue their Implanon before its expiry date was high, but factors that contribute to discontinuing their Implanon were poorly described in Ethiopia. Methods A community based unmatched case control study was conducted. Then simple random sampling technique was used to select 340 women. Data was collected by nurses using face to face interview. Epi-Info version 7 and SPSS 20 software were used. Bivariate and multiple logistic regressions were performed with COR and AOR with 95% CI. Findings Having preinsertion counseling (AOR: 0.36, 95% CI: 0.20–0.64), having follow-up appointment (AOR: 0.35, 95% CI: 0.2–0.62), age at insertion <20 years (AOR: 3, 95% CI: 1.16–7.8), women who had no formal education (AOR: 2.8, 95% CI: 1.31–6.11), women who had ≤4 children (AOR: 1.8, 95% CI: 1.01–3.21), and women who had previous abortion history (AOR: 2.3, 95% CI: 1.10–4.63) were determinants of Implanon discontinuation. Conclusions Policy makers and concerned bodies should take into account future intervention and also great emphasis should be given to follow-up appointment and counseling services, especially counseling on side effects, and informed choice for clients after Implanon insertion. PMID:29234726

  20. Ethnobotanical study of wild edible plants of Kara and Kwego semi-pastoralist people in Lower Omo River Valley, Debub Omo Zone, SNNPR, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The rural populations in Ethiopia have a rich knowledge of wild edible plants and consumption of wild edible plants is still an integral part of the different cultures in the country. In the southern part of the country, wild edible plants are used as dietary supplements and a means of survival during times of food shortage. Therefore, the aim of this study is to document the wild edible plants gathered and consumed by Kara and Kwego people, and to analyze patterns of use between the two people. Methods A cross sectional ethnobotanical study of wild edible plant species was conducted from January 2005 to March 2007. About 10% of each people: 150 Kara and 56 Kwego were randomly selected to serve as informants. Data were collected using semi-structured questionnaire and group discussions. Analysis of variance (α = 0.05) was used to test the similarity of species richness of wild edible plants reported by Kara and Kwego people; Pearson's Chi-square test (α = 0.05) was used to test similarity of growth forms and plant parts of wild edible plants used between the two people. Results Thirty-eight wild plant species were reported as food sources that were gathered and consumed both at times of plenty and scarcity; three were unique to Kara, five to Kwego and 14 had similar local names. The plant species were distributed among 23 families and 33 genera. The species richness: families, genera and species (p > 0.05) were not significantly different between Kara and Kwego. Nineteen (50%) of the reported wild edible plants were trees, 11 (29%) were shrubs, six (16%) were herbs and two (5%) were climbers. Forty plant parts were indicated as edible: 23 (58.97%) fruits, 13 (33.33%) leaves, 3 (7.69%) roots and one (2.56%) seed. There was no difference between wild edible plants growth forms reported (Pearson's Chi-square test (d.f. = 3) = 0.872) and plant parts used (Pearson's Chi-square test (d.f. = 3) = 0.994) by Kara and Kwego people. The majority of wild edible

  1. Demand for long acting and permanent methods of contraceptives and factors for non-use among married women of Goba Town, Bale Zone, South East Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Takele, Abulie; Degu, Getu; Yitayal, Mezgebu

    2012-10-29

    Contraceptive use including short acting, long acting and permanent methods positively influence the socio-economic development of a nation by allowing families to space and limit their family size to their economic capacity. Demand for LAPMs of contraception as detrmined by utilization and unmet need for LAPMs of contraception can provide realiable information for providers. To determine the utilization of long acting and permanent contraception and its associated factors among married women of Goba town, South East Ethiopia. A cross sectional community based study was conducted among 734 systematically selected married women of reproductive age in Goba town in September/ 2009. A structured and pretested, interview questionaire was used to collect data on socio-demographic, behavioral factors and data related to demand for LAPMs of contraception. Data were analyzed using EPI INFO and SPSS version 16. The demand for Long Acting and Permanent Methods (LAPMs) of contraception was 18.1%. Utilization of LAPMs of contraception in the town was 64 (8.7%) and the unmet need for LAPMs was 69 (9.4%). Information on LAPMs in the town was 636 (86.6%). Media (radio and television) was the major sources of information 641 (87.3%). The use of LAPMs was significatly associated with ever use AOR[17.43, 95% CI:9.19, 33.03], number of times discussions made on methods AOR[4.6, 95% CI: 1.72,12.17] and main decider of using methods AOR[ 2.2, 95% CI:1.03, 4.65]. It was not associated with socio-demographic variables. The utilization of LAPMs in the town was less although higher than the Ethiopian demographic and health survey 2005 result. Moreover, there was a considerable unmet need. Increase the method mix of LAPMs by incorporating varaies of implnats in order to increase utilization. Proper counseling of client and partners discussion were some of the recommendation forwarded.

  2. Infant feeding practice and associated factors among HIV positive mothers in Debre Markos Referral Hospital East Gojam zone, North West Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Wakwoya, Elias Bekele; Zewudie, Tatek Abate; Gebresilasie, Kahsay Zenebe

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The dilemma posed between lifesaving benefit and risk of transmission through breast feeding complicates infant feedings among communities grossly affected by HIV/AIDS. According to the world health organization’s guideline which was revised in 2010, exclusive breast feeding and exclusive replacement feeding are the recommended infant feeding practices for HIV positive mothers. The aim of this study was to assess infant feeding practice and associated factors among HIV positive mothers in Debre Markos Referral Hospital, North West Ethiopia. Methods An institutional based cross sectional study was conducted from May to September 2013. A Randomly selected 260 HIV positive mothers were included. The data were collected by using a pretested and structured questionnaire. Bivariate and multivariate analysis were performed to check association and to control confounders. Results From a total of 260 HIV positive mothers, 85.8% of them were feeding their children based on the recommended feeding way of infant feeding practice with the remaining percentage 14.2% were practicing mixed feeding. In multivariate analysis mothers attending high school and above AOR = 5.3 [95% CI = 1.25-22.1], having antenatal care follow up AOR = 5.5 [95% CI = 1.5-20.16], being on anti-retro viral therapy AOR = 6.5 [95% CI = 1.88-22.51] and disclosure of HIV status AOR = 7.1 [95% CI = 1.26-39.76] were found to be independently associated with infant feeding practice. Conclusion This study revealed that large proportion of HIV positive mothers had followed the recommended infant feeding practice and significantly high number of mothers had practiced mixed feeding. Educating mothers, increasing ANC utilization, counseling mothers to start ART, encouraging and supporting mothers to disclose their HIV status were recommended. PMID:28154655

  3. Differentials of modern contraceptive methods use by food security status among married women of reproductive age in Wolaita Zone, South Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Feyisso, Mohammed; Belachew, Tefera; Tesfay, Amanuel; Addisu, Yohannes

    2015-01-01

    In spite of the massive spending and extensive family-planning promotion, many poor people in the third world remain reluctant to use modern contraceptive method. Mostly when they use modern contraceptives, their continuation rates are often low. Reproductive health can improve women's nutrition; in return better nutrition can improve reproductive health. Thus addressing the connection between nutrition and reproductive health is critical to ensure population growth that does not overwhelm world resources. A community based cross-sectional study was conducted from March 15-30, 2014 in Soddo Zuria Woreda, Southern Ethiopia. A total of 651 currently married women of reproductive age group were selected using multistage sampling. Probability proportional to the size allocation method was employed to determine the number of households. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess the association between family planning use and food security status after adjusting for other covariates. Use of modern contraceptive method was significantly low among food insecure women (29.7 %) compared to those who were food secure (52.0 %), (P < 0.001). Women from food secure households were nearly twice likely to use modern contraceptive methods (AOR: 1.69 (CI: 1.03, 2.66)). Similarly, those who had antenatal care (ANC) visit (AOR: 4.56 (CI: 2.45, 7.05)); exposure to media (AOR: 4.92 (CI: 1.84, 13.79)) and those who discussed about contraceptive methods with their partner (AOR: 3.07 (CI: 1.86, 5.22)) were more likely to use modern contraceptive methods. Conversely, women who delivered their last child at home were less likely to use modern contraceptive methods (AOR: 0.08 (CI: 0.03, 0.13)). Food insecurity is negatively associated with modern contraceptive method use. Thus food insecurity should be considered as one of the barriers in designing family planning services and needs special arrangement.

  4. Timely initiation of breastfeeding and associated factors among mothers in Motta town, East Gojjam zone, Amhara regional state, Ethiopia, 2015: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Tewabe, Tilahun

    2016-10-19

    Timely initiation of breastfeeding within one hour after birth and exclusive breastfeeding is recommended for the first six months of infant life along with continuation of breastfeeding up to two years. Timely initiation of breastfeeding has the potential to prevent 22 % of neonatal deaths. The objective of this study was to assess timely initiation of breastfeeding and associated factors among mothers who have infants less than six months of age in Motta town, East Gojjam, Amhara Regional State, Ethiopia. Community based quantitative cross-sectional study was conducted from April 7, 2015 to May 7, 2015. Simple random sampling technique was applied after taking all registered mothers who have infants less than 6 months old from local health extension workers of each kebele. A total of 423 mothers with infant less than six month old were included in this study. The data was collected from all four Kebeles using interviewer administered questionnaire. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to present the data. Both bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to identify factors associated with timely initiation breastfeeding. Prevalence of timely initiation of breastfeeding was78.8 % [95 % CL: 74.88 %, 82.72 %]. Mothers who gave birth to their infant in a health institution [AOR = 3.486(1.253, 9.700)], birthed vaginally [AOR = 5.722(3.134, 11.246)] and didn't give prelacteal food [AOR = 4.627(2.095, 10.220)] were more likely to initiate breastfeeding early than their counterparts. Prevalence of timely initiation of breastfeeding in the study area was 78.8 %. Place of delivery, mode of delivery and prelactal feeding were the independent predictors of timely initiation of breastfeeding. Recommendations to increase timely initiation of breastfeeding were: encouraging mothers to deliver their child in a health institution, minimizing caesarean delivery as much as possible and educating mothers and community as a whole

  5. HIV preventive behavior and associated factors among mining workers in Sali traditional gold mining site Bench Maji zone, Southwest Ethiopia: a cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Abdissa, Hordofa Gutema; Lemu, Yohannes Kebede; Nigussie, Dejene Tilahun

    2014-09-26

    Prevalence of HIV and other STI is high among migrant mining workers due to factors such as dangerous working conditions, only masculine identities existence, living away from families, desolate and in hospitable place. This makes them known to be HIV and STI vulnerable group in different part of the world. But, in Ethiopia they were not thought as at risk group yet. So the aim of this study is to assess magnitude of HIV preventive behaviours and associated factors among gold miners in Sali traditional gold mining site. A cross sectional study was conducted to assess HIV preventive behavior of the mining worker. The data were collected using interviewer administered structured questionnaire adapted from other related behavioural studies. The data was entered using EPI data version 3.1 and analyzed using SPSS version 17. Multiple logistic regression was used to assess relationship of HIV preventive behavior with constructs of health belief model. A total of 393 respondents with response rate of 93.12% were participated. All of the study participants were male 393(100%), the mean age of the participant was 24.0 (± 5.13SD). Less than half of the respondents 187(47.6%) were engaged in HIV preventive behavior. Less than half (45.3%) of them have high perceived susceptibility to HIV/AIDS; majority (62.8%) of them has high perceived severity to HIV/AIDS. HIV preventive behavior is negatively associated with being in middle, higher and highest income [OR = 0.54, 95% CI: 0.21, 0.74], [OR = 0.40, 95% CI: 0.30, 0.98] and [OR = 0.39, 95% CI: 0.20, 0.77] respectively and positively associated with Completing secondary, tertiary school and self efficacy [OR = 2.66, 95% CI: 1.11, 6.41], [OR = 5.40, 95% CI: 1.54, 19] and [OR = 1.88, 95% CI: 1.18, 2.94] respectively. The HIV preventive behavior of the mining worker was low. Being engaged in sexual intercourse with one sexual partner is very low, Consistent condom use among these mining workers was low. Income, educational status

  6. Burden assessment of podoconiosis in Wayu Tuka woreda, east Wollega zone, western Ethiopia: a community-based cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Bekele, Kenate; Deribe, Kebede; Amberbir, Tsige; Tadele, Geleta; Samuel, Abdi

    2016-01-01

    Objective Podoconiosis is a neglected tropical disease characterised by a slowly progressive swelling of the foot and lower leg. It is prevalent among subsistence barefoot farmers who live and work in highland areas of the tropics. This study was conducted in Wayu Tuka ‘woreda’ (district), western Ethiopia to determine the prevalence of podoconiosis and assess factors associated with acute adenolymphangitis (ALA) episodes. Methods and analysis A two phase, community-based cross-sectional study was conducted between January and March 2015. First, all households in the district were surveyed to determine the prevalence of podoconiosis. This was followed by a second phase in which 366 people with podoconiosis from four randomly selected ‘kebeles’ (subdistricts) were assessed for clinical features of the disease, shoe-wearing habits, personal hygiene, social stigma and functional impairment. Data entered into Epi DATA were then exported to SPSS. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to identify factors associated with ALA. Results Prevalence of podoconiosis in the population was 3.05% (1197/39 256) (95% CI 2.9% to 3.2%). The prevalence was significantly higher among women than men (3.67% vs 2.4%). Most (92.2%) people with podoconiosis were in the economically active age group (15–64 years) in the first phase survey. Of participants in the second phase of the study, 43% had stage 2 disease and 38.1% had ‘moss’-like skin changes. On average, people with podoconiosis had 23.3 episodes of ALA/year and each person with podoconiosis lost 149.5 days of activity/year. Never walking barefoot and daily foot washing were both associated with decreased odds of ALA (AOR=0.23; 95% CI 0.06 to 0.80 and 0.09; 95% CI 0.01 to 0.75, respectively). Conclusions A relatively high prevalence of podoconiosis, frequent ALA episodes and considerable decreases in daily activities were identified in this district. Footwear use and daily foot hygiene were associated with

  7. Domestic violence and its predictors among married women in reproductive age in Fagitalekoma Woreda, Awi zone, Amhara regional state, North Western Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Violence against women is one of the most systematic and prevalent human rights abuses in the world. It is a form of discrimination and deeply rooted in power imbalances and structural inequality between women and men. Documenting the extent of the problem and associated factors is essential to develop public health interventions to tackle violence against women. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine magnitude of domestic violence and identify its predictors among married women in the reproductive age in north western Ethiopia. Methods Community-based cross-sectional study was conducted from February 15 to March 15, 2011 among 682 married women and 46 key informants. Systematic sampling technique was used to select respondents for the quantitative method. Purposive sampling was used to select in-depth interview key informants for and focus group discussants. Data were analyzed using SPSS window version 16.0. Binary logistic regression and multivariable logistic regression analysis were carried out to determine the prevalence and identify independent predictors of domestic violence against women. Statistical association was measured by adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Statistical significance was declared at P < 0.05. Result The prevalence of domestic violence was 78.0%. About 73.3%, 58.4% and 49.1% of women reported different forms of psychological, physical and sexual violence, respectively. Alcohol consumption by husband (AOR = 1.9, 95%CI = 1.3, 2.8), being pregnant (AOR = 2.1, 95% CI = 1.4, 3.4), decision making power (AOR = 2.3, 95% CI = 1.5, 3.4) and annual income (AOR = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.1, 3.3) were predictors of domestic violence. Conclusion The prevalence of domestic violence was very high as compared to other studies. Women’s husband alcohol consumption, decision making power annual household income and being pregnant are some of the predictors of domestic violence against

  8. Determinants of stunting among children aged 6-59 months at Kindo Didaye woreda, Wolaita Zone, Southern Ethiopia: Unmatched case control study

    PubMed Central

    Batiro, Bancha; Demissie, Tsegaye; Halala, Yoseph

    2017-01-01

    Background Stunting is a well-established risk marker of poor child development. Globally in 2017, 155 million children under 5 were estimated to be stunted. While different activities are being done to reduce the burden of stunted growth, the problem is overwhelming in Africa; it was increased by 24%. Therefore, identifying determinants of stunting among children aged 6–59 would help to set priorities for action and to the design of stunting reduction plan at a grassroots level. Methods The unmatched case-control study was conducted in randomly selected 8 rural kebeles of Kindo Didaye woreda, Ethiopia from February to April, 2016 to identify the determinants of stunting among children aged 6–59 months. The sampling frame was identified by enumeration of 6–59 months of age children in the entire households of the study area. From which 155 as cases and 310 as controls were chosen using anthropometric measurement based on the median of WHO 2006 reference population. The anthropometric data were analyzed by WHO Anthro 2010 software to generate Z-score values. Odds Ratio along with 95% confidence interval was estimated to identify determinants of stunting using the multivariable logistic regression. Results Drinking water from unsafe source (AOR = 7.06, 95% CI; 4.40–20.42),occasionally eating animal source food (AOR = 0.51, 95% CI; 0.02–0.68), ARI in the past two weeks (AOR = 3.04, (95% CI; 1.04–13.35), late initiation of breastfeeding after one hours after birth (AOR = 5.16, 95% CI; 2.24–15.90) and lack of vaccination (AOR = 6.38, 95% CI; 2.54–17.10)were significantly associated with stunting. Conclusions Factors like exposure to diarrhea disease, exposure to acute respiratory infection, late initiation of breast milk after child breath, squeeze out of 1st breast milk, lack of vaccination, animal source of food, and unsafe source of water for drinking could be used to set priorities for action and to the design of Kindo Didaye woreda plan for stunting

  9. Birth preparedness, complication readiness and other determinants of place of delivery among mothers in Goba District, Bale Zone, South East Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Belda, Semere Sileshi; Gebremariam, Mulugeta Betre

    2016-04-06

    Ethiopia is one of the countries with the highest maternal mortality ratio 676/100,000 LB and the lowest skilled delivery at birth (10%) in 2011. Skilled delivery care and provision of emergency obstetric care prevents many of these deaths. Despite implementation of birth preparedness and complication readiness packages to antenatal care users since 2007 in the study area, yet an overwhelming proportion of births take place at home. The effect of birth preparedness and complication readiness on place of delivery is not well known and studied in this context. A community based case control study preceded by initial census was conducted on a total of 358 sampled respondents (119 cases and 239 controls) who were selected using stratified two stage sampling technique. A pre-tested and standardized questionnaire with a face-to-face interview was used to collect the data, and then data was cleaned, coded and entered in to SPSS version-21 for analysis. Binary logistic regression models were run to identify predictors of place of delivery and Odds ratio with 95% CI was used to assess presence of associations at a 0.05 level of significance. The mean (± Standard Deviation) age of respondents was; 27.41(±5.8) and 28.84(±5.7) years for the cases and the controls respectively. Two third (67.1%) of the childbirths took place in the respondents house while only (32.9%) gave birth in health facilities. Great proportion (79.7%) of the cases and two third (34.0%) of the controls were well-prepared for birth and complication. Maternal education, religion, distance from health facility, knowledge of availability of ambulance transport and history of obstetric complication were significantly associated with place of delivery (P-value <0.01). Birth preparedness and complication readiness practice had an independent effect on place of delivery (AOR =2.55, 95% CI: 1.12, 5.84). The study identified better institutional delivery service utilization by mothers who were well-prepared for

  10. Perceived challenges and opportunities arising from integration of mental health into primary care: a cross-sectional survey of primary health care workers in south-west Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The WHO’s mental health Gap Action Programme seeks to narrow the treatment gap for mental disorders by advocating integration of mental health into primary health care (PHC). This study aimed to assess the challenges and opportunities of this approach from the perspective of PHC workers in a sub-Saharan African country. Methods A facility-based cross-sectional survey of 151 PHC workers was conducted from 1st to 30th November 2011 in Jimma zone, south-west Ethiopia. A structured questionnaire was used to ask about past training and mental health experience, knowledge and attitudes towards mental disorders and provision of mental health care in PHC. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with 12 heads of health facilities for more in-depth understanding. Results Almost all PHC workers (96.0%) reported that mental health care was important in Ethiopia and the majority (66.9%) expressed interest in actually delivering mental health care. Higher levels of general health training (degree vs. diploma) and pre-service clinical exposure to mental health care were associated with more favourable attitudes. Knowledge about mental disorder diagnoses, symptoms and treatments was low. Almost half (45.0%) of PHC workers reported that supernatural factors were important causes of mental disorders. Health system and structural issues, such as poor medication supply, lack of rooms, time constraints, absence of specialist supervision and lack of treatment guidelines, were identified as challenges. Almost all PHC workers (96.7%) reported a need for more training, including a clinical attachment, in order to be able to deliver mental health care competently. Conclusions Despite acceptability to PHC workers, the feasibility of integrating mental health into PHC in this sub-Saharan African setting is limited by important gaps in PHC worker knowledge and expectations regarding mental health care, coupled with health system constraints. In addition to clinically

  11. Access to integrated community case management of childhood illnesses services in rural Ethiopia: a qualitative study of the perspectives and experiences of caregivers.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Bryan; Amouzou, Agbessi; Miller, Nathan P; Tafesse, Mengistu; Bryce, Jennifer; Surkan, Pamela J

    2016-06-01

    In 2010, Ethiopia began scaling up the integrated community case management (iCCM) of childhood illness strategy throughout the country allowing health extension workers (HEWs) to treat children in rural health posts. After 2 years of iCCM scale up, utilization of HEWs remains low. Little is known about factors related to the use of health services in this setting. This research aimed to elicit perceptions and experiences of caregivers to better understand reasons for low utilization of iCCM services. A rapid ethnographic assessment was conducted in eight rural health post catchment areas in two zones: Jimma and West Hararghe. In total, 16 focus group discussions and 78 in-depth interviews were completed with mothers, fathers, HEWs and community health volunteers. In spite of the HEW being a core component of iCCM, we found that the lack of availability of HEWs at the health post was one of the most common barriers to the utilization of iCCM services mentioned by caregivers. Financial and geographic challenges continue to influence caregiver decisions despite extension of free child health services in communities. Acceptability of HEWs was often low due to a perceived lack of sensitivity of HEWs and concerns about medicines given at the health post. Social networks acted both to facilitate and hinder use of HEWs. Many mothers stated a preference for using the health post, but some were unable to do so due to objections or alternative care-seeking preferences of gatekeepers, often mothers-in-law and husbands. Caregivers in Ethiopia face many challenges in using HEWs at the health post, potentially resulting in low demand for iCCM services. Efforts to minimize barriers to care seeking and to improve demand should be incorporated into the iCCM strategy in order to achieve reductions in child mortality and promote equity in access and child health outcomes. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and

  12. Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency Genetic Variants in Malaria Patients in Southwestern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Carter, Tamar E; Mekonnen, Seleshi Kebede; Lopez, Karen; Bonnell, Victoria; Damodaran, Lambodhar; Aseffa, Abraham; Janies, Daniel A

    2018-01-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is an X-linked erythrocyte enzyme disorder with relevance to malaria treatment policy. Treatment with the antimalarial primaquine can result in hemolytic anemia in G6PD-deficient patients. With increased interest in primaquine use, it is important to identify G6PD variants in Ethiopia to inform malaria treatment policy. In the present study, mutations in the G6PD gene are identified in a sample of patients with malaria in Jimma town in southwest Ethiopia. Plasmodium species of infection were confirmed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and gel electrophoresis. PCR and Sanger sequencing were performed to observe a portion of the G6PD gene where the common G6PD mutations (A376G, G202A, and C563T) are found. Molecular analysis revealed that most of the samples were single Plasmodium vivax infections (83.7%). For G6PD genotyping, A376G was detected in 23.26% of individuals, whereas G202A and C563T were absent. Three other uncommon mutations were identified: rs782669677 (535G→A), rs370658483, (485 + 37 G→T), and a new mutation at chrX:154535443(C→T). Bioinformatic analysis of these mutations' potential functional impact suggests minimal effect on protein function. The discovery of both common and uncommon G6PD mutations contributes to the discussion on G6PD deficiency and appropriate primaquine treatment in Ethiopia.

  13. The prevalence of malnutrition and its associated risk factors among women of reproductive age in Ziway Dugda district, Arsi Zone, Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Ferede, Abebe; Lemessa, Firaol; Tafa, Mesfin; Sisay, Solomon

    2017-11-01

    Adequate nutrition is an important factor to determine the health and well-being of women, children and society as a whole. Although various nutritional policies were formulated and aimed at reducing malnutrition at the global level, the magnitude of malnutrition (body mass index [BMI] <18.5 kg/m 2 ) among women remained between 10% and 40% in most low- and middle-income countries. We aimed to determine the prevalence of malnutrition and to identify the associated risk factors among women of reproductive age. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Ziway Dugda district in Ethiopia among 430 women of reproductive age between September 20 and November 21, 2015. A systematic sampling method was used to select the study participants. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression were used to determine the prevalence of malnutrition and to identify associated independent risk factors such as women's age, housing conditions, drinking water sources, habits of hand washing, dietary intake and food insecurity. The mean values of weight, height and BMI of the study participants were 51 kg, 157 cm and 18.1 kg/m 2 , respectively. Prevalence of malnutrition (BMI <18.5 kg/m 2 ) among women of reproductive age was found to be 48.6%. Being in the age group of 26-35 years (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.50, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.26-0.84), thatched housing conditions (AOR = 1.83, 95% CI = 1.16-2.89), unprotected sources of drinking water (AOR = 1.65, 95% CI = 1.06-2.57), lack of habit of hand wash after using the toilet (AOR = 1.62, 95% CI = 1.06-2.47), consumption of fish (AOR = 2.12, 95% CI = 1.12-3.99), consumption of dairy products (AOR = 2.40, 95% CI = 1.42-4.03) and food insecurity (AOR = 2.44, 95% CI = 1.50-3.95) were considered as independent predictors of risk for having malnutrition among women of the same age group compared to women from food secured households. A high prevalence of malnutrition (48.6%) was observed among

  14. Spatiotemporal variability of drinking water quality and the associated health risks in southwestern towns of Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Sisay, Tadesse; Beyene, Abebe; Alemayehu, Esayas

    2017-10-18

    The failure to provide safe drinking water services to all people is the greatest development setback of the twenty-first century including Ethiopia. Potential pollutants from various sources are deteriorating drinking water quality in different seasons, and associated health risks were not clearly known. We determined seasonal and spatial variations of urban drinking water characteristics and associated health risks in Agaro, Jimma, and Metu towns, Southwest Ethiopia. Seventy-two samples were collected during dry and rainy seasons of 2014 and 2015. The majority (87.4%) of physicochemical parameters was found within the recommended limits. However, free residual chlorine in Jimma and Agaro town water sources was lower than the recommended limit and negatively correlated with total and fecal coliform counts (r = - 0.585 and - 0.638). Statistically significant differences were observed at pH, turbidity, and total coliform between dry and rainy seasons (p < 0.05). A Kruskal-Wallis H test revealed a statistically significant difference in electrical conductivity, total hardness, fluoride, iron, and fecal coliform across the study towns (p < 0.05). The Agaro town water source was the highest in fluoride concentration (3.15 mg/l). The daily exposure level for high fluoride concentration in Agaro town was estimated between 0.19 and 0.41 mg/kg day, and the average cumulative hazard index of fluoride was > 3.13 for all age groups. Water quality variations were observed in all conventional water treatment systems in the rainy season, and further research should focus on its optimization to safeguard the public.

  15. Perception of primary school teachers to school children's mental health problems in Southwest Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Kerebih, Habtamu; Abrha, Hailay; Frank, Reiner; Abera, Mubarek

    2016-11-12

    Teachers perception of child mental health problems and their attitude to school-based mental health services helps in designing early intervention strategies aimed at promoting the service. However, little is known in this regard among primary school teachers in Ethiopia. Therefore, this study assessed perceptions and attitude of primary school teachers to child mental health problem and school-based mental health programs in Jimma town, southwest Ethiopia in 2013. A cross-sectional study design was implemented among 568 primary school teachers in Jimma town, from 1 to 30 October 2013. Perceptions and attitude of teachers to children with mental health problems and school mental health related information were assessed using a structured self- administered questionnaire. About 40% of teachers recognized the list of psychopathology items presented to them as child mental health problems while 54.4% of them rated child mental health problem as severe. Externalizing behaviors were perceived as the most severe problems. Teaching experience and teaching in public schools were significantly associated with the perception of severe type of child mental health problems. About 95% of teachers acknowledged that school-based mental health programs are important but limited availability was reported. Despite the high problem severity ratings, teachers' perception of the psychopathology as a mental health problem in children was low. There was also a favorable attitude on the importance and the need of school-based child mental health programs. Thus, creating mental health awareness for teachers and establishing school mental health services to intervene in child mental health problem is crucial.

  16. Youth services in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Meredith, P

    1990-12-01

    Departing from the usual family planning education format in teenage counseling, the IPPF is funding youth centers providing contraception as well as education in Ethiopia, Kenya, Togo, Tunisia, and Turkey. The development concern is for a cost efficient and effective center with minimal criticism. 2 experimental Mexican models were used in the Ethiopian youth centers. Both models utilize young adult coordinators who supervise young promoters, however each operates differently. Mexican staff trained their African counterparts and a detailed project manual will be available soon. The Ethiopian youth centers utilizing NGO's and the private sector have been permitted freedom from central control. Alarming statistics include: 20.8% of pregnancies are teenaged; 20.8% of hospital reported abortions are teenaged; the contraceptive prevalence rate is 2%; population increased by 3% per year with the average children per woman of 7.5. Addis Ababa's youth project provides services to mostly zone 5 school aged adolescents who are informed and eager to purchase condoms, although they are not able to purchase them commercially. Revolutionary Ethiopian Youth Association (REYA) with its 200,000 membership, is increasing its contribution to expanding the network of promoters. Promoters are used to register those receiving free condoms, but the recommendation to cease this practice of registration is in, and replace it with the sale of 50 US cents per condom.

  17. The epidemiology of schistosomiasis mansoni and soil-transmitted helminths in elementary school children from the South Gondar Zone of the Amhara National Regional State, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Jemaneh, L

    2000-04-01

    In a cross-sectional survey undertaken in 22 communities of 6 districts in the South Gondar Zone of the Amhara National Regional State, 2279 school children had their stools examined for schistosomiasis mansoni and soil-transmitted helminths using the Kato-Katz technique. Overall the prevalence rates were 16.4%, 28.9%, 9.5% and 12.9% for S. mansoni, A. lumbricoides, T. trichiura and the hookworms, respectively. S. mansoni infection was registered from 14 of the 22 communities, in more than 60% of which the prevalence was over 20%. Infection with A. lumbricoides was noted in 20 schools and except in three schools the prevalence was above 20%. T. trichiura infection was found in 19 of the 22 schools with prevalence rates from 1.7% to 20.0%. Infection due to the hookworms was recorded in 17 schools, in 40% of which the prevalence was 20% or more. Generally communities of the western districts of the zone had higher infection rates of schistosomiasis mansoni and soil-transmitted helminthiasis as compared to those in the eastern districts. The presence of S. mansoni foci in 9 communities is reported for the first time. In general neither sex nor age were related to prevalence or intensity of infection. Forty nine percent of the examined children had one or more types of helminths, of which 32.5%, 13.3% and 2.4% were single, double and triple infections, respectively. A. lumbricoides commonly occurred with the other helminths. Multiplicity of infection was not sex related. 14.6%, 28.4%, 8.3% and 12.1% of the children had moderate or heavy infections of schistosomiasis mansoni, ascariasis, trichuriasis and hookworms, respectively.

  18. Stunting Is Associated with Food Diversity while Wasting with Food Insecurity among Underfive Children in East and West Gojjam Zones of Amhara Region, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Motbainor, Achenef; Worku, Alemayehu; Kumie, Abera

    2015-01-01

    Food insecurity has detrimental effects in protecting child undernutrition.This study sought to determine the level of child undernutrition and its association with food insecurity. A community based comparative cross-sectional study design involving multistage sampling technique was implemented from 24th of May to 20th of July 2013. Using two population proportion formula, a total of 4110 randomly selected households were included in the study. Availability of the productive safety net programme was used for grouping the study areas. A multiple linear regression model was used to assess the association between food insecurity and child malnutrition. Clustering effects of localities were controlled during analysis. Stunting (37.5%), underweight (22.0%) and wasting (17.1%) were observed in East Gojjam zone, while 38.3% stunting, 22.5% underweight, and 18.6% wasting for the West Gojjam zone. Food insecurity was significantly associated with wasting (β = - 0.108, P < 0.05).Food diversity and number of meals the child ate per day significantly associated with stunting (β = 0.039, P < 0.01) and underweight (β = 0.035, P < 0.05) respectively. Residential area was the significant predictor of all indices. The magnitude of child undernutrition was found to be very high in the study areas. Food insecurity was the significant determinant of wasting. Food diversity and number of meals the child ate per day were the significant determinants of stunting and underweight respectively. Child nutrition intervention strategies should take into account food security, dietary diversity, and carefully specified with regard to residential locations. Addressing food insecurity is of paramount importance.

  19. Institutional Delivery Service Utilization among Women from Rural Districts of Wolaita and Dawro Zones, Southern Ethiopia; a Community Based Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Arba, Mihiretu Alemayehu; Darebo, Tadele Dana; Koyira, Mengistu Meskele

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The highest number of maternal deaths occur during labour, delivery and the first day after delivery highlighting the critical need for good quality care during this period. Therefore, for the strategies of institutional delivery to be effective, it is essential to understand the factors that influence individual and household factors to utilize skilled birth attendance and institutions for delivery. This study was aimed to assess factors affecting the utilization of institutional delivery service of women in rural districts of Wolaita and Dawro Zones. Methods A community based cross-sectional study was done among mothers who gave birth within the past one year preceding the survey in Wolaita and Dawro Zones, from February 01 –April 30, 2015 by using a three stage sampling technique. Initially, 6 districts were selected randomly from the total of 17 eligible districts. Then, 2 kebele from each district was selected randomly cumulating a total of 12 clusters. Finally, study participants were selected from each cluster by using systematic sampling technique. Accordingly, 957 mothers were included in the survey. Data was collected by using a pretested interviewer administered structured questionnaire. The questionnaire was prepared by including socio-demographic variables and variables of maternal health service utilization factors. Data was entered using Epi-data version 1.4.4.0 and exported to SPSS version 20 for analysis. Bivariate and multiple logistic regressions were applied to identify candidate and predictor variables respectively. Result Only 38% of study participants delivered the index child at health facility. Husband’s educational status, wealth index, average distance from nearest health facility, wanted pregnancy, agreement to follow post-natal care, problem faced during delivery, birth order, preference of health professional for ante-natal care and maternity care were predictors of institutional delivery. Conclusion The use of

  20. Institutional Delivery Service Utilization among Women from Rural Districts of Wolaita and Dawro Zones, Southern Ethiopia; a Community Based Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Arba, Mihiretu Alemayehu; Darebo, Tadele Dana; Koyira, Mengistu Meskele

    2016-01-01

    The highest number of maternal deaths occur during labour, delivery and the first day after delivery highlighting the critical need for good quality care during this period. Therefore, for the strategies of institutional delivery to be effective, it is essential to understand the factors that influence individual and household factors to utilize skilled birth attendance and institutions for delivery. This study was aimed to assess factors affecting the utilization of institutional delivery service of women in rural districts of Wolaita and Dawro Zones. A community based cross-sectional study was done among mothers who gave birth within the past one year preceding the survey in Wolaita and Dawro Zones, from February 01 -April 30, 2015 by using a three stage sampling technique. Initially, 6 districts were selected randomly from the total of 17 eligible districts. Then, 2 kebele from each district was selected randomly cumulating a total of 12 clusters. Finally, study participants were selected from each cluster by using systematic sampling technique. Accordingly, 957 mothers were included in the survey. Data was collected by using a pretested interviewer administered structured questionnaire. The questionnaire was prepared by including socio-demographic variables and variables of maternal health service utilization factors. Data was entered using Epi-data version 1.4.4.0 and exported to SPSS version 20 for analysis. Bivariate and multiple logistic regressions were applied to identify candidate and predictor variables respectively. Only 38% of study participants delivered the index child at health facility. Husband's educational status, wealth index, average distance from nearest health facility, wanted pregnancy, agreement to follow post-natal care, problem faced during delivery, birth order, preference of health professional for ante-natal care and maternity care were predictors of institutional delivery. The use of institutional delivery service is low in the study

  1. Perceived Psychological, Economic, and Social Impact of Khat Chewing among Adolescents and Adults in Nekemte Town, East Welega Zone, West Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Cheme, Melese Chego; Kibret, Kelemu Tilahun

    2017-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to assess psychological, economic, and social impact of khat chewing among adolescents, in Nekemte town, East Welega Zone. A community based cross-sectional study was conducted from March to June 2016 using both quantitative and qualitative methods of data collection. A total of 359 samples were included in the study. A pretested, interviewer based structured questionnaire was employed during data collection. The study found the current prevalence of khat chewing practices was 48.6%. Perceived psychological problems especially depression and anxiety were associated with khat chewing practices. The risk of depression was about 25 times higher among khat chewers compared to nonchewers. Similarly the risk of anxiety among khat chewers was about 5 times higher compared to nonchewers. Generally current khat chewing practices in the study area are relatively high. The occurrence of reported, perceived psychological problems mainly depression and anxiety was significantly higher among khat chewers compared to nonchewers. Thus efforts like creating awareness about negative effect, making different recreation methods available, and formulating common conventions regarding khat use mainly by young generations are necessary to decrease the magnitude of chewing practices and thereby its associated consequences. PMID:28265577

  2. Petrography and geochemistry of the primary ore zone of the Kenticha rare metal granite-pegmatite field, Adola Belt, Southern Ethiopia: Implications for ore genesis and tectonic setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammedyasin, Mohammed Seid; Desta, Zerihun; Getaneh, Worash

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this work is to evaluate the genesis and tectonic setting of the Kenticha rare metal granite-pegmatite deposit using petrography and whole-rock geochemical analysis. The samples were analysed for major elements, and trace and rare earth elements by ICP-AES and ICP-MS, respectively. The Kenticha rare metal granite-pegmatite deposit is controlled by the N-S deep-seated normal fault that allow the emplacement of the granite-pegmatite in the study area. Six main mineral assemblages have been identified: (a) alaskitic granite (quartz + microcline + albite with subordinate muscovite), (b) aplitic layer (quartz + albite), (c) muscovite-quartz-microcline-albite pegmatite, (d) spodumene-microcline-albite pegmatite, partly albitized or greisenized, (e) microcline-albite-green and pink spodumene pegmatite with quartz-microcline block, which is partly albitized and greisenized, and (f) quartz core. This mineralogical zonation is also accompanied by variation in Ta ore concentration and trace and rare earth elements content. The Kenticha granite-pegmatite is strongly differentiated with high SiO2 (72-84 wt %) and enriched with Rb (∼689 ppm), Be (∼196 ppm), Nb (∼129 ppm), Ta (∼92 ppm) and Cs (∼150 ppm) and depleted in Ba and Sr. The rare earth element (REE) patterns of the primary ore zone (below 60 m depth) shows moderate enrichment in light REE ((La/Yb)N = ∼8, and LREE/HREE = ∼9.96) and negative Eu-anomaly (Eu/Eu* = ∼0.4). The whole-rock geochemical data display the Within Plate Granite (WPG) and syn-Collisional Granite (syn-COLG) suites and interpret as its formation is crustal related melting. The mineralogical assemblage, tectonic setting and geochemical signatures implies that the Kenticha rare metal bearing granite pegmatite is formed by partial melting of metasedimentary rocks during post-Gondwana assembly and further tantalite enrichment through later hydrothermal-metasomatic processes.

  3. Predictors of oedema among children hospitalized with severe acute malnutrition in Jimma University Hospital, Ethiopia: a cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Girma, Tsinuel; Kæstel, Pernille; Mølgaard, Christian; Michaelsen, Kim F; Hother, Anne-Louise; Friis, Henrik

    2013-12-06

    Severe acute malnutrition has two main clinical manifestations, i.e., oedematous and non-oedematous. However, factors associated with oedema are not well established. Children 0.5-14 years of age with SAM (MUAC < 11.0 cm or weight-for-height < 70 % of median and/or nutritional oedema) admitted to the nutrition unit were included. Information on infections before and during admission was collected together with anthropometry. Predictors of oedema was analysed separately for younger (< 60 months) and older children (≥ 60 months). 351 children were recruited (median age: 36 months (interquartile range 24 to 60); 43.3% females). Oedema was detected in 61.1%. The prevalence of oedema increased with age, peaked at 37-59 months (75%) and declined thereafter. Infection was more common in the younger group (33% vs. 8.9%, p < 0.001) and in this group children with oedema had less infections (25.2% vs. 45.1%, p = 0.001). In the older group the prevalence of infections was not different between oedematous and non-oedematous children (5.5% v. 14.3%, p = 0.17). In the younger group oedema was less common in children with TB (OR = 0.20, 95% CI: 0.06, 0.70) or diarrhea (OR = 0.40, 95% CI: 0.21, 0.73). The proportion of oedema in SAM peaked at three to five years of age and a considerable proportion was above 5 years. Furthermore, the prevalence of infection seemed to be lower among children with oedema. Further studies are needed to better understand the role of infection-immunity interaction.

  4. Soil transmitted helminths and associated factors among schoolchildren in government and private primary school in Jimma Town, Southwest Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Debalke, Serkadis; Worku, Amare; Jahur, Nejat; Mekonnen, Zeleke

    2013-11-01

    Soil transmitted helminth infections are among the most common human infections. They are distributed throughout the world with high prevalence rates in tropical and sub-tropical countries mainly because of lack of adequate sanitary facilities, inappropriate waste disposal systems, lack of safe water supply, and low socio-economic status. A comparative cross sectional study was conducted from December 2011 to June 2012 to determine and assess the prevalence of soil transmitted helminths and their associated factors among government and private primary school children. Stool samples were collected from 369 randomly selected children and examined microscopically for eggs of soil transmitted helminth following McMaster techniques. Soil samples were collected from different parts of the school compound and microscopic examination was performed for eggs of the helminths using sodium nitrate flotation technique. The overall prevalence rate of soil transmitted helminth infections in private and government schools was 20.9% and 53.5% respectively. T. trichiura was the most common soil transmitted helminth in both schools while hookworm infections were identified in government school students only. Type of school and sex were significantly associated with soil transmitted helminth. Soil contamination rate of the school compounds was 11.25% with predominant parasites of A. lumbricoides. Higher prevalence of soil transmitted helminth infection was found among government school students. Thus, more focus, on personal hygiene and sanitary facilities, should be given to children going to government schools.

  5. Family planning utilization and factors associated among women receiving abortion services in health facilities of central zone towns of Tigray, Northern Ethiopia: a cross sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Hagos, Goshu; Tura, Gurmesa; Kahsay, Gizienesh; Haile, Kebede; Grum, Teklit; Araya, Tsige

    2018-06-05

    Abortion remains among the leading causes of maternal death worldwide. Post-abortion contraception is significantly effective in preventing unintended pregnancy and abortion if provided before women leave the health facilty. However, the status of post-abortion family planning (PAFP) utilization and the contributing factors are not well studied in Tigray region. So, we conduct study aimed on family planning utilization and factors associated with it among women receiving abortion services. A facility based cross-sectional study design was conducted among women receiving abortion services in central zone of Tigray from December 2015to February 2016 using a total of 416 sample size. Women who came for abortion services were selected using systematic random sampling technique.. The data were collected using a pre-tested interviewer administered questionnair. Data were coded and entered in to Epi info 7 and then exported to SPSS for analysis. Descriptive statisticslike frequencies and mean were computed to display the results. Both Bivariable and multivariable logistic regression was used in the analysis. Variables statistically significant at p < 0.05 in the bivariable analysis were checked in multivariable logistic regration to identify independently associated factors. Then variables which were significantly associated with post abortion family planning utilization at p-value < 0.05 in the multivariable analysis were declared as significantly associated factors. A total of 409 abortion clients were interviewed in this study with 98.3% of response rate. Majority 290 (70.9%) of study participants utilized contracepives after abortion. Type of health facility, the decision maker on timing of having child, knowledge that pregnancy can happen soon after abortion and husband's opposition towards contraceptives were significantly associated with Post-abortion family planning ustilization. About one-third of abortion women failed to receive contraceptive before

  6. Cross-sectional study on bovine mastitis and its associated risk factors in Ambo district of West Shewa zone, Oromia, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Sarba, Edilu J.; Tola, Getachew K.

    2017-01-01

    Aim: A cross-sectional study was conducted to estimate the prevalence and associated risk factors of mastitis in dairy cows. Materials and Methods: A total of 302 dairy cows were selected from all volunteer dairy farms in Ambo district of West Shewa Zone, Oromia region. Thorough clinical examination was made on all lactating cows for evidence of signs of clinical mastitis followed by collection of milk sample for examination of gross changes of milk secretion and California mastitis test. Result: About 126 (41.7%) cows had mastitis, of which 9.9% (30/302) were clinical and 32.8% (96/302) were subclinical mastitis cases. The quarter level prevalence was 44.4% (536/1208), comprising 9.3% (112/1208), clinical and 32.8% (396/1208) subclinical forms of mastitis. In addition, 5.5% (66/1208) of teats were found to be blind on the clinical examination of udder and teat. The Chi-square analysis of intrinsic risk factors revealed significantly (p<0.05) higher prevalence of mastitis in crossbred cattle (47.2%) than indigenous (15.4%), in cattle above 7 years (75%) than less than 2-6 years of age (28%) and cows given more than 4 calves (81.3%) than those with less than 4 calves (31.1%) irrespective to their lactation stage. There was also significantly (p<0.05) higher mastitis prevalence in larger (46.6%) than smaller herds (24.2%) and among the farming systems in semi-intensive (47.1%) and intensive (42.3%) than extensive (8.1%) management system. Conclusion: This study indicated a higher prevalence of mastitis linked with several risk factors. Thus, early diagnosis and regular screening of cows for subclinical mastitis together with proper therapeutic management of clinical cases are of paramount importance. Moreover, control and prevention strategies should be designed and implemented with great emphasis given to risk factors to reduce bovine mastitis and its impact on milk production and food security. PMID:28507411

  7. Institutional delivery service utilization and associated factors among women of reproductive age in the mobile pastoral community of the Liban District in Guji Zone, Oromia, Southern Ethiopia: a cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Wako, Wako Golicha; Kassa, Dejene Hailu

    2017-05-15

    Globally, an estimated 289,000 maternal deaths occurred in 2013. Majority of these deaths occurred in sub-Saharan Africa and Southern Asia. Mobility of pastoralists is a well-recognized survival strategy in arid and semi-arid land of sub-Saharan Africa. However governments often encourage settlement as a solution to the difficulty of providing health services for mobile pastoralists. This study aimed to assess utilization of institutional delivery and associated factors among women of reproductive age in the mobile pastoral community of the Liban District in Guji zone, Oromia, Ethiopia. A Community based cross-sectional survey was conducted among the mobile pastoralist community of the Liban District. Seven hundred ninety-one (791) randomly selected women, who had birth within the last 2 years preceding the survey, were interviewed using a pretested structured questionnaire. Data were entered into Epi-Info version 3.5.4 and analyzed by Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 16. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were done. Out of 791 women who gave birth within the last 2 years preceding the survey, only 110 (13.9%) gave birth in health institutions. Majority (74.1%) of the women gave birth at their home. Ninety-one women (11.5%) gave birth at traditional birth attendant's home; assisted by traditional birth attendants. Multiple logistic regression shows that women who had readily available cash at the onset of labor (aOR 2.79, 95% CI: 1.29-6.25), delivered the birth preceding the most recent birth in a health institution (aOR 6.8, 95% CI: 3.44-13.45) and had birth related complications during the birth preceding the most recent birth (aOR 1.90, 95% CI: 1.08-3.36) were more likely to deliver at health institutions. Majority of the pastoral women seek institutional delivery, only when labor related complications are perceived. Mechanisms of alleviating indirect health care costs affecting institutional delivery need to be addressed in future studies.

  8. Client perspective assessment of women's satisfaction towards labour and delivery care service in public health facilities at Arba Minch town and the surrounding district, Gamo Gofa zone, south Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Dewana, Zeritu; Fikadu, Teshale; G/Mariam, Abebe; Abdulahi, Misra

    2016-02-11

    A woman's satisfaction with labour and delivery care service has a good effect on her health and subsequent utilization of the services. Thus knowledge about women's satisfaction on labour and delivery care used to enhances the services utilization. The objective of this study was to assess the satisfaction of women's towards labour and delivery care service and identify factors associated it at public health facilities in Arba Minch town and the surrounding district, Gamo Gofa zone, southern Ethiopia. Facility based cross sectional study was conducted among women who gave birth at public health facility. A total 256 women who gave birth during the study period were included in the study. Data was collected using a structured questionnaire. Satisfaction level was measured using a 5 point-Likert scale questions. Data were entered using Epi data version 3.5.1 and analyzed using SPSS 20.0 statistical software. Factor analysis was employed for Likert scale questions to extract factor represented each of the scale which facilitate treatment of variable as continuous for further analysis. Bi-variate and multivariable logistic regression analysis was employed to identify association between women's satisfaction and predicator variables. Statistical significance was declared at P value <0.05 on final model. The strength of association was interpreted using the adjusted odds ratio and 95% CI. This study revealed that 90.2% of women who gave birth in public health facilities were satisfied with labour and delivery care. Factors associated with women's satisfaction with labour and delivery care services include: not attending formal education [AOR = 8.00, 95% CI = (1.52, 12.27)] attending antenatal care four times and more [AOR = 5.00, 95% CI = (1.76, 14.20)] waiting below 15 minutes to be seen by health professional [AOR = 3.37, 95% CI = (1.14, 9.97)] and not paying for drugs and supplies [AOR = 6.19, 95% CI = (1.34, 18.59)]. Although majority

  9. Microbiological Assessment of Indoor Air of Teaching Hospital Wards: A case of Jimma University Specialized Hospital.

    PubMed

    Fekadu, Samuel; Getachewu, Bahilu

    2015-04-01

    Hospital environment represents a congenial situation where microorganisms and susceptible patients are indoors together. Thus, the objective of this study is to provide fundamental data related to the microbial quality of indoor air of Jimma University Specialized Hospital wards, to estimate the health hazard and to create standards for indoor air quality control. The microbial quality of indoor air of seven wards of Jimma University Specialized Hospital was determined. Passive air sampling technique, using open Petri-dishes containing different culture media, was employed to collect sample twice daily. The concentrations of bacteria and fungi aerosols in the indoor environment of the wards ranged between 2123 - 9733 CFU/m(3). The statistical analysis showed that the concentrations of bacteria that were measured in all studied wards were significantly different from each other (p-value=0.017), whereas the concentrations of fungi that were measured in all sampled wards were not significantly different from each other (p-value=0.850). Moreover, the concentrations of bacteria that were measured at different sampling time (morning and afternoon) were significantly different (p-value =0.001). All wards that were included in the study were heavily contaminated with bacteria and fungi. Thus, immediate interventions are needed to control those environmental factors which favor the growth and multiplication of microbes, and it is vital to control visitors and students in and out the wards. Moreover, it is advisable that strict measures be put in place to check the increasing microbial load in the hospital environment.

  10. Determinants of first and second trimester induced abortion - results from a cross-sectional study taken place 7 years after abortion law revisions in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Bonnen, Kristine Ivalu; Tuijje, Dereje Negussie; Rasch, Vibeke

    2014-12-19

    In 2005 Ethiopia took the important step to protect women's reproductive health by liberalizing the abortion law. As a result women were given access to safe pregnancy termination in first and second trimester. This study aims to describe socio-economic characteristics and contraceptive experience among women seeking abortion in Jimma, Ethiopia and to describe determinants of second trimester abortion. A cross-sectional study conducted October 2011 - April 2012 in Jimma Town, Ethiopia among women having safely induced abortion and women having unsafely induced abortion. In all 808 safe abortion cases and 21 unsafe abortion cases were included in the study. Of the 829 abortions, 729 were first trimester and 100 were second trimester abortions. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions were used to determine risk factors associated with second trimester abortion. The associations are presented as odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidential intervals. Age stratified analyses of contraceptive experience among women with first and second trimester abortions are also presented. Socio-economic characteristics associated with increased ORs of second trimester abortion were: age < 19 years, being single, widowed or divorced, attending school, being unemployment, being nullipara or para 3+, and having low education. The contraceptive prevalence rate varied across age groups and was particularly low among young girls and young women experiencing second trimester abortion where only 15% and 19% stated they had ever used contraception. Young age, poor education and the prospect of single parenthood were associated with second trimester abortion. Young girls and young women were using contraception comparatively less often than older women. To ensure women full right to control their fertility in the setting studied, modern contraception should be made available, accessible and affordable for all women, regardless of age.

  11. Relationship between leadership styles of nurse managers and nurses' job satisfaction in Jimma University Specialized Hospital.

    PubMed

    Negussie, Nebiat; Demissie, Asresash

    2013-03-01

    Leadership style of nurse managers plays a significant role in nurses' job satisfaction. However, there is limited literature in areas related to nurses' manager leadership style. The objective of this research was thus to investigate the relationship between leadership style of nurse managers and nurses' job satisfaction in Jimma University Specialized Hospital. The study was conducted at Jimma University Specialized Hospital from January to June 2012 and used a non-experimental correlation design. All full time, non-supervisory nurses with an experience of more than one year in nursing profession were participated in the study. The Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire and Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire were used to collect data. Data were entered and analyzed using SPSS version16.0 statistical software. The results were analyzed through descriptive statistics followed by the application of inferential statistics on the variables. Significance level was considered when p<0.05. A total of 175 copies of the questionnaires were returned out of 186 copies distributed to respondents. The result indicated that nurses can prefer transformational leadership style over transactional leadership style and had moderate-level intrinsic (M=2.72, SD=0.71) but low level of extrinsic job satisfaction (M=1.83, SD=0.68). Furthermore, from transactional leadership, only contingent reward was found to be statically significant and correlated with extrinsic (B=0.45, p<0.01) and intrinsic job satisfaction (B=0.32, p<0.05) while all five dimension of transformational leadership style were statistically significant and correlated with both intrinsic and extrinsic job satisfaction. Nurses tended to be more satisfied with the transformational leadership than transactional leadership style. Therefore, nurses' managers should use transformational leadership style in order to increase nurses' job satisfaction.

  12. Intestinal polyparasitism with special emphasis to soil-transmitted helminths among residents around Gilgel Gibe Dam, Southwest Ethiopia: a community based survey.

    PubMed

    Mekonnen, Zeleke; Suleman, Sultan; Biruksew, Abdissa; Tefera, Tamirat; Chelkeba, Legese

    2016-11-23

    One third of the world population is estimated to be infected with intestinal parasites. The most affected people are children and the poor people living in tropics and subtropics. Polyparasitism (the concurrent infection with multiple intestinal parasite species) is found to be the norm among the same population although accurate estimate of its magnitude is unknown. It was found that polyparasitism might have a greater impact on morbidity than single species infection which might also increase susceptibility to other infections. Therefore, this study aimed at determining the prevalence and distribution of intestinal polyparasitism with special emphasis on Soil-Transmitted Helminths (STH) among residents around Gilgel Gibe dam located in Jimma zone of Oromia regional state, Ethiopia. A total of 1,021 participants were recruited in this study and provided stool samples for parasitological examination. Direct wet mount and Kato-Katz techniques were employed for stool examination. Pearson chi-square test was employed to assess the association of infection status and polyparasitism with gender and age group of the study participants. Five hundred thirty two individuals were infected with at least one parasite, providing the overall prevalence of 52.1%. Among positive individuals, 405 (76.1%), 114 (21.4%), and 13 (2.5%) individuals were infected with only one, two and three species of parasites, respectively. The overall prevalence of intestinal polyparasitism observed among the study participants was 12.4% (127/1,021). The predominant STH was hookworm, with a prevalence of 44.1%. Hookworm and Ascaris lumbricoides were the most frequently recorded combination in cases of polyparasitic infection. The study revealed that there was no significant difference in the distribution of polyparasitism with regard to age group and sex of the study participants (p > 0.05). The study indicated the presence of high prevalence of parasites as well as distribution of

  13. Population dynamics of rural Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Bariabagar, H

    1978-01-01

    2 rounds of the national sample surveys, conducted by the central statistical office of Ethiopia during 1964-1967 and 1969-1971, provide the only comprehensive demographic data for the country and are the basis for this discussion of rural Ethiopia's population dynamics. The population of Ethiopia is predominantly rural. Agglomerations of 2000 and over inhabitants constitute about 14% of the population, and this indicates that Ethiopia has a low level of urbanization. In rural Ethiopia, international migration was negligent in the 1970's and the age structure can be assumed to be the results of past trends of fertility and mortality conditions. The reported crude birthrate (38.2), crude death rate (12.3) and infant mortality rate (90) of rural Ethiopia fall short of the averages for African countries. Prospects of population growth of rural Ethiopia would be immense. At the rate of natural increase of between 2.4 and 3.0% per annum, the population would double in 24-29 years. Regarding population issues, the programs of the National Democratic Revolution of Ethiopia faces the following main challenging problems: 1) carrying out national population censuses in order to obtain basic information for socialist planning; 2) minimizing or curtailing the existing high urban growth rates; 3) reducing rapidly growing population; and 5) mobilizing Ethiopian women to participate in the social, economic and political life of the country in order to create favorable conditions for future fertility reduction.

  14. Journey of Ethiopia Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belay Tessema, Solomon

    2015-08-01

    Ancient astronomy had contributed away for the modern development of astronomy. The history of astronomy development in Ethiopian was liked with different beliefs and culture of the society. The Ethiopians were the first who invented the science of stars, and gave names to the planets, not at random and without meaning, but descriptive of the qualities which they conceived them to possess; and it was from them that this art passed, still in an imperfect state, to the Egyptians. Even though, Ethiopian’s contributions for astronomy in the world were immense but the journey of modern astronomy is still in the infant stage. The modern astronomy and space program in Ethiopia was started in 2004 in well organized form from three individuals to the public. In the past eleven years of journey of astronomy development in Ethiopia was the most challenging from national to international level. After strong struggle of a few committed individuals for the past eleven years the development of astronomy is completely changed from dark age to bright age. This paper will try to address the details of journey of astronomy in Ethiopia.

  15. Bacterial contamination, bacterial profile and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of isolates from stethoscopes at Jimma University Specialized Hospital

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Hospital acquired infections are recognized as critical public health problems. Infections are frequently caused by organisms residing in healthcare environment, including contaminated medical equipment like Stethoscopes. Objective To determine bacterial contamination, bacterial profile and anti-microbial susceptibility pattern of the isolates from stethoscopes at Jimma University Specialized Hospital. Methodology Cross-sectional study conducted from May to September 2011 at Jimma University Specialized Hospital. One hundred seventy-six stethoscopes owned by Health Care Workers (HCWs) and Medical students were randomly selected and studied. Self-administered structured questionnaire was used to collect socio-demographic data. Specimen was collected using moisten sterile cotton swab and 1 ml normal saline was used to transport the specimen, all laboratory investigations were done following standard microbiological techniques, at Microbiology Laboratory, Jimma University. SPSS windows version 16 used for data analysis and P <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Result: A total, of 151 (85.8%) stethoscopes were contaminated. A total of 256 bacterial strains and a mean of 1.44×104 CFUs/diaphragm of stethoscopes was isolated. Of the 256 isolates, 133 (52%) were potential pathogens like S. aureus, Klebsiella spp., Citrobacter spp., Salmonella spp., Proteus spp., Enterobacter spp., P. aeruginosa and E. coli. All strains were resistant to multiple classes of antibiotics (two to eight classes of antibiotics). Disinfection practice was poor. Disinfection practice was found to be associated with bacterial contamination of stethoscopes (P < 0.05). High contamination rate 100 (90.9%) was observed among stethoscopes that had never been disinfected; while the least contamination 29 (72.2%) was found on those disinfected a week or less before the survey. Conclusion Bacterial contamination of the stethoscope was significant. The isolates were potential

  16. Bacterial contamination, bacterial profile and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of isolates from stethoscopes at Jimma University Specialized Hospital.

    PubMed

    Shiferaw, Teklu; Beyene, Getenet; Kassa, Tesfaye; Sewunet, Tsegaye

    2013-12-13

    Hospital acquired infections are recognized as critical public health problems. Infections are frequently caused by organisms residing in healthcare environment, including contaminated medical equipment like Stethoscopes. To determine bacterial contamination, bacterial profile and anti-microbial susceptibility pattern of the isolates from stethoscopes at Jimma University Specialized Hospital. Cross-sectional study conducted from May to September 2011 at Jimma University Specialized Hospital. One hundred seventy-six stethoscopes owned by Health Care Workers (HCWs) and Medical students were randomly selected and studied. Self-administered structured questionnaire was used to collect socio-demographic data. Specimen was collected using moisten sterile cotton swab and 1 ml normal saline was used to transport the specimen, all laboratory investigations were done following standard microbiological techniques, at Microbiology Laboratory, Jimma University. SPSS windows version 16 used for data analysis and P <0.05 was considered statistically significant. A total, of 151 (85.8%) stethoscopes were contaminated. A total of 256 bacterial strains and a mean of 1.44×104 CFUs/diaphragm of stethoscopes was isolated. Of the 256 isolates, 133 (52%) were potential pathogens like S. aureus, Klebsiella spp., Citrobacter spp., Salmonella spp., Proteus spp., Enterobacter spp., P. aeruginosa and E. coli. All strains were resistant to multiple classes of antibiotics (two to eight classes of antibiotics). Disinfection practice was poor. Disinfection practice was found to be associated with bacterial contamination of stethoscopes (P < 0.05). High contamination rate 100 (90.9%) was observed among stethoscopes that had never been disinfected; while the least contamination 29 (72.2%) was found on those disinfected a week or less before the survey. Bacterial contamination of the stethoscope was significant. The isolates were potential pathogens and resistant to multiple classes of

  17. Molecular characterization of Theileria orientalis from cattle in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Gebrekidan, Hagos; Gasser, Robin B; Baneth, Gad; Yasur-Landau, Daniel; Nachum-Biala, Yaarit; Hailu, Asrat; Jabbar, Abdul

    2016-07-01

    This study reports the first molecular characterization of Theileria orientalis in local breeds of cattle in Ethiopia. A conventional PCR utilizing major piroplasm surface protein (MPSP) gene and an established multiplexed tandem PCR (MT-PCR) were used to characterize T. orientalis and to assess the infection intensity, respectively. Of 232 blood samples tested, T. orientalis DNA was detected in only 2.2% of samples using conventional PCR; two genotypes buffeli (1.3%; 3/232) and type 5 (0.9%; 2/232) of T. orientalis were detected. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the buffeli MPSP sequences from Ethiopia were closely related to those reported from Kenya, Sri Lanka and Myanmar, and type 5 sequences from Ethiopia grouped with those from Korea, Japan, Vietnam and Thailand. A higher number of samples (3.9%; 9/232) were test-positive by MT-PCR and four genotypes (buffeli, chitose, ikeda and type 5) of T. orientalis were detected. The average intensity of infections with genotypes buffeli (DNA copy numbers 11,056) and type 5 (7508) were significantly higher (P<0.0001) than the pathogenic genotype ikeda (61 DNA copies). This first insight into T. orientalis from cattle in Ethiopia using MPSP gene provides a basis for future studies of T. orientalis in various agroclimatic zones and of the impact of oriental theilerosis on cattle in this and other countries of Africa. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Malaria Related Perceptions, Care Seeking after Onset of Fever and Anti-Malarial Drug Use in Malaria Endemic Settings of Southwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Birhanu, Zewdie; Abebe, Lakew; Sudhakar, Morankar; Dissanayake, Gunawardena; Yihdego, Yemane Ye-ebiyo; Alemayehu, Guda; Yewhalaw, Delenasaw

    2016-01-01

    Background Prompt care seeking and appropriate use of anti-malarial drugs are critical components of malaria prevention and control. This study assessed malaria related perceptions, care seeking behavior and anti-malarial drug use in malaria endemic settings of Ethiopia. Methods Data were generated from a community based cross-sectional study conducted among 798 households during January 2014 as part of a larger household behavioral study in three malaria endemic districts of Jimma Zone, Southwest Ethiopia. Both quantitative and qualitative data were collected and analyzed using SPSS 17.0 and STATA 12.0. Results In this study, only 76.1% of the respondents associated malaria to mosquito bite, and incorrect beliefs and perceptions were noted. Despite moderate level of knowledge (estimated mean = 62.2, Std Err = 0.7, 95% CI: 60.6–63.8%), quite high favorable attitude (overall estimated mean = 91.5, Std Err = 0.6, 95% CI: 90.1–92.9%) were recorded towards malaria preventive measures. The mean attitude score for prompt care seeking, appropriate use of anti-malarial drugs, LLIN use and Indoor Residual Spray acceptance was 98.5 (Std Err = 0.4, 95% CI:97.5–99.4), 92.7 (Std Err = 0.6 95% CI:91.5–93.9), 88.8 (Std Err = 0.5, 95% CI:85.5–92.1) and 86.5 (Std Err = 1.2, 95% CI: 83.9–89.1), respectively. The prevalence of fever was 2.9% (116/4107) and of the study participants with fever, 71.9% (95% CI: 65.5–78.3%) sought care and all of them consulted formal health care system. However, only 17 (19.8%) sought care within 24 hours after onset of fever. The frequency of care seeking was higher (77.8%, n = 21/27) and more prompt (28.6%, 6/21) for children under five as compared to old age groups despite it was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). However, higher median time of seeking first care was observed among Muslims and people who did not attend school (p < 0.05). Of those who used anti-malarial drugs, 9.1% indicated that they used it inappropriately

  19. Knowledge, attitude and practice for cervical cancer prevention and control among women of childbearing age in Hossana Town, Hadiya zone, Southern Ethiopia: Community-based cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Ersado, Tariku Laelago

    2017-01-01

    Background Cervical cancer is the second most common female cancer which Ethiopia put a strategic goal to reduce its incidence and mortality by 2020. Lack of knowledge and poor attitude towards the disease and risk factors can affect screening practice and development of preventive behavior for cervical cancer. The aim of this study was to assess knowledge, attitude, practices and factors for each domain for cervical cancer among women of child bearing age in Hossana town, Southern, Ethiopia. Methods Community based cross sectional study was carried out in June 2015. A total of 583 participants were selected using systematic random sampling technique. Pretested structured interviewer administered questionnaire was used to gather the data. Data were entered in to Epi Info software version 3.5.4 and exported to SPSS version 16 for descriptive and logistic regression analysis. Results Two hundred seventy (46.3%) of the respondents had poor comprehensive knowledge. Only 58 (9.9%) of participants had been screed for the cervical cancer before the survey. Two hundred three (34.8%) of participants had negative attitude towards selected proxy variables. Not having health seeking behavior for cervical cancer [AOR: 5.45, 95% CI: (1.18, 30.58), P <0.031], had not ever received information about cervical cancer and its prevention [AOR: 2.63, 95%CI: (1.78,8.84), P < 0.018] and not actively seeking health information about cervical cancer [AOR: 6.25, (95%CI: (1.26, 31.06) P < 0.025] were significantly associated factors with poor knowledge. Poor knowledge score was associated with poor attitude [AOR: 56.51, 95%CI: (23.76, 134.37), P <0.001]. Had not ever received information about the disease from any source [AOR: 45.24, (95%CI: (11.47, 178.54), P <0.001] was significantly associated factor with not to be screened for the disease. Conclusion This study highlighted the importance of awareness creation, increasing knowledge, promoting active searching for health information and

  20. Knowledge, attitude and practice for cervical cancer prevention and control among women of childbearing age in Hossana Town, Hadiya zone, Southern Ethiopia: Community-based cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Aweke, Yitagesu Habtu; Ayanto, Samuel Yohannes; Ersado, Tariku Laelago

    2017-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most common female cancer which Ethiopia put a strategic goal to reduce its incidence and mortality by 2020. Lack of knowledge and poor attitude towards the disease and risk factors can affect screening practice and development of preventive behavior for cervical cancer. The aim of this study was to assess knowledge, attitude, practices and factors for each domain for cervical cancer among women of child bearing age in Hossana town, Southern, Ethiopia. Community based cross sectional study was carried out in June 2015. A total of 583 participants were selected using systematic random sampling technique. Pretested structured interviewer administered questionnaire was used to gather the data. Data were entered in to Epi Info software version 3.5.4 and exported to SPSS version 16 for descriptive and logistic regression analysis. Two hundred seventy (46.3%) of the respondents had poor comprehensive knowledge. Only 58 (9.9%) of participants had been screed for the cervical cancer before the survey. Two hundred three (34.8%) of participants had negative attitude towards selected proxy variables. Not having health seeking behavior for cervical cancer [AOR: 5.45, 95% CI: (1.18, 30.58), P <0.031], had not ever received information about cervical cancer and its prevention [AOR: 2.63, 95%CI: (1.78,8.84), P < 0.018] and not actively seeking health information about cervical cancer [AOR: 6.25, (95%CI: (1.26, 31.06) P < 0.025] were significantly associated factors with poor knowledge. Poor knowledge score was associated with poor attitude [AOR: 56.51, 95%CI: (23.76, 134.37), P <0.001]. Had not ever received information about the disease from any source [AOR: 45.24, (95%CI: (11.47, 178.54), P <0.001] was significantly associated factor with not to be screened for the disease. This study highlighted the importance of awareness creation, increasing knowledge, promoting active searching for health information and experiences of receiving information

  1. The Ahmed Glaucoma Valve in Refractory Glaucoma: Experiences in Southwest Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Gessesse, Girum W

    2015-07-01

    The management of refractory glaucoma is a challenging task for any glaucoma surgeon. This study is aimed to evaluate the efficacy of Ahmed Glaucoma Valve implantation in refractory glaucomas in South-West Ethiopia. A retrospective review was conducted on the charts of consecutive patients treated with Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation at Jimma University Specialized Hospital between August 2012 and August 2014. Success was defined as Intraocular Pressure (IOP) less than 22 mm Hg and greater than 5mm Hg at 6 months, with at least 30% reduction from baseline, without medical therapy (complete success) or either with or without medication (qualified successes). A total of 12 eyes of 11 patients were included. The mean age of patients was 40.7 (SD= 19.0) years; 63.6% of them were males. The main types of glaucoma were pseudoexfoliative (3 eyes), uveitic (2 eyes), chronic angle closure (2 eyes) and Juvenile Open Angle (JOAG) (2 eyes). The mean IOP was reduced from preoperative level (32.75±7.14 mmHg) to (15.75 ±4.35 mmHg) at six postoperative months, (P<0.001); 66.7% eyes had complete successes while 83.3% had qualified success. Intra-operative complications were encountered in 2(16.7%) eyes, while 5/12 (41.7%) eyes had post-operative complications-hypotony (one with choroidal effusion) and progression of cataract in 2 eyes each. Hypertensive phase was diagnosed in 2(16.7%) eyes. The Ahmed glaucoma valve implant appears to be effective and relatively safe for treating complicated glaucomas with success rate comparable with those reported from other studies. Ahmed glaucoma valve, refractory glaucoma, complications, Ethiopia.

  2. Antimicrobial use in paediatric patients in a teaching hospital in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Kebede, Hafte Kahsay; Gesesew, Hailay Abrha; Woldehaimanot, Tewodros Eyob; Goro, Kabaye Kumela

    2017-01-01

    Background Antibiotics use in in children are different from adults due to a lack of data on pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, efficacy and safety of drugs, different physiological spectrum, pediatrics populations being vulnerable to the majority of the illnesses, and the adverse effect of their irrational use is more serious. However, antibiotic use is not explored much in a paediatric population. The current study focused on antibiotic use among pediatric population using data from a tertiary hospital in Ethiopia. Methods A retrospective cross-sectional study collated data from 614 pediatrics patients admitted in pediatrics ward at Jimma University Teaching Hospital, Southwest Ethiopia. Descriptive analyses were performed to describe the type and pattern of antibiotics. The number of prescriptions per a patient was also compared with the WHO standard. Data analysis was carried out using SPSS version 20 for mackintosh. Results Antimicrobials were prescribed for 407(86.4%) patients of which 85.9% were in the form of injectables. A total of 1241 (90%) medicines were administered parenterally followed by oral 110 (8%). The maximum number of medicines per prescription was eight for all types of drugs in general, and five for antimicrobials in particular. All antimicrobials were prescribed empirically without any microbiological evidence. Pneumonia, sepsis and meningitis were the main reasons for antimicrobial use in the ward. Out of the total of 812 antibiotics prescribed; Penicillin G crystalline was the most (20%) frequently prescribed, followed by gentamicin (19%) and ampicillin (16). Conclusions Majority of the prescribed antibiotics were antimicrobials, and was in the form of injectables. Antimicrobials were over prescribed and the number of drugs per prescription was also far from WHO recommendation. Strict prescribing standard guidelines and treatment habits should be developed in the country, to prevent antimicrobial resistance. PMID:28264021

  3. Pastoral mobility and policy recommendations for livestock herding in the Borana pastoral system in southern Ethiopia

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Livelihoods of pastoralists in the Borana Zone of southern Ethiopia have become increasingly vulnerable as a result of stressors like accelerating population growth, shrinking resource availability, sedentarization, and increased frequency and severity of drought. A research team from the USDA Agric...

  4. Hydrological research in Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebremichael, M.

    2012-12-01

    Almost all major development problems in Ethiopia are water-related: food insecurity, low economic development, recurrent droughts, disastrous floods, poor health conditions, and low energy condition. In order to develop and manage existing water resources in a sustainable manner, knowledge is required about water availability, water quality, water demand in various sectors, and the impacts of water resource projects on health and the environment. The lack of ground-based data has been a major challenge for generating this knowledge. Current advances in remote sensing and computer simulation technology could provide alternative source of datasets. In this talk, I will present the challenges and opportunities in using remote sensing datasets and hydrological models in regions such as Africa where ground-based datasets are scarce.

  5. Retinal Detachment in Southwest Ethiopia: A Hospital Based Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Asaminew, Tsedeke; Gelaw, Yeshigeta; Bekele, Sisay; Solomon, Berhan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The incidence of retinal detachment in Blacks is generally considered to be low though there are few supporting studies in Africa. This study, thus, aimed at describing the clinical profile of patients with retinal detachment in Southwest Ethiopia. Methods A hospital-based study was done on all consecutive retinal detachment patients who presented to Jimma University Hospital over six months period. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect patients’ sociodemographic characteristics and clinical history. Comprehensive anterior and posterior segment eye examinations were done and risk factors were sought for. Statistical tests were considered significant if P < 0.05. Results A total of 94 eyes of 80 patients (1.5%) had retinal detachment (RD) and about 69% of patients were symptomatic for over a month before presentation. The mean age was 41.4 years (SD ±16.5). Fourteen patients (17.5%) had bilateral RD. At presentation, 61 eyes (64.9%) were blind from RD and 11 (13.8%) patients were bilaterally blind from RD. Rhegmatogenous RD was seen in 55 eyes (58.5%) and tractional RD in 22 eyes (23.4%). The most common risk factors were ocular trauma (32 eyes, 34.0%), myopia (23 eyes, 24.5%), posterior uveitis (13 eyes, 13.8%) and diabetic retinopathy (9 eyes, 9.6%). Most retinal breaks (25 eyes, 43.1%) were superotemporal and horse-shoe tear was the most common (19 eyes, 20.2%). Macula was off in 77 eyes (81.9%) and 38 eyes (69.1% of RRD eyes) had grade C proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR). Macular status was significantly associated with PVR (P=0.011), and duration of symptoms (RR=1.25, 95%CI: 1.059-1.475, P=0.040). Conclusions A significant numbers of patients with ocular problem had retinal detachment, and nearly two third of the patients presented late. Trauma and myopia were the most important risk factors. People should be educated to improve their health seeking behavior and use eye safety precautions to prevent ocular trauma. PMID:24086614

  6. Assessing the goodness-of-fit of the Laird and Ware model--an example: the Jimma Infant Survival Differential Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    Lesaffre, E; Asefa, M; Verbeke, G

    1999-04-15

    The Jimma Infant Survival Differential Longitudinal Study is an Ethiopian study, set up to establish risk factors affecting infant survival and to investigate socio-economic, maternal and infant-rearing factors that contribute most to the child's early survival. Here, a subgroup of about 1500 children born in Jimma town is examined for their first year's weight gain. Of special interest is the impact of certain cultural practices like uvulectomy, milk teeth extraction and butter swallowing, on child's weight gain; these have never been thoroughly investigated in any study. In this context, the linear mixed model (Laird and Ware) is employed. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the practical issues when constructing the longitudinal model. Recently developed diagnostics will be used herefor. Finally, special attention will be paid to the two-stage interpretation of the linear mixed model.

  7. Evolution, distribution, and characteristics of rifting in southern Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philippon, Melody; Corti, Giacomo; Sani, Federico; Bonini, Marco; Balestrieri, Maria-Laura; Molin, Paola; Willingshofer, Ernst; Sokoutis, Dimitrios; Cloetingh, Sierd

    2014-04-01

    Southern Ethiopia is a key region to understand the evolution of the East African rift system, since it is the area of interaction between the main Ethiopian rift (MER) and the Kenyan rift. However, geological data constraining rift evolution in this remote area are still relatively sparse. In this study the timing, distribution, and style of rifting in southern Ethiopia are constrained by new structural, geochronological, and geomorphological data. The border faults in the area are roughly parallel to preexisting basement fabrics and are progressively more oblique with respect to the regional Nubia-Somalia motion proceeding southward. Kinematic indicators along these faults are mainly dip slip, pointing to a progressive rotation of the computed direction of extension toward the south. Radiocarbon data indicate post 30 ka faulting at both western and eastern margins of the MER with limited axial deformation. Similarly, geomorphological data suggest recent fault activity along the western margins of the basins composing the Gofa Province and in the Chew Bahir basin. This supports that interaction between the MER and the Kenyan rift in southern Ethiopia occurs in a 200 km wide zone of ongoing deformation. Fault-related exhumation at ~10-12 Ma in the Gofa Province, as constrained by new apatite fission track data, occurred later than the ~20 Ma basement exhumation of the Chew Bahir basin, thus pointing to a northward propagation of the Kenyan rift-related extension in the area.

  8. Blood pressure control and its determinants among diabetes mellitus co-morbid hypertensive patients at Jimma University medical center, South West Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Muleta, Sintayehu; Melaku, Tsegaye; Chelkeba, Legese; Assefa, Desta

    2017-01-01

    Hypertension is the major contributor to cardiovascular diseases related morbidity and mortality. Blood pressure is not well controlled in the majority of patients with both diabetes and hypertension. The main objective of this study was to assess blood pressure control and its determinants among diabetes mellitus co- morbid hypertensive ambulatory patients. Hospital based cross sectional study was conducted among diabetes mellitus co-morbid hypertensive ambulatory adult patients based on the inclusion criteria. Patient specific data was collected using structured data collection tool. Data was analyzed using statistical software package, SPSS version 20.0. To identify the independent predictors of blood pressure control, multiple stepwise backward logistic regression analysis was done. Statistical significance was considered at p -value <0.05. Patient's written informed consent was obtained after explaining the purpose of the study. Patients were informed about confidentiality of the information obtained. From a total of 131 study participants 51.14% were males with the mean (SD) age of the 50.69 ± 13.71. The mean duration of time since the diagnosis of hypertension was 7.44 ± 5.11 years. The mean (SD) SBP was 149.79 ± 16.32 mmHg, while the mean (SD) DBP was 89.77 ± 9.34 mmHg. More than one fourth (25.20%) of study participants had a controlled SBP, while about 27.48% had a controlled DBP. The overall control of BP was achieved in about 57 (43.51%) of the study participants. Older age (≥50 years) (AOR = 2.06; 95% CI: 2.65-7.79; P  = 0.002), female gender (AOR = 1.42; 95% CI: 1.19-2.14; P  = 0.042), duration of hypertension (AOR = 2.88, 95% CI: 1.27, 8.31, P  = 0.02), non-adherence (AOR 2.05; 95% CI: 2.61-9.33; P  = 0.01) and uncontrolled blood sugar(AOR = 1.65; 95% CI: 2.14-3.32; P  = 0.04) are independent predictors for uncontrolled blood pressure. Blood pressure control to target goal was suboptimal in the study area. Diabetic patients who were older, female, live longer duration with hypertension, non-adherent to their medications and poor glycemic control were more likely to have uncontrolled BP. Therefore, more effort should be dedicated to control the blood pressure in diabetics.

  9. Traditional nutritional and surgical practices and their effects on the growth of infants in south-west Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Asefa, M; Hewison, J; Drewett, R

    1998-04-01

    A 1-year birth cohort of 1563 infants was seen bi-monthly for the first year of life. They comprised all identified infants born in Jimma town, south-west Ethiopia, in the year starting 1 Meskren 1985 in the Ethiopian calendar (11 September 1992). Growth in infancy is poor in this town, as it is in Ethiopia more generally: mean z-scores for both weight and length were more than 1.5 SD below the median of the NCHS/WHO reference population by 1 year of age, and infant mortality was 115/1000. In this paper we examine the weight gain of singletons in relation to background variables and to traditional nutritional and surgical practices in the families. Confirming work in other areas, sanitation, water supply, the income of the family and the mother's literacy were important determinants of weight gain. Almost all the infants were initially breast fed, and about 80% were still breast fed at 1 year. Many were also given cows' milk from 4 months onwards. Breast feeding had beneficial effects up to 8 months of age, and cows' milk had beneficial effects after 6 months of age. Supplementary feeds of solids and semi-solids were given at appropriate ages, but had no detectable benefit. Water was given inappropriately early, but did no detectable harm. Episodes of diarrhoea, fever or persistent cough each reduced weight gain. Catch-up in weight then took up to 8 months, probably because of the poor nutritional quality of supplementary feeds. The incidences of local traditional operations in the first year were: circumcision 63% in males and 4% in females, uvulectomy 35% and the extraction of milk teeth 38%. Although circumcision had no detectable adverse effect on weight, uvulectomy and milk teeth extraction both reduced weight gain.

  10. Ethiopia: The Search for Stability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1966-04-08

    Ethiopia has experienced an enviable degree of political stability during the reign of the present Emperor, Haile Selassie I. It is in the United...internal threats to political stability are from the social and political cleavages between the traditionist and reformist power groups, and from

  11. Determinants of anti-retroviral regimen changes among HIV/AIDS patients of east and west Wollega zone health institutions, Oromia region, west Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Bokore, Amsalu; Korme, Belay; Bayisa, Getu

    2018-06-05

    Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality; because of this it continues to be a major global public health concern. It has believed to kill more than 34 million lives so far. Sub Saharan Africa constitutes about 70% of people living with HIV among the 37 million on the globe. This region, accounted for more than two third of the global new HIV infections and about 15 million (40%) were receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) at the end of 2014 throught the world. ART has fundamentally changed the treatment of HIV and transformed this infection from a disease of high mortality to chronic and medically managed disease. The issues of drug induced toxicities & complexity of current highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) regimens has remained of great concern. The aim of this study was to determine factors leading to antiretroviral regimen changes among HIV/AIDS Patients in the study area. A facility based retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted from April 28, 2017 to May 30, 2017 in the ART clinics of east and west Wollega zone health institutions using a pre-tested data collecting form and chart review. The sample included the 243 patients whose medication had been switched. Majority 145 (59.67%) of the patients had been on ART for > 10 years duration. More than half 126(51.9%) of the patients had received tuberculosis (TB) treatment and almost three out of five patients (57.2%) had received isoniazid & cotrimoxazole prophylaxis. The most common reason for regimen change was peripheral neuropathy 146(60.1%) and the most common medication for this reason was stavudine, lamivudine and neverapine based 108(44.44%). The number of patients who changed ARV drug in our resource constrained setting present a challenge to the restricted treatment choices that we currently own. Less toxic and better-tolerated HIV treatment options should be available and used more frequently.

  12. Assessing the Desired and Actual Levels of Teachers' Participation in Decision-Making in Secondary Schools of Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bademo, Yismaw; Tefera, Bekalu Ferede

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to assess the desired and actual levels of teachers' participation in decision-making process in Ethiopian secondary schools. For this, the study employed a cross-sectional survey design collecting data from sampled secondary school teachers (n = 258) found in Assosa Zone, Benishangual Gumuz Regional state, Ethiopia.…

  13. Genetic diversity analysis of cultivated Korarima [Aframomum corrorima (Braun) P.C.M. Jansen] populations from southwestern Ethiopia using inter simple sequence repeats (ISSR) marker.

    PubMed

    Chombe, Dagmawit; Bekele, Endashaw

    2018-12-01

    Korarima ( Aframomum corrorima ) is a perennial and aromatic herb native and widely distributed in southwestern Ethiopia. It is known for its fine flavor as a spice in various Ethiopian traditional dishes. Few molecular studies have been performed on this species so far. In the present paper, the ISSR technique was employed to study the genetic diversity in populations of cultivated A. corrorima . Seven ISSR primers produced a total of 86 clearly scorable DNA bands. High levels of genetic diversity were detected in cultivated A. corrorima (percentage of polymorphic bands = 97.67%, gene diversity = 0.35, Shannon's information index = 0.52). Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed that 27.47% of the variation is attributed to the variation among populations and 72.53% to the variation within populations. The F st (0.28) value showed a significant ( p  < 0.0001) genetic differentiation among populations. This was supported by the high coefficient of gene differentiation (G st  = 0.32) and low estimated gene flow (Nm = 1.08). A neighbor-joining dendrogram showed that the thirteen cultivated populations were separated into three clusters, which was in good accordance with the results provided by the two dimensional and three dimensional coordinate analyses. However, the clusters did not reveal clear pattern of populations clustering according to their geographic origin. This could be due to human mediated transfer of genetic material among different localities. The genetic diversity in populations of A. corrorima from the southwestern part of Ethiopia was relatively high. This finding should be taken into account when conservation actions, management policies for the species and site identification for in situ and ex situ conservation strategies are developed. Mizan Teferi II population displayed the highest genetic diversity; this population should be considered as the key site in designing conservation strategies for this crop. In addition, Jimma I

  14. Rights of the Child in Ethiopia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schonveld, Ben; Mejia, Fernando

    This report to the United Nations Committee on the Rights of the Child contains observations of the World Organisation Against Torture (OMCT) concerning the application of the U.N. Convention on the Rights of the Child by the nation of Ethiopia. The report's introduction asserts that despite the considerable lip service being paid by Ethiopia's…

  15. Meat Consumption Culture in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Cheorun

    2014-01-01

    The consumption of animal flesh food in Ethiopia has associated with cultural practices. Meat plays pivotal and vital parts in special occasions and its cultural symbolic weight is markedly greater than that accorded to most other food. Processing and cooking of poultry is a gender based duty and has socio-cultural roles. Ethiopians are dependent on limited types of animals for meats due to the taboo associated culturally. Moreover, the consumption of meat and meat products has a very tidy association with religious beliefs, and are influenced by religions. The main religions of Ethiopia have their own peculiar doctrines of setting the feeding habits and customs of their followers. They influence meat products consumption through dictating the source animals that should be used or not be used for food, and scheduling the days of the years in periodical permeation and restriction of consumptions which in turn influences the pattern of meat consumption in the country. In Ethiopia, a cow or an ox is commonly butchered for the sole purpose of selling within the community. In special occasions, people have a cultural ceremony of slaughtering cow or ox and sharing among the group, called Kircha, which is a very common option of the people in rural area where access of meat is challenging frequently. PMID:26760739

  16. Safety Zones

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    These are established primarily to reduce the accidental spread of hazardous substances by workers or equipment from contaminated areas to clean areas. They include the exclusion (hot) zone, contamination reduction (warm) zone, and support (cold) zone.

  17. Patterns of isolation of common gram positive bacterial pathogens and their susceptibilities to antimicrobial agents in Jimma Hospital.

    PubMed

    Gebreselassie, Solomon

    2002-04-01

    Gram positive bacteria are frequently emerging as antibiotic resistant pathogens, causing serious infections than ever before in the ill and debilitated patients. The pattern of isolation and the antimicrobial susceptibilities of common Gram positive cocci including Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase negative staphylococcus (CoNS), Streptococcus pyogenes, Enterococcus species and Streptococcus pneumoniae was investigated between January 1997 and June 2000 in Jimma Hospital. Of the 500 specimens collected from children and adults, 116 (23.2%) consisted of one or more of the above organisms. The following strains: Staphylococcus aureus, 47 (40.5%), CoNS, 36 (31.0%), Streptococcus pneumoniae, 26 (22.4%) Streptococcus pyogenes, 5 (4.3%) and Streptococcus faecalis, 2(1.7%) were isolated from different specimens including pus, sputum, urine, stool, blood and oro/nasopharyngeal swabs of patients. The in vitro activities of 14 different antibiotics including penicillin G, ampicillin, cloxacillin, cephalothin, gentamicin, kanamycin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, erythromycin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, streptomycin, methicillin, vancomycin and clindamycin was determined against the clinical bacterial isolates. The antimicrobial activities were evaluated by agar diffusion technique using Mueller-Hinton agar according to NCCLS recommendations. The majority of the pathogens, 59(50.9%) were recovered from upper respiratory tract infections and 17 (14.6%) from the lower respiratory tract. The resistance patterns of S. aureus, CoNS, S. pneumoniae and enterococci to penicillin was 91.5%, 94.4%, 7.7% and 100% respectively. Penicillin, ampicillin and cloxacillin showed low effects (< 60%) on both S. aureus and CoNS. Multi-drug resistance was observed in all the gram-positive isolates, especially higher in staphylococcus species. All isolates of S. aureus (100%) were susceptible to vancomycin, clindamycin and gentamicin. In order to reduce morbidity and mortality due to antibiotic

  18. The seismicity of Ethiopia; active plate tectonics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mohr, P.

    1981-01-01

    Ethiopia, descended from the semimythical Kingdom of Punt, lies at the strategic intersection of Schmidt's jigsaw puzzle where the Red Sea, Gulf of Aden, and the African Rift System meet. Because of geologically recent uplift combined with rapid downcutting erosion by rivers, notably the Blue Nile (Abbay), Ethiopia is the most mountainous country in Africa. It is also the most volcanically active, while its historical seismicity matches that of the midocean ridges. And, in a sense, Ethiopia is host to an evoloving ocean ridge system. 

  19. Travel and implications for the elimination of trachoma in ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Shah, Neelima A; House, Jenafir; Lakew, Takele; Alemayehu, Wondu; Halfpenny, Colleen; Hong, Kevin C; Keenan, Jeremy D; Porco, Travis C; Whitcher, John P; Lietman, Thomas M; Gaynor, Bruce D

    2010-03-01

    Trachoma is the leading infectious cause of blindness. The World Health Organization has set a goal of reducing the trachoma disease burden to a level where it is no longer a public health concern by the year 2020. Some investigators feel that local elimination of ocular chlamydia infection is possible, but little has been done to study the likelihood of reintroduction of infection from neighboring areas. Mass administration of azithromycin has been shown to dramatically reduce the prevalence of infection in many villages in central Ethiopia. However, after treatment is discontinued, infection returns. Reintroduction of infection could occur from the few remaining infected cases in a treated community or from outside the community. People traveling between villages might be responsible thus complicating the elimination of trachoma. We conducted a survey to assess the travel pattern of the Gurage zone residents in Ethiopia. Seven hundred and seventeen households with at least one child aged 1-5 years in 48 villages were surveyed to collect the details of travel in 1 month prior to the survey. Seventy-eight percent of the surveyed households had at least one traveler, with the majority being women. Pre-school children, the main reservoir of clinically active infection, rarely traveled. Most travel was to the market or to school, and most for less than 1 day. Travel routinely takes place in these villages. Trachoma control programs in this area might consider treating areas with the same markets and schools in the same period to increase the efficacy of mass treatment.

  20. Household dietary diversity, vitamin A consumption and food security in rural Tigray, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Schwei, Rebecca J; Tesfay, Haile; Asfaw, Frezer; Jogo, Wellington; Busse, Heidi

    2017-06-01

    To describe: household dietary diversity across four zones in Ethiopia; the relationship between household dietary diversity and consumption of vitamin A-rich foods; and the relationship between household dietary diversity and food security status. This was a cross-sectional survey. Data were collected using structured questionnaires in the local language. Household dietary diversity scores measured types of foods households consumed, and households were classified by food security status using a modified version of the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale. An ordinal logistics regression model was created to assess the relationship between three tiers of dietary diversity (low, medium and high) and food security while controlling for agricultural zone, educational variables and household characteristics. Rural households in Tigray, Ethiopia. Three hundred households in Tigray, Ethiopia, were interviewed. Of the households, 23, 47 and 30 % had low, medium and high dietary diversity, respectively. Among households with high dietary diversity, eggs and fruit were the most common foods added to the diet. In the fully adjusted model, participants who reported being food secure had 1·8 increased odds of greater dietary diversity (95 % CI 1·0, 3·2) compared with participants who were food insecure. Food security was positively associated with dietary diversity. In order to enhance health, interventions that improve dietary diversity and vitamin A consumption should remain important areas of focus for health leaders in the region.

  1. Visceral Leishmaniasis in Ethiopia: An Evolving Disease

    PubMed Central

    Leta, Samson; Dao, Thi Ha Thanh; Mesele, Frehiwot; Alemayehu, Gezahegn

    2014-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (also known as kala-azar) is classified as one of the most neglected tropical diseases. It is becoming a growing health problem in Ethiopia, with endemic areas that are continually spreading. The annual burden of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Ethiopia is estimated to be between 4,500 and 5,000 cases, and the population at risk is more than 3.2 million. There has been a change in the epidemiology of VL in Ethiopia. Over the last decades, almost all cases and outbreaks of VL were reported from arid and semi-arid parts of the country; however, recent reports indicated the introduction of this disease into the highlands. Migration of labourers to and from endemic areas, climatic and environmental changes, and impaired immunity due to HIV/AIDS and malnutrition resulted in the change of VL epidemiology. HIV spurs the spread of VL by increasing the risk of progression from asymptomatic infection towards full VL. Conversely, VL accelerates the onset of AIDS. In Ethiopia, VL epidemiology remains complex because of the diversity of risk factors involved, and its control is becoming an increasing challenge. This paper reviews the changes in epidemiology of VL in Ethiopia and discusses some of the possible explanations for these changes. The prospects for novel approaches to VL control are discussed, as are the current and future challenges facing Ethiopia's public health development program. PMID:25188253

  2. Some structural aspects of urbanization in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Rafiq, M; Hailemariam, A

    1987-07-01

    This article studies the emerging patterns of urbanization in Ethiopia. Over the period from 1967-1984, a number of structural changes have occurred which are likely to play a dominant role in the future urban growth in Ethiopia. In spite of its long history of settled population, Ethiopia did not witness sustained growth of urban centers. Ethiopia is 1 of the least urbanized areas in the Third World. A 3rd aspect of urbanization in Ethiopia is the wide range of regional differentials in the level of urbanization. Most of the urban population is concentrated in 2 administrative regions--Shoa and Eritrea. A more balanced urban growth may, inter alia, involve a better spread in terms of higher education, industrialization, provision of health and social services, and the development of communication and commercial infrastructure. Another striking feature of urbanization in Ethiopia is that growth has not been disproportionately concentrated in the largest urban centers. The largest urban centers have not assumed an inordinately higher level of primacy. The basic form of the curve depicting the relationship between the size of a locality and its rank has remained unchanged over the period. The post-revolution land reforms and the new socioeconomic structure emerging from reorganization of the society appear to have a rural-urban migration inhibiting effect. Some of the country's regional differentials may be associated with environmental factors.

  3. Survival analysis to measure turnover of the medical education workforce in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Assefa, Tsion; Haile Mariam, Damen; Mekonnen, Wubegzier; Derbew, Miliard

    2017-03-14

    Until recently, there were only a few medical schools in Ethiopia. However, currently, in response to the apparent shortage in physician workforce, the country has made huge progress with respect to the expansion of medical schools, by adopting the so-called flooding strategy. Nevertheless, the effectiveness of the intended strategy also relies on physician accessibility and turnover. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the distribution of physicians in the medical schools of Ethiopia and to quantify the magnitude and identify factors associated with physician turnover. This organizational faculty physician workforce survey was conducted in seven government-owned medical schools in Ethiopia. Longitudinal medical workforce data set of about 6 years (between September 2009 and June 2015) were retrospectively collected from each of the medical schools. The observation time begins with the date of employment (time zero) and ends at the date on which the physician leaves the appointment/or the data collection date. Kaplan-Meier survival method was used to describe the duration of stay of physicians in the academic health care settings. A Cox proportional hazards (CPH) model was fitted to identify the risk factors for physician turnover. In this study, a total of 1258 faculty physicians were observed in seven medical schools which resulted in 6670.5 physician-years. Of the total, there were 198 (15.7%) turnover events and the remaining 1060 (84.3%) were censored. The average turnover rate is about 29.7 per 1000 physician-years of observations. Multivariate modeling revealed no statistical significant difference in the rate of turnover between males and females (adjusted hazard ratio (AHR), 1.12; 95%CI, 0.71, 1.80). However, a lower rate of physician turnover was observed among those who were born before 1975 (AHR, 0.37; 95%CI, 0.20, 0.69) compared with those who were born after 1985. Physicians with the academic rank of associate professor and above had a

  4. Zone lines

    Treesearch

    Kevin T. Smith

    2001-01-01

    Zone lines are narrow, usually dark markings formed in decaying wood. Zone lines are found most frequently in advanced white rot of hardwoods, although they occasionally are associated both with brown rot and with softwoods.

  5. A climate trend analysis of Ethiopia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Funk, Christopher C.; Rowland, Jim; Eilerts, Gary; Kebebe, Emebet; Biru, Nigist; White, Libby; Galu, Gideon

    2012-01-01

    This brief report, drawing from a multi-year effort by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET), examines recent trends in March-June, June-September, and March-September rainfall and temperature, identifying significant reductions in rainfall and increases in temperature over time in many areas of Ethiopia. Conclusions: * Spring and summer rains in parts of Ethiopia have declined by 15-20 percent since the mid-1970s. * Substantial warming across the entire country has exacerbated the dryness.* An important pattern of observed existing rainfall declines coincides with heavily populated areas of the Rift Valley in south-central Ethiopia, and is likely already adversely affecting crop yields and pasture conditions. * Rapid population growth and the expansion of farming and pastoralism under a drier, warmer climate regime could dramatically increase the number of at-risk people in Ethiopia during the next 20 years.* Many areas of Ethiopia will maintain moist climate conditions, and agricultural development in these areas could help offset rainfall declines and reduced production in other areas.

  6. Lifesaving emergency obstetric services are inadequate in south-west Ethiopia: a formidable challenge to reducing maternal mortality in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Girma, Meseret; Yaya, Yaliso; Gebrehanna, Ewenat; Berhane, Yemane; Lindtjørn, Bernt

    2013-11-04

    Most maternal deaths take place during labour and within a few weeks after delivery. The availability and utilization of emergency obstetric care facilities is a key factor in reducing maternal mortality; however, there is limited evidence about how these institutions perform and how many people use emergency obstetric care facilities in rural Ethiopia. We aimed to assess the availability, quality, and utilization of emergency obstetric care services in the Gamo Gofa Zone of south-west Ethiopia. We conducted a retrospective review of three hospitals and 63 health centres in Gamo Gofa. Using a retrospective review, we recorded obstetric services, documents, cards, and registration books of mothers treated and served in the Gamo Gofa Zone health facilities between July 2009 and June 2010. There were three basic and two comprehensive emergency obstetric care qualifying facilities for the 1,740,885 people living in Gamo Gofa. The proportion of births attended by skilled attendants in the health facilities was 6.6% of expected births, though the variation was large. Districts with a higher proportion of midwives per capita, hospitals and health centres capable of doing emergency caesarean sections had higher institutional delivery rates. There were 521 caesarean sections (0.8% of 64,413 expected deliveries and 12.3% of 4,231 facility deliveries). We recorded 79 (1.9%) maternal deaths out of 4,231 deliveries and pregnancy-related admissions at institutions, most often because of post-partum haemorrhage (42%), obstructed labour (15%) and puerperal sepsis (15%). Remote districts far from the capital of the Zone had a lower proportion of institutional deliveries (<2% of expected births compared to an overall average of 6.6%). Moreover, some remotely located institutions had very high maternal deaths (>4% of deliveries, much higher than the average 1.9%). Based on a population of 1.7 million people, there should be 14 basic and four comprehensive emergency obstetric care (Em

  7. Serum phosphate and magnesium in children recovering from severe acute undernutrition in Ethiopia: an observational study.

    PubMed

    Hother, Anne-Louise; Girma, Tsinuel; Rytter, Maren J H; Abdissa, Alemseged; Ritz, Christian; Mølgaard, Christian; Michaelsen, Kim F; Briend, André; Friis, Henrik; Kæstel, Pernille

    2016-11-05

    Children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) have increased requirements for phosphorus and magnesium during recovery. If requirements are not met, the children may develop refeeding hypophosphatemia and hypomagnesemia. However, little is known about the effect of current therapeutic diets (F-75 and F-100) on serum phosphate (S-phosphate) and magnesium (S-magnesium) in children with SAM. Prospective observational study, with measurements of S-phosphate and S-magnesium at admission, prior to rehabilitation phase and at discharge in children aged 6-59 months admitted with SAM to Jimma Hospital, Ethiopia. Due to shortage of F-75, 25 (35 %) children were stabilized with diluted F-100 (75 kcal/100 ml). Of 72 children enrolled, the mean age was 32 ± 14 months, and edema was present in 50 (69 %). At admission, mean S-phosphate was 0.92 ± 0.34 mmol/L, which was low compared to normal values, but increased to 1.38 ± 0.28 mmol/L at discharge, after on average 16 days. Mean S-magnesium, at admission, was 0.95 ± 0.23 mmol/L, and increased to 1.13 ± 0.17 mmol/L at discharge. At discharge, 18 (51 %) children had S-phosphate below the normal range, and 3 (9 %) had S-phosphate above. Most children (83 %) had S-magnesium above normal range for children. Both S-phosphate and S-magnesium at admission were positively associated with serum albumin (S-albumin), but not with anthropometric characteristics or co-diagnoses. Using diluted F-100 for stabilization was not associated with lower S-phosphate or S-magnesium. Hypophosphatemia was common among children with SAM at admission, and still subnormal in about half of the children at discharge. This could be problematic for further recovery as phosphorus is needed for catch-up growth and local diets are likely to be low in bioavailable phosphorus. The high S-magnesium levels at discharge does not support that magnesium should be a limiting nutrient for growth in the F-100 diet. Although diluted F-100

  8. Energy and the agroeconomic complexity of Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karakatsanis, Georgios

    2016-04-01

    Since the Industrial Revolution, modern agriculture has transformed from a net energy supplier to a net energy user, via the extensive use fossil fuels -that substituted solar energy inputs- and petroleum derivative products (fertilizers) (Pimentel and Pimentel 2008; Woods et al. 2010). This condenses a significant overview of agricultural energetics, especially for economies set on their first stage of development, growth and economic diversification, such as Ethiopia. Ethiopia is the Blue Nile's most upstream country, constituting a very sensitive hydroclimatic area. Since 2008, Ethiopian agriculture experiences a boost in energy use and agricultural value-added per worker, due to the rapid introduction of oil-fueled agricultural machinery that increased productivity and allowed crop diversification. Agriculture in Ethiopia accounts for ~82% of its total exports, ~45% of its Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and ~75% of its total labor force. In addition, Ethiopia's agricultural sector is equipped with a set of new financial tools to deal with hydroclimatic extremes, like the 1983-85 droughts that deteriorated its crop output, causing a devastating famine. In fact, Ethiopia's resilience from the (most) recent drought (2015-16) has been remarkable. These facts signify that Ethiopia satisfies the necessary conditions to become a regional agritrade gravity center in the Blue Nile, granted that the dispersion of agricultural trade comprises a primary tool for securing food supply. As gravity equations have been used to model global trade webs (Tinbergen 1962), similar principles may apply to agritrade as well, for identifying emergent topological structures and supply chains. By examining the relation between energy inputs in agriculture with crop diversification and value-added chains of Ethiopia's agritrade, we could extract accurate information on the importance of energy for the country's agroeconomic complexity and regionalization trend across its first stages of

  9. Improving dietary diversity of school adolescents through school based nutrition education and home gardening in Jimma Zone: Quasi-experimental design.

    PubMed

    Tamiru, Dessalegn; Argaw, Alemayehu; Gerbaba, Mulusew; Nigussie, Aderajew; Ayana, Girmay; Belachew, Tefera

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this operational study was to assess the effectiveness school-based health and nutrition intervention supported with backyard gardening on the dietary diversity among school adolescents. A total of 1000 school adolescents from 10 to 19years were selected randomly. The intervention involved peer-led behavior change communication and health promotion through school media and health clubs. Data were collected at baseline, midline and end-line using structured questionnaires. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to determine the independent effect of interventions. There was a significant increment of proportion of school children consuming diversified diet among the intervention group from 34.8% at baseline through 65.6% at midline to 74.7% at the end-line (p<0.001). Among control group, there was no change from midline (49.4%) to endline (48.8%), though there was a change from baseline (32.1%) to midline (49.4%). A significant difference of dietary diversity intake was observed between intervention and control groups at midline (F=5.64, p=0.042) and endline (F=5.85, p<0.001) survey. Being in the intervention school (OR=2.55 [1.55, 3.50]), being a boy (OR=1.75 [1.91, 2.56]) and having farmer mothers (OR=2.58 [1.01, 6.87]) were independent positive predictors of a diversified diet intake. However, having a mother who attended secondary schools were inversely associated (OR=0.25 [0.06, 0.97]) with consuming a diversified diet. Findings of this study demonstrated that there was a significant improvement in dietary diversity of adolescents in intervention schools. The results imply that school based nutrition education should be a part of comprehensive school health programs to reach students and potentially their families. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. High Incidence of Human Rabies Exposure in Northwestern Tigray, Ethiopia: A Four-Year Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Teklu, Gebreyohans Gebru; Hailu, Teweldemedhn Gebretinsae; Eshetu, Gebremedhin Romha

    2017-01-01

    Background Rabies is a fatal zoonotic disease that has been known in Ethiopia for centuries in society as “Mad Dog Disease”. It is an important disease with veterinary and public health significance in the North western zone of Tigray where previous studies have not been conducted. Frequent occurrence of outbreaks in the area led the researchers to carry out a four year retrospective study to estimate the incidence of human rabies exposure in Northwestern Tigray, Ethiopia. Methodology A referent study was conducted on human rabies exposure cases recorded from 2012 to 2015 at Suhul hospital, Shire Endaselase, Northwestern Tigray, Ethiopia. Exposure cases included in this research constituted victims bitten by unprovoked dogs and who received post exposure prophylaxis (PEP) at the hospital. Two thousand one hundred eighty human rabies exposure cases retrieved from the rabies case database were included in this study. Principal findings The majority of the exposed cases were males (1363/2180, 63%). Age wise, the most exposed age group was ≥15 years in all the study years: 166 (58%), 335 (65%), 492 (66%) and 394 (63%) in 2012, 2013, 2014 and 2015, respectively. Similarly, exposure cases for human rabies increased with age in both males and females across the study years. The incidence of human rabies exposure cases calculated per 100,000 populations was 35.8, 63.0, 89.8 and 73.1 in 2012, 2013, 2014 and 2015, respectively. Binary logistic regression analysis revealed that being male was a risk for human rabies exposure in all the study years. Conclusion The study discovered the highest annual human rabies exposure incidence in Ethiopia. This suggests an urgent need for synergistic efforts of human and animal health sectors to implement prevention and control strategies in this area. PMID:28060935

  11. Communities and community genetics in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Tadesse, Luche; Tafesse, Fikru; Hamamy, Hanan

    2014-01-01

    The rates of congenital and genetic disorders in low and middle income countries are similar or might be higher than in high income countries due to a multitude of risk factors and the dearth of community genetic services. To direct effective preventive, diagnostic and counseling services, collecting data on the incidence and prevalence of various congenital and genetic disorders and their risk factors is a pre-requisite for establishing genetic services at the community level and mainly at the primary health care setting. This brief review is meant to assess the available epidemiological data in Ethiopia pertaining to congenital and genetic disorders on which the future community genetic services could be built. Existing epidemiological data on congenital and genetic disorders in Ethiopia is limited, and the few studies conducted revealed that folate and iodine deficiencies are prevalent among women in the reproductive age. Pregnant women's infection with syphilis and rubella is prevailing. Based on available data, cleft lip and palate, congenital heart diseases, club-foot, and gastro-intestinal malformations are the most common birth defects in Ethiopia. Community based studies to accurately demonstrate the incidence and prevalence levels of these disorders are almost unavailable. To plan for organization and implementation of community genetic services at the primary health care level in Ethiopia, conducting standardized epidemiological studies is currently highly recommended.

  12. Communities and community genetics in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Tadesse, Luche; Tafesse, Fikru; Hamamy, Hanan

    2014-01-01

    The rates of congenital and genetic disorders in low and middle income countries are similar or might be higher than in high income countries due to a multitude of risk factors and the dearth of community genetic services. To direct effective preventive, diagnostic and counseling services, collecting data on the incidence and prevalence of various congenital and genetic disorders and their risk factors is a pre-requisite for establishing genetic services at the community level and mainly at the primary health care setting. This brief review is meant to assess the available epidemiological data in Ethiopia pertaining to congenital and genetic disorders on which the future community genetic services could be built. Existing epidemiological data on congenital and genetic disorders in Ethiopia is limited, and the few studies conducted revealed that folate and iodine deficiencies are prevalent among women in the reproductive age. Pregnant women's infection with syphilis and rubella is prevailing. Based on available data, cleft lip and palate, congenital heart diseases, club-foot, and gastro-intestinalmalformations are the most common birth defects in Ethiopia. Community based studies to accurately demonstrate the incidence and prevalence levels of these disorders are almost unavailable. To plan for organization and implementation of community genetic services at the primary health care level in Ethiopia, conducting standardized epidemiological studies is currently highly recommended. PMID:25404975

  13. Borrelia recurrentis in head lice, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Boutellis, Amina; Mediannikov, Oleg; Bilcha, Kassahun Desalegn; Ali, Jemal; Campelo, Dayana; Barker, Stephen C; Raoult, Didier

    2013-05-01

    Since the 1800s, the only known vector of Borrelia recurrentis has been the body louse. In 2011, we found B. recurrentis DNA in 23% of head lice from patients with louse-borne relapsing fever in Ethiopia. Whether head lice can transmit these bacteria from one person to another remains to be determined.

  14. Study on the epidemiology of foot and mouth disease in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Ayelet, G; Gelaye, E; Negussie, H; Asmare, K

    2012-12-01

    This study was designed to describe the status of foot and mouth disease (FMD) in Ethiopia, through analysis of FMD outbreak reports and the detection of antibodies, to address the possibility of establishing a disease-free zone. Serum samples collected from cattle between 2003 and 2006 for the serosurveillance of rinderpest were used for this study. The records of the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development from 2002 to 2006 indicate that FMD outbreaks occurred each year in Ethiopia during this period, with the highest number in 2004, when 134 outbreaks took place. The highest rates were from the North Shoa zones of both the Oromia and Amhara regions. The serum samples were tested using the 3ABC enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit, to identify antibodies against FMD. From a total of 4,465 sera, 10.5% (n = 467) tested positive. The highest seroprevalence was detected in samples from the Eastern zone of Rgray with 41.5%; followed by the Guji zone of Oromia and Yeka district of the city of Addis Ababa, with 32.7% and 30%, respectively. Antibodies specific to FMD virus were not detected in Gambella or Benishangul. The effects of cattle, sheep and goat density, both separately and together, were analysed with a spatial regression model, but did not have a significant effect on seroprevalence. This indicates that other factors, such as farming systems and livestock movement, play a significant role in the occurrence of FMD. Based on these study findings, it might be appropriate to establish disease-free zones in Gambella and Benishangul.

  15. Use, perceptions, and acceptability of a ready-to-use supplementary food among adult HIV patients initiating antiretroviral treatment: a qualitative study in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, Mette Frahm; Tesfaye, Markos; Kaestel, Pernille; Friis, Henrik; Holm, Lotte

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Ready-to-use supplementary foods (RUSF) are used increasingly in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) programs, but little is known about how it is used and viewed by patients. We used qualitative methods to explore the use, perceptions, and acceptability of RUSF among adult HIV patients in Jimma, Ethiopia. Methods The study obtained data from direct observations and 24 in-depth interviews with HIV patients receiving RUSF. Results Participants were generally very motivated to take RUSF and viewed it as beneficial. RUSF was described as a means to fill a nutritional gap, to “rebuild the body,” and protect it from harmful effects of antiretroviral treatment (ART). Many experienced nausea and vomiting when starting the supplement. This caused some to stop supplementation, but the majority adapted to RUSF. The supplement was eaten separately from meal situations and only had a little influence on household food practices. RUSF was described as food with “medicinal qualities,” which meant that many social and religious conventions related to food did not apply to it. The main concerns about RUSF related to the risk of HIV disclosure and its social consequences. Conclusion HIV patients view RUSF in a context of competing livelihood needs. RUSF intake was motivated by a strong wish to get well, while the risk of HIV disclosure caused concerns. Despite the motivation for improving health, the preservation of social networks was prioritized, and nondisclosure was often a necessary strategy. Food sharing and religious fasting practices were not barriers to the acceptability of RUSF. This study highlights the importance of ensuring that supplementation strategies, like other HIV services, are compatible with the sociocultural context of patients. PMID:23766634

  16. Permian and Triassic microfloral assemblages from the Blue Nile Basin, central Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawit, Enkurie L.

    2014-11-01

    Palynological investigation was carried out on surface samples from up to 400 m thick continental siliciclastic sediments, here referred to as “Fincha Sandstone”, in the Blue Nile Basin, central Ethiopia. One hundred sixty species were identified from 15 productive samples collected along a continuous road-cut exposure. Six informal palynological assemblage zones have been identified. These assemblage zones, in ascending order, are: “Central Ethiopian Permian Assemblage Zone - CEPAZ I”, earliest Permian (Asselian-Sakmarian); “CEPAZ II”, late Early Permian (Artinskian-Kungurian); CEPAZ III - Late Permian (Kazanian-Tatarian); “CETAZ IV”, Lower Triassic (Olenekian Induan); “CETAZ V”, Middle Triassic (Anisian Ladinian); “CETAZ VI”, Late Triassic (Carnian Norian). Tentative age ranges proposed herein are compared with faunally calibrated palynological zones in Gondwana. The overall composition and vertical distribution of miospores throughout the studied section reveals a wide variation both qualitatively and quantitatively. The high frequency of monosaccate pollen in CEPAZ I may reflect a Glossopterid-dominated upland flora in the earliest Permian. The succeeding zone is dominated by straite/taeniate disaccate pollen and polyplicates, suggesting a notable increase in diversity of glossopterids. The decline in the diversity of taeniate disaccate pollen and the concomitant rise in abundance of non-taeniate disaccates in CEPAZ III may suggest the decline in Glossopteris diversity, though no additional evidence is available to equate this change with End-Permian extinction. More diverse and dominant non-taeniate, disaccate, seed fern pollen assignable to FalcisporitesAlisporites in CETAZ IV may represent an earliest Triassic recovery flora. The introduction of new disaccate forms with thick, rigid sacci, such as Staurosaccites and Cuneatisporites, in CETAZ V and VI may indicate the emergence of new gymnospermous plants that might have favourably

  17. Uppermost mantle (Pn) velocity model for the Afar region, Ethiopia: an insight into rifting processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stork, A. L.; Stuart, G. W.; Henderson, C. M.; Keir, D.; Hammond, J. O. S.

    2013-04-01

    The Afar Depression, Ethiopia, offers unique opportunities to study the transition from continental rifting to oceanic spreading because the process is occurring onland. Using traveltime tomography and data from a temporary seismic deployment, we describe the first regional study of uppermost mantle P-wave velocities (VPn). We find two separate low VPn zones (as low as 7.2 km s-1) beneath regions of localized thinned crust in northern Afar, indicating the existence of high temperatures and, potentially, partial melt. The zones are beneath and off-axis from, contemporary crustal magma intrusions in active magmatic segments, the Dabbahu-Manda-Hararo and Erta'Ale segments. This suggests that these intrusions can be fed by off-axis delivery of melt in the uppermost mantle and that discrete areas of mantle upwelling and partial melting, thought to characterize segmentation of the uppermost mantle at seafloor spreading centres, are initiated during the final stages of break-up.

  18. Ethiopia: an emerging family planning success story.

    PubMed

    Olson, David J; Piller, Andrew

    2013-12-01

    From 1990 to 2011, contraceptive use in Ethiopia increased ninefold and the total fertility rate fell from 7.0 to 4.8. These are two dramatic illustrations of a family planning success story that has emerged over the last two decades and is still emerging. What are the main elements of this success? We posit that the four most significant factors are: political will, generous donor support, nongovernmental and public-private partnerships, and the government's establishment of a network of health extension workers. In this study, we look at these factors and how their interaction increased the proportion of women having both the desire to use and ability to access contraceptives. Also highlighted are some of the key lessons learned in Ethiopia that are relevant to other African countries interested in emulating the country's success. © 2013 The Population Council, Inc.

  19. Eritrean Options and Ethiopia’s Future

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-09-01

    great modernizing emperors, Menelik II and Haile Selassie I, were centralizers who dealt with different regions and groups with attention to local...movements and to ii ’ -nsify their competition for influence in them. Haile Selassie’s alleged oppressive policies in Eritrea quickly became the...Socialism." All of Ethiopia’s misfortunes during the ensuing 15 years stemmed directly from these two fateful decisions. -5- II . ENDLESS WAR The Derg’s

  20. The Practices of Student Network as Cooperative Learning in Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reda, Weldemariam Nigusse; Hagos, Girmay Tsegay

    2015-01-01

    Student network is a teaching strategy introduced as cooperative learning to all educational levels above the upper primary schools (grade 5 and above) in Ethiopia. The study was, therefore, aimed at investigating to what extent the student network in Ethiopia is actually practiced in line with the principles of cooperative learning. Consequently,…

  1. Extension Agents' Awareness of Climate Change in Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abegaz, Dagmawi M.; Wims, Padraig

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The fact that highly vulnerable countries like Ethiopia face far greater challenges from climate change makes agricultural adaptation a top priority. Even though the public agriculture extension system in Ethiopia plays a central role in facilitating and supporting adaptation, very limited information is available on how aware the actual…

  2. Volcanic outcrops of southeast Ethiopia and the Ogaden Dyke Swarm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mège, Daniel; Purcell, Peter; Jourdan, Fred; Pochat, Stéphane

    2013-04-01

    A new map of Tertiary volcanics occurrences in the Ogaden region of southeast Ethiopia and adjacent areas of Somalia has been prepared. Outcrop areas, mapped using satellite images and helicopter-­-supported field work in 2008, are more widespread than previously recognized, while magnetic and drill data reveal the vast subsurface extent of the magmatism. Several spectacular 'meandering' outcrops, over 100 km long, are undoubtedly exhumed canyon-­-filling flows and magnetic data show that many other apparently isolated outcrops are actually part of similar flows, the bulk of which are now subsurface. Age dating and well intersections show several volcanic episodes, with the major outpouring occurring across a broad peneplain in the Oligocene. Geological and aeromagnetic mapping, and 40Ar/39Ar age dating, reveal a dyke swarm extending SSE from the southern Afar margin more than 600 km across the Somali Plate, and coeval with dyke injection in the Red Sea rift at ~25 Ma. The Ogaden Dyke Swarm, which occurs in an area historically considered remote from the impact of the Afro-­-Arabian rifting and volcanism, appears associated with the Marda Fault and marks a zone of crustal dilation along the Red Sea trend across the Horn of Africa. Contemporaneous rifts, also trending WNW/ESE and over 120 km long, occur in NE Somalia, confirming the predominantly NE/SW-­-directed crustal stress regime in the Ogaden and adjacent region at this time.

  3. Proposed water-supply investigations in Sidamo Province, Ethiopia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phoenix, David A.

    1966-01-01

    The present report describes the results of an air and ground hydrologic reconnaissance of some 32,000 square kilometers in Sidamo Province of southern Ethiopia. Existing (1966) water resources developments, chiefly for livestock and village supplies, include surface reservoirs, a few drilled wells, several clusters of dug wells in the Mega area, several scattered springs, and the perennial Dawa Parma River. Surface-water reservoirs range from hand-dug ponds of a few hundred cubic meters capacity to large machine-constructed excavations built to hold 62,000 cubic meters of water. All the existing drilled wells tap saturated alluvium at depths of less than 120 meters. The dug wells tap water-bearing zones in tuffaceous lacustrine deposits or stream-channel alluvium generally at depths of less than 30 meters. The springs mostly rise from fractured Precambrian quartzite and individual discharges are all less than 75 liters per minute. The report also outlines the terms of reference for a longer term water-resources investigation of the region including staffing, housing and equipment requirements and other logistic support.

  4. Nutritional iron deficiency anemia: magnitude and its predictors among school age children, southwest Ethiopia: a community based cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Desalegn, Amare; Mossie, Andualem; Gedefaw, Lealem

    2014-01-01

    Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is a global public health problem among school age children, which retards psychomotor development and impairs cognitive performance. There is limited data on prevalence and risk factors for IDA. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, severity, and predictors of nutritional IDA in school age children in Southwest Ethiopia. A community based cross-sectional study was conducted in Jimma Town, Southwest Ethiopia from April to July 2013. A total of 616 school children aged 6 to 12 years were included in the study using multistage sampling technique. A structured questionnaire was used to collect sociodemographic data. Five milliliter venous blood was collected from each child for hematological examinations. Anemia was defined as a hemoglobin level lower than 11.5 g/dl and 12 g/dl for age group of 5-11 years and 12-15 years, respectively. Iron deficiency anemia was defined when serum iron and ferritin levels are below 10 µmol/l and 15 µg/dl, respectively. Moreover, fresh stool specimen was collected for diagnosis of intestinal parasitic infection. Stained thick and thin blood films were examined for detection of Plasmodium infection and study of red blood cell morphology. Dietary patterns of the study subjects were assessed using food frequency questionnaire and anthropometric measurements were done. Data were analyzed using SPSS V-20.0 for windows. Overall, prevalence of anemia was 43.7%, and that of IDA was 37.4%. Not-consuming protein source foods [AOR = 2.30, 95%CI(1.04,5.14)], not-consuming dairy products [AOR = 1.83, 95%CI(1.14,5.14)], not-consuming discretionary calories [AOR = 2.77, 95%CI(1.42,5.40)], low family income [AOR = 6.14, 95%CI(2.90,12.9)] and intestinal parasitic infections [AOR = 1.45, 95%CI(1.23, 5. 27)] were predictors of IDA. Iron deficiency anemia is a moderate public health problem in the study site. Dietary deficiencies and intestinal parasitic infections were predictors of IDA

  5. Historicizing Teaching in Awgni as a Mother Tongue Language at Primary Schools of Awi Nationality Administrative Zone: Challenges and Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engida, Alemayehu Erkihun

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the challenges facing the teaching as well as the implementation of Awgni as a mother tongue language in primary schools of Awi administrative zone. The need to teach through mother tongue in Ethiopia was widely discussed following the change of the politics in 1991. To this end, the government issued new education and training…

  6. Determinants of child anthropometric indicators in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi, Davod; Amarnani, Ekta; Sen, Akankasha; Ebadi, Narges; Cortbaoui, Patrick; Melgar-Quiñonez, Hugo

    2018-05-15

    Malnutrition is one of the major contributors to child mortality in Ethiopia. Currently established, child nutrition status is assessed by four anthropometric indicators. However, there are other factors affecting children's anthropometric statuses. Thus, the main objective of this paper is to explore some of the determinants of child anthropometric indicators in Ethiopia. Data from GROW (the Growing Nutrition for Mothers and Children), a survey including 1261 mothers and 1261 children was carried out in Ethiopia in 2016. Based on the data gathered, the goal of GROW is to improve the nutritional status of women of reproductive age (15-49), as well as boys and girls under 5 years of age in Ethiopia. In order to investigate the association between different factors and child anthropometric indicators, this study employs various statistical methods, such as ANOVA, T-test, and linear regressions. Child's sex (confidence intervals for (wasting = - 0.782, - 0.151; stunting = - 0.936,-0.243) (underweight = - 0.530, - 0.008), child's age (confidence intervals for (wasting = - 0.020, 0.007; stunting = - 0.042,-0.011) (underweight = - 0.025, - 0.002), maternal MUAC (confidence intervals for (wasting = 0.189, 0.985; BMI-for-age = 0.077, 0.895), maternal education (stunting = 0.095, 0.897; underweight = 0.120, 0.729), and open defecation (stunting = 0.055, 0.332; underweight = 0.042, 0.257) were found to be significantly associated with anthropometric indicators. Contrary to some findings, maternal dietary diversity does not present significance in aforementioned child anthropometric indicators. Depending on the choice of children anthropometric indicator, different conclusions were drawn demonstrating the association between each factor to child nutritional status. Results showed child's sex, age, region, open defecation, and maternal MUAC significantly increases the risk of child anthropometric indicators

  7. The relationship of undernutrition/psychosocial factors and developmental outcomes of children in extreme poverty in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Worku, Berhanu Nigussie; Abessa, Teklu Gemechu; Wondafrash, Mekitie; Vanvuchelen, Marleen; Bruckers, Liesbeth; Kolsteren, Patrick; Granitzer, Marita

    2018-02-09

    Extreme poverty is severe deprivation of basic needs and services. Children living in extreme poverty may lack adequate parental care and face increased developmental and health risks. However, there is a paucity of literature on the combined influences of undernutrition and psychosocial factors (such as limited play materials, playground, playtime, interactions of children with their peers and mother-child interaction) on children's developmental outcomes. The main objective of this study was, therefore, to ascertain the association of developmental outcomes and psychosocial factors after controlling nutritional indices. A community-based cross-sectional study design was used to compare the developmental outcomes of extremely poor children (N = 819: 420 girls and 399 boys) younger than 5 years versus age-matched reference children (N = 819: 414 girls and 405 boys) in South-West Ethiopia. Using Denver II-Jimma, development in personal-social, language, fine and gross motor skills were assessed, and social-emotional skills were evaluated using the Ages and Stages Questionnaires: Social-Emotional (ASQ: SE). Nutritional status was derived from the anthropometric method. Independent samples t-test was used to detect mean differences in developmental outcomes between extremely poor and reference children. Multiple linear regression analysis was employed to identify nutritional and psychosocial factors associated with the developmental scores of children in extreme poverty. Children in extreme poverty performed worse in all the developmental domains than the reference children. Among the 819 extremely poor children, 325 (39.7%) were stunted, 135 (16.5%) were underweight and 27 (3.3%) were wasted. The results also disclosed that stunting and underweightness were negatively associated with all the developmental skills. After taking into account the effects of stunting and being underweight on the developmental scores, it was observed that limited play activities

  8. Prevalence of depression and its associated factors among primary caregivers of patients with severe mental illness in southwest, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Derajew, Habtamu; Tolessa, Daniel; Feyissa, Garumma Tolu; Addisu, Fikir; Soboka, Matiwos

    2017-03-09

    Depression is a serious mental illness that affects patients' treatment outcome and caregiver's day to day life. The prevalence of depression among caregivers of patients with severe mental illness is greater than the general population. Little is known about depression among primary caregivers of patients with severe mental illness in Ethiopia. This study is aimed at assessing prevalence of depression and associated factors among primary caregivers of patients with mental illness. A cross-sectional study was conducted among primary caregivers of patients with severe mental illness in Jimma University Teaching Hospital. Patient health questionnaire (PHQ-9) was used to assess depression. A multidimensional scale of perceived social support (MSPSS) was used to assess perceived social support; Cut down, Annoyed, Guilty, Eye opener (CAGE) scale was used to assess alcohol use disorder. After conducting descriptive analyses, logistic regression analysis was finally used for bivariate and multivariable analysis. The overall prevalence of depression among primary caregivers of patients with mental illness was 12 (19%). Out of those caregivers with depressions, 11.3, 3.5 and 4.2% had moderate, moderately severe and severe types of depression respectively. The prevalence of depression among female primary caregivers was 25% (n = 40). Being single (aOR 2.62, 95% CI = 1.07, 6.41), giving care more than six hours per day (aOR 3.75, 95% CI = 1.51, 9.33) and caring for a patient who had more than once episodes of suicidal attempts (aOR 1.48, 95% CI = 1.07, 3.42) were positively associated with depression among caregivers of patients with mental illness. We found that the prevalence of depression among primary caregivers was high. Depression among caregivers was associated with giving care more than six hours per day and caring for a patient who had two or more episodes of suicidal attempts. The prevalence of depression among female caregivers was higher than that

  9. Factors shaping interactions among community health workers in rural Ethiopia: rethinking workplace trust and teamwork.

    PubMed

    Dynes, Michelle M; Stephenson, Rob; Hadley, Craig; Sibley, Lynn M

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide, a shortage of skilled health workers has prompted a shift toward community-based health workers taking on greater responsibility in the provision of select maternal and newborn health services. Research in mid- and high-income settings suggests that coworker collaboration increases productivity and performance. A major gap in this research, however, is the exploration of factors that influence teamwork among diverse community health worker cadres in rural, low-resource settings. The purpose of this study is to examine how sociodemographic and structural factors shape teamwork among community-based maternal and newborn health workers in Ethiopia. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with health extension workers, community health development agents, and traditional birth attendants in 3 districts of the West Gojam Zone in the Amhara region of Ethiopia. Communities were randomly selected from Maternal and Newborn Health in Ethiopia Partnership (MaNHEP) sites; health worker participants were recruited using a snowball sampling strategy. Fractional logit modeling and average marginal effects analyses were carried out to identify the influential factors for frequency of work interactions with each cadre. One hundred and ninety-four health workers participated in the study. A core set of factors-trust in coworkers, gender, and cadre-were influential for teamwork across groups. Greater geographic distance and perception of self-interested motivations were barriers to interactions with health extension workers, while greater food insecurity (a proxy for wealth) was associated with increased interactions with traditional birth attendants. Interventions that promote trust and gender sensitivity and improve perceptions of health worker motivations may help bridge the gap in health services delivery between low- and high-resource settings. Inter-cadre training may be one mechanism to increase trust and respect among diverse health workers, thereby increasing

  10. Molecular detection of tick-borne pathogens in cattle from Southwestern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Hailemariam, Zerihun; Krücken, Jürgen; Baumann, Maximilian; Ahmed, Jabbar S; Clausen, Peter-Henning; Nijhof, Ard M

    2017-01-01

    Tick-borne diseases (TBDs) cause significant losses among livestock and impact the livelihoods of resource-poor farming communities worldwide. In Ethiopia, detailed studies on the epidemiology of tick-borne pathogens (TBPs) in cattle using sensitive molecular detection methods are scarce. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and species composition of bovine TBPs of veterinary significance in local cattle populations. A comprehensive cross-sectional epidemiological study was conducted in cattle populations of Illubabor zone in Southwestern Ethiopia from June to August 2013. For this purpose, blood samples were collected from 392 cattle. A combination of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and a Reverse Line Blot (RLB) hybridization assay was employed for the detection of TBPs in these samples. The PCR/RLB results of the 392 blood samples indicated a high overall prevalence of 96.9% for TBPs, including Theileria mutans (66.1%), Theileria orientalis (51.8%), Anaplasma sp. Omatjenne (25.5%), Anaplasma marginale (14.5%), Babesia bigemina (14.0%) and Theileria velifera (13.0%) and minor occurrences of Ehrlichia ruminantium (0.5%) and Ehrlichia minasensis (0.26%). Moreover, three novel Anaplasma genotypes were detected in bovine blood samples. A phylogenetic analysis revealed that they most likely represent three, but at least two, new species. The prevalence of the three novel Anaplasma species, preliminary designated as Anaplasma sp. Hadesa, Anaplasma sp. Saso and Anaplasma sp. Dedessa, was 12.5%, 14.3% and 5.6%, respectively. Overall, a total of 227 cattle (57.9%) were found to be co-infected with two or more TBPs simultaneously and 86 different species combinations were observed. The findings show a very high burden of infection of cattle with TBPs in Ethiopia. The high frequency of co-infections suggests that clinical manifestations might be complex. Further research is required to determine the pathogenicity, host cell types and vector of the

  11. Sustainability of community based family planning services: experience from rural Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Genna, Shimeles; Fantahun, Mesganaw; Berhane, Yemane

    2006-01-01

    The important role of active Community Based Reproductive Health Services (CBRHS), formerly known us Community Based Distribution (CBD) of family planning program, in increasing contraceptive uptake has been reported from several studies. However, the sustainability of project based services has not been documented in Ethiopia. This study was conducted to assess the effectiveness and sustainability of community based Family planning services in rural communities of Ethiopia. The study was carried out in three sets of 30 peasant villages selected from five districts of Eastern Showa Zone in Ethiopia. Comparison was made between never former; and current CBRHS areas. Relevant information was collected using a structured and pre-tested questionnaire. The respondents were women in the reproductive age groups (15-49 years). Knowledge about contraception was higher in both former and current CBRHS communities as compared to never CBRHS areas [MH-OR (95% CI) = 6.89 (4.69, 10.17) and 12.48 (7.84, 20.25)], respectively. Ever use of modern contraception was significantly greater among women from former and current CBRHS communities as compared to never CBRHS communities [MH-OR (95% CI) = 3.75 (2.54, 5.97) and 5.72 (3.93, 9.39), respectively]. Current use of modern contraception methods was however significantly better only in current CBRHS areas [MH-OR (95% CI) = 2.42; (1.16, 5.37)]; there was no statistically significant difference with former CBRHS areas [MH-OR (95% CI) = 1.13; (0.51, 2.49)]. Results of this study indicate that the effect of CBRHS in raising the level of modern contraception use in rural communities is transient. In order to sustain the effects of a good community based family planning services appropriate mechanisms must be designed to motivate and enable women to continuously utilize the services.

  12. Potential for Cost Recovery: Women’s Willingness to Pay for Injectable Contraceptives in Tigray, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Prata, Ndola; Bell, Suzanne; Weidert, Karen; Gessessew, Amanuel

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate factors associated with a woman’s willingness to pay (WTP) for injectable contraceptives in Tigray, Ethiopia. Methods We used a multistage random sampling design to generate a representative sample of reproductive age women from the Central Zone of Tigray, Ethiopia to participate in a survey (N = 1490). Respondents who had ever used injectable contraceptives or who were interested in using them were asked whether they would be willing to pay, and if so, how much. Logistic regression odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and p-values were used to assess which factors were associated with WTP in our final model. Findings On average, respondents were willing to pay 11 birr ($0.65 USD) per injection. Being married, completing any amount of education, having given birth, and having visited a health facility in the last 12 months (whether received family planning information or not) were associated with statistically significantly increased odds of WTP. Having initiated sexual activity and having 1–2 children (compared to 0 children) were associated with statistically significantly decreased odds of WTP. We also detected two significant interactions. Among women who prefer injectable contraceptives, their odds of WTP for injectable contraceptives vary across length of time they have used them. And among women who work for pay, their odds of WTP for injectable contraceptives vary by whether they agree with their husband/partner about the ideal number of children. Conclusion In a sector that continually struggles with funding, cost recovery for contraceptive services may offer a means of improved financial sustainability while increasing rural access to injectable contraceptives. Results indicate there are opportunities for cost recovery in rural Tigray, Ethiopia and highlight factors that could be leveraged to increase WTP for injectable contraceptives. PMID:23700451

  13. Prevalence of physical, verbal and nonverbal sexual harassments and their association with psychological distress among Jimma University female students: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Mamaru, Almaz; Getachew, Kinde; Mohammed, Yasmin

    2015-01-01

    A number of studies conducted on sexual harassment focused on general magnitude rather than specific details of the various forms of sexual harassment and their effect on psychological health. Thus, the objective of this study was to assess the prevalence rates of the various forms of sexual harassments and their associations with psychological distress among Jimma University female students. Three hundred and eighty five (385) female participants were selected from all colleges using stratified and systematic sampling techniques. A structured questionnaire consisting of items on the various forms of sexual harassment and psychological distress was administered. The prevalence rates of physical, verbal and nonverbal sexual harassments were 78.2%, 90.4% and 80.0%, respectively, while the prevalence rate of psychological distress among students who had experienced sexual harassment was 63.0%. The multivariable logistic regression analyses indicated that students who were physically [adjusted OR = 3.950, 95% CI = (1.979, 7.884)] and nonverbally [(adjusted OR = 12.099, 95% CI= (5.190, 28.205] harassed were 4 and 12 times more likely to experience psychological distress, respectively, adjusted for all other variables. The prevalence of various forms of sexual harassment were higher and strongly associated with psychological distress. Important implications for University officials and policy makers including creating harassment free University have been drawn. Otherwise, female students tend to dropout and their academic achievements suffer a lot as a result of psychological distress; and the government's effort for realizing the gender parity in education would be compromised.

  14. Yield gap analyses to estimate attainable bovine milk yields and evaluate options to increase production in Ethiopia and India.

    PubMed

    Mayberry, Dianne; Ash, Andrew; Prestwidge, Di; Godde, Cécile M; Henderson, Ben; Duncan, Alan; Blummel, Michael; Ramana Reddy, Y; Herrero, Mario

    2017-07-01

    Livestock provides an important source of income and nourishment for around one billion rural households worldwide. Demand for livestock food products is increasing, especially in developing countries, and there are opportunities to increase production to meet local demand and increase farm incomes. Estimating the scale of livestock yield gaps and better understanding factors limiting current production will help to define the technological and investment needs in each livestock sector. The aim of this paper is to quantify livestock yield gaps and evaluate opportunities to increase dairy production in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia, using case studies from Ethiopia and India. We combined three different methods in our approach. Benchmarking and a frontier analysis were used to estimate attainable milk yields based on survey data. Household modelling was then used to simulate the effects of various interventions on dairy production and income. We tested interventions based on improved livestock nutrition and genetics in the extensive lowland grazing zone and highland mixed crop-livestock zones of Ethiopia, and the intensive irrigated and rainfed zones of India. Our analyses indicate that there are considerable yield gaps for dairy production in both countries, and opportunities to increase production using the interventions tested. In some cases, combined interventions could increase production past currently attainable livestock yields.

  15. Blending local scale information for developing agricultural resilience in Ethiopia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Funk, Christopher C.; Husak, Gregory; Mahiny, A.S; Eilerts, Gary; Rowland, James

    2013-01-01

    This brief article looks at the intersection of climate, land cover/land use, and population trends in the world's most food insecure country, Ethiopia. As a result of warming in the Indian and Western Pacific oceans, Ethiopia has experienced substantial drying over the past 20 years. We intersect the spatial pattern of this drying with high resolution climatologies, maps of agricultural expansion, population data, and socioeconomic livelihoods information to suggest that the coincidence of drying and agricultural expansion in south-central Ethiopia is likely adversely affecting a densely populated region with high levels of poverty and low wage levels.

  16. Effects of nutritional supplementation for HIV patients starting antiretroviral treatment: randomised controlled trial in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Mette F; Abdissa, Alemseged; Kæstel, Pernille; Tesfaye, Markos; Yilma, Daniel; Girma, Tsinuel; Wells, Jonathan C K; Ritz, Christian; Mølgaard, Christian; Michaelsen, Kim F; Zerfu, Dilnesaw; Brage, Søren; Andersen, Ase B; Friis, Henrik

    2014-05-15

    To determine the effects of lipid based nutritional supplements with either whey or soy protein in patients with HIV during the first three months of antiretroviral treatment (ART) and to explore effects of timing by comparing supplementation at the start of ART and after three months delay. Randomised controlled trial. Three public ART facilities in Jimma, Oromia region, Ethiopia. Adults with HIV eligible for ART with body mass index (BMI) >16. Daily supplementation with 200 g (4600 kJ) of supplement containing whey or soy during either the first three or the subsequent three months of ART. Primary: lean body mass assessed with deuterium dilution, grip strength measured with dynamometers, and physical activity measured with accelerometer and heart rate monitors. Secondary: viral load and CD4 counts. Auxiliary: weight and CD3 and CD8 counts. Of 318 patients enrolled, 210 (66%) were women, mean age was 33 (SD 9), and mean BMI was 19.5 (SD 2.4). At three months, participants receiving the supplements containing whey or soy had increased their lean body mass by 0.85 kg (95% confidence interval 0.16 kg to 1.53 kg) and 0.97 kg (0.29 kg to 1.64 kg), respectively, more than controls. This was accompanied by an increased gain of grip strength of 0.68 kg (-0.11 kg to 1.46 kg) for the whey supplement group and 0.93 kg (0.16 kg to 1.70 kg) for the soy supplement group. There were no effects on physical activity. Total weight gain increased by 2.05 kg (1.12 kg to 2.99 kg) and 2.06 kg (1.14 kg to 2.97 kg) for the whey and soy groups, respectively. In addition, in the whey supplement group overall CD3 counts improved by 150 cells/µL (24 to 275 cells/µL), of which 112 cells/µL (15 to 209 cells/µL) were CD8 and 25 cells/µL (-2 to 53 cells/µL) were CD4. Effects of the soy containing supplement on immune recovery were not significant. The effects of the two supplements, however, were not significantly different in direct comparison. Exploratory analysis showed that relatively

  17. Determinants of institutional delivery among childbearing age women in Western Ethiopia, 2013: unmatched case control study.

    PubMed

    Feyissa, Tesfaye Regassa; Genemo, Gebi Agero

    2014-01-01

    Place of delivery is a crucial factor which affects the health and wellbeing of the mother and newborn. Institutional delivery helps the women to access skilled assistance, drugs, equipment, and referral transport. Even though 34% of pregnant women received at least one antenatal care from a skilled provider in Ethiopia by 2013, institutional delivery was 10%. The main objective of the study was to assess determinants of institutional delivery in Western Ethiopia. Retrospective unmatched case control study design was used to assess determinants of institutional delivery in Western Ethiopia from September to October 2013. A total of 320 respondents from six districts of East Wollega zone, West Ethiopia were included. Data were collected using pretested and structured questionnaires. Data were entered and cleaned by Epi-info then exported and analyzed using SPSS software. Statistical significance was determined through a 95% confidence level. Education [Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) (95% Confidence Interval (CI)) = 2.754(1.510-8.911)], family size [AOR (95% CI) = .454(.209-.984)], residence [AOR (95% CI) = 3.822 (1.766-8.272)] were important predictors of place of delivery. Four or more antenatal care [(ANC) (AOR (95% CI) = 2.914(1.105-7.682)], birth order [(AOR (95% CI) = .136(.054-.344), age at last delivery [(AOR (95% CI) = 9.995(2.101-47.556)], birth preparedness [AOR (95% CI) = 6.957(2.422-19.987)], duration of labour [AOR (95% CI) = 3.541(1.732-7.239)] were significantly associated with institutional delivery. Moreover service related factors such as distance from health institutions [AOR (95% CI) = .665(.173-.954)], respondents' awareness of skill of health care professionals [AOR (95% CI) = 2.454 (1.663-6.255)], mode of transportations [AOR (95% CI) = .258(.122-.549)] were significantly associated with institutional delivery. Policy makers, health service organizations, community leaders and other concerned bodies have

  18. Fertility and Life Satisfaction in Rural Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Conzo, Pierluigi; Fuochi, Giulia; Mencarini, Letizia

    2017-08-01

    Despite recent strong interest in the link between fertility and subjective well-being, the focus has centered on developed countries. For poorer countries, in contrast, the relationship remains rather elusive. Using a well-established panel survey-the Ethiopian Rural Household Survey (ERHS)-we investigate the empirical relationship between fertility and life satisfaction in rural Ethiopia, the largest landlocked country in Africa. Consistent with the fertility theories for developing countries and with the sociodemographic characteristics of rural Ethiopia, we hypothesize that this relationship varies by gender and across life stages, being more positive for men and for parents in old age. Indeed, our results suggest that older men benefit the most in terms of life satisfaction from having a large number of children, while the recent birth of a child is detrimental for the subjective well-being of women at reproductive ages. We address endogeneity issues by using lagged life satisfaction in ordinary least squares regressions, through fixed-effects estimation and the use of instrumental variables.

  19. An NGO at work: CARE-Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    1999-01-01

    Cooperation for American Relief to Everywhere (CARE) was established in response to the needs of the people after World War II through the distribution of food and clothes. CARE/Ethiopia, which signed its first Basic Agreement with the Relief and Rehabilitation Commission, was provided with assistance during the 1994 drought that affected Ethiopia. The primary objective of CARE was to alleviate the suffering brought about by severe food shortages and to expand the program to mitigation and development. This approach was based on the premise of a community-based development philosophy and as an implementation strategy for reaching the rural poor. The five programmatic areas highlighted by the CARE projects were the rural and urban infrastructure; water and sanitation; small-scale irrigation; reproductive health and HIV/AIDS; and microcredit. On the other hand, the family planning and HIV/AIDS project aimed to improve the knowledge, attitude and practice of rural communities towards family planning and reproductive health through community-based family planning services. Results of the project evaluation emphasize the significance of community-based programs in the improvement of health status. Two critical program constraints identified in this paper are lack of access to referral-level services and lack of systemic provision of contraceptive commodities. Several suggestions for future programs include the assurance that the volunteers would be provided with aid in work, childcare and free health services for their families.

  20. On a mission: training traditional birth attendants in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Ciolino, Alice

    2011-06-01

    Alice Ciolino, a midwife from London spent eight months in Ethiopia with Doctors of the World. Her mission was to train Traditional Birth Attendants (TBAs). Based in the Somali region of Ethiopia, access to healthcare facilities was limited; indeed Kebri Dehar had the only hospital in the region. Here Alice shares her experience of what it is like to live and work in a remote part of the world, far from the medical facilities we take for granted in the West.

  1. Leptospirosis Survey of Rodents and Domestic Animals in Ethiopia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-08-01

    bovin --. leptospirosis . Amer. J. Vet. Res. 15, 434. Sulzer, C. R., Harvey, T. W., and Galton, M. M, (1968) Comparison of diagnostic technics for the...U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Technical Inforuation Service AD-A033 991 LEPTOSPIROSIS SURVEY OF RODENTS AND DOMESTIC ANIMALS IN ETHIOPIA NAVAL...34) Domestic animals. Ethiopia. Leptospirosis.Rodents. ien suoy wasa c’r ’ ubtosryds,’C and domestic animals for leptospirosis in 5 sites in western and

  2. Assessment of source of information for polio supplementary immunization activities in 2014 and 2015, Somali, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Bedada, Selamawit Yilma; Gallagher, Kathleen; Aregay, Aron Kassahun; Mohammed, Bashir; Maalin, Mohammed Adem; Hassen, Hassen Abdisemed; Ali, Yusuf Mohammed; Braka, Fiona; Kilebou, Pierre M’pele

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Communication is key for the successful implementation of polio vaccination campaigns. The purpose of this study is to review and analyse the sources of information utilized by caregivers during polio supplementary immunization activities (SIAs) in Somali, Ethiopia in 2014 and 2015. Methods Data on sources of information about the polio campaign were collected post campaign from caregivers by trained data collectors as part of house to house independent monitoring. The sources of information analysed in this paper include town criers (via megaphones), health workers, religious leaders, kebele leaders (Kebele is the lowest administrative structure in Ethiopia), radio, television, text message and others. The repetition of these sources of information was analysed across years and zones for trends. Polio vaccination campaign coverage was also reviewed by year and zones within the Somali region in parallel with the major sources of information used in the respective year and zones. 57,745 responses were used for this analysis but the responses were received from < or = 57,745 individuals since some of them may provide more than one response. Moreover, because sampling of households is conducted independently during each round of independent monitoring, the same household may have been included more than once in our analysis. The methodology used for independent monitoring does not allow for the calculation of response rates. Monitors go from house to house until information from 20 households is received. Results From the total 57,745 responses reviewed, over 37% of respondents reported that town criers were their source for information about the 2014 and 2015 polio SIAs. Zonal trends in using town criers as a major source of information in both study years remained consistent except in two zones. 87.5% of zones that reported at least 90% coverage during both study years had utilized town criers as a major source of information while the rest (12.5%) used

  3. Assessment of source of information for polio supplementary immunization activities in 2014 and 2015, Somali, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Bedada, Selamawit Yilma; Gallagher, Kathleen; Aregay, Aron Kassahun; Mohammed, Bashir; Maalin, Mohammed Adem; Hassen, Hassen Abdisemed; Ali, Yusuf Mohammed; Braka, Fiona; Kilebou, Pierre M'pele

    2017-01-01

    Communication is key for the successful implementation of polio vaccination campaigns. The purpose of this study is to review and analyse the sources of information utilized by caregivers during polio supplementary immunization activities (SIAs) in Somali, Ethiopia in 2014 and 2015. Data on sources of information about the polio campaign were collected post campaign from caregivers by trained data collectors as part of house to house independent monitoring. The sources of information analysed in this paper include town criers (via megaphones), health workers, religious leaders, kebele leaders (Kebele is the lowest administrative structure in Ethiopia), radio, television, text message and others. The repetition of these sources of information was analysed across years and zones for trends. Polio vaccination campaign coverage was also reviewed by year and zones within the Somali region in parallel with the major sources of information used in the respective year and zones. 57,745 responses were used for this analysis but the responses were received from < or = 57,745 individuals since some of them may provide more than one response. Moreover, because sampling of households is conducted independently during each round of independent monitoring, the same household may have been included more than once in our analysis. The methodology used for independent monitoring does not allow for the calculation of response rates. Monitors go from house to house until information from 20 households is received. From the total 57,745 responses reviewed, over 37% of respondents reported that town criers were their source for information about the 2014 and 2015 polio SIAs. Zonal trends in using town criers as a major source of information in both study years remained consistent except in two zones. 87.5% of zones that reported at least 90% coverage during both study years had utilized town criers as a major source of information while the rest (12.5%) used health workers. We found

  4. External quality assessment of malaria microscopy diagnosis in selected health facilities in Western Oromia, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Sori, Getachew; Zewdie, Olifan; Tadele, Geletta; Samuel, Abdi

    2018-06-18

    Accurate early diagnosis and prompt treatment are one of the key strategies to control and prevent malaria disease. External quality assessment is the most effective method for evaluation of the quality of malaria microscopy diagnosis. The aim of this study was to assess the quality of malaria microscopy diagnosis and its associated factors in selected public health facility laboratories in East Wollega Zone, Western Ethiopia. Facility-based cross-sectional study design was conducted in 30 randomly selected public health facility laboratories from November 2014 to January 2015 in East Wollega Zone, Western Ethiopia. Ten validated stained malaria panel slides with known Plasmodium species, developmental stage and parasite density were distributed. Data were captured; cleaned and analyzed using SPSS version 20 statistical software-multivariate logistic regressions and the agreement in reading between the peripheral diagnostic centers and the reference laboratory were done using kappa statistics. A total of 30 health facility laboratories were involved in the study and the overall quality of malaria microscopy diagnosis was poor (62.3%). The associated predictors of quality in this diagnosis were in-service training [(AOR = 16, 95% CI (1.3, 1.96)], smearing quality [(AOR = 24, 95% CI (1.8, 3.13)], staining quality [(AOR = 15, 95% CI (2.35, 8.61), parasite detection [(AOR = 9, 95% CI (1.1, 8.52)] and identification skills [(AOR = 8.6, 95% CI (1.21, 1.63)]. Eighteen (60%) of health facility laboratories had in-service trained laboratory professionals on malaria microscopy diagnosis. Overall quality of malaria microscopy diagnosis was poor and a significant gap in this service was observed that could impact on its diagnostic services.

  5. Quantitative risk assessment of entry of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia through live cattle imported from northwestern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Woube, Yilkal Asfaw; Dibaba, Asseged Bogale; Tameru, Berhanu; Fite, Richard; Nganwa, David; Robnett, Vinaida; Demisse, Amsalu; Habtemariam, Tsegaye

    2015-11-01

    Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) is a highly contagious bacterial disease of cattle caused by Mycoplasma mycoides subspecies mycoides small colony (SC) bovine biotype (MmmSC). It has been eradicated from many countries; however, the disease persists in many parts of Africa and Asia. CBPP is one of the major trade-restricting diseases of cattle in Ethiopia. In this quantitative risk assessment the OIE concept of zoning was adopted to assess the entry of CBPP into an importing country when up to 280,000 live cattle are exported every year from the northwestern proposed disease free zone (DFZ) of Ethiopia. To estimate the level of risk, a six-tiered risk pathway (scenario tree) was developed, evidences collected and equations generated. The probability of occurrence of the hazard at each node was modelled as a probability distribution using Monte Carlo simulation (@RISK software) at 10,000 iterations to account for uncertainty and variability. The uncertainty and variability of data points surrounding the risk estimate were further quantified by sensitivity analysis. In this study a single animal destined for export from the northwestern DFZ of Ethiopia has a CBPP infection probability of 4.76×10(-6) (95% CI=7.25×10(-8) 1.92×10(-5)). The probability that at least one infected animal enters an importing country in one year is 0.53 (90% CI=0.042-0.97). The expected number of CBPP infected animals exported any given year is 1.28 (95% CI=0.021-5.42). According to the risk estimate, an average of 2.73×10(6) animals (90% CI=10,674-5.9×10(6)) must be exported to get the first infected case. By this account it would, on average, take 10.15 years (90% CI=0.24-23.18) for the first infected animal to be included in the consignment. Sensitivity analysis revealed that prevalence and vaccination had the highest impact on the uncertainty and variability of the overall risk. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Reaching the unreached through trained and skilled birth attendants in Ethiopia: a cluster randomized controlled trial study protocol.

    PubMed

    Zerfu, Taddese Alemu; Taddese, Henok; Nigatu, Tariku; Tenkolu, Girma; Vogel, Joshua P; Khan-Neelofur, Dina; Biadgilign, Sibhatu; Deribew, Amare

    2017-01-26

    Despite improvements since 1990 to 2014, maternal mortality ratio (MMR) remains high in Ethiopia. One of the key drivers of maternal mortality in Ethiopia is the very low coverage of Skilled Birth attendance (SBA) in rural Ethiopia. This cluster randomized trial piloted an innovative approach of deploying trained community reproductive nurses (CORN) to hard to reach/unreachable rural Ethiopia to improve the coverage of SBA. We used a three-arm cluster randomized trial to test the effect of deploying CORN in rural communities in South Ethiopia to improve SBA and other maternal health indicators. A total of 282 villages/clusters (94 from each arm) were randomly selected in the three districts of the zone for the study. The intervention was implemented in four consecutive phases that aimed at of provision of essential maternal, neonatal and child health (MNCH) services mainly focusing on SBA. The CORN were trained and deployed in health centres (arm 1) and in the community/health posts (arm2). A third arm (arm 3) consisting control villages without the intervention. A baseline and end line assessment was conducted to compare the difference in the proportion of SBA and other MNCH service uptake across the three arms Data was entered into computer, edited, cleaned, and analyzed using Epi-data statistical software. The presentation followed the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) statement guidelines for cluster-randomized trials. This trial is designed to test the impact of an innovative and newly designed means of distribution for the national health extension program strategy with additional service package with no change to the target population. The focus is on effect of CORN in revitalizing the Health Extension Program (HEP) through improving SBA service uptake and other maternal health service uptake indicators. The study findings may guide national policy to strengthen and shape the already existing HEP that has certain limitations to improve

  7. Pleistocene Homo sapiens from Middle Awash, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    White, Tim D; Asfaw, Berhane; DeGusta, David; Gilbert, Henry; Richards, Gary D; Suwa, Gen; Howell, F Clark

    2003-06-12

    The origin of anatomically modern Homo sapiens and the fate of Neanderthals have been fundamental questions in human evolutionary studies for over a century. A key barrier to the resolution of these questions has been the lack of substantial and accurately dated African hominid fossils from between 100,000 and 300,000 years ago. Here we describe fossilized hominid crania from Herto, Middle Awash, Ethiopia, that fill this gap and provide crucial evidence on the location, timing and contextual circumstances of the emergence of Homo sapiens. Radioisotopically dated to between 160,000 and 154,000 years ago, these new fossils predate classic Neanderthals and lack their derived features. The Herto hominids are morphologically and chronologically intermediate between archaic African fossils and later anatomically modern Late Pleistocene humans. They therefore represent the probable immediate ancestors of anatomically modern humans. Their anatomy and antiquity constitute strong evidence of modern-human emergence in Africa.

  8. Rainfall and runoff variability in Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billi, Paolo; Fazzini, Massimiliano; Tadesse Alemu, Yonas; Ciampalini, Rossano

    2014-05-01

    Rainfall and river flow variability have been deeply investigated and and the impact of climate change on both is rather well known in Europe (EEA, 2012) or in other industrialized countries. Reports of international organizations (IPCC, 2012) and the scientific literature provide results and outlooks that were found contrasting and spatially incoherent (Manton et al., 2001; Peterson et al., 2002; Griffiths et al., 2003; Herath and Ratnayake, 2004) or weakened by limitation of data quality and quantity. According to IPCC (2012), in East Africa precipitation there are contrasting regional and seasonal variations and trends, though Easterling et al. (2000) and Seleshi and Camberlin (2006) report decreasing trends in heavy precipitation over parts of Ethiopia during the period 1965-2002. Literature on the impact of climate change on river flow is scarce in Africa and IPCC Technical Paper VI (IPCC, 2008) concluded that no evidence, based on instrumental records, has been found for a climate-driven globally widespread change in the magnitude/frequency of floods during the last decades (Rosenzweig et al., 2007), though increases in runoff and increased risk of flood events in East Africa are expected. Some papers have faced issues regarding rainfall and river flow variability in Ethiopia (e.g. Seleshi and Demaree, 1995; Osman and Sauerborn, 2002; Seleshi and Zanke, 2004; Meze-Hausken, 2004; Korecha and Barnston, 2006; Cheung et al., 2008) but their investigations are commonly geographically limited or used a small number of rain and flow gauges with the most recent data bound to the beginning of the last decade. In this study an attempt to depict rainfall and river flow variability, considering the longer as possible time series for the largest as possible number of meteo-stations and flow gauge evenly distributed across Ethiopia, is presented. 25 meteo-stations and 21 flow gauges with as much as possible continuous data records were selected. The length of the time

  9. Comparative Hydrology in Ethiopia: a learning experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berhanu, B.; Terefe, M.; Viglione, A.; Fant, C.; Gebretsadik, Y.; Cullis, J.; Mekonnen, G.; Alamirew, T.; Sivapalan, M.

    2012-04-01

    Ethiopia is climatically and environmentally extremely heterogeneous. The highlands receive a lot of rainfall (more than 2000 mm/year) concentrated in only three months. Most of Ethiopian runoff is produced in these highlands (part of this water reaches the Mediterranean sea through the Nile river). Lowlands vary from forests to deserts. The hottest place on earth is there (the Danakil depression, more than 150 meters below see level). This makes the spatial and temporal variability of hydrologic signatures very strong in the country. We present the results of a comparative hydrology exercise performed during a three-week Winter Research Workshop held in Addis Ababa during Christmas time this year. There, a new institution, the Ethiopian Institute of Water Resources (EIWR), and a new education program (18 PhD + 24 MSc) has been started less than one year ago. Instead of the traditional approach of education, based on lectures, reading and exercises, a learner-centered approach has been used: the students have been asked to collect available rainfall and runoff data, to interpret them by comparing and contrasting different catchments in the country, to develop conceptual models and use them to critically test ideas. The R software has been used in the workshop for two reason: (1) its flexibility makes it an ideal language for learner-centered education, since students can easily define new functions and extensions and can autonomously develop and test their hypothesis; (2) it is open source, light and free of charge, which makes it particularly appealing in developing countries like Ethiopia.

  10. Ethiopia: hard work for successful AIDS prevention.

    PubMed

    1992-01-01

    An innovative AIDS control program targeting sex workers and clients in Ethiopia has shown that hard work and government support are essential for the success of a program. Serosurveys conducted in 1988 and 1989 had shown that certain groups were particularly vulnerable to HIV infection: women who engage in formal or informal prostitution and their clients -- often migrant workers or truck drivers. So in mid-1990, Ethiopia's Department of AIDS Control (DAC) launched an intervention effort targeting these high-risk groups, a program entitled the Multiple Partner Sexual Contact (MPSC) Female and Male Mobilization and Condom Promotion Project. The program had a 3-layer strategy: 1) establishing a "trickle down" training process, which would create a network of MPSC peer educators and organizers; 2) identifying MPSC men to serve as educators for other men; and 3) ensuring the widespread availability of condoms for both men and women. As site for its pilot project, DAC selected Nazareth, a trading city of more than 30% among MPSC females. After 6 months of operation, the program's effectiveness convinced DAC to expand the project to 9 additional sites. An evaluation of the project has revealed several important findings: 1) retraining and motivation sessions must be constantly maintained; 2) men's resistance to condom use may be diminished by targeting them with education at the same time as the women; 3) interventions that take into account the socioeconomic issues faced by MPSC women make the program more effective; 4) it is important to develop new educational materials periodically; and 5) involving the owners and managers of sex-related businesses makes the program more effective.

  11. Health of children adopted from Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Miller, Laurie C; Tseng, Beverly; Tirella, Linda G; Chan, Wilma; Feig, Emily

    2008-09-01

    Since 2000, American families have adopted 1,700 children from Ethiopia. Little is known about the health and development of these children. Retrospective chart review of the arrival health status of all 50 (26F:24M) children from Ethiopia/Eritrea seen in the International Adoption Clinic. Prior to adoption, most children resided with relatives; 36% were >18 months old prior to entry into care. More than 50% were true orphans, often due to HIV. Arrival age ranged from 3 months to 15 years (mean +/- SD 4 years +/- 43.8 months). At arrival, growth z scores were near-average (weight -.59, height -.64, head circumference -.09); significantly better than adopted children Guatemala, China, or Russia seen in our clinic. However, some Ethiopian children were significantly growth delayed (WAZ < or =-2, 8%, HAZ 12%, HCZ 18%). Age at adoption did not relate to growth delays. Medical issues on arrival included intestinal parasites (53%, [14% with > or =3 types]), skin infections (45%), dental caries (25%), elevated liver transaminases (20%), latent tuberculosis (18%), and hepatitis B (2%). Age-appropriate vaccines had been administered in 15-77% of children (depending on specific vaccine). Behavior problems were uncommon. Gross/fine motor and cognitive skills were approximately 86% of expected for age. Age correlated inversely with developmental scores for cognition (r = -.49, P = .003). Five children had age reassignments. Ethiopian/Eritean adoptees differ from other groups of internationally adopted children: they reside for relatively long periods of time with relatives prior to institutionalization, often have uncertain ages, exhibit few behavioral problems at arrival, have better growth, and may have less severe developmental delays. Whether these differences at arrival predict better outcomes for the Ethiopian/Eritrean children is unknown.

  12. Epidemiological survey of brucellosis in sheep and goats in selected pastoral and agro-pastoral lowlands of Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Sintayehu, G; Melesse, B; Abayneh, D; Sintayehu, A; Melaku, S; Alehegne, W; Mesfin, S; De Blas, I; Casal, J; Allepuz, A; Martin-Valls, G; Africa, T; Abera, K

    2015-12-01

    An epidemiological survey was conducted in pastoral regions of Ethiopia to investigate the distribution of brucellosis in sheep and goats. Between November 2004 and December 2007, a total of 6,201 serum samples were collected from 67 randomly selected peasant associations, 25 districts and eight pastoral zones of Ethiopia. The Rose Bengal plate test (RBPT) and complement fixation test were used in series. Samples for bacteriology were collected from three export abattoirs, where 285 goats were randomly selected and tested by RBPTthree days before slaughter. Tissue samples were collected from 14 strongly positive goats and cultured in dextrose agar and Brucella agar base. To confirm and subtype the isolates, staining, biochemical tests and polymerase chain reaction were used. The overall standardised seroprevalence of brucellosis was 1.9%, ranging from 0.07% in Jijiga zone to 3.3% in Borena zone. There was statistically significant variation among the studied regions, zones, districts and peasant associations (p < 0.05). Male goats and sheep were twice as likely to test positive as females (relative risk [RRJ: 2.04; 95% confidence interval [CI]:1.7-3.4; x2 = 21.05, p < 0.05). Adults (older than 1.5 years) were three times more likely to test positive than younger animals (RR: 2.76; 95% CI: 1.14-6.73; chi2 = 5.18, p < 0.05). Goats were around four times more likely to be infected than sheep (RR: 3.8; 95% CI: 2.4-6.1; chi2 = 36.99, p < 0.05). Brucella melitensis was isolated from 2 of the 14 samples analysed. The widespread distribution of brucellosis in goats and sheep in these areas justifies the use of control measures to minimise the economic losses and public health hazards.

  13. Podoconiosis in Ethiopia: From Neglect to Priority Public Health Problem.

    PubMed

    Deribe, Kebede; Kebede, Biruck; Mengistu, Belete; Negussie, Henok; Sileshi, Mesfin; Tamiru, Mossie; Tomczyk, Sara; Tekola-Ayele, Fasil; Davey, Gail; Fentaye, Amha

    2017-01-01

    Podoconiosis is a geochemical disease occurring in individuals exposed to red clay soil of volcanic origin. This Neglected Tropical Disease (NTD) is highly prevalent in Ethiopia. According to the nationwide mapping in 2013, the disease is endemic in 345 districts, where an estimated 35 million people live. The government of Ethiopia prioritized podoconiosis as one of eight priority NTDs and included it in the national integrated master plan for NTDs. An integrated lymphoedema management guideline has been developed. Service expansion has continued in the last few years and lymphoedema management services have been expanded to over one hundred endemic districts. The last few years have been critical in generating evidence about the distribution, burden and effective interventions for podoconiosis in Ethiopia. Although the extent of the problem within Ethiopia is considerable, the country is well positioned to now scale-up elimination efforts. Given the extraordinary progress of the past ten years and the current commitment of government, private and third sectors, Ethiopia seems to be on course for the elimination of podoconiosis in our lifetime. We need continued strong partner commitment, evidence-building, and scale-up of activities to accomplish this.

  14. Podoconiosis in Ethiopia: From Neglect to Priority Public Health Problem

    PubMed Central

    Deribe, Kebede; Kebede, Biruck; Mengistu, Belete; Negussie, Henok; Sileshi, Mesfin; Tamiru, Mossie; Tomczyk, Sara; Tekola-Ayele, Fasil; Davey, Gail; Fentaye, Amha

    2017-01-01

    Podoconiosis is a geochemical disease occurring in individuals exposed to red clay soil of volcanic origin. This Neglected Tropical Disease (NTD) is highly prevalent in Ethiopia. According to the nationwide mapping in 2013, the disease is endemic in 345 districts, where an estimated 35 million people live. The government of Ethiopia prioritized podoconiosis as one of eight priority NTDs and included it in the national integrated master plan for NTDs. An integrated lymphoedema management guideline has been developed. Service expansion has continued in the last few years and lymphoedema management services have been expanded to over one hundred endemic districts. The last few years have been critical in generating evidence about the distribution, burden and effective interventions for podoconiosis in Ethiopia. Although the extent of the problem within Ethiopia is considerable, the country is well positioned to now scale-up elimination efforts. Given the extraordinary progress of the past ten years and the current commitment of government, private and third sectors, Ethiopia seems to be on course for the elimination of podoconiosis in our lifetime. We need continued strong partner commitment, evidence-building, and scale-up of activities to accomplish this. PMID:28878431

  15. Zone separator for multiple zone vessels

    DOEpatents

    Jones, John B.

    1983-02-01

    A solids-gas contact vessel, having two vertically disposed distinct reaction zones, includes a dynamic seal passing solids from an upper to a lower zone and maintaining a gas seal against the transfer of the separate treating gases from one zone to the other, and including a stream of sealing fluid at the seal.

  16. Medical doctors profile in Ethiopia: production, attrition and retention. In memory of 100-years Ethiopian modern medicine & the new Ethiopian millennium.

    PubMed

    Berhan, Yifru

    2008-01-01

    which time it started to get doubled every five years and reached peak (1658 medical doctors of all type) in 1989 in the public sector. As there was sharp increment in physician number, on the contrary, there was sharp decline in the last 15 years (1990-2006) to nadir 638 doctors in 2006 in the public sector. The last 25 years of Ethiopian modern medical history, in reference to physician number, forms a triangle with the lower and upper base 1980 and 2006, respectively. Since MOH of Ethiopia started registering health professionals with qualifications in 1987, 5743 (76.5% Ethiopian and 23.5% expatriate) medical doctors were registered for the first time. Out of these, 3717 were general practitioners. The three prestigious medical schools (Addis Ababa, Gondar, Jimma) were established in 1964, 1978 and 1984, respectively. Since establishment till 2006, about 3728 medical doctors were graduated with MD degree from the three medical schools. Addis Ababa university medical faculty alone graduated 1890 general practitioners (1964-2006) and 862 clinical specialists (1979-2006). In the 23 years period (1984-2006), the highest and lowest physician to population ratios in the public sector were found to be in 1989 (1:28,000) and 2006 (1:118,000), respectively. In 2006, the physician to population ratio in Amhara, Oromia and SNNPR regional states was computed to be 1:280,000, 1:220,000, and 1:230,000, respectively. The physician deficit analysis in the last 23 years in relation to the WHO standard for developing countries (1:10,000) revealed the lowest record at the national and regional states in the last 12-years. Average physician to hospital ratio in five regional states in December 2006 was 3.6 (Tigray), 4.3 (Amhara), 6.1 (Oromia) and 5.3 (SNNPR). As the December 2006 direct interview with 76 public hospitals outside Addis Ababa showed, there was no specialist in 36 hospitals and no doctor at all in 3 hospitals. Seven public hospitals located in big regional states' town

  17. Modeling the intersections of Food, Energy, and Water in climate-vulnerable Ethiopia with an application to small-scale irrigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Sankaranarayanan, S.; Zaitchik, B. F.; Siddiqui, S.

    2017-12-01

    Africa is home to some of the most climate vulnerable populations in the world. Energy and agricultural development have diverse impacts on the region's food security and economic well-being from the household to the national level, particularly considering climate variability and change. Our ultimate goal is to understand coupled Food-Energy-Water (FEW) dynamics across spatial scales in order to quantify the sensitivity of critical human outcomes to FEW development strategies in Ethiopia. We are developing bottom-up and top-down multi-scale models, spanning local, sub-national and national scales to capture the FEW linkages across communities and climatic adaptation zones. The focus of this presentation is the sub-national scale multi-player micro-economic (MME) partial-equilibrium model with coupled food and energy sector for Ethiopia. With fixed large-scale economic, demographic, and resource factors from the national scale computable general equilibrium (CGE) model and inferences of behavior parameters from the local scale agent-based model (ABM), the MME studies how shocks such as drought (crop failure) and development of resilience technologies would influence FEW system at a sub-national scale. The MME model is based on aggregating individual optimization problems for relevant players. It includes production, storage, and consumption of food and energy at spatially disaggregated zones, and transportation in between with endogenously modeled infrastructure. The aggregated players for each zone have different roles such as crop producers, storage managers, and distributors, who make decisions according to their own but interdependent objective functions. The food and energy supply chain across zones is therefore captured. Ethiopia is dominated by rain-fed agriculture with only 2% irrigated farmland. Small-scale irrigation has been promoted as a resilience technology that could potentially play a critical role in food security and economic well-being in

  18. Risk Factors for Mortality among Adult HIV/AIDS Patients Following Antiretroviral Therapy in Southwestern Ethiopia: An Assessment through Survival Models

    PubMed Central

    Seyoum, Dinberu; Degryse, Jean-Marie; Kifle, Yehenew Getachew; Taye, Ayele; Tadesse, Mulualem; Birlie, Belay; Banbeta, Akalu; Rosas-Aguirre, Angel; Duchateau, Luc; Speybroeck, Niko

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Efforts have been made to reduce HIV/AIDS-related mortality by delivering antiretroviral therapy (ART) treatment. However, HIV patients in resource-poor settings are still dying, even if they are on ART treatment. This study aimed to explore the factors associated with HIV/AIDS-related mortality in Southwestern Ethiopia. Method: A non-concurrent retrospective cohort study which collected data from the clinical records of adult HIV/AIDS patients, who initiated ART treatment and were followed between January 2006 and December 2010, was conducted, to explore the factors associated with HIV/AIDS-related mortality at Jimma University Specialized Hospital (JUSH). Survival times (i.e., the time from the onset of ART treatment to the death or censoring) and different characteristics of patients were retrospectively examined. A best-fit model was chosen for the survival data, after the comparison between native semi-parametric Cox regression and parametric survival models (i.e., exponential, Weibull, and log-logistic). Result: A total of 456 HIV patients were included in the study, mostly females (312, 68.4%), with a median age of 30 years (inter-quartile range (IQR): 23–37 years). Estimated follow-up until December 2010 accounted for 1245 person-years at risk (PYAR) and resulted in 66 (14.5%) deaths and 390 censored individuals, representing a median survival time of 34.0 months ( IQR: 22.8–42.0 months). The overall mortality rate was 5.3/100 PYAR: 6.5/100 PYAR for males and 4.8/100 PYAR for females. The Weibull survival model was the best model for fitting the data (lowest AIC). The main factors associated with mortality were: baseline age (>35 years old, AHR = 3.8, 95% CI: 1.6–9.1), baseline weight (AHR = 0.93, 95% CI: 0.90–0.97), baseline WHO stage IV (AHR = 6.2, 95% CI: 2.2–14.2), and low adherence to ART treatment (AHR = 4.2, 95% CI: 2.5–7.1). Conclusion: An effective reduction in HIV/AIDS mortality could be achieved through timely ART

  19. Root Apex Transition Zone As Oscillatory Zone

    PubMed Central

    Baluška, František; Mancuso, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    Root apex of higher plants shows very high sensitivity to environmental stimuli. The root cap acts as the most prominent plant sensory organ; sensing diverse physical parameters such as gravity, light, humidity, oxygen, and critical inorganic nutrients. However, the motoric responses to these stimuli are accomplished in the elongation region. This spatial discrepancy was solved when we have discovered and characterized the transition zone which is interpolated between the apical meristem and the subapical elongation zone. Cells of this zone are very active in the cytoskeletal rearrangements, endocytosis and endocytic vesicle recycling, as well as in electric activities. Here we discuss the oscillatory nature of the transition zone which, together with several other features of this zone, suggest that it acts as some kind of command center. In accordance with the early proposal of Charles and Francis Darwin, cells of this root zone receive sensory information from the root cap and instruct the motoric responses of cells in the elongation zone. PMID:24106493

  20. Child Schooling in Ethiopia: The Role of Maternal Autonomy.

    PubMed

    Gebremedhin, Tesfaye Alemayehu; Mohanty, Itismita

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of maternal autonomy on child schooling outcomes in Ethiopia using a nationally representative Ethiopian Demographic and Health survey for 2011. The empirical strategy uses a Hurdle Negative Binomial Regression model to estimate years of schooling. An ordered probit model is also estimated to examine age grade distortion using a trichotomous dependent variable that captures three states of child schooling. The large sample size and the range of questions available in this dataset allow us to explore the influence of individual and household level social, economic and cultural factors on child schooling. The analysis finds statistically significant effects of maternal autonomy variables on child schooling in Ethiopia. The roles of maternal autonomy and other household-level factors on child schooling are important issues in Ethiopia, where health and education outcomes are poor for large segments of the population.

  1. Child Schooling in Ethiopia: The Role of Maternal Autonomy

    PubMed Central

    Mohanty, Itismita

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of maternal autonomy on child schooling outcomes in Ethiopia using a nationally representative Ethiopian Demographic and Health survey for 2011. The empirical strategy uses a Hurdle Negative Binomial Regression model to estimate years of schooling. An ordered probit model is also estimated to examine age grade distortion using a trichotomous dependent variable that captures three states of child schooling. The large sample size and the range of questions available in this dataset allow us to explore the influence of individual and household level social, economic and cultural factors on child schooling. The analysis finds statistically significant effects of maternal autonomy variables on child schooling in Ethiopia. The roles of maternal autonomy and other household-level factors on child schooling are important issues in Ethiopia, where health and education outcomes are poor for large segments of the population. PMID:27942039

  2. Evaluating a satellite-based seasonal evapotranspiration product and identifying its relationship with other satellite-derived products and crop yield: A case study for Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tadesse, Tsegaye; Senay, Gabriel B.; Berhan, Getachew; Regassa, Teshome; Beyene, Shimelis

    2015-08-01

    Satellite-derived evapotranspiration anomalies and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) products from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data are currently used for African agricultural drought monitoring and food security status assessment. In this study, a process to evaluate satellite-derived evapotranspiration (ETa) products with a geospatial statistical exploratory technique that uses NDVI, satellite-derived rainfall estimate (RFE), and crop yield data has been developed. The main goal of this study was to evaluate the ETa using the NDVI and RFE, and identify a relationship between the ETa and Ethiopia's cereal crop (i.e., teff, sorghum, corn/maize, barley, and wheat) yields during the main rainy season. Since crop production is one of the main factors affecting food security, the evaluation of remote sensing-based seasonal ETa was done to identify the appropriateness of this tool as a proxy for monitoring vegetation condition in drought vulnerable and food insecure areas to support decision makers. The results of this study showed that the comparison between seasonal ETa and RFE produced strong correlation (R2 > 0.99) for all 41 crop growing zones in Ethiopia. The results of the spatial regression analyses of seasonal ETa and NDVI using Ordinary Least Squares and Geographically Weighted Regression showed relatively weak yearly spatial relationships (R2 < 0.7) for all cropping zones. However, for each individual crop zones, the correlation between NDVI and ETa ranged between 0.3 and 0.84 for about 44% of the cropping zones. Similarly, for each individual crop zones, the correlation (R2) between the seasonal ETa anomaly and de-trended cereal crop yield was between 0.4 and 0.82 for 76% (31 out of 41) of the crop growing zones. The preliminary results indicated that the ETa products have a good predictive potential for these 31 identified zones in Ethiopia. Decision makers may potentially use ETa products for monitoring cereal crop

  3. Establishing space research capability in Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosinger, T.; Damtie, B.; Usoskin, I. G.

    It is often considered by various sources and institutions around the world that promotion of space physics activities in a developing country like Ethiopia is a waste of time and resources. It has, of course, some sense: developing countries should put all their efforts in improving the standard of life, infrastructure and basic education. However, it is straightforward to realize that nowadays improvement in any of the basic needs of developing countries is related to high technology (e.g. mobile phones, GPS, remote sensing). This means that a developing country has to take care of recruiting specialists among their own people who can take part in the decision making processes which are increasingly of global nature. Moreover, many citizens of developing countries are studying and working abroad attaining high expertise. As a matter of fact, there are more Ethiopians with PhD in physics working abroad than in the country. These people are lost for the benefit of their own country if there is no need for their profession in their home country. There is no doubt that the main task of improving the standard of living cannot be achieved without development and social transformation of the society, which can take place efficiently in a self-adopting and dynamic process. In line with the above argument, we have initiated the establishment of the Washera Space Physics Laboratory (WASPL) at Addis Ababa University in Ethiopia. It is a collaboration project between Oulu University and Addis Ababa University. The laboratory is expected to start operation of a pulsation magnetometer and photometer in September 2004. Other types of standard geophysical instruments are to be installed in subsequent missions. The project is of mutual interest of both parties. The equatorial ionosphere is still a poorly investigated region of our near Earth's space. In a first pilot investigation the existence and properties of the ionospheric Alfvén resonator (IAR) in the equatorial ionosphere

  4. User fees and maternity services in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Luwei; Gandhi, Meena; Admasu, Keseteberhan; Keyes, Emily B

    2011-12-01

    To examine user fees for maternity services and how they relate to provision, quality, and use of maternity services in Ethiopia. The national assessment of emergency obstetric and newborn care (EmONC) examined user fees for maternity services in 751 health facilities that provided childbirth services in 2008. Overall, only about 6.6% of women gave birth in health facilities. Among facilities that provided delivery care, 68% charged a fee in cash or kind for normal delivery. Health centers should be providing maternity services free of charge (the healthcare financing proclamation), yet 65% still charge for some aspect of care, including drugs and supplies. The average cost for normal and cesarean delivery was US $7.70 and US $51.80, respectively. Nineteen percent of these facilities required payment in advance for treatment of an obstetric emergency. The health facilities that charged user fees had, on average, more delivery beds, deliveries (normal and cesarean), direct obstetric complications treated, and a higher ratio of skilled birth attendants per 1000 deliveries than those that did not charge. The case fatality rate was 3.8% and 7.1% in hospitals that did and did not charge user fees, respectively. Utilization of maternal health services is extremely low in Ethiopia and, although there is a government decree against charging for maternity service, 65% of health centers do charge for some aspects of maternal care. As health facilities are not reimbursed by the government for the costs of maternity services, this loss of revenue may account for the more and better services offered in facilities that continue to charge user fees. User fees are not the only factor that determines utilization in settings where the coverage of maternity services is extremely low. Additional factors include other out-of-pocket payments such as cost of transport and food and lodging for accompanying relatives. It is important to keep quality of care in mind when user fees are under

  5. The Project for Developing Countermeasures against Landslides in the Abay River Gorge, Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guta, H. E.

    2016-12-01

    The Blue Nile Gorge of Ethiopia is characterized by high relief landscape. The stretch of major arterial road that connects Ethiopia to Sudan passes through the Gorge. The Gorge is plagued by swarms of landslides which makes it a tremendous obstacle for travel and communication. Therefore, landside study was carried out from 2010 to 2012 by JICA and Geological survey of Ethiopia to figure out the mechanisms that trigger the swarms of landslides that occur in the area and identify appropriate countermeasures that would be best implemented. The study included geomorphologic and geologic survey, drilling survey, displacement monitoring, ground water and precipitation monitoring, geophysical exploration, and stability analysis. About 42 landslide monitoring instruments namely extensometers (both surface and borehole), inclinometers and ground water level meters were installed in four highly landslide prone areas to detect slip surface, and determine amount and direction of movement. The amount of landslide movement at the four zones is 42.4, 57.6, 294.9 and 136mm during rainy season. Ground water level rising, nature of material and intense rainfall are found to be among the major triggering factors. Stability analysis using Simple Jambu and modified Fellenus methods was conducted resulting in safety factor Fs less than one and reasonably 0.98 by adopting shear parameters of soils by back analysis. By assuming cohesion (c') to be very close to 0 due to landslide blocks active movement when ground water rises during rainy season, Shear resistance angle, ɸ, was obtained to be 10.80, 26.30, 10.20 and 16.30 in the four areas using Modified Fellenius method and 10.70, 26.60, 10.00 and 16.10 using Simple Janbu method. Effect of countermeasures was checked by trial calculation. Accordingly the factory of safety increased from 0.98 to 1.2 when ɸ=60, ground water is lowered by 6m, and steel pipe pile of ɸ500mm x t40mm at an interval of 1.9m are implemented. consequently

  6. Molecular detection of tick-borne pathogens in cattle from Southwestern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Hailemariam, Zerihun; Krücken, Jürgen; Baumann, Maximilian; Ahmed, Jabbar S.; Clausen, Peter-Henning

    2017-01-01

    Tick-borne diseases (TBDs) cause significant losses among livestock and impact the livelihoods of resource-poor farming communities worldwide. In Ethiopia, detailed studies on the epidemiology of tick-borne pathogens (TBPs) in cattle using sensitive molecular detection methods are scarce. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and species composition of bovine TBPs of veterinary significance in local cattle populations. A comprehensive cross-sectional epidemiological study was conducted in cattle populations of Illubabor zone in Southwestern Ethiopia from June to August 2013. For this purpose, blood samples were collected from 392 cattle. A combination of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and a Reverse Line Blot (RLB) hybridization assay was employed for the detection of TBPs in these samples. The PCR/RLB results of the 392 blood samples indicated a high overall prevalence of 96.9% for TBPs, including Theileria mutans (66.1%), Theileria orientalis (51.8%), Anaplasma sp. Omatjenne (25.5%), Anaplasma marginale (14.5%), Babesia bigemina (14.0%) and Theileria velifera (13.0%) and minor occurrences of Ehrlichia ruminantium (0.5%) and Ehrlichia minasensis (0.26%). Moreover, three novel Anaplasma genotypes were detected in bovine blood samples. A phylogenetic analysis revealed that they most likely represent three, but at least two, new species. The prevalence of the three novel Anaplasma species, preliminary designated as Anaplasma sp. Hadesa, Anaplasma sp. Saso and Anaplasma sp. Dedessa, was 12.5%, 14.3% and 5.6%, respectively. Overall, a total of 227 cattle (57.9%) were found to be co-infected with two or more TBPs simultaneously and 86 different species combinations were observed. The findings show a very high burden of infection of cattle with TBPs in Ethiopia. The high frequency of co-infections suggests that clinical manifestations might be complex. Further research is required to determine the pathogenicity, host cell types and vector of the

  7. Prevalence and seasonal incidence of nematode parasites and fluke infections of sheep and goats in eastern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Sissay, Menkir M; Uggla, Arvid; Waller, Peter J

    2007-10-01

    A 2-year abattoir survey was carried out to determine the prevalence, abundance and seasonal incidence of gastro-intestinal (GI) nematodes and trematodes (flukes) of sheep and goats in the semi-arid zone of eastern Ethiopia. During May 2003 to April 2005, viscera including liver, lungs and GI tracts were collected from 655 sheep and 632 goats slaughtered at 4 abattoirs located in the towns of Haramaya, Harar, Dire Dawa and Jijiga in eastern Ethiopia. All animals were raised in the farming areas located within the community boundaries for each town. Collected materials were transported within 24 h to the parasitology laboratory of Haramaya University for immediate processing. Thirteen species belonging to 9 genera of GI nematodes (Haemonchus contortus, Trichostrongylus axei, T. colubriformis, T. vitrinus, Nematodirus filicollis, N. spathiger Oesopha-gostomum columbianum, O. venulosum, Strongyloides papillosus, Bunostomum trigonocephalum, Trichuris ovis, Cooperia curticei and Chabertia ovina), and 4 species belonging to 3 genera of trematodes (Fasciola hepatica, F. gigantica, Paramphistomum {Calicohoron} microbothrium and Dicrocoelium dendriticum) were recorded in both sheep and goats. All animals in this investigation were infected with multiple species to varying degrees. The mean burdens of adult nematodes were generally moderate in both sheep and goats and showed patterns of seasonal abundance that corresponded with the bi-modal annual rainfall pattern, with highest burdens around the middle of the rainy season. In both sheep and goats there were significant differences in the mean worm burdens and abundance of the different nematode species between the four geographic locations, with worm burdens in the Haramaya and Harar areas greater than those observed in the Dire Dawa and Jijiga locations. Similar seasonal variations were also observed in the prevalence of flukes. But there were no significant differences in the prevalence of each fluke species between the

  8. Detection of Rickettsia aeschlimannii and Rickettsia africae in ixodid ticks from Burkina Faso and Somali Region of Ethiopia by new real-time PCR assays.

    PubMed

    Tomassone, L; De Meneghi, D; Adakal, H; Rodighiero, P; Pressi, G; Grego, E

    2016-10-01

    In the framework of cooperation for development projects in Burkina Faso and Ethiopia, we collected ixodid ticks from cattle, small ruminants and camels. We optimized new TaqMan Probe real-time PCR assays to detect Rickettsia aeschlimannii and Rickettsia africae OmpA gene in the collected samples. Rickettsia africae was identified in 75.0% Amblyomma variegatum (95%CI: 56.6-88.5), while R. aeschlimannii in 24.0% Hyalomma truncatum (95%CI: 9.4-45.1) and 50.0% H. rufipes (95%CI: 29.9-70.0) collected from cattle in different provinces throughout Burkina Faso. Ticks from the Libaan zone, Somali Region of Ethiopia, were also infected by R. africae (28.5% prevalence in Amblyomma gemma, 95%CI: 14.7-46.0) and R. aeschlimannii (27.0% H. truncatum, 95%CI: 5.0-62.9; 88.3% H. rufipes, 95%CI: 60.5-99.3). All tested ticks were adults. The developed diagnostic tools were highly sensitive and enabled us to rapidly classify R. aeschlimannii and R. africae, which were identified in Burkina Faso and in the Somali Region of Ethiopia for the first time. Further studies are needed to assess the zoonotic risk and prevalence of infection in local human populations, who have high contact rates with ticks and their animal hosts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. ‘We identify, discuss, act and promise to prevent similar deaths’: a qualitative study of Ethiopia's Maternal Death Surveillance and Response system

    PubMed Central

    Abebe, Berhanu; Busza, Joanna; Hadush, Azmach; Usmael, Abdurehman; Zeleke, Amsalu Belew; Sita, Sahle; Hailu, Solomon; Graham, Wendy J

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Ethiopia introduced national Maternal Death Surveillance and Response (MDSR) in 2013 and is among the first sub-Saharan African countries to capture data on facility-based and community-based maternal deaths. We interviewed frontline MDSR implementers about their experiences of the first 2 years of MDSR, including perceptions of its introduction and outcomes for health services. Methods We conducted a qualitative case study in 4 zones in the largest regions, interviewing 69 key informants from regional, zonal, district and facility levels. Results A defining feature of Ethiopia's MDSR system is its integration within existing disease surveillance, with both benefits and challenges. Facilitators of the system's introduction were strong political support, alignment with broader health strategies and strong links across health system departments. Barriers included confusion around new responsibilities, high staff turnover and fear of legal repercussions. Stakeholders believed MDSR increased confidence in using local data to improve maternal health services and enhanced communication across the health system. Conclusions MDSR systems take time to establish, encountering challenges in early implementation. Ensuring MDSR has a clear purpose, explicitly defined roles and responsibilities, and adequate supervisory support from the start will ensure it becomes embedded within the health system as routine practice rather than perceived as a stand-alone system. Countries planning to adopt or extend MDSR can learn from Ethiopia's experience, particularly the decision to make maternal mortality a weekly reportable condition within Public Health Emergency Management. PMID:28589016

  10. Knowledge and Perception of Consumption of Iodized Salt Among Food Handlers in Southern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Haji, Yusuf; Abdurahmen, Junayde; Paulos, Wondimagegn

    2016-01-01

    Iodine deficiency is the world's single most important cause of preventable mental retardation. In Ethiopia, the knowledge and perception of food handlers toward the iodized salt consumption (ISC) was very low. To assess knowledge and perception of food handlers toward consumption of iodized salt in Wolaita Sodo town and Sodo Zuria woreda, 2014. The community-based cross-sectional study design was done from May 10 to May 30, 2014 in Sodo town and Sodo Zuria woreda (district), Wolaita zone, southern Ethiopia. Systematic sampling techniques were used to identify study participants. Data entered into the software Epi Info version 3.5.3 and analyzed using the software SPSS version 16. To assess an association, odds ratio was used at 95% confidence interval, whereas confounding was controlled by employing multivariate logistic regression. Lower knowledge and perception on iodine deficiency was observed. About 239 (44.7%) of the respondents had good knowledge and 228 (42.6%) had positive attitude toward consumption of iodized salt. Most (346, 64.7%) of the participants had heard about goiter, whereas only 170 (31.8%) of them associated it with iodine deficiency. About 46.4% of respondents heard about iodized salt. Respondents' age, education, family income, place of residence, and occupation had significant association with good knowledge and positive attitude toward consumption of iodized salt. The study revealed the existence of knowledge and perception gap in iodine deficiency disorder and ISC. Household income, education of respondents, and place of residence were determinant factors for poor knowledge and perception of iodized salt. Therefore, efforts to scale-up the knowledge and perception toward ISC should focus on households with low income, educational level, and rural residence.

  11. Prevalence of tinea capitis and the causative agent among school children in Gondar, North West Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Ali, Jemal; Yifru, Sisay; Woldeamanuel, Yimtubezinash

    2009-10-01

    Tinea capitis is a worldwide public health problem that poses specific therapeutic challenge. This dermatophytosis of the scalp is characteristically a fungal infection affecting children between 5 and 15 years of age. A decision on treatment of tinea capitis requires identification of the specific causative fungal agent or at least establishment of the prevalence of a given dermatophyte in a given community. to estimate the prevalence of tinea capitis, assess predisposing risk factors and identify the causative fungal agent in school children in north Gonder zone, Northwest Ethiopia. This was a cross sectional study conducted in two elementary schools in Gondar town. Clinico-dermatological data and questionnaire on socio-demographic information, living and hygienic conditions were collected. Mycological investigation was done by microscopic examination culture. A total of 372 students were screened for Tinea capitis infection, 262 from Meseret elementary school and 110 from Chechela elementary school. Among these, 61% (n = 227) were female and 39% (n = 145) were male. The median age was 10 years old, 98% of the study subjects were within the age range of 5 to 15. From the screened 372 children 47.5% (n = 177) were clinically suspected for Tinea capitis and 174 scalp samples were collected Microscopic examination in KOH (10%)-wet-mount preparation revealed 65.5% (n = 14) had fungal elements (hyphae and/or arthroconidia) in their clinical samples. Out of 174 specimen 50.0% (87) were culture positive. 33.9% (59) were contaminated and in 16.0% (28) were culture negative. From the positive samples 86.2% (75) were identified as Trichophyton violaceum. The rest 13.8% (12) were further sub-cultured at 37 degrees C and studied morphologically, and identified as Trichophyton verrucosum. A high prevalence of Tinea capitis caused by T. violaceum was found in school children in Gondar. Ethiopia. Provisions for prevention and control should be set in the schools focused on

  12. Reemergence of yellow fever in Ethiopia after 50 years, 2013: epidemiological and entomological investigations.

    PubMed

    Lilay, Abrham; Asamene, Negga; Bekele, Abyot; Mengesha, Mesfin; Wendabeku, Milliyon; Tareke, Israel; Girmay, Abiy; Wuletaw, Yonas; Adossa, Abate; Ba, Yamar; Sall, Amadou; Jima, Daddi; Mengesha, Debritu

    2017-05-15

    Yellow Fever (YF) is a viral hemorrhagic disease transmitted by aedes mosquito species. Approximately, 200,000 cases and 30,000 deaths occur worldwide every year. In Ethiopia, the last outbreak was reported in 1966 with 2200 cases and 450 deaths. A number of cases with deaths from unknown febrile illness reported from South Ari district starting from November 2012. This investigation was conducted to identify the causative agent, source of the outbreak and recommend appropriate interventions. Medical records were reviewed and Patients and clinicians involved in managing the case were interviewed. Descriptive data analysis was done by time, person and place. Serum samples were collected for serological analysis it was done using Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay for initial screening and confirmatory tests were done using Plaque Reduction and Neutralization Test. Breteau and container indices were used for the entomological investigation to determine the risk of epidemic. A total of 141 Suspected YF cases with 43 deaths (CFR = 30.5%) were reported from November 2012 to October 2013 from South Omo Zone. All age groups were affected (mean 27.5, Range 1-75 Years). Of the total cases, 85.1% cases had jaundice and 56.7% cases had fever. Seven of the 21 samples were IgM positive for YF virus. Aedes bromeliae and Aedes aegypti were identified as responsible vectors of YF in affected area. The Breteau indices of Arkisha and Aykamer Kebeles were 44.4% and 33.3%, whereas the container indices were 12.9% and 22.2%, respectively. The investigation revealed that YF outbreak was reemerged after 50 years in Ethiopia. Vaccination should be given for the affected and neighboring districts and Case based surveillance should be initiated to detect every case.

  13. Sawflies of Ethiopia (Hymenoptera: Argidae, Tenthredinidae).

    PubMed

    Koch, Frank; Pauly, Alain; Hora, Zewdu A; Boevé, Jean-Luc

    2015-09-24

    Sawflies were collected in Ethiopia during 2010-2013. Three species represent new records for the country: Arge deckerti Koch, 2005, Athalia excisa Koch, 2006 and Xenapates nigrifrons Koch, 2012. Arge flavifrons Mocsáry, 1909, syn. n. and A. transvaalensis Cameron, 1911, syn. n. are subjective synonyms of A. micheli (Buysson, 1900) that is re-described here. Athalia fumosa Gribodo, 1879 sp. rev. is recognized as a valid species and is removed from synonymy with A. scioensis Gribodo, 1879. Distega braunsi Enslin, 1911 syn. n. and D. brunniventris Enslin, 1913 syn. n. are subjective synonyms of D. montium Konow, 1907. Pseudoneacidiophora Koch, 1998 is a new junior synonym of Kivua Forsius, 1934 (syn. n.), resulting in the new combination Kivua pleuritica (comb. n.) for Athalia pleuritica Forsius, 1927. Kivua camerunensis nom. n. is proposed for P. bicolor Koch, 1998 (preoccupied in Kivua by K. bicolor (Pasteels, 1949) (Bicrista bicolor Pasteels)), the second species formerly included in Pseudoneacidiophora. The female of Distega abyssinica Pasteels, 1955 is described for the first time. An annotated and illustrated list including six distribution maps is given for Ethiopian sawflies. It is composed of 34 species belonging to the genus Arge (Argidae), and seven genera of Tenthredinidae: Athalia (Athaliinae), Kivua, Neacidiophora, Xenapates (Allantinae), Distega, Trisodontophyes (Blennocampinae), and Dulophanes (Selandriinae). Some ecological aspects of Athalia species are discussed, especially for the most abundantly collected A. vollenhoveni Gribodo, 1879.

  14. Abortion at Gondar College Hospital, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Yusuf, L; Zein, Z A

    2001-05-01

    To review the pattern and magnitude of abortion in order to establish baseline facts and data for future studies. A descriptive cross-sectional study. Gondar College of Medical Sciences Hospital, Gondar, Ethiopia. Most of the subjects originated from the Gondar city and were married housewives, parous and relatively young. The abortion rate and ratio per 100 pregnancies and deliveries were 11.5 and 16.4, respectively. Only 13.4% of the patients admitted history of interference with the pregnancy. Previous history of abortion was obtained in 10.6% of the patients. The mean gestational ages for septic and non-septic cases were 14.6 and 15.2 weeks, respectively even though pregnancies less than 12 weeks from the last normal menstrual period accounted for 50.5%. The commonly diagnosed clinical type was incomplete, followed by inevitable and threatened abortion. The vast majority of the clinical conditions were non-septic (85.1 %) and spontaneous(85.6 %). The most common complications registered were anaemia, genital tract infection, shock of various causes and soft tissue injury. Four mothers died of abortion-related complications. The mean hospital stays for non-septic and septic abortion were three and five days, respectively. The study has attempted to address the issue of abortion in its general clinical pattern in relation to the various parameters. Being comprehensive, it also provides awareness and sensitivity on the magnitude of abortion and is assumed quite helpful for policy and decision makers.

  15. Providing plastic zone extrusion

    SciTech Connect

    Manchiraju, Venkata Kiran; Feng, Zhili; David, Stan A.

    Plastic zone extrusion may be provided. First, a compressor may generate frictional heat in stock to place the stock in a plastic zone of the stock. Then, a conveyer may receive the stock in its plastic zone from the compressor and transport the stock in its plastic zone from the compressor. Next, a die may receive the stock in its plastic zone from the conveyer and extrude the stock to form a wire.

  16. Vadose zone microbiology

    SciTech Connect

    Kieft, Thomas L.; Brockman, Fred J.

    2001-01-17

    The vadose zone is defined as the portion of the terrestrial subsurface that extends from the land surface downward to the water table. As such, it comprises the surface soil (the rooting zone), the underlying subsoil, and the capillary fringe that directly overlies the water table. The unsaturated zone between the rooting zone and the capillary fringe is termed the "intermediate zone" (Chapelle, 1993). The vadose zone has also been defined as the unsaturated zone, since the sediment pores and/or rock fractures are generally not completely water filled, but instead contain both water and air. The latter characteristic results inmore » the term "zone of aeration" to describe the vadose zone. The terms "vadose zone," "unsaturated zone", and "zone of aeration" are nearly synonymous, except that the vadose zone may contain regions of perched water that are actually saturated. The term "subsoil" has also been used for studies of shallow areas of the subsurface immediately below the rooting zone. This review focuses almost exclusively on the unsaturated region beneath the soil layer since there is already an extensive body of literature on surface soil microbial communities and process, e.g., Paul and Clark (1989), Metting (1993), Richter and Markowitz, (1995), and Sylvia et al. (1998); whereas the deeper strata of the unsaturated zone have only recently come under scrutiny for their microbiological properties.« less

  17. Social determinants of HIV infection, hotspot areas and subpopulation groups in Ethiopia: evidence from the National Demographic and Health Survey in 2011

    PubMed Central

    Lakew, Yihunie; Benedict, Susan; Haile, Demewoz

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study identifies social determinants of HIV infection, hotspot areas and subpopulation groups in Ethiopia. Design The study used data from the 2011 Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey (EDHS). Sample blood tests from the finger pricks collected on filter paper cards were labelled with a barcode unique to each respondent. Spatial scan statistics and geographic information system tools were used to map hotspot areas of HIV prevalence. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression models were used to identify social determinants of HIV infection. Population A total of 30 625 adults (16 515 women and 14 110 men) were included from 11 administrative states of Ethiopia. Main outcome measures Laboratory-confirmed HIV serostatus is the main outcome variable. Results HIV prevalence reached 10–21% in the central, eastern and western geographic clusters of Ethiopia. Multivariable analysis showed that individuals who were in the middle, richer and richest wealth quintiles had increased odds of having HIV over those in the poorest quintile. Adults who had primary, secondary and higher educational levels had higher odds of being HIV positive than non-educated individuals. The odds of having HIV were higher among adults who had multiple lifetime sexual partners than those with a single partner. An increasing odds of HIV infection were observed among adults in the age groups of 25–29, 30–34, 35–39 and 40–45 years compared with adults in the age group of 45–49 years. Merchants had higher odds of being HIV positive than those who were not employed. The odds of having HIV were higher among urban residents and females than among rural residents and males, respectively. Conclusions This study found statistically significant HIV concentrations in administrative zones of central, eastern and western Ethiopia. Geospatial monitoring and targeting of prevention strategies for specific population groups is recommended. PMID:26589427

  18. Interpretations of education about gene-environment influences on health in rural Ethiopia: the context of a neglected tropical disease.

    PubMed

    Tora, Abebayehu; Ayode, Desta; Tadele, Getnet; Farrell, David; Davey, Gail; McBride, Colleen M

    2016-07-01

    Misunderstandings of the role of genetics in disease development are associated with stigmatizing behaviors and fatalistic attitudes about prevention. This report describes an evaluation of community understanding of an educational module about genetic and environmental influences on the development of podoconiosis, a neglected tropical disease endemic in highland Ethiopia. A qualitative process assessment was conducted as part of a large prospective intervention trial in August 2013, in Wolaita Zone, southern Ethiopia. Sixty five participants were purposively selected from 600 households randomized to receive the inherited susceptibility module. The educational module used pictorial representations and oral explanations of the interaction of inherited sensitivity and soil exposure and was delivered by lay health educators in participants' homes. Data were collected using semi-structured individual interviews (IDIs) or focus group discussions (FGDs). Qualitative analyses showed that most participants improved their understanding of inherited soil sensitivity and susceptibility to podoconiosis. Participants linked their new understanding to decreased stigma-related attitudes. The module also corrected misconceptions that the condition was contagious, again diminishing stigmatizing attitudes. Lastly, these improvements in understanding increased the perceived value of foot protection. Taken together, these improvements support the acceptability, feasibility and potential benefits of implementing gene-environment education in low and middle income countries. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  19. Interpretations of education about gene-environment influences on health in rural Ethiopia: the context of a neglected tropical disease

    PubMed Central

    Tora, Abebayehu; Ayode, Desta; Tadele, Getnet; Farrell, David; Davey, Gail; McBride, Colleen M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Misunderstandings of the role of genetics in disease development are associated with stigmatizing behaviors and fatalistic attitudes about prevention. This report describes an evaluation of community understanding of an educational module about genetic and environmental influences on the development of podoconiosis, a neglected tropical disease endemic in highland Ethiopia. Methods A qualitative process assessment was conducted as part of a large prospective intervention trial in August 2013, in Wolaita Zone, southern Ethiopia. Sixty five participants were purposively selected from 600 households randomized to receive the inherited susceptibility module. The educational module used pictorial representations and oral explanations of the interaction of inherited sensitivity and soil exposure and was delivered by lay health educators in participants' homes. Data were collected using semi-structured individual interviews (IDIs) or focus group discussions (FGDs). Results Qualitative analyses showed that most participants improved their understanding of inherited soil sensitivity and susceptibility to podoconiosis. Participants linked their new understanding to decreased stigma-related attitudes. The module also corrected misconceptions that the condition was contagious, again diminishing stigmatizing attitudes. Lastly, these improvements in understanding increased the perceived value of foot protection. Conclusions Taken together, these improvements support the acceptability, feasibility and potential benefits of implementing gene-environment education in low and middle income countries. PMID:27114426

  20. The Current Teacher Education Programs in Ethiopia: Reflection on Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mekonnen, Geberew Tulu

    2017-01-01

    This study threw light on the current practice of Postgraduate Diploma in Teaching Program at Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia. The study focused on the enrolment, graduation and attrition proportion of Postgraduate Diploma in Teaching candidates in the year 2011 and 2015. The 2011 and 2015 academic years have been purposively selected because the…

  1. GEMINI-6 - EARTH-SKY - ETHIOPIA - OUTER SPACE

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-12-16

    S65-63162 (16 Dec. 1965) --- Central area of Ethiopia, south of Addis Ababa, showing Lakes Zwai, Langana, and Shala, as seen from the Gemini-6 spacecraft during its 14th revolution of Earth. Photo credit: NASA or National Aeronautics and Space Administration

  2. Growth and Visual Information Processing in Infants in Southern Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Tay; Thomas, David G.; Woltamo, Tesfaye; Abebe, Yewelsew; Hubbs-Tait, Laura; Sykova, Vladimira; Stoecker, Barbara J.; Hambidge, K. Michael

    2008-01-01

    Speed of information processing and recognition memory can be assessed in infants using a visual information processing (VIP) paradigm. In a sample of 100 infants 6-8 months of age from Southern Ethiopia, we assessed relations between growth and VIP. The 69 infants who completed the VIP protocol had a mean weight z score of -1.12 plus or minus…

  3. Teacher Preparation in Ethiopia: A Critical Analysis of Reforms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semela, Tesfaye

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide a more comprehensive picture of teacher preparation in Ethiopia on top of a closer scrutiny of current teacher education reforms. In particular, it presents teacher education within the context of policy implementation over the last six decades by highlighting key reforms and how these reforms impacted the…

  4. Soil carbon and nitrogen losses following deforestation in Ethiopia

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Dry Afromontane forests of Ethiopia have faced vast exploitation and almost all these forests have been converted to agricultural lands. The disappearance of the forests has been most drastic during the past 100 years and has affected the functionality and stability of agroecosystem. The dynamics in...

  5. Examining Some Aspects of Alternative Basic Education Programmes in Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onwu, Gilbert O. M.; Agu, Augustine

    2010-01-01

    This study examines some aspects of the quality of Alternative Basic Education (ABE) provision in Ethiopia. Educational indicators of quality were formulated under two general topic areas of ABE programme process and content, and pupil learning outcomes. A qualitative-interpretative research approach and survey design was used to collect data from…

  6. Higher Education in Ethiopia: Expansion, Quality Assurance and Institutional Autonomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akalu, Girmaw Abebe

    2014-01-01

    This article chronicles the key challenges facing Ethiopia as it embarks on an ambitious, ideologically-driven and aggressive expansion of its higher education system in an effort to address its national goals of economic growth and poverty reduction. It is argued that the urge for higher education expansion has placed undue pressures particularly…

  7. Hemoglobin, Growth, and Attention of Infants in Southern Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aubuchon-Endsley, Nicki L.; Grant, Stephanie L.; Berhanu, Getenesh; Thomas, David G.; Schrader, Sarah E.; Eldridge, Devon; Kennedy, Tay; Hambidge, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Male and female infants from rural Ethiopia were tested to investigate relations among hemoglobin (Hb), anthropometry, and attention. A longitudinal design was used to examine differences in attention performance from 6 (M = 24.9 weeks, n = 89) to 9 months of age (M = 40.6 weeks, n = 85), differences hypothesized to be related to changes in iron…

  8. Andragogical Methods to Sustain Quality Adult Education in Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seyoum, Yilfashewa; Basha, Garkebo

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to analyse the extent andragogy serves as a means to secure quality in adult education programs. It attempts to scrutinize how active learning methods are implemented effectively in adult education program in the Eastern part of Ethiopia. A survey research design was adapted as a method of the study. Stratified and purposive…

  9. Outcomes of Orphanhood in Ethiopia: A Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camfield, Laura

    2011-01-01

    The paper addresses the question of whether parental death always has a strongly negative effect on children's outcomes using quantitative and qualitative data from Young Lives, a longitudinal study of childhood poverty in Ethiopia. It investigates the validity of potential mediating factors identified by other studies in Sub-Saharan Africa using…

  10. Situation Report--Dahomey, Ethiopia, Mali, and Mauritius.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in four foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Dahomey, Ethiopia, Mali, and Mauritius. Information is provided under two topics, general background and family planning situation, where appropriate and if it is available. General background covers ethnic…

  11. The Development of Education, Printing and Publishing in Ethiopia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gupta, Sushma

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the importance of literacy, education, printing, and publishing for the effective use of libraries and gives a detailed account of the development of these factors in Ethiopia. Highlights include the role of the church; the development of education, including higher education; and printing presses and publishing houses. (LRW)

  12. Publication Productivity of Academics in Jigjiga University, Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feyera, Teka; Atelaw, Habtamu; Hassen, Najib Abdi; Fufa, Gemechu

    2017-01-01

    This descriptive cross-sectional survey examined faculty publication productivity at Jigjiga University, Ethiopia. It, specifically, aimed at exploring the factors and barriers that may influence publication productivity among academic staffs while also comparing variations across academic disciplines. The survey employed self-administered…

  13. Determinants of Children's Schooling: The Case of Tigray Region, Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abafita, Jemal; Kim, Chang-Soo

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the determinants of educational outcomes of primary school children in Tigray region of Ethiopia using a survey data gathered from four villages in 2013. Four different measures of schooling were used to examine the impact of household and child-specific factors. First, we examine the determinants of school attendance (ever-attendance,…

  14. Adult Basic Literacy "Initiatives" in Ethiopia: Change and Continuity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenea, Ambissa

    2014-01-01

    The major purpose of the study was to look into change and continuity in the policy and practices of adult basic literacy initiatives in Ethiopia and to deduce lessons that can be drawn from the experiences for the future of adult basic literacy program in the country and elsewhere. Data was obtained through critical review of documents on the…

  15. Education in Ethiopia in Its Historical and Cultural Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eteffa, Mulugeta

    The report speaks of elementary and secondary education in Ethiopia in terms of its history and cultural setting, and then relates the facts to the present situation in terms of learning opportunities, rural development, and the prevailing attitudes among the people in regard to education. Discussions cover the educational role of the Ethiopian…

  16. Education for International Understanding: The Case of Ethiopia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Bureau of Education, Paris (France).

    This study reviews Ethiopia's efforts, experiences, and achievements with respect to developing education for international understanding over the past two decades in response to the United Nations recognition of the role education plays in promoting peace. It is an overture aimed at sharing ideas and experiences with all concerned for the…

  17. Strain distribution across magmatic margins during the breakup stage: Seismicity patterns in the Afar rift zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, C.; Ebinger, C. J.; Belachew, M.; Gregg, T.; Keir, D.; Ayele, A.; Aronovitz, A.; Campbell, E.

    2008-12-01

    Fault patterns record the strain history along passive continental margins, but geochronological constraints are, in general, too sparse to evaluate these patterns in 3D. The Afar depression in Ethiopia provides a unique setting to evaluate the time and space relations between faulting and magmatism across an incipient passive margin that formed above a mantle plume. The margin comprises a high elevation flood basalt province with thick, underplated continental crust, a narrow fault-line escarpment underlain by stretched and intruded crust, and a broad zone of highly intruded, mafic crust lying near sealevel. We analyze fault and seismicity patterns across and along the length of the Afar rift zone to determine the spatial distribution of strain during the final stages of continental breakup, and its relation to active magmatism and dike intrusions. Seismicity data include historic data and 2005-2007 data from the collaborative US-UK-Ethiopia Afar Geodynamics Project that includes the 2005-present Dabbahu rift episode. Earthquake epicenters cluster within discrete, 50 km-long magmatic segments that lack any fault linkage. Swarms also cluster along the fault-line scarp between the unstretched and highly stretched Afar rift zone; these earthquakes may signal release of stresses generated by large lateral density contrasts. We compare Coulomb static stress models with focal mechanisms and fault kinematics to discriminate between segmented magma intrusion and crank- arm models for the central Afar rift zone.

  18. Pattern of acute appendicitis in Mekelle, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Hagos, Mekonnen

    2014-07-01

    Acute appendicitis is one of the commonly encountered emergencies in the practice of general surgery but there are no much study regarding the magnitude and its pattern in Ethiopia and in Mekelle hospital in particular. This study was aimed at assessing the magnitude, pattern and outcomes of acute appendicitis. Between September 2008 to August 2010, 196 patients with acute appendicitis were admitted to Mekelle hospital. In this descriptive retrospective audit, case notes were obtained from medical records office and information entered included patient demographics, clinical symptoms, white blood cell count level and operative funding. Post-operative complications and operative outcomes were also recorded. Adequate records have been maintained in the hospital on patients undergoing appendectomy. There were 196 patients during the study period from all age groups with clinical suspicion of acute appendicitis who underwent appendectomy. The age ranged from 4 to 80 years (mean - 22 years). There were 143 (73%) males and females accounting for 53 (27%). The sex ratio was (M: F; 2.9:1). Majority of patients with acute appendicitis were between 20 - 29 years of age, accounting for 76 (38.7%), predominantly males affected than females. The other age group affected was between 10-19 years of age accounting for 56 (28.5%), again with male predominance. The frequent clinical presentation's of acute appendicitis were abdominal pain 196 (100.0%), vomiting 107 (54.6%) and anoxia 97 (49.5%). The duration of presentation ranged from 12 hours to 5 days (Mean- 3.5 days). This study has depicted that acute appendicitis is the commonest emergency surgical condition affecting the young in the study area. Early presentation, early diagnosis and prompt treatment have shown to attribute to lower rate of complications, likewise decreasing mortality. The other observed fact was the negative appendectomy which was more frequent in females in their reproductive age group. Additional modern

  19. Student nurses' learning on community-based education in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Salmon, Karen; Keneni, Gutema

    2004-07-01

    At Jimma University educational goals are to apply the concept of community-oriented education through community-based education (CBE) of health students. This study examined the experiences of student nurses on CBE. The aims of the study were to identify factors that students considered had helped or hindered their learning on CBE and to ascertain if the stated learning objectives were met. A quantitative, descriptive, survey design was adopted, using a single, anonymous questionnaire. Some qualitative data were gained using open questions. A convenience sample of 95 students participated in the research. Participants represented 90% of all students who had completed their CBE placements. Participation, mentors' willingness to answer questions and the relevance of the placement were factors that facilitated learning. Factors reported by students that hindered learning were difficulties of self-expression in a group, mentors emphasising mistakes and weakness and the short time-frame due to ongoing lectures during placement. Students said learning objectives most met were socio-demographic assessment, identifying health problems and action planning. Objectives reported to be least met were identifying environmental health problems, planning preventive health interventions and implementing health interventions. These include the need to develop students' group skills, prepare mentors to facilitate learning, organise CBE in spiral phases, avoid concurrent lectures and improve study facilities.

  20. Patients’ perceptions of podoconiosis causes, prevention and consequences in East and West Gojam, Northern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Podoconiosis is a form of non-filarial elephantiasis that affects barefoot individuals in highland tropical areas. The disease presents with bilateral, asymmetric swelling of the legs, usually confined to below the knee. This study aimed to assess podoconiosis patients’ perceptions of prevention, control, causes and familial clustering of the disease, and to document physical, social and economic impairments associated with the disease, with the ultimate aim of enabling development of tailored interventions in this region. Methods This descriptive study is part of the largest cross-sectional community-based household survey yet conducted on podoconiosis. It was completed in November and December, 2011, in Debre Eliyas and Dembecha Woredas of East and West Gojam Zones, northern Ethiopia, and consisted of a house-to-house census by community health workers followed by interviews of identified patients using a structured questionnaire. Results In the 17,553 households surveyed, 1,319 patients were identified. More male as compared to female patients were married (84.6% vs. 53.6%, χ2 = 157.1, p < 0.0001) while more female as compared to male patients were divorced (22.5% vs. 3.6%, χ2 = 102.3, p < 0.0001). Less than half of the study subjects believed podoconiosis could be prevented (37.5%) or controlled (40.4%) and many (41.3%) did not know the cause of podoconiosis. Two-fifths of the study subjects had a relative affected with podoconiosis. Approximately 13% of the respondents had experienced one or more forms of social stigmatization. The coping strategies adopted by patients to mitigate the physical impairments caused by podoconiosis were: working only occasionally (44.9%), avoiding physically demanding tasks (32.4%), working fewer hours (21.9%) or completely stopping work (8%). Most study subjects (96.4%) had noticed a decline in their income following the development of podoconiosis, and 78% said they were poorer than their healthy

  1. A geographic information system forecast model for strategic control of fasciolosis in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Yilma, J M; Malone, J B

    1998-07-31

    A geographic information system (GIS) forecast model based on moisture and thermal regime was developed to assess the risk of Fasciola hepatica, a temperate species, and its tropical counterpart, Fasciola gigantica, in Ethiopia. Agroecological map zones and corresponding environmental features that control the distribution and abundance of the disease and its snail intermediate hosts were imported from the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) Crop Production System Zones (CPSZ) database on east Africa and used to construct a GIS using ATLAS GIS 3.0 software. Base temperatures of 10 degrees C and 16 degrees C were used for F. hepatica and F. gigantica, respectively, to calculate growing degree days in a previously developed climate forecast system that was modified to allow use of monthly climate data values. The model was validated by comparison of risk indices and environmental features to available survey data on fasciolosis. Monthly Fasciola risk indices of four climatic regions in Ethiopia were used to project infection transmission patterns under varying climatic conditions and strategic chemotherapeutic fasciolosis control schemes. Varying degrees of F. hepatica risk occurred in most parts of the country and distinct regional F. hepatica transmission patterns could be identified. In the humid west, cercariae-shedding was predicted to occur from May to October. In the south it occurred from April to May and September to October, depending on the annual abundance of rain. In the north-central and central regions, risk was highest during heavy summer rains and pasture contamination with metacercariae was predicted to occur during August-September, except in wet years, when it may start as early as July and extend up to October. At cooler sites above altitude of 2800 m, completion of an infection cycle may require more than a year. Fasciola gigantica risk was present in the western, southern and north-central regions of the country at altitudes of 1440-2560 m

  2. Transition to University Life: Insights from High School and University Female Students in Wolaita Zone, Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thuo, Mary; Edda, Medhanit

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to get an insight about how high school female students perceive the transition to university life, and to understand the transition experience of university female students in the first semester. An exploratory study design was used where 166 high school female students and 88 first year university female students…

  3. Academic Staff Turnover Intention in Madda Walabu University, Bale Zone, South-East Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yimer, Ibrahim; Nega, Rahel; Ganfure, Gemechu

    2017-01-01

    Turnover is a voluntary cessation of membership of an organization by an employee. Employee retention is one of the challenges facing several organizations in both the developed and developing countries of the world. It is profitable to proactively react for possible staff turnover intentions. This research was carried out to determine the…

  4. Assessment of Late Quaternary strain partitioning in the Afar Triple Junction: Dobe and Hanle grabens, Ethiopia and Djibouti

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polun, S. G.; Stockman, M. B.; Hickcox, K.; Horrell, D.; Tesfaye, S.; Gomez, F. G.

    2015-12-01

    As the only subaerial exposure of a ridge - ridge - ridge triple junction, the Afar region of Ethiopia and Djibouti offers a rare opportunity to assess strain partitioning within this type of triple junction. Here, the plate boundaries do not link discretely, but rather the East African rift meets the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden rifts in a zone of diffuse normal faulting characterized by a lack of magmatic activity, referred to as the central Afar. An initial assessment of Late Quaternary strain partitioning is based on faulted landforms in the Dobe - Hanle graben system in Ethiopia and Djibouti. These two extensional basins are connected by an imbricated accommodation zone. Several fault scarps occur within terraces formed during the last highstand of Lake Dobe, around 5 ka - they provide a means of calibrating a numerical model of fault scarp degradation. Additional timing constraints will be provided by pending exposure ages. The spreading rates of both grabens are equivalent, however in Dobe graben, extension is partitioned 2:1 between northern, south dipping faults and the southern, north dipping fault. Extension in Hanle graben is primarily focused on the north dipping Hanle fault. On the north margin of Dobe graben, the boundary fault bifurcates, where the basin-bordering fault displays a significantly higher modeled uplift rate than the more distal fault, suggesting a basinward propagation of faulting. On the southern Dobe fault, surveyed fault scarps have ages ranging from 30 - 5 ka with uplift rates of 0.71, 0.47, and 0.68 mm/yr, suggesting no secular variation in slip rates from the late Plestocene through the Holocene. These rates are converted into horizontal stretching estimates, which are compared with regional strain estimated from velocities of relatively sparse GPS data.

  5. Maternity waiting homes in Ethiopia--three decades experience.

    PubMed

    Gaym, Asheber; Pearson, Luwei; Soe, Khynn Win Win

    2012-07-01

    Access to comprehensive emergency obstetric care is limited in Ethiopia. Maternity waiting homes are part of the strategies utilized to improve access to hard to reach rural populations. Despite long years of existence of this service in Ethiopia, the practice has not been adequately assessed so far. Describe the current status of maternity waiting home services in Ethiopia All facilities in Ethiopia that have a maternity waiting home were identified from FMOH data as well as personal contacts with focal persons at Regional Health Bureaus in the nine regions and UNICEF regional offices. A standardized data collection tool for facility assessment was developed by the quality referral team, Health Section, UNICEF. Data collection included site visits and documentation of infrastructural related issues through a facility checklist. Service related issues were also collected from log books and other documents as well as through interview with relevant staff Focus group discussions were held with all MWHs attendants who were found admitted at the time of the review at Attat, Wolisso and Gidole hospital maternity waiting homes on major thematic areas identified by the review team regarding MWH care The practice of maternity waiting homes in Ethiopia spans more than three decades. Nine facilities located in five Regional States had maternity waiting home services. All except one were located in hospitals. Admission capacity ranged from 4 up to 44 mothers at a time. Seven of the maternity waiting homes required the clients to cater for their own food, firewood and clothing supply providing only kitchen space and few kitchen utensils. Clients came from as far as 400 kms away to obtain services. Medical care and documentation of services were not standardized Duration of stay varied from 3-90 days. Monthly admission rates varied from 0-84 mothers at different institutions. Major indications for admission were previous caesarean section 34%; previous fistula repair 12

  6. Geological and geophysical investigation of water leakage from two micro-dam reservoirs: Implications for future site selection, northern Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berhane, Gebremedhin; Amare, Mogos; Gebreyohannes, Tesfamichael; Walraevens, Kristine

    2017-05-01

    Water resources are essential to human development activities and to eradicate extreme poverty and hunger. Geological problems of two water harvesting Micro-Dam Reservoirs (MDRs) were evaluated from leakage perspectives in the northern part of Ethiopia, East Africa. Conventional geological mapping, discontinuity and weathering descriptions, test pits and geophysical methods were used to characterize the hydrogeological features of the MDRs. Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) and Electrical Profiling (EP), were executed using Terrameter SAS (signal averaging system) 1000 manufactured by ABEM, Sweden, with Schlumberger and Wenner array configuration respectively. It was concluded that the foundations of both MDRs, except the right abutment for Adishuhu which is partly composed of dolerite, are pervious due to the presence of thin bedding planes, joints, weathered materials and fault. The presence of water in the downstream toe of the MDRs, at depressions, existing test pits and test pits excavated during the present study which lie within the seepage zone demarcated during surface geological mapping, correspond with the electrical resistivity study. The results of the electrical resistivity survey (EP and VES) were merged with the geological and structural mapping and the observation of seepage zones, for the delineation of weak zones responsible for leakage. Monitoring of the leakage (reservoir water and groundwater levels), both manually and using automatic divers, is recommended, along with monitoring of the stability of the embankments and the discharge or flow downstream of the MDRs.

  7. Ethiopia's Grand Renaissance Dam: Implications for Downstream Riparian Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Block, P. J.; Hammond, M.; King, A.

    2013-12-01

    Ethiopia has begun seriously developing their significant hydropower potential by launching construction of the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam (GERD) on the Blue Nile River to facilitate local and regional growth. Although this has required substantial planning on Ethiopia's part, no policy dictating the reservoir filling rate strategy has been publicly issued. This filling stage will have clear implications on downstream flows in Sudan and Egypt, complicated by evaporative losses, climate variability, and climate change. In this study, various filling policies and future climate states are simultaneously explored to infer potential streamflow reductions at Lake Nasser, providing regional decision-makers with a set of plausible, justifiable, and comparable outcomes. Schematic of the model framework Box plots of 2017-2032 percent change in annual average streamflow at Lake Nasser for each filling policy constructed from the 100 time-series and weighted precipitation changes. All values are relative to the no dam policy and no changes to future precipitation.

  8. Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in grazing cattle in central Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Ameni, Gobena; Vordermeier, Martin; Firdessa, Rebuma; Aseffa, Abraham; Hewinson, Glyn; Gordon, Stephen V; Berg, Stefan

    2011-06-01

    A preliminary study to characterise mycobacteria infecting tuberculous cattle from two different management systems in central Ethiopia was carried out. Approximately 27% of isolates from grazing cattle were Mycobacterium tuberculosis, while cattle in a more intensive-production system were exclusively infected with M. bovis. The practice of local farmers discharging chewed tobacco directly into the mouths of pastured cattle was identified as a potential route of human-to-cattle transmission of M. tuberculosis. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Assessing political priority for reproductive health in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Prata, Ndola; Summer, Anna

    2015-11-01

    Ethiopia is among the top six countries contributing to the highest numbers of maternal deaths globally. The Ethiopian total fertility rate was estimated at 4.8 in 2011, and the use of contraceptives by married women was 29%. Lack of knowledge, cultural stigma surrounding abortion, and barriers to access of services contribute to persistently high rates of unsafe abortion and abortion-related mortality. This study seeks to assess the generation and institutionalization of political priority for reproductive health within the political systems of Ethiopia. Interviews with key policy makers, government ministers, academics, and leaders of prominent non-governmental organizations in Ethiopia between July 2010 and January 2011 were conducted, using Shiffman and Smith's Framework, to analyse the key actors and ideas behind the shift towards prioritization of reproductive health in Ethiopia, as well as the political context and primary characteristics of the issues that propelled progressive action in reproductive health in that country. Some of the key lessons point to the readiness of the Ethiopian government to reform and to improve the socio-economic status of the population. The role of civil society organizations working alongside the government was crucial to creating a window of opportunity in a changing political climate to achieve gains in reproductive health. To our knowledge, this is the first time Shiffman and Smith's Framework has been used for reproductive health policies. We conclude that Ethiopian experience fits well within this framework for understanding prioritization of global health issues and may serve as a model for other sub-Saharan African countries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The burden of non-filarial elephantiasis in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Animut, Abebe

    2007-12-01

    Although known for many years, non-filarial elephantiasis remains a public health problem in tropical Africa, including the farming community of Ethiopia. The problem may be exacerbated in women who shoulder most of the burden of agricultural labour in the countryside. The intention of this brief review is to emphasise the burden of the disease and to alert researchers and organisations concerned with health care and prevention.

  11. The SARE tool for rabies control: Current experience in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Coetzer, A; Kidane, A H; Bekele, M; Hundera, A D; Pieracci, E G; Shiferaw, M L; Wallace, R; Nel, L H

    2016-11-01

    The Stepwise Approach towards Rabies Elimination (SARE) tool was developed through a joint effort of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations and the Global Alliance for Rabies Control (GARC), to provide a standard mechanism for countries to assess their rabies situation and measure progress in eliminating the disease. Because the African continent has the highest per capita death rate from rabies, and Ethiopia is estimated to have the second largest number of rabies deaths of all African countries, Ethiopia undertook a self-assessment by means of the Stepwise Approach towards Rabies Elimination (SARE) tool. In February 2016, the Ethiopian government hosted an intersectoral consultative meeting in an effort to assess the progress that has been made towards the control and elimination of canine rabies. The SARE assessment identified a number of critical gaps, including poor inter-sectoral collaboration and limited availability and access to dog vaccine, while the existence of a surveillance system for rabies and legislation for outbreak declaration and response were among the strengths identified. The SARE tool enabled key criteria to be prioritized, thereby accelerating the National Strategy and ensuring that Ethiopia will progress rapidly in line with the goals set by the global community for the elimination of human rabies deaths by 2030. Although the analysis showed that Ethiopia is still in the early stages of rabies control (Stage 0.5/5), the country shows great promise in terms of developing a SARE-guided National Rabies Prevention and Control Strategy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Occupational injuries among building construction workers in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Tadesse, Sebsibe; Israel, Dagnachew

    2016-01-01

    Occupational injuries can pose direct costs, like suffering, loss of employment, disability and loss of productivity, and indirect costs on families and society. However, there is a dearth of studies clarifying the situation in most of Subsaharan African countries, like Ethiopia. The present study determined the prevalence of injury and associated factors among building construction employees in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. An institutional-based cross-sectional study was conducted among building construction employees in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia from February to April 2015. Multi-stages sampling followed by simple random sampling techniques was used to select the study participants. The sample size of the study was 544. A pre-tested and structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Multivariable analyses were employed to see the effect of explanatory variables on injury. The prevalence of injury among building construction employees was reported to be 38.3 % [95 % CI: (33.9, 42.7)] in the past 1 year. Use of personal protective equipments, work experience, khat chewing were factors significantly associated with injury. This is among the few studies describing construction health and safety in Ethiopia. In this study a relatively higher prevalence of injury was reported among building construction employees compared to other studies. If urgent interventions are not in place, the absence from work, loss of productivity and work-related illnesses, disabilities and fatalities will continue to be a major challenge of the construction industry in the future. Therefore, programs to mitigate the burden borne by construction-related injuries should focus on areas, such as provision of safety trainings, promoting use of PPE and monitoring substance abuse in workplace.

  13. Hydroclimate Forecasts in Ethiopia: Benefits, Impediments, and Ways Forward

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Block, P. J.

    2014-12-01

    Numerous hydroclimate forecast models, tools, and guidance exist for application across Ethiopia and East Africa in the agricultural, water, energy, disasters, and economic sectors. This has resulted from concerted local and international interdisciplinary efforts, yet little evidence exists of rapid forecast uptake and use. We will review projected benefits and gains of seasonal forecast application, impediments, and options for the way forward. Specific case studies regarding floods, agricultural-economic links, and hydropower will be reviewed.

  14. Indoor air pollution in slum neighbourhoods of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanbata, Habtamu; Asfaw, Araya; Kumie, Abera

    2014-06-01

    An estimated 95% of the population of Ethiopia uses traditional biomass fuels, such as wood, dung, charcoal, or crop residues, to meet household energy needs. As a result of the harmful smoke emitted from the combustion of biomass fuels, indoor air pollution is responsible for more than 50,000 deaths annually and causes nearly 5% of the burden of disease in Ethiopia. Very limited research on indoor air pollution and its health impacts exists in Ethiopia. This study was, therefore, undertaken to assess the magnitude of indoor air pollution from household fuel use in Addis Ababa, the capital city of Ethiopia. During January and February, 2012, the concentration of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in 59 households was measured using the University of California at Berkeley Particle Monitor (UCB PM). The raw data was analysed using Statistical Package of Social Science (SPSS version 20.0) software to determine variance between groups and descriptive statistics. The geometric mean of 24-h indoor PM2.5 concentration is approximately 818 μg m-3 (Standard deviation (SD = 3.61)). The highest 24-h geometric mean of PM2.5 concentration observed were 1134 μg m-3 (SD = 3.36), 637 μg m-3 (SD = 4.44), and 335 μg m-3 (SD = 2.51), respectively, in households using predominantly solid fuel, kerosene, and clean fuel. Although 24-h mean PM2.5 concentration between fuel types differed statistically (P < 0.05), post hoc pairwise comparison indicated no significant difference in mean concentration of PM2.5 between improved biomass stoves and traditional stoves (P > 0.05). The study revealed indoor air pollution is a major environmental and health hazard from home using biomass fuel in Addis Ababa. The use of clean fuels and efficient cooking stoves is recommended.

  15. Differentiating flow, melt, or fossil seismic anisotropy beneath Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammond, J. O. S.; Kendall, J.-M.; Wookey, J.; Stuart, G. W.; Keir, D.; Ayele, A.

    2014-05-01

    Ethiopia is a region where continental rifting gives way to oceanic spreading. Yet the role that pre-existing lithospheric structure, melt, mantle flow, or active upwellings may play in this process is debated. Measurements of seismic anisotropy are often used to attempt to understand the contribution that these mechanisms may play. In this study, we use new data in Afar, Ethiopia along with legacy data across Ethiopia, Djibouti, and Yemen to obtain estimates of mantle anisotropy using SKS-wave splitting. We show that two layers of anisotropy exist, and we directly invert for these. We show that fossil anisotropy with fast directions oriented northeast-southwest may be preserved in the lithosphere away from the rift. Beneath the Main Ethiopian Rift and parts of Afar, anisotropy due to shear segregated melt along sharp changes in lithospheric thickness dominates the shear-wave splitting signal in the mantle. Beneath Afar, away from regions with significant lithospheric topography, melt pockets associated with the crustal and uppermost mantle magma storage dominate the signal in localized regions. In general, little anisotropy is seen in the uppermost mantle beneath Afar suggesting melt retains no preferential alignment. These results show the important role melt plays in weakening the lithosphere and imply that as rifting evolves passive upwelling sustains extension. A dominant northeast-southwest anisotropic fast direction is observed in a deeper layer across all of Ethiopia. This suggests that a conduit like plume is lacking beneath Afar today, rather a broad flow from the southwest dominates flow in the upper mantle.

  16. Flow, melt and fossil seismic anisotropy beneath Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammond, James; Kendall, J.-Michael; Wookey, James; Stuart, Graham; Keir, Derek; Ayele, Atalay

    2014-05-01

    Ethiopia is a region where continental rifting gives way to oceanic spreading. Yet the role that pre-existing lithospheric structure, melt, mantle flow or active upwellings may play in this process is debated. Measurements of seismic anisotropy are often used to attempt to understand the contribution that these mechanisms may play. In this study we use new data in Afar, Ethiopia along with legacy data across Ethiopia, Djibouti and Yemen to obtain estimates of mantle anisotropy using SKS-wave splitting. We show that two layers of anisotropy exist, and use shear-wave splitting tomography to invert for these. We show that fossil anisotropy with fast directions oriented northeast-southwest may be preserved in the lithosphere away from the rift. Beneath the Main Ethiopian Rift and parts of Afar, anisotropy due aligned melt due to sharp changes in lithospheric thickness dominate the shear-wave splitting signal in the mantle. Beneath Afar, away from lithospheric topography, melt pockets associated with the crustal magma storage dominate the signal and little anisotropy is seen in the uppermost mantle suggesting melt retains no preferential alignment, possibly due to a lack of mantle lithosphere. These results show the important role melt plays in weakening the lithosphere and imply that as rifting evolves passive upwelling sustains extension. A dominant northeast-southwest anisotropic fast direction is observed in a deeper layer across all of Ethiopia. This suggests that a conduit like plume is absent beneath Afar today, rather a broad flow from the southwest dominates in the upper mantle.

  17. Measuring Learning Quality in Ethiopia, India and Vietnam: From Primary to Secondary School Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iyer, Padmini; Moore, Rhiannon

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines the way in which learning quality has been conceptualised and measured in school effectiveness surveys conducted by Young Lives, a longitudinal study of child poverty. Primary school surveys were conducted in Vietnam in 2010-11 and Ethiopia in 2012-13, and surveys at upper-primary and secondary level were conducted in Ethiopia,…

  18. Expansion vs. Quality: Emerging Issues of For-Profit Private Higher Education Institutions in Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alemu, Daniel S.

    2010-01-01

    Private for-profit higher education has been rapidly expanding in developing countries worldwide since the early 1990s. This global trend has been particularly evident in Ethiopia, where only three public universities existed until 1996. By 2005, about 60 private for-profit higher education institutions had been founded in Ethiopia. This has led…

  19. Inclusion of Students with Disabilities in Formal Vocational Education Programs in Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malle, Abebe Yehualawork; Pirttimaa, Raija; Saloviita, Timo

    2015-01-01

    In Ethiopia, individuals with disabilities have limited access to educational and vocational training opportunities. This study investigates prevailing challenges and opportunities for the participation of students with disabilities in vocational education programs in Ethiopia. Data for the study were gathered from the five biggest regions out of…

  20. Historical Analysis of the Challenges and Opportunities of Higher Education in Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishaw, Alemayehu; Melesse, Solomon

    2017-01-01

    There is a massive higher education expansion in Ethiopia. However, the efforts to expand higher education are characterized by great opportunities and significant challenges. The current higher education policy formulation and practice are the result of long history of traditional education in Ethiopia, the western countries' influence and the…

  1. Comparative Study on the Senior Secondary School Mathematics Curricula Development in Ethiopia and Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meleta, Fufa E.; Zhang, Weizhong

    2017-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to compare the process of the senior secondary school mathematics curricula development in Ethiopia and Australia. The study was investigated qualitatively with document analysis and semi-structured interview research methods. The documents were collected from Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia Ministry of…

  2. Development of Libraries, Documentation and Information Centres in Ethiopia in the Twentieth Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gupta, Sushma

    1995-01-01

    Describes the historical development of libraries in Ethiopia. Examines the National Library of Ethiopia, Addis Ababa University Libraries, the Institute of Ethiopian Studies Library, and the Ethiopian Science and Technology Documentation and Information Center. Discusses the development of special libraries, libraries and documentation centers of…

  3. Instructional Language Policy in Ethiopia: Motivated by Politics or the Educational Needs of Children?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alemu, Daniel S.; Tekleselassie, Abebayehu A.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explain the formulation, implementation, and outcome of Ethiopia's instructional language policy in light of the PRINCE system of power analysis as adapted by Fowler (2004), along with several literature references pertinent to the issue. After providing a brief background on Ethiopia and its education and language…

  4. The structure of a Mesozoic basin beneath the Lake Tana area, Ethiopia, revealed by magnetotelluric imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hautot, Sophie; Whaler, Kathryn; Gebru, Workneh; Desissa, Mohammednur

    2006-03-01

    The northwestern Plateau of Ethiopia is almost entirely covered with extensive Tertiary continental flood basalts that mask the underlying formations. Mesozoic and Tertiary sediments are exposed in a few locations surrounding the Lake Tana area suggesting that the Tana depression is an extensional basin buried by the 1-2 km thick Eocene-Oligocene flood basalt sequences in this region. A magnetotelluric survey has been carried out to investigate the deep structure of the Tana area. The objectives were to estimate the thickness of the volcanics and anticipated underlying sedimentary basin. We have collected 27 magnetotelluric soundings south and east of Lake Tana. Two-dimensional inversion of the data along a 160 km long profile gives a model consistent with a NW-SE trending sedimentary basin beneath the lava flows. The thickness of sediments overlying the Precambrian basement averages 1.5-2 km, which is comparable to the Blue Nile stratigraphic section, south of the area. A 1 km thickening of sediments over a 30-40 km wide section suggests that the form of the basin is a half-graben. It is suggested that electrically resistive features in the model are related to volcanic materials intruded within the rift basin sediments through normal faults. The results illustrate the strong control of the Precambrian fracture zones on the feeding of the Tertiary Trap series.

  5. Use of Balanced Scorecard Methodology for Performance Measurement of the Health Extension Program in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Teklehaimanot, Hailay D.; Teklehaimanot, Awash; Tedella, Aregawi A.; Abdella, Mustofa

    2016-01-01

    In 2004, Ethiopia introduced a community-based Health Extension Program to deliver basic and essential health services. We developed a comprehensive performance scoring methodology to assess the performance of the program. A balanced scorecard with six domains and 32 indicators was developed. Data collected from 1,014 service providers, 433 health facilities, and 10,068 community members sampled from 298 villages were used to generate weighted national, regional, and agroecological zone scores for each indicator. The national median indicator scores ranged from 37% to 98% with poor performance in commodity availability, workforce motivation, referral linkage, infection prevention, and quality of care. Indicator scores showed significant difference by region (P < 0.001). Regional performance varied across indicators suggesting that each region had specific areas of strength and deficiency, with Tigray and the Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples Region being the best performers while the mainly pastoral regions of Gambela, Afar, and Benishangul-Gumuz were the worst. The findings of this study suggest the need for strategies aimed at improving specific elements of the program and its performance in specific regions to achieve quality and equitable health services. PMID:26928842

  6. Use of Balanced Scorecard Methodology for Performance Measurement of the Health Extension Program in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Teklehaimanot, Hailay D; Teklehaimanot, Awash; Tedella, Aregawi A; Abdella, Mustofa

    2016-05-04

    In 2004, Ethiopia introduced a community-based Health Extension Program to deliver basic and essential health services. We developed a comprehensive performance scoring methodology to assess the performance of the program. A balanced scorecard with six domains and 32 indicators was developed. Data collected from 1,014 service providers, 433 health facilities, and 10,068 community members sampled from 298 villages were used to generate weighted national, regional, and agroecological zone scores for each indicator. The national median indicator scores ranged from 37% to 98% with poor performance in commodity availability, workforce motivation, referral linkage, infection prevention, and quality of care. Indicator scores showed significant difference by region (P < 0.001). Regional performance varied across indicators suggesting that each region had specific areas of strength and deficiency, with Tigray and the Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples Region being the best performers while the mainly pastoral regions of Gambela, Afar, and Benishangul-Gumuz were the worst. The findings of this study suggest the need for strategies aimed at improving specific elements of the program and its performance in specific regions to achieve quality and equitable health services. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  7. Seasonal Water Balance Forecasts for Drought Early Warning in Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spirig, Christoph; Bhend, Jonas; Liniger, Mark

    2016-04-01

    Droughts severely impact Ethiopian agricultural production. Successful early warning for drought conditions in the upcoming harvest season therefore contributes to better managing food shortages arising from adverse climatic conditions. So far, however, meteorological seasonal forecasts have not been used in Ethiopia's national food security early warning system (i.e. the LEAP platform). Here we analyse the forecast quality of seasonal forecasts of total rainfall and of the meteorological water balance as a proxy for plant available water. We analyse forecast skill of June to September rainfall and water balance from dynamical seasonal forecast systems, the ECMWF System4 and EC-EARTH global forecasting systems. Rainfall forecasts outperform forecasts assuming a stationary climate mainly in north-eastern Ethiopia - an area that is particularly vulnerable to droughts. Forecasts of the water balance index seem to be even more skilful and thus more useful than pure rainfall forecasts. The results vary though for different lead times and skill measures employed. We further explore the potential added value of dynamically downscaling the forecasts through several dynamical regional climate models made available through the EU FP7 project EUPORIAS. Preliminary results suggest that dynamically downscaled seasonal forecasts are not significantly better compared with seasonal forecasts from the global models. We conclude that seasonal forecasts of a simple climate index such as the water balance have the potential to benefit drought early warning in Ethiopia, both due to its positive predictive skill and higher usefulness than seasonal mean quantities.

  8. Teaching Child Psychiatry in Ethiopia: Challenges and Rewards

    PubMed Central

    Teshima, John

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Ethiopia is a country of 81 million people, half of whom are children. The prevalence of psychiatric disorders in children ranges from 3.5–23.2%. However, there are very limited mental health resources in the country, including few psychiatrists. Thus the training of more psychiatrists, including providing them with expertise in child psychiatry, is an imperative. Method The article briefly reviews the development of the Toronto Addis Ababa Psychiatry Project (TAAPP), a collaborative program between the University of Toronto and Addis Ababa University designed to help train psychiatry residents in Ethiopia. The article then focuses on the author’s experiences on one recent trip to Ethiopia to provide some of this training. Results Formal teaching sessions as well as clinical supervision were provided to the Ethiopian residents. Content had to be adapted to be relevant to the Ethiopian context, but teaching approaches did not have to be modified significantly. The Ethiopian residents were very enthusiastic learners and made quick changes to their practices based on the teaching. Conclusion Collaborative programs such as TAAPP may be important mechanisms to improve the training of psychiatrists internationally, especially when there are limited local educational resources. PMID:18769645

  9. Divorce in Ethiopia: the impact of early marriage and childlessness.

    PubMed

    Tilson, D; Larsen, U

    2000-07-01

    Forty-five per cent of first marriages in Ethiopia end in divorce within 30 years, and two-thirds of women who divorce do so within the first 5 years of marriage. This paper looks at two factors that may have an impact on the risk of divorce in Ethiopia: early age of first marriage, and childlessness within the first marriage. Data used were from the 1990 National Family and Fertility Survey conducted by the Government of Ethiopia. A total of 8757 women of reproductive age (15-49) were analysed. Life table analysis was used to determine the median age at first marriage, first birth and the median duration of marriage. Cox models were analysed to determine the differentials of divorce. The results of this analysis showed that both early age at marriage and childlessness have a significant impact on the risk of divorce. An inverse relationship was found between age at marriage and risk of divorce. Having a child within the first marriage also significantly reduced the risk of divorce. In addition, several cultural and socioeconomic variables were significant predictors of divorce.

  10. Impacts of Considering Climate Variability on Investment Decisions in Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strzepek, K.; Block, P.; Rosegrant, M.; Diao, X.

    2005-12-01

    In Ethiopia, climate extremes, inducing droughts or floods, are not unusual. Monitoring the effects of these extremes, and climate variability in general, is critical for economic prediction and assessment of the country's future welfare. The focus of this study involves adding climate variability to a deterministic, mean climate-driven agro-economic model, in an attempt to understand its effects and degree of influence on general economic prediction indicators for Ethiopia. Four simulations are examined, including a baseline simulation and three investment strategies: simulations of irrigation investment, roads investment, and a combination investment of both irrigation and roads. The deterministic model is transformed into a stochastic model by dynamically adding year-to-year climate variability through climate-yield factors. Nine sets of actual, historic, variable climate data are individually assembled and implemented into the 12-year stochastic model simulation, producing an ensemble of economic prediction indicators. This ensemble allows for a probabilistic approach to planning and policy making, allowing decision makers to consider risk. The economic indicators from the deterministic and stochastic approaches, including rates of return to investments, are significantly different. The predictions of the deterministic model appreciably overestimate the future welfare of Ethiopia; the predictions of the stochastic model, utilizing actual climate data, tend to give a better semblance of what may be expected. Inclusion of climate variability is vital for proper analysis of the predictor values from this agro-economic model.

  11. Climatic trends over Ethiopia: regional signals and drivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jury, Mark R.; Funk, Christopher C.

    2013-01-01

    This study analyses observed and projected climatic trends over Ethiopia, through analysis of temperature and rainfall records and related meteorological fields. The observed datasets include gridded station records and reanalysis products; while projected trends are analysed from coupled model simulations drawn from the IPCC 4th Assessment. Upward trends in air temperature of + 0.03 °C year−1 and downward trends in rainfall of − 0.4 mm month−1 year−1 have been observed over Ethiopia's southwestern region in the period 1948-2006. These trends are projected to continue to 2050 according to the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Lab model using the A1B scenario. Large scale forcing derives from the West Indian Ocean where significant warming and increased rainfall are found. Anticyclonic circulations have strengthened over northern and southern Africa, limiting moisture transport from the Gulf of Guinea and Congo. Changes in the regional Walker and Hadley circulations modulate the observed and projected climatic trends. Comparing past and future patterns, the key features spread westward from Ethiopia across the Sahel and serve as an early warning of potential impacts.

  12. Exploring Agro-Climatic Trends in Ethiopia Using CHIRPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedreros, D. H.; Funk, C. C.; Brown, M. E.; Korecha, D.; Seid, Y. M.

    2015-12-01

    The Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) uses the Climate Hazards Group Infrared Precipitation with Stations (CHIRPS) to monitor agricultural food production in different regions of the world. CHIRPS is a 1981-present, 5 day, approximately 5km resolution, rainfall product based on a combination of geostationary satellite observations, a high resolution climatology and in situ station observations. Furthermore, FEWS NET has developed a gridded implementation of the Water Requirement Satisfaction Index (WRSI), a water balance measurement indicator of crop performance. This study takes advantage of the CHIRPS' long term period of record and high spatial and temporal resolution to examine agro-climatic trends in Ethiopia. We use the CHIRPS rainfall dataset to calculate the WRSI for the boreal spring and summer crop seasons, as well as for spring-summer rangelands conditions. We find substantial long term rainfall declines in the spring and summer seasons across southeastern and northeastern Ethiopia. Crop Model results indicate that rainfall declines in the cropped regions have been associated with water deficits during the critical grain filling periods in well populated and/or highly vulnerable parts of eastern Ethiopia. WRSI results in the pastoral areas indicate substantial reductions in rangeland health during the later part of the growing seasons. These health declines correspond to the regions of Somaliland and Afar that have experienced chronic severe food insecurity since 2010. Key words: CHIRPS, satellite estimated rainfall, agricultural production

  13. Indirect child mortality estimation technique to identify trends of under-five mortality in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Ayele, Dawit G; Zewotir, Temesgen; Mwambi, Henry

    2016-03-01

    In sub-Saharan African countries, the chance of a child dying before the age of five years is high. The problem is similar in Ethiopia, but it shows a decrease over years. The 2000; 2005 and 2011 Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey results were used for this work. The purpose of the study is to detect the pattern of under-five child mortality overtime. Indirect child mortality estimation technique is adapted to examine the under-five child mortality trend in Ethiopia. From the result, it was possible to see the trend of under-five child mortality in Ethiopia. The under-five child mortality shows a decline in Ethiopia. From the study, it can be seen that there is a positive correlation between mother and child survival which is almost certain in any population. Therefore, this study shows the trend of under-five mortality in Ethiopia and decline over time.

  14. Analysis of the Junction of the East African Rift and the Cretaceous-Paleogene Rifts in Northern Kenya and Southern Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariita, N. O.; Tadesse, K.; Keller, G. R.

    2003-12-01

    The East African rift (EAR) is a Tertiary-Miocene system that extends from the Middle East, through East Africa, to Mozambique in southern Africa. Much of the present information is from the Ethiopian and Kenyan parts of the rift. Several characteristics of the EAR such as rift-related volcanism, faulting and topographic relief being exposed make it attractive for studying continental rift processes. Structural complexities reflected in the geometries of grabens and half-grabens, the existence of transverse fault zones and accommodation zones, and the influence of pre-existing geologic structures have been documented. In particular, the EAR traverses the Anza graben and related structures near the Kenya/Ethiopian border. The Anza graben is one in a series of Cretaceous-Paleogene failed rifts that trend across Central Africa from Nigeria through Chad to Sudan and Kenya with an overall northwest-southeast trend. In spite of a number of recent studies, we do not understand the interaction of these two rift systems. In both Ethiopia and Kenya, the rift segments share some broad similarities in timing and are related in a geographic sense. For example, volcanism appears to have generally preceded or in some cases have been contemporaneous with major rift faulting. Although, these segments are distinct entities, each with its own tectonic and magmatic evolution, and they do connect in the region crossed by the Anza graben and related structures. In our present study, we are using a combination of recently collected seismic, gravity and remote sensing data to increase our understanding of these two segments of the EAR. We hope that by analysing the satellite data, the variety and differences in the volume of magmatic products extruded along in southern Ethiopia and northern Kenya will be identified. The geometry of structures (in particular, those causing the gravity axial high) will be modelled to study the impact of the older Anza graben structural trends with the

  15. Evaluating a satellite-based seasonal evapotranspiration product and identifying its relationship with other satellite-derived products and crop yield: A case study for Ethiopia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tadesse, Tsegaye; Senay, Gabriel B.; Berhan, Getachew; Regassa, Teshome; Beyene, Shimelis

    2015-01-01

    Satellite-derived evapotranspiration anomalies and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) products from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data are currently used for African agricultural drought monitoring and food security status assessment. In this study, a process to evaluate satellite-derived evapotranspiration (ETa) products with a geospatial statistical exploratory technique that uses NDVI, satellite-derived rainfall estimate (RFE), and crop yield data has been developed. The main goal of this study was to evaluate the ETa using the NDVI and RFE, and identify a relationship between the ETa and Ethiopia’s cereal crop (i.e., teff, sorghum, corn/maize, barley, and wheat) yields during the main rainy season. Since crop production is one of the main factors affecting food security, the evaluation of remote sensing-based seasonal ETa was done to identify the appropriateness of this tool as a proxy for monitoring vegetation condition in drought vulnerable and food insecure areas to support decision makers. The results of this study showed that the comparison between seasonal ETa and RFE produced strong correlation (R2 > 0.99) for all 41 crop growing zones in Ethiopia. The results of the spatial regression analyses of seasonal ETa and NDVI using Ordinary Least Squares and Geographically Weighted Regression showed relatively weak yearly spatial relationships (R2 < 0.7) for all cropping zones. However, for each individual crop zones, the correlation between NDVI and ETa ranged between 0.3 and 0.84 for about 44% of the cropping zones. Similarly, for each individual crop zones, the correlation (R2) between the seasonal ETa anomaly and de-trended cereal crop yield was between 0.4 and 0.82 for 76% (31 out of 41) of the crop growing zones. The preliminary results indicated that the ETa products have a good predictive potential for these 31 identified zones in Ethiopia. Decision makers may potentially use ETa products for monitoring cereal

  16. Sero-prevalence, risk factors and distribution of sheep and goat pox in Amhara Region, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Fentie, Tsegaw; Fenta, Nigusie; Leta, Samson; Molla, Wassie; Ayele, Birhanu; Teshome, Yechale; Nigatu, Seleshe; Assefa, Ashenafi

    2017-12-11

    Sheep pox and goat pox are contagious viral diseases of sheep and goats, respectively. The diseases result in substantial economic losses due to decreased milk and meat production, damage to hides and wool, and possible trade restriction. A study was undertaken in Amhara region of Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study design was used to estimate the sero-prevalence and identify associated risk factors, while retrospective study design was used to assess the temporal and spatial distribution of the disease. A total of 672 serum samples were collected from 30 Kebeles and tested using virus neutralization test. From a total of 672 sera tested, 104 (15.5%) were positive for sheep and goat pox virus antibody; from which 56 (17%) were sheep and 48 (14%) were goats. The diseases were prevalent in all study zones, the highest sero-prevalence was observed in South Gondar (20.9%) and the lowest in North Gondar and West Gojjam zones (11.9% each). From the potential risk factors considered (species, sex, age, agro-ecology and location); only sex and age were significantly associated (p < 0.05) with the diseases in multivariable logistic regression. Female and young animals were at higher risk than their counterparts. From January 2010 to December 2014, a total of 366 outbreaks, 12,822 cases and 1480 deaths due to SP and 182 outbreaks, 10,066 cases and 997 deaths due to GP were recorded in Amhara National Regional State. Both the serological and the outbreak data revealed that sheep and goat pox is one of the most prevalent and widespread diseases of sheep and goats in the study area. Hence, annual mass vaccination program must be implemented for economic and viable control of sheep and goat pox diseases in the Amhara region in particular and at a national level in general.

  17. New Borrelia species detected in ixodid ticks in Oromia, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Kumsa, Bersissa; Socolovschi, Cristina; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe

    2015-04-01

    Little is known about Borrelia species transmitted by hard ticks in Ethiopia. The present study was conducted from November 2011 through March 2014 to address the occurrence and molecular identity of these bacteria in ixodid ticks infesting domestic animals in Oromia, Ethiopia. A total of 767 ixodid ticks collected from domestic animals were screened for Borrelia DNA by quantitative (q) real-time PCR followed by standard PCR and sequencing to identify the species. Overall, 3.8% (29/767) of the tested ticks were positive for Borrelia DNA, including 8/119 (6.7%) Amblyomma cohaerens, 1/42 (2.4%) Am. gemma, 3/53 (5.7%) Am. variegatum, 5/22 (22.7%) Amblyomma larvae, 3/60 (5%) Amblyomma nymphs, 2/139 (1.4%) Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus, 2/31 (6.4%) Rh. decoloratus nymphs, and 5/118 (4.2%) Rh. pulchellus using 16S genus-specific qPCR. The prevalence of Borrelia DNA was significantly higher in genus Amblyomma (20/298, 6.7%) than in the genus Rhipicephalus (9/417, 2.1%) ticks (P=0.001). Sequencing of PCR products from the flaB and 16S rRNA genes of Borrelia spp. from Amblyomma ticks showed the presence of a new species between the relapsing fever and Lyme disease groups. However, Borrelia sp. detected in Rhipicephalus ticks clustered with B. theileri/B. lonestari. The human pathogenicity of the Borrelia sp. detected in Amblyomma ticks from Ethiopia has not yet been investigated, whereas the Borrelia sp. detected in Rhipicephalus ticks in our study is the causative agent of bovine borreliosis in cattle and may have veterinary importance in different parts of Ethiopia. Furthermore, the detection of previously unrecognized Borrelia species in Amblyomma and Rhipicephalus ticks in Ethiopia generates additional questions concerning the bacterial fauna in hard ticks and will prompt researchers to perform detailed studies for better understanding of ixodid ticks associated bacteria. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Preservice laboratory education strengthening enhances sustainable laboratory workforce in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is a severe healthcare workforce shortage in sub Saharan Africa, which threatens achieving the Millennium Development Goals and attaining an AIDS-free generation. The strength of a healthcare system depends on the skills, competencies, values and availability of its workforce. A well-trained and competent laboratory technologist ensures accurate and reliable results for use in prevention, diagnosis, care and treatment of diseases. Methods An assessment of existing preservice education of five medical laboratory schools, followed by remedial intervention and monitoring was conducted. The remedial interventions included 1) standardizing curriculum and implementation; 2) training faculty staff on pedagogical methods and quality management systems; 3) providing teaching materials; and 4) procuring equipment for teaching laboratories to provide practical skills to complement didactic education. Results A total of 2,230 undergraduate students from the five universities benefitted from the standardized curriculum. University of Gondar accounted for 252 of 2,230 (11.3%) of the students, Addis Ababa University for 663 (29.7%), Jimma University for 649 (29.1%), Haramaya University for 429 (19.2%) and Hawassa University for 237 (10.6%) of the students. Together the universities graduated 388 and 312 laboratory technologists in 2010/2011 and 2011/2012 academic year, respectively. Practical hands-on training and experience with well-equipped laboratories enhanced and ensured skilled, confident and competent laboratory technologists upon graduation. Conclusions Strengthening preservice laboratory education is feasible in resource-limited settings, and emphasizing its merits (ample local capacity, country ownership and sustainability) provides a valuable source of competent laboratory technologists to relieve an overstretched healthcare system. PMID:24164781

  19. Knowledge, attitude, practice, and management of traditional medicine among people of Burka Jato Kebele, West Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Gari, Akawak; Yarlagadda, Raghavendra; Wolde-Mariam, Messay

    2015-01-01

    Background: Traditional medicine (TM) has maintained its popularity in all regions of the developing world. Even though, the wide acceptance of TM is a well-established fact, its status in a population with access to modern health is not well clear in the whole country. This study was carried out to assess the knowledge, attitudes, practice and management of TM among the community of Burka Jato Kebele, West Ethiopia. Methodology: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on a total of 282 sampled individuals’ selected using systematic random sampling from January 28, 2013 to February 8, 2013 in Burka Jato Kebele, Nekemte town, East Wollega Zone, West of Ethiopia. Results: The majority (94.22%) of people in the study area relied on TM. Most of them were aware of medicinal herbs (55.7%). About half (40.79%) of the respondents were aware of the major side-effects of TM such as diarrhea (36.64%). About 31.85% of them prefer traditional medical practices (TMP) because they are cheap. Most (50%) of the species were harvested for their leaves to prepare remedies, followed by seed (21.15%) and root (13.46%) and the methods of preparation were pounding (27.54%), crushing (18.84%), a concoction (15.95%) and squeezing (13.04%). About 53.84% of them were used as fresh preparations. Remedies were reported to be administered through oral (53.85%), dermal or topical (36.54%), buccal (3.85%) and anal (5.77%). Conclusion: The study revealed that the use of TMs were quite popular among the population and a large proportion of the respondents not only preferred, but also used TMs notwithstanding that they lived in the urban communities with better access to modern medical care and medical practitioners. To use TM as a valuable alternative to conventional western medicine, further investigation must be undertaken to determine the validity, efficacy of the plants to make it available as an alternative medicine to human beings. PMID:25883518

  20. Aberrant use and poor quality of trypanocides: a risk for drug resistance in south western Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Tekle, T; Terefe, G; Cherenet, T; Ashenafi, H; Akoda, K G; Teko-Agbo, A; Van Den Abbeele, J; Gari, G; Clausen, P-H; Hoppenheit, A; Mattioli, R C; Peter, R; Marcotty, T; Cecchi, G; Delespaux, V

    2018-01-05

    Trypanocidal drugs have been used to control African animal trypanosomosis for several decades. In Ethiopia, these drugs are available from both authorized (legal) and unauthorized (illegal) sources but documentation on utilization practices and quality of circulating products is scanty. This study looked at the practices of trypanocidal drug utilization by farmers and the integrity of active ingredient in trypanocides sold in Gurage zone, south western Ethiopia. The surveys were based on a structured questionnaire and drug quality determination of commonly used brands originating from European and Asian companies and sold at both authorized and unauthorized markets. One hundred farmers were interviewed and 50 drug samples were collected in 2013 (Diminazene aceturate = 33 and Isometamidium chloride = 17; 25 from authorized and 25 from unauthorized sources). Samples were tested at the OIE-certified Veterinary Drug Control Laboratory (LACOMEV) in Dakar, Senegal, by using galenic standards and high performance liquid chromatography. Trypanosomosis was found to be a major threat according to all interviewed livestock keepers in the study area. Diminazene aceturate and isometamidium chloride were preferred by 79% and 21% of the respondents respectively, and 85% of them indicated that an animal receives more than six treatments per year. About 60% of these treatments were reported to be administered by untrained farmers. Trypanocidal drug sources included both unauthorized outlets (56%) and authorized government and private sources (44%). A wide availability and usage of substandard quality drugs was revealed. Twenty eight percent of trypanocidal drugs tested failed to comply with quality requirements. There was no significant difference in the frequency of non-compliance between diminazene-based and isometamidium chloride products (P = 0.87) irrespective of the marketing channel (official and unofficial). However, higher rates of non-compliant trypanocides

  1. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among highland and lowland dwellers in Gamo area, South Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Wegayehu, Teklu; Tsalla, Tsegaye; Seifu, Belete; Teklu, Takele

    2013-02-18

    Epidemiological information on the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in different regions is a prerequisite to develop appropriate control strategies. Therefore, this present study was conducted to assess the magnitude and pattern of intestinal parasitism in highland and lowland dwellers in Gamo area, South Ethiopia. Community-based cross-sectional study was conducted between September 2010 and July 2011 at Lante, Kolla Shelle, Dorze and Geressie kebeles of Gamo Gofa Zone, South Ethiopia. The study sites and study participants were selected using multistage sampling method. Data were gathered through house-to-house survey. A total of 858 stool specimens were collected and processed using direct wet mount and formol-ether concentration techniques for the presence of parasite. Out of the total examined subjects, 342(39.9%) were found positive for at least one intestinal parasite. The prevalence of Entamoeba histolytica/dispar was the highest 98(11.4%), followed by Giardia lamblia 91(10.6%), Ascaris lumbricoides 67(7.8%), Strongyloides stercoralis 51(5.9%), hookworm 42(4.9%), Trichuris trichiura 24(2.8%), Taenia species 18(2.1%), Hymenolepis nana 7(0.6%) and Schistosoma mansoni 1(0.12%). No statistically significant difference was observed in the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among lowland (37.9%) and highland dwellers (42.3%) (P = 0.185). The prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection was not significantly different among the study sites but it was relatively higher in Geressie (42.8%) than other kebeles. Sex was not associated with par